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Sample records for enterica subspecies enterica

  1. Pangenome and taxonomic analysis of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica (S. enterica ssp. I) contains almost all the major pathogens in this genus. We sequenced 354 new S. enterica ssp. I genomes using paired end 100 base reads to ~80-fold coverage. These genomes were chosen to maximize genetic diversity, representing at least 100...

  2. Evolutionary Genomics of Salmonella enterica Subspecies

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Prerak T.; Porwollik, Steffen; Long, Fred; Cheng, Pui; Wollam, Aye; Clifton, Sandra W.; Weinstock, George M.; McClelland, Michael

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Six subspecies are currently recognized in Salmonella enterica. Subspecies I (subspecies enterica) is responsible for nearly all infections in humans and warm-blooded animals, while five other subspecies are isolated principally from cold-blooded animals. We sequenced 21 phylogenetically diverse strains, including two representatives from each of the previously unsequenced five subspecies and 11 diverse new strains from S. enterica subspecies enterica, to put this species into an evolutionary perspective. The phylogeny of the subspecies was partly obscured by abundant recombination events between lineages and a relatively short period of time within which subspeciation took place. Nevertheless, a variety of different tree-building methods gave congruent evolutionary tree topologies for subspeciation. A total of 285 gene families were identified that were recruited into subspecies enterica, and most of these are of unknown function. At least 2,807 gene families were identified in one or more of the other subspecies that are not found in subspecies I or Salmonella bongori. Among these gene families were 13 new candidate effectors and 7 new candidate fimbrial clusters. A third complete type III secretion system not present in subspecies enterica (I) isolates was found in both strains of subspecies salamae (II). Some gene families had complex taxonomies, such as the type VI secretion systems, which were recruited from four different lineages in five of six subspecies. Analysis of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitution rates indicated that the more-recently acquired regions in S. enterica are undergoing faster fixation rates than the rest of the genome. Recently acquired AT-rich regions, which often encode virulence functions, are under ongoing selection to maintain their high AT content. PMID:23462113

  3. Population structure of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica (subspecies 1)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We sequenced and assembled 354 new Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica genomes. These genomes were chosen to maximize genetic diversity, representing at least 100 different serovars and distinct PFGE patterns within these serovars. 119 of the strains were of known antibiotic resistance,...

  4. The taxonomic structure of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica is the leading cause of food-borne bacterial infection in humans and has a high economic burden in agriculture. Strains differ by sequence additions and losses of up to ~10% of each genome. In the last few decades, some serovars have become more common. Many strains have acquired...

  5. [Serovars of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica and its antimicrobial resistance in slaughterhouse pigs].

    PubMed

    Ibar, M P; Vigo, G; Piñeyro, P; Caffer, M I; Quiroga, P; Perfumo, C; Centrón, D; Giacoboni, G

    2009-01-01

    A study was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of Salmonella and its serovars among porcine slaughterhouses, to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance profiles and to know the presence of class 1 integrons as possible reservoir of resistance. From a total of 386 samples from four porcine slaughterhouses of Buenos Aires and Santa Fe Provinces (Argentina), 93 (24.1%) Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica strains were identified, 52 (55.9%) from cecal contents and 41 (44.1%) from ileocecal lymph nodes. Thirteen serovars of S. enterica were found, the most prevalent were: S. Schwarzengrund, S. Heidelberg, S. subspecie I 6,8:e,h:-, S. Derby and S. Bredeney. Fifteen antimicrobials by the agar dilution method were tested: amikacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, cephalotin, cefotaxime, enrofloxacin, fosfomycin, polimixin-B, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, nitrofurantoin, and nalidixic acid. According to the CIM determination, 73% Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica strains were sensible to all the antimicrobials tested. Antimicrobial resistance was observed to tetracycline in 24 (25.8%) of 93 strains, to chloramphenicol in 22 (23.7%), to streptomycin in 22 (23.7%), to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in 20 (21.5%), to ampicillin in 18 (19.4%), to nitrofurantoin in 3 (3.2%) and to nalidixic acid in 3 (3.2%). Some isolates of S. Typhimurium, S. Heidelberg, S. Derby, S. Orion showed multidrug resistance and carried the class 1 integrase gene. The highest percentage of resistance corresponded to the antimicrobials currently used in veterinary and porcine farms.

  6. [Arizonae subspecies Salmonella enterica urinary infection with confusional syndrome].

    PubMed

    Landron, Cédric; Le Moal, Gwénaël; Roblot, France; Grignon, Bernadette; Becq-Giraudon, Bertrand

    2003-04-26

    Infections due to subspecies arizonae Salmonella enterica are rare. These infections are transmitted by reptiles. We report the case of S. arizonae urinary tract infection that occurred in an immunocompetent woman. An 82 year-old woman was admitted for confusion. A urinary tract infection due to Salmonella arizonae was diagnosed. No neurological, iatrogenic or metabolic cause could explain the confusion. Treatment with ciprofloxacin was given. The confusion and the infectious syndrome disappeared. The prevalence of infections is probably underestimated because the digestive problems they generate are usually benign.

  7. Interaction of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium and mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) plants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhoj Raj; Chandra, Mudit; Agarwal, Ravikant

    2005-03-01

    The effect of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium, a zoonotic serovar, on mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) cultivar Pant Mung-3 plants was studied. Inoculation of mung bean seeds with Salmonella Typhimurium (7.2 x 10(5) CFU/ml) reduced sprouting rate (P < 0.07). This effect was more pronounced at higher levels of contamination. In the soil inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium (7.2 x 10(6) CFU/g), germination was retarded and the number of defective sprouts was also significantly higher (P < 0.002). Salmonella Typhimurium grew inside germinating seeds and plant tissues and persisted in seedlings, adult plants, and harvested seedlings dried and stored at room temperature (30 degrees C) up to 45 days. Phaseolus aureus plants grown in sterile soil was resistant to Salmonella Typhimurium infection at 15 days of age and cleared Salmonella from all the aerial parts within 3 h of infection. However, Salmonella Typhimurium could be reisolated from the basal area of the stem and from soil even after 45 days of exposure to the pathogen.

  8. Salmonella enterica Subspecies diarizonae Maxillary Sinusitis in a Snake Handler: First Report

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Lukas; Kraft, Marcel; Fostiropoulos, Karolos; Falkowski, Anna; Tarr, Philip E.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report the first case of reptile-associated maxillary sinusitis due to Salmonella enterica subspecies diarizonae in a snake handler and the third case of salmonella-associated sinusitis worldwide. The case highlights the potential of respiratory transmission and atypical salmonellosis presentations. PMID:27186588

  9. Subtyping of Salmonella enterica subspecies I using single nucleotide polymorphisms in adenylate cyclase (cyaA)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methods to rapidly identify serotypes of Salmonella enterica subspecies I are of vital importance for protecting the safety of food. To supplement the serotyping method dkgB-linked intergenic sequence ribotyping (ISR), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were characterized within adenylate cyclas...

  10. Development and evaluation of DNA and RNA real-time assays for food analysis using the hilA gene of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Evonne M; Burgess, Catherine M; O'Regan, Edel; McGuinness, Sheila; Barry, Thomas; Fanning, Séamus; Duffy, Geraldine

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was the development of DNA and RNA real-time PCR methods for detection of food-borne Salmonella sp. as rapid alternatives to the traditional cultural method (ISO 6579, 2004) in fresh meat carcasses and processed meat samples. These PCR methods were based on the hilA sequence, with primers and hybridisation probes designed against this gene target. The primers and probes were evaluated for their efficiency and dynamic range and subsequently the specificity of the assay was tested using 106 Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica strains and 30 non-salmonellae strains. An internal amplification control (IAC) was also developed for incorporation. The optimum copy number of IAC was determined to be 500 copies per reaction. A complementary enrichment protocol was adapted from the existing standard ISO 6579:2004 and consisted of enrichment in Buffered Peptone Water (BPW) 22 ± 2 h and a second selective enrichment for 6 h in Rappaport Vassiliadis with Soya (RVS). The DNA and RNA-based real-time PCR protocols, were applied to meat samples inoculated with Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica strains, including swabs from meat carcasses and minced beef samples which were heat treated or frozen. The developed methods have the potential as useful alternatives to the standard ISO 6579:2004 method for the detection of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica on carcass swabs and raw meat using hilA as a target. The DNA assay is a useful tool for the screening of meat samples in the abattoir within 3 days of slaughter or in a food production process and the RNA-based assay has the potential to detect viable Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica in ready-to-eat products. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spatial Variation and Survival of Salmonella enterica Subspecies in a Population of Australian Sleepy Lizards (Tiliqua rugosa)

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Sandra K.; Bull, C. Michael

    2015-01-01

    The life cycles of many enteric bacterial species require a transition between two very distinct environments. Their primary habitat is the gastrointestinal tract of the host, while their secondary habitat, during transmission from one host to another, consists of environments external to the host, such as soil, water, and sediments. Consequently, both host and environmental factors shape the genetic structure of enteric bacterial populations. This study examined the distribution of four Salmonella enterica subspecies in a population of sleepy lizards, Tiliqua rugosa, in a semiarid region of South Australia. The lizards living within the 1,920-m by 720-m study site were radio tracked, and their enteric bacteria were sampled at regular intervals throughout their active seasons in the years 2001, 2002, and 2006. Four of the six subspecies of S. enterica were present in this population and were nonrandomly distributed among the lizards. In particular, S. enterica subsp. diarizonae was restricted to lizards living in the most shaded parts of the study site with an overstorey of Casuarina trees. Experiments undertaken to investigate the survival of S. enterica cells under seminatural conditions revealed that cell survival decreased with increased exposure to elevated temperatures and UV light. Among the three S. enterica subspecies tested, S. enterica subsp. diarizonae consistently had an average expected life span that was shorter than that observed for the other two subspecies. There was no indication in the data that there was any competitive dominance hierarchy among the S. enterica subspecies within individual hosts. Thus, the nonrandom distribution of S. enterica subspecies in this population of lizards appears to be driven by their different survival characteristics in the external environment. PMID:26092451

  12. Spatial Variation and Survival of Salmonella enterica Subspecies in a Population of Australian Sleepy Lizards (Tiliqua rugosa).

    PubMed

    Parsons, Sandra K; Bull, C Michael; Gordon, David M

    2015-09-01

    The life cycles of many enteric bacterial species require a transition between two very distinct environments. Their primary habitat is the gastrointestinal tract of the host, while their secondary habitat, during transmission from one host to another, consists of environments external to the host, such as soil, water, and sediments. Consequently, both host and environmental factors shape the genetic structure of enteric bacterial populations. This study examined the distribution of four Salmonella enterica subspecies in a population of sleepy lizards, Tiliqua rugosa, in a semiarid region of South Australia. The lizards living within the 1,920-m by 720-m study site were radio tracked, and their enteric bacteria were sampled at regular intervals throughout their active seasons in the years 2001, 2002, and 2006. Four of the six subspecies of S. enterica were present in this population and were nonrandomly distributed among the lizards. In particular, S. enterica subsp. diarizonae was restricted to lizards living in the most shaded parts of the study site with an overstorey of Casuarina trees. Experiments undertaken to investigate the survival of S. enterica cells under seminatural conditions revealed that cell survival decreased with increased exposure to elevated temperatures and UV light. Among the three S. enterica subspecies tested, S. enterica subsp. diarizonae consistently had an average expected life span that was shorter than that observed for the other two subspecies. There was no indication in the data that there was any competitive dominance hierarchy among the S. enterica subspecies within individual hosts. Thus, the nonrandom distribution of S. enterica subspecies in this population of lizards appears to be driven by their different survival characteristics in the external environment.

  13. Pyelonephritis in Japan caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies arizonae.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Hiroaki; Doi, Asako; Takegawa, Hiroshi

    2017-08-21

    Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae is a bacteria commonly found in the gut of reptiles. In humans, infections caused by this organism are rare. Most cases originate from southwestern United States, where rattlesnake products are often used in traditional medicine. In Asia, only a few cases have been described. This case report documents a case involving a 64-year-old woman with pyelonephritis caused by S. arizonae in Japan. She had no history of contact with reptiles or foreign travel. The likely route of transmission is unclear. She was treated with cephalosporins for 14 days and the pyelonephritis appeared to be resolved; however recurrence occurred twice -after two weeks and then after one month. Prolonged antibiotic therapy with amoxicillin resolved the infection. This case demonstrates that pyelonephritis associated with S. arizonae can be found outside of the typical geographic region and may not be associated with typical animal hosts. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genomic Characterisation of Invasive Non-Typhoidal Salmonella enterica Subspecies enterica Serovar Bovismorbificans Isolates from Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Gilderthorp, Ruth; Ashelford, Kevin E.; Harris, Simon R.; Phiri, Amos; Hall, Neil; Gordon, Melita A.; Wain, John; Hart, Charles A.; Wigley, Paul; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Winstanley, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Background Invasive Non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) are an important cause of bacteraemia in children and HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa. Previous research has shown that iNTS strains exhibit a pattern of gene loss that resembles that of host adapted serovars such as Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A. Salmonella enterica serovar Bovismorbificans was a common serovar in Malawi between 1997 and 2004. Methodology We sequenced the genomes of 14 Malawian bacteraemia and four veterinary isolates from the UK, to identify genomic variations and signs of host adaptation in the Malawian strains. Principal Findings Whole genome phylogeny of invasive and veterinary S. Bovismorbificans isolates showed that the isolates are highly related, belonging to the most common international S. Bovismorbificans Sequence Type, ST142, in contrast to the findings for S. Typhimurium, where a distinct Sequence Type, ST313, is associated with invasive disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Although genome degradation through pseudogene formation was observed in ST142 isolates, there were no clear overlaps with the patterns of gene loss seen in iNTS ST313 isolates previously described from Malawi, and no clear distinction between S. Bovismorbificans isolates from Malawi and the UK. The only defining differences between S. Bovismorbificans bacteraemia and veterinary isolates were prophage-related regions and the carriage of a S. Bovismorbificans virulence plasmid (pVIRBov). Conclusions iNTS S. Bovismorbificans isolates, unlike iNTS S. Typhiumrium isolates, are only distinguished from those circulating elsewhere by differences in the mobile genome. It is likely that these strains have entered a susceptible population and are able to take advantage of this niche. There are tentative signs of convergent evolution to a more human adapted iNTS variant. Considering its importance in causing disease in this region, S. Bovismorbificans may be at the beginning of this process, providing a reference

  15. Purulent Pericarditis with Salmonella enterica Subspecies arizona in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ai; Tanaka, Takamitsu; Ohba, Kenji; Ito, Naomi; Sakai, Yuki; Kaneko, Akane; Machii, Masashi; Nonaka, Daishi; Goto, Yoshie; Takase, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-15

    Purulent pericarditis is a life-threatening disorder, even in the modern antibiotic era. Although diabetes mellitus is known to be associated with an increased risk of multiple types of infections, purulent pericarditis is extremely rare. We herein report an unusual case of pericarditis caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies arizona that was not associated with any evident underlying immunosuppressive disorder apart from uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus. Because a pet snake was suspected as being the source of infection in the present case, patient education and a detailed review of exposure history could play an important role in treating patients with diabetes mellitus.

  16. Purulent Pericarditis with Salmonella enterica Subspecies arizona in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Ai; Tanaka, Takamitsu; Ohba, Kenji; Ito, Naomi; Sakai, Yuki; Kaneko, Akane; Machii, Masashi; Nonaka, Daishi; Goto, Yoshie; Takase, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Purulent pericarditis is a life-threatening disorder, even in the modern antibiotic era. Although diabetes mellitus is known to be associated with an increased risk of multiple types of infections, purulent pericarditis is extremely rare. We herein report an unusual case of pericarditis caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies arizona that was not associated with any evident underlying immunosuppressive disorder apart from uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus. Because a pet snake was suspected as being the source of infection in the present case, patient education and a detailed review of exposure history could play an important role in treating patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:28781305

  17. Subtyping of Salmonella enterica Subspecies I Using Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Adenylate Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Abdo, Zaid; Byers, Sara Overstreet; Kriebel, Patrick; Rothrock, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Methods to rapidly identify serotypes of Salmonella enterica subspecies I are of vital importance for protecting the safety of food. To supplement the serotyping method dkgB-linked intergenic sequence ribotyping (ISR), single-nucleotide polymorphisms were characterized within adenylate cyclase (cyaA). The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database had 378 cyaA sequences from S. enterica subspecies I, which included 42 unique DNA sequences and 19 different amino acid sequences. Five representative isolates, namely serotypes Typhimurium, Kentucky, Enteritidis phage type PT4, and two variants of Enteritidis phage type PT13a, were differentiated within a microsphere-based fluidics system in cyaA by allele-specific primer extension. Validation against 25 poultry-related environmental Salmonella isolates representing 11 serotypes yielded a ∼89% success rate at identifying the serotype of the isolate, and a different region could be targeted to achieve 100%. When coupled with ISR, all serotypes were differentiated. Phage lineages of serotype Enteritidis 13a and 4 were identified, and a biofilm-forming strain of PT13a was differentiated from a smooth phenotype within phage type. Comparative ranking of mutation indices to genes such as the tRNA transferases, the diguanylate cyclases, and genes used for multilocus sequence typing indicated that cyaA is an appropriate gene for assessing epidemiological trends of Salmonella because of its relative stability in nucleotide composition. PMID:27035032

  18. Biofilm Formation and Morphotypes of Salmonella enterica subsp.arizonae Differs from Those of Other Salmonella enterica Subspecies in Isolates from Poultry Houses.

    PubMed

    Lamas, A; Fernandez-No, I C; Miranda, J M; Vázquez, B; Cepeda, A; Franco, C M

    2016-07-01

    Salmonella serovars are responsible for foodborne diseases around the world. The ability to form biofilms allows microorganisms to survive in the environment. In this study, 73 Salmonella strains, belonging to four different subspecies, were isolated from poultry houses and foodstuffs and tested. Biofilm formation was measured at four different temperatures and two nutrient concentrations. Morphotypes and cellulose production were evaluated at three different temperatures. The presence of several genes related to biofilm production was also examined. All strains and subspecies of Salmonella had the ability to form biofilms, and 46.57% of strains produced biofilms under all conditions tested. Biofilm formation was strain dependent and varied according to the conditions. This is the first study to analyze biofilm formation in a wide number of Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae strains, and no direct relationship between the high prevalence of Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae strains and their ability to form biofilm was established. Morphotypes and cellulose production varied as the temperature changed, with 20°C being the optimum temperature for expression of the red, dry, and rough morphotype and cellulose. Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae, whose morphotype is poorly studied, only showed a smooth and white morphotype and lacked the csgD and gcpA genes that are implicated in biofilm production. Thus, Salmonella biofilm formation under different environmental conditions is a public health problem because it can survive and advance through the food chain to reach the consumer.

  19. Salmonella enterica.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Avian Salmonella infections are important as both a cause of clinical disease in poultry and as a source of food-borne transmission of disease to humans. Host-adapted salmonellae (Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum and Gallinarum) are responsible for severe systemic diseases, whereas numerous sero...

  20. Chronic proliferative rhinitis associated with Salmonella enterica subspecies diarizonae serovar 61:k:1, 5, (7) in sheep in Spain.

    PubMed

    Lacasta, D; Ferrer, L M; Ramos, J J; Bueso, J P; Borobia, M; Ruiz de Arcaute, M; Figueras, L; González-Sainz, J M; De Las Heras, M

    2012-11-01

    A chronic proliferative rhinitis in sheep associated with Salmonella enterica subspecies diarizonae serovar 61:k:1, 5, (7) is described. Ten adult sheep from eight traditionally managed Rasa Aragonesa flocks located in Aragon (Spain) were studied. Clinical signs began with bilateral thick mucus nasal discharge, wheezing and snoring and progressed to partial or complete obstruction of the nostrils. Necropsy examination revealed swollen ventral nasal turbinates with a roughened mucosal surface partially covered by small polyps. Histopathology revealed chronic proliferative rhinitis with a predominant population of neutrophils that infiltrated the mucosal epithelium. Plasma cells and macrophages were present in the lamina propria. Organisms expressing Salmonella antigen immunohistochemically were detected within epithelial cells. Salmonella enterica subspecies diarizonae serovar 61:k:1, 5, (7) was isolated as a sole microorganism from nasal swabs taken from five animals. The implication of finding this bacterium in various diseases in sheep and its role as a potential zoonosis are discussed.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile, treatment outcome and serotype distribution of clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica: a 2-year study from Kerala, South India

    PubMed Central

    Harichandran, Deepa; Dinesh, Kavitha Radhakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    Background/purpose Typhoid and paratyphoid fever continue to be important causes of illness and death in parts of Asia, being associated with poor sanitation and consumption of unsafe food and water. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged to traditional first-line drugs, namely, the fluoroquinolones, as well as to third-generation cephalosporins, posing challenges to treatment. Azithromycin has proven to be an effective alternative for treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever. The purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility, clinical outcome and serotype distribution pattern of clinical isolates belonging to Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica. Methodology All clinical isolates of S. enterica obtained from blood, sterile body fluids, as well as stool and urine samples at Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Kerala, India, between August 2011 and July 2013 were included in the study and processed based on standard microbiology protocols. Results A total of 118 isolates of Salmonella were obtained during the study period. Out of these, 79 were of S. Typhi (66.95%), followed by isolates of S. Paratyphi A (22; 18.64%) and S. Typhimurium 12 (10.17%). Five isolates could not be identified further. There was 100% susceptibility to ceftriaxone in all S. enterica subspecies. Ciprofloxacin susceptibility was 32.91% for S. Typhi and 40.90% for S. Paratyphi A as determined by the disk diffusion method. The susceptibility profile of S. Typhi isolates to different antimicrobials was as follows: chloramphenicol (94.93%), ampicillin (77.21%), cotrimoxazole (75.94%) and azithromycin (78.48%). For S. Typhi, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ciprofloxacin required to inhibit the growth of 50% of organisms was 0.5 μg/mL (intermediate) and MIC required to inhibit the growth of 90% of organisms was 1 μg/mL (resistant). S. Typhimurium was 100% susceptible to cotrimoxazole, ampicillin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ofloxacin

  2. Resistance phenotypes and genotypes among multiple-antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis strains isolated between 2008 and 2012 from slaughter pigs in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matayoshi, Masanao; Kitano, Takashi; Sasaki, Tetsu; Nakamura, Masaji

    2015-06-01

    A total of 349 Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) strains, which were isolated between 2008 and 2012 from 349 pigs at two slaughterhouses in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes. All isolates were resistant to at least four antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial agents for which isolates showed a high incidence of resistance were as follows: ampicillin (100%) and streptomycin (100%), followed by gentamicin (99.7%), oxytetracycline (99.7%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (99.4%), nalidixic acid (40.1%) and oxolinic acid (40.1%). All isolates were sensitive to cefuroxime, ceftiofur, colistin, fosfomycin, enrofloxacin, orbifloxacin and danofloxacin. The predominant resistance phenotypes and genotypes were: resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin, oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (58.5%, 204/349) and blaTEM-strA-strB-aadA1-aadA2-aacC2-tet (B)-sul1-sul2-dhfrXII-dhfrXIII (36.1%, 126/349). The quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE of the quinolone-resistant isolates (n=12) showed amino acid substitutions of Ser-83→Phe or Asp-87→Tyr in GyrA and Ser-107→Ala in ParC. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance among S. Choleraesuis strains in Japan.

  3. Resistance phenotypes and genotypes among multiple-antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis strains isolated between 2008 and 2012 from slaughter pigs in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    MATAYOSHI, Masanao; KITANO, Takashi; SASAKI, Tetsu; NAKAMURA, Masaji

    2015-01-01

    A total of 349 Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) strains, which were isolated between 2008 and 2012 from 349 pigs at two slaughterhouses in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes. All isolates were resistant to at least four antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial agents for which isolates showed a high incidence of resistance were as follows: ampicillin (100%) and streptomycin (100%), followed by gentamicin (99.7%), oxytetracycline (99.7%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (99.4%), nalidixic acid (40.1%) and oxolinic acid (40.1%). All isolates were sensitive to cefuroxime, ceftiofur, colistin, fosfomycin, enrofloxacin, orbifloxacin and danofloxacin. The predominant resistance phenotypes and genotypes were: resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin, oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (58.5%, 204/349) and blaTEM-strA-strB-aadA1-aadA2-aacC2-tet (B)-sul1-sul2-dhfrXII-dhfrXIII (36.1%, 126/349). The quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE of the quinolone-resistant isolates (n=12) showed amino acid substitutions of Ser-83→Phe or Asp-87→Tyr in GyrA and Ser-107→Ala in ParC. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance among S. Choleraesuis strains in Japan. PMID:25715779

  4. Evaluation of vaccine candidate potential of deltaaroA, deltahtrA and deltaaroAdeltahtrA mutants of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Abortusequi in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhoj Raj; Chandra, Mudit; Hansda, Dhananjoy; Alam, Javed; Babu, Narayanan; Siddiqui, Mehtab Z; Agrawal, Ravi K; Sharma, Gautam

    2013-04-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Abortusequi (S. Abortusequi), a host adapted Salmonella causes abortions, still births and foal mortality in equids. Though known since more than 100 years, it is still a problem in many of the developing countries including India. There is dearth of really good vaccine affording immunity lasting at least for one full gestation. In search of a potential vaccine candidate, three defined deletion mutants (deltaaroA, deltahtrA and deltaaroAdeltahtrA) of S. Abortusequi were tested in guinea pig model for attenuation, safety, immunogenicity, humoral immune response, protective efficacy and persistence in host. The deltahtrA and deltaaroAdeltahtrA mutants were found to be safe on oral inoculation in doses as high as 4.2 x 10(9) cfu/animal. Also through subcutaneous inoculation deltaaroAdeltahtrA mutant did not induce any abortion in pregnant guinea pigs. All the three mutants did not induce any illness or death in 1-2 week-old baby guinea pigs except deltahtrA mutant which caused mortality on intraperitoneal inoculation. Inoculation with mutants protected against challenge and increased breeding efficiency of guinea pigs. After >4.5 months of mutant inoculation, guinea pigs were protected against abortifacient dose of wild type S. Abortusequi and mother guinea pigs also conferred resistance to their babies to the similar challenge. Early humoral immune response of S. Abortusequi mutants was characteristic. Faecal excretion of deltaaroA and htrA mutants was detected up to 45 days of inoculation in guinea pigs while deltaaroAdeltahtrA mutant could not be detected after 21 days of inoculation. The results indicated that the double deletion mutant (deltaaroAdeltahtrA) was the most effective and safe candidate for vaccination against S. Abortusequi through mucosal route of inoculation.

  5. Isolation of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Paratyphi B dT+, or Salmonella Java, from Indonesia and alteration of the d-tartrate fermentation phenotype by disrupting the ORF STM 3356.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyung Ho; Choi, Seon Young; Lee, Je Hee; Lee, Hyejon; Shin, Eun Hee; Agtini, Magdarina D; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Ochiai, R Leon; Clemens, John D; Wain, John; Hahn, Ji-Sook; Lee, Bok Kwon; Song, Manki; Chun, Jongsik; Kim, Dong Wook

    2006-12-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Paratyphi B [O1,4,(5),12 : Hb : 1,2] can cause either an enteric fever (paratyphoid fever) or self-limiting gastroenteritis in humans. The d-tartrate non-fermenting variant S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Paratyphi B dT- (S. Paratyphi B) is the causative agent of paratyphoid fever, and the d-tartrate fermenting variant S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Paratyphi B dT+ (S. Paratyphi B dT+; formerly called Salmonella Java) causes gastroenteritis. S. Java is currently recognized as an emerging problem worldwide. Twelve dT+ S. Java isolates were collected in Indonesia between 2000 and 2002. One-third of them contained Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1), which gives the multidrug-resistant phenotype to the bacteria. In this study, a PCR-based method to detect a single nucleotide difference responsible for the inability to ferment d-tartrate, reported elsewhere, was validated. The d-tartrate fermenting phenotype of S. Java was converted to the non-fermenting phenotype by the disruption of the ORF STM 3356, and the d-tartrate non-fermenting phenotype of the ORF STM 3356-disrupted strain and the dT- reference strain was changed to the dT+ phenotype by complementing ORF STM 3356 in trans. The results show that the dT+ phenotype requires a functional product encoded by STM 3356, and support the use of the PCR-based discrimination method for S. Paratyphi B and S. Java as the standard differentiation method.

  6. Unilateral orchitis and epididymitis caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies diarizonae infection in a ram.

    PubMed

    Ferreras, Ma del Carmen; Muñioz, Maria; Pérez, Valentin; Benavides, Julio; García-Pariente, Carlos; Fuertes, Miguel; Adúriz, Gorka; García-Marín, Juan Francisco

    2007-03-01

    A case of unilateral suppurative epididymo-orchitis associated with Salmonella enterica subsp. diarizonae serovar 61:k:1,5,(7) infection is described in a 2-year-old ram. Gross lesions were characterized by severe enlargement of the scrotal contents, fibrous adhesions between testicular layers, coexistence of epididymal abscesses and foci of fibrinous exudate, and testicular atrophy. Microscopically, testicular and epididymal microabscesses and diffuse inflammatory infiltrates with abundant macrophages containing short Gram-negative rods were observed. Superimposed on the chronic lesions were fibrin deposits with clusters of neutrophils, as well as walled-off granulation tissue. Bacterial colonies were also identified in thrombosed spermatic cord vessels, scrotal lymph nodes, lung, and liver. S. enterica subsp. diarizonae serovar 61:k:1,5,(7) was isolated from the affected testis. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of infection of the testis and epididymis by Salmonella in rams. This organism must be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of ovine genital infections.

  7. Pan-genome Analyses of the Species Salmonella enterica, and Identification of Genomic Markers Predictive for Species, Subspecies, and Serovar.

    PubMed

    Laing, Chad R; Whiteside, Matthew D; Gannon, Victor P J

    2017-01-01

    Food safety is a global concern, with upward of 2.2 million deaths due to enteric disease every year. Current whole-genome sequencing platforms allow routine sequencing of enteric pathogens for surveillance, and during outbreaks; however, a remaining challenge is the identification of genomic markers that are predictive of strain groups that pose the most significant health threats to humans, or that can persist in specific environments. We have previously developed the software program Panseq, which identifies the pan-genome among a group of sequences, and the SuperPhy platform, which utilizes this pan-genome information to identify biomarkers that are predictive of groups of bacterial strains. In this study, we examined the pan-genome of 4893 genomes of Salmonella enterica, an enteric pathogen responsible for the loss of more disability adjusted life years than any other enteric pathogen. We identified a pan-genome of 25.3 Mbp, a strict core of 1.5 Mbp present in all genomes, and a conserved core of 3.2 Mbp found in at least 96% of these genomes. We also identified 404 genomic regions of 1000 bp that were specific to the species S. enterica. These species-specific regions were found to encode mostly hypothetical proteins, effectors, and other proteins related to virulence. For each of the six S. enterica subspecies, markers unique to each were identified. No serovar had pan-genome regions that were present in all of its genomes and absent in all other serovars; however, each serovar did have genomic regions that were universally present among all constituent members, and statistically predictive of the serovar. The phylogeny based on SNPs within the conserved core genome was found to be highly concordant to that produced by a phylogeny using the presence/absence of 1000 bp regions of the entire pan-genome. Future studies could use these predictive regions as components of a vaccine to prevent salmonellosis, as well as in simple and rapid diagnostic tests for both

  8. The shdA Gene Is Restricted to Serotypes of Salmonella enterica Subspecies I and Contributes to Efficient and Prolonged Fecal Shedding

    PubMed Central

    Kingsley, Robert A.; van Amsterdam, Karin; Kramer, Naomi; Bäumler, Andreas J.

    2000-01-01

    Little is known about factors which enable Salmonella serotypes to circulate within populations of livestock and domestic fowl. We have identified a DNA region which is present in Salmonella serotypes commonly isolated from livestock and domestic fowl (S. enterica subspecies I) but absent from reptile-associated Salmonella serotypes (S. bongori and S. enterica subspecies II to VII). This DNA region was cloned from Salmonella serotype Typhimurium and sequence analysis revealed the presence of a 6,105-bp open reading frame, designated shdA, whose product's deduced amino acid sequence displayed homology to that of AIDA-I from diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, MisL of serotype Typhimurium, and IcsA of Shigella flexneri. The shdA gene was located adjacent to xseA at 52 min, in a 30-kb DNA region which is not present in Escherichia coli K-12. A serotype Typhimurium shdA mutant was shed with the feces in reduced numbers and for a shorter period of time compared to its isogenic parent. A possible role for the shdA gene during the expansion in host range of S. enterica subspecies I to include warm-blooded vertebrates is discussed. PMID:10768965

  9. Subspecies IIIa and IIIb Salmonellae are defective for colonization of murine models of salmonellosis compared to Salmonella enterica subsp. I serovar typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Katribe, Erin; Bogomolnaya, Lydia M; Wingert, Heather; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene

    2009-04-01

    Non-subspecies I salmonellae are commensals of cold-blooded vertebrates and cause sporadic disease in mammals. The reasons why non-subspecies I salmonellae do not circulate in populations of warm-blooded vertebrates, but instead only cause occasional disease in this niche, are unknown. We examined the ability of Salmonella enterica subsp. IIIa (subsp. arizonae) and subsp. IIIb (subsp. diarizonae) isolates to grow competitively with subspecies I (serovar Typhimurium) ATCC 14028 in vitro, to colonize Salmonella-sensitive BALB/c mice, and to persist in the intestine of Salmonella-resistant CBA/J mice in competitive infections. Subspecies IIIa had severely reduced intestinal colonization, intestinal persistence, and systemic spread in mice. Subspecies IIIa is nonmotile on swarming agar and thus may also have reduced motility under viscous conditions in vivo. Surprisingly, subspecies IIIb colonizes the intestinal tract of BALB/c mice normally yet does not spread systemically. Subspecies IIIb colonization of the intestine of CBA/J mice is reduced late in infection. In order to understand why these isolates do not colonize systemic sites, we determined that subspecies IIIa and IIIb are not internalized well and do not replicate in J774-A.1 murine macrophages, despite normal adherence to these cells. We further show that selected effectors of both type III secretion systems 1 and 2 are secreted by subspecies IIIa and IIIb in vitro but that each of these isolates secretes a different combination of effectors. We outline the phenotypic differences between these subspecies and subspecies I and provide a possible explanation for the inability of these strains to spread systemically in murine models.

  10. Whole Genome DNA Sequence Analysis of Salmonella subspecies enterica serotype Tennessee obtained from related peanut butter foodborne outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mark R; Brown, Eric; Keys, Chris; Strain, Errol; Luo, Yan; Muruvanda, Tim; Grim, Christopher; Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Junia; Jarvis, Karen; Ewing, Laura; Gopinath, Gopal; Hanes, Darcy; Allard, Marc W; Musser, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Establishing an association between possible food sources and clinical isolates requires discriminating the suspected pathogen from an environmental background, and distinguishing it from other closely-related foodborne pathogens. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to Salmonella subspecies enterica serotype Tennessee (S. Tennessee) to describe genomic diversity across the serovar as well as among and within outbreak clades of strains associated with contaminated peanut butter. We analyzed 71 isolates of S. Tennessee from disparate food, environmental, and clinical sources and 2 other closely-related Salmonella serovars as outgroups (S. Kentucky and S. Cubana), which were also shot-gun sequenced. A whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was performed using a maximum likelihood approach to infer phylogenetic relationships. Several monophyletic lineages of S. Tennessee with limited SNP variability were identified that recapitulated several food contamination events. S. Tennessee clades were separated from outgroup salmonellae by more than sixteen thousand SNPs. Intra-serovar diversity of S. Tennessee was small compared to the chosen outgroups (1,153 SNPs), suggesting recent divergence of some S. Tennessee clades. Analysis of all 1,153 SNPs structuring an S. Tennessee peanut butter outbreak cluster revealed that isolates from several food, plant, and clinical isolates were very closely related, as they had only a few SNP differences between them. SNP-based cluster analyses linked specific food sources to several clinical S. Tennessee strains isolated in separate contamination events. Environmental and clinical isolates had very similar whole genome sequences; no markers were found that could be used to discriminate between these sources. Finally, we identified SNPs within variable S. Tennessee genes that may be useful markers for the development of rapid surveillance and typing methods, potentially aiding in traceback efforts during future

  11. Whole Genome DNA Sequence Analysis of Salmonella subspecies enterica serotype Tennessee obtained from related peanut butter foodborne outbreaks.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Mark R.; Brown, Eric; Keys, Chris; Strain, Errol; Luo, Yan; Muruvanda, Tim; Grim, Christopher; Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Junia; Jarvis, Karen; Ewing, Laura; Gopinath, Gopal; Hanes, Darcy; Allard, Marc W.; Musser, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Establishing an association between possible food sources and clinical isolates requires discriminating the suspected pathogen from an environmental background, and distinguishing it from other closely-related foodborne pathogens. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to Salmonella subspecies enterica serotype Tennessee (S. Tennessee) to describe genomic diversity across the serovar as well as among and within outbreak clades of strains associated with contaminated peanut butter. We analyzed 71 isolates of S. Tennessee from disparate food, environmental, and clinical sources and 2 other closely-related Salmonella serovars as outgroups (S. Kentucky and S. Cubana), which were also shot-gun sequenced. A whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was performed using a maximum likelihood approach to infer phylogenetic relationships. Several monophyletic lineages of S. Tennessee with limited SNP variability were identified that recapitulated several food contamination events. S. Tennessee clades were separated from outgroup salmonellae by more than sixteen thousand SNPs. Intra-serovar diversity of S. Tennessee was small compared to the chosen outgroups (1,153 SNPs), suggesting recent divergence of some S. Tennessee clades. Analysis of all 1,153 SNPs structuring an S. Tennessee peanut butter outbreak cluster revealed that isolates from several food, plant, and clinical isolates were very closely related, as they had only a few SNP differences between them. SNP-based cluster analyses linked specific food sources to several clinical S. Tennessee strains isolated in separate contamination events. Environmental and clinical isolates had very similar whole genome sequences; no markers were found that could be used to discriminate between these sources. Finally, we identified SNPs within variable S. Tennessee genes that may be useful markers for the development of rapid surveillance and typing methods, potentially aiding in traceback efforts during future

  12. Is the Evolution of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Linked to Restriction-Modification Systems?

    PubMed

    Roer, Louise; Hendriksen, Rene S; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Lukjancenko, Oksana; Kaas, Rolf Sommer; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica bacteria are highly diverse foodborne pathogens that are subdivided into more than 1,500 serovars. The diversity is believed to result from mutational evolution, as well as intra- and interspecies recombination that potentially could be influenced by restriction-modification (RM) systems. The aim of this study was to investigate whether RM systems were linked to the evolution of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica. The study included 221 Salmonella enterica genomes, of which 68 were de novo sequenced and 153 were public available genomes from ENA. The data set covered 97 different serovars of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica and an additional five genomes from four other Salmonella subspecies as an outgroup for constructing the phylogenetic trees. The phylogenetic trees were constructed based on multiple alignment of core genes, as well as the presence or absence of pangenes. The topology of the trees was compared to the presence of RM systems, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes, Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs), and plasmid replicons. We did not observe any correlation between evolution and the RM systems in S. enterica subsp. enterica. However, sublineage correlations and serovar-specific patterns were observed. Additionally, we conclude that plasmid replicons, SPIs, and AMR were all better correlated to serovars than to RM systems. This study suggests a limited influence of RM systems on the evolution of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, which could be due to the conjugational mode of horizontal gene transfer in Salmonella. Thus, we conclude that other factors must be involved in shaping the evolution of bacteria. IMPORTANCE The evolution of bacterial pathogens, their plasticity and ability to rapidly change and adapt to new surroundings are crucial for understanding the epidemiology and public health. With the application of genomics, it became clear that horizontal gene transfer played a key role in evolution

  13. Whole-Genome Sequence and Annotation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Enteritidis Phage Type 8 Strain EN1660

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Benjamin J.; Fitzgerald, Stephen F.; Kröger, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genome of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 8 strain EN1660, isolated from an outbreak in Thunder Bay, Canada, was sequenced to 46-fold coverage using an Illumina MiSeq with 300-bp paired-end sequencing chemistry to produce 28 contigs with an N50 value of 490,721 bp. PMID:28126943

  14. Complete Genome and Methylome Sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Panama (ATCC 7378) and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Sloterdijk (ATCC 15791)

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Kuan; Muruvanda, Tim; Roberts, Richard J.; Payne, Justin; Allard, Marc W.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica spp. are pathogenic bacteria commonly associated with food-borne outbreaks in human and animals. Salmonella enterica spp. are characterized into more than 2,500 different serotypes, which makes epidemiological surveillance and outbreak control more difficult. In this report, we announce the first complete genome and methylome sequences from two Salmonella type strains associated with food-borne outbreaks, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Panama (ATCC 7378) and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Sloterdijk (ATCC 15791). PMID:26988049

  15. Complete Genome and Methylome Sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Panama (ATCC 7378) and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Sloterdijk (ATCC 15791).

    PubMed

    Yao, Kuan; Muruvanda, Tim; Roberts, Richard J; Payne, Justin; Allard, Marc W; Hoffmann, Maria

    2016-03-17

    Salmonella enterica spp. are pathogenic bacteria commonly associated with food-borne outbreaks in human and animals. Salmonella enterica spp. are characterized into more than 2,500 different serotypes, which makes epidemiological surveillance and outbreak control more difficult. In this report, we announce the first complete genome and methylome sequences from two Salmonella type strains associated with food-borne outbreaks, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Panama (ATCC 7378) and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Sloterdijk (ATCC 15791).

  16. Substructure within Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Isolates from Australian Wildlife▿

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Sandra K.; Bull, C. Michael; Gordon, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing of 56 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica strains isolated from Australian wildlife hosts was performed. The results of population assignment algorithms revealed that the 56 strains could be subdivided into two distinct clades. Strains belonging to the two clades were further distinguished phenotypically, genotypically, and with respect to host distribution. PMID:21378038

  17. Draft Genome Sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovars Typhimurium and Nottingham Isolated from Food Products

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jie; Ayers, Sherry; Melka, David C.; Curry, Phillip E.; Payne, Justin S.; Laasri, Anna; Wang, Charles; Hammack, Thomas S.; Brown, Eric W.

    2016-01-01

    A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) designed to detect Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis, targeting the sdf gene, generated positive results for S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (CFSAN033950) and S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Nottingham (CFSAN006803) isolated from food samples. Both strains show pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns distinct from those of S. Enteritidis. Here, we report the genome sequences of these two strains. PMID:27445384

  18. Characterization of the spv locus in Salmonella enterica serovar Arizona.

    PubMed

    Libby, Stephen J; Lesnick, Marc; Hasegawa, Patricia; Kurth, Michael; Belcher, Christopher; Fierer, Joshua; Guiney, Donald G

    2002-06-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Arizona (S. enterica subspecies IIIa) is a common Salmonella isolate from reptiles and can cause serious systemic disease in humans. The spv virulence locus, found on large plasmids in Salmonella subspecies I serovars associated with severe infections, was confirmed to be located on the chromosome of serovar Arizona. Sequence analysis revealed that the serovar Arizona spv locus contains homologues of spvRABC but lacks the spvD gene and contains a frameshift in spvA, resulting in a different C terminus. The SpvR protein functions as a transcriptional activator for the spvA promoter, and SpvB and SpvC are highly conserved. The analysis supports the proposal that the chromosomal spv sequence more closely corresponds to the ancestral locus acquired during evolution of S. enterica, with plasmid acquisition of spv genes in the subspecies I strains involving addition of spvD and polymorphisms in spvA.

  19. Novel Temperate Phages of Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae and subsp. diarizonae and Their Activity against Pathogenic S. enterica subsp. enterica Isolates.

    PubMed

    Mikalová, Lenka; Bosák, Juraj; Hříbková, Hana; Dědičová, Daniela; Benada, Oldřich; Šmarda, Jan; Šmajs, David

    2017-01-01

    Forty strains of Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) subspecies salamae (II), arizonae (IIIa), diarizonae (IIIb), and houtenae (IV) were isolated from human or environmental samples and tested for bacteriophage production. Production of bacteriophages was observed in 15 S. enterica strains (37.5%) belonging to either the subspecies salamae (8 strains) or diarizonae (7 strains). Activity of phages was tested against 52 pathogenic S. enterica subsp. enterica isolates and showed that phages produced by subsp. salamae had broader activity against pathogenic salmonellae compared to phages from the subsp. diarizonae. All 15 phages were analyzed using PCR amplification of phage-specific regions and 9 different amplification profiles were identified. Five phages (SEN1, SEN4, SEN5, SEN22, and SEN34) were completely sequenced and classified as temperate phages. Phages SEN4 and SEN5 were genetically identical, thus representing a single phage type (i.e. SEN4/5). SEN1 and SEN4/5 fit into the group of P2-like phages, while the SEN22 phage showed sequence relatedness to P22-like phages. Interestingly, while phage SEN34 was genetically distantly related to Lambda-like phages (Siphoviridae), it had the morphology of the Myoviridae family. Based on sequence analysis and electron microscopy, phages SEN1 and SEN4/5 were members of the Myoviridae family and phage SEN22 belonged to the Podoviridae family.

  20. Novel Temperate Phages of Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae and subsp. diarizonae and Their Activity against Pathogenic S. enterica subsp. enterica Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Hříbková, Hana; Dědičová, Daniela; Benada, Oldřich; Šmarda, Jan; Šmajs, David

    2017-01-01

    Forty strains of Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) subspecies salamae (II), arizonae (IIIa), diarizonae (IIIb), and houtenae (IV) were isolated from human or environmental samples and tested for bacteriophage production. Production of bacteriophages was observed in 15 S. enterica strains (37.5%) belonging to either the subspecies salamae (8 strains) or diarizonae (7 strains). Activity of phages was tested against 52 pathogenic S. enterica subsp. enterica isolates and showed that phages produced by subsp. salamae had broader activity against pathogenic salmonellae compared to phages from the subsp. diarizonae. All 15 phages were analyzed using PCR amplification of phage-specific regions and 9 different amplification profiles were identified. Five phages (SEN1, SEN4, SEN5, SEN22, and SEN34) were completely sequenced and classified as temperate phages. Phages SEN4 and SEN5 were genetically identical, thus representing a single phage type (i.e. SEN4/5). SEN1 and SEN4/5 fit into the group of P2-like phages, while the SEN22 phage showed sequence relatedness to P22-like phages. Interestingly, while phage SEN34 was genetically distantly related to Lambda-like phages (Siphoviridae), it had the morphology of the Myoviridae family. Based on sequence analysis and electron microscopy, phages SEN1 and SEN4/5 were members of the Myoviridae family and phage SEN22 belonged to the Podoviridae family. PMID:28118395

  1. Comparison of phenotypic traits and genetic relatedness of Salmonella enterica subspecies arizonae isolates from a colony of ridgenose rattlesnakes with osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Bemis, David A; Owston, Michael A; Lickey, Adrienne L A; Kania, Stephen A; Ebner, Paul; Rohrbach, Barton W; Ramsay, Edward C

    2003-07-01

    Reptiles are well-known sources of human Salmonella infections; however, little is known about the ability of Salmonella to cause disease in reptiles. Thirty-seven isolates of Salmonella enterica subspecies arizonae (S. arizonae) were obtained from retrospective and prospective studies of a closed colony of ridgenose rattlesnakes (Crotalus willardi) with osteomyelitis. All isolates (N = 7) from bone lesions were of a single serotype, 56:z4,z23, and this serotype was found on only 1 occasion among 8 other serotypes isolated from 21 cloacal and intestinal samples. The remainder (N = 7) of serotype 56:z4,z23 isolates were from other extraintestinal sites, including liver, ovary, blood, and testis. S. arizonae isolates were susceptible to most antimicrobials, and plasmid profiles did not correlate with serotype or antimicrobial resistance. Isolates of the 56:z4,z23 serotype (N = 14) formed a tight cluster with 95% similarity by XbaI macrorestriction analysis. Individual isolates of serotypes, 56:z4,z23, 38:(k)-z35, and 48:i-z invaded HeLa cells but an isolate of serotype 50:r-z did not. The same individual isolates of serotype 56:z4,z23 and 48:i-z also invaded viper heart cells. The Salmonella InvA gene was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in all S. arizonae serotypes tested, including 5 serotype 56:z4,z23 isolates and individual isolates of serotypes 48:i-z and 50:r-z. A source or possible explanation for increased virulence of S. arizonae serotype 56:z4,z23 in this unique host has not been found.

  2. Complete Genome and Methylome Sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovars Typhimurium, Saintpaul, and Stanleyville from the SARA/SARB Collection

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Kuan; Roberts, Richard J.; Allard, Marc W.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this announcement, we report the complete genome and methylome sequences of three Salmonella enterica strains from the SARA and SARB collection: S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (SARA13), S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Saintpaul (SARA26), and S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Stanleyville (SARB61). PMID:28302778

  3. Phylogenetic Diversity of the Enteric Pathogen Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Inferred from Genome-Wide Reference-Free SNP Characters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica is a major cause of food-borne illness in the US, leading to more deaths than any other food-related pathogen. This is an extremely diverse bacterial species consisting of six subspecies and over 2500 named serovars. Examining the evolutionary history within Salmonella with techn...

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Bardo Strain CRJJGF_00099 (Phylum Gammaproteobacteria)

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sushim K.; McMillan, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, Charlene R.; Desai, Prerak T.; Porwollik, Steffen; McClelland, Michael; Hiott, Lari M.; Humayoun, Shaheen B.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report a 4.87-Mbp draft genome sequence of the multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Bardo strain CRJJGF_00099, isolated from dairy cattle in 2005. PMID:27634995

  5. Household Contamination with Salmonella enterica1

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Dale D.; Roozen, Paivi M.; Szymanski, Maryanne H.; Scheenstra, Beth C.; Cady, Kirsten M.; Besser, Thomas E.; Chudek, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    Household contamination with Salmonella enterica increases when occupational exposure exists (cattle farms with known salmonellosis in cattle, a salmonella research laboratory, or a veterinary clinic experiencing an outbreak of salmonellosis). Fifteen of 55 (27.2%) vacuum cleaner bags from households with occupational exposure to S. enterica were positive versus 1 of 24 (4.2% without known exposure. Use of a carpet cleaner and several cleaners/disinfectants reduced, but failed to eliminate, S. enterica from artificially contaminated carpet. PMID:12533294

  6. Fingerprinting of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis by ribotyping.

    PubMed

    Lippelt, Meike; de Isele, Theresa Sanabria; Kist, Manfred

    1997-04-01

    OBJECTIVE: To carry out an epidemiologic evaluation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis outbreaks in households and small communities by means of rRNA gene restriction pattern analysis (ribotyping). METHODS: One hundred Enteritidis isolates dating from 1989 to 1994 which could be allocated epidemiologically to different sources or to small community outbreaks were investigated with ribotyping, a fingerprinting method in which bacterial DNA is hybridized with the biotin-labeled plasmid pKK 3535 containing a ribosomal RNA operon of Escherichia coli to determine the ribosomal RNA gene restriction patterns. RESULTS: Four different ribotyping patterns were found with the restriction endonuclease Smal and nine with Sphl. Ribotypes of isolates which could be allocated epidemiologically to a common source usually corresponded. Almost 60% of the Enteritidis infections had the ribotyping pattern Sphl-A. In contrast, this pattern was not found in any of the five Enteritidis strains isolated in 1989. The suspicion that Enteritidis phage type 4 infections are caused by consumption of insufficiently heated eggs is supported by the fact that the ribotyping pattern Sph1-A was found in isolates from eggs and from human specimens. CONCLUSIONS: As patterns Sphl-A and Smal-J appeared in 58% and 75% of the isolates, respectively, ribotyping cannot be used for the differentiation between various outbreaks with these two patterns. In cases where the Enteritidis strains showed less frequent patterns, ribotyping seems to be a practical tool for the identification of infection chains. In addition newly appearing ribotyping patterns can give information about the epidemiologic development of Enteritidis infection.

  7. Complete Genome Sequences of 16 Canadian Strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Enteritidis

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Muhammad A.; Ziebell, Kim; Nash, John H. E.; Kropinski, Andrew M.; Ross, Ashley; Al-Lami, Mariam; Boerlin, Patrick; Chui, Linda; Devenish, John; Bekal, Sadjia; Graham, Morag; Amoako, Kingsley K.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis is an important zoonotic food-borne pathogen causing serious human illnesses frequently linked to poultry products. Here, we report fully assembled genome sequences of 16 S. Enteritidis strains with common pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and phage types (8, 13, 13a, and 14b) that predominate in North America. PMID:24762938

  8. Complete Genome Sequence and Methylome of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Cerro, a Frequent Dairy Cow Serovar.

    PubMed

    Haley, Bradd J; Pirone, Cary; Muruvanda, Tim; Brown, Eric; Allard, Marc; Karns, Jeffrey S; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S

    2016-01-28

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cerro is an infrequent pathogen of humans and other mammals but is frequently isolated from the hindgut of asymptomatic cattle in the United States. To further understand the genomic determinants of S. Cerro specificity for the bovine hindgut, the genome of isolate CFSAN001588 was fully sequenced and deposited in the GenBank database.

  9. Complete Whole-Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Java NCTC5706.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Mohammed-Abbas; Alexander, Sarah; Burnett, Edward; Deheer-Graham, Ana; Oliver, Karen; Holroyd, Nancy; Parkhill, Julian; Russell, Julie E

    2016-11-03

    Salmonellae are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Java strain NCTC5706. This strain is of historical significance, having been isolated in the pre-antibiotic era and was deposited into the National Collection of Type Cultures in 1939.

  10. Complete Whole-Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Java NCTC5706

    PubMed Central

    Fazal, Mohammed-Abbas; Burnett, Edward; Deheer-Graham, Ana; Oliver, Karen; Holroyd, Nancy; Russell, Julie E.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonellae are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Java strain NCTC5706. This strain is of historical significance, having been isolated in the pre-antibiotic era and was deposited into the National Collection of Type Cultures in 1939. PMID:27811100

  11. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Cubana Strains Isolated from Agricultural Sources.

    PubMed

    Benahmed, Faiza H; Gopinath, Gopal R; Wang, Hua; Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Junia; Grim, Christopher; Cheng, Chorng-Ming; McClelland, Michael; Ayers, Sherry; Abbott, Jason; Desai, Prerak; Frye, Jonathan G; Weinstock, George; Hammack, Thomas S; Hanes, Darcy E; Rasmussen, Mark A; Davidson, Maureen K

    2014-01-23

    We report the draft genomes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cubana strain CVM42234, isolated from chick feed in 2012, and S. Cubana strain 76814, isolated from swine in 2004. The genome sizes are 4,975,046 and 4,936,251 bp, respectively.

  12. Whole-genome sequencing of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cubana strains isolated from agricultural sources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report draft genomes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Cubana strain CVM42234 isolated from chick feed in 2012 and Salmonella Cubana strain 76814 isolated from swine in 2004. The genome sizes are 4,975,046 and 4,936,251 base pairs, respectively....

  13. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Cubana Strains Isolated from Agricultural Sources

    PubMed Central

    Benahmed, Faiza H.; Gopinath, Gopal R.; Wang, Hua; Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Junia; Grim, Christopher; Cheng, Chorng-Ming; McClelland, Michael; Ayers, Sherry; Abbott, Jason; Desai, Prerak; Frye, Jonathan G.; Weinstock, George; Hammack, Thomas S.; Hanes, Darcy E.; Rasmussen, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genomes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cubana strain CVM42234, isolated from chick feed in 2012, and S. Cubana strain 76814, isolated from swine in 2004. The genome sizes are 4,975,046 and 4,936,251 bp, respectively. PMID:24459266

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Mishmarhaemek Isolated from Bovine Feces

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Ashley; Lambert, Dominic; Koziol, Adam G.; Seyer, Karine

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Mishmarhaemek is a Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium implicated in human clinical disease. Here, we report a 4.8-Mbp draft genome sequence of a nalidixic acid-resistant isolate of S. serovar Mishmarhaemek. PMID:26472847

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Mishmarhaemek Isolated from Bovine Feces.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ashley; Lambert, Dominic; Koziol, Adam G; Seyer, Karine; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2015-10-15

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Mishmarhaemek is a Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium implicated in human clinical disease. Here, we report a 4.8-Mbp draft genome sequence of a nalidixic acid-resistant isolate of S. serovar Mishmarhaemek. Copyright © 2015 Cooper et al.

  16. Methodologies for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Subtyping: Gold Standards and Alternatives▿

    PubMed Central

    Wattiau, Pierre; Boland, Cécile; Bertrand, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    For more than 80 years, subtyping of Salmonella enterica has been routinely performed by serotyping, a method in which surface antigens are identified based on agglutination reactions with specific antibodies. The serotyping scheme, which is continuously updated as new serovars are discovered, has generated over time a data set of the utmost significance, allowing long-term epidemiological surveillance of Salmonella in the food chain and in public health control. Conceptually, serotyping provides no information regarding the phyletic relationships inside the different Salmonella enterica subspecies. In epidemiological investigations, identification and tracking of salmonellosis outbreaks require the use of methods that can fingerprint the causative strains at a taxonomic level far more specific than the one achieved by serotyping. During the last 2 decades, alternative methods that could successfully identify the serovar of a given strain by probing its DNA have emerged, and molecular biology-based methods have been made available to address phylogeny and fingerprinting issues. At the same time, accredited diagnostics have become increasingly generalized, imposing stringent methodological requirements in terms of traceability and measurability. In these new contexts, the hand-crafted character of classical serotyping is being challenged, although it is widely accepted that classification into serovars should be maintained. This review summarizes and discusses modern typing methods, with a particular focus on those having potential as alternatives for classical serotyping or for subtyping Salmonella strains at a deeper level. PMID:21856826

  17. Ferrioxamine-Mediated Iron(III) Utilization by Salmonella enterica

    PubMed Central

    Kingsley, Robert A.; Reissbrodt, Rolf; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Ketley, Julian M.; Tsolis, Renée M.; Everest, Paul; Dougan, Gordon; Bäumler, Andreas J.; Roberts, Mark; Williams, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    Utilization of ferrioxamines as sole sources of iron distinguishes Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhimurium and Enteritidis from a number of related species, including Escherichia coli. Ferrioxamine supplements have therefore been used in preenrichment and selection media to increase the bacterial growth rate while selectivity is maintained. We characterized the determinants involved in utilization of ferrioxamines B, E, and G by S. enterica serotype Typhimurium by performing siderophore cross-feeding bioassays. Transport of all three ferric siderophores across the outer membrane was dependent on the FoxA receptor encoded by the Fur-repressible foxA gene. However, only the transport of ferrioxamine G was dependent on the energy-transducing protein TonB, since growth stimulation of a tonB strain by ferrioxamines B and E was observed, albeit at lower efficiencies than in the parental strain. Transport across the inner membrane was dependent on the periplasmic binding protein-dependent ABC transporter complex comprising FhuBCD, as has been reported for other hydroxamate siderophores of enteric bacteria. The distribution of the foxA gene in the genus Salmonella, as indicated by DNA hybridization studies and correlated with the ability to utilize ferrioxamine E, was restricted to subspecies I, II, and IIIb, and this gene was absent from subspecies IIIa, IV, VI, and VII (formerly subspecies IV) and Salmonella bongori (formerly subspecies V). S. enterica serotype Typhimurium mutants with either a transposon insertion or a defined nonpolar frameshift (+2) mutation in the foxA gene were not able to utilize any of the three ferrioxamines tested. A strain carrying the nonpolar foxA mutation exhibited a significantly reduced ability to colonize rabbit ileal loops compared to the foxA+ parent. In addition, a foxA mutant was markedly attenuated in mice inoculated by either the intragastric or intravenous route. Mice inoculated with the foxA mutant were protected against

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serotype Saintpaul Strain S-70, Isolated from an Aquatic Environment

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Acosta, Mitzi; Medrano-Félix, Andrés; Jiménez, Maribel; Gómez-Gil, Bruno; León-Félix, Josefina; Amarillas, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella is a pathogen of worldwide importance, causing disease in a vast range of hosts, including humans. We report the genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Saintpaul strain S-70, isolated from an aquatic environment. PMID:24336367

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of 18 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Oranienburg Strains Isolated from Rivers in Northwestern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Casteñeda-Ruelas, Gloria M; Carreón-Gaxiola, César; Castelán-Sánchez, Hugo G; Acatzi-Silva, Abraham; Romero-Martínez, Salvador; García-Molina, Alejandra; Jiménez-Edeza, Maribel

    2017-03-09

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Oranienburg is recognized as a foodborne pathogen widely distributed in the environment. Here, we report 18 draft genomes of S Oranienburg strains isolated from rivers in the northwestern region of Mexico.

  20. Complete, Closed Genome Sequences of 10 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strains Isolated from Human and Bovine Sources

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Scott V.; Bono, James L.; Smith, Timothy P. L.; Fields, Patricia I.; Dinsmore, Blake A.; Santovenia, Monica; Kelley, Christy M.; Wang, Rong; Bosilevac, Joseph M.; Harhay, Gregory P.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a leading cause of enterocolitis for humans and animals. S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium infects a broad range of hosts. To facilitate genomic comparisons among isolates from different sources, we present the complete genome sequences of 10 S. Typhimurium strains, 5 each isolated from human and bovine sources. PMID:27811097

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Give, Isolated from an Imported Chili Powder Product.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Chen, Yi; Ayers, Sherry; Melka, David; Laasri, Anna; Payne, Justin S; Zheng, Jie; Son, Insook; Timme, Ruth; Kastanis, George; Hammack, Thomas S; Strain, Errol; Allard, Marc W; Evans, Peter S; Brown, Eric W

    2015-07-02

    We report the genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Give (CFSAN012622), isolated from imported chili powder in 2014. This genome contains genes previously reported to be specific only to S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. This strain shows a unique pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern clustering with serovar Enteritidis (JEG X01.0005).

  2. Complete Genome Sequences of Two Outbreak Strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Thompson Associated with Cilantro

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Steven; Gorski, Lisa; Cooper, Kerry K.; Miller, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Thompson strains RM1984 (CADPH-99A2334) and RM1986 (CADPH-99A2345) are associated with a 1999 outbreak in contaminated cilantro. We report here the complete genome sequences and annotation of these two S. Thompson strains. These genomes are distinct and provide additional data for our understanding of S. enterica. PMID:26586897

  3. Xanthomonas perforans Colonization Influences Salmonella enterica in the Tomato Phyllosphere

    PubMed Central

    Potnis, Neha; Soto-Arias, José Pablo; Cowles, Kimberly N.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.; Jones, Jeffrey B.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica rarely grows on healthy, undamaged plants, but its persistence is influenced by bacterial plant pathogens. The interactions between S. enterica, Xanthomonas perforans (a tomato bacterial spot pathogen), and tomato were characterized. We observed that virulent X. perforans, which establishes disease by suppressing pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity that leads to effector-triggered susceptibility, created a conducive environment for persistence of S. enterica in the tomato phyllosphere, while activation of effector-triggered immunity by avirulent X. perforans resulted in a dramatic reduction in S. enterica populations. S. enterica populations persisted at ∼10 times higher levels in leaves coinoculated with virulent X. perforans than in those where S. enterica was applied alone. In contrast, S. enterica populations were ∼5 times smaller in leaves coinoculated with avirulent X. perforans than in leaves inoculated with S. enterica alone. Coinoculation with virulent X. perforans increased S. enterica aggregate formation; however, S. enterica was not found in mixed aggregates with X. perforans. Increased aggregate formation by S. enterica may serve as the mechanism of persistence on leaves cocolonized by virulent X. perforans. S. enterica association with stomata was altered by X. perforans; however, it did not result in appreciable populations of S. enterica in the apoplast even in the presence of large virulent X. perforans populations. Gene-for-gene resistance against X. perforans successively restricted S. enterica populations. Given the effect of this interaction, breeding for disease-resistant cultivars may be an effective strategy to limit both plant disease and S. enterica populations and, consequently, human illness. PMID:24632252

  4. Sensitive and rapid molecular detection assays for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Heidelberg

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica is a significant cause of gastroenteritis worldwide, with S. enterica serovars Typhimurium and Heidelberg being particularly prevalent. S. enterica serovars Typhimurium and Heidelberg have broad host ranges infecting poultry, dairy animals and humans. Traditional methods used fo...

  5. Two draft genome sequences of a new serovar of Salmonella enterica, serovar Lubbock

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica is principally a foodborne pathogen that shows considerable serovar diversity. In this report, we present two draft genome sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Lubbock, a novel serovar....

  6. Two Draft Genome Sequences of a New Serovar of Salmonella enterica, Serovar Lubbock

    PubMed Central

    den Bakker, Henk C.; Nightingale, Kendra K.; Brichta-Harhay, Dayna M.; Edrington, Thomas S.; Loneragan, Guy H.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is principally a foodborne pathogen that shows considerable serovar diversity. In this report, we present two draft genome sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Lubbock, a novel serovar. PMID:25883279

  7. Transmission and Retention of Salmonella enterica by Phytophagous Hemipteran Insects

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Arias, José Pablo; Groves, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Several pest insects of human and livestock habitations are known as vectors of Salmonella enterica; however, the role of plant-feeding insects as vectors of S. enterica to agricultural crops remains unexamined. Using a hemipteran insect pest-lettuce system, we investigated the potential for transmission and retention of S. enterica. Specifically, Macrosteles quadrilineatus and Myzus persicae insects were fed S. enterica-inoculated lettuce leaf discs or artificial liquid diets confined in Parafilm sachets to allow physical contact or exclusively oral ingestion of the pathogen, respectively. After a 24-h acquisition access period, insects were moved onto two consecutive noninoculated leaf discs or liquid diets and allowed a 24-h inoculation access period on each of the two discs or sachets. Similar proportions of individuals from both species ingested S. enterica after a 24-h acquisition access period from inoculated leaf discs, but a significantly higher proportion of M. quadrilineatus retained the pathogen internally after a 48-h inoculation access period. S. enterica was also recovered from the honeydew of both species. After a 48-h inoculation access period, bacteria were recovered from a significantly higher proportion of honeydew samples from M. quadrilineatus than from M. persicae insects. The recovery of S. enterica from leaf discs and liquid diets postfeeding demonstrated that both species of insects were capable of transmitting the bacteria in ways that are not limited to mechanical transmission. Overall, these results suggest that phytophagous insects may serve as potential vectors of S. enterica in association with plants. PMID:24973069

  8. Phylogenetic Diversity of the Enteric Pathogen Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Inferred from Genome-Wide Reference-Free SNP Characters

    PubMed Central

    Timme, Ruth E.; Pettengill, James B.; Allard, Marc W.; Strain, Errol; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Wehnes, Chris; Van Kessel, JoAnn S.; Karns, Jeffrey S.; Musser, Steven M.; Brown, Eric W.

    2013-01-01

    The enteric pathogen Salmonella enterica is one of the leading causes of foodborne illness in the world. The species is extremely diverse, containing more than 2,500 named serovars that are designated for their unique antigen characters and pathogenicity profiles—some are known to be virulent pathogens, while others are not. Questions regarding the evolution of pathogenicity, significance of antigen characters, diversity of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci, among others, will remain elusive until a strong evolutionary framework is established. We present the first large-scale S. enterica subsp. enterica phylogeny inferred from a new reference-free k-mer approach of gathering single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from whole genomes. The phylogeny of 156 isolates representing 78 serovars (102 were newly sequenced) reveals two major lineages, each with many strongly supported sublineages. One of these lineages is the S. Typhi group; well nested within the phylogeny. Lineage-through-time analyses suggest there have been two instances of accelerated rates of diversification within the subspecies. We also found that antigen characters and CRISPR loci reveal different evolutionary patterns than that of the phylogeny, suggesting that a horizontal gene transfer or possibly a shared environmental acquisition might have influenced the present character distribution. Our study also shows the ability to extract reference-free SNPs from a large set of genomes and then to use these SNPs for phylogenetic reconstruction. This automated, annotation-free approach is an important step forward for bacterial disease tracking and in efficiently elucidating the evolutionary history of highly clonal organisms. PMID:24158624

  9. Draft Genome Sequences of 18 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Oranienburg Strains Isolated from Rivers in Northwestern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Casteñeda-Ruelas, Gloria M.; Carreón-Gaxiola, César; Castelán-Sánchez, Hugo G.; Acatzi-Silva, Abraham; Romero-Martínez, Salvador; García-Molina, Alejandra

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Oranienburg is recognized as a foodborne pathogen widely distributed in the environment. Here, we report 18 draft genomes of S. Oranienburg strains isolated from rivers in the northwestern region of Mexico. PMID:28280020

  10. Complete, closed genome sequences of 10 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strains isolated from human and bovine sources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica are a leading cause of enterocolitis for humans and animals. S. enterica serovar Typhimurium infects a broad range of hosts. To facilitate genomic comparisons among isolates from different sources, we present the complete genome sequences of ten S. Typhimurium strains, five each...

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serotype Oranienburg Strain S-76, Isolated from an Aquatic Environment

    PubMed Central

    Medrano-Félix, Andrés; Estrada-Acosta, Mitzi; Jiménez, Maribel; Gómez-Gil, Bruno; León-Félix, Josefina; Amarillas, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella is a widespread microorganism and a common causative agent of food-borne illnesses. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Oranienburg is highly prevalent in surface water from tropical ecosystems and is not commonly related to illnesses. Here, we report the first genome sequence of Salmonella Oranienburg strain S-76, isolated from an aquatic environment. PMID:24336368

  12. Complete Genome Sequences of 17 Canadian Isolates of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Heidelberg from Human, Animal, and Food Sources

    PubMed Central

    Labbé, Geneviève; Ziebell, Kim; Bekal, Sadjia; Parmley, E. Jane; Agunos, Agnes; Desruisseau, Andrea; Daignault, Danielle; Slavic, Durda; Hoang, Linda; Ramsay, Danielle; Pollari, Frank; Robertson, James; Nash, John H. E.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Heidelberg is a highly clonal serovar frequently associated with foodborne illness. To facilitate subtyping efforts, we report fully assembled genome sequences of 17 Canadian S. Heidelberg isolates including six pairs of epidemiologically related strains. The plasmid sequences of eight isolates contain several drug resistance genes. PMID:27635008

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Infantis Strain SPE101, Isolated from a Chronic Human Infection

    PubMed Central

    Iriarte, Andrés; Giner-Lamia, Joaquín; Betancor, Laura; Astocondor, Lizeth; Cestero, Juan J.; Ochoa, Theresa; García, Coralith; Puente, José L.; Chabalgoity, José A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report a 4.99-Mb draft genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis strain SPE101, isolated from feces of a 5-month-old breast-fed female showing diarrhea associated with severe dehydration and malnutrition. The infection prolonged for 6 months despite antibiotic treatment. PMID:28729277

  14. Complete genomic sequences of two outbreak strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Thompson associated with cilantro

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Thompson strains RM1984 (CADPH-99A2334) and RM1986 (CADPH -99A2345) are clinical isolates from 1999, putatively related to an outbreak in California from contaminated cilantro. We report the complete genome sequences and annotation of these two S. Thompson...

  15. Genome Sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Infantis Strains from Hungary Representing Two Peak Incidence Periods in Three Decades.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Tímea; Szabó, Móni; Szmolka, Ama; Kiss, János; Olasz, Ferenc; Nagy, Béla

    2017-03-02

    Four strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis isolated from humans (1980 to 1982) and broiler chickens (2016) have been sequenced. They represent the early and recent peak incidences of this serovar in Hungary. Genome sequences of these isolates provide comparative data on the evolution and rise of an endemic S Infantis clone in Hungary.

  16. Genome Sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Infantis Strains from Hungary Representing Two Peak Incidence Periods in Three Decades

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, Tímea; Szabó, Móni; Szmolka, Ama; Kiss, János

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Four strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis isolated from humans (1980 to 1982) and broiler chickens (2016) have been sequenced. They represent the early and recent peak incidences of this serovar in Hungary. Genome sequences of these isolates provide comparative data on the evolution and rise of an endemic S. Infantis clone in Hungary. PMID:28254986

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Infantis Strain SPE101, Isolated from a Chronic Human Infection.

    PubMed

    Iriarte, Andrés; Giner-Lamia, Joaquín; Silva, Claudia; Betancor, Laura; Astocondor, Lizeth; Cestero, Juan J; Ochoa, Theresa; García, Coralith; Puente, José L; Chabalgoity, José A; García-Del Portillo, Francisco

    2017-07-20

    We report a 4.99-Mb draft genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis strain SPE101, isolated from feces of a 5-month-old breast-fed female showing diarrhea associated with severe dehydration and malnutrition. The infection prolonged for 6 months despite antibiotic treatment. Copyright © 2017 Iriarte et al.

  18. Genome Sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Lubbock Strains Isolated from Liver Abscesses of Feedlot Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Amachawadi, Raghavendra G.; Thomas, Milton

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequencing of 13 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Lubbock strains isolated from liver abscesses of feedlot cattle is reported here. The availability of these genomes will help to further understand the etiologic role of Salmonella strains in liver abscesses of cattle and will serve as references in microbial trace-back studies to improve food safety. PMID:27151794

  19. First Fully Closed Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Cubana Associated with a Food-Borne Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Maria; Muruvanda, Tim; Pirone, Cary; Korlach, Jonas; Timme, Ruth; Payne, Justin; Evans, Peter; Meng, Jianghong; Brown, Eric W; Allard, Marc W

    2014-10-30

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cubana (Salmonella serovar Cubana) is associated with human and animal disease. Here, we used third-generation, single-molecule, real-time DNA sequencing to determine the first complete genome sequence of Salmonella serovar Cubana CFSAN002050, which was isolated from fresh alfalfa sprouts during a multistate outbreak in 2012. Copyright © 2014 Hoffmann et al.

  20. First Fully Closed Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Cubana Associated with a Food-Borne Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Muruvanda, Tim; Pirone, Cary; Korlach, Jonas; Timme, Ruth; Payne, Justin; Evans, Peter; Meng, Jianghong; Brown, Eric W.; Allard, Marc W.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cubana (Salmonella serovar Cubana) is associated with human and animal disease. Here, we used third-generation, single-molecule, real-time DNA sequencing to determine the first complete genome sequence of Salmonella serovar Cubana CFSAN002050, which was isolated from fresh alfalfa sprouts during a multistate outbreak in 2012. PMID:25359917

  1. The complete genome sequence and methylome of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cerro, a frequent dairy cow strain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cerro is an infrequent pathogen of humans and other mammals, but is frequently isolated from the hindgut of asymptomatic cattle in the United States. To further understand the genomic determinants of S. Cerro specificity for the bovine hindgut, the genome ...

  2. Changes in the risk management of Salmonella enterica subspecies diarizonae serovar 61:(k):1, 5, (7) in Swedish sheep herds and sheep meat due to the results of a prevalence study 2012.

    PubMed

    Sörén, Kaisa; Lindblad, Mats; Jernberg, Cecilia; Eriksson, Erik; Melin, Lennart; Wahlström, Helene; Lundh, Maria

    2015-02-03

    The prevalence of Salmonella in food producing animals is very low in Sweden due to rigorous control programmes. However, no active surveillance is in place in sheep. The authorities decided to perform a prevalence study in sheep herds because findings at slaughter indicated that sheep associated S. diarizonae (S. enterica subspecies diarizonae serovar 61:(k):1, 5, (7)) might be common in sheep. Sampling was stratified by herd size in two groups, small herds with ≤ 30 animals and large herds with > 30 animals. In each stratum, 237 herds were selected at random. Faecal samples received from 244 out of the 474 randomly selected herds were analysed. A total of 40 of 100 (40%) of large herds and 17 of 144 (12%) of small herds were positive. The overall adjusted prevalence was 17.6% (95% CI, 12.9-22.2). Sheep associated S. diarizonae was detected in all counties (n = 21). Scientific opinions and an evaluation of on-farm control measures performed concluded that the impact of sheep associated S. diarizonae on human health is very low, and that risk management measures applied in response to findings of sheep associated S. diarizonae in sheep or sheep meat can be expected to have very little impact on reducing risks to human health. As a result, Swedish authorities decided to make an exemption for sheep associated Salmonella diarizonae in sheep and sheep meat in the current Salmonella control measures. Sheep associated S. diarizonae is endemic in Swedish sheep herds. It is more common in large herds and not limited to certain parts of the country. The responsible authorities concluded that current risk management actions regarding sheep associated S. diarizonae in sheep and sheep meat are not proportional to the risk. This is the first time in the history of the Swedish Salmonella control programme that an exemption from the legislation has been made for a specific serovar. If there is any future indication of an increasing risk, due to e.g. change in the pathogenicity

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhi Isolate B/SF/13/03/195 Associated with a Typhoid Carrier in Pasir Mas, Kelantan, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Kee-Shin; Mohd Nor, Fauziah; Mat Hussin, Hani; Hamzah, Wan Mansor; Najimudin, Nazalan

    2015-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi B/SF/13/03/195 obtained from a typhoid carrier, who is a food handler in Pasir Mas, Kelantan. PMID:26564035

  4. Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhi Isolate PM016/13 from Untreated Well Water Associated with a Typhoid Outbreak in Pasir Mas, Kelantan, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Kee-Shin; Najimudin, Nazalan

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi is a human-restricted pathogen that causes typhoid fever. Even though it is a human-restricted pathogen, the bacterium is also isolated from environments such as groundwater and pond water. Here, we describe the genome sequence of the Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi PM016/13 which was isolated from well water during a typhoid outbreak in Kelantan, Malaysia, in 2013. PMID:26564032

  5. Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhi Isolate PM016/13 from Untreated Well Water Associated with a Typhoid Outbreak in Pasir Mas, Kelantan, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Muhamad Harish, Salwani; Sim, Kee-Shin; Najimudin, Nazalan; Aziah, Ismail

    2015-11-12

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi is a human-restricted pathogen that causes typhoid fever. Even though it is a human-restricted pathogen, the bacterium is also isolated from environments such as groundwater and pond water. Here, we describe the genome sequence of the Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi PM016/13 which was isolated from well water during a typhoid outbreak in Kelantan, Malaysia, in 2013. Copyright © 2015 Muhamad Harish et al.

  6. Interaction of Salmonella enterica with Fresh Produce Leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Attachment and colonization of Salmonella enterica serovars to fresh produce leaves was investigated. Biofilm assay and attachment of Salmonella serovars to intact and cut leaves were determined. Salmonella Tennessee and Salmonella Thompson produced stronger biofilms compared to Salmonella Newpor...

  7. Flagella-independent surface motility in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sun-Yang; Pontes, Mauricio H.; Groisman, Eduardo A.

    2015-01-01

    Flagella are multiprotein complexes necessary for swimming and swarming motility. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, flagella-mediated motility is repressed by the PhoP/PhoQ regulatory system. We now report that Salmonella can move on 0.3% agarose media in a flagella-independent manner when experiencing the PhoP/PhoQ-inducing signal low Mg2+. This motility requires the PhoP-activated mgtA, mgtC, and pagM genes, which specify a Mg2+ transporter, an inhibitor of Salmonella’s own F1Fo ATPase, and a small protein of unknown function, respectively. The MgtA and MgtC proteins are necessary for pagM expression because pagM mRNA levels were lower in mgtA and mgtC mutants than in wild-type Salmonella, and also because pagM expression from a heterologous promoter rescued motility in mgtA and mgtC mutants. PagM promotes group motility by a surface protein(s), as a pagM-expressing strain conferred motility upon a pagM null mutant, and proteinase K treatment eliminated motility. The pagM gene is rarely found outside subspecies I of S. enterica and often present in nonfunctional allelic forms in organisms lacking the identified motility. Deletion of the pagM gene reduced bacterial replication on 0.3% agarose low Mg2+ media but not in low Mg2+ liquid media. Our findings define a form of motility that allows Salmonella to scavenge nutrients and to escape toxic compounds in low Mg2+ semisolid environments. PMID:25624475

  8. Complete Sequences of Six IncA/C Plasmids of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serotype Newport.

    PubMed

    Cao, Guojie; Allard, Marc W; Hoffmann, Maria; Monday, Steven R; Muruvanda, Tim; Luo, Yan; Payne, Justin; Rump, Lydia; Meng, Kevin; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick F; Brown, Eric W; Meng, Jianghong

    2015-02-26

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Newport has been a long-standing public health concern in the United States. We present the complete sequences of six IncA/C plasmids from animal-derived MDR S. Newport ranging from 80.1 to 158.5 kb. They shared a genetic backbone with S. Newport IncA/C plasmids pSN254 and pAM04528.

  9. Specific discrimination of three pathogenic Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes by carB-based oligonucleotide microarray.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hwa Hui; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Seo, Jeong Hyun; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2014-01-01

    It is important to rapidly and selectively detect and analyze pathogenic Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica in contaminated food to reduce the morbidity and mortality of Salmonella infection and to guarantee food safety. In the present work, we developed an oligonucleotide microarray containing duplicate specific capture probes based on the carB gene, which encodes the carbamoyl phosphate synthetase large subunit, as a competent biomarker evaluated by genetic analysis to selectively and efficiently detect and discriminate three S. enterica subsp. enterica serotypes: Choleraesuis, Enteritidis, and Typhimurium. Using the developed microarray system, three serotype targets were successfully analyzed in a range as low as 1.6 to 3.1 nM and were specifically discriminated from each other without nonspecific signals. In addition, the constructed microarray did not have cross-reactivity with other common pathogenic bacteria and even enabled the clear discrimination of the target Salmonella serotype from a bacterial mixture. Therefore, these results demonstrated that our novel carB-based oligonucleotide microarray can be used as an effective and specific detection system for S. enterica subsp. enterica serotypes.

  10. Specific Discrimination of Three Pathogenic Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serotypes by carB-Based Oligonucleotide Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hwa Hui; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Seo, Jeong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    It is important to rapidly and selectively detect and analyze pathogenic Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica in contaminated food to reduce the morbidity and mortality of Salmonella infection and to guarantee food safety. In the present work, we developed an oligonucleotide microarray containing duplicate specific capture probes based on the carB gene, which encodes the carbamoyl phosphate synthetase large subunit, as a competent biomarker evaluated by genetic analysis to selectively and efficiently detect and discriminate three S. enterica subsp. enterica serotypes: Choleraesuis, Enteritidis, and Typhimurium. Using the developed microarray system, three serotype targets were successfully analyzed in a range as low as 1.6 to 3.1 nM and were specifically discriminated from each other without nonspecific signals. In addition, the constructed microarray did not have cross-reactivity with other common pathogenic bacteria and even enabled the clear discrimination of the target Salmonella serotype from a bacterial mixture. Therefore, these results demonstrated that our novel carB-based oligonucleotide microarray can be used as an effective and specific detection system for S. enterica subsp. enterica serotypes. PMID:24185846

  11. Results of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype identification by Salmonella Check&Trace microarray in international External Quality Assurance Systems.

    PubMed

    Madaczak, Grzegorz; Szych, Jolanta; Wasiak, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes are identified by slide agglutination with specific antisera for somatic, flagellar and sometimes capsular antigens. An alternative way is genoserotyping using for example a microarray, eg. commercially available test Check&Trace Salmonella. The goal of this study was to evaluate the Check&Trace Salmonella microarray for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype identification, using Salmonella strains provided by reference laboratories during External Quality Assurance Systems organized for national reference laboratories by ECDC and WHO GFN. 80 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica have been tested using Check & Trace Salmonella (Check-Points BC, Netherlands). Also classical slide agglutination was performed according to EN ISO 6579:2003/Al:2007 norm, used as reference method. In the group of 80 tested strains, 66% were identified correctly, 4% gave uncertain results and 29% showed "Salmonella, genovar" without a serotype, of which 69% were not included in the CTS list of serotypes. Finally one strain has been recognized incorrectly. Because of IVD certification lack, the CTS test could not be recommended to clinical laboratories. AOAC-RI and OIE certification for test cause, that CTS could be used in most food, environmental and veterinary laboratories with the condition, that all unrecognized strains should be sent to a reference laboratory, to type according to EN ISO 6579:2003/Al:2007 norm, by KWM serotyping or other equal alternative methods.

  12. Integrative analysis of Salmonellosis in Israel reveals association of Salmonella enterica Serovar 9,12:l,v:- with extraintestinal infections, dissemination of endemic S. enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104 biotypes, and severe underreporting of outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Marzel, Alex; Desai, Prerak T; Nissan, Israel; Schorr, Yosef Ilan; Suez, Jotham; Valinsky, Lea; Reisfeld, Abraham; Agmon, Vered; Guard, Jean; McClelland, Michael; Rahav, Galia; Gal-Mor, Ohad

    2014-06-01

    Salmonella enterica is the leading etiologic agent of bacterial food-borne outbreaks worldwide. This ubiquitous species contains more than 2,600 serovars that may differ in their host specificity, clinical manifestations, and epidemiology. To characterize salmonellosis epidemiology in Israel and to study the association of nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars with invasive infections, 48,345 Salmonella cases reported and serotyped at the National Salmonella Reference Center between 1995 and 2012 were analyzed. A quasi-Poisson regression was used to identify irregular clusters of illness, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in conjunction with whole-genome sequencing was applied to molecularly characterize strains of interest. Three hundred twenty-nine human salmonellosis clusters were identified, representing an annual average of 23 (95% confidence interval [CI], 20 to 26) potential outbreaks. We show that the previously unsequenced S. enterica serovar 9,12:l,v:- belongs to the B clade of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica, and we show its frequent association with extraintestinal infections, compared to other NTS serovars. Furthermore, we identified the dissemination of two prevalent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 clones in Israel, which are genetically distinct from other global DT104 isolates. Accumulatively, these findings indicate a severe underreporting of Salmonella outbreaks in Israel and provide insights into the epidemiology and genomics of prevalent serovars, responsible for recurring illness.

  13. Diversity of Genome Structure in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Populations†

    PubMed Central

    Kothapalli, Sushma; Nair, Satheesh; Alokam, Suneetha; Pang, Tikki; Khakhria, Rasik; Woodward, David; Johnson, Wendy; Stocker, Bruce A. D.; Sanderson, Kenneth E.; Liu, Shu-Lin

    2005-01-01

    The genomes of most strains of Salmonella and Escherichia coli are highly conserved. In contrast, all 136 wild-type strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi analyzed by partial digestion with I-CeuI (an endonuclease which cuts within the rrn operons) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and by PCR have rearrangements due to homologous recombination between the rrn operons leading to inversions and translocations. Recombination between rrn operons in culture is known to be equally frequent in S. enterica serovar Typhi and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium; thus, the recombinants in S. enterica serovar Typhi, but not those in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, are able to survive in nature. However, even in S. enterica serovar Typhi the need for genome balance and the need for gene dosage impose limits on rearrangements. Of 100 strains of genome types 1 to 6, 72 were only 25.5 kb off genome balance (the relative lengths of the replichores during bidirectional replication from oriC to the termination of replication [Ter]), while 28 strains were less balanced (41 kb off balance), indicating that the survival of the best-balanced strains was greater. In addition, the need for appropriate gene dosage apparently selected against rearrangements which moved genes from their accustomed distance from oriC. Although rearrangements involving the seven rrn operons are very common in S. enterica serovar Typhi, other duplicated regions, such as the 25 IS200 elements, are very rarely involved in rearrangements. Large deletions and insertions in the genome are uncommon, except for deletions of Salmonella pathogenicity island 7 (usually 134 kb) from fragment I-CeuI-G and 40-kb insertions, possibly a prophage, in fragment I-CeuI-E. The phage types were determined, and the origins of the phage types appeared to be independent of the origins of the genome types. PMID:15805510

  14. Cefotaxime-resistant Salmonella enterica in travelers returning from Thailand to Finland.

    PubMed

    Gunell, Marianne; Aulu, Laura; Jalava, Jari; Lukinmaa-Åberg, Susanna; Osterblad, Monica; Ollgren, Jukka; Huovinen, Pentti; Siitonen, Anja; Hakanen, Antti J

    2014-07-01

    During 1993-2011, cefotaxime resistance among Salmonella enterica isolates from patients in Finland increased substantially. Most of these infections originated in Thailand; many were qnr positive and belonged to S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica monophasic serovar 4,[5],12:i:-. Although cefotaxime-resistant salmonellae mainly originate in discrete geographic areas, they represent a global threat.

  15. Cefotaxime-Resistant Salmonella enterica in Travelers Returning from Thailand to Finland

    PubMed Central

    Aulu, Laura; Jalava, Jari; Lukinmaa-Åberg, Susanna; Österblad, Monica; Ollgren, Jukka; Huovinen, Pentti; Siitonen, Anja; Hakanen, Antti J.

    2014-01-01

    During 1993–2011, cefotaxime resistance among Salmonella enterica isolates from patients in Finland increased substantially. Most of these infections originated in Thailand; many were qnr positive and belonged to S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica monophasic serovar 4,[5],12:i:-. Although cefotaxime-resistant salmonellae mainly originate in discrete geographic areas, they represent a global threat. PMID:24960266

  16. Genomic investigation of Salmonella enterica sequences associated with long-term colonization of the bovine gut

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica is a leading cause of food and waterborne infections globally in both humans and livestock with an estimated 93 million annual human infections caused by nontyphoidal S. enterica alone. However, some serotypes within this species are known to cause mild infection...

  17. Ultrasound improves chemical reduction of natural contaminant microbiota and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica on strawberries.

    PubMed

    do Rosário, Denes Kaic Alves; da Silva Mutz, Yhan; Peixoto, Jaqueline Moreira Curtis; Oliveira, Syllas Borburema Silva; de Carvalho, Raquel Vieira; Carneiro, Joel Camilo Souza; de São José, Jackline Freitas Brilhante; Bernardes, Patrícia Campos

    2017-01-16

    New sanitization methods have been evaluated to improve food safety and food quality and to replace chlorine compounds. However, these new methods can lead to physicochemical and sensory changes in fruits and vegetables. The present study evaluated the effects of acetic acid, peracetic acid, and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate isolated or combined with 5min of ultrasound treatment (40kHz, 500W) on strawberry quality over 9days of storage at 8°C. The strawberry natural contaminant microbiota (molds and yeasts, mesophilic aerobic and lactic acid bacteria), physicochemical quality (pH, total titratable acidity, total soluble solids, vitamin C, and color), sensory quality (triangle test) and inactivation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica intentionally inoculated onto strawberries were analyzed. Ultrasound increased the effect of all chemical compounds in the reduction of aerobic mesophilic, molds and yeasts. The best treatment for those groups of microorganisms was ultrasound combined with peracetic acid (US+PA) that reduced 1.8 and 2.0logcfu/g during 9days of storage. Bactericidal effect of peracetic acid was also improved by ultrasound inactivation of S. enterica, reaching a decimal reduction of 2.1logcfu/g. Moreover, synergistic effects were observed in contaminant natural microbiota inactivation for all tested compounds during storage, without any major physicochemical or sensory alteration to the strawberries. Therefore, ultrasound treatment can improve the effect of sanitizers that are substitutes of chlorine compounds without altering the quality of strawberries during storage. Acetic acid (PubChem CID: 176); Peracetic acid (PubChem CID: 6585); Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (PubChem CID: 18372154). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Uptake and Replication of Salmonella enterica in Acanthamoeba rhysodes

    PubMed Central

    Tezcan-Merdol, Dilek; Ljungström, Marianne; Winiecka-Krusnell, Jadwiga; Linder, Ewert; Engstrand, Lars; Rhen, Mikael

    2004-01-01

    The ability of salmonellae to become internalized and to survive and replicate in amoebae was evaluated by using three separate serovars of Salmonella enterica and five different isolates of axenic Acanthamoeba spp. In gentamicin protection assays, Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin was internalized more efficiently than Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis or Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in all of the amoeba isolates tested. The bacteria appeared to be most efficiently internalized by Acanthamoeba rhysodes. Variations in bacterial growth conditions affected internalization efficiency, but this effect was not altered by inactivation of hilA, a key regulator in the expression of the invasion-associated Salmonella pathogenicity island 1. Microscopy of infected A. rhysodes revealed that S. enterica resided within vacuoles. Prolonged incubation resulted in a loss of intracellular bacteria associated with morphological changes and loss of amoebae. In part, these alterations were associated with hilA and the Salmonella virulence plasmid. The data show that Acanthamoeba spp. can differentiate between different serovars of salmonellae and that internalization is associated with cytotoxic effects mediated by defined Salmonella virulence loci. PMID:15184177

  19. Salmonella enterica: survival, colonization, and virulence differences among serovars.

    PubMed

    Andino, A; Hanning, I

    2015-01-01

    Data indicate that prevalence of specific serovars of Salmonella enterica in human foodborne illness is not correlated with their prevalence in feed. Given that feed is a suboptimal environment for S. enterica, it appears that survival in poultry feed may be an independent factor unrelated to virulence of specific serovars of Salmonella. Additionally, S. enterica serovars appear to have different host specificity and the ability to cause disease in those hosts is also serovar dependent. These differences among the serovars may be related to gene presence or absence and expression levels of those genes. With a better understanding of serovar specificity, mitigation methods can be implemented to control Salmonella at preharvest and postharvest levels.

  20. Salmonella enterica: Survival, Colonization, and Virulence Differences among Serovars

    PubMed Central

    Andino, A.; Hanning, I.

    2015-01-01

    Data indicate that prevalence of specific serovars of Salmonella enterica in human foodborne illness is not correlated with their prevalence in feed. Given that feed is a suboptimal environment for S. enterica, it appears that survival in poultry feed may be an independent factor unrelated to virulence of specific serovars of Salmonella. Additionally, S. enterica serovars appear to have different host specificity and the ability to cause disease in those hosts is also serovar dependent. These differences among the serovars may be related to gene presence or absence and expression levels of those genes. With a better understanding of serovar specificity, mitigation methods can be implemented to control Salmonella at preharvest and postharvest levels. PMID:25664339

  1. Colonization and internalization of Salmonella enterica in tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jie; Allard, Sarah; Reynolds, Sara; Millner, Patricia; Arce, Gabriela; Blodgett, Robert J; Brown, Eric W

    2013-04-01

    The consumption of fresh tomatoes has been linked to numerous food-borne outbreaks involving various serovars of Salmonella enterica. Recent advances in our understanding of plant-microbe interactions have shown that human enteric pathogenic bacteria, including S. enterica, are adapted to survive in the plant environment. In this study, tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom) grown in sandy loam soil from Virginia's eastern shore (VES) were inoculated with S. enterica serovars to evaluate plausible internalization routes and to determine if there is any niche fitness for certain serovars. Both infested soil and contaminated blossoms can lead to low internal levels of fruit contamination with Salmonella. Salmonella serovars demonstrated a great ability to survive in environments under tomato cultivation, not only in soil but also on different parts of the tomato plant. Of the five serovars investigated, Salmonella enterica serovars Newport and Javiana were dominant in sandy loam soil, while Salmonella enterica serovars Montevideo and Newport were more prevalent on leaves and blossoms. It was also observed that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium had a poor rate of survival in all the plant parts examined here, suggesting that postharvest contamination routes are more likely in S. Typhimurium contamination of tomato fruit. Conversely, S. Newport was the most prevalent serovar recovered in both the tomato rhizosphere and phyllosphere. Plants that were recently transplanted (within 3 days) had an increase in observable internalized bacteria, suggesting that plants were more susceptible to internalization right after transplant. These findings suggest that the particular Salmonella serovar and the growth stage of the plant were important factors for internalization through the root system.

  2. Internal Colonization of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Tomato Plants

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ganyu; Hu, Jiahuai; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M.; Richardson, Susanna M.; Bartz, Jerry A.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

    2011-01-01

    Several Salmonella enterica outbreaks have been traced back to contaminated tomatoes. In this study, the internalization of S. enterica Typhimurium via tomato leaves was investigated as affected by surfactants and bacterial rdar morphotype, which was reported to be important for the environmental persistence and attachment of Salmonella to plants. Surfactants, especially Silwet L-77, promoted ingress and survival of S. enterica Typhimurium in tomato leaves. In each of two experiments, 84 tomato plants were inoculated two to four times before fruiting with GFP-labeled S. enterica Typhimurium strain MAE110 (with rdar morphotype) or MAE119 (without rdar). For each inoculation, single leaflets were dipped in 109 CFU/ml Salmonella suspension with Silwet L-77. Inoculated and adjacent leaflets were tested for Salmonella survival for 3 weeks after each inoculation. The surface and pulp of ripe fruits produced on these plants were also examined for Salmonella. Populations of both Salmonella strains in inoculated leaflets decreased during 2 weeks after inoculation but remained unchanged (at about 104 CFU/g) in week 3. Populations of MAE110 were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of MAE119 from day 3 after inoculation. In the first year, nine fruits collected from one of the 42 MAE119 inoculated plants were positive for S. enterica Typhimurium. In the second year, Salmonella was detected in adjacent non-inoculated leaves of eight tomato plants (five inoculated with strain MAE110). The pulp of 12 fruits from two plants inoculated with MAE110 was Salmonella positive (about 106 CFU/g). Internalization was confirmed by fluorescence and confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can move inside tomato plants grown in natural field soil and colonize fruits at high levels without inducing any symptoms, except for a slight reduction in plant growth. PMID:22096553

  3. Colonization and Internalization of Salmonella enterica in Tomato Plants

    PubMed Central

    Allard, Sarah; Reynolds, Sara; Millner, Patricia; Arce, Gabriela; Blodgett, Robert J.; Brown, Eric W.

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of fresh tomatoes has been linked to numerous food-borne outbreaks involving various serovars of Salmonella enterica. Recent advances in our understanding of plant-microbe interactions have shown that human enteric pathogenic bacteria, including S. enterica, are adapted to survive in the plant environment. In this study, tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom) grown in sandy loam soil from Virginia's eastern shore (VES) were inoculated with S. enterica serovars to evaluate plausible internalization routes and to determine if there is any niche fitness for certain serovars. Both infested soil and contaminated blossoms can lead to low internal levels of fruit contamination with Salmonella. Salmonella serovars demonstrated a great ability to survive in environments under tomato cultivation, not only in soil but also on different parts of the tomato plant. Of the five serovars investigated, Salmonella enterica serovars Newport and Javiana were dominant in sandy loam soil, while Salmonella enterica serovars Montevideo and Newport were more prevalent on leaves and blossoms. It was also observed that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium had a poor rate of survival in all the plant parts examined here, suggesting that postharvest contamination routes are more likely in S. Typhimurium contamination of tomato fruit. Conversely, S. Newport was the most prevalent serovar recovered in both the tomato rhizosphere and phyllosphere. Plants that were recently transplanted (within 3 days) had an increase in observable internalized bacteria, suggesting that plants were more susceptible to internalization right after transplant. These findings suggest that the particular Salmonella serovar and the growth stage of the plant were important factors for internalization through the root system. PMID:23377940

  4. Draft genome sequences of 21 Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis strains.

    PubMed

    Timme, Ruth E; Allard, Marc W; Luo, Yan; Strain, Errol; Pettengill, James; Wang, Charles; Li, Cong; Keys, Christine E; Zheng, Jie; Stones, Robert; Wilson, Mark R; Musser, Steven M; Brown, Eric W

    2012-11-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis is a common food-borne pathogen, often associated with shell eggs and poultry. Here, we report draft genomes of 21 S. Enteritidis strains associated with or related to the U.S.-wide 2010 shell egg recall. Eleven of these genomes were from environmental isolates associated with the egg outbreak, and 10 were reference isolates from previous years, unrelated to the outbreak. The whole-genome sequence data for these 21 human pathogen strains are being released in conjunction with the newly formed 100K Genome Project.

  5. Plant pathogen-induced water-soaking promotes Salmonella enterica growth on tomato leaves.

    PubMed

    Potnis, Neha; Colee, James; Jones, Jeffrey B; Barak, Jeri D

    2015-12-01

    Plant pathogen infection is a critical factor for the persistence of Salmonella enterica on plants. We investigated the mechanisms responsible for the persistence of S. enterica on diseased tomato plants by using four diverse bacterial spot Xanthomonas species that differ in disease severities. Xanthomonas euvesicatoria and X. gardneri infection fostered S. enterica growth, while X. perforans infection did not induce growth but supported the persistence of S. enterica. X. vesicatoria-infected leaves harbored S. enterica populations similar to those on healthy leaves. Growth of S. enterica was associated with extensive water-soaking and necrosis in X. euvesicatoria- and X. gardneri-infected plants. The contribution of water-soaking to the growth of S. enterica was corroborated by an increased growth of populations on water-saturated leaves in the absence of a plant pathogen. S. enterica aggregates were observed with bacterial spot lesions caused by either X. euvesicatoria or X. vesicatoria; however, more S. enterica aggregates formed on X. euvesicatoria-infected leaves as a result of larger lesion sizes per leaf area and extensive water-soaking. Sparsely distributed lesions caused by X. vesicatoria infection do not support the overall growth of S. enterica or aggregates in areas without lesions or water-soaking; S. enterica was observed as single cells and not aggregates. Thus, pathogen-induced water-soaking and necrosis allow S. enterica to replicate and proliferate on tomato leaves. The finding that the pathogen-induced virulence phenotype affects the fate of S. enterica populations in diseased plants suggests that targeting of plant pathogen disease is important in controlling S. enterica populations on plants. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Plant Pathogen-Induced Water-Soaking Promotes Salmonella enterica Growth on Tomato Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Potnis, Neha; Colee, James; Jones, Jeffrey B.

    2015-01-01

    Plant pathogen infection is a critical factor for the persistence of Salmonella enterica on plants. We investigated the mechanisms responsible for the persistence of S. enterica on diseased tomato plants by using four diverse bacterial spot Xanthomonas species that differ in disease severities. Xanthomonas euvesicatoria and X. gardneri infection fostered S. enterica growth, while X. perforans infection did not induce growth but supported the persistence of S. enterica. X. vesicatoria-infected leaves harbored S. enterica populations similar to those on healthy leaves. Growth of S. enterica was associated with extensive water-soaking and necrosis in X. euvesicatoria- and X. gardneri-infected plants. The contribution of water-soaking to the growth of S. enterica was corroborated by an increased growth of populations on water-saturated leaves in the absence of a plant pathogen. S. enterica aggregates were observed with bacterial spot lesions caused by either X. euvesicatoria or X. vesicatoria; however, more S. enterica aggregates formed on X. euvesicatoria-infected leaves as a result of larger lesion sizes per leaf area and extensive water-soaking. Sparsely distributed lesions caused by X. vesicatoria infection do not support the overall growth of S. enterica or aggregates in areas without lesions or water-soaking; S. enterica was observed as single cells and not aggregates. Thus, pathogen-induced water-soaking and necrosis allow S. enterica to replicate and proliferate on tomato leaves. The finding that the pathogen-induced virulence phenotype affects the fate of S. enterica populations in diseased plants suggests that targeting of plant pathogen disease is important in controlling S. enterica populations on plants. PMID:26386057

  7. Development and application of novel SNP-based serotyping assays in targeting Salmonella enterica within the poultry production and processing continuum.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Enteriditis (S. Enteriditis) is the leading cause of salmonellosis worldwide. While some S. enterica serotypes are specific to birds, many represent human zoonotic pathogens, thus their presence and survival throughout the continuum of poultry production...

  8. Rapid molecular pathotyping of major salmonella enterica serotypes based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the adenylate cyclase (cyaA) gene

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Enteriditis (S. Enteriditis) is the leading cause of salmonellosis worldwide, including the USA. Many S. enterica serotypes known to cause foodborne disease are associated with broiler meat contamination. While some serotypes are specific...

  9. Epidemiology of a Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strain Associated with a Songbird Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Sonia M.; Keel, Kevin; Sanchez, Susan; Trees, Eija; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Adams, Jennifer K.; Cheng, Ying; Ray, Al; Martin, Gordon; Presotto, Andrea; Ruder, Mark G.; Brown, Justin; Blehert, David S.; Cottrell, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium is responsible for the majority of salmonellosis cases worldwide. This Salmonella serovar is also responsible for die-offs in songbird populations. In 2009, there was an S. Typhimurium epizootic reported in pine siskins in the eastern United States. At the time, there was also a human outbreak with this serovar that was associated with contaminated peanuts. As peanuts are also used in wild-bird food, it was hypothesized that the pine siskin epizootic was related to this human outbreak. A comparison of songbird and human S. Typhimurium pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns revealed that the epizootic was attributed not to the peanut-associated strain but, rather, to a songbird strain first characterized from an American goldfinch in 1998. This same S. Typhimurium strain (PFGE type A3) was also identified in the PulseNet USA database, accounting for 137 of 77,941 total S. Typhimurium PFGE entries. A second molecular typing method, multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), confirmed that the same strain was responsible for the pine siskin epizootic in the eastern United States but was distinct from a genetically related strain isolated from pine siskins in Minnesota. The pine siskin A3 strain was first encountered in May 2008 in an American goldfinch and later in a northern cardinal at the start of the pine siskin epizootic. MLVA also confirmed the clonal nature of S. Typhimurium in songbirds and established that the pine siskin epizootic strain was unique to the finch family. For 2009, the distribution of PFGE type A3 in passerines and humans mirrored the highest population density of pine siskins for the East Coast. PMID:22885752

  10. Epidemiology of a Salmonella enterica subsp. Enterica serovar Typhimurium strain associated with a songbird outbreak.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blehert, David S.; Hernandez, Sonia M.; Keel, Kevin; Sanchez, Susan; Trees, Eija; ,

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium is responsible for the majority of salmonellosis cases worldwide. This Salmonella serovar is also responsible for die-offs in songbird populations. In 2009, there was an S. Typhimurium epizootic reported in pine siskins in the eastern United States. At the time, there was also a human outbreak with this serovar that was associated with contaminated peanuts. As peanuts are also used in wild-bird food, it was hypothesized that the pine siskin epizootic was related to this human outbreak. A comparison of songbird and human S. Typhimurium pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns revealed that the epizootic was attributed not to the peanut-associated strain but, rather, to a songbird strain first characterized from an American goldfinch in 1998. This same S. Typhimurium strain (PFGE type A3) was also identified in the PulseNet USA database, accounting for 137 of 77,941 total S. Typhimurium PFGE entries. A second molecular typing method, multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), confirmed that the same strain was responsible for the pine siskin epizootic in the eastern United States but was distinct from a genetically related strain isolated from pine siskins in Minnesota. The pine siskin A3 strain was first encountered in May 2008 in an American goldfinch and later in a northern cardinal at the start of the pine siskin epizootic. MLVA also confirmed the clonal nature of S. Typhimurium in songbirds and established that the pine siskin epizootic strain was unique to the finch family. For 2009, the distribution of PFGE type A3 in passerines and humans mirrored the highest population density of pine siskins for the East Coast.

  11. Epidemiology of a Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain associated with a songbird outbreak.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Sonia M; Keel, Kevin; Sanchez, Susan; Trees, Eija; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Adams, Jennifer K; Cheng, Ying; Ray, Al; Martin, Gordon; Presotto, Andrea; Ruder, Mark G; Brown, Justin; Blehert, David S; Cottrell, Walter; Maurer, John J

    2012-10-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium is responsible for the majority of salmonellosis cases worldwide. This Salmonella serovar is also responsible for die-offs in songbird populations. In 2009, there was an S. Typhimurium epizootic reported in pine siskins in the eastern United States. At the time, there was also a human outbreak with this serovar that was associated with contaminated peanuts. As peanuts are also used in wild-bird food, it was hypothesized that the pine siskin epizootic was related to this human outbreak. A comparison of songbird and human S. Typhimurium pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns revealed that the epizootic was attributed not to the peanut-associated strain but, rather, to a songbird strain first characterized from an American goldfinch in 1998. This same S. Typhimurium strain (PFGE type A3) was also identified in the PulseNet USA database, accounting for 137 of 77,941 total S. Typhimurium PFGE entries. A second molecular typing method, multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), confirmed that the same strain was responsible for the pine siskin epizootic in the eastern United States but was distinct from a genetically related strain isolated from pine siskins in Minnesota. The pine siskin A3 strain was first encountered in May 2008 in an American goldfinch and later in a northern cardinal at the start of the pine siskin epizootic. MLVA also confirmed the clonal nature of S. Typhimurium in songbirds and established that the pine siskin epizootic strain was unique to the finch family. For 2009, the distribution of PFGE type A3 in passerines and humans mirrored the highest population density of pine siskins for the East Coast.

  12. Salmonella enterica prevalence and serotype distribution in swine at slaughter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze data available from multiple studies conducted by our research team estimating the prevalence of S. enterica, and the serotype distribution in swine at slaughter, based on different sample types. A total of 1,110 pigs from three large capaci...

  13. Method for the detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    DOEpatents

    Agron, Peter G.; Andersen, Gary L.; Walker, Richard L.

    2008-10-28

    Described herein is the identification of a novel Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis locus that serves as a marker for DNA-based identification of this bacterium. In addition, three primer pairs derived from this locus that may be used in a nucleotide detection method to detect the presence of the bacterium are also disclosed herein.

  14. Foodborne Outbreak and Nonmotile Salmonella enterica Variant, France

    PubMed Central

    Brisabois, Anne; Accou-Demartin, Marie; Josse, Adeline; Marault, Muriel; Francart, Sylvie; Da Silva, Nathalie Jourdan; Weill, François-Xavier

    2012-01-01

    We report a food-related outbreak of salmonellosis in humans caused by a nonmotile variant of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in France in 2009. This nonmotile variant had been circulating in laying hens but was not considered as Typhimurium and consequently escaped European poultry flock regulations. PMID:22257550

  15. Foodborne outbreak and nonmotile Salmonella enterica variant, France.

    PubMed

    Le Hello, Simon; Brisabois, Anne; Accou-Demartin, Marie; Josse, Adeline; Marault, Muriel; Francart, Sylvie; Da Silva, Nathalie Jourdan; Weill, François-Xavier

    2012-01-01

    We report a food-related outbreak of salmonellosis in humans caused by a nonmotile variant of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in France in 2009. This nonmotile variant had been circulating in laying hens but was not considered as Typhimurium and consequently escaped European poultry flock regulations.

  16. Non-typhi Salmonella enterica urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Mellon, G; Delanoe, C; Roux, A L; Heym, B; Dubourg, O; Hardy, P; Chevallier, B; Perronne, C; Rouveix, E; Salomon, J

    2017-10-01

    Non-typhi Salmonella enterica urinary tract infections (UTIs) are not frequent and rarely reported in the literature. We aimed to characterize clinical presentations and risk factors for the infection. We performed a retrospective study of non-typhi Salmonella enterica strains isolated from urine cytobacteriological examinations (UCBE) collected between January 1, 1996 and October 30, 2014 and analyzed by the microbiology laboratories of the university hospitals of the western part of Île-de-France and of Paris, France. Twenty UCBEs positive for non-typhi Salmonella enterica were analyzed. The sex ratio was 0.53 and the average age of patients was 57 years. Clinical presentations were acute pyelonephritis, acute cystitis, and prostatitis. Eight cases of bacteremia were identified. Diarrhea was observed in half of patients, either before the UTI or simultaneously. No patient required to be transferred to the intensive care unit. Immunodeficiency and/or diabetes were observed in eight patients. Three patients presented with a uropathy. Prescribed antibiotics were third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. The average treatment duration was 20 days. A spondylitis and a purulent pleurisy were observed and deemed related to the UTI. Patient outcome was always favorable following treatment prescription. Non-typhi Salmonella enterica UTIs are rare. They are mainly observed in elderly patients presenting with immunodeficiency or an underlying urological disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Bile-induced peptidoglycan remodelling in Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Sara B; Cava, Felipe; Pucciarelli, M Graciela; García-Del Portillo, Francisco; de Pedro, Miguel A; Casadesús, Josep

    2015-04-01

    Changes in the peptidoglycan (PG) structure of Salmonella enterica are detected in the presence of a sublethal concentration of sodium deoxycholate (DOC): (i) lower proportions of Braun lipoprotein (Lpp)-bound muropeptides; (ii) reduced levels of muropeptides cross-linked by L(meso)-diaminopimelyl-D(meso)-diaminopimelic acid (L-D) peptide bridges (3-3 cross-links). Similar structural changes are found in S. enterica cultures adapted to grow in the presence of a lethal concentration of DOC, suggesting that reduced anchoring of Braun protein to PG and low occurrence of 3-3 cross-links may increase S. enterica resistance to bile. This view is further supported by additional observations: (i) A triple mutant lacking L,D-transpeptidases YbiS, ErfK, and YcfS, which does not contain Lpp anchored to PG, is hyper-resistant to bile; (ii) enhanced 3-3 cross-linking upon overexpression of YnhG transpeptidase causes a decrease in bile resistance. These observations suggest that remodelling of the cell wall may be added to the list of adaptive responses that permit survival of S. enterica in the presence of bile.

  18. Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Infantis, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Valinsky, Lea; Weinberger, Miriam; Guy, Sara; Jaffe, Joseph; Schorr, Yosef Ilan; Raisfeld, Abraham; Agmon, Vered; Nissan, Israel

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether rapid emergence of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis in Israel resulted from an increase in different biotypes or spread of 1 clone, we characterized 87 serovar Infantis isolates on the genotypic and phenotypic levels. The emerging strain comprised 1 genetic clone with a distinct pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile and a common antimicrobial drug resistance pattern. PMID:21029536

  19. Requirement of siderophore biosynthesis for plant colonization by Salmonella enterica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Contaminated fresh produce has become the number one vector of non-typhoidal salmonellosis to humans. However, Salmonella enterica genes essential for the life cycle of this organism outside the mammalian host are for the most part unknown. Screening deletion mutants led to the discovery that an aro...

  20. Effect of residual sanitizers on Salmonella enterica biofilm formation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Salmonella enterica are a diverse group of bacteria that represent a serious risk to public health. Bacterial attachment on food and contact surfaces can lead to biofilm formation, and once in this state, bacteria are more resistant to sanitization and may serve as a continuous contam...

  1. Salmonella enterica Strains with Reduced Susceptibility to Quarternary Ammonium Compounds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Salmonella spp. are responsible for 76 million illnesses per year in the U.S. Quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) are commonly used antimicrobial agents. Reduced susceptibility to these compounds by a broad spectrum of organisms is a concern. Methods: Salmonella enterica strains with r...

  2. Association of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis YafD with Resistance to Chicken Egg Albumen

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Sangwei; Killoran, Patrick B.; Riley, Lee W.

    2003-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is a major cause of food-borne diseases in industrialized countries. The incidence of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis infections has increased substantially in recent decades, and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis is now one of the leading serovars of Salmonella in the United States. A unique epidemiological characteristic of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis is its association with chicken shell eggs, since approximately 80% of all human gastrointestinal diseases can be traced to contaminated egg products. Eggs are contaminated when bacteria from reproductive tissues of infected hens are packaged into the eggs and persist inside the hostile egg albumen environment. Therefore, resistance to egg albumen is an important aspect in the transmission of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. We identified a gene, yafD from S. enterica serovar Enteritidis, whose overexpression conferred upon S. enterica serovar Typhimurium enhanced resistance to egg albumen, while disruption of this gene in S. enterica serovar Enteritidis rendered the organism more susceptible to egg albumen. YafD is homologous to members of an exonuclease-endonuclease-phosphatase family, including some enzymes involved in DNA repair. Furthermore, we discovered that egg albumen has nuclease activities and uses both circular and linear DNA as substrates. We propose that YafD provides a survival advantage to S. enterica serovar Enteritidis in eggs by repairing DNA damage caused by egg albumen and that it may be one of the biologic determinants that contribute to the epidemiological association of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis with egg products. PMID:14638758

  3. Association of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis yafD with resistance to chicken egg albumen.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sangwei; Killoran, Patrick B; Riley, Lee W

    2003-12-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is a major cause of food-borne diseases in industrialized countries. The incidence of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis infections has increased substantially in recent decades, and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis is now one of the leading serovars of Salmonella in the United States. A unique epidemiological characteristic of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis is its association with chicken shell eggs, since approximately 80% of all human gastrointestinal diseases can be traced to contaminated egg products. Eggs are contaminated when bacteria from reproductive tissues of infected hens are packaged into the eggs and persist inside the hostile egg albumen environment. Therefore, resistance to egg albumen is an important aspect in the transmission of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. We identified a gene, yafD from S. enterica serovar Enteritidis, whose overexpression conferred upon S. enterica serovar Typhimurium enhanced resistance to egg albumen, while disruption of this gene in S. enterica serovar Enteritidis rendered the organism more susceptible to egg albumen. YafD is homologous to members of an exonuclease-endonuclease-phosphatase family, including some enzymes involved in DNA repair. Furthermore, we discovered that egg albumen has nuclease activities and uses both circular and linear DNA as substrates. We propose that YafD provides a survival advantage to S. enterica serovar Enteritidis in eggs by repairing DNA damage caused by egg albumen and that it may be one of the biologic determinants that contribute to the epidemiological association of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis with egg products.

  4. Multilocus Sequence Typing as a Replacement for Serotyping in Salmonella enterica

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhemin; Sangal, Vartul; Krauland, Mary G.; Hale, James L.; Harbottle, Heather; Uesbeck, Alexandra; Dougan, Gordon; Harrison, Lee H.; Brisse, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica is traditionally subdivided into serovars by serological and nutritional characteristics. We used Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) to assign 4,257 isolates from 554 serovars to 1092 sequence types (STs). The majority of the isolates and many STs were grouped into 138 genetically closely related clusters called eBurstGroups (eBGs). Many eBGs correspond to a serovar, for example most Typhimurium are in eBG1 and most Enteritidis are in eBG4, but many eBGs contained more than one serovar. Furthermore, most serovars were polyphyletic and are distributed across multiple unrelated eBGs. Thus, serovar designations confounded genetically unrelated isolates and failed to recognize natural evolutionary groupings. An inability of serotyping to correctly group isolates was most apparent for Paratyphi B and its variant Java. Most Paratyphi B were included within a sub-cluster of STs belonging to eBG5, which also encompasses a separate sub-cluster of Java STs. However, diphasic Java variants were also found in two other eBGs and monophasic Java variants were in four other eBGs or STs, one of which is in subspecies salamae and a second of which includes isolates assigned to Enteritidis, Dublin and monophasic Paratyphi B. Similarly, Choleraesuis was found in eBG6 and is closely related to Paratyphi C, which is in eBG20. However, Choleraesuis var. Decatur consists of isolates from seven other, unrelated eBGs or STs. The serological assignment of these Decatur isolates to Choleraesuis likely reflects lateral gene transfer of flagellar genes between unrelated bacteria plus purifying selection. By confounding multiple evolutionary groups, serotyping can be misleading about the disease potential of S. enterica. Unlike serotyping, MLST recognizes evolutionary groupings and we recommend that Salmonella classification by serotyping should be replaced by MLST or its equivalents. PMID:22737074

  5. Sequence variation of the 16S to 23S rRNA spacer region in Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Christensen, H; Møller, P L; Vogensen, F K; Olsen, J E

    2000-01-01

    The possibility for identification of Salmonella enterica serotypes by sequence analysis of the 16S to 23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer was investigated by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNA from all operons simultaneously in a collection of 25 strains of 18 different serotypes of S. enterica, and by sequencing individual cloned operons from a single strain. It was only possible to determine the first 117 bases upstream from the 23S rRNA gene by direct sequencing because of variation between the rrn operons. Comparison of sequences from this region allowed separation of only 15 out of the 18 serotypes investigated and was not specific even at the subspecies level of S. enterica. To determine the differences between internal transcribed spacers in more detail, the individual rrn operons of strain JEO 197, serotype IV 43:z4,z23:-, were cloned and sequenced. The strain contained four short internal transcribed spacer fragments of 382-384 bases in length, which were 98.4-99.7% similar to each other and three long fragments of 505 bases with 98.0-99.8% similarity. The study demonstrated a higher degree of interbacterial variation than intrabacterial variation between operons for serotypes of S. enterica.

  6. Complete Genome and Plasmid Sequences of Three Canadian Strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Enteritidis Belonging to Phage Types 8, 13, and 13a

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Muhammad Attiq; Labbé, Geneviève; Ziebell, Kim; Nash, John H. E.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis is a prominent cause of human salmonellosis frequently linked to poultry products. In Canada, S. Enteritidis phage types 8, 13, and 13a predominate among both clinical and poultry isolates. Here, we report the complete genome and plasmid sequences of poultry isolates of these three phage types. PMID:26404595

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Manhattan Strain 111113, from an Outbreak of Human Infections in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Sassera, Davide; Gaiarsa, Stefano; Scaltriti, Erika; Morganti, Marina; Bandi, Claudio; Casadei, Gabriele; Pongolini, Stefano

    2013-08-15

    We announce the draft genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Manhattan strain 111113, isolated from a patient during an outbreak in northern Italy. The genome, which was obtained with Illumina MiSeq technology, is composed of 21 contigs for a total of 4,684,342 bp, with a G+C content of 52.17%.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence and Annotation of Phyllosphere-Persisting Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Livingstone Strain CKY-S4, Isolated from an Urban Lake in Regina, Canada.

    PubMed

    Tambalo, Dinah D; Perry, Benjamin J; Fitzgerald, Stephen F; Cameron, Andrew D S; Yost, Christopher K

    2015-08-13

    Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Livingstone. This S. Livingstone strain CKY-S4 displayed biofilm formation and cellulose production and could persist on lettuce. This genome may help the study of mechanisms by which enteric pathogens colonize food crops.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhi Isolate B/SF/13/03/195 Associated with a Typhoid Carrier in Pasir Mas, Kelantan, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Muhamad Harish, Salwani; Sim, Kee-Shin; Mohd Nor, Fauziah; Mat Hussin, Hani; Hamzah, Wan Mansor; Najimudin, Nazalan; Aziah, Ismail

    2015-11-12

    We report here the complete genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi B/SF/13/03/195 obtained from a typhoid carrier, who is a food handler in Pasir Mas, Kelantan. Copyright © 2015 Muhamad Harish et al.

  10. Complete closed genome sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes Anatum, Montevideo, Typhimurium and Newport, isolated from beef, cattle, and humans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica are a versatile group of bacteria with a wide range in virulence potential. To facilitate genome comparisons across this virulence spectrum, we present eight complete closed genome sequences of four S. enterica serotypes (Anatum, Montevideo, Typhimurium, and Newport) isolated fro...

  11. Genome Sequences of Three Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Infantis Strains from Healthy Broiler Chicks in Hungary and in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Olasz, Ferenc; Nagy, Tibor; Szabó, Móni; Kiss, János; Szmolka, Ama; Barta, Endre; van Tonder, Andries; Thomson, Nicholas; Barrow, Paul; Nagy, Béla

    2015-02-12

    The genome sequences of three strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis isolated from broiler chickens in 1994 and 2004 in Hungary and in the 1980s in the United Kingdom are reported here. A sequence comparison should improve our understanding of the evolution of the genome and spread of S. Infantis in poultry.

  12. Complete and closed genome sequences of 10 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Anatum isolated from human and bovine sources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica is an important pathogen transmitted by numerous vectors. Genomic comparisons of Salmonella from disparate hosts have the potential to further our understanding of mechanisms underlying host specificities and virulence. Here, we present closed genome and plasmid sequences of 10...

  13. Genome Sequences of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Infantis Strains from Broiler Chicks in Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, Tímea; Szabó, Móni; Szmolka, Ama; Kiss, János; Barta, Endre; Nagy, Tibor

    2016-01-01

    Three strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis isolated from healthy broiler chickens from 2012 to 2013 have been sequenced. Comparison of these and previously published S. Infantis genome sequences of broiler origin in 1996 and 2004 will provide new insight into the genome evolution and recent spread of S. Infantis in poultry. PMID:27979950

  14. The Type III Secretion System Effector SeoC of Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae and S. enterica subsp. arizonae ADP-Ribosylates Src and Inhibits Opsonophagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Dominic J; Young, Joanna C; Covarelli, Valentina; Herrera-León, Silvia; Connor, Thomas R; Fookes, Maria; Walker, Danielle; Echeita, Aurora; Thomson, Nicholas R; Berger, Cedric N; Frankel, Gad

    2016-12-01

    Salmonella species utilize type III secretion systems (T3SSs) to translocate effectors into the cytosol of mammalian host cells, subverting cell signaling and facilitating the onset of gastroenteritis. In this study, we compared a draft genome assembly of Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae strain 3588/07 against the genomes of S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain LT2 and Salmonella bongori strain 12419. S. enterica subsp. salamae encodes the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), SPI-2, and the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) T3SSs. Though several key S Typhimurium effector genes are missing (e.g., avrA, sopB, and sseL), S. enterica subsp. salamae invades HeLa cells and contains homologues of S. bongori sboK and sboC, which we named seoC SboC and SeoC are homologues of EspJ from enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC, respectively), which inhibit Src kinase-dependent phagocytosis by ADP-ribosylation. By screening 73 clinical and environmental Salmonella isolates, we identified EspJ homologues in S. bongori, S. enterica subsp. salamae, and Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae The β-lactamase TEM-1 reporter system showed that SeoC is translocated by the SPI-1 T3SS. All the Salmonella SeoC/SboC homologues ADP-ribosylate Src E310 in vitro Ectopic expression of SeoC/SboC inhibited phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized beads into Cos-7 cells stably expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-FcγRIIa. Concurrently, S. enterica subsp. salamae infection of J774.A1 macrophages inhibited phagocytosis of beads, in a seoC-dependent manner. These results show that S. bongori, S. enterica subsp. salamae, and S. enterica subsp. arizonae share features of the infection strategy of extracellular pathogens EPEC and EHEC and shed light on the complexities of the T3SS effector repertoires of Enterobacteriaceae.

  15. Relationships between multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Schwarzengrund and both broiler chickens and retail chicken meats in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asai, Tetsuo; Murakami, Koichi; Ozawa, Manao; Koike, Ryoji; Ishikawa, Hitoshi

    2009-05-01

    We examined 29 isolates of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Schwarzengrund from broiler chickens (n=19) and retail chicken meats (n=10) in Japan for antimicrobial susceptibility and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiling. All isolates exhibited resistance to both bicozamycin and sulfadimethoxine (minimum inhibitory concentration of both antimicrobial agents: >512 microg/ml). Nalidixic acid resistance was found in only one broiler chicken isolate. PFGE analysis showed that there were two genotypes among S. Schwarzengrund isolates. Isolates from 11 of 19 broiler chickens and from 6 of 10 retail chicken meats exhibited resistance to dihydrostreptomycin, kanamycin, oxytetracycline, bicozamycin, trimethoprim, and sulfadimethoxine, and had an identical PFGE pattern classified into a predominant genotype. Thus, our results indicate that genetically identical multidrug-resistant S. Schwarzengrund appeared to be disseminated among broiler chickens and retail chicken meats in Japan.

  16. Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis, England and Wales, 1945–2011

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Christopher R.; LeBaigue, Susan; Esan, Oluwaseun B.; Awofisyo, Adedoyin A.; Adams, Natalie L.; Fisher, Ian S.T.; Grant, Kathie A.; Peters, Tansy M.; Larkin, Lesley; Davies, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    In England and Wales, the emergence of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis resulted in the largest and most persistent epidemic of foodborne infection attributable to a single subtype of any pathogen since systematic national microbiological surveillance was established. We reviewed 67 years of surveillance data to examine the features, underlying causes, and overall effects of S. enterica ser. Enteritidis. The epidemic was associated with the consumption of contaminated chicken meat and eggs, and a decline in the number of infections began after the adoption of vaccination and other measures in production and distribution of chicken meat and eggs. We estimate that >525,000 persons became ill during the course of the epidemic, which caused a total of 6,750,000 days of illness, 27,000 hospitalizations, and 2,000 deaths. Measures undertaken to control the epidemic have resulted in a major reduction in foodborne disease in England and Wales. PMID:24960614

  17. Salmonella enterica Serotype Arizonae Meningitis in a Neonate.

    PubMed

    Lakew, Wubishet; Girma, Abayneh; Triche, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Typhoidal and nontyphoidal salmonella infections are common causes of gastroenteritis in the community. However, salmonella only rarely causes invasive infections like meningitis. We report a 13-day-old female neonate with signs and symptoms of meningitis whose cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture showed Salmonella enterica serotype Arizonae that was sensitive to ceftriaxone. She presented with fever and failure to feed for 2 days. Despite prompt treatment with ampicillin, gentamicin, and ceftriaxone, she developed communicating hydrocephalus, frequent seizures, and coma that progressed to death after 2 weeks of hospitalization. Salmonella enterica serotype Arizonae is a rare cause of human infection known to leading to meningitis symptoms similar to those caused by other salmonella species. This is the first report of it as a cause of meningitis in a child under one month of age. Therefore, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of Gram-negative bacillary meningitis in immunocompromised children, neonates, and those with contacts with reptiles.

  18. Quantitative Oligonucleotide Microarray Fingerprinting of Salmonella enterica isolates

    SciTech Connect

    Willse, Alan R.; Straub, Tim M.; Wunschel, Sharon C.; Small, Jack A.; Call, Douglas R.; Daly, Don S.; Chandler, Darrell P.

    2004-03-22

    We report on a genome-independent microbial fingerprinting method using nucleic acid microarrays for microbial forensics and epidemiology applications. We demonstrate that the microarray method provides high-resolution differentiation between closely related microorganisms using Salmonella enterica strains. In replicate trials we used a simple 192-probe nonamer array to construct a fingerprint library of 25 closely related Salmonella isolates. Controlling false discovery rate for multiple testing at alpha =.05, at least 295 of 300 pairs of S. enterica isolate fingerprints were found to be statistically distinct using a modified Hotelling Tsquared test. Although we find most pairs of Salmonella fingerprints to be distinct, forensic applications will also require a protocol for library construction and reliable microbial classification against a fingerprint library. We outline additional steps required to produce a protocol for library construction and reliable classification of unknown organisms.

  19. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, England and Wales, 1945-2011.

    PubMed

    Lane, Christopher R; LeBaigue, Susan; Esan, Oluwaseun B; Awofisyo, Adedoyin A; Adams, Natalie L; Fisher, Ian S T; Grant, Kathie A; Peters, Tansy M; Larkin, Lesley; Davies, Robert H; Adak, Goutam K

    2014-07-01

    In England and Wales, the emergence of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis resulted in the largest and most persistent epidemic of foodborne infection attributable to a single subtype of any pathogen since systematic national microbiological surveillance was established. We reviewed 67 years of surveillance data to examine the features, underlying causes, and overall effects of S. enterica ser. Enteritidis. The epidemic was associated with the consumption of contaminated chicken meat and eggs, and a decline in the number of infections began after the adoption of vaccination and other measures in production and distribution of chicken meat and eggs. We estimate that >525,000 persons became ill during the course of the epidemic, which caused a total of 6,750,000 days of illness, 27,000 hospitalizations, and 2,000 deaths. Measures undertaken to control the epidemic have resulted in a major reduction in foodborne disease in England and Wales.

  20. Genome-Wide Methylation Patterns in Salmonella enterica Subsp. enterica Serovars

    PubMed Central

    Pirone-Davies, Cary; Hoffmann, Maria; Roberts, Richard J.; Muruvanda, Tim; Timme, Ruth E.; Strain, Errol; Luo, Yan; Payne, Justin; Luong, Khai; Song, Yi; Tsai, Yu-Chih; Boitano, Matthew; Clark, Tyson A.; Korlach, Jonas; Evans, Peter S.; Allard, Marc W.

    2015-01-01

    The methylation of DNA bases plays an important role in numerous biological processes including development, gene expression, and DNA replication. Salmonella is an important foodborne pathogen, and methylation in Salmonella is implicated in virulence. Using single molecule real-time (SMRT) DNA-sequencing, we sequenced and assembled the complete genomes of eleven Salmonella enterica isolates from nine different serovars, and analysed the whole-genome methylation patterns of each genome. We describe 16 distinct N6-methyladenine (m6A) methylated motifs, one N4-methylcytosine (m4C) motif, and one combined m6A-m4C motif. Eight of these motifs are novel, i.e., they have not been previously described. We also identified the methyltransferases (MTases) associated with 13 of the motifs. Some motifs are conserved across all Salmonella serovars tested, while others were found only in a subset of serovars. Eight of the nine serovars contained a unique methylated motif that was not found in any other serovar (most of these motifs were part of Type I restriction modification systems), indicating the high diversity of methylation patterns present in Salmonella. PMID:25860355

  1. Transcriptional profile of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Weltevreden during alfalfa sprout colonization

    PubMed Central

    Brankatschk, Kerstin; Kamber, Tim; Pothier, Joël F; Duffy, Brion; Smits, Theo H M

    2014-01-01

    Sprouted seeds represent a great risk for infection by human enteric pathogens because of favourable growth conditions for pathogens during their germination. The aim of this study was to identify mechanisms of interactions of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Weltevreden with alfalfa sprouts. RNA-seq analysis of S. Weltevreden grown with sprouts in comparison with M9-glucose medium showed that among a total of 4158 annotated coding sequences, 177 genes (4.3%) and 345 genes (8.3%) were transcribed at higher levels with sprouts and in minimal medium respectively. Genes that were higher transcribed with sprouts are coding for proteins involved in mechanisms known to be important for attachment, motility and biofilm formation. Besides gene expression required for phenotypic adaption, genes involved in sulphate acquisition were higher transcribed, suggesting that the surface on alfalfa sprouts may be poor in sulphate. Genes encoding structural and effector proteins of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2, involved in survival within macrophages during infection of animal tissue, were higher transcribed with sprouts possibly as a response to environmental conditions. This study provides insight on additional mechanisms that may be important for pathogen interactions with sprouts. PMID:24308841

  2. Impact of pulsed light on cellular activity of Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Kramer, B; Wunderlich, J; Muranyi, P

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was a comprehensive characterization of physiological changes of Salmonella enterica induced by intense broad spectrum pulsed light (PL). After exposing the bacteria to this nonthermal decontamination technology on a gel surface, multiple viability parameters beyond culturability were assessed. By applying flow cytometry, a luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay and a microplate assay to measure the current redox activity, the impact of pulsed light on the membrane potential, membrane integrity, esterase activity, efflux pump activity, expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP), respiration activity and ATP-content of Salm. enterica ATCC BAA-1045 was determined. These culture-independent methods for assessing the bacterial activity were compared to the ability to grow on tryptic soy agar. It is shown that this strain is rather sensitive to PL considering colony count reductions, while on the other hand unculturable bacteria still exhibit significant cellular energetic functions. However, this residual activity after PL exposure significantly decreases during sample storage in buffer for 24 h. This study also shows that the GFP expression of PL-treated cells which have rendered unculturable is severely reduced. This study reveals that although not all cellular functions of Salm. enterica are immediately shut down after PL exposure, the synthesis of new GFP is strongly reduced and affected to a similar extent as the culturability. It is shown for the first time, that even there is significant bacterial activity measurable after PL exposure, it is likely that nongrowing pathogenic bacteria like Salm. enterica are unable to express proteins, which is of great importance regarding their pathogenicity. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Mobilome differences between Salmonella enterica serovars Anatum and Typhimurium isolated from cattle and humans and potential impact on virulence

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica is an important group of pathogens capable of inhabiting a range of niches and hosts with varying degrees of impact, from commensal colonization to invasive infection. Recent outbreaks of multi-drug resistant S. enterica, attributed to consumption of contaminated ...

  4. Development of a rapid serotyping method for Salmonella enterica using serotype-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Enteriditis (S. Enteriditis) is the leading cause of salmonellosis worldwide, including the USA. Many S. enterica serotypes known to cause foodborne disease are associated with broiler meat contamination. While some serotypes are specific to birds (S. e...

  5. TolA mediates the differential detergent resistance pattern between the Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars Typhi and Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Amit; Ananthalakshmi, T K; Nagarajan, Arvindhan G; Ray, Seemun; Chakravortty, Dipshikha

    2011-05-01

    The tol-pal genes are essential for maintaining the outer membrane integrity and detergent resistance in various Gram-negative bacteria, including Salmonella. The role of TolA has been well established for the bile resistance of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. We compared the bile resistance pattern between the S. enterica serovars Typhi and Typhimurium and observed that Typhi is more resistant to bile-mediated damage. A closer look revealed a significant difference in the TolA sequence between the two serovars which contributes to the differential detergent resistance. The tolA knockout of both the serovars behaves completely differently in terms of membrane organization and morphology. The role of the Pal proteins and difference in LPS organization between the two serovars were verified and were found to have no direct connection with the altered bile resistance. In normal Luria broth (LB), S. Typhi ΔtolA is filamentous while S. Typhimurium ΔtolA grows as single cells, similar to the wild-type. In low osmolarity LB, however, S. Typhimurium ΔtolA started chaining and S. Typhi ΔtolA showed no growth. Further investigation revealed that the chaining phenomenon observed was the result of failure of the outer membrane to separate in the dividing cells. Taken together, the results substantiate the evolution of a shorter TolA in S. Typhi to counteract high bile concentrations, at the cost of lower osmotic tolerance.

  6. Improvements to a PCR-based serogrouping scheme for Salmonella enterica from dairy farm samples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The PCR method described by Herrera-León, et al. (Research in Microbiology 158:122-127, 2007) has proved to be a simple and useful technique for characterizing isolates of Salmonella enterica enterica belonging to serogroups B, C1, C2, D1, and E1, groups which encompass a majority of the isolates fr...

  7. [Fluorescent and Magnetic Relaxation Switch Immunosensor for the Detecting Foodborne Pathogen Salmonella enterica in Water Samples].

    PubMed

    Wang, Song-bai; Zhang, Yan; An, Wen-ting; Wei, Yan-li; Wang, Yu; Shuang, Shao-min

    2015-11-01

    Fluoroimmunoassay based on quantum dots (QDs) and magnetic relaxation switch (MRS) immunoassay based on superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SMN) were constructed to detect Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) in water samples. In fluoroimmunoassay, magnetic beads was conjugated with S. enterica capture antibody (MB-Ab2) to enrich S. enterica from sample solution, then the QDs was conjugated with the S. enterica detection antibody (QDs-Ab1) to detect S. enterica based on sandwich immunoassay format. And the fluorescence intensity is positive related to the bacteria concentration of the sample. Results showed that the limit of detection (LOD) of this method was 102 cfu · mL⁻¹ and analysis time was 2 h. In MRS assay, magnetic nanoparticle-antibody conjugate (MN-Ab1) can switch their dispersed and aggregated state in the presence of the target. This state of change can modulate the spin-spin relaxation time (T₂) of the neighboring water molecule. The change in T₂(ΔT₂) positively correlates with the amount of the target in the sample. Thus, AT can be used as a detection signal in MRS immunosensors. Results showed that LOD of MRS sensor for S. enterica was 10³ cfu · mL⁻¹ and analysis time was 0.5 h. Two methods were compared in terms of advantages and disadvantages in detecting S. enterica.

  8. Antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica in the beef production and processing chain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Concerns have been raised that extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (CefR EC), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant E. coli (TxsR EC), extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Salmonella enterica (CefR SE), and nalidixic acid-resistant S. enterica (NalR SE) in c...

  9. Genome sequences of ten Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from a single dairy farm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Here we report draft genomes of twenty-seven isolates of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica representing the seven serotypes isolated from cows in a Pennsylvania dairy herd, the farm on which they were reared, and the associated off-site heifer-raising facility over an eight year sampling period. ...

  10. Studies on Biofilm Formation and Interactions of Salmonella enterica with Romaine-Lettuce Leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The association between biofilm formation and the interactions of Salmonella enterica serovars with cut-Romaine-lettuce leaves was investigated. Biofilm formation by 8 S. enterica serovars was tested on polystyrene microtiter plates in the presence of different growth media. Maximal biofilm mass was...

  11. Genome-scale screening and validation of targets for identification of Salmonella enterica and serovar prediction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica is the most common foodborne pathogen worldwide, with a great diversity of 2500 recognized serovars. Detection of S. enterica and its classification into serovars are essential for food safety surveillance and clinical diagnosis. Recently, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) meth...

  12. ESBL-producing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in traveler returning from Guatemala to Spain.

    PubMed

    González-López, Juan José; Piedra-Carrasco, Nuria; Salvador, Fernando; Rodríguez, Virginia; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Planes, Anna M; Molina, Israel; Larrosa, M Nieves

    2014-11-01

    We report a case of typhoid fever in a traveler returning to Spain from Guatemala that was caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi which produced an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). This finding demonstrates the presence of ESBL-producing S. enterica ser. Typhi strains in the Americas. Enhanced surveillance is necessary to prevent further spread.

  13. ESBL-Producing Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi in Traveler Returning from Guatemala to Spain

    PubMed Central

    Piedra-Carrasco, Nuria; Salvador, Fernando; Rodríguez, Virginia; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Planes, Anna M.; Molina, Israel; Larrosa, M. Nieves

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of typhoid fever in a traveler returning to Spain from Guatemala that was caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi which produced an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). This finding demonstrates the presence of ESBL-producing S. enterica ser. Typhi strains in the Americas. Enhanced surveillance is necessary to prevent further spread. PMID:25340972

  14. High-Quality Draft Whole-Genome Sequences of 162 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Enteritidis Strains Isolated from Diverse Sources in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Muhammad A.; Ziebell, Kim; Nash, John H. E.; Kropinski, Andrew M.; Zong, Zusheng; Nafziger, Emily; Boerlin, Patrick; Chui, Linda; Devenish, John; Bekal, Sadjia; Graham, Morag

    2014-01-01

    We report the high-quality draft genome sequences of 162 strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis representing diverse phage types and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles. The analysis of these genomes will enable the identification of markers that are useful for differentiating strains of this highly clonal serovar and will provide insights into the evolution, virulence, and epidemiology of the strains. PMID:24786953

  15. Salmonella enterica Typhimurium fljBA operon stability: implications regarding the origin of Salmonella enterica I 4,[5],12:i:.

    PubMed

    Tomiyama, M P O; Werle, C H; Milanez, G P; Nóbrega, D B; Pereira, J P; Calarga, A P; Flores, F; Brocchi, M

    2015-12-29

    Salmonella enterica subsp enterica serovar 4,5,12:i:- has been responsible for many recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Several studies indicate that this serovar originated from S. enterica subsp enterica serovar Typhimurium, by the loss of the flagellar phase II gene (fljB) and adjacent sequences. However, at least two different clones of S. enterica 4,5,12:i:- exist that differs in the molecular events responsible for fljB deletion. The aim of this study was to test the stability of the fljBA operon responsible for the flagellar phase variation under different growth conditions in order to verify if its deletion is a frequent event that could explain the origin and dissemination of this serovar. In fact, coding sequences for transposons are present near this operon and in some strains, such as S. enterica Typhimurium LT2, the Fels-2 prophage gene is inserted near this operon. The presence of mobile DNA could confer instability to this region. In order to examine this, the cat (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) gene was inserted adjacent to the fljBA operon so that deletions involving this genomic region could be identified. After growing S. enterica chloramphenicol-resistant strains under different conditions, more than 104 colonies were tested for the loss of chloramphenicol resistance. However, none of the colonies were sensitive to chloramphenicol. These data suggest that the origin of S. enterica serovar 4,5,12:i:- from Typhimurium by fljBA deletion is not a frequent event. The origin and dissemination of 4,5,12:i:- raise several questions about the role of flagellar phase variation in virulence.

  16. Fitness of Salmonella enterica serovar Thompson in the cilantro phyllosphere.

    PubMed

    Brandl, Maria T; Mandrell, Robert E

    2002-07-01

    The epiphytic fitness of Salmonella enterica was assessed on cilantro plants by using a strain of S. enterica serovar Thompson that was linked to an outbreak resulting from cilantro. Salmonella serovar Thompson had the ability to colonize the surface of cilantro leaves, where it was detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) at high densities on the veins and in natural lesions. The population sizes of two common colonizers of plant surfaces, Pantoea agglomerans and Pseudomonas chlororaphis, were 10-fold higher than that of the human pathogen on cilantro incubated at 22 degrees C. However, Salmonella serovar Thompson achieved significantly higher population levels and accounted for a higher proportion of the total culturable bacterial flora on cilantro leaves when the plants were incubated at warm temperatures, such as 30 degrees C, after inoculation, indicating that the higher growth rates exhibited by Salmonella serovar Thompson at warm temperatures may increase the competitiveness of this organism in the phyllosphere. The tolerance of Salmonella serovar Thompson to dry conditions on plants at 60% relative humidity was at least equal to that of P. agglomerans and P. chlororaphis. Moreover, after exposure to low humidity on cilantro, Salmonella serovar Thompson recovered under high humidity to achieve its maximum population size in the cilantro phyllosphere. Visualization by CLSM of green fluorescent protein-tagged Salmonella serovar Thompson and dsRed-tagged P. agglomerans inoculated onto cilantro revealed that the human pathogen and the bacterial epiphyte formed large heterogeneous aggregates on the leaf surface. Our studies support the hypothesis that preharvest contamination of crops by S. enterica plays a role in outbreaks linked to fresh fruits and vegetables.

  17. Herd-level risk factors for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica in U.S. market pigs.

    PubMed

    Bahnson, P B; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Ladely, S R; Mateus-Pinilla, N E

    2006-10-17

    Midwest U.S. herds (n=63) were studied to identify risk factors for harboring Salmonella enterica among slaughter-weight pigs. Samples collected on farms (feces) and at slaughter (distal colonic content, cecal content and ileocolic lymph nodes) were cultured using conventional means. Approximately 15 pigs were studied per herd, for a total of 3754 samples. The proportion of pigs positive in one or more samples was calculated for each herd. Herd characteristics were described by a combination of interview and written survey. Logistic regression was used to detect relationships between the detection of Salmonella and potential herd-level risk factors. The mean individual pig prevalence was 5% for feces, 4% for distal colonic content, 15% for ileocolic lymph nodes, and 17% for cecal contents. One or more Salmonella isolates were detected in at least one sample type in every herd. The five most common serovars were S. Agona, S. Derby, S. Schwarzengrund, S. Typhimurium and S. Senftenberg, with 25 additional serovars detected. Salmonella prevalence estimates were positively correlated among all samples except distal colonic content and ileocolic lymph nodes. Pigs with culture positive fecal samples were at increased odds of being detected positive for each of the slaughter-collected samples examined, namely distal colonic content (OR=30.5), ileocolic lymph nodes (OR=12.9) and cecal content (OR=23.2). Herds with positive fecal sample(s) had increased odds of having positive cecal content (OR>1.5), distal colonic content (OR=15.3) and ileocolic lymph nodes (OR=12.7). Pigs from herds with at least some bowl drinkers had eight-fold higher odds of testing Salmonella positive than did pigs from herds with only nipple drinkers. Pigs from herds with only dry feeders had five-fold higher odds of testing Salmonella positive when compared with pigs from herds with combinations of wet/dry style feeders. Interventions at these two points should be considered when designing growing

  18. Food poisoning due to Salmonella enterica serotype weltevreden in Mangalore.

    PubMed

    Antony, B; Dias, M; Shetty, A K; Rekha, B

    2009-01-01

    An outbreak of food poisoning due to Salmonella enterica serotype Weltevreden ( S.weltevreden ) involving 34 students has been reported from a tertiary care hospital in Mangalore. The symptoms developed 8-10 hours, after consuming a non- vegetarian dish, probably fish, from an outside caterer. The identity of the organism was confirmed at Central Research Institute, Kasauli. This report emphasizes the geographical distribution of this organism in the Coastal Karnataka region. S.Weltevreden may be overlooked due to the biochemical similarity to S. Paratyphi B & S. Typhimurium.

  19. Novel small RNA (sRNA) landscape of the starvation-stress response transcriptome of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Shivam V.; Roberts, Justin T.; Patterson, Dillon G.; Coley, Alexander B.; Allred, Jonathan A.; Denner, Jason M.; Johnson, Justin P.; Mullen, Genevieve E.; O'Neal, Trenton K.; Smith, Jason T.; Cardin, Sara E.; Carr, Hank T.; Carr, Stacie L.; Cowart, Holly E.; DaCosta, David H.; Herring, Brendon R.; King, Valeria M.; Polska, Caroline J.; Ward, Erin E.; Wise, Alice A.; McAllister, Kathleen N.; Chevalier, David; Spector, Michael P.; Borchert, Glen M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Small RNAs (sRNAs) are short (∼50–200 nucleotides) noncoding RNAs that regulate cellular activities across bacteria. Salmonella enterica starved of a carbon-energy (C) source experience a host of genetic and physiological changes broadly referred to as the starvation-stress response (SSR). In an attempt to identify novel sRNAs contributing to SSR control, we grew log-phase, 5-h C-starved and 24-h C-starved cultures of the virulent Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium strain SL1344 and comprehensively sequenced their small RNA transcriptomes. Strikingly, after employing a novel strategy for sRNA discovery based on identifying dynamic transcripts arising from “gene-empty” regions, we identify 58 wholly undescribed Salmonella sRNA genes potentially regulating SSR averaging an ∼1,000-fold change in expression between log-phase and C-starved cells. Importantly, the expressions of individual sRNA loci were confirmed by both comprehensive transcriptome analyses and northern blotting of select candidates. Of note, we find 43 candidate sRNAs share significant sequence identity to characterized sRNAs in other bacteria, and ∼70% of our sRNAs likely assume characteristic sRNA structural conformations. In addition, we find 53 of our 58 candidate sRNAs either overlap neighboring mRNA loci or share significant sequence complementarity to mRNAs transcribed elsewhere in the SL1344 genome strongly suggesting they regulate the expression of transcripts via antisense base-pairing. Finally, in addition to this work resulting in the identification of 58 entirely novel Salmonella enterica genes likely participating in the SSR, we also find evidence suggesting that sRNAs are significantly more prevalent than currently appreciated and that Salmonella sRNAs may actually number in the thousands. PMID:26853797

  20. Novel small RNA (sRNA) landscape of the starvation-stress response transcriptome of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Amin, Shivam V; Roberts, Justin T; Patterson, Dillon G; Coley, Alexander B; Allred, Jonathan A; Denner, Jason M; Johnson, Justin P; Mullen, Genevieve E; O'Neal, Trenton K; Smith, Jason T; Cardin, Sara E; Carr, Hank T; Carr, Stacie L; Cowart, Holly E; DaCosta, David H; Herring, Brendon R; King, Valeria M; Polska, Caroline J; Ward, Erin E; Wise, Alice A; McAllister, Kathleen N; Chevalier, David; Spector, Michael P; Borchert, Glen M

    2016-01-01

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) are short (∼50-200 nucleotides) noncoding RNAs that regulate cellular activities across bacteria. Salmonella enterica starved of a carbon-energy (C) source experience a host of genetic and physiological changes broadly referred to as the starvation-stress response (SSR). In an attempt to identify novel sRNAs contributing to SSR control, we grew log-phase, 5-h C-starved and 24-h C-starved cultures of the virulent Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium strain SL1344 and comprehensively sequenced their small RNA transcriptomes. Strikingly, after employing a novel strategy for sRNA discovery based on identifying dynamic transcripts arising from "gene-empty" regions, we identify 58 wholly undescribed Salmonella sRNA genes potentially regulating SSR averaging an ∼1,000-fold change in expression between log-phase and C-starved cells. Importantly, the expressions of individual sRNA loci were confirmed by both comprehensive transcriptome analyses and northern blotting of select candidates. Of note, we find 43 candidate sRNAs share significant sequence identity to characterized sRNAs in other bacteria, and ∼70% of our sRNAs likely assume characteristic sRNA structural conformations. In addition, we find 53 of our 58 candidate sRNAs either overlap neighboring mRNA loci or share significant sequence complementarity to mRNAs transcribed elsewhere in the SL1344 genome strongly suggesting they regulate the expression of transcripts via antisense base-pairing. Finally, in addition to this work resulting in the identification of 58 entirely novel Salmonella enterica genes likely participating in the SSR, we also find evidence suggesting that sRNAs are significantly more prevalent than currently appreciated and that Salmonella sRNAs may actually number in the thousands.

  1. The Type III Secretion System Effector SeoC of Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae and S. enterica subsp. arizonae ADP-Ribosylates Src and Inhibits Opsonophagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Dominic J.; Young, Joanna C.; Covarelli, Valentina; Herrera-León, Silvia; Connor, Thomas R.; Fookes, Maria; Walker, Danielle; Echeita, Aurora; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Berger, Cedric N.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella species utilize type III secretion systems (T3SSs) to translocate effectors into the cytosol of mammalian host cells, subverting cell signaling and facilitating the onset of gastroenteritis. In this study, we compared a draft genome assembly of Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae strain 3588/07 against the genomes of S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain LT2 and Salmonella bongori strain 12419. S. enterica subsp. salamae encodes the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), SPI-2, and the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) T3SSs. Though several key S. Typhimurium effector genes are missing (e.g., avrA, sopB, and sseL), S. enterica subsp. salamae invades HeLa cells and contains homologues of S. bongori sboK and sboC, which we named seoC. SboC and SeoC are homologues of EspJ from enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC, respectively), which inhibit Src kinase-dependent phagocytosis by ADP-ribosylation. By screening 73 clinical and environmental Salmonella isolates, we identified EspJ homologues in S. bongori, S. enterica subsp. salamae, and Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae. The β-lactamase TEM-1 reporter system showed that SeoC is translocated by the SPI-1 T3SS. All the Salmonella SeoC/SboC homologues ADP-ribosylate Src E310 in vitro. Ectopic expression of SeoC/SboC inhibited phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized beads into Cos-7 cells stably expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-FcγRIIa. Concurrently, S. enterica subsp. salamae infection of J774.A1 macrophages inhibited phagocytosis of beads, in a seoC-dependent manner. These results show that S. bongori, S. enterica subsp. salamae, and S. enterica subsp. arizonae share features of the infection strategy of extracellular pathogens EPEC and EHEC and shed light on the complexities of the T3SS effector repertoires of Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:27736780

  2. Changes in the Porcine Intestinal Microbiome in Response to Infection with Salmonella enterica and Lawsonia intracellularis

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Randall S.; Gebhart, Connie J.; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Johnson, Timothy; Isaacson, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a leading cause of food borne illness. Recent studies have shown that S. enterica is a pathogen capable of causing alterations to the composition of the intestinal microbiome. A recent prospective study of French pork production farms found a statistically significant association between Lawsonia intracellularis and carriage of S. enterica. In the current study the composition of the gut microbiome was determined in pigs challenged with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and or L. intracellularis and compared to non-challenged control pigs. Principal coordinate analysis demonstrated that there was a disruption in the composition of the gut microbiome in the colon and cecum of pigs challenged with either pathogen. The compositions of the microbiomes of challenged pigs were similar to each other but differed from the non-challenged controls. There also were statistically significant increases in Anaerobacter, Barnesiella, Pediococcus, Sporacetigenium, Turicibacter, Catenibacterium, Prevotella, Pseudobutyrivibrio, and Xylanibacter in the challenged pigs. To determine if these changes were specific to experimentally challenged pigs, we determined the compositions of the fecal microbiomes of naturally infected pigs that were carriers of S. enterica. Pigs that were frequent shedders of S. enterica were shown to have similar fecal microbiomes compared to non-shedders or pigs that shed S. enterica infrequently. In a comparison of the differentially abundant bacteria in the naturally infected pigs compared to experimentally challenged pigs, 9 genera were differentially abundant and each exhibited the same increase or decrease in abundance between the two groups. Thus, there were similar changes in the GI microbiome associated with carriage of S. enterica regardless of whether the pigs were experimentally challenged with S. enterica or acquired it naturally. PMID:26461107

  3. Longitudinal prevalence, faecal shedding and molecular characterisation of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella enterica in sheep.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongchang; Jacobson, Caroline; Gardner, Graham; Carmichael, Ian; Campbell, Angus J D; Ryan, Una

    2014-11-01

    Faecal excretion of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella enterica in sheep in Australia was determined using a quantitative multiplex PCR (qPCR) targeting the Campylobacter spp. purine biosynthesis gene (PurA) and the S. enterica outer membrane protein (ompF). The mutiplex qPCR was specific and Campylobacter spp. and S. enterica were each detected with a sensitivity of 5 organisms/µL faecal DNA extract. This multiplex qPCR was used to determine the prevalence and concentration of Campylobacter spp. and S. enterica in 3412 faecal samples collected from 1189 lambs on eight farms across South Australia (n = 2 farms), New South Wales (n = 1), Victoria (n = 2) and Western Australia (n = 3) at three sampling periods (weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter). The overall prevalences of Campylobacter spp. and S. enterica were 13.3% and 5.0%, respectively, with the highest prevalence for Campylobacter spp. in South Australia and the highest prevalence for S. enterica in New South Wales. Campylobacter jejuni was the only Campylobacter sp. identified from a subset of 120 positive samples sequenced at the 16S locus. S. enterica serovar Typhimurium was the only serovar of S. enterica identified from a subset of 120 positive samples sequenced at the ompF locus. Across all states, Campylobacter spp. had the highest median bacterial concentration in faeces at weaning and post-weaning (medians of 3.4 × 10(6) and 1.1 × 10(5), respectively), whereas S. enterica had the highest median bacterial concentration at pre-slaughter (1.8 × 10(5)/g faeces).

  4. Prevalence of Salmonella enterica and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in zoo animals from Chile

    PubMed Central

    Marchant, Paulina; Hidalgo-Hermoso, Ezequiel; Espinoza, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella (S.) enterica and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are foodborne pathogens. Here, we report the prevalence of S. enterica and STEC in feces of 316 zoo animals belonging to 61 species from Chile. S. enterica and STEC strains were detected in 7.5% and 4.4% of animals, respectively. All Salmonella isolates corresponded to the serotype Enteritidis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of S. Enteritidis in the culpeo fox (Lycalopex culpaeus), black-capped capuchin (Sapajus apella) and Peruvian pelican (Pelecanus thagus) and the first STEC report in Thomson's gazelle (Eudorcas thomsonii). PMID:27030195

  5. Prevalence of Salmonella enterica and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in zoo animals from Chile.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Paulina; Hidalgo-Hermoso, Ezequiel; Espinoza, Karen; Retamal, Patricio

    2016-12-30

    Salmonella (S.) enterica and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are foodborne pathogens. Here, we report the prevalence of S. enterica and STEC in feces of 316 zoo animals belonging to 61 species from Chile. S. enterica and STEC strains were detected in 7.5% and 4.4% of animals, respectively. All Salmonella isolates corresponded to the serotype Enteritidis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of S. Enteritidis in the culpeo fox (Lycalopex culpaeus), black-capped capuchin (Sapajus apella) and Peruvian pelican (Pelecanus thagus) and the first STEC report in Thomson's gazelle (Eudorcas thomsonii).

  6. Inhibition of Salmonella enterica Cells in Deli-Type Salad by Enterocin AS-48 in Combination with Other Antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Cobo Molinos, Antonio; Lucas López, Rosario; Abriouel, Hikmate; Ben Omar, Nabil; Valdivia, Eva; Gálvez, Antonio

    2009-06-01

    The cyclic antibacterial peptide enterocin AS-48 acted synergistically with p-hydroxybenzoic acid methyl ester (PHBME) and with 2-nitropropanol against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis CECT 4300 in Russian salad. In challenge tests on a cocktail of Salmonella strains (S. enterica ssp. enterica serotype Typhi CECT 409, S. enterica ssp. enterica serovar Choleraesuis CECT 915, S. enterica ssp. enterica serovar Enteritidis CECT 4300, S. enterica ssp. arizonae serovar Arizonae CECT 4395, and S. enterica ssp. salamae CECT 4000) in salad at 10°C, the combinations of PHBME and AS-48 (80 μg/g) or 2-nitropropanol and AS-48 (40 μg/g) reduced the concentrations of viable Salmonella from 4.27 to 4.75 log CFU/g down to the limit of detection for 7 days. Salmonella populations did not increase in control samples (without any antimicrobials or in the presence of AS-48 alone) probably due to the low pH of this type of salad and low temperature of incubation, but retained over 85% viability after 1 week. This work opens new possibilities to expand the spectrum of inhibition of enterocin AS-48 against Salmonella enterica.

  7. Bile-Induced DNA Damage in Salmonella enterica

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Ana I.; Ramos-Morales, Francisco; Casadesús, Josep

    2004-01-01

    In the absence of DNA adenine methylase, growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is inhibited by bile. Mutations in any of the mutH, mutL, and mutS genes suppress bile sensitivity in a Dam− background, indicating that an active MutHLS system renders Dam− mutants bile sensitive. However, inactivation of the MutHLS system does not cause bile sensitivity. An analogy with Escherichia coli, in which the MutHLS system sensitizes Dam− mutants to DNA-injuring agents, suggested that bile might cause DNA damage. In support of this hypothesis, we show that bile induces the SOS response in S. enterica and increases the frequency of point mutations and chromosomal rearrangements. Mutations in mutH, mutL, or mutS cause partial relief of virulence attenuation in a Dam− background (50- to 100-fold by the oral route and 10-fold intraperitoneally), suggesting that an active MutHLS system reduces the ability of Salmonella Dam− mutants to cope with DNA-damaging agents (bile and others) encountered during the infection process. The DNA-damaging ability of bile under laboratory conditions raises the possibility that the phenomenon may be relevant in vivo, since high bile concentrations are found in the gallbladder, the niche for chronic Salmonella infections. PMID:15611156

  8. Occurrence of Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin in Austria.

    PubMed

    Allerberger, F; Liesegang, A; Grif, K; Prager, R; Danzl, J; Höck, F; Ottl, J; Dierich, M P; Berghold, C; Neckstaller, I; Tschäpe, H; Fisher, I

    2002-04-01

    In Austria, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin, a bovine-adapted serovar, rarely causes infections in humans. In 2000, Austria was within the European mean with an incidence of 0.1 per million inhabitants. Our data show that the vast majority of all serovar Dublin infections (human and non-human) can be traced epidemiologically to two districts in the Tyrol. This concentration of cases can be explained by a particularly traditional aspect of cattle farming in this area, the alpine pasture. There is an increased risk of cross infection due to the communal keeping of animals from various farms. Infected cattle are a source of infection for humans, and transmission usually occurs from eating beef and drinking cows milk. Using pulsed field gel electrophoresis and automated ribotyping, three out of five isolates from human infections could be traced to characteristic Tyrolean Dublin clones. Bacteriological screening for faecal carriage before the transfer of cattle from risk-herds to the alpine pastures and before the return from risk-pastures to the farms would be a possible starting point to prevent cross-contamination of large mixed herds and contamination of pasture through latently infected cattle. Appropriate research is necessary.

  9. Kidney allograft pyelonephritis caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Schwarzengrund.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kenta; Nishio, Haruomi; Iwatani, Yuji; Yamada, Ryo; Okawa, Takao; Yamamoto, Takumi; Murakami, Masaaki; Matsuo, Yoko; Matsuo, Ken; Tanaka, Satoshi; Mori, Kiyoshi; Mori, Noriko

    2017-03-13

    Kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) taking immunosuppressive drugs have a 20-fold greater risk of nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection than the healthy adult population. Among KTRs, the urinary tract is the most common site of infection. However, few cases of urinary tract infection caused by NTS have been documented in KTRs, and only one in Japan. Furthermore, it frequently induces acute allograft rejection with high mortality. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Schwarzengrund (S. Schwarzengrund) is now among the more common Salmonella serovars isolated in Japan and is likely to be invasive. We present a case of a 45-year old female with vesicoureteral reflux to her transplanted kidney who developed kidney allograft pyelonephritis caused by S. Schwarzengrund. She was admitted to our hospital with fever, urodynia, lower abdominal pain, gross hematuria, and cloudy urine. Urine cultures were positive for S. Schwarzengrund. Exposure to cats, especially stray cats, were identified as the most likely source. We administered antibiotics for 4 weeks (ceftriaxone then amoxicillin, each for 2 weeks) and educated her about pet safety. She experienced no recurrence of infection or clinical kidney allograft rejection for 3 months post-treatment. NTS should be considered as a possible pathogen of urinary tract infection among KTRs, especially in cases with animal exposure or structural urologic abnormalities. When the pathogen is NTS, appropriate antibiotics and treatment periods are essential for preventing recurrence and allograft rejection after the completion of treatment.

  10. Persistence of Salmonella enterica during dehydration and subsequent cold storage.

    PubMed

    Gruzdev, Nadia; Pinto, Riky; Sela Saldinger, Shlomo

    2012-12-01

    Despite the fact that Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium SL 1344 has served as a model pathogen in many studies, information regarding its desiccation response is still scarce. In this study, we investigated environmental conditions that affect Salmonella survival following dehydration and subsequent cold storage, using a 96-well polystyrene plate model. The SL 1344 strain exhibited high survival compared with other Typhimurium isolates and S. enterica serotypes. Further characterization of desiccation tolerance in this strain revealed that temperature, stationary-phase of growth, solid medium, and the presence of increasing NaCl concentrations (0.5-5.0%) in the growth medium enhanced desiccation tolerance. Dehydration at basic pHs (8-10), or in trehalose, sucrose, but not in glycine-betaine, improved bacterial persistence. Dehydrated Salmonella survived over 100 weeks at 4 °C with a ∼5-log reduction in numbers. However, viability staining revealed only a ∼50% reduction in viable cells, suggesting bacterial transition into a viable-but-not-cultivable state (VBNC). Addition of chloramphenicol reduced bacterial survival implying that adaptation to desiccation stress requires de-novo protein synthesis. Consistent with this finding, shortening the dehydration time resulted in lower survival. This study emphasizes the impact of environmental conditions on the fate of dried Salmonella in the food chain and highlights the potential transition of the pathogen to the VBNC state. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mannanoligosaccharide agglutination by Salmonella enterica strains isolated from carrier pigs

    PubMed Central

    Borowsky, Luciane; Corção, Gertrudes; Cardoso, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    Type-1 fimbriae are associated with most Salmonella enterica serovars and are an essential factor for host colonization. Mannanoligosaccharides (MOS), a prebiotic that is agglutinated by type-1 fimbriae, are proposed for the control of enterobacteria colonization and may be an alternative to Salmonella control in pigs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of porcine Salmonella strains to adhere to MOS in vitro. A total of 108 strains of Salmonella sp. isolated from carrier pigs were evaluated for the amplification of fimA and fimH genes, agglutination of MOS and hemagglutination. In all tested strains, amplicons of expected size were detected for both fimA and fimH gene. In the hemagglutination assays, 31 (28.7%) strains presented mannose–sensitive agglutination of erythrocytes, indicating that the strains were expressing type-1 fimbriae. Considering only strains expressing the type-1 fimbriae, 23 (74.2%) presented a strong agglutination of MOS, 3 (9.6%) a weak reaction and 5 (16.2%) none. The results indicate that Salmonella enterica strains expressing type-1 fimbriae can agglutinate effectively in vitro to MOS. PMID:24031388

  12. Molecular identification of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Gallinarum biovars Gallinarum and Pullorum by a duplex PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Batista, Diego Felipe Alves; de Freitas Neto, Oliveiro Caetano; de Almeida, Adriana Maria; Barrow, Paul Andrew; de Oliveira Barbosa, Fernanda; Berchieri Junior, Angelo

    2016-07-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum (S Gallinarum) and biovar Pullorum (S Pullorum) are 2 poultry pathogens that cause major economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Control of both diseases mainly relies on the adoption of biosecurity programs, and success is dependent on accurate and fast detection. Based on this concept, we developed a duplex PCR assay, targeting 2 chromosomal sequences, which allowed us to precisely identify and differentiate S Gallinarum and S Pullorum field strains. This assay was validated by testing genomic DNA from 40 S Gallinarum and 29 S Pullorum field strains, 87 other Salmonella serovars, and 7 non-Salmonella strains. The serovar identifier region (SIR) primers produced a fragment only in S Gallinarum and S Pullorum strains, whereas the fragment from the ratA coding sequence, which was previously demonstrated to differentiate the 2 biovars, was also amplified from other Salmonella serovars. Our results showed that the combination of both SIR and ratA amplifications could be used to identify as well as to differentiate colonies of S Gallinarum and S Pullorum reliably. Thus, we believe this methodology can be a useful ancillary tool for routine veterinary diagnostic laboratories by providing rapid, accurate results.

  13. Multi-locus sequence typing of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis strains in Japan between 1973 and 2004.

    PubMed

    Noda, Tamie; Murakami, Koichi; Asai, Tetsuo; Etoh, Yoshiki; Ishihara, Tomoe; Kuroki, Toshiro; Horikawa, Kazumi; Fujimoto, Shuji

    2011-06-15

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) was responsible for a worldwide pandemic during the 1980s and 1990s; however, changes in the dominant lineage before and after this event remain unknown. This study determined S. Enteritidis lineages before and after this pandemic event in Japan using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Thirty S. Enteritidis strains were collected in Japan between 1973 and 2004, consisting of 27 human strains from individual episodes, a bovine strain, a liquid egg strain and an eggshell strain. Strains showed nine phage types and 17 pulsed-field profiles with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All strains had homologous type 11 sequences without any nucleotide differences in seven housekeeping genes. These MLST results suggest that S. Enteritidis with the diversities revealed by phage typing and pulsed-field profiling has a highly clonal population. Although type 11 S. Enteritidis may exhibit both pleiotropic surface structure and pulsed-field type variation, it is likely to be a stable lineage derived from an ancestor before the 1980s and/or 1990s pandemic in Japan.

  14. Identification and characterization of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Albert isolates in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica is one of the most common causes of bacterial foodborne illness in the United States. Although most Salmonella infections are self-limiting, antimicrobial treatment is critical for invasive salmonellosis. Primary antimicrobial treatment options include fluoroquinolones or extende...

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility and plasmid replicon typing of Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky isolates recovered from broilers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the United States, Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky has become the predominate serotype recovered from broiler slaughter samples and the prevalence of resistance to streptomycin and tetracycline has increased dramatically in this serotype. To characterize the relationships between antimicro...

  16. Genomic Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis based on Population Structure of Prevalent Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Prerak T.; den Bakker, Henk C.; Mikoleit, Matthew; Tolar, Beth; Trees, Eija; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Frye, Jonathan G.; Porwollik, Steffen; Weimer, Bart C.; Wiedmann, Martin; Weinstock, George M.; Fields, Patricia I.; McClelland, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is one of the most commonly reported causes of human salmonellosis. Its low genetic diversity, measured by fingerprinting methods, has made subtyping a challenge. We used whole-genome sequencing to characterize 125 S. enterica Enteritidis and 3 S. enterica serotype Nitra strains. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were filtered to identify 4,887 reliable loci that distinguished all isolates from each other. Our whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism typing approach was robust for S. enterica Enteritidis subtyping with combined data for different strains from 2 different sequencing platforms. Five major genetic lineages were recognized, which revealed possible patterns of geographic and epidemiologic distribution. Analyses on the population dynamics and evolutionary history estimated that major lineages emerged during the 17th–18th centuries and diversified during the 1920s and 1950s. PMID:25147968

  17. Increased water activity reduces the thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica in peanut butter.

    PubMed

    He, Yingshu; Li, Ye; Salazar, Joelle K; Yang, Jingyun; Tortorello, Mary Lou; Zhang, Wei

    2013-08-01

    Increased water activity in peanut butter significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the heat resistance of desiccation-stressed Salmonella enterica serotypes treated at 90 °C. The difference in thermal resistance was less notable when strains were treated at 126 °C. Using scanning electron microscopy, we observed minor morphological changes of S. enterica cells resulting from desiccation and rehydration processes in peanut oil.

  18. Increased Water Activity Reduces the Thermal Resistance of Salmonella enterica in Peanut Butter

    PubMed Central

    He, Yingshu; Li, Ye; Salazar, Joelle K.; Yang, Jingyun; Tortorello, Mary Lou

    2013-01-01

    Increased water activity in peanut butter significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the heat resistance of desiccation-stressed Salmonella enterica serotypes treated at 90°C. The difference in thermal resistance was less notable when strains were treated at 126°C. Using scanning electron microscopy, we observed minor morphological changes of S. enterica cells resulting from desiccation and rehydration processes in peanut oil. PMID:23728806

  19. Receptor Diversity and Host Interaction of Bacteriophages Infecting Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeryen; Choi, Younho; Heu, Sunggi; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2012-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium is a Gram-negative pathogen causing salmonellosis. Salmonella Typhimurium-targeting bacteriophages have been proposed as an alternative biocontrol agent to antibiotics. To further understand infection and interaction mechanisms between the host strains and the bacteriophages, the receptor diversity of these phages needs to be elucidated. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-five Salmonella phages were isolated and their receptors were identified by screening a Tn5 random mutant library of S. Typhimurium SL1344. Among them, three types of receptors were identified flagella (11 phages), vitamin B12 uptake outer membrane protein, BtuB (7 phages) and lipopolysaccharide-related O-antigen (7 phages). TEM observation revealed that the phages using flagella (group F) or BtuB (group B) as a receptor belong to Siphoviridae family, and the phages using O-antigen of LPS as a receptor (group L) belong to Podoviridae family. Interestingly, while some of group F phages (F-I) target FliC host receptor, others (F-II) target both FliC and FljB receptors, suggesting that two subgroups are present in group F phages. Cross-resistance assay of group B and L revealed that group L phages could not infect group B phage-resistant strains and reversely group B phages could not infect group L SPN9TCW-resistant strain. Conclusions/Significance In this report, three receptor groups of 25 newly isolated S. Typhimurium-targeting phages were determined. Among them, two subgroups of group F phages interact with their host receptors in different manner. In addition, the host receptors of group B or group L SPN9TCW phages hinder other group phage infection, probably due to interaction between receptors of their groups. This study provides novel insights into phage-host receptor interaction for Salmonella phages and will inform development of optimal phage therapy for protection against Salmonella. PMID:22927964

  20. An outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis traced to cream cakes

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Pei Pei; Kurupatham, Lalitha; Foong, Bok Huay; Ooi, Peng Lim; James, Lyn; Phua, Leslie; Tan, Ai Ling; Koh, Diana; Goh, Kee Tai

    2011-01-01

    Introduction This paper describes the epidemiological, microbiological and environmental investigations conducted during an outbreak of Salmonella gastroenteritis in Singapore. Methods A case-control study was undertaken to identify the vehicle of transmission. Microbiological testing was performed on faecal, food and environmental samples. Isolates of Salmonella were further characterized by phage typing and ribotyping. Results There were 216 gastroenteritis cases reported from 20 November to 4 December 2007. The causative agent was identified as Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Enteritidis for 14 out of 20 cases tested. The vehicle of transmission was traced to cream cakes produced by a bakery and sold at its retail outlets (P < 0.001, OR = 143.00, 95% Cl = 27.23–759.10). More than two-thirds of the 40 Salmonella strains isolated from hospitalized cases, food samples and asymptomatic food handlers were of phage type 1; the others reacted but did not conform to any phage type. The phage types correlated well with their unique antibiograms. The ribotype patterns of 22 selected isolates tested were highly similar, indicating genetic relatedness. The dendrogram of the strains from the outbreak showed distinct clustering and correlation compared to the non-outbreak strains, confirming a common source of infection. Discussion The cream cakes were likely contaminated by one of the ingredients used in the icing. Cross-contamination down the production line and subsequent storage of cakes at ambient temperatures for a prolonged period before consumption could have contributed to the outbreak. PMID:23908880

  1. [Antibiotic resistance and virulence factors in clinical Salmonella enterica isolates].

    PubMed

    de Toro, María; Seral, Cristina; Rojo-Bezares, Beatriz; Torres, Carmen; Castillo, F Javier; Sáenz, Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    The increase of Salmonella enterica isolates multi-resistant to different antibiotics, including β-lactams and fluoroquinolones, is a problem of clinical importance. The dissemination of Salmonella Typhimurium resistant to ampicillin (AMP)-chloramphenicol (CHL)-streptomycin (STR)-sulphonamides and (SUL)-tetracycline (TET), that harbour the Salmonella Genomic Island type 1 (SGI1), and the acquisition of transferable genetic material have favoured the multi-resistance in this genus. A total of 114 clinical S.enterica isolates were studied (period 2009-2010). The susceptibility to 20 antibiotics was determined by disc diffusion and microdilution. The antimicrobial resistance mechanisms and the integrons were analysed by PCR, and sequencing in the AMP(R) isolates. In all the blaPSE-1-positive isolates, the clonal relationship was determined by PFGE, as well as the presence of SGI1 and 29 virulence genes by PCR. Eighteen different serotypes were found among the 114 isolates studied, Typhimurium (61%) and Enteritidis (16%) being the most prevalent. High percentages of resistance to SUL (68%), TET (58%), AMP (55%) and STR (46%) were observed. The great majority (92%) of 63 AMP(R) isolates were multi-resistant, with the AMP-STR-TET-SUL phenotype (19 isolates) being the most frequent one and associated with the blaTEM-1b+strA-strB+tet(B)+sul2 genotype. Class 1 integrons (7 different structures) were observed in 48% AMP(R) isolates, highlighting the blaOXA-1+aadA1 structure (8 isolates), one empty integron and non-classical integrons (5 isolates). The blaPSE-1 gene was detected inside the classical SGI1 structure in 13 clonally-related isolates that showed the same virulence profile. The high percentage of multi-resistant S.enterica isolates, especially associated to S.Typhimurium, to the AMP, STR, TET and SUL phenotype, and to the blaTEM-1b+strA-strB+tet(B)+sul2 genotype, shows an important risk of possible failures in the treatment of serious infections caused by this

  2. Molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica isolates associated with starling-livestock interactions.

    PubMed

    Carlson, James C; Hyatt, Doreene R; Bentler, Kevin; Mangan, Anna M; Russell, Michael; Piaggio, Antoinette J; Linz, George M

    2015-08-31

    Bird-livestock interactions have been implicated as potential sources for bacteria within concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO). In this study we characterized XbaI-digested genomic DNA from Salmonella enterica using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The PFGE analysis was conducted using 182 S. enterica isolates collected from a single CAFO between 2009 and 2012. Samples collected in 2012 were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The analysis was limited to S. enterica serotypes, with at least 10 isolates, known to occur in both European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and cattle (Bos taurus) within this CAFO. A total of five different serotypes were screened; S. Anatum, S. Kentucky, S. Meleagridis, S. Montevideo, S. Muenchen. These samples were recovered from five different sample types; starling gastrointestinal tracts (GI), starling external wash, cattle feces, cattle feed and cattle water troughs. Indistinguishable S. enterica PFGE profiles were recovered from isolates originating in all sample types. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was also associated with indistinguishable S. enterica isolates recovered from all samples types. These data suggests that AMR S. enterica is transmitted between cattle and starlings and that shared feed sources are likely contributing to infections within both species. Moreover we isolated indistinguishable PFGE profiles across all years of data collection, suggesting long-term environmental persistence may be mediated by starling visits to CAFO. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Differences in Growth of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Alfalfa Sprouts

    PubMed Central

    Charkowski, A. O.; Barak, J. D.; Sarreal, C. Z.; Mandrell, R. E.

    2002-01-01

    Sprout producers have recently been faced with several Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks. Many of the outbreaks have been traced to sprout seeds contaminated with low levels of human pathogens. Alfalfa seeds were inoculated with S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated from alfalfa seeds or other environmental sources and sprouted to examine growth of these human pathogens in association with sprouting seeds. S. enterica strains grew an average of 3.7 log10 on sprouting seeds over 2 days, while E. coli O157:H7 strains grew significantly less, an average of 2.3 log10. The initial S. enterica or E. coli O157:H7 inoculum dose and seed-sprouting temperature significantly affected the levels of both S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 on the sprouts and in the irrigation water, while the frequency of irrigation water replacement affected only the levels of E. coli O157:H7. Colonization of sprouting alfalfa seeds by S. enterica serovar Newport and E. coli O157:H7 strains transformed with a plasmid encoding the green fluorescent protein was examined with fluorescence microscopy. Salmonella serovar Newport colonized both seed coats and sprout roots as aggregates, while E. coli O157:H7 colonized only sprout roots. PMID:12039774

  4. Pork meat as a potential source of Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae infection in humans.

    PubMed

    Evangelopoulou, Grammato; Kritas, Spyridon; Govaris, Alexander; Burriel, Angeliki R

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae was isolated from 13 of 123 slaughtered pigs in central Greece. The samples cultured were feces, ileum tissue, mesenteric lymph nodes, and gallbladder swabs. A total of 74 isolates from 492 samples were identified as Salmonella spp. by use of standard laboratory culture media and two commercial micromethods and by use of a polyvalent slide agglutination test for the detection of O and H antigens. Among them were 19 (25.68%) suspected to be S. enterica subsp. arizonae according to analysis with standard laboratory culture media. Of those, 14 were identified as S. enterica subsp. arizonae by the API 20E (bioMérieux, France) and the Microgen GnA+B-ID (Microgen Bioproducts, Ltd., United Kingdom) identification systems. All the isolates were tested for resistance to 23 antimicrobials. Strains identified as S. enterica subsp. arizonae were resistant to 17 (70.8%) antibiotics. The highest proportions of resistance were observed for sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (71.4%), tetracycline (71.4%), ampicillin (64.3%), and amoxicillin (57.1%). Two isolates were resistant to aztreonam (7.1%) and tigecycline (7.1%), used only for the treatment of humans. Thus, pork meat may play a role in the transmission of antibiotic-resistant S. enterica subsp. arizonae to human consumers. This is the first report of S. enterica subsp. arizonae isolation from pigs.

  5. Pork Meat as a Potential Source of Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae Infection in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kritas, Spyridon; Govaris, Alexander; Burriel, Angeliki R.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae was isolated from 13 of 123 slaughtered pigs in central Greece. The samples cultured were feces, ileum tissue, mesenteric lymph nodes, and gallbladder swabs. A total of 74 isolates from 492 samples were identified as Salmonella spp. by use of standard laboratory culture media and two commercial micromethods and by use of a polyvalent slide agglutination test for the detection of O and H antigens. Among them were 19 (25.68%) suspected to be S. enterica subsp. arizonae according to analysis with standard laboratory culture media. Of those, 14 were identified as S. enterica subsp. arizonae by the API 20E (bioMérieux, France) and the Microgen GnA+B-ID (Microgen Bioproducts, Ltd., United Kingdom) identification systems. All the isolates were tested for resistance to 23 antimicrobials. Strains identified as S. enterica subsp. arizonae were resistant to 17 (70.8%) antibiotics. The highest proportions of resistance were observed for sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (71.4%), tetracycline (71.4%), ampicillin (64.3%), and amoxicillin (57.1%). Two isolates were resistant to aztreonam (7.1%) and tigecycline (7.1%), used only for the treatment of humans. Thus, pork meat may play a role in the transmission of antibiotic-resistant S. enterica subsp. arizonae to human consumers. This is the first report of S. enterica subsp. arizonae isolation from pigs. PMID:24335956

  6. Comparative Analysis of Subtyping Methods against a Whole- Genome-Sequencing Standard for Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    is to target hypervariable regions (i.e., regions of the bacterial chromosome with less genetic stability) in the bacterial genome to produce...related bacterial strains. Most S. enterica serotype Enteritidis isolates have been shown to be genetically homogeneous, making it difficult for...homogenous bacterial pathogens such as S. enterica serotype Enteritidis (14, 15). A recent WGS- based survey of S. enterica serotype Enteritidis isolates

  7. Virulence Gene Regulation by l-Arabinose in Salmonella enterica

    PubMed Central

    López-Garrido, Javier; Puerta-Fernández, Elena; Cota, Ignacio; Casadesús, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Invasion of the intestinal epithelium is a critical step in Salmonella enterica infection and requires functions encoded in the gene cluster known as Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI-1). Expression of SPI-1 genes is repressed by l-arabinose, and not by other pentoses. Transport of l-arabinose is necessary to repress SPI-1; however, repression is independent of l-arabinose metabolism and of the l-arabinose-responsive regulator AraC. SPI-1 repression by l-arabinose is exerted at a single target, HilD, and the mechanism appears to be post-translational. As a consequence of SPI-1 repression, l-arabinose reduces translocation of SPI-1 effectors to epithelial cells and decreases Salmonella invasion in vitro. These observations reveal a hitherto unknown role of l-arabinose in gene expression control and raise the possibility that Salmonella may use L-arabinose as an environmental signal. PMID:25991823

  8. Cytotoxic T cell adjuvant effects of three Salmonella enterica flagellins

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Catarina J.M.; Massis, Liliana M.; Alencar, Bruna C.G.; Rodrigues, Maurício M.; Sbrogio-Almeida, M.E.; Ferreira, Luís C.S.

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial flagellins are important virulence-associated factors and strong inducers of inflammatory responses in mammalian hosts. Flagellins have also been investigated as potential vaccine adjuvants, either for induction of humoral or cellular immune responses, to different target antigens. In this study we investigated the adjuvant properties of three Salmonella enterica flagellins types (FliCd, FliCi and FljB) to an ovalbumin-derived CD8+ T cell-restricted epitope (OVA257–264). Although mice immunized with the three tested flagellins elicited antigen-specific activated CD8+ T cells, only animals immunized with FliCi and FliCd flagellins admixed with ovalbumin mounted specific in vivo cytotoxic responses to peptide-pulsed target cells. The present results indicate that Salmonella flagellins are endowed with type-specific adjuvant effects toward murine CD8+ T cells, a feature that may impact their use as adjuvants for prophylatic or therapeutic vaccines. PMID:24031176

  9. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and the pathogenesis of typhoid fever.

    PubMed

    Dougan, Gordon; Baker, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, the cause of typhoid, is host restricted to humans. S. Typhi has a monophyletic population structure, indicating that typhoid in humans is a relatively new disease. Antimicrobial usage is reshaping the current S. Typhi global population and may be driving the emergence of a specific haplotype, H58, that is well adapted to transmission in modern settings and is able to resist antimicrobial killing more efficiently than other S. Typhi. Evidence gathered through genomics and functional studies using the mouse and in vitro cell systems, together with clinical investigations, has provided insight into the mechanisms that underpin the pathogenesis of human typhoid and host restriction. Here we review the latest scientific advances in typhoid research and discuss how these novel approaches are changing our understanding of the disease.

  10. Biofilm formation by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium colonizing solid tumours.

    PubMed

    Crull, Katja; Rohde, Manfred; Westphal, Kathrin; Loessner, Holger; Wolf, Kathrin; Felipe-López, Alfonso; Hensel, Michael; Weiss, Siegfried

    2011-08-01

    Systemic administration of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to tumour bearing mice results in preferential colonization of the tumours and retardation of tumour growth. Although the bacteria are able to invade the tumour cells in vitro, in tumours they were never detected intracellularly. Ultrastructural analysis of Salmonella-colonized tumours revealed that the bacteria had formed biofilms. Interestingly, depletion of neutrophilic granulocytes drastically reduced biofilm formation. Obviously, bacteria form biofilms in response to the immune reactions of the host. Importantly, we tested Salmonella mutants that were no longer able to form biofilms by deleting central regulators of biofilm formation. Such bacteria could be observed intracellularly in immune cells of the host or in tumour cells. Thus, tumour colonizing S. typhimurium might form biofilms as protection against phagocytosis. Since other bacteria are behaving similarly, solid murine tumours might represent a unique model to study biofilm formation in vivo. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Proteomic analysis of triclosan resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Webber, Mark A; Coldham, Nick G; Woodward, Martin J; Piddock, Laura J V

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare the proteomes of three triclosan-resistant mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in order to identify proteins involved in triclosan resistance. The proteomes of three distinct but isogenic triclosan-resistant mutants were determined using two-dimensional liquid chromatography mass separation. Bioinformatics was then used to identify and quantify tryptic peptides in order to determine protein expression. Proteomic analysis of the triclosan-resistant mutants identified a common set of proteins involved in production of pyruvate or fatty acid with differential expression in all mutants, but also demonstrated specific patterns of expression associated with each phenotype. These data show that triclosan resistance can occur via distinct pathways in Salmonella, and demonstrate a novel triclosan resistance network that is likely to have relevance to other pathogenic bacteria subject to triclosan exposure and may provide new targets for development of antimicrobial agents.

  12. Salmonella enterica isolated from wildlife at two Ohio rehabilitation centers.

    PubMed

    Jijón, Steffani; Wetzel, Amy; LeJeune, Jeffrey

    2007-09-01

    Between May and September 2004, fecal samples from various wildlife species admitted to two rehabilitation centers in Ohio were cultured for Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Eight of 71 (11%) samples, including specimens from three opossums (Didelphis virginiana), two gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), a woodchuck (Marmota monax), a Harris hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus), and a screech owl (Otus asio) tested positive for Salmonella serovars Braenderup, Senftenberg, Oranienburg, and Kentucky. The Salmonella Oranienburg isolates were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Most isolates were susceptible to commonly used antibiotics; however, the Salmonella Kentucky isolate was resistant to multiple beta-lactam antibiotics (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ampicillin), cefoxitin, and ceftiofur, a third-generation cephalosporin. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was not isolated from any sample. Transmission of Salmonella from wildlife may occur between animals at rehabilitation centers.

  13. Osteomyelitis caused by Salmonella enterica serovar derby in boa constrictor.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Suyene O; Casagrande, Renata A; Guerra, Priscila R; Cruz, Cláudio E F; Veit, Evandro; Cardoso, Marisa R I; Driemeier, David

    2014-09-01

    After demonstrating chronic weight loss, prostration, and muscle flaccidness, a captive-bred 9-mo-old boa constrictor (Boa constrictor constrictor) died and was submitted for necropsy. Along the spinal column there were multiple, yellowish white, macroscopic nodules of 1-5 mm in diameter in the ventral side of the vertebral body and in the intervertebral spaces. Severe multifocal necrotizing osteomyelitis associated with granulomatous inflammation was the main histologic finding in the vertebral column. In the liver, there was discrete but similar granulomatous changes. Positive anti-Salmonella immunostaining was observed in the spinal column and in the liver. Salmonella enterica serovar Derby was isolated from fragments of the spinal column. These bacteria are important cause of disease in captive reptiles.

  14. Investigation of an outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Newport infection.

    PubMed

    Irvine, W N; Gillespie, I A; Smyth, F B; Rooney, P J; McClenaghan, A; Devine, M J; Tohani, V K

    2009-10-01

    A large outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Newport infection occurred in Northern Ireland during September and October 2004. Typing of isolates from patients confirmed that this strain was indistinguishable from that in concurrent outbreaks in regions of England, in Scotland and in the Isle of Man. A total of 130 cases were distributed unequally across local government district areas in Northern Ireland. The epidemic curve suggested a continued exposure over about 4 weeks. A matched case-control study of 23 cases and 39 controls found a statistically significant association with a history of having eaten lettuce in a meal outside the home and being a case (odds ratio 23.7, 95% confidence interval 1.4-404.3). This exposure was reported by 57% of cases. Although over 300 food samples were tested, none yielded any Salmonella spp. Complexity and limited traceability in salad vegetable distribution hindered further investigation of the ultimate source of the outbreak.

  15. Quinolone Resistance Mechanisms Among Salmonella enterica in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Thong, Kwai Lin; Ngoi, Soo Tein; Chai, Lay Ching; Teh, Cindy Shuan Ju

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of quinolone-resistant Salmonella enterica is on the rise worldwide. Salmonella enterica is one of the major foodborne pathogens in Malaysia. Therefore, we aim to investigate the occurrence and mechanisms of quinolone resistance among Salmonella strains isolated in Malaysia. A total of 283 Salmonella strains isolated from food, humans, and animals were studied. The disk diffusion method was used to examine the quinolone susceptibility of the strains, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin were also determined. DNA sequencing of the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrase and topoisomerase IV genes and the plasmid-borne qnr genes was performed. The transfer of the qnr gene was examined through transconjugation experiment. A total of 101 nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella strains were identified. In general, all strains were highly resistant to nalidixic acid (average MICNAL, 170 μg/ml). Resistance to ciprofloxacin was observed in 30.7% of the strains (1 ≤ MICCIP ≤ 2 μg/ml). Majority of the strains contained missense mutations in the QRDR of gyrA (69.3%). Silent mutations were frequently detected in gyrB (75.2%), parC (27.7%), and parE (51.5%) within and beyond the QRDRs. Novel mutations were detected in parC and parE. The plasmid-borne qnrS1 variant was found in 36.6% of the strains, and two strains were found to be able to transfer the qnrS1 gene. Overall, mutations in gyrA and the presence of qnrS1 genes might have contributed to the high level of quinolone resistance among the strains. Our study provided a better understanding on the status of quinolone resistance among Salmonella strains circulating in Malaysia.

  16. Adaptation and Preadaptation of Salmonella enterica to Bile

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Sara B.; Cota, Ignacio; Ducret, Adrien; Aussel, Laurent; Casadesús, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Bile possesses antibacterial activity because bile salts disrupt membranes, denature proteins, and damage DNA. This study describes mechanisms employed by the bacterium Salmonella enterica to survive bile. Sublethal concentrations of the bile salt sodium deoxycholate (DOC) adapt Salmonella to survive lethal concentrations of bile. Adaptation seems to be associated to multiple changes in gene expression, which include upregulation of the RpoS-dependent general stress response and other stress responses. The crucial role of the general stress response in adaptation to bile is supported by the observation that RpoS− mutants are bile-sensitive. While adaptation to bile involves a response by the bacterial population, individual cells can become bile-resistant without adaptation: plating of a non-adapted S. enterica culture on medium containing a lethal concentration of bile yields bile-resistant colonies at frequencies between 10−6 and 10−7 per cell and generation. Fluctuation analysis indicates that such colonies derive from bile-resistant cells present in the previous culture. A fraction of such isolates are stable, indicating that bile resistance can be acquired by mutation. Full genome sequencing of bile-resistant mutants shows that alteration of the lipopolysaccharide transport machinery is a frequent cause of mutational bile resistance. However, selection on lethal concentrations of bile also provides bile-resistant isolates that are not mutants. We propose that such isolates derive from rare cells whose physiological state permitted survival upon encountering bile. This view is supported by single cell analysis of gene expression using a microscope fluidic system: batch cultures of Salmonella contain cells that activate stress response genes in the absence of DOC. This phenomenon underscores the existence of phenotypic heterogeneity in clonal populations of bacteria and may illustrate the adaptive value of gene expression fluctuations. PMID:22275872

  17. Resistance phenotypes and genotypes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica isolates from feed, pigs, and carcasses in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Graciela Volz; Pissetti, Caroline; da Cruz Payão Pellegrini, Débora; da Silva, Luis Eduardo; Cardoso, Marisa

    2015-02-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica plays a role as a foodborne pathogen worldwide. The consumption of contaminated pork has been associated with human salmonellosis and the increase in antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella from pigs and pork products is a concern. A total of 225 Salmonella isolates from feed mills, the lairage environment, and the intestinal contents of pigs and carcasses were investigated for their antimicrobial susceptibility. A MIC for ciprofloxacin was screened by agar dilution, and antimicrobial resistance genes were investigated by PCR assays. Among the tested isolates, 171 (76%) showed resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent, and 91 (40.4%) were multiresistant. Resistance occurred most frequently to tetracycline (54.5%), sulfonamides (39.6%), and streptomycin (33.7%). Thirty-two (94.1%) nalidixic acid-resistant isolates exhibited decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. The resistance genes found were blaTEM (ampicillin), tet(A) (tetracycline), tet(B) (tetracycline/minocycline), sul1, sul2, and sul3 (sulfonamides), catA1 (chloramphenicol), floR (florfenicol/chloramphenicol), strA and strB (streptomycin), aph(3')-Ia (kanamycin), aac(3)-IIa and aac(3)-IVa (apramycin/gentamicin), aadA variant (streptomycin/spectinomycin), and dfrA1 (trimethoprim). Salmonella isolates from pig feces and carcasses displayed a higher frequency of resistance to most antimicrobials tested than isolates from feed mills. Common resistance gene profiles were found in isolates from the lairage and the intestinal content of pigs and carcasses, demonstrating that resistance genes selected on farms may be found in pork.

  18. The evolutionary history and diagnostic utility of the CRISPR-Cas system within Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica

    PubMed Central

    Timme, Ruth E.; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Toro, Magaly; Allard, Marc W.; Strain, Errol; Musser, Steven M.; Brown, Eric W.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary studies of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and their associated (cas) genes can provide insights into host-pathogen co-evolutionary dynamics and the frequency at which different genomic events (e.g., horizontal vs. vertical transmission) occur. Within this study, we used whole genome sequence (WGS) data to determine the evolutionary history and genetic diversity of CRISPR loci and cas genes among a diverse set of 427 Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica isolates representing 64 different serovars. We also evaluated the performance of CRISPR loci for typing when compared to whole genome and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approaches. We found that there was high diversity in array length within both CRISPR1 (median = 22; min = 3; max = 79) and CRISPR2 (median = 27; min = 2; max = 221). There was also much diversity within serovars (e.g., arrays differed by as many as 50 repeat-spacer units among Salmonella ser. Senftenberg isolates). Interestingly, we found that there are two general cas gene profiles that do not track phylogenetic relationships, which suggests that non-vertical transmission events have occurred frequently throughout the evolutionary history of the sampled isolates. There is also considerable variation among the ranges of pairwise distances estimated within each cas gene, which may be indicative of the strength of natural selection acting on those genes. We developed a novel clustering approach based on CRISPR spacer content, but found that typing based on CRISPRs was less accurate than the MLST-based alternative; typing based on WGS data was the most accurate. Notwithstanding cost and accessibility, we anticipate that draft genome sequencing, due to its greater discriminatory power, will eventually become routine for traceback investigations. PMID:24765574

  19. Vi Capsular Polysaccharide Produced by Recombinant Salmonella enterica Serovar Paratyphi A Confers Immunoprotection against Infection by Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Kun; Zhu, Chunyue; Chen, Zhijin; Zheng, Chunping; Tan, Yong; Rao, Xiancai; Cong, Yanguang

    2017-01-01

    Enteric fever is predominantly caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A, and accounts for an annual global incidence of 26.9 millions. In recent years, the rate of S. Paratyphi A infection has progressively increased. Currently licensed vaccines for typhoid fever, live Ty21a vaccine, Vi subunit vaccine, and Vi-conjugate vaccine, confer inadequate cross immunoprotection against enteric fever caused by S. Paratyphi A. Therefore, development of bivalent vaccines against enteric fever is urgently required. The immunogenic Vi capsular polysaccharide is characteristically produced in S. Typhi, but it is absent in S. Paratyphi A. We propose that engineering synthesis of Vi in S. Paratyphi A live-attenuated vaccine may expand its protection range to cover S. Typhi. In this study, we cloned the viaB locus, which contains 10 genes responsible for Vi biosynthesis, and integrated into the chromosome of S. Paratyphi A CMCC 50093. Two virulence loci, htrA and phoPQ, were subsequently deleted to achieve a Vi-producing attenuated vaccine candidate. Our data showed that, despite more than 200 passages, the viaB locus was stably maintained in the chromosome of S. Paratyphi A and produced the Vi polysaccharide. Nasal immunization of the vaccine candidate stimulated high levels of Vi-specific and S. Paratyphi A-specific antibodies in mice sera as well as total sIgA in intestinal contents, and showed significant protection against wild-type challenge of S. Paratyphi A or S. Typhi. Our study show that the Vi-producing attenuated S. Paratyphi A is a promising bivalent vaccine candidate for the prevention of enteric fever.

  20. Vi Capsular Polysaccharide Produced by Recombinant Salmonella enterica Serovar Paratyphi A Confers Immunoprotection against Infection by Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Kun; Zhu, Chunyue; Chen, Zhijin; Zheng, Chunping; Tan, Yong; Rao, Xiancai; Cong, Yanguang

    2017-01-01

    Enteric fever is predominantly caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A, and accounts for an annual global incidence of 26.9 millions. In recent years, the rate of S. Paratyphi A infection has progressively increased. Currently licensed vaccines for typhoid fever, live Ty21a vaccine, Vi subunit vaccine, and Vi-conjugate vaccine, confer inadequate cross immunoprotection against enteric fever caused by S. Paratyphi A. Therefore, development of bivalent vaccines against enteric fever is urgently required. The immunogenic Vi capsular polysaccharide is characteristically produced in S. Typhi, but it is absent in S. Paratyphi A. We propose that engineering synthesis of Vi in S. Paratyphi A live-attenuated vaccine may expand its protection range to cover S. Typhi. In this study, we cloned the viaB locus, which contains 10 genes responsible for Vi biosynthesis, and integrated into the chromosome of S. Paratyphi A CMCC 50093. Two virulence loci, htrA and phoPQ, were subsequently deleted to achieve a Vi-producing attenuated vaccine candidate. Our data showed that, despite more than 200 passages, the viaB locus was stably maintained in the chromosome of S. Paratyphi A and produced the Vi polysaccharide. Nasal immunization of the vaccine candidate stimulated high levels of Vi-specific and S. Paratyphi A-specific antibodies in mice sera as well as total sIgA in intestinal contents, and showed significant protection against wild-type challenge of S. Paratyphi A or S. Typhi. Our study show that the Vi-producing attenuated S. Paratyphi A is a promising bivalent vaccine candidate for the prevention of enteric fever. PMID:28484685

  1. Interactions of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium with gut bacteria.

    PubMed

    Avendaño-Pérez, Gaspar; Nueno-Palop, Carmen; Narbad, Arjan; George, Susan M; Baranyi, József; Pin, Carmen

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the gut microbiota on the growth and survival of S. Typhimurium. This was tested in two-species co-cultures and in mixed cultures with a simplified gut model microbiota. Subsequently, interactions between S. Typhimurium and human faecal bacteria were quantified in both batch and continuous culture systems simulating the human colon. The exponential growth of S. Typhimurium was halted when the population of Escherichia coli reached the maximum population density in a two-compartment co-culture system where the two species were separated by a 0.45 μm pore membrane. Furthermore, the growth of some gut bacteria such as Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium bifidum was inhibited by the presence of S. Typhimurium in the other compartment. The survival of S. Typhimurium was severely affected in mixed batch cultures with human faecal samples; a reduction of 10(3)-10(4) cfu/ml in the concentration of S. Typhimurium was observed in these cultures. However, no effect on S. Typhimurium survival was observed in mixed batch cultures with a simplified gut model microbiota under the same conditions. The effect of human faecal samples on S. Typhimurium in a three-stage continuous culture was different to that obtained in batch cultures; its growth rather than survival was affected under these conditions. S. Typhimurium growth was inhibited, and the bacterium was therefore eliminated by the continuous flow of the medium. Depending upon culturing conditions, the gut microbiota caused either growth inhibition, inactivation or did not affect S. Typhimurium.

  2. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella enterica transmission associated with starling-livestock interactions.

    PubMed

    Carlson, James C; Hyatt, Doreene R; Ellis, Jeremy W; Pipkin, David R; Mangan, Anna M; Russell, Michael; Bolte, Denise S; Engeman, Richard M; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Linz, George M

    2015-08-31

    Bird-livestock interactions have been implicated as potential sources for bacteria within concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO). European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in particular are known to contaminate cattle feed and water with Salmonella enterica through their fecal waste. We propose that fecal waste is not the only mechanisms through which starlings introduce S. enterica to CAFO. The goal of this study was to assess if starlings can mechanically move S. enterica. We define mechanical movement as the transportation of media containing S. enterica, on the exterior of starlings within CAFO. We collected 100 starlings and obtained external wash and gastrointestinal tract (GI) samples. We also collected 100 samples from animal pens. Within each pen we collected one cattle fecal, feed, and water trough sample. Isolates from all S. enterica positive samples were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. All sample types, including 17% of external starling wash samples, contained S. enterica. All sample types had at least one antimicrobial resistant (AMR) isolate and starling GI samples harbored multidrug resistant S. enterica. The serotypes isolated from the starling external wash samples were all found in the farm environment and 11.8% (2/17) of isolates from positive starling external wash samples were resistant to at least one class of antibiotics. This study provides evidence of a potential mechanism of wildlife introduced microbial contamination in CAFO. Mechanical movement of microbiological hazards, by starlings, should be considered a potential source of bacteria that is of concern to veterinary, environmental and public health. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. De novo amino acid biosynthesis contributes to salmonella enterica growth in Alfalfa seedling exudates.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Grace; Pisithkul, Tippapha; Amador-Noguez, Daniel; Barak, Jeri

    2015-02-01

    Salmonella enterica is a member of the plant microbiome. Growth of S. enterica in sprouting-seed exudates is rapid; however, the active metabolic networks essential in this environment are unknown. To examine the metabolic requirements of S. enterica during growth in sprouting-seed exudates, we inoculated alfalfa seeds and identified 305 S. enterica proteins extracted 24 h postinoculation from planktonic cells. Over half the proteins had known metabolic functions, and they are involved in over one-quarter of the known metabolic reactions. Ion and metabolite transport accounted for the majority of detected reactions. Proteins involved in amino acid transport and metabolism were highly represented, suggesting that amino acid metabolic networks may be important for S. enterica growth in association with roots. Amino acid auxotroph growth phenotypes agreed with the proteomic data; auxotrophs in amino acid-biosynthetic pathways that were detected in our screen developed growth defects by 48 h. When the perceived sufficiency of each amino acid was expressed as a ratio of the calculated biomass requirement to the available concentration and compared to growth of each amino acid auxotroph, a correlation between nutrient availability and bacterial growth was found. Furthermore, glutamate transport acted as a fitness factor during S. enterica growth in association with roots. Collectively, these data suggest that S. enterica metabolism is robust in the germinating-alfalfa environment; that single-amino-acid metabolic pathways are important but not essential; and that targeting central metabolic networks, rather than dedicated pathways, may be necessary to achieve dramatic impacts on bacterial growth. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Growth Dynamics of Salmonella enterica Strains on Alfalfa Sprouts and in Waste Seed Irrigation Water

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Michael B.; Hutcheson, Steven W.

    2003-01-01

    Alfalfa sprouts and other seed sprouts have been implicated in numerous outbreaks of salmonellosis. The source of these epidemics appears to have been low-level contamination of seeds by Salmonella bacteria that developed into clinically significant populations during the seed germination process. To test the possibility that Salmonella enterica strains carry host range determinants that allow them to grow on alfalfa, strains isolated from alfalfa or other sources were surveyed for their ability to grow on germinating alfalfa seeds. An S. enterica serovar Cubana strain originally isolated from contaminated alfalfa sprouts multiplied most rapidly during the initial 24 h of the seed germination process. Germinating alfalfa seeds supported the multiplication of S. enterica cells prior to the emergence of the root radicle at 72 h. Thereafter, much lower rates of multiplication were apparent. The ability of S. enterica to grow on germinating alfalfa seeds was independent of the serovar, isolation source, or virulence of the strain. Isolates obtained from alfalfa attained population levels similar to those observed for strains isolated from contaminated meat products or stools. Each of the strains could be detected in the waste irrigation water, with populations being strongly correlated with those detected on the germinating alfalfa seeds. The S. enterica strains were capable of utilizing the waste irrigation water as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. S. enterica strains thus appear to grow saprophytically on soluble organics released from seeds during early phases of germination. The ability to detect S. enterica in the waste irrigation water early in the germination process indicates that this method may be used as a simple way to monitor the contamination of sprouts during commercial operations. PMID:12514040

  5. Growth dynamics of Salmonella enterica strains on alfalfa sprouts and in waste seed irrigation water.

    PubMed

    Howard, Michael B; Hutcheson, Steven W

    2003-01-01

    Alfalfa sprouts and other seed sprouts have been implicated in numerous outbreaks of salmonellosis. The source of these epidemics appears to have been low-level contamination of seeds by Salmonella bacteria that developed into clinically significant populations during the seed germination process. To test the possibility that Salmonella enterica strains carry host range determinants that allow them to grow on alfalfa, strains isolated from alfalfa or other sources were surveyed for their ability to grow on germinating alfalfa seeds. An S. enterica serovar Cubana strain originally isolated from contaminated alfalfa sprouts multiplied most rapidly during the initial 24 h of the seed germination process. Germinating alfalfa seeds supported the multiplication of S. enterica cells prior to the emergence of the root radicle at 72 h. Thereafter, much lower rates of multiplication were apparent. The ability of S. enterica to grow on germinating alfalfa seeds was independent of the serovar, isolation source, or virulence of the strain. Isolates obtained from alfalfa attained population levels similar to those observed for strains isolated from contaminated meat products or stools. Each of the strains could be detected in the waste irrigation water, with populations being strongly correlated with those detected on the germinating alfalfa seeds. The S. enterica strains were capable of utilizing the waste irrigation water as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. S. enterica strains thus appear to grow saprophytically on soluble organics released from seeds during early phases of germination. The ability to detect S. enterica in the waste irrigation water early in the germination process indicates that this method may be used as a simple way to monitor the contamination of sprouts during commercial operations.

  6. De Novo Amino Acid Biosynthesis Contributes to Salmonella enterica Growth in Alfalfa Seedling Exudates

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Grace; Pisithkul, Tippapha; Amador-Noguez, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a member of the plant microbiome. Growth of S. enterica in sprouting-seed exudates is rapid; however, the active metabolic networks essential in this environment are unknown. To examine the metabolic requirements of S. enterica during growth in sprouting-seed exudates, we inoculated alfalfa seeds and identified 305 S. enterica proteins extracted 24 h postinoculation from planktonic cells. Over half the proteins had known metabolic functions, and they are involved in over one-quarter of the known metabolic reactions. Ion and metabolite transport accounted for the majority of detected reactions. Proteins involved in amino acid transport and metabolism were highly represented, suggesting that amino acid metabolic networks may be important for S. enterica growth in association with roots. Amino acid auxotroph growth phenotypes agreed with the proteomic data; auxotrophs in amino acid-biosynthetic pathways that were detected in our screen developed growth defects by 48 h. When the perceived sufficiency of each amino acid was expressed as a ratio of the calculated biomass requirement to the available concentration and compared to growth of each amino acid auxotroph, a correlation between nutrient availability and bacterial growth was found. Furthermore, glutamate transport acted as a fitness factor during S. enterica growth in association with roots. Collectively, these data suggest that S. enterica metabolism is robust in the germinating-alfalfa environment; that single-amino-acid metabolic pathways are important but not essential; and that targeting central metabolic networks, rather than dedicated pathways, may be necessary to achieve dramatic impacts on bacterial growth. PMID:25416761

  7. Salmonella Enterica Prevalence in Finishing Pigs at Slaughter Plants in Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bacci, Cristina; Lanzoni, Elisa; Brindani, Franco; Bonardi, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Finishing pigs carrying Salmonella enterica are believed to be the main source of carcass contamination at the beginning of slaughtering. The aim of this study was to assess the S. enterica carrier status of finishing pigs at herd level by sampling pooled faeces on farm and mesenteric lymph nodes at slaughter in the North East of Italy. Environmental faecal samples belonging to 30 batches of pigs were collected on farm. At slaughter, mesenteric lymph nodes were collected from five randomly selected pigs per batch. S. enterica was isolated from 16 lymph nodes out of 150 (10.6%) and from seven out of 30 (23.3%) faecal samples. Four batches (13.3%) were positive to S. enterica both in lymph nodes and in faeces. The number of batches positive to S. enterica either in lymph nodes or in faeces was 13 out of 30 (43.3%). The most prevalent serovars from lymph nodes were S. Derby (25.0%) and S. Typhimurium monophasic variant 1, 4,[5],12:i:- (18.6%), which were also isolated from faecal material (14.3 and 42.8% respectively). Contaminated faecal material or lymph nodes could be a primary source of carcass contamination at slaughter during evisceration. S. enterica contamination is widespread on pig farms and carrier pigs pass undetected the inspection visits at slaughter, entering the food chain. Therefore, in order to control S. enterica in pigs, the need to quantify possible risk factors at slaughter and develop effective management strategies on farm is of paramount importance to ensure food safety. PMID:27800330

  8. Genome sequence of the thermotolerant foodborne pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg ATCC 43845 and phylogenetic analysis of Loci encoding increased protein quality control mechanisms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica bacteria are important foodborne pathogens with major economic impact. Some isolates exhibit increased heat tolerance, a concern for food safety. Analysis of a finished-quality genome sequence of an isolate commonly used in heat resistance studies, S. enterica sub...

  9. Identification and molecular characterization of Salmonella spp. from unpasteurized orange juices and identification of new serotype Salmonella strain S. enterica serovar Tempe.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ashraf A; Melvin, Cathy D; Dagdag, Elsie B

    2007-08-01

    Several Salmonella enterica serotypes were isolated from unpasteurized orange juice samples analysed as a follow-up to an outbreak in 1999 of S. enterica serotype Muenchen in the Pacific Northwest regions of United States. Eleven S. enterica strains were serotyped and identified as S. enterica serotype Muenchen (2), S. enterica serotype Hidalgo (2), S. enterica serotype Alamo (1), S. enterica serotype Gaminera (2), S. enterica serotype Javiana (2) and a new serotyped strain S. enterica serotype Tempe (2). The identity of the new serotype S. enterica serovar Tempe serotype 30:b:1,7:z33 was confirmed by the National Salmonella Reference Laboratory at NCID/CDC, Atlanta. These strains were sensitive to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, tetracycline, streptomycin and sulfisoxazole antibiotics. Isolates were screened for invasion (invA) and virulence (spvC) genes using specific primers for these two genes by polymerase chain reaction. All strains were positive for invA gene giving 321-bp fragment, however negative to virulence spvC gene. For pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, Salmonella strain plugs were made and digested with XbaI and subjected to 18-h electrophoresis. The PFGE patterns were different for each S. enterica serotypes suggesting the several origins of contamination in outbreak. S. enterica serotype.

  10. First Complete Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strain ATCC 13311 (NCTC 74), a Reference Strain of Multidrug Resistance, as Achieved by Use of PacBio Single-Molecule Real-Time Technology

    PubMed Central

    Juan, Ayaka; Tamotsu, Hinako; Ashimine, Noriko; Nakano, Kazuma; Shimoji, Makiko; Shiroma, Akino; Teruya, Kuniko; Satou, Kazuhito; Hirano, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    We report the first complete genomic sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain ATCC 13311, the leading food-borne pathogen and a reference strain used in drug resistance studies. De novo assembly with PacBio sequencing completed its chromosome and one plasmid. They will accelerate the investigation into multidrug resistance in Salmonella Typhimurium. PMID:25278532

  11. Characterization of Small ColE1-Like Plasmids Conferring Kanamycin Resistance in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars Typhimurium and Newport

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Multi-antibiotic resistant (MR) Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Newport are an increasing concern in human and animal health. Many strains are known to carry antibiotic resistance determinants on multiple plasmids, yet detailed information is scarce. Three plasmids conferring kanamycin...

  12. Gene expression analysis of Salmonella enterica Enteritidis NalR and Salmonella enterica Kentucky 3795 exposed to HCl and acetic acid in rich medium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the United States, serovar Kentucky has become one of the most frequently isolated Salmonella enterica serovars from chickens. The reasons for this prevalence are not well understood. Phenotypic comparisons of poultry Salmonella isolates belonging to various serovars demonstrated that serovar Ken...

  13. Analysis of antimicrobial resistance genes detected in multidrug-resistant salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium isolated from food animals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The development of multi drug resistance (MDR) in foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella enterica is a concern for both animal and human health. MDR Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is the most prevalent penta-resistant serovar isolated from animals as part of the National Antimicrobial Resis...

  14. First Draft Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica Serovar Gallinarum Strain VTCCBAA614, Isolated from Chicken in India

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, N.; Anand, T.; Bera, B. C.; Riyesh, T.; Virmani, N.; Barua, S.; Gupta, Renu; Mahajan, N. K.; Joshi, C. G.; Singh, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum causes fowl typhoid (FT), which results in huge economic losses to poultry farmers in India. We report the draft genome sequence of Salmonella biovar Gallinarum strain VTCCBAA614, isolated from a chicken in an FT affected broiler flock. PMID:26494667

  15. Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky isolates from dairy cows and poultry demonstrate different evolutionary histories and host-specific polymorphisms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky is commonly isolated from dairy cows and poultry in the United States. Although it is not among the most frequently isolated serovars from cases of human salmonellosis, its high prevalence in livestock and poultry indicate it is a potential public...

  16. Effects of integrated treatment of nonthermal UV-C light and different antimicrobial wash on Salmonella enterica on plum tomatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Produce contamination by foodborne pathogens remains a serious threat. This study investigated synergistic effects of ultraviolet-C and various active sanitizers’ washes against Salmonella enterica on plum tomatoes. A bacterial cocktail containing three serotypes of Salmonella enterica (S. Newport H...

  17. Characterization of tetracycline resistance in Salmonella enterica strains recovered from irrigation water in the Culiacan Valley, Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica is one of the most important pathogens responsible for gastrointestinal infections in humans. The increase of S. enterica strains showing resistance against antibiotics has resulted in limiting the effective treatment of human infections. The present study characterized the resi...

  18. Genome Sequences of Four Nonhuman/Nonclinical Salmonella enterica Serovar Kentucky ST198 Isolates Recovered between 1972 and 1973

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seon-Woo; Haley, Bradd J.; Roberson, Dwayne; Allard, Marc; Hammack, Thomas S.; Brown, Eric W.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky is a polyphyletic member of S. enterica subclade A1 with multiple sequence types that often colonize the same hosts but in different frequencies on different continents. To evaluate the genomic features involved in S. Kentucky host specificity, we sequenced the genomes of four isolates recovered in the 1970s. PMID:28302786

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. diarizonae Serovar 61:k:1,5,(7) Strain CRJJGF_00165 (Phylum Gammaproteobacteria)

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sushim K.; McMillan, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, Charlene R.; Desai, Prerak T.; Porwollik, Steffen; McClelland, Michael; Hiott, Lari M.; Humayoun, Shaheen B.; Barrett, John B.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report a 4.78-Mb draft genome sequence of the Salmonella enterica subsp. diarizonae serovar 61:k:1,5,(7) strain CRJJGF_00165 [also called S. enterica subsp. IIIb serovar 61:k:1,5,(7) strain CRJJGF_00165], isolated from ground beef in 2007. PMID:27881547

  20. Genome sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. Kentucky ST152 isolated from dairy cows in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky is frequently isolated from dairy cows in the United States, but is an infrequent cause of human salmonellosis. To investigate the genomic features of S. Kentucky strains isolated from these animals, genomes of eight isolates were sequenced and ad...

  1. Isolation of Salmonella enterica Serotype Newport from a Partly Ruptured Splenic Abscess in a Traveler Returning from Zanzibar▿

    PubMed Central

    Tappe, Dennis; Müller, Andreas; Langen, Heinz-Jakob; Frosch, Matthias; Stich, August

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Newport is a pathogen of growing importance because of its epidemic spread in dairy cattle and increasing rate of antimicrobial resistance. Human infections, however, are rare. We report a case of a splenic abscess in a young traveler returning from East Africa. PMID:17634302

  2. Development of a Rapid Multiplex PCR Technique for Determination of Salmonella enterica Serotypes Isolated from Pork and Poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: A multiplex PCR technique to discriminate Salmonella enterica serotypes was adapted to a high-throughput, automated assay. Methods: Fifteen target genes were chosen that varied in distribution among common Salmonella enterica serotypes isolated from various hosts. These targets were dete...

  3. Cross-sectional study examining Salmonella enterica carriage in subiliac lymph nodes of cull and feedlot cattle at harvest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bovine peripheral lymph nodes, including subiliac lymph nodes, have been identified as a potential source of human exposure to Salmonella enterica when trim containing these nodes is incorporated into ground beef. In order to gain a better understanding of the burden of S. enterica in subiliac lymp...

  4. Cross-sectional study examining Salmonella enterica carriage in subiliac lymph nodes of cull and feedlot cattle at harvest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bovine peripheral lymph nodes (LNs), including subiliac LNs, have been identified as a potential source of human exposure to Salmonella enterica, when adipose trim containing these nodes is incorporated into ground beef. In order to gain a better understanding of the burden of S. enterica in periphe...

  5. Occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica in the beef cattle production and processing continuum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Specific concerns have been raised that 3rd-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GCr) Escherichia coli, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant (COTr) E. coli, 3GCr Salmonella enterica, and nalidixic acid-resistant (NALr) S. enterica, may be present in cattle production environments, persist through...

  6. Genomic and Phenotypic Analyses Reveal the Emergence of an Atypical Salmonella enterica Serovar Senftenberg Variant in China

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaolu; Li, Yinghui; Ansari, Hifzur R.; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Ho, Y. S.; Naeem, Raeece; Pickard, Derek; Klena, John D.; Xu, Xuebing; Pain, Arnab

    2016-01-01

    Human infections with Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Senftenberg are often associated with exposure to poultry flocks, farm environments, or contaminated food. The recent emergence of multidrug-resistant isolates has raised public health concerns. In this study, comparative genomics and phenotypic analysis were used to characterize 14 Salmonella Senftenberg clinical isolates recovered from multiple outbreaks in Shenzhen and Shanghai, China, between 2002 and 2011. Single-nucleotide polymorphism analyses identified two phylogenetically distinct clades of S. Senftenberg, designated SC1 and SC2, harboring variations in Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) and SPI-2 and exhibiting distinct biochemical and phenotypic signatures. Although the two variants shared the same serotype, the SC2 isolates of sequence type 14 (ST14) harbored intact SPI-1 and -2 and hence were characterized by possessing efficient invasion capabilities. In contrast, the SC1 isolates had structural deletion patterns in both SPI-1 and -2 that correlated with an impaired capacity to invade cultured human cells and also the year of their isolation. These atypical SC1 isolates also lacked the capacity to produce hydrogen sulfide. These findings highlight the emergence of atypical Salmonella Senftenberg variants in China and provide genetic validation that variants lacking SPI-1 and regions of SPI-2, which leads to impaired invasion capacity, can still cause clinical disease. These data have identified an emerging public health concern and highlight the need to strengthen surveillance to detect the prevalence and transmission of nontyphoidal Salmonella species. PMID:27225410

  7. Identification and characterization of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Albert isolates in the United States.

    PubMed

    Folster, Jason P; Campbell, Davina; Grass, Julian; Brown, Allison C; Bicknese, Amelia; Tolar, Beth; Joseph, Lavin A; Plumblee, Jodie R; Walker, Carrie; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Whichard, Jean M

    2015-05-01

    Salmonella enterica is one of the most common causes of bacterial foodborne illness in the United States. Although most Salmonella infections are self-limiting, antimicrobial treatment of invasive salmonellosis is critical. The primary antimicrobial treatment options include fluoroquinolones or extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and resistance to these antimicrobial drugs may complicate treatment. At present, S. enterica is composed of more than 2,600 unique serotypes, which vary greatly in geographic prevalence, ecological niche, and the ability to cause human disease, and it is important to understand and mitigate the source of human infection, particularly when antimicrobial resistance is found. In this study, we identified and characterized 19 S. enterica serotype Albert isolates collected from food animals, retail meat, and humans in the United States during 2005 to 2013. All five isolates from nonhuman sources were obtained from turkeys or ground turkey, and epidemiologic data suggest poultry consumption or live-poultry exposure as the probable source of infection. S. enterica serotype Albert also appears to be geographically localized to the midwestern United States. All 19 isolates displayed multidrug resistance, including decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Turkeys are a likely source of multidrug-resistant S. enterica serotype Albert, and circulation of resistance plasmids, as opposed to the expansion of a single resistant strain, is playing a role. More work is needed to understand why these resistance plasmids spread and how their presence and the serotype they reside in contribute to human disease.

  8. Salmonella pathogenicity islands in host specificity, host pathogen-interactions and antibiotics resistance of Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Roman G; Hensel, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a pathogen highly successful in causing a variety of gastrointestinal and systemic diseases in animals and humans. While some serovars of S. enterica are able to infect a broad range of host organisms, other serovars are highly restricted to specific host species. The colonization of hosts by S. enterica depends on the function of a large number of virulence determinants. The molecular analyses of virulence genes demonstrated that most of these loci are clustered within Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands (SPI). SPI1 and SPI2 each encode type III secretion systems (T355) that confer main virulence traits of S. enterica, i.e. invasion, enteropathogenesis and intracellular survival and proliferation. Further SPI encode factors that contribute to intracellular survival, different types of adhesins, or effector proteins of the SPI1-T3SS or SPI2-T3SS. The availability of genome sequences of several serovars of S. enterica also revealed serovar-specific SPI. In this review, the main characteristics of the currently known SPI are summarized with focus on their roles in various animal hosts and putative functions in human infections.

  9. Biofilm formation, phenotypic production of cellulose and gene expression in Salmonella enterica decrease under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Lamas, A; Miranda, J M; Vázquez, B; Cepeda, A; Franco, C M

    2016-12-05

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica is one of the main food-borne pathogens. This microorganism combines an aerobic life outside the host with an anaerobic life within the host. One of the main concerns related to S. enterica is biofilm formation and cellulose production. In this study, biofilm formation, morphotype, cellulose production and transcription of biofilm and quorum sensing-related genes of 11 S. enterica strains were tested under three different conditions: aerobiosis, microaerobiosis, and anaerobiosis. The results showed an influence of oxygen levels on biofilm production. Biofilm formation was significantly higher (P<0.05) in aerobiosis than in microaerobiosis and anaerobiosis. Cellulose production and RDAR (red, dry, and rough) were expressed only in aerobiosis. In microaerobiosis, the strains expressed the SAW (smooth and white) morphotype, while in anaerobiosis the colonies appeared small and red. The expression of genes involved in cellulose synthesis (csgD and adrA) and quorum sensing (sdiA and luxS) was reduced in microaerobiosis and anaerobiosis in all S. enterica strains tested. This gene expression levels were less reduced in S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis compared to the tested serotypes. There was a relationship between the expression of biofilm and quorum sensing-related genes. Thus, the results from this study indicate that biofilm formation and cellulose production are highly influenced by atmospheric conditions. This must be taken into account as contamination with these bacteria can occur during food processing under vacuum or modified atmospheres.

  10. Identification and Characterization of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Albert Isolates in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Davina; Grass, Julian; Brown, Allison C.; Bicknese, Amelia; Tolar, Beth; Joseph, Lavin A.; Plumblee, Jodie R.; Walker, Carrie; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J.; Whichard, Jean M.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is one of the most common causes of bacterial foodborne illness in the United States. Although most Salmonella infections are self-limiting, antimicrobial treatment of invasive salmonellosis is critical. The primary antimicrobial treatment options include fluoroquinolones or extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and resistance to these antimicrobial drugs may complicate treatment. At present, S. enterica is composed of more than 2,600 unique serotypes, which vary greatly in geographic prevalence, ecological niche, and the ability to cause human disease, and it is important to understand and mitigate the source of human infection, particularly when antimicrobial resistance is found. In this study, we identified and characterized 19 S. enterica serotype Albert isolates collected from food animals, retail meat, and humans in the United States during 2005 to 2013. All five isolates from nonhuman sources were obtained from turkeys or ground turkey, and epidemiologic data suggest poultry consumption or live-poultry exposure as the probable source of infection. S. enterica serotype Albert also appears to be geographically localized to the midwestern United States. All 19 isolates displayed multidrug resistance, including decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Turkeys are a likely source of multidrug-resistant S. enterica serotype Albert, and circulation of resistance plasmids, as opposed to the expansion of a single resistant strain, is playing a role. More work is needed to understand why these resistance plasmids spread and how their presence and the serotype they reside in contribute to human disease. PMID:25733501

  11. Physiological and Molecular Responses of Lactuca sativa to Colonization by Salmonella enterica Serovar Dublin▿

    PubMed Central

    Klerks, M. M.; van Gent-Pelzer, M.; Franz, E.; Zijlstra, C.; van Bruggen, A. H. C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the physiological and molecular interactions between the human-pathogenic organism Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin and the commercially available mini Roman lettuce cv. Tamburo. The association of S. enterica serovar Dublin with lettuce plants was first determined, which indicated the presence of significant populations outside and inside the plants. The latter was evidenced from significant residual concentrations after highly efficient surface disinfection (99.81%) and fluorescence microscopy of S. enterica serovar Dublin in cross sections of lettuce at the root-shoot transition region. The plant biomass was reduced significantly compared to that of noncolonized plants upon colonization with S. enterica serovar Dublin. In addition to the physiological response, transcriptome analysis by cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis also provided clear differential gene expression profiles between noncolonized and colonized lettuce plants. From these, generally and differentially expressed genes were selected and identified by sequence analysis, followed by reverse transcription-PCR displaying the specific gene expression profiles in time. Functional grouping of the expressed genes indicated a correlation between colonization of the plants and an increase in expressed pathogenicity-related genes. This study indicates that lettuce plants respond to the presence of S. enterica serovar Dublin at physiological and molecular levels, as shown by the reduction in growth and the concurrent expression of pathogenicity-related genes. In addition, it was confirmed that Salmonella spp. can colonize the interior of lettuce plants, thus potentially imposing a human health risk when processed and consumed. PMID:17513585

  12. Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Exploits Inflammation to Compete with the Intestinal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Stecher, Bärbel; Westendorf, Astrid M; Barthel, Manja; Kremer, Marcus; Chaffron, Samuel; Macpherson, Andrew J; Buer, Jan; Parkhill, Julian; Dougan, Gordon; von Mering, Christian; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2007-01-01

    Most mucosal surfaces of the mammalian body are colonized by microbial communities (“microbiota”). A high density of commensal microbiota inhabits the intestine and shields from infection (“colonization resistance”). The virulence strategies allowing enteropathogenic bacteria to successfully compete with the microbiota and overcome colonization resistance are poorly understood. Here, we investigated manipulation of the intestinal microbiota by the enteropathogenic bacterium Salmonella enterica subspecies 1 serovar Typhimurium (S. Tm) in a mouse colitis model: we found that inflammatory host responses induced by S. Tm changed microbiota composition and suppressed its growth. In contrast to wild-type S. Tm, an avirulent invGsseD mutant failing to trigger colitis was outcompeted by the microbiota. This competitive defect was reverted if inflammation was provided concomitantly by mixed infection with wild-type S. Tm or in mice (IL10−/−, VILLIN-HACL4-CD8) with inflammatory bowel disease. Thus, inflammation is necessary and sufficient for overcoming colonization resistance. This reveals a new concept in infectious disease: in contrast to current thinking, inflammation is not always detrimental for the pathogen. Triggering the host's immune defence can shift the balance between the protective microbiota and the pathogen in favour of the pathogen. PMID:17760501

  13. Efficacy of European starling control to reduce Salmonella enterica contamination in a concentrated animal feeding operation in the Texas panhandle.

    PubMed

    Carlson, James C; Engeman, Richard M; Hyatt, Doreene R; Gilliland, Rickey L; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Clark, Larry; Bodenchuk, Michael J; Linz, George M

    2011-02-16

    European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are an invasive bird species known to cause damage to plant and animal agriculture. New evidence suggests starlings may also contribute to the maintenance and spread of diseases within livestock facilities. Identifying and mitigating the risk pathways that contribute to disease in livestock is necessary to reduce production losses and contamination of human food products. To better understand the impact starlings have on disease transmission to cattle we assessed the efficacy of starling control as a tool to reduce Salmonella enterica within a concentrated animal feeding operation. We matched a large facility, slated for operational control using DRC-1339 (3-chloro-4-methylaniline hydrochloride, also 3-chloro p-toluidine hydrochloride, 3-chloro-4-methylaniline), with a comparable reference facility that was not controlling birds. In both facilities, we sampled cattle feed, cattle water and cattle feces for S. enterica before and after starling control operations. Within the starling-controlled CAFO, detections of S. enterica contamination disappeared from feed bunks and substantially declined within water troughs following starling control operations. Within the reference facility, detections of S. enterica contamination increased substantially within feed bunks and water troughs. Starling control was not observed to reduce prevalence of S. enterica in the cattle herd. Following starling control operations, herd prevalence of S. enterica increased on the reference facility but herd prevalence of S. enterica on the starling-controlled CAFO stayed at pretreatment levels. Within the starling-controlled facility detections of S. enterica disappeared from feed bunks and substantially declined within water troughs following control operations. Since cattle feed and water are obvious routes for the ingestion of S. enterica, starling control shows promise as a tool to help livestock producers manage disease. Yet, we do not believe

  14. Efficacy of European starling control to reduce Salmonella enterica contamination in a concentrated animal feeding operation in the Texas panhandle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are an invasive bird species known to cause damage to plant and animal agriculture. New evidence suggests starlings may also contribute to the maintenance and spread of diseases within livestock facilities. Identifying and mitigating the risk pathways that contribute to disease in livestock is necessary to reduce production losses and contamination of human food products. To better understand the impact starlings have on disease transmission to cattle we assessed the efficacy of starling control as a tool to reduce Salmonella enterica within a concentrated animal feeding operation. We matched a large facility, slated for operational control using DRC-1339 (3-chloro-4-methylaniline hydrochloride, also 3-chloro p-toluidine hydrochloride, 3-chloro-4-methylaniline), with a comparable reference facility that was not controlling birds. In both facilities, we sampled cattle feed, cattle water and cattle feces for S. enterica before and after starling control operations. Results Within the starling-controlled CAFO, detections of S. enterica contamination disappeared from feed bunks and substantially declined within water troughs following starling control operations. Within the reference facility, detections of S. enterica contamination increased substantially within feed bunks and water troughs. Starling control was not observed to reduce prevalence of S. enterica in the cattle herd. Following starling control operations, herd prevalence of S. enterica increased on the reference facility but herd prevalence of S. enterica on the starling-controlled CAFO stayed at pretreatment levels. Conclusions Within the starling-controlled facility detections of S. enterica disappeared from feed bunks and substantially declined within water troughs following control operations. Since cattle feed and water are obvious routes for the ingestion of S. enterica, starling control shows promise as a tool to help livestock producers manage

  15. The plasmid-encoded Ipf and Klf fimbriae display different expression and varying roles in the virulence of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis in mouse vs. avian hosts

    PubMed Central

    Mikhlin, Svetlana; Cohen, Helit; Vitman Zilber, Shaul; Grassl, Guntram A.

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis is one of the prevalent Salmonella serovars worldwide. Different emergent clones of S. Infantis were shown to acquire the pESI virulence-resistance megaplasmid affecting its ecology and pathogenicity. Here, we studied two previously uncharacterized pESI-encoded chaperone-usher fimbriae, named Ipf and Klf. While Ipf homologs are rare and were found only in S. enterica subspecies diarizonae and subspecies VII, Klf is related to the known K88-Fae fimbria and klf clusters were identified in seven S. enterica subspecies I serovars, harboring interchanging alleles of the fimbria major subunit, KlfG. Regulation studies showed that the klf genes expression is negatively and positively controlled by the pESI-encoded regulators KlfL and KlfB, respectively, and are activated by the ancestral leucine-responsive regulator (Lrp). ipf genes are negatively regulated by Fur and activated by OmpR. Furthermore, induced expression of both klf and ipf clusters occurs under microaerobic conditions and at 41°C compared to 37°C, in-vitro. Consistent with these results, we demonstrate higher expression of ipf and klf in chicks compared to mice, characterized by physiological temperature of 41.2°C and 37°C, respectively. Interestingly, while Klf was dispensable for S. Infantis colonization in the mouse, Ipf was required for maximal colonization in the murine ileum. In contrast to these phenotypes in mice, both Klf and Ipf contributed to a restrained infection in chicks, where the absence of these fimbriae has led to moderately higher bacterial burden in the avian host. Taken together, these data suggest that physiological differences between host species, such as the body temperature, can confer differences in fimbriome expression, affecting Salmonella colonization and other host-pathogen interplays. PMID:28817673

  16. Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Investigation of H2S-Negative Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Choleraesuis Isolates in China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jing; Yi, Shengjie; Zhu, Jiangong; Li, Peng; Liang, Beibei; Li, Hao; Yang, Xiaoxia; Wang, Ligui; Hao, Rongzhang; Jia, Leili; Wu, Zhihao; Qiu, Shaofu; Song, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Choleraesuis is a highly invasive pathogen of swine that frequently causes serious outbreaks, in particular in Asia, and can also cause severe invasive disease in humans. In this study, 21 S. Choleraesuis isolates, detected from 21 patients with diarrhea in China between 2010 and 2011, were found to include 19 H2S-negative S. Choleraesuis isolates and two H2S-positive isolates. This is the first report of H2S-negative S. Choleraesuis isolated from humans. The majority of H2S-negative isolates exhibited high resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, tetracycline, ticarcillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, but only six isolates were resistant to norfloxacin. In contrast, all of the isolates were sensitive to cephalosporins. Fifteen isolates were found to be multidrug resistant. In norfloxacin-resistant isolates, we detected mutations in the gyrA and parC genes and identified two new mutations in the parC gene. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) analysis were employed to investigate the genetic relatedness of H2S-negative and H2S-positive S. Choleraesuis isolates. PFGE revealed two groups, with all 19 H2S-negative S. Choleraesuis isolates belonging to Group I and H2S-positive isolates belonging to Group II. By MLST analysis, the H2S-negative isolates were all found to belong to ST68 and H2S-positive isolates belong to ST145. By CRISPR analysis, no significant differences in CRISPR 1 were detected; however, one H2S-negative isolate was found to contain three new spacers in CRISPR 2. All 19 H2S-negative isolates also possessed a frame-shift mutation at position 760 of phsA gene compared with H2S-positive isolates, which may be responsible for the H2S-negative phenotype. Moreover, the 19 H2S-negative isolates have similar PFGE patterns and same mutation site in the phsA gene, these results indicated

  17. Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Investigation of H2S-Negative Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Choleraesuis Isolates in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Liang, Beibei; Li, Hao; Yang, Xiaoxia; Wang, Ligui; Hao, Rongzhang; Jia, Leili; Wu, Zhihao; Qiu, Shaofu; Song, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Choleraesuis is a highly invasive pathogen of swine that frequently causes serious outbreaks, in particular in Asia, and can also cause severe invasive disease in humans. In this study, 21 S. Choleraesuis isolates, detected from 21 patients with diarrhea in China between 2010 and 2011, were found to include 19 H2S-negative S. Choleraesuis isolates and two H2S-positive isolates. This is the first report of H2S-negative S. Choleraesuis isolated from humans. The majority of H2S-negative isolates exhibited high resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, tetracycline, ticarcillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, but only six isolates were resistant to norfloxacin. In contrast, all of the isolates were sensitive to cephalosporins. Fifteen isolates were found to be multidrug resistant. In norfloxacin-resistant isolates, we detected mutations in the gyrA and parC genes and identified two new mutations in the parC gene. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) analysis were employed to investigate the genetic relatedness of H2S-negative and H2S-positive S. Choleraesuis isolates. PFGE revealed two groups, with all 19 H2S-negative S. Choleraesuis isolates belonging to Group I and H2S-positive isolates belonging to Group II. By MLST analysis, the H2S-negative isolates were all found to belong to ST68 and H2S-positive isolates belong to ST145. By CRISPR analysis, no significant differences in CRISPR 1 were detected; however, one H2S-negative isolate was found to contain three new spacers in CRISPR 2. All 19 H2S-negative isolates also possessed a frame-shift mutation at position 760 of phsA gene compared with H2S-positive isolates, which may be responsible for the H2S-negative phenotype. Moreover, the 19 H2S-negative isolates have similar PFGE patterns and same mutation site in the phsA gene, these results indicated

  18. Integration host factor is important for biofilm formation by Salmonella enterica Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Leite, Bruna; Werle, Catierine Hirsch; Carmo, Camila Pinheiro do; Nóbrega, Diego Borin; Milanez, Guilherme Paier; Culler, Hebert Fabricio; Sircili, Marcelo Palma; Alvarez-Martinez, Cristina E; Brocchi, Marcelo

    2017-08-31

    Salmonella enterica Enteritidis forms biofilms and survives in agricultural environments, infecting poultry and eggs. Bacteria in biofilms are difficult to eradicate compared to planktonic cells, causing serious problems in industry and public health. In this study, we evaluated the role of ihfA and ihfB in biofilm formation by S. enterica Enteritidis by employing different microbiology techniques. Our data indicate that ihf mutant strains are impaired in biofilm formation, showing a reduction in matrix formation and a decrease in viability and metabolic activity. Phenotypic analysis also showed that deletion of ihf causes a deficiency in curli fimbriae expression, cellulose production and pellicle formation. These results show that integration host factor has an important regulatory role in biofilm formation by S. enterica Enteritidis. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Salmonella enterica induces and subverts the plant immune system.

    PubMed

    García, Ana V; Hirt, Heribert

    2014-01-01

    Infections with Salmonella enterica belong to the most prominent causes of food poisoning and infected fruits and vegetables represent important vectors for salmonellosis. Although it was shown that plants raise defense responses against Salmonella, these bacteria persist and proliferate in various plant tissues. Recent reports shed light into the molecular interaction between plants and Salmonella, highlighting the defense pathways induced and the means used by the bacteria to escape the plant immune system and accomplish colonization. It was recently shown that plants detect Salmonella pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as the flagellin peptide flg22, and activate hallmarks of the defense program known as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Interestingly, certain Salmonella strains carry mutations in the flg22 domain triggering PTI, suggesting that a strategy of Salmonella is to escape plant detection by mutating PAMP motifs. Another strategy may rely on the type III secretion system (T3SS) as T3SS mutants were found to induce stronger plant defense responses than wild type bacteria. Although Salmonella effector delivery into plant cells has not been shown, expression of Salmonella effectors in plant tissues shows that these bacteria also possess powerful means to manipulate the plant immune system. Altogether, these data suggest that Salmonella triggers PTI in plants and evolved strategies to avoid or subvert plant immunity.

  20. Ingress of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium into Tomato Leaves through Hydathodes

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ganyu; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

    2013-01-01

    Internal contamination of Salmonella in plants is attracting increasing attention for food safety reasons. In this study, three different tomato cultivars “Florida Lanai”, “Crown Jewel”, “Ailsa Craig” and the transgenic line Sp5 of “Ailsa Craig” were inoculated with 1 µl GFP-labeled Salmonella Typhimurium through guttation droplets at concentrations of 109 or 107 CFU/ml. Survival of Salmonella on/in tomato leaves was detected by both direct plating and enrichment methods. Salmonella cells survived best on/in the inoculated leaves of cultivar “Ailsa Craig” and decreased fastest on/in “Florida Lanai” leaves. Increased guttation in the abscisic acid over-expressing Sp5 plants may have facilitated the entrance of Salmonella into leaves and the colonization on the surface of tomato leaves. Internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in tomato leaves through guttation drop inoculation was confirmed by confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can enter tomato leaves through hydathodes and move into the vascular system, which may result in the internal translocation of the bacteria inside plants. PMID:23320087

  1. Ingress of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium into tomato leaves through hydathodes.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ganyu; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

    2013-01-01

    Internal contamination of Salmonella in plants is attracting increasing attention for food safety reasons. In this study, three different tomato cultivars "Florida Lanai", "Crown Jewel", "Ailsa Craig" and the transgenic line Sp5 of "Ailsa Craig" were inoculated with 1 µl GFP-labeled Salmonella Typhimurium through guttation droplets at concentrations of 10(9) or 10(7) CFU/ml. Survival of Salmonella on/in tomato leaves was detected by both direct plating and enrichment methods. Salmonella cells survived best on/in the inoculated leaves of cultivar "Ailsa Craig" and decreased fastest on/in "Florida Lanai" leaves. Increased guttation in the abscisic acid over-expressing Sp5 plants may have facilitated the entrance of Salmonella into leaves and the colonization on the surface of tomato leaves. Internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in tomato leaves through guttation drop inoculation was confirmed by confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can enter tomato leaves through hydathodes and move into the vascular system, which may result in the internal translocation of the bacteria inside plants.

  2. Occurrence of Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin in Austria.

    PubMed

    Allerberger, Franz; Liesegang, Almut; Grif, Katharina; Khaschabi, Daryusch; Prager, Rita; Danzl, Johann; Höck, Franz; Ottl, Josef; Dierich, Manfred P; Berghold, Christian; Neckstaller, Ingeborg; Tschäpe, Helmut; Fisher, Ian

    2003-01-01

    In Austria, Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin, a bovine-adapted serovar, rarely causes human infections. In the year 2000, Austria was within the European mean with an incidence of 0.1 per million inhabitants. Our data show that the vast majority of all Austrian serovar Dublin infections can be traced to two Tyrolian districts. This concentration of cases can be explained by a particularly traditional aspect of cattle farming in Tyrol, the alpine pasture. There is increased risk of cross-infection due to the communal keeping of animals from various farms. Infected cattle are a source of infection for people, and contagion usually occurs from eating beef and drinking cow's milk. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and automated ribotyping, 3 out of 5 available isolates from human infections could be traced to characteristic Tyrolian S. Dublin clones. Bacteriological screening of herds with a known history of S. Dublin infection would be a start to prevent future contamination of alpine pastures through latently infected cattle excreting potentially infectious feces. Bacteriological screening for fecal carriage before the return of cattle from pastures known to be connected with infections could prevent cross-contamination of large mixed herds.

  3. Fibrinolytic and procoagulant activities of Yersinia pestis and Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, T K

    2015-06-01

    Pla of the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis and PgtE of the enteropathogen Salmonella enterica are surface-exposed, transmembrane β-barrel proteases of the omptin family that exhibit a complex array of interactions with the hemostatic systems in vitro, and both proteases are established virulence factors. Pla favors fibrinolysis by direct activation of plasminogen, inactivation of the serpins plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and α2-antiplasmin, inactivation of the thrombin-activable fibrinolysis inhibitor, and activation of single-chain urokinase. PgtE is structurally very similar but exhibits partially different functions and differ in expression control. PgtE proteolysis targets control aspects of fibrinolysis, and mimicry of matrix metalloproteinases enhances cell migration that should favor the intracellular spread of the bacterium. Enzymatic activity of both proteases is strongly influenced by the environment-induced variations in lipopolysaccharide that binds to the β-barrel. Both proteases cleave the tissue factor pathway inhibitor and thus also express procoagulant activity. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  4. Lag phase of Salmonella enterica under osmotic stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, K; George, S M; Métris, A; Li, P L; Baranyi, J

    2011-03-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was grown at salt concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 7.5% in minimal medium with and without added osmoprotectant and in a rich medium. In minimal medium, the cells showed an initial decline period, and consequently the definition of the lag time of the resultant log count curve was revised. The model of Baranyi and Roberts (Int. J. Food Microbiol. 23:277-294, 1994) was modified to take into account the initial decline period, based on the assumption that the log count curve of the total population was the sum of a dying and a surviving-then-growing subpopulation. The lag time was defined as the lag of the surviving subpopulation. It was modeled by means of a parameter quantifying the biochemical work the surviving cells carry out during this phase, the "work to be done." The logarithms of the maximum specific growth rates as a function of the water activity in the three media differed only by additive constants, which gave a theoretical basis for bias factors characterizing the relationships between different media. Models for the lag and the "work to be done" as a function of the water activity showed similar properties, but in rich medium above 5% salt concentrations, the data showed a maximum for this work. An accurate description of the lag time is important to avoid food wastage, which is an issue of increasing significance in the food industry, while maintaining food safety standards.

  5. Mapping the Regulatory Network for Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Carol; Stringer, Anne M.; Mao, Chunhong; Palumbo, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Salmonella enterica pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) encodes proteins required for invasion of gut epithelial cells. The timing of invasion is tightly controlled by a complex regulatory network. The transcription factor (TF) HilD is the master regulator of this process and senses environmental signals associated with invasion. HilD activates transcription of genes within and outside SPI-1, including six other TFs. Thus, the transcriptional program associated with host cell invasion is controlled by at least 7 TFs. However, very few of the regulatory targets are known for these TFs, and the extent of the regulatory network is unclear. In this study, we used complementary genomic approaches to map the direct regulatory targets of all 7 TFs. Our data reveal a highly complex and interconnected network that includes many previously undescribed regulatory targets. Moreover, the network extends well beyond the 7 TFs, due to the inclusion of many additional TFs and noncoding RNAs. By comparing gene expression profiles of regulatory targets for the 7 TFs, we identified many uncharacterized genes that are likely to play direct roles in invasion. We also uncovered cross talk between SPI-1 regulation and other regulatory pathways, which, in turn, identified gene clusters that likely share related functions. Our data are freely available through an intuitive online browser and represent a valuable resource for the bacterial research community. PMID:27601571

  6. Diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica isolates from surface water in Southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Li, Baoguang; Vellidis, George; Liu, Huanli; Jay-Russell, Michele; Zhao, Shaohua; Hu, Zonglin; Wright, Anita; Elkins, Christopher A

    2014-10-01

    A study of prevalence, diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica in surface water in the southeastern United States was conducted. A new scheme was developed for recovery of Salmonella from irrigation pond water and compared with the FDA's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (8th ed., 2014) (BAM) method. Fifty-one isolates were recovered from 10 irrigation ponds in produce farms over a 2-year period; nine Salmonella serovars were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis, and the major serovar was Salmonella enterica serovar Newport (S. Newport, n = 29), followed by S. enterica serovar Enteritidis (n = 6), S. enterica serovar Muenchen (n = 4), S. enterica serovar Javiana (n = 3), S. enterica serovar Thompson (n = 2), and other serovars. It is noteworthy that the PulseNet patterns of some of the isolates were identical to those of the strains that were associated with the S. Thompson outbreaks in 2010, 2012, and 2013, S. Enteritidis outbreaks in 2011 and 2013, and an S. Javiana outbreak in 2012. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing confirmed 16 S. Newport isolates of the multidrug resistant-AmpC (MDR-AmpC) phenotype, which exhibited resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (ACSSuT), and to the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd generations of cephalosporins (cephalothin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and ceftriaxone). Moreover, the S. Newport MDR-AmpC isolates had a PFGE pattern indistinguishable from the patterns of the isolates from clinical settings. These findings suggest that the irrigation water may be a potential source of contamination of Salmonella in fresh produce. The new Salmonella isolation scheme significantly increased recovery efficiency from 21.2 (36/170) to 29.4% (50/170) (P = 0.0002) and streamlined the turnaround time from 5 to 9 days with the BAM method to 4 days and thus may facilitate microbiological analysis of environmental water. Copyright © 2014, American Society for

  7. Potential Interactions between Salmonella enterica and Ralstonia solanacearum in tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Stephanie; Barak, Jeri; Boyer, Renee; Reiter, Mark; Gu, Ganyu; Rideout, Steven

    2014-02-01

    Over the past decade, the Eastern Shore of Virginia (ESV) has been implicated in at least four outbreaks of salmonellosis associated with tomato, all originating from the same serovar, Salmonella enterica serovar Newport. In addition to Salmonella Newport contamination, the devastating plant disease bacterial wilt, caused by the phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum, threatens the sustainability of ESV tomato production. Bacterial wilt is present in most ESV tomato fields and causes devastating yield losses each year. Although the connection between bacterial wilt and tomato-related salmonellosis outbreaks in ESV is of interest, the relationship between the two pathogens has never been investigated. In this study, tomato plants were root dip inoculated with one of four treatments: (i) 8 log CFU of Salmonella Newport per ml, (ii) 5 log CFU of R. solanacearum per ml, (iii) a coinoculation of 8 log CFU of Salmonella Newport per ml plus 5 log CFU of R. solanacearum per ml, and (iv) sterile water as control. Leaf, stem, and fruit samples were collected at the early-green-fruit stage, and S. enterica contamination in the internal tissues was detected. S. enterica was recovered in 1.4 and 2.9% of leaf samples from plants inoculated with Salmonella Newport only and from plants coinoculated with Salmonella Newport plus R. solanacearum, respectively. S. enterica was recovered from 1.7 and 3.5% of fruit samples from plants inoculated with Salmonella Newport only and from plants coinoculated with Salmonella Newport plus R. solanacearum, respectively. There were significantly more stem samples from plants coinoculated with Salmonella Newport plus R. solanacearum that were positive for S. enterica (18.6%) than stem samples collected from plants inoculated with Salmonella Newport only (5.7%). Results suggested that R. solanacearum could influence S. enterica survival and transportation throughout the internal tissues of tomato plants.

  8. Transcriptomic Responses of Salmonella enterica Serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium to Chlorine-Based Oxidative Stress▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Siyun; Phillippy, Adam M.; Deng, Kaiping; Rui, Xiaoqian; Li, Zengxin; Tortorello, Mary Lou; Zhang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium are the leading causative agents of salmonellosis in the United States. S. Enteritidis is predominantly associated with contamination of shell eggs and egg products, whereas S. Typhimurium is frequently linked to tainted poultry meats, fresh produce, and recently, peanut-based products. Chlorine is an oxidative disinfectant commonly used in the food industry to sanitize the surfaces of foods and food processing facilities (e.g., shell eggs and poultry meats). However, chlorine disinfection is not always effective, as some S. enterica strains may resist and survive the disinfection process. To date, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of how S. enterica responds to chlorine-based oxidative stress. In this study, we designed a custom bigenome microarray that consists of 385,000 60-mer oligonucleotide probes and targets 4,793 unique gene features in the genomes of S. Enteritidis strain PT4 and S. Typhimurium strain LT2. We explored the transcriptomic responses of both strains to two different chlorine treatments (130 ppm of chlorine for 30 min and 390 ppm of chlorine for 10 min) in brain heart infusion broth. We identified 209 S. enterica core genes associated with Fe-S cluster assembly, cysteine biosynthesis, stress response, ribosome formation, biofilm formation, and energy metabolism that were differentially expressed (>1.5-fold; P < 0.05). In addition, we found that serovars Enteriditis and Typhimurium differed in the responses of 33 stress-related genes and 19 virulence-associated genes to the chlorine stress. Findings from this study suggest that the oxidative-stress response may render S. enterica resistant or susceptible to certain types of environmental stresses, which in turn promotes the development of more effective hurdle interventions to reduce the risk of S. enterica contamination in the food supply. PMID:20562293

  9. Salmonella enterica virulence genes are required for bacterial attachment to plant tissue.

    PubMed

    Barak, Jeri D; Gorski, Lisa; Naraghi-Arani, Pejman; Charkowski, Amy O

    2005-10-01

    Numerous Salmonella enterica food-borne illness outbreaks have been associated with contaminated vegetables, in particular sprouted seeds, and the incidence of reported contamination has steadily risen. In order to understand the physiology of S. enterica serovar Newport on plants, a screen was developed to identify transposon mutants that were defective in attachment to alfalfa sprouts. Twenty independent mutants from a pool of 6,000 were selected for reduced adherence to alfalfa sprouts. Sixty-five percentage of these mutants had insertions in uncharacterized genes. Among the characterized genes were strains with insertions in the intergenic region between agfB, the surface-exposed aggregative fimbria (curli) nucleator, and agfD, a transcriptional regulator of the LuxR superfamily, and rpoS, the stationary-phase sigma factor. Both AgfD and RpoS have been reported to regulate curli and cellulose production and RpoS regulates other adhesins such as pili. The intergenic and rpoS mutants were reduced in initial attachment to alfalfa sprouts by 1 log unit compared to the wild type. Mutations of agfA, curli subunit, and agfB in S. enterica serovar Enteritidis differentially affected attachment to plant tissue. The agfA mutation was not reduced in ability to attach to or colonize alfalfa sprouts, whereas the agfB mutation was reduced. Thus, agfB alone can play a role in attachment of S. enterica to plant tissue. These results reveal that S. enterica genes important for virulence in animal systems are also required for colonization of plants, a secondary host that can serve as a vector of S. enterica from animal to animal.

  10. Resident bacteria on leaves enhance survival of immigrant cells of Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Poza-Carrion, Cesar; Suslow, Trevor; Lindow, Steven

    2013-04-01

    Although Salmonella enterica apparently has comparatively low epiphytic fitness on plants, external factors that would influence its ability to survive on plants after contamination would be of significance in the epidemiology of human diseases caused by this human pathogen. Viable population sizes of S. enterica applied to plants preinoculated with Pseudomonas syringae or either of two Erwinia herbicola strains was ≥10-fold higher than that on control plants that were not precolonized by such indigenous bacteria when assessed 24 to 72 h after the imposition of desiccation stress. The protective effect of P. fluorescens, which exhibited antibiosis toward S. enterica in vitro, was only ≈50% that conferred by other bacterial strains. Although S. enterica could produce small cellular aggregates after incubation on wet leaves for several days, and the cells in such aggregates were less susceptible to death upon acute dehydration than solitary cells (as determined by propidium iodide staining), most Salmonella cells were found as isolated cells when it was applied to leaves previously colonized by other bacterial species. The proportion of solitary cells of S. enterica coincident with aggregates of cells of preexisting epiphytic species that subsequently were judged as nonviable by viability staining on dry leaves was as much as 10-fold less than those that had landed on uncolonized portions of the leaf. Thus, survival of immigrant cells of S. enterica on plants appears to be strongly context dependent, and the presence of common epiphytic bacteria on plants can protect such immigrants from at least one key stress (i.e., desiccation) encountered on leaf surfaces.

  11. Diversity and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella enterica Isolates from Surface Water in Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Vellidis, George; Liu, Huanli; Jay-Russell, Michele; Zhao, Shaohua; Hu, Zonglin; Wright, Anita; Elkins, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    A study of prevalence, diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica in surface water in the southeastern United States was conducted. A new scheme was developed for recovery of Salmonella from irrigation pond water and compared with the FDA's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (8th ed., 2014) (BAM) method. Fifty-one isolates were recovered from 10 irrigation ponds in produce farms over a 2-year period; nine Salmonella serovars were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis, and the major serovar was Salmonella enterica serovar Newport (S. Newport, n = 29), followed by S. enterica serovar Enteritidis (n = 6), S. enterica serovar Muenchen (n = 4), S. enterica serovar Javiana (n = 3), S. enterica serovar Thompson (n = 2), and other serovars. It is noteworthy that the PulseNet patterns of some of the isolates were identical to those of the strains that were associated with the S. Thompson outbreaks in 2010, 2012, and 2013, S. Enteritidis outbreaks in 2011 and 2013, and an S. Javiana outbreak in 2012. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing confirmed 16 S. Newport isolates of the multidrug resistant-AmpC (MDR-AmpC) phenotype, which exhibited resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (ACSSuT), and to the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd generations of cephalosporins (cephalothin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and ceftriaxone). Moreover, the S. Newport MDR-AmpC isolates had a PFGE pattern indistinguishable from the patterns of the isolates from clinical settings. These findings suggest that the irrigation water may be a potential source of contamination of Salmonella in fresh produce. The new Salmonella isolation scheme significantly increased recovery efficiency from 21.2 (36/170) to 29.4% (50/170) (P = 0.0002) and streamlined the turnaround time from 5 to 9 days with the BAM method to 4 days and thus may facilitate microbiological analysis of environmental water. PMID:25107969

  12. Fatal case of Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae gastroenteritis in an infant with microcephaly.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar; Khan, Shoeb Akhtar; Chandel, Dinesh Singh; Kumar, Navin; Hans, Charoo; Chaudhry, Rama

    2003-12-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae is a common gut inhabitant of reptiles, with snakes as the most common reservoir. Though human cases due to this organism are exceedingly rare, it may infect young infants and immunocompromised individuals with a history of intimate associations with reptiles. Gastroenteritis is the most common presentation; others include peritonitis, pleuritis, osteomyelitis, meningitis, and bacteremia. We report a fatal case of S. enterica subsp. arizonae gastroenteritis in a 3-month-old child with microcephaly, with a review of earlier cases and problems encountered in identification of this rare human pathogen.

  13. Otitis interna (labyrinthitis) associated with Salmonella enterica arizonae in turkey poults.

    PubMed

    Shivaprasad, H L; Cortes, P; Crespo, R

    2006-03-01

    Otitis interna was diagnosed in five 9-to-21-day-old turkey poults with clinical signs of paralysis, opisthotonus, torticollis, blindness, and increased mortality. Gross and microscopic lesions in the poults included omphalitis, typhlitis, hepatitis, meningoencephalitis, ophthalmitis, neuritis and ganglionitis of the vestibulocochlear nerve, and otitis interna. Salmonella enterica arizonae was isolated from the brains, eyes, intestines, yolk sacs, and livers of poults. Birds with otitis interna also had meningoencephalitis. It is most likely that the S. enterica arizonae infection spread from the brain to the internal ears through the vestibulocochlear nerve. This is the first documentation of otitis interna caused by bacteria in an avian species.

  14. Fatal Case of Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae Gastroenteritis in an Infant with Microcephaly

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar; Khan, Shoeb Akhtar; Chandel, Dinesh Singh; Kumar, Navin; Hans, Charoo; Chaudhry, Rama

    2003-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae is a common gut inhabitant of reptiles, with snakes as the most common reservoir. Though human cases due to this organism are exceedingly rare, it may infect young infants and immunocompromised individuals with a history of intimate associations with reptiles. Gastroenteritis is the most common presentation; others include peritonitis, pleuritis, osteomyelitis, meningitis, and bacteremia. We report a fatal case of S. enterica subsp. arizonae gastroenteritis in a 3-month-old child with microcephaly, with a review of earlier cases and problems encountered in identification of this rare human pathogen. PMID:14662995

  15. The β-Oxidation Systems of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica Are Not Functionally Equivalent

    PubMed Central

    Iram, Surtaj Hussain; Cronan, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Based on its genome sequence, the pathway of β-oxidative fatty acid degradation in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 has been thought to be identical to the well-characterized Escherichia coli K-12 system. We report that wild-type strains of S. enterica grow on decanoic acid, whereas wild-type E. coli strains cannot. Mutant strains (carrying fadR) of both organisms in which the genes of fatty acid degradation (fad) are expressed constitutively are readily isolated. The S. enterica fadR strains grow more rapidly than the wild-type strains on decanoic acid and also grow well on octanoic and hexanoic acids (which do not support growth of wild-type strains). By contrast, E. coli fadR strains grow well on decanoic acid but grow only exceedingly slowly on octanoic acid and fail to grow at all on hexanoic acid. The two wild-type organisms also differed in the ability to grow on oleic acid when FadR was overexpressed. Under these superrepression conditions, E. coli failed to grow, whereas S. enterica grew well. Exchange of the wild-type fadR genes between the two organisms showed this to be a property of S. enterica rather than of the FadR proteins per se. This difference in growth was attributed to S. enterica having higher cytosolic levels of the inducing ligands, long-chain acyl coenzyme As (acyl-CoAs). The most striking results were the differences in the compositions of CoA metabolites of strains grown with octanoic acid or oleic acid. S. enterica cleanly converted all of the acid to acetyl-CoA, whereas E. coli accumulated high levels of intermediate-chain-length products. Exchange of homologous genes between the two organisms showed that the S. enterica FadE and FadBA enzymes were responsible for the greater efficiency of β-oxidation relative to that of E. coli. PMID:16385050

  16. Prophage Integrase Typing Is a Useful Indicator of Genomic Diversity in Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Colavecchio, Anna; D'Souza, Yasmin; Tompkins, Elizabeth; Jeukens, Julie; Freschi, Luca; Emond-Rheault, Jean-Guillaume; Kukavica-Ibrulj, Irena; Boyle, Brian; Bekal, Sadjia; Tamber, Sandeep; Levesque, Roger C; Goodridge, Lawrence D

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a bacterial species that is a major cause of illness in humans and food-producing animals. S. enterica exhibits considerable inter-serovar diversity, as evidenced by the large number of host adapted serovars that have been identified. The development of methods to assess genome diversity in S. enterica will help to further define the limits of diversity in this foodborne pathogen. Thus, we evaluated a PCR assay, which targets prophage integrase genes, as a rapid method to investigate S. enterica genome diversity. To evaluate the PCR prophage integrase assay, 49 isolates of S. enterica were selected, including 19 clinical isolates from clonal serovars (Enteritidis and Heidelberg) that commonly cause human illness, and 30 isolates from food-associated Salmonella serovars that rarely cause human illness. The number of integrase genes identified by the PCR assay was compared to the number of integrase genes within intact prophages identified by whole genome sequencing and phage finding program PHASTER. The PCR assay identified a total of 147 prophage integrase genes within the 49 S. enterica genomes (79 integrase genes in the food-associated Salmonella isolates, 50 integrase genes in S. Enteritidis, and 18 integrase genes in S. Heidelberg). In comparison, whole genome sequencing and PHASTER identified a total of 75 prophage integrase genes within 102 intact prophages in the 49 S. enterica genomes (44 integrase genes in the food-associated Salmonella isolates, 21 integrase genes in S. Enteritidis, and 9 integrase genes in S. Heidelberg). Collectively, both the PCR assay and PHASTER identified the presence of a large diversity of prophage integrase genes in the food-associated isolates compared to the clinical isolates, thus indicating a high degree of diversity in the food-associated isolates, and confirming the clonal nature of S. Enteritidis and S. Heidelberg. Moreover, PHASTER revealed a diversity of 29 different types of prophages and 23

  17. Outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage type DT41 in Danish poultry production.

    PubMed

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hintzmann, Ann-Sofie; Sørensen, Gitte; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2015-07-09

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is one of the most prevalent serovars in Europe - where both poultry and poultry related products are common sources of human salmonellosis. Due to efficient control programs, the prevalence of S. Typhimurium in Danish poultry production is very low. Despite this, during the past decades there has been a reoccurring problem with infections with S. Typhimurium phage type DT41 in the Danish poultry production without identifying a clear source. In the end of 2013 and beginning of 2014 an increased isolation of S. Typhimurium DT41 was noted mainly in this production, but also in other samples. To investigate this is in more detail, 47 isolates from egg layers (n=5, 1 flock), broilers (n=33, 13 flocks), broiler breeding flocks and hatches (n=5; 2 flocks and 1 environmental hatchery sample), feed (n=1), poultry slaughter house (n=3, environmental sample and meat) were typed with multi locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to investigate the epidemiology of the outbreak. Based on PFGE results isolates were divided into four groups (Simpson's index of diversity (DI)=0.24±0.15). Due to the low DI, PFGE was not sufficient to provide information to unravel the outbreak. Based on MLVA typing the DT41 (42/47 isolates) and the RDNC isolates (5/47) were split into nine groups (DI=0.65±0.14). When a maximum divergence at one locus was permitted these could be gathered into four groups. Using this criterion, combined with epidemiological information, a spread of one type from broiler breeders to broilers and further to the poultry slaughter house was plausible. In conclusion, although it could be concluded that a spread within the broiler production pyramid had taken place the source of the sudden increase of S. Typhimurium DT41 remains unclear. To investigate this in more detail, further studies using whole genome sequencing to obtain a

  18. Characterization of multiple-antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica Subsp. enterica isolated from indigenous vegetables and poultry in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yoke-Kqueen, C; Learn-Han, L; Noorzaleha, A S; Son, R; Sabrina, S; Jiun-Horng, S; Chai-Hoon, K

    2008-03-01

    The aims of this communication were to study characterization of serogroups among Salmonella isolates and the relationship of antimicrobial resistance to serogroups. Multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) was performed on 189 Salmonella enterica isolates associated with 38 different serovars that were recovered from poultry and four types of indigenous vegetables. Disc diffusion analysis was performed with a selection of 10 different antimicrobial agents. Isolates recovered from indigenous vegetables showed 100% (134/134) resistant to erythromycin and followed by 42%, 34%, 19% for tetracycline, streptomycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole respectively. In general, 90.1% (50/55) and 56.7% (76/134) of Salmonella isolated from poultry and indigenous vegetables, respectively, exhibited MAR index more than 0.2. Characterization of Salmonella isolates based on the MAR results indicated that poultry still remains as the main reservoir for multi-drug-resistant Salmonella. Four isolates from the indigenous vegetables showed the highest MAR index in this study. Further investigations need to be conducted to determine if Salmonella isolates recovered from indigenous vegetables were gaining more antimicrobial resistance. The study enabled us to determine antimicrobial patterns and trends in Salmonella from poultry and indigenous vegetables in Malaysia.

  19. Prevalence, serotyping and antimicrobials resistance mechanism of Salmonella enterica isolated from clinical and environmental samples in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    El-Tayeb, Mohamed A; Ibrahim, Abdelnasser S S; Al-Salamah, Ali A; Almaary, Khalid S; Elbadawi, Yahya B

    2017-02-14

    Salmonella is recognized as a common foodborne pathogen, causing major health problems in Saudi Arabia. Herein, we report epidemiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and the genetic basis of resistance among S. enterica strains isolated in Saudi Arabia. Isolation of Salmonella spp. from clinical and environmental samples resulted in isolation of 33 strains identified as S. enterica based on their biochemical characteristics and 16S-rDNA sequences. S. enterica serovar Enteritidis showed highest prevalence (39.4%), followed by S. Paratyphi (21.2%), S. Typhimurium (15.2%), S. Typhi and S. Arizona (12.1%), respectively. Most isolates were resistant to 1st and 2nd generation cephalosporin; and aminoglycosides. Moreover, several S. enterica isolates exhibited resistance to the first-line antibiotics used for Salmonellosis treatment including ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol. In addition, the results revealed the emergence of two S. enterica isolates showing resistance to third-generation cephalosporin. Analysis of resistance determinants in S. enterica strains (n=33) revealed that the resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline, was attributed to the presence of carb-like, dfrA1, floR, tetA gene, respectively. On the other hand, fluoroquinolone resistance was related to the presence of mutations in gyrA and parC genes. These findings improve the information about foodborne Salmonella in Saudi Arabia, alarming the emergence of multi-drug resistant S. enterica strains, and provide useful data about the resistance mechanisms.

  20. Comparative Genomics of 28 Salmonella enterica Isolates: Evidence for CRISPR-Mediated Adaptive Sublineage Evolution ▿†

    PubMed Central

    Fricke, W. Florian; Mammel, Mark K.; McDermott, Patrick F.; Tartera, Carmen; White, David G.; LeClerc, J. Eugene; Ravel, Jacques; Cebula, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive surveillance, food-borne Salmonella enterica infections continue to be a significant burden on public health systems worldwide. As the S. enterica species comprises sublineages that differ greatly in antigenic representation, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance phenotypes, a better understanding of the species' evolution is critical for the prediction and prevention of future outbreaks. The roles that virulence and resistance phenotype acquisition, exchange, and loss play in the evolution of S. enterica sublineages, which to a certain extent are represented by serotypes, remains mostly uncharacterized. Here, we compare 17 newly sequenced and phenotypically characterized nontyphoidal S. enterica strains to 11 previously sequenced S. enterica genomes to carry out the most comprehensive comparative analysis of this species so far. These phenotypic and genotypic data comparisons in the phylogenetic species context suggest that the evolution of known S. enterica sublineages is mediated mostly by two mechanisms, (i) the loss of coding sequences with known metabolic functions, which leads to functional reduction, and (ii) the acquisition of horizontally transferred phage and plasmid DNA, which provides virulence and resistance functions and leads to increasing specialization. Matches between S. enterica clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), part of a defense mechanism against invading plasmid and phage DNA, and plasmid and prophage regions suggest that CRISPR-mediated immunity could control short-term phenotype changes and mediate long-term sublineage evolution. CRISPR analysis could therefore be critical in assessing the evolutionary potential of S. enterica sublineages and aid in the prediction and prevention of future S. enterica outbreaks. PMID:21602358

  1. Differential interaction of Salmonella enterica serovars with lettuce cultivars and plant-microbe factors influencing the colonization efficiency.

    PubMed

    Klerks, Michel M; Franz, Eelco; van Gent-Pelzer, Marga; Zijlstra, Carolien; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

    2007-11-01

    The availability of knowledge of the route of infection and critical plant and microbe factors influencing the colonization efficiency of plants by human pathogenic bacteria is essential for the design of preventive strategies to maintain safe food. This research describes the differential interaction of human pathogenic Salmonella enterica with commercially available lettuce cultivars. The prevalence and degree of endophytic colonization of axenically grown lettuce by the S. enterica serovars revealed a significant serovar-cultivar interaction for the degree of colonization (S. enterica CFUs per g leaf), but not for the prevalence. The evaluated S. enterica serovars were each able to colonize soil-grown lettuce epiphytically, but only S. enterica serovar Dublin was able to colonize the plants also endophytically. The number of S. enterica CFU per g of lettuce was negatively correlated to the species richness of the surface sterilized lettuce cultivars. A negative trend was observed for cultivars Cancan and Nelly, but not for cultivar Tamburo. Chemotaxis experiments revealed that S. enterica serovars actively move toward root exudates of lettuce cultivar Tamburo. Subsequent micro-array analysis identified genes of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium that were activated by the root exudates of cultivar Tamburo. A sugar-like carbon source was correlated with chemotaxis, while also pathogenicity-related genes were induced in presence of the root exudates. The latter revealed that S. enterica is conditioned for host cell attachment during chemotaxis by these root exudates. Finally, a tentative route of infection is described that includes plant-microbe factors, herewith enabling further design of preventive strategies.

  2. Global Genomic Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104

    PubMed Central

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Le Hello, Simon; Weill, François-Xavier; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Jun, Se-Ran; Lund, Ole; Crook, Derrick W.; Wilson, Daniel J.; Aarestrup, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    It has been 30 years since the initial emergence and subsequent rapid global spread of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (MDR DT104). Nonetheless, its origin and transmission route have never been revealed. We used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and temporally structured sequence analysis within a Bayesian framework to reconstruct temporal and spatial phylogenetic trees and estimate the rates of mutation and divergence times of 315 S. Typhimurium DT104 isolates sampled from 1969 to 2012 from 21 countries on six continents. DT104 was estimated to have emerged initially as antimicrobial susceptible in ∼1948 (95% credible interval [CI], 1934 to 1962) and later became MDR DT104 in ∼1972 (95% CI, 1972 to 1988) through horizontal transfer of the 13-kb Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) MDR region into susceptible strains already containing SGI1. This was followed by multiple transmission events, initially from central Europe and later between several European countries. An independent transmission to the United States and another to Japan occurred, and from there MDR DT104 was probably transmitted to Taiwan and Canada. An independent acquisition of resistance genes took place in Thailand in ∼1975 (95% CI, 1975 to 1990). In Denmark, WGS analysis provided evidence for transmission of the organism between herds of animals. Interestingly, the demographic history of Danish MDR DT104 provided evidence for the success of the program to eradicate Salmonella from pig herds in Denmark from 1996 to 2000. The results from this study refute several hypotheses on the evolution of DT104 and suggest that WGS may be useful in monitoring emerging clones and devising strategies for prevention of Salmonella infections. PMID:26944846

  3. Characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium aconitase A.

    PubMed

    Baothman, Othman A S; Rolfe, Matthew D; Green, Jeffrey

    2013-06-01

    Aconitases (Acn) are iron-sulfur proteins that catalyse the reversible isomerization of citrate and isocitrate via the intermediate cis-aconitate in the Krebs cycle. Some Acn proteins are bi-functional and under conditions of iron starvation and oxidative stress lose their iron-sulfur clusters and become post-transcriptional regulators by binding specific mRNA targets. Many bacterial species possess two genetically distinct aconitase proteins, AcnA and AcnB. Current understanding of the regulation and functions of AcnA and AcnB in dual Acn bacteria is based on a model developed in Escherichia coli. Thus, AcnB is the major Krebs cycle enzyme expressed during exponential growth, whereas AcnA is a more stable, stationary phase and stress-induced enzyme, and both E. coli Acns are bi-functional. Here a second dual Acn bacterium, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), has been analysed. Phenotypic traits of S. Typhimurium acn mutants were consistent with AcnB acting as the major Acn protein. Promoter fusion experiments indicated that acnB transcription was ~10-fold greater than that of acnA and that acnA expression was regulated by the cyclic-AMP receptor protein (CRP, glucose starvation), the fumarate nitrate reduction regulator (FNR, oxygen starvation), the ferric uptake regulator (Fur, iron starvation) and the superoxide response protein (SoxR, oxidative stress). In contrast to E. coli, S. Typhimurium acnA was not induced in the stationary phase. Furthermore, acnA expression was enhanced in an acnB mutant, presumably to partially compensate for the lack of AcnB activity. Isolated S. Typhimurium AcnA protein had kinetic and mRNA-binding properties similar to those described for E. coli AcnA. Thus, the work reported here provides a second example of the regulation and function of AcnA and AcnB proteins in a dual Acn bacterium.

  4. Global Genomic Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104

    SciTech Connect

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Le Hello, Simon; Weill, François-Xavier; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Jun, Se-Ran; Ussery, David W.; Lund, Ole; Crook, Derrick W.; Wilson, Daniel J.; Aarestrup, Frank M.

    2016-03-04

    It has been 30 years since the initial emergence and subsequent rapid global spread of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (MDR DT104). Nonetheless, its origin and transmission route have never been revealed. In this paper, we used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and temporally structured sequence analysis within a Bayesian framework to reconstruct temporal and spatial phylogenetic trees and estimate the rates of mutation and divergence times of 315 S. Typhimurium DT104 isolates sampled from 1969 to 2012 from 21 countries on six continents. DT104 was estimated to have emerged initially as antimicrobial susceptible in ~1948 (95% credible interval [CI], 1934 to 1962) and later became MDR DT104 in ~1972 (95% CI, 1972 to 1988) through horizontal transfer of the 13-kb Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) MDR region into susceptible strains already containing SGI1. This was followed by multiple transmission events, initially from central Europe and later between several European countries. An independent transmission to the United States and another to Japan occurred, and from there MDR DT104 was probably transmitted to Taiwan and Canada. An independent acquisition of resistance genes took place in Thailand in ~1975 (95% CI, 1975 to 1990). In Denmark, WGS analysis provided evidence for transmission of the organism between herds of animals. Interestingly, the demographic history of Danish MDR DT104 provided evidence for the success of the program to eradicate Salmonella from pig herds in Denmark from 1996 to 2000. Finally, the results from this study refute several hypotheses on the evolution of DT104 and suggest that WGS may be useful in monitoring emerging clones and devising strategies for prevention of Salmonella infections.

  5. Pathogenicity of dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride-resistant Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Kautz, Megan J M; Dvorzhinskiy, Aleksey; Frye, Jonathan G; Stevenson, Natalie; Herson, Diane S

    2013-04-01

    Salmonella infection causes a self-limiting gastroenteritis in humans but can also result in a life-threatening invasive disease, especially in old, young, and/or immunocompromised patients. The prevalence of antimicrobial and multidrug-resistant Salmonella has increased worldwide since the 1980s. However, the impact of antimicrobial resistance on the pathogenicity of Salmonella strains is not well described. In our study, a microarray was used to screen for differences in gene expression between a parental strain and a strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis with reduced susceptibility (SRS) to the widely used antimicrobial sanitizer dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC). Three of the genes, associated with adhesion, invasion, and intracellular growth (fimA, csgG, and spvR), that showed differences in gene expression of 2-fold or greater were chosen for further study. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (real-time RT-PCR) was used to confirm the microarray data and to compare the expression levels of these genes in the parental strain and four independently derived SRS strains. All SRS strains showed lower levels of gene expression of fimA and csgG than those of the parental strain. Three of the four SRS strains showed lower levels of spvR gene expression while one SRS strain showed higher levels of spvR gene expression than those of the parental strain. Transmission electron microscopy determined that fimbriae were absent in the four SRS strains but copiously present in the parental strain. All four SRS strains demonstrated a significantly reduced ability to invade tissue culture cells compared to the parental strains, suggesting reduced pathogenicity of the SRS strains.

  6. Characterization of osmotically induced filaments of Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Zachary L; Chen, Bingming; Czuprynski, Charles J; Wong, Amy C L; Kaspar, Charles W

    2012-09-01

    Salmonella enterica forms aseptate filaments with multiple nucleoids when cultured in hyperosmotic conditions. These osmotic-induced filaments are viable and form single colonies on agar plates even though they contain multiple genomes and have the potential to divide into multiple daughter cells. Introducing filaments that are formed during osmotic stress into culture conditions without additional humectants results in the formation of septa and their division into individual cells, which could present challenges to retrospective analyses of infectious dose and risk assessments. We sought to characterize the underlying mechanisms of osmotic-induced filament formation. The concentration of proteins and chromosomal DNA in filaments and control cells was similar when standardized by biomass. Furthermore, penicillin-binding proteins in the membrane of salmonellae were active in vitro. The activity of penicillin-binding protein 2 was greater in filaments than in control cells, suggesting that it may have a role in osmotic-induced filament formation. Filaments contained more ATP than did control cells in standardized cell suspensions, though the levels of two F(0)F(1)-ATP synthase subunits were reduced. Furthermore, filaments could septate and divide within 8 h in 0.2 × Luria-Bertani broth at 23°C, while nonfilamentous control cells did not replicate. Based upon the ability of filaments to septate and divide in this diluted broth, a method was developed to enumerate by plate count the number of individual, viable cells within a population of filaments. This method could aid in retrospective analyses of infectious dose of filamented salmonellae.

  7. Aspartic Peptide Hydrolases in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Rachel A.; Knox, Tina M.; Miller, Charles G.

    2001-01-01

    Two well-characterized enzymes in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli are able to hydrolyze N-terminal aspartyl (Asp) dipeptides: peptidase B, a broad-specificity aminopeptidase, and peptidase E, an Asp-specific dipeptidase. A serovar Typhimurium strain lacking both of these enzymes, however, can still utilize most N-terminal Asp dipeptides as sources of amino acids, and extracts of such a strain contain additional enzymatic activities able to hydrolyze Asp dipeptides. Here we report two such activities from extracts of pepB pepE mutant strains of serovar Typhimurium identified by their ability to hydrolyze Asp-Leu. Although each of these activities hydrolyzes Asp-Leu at a measurable rate, the preferred substrates for both are N-terminal isoAsp peptides. One of the activities is a previously characterized isoAsp dipeptidase from E. coli, the product of the iadA gene. The other is the product of the serovar Typhimurium homolog of E. coli ybiK, a gene of previously unknown function. This gene product is a member of the N-terminal nucleophile structural family of amidohydrolases. Like most other members of this family, the mature enzyme is generated from a precursor protein by proteolytic cleavage and the active enzyme is a heterotetramer. Based on its ability to hydrolyze an N-terminal isoAsp tripeptide as well as isoAsp dipeptides, the enzyme appears to be an isoAsp aminopeptidase, and we propose that the gene encoding it be designated iaaA (isoAsp aminopeptidase). A strain lacking both IadA and IaaA in addition to peptidase B and peptidase E has been constructed. This strain utilizes Asp-Leu as a leucine source, and extracts of this strain contain at least one additional, as-yet-uncharacterized, peptidase able to cleave Asp dipeptides. PMID:11325937

  8. Aspartic peptide hydrolases in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Larsen, R A; Knox, T M; Miller, C G

    2001-05-01

    Two well-characterized enzymes in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli are able to hydrolyze N-terminal aspartyl (Asp) dipeptides: peptidase B, a broad-specificity aminopeptidase, and peptidase E, an Asp-specific dipeptidase. A serovar Typhimurium strain lacking both of these enzymes, however, can still utilize most N-terminal Asp dipeptides as sources of amino acids, and extracts of such a strain contain additional enzymatic activities able to hydrolyze Asp dipeptides. Here we report two such activities from extracts of pepB pepE mutant strains of serovar Typhimurium identified by their ability to hydrolyze Asp-Leu. Although each of these activities hydrolyzes Asp-Leu at a measurable rate, the preferred substrates for both are N-terminal isoAsp peptides. One of the activities is a previously characterized isoAsp dipeptidase from E. coli, the product of the iadA gene. The other is the product of the serovar Typhimurium homolog of E. coli ybiK, a gene of previously unknown function. This gene product is a member of the N-terminal nucleophile structural family of amidohydrolases. Like most other members of this family, the mature enzyme is generated from a precursor protein by proteolytic cleavage and the active enzyme is a heterotetramer. Based on its ability to hydrolyze an N-terminal isoAsp tripeptide as well as isoAsp dipeptides, the enzyme appears to be an isoAsp aminopeptidase, and we propose that the gene encoding it be designated iaaA (isoAsp aminopeptidase). A strain lacking both IadA and IaaA in addition to peptidase B and peptidase E has been constructed. This strain utilizes Asp-Leu as a leucine source, and extracts of this strain contain at least one additional, as-yet-uncharacterized, peptidase able to cleave Asp dipeptides.

  9. Acid exposure induces multiplication of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    PubMed

    Ahirwar, Suneel Kumar; Pratap, Chandra Bhan; Patel, Saurabh Kumar; Shukla, Vijay K; Singh, Indarjeet Gambhir; Mishra, Om Prakash; Kumar, Kailash; Singh, Tej Bali; Nath, Gopal

    2014-12-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi faces several environmental stresses while going through the stomach (acidic pH) to the small intestine (basic pH) and intracellularly in macrophages (acidic pH) in humans. The acidic pH followed by alkaline pH in the small intestine might be responsible for expression of certain stress-induced genes, resulting in not only better survival but also induction of multiplication and invasion of the bacterium in the small intestine. Based on this hypothesis, we developed a process wherein we exposed the blood, urine, and stool specimens from 90 acute typhoid fever patients and 36 chronic typhoid carriers to acidic pH to see the effect on isolation rate of S. Typhi. About 5 g of freshly passed unpreserved stool, a centrifuged deposit of 15 ml of urine, and 5 ml of blood clot were subjected to 5 ml of Luria-Bertani (LB) broth (pH 3.5) for 20 min, followed by enrichment in bile broth-selenite F broth. When the combined isolation from all 3 specimens, i.e., blood, urine, and stool, after acid exposure was considered, a total of 77.7% of the acute typhoid patients were observed to be positive for the isolation of the S. Typhi serotype, compared to 8.8% by the conventional method. Similarly, 42% (15/36) of chronic carriers yielded positive for S. Typhi growth after acid exposure, compared to 5.5% (2/36) by the conventional method. It therefore can be concluded that acid shock triggers the multiplication of the bacteria, resulting in better isolation rates from blood clot, stool, and urine specimens.

  10. Polyamines Are Required for Virulence in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Jelsbak, Lotte; Thomsen, Line Elnif; Wallrodt, Inke; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2012-01-01

    Sensing and responding to environmental cues is a fundamental characteristic of bacterial physiology and virulence. Here we identify polyamines as novel environmental signals essential for virulence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, a major intracellular pathogen and a model organism for studying typhoid fever. Central to its virulence are two major virulence loci Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 and 2 (SPI1 and SPI2). SPI1 promotes invasion of epithelial cells, whereas SPI2 enables S. Typhimurium to survive and proliferate within specialized compartments inside host cells. In this study, we show that an S. Typhimurium polyamine mutant is defective for invasion, intracellular survival, killing of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and systemic infection of the mouse model of typhoid fever. Virulence of the mutant could be restored by genetic complementation, and invasion and intracellular survival could, as well, be complemented by the addition of exogenous putrescine and spermidine to the bacterial cultures prior to infection. Interestingly, intracellular survival of the polyamine mutant was significantly enhanced above the wild type level by the addition of exogenous putrescine and spermidine to the bacterial cultures prior to infection, indicating that these polyamines function as an environmental signal that primes S. Typhimurium for intracellular survival. Accordingly, experiments addressed at elucidating the roles of these polyamines in infection revealed that expression of genes from both of the major virulence loci SPI1 and SPI2 responded to exogenous polyamines and was reduced in the polyamine mutant. Together our data demonstrate that putrescine and spermidine play a critical role in controlling virulence in S. Typhimurium most likely through stimulation of expression of essential virulence loci. Moreover, our data implicate these polyamines as key signals in S. Typhimurium virulence. PMID:22558361

  11. Global Genomic Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104

    DOE PAGES

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Le Hello, Simon; ...

    2016-03-04

    It has been 30 years since the initial emergence and subsequent rapid global spread of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (MDR DT104). Nonetheless, its origin and transmission route have never been revealed. In this paper, we used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and temporally structured sequence analysis within a Bayesian framework to reconstruct temporal and spatial phylogenetic trees and estimate the rates of mutation and divergence times of 315 S. Typhimurium DT104 isolates sampled from 1969 to 2012 from 21 countries on six continents. DT104 was estimated to have emerged initially as antimicrobial susceptible in ~1948 (95% credible interval [CI], 1934more » to 1962) and later became MDR DT104 in ~1972 (95% CI, 1972 to 1988) through horizontal transfer of the 13-kb Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) MDR region into susceptible strains already containing SGI1. This was followed by multiple transmission events, initially from central Europe and later between several European countries. An independent transmission to the United States and another to Japan occurred, and from there MDR DT104 was probably transmitted to Taiwan and Canada. An independent acquisition of resistance genes took place in Thailand in ~1975 (95% CI, 1975 to 1990). In Denmark, WGS analysis provided evidence for transmission of the organism between herds of animals. Interestingly, the demographic history of Danish MDR DT104 provided evidence for the success of the program to eradicate Salmonella from pig herds in Denmark from 1996 to 2000. Finally, the results from this study refute several hypotheses on the evolution of DT104 and suggest that WGS may be useful in monitoring emerging clones and devising strategies for prevention of Salmonella infections.« less

  12. Variable Carbon Catabolism among Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Lay Ching; Kong, Boon Hong; Elemfareji, Omar Ismail; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2012-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is strictly a human intracellular pathogen. It causes acute systemic (typhoid fever) and chronic infections that result in long-term asymptomatic human carriage. S. Typhi displays diverse disease manifestations in human infection and exhibits high clonality. The principal factors underlying the unique lifestyle of S. Typhi in its human host during acute and chronic infections remain largely unknown and are therefore the main objective of this study. Methodology/Principal Findings To obtain insight into the intracellular lifestyle of S. Typhi, a high-throughput phenotypic microarray was employed to characterise the catabolic capacity of 190 carbon sources in S. Typhi strains. The success of this study lies in the carefully selected library of S. Typhi strains, including strains from two geographically distinct areas oftyphoid endemicity, an asymptomatic human carrier, clinical stools and blood samples and sewage-contaminated rivers. An extremely low carbon catabolic capacity (27% of 190 carbon substrates) was observed among the strains. The carbon catabolic profiles appeared to suggest that S. Typhi strains survived well on carbon subtrates that are found abundantly in the human body but not in others. The strains could not utilise plant-associated carbon substrates. In addition, α-glycerolphosphate, glycerol, L-serine, pyruvate and lactate served as better carbon sources to monosaccharides in the S. Typhi strains tested. Conclusion The carbon catabolic profiles suggest that S. Typhi could survive and persist well in the nutrient depleted metabolic niches in the human host but not in the environment outside of the host. These findings serve as caveats for future studies to understand how carbon catabolism relates to the pathogenesis and transmission of this pathogen. PMID:22662115

  13. Draft Whole-Genome Sequences of 25 Salmonella enterica Strains Representing 24 Serovars

    PubMed Central

    Brumwell, Stephanie L.; Lingohr, Erika J.; Ahmad, Aaminah; Blimkie, Travis M.; Kogan, Benjamin A.; Pilsworth, Jessica; Rehman, Muhammad A.; Schleicher, Krista L.; Shanmugaraj, Jenitta; Kropinski, Andrew M.; Nash, John H. E.

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of 25 Salmonella enterica strains representing 24 different serotypes, many of which were not available in public repositories during our selection process. These draft genomes will provide useful reference for the genetic variation between serotypes and aid in the development of molecular typing tools. PMID:26941156

  14. Natural surface coating to inactivate Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and maintain quality of cherry tomatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effectiveness of zein-based coatings in reducing populations of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and preserving quality of cherry tomatoes. Tomatoes were inoculated with a cocktail of S. Typhimurium LT2 plus three mutants on the smoo...

  15. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Salmonella enterica Strains Isolated from Sprouted Chia and Flax Seed Powders.

    PubMed

    Ronholm, Jennifer; Petronella, Nicholas; Tamber, Sandeep

    2016-09-22

    A 2014 foodborne salmonellosis outbreak in Canada and the United States implicated, for the first time, sprouted chia seed powder as the vehicle of transmission. Here, we report the draft whole genome sequences of two Salmonella enterica strains isolated from sprouted powders related to the aforementioned outbreak. © Crown copyright 2016.

  16. Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi, United States, 1999–2008

    PubMed Central

    Sjölund-Karlsson, Maria; Shin, Sanghyuk; Harvey, Emily; Joyce, Kevin; Theobald, Lisa; Nygren, Benjamin L.; Pecic, Gary; Gay, Kathryn; Austin, Jana; Stuart, Andrew; Blanton, Elizabeth; Mintz, Eric D.; Whichard, Jean M.; Barzilay, Ezra J.

    2011-01-01

    We report 9 ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi isolates submitted to the US National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System during 1999–2008. The first 2 had indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and identical gyrA and parC mutations. Eight of the 9 patients had traveled to India within 30 days before illness onset. PMID:21749779

  17. Multiple environmental stress tests show no common phenotypes shared among contemporary epidemic strains of Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Su; Besser, Thomas E; Hancock, Dale D; Call, Douglas R

    2007-05-01

    Phenotypic traits of coexisting epidemic and nonepidemic strains of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Newport were compared. Different stress conditions were relatively more or less favorable for the epidemic strains. Transcriptional analysis identified specific upregulated genes during defined stress conditions, but there were no common traits shared by epidemic serovars.

  18. Impact of Strain Variation on the Ability of Biosensor Technology to Detect Salmonella enterica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: It is important to develop methods that can quickly and accurately detect the presence of bacteria in the food supply that cause disease. Salmonella enterica is a bacteria that is often associated with contamination of food. Strains vary in their ability to cause illness and to spread...

  19. Genomic heterogeneity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriuria from chronic infection.

    PubMed

    Octavia, Sophie; Wang, Qinning; Tanaka, Mark M; Sintchenko, Vitali; Lan, Ruiting

    2017-03-07

    We sequenced the genomes of 14 sequential Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates obtained over a five year period from a patient with persistent Salmonella bacteriuria. The isolates formed five distinct lineages; two of which co-existed over four years. We inferred that the observed within-patient variation resulted from mutation events.

  20. Differences in attachment of Salmonella enterica serovars to cabbage and lettuce leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study investigated the ability of five Salmonella enterica serovars to attach to and colonize intact and cut lettuce (Iceberg, Romaine) and cabbage surfaces. Biofilm assay and attachment of Salmonella serovars to intact and cut leaves were determined. Bacterial populations of loosely and strong...

  1. Effects of Pseudomonas chlororaphis and gaseous chlorine dioxide on the survival of Salmonella enterica on tomatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Produce contamination incited by Salmonella enterica serovars on tomatoes and various outbreaks of Salmonellisis have been reported periodically. Post-harvest intervention measures applied to limit produce contamination will improve food and consumer safety. The aim of this reserach was to evaluat...

  2. Kinetics of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium DT104 growth and inactivation in pasteurised liquid egg products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potential impact of intentional post-pasteurisation contamination of liquid egg products with the multi-antibiotic resistant pathogen Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium definitive type 104 (DT104) was assessed by determining the viability of this bacterium in whole egg, albumen and 10% sug...

  3. Natural Isolates of Salmonella enterica Serovar Dublin Carry a Single nadA Missense Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Bergthorsson, Ulfar; Roth, John R.

    2005-01-01

    Nicotinic acid is required by most isolates of Salmonella enterica (serovar Dublin), a pathogen of cattle. A single nadA missense mutation causes the nutritional requirement of all serovar Dublin isolates tested. Models for persistence of this allele are tested and discussed. PMID:15601727

  4. Natural isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin carry a single nadA missense mutation.

    PubMed

    Bergthorsson, Ulfar; Roth, John R

    2005-01-01

    Nicotinic acid is required by most isolates of Salmonella enterica (serovar Dublin), a pathogen of cattle. A single nadA missense mutation causes the nutritional requirement of all serovar Dublin isolates tested. Models for persistence of this allele are tested and discussed.

  5. Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis in French Polynesia, South Pacific, 2008–2013

    PubMed Central

    Maillard, Fiona; Mallet, Henri-Pierre; Daudens, Elise; Levy, Marc; Roy, Valérie; Branaa, Philippe; Bertrand, Sophie; Fabre, Laetitia; Weill, François-Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Outbreaks of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infections associated with eggs occurred in French Polynesia during 2008–2013. Molecular analysis of isolates by using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat polymorphisms and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis was performed. This subtyping made defining the epidemic strain, finding the source, and decontaminating affected poultry flocks possible. PMID:25988406

  6. Invasive Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium Infections, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2007–2011

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Benedikt; Le Hello, Simon; Lunguya, Octavie; Lejon, Veerle; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Jacobs, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium sequence type (ST) 313 is associated with high rates of drug resistance, bloodstream infections, and death. To determine whether ST313 is dominant in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, we studied 180 isolates collected during 2007–2011; 96% belonged to CRISPOL type CT28, which is associated with ST313. PMID:24655438

  7. Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis in French Polynesia, South Pacific, 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Le Hello, Simon; Maillard, Fiona; Mallet, Henri-Pierre; Daudens, Elise; Levy, Marc; Roy, Valérie; Branaa, Philippe; Bertrand, Sophie; Fabre, Laetitia; Weill, François-Xavier

    2015-06-01

    Outbreaks of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infections associated with eggs occurred in French Polynesia during 2008-2013. Molecular analysis of isolates by using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat polymorphisms and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis was performed. This subtyping made defining the epidemic strain, finding the source, and decontaminating affected poultry flocks possible.

  8. Quinolone-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infections associated with international travel.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Allison T; Vieira, Antonio R; Huang, Jennifer Y; Whichard, Jean; Cole, Dana; Karp, Beth E

    2014-11-01

    We found a strong association between nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infections in the United States and recent international travel by linking Salmonella Enteritidis data from the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System and the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network.

  9. Prevalence of ColE1-like plasmids and kanamycinr resistance genes in Salmonella enterica serotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Multi-antibiotic resistant Salmonella enterica serotypes are increasing in prevalence and concern in human and animal health. Many strains carry resistance determinants on plasmids; current practices focus heavily on large plasmids, and the role that small plasmids play in resistance gene transfer ...

  10. Inactivation of Salmonella enterica by UV-C Light Alone and in Combination with Mild Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Gayán, E.; Serrano, M. J.; Raso, J.; Álvarez, I.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the efficacy of the combined processes of UV light and mild temperatures for the inactivation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica and to explore the mechanism of inactivation. The doses to inactivate the 99.99% (4D) of the initial population ranged from 18.03 (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium STCC 878) to 12.75 J ml−1 (Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis ATCC 13076). The pH and water activity of the treatment medium did not change the UV tolerance, but it decreased exponentially by increasing the absorption coefficient. An inactivating synergistic effect was observed by applying simultaneous UV light and heat treatment (UV-H). A less synergistic effect was observed by applying UV light first and heat subsequently. UV did not damage cell envelopes, but the number of injured cells was higher after a UV-H treatment than after heating. The synergistic effect observed by combining simultaneous UV and heat treatment opens the possibility to design combined treatments for pasteurization of liquid food with high UV absorptivity, such as fruit juices. PMID:23001665

  11. Tetracycline promotes the expression of ten fimbrial operons in specific Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella is associated with increased morbidity in humans and presents an important food safety concern. Antibiotic resistance among isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium has become especially prevalent as over 27 per cent of isolates from humans in the Unit...

  12. Inactivation of Salmonella enterica by UV-C light alone and in combination with mild temperatures.

    PubMed

    Gayán, E; Serrano, M J; Raso, J; Alvarez, I; Condón, S

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the efficacy of the combined processes of UV light and mild temperatures for the inactivation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica and to explore the mechanism of inactivation. The doses to inactivate the 99.99% (4D) of the initial population ranged from 18.03 (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium STCC 878) to 12.75 J ml(-1) (Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis ATCC 13076). The pH and water activity of the treatment medium did not change the UV tolerance, but it decreased exponentially by increasing the absorption coefficient. An inactivating synergistic effect was observed by applying simultaneous UV light and heat treatment (UV-H). A less synergistic effect was observed by applying UV light first and heat subsequently. UV did not damage cell envelopes, but the number of injured cells was higher after a UV-H treatment than after heating. The synergistic effect observed by combining simultaneous UV and heat treatment opens the possibility to design combined treatments for pasteurization of liquid food with high UV absorptivity, such as fruit juices.

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of rectoanal mucosal swab of feedlot cattle for detection and enumeration of Salmonella enterica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cattle are noted carriers of the foodborne pathogen Salmonella enterica. The perceived need to decrease the potential human health risk posed by excretion of this pathogen has resulted in numerous studies examining the factors that influence cattle shedding of Salmonella. Fecal grab (FG) samples hav...

  14. Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencing of Cephalosporin-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Camilla; Kapil, Arti; Sharma, Anita; Devanga Ragupathi, Naveen Kumar; Inbanathan, Francis Yesurajan; Veeraraghavan, Balaji; Kang, Gagandeep

    2017-03-09

    Typhoid is one of the leading causes of mortality in developing countries. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of four Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strains isolated from bloodstream infections in a tertiary care hospital. The sequence data indicate genomes of ~4.5 Mb for all isolates, with one plasmid in each.

  15. SMM-system: A mining tool to identify specific markers in Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuijing; Liu, Weibing; Shi, Chunlei; Wang, Dapeng; Dan, Xianlong; Li, Xiao; Shi, Xianming

    2011-03-01

    This report presents SMM-system, a software package that implements various personalized pre- and post-BLASTN tasks for mining specific markers of microbial pathogens. The main functionalities of SMM-system are summarized as follows: (i) converting multi-FASTA file, (ii) cutting interesting genomic sequence, (iii) automatic high-throughput BLASTN searches, and (iv) screening target sequences. The utility of SMM-system was demonstrated by using it to identify 214 Salmonella enterica-specific protein-coding sequences (CDSs). Eighteen primer pairs were designed based on eighteen S. enterica-specific CDSs, respectively. Seven of these primer pairs were validated with PCR assay, which showed 100% inclusivity for the 101 S. enterica genomes and 100% exclusivity of 30 non-S. enterica genomes. Three specific primer pairs were chosen to develop a multiplex PCR assay, which generated specific amplicons with a size of 180bp (SC1286), 238bp (SC1598) and 405bp (SC4361), respectively. This study demonstrates that SMM-system is a high-throughput specific marker generation tool that can be used to identify genus-, species-, serogroup- and even serovar-specific DNA sequences of microbial pathogens, which has a potential to be applied in food industries, diagnostics and taxonomic studies. SMM-system is freely available and can be downloaded from http://foodsafety.sjtu.edu.cn/SMM-system.html.

  16. Recovery of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis from hens initially infected with serovar Kentucky

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis and Kentucky differ greatly in epidemiology. We wanted to know if the non-pathogenic serotype Kentucky impacted the recovery of the pathogen Enteritidis from chickens. To explore this issue, 4 groups of hens were treated as follows: i) hens were inoculated or...

  17. Survival and fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo in adult Horn Flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.); Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing ca...

  18. Survival of Salmonella enterica in aerated and nonaerated wastewaters from dairy lagoons

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella is the most commonly identified foodborne pathogen in produce, meat and poultry. Cattle are known reservoirs of Salmonella and the pathogen excreted in feces end up in manure flush lagoons. Salmonella enterica survival was monitored in wastewater from on-site holding lagoons equipped with...

  19. Hydrogen-Stimulated carbon acquisition and conservation in salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium can utilize molecular hydrogen for growth and amino acid transport during anaerobic growth. Via microarray we identified H2 gas-affected gene expression changes in Salmonella. Addition of H2 caused altered expression of 965 genes; 176 genes were H2-up-regulate...

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Bacteriophage f18SE, Isolated in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Segovia, Cristopher; Vasquez, Ignacio; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Robeson, James

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriophage f18SE was isolated from poultry sewage in Olmue, Chile, and lytic activity was demonstrated against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and serovar Pullorum strains. This bacteriophage has a 41,868-bp double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) genome encoding 53 coding sequences (CDSs) and belongs to the family Siphoviridae, subfamily Jerseyvirinae. PMID:26450716

  1. TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSE OF CHICKEN MACROPHAGES TO SALMONELLA ENTERICA SEROVAR ENTERITIDIS INFECTION

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The transcriptional profiles of chicken macrophages (HD11) infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) were analyzed by using avian macrophage microarray and real time RT-PCR. Out of 4,906 array elements interrogated, 269 genes exhibited a 2-fold change (P < 0.001) over a 24-hour time...

  2. Transcriptional Response of Chicken Macrophages to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) continues to be the predominant etiologic agent of salmonellosis, with contaminated egg products being the primary source of infection. At the present time, the molecular and immunological mechanisms involved in SE colonization of chicken hosts are not we...

  3. New Zealand white rabbit as a nonsurgical experimental model for Salmonella enterica gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Hanes, D E; Robl, M G; Schneider, C M; Burr, D H

    2001-10-01

    Rabbits orally challenged with Salmonella enterica developed a dose-dependent diarrheal disease comparable to human salmonellosis. Viable Salmonella organisms recovered from the intestine and deep tissues indicate local and systemic infections. Therefore, results show that the rabbit can be used as a model for diarrheal disease and sequelae associated with salmonellosis.

  4. Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky flagella are required for broiler skin adhesion and Caco-2 cell invasion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella strains are the main source of pathogenic bacterial contamination in the poultry industry. Recently, Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky has been recognized as the most prominent serovar on carcasses in poultry-processing plants. Previous studies showed that flagella are one...

  5. Swarm and swim motilities of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and role of osmoregulated periplasmic glucans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains synthesize osmoregulated periplasmic glucans (OPGs) under low osmolarity conditions (< 70 mos mol l-1). OPG synthesis is not observed when cells are grown in iso- or hyper-osmotic media (> 400 mos mol l-1). Mutation in OPG structural gene...

  6. Carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde inactivate antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica in buffer and on celery and oysters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica is one of the leading causes of gastrointestinal foodborne illness. The emergence of antibiotic resistant strains of this pathogen is of concern to food processors, including the produce, poultry, and oyster industries. The objective of this research was to identify the potenti...

  7. Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor is degraded by Salmonella enterica and Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Valls Serón, M; Haiko, J; DE Groot, P G; Korhonen, T K; Meijers, J C M

    2010-10-01

     Pathogenic bacteria modulate the host coagulation system to evade immune responses or to facilitate dissemination through extravascular tissues. In particular, the important bacterial pathogens Salmonella enterica and Yersinia pestis intervene with the plasminogen/fibrinolytic system. Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) has anti-fibrinolytic properties as the active enzyme (TAFIa) removes C-terminal lysine residues from fibrin, thereby attenuating accelerated plasmin formation.  Here, we demonstrate inactivation and cleavage of TAFI by homologous surface proteases, the omptins Pla of Y. pestis and PgtE of S. enterica. We show that omptin-expressing bacteria decrease TAFI activatability by thrombin-thrombomodulin and that the anti-fibrinolytic potential of TAFIa was reduced by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Pla or PgtE. The functional impairment resulted from C-terminal cleavage of TAFI by the omptins.  Our results indicate that TAFI is degraded directly by the omptins PgtE of S. enterica and Pla of Y. pestis. This may contribute to the ability of PgtE and Pla to damage tissue barriers, such as fibrin, and thereby to enhance spread of S. enterica and Y. pestis during infection. © 2010 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  8. Antibiotics induce the expression of attachment genes in specific isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    More than 27 percent of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates from humans in the United States are resistant to three or more antibiotics. This presents an important food safety concern as multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella is associated with increased morbidity in humans. It has been...

  9. Polynucleotide phosphorlyase (PNPase) is required for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium colonization in swine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pnp gene encodes polynucleotide phosphorylase, an exoribonuclease involved in RNA degradation. A mutation in the pnp gene was previously identified by our group in a signature-tagged mutagenesis screen designed to search for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium genes required for survival in...

  10. Genomic epidemiology of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis based on population structure of prevalent lineages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (SE) is one of the most commonly reported causes of human salmonellosis. The low genetic diversity of SE measured by fingerprinting methods has made subtyping a challenge. In this study, we used whole genome sequencing to characterize a total of 125 SE and Sa...

  11. SALMONELLA ENTERICA SEROVAR ENTERITIDIS INFECTION MODULATES DIVERSE FUNCTIONAL PROCESSES OF CHICKEN MACROPHAGE AT THE TRANSCRIPTIONAL LEVEL

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) is a major etiologic agent of non-typhoid salmonellosis. The organisms colonize adult chicken hosts without causing overt clinical signs. The immunological mechanisms underlying the silent and persistent infection of chickens by SE are not clearly underst...

  12. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Salmonella enterica Strains Isolated from Turkey-Associated Sources

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jing; Gokulan, Kuppan; Zhao, Shaohua; Gies, Allen

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genomes of four Salmonella enterica isolates evaluated for the contribution of plasmids to virulence. Strains SE163A, SE696A, and SE710A carry plasmids demonstrated to facilitate plasmid-associated virulence, while SE819 is less virulent and has been used as a recipient for conjugation experiments to assess plasmid-encoded virulence mechanisms. PMID:27738037

  13. Rapid Molecular Determination of Serotype from Clinical Isolates of Salmonella Enterica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: The conventional serotyping of Salmonella Enterica is time consuming, costly, and requires highly skilled staff. In the present study, we report a multiplex PCR typing method using capillary electrophoresis for fragment analysis that allows for the identification of the 30 most common h...

  14. Identification of Genes Affecting Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Infection of Chicken Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yixian; Jansen, Ruud; Gaastra, Wim; Arkesteijn, Ger; van der Zeijst, Bernard A. M.; van Putten, Jos P. M.

    2002-01-01

    Screening of 7,680 Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis mutants for attenuation in a chicken macrophage infection model yielded a series of mutants including several with defects in previously unrecognized Salmonella virulence genes. One of the newly identified genes was the pbpA2 gene, belonging to the penicillin binding protein gene family. PMID:12183592

  15. Salmonella enterica Serovar Kentucky Flagella are Required for Broiler Skin Adhesion and Caco-2 Cell Invasion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella are the main source of pathogenic bacterial contamination in the poultry industry. Recently, Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky has been recognized as the most prominent serovar on carcasses in poultry processing plants. Previous studies showed that flagella are one of the...

  16. [Antimicrobial susceptibility of a selection of Salmonella enterica strains of various origins isolated in Spain].

    PubMed

    Cruchaga, S; Echeita, A; Usera, M A

    1999-09-01

    The widespread use of antimicrobials in human and veterinary practice is increasingly causing the emergence of different multidrug-resistant human pathogens. This situation makes treating infections caused by these microorganisms difficult. Salmonella enterica is an ubiquitous organism and may be a good indicator of the influence of the use and abuse of antimicrobials on the appearance of multiresistant strains. One hundred and ninety S. enterica strains of different origins isolated in Spain in 1996 were randomly selected. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was studied using the agar dilution method according to NCCLS criteria in the following antimicrobials: ampicillin, ticarcillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefazolin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, imipenem, gentamicin, apramycin, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole and co-trimoxazole. Sixty-three percent of the S. enterica tested were resistant and 24% were multiresistant. The percentage of resistant and multiresistant strains of S. enterica of human origin was slightly higher than those of nonhuman origin. Statistically, ampicillin, ticarcillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were significantly more resistant in strains of human origin. Ninety-one percent of the strains of Typhimurium serotype and phagotype 104 were multiresistant. The Salmonella Typhimurium serotype and phagotype 104 ACSTSu-resistant clone, which is widespread in various Western countries, was also isolated in this study. The use of different antimicrobials in human and veterinary practice needs to be rationalized.

  17. Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencing of Cephalosporin-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Camilla; Kapil, Arti; Sharma, Anita; Devanga Ragupathi, Naveen Kumar; Inbanathan, Francis Yesurajan; Kang, Gagandeep

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Typhoid is one of the leading causes of mortality in developing countries. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of four Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strains isolated from bloodstream infections in a tertiary care hospital. The sequence data indicate genomes of ~4.5 Mb for all isolates, with one plasmid in each. PMID:28280021

  18. Standardized laboratory-scale preparation of mayonnaise containing low levels of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Leuschner, R G; Boughtflower, M P

    2001-05-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4 and PT6 are associated with food poisoning outbreaks and are often found in food only in low concentrations. In this study a reproducible laboratory-scale procedure for preparation of mayonnaise is presented. The mayonnaise that simulates a naturally low-level contaminated product can be used for validation of new methods and is also suitable to study the behavior of low numbers of food pathogenic spoilage microorganisms in a food environment. During processing, liquid egg was artificially contaminated with low levels of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis that resulted in levels of 1 to 3 log10 CFU/g in the final mayonnaise. Cells of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis had increased stability in the mayonnaise when they were subjected to low pH in two stages, first to pH 5.8 and afterward to pH 4.5 before addition to the mayonnaise. The pH of the mayonnaise was between 4.2 to 4.5 and remained stable over the storage period. Low-level S. enterica serovar Enteritidis remained stable in artificially contaminated mayonnaise for 4 weeks at 4 degrees C.

  19. Assignment of serotype to Salmonella enterica isolates obtained from poultry and their environment in Southern Brazil.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To assess diversity of Salmonella enterica serotypes present in poultry and their environment from Southern Brazil, the Kauffman-White-LeMinor (KWL) scheme was used to serotype a total of 155 isolates. Isolates were then re-examined with nested PCR and sequencing of the dkgB-linked Intergenic Sequ...

  20. Ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Choleraesuis from Pigs to Humans, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Lee-Jene; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Chang, Chao-Fu; Wan, Jen-Hsien; Yan, Jing-Jou; Lee, Chun-Ming; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Huang, Wen-Kuei; Yang, Dine; Shyr, Jainn-Ming; Yu, Kwok-Woon; Wang, Li-Shin; Lu, Jang-Jih; Ko, Wen-Chien; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Chang, Feng-Yee; Yang, Yi-Chueh; Lau, Yeu-Jun; Liu, Yung-Ching; Liu, Cheng-Yi; Ho, Shen-Wu; Luh, Kwen-Tay

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the disk susceptibility data of 671 nontyphoid Salmonella isolates collected from different parts of Taiwan from March 2001 to August 2001 and 1,261 nontyphoid Salmonella isolates from the National Taiwan University Hospital from 1996 to 2001. Overall, ciprofloxacn resistance was found in 2.7% (18/671) of all nontyphoid Salmonella isolates, in 1.4% (5/347) of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and in 7.5% (8/107) in S. enterica serotype Choleraesuis nationwide. MICs of six newer fluoroquinolones were determined for the following isolates: 37 isolates of ciprofloxacin-resistant (human) S. enterica Typhimurium (N = 26) and Choleraesuis (N = 11), 10 isolates of ciprofloxacin-susceptible (MIC <1 μg/mL) (human) isolates of these two serotypes, and 15 swine isolates from S. enterica Choleraesuis (N = 13) and Typhmurium (N = 2) with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MIC >0.12 μg/mL). Sequence analysis of the gryA, gyrB, parC, parE, and acrR genes, ciprofloxacin accumulation; and genotypes generated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with three restriction enzymes (SpeI, XbaI, and BlnI) were performed. All 26 S. enterica Typhimurium isolates from humans and pigs belonged to genotype I. For S. enterica Choleraesuis isolates, 91% (10/11) of human isolates and 54% (7/13) of swine isolates belonged to genotype B. These two genotypes isolates from humans all exhibited a high-level of resistance to ciprofloxacin (MIC 16–64 μg/mL). They had two-base substitutions in the gyrA gene at codons 83 (Ser83Phe) and 87 (Asp87Gly or Asp87Asn) and in the parC gene at codon 80 (Ser80Arg, Ser80Ile, or Ser84Lys). Our investigation documented that not only did these two S. enterica isolates have a high prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance nationwide but also that some closely related ciprofloxacin-resistant strains are disseminated from pigs to humans. PMID:15078598

  1. Effect of short-term lairage on the prevalence of Salmonella enterica in cull sows.

    PubMed

    Larsen, S T; Hurd, H S; McKean, J D; Griffith, R W; Wesley, I V

    2004-07-01

    This study was designed to compare Salmonella enterica prevalence in sows held in a holding pen at the abattoir for approximately 2 h (hold sows) with sows slaughtered immediately after transport to the abattoir (no-hold sows). Cull sows (n = 160) were sampled from four sampling periods over 8 weeks (February to March 2002) at the abattoir. Sows originated from an integrated swine farm and were sent to a live-hog market and then to the slaughter facility. Before testing, sows entered the abattoir pen and four 100-cm2 four-ply gauze squares were placed randomly on the pen floor for S. enterica culture. Sows were alternatively assigned to the hold or no-hold group. Samples collected from sows during slaughter were ileocecal lymph node, cecal contents, transverse colon contents, subiliac lymph node, sponge swabs of the left and right carcass section (300 cm2), and chopped meat. Overall, S. enterica was isolated from 44% (35 of 80) of the no-hold sows, which was significantly less (P < 0.05) than 59% (47 of 80) of the held sows. Also, no-hold sows had a lower cecal content prevalence (39%, 31 of 80) compared with that (55%, 44 of 80) of held sows (P < 0.05). S. enterica serovars isolated from no-hold sows were Brandenburg (n = 16), Derby (n = 12), Hadar (n = 8), Infantis (n = 6), Johannesburg (n = 3), 6,7:z10-monophasic (n = 3), and Typhimurium (n = 1). S. enterica serovars isolated from held sows (n = 61 isolates) were Derby (n = 19), 6,7: z10-monophasic (n = 15), Brandenburg (n = 10), Infantis (n = 6), Hadar (n = 5), Johannesburg (n = 4), and Tennessee (n = 2). Serovars recovered from the pen were Reading (n = 6), Derby (n = 4), Uganda (n = 2), and Manhattan (n = 2). Results of this study suggest that holding pens contribute to increased S. enterica carriage in cull sows. Abattoir holding pens might be an important control point for S. enterica in the ground pork production chain.

  2. Acquisition of extended-spectrum cephalosporin- and colistin-resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Newport by pilgrims during Hajj.

    PubMed

    Olaitan, Abiola Olumuyiwa; Dia, Ndèye Méry; Gautret, Philippe; Benkouiten, Samir; Belhouchat, Khadidja; Drali, Tassadit; Parola, Philippe; Brouqui, Philippe; Memish, Ziad; Raoult, Didier; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2015-06-01

    Gatherings like the Hajj involving many people who travel from different parts of the world represent a risk for the acquisition and dissemination of infectious diseases. In this study, acquisition of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella spp. in 2013 Hajj pilgrims from Marseille, France, was investigated. In total, 267 rectal swabs were collected from 129 participants before their departure and after their return from the pilgrimage as well as during the pilgrimage from patients with diarrhoea. Samples were screened for the presence of Salmonella using quantitative real-time PCR and culture. Whole-genome sequencing was performed to characterise one of the isolates, and the mechanism leading to colistin resistance was investigated. Six post-Hajj samples and one sample collected during a diarrhoea episode in Hajj were positive for Salmonella by real-time PCR, with five Salmonella enterica belonging to several serotypes recovered by culture, whereas no pre-Hajj sample was positive. Two of the isolates belonged to the epidemic Newport serotype, were resistant to cephalosporins, gentamicin and colistin, and harboured the bla(CTX-M-2) gene and a 12-nucleotide deletion in the pmrB gene leading to colistin resistance. This study shows that pilgrims acquired Salmonella bacteria, including a novel MDR clone, during the Hajj pilgrimage. This calls for more improved public health surveillance during Hajj because Salmonella is one of the most common diarrhoea-causing bacteria worldwide. Therefore, returning pilgrims could disseminate MDR bacteria worldwide upon returning to their home countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of Salmonella enterica in Poultry and Eggs in Uruguay during an Epidemic Due to Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis▿

    PubMed Central

    Betancor, L.; Pereira, M.; Martinez, A.; Giossa, G.; Fookes, M.; Flores, K.; Barrios, P.; Repiso, V.; Vignoli, R.; Cordeiro, N.; Algorta, G.; Thomson, N.; Maskell, D.; Schelotto, F.; Chabalgoity, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is frequently associated with food-borne disease worldwide. Poultry-derived products are a major source. An epidemic of human infection with S. Enteritidis occurred in Uruguay, and to evaluate the extent of poultry contamination, we conducted a nationwide survey over 2 years that included the analysis of sera from 5,751 birds and 12,400 eggs. Serological evidence of infection with Salmonella group O:9 was found in 24.4% of the birds. All positive sera were retested with a gm flagellum-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and based on these results, the national prevalence of S. Enteritidis infection was estimated to be 6.3%. Salmonellae were recovered from 58 of 620 pools made up of 20 eggs each, demonstrating a prevalence of at least 1 in every 214 eggs. Surprisingly, the majority of the isolates were not S. Enteritidis. Thirty-nine isolates were typed as S. Derby, 9 as S. Gallinarum, 8 as S. Enteritidis, and 2 as S. Panama. Despite the highest prevalence in eggs, S. Derby was not isolated from humans in the period of analysis, suggesting a low capacity to infect humans. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis of S. Derby and S. Enteritidis revealed more than 350 genetic differences. S. Derby lacked pathogenicity islands 13 and 14, the fimbrial lpf operon, and other regions encoding metabolic functions. Several of these regions are present not only in serovar Enteritidis but also in all sequenced strains of S. Typhimurium, suggesting that these regions might be related to the capacity of Salmonella to cause food-borne disease. PMID:20484605

  4. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica isolates throughout an integrated broiler supply chain in China.

    PubMed

    Ren, X; Li, M; Xu, C; Cui, K; Feng, Z; Fu, Y; Zhang, J; Liao, M

    2016-10-01

    A total of 1145 samples were collected from chicken breeder farms, hatcheries, broiler farms, a slaughterhouse and retail refrigerated chicken stores in an integrated broiler supply chain in Guangdong Province, China, in 2013. One-hundred and two Salmonella enterica strains were isolated and subjected to serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, virulence profile determination and molecular subtyping by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The contamination rates in samples from breeder farms, hatcheries, broiler farms, the slaughterhouse and retail stores were 1·46%, 4·31%, 7·00%, 62·86% and 54·67%, respectively. The isolated strains of S. enterica belonged to 10 serotypes; most of them were S. Weltevreden (46·08%, 47/102) and S. Agona (18·63%, 19/102). Isolates were frequently resistant to streptomycin (38·2%), tetracycline (36·3%), sulfisoxazole (35·3%) and gentamicin (34·3%); 31·4% of isolates were multidrug resistant. The isolates were screened for 10 virulence factors. The Salmonella pathogenicity island genes avrA, ssaQ, mgtC, siiD, and sopB and the fimbrial gene bcfC were present in 100% of the strains. PFGE genotyping of the 102 S. enterica isolates yielded 24 PFGE types at an 85% similarity threshold. The PFGE patterns show that the genotypes of S. enterica in the production chain are very diverse, but some strains have 100% similarity in different parts of the production chain, which indicates that some S. enterica persist throughout the broiler supply chain.

  5. Assignment of serotype to Salmonella enterica isolates obtained from poultry and their environment in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pulido-Landínez, M; Sánchez-Ingunza, R; Guard, J; do Nascimento, V Pinheiro

    2013-01-01

    To assess diversity of Salmonella enterica serotypes present in poultry and their environment from southern Brazil, the Kauffmann–White–Le Minor (KWL) scheme was used to serotype a total of 155 isolates. Isolates were then re-examined with nested PCR and sequencing of the dkgB-linked intergenic sequence ribotyping (ISR) region that assesses single nucleotide polymorphisms occurring around a 5S ribosomal gene. Serotypes identified were Heidelberg (40·6%), Enteritidis (34·2%), Hadar (8·4%), Typhimurium (3·9%), Gallinarum (3·2%), Agona (1·3%), Cerro (1·3%), Livingstone (1·3%), Infantis (0·6%), Isangi (0·6%), Mbandaka (0·6%), Montevideo (0·6%) and Senftenberg (0·6%). Three unique ISRs were detected from four strains. Day old chicks yielded only S. Enteritidis, whereas S. Heidelberg was most often associated with poultry carcasses. Overall agreement between KWL and ISR was 85·2%, with disagreement possibly due to the ability of ISR to detect mixtures of serotypes in culture. Overall, ISR provided more information than did KWL about the ecology of Salm. enterica on-farm. The O-antigen group D Salm. enterica serovars such as Pullorum, Gallinarum and Enteritidis appear susceptible to overgrowth by other serotypes. Significance and Impact of the Study Single nucleotide polymorphisms found in a group of poultry-associated Salmonella isolates from southern Brazil provided evidence of mixtures of serovar group D serotypes on-farm and in single samples from birds. This finding suggests that co-infection and interserotype competition of Salmonella enterica in poultry could impact the incidence of disease in animals or humans. In addition, unique serotypes were identified on-farm that escaped characterization by antibody typing. Application of cost-efficient and highly discriminatory genomic methods for assigning serotype may alter concepts about the epidemiology of Salm. enterica on-farm and in foods. PMID:23734786

  6. Salmonella enterica isolated from infections in Australian livestock remain susceptible to critical antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Sam; Groves, Mitchell D; Trott, Darren J; Chapman, Toni A; Turner, Bernadette; Hornitzky, Michael; Jordan, David

    2014-02-01

    Salmonella enterica is a zoonotic pathogen causing a variety of diseases in humans and animals. Many countries are reporting an increase in the prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) S. enterica in food animals. The aim of this study was to determine whether S. enterica isolated from livestock in New South Wales, Australia, have similar resistance traits to those reported internationally. Salmonella enterica (n=165) from clinical infections in food animals between 2007 and 2011 were serotyped and tested for susceptibility to 18 antimicrobials. Also, 22 antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs), 3 integrons and 18 plasmid replicon types were screened for using PCR. Most isolates (66.1%) remained susceptible to all antimicrobials; 8.5% of the isolates were resistant to four or more antimicrobials. Antimicrobials with the highest prevalence of resistance were sulfafurazole (28.5%), ampicillin (17.0%), tetracycline (15.8%) and trimethoprim (8.5%). There was no resistance to fluoroquinolones or third-generation cephalosporins. The most common ARGs were blaTEM (15.2%), sul2 (10.3%), tetB (9.1%), tetA (5.5%), aphA1 (4.8%) and dhfrV (4.8%). Class 1 integrons (7.9%) and IncFIIA (69.7%) were the most commonly detected integron and plasmid replicon types, respectively. Class 1 integrons were positively associated with MDR phenotypes and ARG carriage (P≤0.001). Internationally prominent MDR serovars associated with severe disease in humans (e.g. AmpC-positive Salmonella Newport) were not detected. Overall, the comparatively favourable resistance status of S. enterica in Australian livestock represents minimal public health risk associated with MDR strains and supports a conservative approach to the registration of antimicrobial drug classes in food-producing animals. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Response to 2-Aminoacrylate Differs in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica, despite Shared Metabolic Components.

    PubMed

    Borchert, Andrew J; Downs, Diana M

    2017-07-15

    The metabolic network of an organism includes the sum total of the biochemical reactions present. In microbes, this network has an impeccable ability to sense and respond to perturbations caused by internal or external stimuli. The metabolic potential (i.e., network structure) of an organism is often drawn from the genome sequence, based on the presence of enzymes deemed to indicate specific pathways. Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica are members of the Enterobacteriaceae family of Gram-negative bacteria that share the majority of their metabolic components and regulatory machinery as the "core genome." In S. enterica, the ability of the enamine intermediate 2-aminoacrylate (2AA) to inactivate a number of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes has been established in vivo In this study, 2AA metabolism and the consequences of its accumulation were investigated in E. coli The data showed that despite the conservation of all relevant enzymes, S. enterica and E. coli differed in both the generation and detrimental consequences of 2AA. In total, these findings suggest that the structure of the metabolic network surrounding the generation and response to endogenous 2AA stress differs between S. enterica and E. coliIMPORTANCE This work compared the metabolic networks surrounding the endogenous stressor 2-aminoacrylate in two closely related members of the Enterobacteriaceae The data showed that despite the conservation of all relevant enzymes in this metabolic node, the two closely related organisms diverged in their metabolic network structures. This work highlights how a set of conserved components can generate distinct network architectures and how this can impact the physiology of an organism. This work defines a model to expand our understanding of the 2-aminoacrylate stress response and the differences in metabolic structures and cellular milieus between S. enterica and E. coli. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Emergence of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi in Italy.

    PubMed

    García-Fernández, Aurora; Gallina, Silvia; Owczarek, Slawomir; Dionisi, Anna Maria; Benedetti, Ildo; Decastelli, Lucia; Luzzi, Ida

    2015-01-01

    In developed countries, typhoid fever is often associated with persons who travel to endemic areas or immigrate from them. Typhoid fever is a systemic infection caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Because of the emergence of antimicrobial resistance to standard first-line drugs, fluoroquinolones are the drugs of choice. Resistance to ciprofloxacin by this Salmonella serovar represents an emerging public health issue. Two S. enterica ser. Typhi strains resistant to ciprofloxacin (CIP) were reported to the Italian surveillance system for foodborne and waterborne diseases (EnterNet-Italia) in 2013. The strains were isolated from two Italian tourists upon their arrival from India. A retrospective analysis of 17 other S. enterica ser. Typhi strains isolated in Italy during 2011-2013 was performed to determine their resistance to CIP. For this purpose, we assayed for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and conducted PCR and nucleotide sequence analyses. Moreover, all strains were typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to evaluate possible clonal relationships. Sixty-eight percent of the S. enterica ser. Typhi strains were resistant to CIP (MICs, 0.125-16 mg/L), and all isolates were negative for determinants of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance. Analysis of sequences encoding DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV subunits revealed mutations in gyrA, gyrB, and parC. Thirteen different clonal groups were detected, and the two CIP-resistant strains isolated from the individuals who visited India exhibited the same PFGE pattern. Because of these findings, the emergence of CIP-resistant S. enterica ser. Typhi isolates in Italy deserves attention, and monitoring antibiotic susceptibility is important for efficiently managing cases of typhoid fever.

  9. MLVA for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Dublin: Development of a Method Suitable for Inter-Laboratory Surveillance and Application in the Context of a Raw Milk Cheese Outbreak in France in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Vignaud, Marie-Léone; Cherchame, Emeline; Marault, Muriel; Chaing, Emilie; Le Hello, Simon; Michel, Valerie; Jourdan-Da Silva, Nathalie; Lailler, Renaud; Brisabois, Anne; Cadel-Six, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Dublin (S. Dublin) figures among the most frequently isolated Salmonella strains in humans in France. This serovar may affect production and animal health mainly in cattle herds with corresponding high economic losses. Given that the current gold standard method, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), provides insufficient discrimination for epidemiological investigations, we propose a standard operating procedure in this study for multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) of S. Dublin, suitable for inter-laboratory surveillance. An in silico analysis on the genome of S. Dublin strains CT_02021853 was performed to identify appropriate microsatellite regions. Of 21 VNTR loci screened, six were selected and 401 epidemiologically unrelated and related strains, isolated from humans, food and animals were analyzed to assess performance criteria such as typeability, discriminatory power and epidemiological concordance. The MLVA scheme developed was applied to an outbreak involving Saint-Nectaire cheese for which investigations were conducted in France in 2012, making it possible to discriminate between epidemiologically related strains and sporadic case strains, while PFGE assigned only a single profile. The six loci selected were sequenced on a large set of strains to determine the sequence of the repeated units and flanking regions, and their stability was evaluated in vivo through the analysis of the strains investigated from humans, food and the farm environment during the outbreak. The six VNTR selected were found to be stable and the discriminatory power of the MLVA method developed was calculated to be 0.954 compared with that for PFGE, which was only 0.625. Twenty-four reference strains were selected from the 401 examined strains in order to represent most of the allele diversity observed for each locus. This reference set can be used to harmonize MLVA results and allow data exchange between

  10. MLVA for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Dublin: Development of a Method Suitable for Inter-Laboratory Surveillance and Application in the Context of a Raw Milk Cheese Outbreak in France in 2012.

    PubMed

    Vignaud, Marie-Léone; Cherchame, Emeline; Marault, Muriel; Chaing, Emilie; Le Hello, Simon; Michel, Valerie; Jourdan-Da Silva, Nathalie; Lailler, Renaud; Brisabois, Anne; Cadel-Six, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Dublin (S. Dublin) figures among the most frequently isolated Salmonella strains in humans in France. This serovar may affect production and animal health mainly in cattle herds with corresponding high economic losses. Given that the current gold standard method, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), provides insufficient discrimination for epidemiological investigations, we propose a standard operating procedure in this study for multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) of S. Dublin, suitable for inter-laboratory surveillance. An in silico analysis on the genome of S. Dublin strains CT_02021853 was performed to identify appropriate microsatellite regions. Of 21 VNTR loci screened, six were selected and 401 epidemiologically unrelated and related strains, isolated from humans, food and animals were analyzed to assess performance criteria such as typeability, discriminatory power and epidemiological concordance. The MLVA scheme developed was applied to an outbreak involving Saint-Nectaire cheese for which investigations were conducted in France in 2012, making it possible to discriminate between epidemiologically related strains and sporadic case strains, while PFGE assigned only a single profile. The six loci selected were sequenced on a large set of strains to determine the sequence of the repeated units and flanking regions, and their stability was evaluated in vivo through the analysis of the strains investigated from humans, food and the farm environment during the outbreak. The six VNTR selected were found to be stable and the discriminatory power of the MLVA method developed was calculated to be 0.954 compared with that for PFGE, which was only 0.625. Twenty-four reference strains were selected from the 401 examined strains in order to represent most of the allele diversity observed for each locus. This reference set can be used to harmonize MLVA results and allow data exchange between

  11. Use of multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) to investigate genetic diversity of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates from human, food, and veterinary sources.

    PubMed

    Mateva, Gergana; Pedersen, Karl; Sørensen, Gitte; Asseva, Galina; Daskalov, Hristo; Petrov, Petar; Kantardjiev, Todor; Alexandar, Irina; Löfström, Charlotta

    2017-08-23

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium is the most common zoonotic pathogen in Bulgaria. To allow efficient outbreak investigations and surveillance in the food chain, accurate and discriminatory methods for typing are needed. This study evaluated the use of multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) and compared results with antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinations for 100 S. Typhimurium strains isolated in Bulgaria during 2008-2012 (50 veterinary/food and 50 human isolates). Results showed that isolates were divided into 80 and 34 groups using MLVA and AMR, respectively. Simpson's index of diversity was determined to 0.994 ± 0.003 and 0.945 ± 0.012. The most frequently encountered MLVA profiles were 3-11-9-NA-211 (n = 5); 3-12-9-NA-211 (n = 3); 3-12-11-21-311 (n = 3); 3-17-10-NA-311 (n = 3); 2-20-9-7-212 (n = 3); and 2-23-NA-NA-111 (n = 3). No clustering of isolates related to susceptibility/resistance to antimicrobials, source of isolation, or year of isolation was observed. Some MLVA types were found in both human and veterinary/food isolates, indicating a possible route of transmission. A majority (83%) of the isolates were found to be resistant against at least one antimicrobial and 44% against ≥4 antimicrobials. Further studies are needed to verify MLVA usefulness over a longer period of time and with more isolates, including outbreak strains. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Metabolic parameters linked by Phenotype MicroArray to acid resistance profiles of poultry-associated Salmonella enterica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phenotype microarrays were analyzed for 51 datasets derived from Salmonella enterica. The top 4 serovars associated with poultry products and one associated with turkey, respectively Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Infantis and Senftenberg, were represented. Datasets were clustered into two ...

  13. Survival of Salmonella enterica in poultry feed is strain dependent.

    PubMed

    Andino, Ana; Pendleton, Sean; Zhang, Nan; Chen, Wei; Critzer, Faith; Hanning, Irene

    2014-02-01

    Feed components have low water activity, making bacterial survival difficult. The mechanisms of Salmonella survival in feed and subsequent colonization of poultry are unknown. The purpose of this research was to compare the ability of Salmonella serovars and strains to survive in broiler feed and to evaluate molecular mechanisms associated with survival and colonization by measuring the expression of genes associated with colonization (hilA, invA) and survival via fatty acid synthesis (cfa, fabA, fabB, fabD). Feed was inoculated with 1 of 15 strains of Salmonella enterica consisting of 11 serovars (Typhimurium, Enteriditis, Kentucky, Seftenburg, Heidelberg, Mbandanka, Newport, Bairely, Javiana, Montevideo, and Infantis). To inoculate feed, cultures were suspended in PBS and survival was evaluated by plating samples onto XLT4 agar plates at specific time points (0 h, 4 h, 8 h, 24 h, 4 d, and 7 d). To evaluate gene expression, RNA was extracted from the samples at the specific time points (0, 4, 8, and 24 h) and gene expression measured with real-time PCR. The largest reduction in Salmonella occurred at the first and third sampling time points (4 h and 4 d) with the average reductions being 1.9 and 1.6 log cfu per g, respectively. For the remaining time points (8 h, 24 h, and 7 d), the average reduction was less than 1 log cfu per g (0.6, 0.4, and 0.6, respectively). Most strains upregulated cfa (cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis) within 8 h, which would modify the fluidity of the cell wall to aid in survival. There was a weak negative correlation between survival and virulence gene expression indicating downregulation to focus energy on other gene expression efforts such as survival-related genes. These data indicate the ability of strains to survive over time in poultry feed was strain dependent and that upregulation of cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis and downregulation of virulence genes were associated with a response to desiccation stress.

  14. Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinyan; Li, Yongrui; Xu, Xuebin; Liang, Beibei; Wu, Fuli; Yang, Xiaoxia; Ma, Qiuxia; Yang, Chaojie; Hu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Hongbo; Li, Hao; Sheng, Chunyu; Xie, Jing; Du, Xinying; Hao, Rongzhang; Qiu, Shaofu; Song, Hongbin

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to analyze the antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance to cephalosporins, ciprofloxacin, and azithromycin in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates identified from patients with diarrhea in Shanghai. The isolates showed high rates of resistance to traditional antimicrobials, and 20.6, 12.7, and 5.5% of them exhibited decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins, ciprofloxacin, and azithromycin, respectively. Notably, 473 (84.6%) isolates exhibited multidrug resistance (MDR), including 161 (28.8%) isolates that showed an ACSSuT profile. Twenty-two MDR isolates concurrently exhibited decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins and ciprofloxacin, and six of them were co-resistant to azithromycin. Of all the 71 isolates with decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, 65 showed at least one mutation (D87Y, D87N, or D87G) in gyrA, among which seven isolates simultaneously had mutations of parC (S80R) (n = 6) or parC (T57S/S80R) (n = 1), while 49 isolates with either zero or one mutation in gyrA contained plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes including qnrB, qnrS, and aac(6′)-Ib-cr. Among the 115 cephalosporin-resistant isolates, the most common ESBL gene was blaCTX-M, followed by blaTEM-1, blaOXA-1, and blaSHV -12. Eight subtypes of blaCTX-M were identified and blaCTX-M-14 (n = 22) and blaCTX-M-55 (n = 31) were found to be dominant. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of blaCTX-M-123 and blaCTX-M-125 in S. Typhimurium. Besides, mphA gene was identified in 15 of the 31 azithromycin-resistant isolates. Among the 22 isolates with reduced susceptibility to cephalosporins and ciprofloxacin, 15 contained ESBL and PMQR genes. Coexistence of these genes lead to the emergence of MDR and the transmission of them will pose great difficulties in S. Typhimurium treatments. Therefore, surveillance for these MDR isolates should be enhanced. PMID:28400764

  15. Analysis of Molecular Epidemiology of Chilean Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis Isolates by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Bacteriophage Typing

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Jorge; Fica, Alberto; Ebensperger, German; Calfullan, Hector; Prat, Soledad; Fernandez, Alda; Alexandre, Marcela; Heitmann, Ingrid

    2003-01-01

    Human Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infections emerged in Chile in 1994. S. enterica serotype Enteritidis phage type 1 isolates predominated in the north, and phage type 4 isolates predominated in the central and southern regions. A study was planned to characterize this epidemic using the best discriminatory typing technique. Research involved 441 S. enterica serotype Enteritidis isolates, including clinical preepidemic samples (n = 74; 1975 to 1993) and epidemic (n = 199), food (n = 72), poultry (n = 57), and some Latin American (n = 39) isolates. The best method was selected based on a sample of preepidemic isolates, analyzing the discriminatory power (DP) obtained by phage typing and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and pulsed-field gel electophoresis (PFGE) analysis. The highest DP was associated with BlnI PFGE-bacteriophage typing analysis (0.993). A total of 38 BlnI patterns (B patterns) were identified before the epidemic period, 19 since 1994, and only 4 in both periods. Two major clusters were identified by phylogenetic analysis, and the predominant B patterns clustered in the same branch. Combined analysis revealed that specific B pattern-phage type combinations (subtypes) disappeared before 1994, that different genotypes associated with S. enterica serotype Enteritidis phage type 4 had been observed since 1988, and that strain diversity increased before the expansion of S. enterica serotype Enteritidis in 1994. Predominant subtype B3-phage type 4 was associated with the central and southern regions, and subtype B38-phage type 1 was associated with the north (P < 0.0001). Food and poultry isolates matched the predominant S. enterica serotype Enteritidis subtypes, but isolates identified in neighboring countries (Peru and Bolivia) did not match S. enterica serotype Enteritidis subtypes identified in the north of Chile. The results of this work demonstrate that genetic diversity, replacement, and expansion of specific S. enterica serotype

  16. Antimicrobial profile of Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis from free-range swine in Kakamega fish market, western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Onyango, David M; Ndeda, Violet Mmbone; Wandili, Sarah A; Wawire, Sifuna A; Ochieng, Phillip

    2014-11-13

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis is a host-adapted, facultative, intracellular pathogen that causes swine paratyphoid. Its antimicrobial resistance presents a challenge to feed manufacturing industries. However, stopping antibiotics in animal feed would have economic implications for the industry. Conventional microbial methods for isolation and identification of S. Choleraesuis were employed. The isolates were subjected to screening against 17 antimicrobial agents and genotyping of resistance markers by PCR. The data were then analyzed and presented in percentages. Phenotypically, 43 out of 95 isolates showed multidrug resistance. Among the 17 antibiotics tested, resistance was observed as follows: sulphonamides (45.2%), nalidixic acid (44.25%), tetracycline (42%), ampicillin (36.8%), erythromycin (34.7%), carbenicillin (31.5%), chrolamphenical (28.4%), gentamicin (27.3%), kanamycin (24.2%), spectinomycin (21%), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (16.8%), streptomycin (12.6%), cephalothion (8.4%), ofloxacin (5.2%), ciprofloxacin (4.2%), and norfloxacin (4.2%). Fifty-two isolates were susceptible to the antimicrobial agents tested. A total of 3.1% of the isolates had the integron gene pattern combination of dfrA2-aadA2 (2100 bp), dfrA12 (2100 bp); 4.2% had dfrA12-aadA2-sulI (2100 bp); 2.1% had dfrA12-aadA2 (2100 bp); and 1% had dfrA2-aadA2-sulI (2100 bp), oxa1-aadA2 (1500 bp), dfrA12-aadA2-sulI, and blaPSE (2100 bp). The isolated S. Choleraesuis were resistant to more than 10% of the antimicrobial agents used in this study. Appropriate surveillance is warranted to gain more information about the epidemiology, as stopping antibiotics in animal feed would have economic implications for the industry.

  17. Effects of tylosin administration on C-reactive protein concentration and carriage of Salmonella enterica in pigs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeun Bum; Singer, Randall S; Borewicz, Klaudyna; White, Bryan A; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Johnson, Timothy J; Espejo, Luis A; Isaacson, Richard E

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of tylosin on C-reactive protein concentration, carriage of Salmonella enterica, and antimicrobial resistance genes in commercial pigs. 120 pigs on 2 commercial farms. A cohort of sixty 10-week-old pigs in 4 pens/farm (15 pigs/pen) was randomly selected. Equal numbers of pigs were given feed containing tylosin (40 μg/g of feed) for 0, 6, or 12 weeks. C-reactive protein concentrations were measured, microbial culture for S enterica in feces was performed, and antimicrobial resistance genes in feces were quantified. No significant associations were detected between C-reactive protein concentration or S enterica status and tylosin treatment. During the 12 weeks of tylosin administration, increased levels of 6 antimicrobial resistance genes did not occur. Treatment of pigs with tylosin did not affect C-reactive protein concentration or reduce carriage or load of S enterica. There was no evidence that pigs receiving tylosin had increased carriage of the 6 antimicrobial resistance genes measured. S enterica is a public health concern. Use of the antimicrobial growth promoter tylosin did not pose a public health risk by means of increased carriage of S enterica.

  18. [Therapeutic intervention alternatives in cancer, using attenuated live bacterial vectors: Salmonella enterica as a carrier of heterologous molecules].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Luna, Marco Antonio; Luria-Pérez, Rosendo; Huerta-Yépez, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a facultative anaerobic bacteria, whose ability to colonize antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as dendritic cells and macrophages, has allowed its successful use as an alive, attenuated bacterial vector for vaccination. Salmonella enterica elicits efficient cellular, humoral and mucosal immune responses, against heterologous antigens including viruses, parasites, other bacterial species and tumor-associated antigens, since it is capable of delivering these antigens to cells of the immune system. The extracellular expression of heterologous antigens on the surface of Salmonella enterica via its type I, III and V secretion systems, and their delivery into infected cells is essential for its stimulation of immune responses against these antigens. Moreover, Salmonella enterica is a promising therapeutic agent against cancer, as demonstrated by reports of pre-clinical and clinical studies indicating that, after systemic administration, Salmonella enterica preferentially localizes in solid tumors and metastases as compared to normal tissues. In this review, we focus on novel prophylactic and therapeutic anti-cancer approaches using Salmonella enterica as a delivery system of heterologous molecules with the aim of inhibiting tumor growth.

  19. Evaluation of the association between feeding raw meat and Salmonella enterica infections at a Greyhound breeding facility.

    PubMed

    Morley, Paul S; Strohmeyer, Rachel A; Tankson, Jeanetta D; Hyatt, Doreene R; Dargatz, David A; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J

    2006-05-15

    To investigate Salmonella enterica infections at a Greyhound breeding facility. Cross-sectional study. ANIMAL AND SAMPLE POPULATIONS: 138 adult and juvenile dogs and S. enterica isolates recovered from the dogs and their environment. The investigation was conducted at the request of a Greyhound breeder. Observations regarding the environment and population of dogs were recorded. Fecal, food, and environmental specimens were collected and submitted for Salmonella culture. Isolates were serotyped and tested for susceptibility to 16 antimicrobials. Isolates underwent genetic analyses by use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and ribotyping. S. enterica was recovered from 88 of 133 (66%) samples of all types and from 57 of 61 (93%) fecal samples. Eighty-three (94.3%) of the isolates were serotype Newport, 77 (87.5%) of which had identical resistance phenotypes. Genetic evaluations suggested that several strains of S. enterica existed at the facility, but there was a high degree of relatedness among many of the Newport isolates. Multiple strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Newport were recovered from raw meat fed on 1 day. S. enterica infections and environmental contamination were common at this facility. A portion of the Salmonella strains detected on the premises was likely introduced via raw meat that was the primary dietary constituent. Some strains appeared to be widely disseminated in the population. Feeding meat that had not been cooked properly, particularly meat classified as unfit for human consumption, likely contributed to the infections in these dogs.

  20. The Emergence of Reduced Ciprofloxacin Susceptibility in Salmonella enterica Causing Bloodstream Infections in Rural Ghana.

    PubMed

    Eibach, Daniel; Al-Emran, Hassan M; Dekker, Denise Myriam; Krumkamp, Ralf; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Cruz Espinoza, Ligia Maria; Ehmen, Christa; Boahen, Kennedy; Heisig, Peter; Im, Justin; Jaeger, Anna; von Kalckreuth, Vera; Pak, Gi Deok; Panzner, Ursula; Park, Se Eun; Reinhardt, Alexander; Sarpong, Nimako; Schütt-Gerowitt, Heidi; Wierzba, Thomas F; Marks, Florian; May, Jürgen

    2016-03-15

    Salmonella ranks among the leading causes of bloodstream infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Multidrug resistant typhoidal and nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) isolates have been previously identified in this region. However, resistance to ciprofloxacin has rarely been reported in West Africa. This study aims to assess susceptibility against ciprofloxacin in Salmonella causing invasive bloodstream infections among children in rural Ghana. From May 2007 until May 2012, children attending a rural district hospital in central Ghana were eligible for recruitment. Salmonella enterica isolated from blood cultures were assessed for ciprofloxacin susceptibility by Etest (susceptible minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≤ 0.06 µg/mL). The gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes were sequenced to identify mutations associated with changes in susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. Two hundred eighty-five Salmonella enterica isolates from 5211 blood cultures were most commonly identified as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (n = 129 [45%]), Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (n = 89 [31%]), Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin (n = 20 [7%]), and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (n = 19 [7%]). All S. Typhi and S. Dublin were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Reduced susceptibility (MIC >0.06 µg/mL) was found in 53% (10/19) of S. Enteritidis and in 2% (3/129) of S. Typhimurium isolates. Sequencing detected a single gyrB mutation (Glu466Asp) and a single gyrA mutation (Ser83Tyr) in all 3 S. Typhimurium isolates, while 9 of 10 S. Enteritidis harbored single gyrA mutations (Asp87Gly, Asp87Asn, or Asp87Tyr). No mutations were found in the parC and parE genes. Ciprofloxacin susceptibility in invasive NTS in rural Ghana is highly dependent on serotype. Although reduced ciprofloxacin susceptibility is low in S. Typhimurium, more than half of all S. Enteritidis isolates are affected. Healthcare practitioners in Ghana should be aware of potential treatment failure in patients with invasive

  1. Interaction of Phytophagous Insects with Salmonella enterica on Plants and Enhanced Persistence of the Pathogen with Macrosteles quadrilineatus Infestation or Frankliniella occidentalis Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Arias, José Pablo; Groves, Russell; Barak, Jeri D.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, most foodborne illness outbreaks of salmonellosis have been caused by consumption of contaminated fresh produce. Yet, the mechanisms that allow the human pathogen Salmonella enterica to contaminate and grow in plant environments remain poorly described. We examined the effect of feeding by phytophagous insects on survival of S. enterica on lettuce. Larger S. enterica populations were found on leaves infested with Macrosteles quadrilineatus. In contrast, pathogen populations among plants exposed to Frankliniella occidentalis or Myzus persicae were similar to those without insects. However, on plants infested with F. occidentalis, areas of the infested leaf with feeding damage sustained higher S. enterica populations than areas without damage. The spatial distribution of S. enterica cells on leaves infested with F. occidentalis may be altered resulting in higher populations in feeding lesions or survival may be different across a leaf dependent on local damage. Results suggest the possibility of some specificity with select insects and the persistence of S. enterica. Additionally, we demonstrated the potential for phytophagous insects to become contaminated with S. enterica from contaminated plant material. S. enterica was detected in approximately 50% of all M. quadrilineatus, F. occidentalis, and M. persicae after 24 h exposure to contaminated leaves. Particularly, 17% of F. occidentalis, the smallest of the insects tested, harbored more than 102 CFU/F. occidentalis. Our results show that phytophagous insects may influence the population dynamics of S. enterica in agricultural crops. This study provides evidence of a human bacterial pathogen interacting with phytophagous insect during plant infestation. PMID:24205384

  2. Salmonella enterica shedding in hospitalized horses and associations with diarrhea occurrence among their stablemates and gastrointestinal-related illness or death following discharge.

    PubMed

    Hartnack, Amanda K; Van Metre, David C; Morley, Paul S

    2012-03-15

    To evaluate the potential association between Salmonella enterica shedding in hospitalized horses and the risk of diarrhea among stablemates, and to characterize gastrointestinal-related illness and death following discharge among horses that shed S. enterica while hospitalized. Retrospective cohort study [corrected]. 221 horses (59 that shed S. enterica during hospitalization and 162 that tested negative for S. enterica shedding ≥ 3 times during hospitalization). Information from medical records (signalment, results of microbial culture of fecal samples, clinical status at the time of culture, and treatment history) was combined with data collected through interviews with horse owners regarding formerly hospitalized horses and their stablemates. Data were analyzed to investigate risk factors for death and diarrhea. Occurrence of diarrhea among stablemates of formerly hospitalized horses was not associated with S. enterica shedding in hospitalized horses but was associated with oral treatment with antimicrobials during hospitalization. Salmonella enterica shedding during hospitalization was not associated with risk of death or gastrointestinal-related illness in study horses ≤ 6 months after discharge, but shedding status and history of gastrointestinal illness were associated with increased risk of death during the preinterview period. Stablemates of horses that shed S. enterica during hospitalization did not appear to have an increased risk for diarrhea, but comingling with horses that receive orally administered antimicrobials may affect this risk. Salmonella enterica shedding during hospitalization may be a marker of increased long-term risk of death after discharge. Risks are likely influenced by the S enterica strain involved and biosecurity procedures used.

  3. Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli Contamination of Root and Leaf Vegetables Grown in Soils with Incorporated Bovine Manure

    PubMed Central

    Natvig, Erin E.; Ingham, Steven C.; Ingham, Barbara H.; Cooperband, Leslie R.; Roper, Teryl R.

    2002-01-01

    Bovine manure, with or without added Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (three strains), was incorporated into silty clay loam (SCL) and loamy sand (LS) soil beds (53- by 114-cm surface area, 17.5 cm deep) and maintained in two controlled-environment chambers. The S. enterica serovar Typhimurium inoculum was 4 to 5 log CFU/g in manure-fertilized soil. The conditions in the two environmental chambers, each containing inoculated and uninoculated beds of manure-fertilized soil, simulated daily average Madison, Wis., weather conditions (hourly temperatures, rainfall, daylight, and humidity) for a 1 March or a 1 June manure application and subsequent vegetable growing seasons ending 9 August or 28 September, respectively. Core soil samples were taken biweekly from both inoculated and uninoculated soil beds in each chamber. Radishes, arugula, and carrots were planted in soil beds, thinned, and harvested. Soils, thinned vegetables, and harvested vegetables were analyzed for S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli (indigenous in manure). After the 1 March manure application, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium was detected at low levels in both soils on 31 May, but not on vegetables planted 1 May and harvested 12 July from either soil. After the 1 June manure application, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium was detected in SCL soil on 7 September and on radishes and arugula planted in SCL soil on 15 August and harvested on 27 September. In LS soil, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium died at a similar rate (P ≥ 0.05) after the 1 June manure application and was less often detected on arugula and radishes harvested from this soil compared to the SCL soil. Pathogen levels on vegetables were decreased by washing. Manure application in cool (daily average maximum temperature of <10°C) spring conditions is recommended to ensure that harvested vegetables are not contaminated with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Manure application under warmer (daily average maximum

  4. Core Proteomic Analysis of Unique Metabolic Pathways of Salmonella enterica for the Identification of Potential Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Infections caused by Salmonella enterica, a Gram-negative facultative anaerobic bacteria belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae, are major threats to the health of humans and animals. The recent availability of complete genome data of pathogenic strains of the S. enterica gives new avenues for the identification of drug targets and drug candidates. We have used the genomic and metabolic pathway data to identify pathways and proteins essential to the pathogen and absent from the host. Methods We took the whole proteome sequence data of 42 strains of S. enterica and Homo sapiens along with KEGG-annotated metabolic pathway data, clustered proteins sequences using CD-HIT, identified essential genes using DEG database and discarded S. enterica homologs of human proteins in unique metabolic pathways (UMPs) and characterized hypothetical proteins with SVM-prot and InterProScan. Through this core proteomic analysis we have identified enzymes essential to the pathogen. Results The identification of 73 enzymes common in 42 strains of S. enterica is the real strength of the current study. We proposed all 73 unexplored enzymes as potential drug targets against the infections caused by the S. enterica. The study is comprehensive around S. enterica and simultaneously considered every possible pathogenic strain of S. enterica. This comprehensiveness turned the current study significant since, to the best of our knowledge it is the first subtractive core proteomic analysis of the unique metabolic pathways applied to any pathogen for the identification of drug targets. We applied extensive computational methods to shortlist few potential drug targets considering the druggability criteria e.g. Non-homologous to the human host, essential to the pathogen and playing significant role in essential metabolic pathways of the pathogen (i.e. S. enterica). In the current study, the subtractive proteomics through a novel approach was applied i.e. by considering only proteins

  5. Core Proteomic Analysis of Unique Metabolic Pathways of Salmonella enterica for the Identification of Potential Drug Targets.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Reaz; Sufian, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Infections caused by Salmonella enterica, a Gram-negative facultative anaerobic bacteria belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae, are major threats to the health of humans and animals. The recent availability of complete genome data of pathogenic strains of the S. enterica gives new avenues for the identification of drug targets and drug candidates. We have used the genomic and metabolic pathway data to identify pathways and proteins essential to the pathogen and absent from the host. We took the whole proteome sequence data of 42 strains of S. enterica and Homo sapiens along with KEGG-annotated metabolic pathway data, clustered proteins sequences using CD-HIT, identified essential genes using DEG database and discarded S. enterica homologs of human proteins in unique metabolic pathways (UMPs) and characterized hypothetical proteins with SVM-prot and InterProScan. Through this core proteomic analysis we have identified enzymes essential to the pathogen. The identification of 73 enzymes common in 42 strains of S. enterica is the real strength of the current study. We proposed all 73 unexplored enzymes as potential drug targets against the infections caused by the S. enterica. The study is comprehensive around S. enterica and simultaneously considered every possible pathogenic strain of S. enterica. This comprehensiveness turned the current study significant since, to the best of our knowledge it is the first subtractive core proteomic analysis of the unique metabolic pathways applied to any pathogen for the identification of drug targets. We applied extensive computational methods to shortlist few potential drug targets considering the druggability criteria e.g. Non-homologous to the human host, essential to the pathogen and playing significant role in essential metabolic pathways of the pathogen (i.e. S. enterica). In the current study, the subtractive proteomics through a novel approach was applied i.e. by considering only proteins of the unique metabolic

  6. Role of Salmonella enterica exposure in Chilean Crohn's disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Lobos, Manuel; Pizarro, Daniela P; Palavecino, Christian E; Espinoza, Abner; Sebastián, Valentina P; Alvarado, Juan C; Ibañez, Patricio; Quintana, Carlos; Díaz, Orlando; Kalergis, Alexis M; Bueno, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study the association between exposure to Salmonella enterica (SE) and Crohn’s disease (CD) and its clinical implications in Chilean patients. METHODS: Ninety-four unrelated Chilean CD patients from CAREI (Active Cohort Registry of Inflammatory Bowel Disease) presenting to a single inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) unit of a University Hospital were prospectively included in this study. A complete clinical evaluation, including smoking history, was performed at the initial visit, and all the important data of clinical evolution of CD were obtained. Blood samples from these CD patients and 88 healthy sex- and age-matched control subjects were analyzed for exposure to SE and for their NOD2/CARD15 gene status using the presence of anti-Salmonella lipopolysaccharide antibodies [immunoglobulin-G type (IgG)] and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. We also evaluated exposure to SE in 90 sex- and age-matched patients without CD, but with known smoking status (30 smokers, 30 non-smokers, and 30 former smokers). RESULTS: CD patients comprised 54 females and 40 males, aged 35.5 ± 15.2 years at diagnosis with a mean follow-up of 9.0 ± 6.8 years. CD was inflammatory in 59 patients (62.7%), stricturing in 24 (25.5%) and penetrating in 15 (15.5%). Thirty cases (31.9%) had lesions in the ileum, 29 (30.8%) had ileocolonic lesions, 32 (34.0%) had colonic lesions and 23 (24.4%) had perianal disease. Sixteen CD patients (17%) were exposed to SE compared to 15 (17%) of 88 healthy control subjects (P = 0.8). Thirty-one CD patients (32.9%) were smokers, and 7 (7.4%) were former smokers at diagnosis. In the group exposed to SE, 10 of 16 patients (62.5%) were active smokers compared to 21 of 78 patients (26.9%) in the unexposed group (P = 0.01). On the other hand, 10 of 31 smoking patients (32%) were exposed to SE compared to 5 of 56 nonsmoking patients (9%), and one of the seven former smokers (14%) (P = 0.01). In the group of 90 patients without CD, but whose

  7. Role of Salmonella enterica exposure in Chilean Crohn's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Lobos, Manuel; Pizarro, Daniela P; Palavecino, Christian E; Espinoza, Abner; Sebastián, Valentina P; Alvarado, Juan C; Ibañez, Patricio; Quintana, Carlos; Díaz, Orlando; Kalergis, Alexis M; Bueno, Susan M

    2013-09-21

    To study the association between exposure to Salmonella enterica (SE) and Crohn's disease (CD) and its clinical implications in Chilean patients. Ninety-four unrelated Chilean CD patients from CAREI (Active Cohort Registry of Inflammatory Bowel Disease) presenting to a single inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) unit of a University Hospital were prospectively included in this study. A complete clinical evaluation, including smoking history, was performed at the initial visit, and all the important data of clinical evolution of CD were obtained. Blood samples from these CD patients and 88 healthy sex- and age-matched control subjects were analyzed for exposure to SE and for their NOD2/CARD15 gene status using the presence of anti-Salmonella lipopolysaccharide antibodies [immunoglobulin-G type (IgG)] and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. We also evaluated exposure to SE in 90 sex- and age-matched patients without CD, but with known smoking status (30 smokers, 30 non-smokers, and 30 former smokers). CD patients comprised 54 females and 40 males, aged 35.5 ± 15.2 years at diagnosis with a mean follow-up of 9.0 ± 6.8 years. CD was inflammatory in 59 patients (62.7%), stricturing in 24 (25.5%) and penetrating in 15 (15.5%). Thirty cases (31.9%) had lesions in the ileum, 29 (30.8%) had ileocolonic lesions, 32 (34.0%) had colonic lesions and 23 (24.4%) had perianal disease. Sixteen CD patients (17%) were exposed to SE compared to 15 (17%) of 88 healthy control subjects (P = 0.8). Thirty-one CD patients (32.9%) were smokers, and 7 (7.4%) were former smokers at diagnosis. In the group exposed to SE, 10 of 16 patients (62.5%) were active smokers compared to 21 of 78 patients (26.9%) in the unexposed group (P = 0.01). On the other hand, 10 of 31 smoking patients (32%) were exposed to SE compared to 5 of 56 nonsmoking patients (9%), and one of the seven former smokers (14%) (P = 0.01). In the group of 90 patients without CD, but whose smoking status was known, there

  8. Salmonella enterica serovar Virchow meningitis in a young man in Italy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Salmonella enterica is a leading cause of foodborne infections worldwide and includes more than 2500 different serovars, causing primarily gastroenteritis. However, the infection may occur elsewhere and produce characteristic clinical syndromes. Meningitis is a rare complication that occurs in less than 1% of clinical salmonellosis. Case presentation We describe a case of Salmonella Virchow meningitis in a 36-year-old Caucasian man presenting with headache in the occipital region, associated fever, nausea and vomiting, dyspnea and ambulatory difficulty. The cerebrospinal fluid culture showed growth of Salmonella, later confirmed to be Salmonella enterica serovar Virchow. Conclusions Salmonella Virchow infection is rare and this report highlights the risk of meningitis as a presentation of salmonellosis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first Italian case of meningitis due to Salmonella Virchow in a young adult. The probable route of transmission remains unclear and a long carriage state after a previous episode of gastroenteritis should be considered. PMID:24884674

  9. Repeated isolation of Salmonella enterica Goverdhan, a very rare serovar, from Danish poultry surveillance samples.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Karl; Sørensen, Gitte; Szabo, Istvan; Hächler, Herbert; Le Hello, Simon

    2014-12-05

    We report here the appearance of a very rare serovar of Salmonella, S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Goverdhan, in routine Salmonella surveillance samples from Danish poultry production. S. Goverdhan was found on nine occasions: in one broiler breeder farm in October 2010, four broiler farms and one broiler breeder farm in June-September 2012, two broiler breeder flocks simultaneously in June 2013, and one layer flock in July 2013. The five isolates from 2012 and the three isolates from 2013 had identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles, whereas the profile of the isolate from 2010 deviated in a single band. It is the first time this serovar has been described in samples from poultry. The origin of the bacterium is still unknown, but it is suggested that it may have been a pseudo-outbreak caused by contaminated sampling material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of EDTA on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium involves a component not assignable to lipopolysaccharide release.

    PubMed

    Alakomi, H-L; Saarela, M; Helander, I M

    2003-08-01

    The effect of EDTA on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was studied in different growth phases with cells grown with or without Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) supplementation. EDTA affected the outer membrane much more strongly in the early exponential phase than in the mid- or late exponential phase, as indicated by uptake of 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine (a nonpolar hydrophobic probe, M(r) 219), and detergent (SDS) susceptibility. This effect was, however, not paralleled by LPS release (determined by measuring LPS-specific fatty acids or 14C-labelled LPS in cell-free supernatants, per a standardized cell density), which remained unchanged as a function of the growth curve. The conclusion from these results is that in the early exponential phase the effect of EDTA in S. enterica involves a component that is independent of LPS release.

  11. National surveillance of Salmonella enterica in food-producing animals in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, Kanako; Takahashi, Toshio; Morioka, Ayako; Kojima, Akemi; Kijima, Mayumi; Asai, Tetsuo; Tamura, Yutaka

    2009-01-01

    A total of 518 fecal samples collected from 183 apparently healthy cattle, 180 pigs and 155 broilers throughout Japan in 1999 were examined to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella. The isolation rates were 36.1% in broilers, 2.8% in pigs and 0.5% in cattle. S. enterica Infantis was the most frequent isolate, found in 22.6% of broiler fecal samples. Higher resistance rates were observed against oxytetracycline (82.0%), dihydrostreptomycin (77.9%), kanamycin (41.0%) and trimethoprim (35.2%). Resistance rates to ampicillin, ceftiofur, bicozamycin, chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid were <10%. CTX-M-2 β-lactamase producing S. enterica Senftenberg was found in the isolates obtained from one broiler fecal sample. This is the first report of cephalosporin-resistant Salmonella directly isolated from food animal in Japan. PMID:19703311

  12. [Salmonella enterica: a review or the trilogy agent, host and environment and its importance in Chile].

    PubMed

    Barreto, Marlen; Castillo-Ruiz, Mario; Retamal, Patricio

    2016-10-01

    Salmonella enterica is a major foodborne pathogen worldwide, being the main cause of outbreaks by food consumption in Chile. Despite all efforts deployed for control and prevention, the high incidence in people still persists, with several factors that could be influencing the epidemiological behavior of this infection. The objective of this review is to identify these factors belonging to the biological agent, the human host and the environment, which probably have a greater importance in Chile. Thus, priority areas for research of S. enterica are inferred, which hopefully will help to understand its spread in nature and its success as a wide host range pathogen. In the future, increased understanding of these determinants will facilitate the implementation of biosecurity and surveillance strategies for the prevention of disease in people and animals.

  13. Serotypes and Antimicrobial Resistance of Human Nontyphoidal Isolates of Salmonella enterica from Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Maraki, Sofia; Papadakis, Ioannis S

    2014-01-01

    We report on the serotype distribution and the antimicrobial resistance patterns to 20 different antimicrobials of 150 Salmonella enterica strains isolated from stools of diarrhoeal patients on the island of Crete over the period January 2011-December 2012. Among the S. enterica serotypes recovered, Enteritidis was the most prevalent (37.3%), followed by Typhimurium (28.7%) and Newport (8.7%). No resistance was detected to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems. Rates of resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and cotrimoxazole were 9.3%, 4%, 2%, 15.3%, and 8.7%, respectively. Resistance to ≥4 antibiotics was primarily observed for serotypes Typhimurium and Hadar. Enteritidis remains the predominant serotype in Crete. Although low resistance to most antimicrobials was detected, continued surveillance of susceptibility is needed due to the risk of resistance.

  14. The Vi capsular polysaccharide enables Salmonella enterica serovar typhi to evade microbe-guided neutrophil chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Wangdi, Tamding; Lee, Cheng-Yuk; Spees, Alanna M; Yu, Chenzhou; Kingsbury, Dawn D; Winter, Sebastian E; Hastey, Christine J; Wilson, R Paul; Heinrich, Volkmar; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2014-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) causes typhoid fever, a disseminated infection, while the closely related pathogen S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is associated with a localized gastroenteritis in humans. Here we investigated whether both pathogens differ in the chemotactic response they induce in neutrophils using a single-cell experimental approach. Surprisingly, neutrophils extended chemotactic pseudopodia toward Escherichia coli and S. Typhimurium, but not toward S. Typhi. Bacterial-guided chemotaxis was dependent on the presence of complement component 5a (C5a) and C5a receptor (C5aR). Deletion of S. Typhi capsule biosynthesis genes markedly enhanced the chemotactic response of neutrophils in vitro. Furthermore, deletion of capsule biosynthesis genes heightened the association of S. Typhi with neutrophils in vivo through a C5aR-dependent mechanism. Collectively, these data suggest that expression of the virulence-associated (Vi) capsular polysaccharide of S. Typhi obstructs bacterial-guided neutrophil chemotaxis.

  15. Salmonella enterica Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Clusters, Minnesota, USA, 2001–2007

    PubMed Central

    Hedberg, Craig W.; Meyer, Stephanie; Boxrud, David J.; Smith, Kirk E.

    2010-01-01

    We determined characteristics of Salmonella enterica pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clusters that predict their being solved (i.e., that result in identification of a confirmed outbreak). Clusters were investigated by the Minnesota Department of Health by using a dynamic iterative model. During 2001–2007, a total of 43 (12.5%) of 344 clusters were solved. Clusters of >4 isolates were more likely to be solved than clusters of 2 isolates. Clusters in which the first 3 case isolates were received at the Minnesota Department of Health within 7 days were more likely to be solved than were clusters in which the first 3 case isolates were received over a period >14 days. If resources do not permit investigation of all S. enterica pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clusters, investigation of clusters of >4 cases and clusters in which the first 3 case isolates were received at a public health laboratory within 7 days may improve outbreak investigations. PMID:21029524

  16. Chromosomal Rearrangements in Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi Affecting Molecular Typing in Outbreak Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Echeita, M. A.; Usera, M. A.

    1998-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi strains belonging to eight different outbreaks of typhoid fever that occurred in Spain between 1989 and 1994 were analyzed by ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. For three outbreaks, two different patterns were detected for each outbreak. The partial digestion analysis by the intron-encoded endonuclease I-CeuI of the two different strains from each outbreak provided an excellent tool for examining the organization of the genomes of epidemiologically related strains. S. enterica serotype Typhi seems to be more susceptible than other serotypes to genetic rearrangements produced by homologous recombinations between rrn operons; these rearrangements do not substantially alter the stability or survival of the bacterium. We conclude that genetic rearrangements can occur during the emergence of an outbreak. PMID:9650981

  17. Selection of Small-Colony Variants of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Nonphagocytic Eucaryotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cano, David A.; Pucciarelli, M. Graciela; Martínez-Moya, Marina; Casadesús, Josep; García-del Portillo, Francisco

    2003-01-01

    Salmonella enterica strains are enteropathogenic bacteria that survive and proliferate within vacuolar compartments of epithelial and phagocytic cells. Recently, it has been reported that fibroblast cells are capable of restricting S. enterica serovar Typhimurium intracellular growth. Here, we show that prolonged residence of bacteria in the intracellular environment of fibroblasts results in the appearance of genetically stable small-colony variants (SCV). A total of 103 SCV isolates, obtained from four independent infections, were subjected to phenotypic analysis. The following phenotypes were observed: (i) δ-aminolevulinic acid auxotrophy; (ii) requirement for acetate or succinate for growth in glucose minimal medium; (iii) auxotrophy for aromatic amino acids; and (iv) reduced growth rate under aerobic conditions not linked to nutrient auxotrophy. The exact mutations responsible for the SCV phenotype in three representative isolates were mapped in the lpd, hemL, and aroD genes, which code for dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, glutamate-1-semyaldehyde aminotransferase, and 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase, respectively. The lpd, hemL, and aroD mutants had intracellular persistence rates in fibroblasts that were 3 to 4 logs higher than that of the parental strain and decreased susceptibility to aminoglycoside antibiotics. All three of these SCV isolates were attenuated in the BALB/c murine typhoid model. Complementation with lpd+, hem+, and aroD+ genes restored the levels of intracellular persistence and antibiotic susceptibility to levels of the wild-type strain. However, virulence was not exhibited by any of the complemented strains. Altogether, our data demonstrate that similar to what it has been reported for SCV isolates of other pathogens, S. enterica SCV display enhanced intracellular persistence in eucaryotic cells and are impaired in the ability to cause overt disease. In addition, they also suggest that S. enterica SCV may be favored in vivo. PMID:12819049

  18. The Tricarballylate Utilization (tcuRABC) Genes of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium LT2

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jeffrey A.; Horswill, Alexander R.; Schwem, Brian E.; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.

    2004-01-01

    The genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 encoding functions needed for the utilization of tricarballylate as a carbon and energy source were identified and their locations in the chromosome were established. Three of the tricarballylate utilization (tcu) genes, tcuABC, are organized as an operon; a fourth gene, tcuR, is located immediately 5′ to the tcuABC operon. The tcuABC operon and tcuR gene share the same direction of transcription but are independently transcribed. The tcuRABC genes are missing in the Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome. The tcuR gene is proposed to encode a regulatory protein needed for the expression of tcuABC. The tcuC gene is proposed to encode an integral membrane protein whose role is to transport tricarballylate across the cell membrane. tcuC function was sufficient to allow E. coli K-12 to grow on citrate (a tricarballylate analog) but not to allow growth of this bacterium on tricarballylate. E. coli K-12 carrying a plasmid with wild-type alleles of tcuABC grew on tricarballylate, suggesting that the functions of the TcuABC proteins were the only ones unique to S. enterica needed to catabolize tricarballylate. Analyses of the predicted amino acid sequences of the TcuAB proteins suggest that TcuA is a flavoprotein, and TcuB is likely anchored to the cell membrane and probably contains one or more Fe-S centers. The TcuB protein is proposed to work in concert with TcuA to oxidize tricarballylate to cis-aconitate, which is further catabolized via the Krebs cycle. The glyoxylate shunt is not required for growth of S. enterica on tricarballylate. A model for tricarballylate catabolism in S. enterica is proposed. PMID:14996793

  19. Tigecycline therapy for bacteremia and aortitis caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hung-Jen; Chen, Chi-Chung; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2016-02-01

    Non-typhoid Salmonella species represent a significant cause of aortitis. Few antimicrobial agents can be used when the patient is allergic or intolerable to cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones. Here, we report a case of bacteremia and aortitis caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis. This patient was cured by initial parenteral tigecycline and subsequent oral ciprofloxacin without surgical intervention. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi, Gulf of Guinea Region, Africa

    PubMed Central

    Baltazar, Murielle; Ngandjio, Antoinette; Holt, Kathryn Elizabeth; Lepillet, Elodie; Pardos de la Gandara, Maria; Collard, Jean-Marc; Bercion, Raymond; Nzouankeu, Ariane; Le Hello, Simon; Dougan, Gordon; Fonkoua, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    We identified 3 lineages among multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi isolates in the Gulf of Guinea region in Africa during the 2000s. However, the MDR H58 haplotype, which predominates in southern Asia and Kenya, was not identified. MDR quinolone-susceptible isolates contained a 190-kb incHI1 pST2 plasmid or a 50-kb incN pST3 plasmid. PMID:25811307

  1. Sequence-Based Discovery of Bradyrhizobium enterica in Cord Colitis Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Ami S.; Freeman, Samuel S.; Herrera, Alex F.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Gevers, Dirk; Duke, Fujiko; Jung, Joonil; Michaud, Monia; Walker, Bruce J.; Young, Sarah; Earl, Ashlee M.; Kostic, Aleksander D.; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Hasserjian, Robert; Ballen, Karen K.; Chen, Yi-Bin; Hobbs, Gabriela; Antin, Joseph H.; Soiffer, Robert J.; Baden, Lindsey R.; Garrett, Wendy S.; Hornick, Jason L.; Marty, Francisco M.; Meyerson, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Immunosuppression is associated with a variety of idiopathic clinical syndromes that may have infectious causes. It has been hypothesized that the cord colitis syndrome, a complication of umbilical-cord hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, is infectious in origin. METHODS We performed shotgun DNA sequencing on four archived, paraffin-embedded endoscopic colon-biopsy specimens obtained from two patients with cord colitis. Computational subtraction of human and known microbial sequences and assembly of residual sequences into a bacterial draft genome were performed. We used polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assays and fluorescence in situ hybridization to determine whether the corresponding bacterium was present in additional patients and controls. RESULTS DNA sequencing of the biopsy specimens revealed more than 2.5 million sequencing reads that did not match known organisms. These sequences were computationally assembled into a 7.65-Mb draft genome showing a high degree of homology with genomes of bacteria in the bradyrhizobium genus. The corresponding newly discovered bacterium was provisionally named Bradyrhizobium enterica. PCR identified B. enterica nucleotide sequences in biopsy specimens from all three additional patients with cord colitis whose samples were tested, whereas B. enterica sequences were absent in samples obtained from healthy controls and patients with colon cancer or graft-versus-host disease. CONCLUSIONS We assembled a novel bacterial draft genome from the direct sequencing of tissue specimens from patients with cord colitis. Association of these sequences with cord colitis suggests that B. enterica may be an opportunistic human pathogen. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others.) PMID:23924002

  2. The Tricarballylate utilization (tcuRABC) genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jeffrey A; Horswill, Alexander R; Schwem, Brian E; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C

    2004-03-01

    The genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 encoding functions needed for the utilization of tricarballylate as a carbon and energy source were identified and their locations in the chromosome were established. Three of the tricarballylate utilization (tcu) genes, tcuABC, are organized as an operon; a fourth gene, tcuR, is located immediately 5' to the tcuABC operon. The tcuABC operon and tcuR gene share the same direction of transcription but are independently transcribed. The tcuRABC genes are missing in the Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome. The tcuR gene is proposed to encode a regulatory protein needed for the expression of tcuABC. The tcuC gene is proposed to encode an integral membrane protein whose role is to transport tricarballylate across the cell membrane. tcuC function was sufficient to allow E. coli K-12 to grow on citrate (a tricarballylate analog) but not to allow growth of this bacterium on tricarballylate. E. coli K-12 carrying a plasmid with wild-type alleles of tcuABC grew on tricarballylate, suggesting that the functions of the TcuABC proteins were the only ones unique to S. enterica needed to catabolize tricarballylate. Analyses of the predicted amino acid sequences of the TcuAB proteins suggest that TcuA is a flavoprotein, and TcuB is likely anchored to the cell membrane and probably contains one or more Fe-S centers. The TcuB protein is proposed to work in concert with TcuA to oxidize tricarballylate to cis-aconitate, which is further catabolized via the Krebs cycle. The glyoxylate shunt is not required for growth of S. enterica on tricarballylate. A model for tricarballylate catabolism in S. enterica is proposed.

  3. CRISPRs: Molecular Markers for Tracking Antibiotic Resistant Strains of Salmonella Enterica

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    0704-0188 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) - UU UU UU UU Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. CRISPRs : molecular markers for tracking...Salmonella, CRISPR , antibiotic resistance REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S...ABSTRACT CRISPRs : molecular markers for tracking antibiotic resistant strains of Salmonella enterica Report Title Invited article with no abstract 2

  4. Multiple Clones within Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium Phage Type DT104

    PubMed Central

    Markogiannakis, Antonis; Tassios, Panayotis T.; Lambiri, Maria; Ward, Linda R.; Kourea-Kremastinou, Jenny; Legakis, Nicholas J.; Vatopoulos, Alkiviadis C.

    2000-01-01

    Six distinct clones were present among Greek multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium phage type DT104, since isolates belonging to resistance phenotypes including the ACSSuT (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline) core could be distinguished with respect to their pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, int1 integron structures, and presence or absence of antibiotic resistance genes ant(3")-Ia, pse-1, and tem-1. PMID:10699039

  5. Induction and Resuscitation of Viable but Nonculturable Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104†

    PubMed Central

    Gupte, A. R.; de Rezende, C. L. E.; Joseph, S. W.

    2003-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 11601was tested for its ability to maintain viability in minimal, chemically defined solutions. Periodic monitoring of growth and survival in microcosms of different ion concentrations, maintained at various temperatures, showed a gradual decline in culturable organisms (∼235 days) at 5°C. Organisms maintained at a higher temperature (21°C) showed continuous, equivalent CFU per milliliter (∼106) up to 400 days after inoculation. Fluorescence microscopy with Baclight revealed that nonculturable cells were actually viable, while observations with scanning electron microscopy showed that the cells had retained their structural integrity. Temperature upshift (56°C ± 0.5, 15 s) of the nonculturable organisms (5°C) in Trypticase soy broth followed by immediate inoculation onto Trypticase soy agar (TSA) gave evidence of resuscitation. Interestingly, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 from the microcosms at either 5°C (1 to 200 days) or 21°C (1 to 250 days) did not show enhanced growth after intermittent inoculation onto catalase-supplemented TSA. Furthermore, cells from 21°C microcosms exposed to oxidative and osmotic stress showed greater resistance to stresses over increasing times of exposure than did recently grown cells. It is possible that the exceptional survivability and resilience of this particular strain may in part reflect the growing importance of this multidrug-resistant organism, in general, as a cause of intestinal disease in humans. The fact that S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 11601 is capable of modifying its physiological characteristics, including entry into and recovery from the viable but nonculturable state, suggests the overall possibility that S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 may be able to respond uniquely to various adverse environmental conditions. PMID:14602627

  6. Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi Bacteremia Complicating Pregnancy in the Third Trimester

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Krunal; Gittens-Williams, Lisa; Apuzzio, Joseph J.; Martimucci, Kristina; Williams, Shauna F.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) is an anaerobic gram-negative enteric rod that causes infection when contaminated food or water is ingested and may cause illness in pregnancy. Case. This is a patient who presented at 31 weeks' gestation with abdominal pain and fever and was diagnosed with S. Typhi bacteremia. Conclusion. S. Typhi should be considered in febrile patients with recent travel presenting with abdominal discomfort with or without elevated liver enzymes. PMID:28203469

  7. Salmonella enterica Serovar Virchow with CTX-M-Like β-Lactamase in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Simarro, Encarna; Navarro, Ferrán; Ruiz, Joaquín; Miró, Elisenda; Gómez, Joaquín; Mirelis, Beatriz

    2000-01-01

    Four Salmonella enterica serovar Virchow strains resistant to broad-spectrum cephalosporins were isolated from patients with gastroenteritis in 1997 and 1998 in Murcia and Barcelona, Spain. The isolates expressed a β-lactamase with a pI of about 8 and a positive PCR when specific primers for CTX-M-9 were used. These results suggest the presence of a CTX-M-9 β-lactamase in these strains. PMID:11101623

  8. Impact of commercial preharvest transportation and holding on the prevalence of Salmonella enterica in cull sows.

    PubMed

    Larsen, S T; McKean, J D; Hurd, H S; Rostagno, M H; Griffith, R W; Wesley, I V

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of Salmonella enterica in cull sows at various stages from the farm to the abattoir. Cull sows (n=181) were sampled over 10 weeks. Fecal samples (10 g each) were collected on the farm ca. 24 h before loading and at the live-hog market ca. 3 h before loading. Samples (ileocecal lymph nodes, cecal contents, feces from the transverse colon, ventral thoracic lymph nodes, subiliac lymph nodes, sponge swabs of the left and right carcass sections, and chopped meat) were collected at the abattoir. The percentages of positive fecal samples on the farm and at the live-hog market were 3% (5 of 181 samples) and 2% (3 of 181 samples), respectively. After transport from the live-hog market (10 h) and holding at the abattoir (6 h), 41% (74 of 180) of cull sows yielded S. enterica in one or more sampled tissues. The isolation rate for total cecal contents (33%; 60 of 180 samples) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than those for ileocecal lymph nodes (7%; 12 of 181 samples), feces (11%; 20 of 181 samples), and ventral thoracic and subiliac lymph nodes (2%; 4 of 181 samples). Before a 2% lactic acid carcass wash (lasting 8 to 9 s), 14% (25 of 180) of carcasses were positive, compared with 7% (12 of 179) after the wash (P<0.05). Two S. enterica serotypes, Derby and Infantis, were found on the farm and at the live-hog market. At the abattoir, 12 serotypes that had not previously been found on the farm or at the live-hog market were recovered. The results of this study demonstrate that transport and holding practices may contribute to an increase in S. enterica infection prior to slaughter to levels much higher than those found on the farm.

  9. Intermediate Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin among Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Isolates in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Lejon, Veerle; Horna, Gertrudis; Astocondor, Lizeth; Vanhoof, Raymond; Bertrand, Sophie; Jacobs, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-three Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi blood isolates from Lima, Peru (2008 to 2012), were fully susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, and tetracycline; 8/33 (24.2%) showed intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin carrying mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of the gyrA gene (Ser83-Phe and Asp87-Asn) and in the gyrB gene (Ser464-Phe). PMID:24371234

  10. Enrichment, Amplification, and Sequence-Based Typing of Salmonella enterica and Other Foodborne Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Edlind, Tom; Brewster, Jeffrey D; Paoli, George C

    2017-01-01

    Detection of Salmonella enterica in foods typically involves microbiological enrichment, molecular-based assay, and subsequent isolation and identification of a pure culture. This is ideally followed by strain typing, which provides information critical to the investigation of outbreaks and the attribution of their sources. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis is the "gold standard" for S. enterica strain typing, but its limitations have encouraged the search for alternative methods, including whole genome sequencing. Both methods typically require a pure culture, which adds to the cost and turnaround time. A more rapid and cost-effective method with sufficient discriminatory power would benefit food industries, regulatory agencies, and public health laboratories. To address this need, a novel enrichment, amplification, and sequence-based typing (EAST) approach was developed involving (i) overnight enrichment and total DNA preparation, (ii) amplification of polymorphic tandem repeat-containing loci with electrophoretic detection, and (iii) DNA sequencing and bioinformatic analysis to identify related strains. EAST requires 3 days or less and provides a strain resolution that exceeds serotyping and is comparable to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Evaluation with spiked ground turkey demonstrated its sensitivity (with a starting inoculum of ≤1 CFU/g) and specificity (with unique or nearly unique alleles relative to databases of >1,000 strains). In tests with unspiked retail chicken parts, 3 of 11 samples yielded S. enterica -specific PCR products. Sequence analysis of three distinct typing targets (SeMT1, SeCRISPR1, and SeCRISPR2) revealed consistent similarities to specific serotype Schwarzengrund, Montevideo, and Typhimurium strains. EAST provides a time-saving and cost-effective approach for detecting and typing foodborne S. enterica , and postenrichment steps can be commercially outsourced to facilitate its implementation. Initial studies with Listeria

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of the Tumor-Targeting Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strain SL7207

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Síle A.; Ormsby, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain SL7207 is a genetically modified derivative of strain SL1344, which preferentially accumulates in tumors and can be used as a vehicle for tissue-specific gene delivery in vivo. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of SL7207, confirming a purported aroA deletion and four single-nucleotide polymorphisms compared to SL1344. PMID:28153911

  12. Thermal inactivation and sublethal injury kinetics of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in broth versus agar surface.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Devlieghere, Frank; Geeraerd, Annemie; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2017-02-21

    The objective of the present study was to compare the thermal inactivation and sublethal injury kinetics of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in broth (suspended cells) and on solid surface (agar-seeded cells). A 3-strain cocktail of S. enterica or L. monocytogenes inoculated in broth or on agar was subjected to heating in a water bath at various set temperatures (55.0, 57.5 and 60.0°C for S. enterica and 60.0, 62.5 and 65°C for L. monocytogenes). The occurrence of sublethally injured cells was determined by comparing enumerations on nonselective (TSAYE) and selective (XLD or ALOA) media. Results showed that the inactivation curves obtained from selective media were log-linear, and significant shoulders (p<0.05) were observed on some of the inactivation curves from TSAYE media. The D-values derived from the total population were higher than those from the uninjured cells. Generally, cells on agar surface exhibited higher heat resistance than those in broth. For S. enterica, cell injury increased with the exposure time, no difference was observed when treated at temperatures from 55.0 to 60.0°C, while for L. monocytogenes, cell injury increased significantly with heating time and treatment temperature (from 60.0 to 65°C). Moreover, the degree of sublethal injury affected by thermal treatment in broth or on agar surface depended upon the target microorganism. Higher proportions of injured S. enterica cells were observed for treatment in broth than on agar surface, while the opposite was found for L. monocytogenes. The provided information may be used to assess the efficacy of thermal treatment processes on surfaces for inactivation of S. enterica and L. monocytogenes, and it provides insight into the sublethally injured survival state of S. enterica and L. monocytogenes treated in liquid or on solid food.

  13. Influence of prgH on the Persistence of Ingested Salmonella enterica in the Leafhopper Macrosteles quadrilineatus

    PubMed Central

    Dundore-Arias, José Pablo; Groves, Russell L.

    2015-01-01

    Phytophagous insects can encounter Salmonella enterica on contaminated plant surfaces and transmit externally adhered and internalized bacteria on and among leaves. Excretion of ingested S. enterica by the leafhopper Macrosteles quadrilineatus has been previously reported; however, the sites of persistence of ingested bacteria remain undetermined. Fluorescence microscopy revealed the presence and persistence of S. enterica in various organs of M. quadrilineatus fed an inoculated diet for 12 h and then moved to two consecutive noninoculated diets for a total of 48 h. Ingested S. enterica was predominantly observed in the filter chamber, midgut, and Malpighian tubules of M. quadrilineatus dissected immediately after acquisition and at 24- and 48-h post-acquisition access periods (post-AAPs). Additionally, we examined the potential roles of the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) and SPI-2 type III secretion systems (T3SSs) in the persistence and excretion of ingested S. enterica. In competition assays, a prgH mutant lacking a functional SPI-1 T3SS was recovered at significantly lower levels than the WT in insect homogenates at 24 h post-AAP, and complementation with prgH restored S. enterica persistence in M. quadrilineatus. Moreover, expression of prgH inside M. quadrilineatus was observed up to 48 post-AAP. No differences were observed between the WT and an ssaK mutant lacking a functional SPI-2 T3SS in insect homogenates or between the WT and either mutant in insect excretions. This study provides novel insight into the presence and persistence of S. enterica inside M. quadrilineatus and demonstrates that the SPI-1 T3SS influences the persistence of the pathogen in the gut of a potential vector. PMID:26150468

  14. Population Structure of Salmonella enterica Serovar 4,[5],12:b:− Strains and Likely Sources of Human Infection

    PubMed Central

    Toboldt, Anne; Tietze, Erhard; Helmuth, Reiner; Junker, Ernst; Fruth, Angelika

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:b:− is a monophasic serovar not able to express the second-phase flagellar antigen (H2 antigen). In Germany, the serovar is occasionally isolated from poultry, reptiles, fish, food, and humans. In this study, a selection of 67 epidemiologically unrelated Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:b:− strains isolated in Germany between 2000 and 2011 from the environment, animal, food, and humans was investigated by phenotypic and genotypic methods to better understand the population structure and to identify potential sources of human infections. Strains of this monophasic serovar were highly diverse. Within the 67 strains analyzed, we identified 52 different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis XbaI profiles, 12 different multilocus sequence types (STs), and 18 different pathogenicity array types. The relatedness of strains based on the pathogenicity gene repertoire (102 markers tested) was in good agreement with grouping by MLST. S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:b:− is distributed across multiple unrelated eBurst groups and consequently is highly polyphyletic. Two sequence types (ST88 and ST127) were linked to S. enterica serovar Paratyphi B (d-tartrate positive), two single-locus variants of ST1583 were linked to S. enterica serovar Abony, and one sequence type (ST1484) was associated with S. enterica serovar Mygdal, a recently defined, new serovar. From the characterization of clinical isolates and those of nonhuman origin, it can be concluded that the potential sources of sporadic human infections with S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:b:− most likely are mushrooms, shellfish/fish, and poultry. PMID:23793625

  15. Detection of low numbers of healthy and sub-lethally injured Salmonella enterica in chocolate.

    PubMed

    Jasson, Vicky; Baert, Leen; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2011-02-28

    The capacity to detect low levels of healthy and sub-lethally injured Salmonella enterica cells in chocolate by two alternative rapid detection methods iQ-Check(TM)Salmonella II real-time PCR (Bio-Rad) and VIDAS® Easy SLM (BioMérieux) was assessed and compared with ISO 6579:2005. Chocolate, a low moisture food known to support the survival of Salmonella, was challenged as food matrix. Buffered peptone water (BPW) did not support the recovery of low levels of sub-lethally injured S. enterica independent of the detection method, while BPW supplemented with milk powder enabled detection by the three examined methods. However, inhibition of real-time PCR was observed since for one out of three repetitions of chocolate inoculated with a low number of sub-lethally injured S. enterica cells, no PCR signal was obtained. Therefore, attention should be paid to the enrichment step to avoid false negative results due to the presence of especially sub-lethally injured Salmonella cells in chocolate. An appropriate sample preparation (such as enrichment media and conditions for incubation) remains the key factor for reliable detection including sub-lethally injured cells and should be evaluated, if necessary optimized, for each detection assay. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant clones of Salmonella enterica among domestic animals, wild animals, and humans.

    PubMed

    Palomo, Gonzalo; Campos, Maria Jorge; Ugarte, María; Porrero, María Concepción; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Borge, Carmen; Vadillo, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas; Quesada, Alberto; Píriz, Segundo

    2013-02-01

    Non-typhoidal salmonellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Salmonella enterica. This work focuses on the identification of Salmonella enterica clonal strains which, presenting a wide distribution potential, express resistance determinants that compromise effectiveness of the antimicrobial therapy. The screening was performed on 506 Salmonella enterica isolates from animals and humans, which were characterized by serovar and phage typing, genome macrorestriction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and detection of phenotypic and genotypic traits for antimicrobial resistance. A Salmonella Enteritidis strain with strong quinolone resistance is spread on three host environments carrying one of the four variants found for the GyrA protein: (1) Asp87Tyr, the major polymorphism found in 39 Salmonella isolates from human origin and six from poultry; (2) Ser83Phe, with four isolates from human origin and one from white stork (Ciconia ciconia); and (3) Asp87Asn or (4) Asp87Gly, with two isolates each from human origins. Several Salmonella Typhimurium strains that presented int1 elements and the classically associated pentaresistance (ACSSuT) phenotype were found distributed between two host environments: domestic animals and humans, domestics and wild animals, or wild fauna plus humans. This study points out the importance of monitoring gut microbiota and its antimicrobial resistance from wildlife, in parallel to livestock animals and humans, especially for animal species that are in close contact with people.

  17. DISSEMINATION OF SALMONELLA ENTERICA SEQUENCE TYPES AMONG ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY COUNTRIES.

    PubMed

    Patchanee, Prapas; Boonkhot, Phacharaporn; Kittiwan, Nattinee; Tadee, Pakpoom; Chotinun, Suwit

    2015-07-01

    Food-borne illness caused by Salmonella enterica remains a public health problem and results in economic loss worldwide. With the up-coming establish- ment of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) allowing unrestricted move- ment of labor and goods, there is a higher risk of pathogen transmission among the AEC countries. This study characterized and investigated the spatial and temporal associations of S. enterica strains isolated in AEC countries during 1940- 2012 compared with those isolated in northern-Thailand during 2011-2013. Of the 173 S. enterica strains examined, 68 sequence types (STs) and 32 clonal complexes (CCs) were identified by multi loci sequence typing. Twenty-one strains belonged to four sequence types new to AEC countries, and they constituted only two CCs. A number of strains originated from various countries with multiple hosts, were highlighted. There was evidence of strains circulating in the AEC region well over a decade. Such information will be important in formulating biosecurity measures, as well as in educating regarding the risk of disease transmission in AEC.

  18. Colistin resistance in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica strains isolated from swine in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Morales, Adriano Savoia; Fragoso de Araújo, Juliana; de Moura Gomes, Vasco Túlio; Reis Costa, Adrienny Trindade; dos Prazeres Rodrigues, Dália; Porfida Ferreira, Thais Sebastiana; de Lima Filsner, Pedro Henrique Nogueira; Felizardo, Maria Roberta; Micke Moreno, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Reports about acquired resistance to colistin in different bacteria species are increasing, including E. coli of animal origin, but reports of resistance in wild S. enterica of different serotypes from swine are not found in the literature. Results obtained with one hundred and twenty-six E. coli strains from diseased swine and one hundred and twenty-four S. enterica strains from diseased and carrier swine showed a frequency of 6.3% and 21% of colistin-resistant strains, respectively. When comparing the disk diffusion test with the agar dilution test to evaluate the strains, it was confirmed that the disk diffusion test is not recommended to evaluate colistin resistance as described previously. The colistin MIC 90 and MIC 50 values obtained to E. coli were 0.25 μg/mL and 0.5 μg/mL, the MIC 90 and MIC 50 to S. enterica were 1 μg/mL and 8 μg/mL. Considering the importance of colistin in control of nosocomial human infections with Gram-negative multiresistant bacteria, and the large use of this drug in animal production, the colistin resistance prevalence in enterobacteriaceae of animal origin must be monitored more closely.

  19. Colistin Resistance in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica Strains Isolated from Swine in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Adriano Savoia; Fragoso de Araújo, Juliana; de Moura Gomes, Vasco Túlio; Reis Costa, Adrienny Trindade; dos Prazeres Rodrigues, Dália; Porfida Ferreira, Thais Sebastiana; de Lima Filsner, Pedro Henrique Nogueira; Felizardo, Maria Roberta; Micke Moreno, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Reports about acquired resistance to colistin in different bacteria species are increasing, including E. coli of animal origin, but reports of resistance in wild S. enterica of different serotypes from swine are not found in the literature. Results obtained with one hundred and twenty-six E. coli strains from diseased swine and one hundred and twenty-four S. enterica strains from diseased and carrier swine showed a frequency of 6.3% and 21% of colistin-resistant strains, respectively. When comparing the disk diffusion test with the agar dilution test to evaluate the strains, it was confirmed that the disk diffusion test is not recommended to evaluate colistin resistance as described previously. The colistin MIC 90 and MIC 50 values obtained to E. coli were 0.25 μg/mL and 0.5 μg/mL, the MIC 90 and MIC 50 to S. enterica were 1 μg/mL and 8 μg/mL. Considering the importance of colistin in control of nosocomial human infections with Gram-negative multiresistant bacteria, and the large use of this drug in animal production, the colistin resistance prevalence in enterobacteriaceae of animal origin must be monitored more closely. PMID:22973166

  20. Repair of DNA Damage Induced by Bile Salts in Salmonella enterica

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Ana I.; Ramos-Morales, Francisco; Casadesús, Josep

    2006-01-01

    Exposure of Salmonella enterica to sodium cholate, sodium deoxycholate, sodium chenodeoxycholate, sodium glychocholate, sodium taurocholate, or sodium glycochenodeoxycholate induces the SOS response, indicating that the DNA-damaging activity of bile resides in bile salts. Bile increases the frequency of GC → AT transitions and induces the expression of genes belonging to the OxyR and SoxRS regulons, suggesting that bile salts may cause oxidative DNA damage. S. enterica mutants lacking both exonuclease III (XthA) and endonuclease IV (Nfo) are bile sensitive, indicating that S. enterica requires base excision repair (BER) to overcome DNA damage caused by bile salts. Bile resistance also requires DinB polymerase, suggesting the need of SOS-associated translesion DNA synthesis. Certain recombination functions are also required for bile resistance, and a key factor is the RecBCD enzyme. The extreme bile sensitivity of RecB−, RecC−, and RecA− RecD− mutants provides evidence that bile-induced damage may impair DNA replication. PMID:16888329

  1. Effects of postharvest handling conditions on internalization and growth of Salmonella enterica in tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Luo, Yaguang; Nou, Xiangwu; Yang, Yang; Wu, Yunpeng; Wang, Qin

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella internalization in tomatoes during postharvest handling is a major food safety concern. This study was conducted to determine the effect of immersion time, immersion depth, and temperature differential between bacterial suspension and tomato pulp on the internalization of Salmonella enterica in tomato fruits. The effect of storage temperature and duration on the survival and growth of internalized Salmonella cells was also evaluated. Overall, immersion time significantly affected the incidence and extent of S. enterica internalization (P < 0.0001), with a linear correlation between immersion time and Salmonella internalization. The depth of Salmonella internalization in tomato tissues also increased with increasing immersion time. Immersion time also significantly influenced the degree to which the temperature differential affected Salmonella internalization. With an immersion time of 2 min, the temperature differential had no significant effect on Salmonella internalization (P = 0.2536). However, with an immersion time of 15 min, a significantly larger Salmonella population became internalized in tomatoes immersed in solutions with a -30°F (-16.7°C) temperature differential. Internalized S. enterica cells persisted in the core tissues during 14 days of storage. Strain type and storage duration significantly affected (P < 0.05) both the frequency detected and the population of internalized Salmonella recovered, but storage temperatures of 55 to 70°F (12.8 to 21.1°C) did not (P > 0.05). These findings indicate the importance of preventing pathogen internalization during postharvest handling.

  2. A novel multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection of Salmonella enterica and Shigella species.

    PubMed

    Radhika, M; Saugata, Majumder; Murali, H S; Batra, H V

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica and Shigella species are commonly associated with food and water borne infections leading to gastrointestinal diseases. The present work was undertaken to develop a sensitive and reliable PCR based detection system for simultaneous detection of Salmonella enterica and Shigella at species level. For this the conserved regions of specific genes namely ipaH1, ipaH, wbgZ, wzy and invA were targeted for detection of Shigella genus, S. flexneri, S. sonnei, S. boydii and Salmonella enterica respectively along with an internal amplification control (IAC). The results showed that twenty Salmonella and eleven Shigella spp., were accurately identified by the assay without showing non-specificity against closely related other Enterobacteriaceae organisms and also against other pathogens. Further evaluation of multiplex PCR was undertaken on 50 natural samples of chicken, eggs and poultry litter and results compared with conventional culture isolation and identification procedure. The multiplex PCR identified the presence of Salmonella and Shigella strains with a short pre-enrichment step of 5 h in peptone water and the same samples were processed by conventional procedures for comparison. Therefore, this reported multiplex PCR can serve as an alternative to the tedious time-consuming procedure of culture and identification in food safety laboratories.

  3. Comparative analysis of twenty-four complete aenome aequences of Salmonella enterica Serotypes Anatum, Montevideo, Typhimurium and Newport isolated from ground beef or asymptomatic cattle on farm or at harvest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica are a versatile group of bacteria with a wide range of variation in virulence potential. Complete S. enterica genome sequences available to date are primarily of strains isolated from humans or of serotypes that commonly cause human disease. To facilitate genomic ...

  4. [Characterisation of a phenotypic monophasic variant belonging to Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium from wild birds and its possible transmission to cats and humans].

    PubMed

    Hauser, Elisabeth; Hühn, Stephan; Junker, Ernst; Jaber, Manuela; Schroeter, Andreas; Helmuth, Reiner; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Winterhoff, Nora; Malorny, Burkhard

    2009-01-01

    In the last two years The National Salmonella Reference Laboratory (NRL-Salm) received an accumulating number of salmonellae with sero-formula 4,12:-:1,2 isolated from perished wild birds, particularly siskins. Within these strains flagellar antigen of the first phase was phenotypically not detectable. By PCR a fragment could be amplified coding specifically for the H:i-flagellar antigen. Consequently, this is a phenotypically monophasic variant of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium var. copenhagen with the sero-formula 4,12:-:1,2. Phage-typing showed most of the isolates belonged to phage type DT40. Some other strains harboured the same lysis pattern but could not assign to a definite phage type. Those strains are designated as RDNC (react with phages but does not conform with definite or provisorial types). Pulsed field gel-electrophoresis (PFGE) confirmed those two lineages of the monophasic variant. Phage type DT40 isolates from humans or cats, able to express both flagellar antigens, did not differ in genotypic properties from those not able to express the flagellar antigen of the first phase. Salmonella strains with identical genotypic characteristics have been isolated from wild birds, human cases particular infants and also cats. This refers to a direct or indirect transmission of the pathogen from wild bird to human. By eating or getting in contact with contaminated birds domestic cats could play an important role as vehicle between bird and human.

  5. Application of the Subtractive Genomics and Molecular Docking Analysis for the Identification of Novel Putative Drug Targets against Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Poona.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Tanvir; Kamruzzaman, Mohammad; Choudhury, Talita Zahin; Mahmood, Hamida Nooreen; Nabi, A H M Nurun; Hosen, Md Ismail

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of novel pathogenic strains with increased antibacterial resistance patterns poses a significant threat to the management of infectious diseases. In this study, we aimed at utilizing the subtractive genomic approach to identify novel drug targets against Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Poona strain ATCC BAA-1673. We employed in silico bioinformatics tools to subtract the strain-specific paralogous and host-specific homologous sequences from the bacterial proteome. The sorted proteome was further refined to identify the essential genes in the pathogenic bacterium using the database of essential genes (DEG). We carried out metabolic pathway and subcellular location analysis of the essential proteins of the pathogen to elucidate the involvement of these proteins in important cellular processes. We found 52 unique essential proteins in the target proteome that could be utilized as novel targets to design newer drugs. Further, we investigated these proteins in the DrugBank databases and 11 of the unique essential proteins showed druggability according to the FDA approved drug bank databases with diverse broad-spectrum property. Molecular docking analyses of the novel druggable targets with the drugs were carried out by AutoDock Vina option based on scoring functions. The results showed promising candidates for novel drugs against Salmonella infections.

  6. Internalisation potential of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus in lettuce seedlings and mature plants.

    PubMed

    Standing, Taryn-Ann; du Plessis, Erika; Duvenage, Stacey; Korsten, Lise

    2013-06-01

    The internalisation potential of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium in lettuce was evaluated using seedlings grown in vermiculite in seedling trays as well as hydroponically grown lettuce. Sterile distilled water was spiked with one of the four human pathogenic bacteria (10(5) CFU/mL) and used to irrigate the plants. The potential for pathogen internalisation was investigated over time using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and viable plate counts. Additionally, the identities of the pathogens isolated from internal lettuce plant tissues were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction with pathogen-specific oligonucleotides. Internalisation of each of the human pathogens was evident in both lettuce seedlings and hydroponically grown mature lettuce plants. To our knowledge, this is the first report of S. aureus internalisation in lettuce plants. In addition, the levels of background microflora in the lettuce plants were determined by plate counting and the isolates identified using matrix-assisted laser ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-TOF). Background microflora assessments confirmed the absence of the four pathogens evaluated in this study. A low titre of previously described endophytes and soil inhabitants, i.e., Enterobacter cloacae, Enterococcus faecalis, Lysinibacillus fusiformis, Rhodococcus rhodochrous, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus hominis were identified.

  7. Effects of leachate from crumb rubber and zinc in green roofs on the survival, growth, and resistance characteristics of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Crampton, Mollee; Ryan, Allayna; Eckert, Cori; Baker, Katherine H; Herson, Diane S

    2014-05-01

    The use of green roofs is a growing practice worldwide, particularly in densely populated areas. In an attempt to find new methods for recycling crumb rubber, incorporation of crumb rubber into artificial medium for plant growth in green roofs and similar engineered environments has become an attractive option for the recycling of waste tires. Though this approach decreases waste in landfills, there are concerns about the leaching of zinc and other heavy metals, as well as nutrient and organic compounds, into the environment. The present study analyzed the impact of leachate from crumb rubber and zinc on the growth and viability of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Zinc was chosen for further studies since it has been previously implicated with other biological functions, including biofilm formation, motility, and possible cross-resistance to antimicrobial agents. The study showed that Salmonella can colonize crumb rubber and that crumb rubber extract may provide nutrients that are usable by this bacterium. Salmonella strains with reduced susceptibility (SRS) to zinc were obtained after subculturing in increasing concentrations of zinc. The SRS exhibited differences in gene expression of flux pump genes zntA and znuA compared to that of the parent when exposed to 20 mM added zinc. In biofilm formation studies, the SRS formed less biofilm but was more motile than the parental strain.

  8. Effects of Leachate from Crumb Rubber and Zinc in Green Roofs on the Survival, Growth, and Resistance Characteristics of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Crampton, Mollee; Ryan, Allayna; Eckert, Cori; Baker, Katherine H.

    2014-01-01

    The use of green roofs is a growing practice worldwide, particularly in densely populated areas. In an attempt to find new methods for recycling crumb rubber, incorporation of crumb rubber into artificial medium for plant growth in green roofs and similar engineered environments has become an attractive option for the recycling of waste tires. Though this approach decreases waste in landfills, there are concerns about the leaching of zinc and other heavy metals, as well as nutrient and organic compounds, into the environment. The present study analyzed the impact of leachate from crumb rubber and zinc on the growth and viability of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Zinc was chosen for further studies since it has been previously implicated with other biological functions, including biofilm formation, motility, and possible cross-resistance to antimicrobial agents. The study showed that Salmonella can colonize crumb rubber and that crumb rubber extract may provide nutrients that are usable by this bacterium. Salmonella strains with reduced susceptibility (SRS) to zinc were obtained after subculturing in increasing concentrations of zinc. The SRS exhibited differences in gene expression of flux pump genes zntA and znuA compared to that of the parent when exposed to 20 mM added zinc. In biofilm formation studies, the SRS formed less biofilm but was more motile than the parental strain. PMID:24584242

  9. Polymerase chain reaction assay based on ratA gene allows differentiation between Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Gallinarum biovars Gallinarum and Pullorum.

    PubMed

    Batista, Diego Felipe Alves; de Freitas Neto, Oliveiro Caetano; Lopes, Priscila Diniz; de Almeida, Adriana Maria; Barrow, Paul Andrew; Berchieri, Angelo

    2013-03-01

    Salmonella Pullorum and Salmonella Gallinarum are classified as biovars of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Gallinarum. These salmonellae are the causative agents of Pullorum disease and fowl typhoid, respectively, and are widely distributed throughout the world. Although many developed countries have eradicated these diseases from commercial poultry, they are still the cause of significant economic loss in developing countries. When serovar Gallinarum is isolated, it is difficult to immediately differentiate between biovars because they are antigenically identical by serotyping. However, they cause distinct diseases with different epidemiology, and therefore it is important to differentiate them. This may be done biochemically but takes 2 to 3 days. In the present study, S. Pullorum and S. Gallinarum whole genomes were compared, and 1 genomic region of difference, which is part of the ratA gene, was chosen as a molecular marker for a polymerase chain reaction assay to differentiate rapidly between these organisms. In all, 26 strains of S. Gallinarum and 17 S. Pullorum strains were tested and successfully differentiated by the assay.

  10. Poultry-Associated Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar 4,12:d:− Reveals High Clonality and a Distinct Pathogenicity Gene Repertoire ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Huehn, Stephan; Bunge, Cornelia; Junker, Ernst; Helmuth, Reiner; Malorny, Burkhard

    2009-01-01

    A European baseline survey during the years 2005 and 2006 has revealed that the monophasic Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar 4,12:d:− was, with a prevalence of 23.6%, the most frequently isolated serovar in German broiler flocks. In Denmark and the United Kingdom, its serovar prevalences were 15.15% and 2.8%, respectively. Although poultry is a major source of human salmonellosis, serovar 4,12:d:− is rarely isolated in humans (approximately 0.09% per year). Molecular typing studies using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and DNA microarray analysis show that the serovar is highly clonal and lacks genes with known contributions to pathogenicity. In contrast to other poultry-associated serovars, all strains were susceptible to 17 antimicrobial agents tested and did not encode any resistance determinant. Furthermore, serovar 4,12:d:− lacked the genes involved in galactonate metabolism and in the glycolysis and glyconeogenesis important for energy production in the cells. The conclusion of the study is that serovar 4,12:d:− seems to be primarily adapted to broilers and therefore causes only rare infections in humans. PMID:19114530

  11. Shoot Injury Increases the Level of Persistence of Salmonella enterica Serovar Sofia and Listeria innocua on Cos Lettuce and of Salmonella enterica Serovar Sofia on Chive.

    PubMed

    Harapas, Dean; Premier, Robert; Tomkins, Bruce; Hepworth, Graham; Ajlouni, Said

    2015-12-01

    Minor shoot injury significantly (P < 0.05) increased the level at which Salmonella enterica serovar Sofia persisted on cos lettuce in the greenhouse. Initial mean counts of the Salmonella on the injured and uninjured cos lettuce were on the order of 6 log CFU/g. After 3 days, the mean count decreased to 4.8 log CFU/g on the injured plants compared with the significantly (P < 0.05) smaller count of 3.4 log CFU/g on the uninjured plants. By the end of the 3-week experiment, the count from the injured plants was 2.9 log CFU/g compared with a count of below the level of detection from the uninjured plants. A similar pattern of bacterial persistence was observed on injured versus uninjured plants by using Listeria innocua on cos lettuce and S. enterica serovar Sofia on chive. The findings reaffirm earlier results with Escherichia coli and increase the impetus to avoid shoot injury during the production of cos lettuce and chive, if bacteria of food safety concern are present.

  12. Acquisition of Resistance to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins by Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Newport and Escherichia coli in the Turkey Poult Intestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Poppe, C.; Martin, L. C.; Gyles, C. L.; Reid-Smith, R.; Boerlin, P.; McEwen, S. A.; Prescott, J. F.; Forward, K. R.

    2005-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Newport resistant to the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) and other antimicrobials causes septicemic salmonellosis in humans and animals and is increasingly isolated from humans, animals, foods, and environmental sources. Mechanisms whereby serovar Newport bacteria become resistant to ESCs and other classes of antimicrobials while inhabiting the intestinal tract are not well understood. The present study shows that 25.3% of serovar Newport strains isolated from the turkey poult intestinal tract after the animals were dosed with Escherichia coli harboring a large conjugative plasmid encoding the CMY-2 β-lactamase and other drug resistance determinants acquired the plasmid and its associated drug resistance genes. The conjugative plasmid containing the cmy-2 gene was transferred not only from the donor E. coli to Salmonella serovar Newport but also to another E. coli serotype present in the intestinal tract. Laboratory studies showed that the plasmid could be readily transferred between serovar Newport and E. coli intestinal isolates. Administration of a single dose of ceftiofur, used to prevent septicemic colibacillosis, to 1-day-old turkeys did not result in the isolation of ceftiofur-resistant E. coli or Salmonella serovar Newport. There was a remarkable association between serotype, drug resistance, and plasmid profile among the E. coli strains isolated from the poults. This study shows that Salmonella serovar Newport can become resistant to ESCs and other antibiotics by acquiring a conjugative drug resistance plasmid from E. coli in the intestines. PMID:15746317

  13. Identification of Key Genes in the Response to Salmonella enterica Enteritidis, Salmonella enterica Pullorum, and Poly(I:C) in Chicken Spleen and Caecum

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Zhongwei; Dai, Aiqin; Zhai, Fei; Li, Jianchao; Xia, Mingxiu; Hua, Dengke; Xu, Lu; Wang, Hongzhi; Chen, Jing; Liu, Lu; Chen, Guohong

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) and Salmonella enterica Pullorum (S. pullorum) are regarded as a threat to poultry production. This study's aim is to characterize the expression profiles in response to three different challenges and to identify infection-related genes in the chicken spleen and caecum. Groups of the Chinese chicken breed Langshan were challenged with either S. Enteritidis, S. pullorum, or poly(I:C). The concentrations of cytokines and antibodies and the Salmonella colonization level of the caecum and liver were detected in each group at 7 days postinfection. Expression microarray experiments were conducted using mRNA isolated from both spleen and caecum. Crucial differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with immunity were identified. Four DEGs were identified in spleen of all three challenge groups (RBM16, FAH, SOX5, and RBM9) and different four genes in caecum (SOUL, FCN2, ANLN, and ACSL1). Expression profiles were clearly different among the three challenged groups. Genes enriched in the spleen of birds infected with S. pullorum were enriched in lymphocyte proliferation related pathways, but the enriched genes in the caecum of the same group were primarily enriched in innate immunity or antibacterial responses. The DEGs that appear across all three challenge groups might represent global response factors for different pathogens. PMID:24707473

  14. Identification of bapA in Strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Isolated from Wild Animals Kept in Captivity in Sinaloa, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    López-Valenzuela, Martin; Cárcamo-Aréchiga, Nora; Cota-Guajardo, Silvia; López-Salazar, Mayra; Montiel-Vázquez, Edith

    2016-01-01

    bapA, previously named stm2689, encodes the BapA protein, which, along with cellulose and fimbriae, constitutes biofilms. Biofilms are communities of microorganisms that grow in a matrix of exopolysaccharides and may adhere to living tissues or inert surfaces. Biofilm formation is associated with the ability to persist in different environments, which contributes to the pathogenicity of several species. We analyzed the presence of bapA in 83 strains belonging to 17 serovars of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica from wildlife in captivity at Culiacan's Zoo and Mazatlán's Aquarium. Each isolate amplified a product of 667 bp, which corresponds to the expected size of the bapA initiator, with no observed variation between different serovars analyzed. bapA gene was found to be highly conserved in Salmonella and can be targeted for the genus-specific detection of this organism from different sources. Since bapA expression improves bacterial proliferation outside of the host and facilitates resistance to disinfectants and desiccation, the survival of Salmonella in natural habitats may be favored. Thus, the risk of bacterial contamination from these animals is increased. PMID:27379195

  15. Identification of bapA in Strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Isolated from Wild Animals Kept in Captivity in Sinaloa, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Silva-Hidalgo, Gabriela; López-Valenzuela, Martin; Cárcamo-Aréchiga, Nora; Cota-Guajardo, Silvia; López-Salazar, Mayra; Montiel-Vázquez, Edith

    2016-01-01

    bapA, previously named stm2689, encodes the BapA protein, which, along with cellulose and fimbriae, constitutes biofilms. Biofilms are communities of microorganisms that grow in a matrix of exopolysaccharides and may adhere to living tissues or inert surfaces. Biofilm formation is associated with the ability to persist in different environments, which contributes to the pathogenicity of several species. We analyzed the presence of bapA in 83 strains belonging to 17 serovars of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica from wildlife in captivity at Culiacan's Zoo and Mazatlán's Aquarium. Each isolate amplified a product of 667 bp, which corresponds to the expected size of the bapA initiator, with no observed variation between different serovars analyzed. bapA gene was found to be highly conserved in Salmonella and can be targeted for the genus-specific detection of this organism from different sources. Since bapA expression improves bacterial proliferation outside of the host and facilitates resistance to disinfectants and desiccation, the survival of Salmonella in natural habitats may be favored. Thus, the risk of bacterial contamination from these animals is increased.

  16. Evaluation of IS200-PCR and Comparison with Other Molecular Markers To Trace Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serotype Typhimurium Bovine Isolates from Farm to Meat

    PubMed Central

    Millemann, Yves; Gaubert, Stéphane; Remy, Dominique; Colmin, Catherine

    2000-01-01

    A procedure that uses an original molecular marker (IS200-PCR) and that is based on the amplification of DNA with outward-facing primers complementary to each end of IS200 has been evaluated with a collection of 85 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Typhimurium isolates. These strains were isolated from a group of 10 cows at different stages: during transportation between the farm and the slaughterhouse, on the slaughter line, from the environment, and from the final product (ground beef). The 85 isolates were characterized by their antibiotic resistance patterns and were compared by IS200-PCR and by use of four other genotypic markers. Those markers included restriction profiles for 16S and 23S rRNA (ribotypes) and amplification profiles obtained by different approaches: random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR, and PCR ribotyping. The results of the IS200-PCR were in accordance with those of other molecular typing methods for this collection of isolates. Five different genotypes were found, which made it possible to refine the hypotheses on transmission obtained from phenotypic results. The genotyping results indicated the massive contamination of the whole group of animals and of the environment by one clonal strain originally recovered from one cow that excreted the strain. On the other hand, a few animals and their environment appeared to be simultaneously contaminated with genetically different strains. PMID:10834977

  17. Preslaughter holding environment in pork plants is highly contaminated with Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Rostagno, M H; Hurd, H S; McKean, J D; Ziemer, C J; Gailey, J K; Leite, R C

    2003-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether abattoir pens can provide a Salmonella enterica infection source during the 2 to 4 h of preharvest holding. Previous work has suggested that pigs may be getting infected, but little has been reported on the environmental contamination of abattoir holding pens. For 24 groups of pigs studied ( approximately 150 animals/group) at two high-capacity abattoirs, six pooled fecal samples (n, 10 per pool) were collected from each transport trailer immediately after pigs were unloaded. Holding pens were sampled (one drinking water sample and six pooled floor samples consisting of swabs, residual liquid, and feces) prior to entry of study pigs for the routine holding period ( approximately 2.5 h). After slaughter, cecal contents and ileocecal lymph nodes were collected, on the processing line, from 30 pigs in each studied group. All samples were cultured for the isolation and identification of S. enterica by primary enrichment in GN-Hajna and tetrathionate broths, secondary enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth, and plating on brilliant green sulfa and xylose-lysine-tergitol-4 agars, followed by biochemical and serological identification. The study pens were highly contaminated with S. enterica; all holding pens sampled had at least one positive sample. Additionally, 33% (8 of 24) of drinking water samples were positive for S. enterica. All 24 groups of pigs had S. enterica-positive cecal contents and ileocecal lymph nodes, including those groups from transport trailers with no positive samples. From pigs, trailers, and pens, 586 isolates representing 36 different Salmonella serovars were isolated. Of the 353 isolates from pigs (109 from ileocecal lymph nodes plus 244 from cecal contents), 19% were identified as belonging to the same serovars as those isolated from the respective pens; 27% were identified as belonging to the same serovars as those isolated from the trailers. Sixteen percent of the unique serovars were

  18. Environmental Metabolomics of the Tomato Plant Surface Provides Insights on Salmonella enterica Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sanghyun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Foodborne illness-causing enteric bacteria are able to colonize plant surfaces without causing infection. We lack an understanding of how epiphytic persistence of enteric bacteria occurs on plants, possibly as an adaptive transit strategy to maximize chances of reentering herbivorous hosts. We used tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivars that have exhibited differential susceptibilities to Salmonella enterica colonization to investigate the influence of plant surface compounds and exudates on enteric bacterial populations. Tomato fruit, shoot, and root exudates collected at different developmental stages supported growth of S. enterica to various degrees in a cultivar- and plant organ-dependent manner. S. enterica growth in fruit exudates of various cultivars correlated with epiphytic growth data (R2 = 0.504; P = 0.006), providing evidence that plant surface compounds drive bacterial colonization success. Chemical profiling of tomato surface compounds with gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) provided valuable information about the metabolic environment on fruit, shoot, and root surfaces. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the data revealed quantitative differences in phytocompounds among cultivars and changes over a developmental course and by plant organ (P < 0.002). Sugars, sugar alcohols, and organic acids were associated with increased S. enterica growth, while fatty acids, including palmitic and oleic acids, were negatively correlated. We demonstrate that the plant surface metabolite landscape has a significant impact on S. enterica growth and colonization efficiency. This environmental metabolomics approach provides an avenue to understand interactions between human pathogens and plants that could lead to strategies to identify or breed crop cultivars for microbiologically safer produce. IMPORTANCE In recent years, fresh produce has emerged as a leading food vehicle for enteric pathogens. Salmonella-contaminated tomatoes

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strain YU15 (Sequence Type 19) Harboring the Salmonella Genomic Island 1 and Virulence Plasmid pSTV

    PubMed Central

    Calva, Edmundo; Puente, José L.; Zaidi, Mussaret B.

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium sequence type 19 (ST19) strain YU15, isolated in Yucatán, Mexico, from a human baby stool culture, was determined using PacBio technology. The chromosome contains five intact prophages and the Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1). This strain carries the Salmonella virulence plasmid pSTV. PMID:27081132

  20. Complete Genome Sequencing of a Multidrug-Resistant and Human-Invasive Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strain of the Emerging Sequence Type 213 Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Calva, Edmundo; Zaidi, Mussaret B.; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Estrada, Karel; Silva, Genivaldo G. Z.; Soto-Jiménez, Luz M.; Wiesner, Magdalena; Fernández-Mora, Marcos; Edwards, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain YU39 was isolated in 2005 in the state of Yucatán, Mexico, from a human systemic infection. The YU39 strain is representative of the multidrug-resistant emergent sequence type 213 (ST213) genotype. The YU39 complete genome is composed of a chromosome and seven plasmids. PMID:26089426

  1. Complete genome sequencing of a multidrug-resistant and human-invasive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain of the emerging sequence type 213 genotype

    DOE PAGES

    Calva, Edmundo; Silva, Claudia; Zaidi, Mussaret B.; ...

    2015-06-18

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain YU39 was isolated in 2005 in the state of Yucatán, Mexico, from a human systemic infection. The YU39 strain is representative of the multidrug-resistant emergent sequence type 213 (ST213) genotype. The YU39 complete genome is composed of a chromosome and seven plasmids.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance-conferring plasmids with similarity to virulence plasmids from avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains in Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky isolates from poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica, a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide, may be found in any raw food of animal, vegetable, or fruit origin. Salmonella serovars differ in distribution, virulence, and host specificity. Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky, though often found in the food supply, ...

  3. Genomic and Evolutionary Analysis of Two Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky Sequence Types Isolated from Bovine and Poultry Sources in North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky is frequently isolated from healthy poultry and dairy cows and is occasionally isolated from people with clinical disease. A genomic analysis of 119 isolates collected in the United States from dairy cows, ground beef, poultry and poultry products...

  4. Rapid multiplex PCR and Real-Time TaqMan PCR assays for detection of Salmonella enterica and the highly virulent serovars Choleraesuis and Paratyphi C

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica is a human pathogen with over 2,500 serovars characterized. S. enterica serovars Choleraesuis (Cs) and Paratyphi C (Pc) are two globally distributed serovars. We have developed a rapid molecular typing method to detect Cs and Pc in food samples by using a comparative genomics ap...

  5. High prevalence of typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars excreting food handlers in Karachi-Pakistan: a probable factor for regional typhoid endemicity.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Taranum Ruba; Bibi, Safia; Mustufa, Muhammad Ayaz; Ayaz, Sobiya Mohiuddin; Khan, Adnan

    2015-12-08

    Typhoid fever is the persistent cause of morbidity worldwide. Salmonella enterica serovar's carriers among food handlers have the potential to disseminate this infection on large scale in the community. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of typhoidal S. enterica serovars among food handlers of Karachi. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Karachi metropolis. A total of 220 food handlers were recruited on the basis of inclusion criteria from famous food streets of randomly selected five towns of Karachi. Three consecutive stool samples were collected from each food handler in Carry Blair transport media. Culture, biochemical identification, serotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility tests for S. enterica serovars were done. Out of 220 food handlers, 209 consented to participate, and among them, 19 (9.1%) were positive for S. enterica serovars. Serotyping of these isolates showed that 9 (4.3%) were typhoidal S. serovars while 10 (4.7%) were non-typhoidal S. serovars. Of the typhoidal S. serovars, 7 were S. enterica serovar Typhi and 1 each of S. enterica serovar Paratyphi A and B. The resistance pattern of these isolates showed that 77.7% were resistant to ampicillin and 11.1% to cotrimoxazole. All typhoidal S. enterica serovar isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, cefixime, nalidixic acid, and ofloxacin. Carrier rate of typhoidal S. enterica serovars in food handlers working in different food streets of Karachi is very high. These food handlers might be contributing to the high endemicity of typhoid fever in Karachi, Pakistan.

  6. Effectiveness of a spontaneous carvacrol nanoemulsion against Salmonella enterica Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on contaminated broccoli and radish seeds.

    PubMed

    Landry, Kyle S; Micheli, Sean; McClements, David Julian; McLandsborough, Lynne

    2015-10-01

    The incidence of foodborne illness associated with the consumption of fresh produce has continued to increase over the past decade. Sprouts, such as mung bean, alfalfa, radish, and broccoli, are minimally processed and have been sources for foodborne illness. Currently, a 20,000 ppm calcium hypochlorite soak is recommended for the treatment of sprouting seeds. In this study, the efficacy of an antimicrobial carvacrol nanoemulsion was tested against Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (ATCC BAA-1045) or EGFP expressing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 42895) contaminated sprouting seeds. Antimicrobial treatments were performed by soaking inoculated seeds in nanoemulsions (4000 or 8000 ppm) for 30 or 60 min. Following treatment, surviving cells were determined by performing plate counts and/or Most Probable Number (MPN) enumeration. Treated seeds were sprouted and tested for the presence of pathogens. Treatment successfully inactivated low levels (2 and 3 log CFU/g) of S. Enteritidis and E. coli on radish seeds when soaked for 60 min at concentrations ≥4000 (0.4%) ppm carvacrol. This treatment method was not affective on contaminated broccoli seeds. Total sprout yield was not influenced by any treatments. These results show that carvacrol nanoemulsions may be an alternative treatment method for contaminated radish seeds.

  7. Development of non-pathogenic bacterial biofilms on the surface of stainless steel which are inhibitory to Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoonbin; Kim, Hoikyung; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2018-02-01

    Non-pathogenic bacterial biofilms were developed on the surface of stainless steel possessing desiccation tolerance and antimicrobial activity against Salmonella enterica. Three bacteria exhibiting strong antimicrobial activities against S. enterica were isolated from various soils, foods, and food-contact surfaces. Isolates were identified as Pseudomonas extremorientalis (strain Lettuce-28), Paenibacillus peoriae (strain Lettuce-7), and Streptomyces cirratus (strain Geumsan-207). These bacteria grew rapidly and formed biofilms within 24 h on the surface of stainless steel coupons (SSCs) immersed in laboratory media (tryptic soy broth or Bennet's broth) at 25 °C. Cells in biofilms had enhanced tolerance to desiccation (exposure to 43% atmospheric relative humidity [RH]) and retained antimicrobial activity against S. enterica. Populations of S. enterica deposited on SSCs containing biofilm formed by Ps. extremorientalis strain Lettuce-28, for example, decreased by > 2.5 log CFU/coupon within 24 h at 25 °C and 43% RH, while the number of cells inoculated on SSCs lacking biofilm decreased by 1.5 log CFU/coupon. Antimicrobial activities of the three antagonistic bacteria against S. enterica persisted in desiccated biofilms. This study provides insights to developing strategies to inactivate Salmonella and perhaps other foodborne pathogens on abiotic surfaces using non-pathogenic antagonistic bacteria. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Transcriptome and proteome analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium systemic infection of wild type and immune-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Oshota, Olusegun; Fookes, Maria; Schreiber, Fernanda; Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Yu, Lu; Clare, Simon; Choudhary, Jyoti; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Lio, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella enterica are a threat to public health. Current vaccines are not fully effective. The ability to grow in infected tissues within phagocytes is required for S. enterica virulence in systemic disease. As the infection progresses the bacteria are exposed to a complex host immune response. Consequently, in order to continue growing in the tissues, S. enterica requires the coordinated regulation of fitness genes. Bacterial gene regulation has so far been investigated largely using exposure to artificial environmental conditions or to in vitro cultured cells, and little information is available on how S. enterica adapts in vivo to sustain cell division and survival. We have studied the transcriptome, proteome and metabolic flux of Salmonella, and the transcriptome of the host during infection of wild type C57BL/6 and immune-deficient gp91-/-phox mice. Our analyses advance the understanding of how S. enterica and the host behaves during infection to a more sophisticated level than has previously been reported. PMID:28796780

  9. Osmoprotection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium by Ngamma-acetyldiaminobutyrate, the precursor of the compatible solute ectoine.

    PubMed

    García-Estepa, Raul; Cánovas, David; Iglesias-Guerra, Fernando; Ventosa, Antonio; Csonka, Laszlo N; Nieto, Joaquín J; Vargas, Carmen

    2006-12-01

    N(gamma)-acetyl-2,4-diaminobutyrate (NADA), the precursor of the compatible solute ectoine, was shown to function as an osmoprotectant for the non-halophilic bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The addition of NADA-containing extracts of an ectoine synthase mutant of the broad salt-growing halophile Chromohalobacter salexigens DSM 3043(T) could alleviate the inhibitory effects of high salinity in S. enterica, which lacks the ectoine biosynthetic pathway. NADA, purified from extracts of the mutant, protected S. enterica against salinity stress. This osmoprotective effect was slightly lower than that of ectoine, but more potent than that of hydroxyectoine. Accumulation of purified NADA by S. enterica was demonstrated by (13)C-NMR spectroscopy and HPLC analysis. In addition, it was shown that NADA was taken up by S. enterica via the ProP and ProU transport systems, which are known to transport glycine betaine and proline. This finding provides evidence that these permeases can recognize a diaminoacid that carries an unsubstituted alpha-amino group. This is the first time that NADA has been connected with osmoprotective functions in non-halophilic bacteria.

  10. Molecular characterization and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica from swine slaughtered in two different types of Philippine abattoir.

    PubMed

    Calayag, Alyzza Marie B; Paclibare, Phyllis Anne P; Santos, Pauline Dianne M; Bautista, Corinne Aimee C; Rivera, Windell L

    2017-08-01

    Salmonella enterica is a well-known pathogen commonly acquired from the consumption of contaminated food. It has been estimated to affect millions of humans and cause hundreds of thousands of deaths per year globally. Pork, one of the most commonly consumed meats worldwide, has been identified as one of the main sources of human salmonellosis. In this study, we aimed to detect and characterize S. enterica from slaughtered swine and generate antimicrobial resistance profiles of select isolates. Tonsils and jejunum with mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were collected from a total of 240 swine from eight abattoirs (five accredited and three locally registered abattoirs) across Metro Manila. S. enterica were isolated using conventional culture methods and confirmed by PCR amplification of the invA gene. Isolates were further characterized based on somatic antigen by multiplex PCR. We report that there is no significant difference (P = 0.42) between the incidences of S. enterica in swine slaughtered in accredited (44.0%) and in locally registered abattoirs (46.7%). Most samples were contaminated with S. enterica under serogroup O:3,10. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 183 isolates using the VITEK(®) 2 system revealed high resistance to ampicillin (67.8%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (80.3%). Multidrug-resistance was found in 124 (67.8%) isolates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection of Salmonella enterica in pigs at slaughter and comparison with human isolates in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bonardi, Silvia; Alpigiani, Irene; Bruini, Ilaria; Barilli, Elena; Brindani, Franco; Morganti, Marina; Cavallini, Pierugo; Bolzoni, Luca; Pongolini, Stefano

    2016-02-02

    In 2013-2014, 201 pigs belonging to 67 batches were tested for Salmonella in their mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) in one abattoir of Northern Italy. For each batch, faecal material was collected at lairage by swabbing the pen floor for approximately 1600 cm(2). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella in MLN of pigs at slaughter, to assess Salmonella contamination at lairage and to evaluate the effect of lairage duration on its prevalence. Serotyping, XbaI PFGE typing and antimicrobial testing of the isolates were performed. Pig and human Salmonella isolates of the same region of Italy were compared to evaluate possible correlations. Salmonella enterica was isolated from 19.9% of the MLN and 49.3% of the environmental faecal samples. Nine different serovars were identified among 75 S. enterica isolates. In MLN Salmonella Derby was the most common (52.5%), followed by S. enterica 4,[5],12:i:- (17.5%) and Salmonella Rissen (10.0%). In faecal samples S. Derby was prevalent (51.4%), followed by S. enterica 4,[5], 12:i:- (20.0%) and Salmonella Brandenburg (14.3%). Lairage holding varied between 1 and ≥ 12 h (median value: 2.5h). In pigs held for 1-3h, 14.1% were positive for Salmonella in MLN but the prevalence reached 31.8% when they were held for ≥ 12 h. The contamination of MLN was statistically different (p=0.0045) between the two groups, thus confirming the role of long-lasting lairage in Salmonella contamination of pigs. XbaI PFGE typing detected 36 PFGE types. Twenty-three PFGE types were identified among the 40 MLN isolates and 22 PFGE types among the 35 faecal isolates. A total of 11 PFGE types were shared between the MLN of pigs and the lairage environment. Among S. Derby, 6 shared PFGE types between MLN and faeces were found and among S. enterica 4,[5],12:i:- one PFGE type was common between MLN and the faecal samples. Shared profiles between human and swine isolates of S. Derby, S. enterica 4,[5],12:i:-, S. Rissen, Salmonella

  12. Extensive Variation in the O-Antigen Gene Cluster within One Salmonella enterica Serogroup Reveals an Unexpected Complex History

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Andrianopoulos, Kanella; Liu, Dan; Popoff, Michel Y.; Reeves, Peter R.

    2002-01-01

    The 46 serogroups of Salmonella enterica have different O-antigens, and each is thought to have a specific form of the O-antigen cluster. Comparison of the 145 serovars of serogroup B revealed much more intraserogroup genetic diversity than expected. The O27 factor, due to an α 1-6 linkage between O units in place of the more common α 1-2 linkage and previously thought to be due to a converting bacteriophage, is now shown to be due to a wzyα(1-6) gene located within the major gene cluster. Surprisingly a remnant of this gene in all O27− serovars shows that the ancestor was O27+. There are six distinct gene cluster forms, five apparently derived by a series of deletions and one by an insertion from an ancestral O27+ form present in 57 serovars. The history of the gene cluster and movement between subspecies I and II can be traced. Two of the derivative forms still have a functional wzyα(1-6) gene, while in three it has been inactivated by deletion or insertion. Two of the forms lacking a functional wzyα(1-6) gene have the wzyα(1-2) gene first described for strain LT2 as rfc, whereas for the third the wzy gene has not been located. PMID:11872718

  13. Salmonella enterica serovar Minnesota urosepsis in a patient with Crohn's disease in the absence of recent or current gastrointestinal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Steinebrunner, Niels; Sandig, Catharina; Zimmermann, Stefan; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Eisenbach, Christoph; Mischnik, Alexander

    2013-09-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Minnesota is a rarely isolated organism in clinical samples mainly grown from stool cultures. Sepsis due to Salmonella is known in severely immunocompromised patients, but so far urosepsis due to S. enterica serovar Minnesota has not been described. We report a case of a 31-year-old patient suffering from Crohn's disease treated with infliximab and azathioprine, in whom was implanted a double-J ureteric catheter for urolithiasis. The patient presented with urinary tract infection and severe sepsis. S. enterica serovar Minnesota was grown from urine and blood cultures. After empiric antimicrobial treatment with meropenem and vancomycin, treatment was changed to ceftriaxone. Antimicrobial treatment was continued for a total of 3 weeks without evidence of Salmonella recurrence on follow-up visits. Salmonella spp. rarely cause urinary tract infection and sepsis. However, in immunocompromised patients, non-typhoidal salmonellosis merits a thorough clinical and microbiological evaluation.

  14. Rapid identification of Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae and S. enterica subsp. diarizonae by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Katie L; Peters, Tansy M; Lawson, Andy J; Owen, Robert J

    2009-08-01

    Reptiles are popular as pets, leading to an increased risk of human infections due to uncommon Salmonella strains including the Arizona group (subspecies arizonae and diarizonae). We present a real-time Arizona-specific polymerase chain reaction demonstrating 100% specificity and 99.6% sensitivity, offering savings in time and labor over traditional identification methods.

  15. Modeling the fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in the agricultural environment: current perspective.

    PubMed

    Ongeng, Duncan; Haberbeck, Leticia U; Mauriello, Gianluigi; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Springael, Dirk; Geeraerd, Annemie H

    2014-04-01

    The significance of fresh vegetable consumption on human nutrition and health is well recognized. Human infections with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica linked to fresh vegetable consumption have become a serious public health problem inflicting a heavy economic burden. The use of contaminated livestock wastes such as manure and manure slurry in crop production is believed to be one of the principal routes of fresh vegetable contamination with E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica at preharvest stage because both ruminant and nonruminant livestock are known carriers of E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica in the environment. A number of challenge-testing studies have examined the fate of E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica in the agricultural environment with the view of designing strategies for controlling vegetable contamination preharvest. In this review, we examined the mathematical modeling approaches that have been used to study the behavior of E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica in the manure, manure-amended soil, and in manure-amended soil-plant ecosystem during cultivation of fresh vegetable crops. We focused on how the models have been applied to fit survivor curves, predict survival, and assess the risk of vegetable contamination preharvest. The inadequacies of the current modeling approaches are discussed and suggestions for improvements to enhance the applicability of the models as decision tools to control E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica contamination of fresh vegetables during primary production are presented.

  16. Reduction of Salmonella enterica on the surface of eggshells by sequential treatment with aqueous chlorine dioxide and drying.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seonyeong; Park, Sunhyung; Kim, Yoonsook; Kim, Byeong-sam; Beuchat, Larry R; Hoikyung, Kim; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2015-10-01

    The synergistic effects of sequential treatments with chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and drying in killing Salmonella enterica on the surface of chicken eggshells were investigated. Initial experiments were focused on comparing lethalities of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ClO2. Eggs surface-inoculated with S. enterica in chicken feces as a carrier were immersed in water, NaOCl (50 or 200 μg/mL), or ClO2 (50 or 200 μg/mL) for 1 or 5 min. For 1-min treatments, lethal activities of sanitizers were not significantly different (P>0.05). However, after treatment with ClO2 for 5 min, reductions of S. enterica were significantly greater (P≤0.05) than reductions after treatment with water or NaOCl. The effect of treatment of eggs with ClO2 or NaOCl, followed by drying at 43% relative humidity and 25 °C for 24 and 48 h, were determined. Populations of S. enterica decreased during drying, regardless of the type of sanitizer treatment. ClO2 treatment, compared to water or NaOCl treatments, resulted in additional reductions of ca. >1.3 log CFU/egg during drying. This indicates that sequential treatments with ClO2 and drying induced synergistic lethal effects against S. enterica on the surface of eggshells. These observations will be useful when selecting a sanitizer to control S. enterica on the surface of eggshells and designing an effective egg sanitization system exploiting the synergistic lethal effects of sanitizer and drying.

  17. Adaptive resistance to biocides in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157 and cross-resistance to antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Braoudaki, M; Hilton, A C

    2004-01-01

    The mechanisms by which bacteria resist killing by antibiotics and biocides are still poorly defined, although repeated exposure to sublethal concentrations of antibacterial agents undoubtedly contributes to their development. This study aimed both to investigate the potential of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157 for adaptive resistance to commonly used biocides and to determine any cross-resistance to antibiotics. Strains were repeatedly passaged in media containing increasing concentrations of a biocide or antibiotic until adaptive resistance was obtained. A wide panel of antimicrobial agents was then screened by using the adapted strain to determine cross-resistance, if any. Adaptive resistance was readily achieved for both S. enterica and E. coli O157. Cross-resistance in adaptively resistant S. enterica varied with the serotype; Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis expressed cross-resistance to chloramphenicol, whereas Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium expressed cross-resistance to chlorhexidine. Benzalkonium chloride-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Virchow showed elevated resistance to chlorhexidine; however, chlorhexidine-resistant Salmonella serovar Virchow did not demonstrate reciprocal cross-resistance to benzalkonium chloride, suggesting specific rather than generic resistance mechanisms. E. coli O157 strains acquired high levels of resistance to triclosan after only two sublethal exposures and, when adapted, repeatedly demonstrated decreased susceptibilities to various antimicrobial agents, including chloramphenicol, erythromycin, imipenem, tetracycline, and trimethoprim, as well as to a number of biocides. These observations raise concern over the indiscriminate and often inappropriate use of biocides, especially triclosan, in situations where they are unnecessary, whereby they may contribute to the development of microbial resistance mechanisms.

  18. The locus of heat resistance (LHR) mediates heat resistance in Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Ryan G; Walker, Brian D; Yang, Xianqin; McMullen, Lynn M; Gänzle, Michael G

    2017-06-01

    Enterobacteriaceae comprise food spoilage organisms as well as food-borne pathogens including Escherichia coli. Heat resistance in E. coli was attributed to a genomic island called the locus of heat resistance (LHR). This genomic island is also present in several other genera of Enterobacteriaceae, but its function in the enteric pathogens Salmonella enterica and Enterobacter cloacae is unknown. This study aimed to determine the frequency of the LHR in food isolates of E. coli, and its influence on heat resistance in S. enterica and Enterobacter spp. Cell counts of LHR-positive strains of E. coli, S. enterica and E. cloacae were reduced by less than 1, 1, and 4 log (cfu/mL), respectively, after exposure to 60 °C for 5 min, while cell counts of LHR-negative strains of the same species were reduced by more than 7 log (cfu/mL). Introducing an exogenous copy of the LHR into heat-sensitive enteropathogenic E. coli and S. enterica increased heat resistance to a level that was comparable to LHR-positive wild type strains. Cell counts of LHR-positive S. enterica were reduced by less than 1 log(cfu/mL) after heating to 60 °C for 5 min. Survival of LHR-positive strains was improved by increasing the NaCl concentration from 0 to 4%. Cell counts of LHR-positive strains of E. coli and S. enterica were reduced by less than 2 log (cfu/g) in ground beef patties cooked to an internal core temperature of 71 °C. This study indicates that LHR-positive Enterobacteriaceae pose a risk to food safety.

  19. Prevalence of Salmonella Isolates from Chicken and Pig Slaughterhouses and Emergence of Ciprofloxacin and Cefotaxime Co-Resistant S. enterica Serovar Indiana in Henan, China

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Li; Lan, Ruiting; Zhang, Xiuli; Cui, Shenghui; Xu, Jin; Guo, Yunchang; Li, Fengqin; Zhang, Ding

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of Salmonella from chicken and pig slaughterhouses in Henan, China and antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates to antibiotics was determined. From 283 chicken samples and 240 pig samples collected, 128 and 70 Salmonella isolates were recovered with an isolation rate of 45.2 and 29.2% respectively. The predominant serovars in chicken samples were S. enterica serovar Enteritidis, S. enterica serovar Hadar and S. enterica serovar Indiana, while those in pig samples were S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, S. enterica serovar Derby and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. Resistance to ciprofloxacin was 8.6 and 10.0% for isolates from chickens and pigs respectively, whereas resistance to cefotaxime was 5.5 and 8.6%, respectively. Multidrug resistance (resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobial agent) was markedly higher in pig isolates (57.1%) than in chicken isolates (39.8%). Of particular concern was the detection of ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime co-resistant S. enterica serovar Indiana isolates, which pose risk to public health. All 16 S. enterica serovar Indiana isolates detected were resistant to ciprofloxacin, among which 11 were co-resistant to cefotaxime. The S. enterica serovar Indiana isolates accumulated point mutations in quinolone resistance determination regions of gyrA (S83F/D87G or S83F/D87N) and parC (T57S/S80R). Two plasmid mediated quinolone resistant determinants were found with aac (6')-Ib-cr and oqxAB in 16 and 12 S. enterica serovar Indiana isolates respectively. Cefotaxime-resistance of S. enterica serovar Indiana was associated with the acquisition of a blaCTX-M-65 gene. The potential risk of ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime co-resistant S. enterica serovar Indiana infection is a significant concern due to limited alternative treatment options. Reduction of Salmonella in chicken and pig slaughterhouses, in particular, ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime co-resistant S. enterica serovar Indiana will be an important measure to reduce

  20. Evaluation of Surrogate Disk Tests for Detection of Ciprofloxacin and Levofloxacin Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Salmonella enterica

    PubMed Central

    Deak, Eszter; Skov, Robert; Hindler, Janet A.

    2015-01-01

    Detection of fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica has become increasingly difficult due to evolving resistance mechanisms to this antimicrobial class in this organism. We evaluated two quinolone disks and five fluoroquinolone disks for their ability to act as a surrogate agent for the detection of fluoroquinolone resistance in a collection of 136 S. enterica isolates, including 111 with intermediate or resistant ciprofloxacin MICs mediated by a variety of resistance mechanisms. Ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and pefloxacin disks detected all isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin (0% very major error) and yielded false resistance (major error) in 8, 4, and 12% of susceptible isolates, respectively. Ciprofloxacin and pefloxacin provided clearer differentiation of susceptible and resistant isolates. PMID:26292293

  1. Gamma radiation used as hygienization technique for foods does not induce viable but non-culturable state (VBNC) in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Saroj, Sunil; Shashidhar, R; Bandekar, Jayant

    2009-10-01

    Gamma radiation has been widely used for hygienization of food products. Whether gamma radiation stress induces VBNC state in Salmonella is of great concern. Therefore, the study was carried out to determine whether gamma radiation exposure induces VBNC state in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium). The parameters tested were culturability on agar medium, transcriptional activity by RT-PCR, cytoplasmic membrane integrity, and direct viable count using LIVE/DEAD BacLight bacterial viability kit. The LIVE/DEAD BacLight counts for S. typhimurium cells treated with 0.5 and 1.0 kGy radiation dose were 0.8 and 0.1% of the control, respectively. Plate counts for S. typhimurium cells treated with 0.5 and 1.0 kGy radiation dose were 0.7 and 0.05% of the control, respectively. No viable cells of S. typhimurium were detected by both plate count and LIVE/DEAD BacLight after radiation treatment with 2 kGy. No transcriptional activity was detected in cells treated with 2 kGy radiation dose. If there were VBNC cells present, then significant differences in the counts between the LIVE/DEAD BacLight microscopic counts and plate agar counts must be observed. No significant difference (P > 0.05) in the counts were observed. Thus, it can be concluded that treatment with 2 kGy results in complete killing and does not induce VBNC state in S. typhimurium.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Salmonella enterica Serovar Aberdeen Negative for H2S Production in China

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Shengjie; Wang, Jian; Yang, Xiaoxia; Yang, Chaojie; Liang, Beibei; Ma, Qiuxia; Li, Hao; Song, Hongbin; Qiu, Shaofu

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica infections continue to be a significant burden on public health worldwide. The ability of S. enterica to produce hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important phenotypic characteristic used to screen and identify Salmonella with selective medium; however, H2S-negative Salmonella have recently emerged. In this study, the H2S phenotype of Salmonella isolates was confirmed, and the selected isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and molecular identification by multilocus sequence typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) analysis. The phs genetic operon was also analyzed. A total of 160 S. enterica serovar Aberdeen isolates were detected between 2005 and 2013 in China. Of them, seven non-H2S-producing isolates were detected. Notably, four samples yielded four pairs of isolates with different H2S phenotypes, simultaneously. The data demonstrated that H2S-negative isolates were genetically closely related to H2S-positive isolates. Three new spacers (Abe1, Abe2, and Abe3) were identified in CRISPR locus 1 in four pairs of isolates with different H2S phenotypes from the same samples. Sequence analysis revealed a new nonsense mutation at position 208 in the phsA gene of all non-H2S-producing isolates. Additionally, we describe a new screening procedure to avoid H2S-negative Salmonella, which would normally be overlooked during laboratory and hospital screening. The prevalence of this pathogen may be underestimated; therefore, it is important to focus on improving surveillance of this organism to control its spread. PMID:27552230

  3. DNA Sequence Analysis of Plasmids from Multidrug Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Heidelberg Isolates

    PubMed Central

    David, Donna E.; Tang, Hailin; Xu, Joshua; Nayak, Rajesh; Kaldhone, Pravin; Logue, Catherine M.; Foley, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg is among the most detected serovars in swine and poultry, ranks among the top five serotypes associated with human salmonellosis and is disproportionately associated with invasive infections and mortality in humans. Salmonella are known to carry plasmids associated with antimicrobial resistance and virulence. To identify plasmid-associated genes in multidrug resistant S. enterica serovar Heidelberg, antimicrobial resistance plasmids from five isolates were sequenced using the 454 LifeSciences pyrosequencing technology. Four of the isolates contained incompatibility group (Inc) A/C multidrug resistance plasmids harboring at least eight antimicrobial resistance genes. Each of these strains also carried a second resistance plasmid including two IncFIB, an IncHI2 and a plasmid lacking an identified Inc group. The fifth isolate contained an IncI1 plasmid, encoding resistance to gentamicin, streptomycin and sulfonamides. Some of the IncA/C plasmids lacked the full concert of transfer genes and yet were able to be conjugally transferred, likely due to the transfer genes carried on the companion plasmids in the strains. Several non-IncA/C resistance plasmids also carried putative virulence genes. When the sequences were compared to previously sequenced plasmids, it was found that while all plasmids demonstrated some similarity to other plasmids, they were unique, often due to differences in mobile genetic elements in the plasmids. Our study suggests that Salmonella Heidelberg isolates harbor plasmids that co-select for antimicrobial resistance and virulence, along with genes that can mediate the transfer of plasmids within and among other bacterial isolates. Prevalence of such plasmids can complicate efforts to control the spread of S. enterica serovar Heidelberg in food animal and human populations. PMID:23251446

  4. Variability in the adaptive acid tolerance response phenotype of Salmonella enterica strains.

    PubMed

    Lianou, Alexandra; Nychas, George-John E; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was the assessment of the stationary-phase, low-pH-inducible acid tolerance response (ATR) of different Salmonella enterica strains. For this purpose, 30 strains of the pathogen were grown in tryptone soy broth in the absence (non-adapted cultures) and presence (1% w/v; acid-adapted cultures) of glucose, and then subjected to 4-h acid challenge trials at pH 3.0. Surviving populations of each strain were determined at 1-h intervals, and the Weibull model was fitted to the derived microbiological data. Extensive variability in the acid stress responses of the tested S. enterica strains was observed, with the total population reductions (log CFU/ml) attained in 4 h of acid challenge ranging from 0.9 to 5.5 and from 0.6 to 7.0 for the non-adapted and acid-adapted cultures, respectively. As demonstrated by the model scale parameter δ and shape parameter p, the effect of acid adaptation on the inactivation curves was strain-specific. Although acid adaptation resulted in enhanced acid survival for the majority of the tested strains, there were strains exhibiting similar or decreased acid resistance compared to their non-adapted counterparts. Moreover, acid adaptation appeared to decrease the strain variability of δ whereas increasing the strain variability of p: the coefficient of variation of δ among the tested strains was 97.2 and 54.9% for the non-adapted and acid-adapted cultures, respectively, while the corresponding values for p were 12.7 and 48.1%. The data of the present study, which is the first one to systematically evaluate the adaptive ATR of multiple S. enterica strains, clearly demonstrate that this phenotype (attempted to be induced by growing the pathogen in the presence of glucose) is strain-dependent.

  5. Extracellular polysaccharides associated with thin aggregative fimbriae of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis.

    PubMed

    White, A P; Gibson, D L; Collinson, S K; Banser, P A; Kay, W W

    2003-09-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O polysaccharide was identified as the principle factor impeding intercellular formation of intact thin aggregative fimbriae (Tafi) in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. The extracellular nucleation-precipitation assembly pathway for these organelles was investigated by quantifying fimbrial formation between deltaagfA (AgfA recipient) and deltaagfB (AgfA donor) cells harboring mutations in LPS (galE::Tn10) and/or cellulose (deltabcsA) synthesis. Intercellular complementation could be detected between deltaagfA and deltaagfB strains only when both possessed the galE mutation. LPS O polysaccharide appears to be an impenetrable barrier to AgfA assembly between cells but not within individual cells. The presence of cellulose did not restrict Tafi formation between cells. Transmission electron microscopy of w+ S. enterica serovar Enteritidis 3b cells revealed diffuse Tafi networks without discernible fine structure. In the absence of cellulose, however, individual Tafi fibers were clearly visible, appeared to be occasionally branched, and showed the generally distinctive appearance described for Escherichia coli K-12 curli. A third extracellular matrix component closely associated with cellulose and Tafi was detected on Western blots by using immune serum raised to whole, purified Tafi aggregates. Cellulose was required to tightly link this material to cells. Antigenically similar material was also detected in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and one diarrheagenic E. coli isolate. Preliminary analysis indicated that this material represented an anionic, extracellular polysaccharide that was distinct from colanic acid. Therefore, Tafi in their native state appear to exist as a complex with cellulose and at least one other component.

  6. Molecular Characterization of Salmonella enterica Serovar Aberdeen Negative for H2S Production in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fuli; Xu, Xuebin; Xie, Jing; Yi, Shengjie; Wang, Jian; Yang, Xiaoxia; Yang, Chaojie; Liang, Beibei; Ma, Qiuxia; Li, Hao; Song, Hongbin; Qiu, Shaofu

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica infections continue to be a significant burden on public health worldwide. The ability of S. enterica to produce hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important phenotypic characteristic used to screen and identify Salmonella with selective medium; however, H2S-negative Salmonella have recently emerged. In this study, the H2S phenotype of Salmonella isolates was confirmed, and the selected isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and molecular identification by multilocus sequence typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) analysis. The phs genetic operon was also analyzed. A total of 160 S. enterica serovar Aberdeen isolates were detected between 2005 and 2013 in China. Of them, seven non-H2S-producing isolates were detected. Notably, four samples yielded four pairs of isolates with different H2S phenotypes, simultaneously. The data demonstrated that H2S-negative isolates were genetically closely related to H2S-positive isolates. Three new spacers (Abe1, Abe2, and Abe3) were identified in CRISPR locus 1 in four pairs of isolates with different H2S phenotypes from the same samples. Sequence analysis revealed a new nonsense mutation at position 208 in the phsA gene of all non-H2S-producing isolates. Additionally, we describe a new screening procedure to avoid H2S-negative Salmonella, which would normally be overlooked during laboratory and hospital screening. The prevalence of this pathogen may be underestimated; therefore, it is important to focus on improving surveillance of this organism to control its spread.

  7. Inhibition of Salmonella enterica biofilm formation using small-molecule adenosine mimetics.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Jacob A; Marshall, Joanna M; Bhatiya, Aditi; Eguale, Tadesse; Kwiek, Jesse J; Gunn, John S

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms have been widely implicated in chronic infections and environmental persistence of Salmonella enterica, facilitating enhanced colonization of surfaces and increasing the ability of the bacteria to be transmitted to new hosts. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi biofilm formation on gallstones from humans and mice enhances gallbladder colonization and bacterial shedding, while Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium biofilms facilitate long-term persistence in a number of environments important to food, medical, and farming industries. Salmonella regulates expression of many virulence- and biofilm-related processes using kinase-driven pathways. Kinases play pivotal roles in phosphorylation and energy transfer in cellular processes and possess an ATP-binding pocket required for their functions. Many other cellular proteins also require ATP for their activity. Here we test the hypothesis that pharmacological interference with ATP-requiring enzymes utilizing adenosine mimetic compounds would decrease or inhibit bacterial biofilm formation. Through the screening of a 3,000-member ATP mimetic library, we identified a single compound (compound 7955004) capable of significantly reducing biofilm formation by S. Typhimurium and S. Typhi. The compound was not bactericidal or bacteriostatic toward S. Typhimurium or cytotoxic to mammalian cells. An ATP-Sepharose affinity matrix technique was used to discover potential protein-binding targets of the compound and identified GroEL and DeoD. Compound 7955004 was screened against other known biofilm-forming bacterial species and was found to potently inhibit biofilms of Acinetobacter baumannii as well. The identification of a lead compound with biofilm-inhibiting capabilities toward Salmonella provides a potential new avenue of therapeutic intervention against Salmonella biofilm formation, with applicability to biofilms of other bacterial pathogens.

  8. Effect of desiccation on tolerance of salmonella enterica to multiple stresses.

    PubMed

    Gruzdev, Nadia; Pinto, Riky; Sela, Shlomo

    2011-03-01

    Reducing the available water in food is a long-established method for controlling bacterial growth in the food industry. Nevertheless, food-borne outbreaks of salmonellosis due to consumption of dry foods have been continuously reported. Previous studies showed that dried Salmonella cells acquire high tolerance to heat and ethanol. In order to examine if dehydration also induces tolerance to other stressors, dried Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium cells were exposed to multiple stresses, and their viability was assessed. Indeed, desiccated S. Typhimurium acquired higher tolerance to multiple stressors than nondesiccated cells. The dried cells were significantly more resistant to most stressors, including ethanol (10 to 30%, 5 min), sodium hypochlorite (10 to 100 ppm, 10 min), didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (0.05 to 0.25%, 5 min), hydrogen peroxide (0.5 to 2.0%, 30 min), NaCl (0.1 to 1 M, 2 h), bile salts (1 to 10%, 2 h), dry heat (100°C, 1 h), and UV irradiation (125 μW/cm(2), 25 min). In contrast, exposure of Salmonella to acetic and citric acids reduced the survival of the dried cells (1.5 log) compared to that of nondesiccated cells (0.5 log). Three other S. enterica serotypes, S. Enteritidis, S. Newport, and S. Infantis, had similar stress responses as S. Typhimurium, while S. Hadar was much more susceptible and gained tolerance to only a few stressors. Our findings indicate that dehydration induces cross-tolerance to multiple stresses in S. enterica, demonstrating the limitations of current chemical and physical treatments utilized by the food industry to inactivate food-borne pathogens.

  9. Effect of Desiccation on Tolerance of Salmonella enterica to Multiple Stresses▿

    PubMed Central

    Gruzdev, Nadia; Pinto, Riky; Sela, Shlomo

    2011-01-01

    Reducing the available water in food is a long-established method for controlling bacterial growth in the food industry. Nevertheless, food-borne outbreaks of salmonellosis due to consumption of dry foods have been continuously reported. Previous studies showed that dried Salmonella cells acquire high tolerance to heat and ethanol. In order to examine if dehydration also induces tolerance to other stressors, dried Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium cells were exposed to multiple stresses, and their viability was assessed. Indeed, desiccated S. Typhimurium acquired higher tolerance to multiple stressors than nondesiccated cells. The dried cells were significantly more resistant to most stressors, including ethanol (10 to 30%, 5 min), sodium hypochlorite (10 to 100 ppm, 10 min), didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (0.05 to 0.25%, 5 min), hydrogen peroxide (0.5 to 2.0%, 30 min), NaCl (0.1 to 1 M, 2 h), bile salts (1 to 10%, 2 h), dry heat (100°C, 1 h), and UV irradiation (125 μW/cm2, 25 min). In contrast, exposure of Salmonella to acetic and citric acids reduced the survival of the dried cells (1.5 log) compared to that of nondesiccated cells (0.5 log). Three other S. enterica serotypes, S. Enteritidis, S. Newport, and S. Infantis, had similar stress responses as S. Typhimurium, while S. Hadar was much more susceptible and gained tolerance to only a few stressors. Our findings indicate that dehydration induces cross-tolerance to multiple stresses in S. enterica, demonstrating the limitations of current chemical and physical treatments utilized by the food industry to inactivate food-borne pathogens. PMID:21216905

  10. Prevalence, Distribution, and Diversity of Salmonella enterica in a Major Produce Region of California▿†

    PubMed Central

    Gorski, Lisa; Parker, Craig T.; Liang, Anita; Cooley, Michael B.; Jay-Russell, Michele T.; Gordus, Andrew G.; Atwill, E. Robert; Mandrell, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    A survey was initiated to determine the prevalence of Salmonella enterica in the environment in and around Monterey County, CA, a major agriculture region of the United States. Trypticase soy broth enrichment cultures of samples of soil/sediment (n = 617), water (n = 252), wildlife (n = 476), cattle feces (n = 795), and preharvest lettuce and spinach (n = 261) tested originally for the presence of pathogenic Escherichia coli were kept in frozen storage and later used to test for the presence of S. enterica. A multipathogen oligonucleotide microarray was employed to identify a subset of samples that might contain Salmonella in order to test various culture methods to survey a larger number of samples. Fifty-five of 2,401 (2.3%) samples yielded Salmonella, representing samples obtained from 20 different locations in Monterey and San Benito Counties. Water had the highest percentage of positives (7.1%) among sample types. Wildlife yielded 20 positive samples, the highest number among sample types, with positive samples from birds (n = 105), coyotes (n = 40), deer (n = 104), elk (n = 39), wild pig (n = 41), and skunk (n = 13). Only 16 (2.6%) of the soil/sediment samples tested positive, and none of the produce samples had detectable Salmonella. Sixteen different serotypes were identified among the isolates, including S. enterica serotypes Give, Typhimurium, Montevideo, and Infantis. Fifty-four strains were sensitive to 12 tested antibiotics; one S. Montevideo strain was resistant to streptomycin and gentamicin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of the isolates revealed over 40 different pulsotypes. Several strains were isolated from water, wildlife, or soil over a period of several months, suggesting that they were persistent in this environment. PMID:21378057

  11. Streptomycin Induced Stress Response in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Shows Distinct Colony Scatter Signature

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Atul K.; Drolia, Rishi; Bai, Xingjian; Bhunia, Arun K.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the streptomycin-induced stress response in Salmonella enterica serovars with a laser optical sensor, BARDOT (bacterial rapid detection using optical scattering technology). Initially, the top 20 S. enterica serovars were screened for their response to streptomycin at 100 μg/mL. All, but four S. enterica serovars were resistant to streptomycin. The MIC of streptomycin-sensitive serovars (Enteritidis, Muenchen, Mississippi, and Schwarzengrund) varied from 12.5 to 50 μg/mL, while streptomycin-resistant serovar (Typhimurium) from 125–250 μg/mL. Two streptomycin-sensitive serovars (Enteritidis and Mississippi) were grown on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar plates containing sub-inhibitory concentration of streptomycin (1.25–5 μg/mL) and a streptomycin-resistant serovar (Typhimurium) was grown on BHI containing 25–50 μg/mL of streptomycin and the colonies (1.2 ± 0.1 mm diameter) were scanned using BARDOT. Data show substantial qualitative and quantitative differences in the colony scatter patterns of Salmonella grown in the presence of streptomycin than the colonies grown in absence of antibiotic. Mass-spectrometry identified overexpression of chaperonin GroEL, which possibly contributed to the observed differences in the colony scatter patterns. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoassay confirmed streptomycin-induced GroEL expression while, aminoglycoside adenylyltransferase (aadA), aminoglycoside efflux pump (aep), multidrug resistance subunit acrA, and ribosomal protein S12 (rpsL), involved in streptomycin resistance, were unaltered. The study highlights suitability of the BARDOT as a non-invasive, label-free tool for investigating stress response in Salmonella in conjunction with the molecular and immunoassay methods. PMID:26252374

  12. Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae bone and joints sepsis. A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Schneider, L; Ehlinger, M; Stanchina, C; Giacomelli, M-C; Gicquel, P; Karger, C; Clavert, J-M

    2009-05-01

    Osteoarticular infections caused by Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae are rarely seen in humans but young children and immunocompromised adults are at particular risk of acquiring this bacteria. Reptiles and their by-products (e.g. meat preparations or medications) are particularly likely to harbor Salmonella. We report on a case of septic arthritis of the hip transmitted by a reptile in a 10-month-old child. We carry out a recall of the complex nomenclature of Salmonella, a review of the literature and provide information on the recommended precautions for reducing the risk of transmission of Salmonella from reptiles to humans.

  13. Correlation of Phenotype with the Genotype of Egg-Contaminating Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Cesar A.; Porwollik, Steffen; Frye, Jonathan G.; Kinde, Hailu; McClelland, Michael; Guard-Bouldin, Jean

    2005-01-01

    The genotype of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis was correlated with the phenotype using DNA-DNA microarray hybridization, ribotyping, and Phenotype MicroArray analysis to compare three strains that differed in colony morphology and phage type. No DNA hybridization differences were found between two phage type 13A (PT13A) strains that varied in biofilm formation; however, the ribotype patterns were different. Both PT13A strains had DNA sequences similar to that of bacteriophage Fels2, whereas the PT4 genome to which they were compared, as well as a PT4 field isolate, had a DNA sequence with some similarity to the bacteriophage ST64b sequence. Phenotype MicroArray analysis indicated that the two PT13A strains and the PT4 field isolate had similar respiratory activity profiles at 37°C. However, the wild-type S. enterica serovar Enteritidis PT13A strain grew significantly better in 20% more of the 1,920 conditions tested when it was assayed at 25°C than the biofilm-forming PT13A strain grew. Statistical analysis of the respiratory activity suggested that S. enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4 had a temperature-influenced dimorphic metabolism which at 25°C somewhat resembled the profile of the biofilm-forming PT13A strain and that at 37°C the metabolism was nearly identical to that of the wild-type PT13A strain. Although it is possible that lysogenic bacteriophage alter the balance of phage types on a farm either by lytic competition or by altering the metabolic processes of the host cell in subtle ways, the different physiologies of the S. enterica serovar Enteritidis strains correlated most closely with minor, rather than major, genomic changes. These results strongly suggest that the pandemic of egg-associated human salmonellosis that came into prominence in the 1980s is primarily an example of bacterial adaptive radiation that affects the safety of the food supply. PMID:16085829

  14. Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg Strains, the Netherlands1

    PubMed Central

    Geurts, Yvon; Dierikx, Cindy M.; Brouwer, Michael S.M.; Kant, Arie; Wit, Ben; Heymans, Raymond; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Mevius, Dik J.

    2016-01-01

    Extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg strains (JF6X01.0022/XbaI.0251, JF6X01.0326/XbaI.1966, JF6X01.0258/XbaI.1968, and JF6X01.0045/XbaI.1970) have been identified in the United States with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Our examination of isolates showed introduction of these strains in the Netherlands and highlight the need for active surveillance and intervention strategies by public health organizations. PMID:27314180

  15. Salmonella Enterica Serotype Enteritidis Vertebral Osteomyelitis and Epidural Abscess Complicated with Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Oki, Masayuki; Ueda, Akihiro; Tsuda, Ayumi; Yanagi, Hidetaka; Ozawa, Hideki; Takagi, Atsushi

    2016-09-20

    Infection with non-typhoidal Salmonella often results in a self-limited acute gastroenteritis. Extra-intestinal Salmonella infection is relatively rare and occurs predominantly in infants and adults with significant underlying conditions. We describe a 54-year-old Japanese man with a history of heavy alcohol consumption and daily contact with a dog, who developed bacteremia complicated by vertebral osteomyelitis, spinal epidural abscess, and meningitis, due to Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis. This case suggests that Salmonella should be considered as an etiologic pathogen in adult patients with perivertebral infection or meningitis.

  16. Ancient typhoid epidemic reveals possible ancestral strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    PubMed

    Papagrigorakis, Manolis J; Synodinos, Philippos N; Yapijakis, Christos

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to other serotypes of Salmonella enterica, S. Typhi is exclusively adapted to human hosts. Recently, S. Typhi was identified in ancient skeletal material, thereby incriminating typhoid fever for the Plague of Athens. Since, according to Thucydides' report, animals were also affected by the disease, a working hypothesis is constituted that the causative agent of the Plague might be the anticipated original strain of S. Typhi, purportedly capable of infecting animals as well as humans. Possible future sequencing of the discovered ancient strain of S. Typhi may help towards identifying its genomic differences responsible for its modern specification to humans.

  17. Development of triclosan and antibiotic resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Birosová, Lucia; Mikulásová, Mária

    2009-04-01

    The possible association between the use of triclosan and the development of antibiotic resistance was examined in triclosan-resistant mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. These mutants were obtained from a sensitive parental strain and from ciprofloxacin-resistant isogenic strains using spontaneous mutagenesis or selection after one short exposure or continuous exposure to low concentrations of triclosan. The results showed that triclosan in the environment does not increase the mutation frequency but selects bacterial strains with reduced antibiotic susceptibility. This property depended on the multiple antibiotic resistance (Mar) phenotype of bacterial strains and on the triclosan concentration.

  18. Thiol Peroxidase Protects Salmonella enterica from Hydrogen Peroxide Stress In Vitro and Facilitates Intracellular Growth▿

    PubMed Central

    Horst, Sarah A.; Jaeger, Timo; Denkel, Luisa A.; Rouf, Syed Fazle; Rhen, Mikael; Bange, Franz-Christoph

    2010-01-01

    At present, Salmonella is considered to express two peroxiredoxin-type peroxidases, TsaA and AhpC. Here we describe an additional peroxiredoxin, Tpx, in Salmonella enterica and show that a single tpx mutant is susceptible to exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), that it has a reduced capacity to degrade H2O2 compared to the ahpCF and tsaA mutants, and that its growth is affected in activated macrophages. These results suggest that Tpx contributes significantly to the sophisticated defense system that the pathogen has evolved to survive oxidative stress. PMID:20304995

  19. Outbreak-associated Salmonella enterica serotypes and food Commodities, United States, 1998-2008.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Brendan R; Griffin, Patricia M; Cole, Dana; Walsh, Kelly A; Chai, Shua J

    2013-08-01

    Salmonella enterica infections are transmitted not only by animal-derived foods but also by vegetables, fruits, and other plant products. To clarify links between Salmonella serotypes and specific foods, we examined the diversity and predominance of food commodities implicated in outbreaks of salmonellosis during 1998-2008. More than 80% of outbreaks caused by serotypes Enteritidis, Heidelberg, and Hadar were attributed to eggs or poultry, whereas >50% of outbreaks caused by serotypes Javiana, Litchfield, Mbandaka, Muenchen, Poona, and Senftenberg were attributed to plant commodities. Serotypes Typhimurium and Newport were associated with a wide variety of food commodities. Knowledge about these associations can help guide outbreak investigations and control measures.

  20. Anaerobic Cysteine Degradation and Potential Metabolic Coordination in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Loddeke, Melissa; Schneider, Barbara; Oguri, Tamiko; Mehta, Iti; Xuan, Zhenyu; Reitzer, Larry

    2017-08-15

    Salmonella enterica has two CyuR-activated enzymes that degrade cysteine, i.e., the aerobic CdsH and an unidentified anaerobic enzyme; Escherichia coli has only the latter. To identify the anaerobic enzyme, transcript profiling was performed for E. coli without cyuR and with overexpressed cyuR Thirty-seven genes showed at least 5-fold changes in expression, and the cyuPA (formerly yhaOM) operon showed the greatest difference. Homology suggested that CyuP and CyuA represent a cysteine transporter and an iron-sulfur-containing cysteine desulfidase, respectively. E. coli and S. enterica ΔcyuA mutants grown with cysteine generated substantially less sulfide and had lower growth yields. Oxygen affected the CyuR-dependent genes reciprocally; cyuP-lacZ expression was greater anaerobically, whereas cdsH-lacZ expression was greater aerobically. In E. coli and S. enterica, anaerobic cyuP expression required cyuR and cysteine and was induced by l-cysteine, d-cysteine, and a few sulfur-containing compounds. Loss of either CyuA or RidA, both of which contribute to cysteine degradation to pyruvate, increased cyuP-lacZ expression, which suggests that CyuA modulates intracellular cysteine concentrations. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CyuA homologs are present in obligate and facultative anaerobes, confirming an anaerobic function, and in archaeal methanogens and bacterial acetogens, suggesting an ancient origin. Our results show that CyuA is the major anaerobic cysteine-catabolizing enzyme in both E. coli and S. enterica, and it is proposed that anaerobic cysteine catabolism can contribute to coordination of sulfur assimilation and amino acid synthesis.IMPORTANCE Sulfur-containing compounds such as cysteine and sulfide are essential and reactive metabolites. Exogenous sulfur-containing compounds can alter the thiol landscape and intracellular redox reactions and are known to affect several cellular processes, including swarming motility, antibiotic sensitivity, and biofilm

  1. Plasmid profiles as an epidemiological marker for Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis foodborne outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Luján, R; Echeita, A; Usera, M A; Martínez-Suárez, J V; Alonso, R; Sáez-Nieto, J A

    1990-06-01

    The incidence of enteritidis serotype of Salmonella enterica in salmonellae infections has steadily increased in Spain from 27.1% in 1982 up to 63.4% in 1987. Given this high incidence, we have studied the plasmid profiles of Enteritidis isolates to subclassify them. Different profiles were observed in 50 isolates. In 13 Enteritidis serotype outbreaks, up to 5 different plasmid profiles were found. Each outbreak correlated with a single plasmid profile except in one case where plasmids of two different profiles were observed in strains from the same outbreak.

  2. Pleural empyema due to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in an immunocompetent elderly patient: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Karachalios, Kostis; Siagris, Dimitrios; Lekkou, Alexandra; Anastassiou, Evangelos D.; Spiliopoulou, Iris; Gogos, Charalambos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pleural empyema as a focal infection due to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is rare and most commonly described among immunosuppressed patients or patients who suffer from sickle cell anaemia and lung malignancies. Case presentation: Here, we present an 81-year-old immunocompetent Greek woman with bacteraemia and pleural empyema due to Salmonella Enteritidis without any gastrointestinal symptoms. Conclusion: In our case, we suggest that patient’s pleural effusion secondary to heart failure was complicated by empyema and that focal intravascular infection was the cause of bacteraemia. PMID:28348773

  3. Characterization of class 1 integrons and antibiotic resistance genes in multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica isolates from foodstuff and related sources

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Vinicius B.; Lincopan, Nilton; Landgraf, Mariza; Franco, Bernadete D.G.M.; Destro, Maria T.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, an increase in the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella enterica has been observed in several countries, which is worrisome because S. enterica is one of the most common causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide. The aim of this study was to characterize class 1 integrons and antibiotic resistance genotypes in Salmonella enterica isolates recovered from foodstuff and related sources. Nineteen multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica isolates were recovered. Higher resistance rates to tetracycline (90%), streptomycin (80%), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (80%), ampicillin (60%) and nalidixic acid (70%) were related to the presence of the tetA, aadA, sul1/sul2, blaTEM-1 genes, and a codon mutation at position 83 of the gyrA gene, respectively. Class 1 integrons harboring aadA, blaTEM-1, sul1 or dhfr1 genes were detected in nine (45%) Salmonella enterica strains belonging to serotypes Brandenburg, Panama, Agona, Mbandaka and Alachua. Finally, clonal dissemination of S. Panama, S. Derby and S. Mbandaka was confirmed by PFGE. Detection of clonally related MDR Salmonella enterica suggests that endemic serotypes can be supported by class 1 integron-borne gene cassettes and/or mutations in drug targets. Emergence and dissemination of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica can have a major public health impact in an environment where large-scale suppliers ship their products. PMID:24031680

  4. Sensitive detection and serovar differentiation of typhoidal and nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica species using 16S rRNA Gene PCR coupled with high-resolution melt analysis.

    PubMed

    Masek, Billie J; Hardick, Justin; Won, Helen; Yang, Samuel; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Rothman, Richard E; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella enterica species infections are a significant public health problem causing high morbidity rates worldwide and high mortality rates in the developing world. These infections are not always rapidly diagnosed as a cause of bloodstream infections because of the limitations of blood culture, which greatly affects clinical care as a result of treatment delays. A molecular diagnostic assay that could rapidly detect and identify S. enterica species infections as a cause of sepsis is needed. Nine typhoidal and nontyphoidal S. enterica serovars were used to establish the limit of detection (LOD) of a previously published 16S rRNA gene PCR (16S PCR) in mock whole blood specimens. In addition, 16 typhoidal and nontyphoidal S. enterica serovars were used to evaluate the serovar differentiation capability of 16S PCR coupled with high-resolution melt analysis. The overall LOD of 16S PCR for the nine typhoidal and nontyphoidal S. enterica serovars analyzed was <10 colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) in mock whole blood specimens, with the lowest and highest LOD at <1 CFU/mL and 9 CFU/mL, respectively. By high-resolution melt analysis, the typhoidal and nontyphoidal S. enterica serovar groups analyzed each generated a unique grouping code, allowing for serovar-level identification. 16S PCR coupled with high-resolution melt analysis could be a useful molecular diagnostic that could enhance the current diagnostic, treatment, and surveillance methods of S. enterica bloodstream infections.

  5. Multiplex PCR-Based Serogrouping and Serotyping of Salmonella enterica from Tonsil and Jejunum with Jejunal Lymph Nodes of Slaughtered Swine in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kamela Charmaine S; Rivera, Windell L

    2015-05-01

    Food poisoning outbreaks and livestock mortalities caused by Salmonella enterica are widespread in the Philippines, with hogs being the most commonly recognized carriers of the pathogen. To prevent and control the occurrence of S. enterica infection in the country, methods were used in this study to isolate and rapidly detect, differentiate, and characterize S. enterica in tonsils and jejuna with jejunal lymph nodes of swine slaughtered in four locally registered meat establishments (LRMEs) and four meat establishments accredited by the National Meat Inspection Services in Metro Manila. A total of 480 samples were collected from 240 animals (120 pigs from each type of meat establishment). A significantly higher proportion of pigs were positive for S. enterica in LRMEs (60 of 120) compared with meat establishments accredited by the National Meat Inspection Services (38 of 120). More S. enterica-positive samples were found in tonsils compared with jejuna with jejunal lymph nodes in LRMEs, but this difference was not significant. A PCR assay targeting the invA gene had sensitivity that was statistically similar to that of the culture method, detecting 93 of 98 culture-confirmed samples. Multiplex PCR-based O-serogrouping and H/Sdf I typing revealed four S. enterica serogroups (B, C1, D, and E) and six serotypes (Agona, Choleraesuis, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Typhimurium, and Weltevreden), respectively, which was confirmed by DNA sequencing of the PCR products. This study was the first to report detection of S. enterica serotype Agona in the country.

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of 40 Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strains Isolated from Humans and Food in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Fernanda; Medeiros, Marta Inês Cazentini; Rodrigues, Dália Prazeres; Payne, Justin; Timme, Ruth E.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonellosis is an important health problem worldwide and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is one of the most common isolated serovars. Here, we reported the draft genomes of 40 S. Typhimurium strains isolated from humans and food in Brazil. These draft genomes will improve phylogenetic analysis and will help enhance our understanding of strains of this serovar isolated in Brazil. PMID:27660768

  7. Survival and heat resistance of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in peanut butter.

    PubMed

    He, Yingshu; Guo, Dongjing; Yang, Jingyun; Tortorello, Mary Lou; Zhang, Wei

    2011-12-01

    Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between the survival rates of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in peanut butter with different formulations and water activity. High carbohydrate content in peanut butter and low incubation temperature resulted in higher levels of bacterial survival during storage but lower levels of bacterial resistance to heat treatment.

  8. Persistence of two Salmonella enterica ser. Montevideo strains throughout horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larval and pupal development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Strains of Salmonella enterica can be subdivided into clades that differ in their composition of genes, including those that influence microbial ecology and bacterial transmission. Salmonella serovar Montevideo strains 1110 and 304, representatives of two different clades, were used throughout this ...

  9. Inactivation of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupe puree by high hydrostatic pressure with/without added ascorbic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this research was to evaluate and develop a method for inactivation of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupe puree (CP) by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). Cantaloupe being the most netted varieties of melons presents a greater risk of pathogen transmission. ...

  10. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Strains of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Displaying Different Virulence in an Experimental Chicken Model

    PubMed Central

    Blais, Burton; Huang, Hongsheng; Wang, Linru; Elmufti, Mohamed; Allain, Ray; Hazelwood, Jennifer; Grenier, Chris; Amoako, Kingsley; Savic, Mirjana; Fattahi Ghazi, Nashmil

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains 22495 and 22792, obtained from wild birds, were found to display different virulence attributes in an experimental chicken model. Closed genome sequences were assembled after sequencing with the Roche 454 and Illumina MiSeq platforms. An additional plasmid was present in the more virulent strain 22495. PMID:28183752

  11. Refined live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Enteritidis vaccines mediate homologous and heterologous serogroup protection in mice.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Sharon M; Schmidlein, Patrick; Simon, Raphael; Pasetti, Marcela F; Galen, James E; Levine, Myron M

    2015-12-01

    Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections constitute a major health problem among infants and toddlers in sub-Saharan Africa; these infections also occur in infants and the elderly in developed countries. We genetically engineered a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain of multilocus sequence type 313, the predominant genotype circulating in sub-Saharan Africa. We evaluated the capacities of S. Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis ΔguaBA ΔclpX live oral vaccines to protect mice against a highly lethal challenge dose of the homologous serovar and determined protection against other group B and D serovars circulating in sub-Saharan Africa. The vaccines S. Typhimurium CVD 1931 and S. Enteritidis CVD 1944 were immunogenic and protected BALB/c mice against 10,000 50% lethal doses (LD50) of S. Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis, respectively. S. Typhimurium CVD 1931 protected mice against the group B serovar Salmonella enterica serovar Stanleyville (91% vaccine efficacy), and S. Enteritidis CVD 1944 protected mice against the group D serovar Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin (85% vaccine efficacy). High rates of survival were observed when mice were infected 12 weeks postimmunization, indicating that the vaccines elicited long-lived protective immunity. Whereas CVD 1931 did not protect against S. Enteritidis R11, CVD 1944 did mediate protection against S. Typhimurium D65 (81% efficacy). These findings suggest that a bivalent (S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis) vaccine would provide broad protection against the majority of invasive NTS infections in sub-Saharan Africa.

  12. Refined Live Attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Enteritidis Vaccines Mediate Homologous and Heterologous Serogroup Protection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schmidlein, Patrick; Simon, Raphael; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Galen, James E.; Levine, Myron M.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections constitute a major health problem among infants and toddlers in sub-Saharan Africa; these infections also occur in infants and the elderly in developed countries. We genetically engineered a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain of multilocus sequence type 313, the predominant genotype circulating in sub-Saharan Africa. We evaluated the capacities of S. Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis ΔguaBA ΔclpX live oral vaccines to protect mice against a highly lethal challenge dose of the homologous serovar and determined protection against other group B and D serovars circulating in sub-Saharan Africa. The vaccines S. Typhimurium CVD 1931 and S. Enteritidis CVD 1944 were immunogenic and protected BALB/c mice against 10,000 50% lethal doses (LD50) of S. Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis, respectively. S. Typhimurium CVD 1931 protected mice against the group B serovar Salmonella enterica serovar Stanleyville (91% vaccine efficacy), and S. Enteritidis CVD 1944 protected mice against the group D serovar Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin (85% vaccine efficacy). High rates of survival were observed when mice were infected 12 weeks postimmunization, indicating that the vaccines elicited long-lived protective immunity. Whereas CVD 1931 did not protect against S. Enteritidis R11, CVD 1944 did mediate protection against S. Typhimurium D65 (81% efficacy). These findings suggest that a bivalent (S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis) vaccine would provide broad protection against the majority of invasive NTS infections in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26351285

  13. Survival of Salmonella enterica on soybean sprouts following treatments with gaseous chlorine dioxide and biocontrol Pseudomonas bacteria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Control of Salmonella enterica on sprouts and minimally processed, ready-to-eat fruits and vegetables is important for food and consumer safety. The aim of this research was to assess the effects of gaseous chlorine dioxide(ClO2)and biocontrol microorganisms (Pseudomonas chlororaphis and P. fluoresc...

  14. Beta-glucan plus ascorbic acid in neonatal calves modulates immune functions with and without Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Calves often succumb to Salmonella enterica, Dublin after maternal antibody protection has abated. Enhancement of innate immunity or earlier maturation of adaptive immunity to support vaccinations with dietary immune modulators may be the best option for protection during this vulnerable period. I...

  15. Combining essential oils and olive extract for control of multi-drug resistant Salmonella enterica on organic leafy greens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We investigated the combined antimicrobial effects of plant essential oils and olive extract against antibiotic resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Newport on organic leafy greens. Organic baby spinach, mature spinach, romaine lettuce, and iceberg lettuce were inoculated with S. Newport and dip-t...

  16. Intergenic Sequence Ribotyping using a region neighboring dkgB links genovar to Kauffman-White serotype of Salmonella enterica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thirty six (36) unique sequences which varied in length from 258bp to 530bp were found for Salmonella enterica strains and isolates that are not present in public databases following BLAST analysis searches for similarity. The sequences were found by application of Intergenic Sequence Ribotyping (IS...

  17. Correlating Blood Immune Parameters and a CCT7 Genetic Variant with the Shedding of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Swine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the current study, 40 crossbred pigs were intranasally inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and monitored for Salmonella fecal shedding and blood immune parameters at 2, 7, 14 and 20 days post-inoculation (dpi). Using a multivariate permutation test, a positive correlation was...

  18. Comparison of dkgB-linked Intergenic Sequence Ribotyping to DNA Microarray Hydridization for Assigning Serotype to Salmonella Enterica.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Kauffman-White scheme has been used for decades to serotype Salmonella enterica, which is a pervasive and persistent cause of food-borne illness. Analysis of whole genomes of the bacterium has revealed that it is unlikely that the Kauffman-White scheme provides the level of discrimination requir...

  19. Typing and characterization of ColE1-like plasmids conferring kanamycin resistance in Salmonella enterica serotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Multi-antibiotic resistant Salmonella enterica serotypes are increasing in prevalence and concern in human and animal health. Many strains carry resistance determinants on plasmids; current practices focus heavily on large plasmids and the role small plasmids play in resistance gene tra...

  20. Motility revertants of opgGH mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium remain defective in mice virulence

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We recently demonstrated that osmoregulated periplasmic glucans (OPGs) of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium are required for optimal mouse virulence (Bhagwat et al., 2009. Microbiology 155:229-237). However, lack of OPGs also generated pleiotropic phenotypes such as reduced motility and slower...

  1. Characterization of Salmonella enterica strains isolated from beef trim contamination-biofilm formation, antimcrobial resistance, and sanitizer tolerance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the beef industry, product contamination by Salmonella enterica is a serious public health concern, which may result in human infection and illness, as well as cause significant financial loss due to product recalls. Currently, the precise mechanism and pathogen source responsible for Salmonella...

  2. Tetracycline accelerates the temporally-regulated invasion response in specific isolates of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella is associated with increased morbidity compared to antibiotic-sensitive strains and is an important health and safety concern in both humans and animals. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a prevalent cause of foodborne disease, and a consider...

  3. Comparison of Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg Isolates from Human Patients with Those from Animal and Food Sources▿†

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jing; David, Donna E.; Deck, Joanna; Lynne, Aaron M.; Kaldhone, Pravin; Nayak, Rajesh; Stefanova, Rossina; Foley, Steven L.

    2011-01-01

    Seventy-eight Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg isolates from humans were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, resistance genes, and plasmids and genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Most (88%) contained plasmids, and 47% were resistant to antimicrobials. The overall results were compared to those of previous S. Heidelberg studies of food- and animal-related sources, and multiple similarities were observed. PMID:21177888

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacteriophage MA12, Which Infects both Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sunjin; Kwon, Taesoo; Chae, Su-Jin; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kang, Yeon Ho; Chung, Gyung Tae

    2016-01-01

    Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) bacteriophage MA12, a 41-Kb chromosome. The strain can infect both Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and S. Enteritidis and can be used in phage therapy experiments with poultry and poultry meat. PMID:27932636

  5. Selective enrichment media bias the types of salmonella enterica strains isolated from mixed strain cultures and complex enrichment broths

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For foodborne outbreak investigations it can be difficult to isolate the relevant strain from food and/or environmental sources. If the sample is contaminated by more than one strain of the organism the relevant strain might be missed. In this study mixed cultures of Salmonella enterica were grown...

  6. Antimicrobial activity of apple, hibiscus, olive, and hydrogen peroxide formulations against Salmonella enterica on organic leafy greens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica is one of the most common bacterial pathogens involved in foodborne outbreaks with fresh produce in the last decade. In an effort to discover safe antimicrobials for use on fresh produce, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different antimicro...

  7. Population genetics of multi-drug resistant (MDR) IncA/C plasmid in Salmonella enterica isolated from animals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Food animals harboring Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica are a potential source for acquisition of zoonotic pathogens. Plasmids (small, self-replicating, extra-chromosomal DNA) are often associated with antimicrobial resistance and plasmids carrying MDR genes have been found to be a maj...

  8. Clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Agona producing NDM-1 metallo-β-lactamase: first report from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Irfan, Seema; Khan, Erum; Jabeen, Kauser; Bhawan, Pushpa; Hopkins, Katie L; Day, Martin; Nasir, Amna; Meunier, Daniele; Woodford, Neil

    2015-01-01

    We report two cases of infantile diarrhea due to multidrug-resistant, NDM-1 metallo-β-lactamase-producing Salmonella enterica serovar Agona from Pakistan. This study alerts toward possible risk of NDM-1 transmission to enteric fever pathogens and encourages microbiologists to consider active screening of carbapenem resistance in nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates.

  9. Survival and Heat Resistance of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Peanut Butter ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    He, Yingshu; Guo, Dongjing; Yang, Jingyun; Tortorello, Mary Lou; Zhang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between the survival rates of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in peanut butter with different formulations and water activity. High carbohydrate content in peanut butter and low incubation temperature resulted in higher levels of bacterial survival during storage but lower levels of bacterial resistance to heat treatment. PMID:21965404

  10. Salmonella enterica Typhimurium infection causes metabolic changes in chicken muscle involving AMPK, fatty acid and insulin/mTOR signaling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) infection of chickens more than a few days old results in asymptomatic cecal colonization with persistent shedding of bacteria. We hypothesized that while the bacteria colonize and persist locally in the cecum, it has systemic effects influencing the phy...

  11. Identification of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium isolates that have an antibiotic-induced invasion phenotype

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella is an important food safety issue in humans and animals. The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) has reported that 27.3% of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium isolates in humans were resistant to three or more classes of antibiotics...

  12. Differences in the motility phenotype of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium exposed to various antibiotics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is one of the most prevalent foodborne-associated bacteria in humans and livestock, and over 35 per cent of these isolates are resistant to three or more antibiotics. This is a concern as multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella has been associat...

  13. Molecular profiling: Catecholamine modulation of gene expression in Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Investigations of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium have demonstrated that these bacterial pathogens can respond to the presence of catecholamines including norepinephrine and/or epinephrine in their environment by modulating gene expression and exhibiting various ...

  14. Evolutionary trends associated with niche specialization as modeled by whole genome analysis of egg-contaminating Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mosaic nature of the Salmonella enterica genome facilitates its access to multiple environments. Many large scale genomic events have been described that contribute to the combinatorial complexity of the pathogenic Salmonellae. However, the impact of small scale genetic change occurring at the ...

  15. Draft Genome Sequences of Salmonella enterica Isolates Containing Incompatibility Group I1 Plasmids from Swine, Poultry, and Human Sources.

    PubMed

    Kaldhone, Pravin R; Khajanchi, Bijay K; Han, Jing; Nayak, Rajesh; Ricke, Steven C; Foley, Steven L

    2017-09-28

    The draft genome sequences of eight Salmonella enterica isolates from various sources were evaluated for the influence of incompatibility group I1 (IncI1) plasmids on virulence. Strains SE142, SE143, SE144, and SE146 originated from swine, SE36N and SE89N from poultry-related sources, and SE991 and SE1148 from human patients.

  16. High-throughput Molecular Determination of Salmonella enterica Serovars Use of Multiplex PCR and Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica is a zoonotic pathogen and is a leading cause of food-borne illness worldwide. There are over 2,500 serotypes of Salmonella reported. Identification of the serotype is key in defining the etiological agent during an outbreak investigation. In the current study, a high-throughput ...

  17. Effect of direct-fed microbial supplementation on the presence of Salmonella enterica in bovine peripheral lymph nodes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Bovine peripheral lymph nodes (LN) contained within adipose trim, have been identified as a potential source of human exposure to Salmonella enterica, when incorporated into ground beef. How Salmonella gain entry to peripheral LN is a question yet to be answered, however recent survey...

  18. Transcriptomic analysis of swarm motility phenotype of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mutant defective in periplasmic glucan synthesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Movement of food-borne pathogens on moist surfaces enables them to migrate towards more favorable niches and facilitate their survival for extended periods of time. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mutants defective in OPG synthesis are unable to exhibit motility on moist surfaces (swarming) ...

  19. Mobilization properties of small ColE1-like plasmids carrying kanamycin resistance gene isolated from Salmonella enterica serotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Previously we isolated and characterized various groups of small kanamycin resistance (KanR) ColE1-like plasmids from different serotypes of Salmonella enterica isolates. These plasmids all carried the aph(3)-I gene encoding the aminoglycoside phosphotransferase responsible for the kanam...

  20. Draft Genome Sequences of 40 Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strains Isolated from Humans and Food in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Fernanda; Medeiros, Marta Inês Cazentini; Rodrigues, Dália Prazeres; Payne, Justin; Timme, Ruth E; Allard, Marc W; Falcão, Juliana Pfrimer

    2016-09-22

    Salmonellosis is an important health problem worldwide and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is one of the most common isolated serovars. Here, we reported the draft genomes of 40 S Typhimurium strains isolated from humans and food in Brazil. These draft genomes will improve phylogenetic analysis and will help enhance our understanding of strains of this serovar isolated in Brazil.

  1. Critical role of glycogen synthase kinase-3ß in regulating the avian heterophil response to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A microarray-assisted gene expression screen of chicken heterophils revealed glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK-3ß), a multifunctional Ser/Thr kinase, to be consistently up-regulated 30-180 min following stimulation with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis). The present study was ...

  2. Inactivation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and quality maintenance of cherry tomatoes treated with gaseous essential oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils (EOs) from cinnamon bark, oregano, mustard and of their major components cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, and allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) were evaluated as a gaseous treatment to reduce Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in vitro and on tomatoes. In dif...

  3. Effect of chlorate, molybdate, and shikimic acid on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in aerobic and anaerobic cultures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chlorate is a bactericide that has potential as a pre-slaughter feed additive to improve food safety of meat products. The aims of the present study were to examine the effects of chlorate (5mM), molybdate (1 mM), and shikimate (0.34 mM) on the growth and chlorate-resistance of Salmonella enterica ...

  4. Intergenic Sequence Ribotyping using a region neighboring dkgB links genovar to Kauffman-White serotype of Salmonella enterica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous research identified that the 5S ribosomal (rrn) gene and associated flanking sequences that are closely linked to the dkgB gene of Salmonella enterica were highly variable between serotypes, but not between subpopulations within the same serotype (PMID: 17005008). The degree of variability ...

  5. Characterization of Salmonella enterica isolates from turkeys in commercial processing plants for resistance to antibiotics, disinfectants, and a growth promoter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from turkeys in commercial processing plants were characterized for susceptibility to antibiotics, disinfectants, disinfectant components, and the organoarsenical growth promotant 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsonic acid (3-NHPAA) and its metabolites NaAsO2 (As[III])...

  6. Serotypes of Salmonella enterica Present in the Internal Organs of Mice Caught On-farm From 1995 – 1998.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    : Salmonella enterica is a persistent and pervasive pathogen that impacts the safety of the food supply, especially in regards to poultry and poultry products. The house mouse Mus musculus is a recognized risk factor for introduction on-farm. More information is needed about Salmonella serotypes tha...

  7. Dose-dependent effects on survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in house flies (Musca domestica L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adult house flies ingest variable numbers of bacteria when they encounter microbe-rich substrates. Bacterial abundance may affect survival within the fly gut, which subsequently impacts vector potential. This study investigated the dose-dependent survival of GFP-expressing Salmonella enterica serova...

  8. DNA Adenine Methylation Regulates Virulence Gene Expression in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium▿

    PubMed Central

    Balbontín, Roberto; Rowley, Gary; Pucciarelli, M. Graciela; López-Garrido, Javier; Wormstone, Yvette; Lucchini, Sacha; García-del Portillo, Francisco; Hinton, Jay C. D.; Casadesús, Josep

    2006-01-01

    Transcriptomic analyses during growth in Luria-Bertani medium were performed in strain SL1344 of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and in two isogenic derivatives lacking Dam methylase. More genes were repressed than were activated by Dam methylation (139 versus 37). Key genes that were differentially regulated by Dam methylation were verified independently. The largest classes of Dam-repressed genes included genes belonging to the SOS regulon, as previously described in Escherichia coli, and genes of the SOS-inducible Salmonella prophages ST64B, Gifsy-1, and Fels-2. Dam-dependent virulence-related genes were also identified. Invasion genes in pathogenicity island SPI-1 were activated by Dam methylation, while the fimbrial operon std was repressed by Dam methylation. Certain flagellar genes were repressed by Dam methylation, and Dam− mutants of S. enterica showed reduced motility. Altered expression patterns in the absence of Dam methylation were also found for the chemotaxis genes cheR (repressed by Dam) and STM3216 (activated by Dam) and for the Braun lipoprotein gene, lppB (activated by Dam). The requirement for DNA adenine methylation in the regulation of specific virulence genes suggests that certain defects of Salmonella Dam− mutants in the mouse model may be caused by altered patterns of gene expression. PMID:16997949

  9. Genomic Comparison of the Closely-Related Salmonella enterica Serovars Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, T. David; Schmieder, Robert; Silva, Genivaldo G. Z.; Busch, Julia; Cassman, Noriko; Dutilh, Bas E.; Green, Dawn; Matlock, Brian; Heffernan, Brian; Olsen, Gary J.; Farris Hanna, Leigh; Schifferli, Dieter M.; Maloy, Stanley; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A.; Edwards, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    The Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Dublin, and Gallinarum are closely related but differ in virulence and host range. To identify the genetic elements responsible for these differences and to better understand how these serovars are evolving, we sequenced the genomes of Enteritidis strain LK5 and Dublin strain SARB12 and compared these genomes to the publicly available Enteritidis P125109, Dublin CT 02021853 and Dublin SD3246 genome sequences. We also compared the publicly available Gallinarum genome sequences from biotype Gallinarum 287/91 and Pullorum RKS5078. Using bioinformatic approaches, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions, deletions, and differences in prophage and pseudogene content between strains belonging to the same serovar. Through our analysis we also identified several prophage cargo genes and pseudogenes that affect virulence and may contribute to a host-specific, systemic lifestyle. These results strongly argue that the Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum serovars of Salmonella enterica evolve by acquiring new genes through horizontal gene transfer, followed by the formation of pseudogenes. The loss of genes necessary for a gastrointestinal lifestyle ultimately leads to a systemic lifestyle and niche exclusion in the host-specific serovars. PMID:26039056

  10. Genomic Comparison of the Closely-Related Salmonella enterica Serovars Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum.

    PubMed

    Matthews, T David; Schmieder, Robert; Silva, Genivaldo G Z; Busch, Julia; Cassman, Noriko; Dutilh, Bas E; Green, Dawn; Matlock, Brian; Heffernan, Brian; Olsen, Gary J; Farris Hanna, Leigh; Schifferli, Dieter M; Maloy, Stanley; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Edwards, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    The Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Dublin, and Gallinarum are closely related but differ in virulence and host range. To identify the genetic elements responsible for these differences and to better understand how these serovars are evolving, we sequenced the genomes of Enteritidis strain LK5 and Dublin strain SARB12 and compared these genomes to the publicly available Enteritidis P125109, Dublin CT 02021853 and Dublin SD3246 genome sequences. We also compared the publicly available Gallinarum genome sequences from biotype Gallinarum 287/91 and Pullorum RKS5078. Using bioinformatic approaches, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions, deletions, and differences in prophage and pseudogene content between strains belonging to the same serovar. Through our analysis we also identified several prophage cargo genes and pseudogenes that affect virulence and may contribute to a host-specific, systemic lifestyle. These results strongly argue that the Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum serovars of Salmonella enterica evolve by acquiring new genes through horizontal gene transfer, followed by the formation of pseudogenes. The loss of genes necessary for a gastrointestinal lifestyle ultimately leads to a systemic lifestyle and niche exclusion in the host-specific serovars.

  11. Diverse distribution of Toxin-Antitoxin II systems in Salmonella enterica serovars

    PubMed Central

    Di Cesare, Andrea; Losasso, Carmen; Barco, Lisa; Eckert, Ester M.; Conficoni, Daniele; Sarasini, Giulia; Corno, Gianluca; Ricci, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Type II Toxin-Antitoxin systems (TAs), known for their presence in virulent and antibiotic resistant bacterial strains, were recently identified in Salmonella enterica isolates. However, the relationships between the presence of TAs (ccdAB and vapBC) and the epidemiological and genetic features of different non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars are largely unknown, reducing our understanding of the ecological success of different serovars. Salmonella enterica isolates from different sources, belonging to different serovars and epidemiologically unrelated according to ERIC profiles, were investigated for the presence of type II TAs, plasmid content, and antibiotic resistance. The results showed the ubiquitous presence of the vapBC gene in all the investigated Salmonella isolates, but a diverse distribution of ccdAB, which was detected in the most widespread Salmonella serovars, only. Analysis of the plasmid toxin ccdB translated sequence of four selected Salmonella isolates showed the presence of the amino acid substitution R99W, known to impede in vitro the lethal effect of CcdB toxin in the absence of its cognate antitoxin CcdA. These findings suggest a direct role of the TAs in promoting adaptability and persistence of the most prevalent Salmonella serovars, thus implying a wider eco-physiological role for these type II TAs. PMID:27357537

  12. Genomic comparison of the closely-related Salmonella enterica serovars enteritidis, dublin and gallinarum

    DOE PAGES

    Matthews, T. David; Schmieder, Robert; Silva, Genivaldo G. Z.; ...

    2015-06-03

    The Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Dublin, and Gallinarum are closely related but differ in virulence and host range. To identify the genetic elements responsible for these differences and to better understand how these serovars are evolving, we sequenced the genomes of Enteritidis strain LK5 and Dublin strain SARB12 and compared these genomes to the publicly available Enteritidis P125109, Dublin CT 02021853 and Dublin SD3246 genome sequences. We also compared the publicly available Gallinarum genome sequences from biotype Gallinarum 287/91 and Pullorum RKS5078. Using bioinformatic approaches, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions, deletions, and differences in prophage and pseudogene content betweenmore » strains belonging to the same serovar. Through our analysis we also identified several prophage cargo genes and pseudogenes that affect virulence and may contribute to a host-specific, systemic lifestyle. These results strongly argue that the Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum serovars of Salmonella enterica evolve by acquiring new genes through horizontal gene transfer, followed by the formation of pseudogenes. As a result, the loss of genes necessary for a gastrointestinal lifestyle ultimately leads to a systemic lifestyle and niche exclusion in the host-specific serovars.« less

  13. Assessment of antibiotic resistance phenotype and integrons in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolated from swine.

    PubMed

    Rayamajhi, Nabin; Kang, Sang Gyun; Kang, Mi Lan; Lee, Hee Soo; Park, Kyung Yoon; Yoo, Han Sang

    2008-10-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) isolated and identified from swine were subjected for the analysis of antibiotic resistance pattern and clinically important class 1 and 2 integrons. In addition, S. Typhimurium isolates exhibiting ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline and florfenicol (ACSSuTF) resistance pattern as described in most Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium definitive type 104 (DT104) were characterized by polymerase chain reaction. All the isolates were resistant to more than four antibiotics and showed the highest resistance to streptomycin (94.1%), followed by tetracycline (90.1%), ampicillin (64.7%), chloramphenicol (56.8%) and gentamicin (54.9%). MIC value for the ten isolates ranged between 0.125-2 mug/ml for ciprofloxacin. Among the beta-lactams used, only one of the isolate exhibited resistance to ceftiofur (MIC 8 microg/ml). Sixty eight percent of these multi drug resistance (MDR) S. Typhimurium isolates carried clinically important class 1 integron with 1kb (aadA) and/or 2kb (dhfrXII-orfF-aadA2) resistance gene cassettes. This study reports the increasing trend of multi drug resistance (MDR) S. Typhimurium with clinically important class 1 integron in pigs. In addition, emergence of the ACSSuTF-type resistance in S. Typhimurium PT other than DT104 may limit the use of resistance gene markers in its detection methods by PCR.

  14. Isolation and plasmid characterization of carbapenemase (IMP-4) producing Salmonella enterica Typhimurium from cats

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Sam; O’Dea, Mark; Trott, Darren J.; Abraham, Rebecca J.; Hughes, David; Pang, Stanley; McKew, Genevieve; Cheong, Elaine Y. L.; Merlino, John; Saputra, Sugiyono; Malik, Richard; Gottlieb, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are a pressing public health issue due to limited therapeutic options to treat such infections. CREs have been predominantly isolated from humans and environmental samples and they are rarely reported among companion animals. In this study we report on the isolation and plasmid characterization of carbapenemase (IMP-4) producing Salmonella enterica Typhimurium from a companion animal. Carbapenemase-producing S. enterica Typhimurium carrying blaIMP-4 was identified from a systemically unwell (index) cat and three additional cats at an animal shelter. All isolates were identical and belonged to ST19. Genome sequencing revealed the acquisition of a multidrug-resistant IncHI2 plasmid (pIMP4-SEM1) that encoded resistance to nine antimicrobial classes including carbapenems and carried the blaIMP-4-qacG-aacA4-catB3 cassette array. The plasmid also encoded resistance to arsenic (MIC-150 mM). Comparative analysis revealed that the plasmid pIMP4-SEM1 showed greatest similarity to two blaIMP-8 carrying IncHI2 plasmids from Enterobacter spp. isolated from humans in China. This is the first report of CRE carrying a blaIMP-4 gene causing a clinical infection in a companion animal, with presumed nosocomial spread. This study illustrates the broader community risk entailed in escalating CRE transmission within a zoonotic species such as Salmonella, and in a cycle that encompasses humans, animals and the environment. PMID:27767038

  15. Isolation and plasmid characterization of carbapenemase (IMP-4) producing Salmonella enterica Typhimurium from cats.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Sam; O'Dea, Mark; Trott, Darren J; Abraham, Rebecca J; Hughes, David; Pang, Stanley; McKew, Genevieve; Cheong, Elaine Y L; Merlino, John; Saputra, Sugiyono; Malik, Richard; Gottlieb, Thomas

    2016-10-21

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are a pressing public health issue due to limited therapeutic options to treat such infections. CREs have been predominantly isolated from humans and environmental samples and they are rarely reported among companion animals. In this study we report on the isolation and plasmid characterization of carbapenemase (IMP-4) producing Salmonella enterica Typhimurium from a companion animal. Carbapenemase-producing S. enterica Typhimurium carrying blaIMP-4 was identified from a systemically unwell (index) cat and three additional cats at an animal shelter. All isolates were identical and belonged to ST19. Genome sequencing revealed the acquisition of a multidrug-resistant IncHI2 plasmid (pIMP4-SEM1) that encoded resistance to nine antimicrobial classes including carbapenems and carried the blaIMP-4-qacG-aacA4-catB3 cassette array. The plasmid also encoded resistance to arsenic (MIC-150 mM). Comparative analysis revealed that the plasmid pIMP4-SEM1 showed greatest similarity to two blaIMP-8 carrying IncHI2 plasmids from Enterobacter spp. isolated from humans in China. This is the first report of CRE carrying a blaIMP-4 gene causing a clinical infection in a companion animal, with presumed nosocomial spread. This study illustrates the broader community risk entailed in escalating CRE transmission within a zoonotic species such as Salmonella, and in a cycle that encompasses humans, animals and the environment.

  16. Interaction between Host Cells and Septicemic Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Isolates from Pigs ▿

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Nadia; Corriveau, Jonathan; Letellier, Ann; Daigle, France; Lessard, Louise; Quessy, Sylvain

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an important pathogen in swine and is also a frequently reported zoonotic agent. The objective of this study was to characterize isolates of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium associated with septicemia in swine and to compare them to isolates recovered from clinically healthy pigs. We were particularly interested in comparing the two groups of isolates for their ability to adhere to and invade host cells, to be phagocytized and survive in monocyte cells, to induce apoptosis, and to adhere to intestinal mucus. Their surface properties were also evaluated by interactions with solvents. The isolates recovered from diseased animals were shown to invade intestinal epithelial cell lines at a higher rate (P = 0.003) than isolates from healthy pigs. Septicemic isolates were phagocytized by human monocytes at a higher rate than isolates from healthy pigs (P = 0.009). The mean percentages of phagocytosis were significantly lower for human monocytes than for porcine monocytes (P = 0.02 and P = 0.008, respectively) for isolates from both diseased and healthy animals. Healthy animal isolates were phagocytized more by porcine monocytes at 15 min (P = 0.02) than septicemic isolates. No difference between isolates from septicemic pigs and isolates from healthy pigs was detected for other tested parameters. These results suggest that septicemic isolates have a particular pattern of invasion. PMID:19710281

  17. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi impairs CD4 T cell responses by reducing antigen availability.

    PubMed

    Atif, Shaikh M; Winter, Sebastian E; Winter, Maria G; McSorley, Stephen J; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2014-06-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is associated with a disseminated febrile illness in humans, termed typhoid fever, while Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes localized gastroenteritis in immunocompetent individuals. One of the genetic differences between both pathogens is the presence in S. Typhi of TviA, a regulatory protein that shuts down flagellin (FliC) expression when bacteria transit from the intestinal lumen into the intestinal mucosa. Here we investigated the consequences of TviA-mediated flagellum gene regulation on flagellin-specific CD4 T cell responses in a mouse model of S. Typhimurium infection. Introduction of the S. Typhi tviA gene into S. Typhimurium suppressed antigen presentation of dendritic cells to flagellin-specific CD4 T cells in vitro. Furthermore, TviA-mediated repression of flagellin expression impaired the activation and proliferation of naive flagellin-specific CD4 T cells in Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes, which was accompanied by increased bacterial dissemination to the spleen. We conclude that TviA-mediated repression of flagellin expression reduces antigen availability, thereby weakening flagellin-specific CD4 T cell responses.

  18. Salmonella enterica prevalence in leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in St. Kitts, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Clayton S; Revan, Floyd; Wang, Chengming; Xu, Chuanling; Norton, Terry M; Stewart, Kimberly M; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Soto, Esteban

    2013-09-01

    Salmonella spp. are gram-negative bacteria capable of causing diseases in a wide range of aquatic and terrestrial animals, including humans. Sea and terrestrial turtles have been recognized as carriers of this zoonotic pathogen. In this project, conventional and molecular diagnostic methods were combined to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella enterica in leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) that used the island of St. Kitts, West Indies as a nesting ground during 2011 (n = 21). Isolates obtained from selective media were screened and colonies suspected of being Salmonella spp. were confirmed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence of S. enterica within this sample population during this period was found to be 14.2%. Moreover, due to the increasing risk of antibiotic resistance in enteric bacteria, antimicrobial susceptibility was investigated in all recovered Salmonella spp. isolates utilizing the broth microdilution method. All isolates were susceptible to the lowest concentration of kanamycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole tested. Further research should be pursued to understand the interaction of this bacterial pathogen with the environment, host, and other microbial communities, and to further develop faster, more sensitive, and more specific diagnostic methods.

  19. Temperature-Sensitive Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis PT13a Expressing Essential Proteins of Psychrophilic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Duplantis, Barry N.; Puckett, Stephanie M.; Rosey, Everett L.; Ameiss, Keith A.; Hartman, Angela D.; Pearce, Stephanie C.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic genes based on deduced amino acid sequences of the NAD-dependent DNA ligase (ligA) and CTP synthetase (pyrG) of psychrophilic bacteria were substituted for their native homologues in the genome of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 13a (PT13a). The resulting strains were rendered temperature sensitive (TS) and did not revert to temperature resistance at a detectable level. At permissive temperatures, TS strains grew like the parental strain in broth medium and in macrophage-like cells, but their growth was slowed or stopped when they were shifted to a restrictive temperature. When injected into BALB/c mice at the base of the tail, representing a cool site of the body, the strains with restrictive temperatures of 37, 38.5, and 39°C persisted for less than 1 day, 4 to 7 days, and 20 to 28 days, respectively. The wild-type strain persisted at the site of inoculation for at least 28 days. The wild-type strain, but not the TS strains, was also found in spleen-plus-liver homogenates within 1 day of inoculation of the tail and was detectable in these organs for at least 28 days. Intramuscular vaccination of White Leghorn chickens with the PT13a strain carrying the psychrophilic pyrG gene provided some protection against colonization of the reproductive tract and induced an anti-S. enterica antibody response. PMID:26187965

  20. Population dynamics of Salmonella enterica serotypes in commercial egg and poultry production.

    PubMed

    Foley, Steven L; Nayak, Rajesh; Hanning, Irene B; Johnson, Timothy J; Han, Jing; Ricke, Steven C

    2011-07-01

    Fresh and processed poultry have been frequently implicated in cases of human salmonellosis. Furthermore, increased consumption of meat and poultry has increased the potential for exposure to Salmonella enterica. While advances have been made in reducing the prevalence and frequency of Salmonella contamination in processed poultry, there is mounting pressure on commercial growers to prevent and/or eliminate these human pathogens in preharvest production facilities. Several factors contribute to Salmonella colonization in commercial poultry, including the serovar and the infectious dose. In the early 1900s, Salmonella enterica serovars Pullorum and Gallinarum caused widespread diseases in poultry, but vaccination and other voluntary programs helped eradicate pullorum disease and fowl typhoid from commercial flocks. However, the niche created by the eradication of these serovars was likely filled by S. Enteritidis, which proliferated in the bird populations. While this pathogen remains a significant problem in commercial egg and poultry production, its prevalence among poultry has been declining since the 1990s. Coinciding with the decrease of S. Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg and S. Kentucky have emerged as the predominant serovars in commercial broilers. In this review, we have highlighted bacterial genetic and host-related factors that may contribute to such shifts in Salmonella populations in commercial poultry and intervention strategies that could limit their colonization.