Sample records for entering naltrexone treatment

  1. Risk-Taking Propensity as a Predictor of Induction onto Naltrexone Treatment for Opioid Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Aklin, Will M.; Severtson, S. Geoffrey; Umbricht, Annie; Fingerhood, Michael; Bigelow, George E.; Lejuez, C. W.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Objective Heroin addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder that has devastating social, medical, and economic consequences. Naltrexone is an antagonist that blocks opioid effects and could be an effective medication for the treatment of opioid dependence. However, its clinical utility has been limited partly because of poor adherence and acceptability. Given the importance of compliance to naltrexone treatment for opioid dependence, the goal of the current study was to examine predictors involved in successful induction onto naltrexone treatment. Method Parametric and nonparametric statistical tests were performed on data from a sample of 64 individuals entering treatment who met DSM-IV criteria for opioid dependence. The relationship between naltrexone induction (i.e., inducted- vs. not-inducted onto naltrexone) and risk-taking propensity, as indexed by riskiness on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) was examined. Participants were recruited from local detoxification programs, inpatient drug treatment, and other Baltimore programs that provided services to opioid dependent adults (e.g., Baltimore Needle Exchange Program) during the period from August 2007 to September 2008. Results Positive association between risk-taking propensity and odds of naltrexone induction. Specifically, each five point increase in the total BART score was associated with a 25% decrease in odds of naltrexone induction (OR=0.76, 95% CI: 0.58–0.99, p = .041). This association remained statistically significant even after adjusting for potential confounds, including injection drug use and cocaine positive urine results (p = .05). After adjusting for the covariates, each five point increase in BART score was associated with 28% decrease in the odds of achieving the maintenance dose (AOR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.54–0.99, p = .046). Conclusions Risk taking propensity was predictive of induction onto naltrexone treatment, above and beyond injection drug use and cocaine-positive urine samples. PMID

  2. Clonidine hydrochloride detoxification from methadone treatment--the value of naltrexone aftercare.

    PubMed

    Rawson, R A; Washton, A M; Resnick, R B; Tennant, F S

    1984-01-01

    Treatment outcomes were compared for 2 groups of subjects detoxified from methadone using clonidine. One group of 12 subjects was encouraged to continue in treatment with naltrexone, while the other 12 subjects did not have naltrexone treatment available. Results suggested that those subjects who had naltrexone available were more successful at completing the 10 day detoxification treatment and that the relapse rate at 30 days post-treatment was significantly reduced by naltrexone treatment.

  3. [Limited role of naltrexone in the treatment of opiate addiction].

    PubMed

    van Brussel, G H

    2001-07-28

    Naltrexone has been used for many years as an opiate antagonist for maintenance treatment to prevent relapse in opiate addiction and, more recently, for rapid opiate detoxification with and without general anaesthesia. Naltrexone is useful for rapid detoxification without anaesthesia. However, the detoxification procedure under anaesthesia lacks a scientific basis. There is no clear evidence of the efficacy of naltrexone maintenance treatment. Poor compliance and possible receptor sensitisation means there may be a potentially increased risk of mortality through opiate overdose following cessation of naltrexone treatment and relapse into addiction.

  4. Treatment of Hailey-Hailey Disease With Low-Dose Naltrexone.

    PubMed

    Albers, Lauren N; Arbiser, Jack L; Feldman, Ron J

    2017-10-01

    Hailey-Hailey disease is a severe genetic blistering disease of intertriginous skin locations that can lead to poor quality of life and increased morbidities. Multiple therapies are available with inconsistent outcomes and potentially severe adverse effects. To determine whether low-dose naltrexone is an effective treatment for Hailey-Hailey disease. This study was a case series performed at a dermatology outpatient clinic of 3 patients with severe Hailey-Hailey disease recalcitrant to at least 4 therapies. Low-dose naltrexone, 3 mg nightly, titrated to 4.5 mg nightly in 2 patients. Reduction in size of lesions as well as subjective improvement of symptoms. All 3 patients noted significant healing of erosions and plaques starting from the peripheral aspect within 1 to 2 weeks of treatment, and clinical resolution of lesions within 2 months. Discontinuation of low-dose naltrexone resulted in flaring of symptoms, which cleared within 2 to 3 days on rechallenge with low-dose naltrexone. We present herein 3 cases of patients with severe Hailey-Hailey disease treated with low-dose naltrexone who achieved clinical resolution of symptoms. The success of these cases suggests low-dose naltrexone as a novel therapy for Hailey-Hailey disease. The possible mechanism may involve low-dose naltrexone influencing opioid or toll-like receptor signaling to improve calcium mobilization and improve keratinocyte differentiation and wound healing. Future studies are needed to clarify the mechanism and to define the role of low-dose naltrexone for treatment of Hailey-Hailey disease.

  5. Predictors for the efficacy of naltrexone treatment in alcohol dependence: sweet preference.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, E; Lahti, J; Sinclair, J D; Heinälä, P; Alho, H

    2011-01-01

    To analyse the possible associations between sweet preference and the efficacy of naltrexone treatment of alcohol dependence. The preference for different concentrations of sucrose was evaluated in 78 participants diagnosed with alcohol dependence after treatment for 32 weeks with naltrexone or placebo without prior detoxification. A significant difference between naltrexone and placebo groups was found in the association between the preference for higher sucrose concentrations and relapses to heavy drinking. Higher sweet preference was significantly related to successful treatment measures in the naltrexone group but not in the placebo group. Sweet preference has a strong correlation to treatment outcomes with naltrexone, and sweet preference might be used as a predictor for better treatment results in alcoholics. Our study offers one possible new explanation of the clinical observation that naltrexone is not effective for every patient.

  6. Naltrexone implant treatment for buprenorphine dependence--Mauritian case series.

    PubMed

    Jhugroo, Anil; Ellayah, Darmen; Norman, Amanda; Hulse, Gary

    2014-08-01

    Although substitution therapy with opiate agonist treatments such as methadone and buprenorphine has resulted in a reduction of illicit drug use related harm, such treatment has also resulted in severe problems in some countries where opioid-dependent individuals now inject illicitly sold buprenorphine or buprenorphine-naloxone instead of heroin. There is no approved treatment for buprenorphine dependence. Naltrexone is an opioid antagonist which has been used for the treatment of both alcohol and opioid dependencies. Although both buprenorphine and heroin resemble each other concerning their effects, buprenorphine has a higher affinity to opioid receptors than heroin. Therefore, it is not known if naltrexone can block the psychoactive effects of buprenorphine as it does for heroin. This paper presents observational case series data on the use of a sustained-release naltrexone implant for the treatment of buprenorphine dependence. To the authors' knowledge this is the first use of sustained-release naltrexone for this indication. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Naltrexone for the treatment of comorbid tobacco and pornography addiction.

    PubMed

    Capurso, Noah A

    2017-03-01

    Co-occurring addictive disorders are common, however treatment strategies for this population have not been extensively studied. This is especially the case for behavioral addictions. We present a patient (N = 1) with tobacco use disorder and problematic pornography use treated with naltrexone. Naltrexone treatment resulted in a decrease in pornography viewing and cigarette smoking, however had the adverse effect of anhedonia. A lower dose modestly impacted pornography viewing but not smoking. Relevant literature regarding co-occurring addictions as well as use of naltrexone is reviewed. This report represents the first case of tobacco and pornography co-addiction in the literature and supports the assertion that treatment of one addictive disorder can benefit another in the dually addicted patient. The efficacy of naltrexone for smoking is notable as previous studies of naltrexone in smoking have been disappointing. This case suggests future treatment strategies for comorbid addictions. (Am J Addict 2017;26:115-117). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  8. Drug safety evaluation of naltrexone/bupropion for the treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Verpeut, Jessica L; Bello, Nicholas T

    2014-06-01

    Obesity is a known health risk for the development of several preventable diseases. Obesity-related metabolic alterations negatively impact different physiological mechanisms, which supports the rationale for the use of combined drug therapy. Naltrexone is an opioid antagonist for the treatment of opioid and alcohol dependency, whereas bupropion is a norepinephrine/dopamine reuptake inhibitor used to treat depression and smoking cessation. Although not effective as individual monotherapies for obesity, naltrexone and bupropion in combination produce weight loss and a metabolic profile beneficial for the potential treatment of obesity. This review examines the safety and antiobesity effects of naltrexone and bupropion alone and in combination. It reviews the results of four Phase III clinical trials of a novel fixed dose of sustained-released naltrexone/bupropion. Naltrexone/bupropion has a greater weight loss efficacy than two FDA-approved medications, orlistat and lorcaserin. Although the weight loss produced by phentermine/topiramate is superior to naltrexone/bupropion, the safety profile of naltrexone/bupropion has less severe adverse effects. In addition, naltrexone/bupropion is well tolerated, with nausea being the most reported adverse event. Unlike other centrally acting medications, lorcaserin and phentermine/topiramate, naltrexone/bupropion has no abuse potential.

  9. Low Dose Naltrexone in the Treatment of Fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Metyas, Samy K; Yeter, Karen; Solyman, John; Arkfeld, Daniel

    2017-03-21

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain disorder characterized by diffuse musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance and cognitive impairment. A significant number of fibromyalgia patients do not respond adequately to the current drugs (pregabalin, milnacipran, duloxetine) approved for fibromyalgia treatment by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Thus, there is still a need for adjunctive therapies. Naltrexone is an opioid receptor antagonist used to treat alcohol and opioid dependence. It is hypothesized that low dose naltrexone causes transient blockade of opioid receptors centrally resulting in a rebound of endorphin function which may attenuate pain in fibromyalgia. Treatment with low dose naltrexone may be an effective, highly tolerable and inexpensive treatment for fibromyalgia. Further controlled trials are needed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Naltrexone in the treatment of adolescent sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Ryback, Ralph S

    2004-07-01

    Naltrexone is a long-acting opioid used clinically in alcoholism, drug abuse, bulimia nervosa, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and impulse-control disorders. This study investigated whether naltrexone can decrease sexual arousal in legally adjudicated adolescent sexual offenders. In an open-ended prospective study, naltrexone was given to 21 adolescents participating in an inpatient adolescent sexual offenders program who met any of the self-reported criteria of (1) masturbating 3 or more times per day, (2) feeling unable to control arousal, (3) spending more than 30% of awake time in sexual fantasies, or (4) having sexual fantasies or behavior that regularly intruded into and interfered with their functioning in the treatment program. After having been treated for more than 2 months, 13 patients had their naltrexone administratively stopped, thus providing a before, during, after, and resumption-of-treatment design. Behavioral changes were monitored daily with a fantasy-tracking log and a masturbation log. A positive result was recorded if there was more than a 30% decrease in any self-reported criterion that was applicable to each specific patient and this benefit lasted at least 4 months. Data were collected from July 2000 to December 2002. Leuprolide was given if naltrexone was not sufficiently helpful in controlling sexual impulses and arousal. Fifteen of 21 patients were considered to have a positive result and continued to respond for at least 4 months to an average dose of 160 mg per day with decreased sexual fantasies and masturbation. Dosages above 200 mg per day were not more helpful. Administrative discontinuation of naltrexone in a subset of 13 patients resulted in reoccurrence of symptoms that began when the dose taper reached 50 mg per day. There were no changes in clinical chemistries. Five of 6 patients who did not benefit from naltrexone responded favorably to leuprolide. Naltrexone at dosages of 100 to 200 mg per day provides a safe first step in

  11. Gender differences in treatment and clinical characteristics among patients receiving extended release naltrexone.

    PubMed

    Herbeck, Diane M; Jeter, Kira E; Cousins, Sarah J; Abdelmaksoud, Reham; Crèvecoeur-MacPhail, Desirée

    2016-01-01

    Further research is needed to investigate real-world acceptability of extended-release naltrexone for alcohol and opioid use disorders, and potential gender differences. This study examines treatment and clinical characteristics among men and women receiving extended-release naltrexone in a large, publicly funded substance use disorder treatment system (N = 465; 52% female). Patient demographics, treatment characteristics, and the number of extended-release naltrexone doses received were collected from administrative data and treatment program staff. Additionally, patients provided information on experiences with extended-release naltrexone in an open-ended format at 1, 2, and 3 weeks following their first injection. For a subsample of patients (N = 220), alcohol/opioid cravings and specific adverse effects were also assessed. Compared to men, women reported experiencing a higher rate and mean number of adverse effects. Overall, craving scores showed substantial reductions over time. However, among patients taking extended-release naltrexone for alcohol use, women showed a significantly greater reduction in craving scores compared to men. No gender differences were observed in the number of extended-release naltrexone doses received. Although women may have a greater need for additional support in managing early adverse effects, extended-release naltrexone as an adjunct to psychosocial treatment may be an acceptable and promising treatment approach for both men and women, and particularly for women prescribed extended-release naltrexone for alcohol use. This study contributes further information on patients' experiences during the early course of extended-release naltrexone treatment in real-world settings. Understanding these experiences may assist policy makers and treatment providers in addressing challenges of implementing this treatment into wider practice.

  12. [Low dose naltrexone in the treatment of dissociative symptoms].

    PubMed

    Pape, W; Wöller, W

    2015-03-01

    Following the hypothesis that blocking opioid receptors leads to a decline in opiate-modulated dissociative phenomena, experiences with naltrexone as medication for dissociative symptoms have been gained since 1999 (mainly in doses of 25-100 mg/day). In this study patients with severe trauma-related and dissociative disorders were treated with naltrexone in doses of 2-6 mg/day (0.06 mg/kg body weight). The low dose treatment with naltrexone proved to be effective whereby 11 out of 15 patients reported immediate positive effects and 7 described a lasting helpful effect. The majority of patients who felt positive effects reported a clearer perception of both their surroundings and their inner life. Assessment of reality and dealing with it improved as did the perception of their own body and affects as well as self-regulation. The treatment was very low in side effects. Treatment with low-dose naltrexone may be a helpful element in the treatment of patients with complex posttraumatic stress disorder. However, it has to be realized that the decrease of dissociation may lead patients to a not yet resolvable challenge, in as much as dissociation had previously been a necessary mechanism of self-protection.

  13. Naltrexone treatment for opioid dependence: Does its effectiveness depend on testing the blockade?

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Maria A.; Bisaga, Adam; Mariani, John J.; Glass, Andrew; Levin, Frances R.; Comer, Sandra D.; Nunes, Edward V.

    2013-01-01

    Background FDA approval of long-acting injectable naltrexone (Vivitrol) for opioid dependence highlights the relevance of understanding mechanisms of antagonist treatment. Principles of learning suggest an antagonist works through extinguishing drug-seeking behavior, as episodes of drug use (“testing the blockade”) fail to produce reinforcement. We hypothesized that opiate use would moderate the effect of naltrexone, specifically, that opiate-positive urines precede dropout in the placebo group, but not in the active-medication groups. Methods An 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (N=57), compared the efficacy of low (192-mg) and high (384-mg) doses of a long-acting injectable naltrexone (Depotrex) with placebo (Comer et al., 2006). A Cox proportional hazard model was fit, modeling time-to-dropout as a function of treatment assignment and urine toxicology during treatment. Results Interaction of opiate urines with treatment group was significant. Opiate-positive urines predicted dropout on placebo and low-dose, but less so on high-dose naltrexone, where positive urines were more likely followed by sustained abstinence. Among patients with no opiate-positive urines, retention was higher in both low- and high-dose naltrexone conditions, compared to placebo. Conclusions Findings confirm that injection naltrexone produces extinction of drug-seeking behavior after episodes of opiate use. Adequate dosage appears important, as low-dose naltrexone resembled the placebo group; opiate positive urines were likely to be followed by dropout from treatment. The observation of high treatment retention among naltrexone-treated patients who do not test the blockade, suggests naltrexone may also exert direct effects on opiate-taking behavior that do not depend on extinction, perhaps by attenuating craving or normalizing dysregulated hedonic or neuroendocrine systems. PMID:23827259

  14. Naltrexone treatment for opioid dependence: does its effectiveness depend on testing the blockade?

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Maria A; Bisaga, Adam; Mariani, John J; Glass, Andrew; Levin, Frances R; Comer, Sandra D; Nunes, Edward V

    2013-11-01

    FDA approval of long-acting injectable naltrexone (Vivitrol) for opioid dependence highlights the relevance of understanding mechanisms of antagonist treatment. Principles of learning suggest an antagonist works through extinguishing drug-seeking behavior, as episodes of drug use ("testing the blockade") fail to produce reinforcement. We hypothesized that opiate use would moderate the effect of naltrexone, specifically, that opiate-positive urines precede dropout in the placebo group, but not in the active-medication groups. An 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (N=57), compared the efficacy of low (192 mg) and high (384 mg) doses of a long-acting injectable naltrexone (Depotrex) with placebo (Comer et al., 2006). A Cox proportional hazard model was fit, modeling time-to-dropout as a function of treatment assignment and urine toxicology during treatment. Interaction of opiate urines with treatment group was significant. Opiate-positive urines predicted dropout on placebo and low-dose, but less so on high-dose naltrexone, where positive urines were more likely followed by sustained abstinence. Among patients with no opiate-positive urines, retention was higher in both low- and high-dose naltrexone conditions, compared to placebo. Findings confirm that injection naltrexone produces extinction of drug-seeking behavior after episodes of opiate use. Adequate dosage appears important, as low-dose naltrexone resembled the placebo group; opiate positive urines were likely to be followed by dropout from treatment. The observation of high treatment retention among naltrexone-treated patients who do not test the blockade, suggests naltrexone may also exert direct effects on opiate-taking behavior that do not depend on extinction, perhaps by attenuating craving or normalizing dysregulated hedonic or neuroendocrine systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of naltrexone treatment on the treadmill exercise-induced hormone release in amenorrheic women.

    PubMed

    Botticelli, G; Bacchi Modena, A; Bresciani, D; Villa, P; Aguzzoli, L; Florio, P; Nappi, R E; Petraglia, F; Genazzani, A R

    1992-12-01

    The effect of an acute physical stress on hormone secretions before and after a 10-day naltrexone treatment in untrained healthy and amenorrheic women was investigated. Plasma levels of pituitary (LH, FSH, prolactin, GH, ACTH, beta-endorphin) and adrenal (cortisol, androstenedione, testosterone) hormones were measured at rest and in response to 60 min of physical exercise. The test was done both before and after a 10-day naltrexone (50 mg/day) treatment. Graded levels of treadmill exercise (50, 70 and 90% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2) every 20 min) was used as physical stressor. While mean +/- SE plasma LH levels in control women were higher than in amenorrheic patients and increased following the naltrexone treatment (p < 0.01), no significant differences of basal plasma hormonal levels were observed between amenorrheic and eumenorrheic women, both before and after naltrexone treatment. Physical exercise at 90% VO2 induced a significant increase in plasma GH, ACTH, beta-endorphin, cortisol, androstenedione and testosterone levels in controls before naltrexone treatment (p < 0.01). The mean increase in plasma androstenedione and testosterone levels in control women was significantly higher after naltrexone treatment (p < 0.01). In amenorrheic patients before naltrexone, physical exercise induced an increase in plasma prolactin and GH levels, but not in plasma ACTH, beta-endorphin, cortisol, testosterone and androstenedione. After naltrexone treatment, the exercise induced a significant plasma ACTH, beta-endorphin and cortisol levels, while the increase of plasma prolactin levels was significantly higher than before treatment (p < 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Trial of Naltrexone and Dextromethorphan for Gulf War Veterans Illnesses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    W81XWH-09-2-0065 TITLE: Trial of Naltrexone and Dextromethorphan for Gulf War Veterans Illnesses PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: William J. Meggs, MD...2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Trial of Naltrexone and Dextromethorphan for Gulf War Veterans’ Illness 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-09...that many with Gulf War Illness could enter either the naltrexone or dextromethorphan arm but not both. We are applying to allow subjects to enter

  17. Naltrexone for the treatment of alcoholism: clinical findings, mechanisms of action, and pharmacogenetics.

    PubMed

    Ray, Lara A; Chin, Pauline F; Miotto, Karen

    2010-03-01

    Naltrexone is an opioid receptor antagonist with established efficacy, albeit moderate, for the treatment of alcohol dependence. This manuscript provides a critical review of the literature on naltrexone as a pharmacotherapy for alcoholism by covering the following areas: (a) clinical findings from treatment studies; (b) pharmacokinetics and safety data; (c) medication compliance and persistence; and (d) neurobiological and biobehavioral mechanisms of action of naltrexone for the indication of alcohol dependence. This review will then focus on the emerging literature on naltrexone pharmacogenetics, which has the potential to identify responders on the basis of genetic variation and to use genetic tools to individualize the use of this medication. Limitations and future directions in the research and practice of naltrexone for alcoholism are also outlined.

  18. Efficacy of Naltrexone for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence in Latino Populations.

    PubMed

    López, Cristina M; Barr, Simone C; Reid-Quiñones, Kathryn; de Arellano, Michael A

    2017-05-01

    Naltrexone has been identified as a promising psychopharmacological treatment for alcohol dependence. Previous studies have suggested that its efficacy may vary based on ethnic background. The current study examined the efficacy of naltrexone in the treatment of alcohol dependence in Latino adults, a previously unexplored population. This was a secondary analysis of the Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions for Alcohol Dependence (COMBINE) Study. The overall COMBINE sample consisted of 1,383 adult participants who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria for alcohol dependence, including 155 Latinos, who are the focus of this report. Consistent with the main trial, primary drinking outcomes, including percentage of days abstinent (PDA) and time to first heavy drinking day (TTHD), were examined. In addition, we examined the effects of naltrexone on a clinically relevant secondary outcome measure, global clinical outcome of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. As seen with the subsample of African Americans from the COMBINE Study, results of the present analysis indicated that there were no significant effects of naltrexone on PDA and TTHD despite these significant effects in the original study. However, contrary to findings in the African American subsample, for Latino participants naltrexone was a significant predictor of a good global clinical outcome (i.e., abstinence or moderate drinking without problems). Naltrexone was not significantly associated with improvements in the primary drinking outcomes of PDA or TTHD at the end of treatment or at follow-up. However, Latinos appeared to benefit from naltrexone as demonstrated by improved ratings of global clinical outcome. These results indicate mixed findings for the efficacy of naltrexone among Latinos in the COMBINE Study.

  19. Adoption of Injectable Naltrexone in U.S. Substance Use Disorder Treatment Programs

    PubMed Central

    Aletraris, Lydia; Edmond, Mary Bond; Roman, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Medication-assisted treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs) is not widely used in treatment programs. The aims of the current study were to document the prevalence of adoption and implementation of extended-release injectable naltrexone, the newest U.S. Food and Drug Administration–approved medication for alcohol use disorder (AUD), in U.S. treatment programs and to examine associations between organizational and patient characteristics and adoption. Method: The study used interview data from a nationally representative sample of 307 U.S. SUD treatment programs to examine adoption and implementation of injectable naltrexone. Results: Thirteen percent of programs used injectable naltrexone for AUD, and 3% of programs used it for opioid use disorder. Every treatment program that offered injectable naltrexone to its patients used it in conjunction with psychosocial treatment, particularly cognitive behavioral therapy. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that adoption was positively associated with the provision of wraparound services, the percentage of privately insured patients, and the presence of inpatient detoxification services. For-profit status and offering inpatient services were negatively associated with adoption. Within adopting programs, an average of 4.1% of AUD patients and 7.1% of patients with opioid use disorder were currently receiving the medication, despite clinical directors’ reports of positive patient outcomes, particularly for relapsers and for those who had been noncompliant with other medications. Cost was a significant issue for the majority of adopting organizations. Conclusions: The rate of adoption of injectable naltrexone in U.S. treatment programs remains limited. Researchers should continue to examine patient, organizational, and external characteristics associated with the adoption and implementation of injectable naltrexone over time. PMID:25486403

  20. Naltrexone versus acamprosate: one year follow-up of alcohol dependence treatment.

    PubMed

    Rubio, G; Jiménez-Arriero, M A; Ponce, G; Palomo, T

    2001-01-01

    Naltrexone and acamprosate reduce relapse in alcohol dependence. They have not yet been compared in a published trial. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of these compounds in conditions similar to those in routine clinical practice. Random allocation to a year of treatment with naltrexone (50 mg/day) or acamprosate (1665-1998 mg/day) was made in 157 recently detoxified alcohol-dependent men with moderate dependence (evaluated using the Addictions Severity Index and Severity of Alcohol Dependence Scale). All were patients whom a member of the family would accompany regularly to appointments. Alcohol consumption, craving and adverse events were recorded weekly for the first 3 months, and then bi-weekly, by the treating psychiatrist who was not blinded. At 3-monthly intervals, investigators who were blinded to the treatment documented patients' alcohol consumption based on patients' accounts, information given by the psychiatrists when necessary, and reports from patients' families. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) was also measured. Efforts were made to sustain the blindness of the investigators. The same investigator did not assess the same patient twice. The integrity of the blindness was not checked. There was no difference between treatments in mean time to first drink (naltrexone 44 days, acamprosate 39 days) but the time to first relapse (five or more drinks in a day) was 63 days (naltrexone) versus 42 days (acamprosate) (P = 0.02). At the end of 1 year, 41% receiving naltrexone and 17% receiving acamprosate had not relapsed (P = 0.0009). The cumulative number of days of abstinence was significantly greater, and the number of drinks consumed at one time and severity of craving were significantly less, in the naltrexone group compared to the acamprosate group, as was the percentage of heavy drinking days (P = 0.038). More patients in the acamprosate than the naltrexone group were commenced on disulfiram during the study. Naltrexone patients

  1. Naltrexone and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Baros, AM; Latham, PK; Anton, RF

    2008-01-01

    Background Sex differences in regards to pharmacotherapy for alcoholism is a topic of concern following publications suggesting naltrexone, one of the longest approved treatments of alcoholism, is not as effective in women as in men. This study was conducted by combining two randomized placebo controlled clinical trials utilizing similar methodologies and personnel in which the data was amalgamated to evaluate sex effects in a reasonable sized sample. Methods 211 alcoholics (57 female; 154 male) were randomized to the naltrexone/CBT or placebo/CBT arm of the two clinical trials analyzed. Baseline variables were examined for differences between sex and treatment groups via analysis of variance (ANOVA) for continuous variable or chi-square test for categorical variables. All initial outcome analysis was conducted under an intent-to-treat analysis plan. Effect sizes for naltrexone over placebo were determined by Cohen’s D (d). Results The effect size of naltrexone over placebo for the following outcome variables was similar in men and women (%days abstinent (PDA) d=0.36, %heavy drinking days (PHDD) d=0.36 and total standard drinks (TSD) d=0.36). Only for men were the differences significant secondary to the larger sample size (PDA p=0.03; PHDD p=0.03; TSD p=0.04). There were a few variables (GGT at wk-12 change from baseline to week-12: men d=0.36, p=0.05; women d=0.20, p=0.45 and drinks per drinking day: men d=0.36, p=0.05; women d=0.28, p=0.34) where the naltrexone effect size for men was greater than women. In women, naltrexone tended to increase continuous abstinent days before a first drink (women d-0.46, p=0.09; men d=0.00, p=0.44). Conclusions The effect size of naltrexone over placebo appeared similar in women and men in our hands suggesting the findings of sex differences in naltrexone response might have to do with sample size and/or endpoint drinking variables rather than any inherent pharmacological or biological differences in response. PMID:18336635

  2. Cost-effectiveness of buprenorphine and naltrexone treatments for heroin dependence in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah; Chawarski, Marek; Mazlan, Mahmud; Ng, Nora; Schottenfeld, Richard

    2012-01-01

    To aid public health policymaking, we studied the cost-effectiveness of buprenorphine, naltrexone, and placebo interventions for heroin dependence in Malaysia. We estimated the cost-effectiveness ratios of three treatments for heroin dependence. We used a microcosting methodology to determine fixed, variable, and societal costs of each intervention. Cost data were collected from investigators, staff, and project records on the number and type of resources used and unit costs; societal costs for participants' time were estimated using Malaysia's minimum wage. Costs were estimated from a provider and societal perspective and reported in 2004 US dollars. Muar, Malaysia. 126 patients enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Malaysia (2003-2005) receiving counseling and buprenorphine, naltrexone, or placebo for treatment of heroin dependence. Primary outcome measures included days in treatment, maximum consecutive days of heroin abstinence, days to first heroin use, and days to heroin relapse. Secondary outcome measures included treatment retention, injection drug use, illicit opiate use, AIDS Risk Inventory total score, and drug risk and sex risk subscores. Buprenorphine was more effective and more costly than naltrexone for all primary and most secondary outcomes. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were below $50 for primary outcomes, mostly below $350 for secondary outcomes. Naltrexone was dominated by placebo for all secondary outcomes at almost all endpoints. Incremental treatment costs were driven mainly by medication costs, especially the price of buprenorphine. Buprenorphine appears to be a cost-effective alternative to naltrexone that might enhance economic productivity and reduce drug use over a longer term.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness of Buprenorphine and Naltrexone Treatments for Heroin Dependence in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah; Chawarski, Marek; Mazlan, Mahmud; Ng, Nora; Schottenfeld, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Aims To aid public health policymaking, we studied the cost-effectiveness of buprenorphine, naltrexone, and placebo interventions for heroin dependence in Malaysia. Design We estimated the cost-effectiveness ratios of three treatments for heroin dependence. We used a microcosting methodology to determine fixed, variable, and societal costs of each intervention. Cost data were collected from investigators, staff, and project records on the number and type of resources used and unit costs; societal costs for participants’ time were estimated using Malaysia’s minimum wage. Costs were estimated from a provider and societal perspective and reported in 2004 US dollars. Setting Muar, Malaysia. Participants 126 patients enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Malaysia (2003–2005) receiving counseling and buprenorphine, naltrexone, or placebo for treatment of heroin dependence. Measurements Primary outcome measures included days in treatment, maximum consecutive days of heroin abstinence, days to first heroin use, and days to heroin relapse. Secondary outcome measures included treatment retention, injection drug use, illicit opiate use, AIDS Risk Inventory total score, and drug risk and sex risk subscores. Findings Buprenorphine was more effective and more costly than naltrexone for all primary and most secondary outcomes. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were below $50 for primary outcomes, mostly below $350 for secondary outcomes. Naltrexone was dominated by placebo for all secondary outcomes at almost all endpoints. Incremental treatment costs were driven mainly by medication costs, especially the price of buprenorphine. Conclusions Buprenorphine appears to be a cost-effective alternative to naltrexone that might enhance economic productivity and reduce drug use over a longer term. PMID:23226534

  4. Injectable, sustained-release naltrexone for the treatment of opioid dependence: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Comer, Sandra D.; Sullivan, Maria A.; Yu, Elmer; Rothenberg, Jami L.; Kleber, Herbert D.; Kampman, Kyle; Dackis, Charles; O'Brien, Charles P.; Chiang, C. Nora; Hawks, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Context Naltrexone is a medication available in oral form that can completely block the effects produced by opioid agonists, such as heroin. However, poor medication compliance with naltrexone has been a major obstacle to the effective treatment of opioid dependence. Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a sustained-release depot formulation of naltrexone in treating opioid dependence. Design, Setting, and Participants Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 8-week multi-center trial of male and female heroin-dependent patients who participated in the study between September 2000 and November 2003. Participants were stratified by years of heroin use (≥5, <4.9) and gender, and then randomized to receive one of three doses: placebo, 192 mg, or 384 mg depot naltrexone. Doses were administered at the beginning of Week 1 and then again four weeks later at the beginning of Week 5. All participants received twice-weekly relapse prevention therapy, provided observed urine samples, and completed other assessments at each visit. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcome measures were retention in treatment and percentage of opioid-negative urine samples. Results A total of 60 patients were randomized at two centers. Retention in treatment was dose related with 39%, 60%, and 68% of the patients in the placebo, naltrexone 192 mg, and naltrexone 384 mg groups, respectively, remaining in treatment at the end of the two-month treatment period. Analysis of the time to dropout revealed a significant main effect of dose with mean time to dropout of 27, 36, and 48 days, respectively, for the placebo, naltrexone 192 mg, and naltrexone 384 mg groups. The percentage of urine samples negative for opioids varied significantly as a function of dose, as did the percentage of urine samples negative for methadone, cocaine, benzodiazepines, and amphetamine. The percentage of urine samples negative for cannabinoids was not significantly different across groups. When the data were

  5. THE EFFECTS OF DRONABINOL DURING DETOXIFICATION AND THE INITIATION OF TREATMENT WITH EXTENDED RELEASE NALTREXONE

    PubMed Central

    Bisaga, Adam; Sullivan, Maria A.; Glass, Andrew; Mishlen, Kaitlyn; Pavlicova, Martina; Haney, Margaret; Raby, Wilfrid N.; Levin, Frances R.; Carpenter, Kenneth M.; Mariani, John J.; Nunes, Edward V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that the cannabinoid system is involved in the maintenance of opioid dependence. We examined whether dronabinol, a cannabinoid receptor type 1 partial agonist, reduces opioid withdrawal and increases retention in treatment with extended release naltrexone (XR-naltrexone). Methods Opioid dependent participants were randomized to receive dronabinol 30 mg/d (n=40) or placebo (n=20), under double-blind conditions, while they underwent inpatient detoxification and naltrexone induction. Before discharge all participants received an injection of XR-naltrexone, with an additional dose given four weeks later. Dronabinol or placebo was given while inpatient and for 5 weeks afterwards. The primary outcomes were the severity of opioid withdrawal, measured with the Subjective Opioid Withdrawal Scale, and retention in treatment at the end of the inpatient phase and at the end of the 8-week trial. Results The severity of opioid withdrawal during inpatient phase was lower in the dronabinol group relative to placebo group (p=0.006). Rates of successful induction onto XR-naltrexone (dronabinol 66%, placebo 55%) and completion of treatment (dronabinol 35%, placebo 35%) were not significantly different. Post-hoc analysis showed that the 32% of participants who smoked marijuana regularly during the outpatient phase had significantly lower ratings of insomnia and anxiety and were more likely to complete the 8-week trial. Conclusion Dronabinol reduced the severity of opiate withdrawal during acute detoxification but had no effect on rates of XR-naltrexone treatment induction and retention. Participants who elected to smoke marijuana during the trial were more likely to complete treatment regardless of treatment group assignment. PMID:26187456

  6. Evaluation of therapeutic effect of low dose naltrexone in experimentally-induced Crohn's disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Dina Ibrahim; Osman, Afaf Sayed; Tolba, Hedayat Mahmoud; Khattab, Aida; Abdel-Salam, Lubna O; Kamel, Mahmoud M

    2016-10-01

    Crohn's disease is a relapsing inflammatory condition afflicting the digestive tract. Drugs used for treatment of Crohn's disease may be associated with serious side effects. Endogenous opioid peptides modulate inflammatory cytokine production. Opioid antagonists have been shown to play a role in healing and repair of tissues. This work was designed to detect the possible beneficial effects of opioid antagonist naltrexone in indomethacin-induced Crohn's disease in rats. Enteritis was induced in male albino rats by two subcutaneous injection of indomethacin in a dose of 7.5mg/kg 24h apart started on day one. Salfasalazine, naltrexone and their combination were administered orally from day one of induction of enteritis to day 10. Disease activity index, serum levels of C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-α, macroscopic and microscopic pathological scores and in vitro motility studies were evaluated. Induction of enteritis resulted in significant increase of disease activity index, significant elevation of serum levels of C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-α, significant deterioration of pathological scores and significant increase in the mean contractility response of the isolated ileal segments compared with normal untreated rats. Treatment with sulfasalazine, low dose of natrexone or their combination resulted in significant improvement of all measured parameters compared with enteritis group. The current finding could provide new interesting opportunity for developing new therapeutic approaches for treatment of Crohn's disease. Use of naltrexone, especially in small dose, has little side effects making it of interest for treatment of Crohn's disease. Also, it provides the possibility of reduced doses of other drugs if it is used as combined therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Naltrexone/bupropion: Contrave(R); naltrexone SR/bupropion SR.

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    In March 2010, Orexigen(R) Therapeutics submitted a new drug application (NDA) for approval of naltrexone sustained release (SR)/bupropion SR (Contrave(R)) for the treatment of obesity in the US. The tablet contains naltrexone SR 32 mg and bupropion SR 360 mg. The drug has been tested in four randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trials and the co-primary endpoints were met in each case. This review discusses the key development milestones and clinical trial program to date.

  8. Organizational-Level Predictors of Adoption Across Time: Naltrexone in Private Substance-Use Disorders Treatment Centers*

    PubMed Central

    Oser, Carrie B.; Roman, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Prominent on the nation's research agenda on substance-use disorders treatment is the dissemination of effective pharmacotherapies. Thus, the purpose of this article is to use a “diffusion of innovations” theoretical framework to examine the organizational-level predictors of the adoption of a pharmacotherapy, naltrexone (Revia), in private substance use-disorders treatment centers (N = 165). Method Data for these analyses were derived from the National Treatment Center Study, which contains four waves of data collected between 1994 and 2003. An event history model examined the impact of culture, leadership characteristics, internal structure, and external characteristics on the likelihood of adopting naltrexone between 1994 and 2003. Results The results suggest that organizations embracing a 12-step model and those employing more experienced administrators were significantly less likely to adopt naltrexone. Moreover, treatment centers that used prescription drugs, possessed an employee handbook, were accredited, and operated on a for-profit basis were significantly more likely to adopt naltrexone over time. Conclusions Structural characteristics do affect the innovation adoption behaviors of private substance-use disorders treatment centers. Organizational-level “research to practice” implications to further the adoption of innovative evidence-based treatments are discussed. PMID:17960303

  9. Extended-release naltrexone for pre-release prisoners: A randomized trial of medical mobile treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Michael S.; Vocci, Frank J.; Fitzgerald, Terrence T.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; O'Brien, Charles P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX), is an effective treatment for opioid use disorder but is rarely initiated in US prisons or with criminal justice populations. Mobile treatment for chronic diseases have been implemented in a variety of settings. Mobile treatment may provide an opportunity to expand outreach to parolees to surmount barriers to traditional clinic treatment. Methods Male and female prisoners (240) with pre-incarceration histories of opioid use disorder who are within one month of release from prison will be enrolled in this randomized clinical trial. Participants are randomized to one of two study arms: 1) [XR-NTX-OTx] One injection of long-acting naltrexone in prison, followed by 6 monthly injections post-release at a community opioid treatment program; or 2) [XR-NTX+ MMTx] One injection of long-acting naltrexone in prison followed by 6 monthly injections post-release at the patient's place of residence utilizing mobile medical treatment. The primary outcomes are: treatment adherence; opioid use; criminal activity; re-arrest; reincarceration; and HIV risk-behaviors. Results We describe the background and rationale for the study, its aims, hypotheses, and study design. Conclusions The use of long-acting injectable naltrexone may be a promising form of treatment for pre-release prisoners. Finally, as many individuals in the criminal justice system drop out of treatment, this study will assess whether treatment at their place of residence will improve adherence and positively affect treatment outcomes. PMID:28011389

  10. Extended-release naltrexone for pre-release prisoners: A randomized trial of medical mobile treatment.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Michael S; Vocci, Frank J; Fitzgerald, Terrence T; O'Grady, Kevin E; O'Brien, Charles P

    2017-02-01

    Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX), is an effective treatment for opioid use disorder but is rarely initiated in US prisons or with criminal justice populations. Mobile treatment for chronic diseases has been implemented in a variety of settings. Mobile treatment may provide an opportunity to expand outreach to parolees to surmount barriers to traditional clinic treatment. Male and female prisoners (240) with pre-incarceration histories of opioid use disorder who are within one month of release from prison will be enrolled in this randomized clinical trial. Participants are randomized to one of two study arms: 1) [XR-NTX-OTx] One injection of long-acting naltrexone in prison, followed by 6 monthly injections post-release at a community opioid treatment program; or 2) [XR-NTX+ MMTx] One injection of long-acting naltrexone in prison followed by 6 monthly injections post-release at the patient's place of residence utilizing mobile medical treatment. The primary outcomes are: treatment adherence; opioid use; criminal activity; re-arrest; reincarceration; and HIV risk-behaviors. We describe the background and rationale for the study, its aims, hypotheses, and study design. The use of long-acting injectable naltrexone may be a promising form of treatment for pre-release prisoners. Finally, as many individuals in the criminal justice system drop out of treatment, this study will assess whether treatment at their place of residence will improve adherence and positively affect treatment outcomes. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02867124. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Naltrexone

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dependence When used as a treatment for alcohol dependency, naltrexone blocks the euphoric effects and feelings of ... dispense and prescribe medications for opioid and alcohol dependency. SAMHSA’s Division of Pharmacologic Therapies (DPT) provides opioid ...

  12. Opioid use and dropout in patients receiving oral naltrexone with or without single administration of injection naltrexone.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Maria A; Bisaga, Adam; Glass, Andrew; Mishlen, Kaitlyn; Pavlicova, Martina; Carpenter, Kenneth M; Mariani, John J; Levin, Frances R; Nunes, Edward V

    2015-02-01

    Adherence to oral naltrexone has been poor and can be improved somewhat with behavioral therapy. We compared behavioral naltrexone therapy (BNT) to compliance enhancement (CE) and tested efficacy of single-dose injection naltrexone (XR-NTX; 384 mg) with behavioral therapies at further improving adherence to oral naltrexone. A 24-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (n=125) compared four treatment conditions following inpatient detoxification and oral naltrexone induction: (1) BNT+XR-NTX; (2) BNT+placebo injection; (3) CE+XR-NTX; and (4) CE+placebo injection. All participants were maintained on oral naltrexone throughout the trial. Primary outcome was retention in treatment. Of 89 randomized participants, 78.7% (70/89) completed 4 weeks, 58.2% (54/89) completed 8 weeks, 47.2% (42/89) completed 12 weeks, and 25.8% (23/89) completed 24 weeks. A Cox proportional hazards regression modeled time to dropout as a function of treatment condition, baseline opioid dependence severity (bags per day of heroin use), and their interaction. Interaction of conditions by baseline severity was significant (X3(2)=9.19, p=0.027). For low-severity patients (≤ 6 bags/day), retention was highest in the BNT-XR-NTX group (60% at 6 months), as hypothesized. For high-severity (>6 bags/day) patients, BNT-XR-NTX did not perform as well, due to high early attrition. For low-severity heroin users, single-dose XR-NTX improved long-term treatment retention when combined with behavioral therapy. In higher-severity opioid-dependent patients, XR-NTX was less helpful, perhaps because, combined with oral naltrexone, it produced higher blood levels and more withdrawal discomfort. When cost considerations recommend oral naltrexone following XR-NTX, the latter should be phased in slowly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Opioid use and dropout in patients receiving oral naltrexone with or without single administration of injection naltrexone

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Maria A.; Bisaga, Adam; Glass, Andrew; Mishlen, Kaitlyn; Pavlicova, Martina; Carpenter, Kenneth M.; Mariani, John J; Levin, Frances R.; Nunes, Edward V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adherence to oral naltrexone has been poor and can be improved somewhat with behavioral therapy. We compared Behavioral Naltrexone Therapy (BNT) to Compliance Enhancement (CE) and tested efficacy of single-dose injection naltrexone (XR-NTX; 384 mg) with behavioral therapies at further improving aherence to oral naltrexone. Methods A 24-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (N=125) compared four treatment conditions following inpatient detoxification and oral naltrexone induction: (1) BNT+XR-NTX; (2) BNT+ placebo injection; (3) CE+ XR-NTX; and (4) CE+placebo injection. All participants were maintained on oral naltrexone throughout the trial. Primary outcome was retention in treatment. Results Of 89 randomized participants, 78.7% (70/89) completed 4 weeks, 58.2% (54/89) completed 8 weeks, 47.2% (42/89) completed 12 weeks, and 25.8% (23/89) completed 24 weeks. A Cox proportional hazards regression modeled time to dropout as a function of treatment condition, baseline opioid dependence severity (bags per day of heroin use), and their interaction. Interaction of conditions by baseline severity was significant (X23 = 9.19, p = .027). For low-severity patients (<6 bags/day), retention was highest in the BNT-XRNTX group (60% at 6 months), as hypothesized. For high-severity (> 6 bags/day) patients, BNT-XR-NTX did not perform as well, due to high early attrition. Conclusion For low-severity heroin users, single-dose XR-NTX improved long-term treatment retention when combined with behavioral therapy. In higher-severity opioid-dependent patients, XR-NTX was less helpful, perhaps because, combined with oral naltrexone, it produced higher blood levels and more withdrawal discomfort. When cost considerations recommend oral naltrexone following XR-NTX, the latter should be phased in slowly. PMID:25555621

  14. [Low dose naltrexone for treatment of pain].

    PubMed

    Plesner, Karin Bruun; Vægter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte

    2015-10-09

    Recent years have seen an increasing interest in the use of low dose naltrexone (LDN) for off-label treatment of pain in diseases as fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis and morbus Crohn. The evidence is poor, with only few randomized double-blind placebo-controlled studies. The studies currently available are reviewed in this paper. LDN could be a potentially useful drug in the future for the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia, but more studies are needed to verify that it is superior to placebo, and currently it cannot be recommended as first-line therapy.

  15. Real-time assessment of alcohol craving and naltrexone treatment responsiveness in a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Robert; Treloar Padovano, Hayley; Gray, Joshua C; Wemm, Stephanie E; Blanchard, Alexander

    2018-08-01

    This secondary data analysis examined whether and how the dopamine receptor D 4 gene (DRD4) influenced naltrexone treatment responsiveness in a randomized clinical trial. We leveraged intensive experience sampling methods to test the hypothesis that craving recorded at drinking and non-drinking moments would mediate naltrexone effects on the likelihood of heavy drinking, but only among carriers of the DRD4 long (DRD4-L) allele. Participants (M age =29.8years, SD=12.1) were non-treatment seeking heavy drinkers (n=104, 54.8% female, 61.5% alcohol dependent) randomized to 3weeks of daily naltrexone (50mg) or placebo. During these 3weeks, participants used handheld electronic devices to complete real-time reports of alcohol use and craving multiple times per day in their natural environments. This approach afforded intensive repeated assessment of focal variables and provided in-the-moment data to test whether craving when not drinking or early in drinking episodes explained naltrexone effects on drinking. Moderated-mediation multilevel structural equation models showed that craving during non-drinking moments mediated the treatment effect of naltrexone on heavy drinking but only among carriers of the DRD4-L allele. The same pattern of associations was not shown when evaluating craving while participants were consuming alcoholic beverages. Findings provide the first in vivo evidence that, among carriers of the DRD4-L allele, naltrexone blunts craving in real-world settings, and this effect in turn reduces the likelihood of heavy drinking. This work highlights the utility of EMA methods for elucidating how treatments work and further demonstrates the importance of genetic factors for understanding individual differences in pharmacotherapy responsiveness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Naltrexone versus acamprosate in the treatment of alcohol dependence: A multi-centre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Morley, Kirsten C; Teesson, Maree; Reid, Sophie C; Sannibale, Claudia; Thomson, Clare; Phung, Nghi; Weltman, Martin; Bell, James R; Richardson, Kylie; Haber, Paul S

    2006-10-01

    To compare the efficacy of acamprosate and naltrexone in the treatment of alcohol dependence. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Three treatment centres in Australia. A total of 169 alcohol dependent subjects were given naltrexone (50 mg/day), acamprosate (1998 mg/day) or placebo for 12 weeks. All subjects were offered manualized compliance therapy, a brief intervention that targets problems that may affect treatment compliance such as ambivalence and misperceptions about medication. Time to the first drink, time to first relapse, drinks per drinking day and cumulative abstinence. In intention-to-treat analyses, there were no differences between groups on outcome measures of drinking, craving or biochemical markers. Similarly, analyses of the 94 subjects that completed the study in full and demonstrated 80% compliance, revealed no significant treatment effects. Differential treatment effects were identified after stratification according to scores on the Alcohol Dependence Scale (ADS) and Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS). A significant beneficial treatment effect on time to first relapse was revealed for subjects with 'no depression' allocated to naltrexone (n = 56; P < 0.01). In addition, a significant beneficial treatment effect was revealed in subjects with 'low dependence' allocated to naltrexone (n = 34; P < 0.05). The results of this study support the efficacy of naltrexone in the relapse prevention of alcoholism amongst those with low levels of clinical depression and alcohol dependence severity. No effect of acamprosate was found in our sample.

  17. Baseline Characteristics of Patients Predicting Suitability for Rapid Naltrexone Induction

    PubMed Central

    Mogali, Shanthi; Khan, Nabil A.; Drill, Esther S.; Pavlicova, Martina; Sullivan, Maria A.; Nunes, Edward; Bisaga, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Extended-release (XR) injection naltrexone has proved promising in the treatment of opioid dependence. Induction onto naltrexone is often accomplished with a procedure known as rapid naltrexone induction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pre-treatment patient characteristics as predictors of successful completion of a rapid naltrexone induction procedure prior to XR naltrexone treatment. Methods A chart review of 150 consecutive research participants (N = 84 completers and N = 66 non-completers) undergoing a rapid naltrexone induction with the buprenorphone-clonidine procedure were compared on a number of baseline demographic, clinical and psychosocial factors. Logistic regression was used to identify client characteristics that may predict successful initiation of naltrexone after a rapid induction-detoxification. Results Patients who failed to successfully initiate naltrexone were younger (AOR: 1.040, CI: 1.006, 1.075), and using 10 or more bags of heroin (or equivalent) per day (AOR: 0.881, CI: 0.820, 0.946). Drug use other than opioids was also predictive of failure to initiate naltrexone in simple bivariate analyses, but was no longer significant when controlling for age and opioid use level. Conclusions Younger age, and indicators of greater substance dependence severity (more current opioid use, other substance use) predict difficulty completing a rapid naltrexone induction procedure. Such patients might require a longer period of stabilization and/or more gradual detoxification prior to initiating naltrexone. Scientific Significance Our study findings identify specific characteristics of patients who responded positively to rapid naltrexone induction. PMID:25907815

  18. Low-Dose Naltrexone Treatment of Familial Benign Pemphigus (Hailey-Hailey Disease).

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Omer; Hogan, Sara R; Vij, Alok; Fernandez, Anthony P

    2017-10-01

    Familial benign pemphigus, or Hailey-Hailey disease (HHD), is a rare and debilitating genetic dermatosis characterized by chronic, recurrent vesicles, erosions, and maceration in flexural areas. Despite the reported therapeutic modalities, such as topical and systemic corticosteroids, systemic immunomodulators, topical and systemic retinoids, and laser, HHD can still be markedly difficult to control. To assess low-dose naltrexone hydrochloride in the treatment of recalcitrant HHD. In this case series, 3 patients with biopsy-proven recalcitrant HHD were evaluated in the outpatient dermatology clinic at the Cleveland Clinic. Each patient was treated with low-dose naltrexone hydrochloride at a dosage of 1.5 to 3.0 mg per day. No laboratory monitoring was necessary. Clinical response (healing of erosions, improvement in erythema, and alleviation of pain), adverse effects, and subjective quality of life were monitored throughout the treatment. The study dates were January 2016 to January 2017. Objective clinical response as assessed by the treating dermatologist, subjective quality of life as reported by the patient, and recorded adverse effects were monitored throughout the treatment at intervals of 2 to 3 months. The 3 patients included a woman in her 40s and 2 men in their 60s. Each patient exhibited at least an 80% improvement in extent of disease, with one patient demonstrating 90% clearance. All 3 patients had substantial improvement in quality of life, with one patient reporting improvement in his depression. No adverse effects were recorded. Low-dose naltrexone may represent a low-cost and low-risk alternative or adjunct in the treatment of HHD.

  19. Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) using low dose naltrexone (LDN).

    PubMed

    Chopra, Pradeep; Cooper, Mark S

    2013-06-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic pain syndrome, which involves glial activation and central sensitization in the central nervous system. Here, we describe positive outcomes of two CRPS patients, after they were treated with low-dose naltrexone (a glial attenuator), in combination with other CRPS therapies. Prominent CRPS symptoms remitted in these two patients, including dystonic spasms and fixed dystonia (respectively), following treatment with low-dose naltrexone (LDN). LDN, which is known to antagonize the Toll-like Receptor 4 pathway and attenuate activated microglia, was utilized in these patients after conventional CRPS pharmacotherapy failed to suppress their recalcitrant CRPS symptoms.

  20. Novel Treatment Using Low-Dose Naltrexone for Lichen Planopilaris.

    PubMed

    Strazzulla, Lauren C; Avila, Lorena; Lo Sicco, Kristen; Shapiro, Jerry

    2017-11-01

    Lichen planopilaris (LPP) is a variant of lichen planus that affects the scalp causing scarring hair loss. Patients also frequently experience symptoms of scalp itch, pain, and burning. To date, there are no long-term remittive nor curative therapies available. Low-dose naltrexone has anti-inflammatory properties and has recently been described in the context of treating autoimmune conditions. This retrospective medical record review describes four LPP patients treated with low-dose (3 milligrams per day) naltrexone. This medication provided benefit in these four patients including reduction in symptoms of pruritus, clinical evidence of inflammation of the scalp, and disease progression. All patients tolerated naltrexone without adverse effects. This is the first case series demonstrating the beneficial effects of low-dose naltrexone for patients with LPP. This medication was well-tolerated by the patients and is cost-effective.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(11):1140-1142.

    .

  1. Effects of naltrexone are influenced by childhood adversity during negative emotional processing in addiction recovery.

    PubMed

    Savulich, G; Riccelli, R; Passamonti, L; Correia, M; Deakin, J F W; Elliott, R; Flechais, R S A; Lingford-Hughes, A R; McGonigle, J; Murphy, A; Nutt, D J; Orban, C; Paterson, L M; Reed, L J; Smith, D G; Suckling, J; Tait, R; Taylor, E M; Sahakian, B J; Robbins, T W; Ersche, K D

    2017-03-07

    Naltrexone is an opioid receptor antagonist used in the management of alcohol dependence. Although the endogenous opioid system has been implicated in emotion regulation, the effects of mu-opioid receptor blockade on brain systems underlying negative emotional processing are not clear in addiction. Individuals meeting criteria for alcohol dependence alone (n=18, alcohol) and in combination with cocaine and/or opioid dependence (n=21, alcohol/drugs) and healthy individuals without a history of alcohol or drug dependence (n=21) were recruited. Participants were alcohol and drug abstinent before entered into this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover study. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate brain response while viewing aversive and neutral images relative to baseline on 50 mg of naltrexone and placebo. We found that naltrexone modulated task-related activation in the medial prefrontal cortex and functional connectivity between the anterior cingulate cortex and the hippocampus as a function of childhood adversity (for aversive versus neutral images) in all groups. Furthermore, there was a group-by-treatment-by-condition interaction in the right amygdala, which was mainly driven by a normalization of response for aversive relative to neutral images under naltrexone in the alcohol/drugs group. We conclude that early childhood adversity is one environmental factor that influences pharmacological response to naltrexone. Pharmacotherapy with naltrexone may also have some ameliorative effects on negative emotional processing in combined alcohol and drug dependence, possibly due to alterations in endogenous opioid transmission or the kappa-opioid receptor antagonist actions of naltrexone.

  2. Effects of naltrexone are influenced by childhood adversity during negative emotional processing in addiction recovery

    PubMed Central

    Savulich, G; Riccelli, R; Passamonti, L; Correia, M; Deakin, J F W; Elliott, R; Flechais, R S A; Lingford-Hughes, A R; McGonigle, J; Murphy, A; Nutt, D J; Orban, C; Paterson, L M; Reed, L J; Smith, D G; Suckling, J; Tait, R; Taylor, E M; Sahakian, B J; Robbins, T W; Ersche, K D

    2017-01-01

    Naltrexone is an opioid receptor antagonist used in the management of alcohol dependence. Although the endogenous opioid system has been implicated in emotion regulation, the effects of mu-opioid receptor blockade on brain systems underlying negative emotional processing are not clear in addiction. Individuals meeting criteria for alcohol dependence alone (n=18, alcohol) and in combination with cocaine and/or opioid dependence (n=21, alcohol/drugs) and healthy individuals without a history of alcohol or drug dependence (n=21) were recruited. Participants were alcohol and drug abstinent before entered into this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover study. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate brain response while viewing aversive and neutral images relative to baseline on 50 mg of naltrexone and placebo. We found that naltrexone modulated task-related activation in the medial prefrontal cortex and functional connectivity between the anterior cingulate cortex and the hippocampus as a function of childhood adversity (for aversive versus neutral images) in all groups. Furthermore, there was a group-by-treatment-by-condition interaction in the right amygdala, which was mainly driven by a normalization of response for aversive relative to neutral images under naltrexone in the alcohol/drugs group. We conclude that early childhood adversity is one environmental factor that influences pharmacological response to naltrexone. Pharmacotherapy with naltrexone may also have some ameliorative effects on negative emotional processing in combined alcohol and drug dependence, possibly due to alterations in endogenous opioid transmission or the kappa-opioid receptor antagonist actions of naltrexone. PMID:28267152

  3. Enhancing acupuncture by low dose naltrexone.

    PubMed

    Hesselink, Jan M Keppel; Kopsky, David J

    2011-06-01

    To find appropriate and effective treatment options for chronic pain syndromes is a challenging task. Multimodal treatment approach has been gaining acceptance for chronic pain. However, combining treatments, such as acupuncture, with rational pharmacology is still in its infancy. Acupuncture influences the opioid and cannabinoid system through releasing endogenous receptor ligands. Low dose naltrexone also acts on both these systems, and upregulates the opioid and cannabinoid receptors. The authors hypothesise that low dose naltrexone could enhance the pain-relieving effect of acupuncture.

  4. Naltrexone and Bupropion Combination Treatment for Smoking Cessation and Weight Loss in Patients With Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Xuechan; Du, Jiang; Zhan, Guilai; Wu, Yujie; Su, Hang; Zhu, Youwei; Jarskog, Fredrik; Zhao, Min; Fan, Xiaoduo

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The rates of obesity and cigarette smoking are much higher in patients with schizophrenia compared to the general population. This study was to examine whether naltrexone and bupropion combination treatment can help weight loss and smoking cessation in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Obese male schizophrenia patients with current cigarette smoking were randomized to receive adjunctive naltrexone (25 mg/day) and bupropion (300 mg/day) combination or placebo for 24 weeks. Twenty-two patients were enrolled in the study, and 21 patients completed the study (11 in the treatment group, and 10 in the placebo group). Body weight, body mass index (BMI), fasting lipids, smoking urge, expired carbon monoxide (CO) level and cigarettes smoked per week were measured at baseline and week 24. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups in changes in weight, BMI, fasting lipids, or cigarette smoking measures ( p 's > 0.05) Conclusion: Naltrexone and bupropion combination treatment didn't show weight loss or smoking cessation effect in patients with schizophrenia in this pilot study.Implications for future studies were discussed. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02736474.

  5. Naltrexone and Bupropion Combination Treatment for Smoking Cessation and Weight Loss in Patients With Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Xuechan; Du, Jiang; Zhan, Guilai; Wu, Yujie; Su, Hang; Zhu, Youwei; Jarskog, Fredrik; Zhao, Min; Fan, Xiaoduo

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The rates of obesity and cigarette smoking are much higher in patients with schizophrenia compared to the general population. This study was to examine whether naltrexone and bupropion combination treatment can help weight loss and smoking cessation in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Obese male schizophrenia patients with current cigarette smoking were randomized to receive adjunctive naltrexone (25 mg/day) and bupropion (300 mg/day) combination or placebo for 24 weeks. Twenty-two patients were enrolled in the study, and 21 patients completed the study (11 in the treatment group, and 10 in the placebo group). Body weight, body mass index (BMI), fasting lipids, smoking urge, expired carbon monoxide (CO) level and cigarettes smoked per week were measured at baseline and week 24. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups in changes in weight, BMI, fasting lipids, or cigarette smoking measures (p's > 0.05) Conclusion: Naltrexone and bupropion combination treatment didn't show weight loss or smoking cessation effect in patients with schizophrenia in this pilot study.Implications for future studies were discussed. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02736474. PMID:29563871

  6. Predictors of dropout in an outpatient treatment for problem drinkers including cognitive-behavioral therapy and the opioid antagonist naltrexone.

    PubMed

    Vuoristo-Myllys, Salla; Lahti, Jari; Alho, Hannu; Julkunen, Juhani

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated predictors of dropout in an outpatient treatment program for problem drinking that included individual cognitive-behavioral therapy combined with naltrexone. Specifically, we investigated whether sociodemographic factors, severity of alcohol dependence, history of problem drinking, or intensity of alcohol craving assessed at the beginning of the treatment predicted dropout from an outpatient program among a sample of 372 patients (65% male). We also investigated whether the effectiveness of the treatment (the change in alcohol consumption and symptoms of alcohol craving) or adherence to naltrexone was related to dropout. Predictors of dropout were investigated using an analysis of covariance with the number of attended treatment sessions as an independent variable. Our results demonstrated that the treatment entry factors predictive of dropout were younger age, lower severity of alcohol dependence, better ability to resist and control alcohol use, and lower obsession with alcohol. In addition, those who dropped out were more likely to begin the program by abstaining from alcohol and had lower adherence to naltrexone use than those who completed the program. The length of stay for treatment was not related to change in alcohol consumption. Patients with less severe alcohol-related problems may lack motivation for treatment, specifically cognitive-behavioral therapy and naltrexone. These patients may benefit more from less intensive treatments.

  7. Sustained-release bupropion versus naltrexone in the treatment of pathological gambling: a preliminary blind-rater study.

    PubMed

    Dannon, Pinhas N; Lowengrub, Katherine; Musin, Ernest; Gonopolski, Yehudit; Kotler, Moshe

    2005-12-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a relatively common and highly disabling impulse control disorder. A range of psychotherapeutic agents, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, mood stabilizers, and opioid antagonists, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of PG. The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and opioid antagonists for PG is consistent with the observation that PG shares features of both the obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders and addictive disorders. The aim of the study is to compare the effectiveness of sustained-release bupropion versus naltrexone in the treatment of PG. Thirty-six male pathological gamblers were enrolled in our study. A comprehensive psychiatric diagnostic evaluation was performed at baseline on all patients, and patients were screened for symptoms of gambling, depression, and anxiety using the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, and the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale. In addition, the patients completed self-report questionnaires about their demographic status. Patients were randomized in 2 groups and received either naltrexone (n = 19) or sustained-release bupropion (n = 17) for 12 weeks in a parallel fashion. Treatment response was monitored using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale which was performed at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12. Patients were also assessed for the presence of gambling behavior via an unstructured interview, which was also performed at weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12. Raters were blind to the study treatment. The majority of patients responded well to the drug treatment. Twelve of 17 patients in the sustained-release bupropion group completed the 12-week study, and 13 of 19 naltrexone patients completed the study. Nine (75%) of the 12 completers were rated as full responders in the sustained-release bupropion group versus 10 (76%) of 12 in the naltrexone group. Three (25%) of 12 completers in the

  8. Naltrexone/bupropion for the treatment of obesity and obesity with Type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Apovian, Caroline M

    2016-03-01

    Contrave(®) is a combination of naltrexone hydrochloride extended release and bupropion hydrochloride extended release for the treatment of obesity, and is used with lifestyle modification. Its safety and efficacy were assessed in four randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 56-week Phase III clinical trials in 4536 adult subjects: COR-1, COR-II, COR-BMOD and COR-DM. All four studies demonstrated statistically significant and clinically meaningful weight loss following up to 52 weeks of treatment with naltrexone/bupropion compared with placebo. The average weight loss from baseline across the four studies was approximately 11-22 lbs (5-9 kg). Results show the efficacy of Contrave for weight loss, as well as significant improvements in cardiometabolic markers. This review focuses on the four studies, their outcomes and the mechanism of action of Contrave.

  9. Naltrexone for impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Papay, Kimberly; Xie, Sharon X.; Stern, Matthew; Hurtig, Howard; Siderowf, Andrew; Duda, John E.; Minger, James

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson disease (PD) are common and can be difficult to manage. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and tolerability of naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, for the treatment of ICDs in PD. Methods: Patients with PD (n = 50) and an ICD were enrolled in an 8-week, randomized (1:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled study of naltrexone 50–100 mg/d (flexible dosing). The primary outcome measure was response based on the Clinical Global Impression–Change score, and the secondary outcome measure was change in symptom severity using the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease–Rating Scale (QUIP-RS) ICD score. Results: Forty-five patients (90%) completed the study. The Clinical Global Impression–Change response rate difference favoring naltrexone in completers was 19.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] −8.7% to 44.2%). While this difference was not significant (odds ratio = 1.6, 95% CI 0.5–5.2, Wald χ2 [df] = 0.5 [1], p = 0.5), naltrexone treatment led to a significantly greater decrease in QUIP-RS ICD score over time compared with placebo (regression coefficient for interaction term in linear mixed-effects model = −7.37, F[df] = 4.3 [1, 49], p = 0.04). The estimated changes in QUIP-RS ICD scores from baseline to week 8 were 14.9 points (95% CI 9.9–19.9) for naltrexone and 7.5 points (95% CI 2.5–12.6) for placebo. Conclusions: Naltrexone treatment was not efficacious for the treatment of ICDs in PD using a global assessment of response, but findings using a PD-specific ICD rating scale support further evaluation of opioid antagonists for the treatment of ICD symptoms in PD. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that in patients with PD and an ICD, naltrexone does not significantly increase the probability of achieving response. However, the study lacked the precision to exclude an important difference in response rates. PMID

  10. Employment-based reinforcement of adherence to oral naltrexone treatment in unemployed injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Kelly E; Defulio, Anthony; Everly, Jeffrey J; Donlin, Wendy D; Aklin, Will M; Nuzzo, Paul A; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Umbricht, Annie; Fingerhood, Michael; Bigelow, George E; Silverman, Kenneth

    2013-02-01

    Oral naltrexone has high potential for use as a relapse prevention pharmacotherapy for opiate dependence yet suffers from notoriously poor adherence. This study evaluated whether entry to a therapeutic workplace could reinforce adherence with oral naltrexone. Opiate-dependent and cocaine-using injection drug users were detoxified, inducted onto oral naltrexone, and randomly assigned to a contingency (n = 35) or prescription (n = 32) group for a 26-week period. Contingency participants were required to ingest naltrexone under staff observation to gain access to the therapeutic workplace. Prescription participants received a take-home supply of naltrexone and could access the workplace independent of naltrexone ingestion. Primary outcome measures were percent of urine samples positive for naltrexone at 30-day assessments and negative for opiates and cocaine at 30-day assessments. Contingency participants provided significantly more urine samples that were positive for naltrexone compared with prescription participants (72% vs. 21%, p < .01); however, no effect of experimental group was observed on percent opiate-negative (71% vs. 60%, p = .19.) or cocaine-negative (56% vs. 53%, p = .82) samples in the contingency and prescription groups, respectively. Opiate-positive samples were significantly more likely to occur in conjunction with cocaine (p < .001) and when not protected by naltrexone (p < .02), independent of experimental group. Overall, these results show that contingent access to a therapeutic workplace significantly promoted adherence to oral naltrexone, and that the majority of opiate use occurred in conjunction with cocaine use, suggesting that untreated cocaine use may limit the effectiveness of oral naltrexone in promoting opiate abstinence. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Baclofen and naltrexone effects on alcohol self-administration: Comparison of treatment initiated during abstinence or ongoing alcohol access in baboons.

    PubMed

    Holtyn, August F; Kaminski, Barbara J; Weerts, Elise M

    2017-10-01

    Baclofen, a GABA B receptor agonist, is under investigation as a pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder. Treatment with a pharmacotherapeutic can be initiated during alcohol abstinence or active drinking, which may influence treatment outcomes. This study examined whether baclofen treatment initiated and maintained during alcohol abstinence would reduce alcohol seeking and self-administration upon return to alcohol access, and whether effects differed from treatment initiated and maintained during ongoing alcohol access. Naltrexone was tested under similar conditions for comparison. Five baboons self-administered alcohol under a three-component chained schedule of reinforcement that modeled periods of anticipation (Component 1), seeking (Component 2), and consumption (Component 3). Alcohol was only available in Component 3. In Experiment 1, baclofen (0.1-1.8mg/kg) or naltrexone (1.0-5.6mg/kg) was administered daily beginning on the first day of a 5-day abstinence period and treatment was continued for 5days of alcohol access. In Experiment 2, selected doses of both drugs were administered during ongoing alcohol access. When treatment was initiated during alcohol abstinence, baclofen and naltrexone did not significantly reduce total alcohol intake (g/kg) or alcohol seeking. In comparison, when treatment was initiated during ongoing alcohol access, both baclofen (1.8mg/kg) and naltrexone (3.2 and 5.6mg/kg) significantly reduced total alcohol intake (g/kg). Naltrexone (5.6mg/kg), but not baclofen, significantly reduced alcohol seeking. Initiation of baclofen treatment (or other alcohol use disorder treatments) during abstinence or active drinking may be an important factor in influencing efficacy and appropriate dose selection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Naltrexone Alone and With Sertraline for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence in Alaska Natives and Non-Natives Residing in Rural Settings: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Stephanie S.; Robin, Robert W.; Levenson, Aryeh L.; GreyWolf, Iva; Chance, Lawrence E.; Hodgkinson, Colin A.; Romano, Denise; Robinson, Jane; Meandzija, Boris; Stillner, Verner; Wu, Ran; Goldman, David

    2009-01-01

    Background Access to specialty alcoholism treatment in rural environments is limited and new treatment approaches are needed. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of naltrexone alone and in combination with sertraline among Alaska Natives and other Alaskans living in rural settings. An exploratory aim examined whether the Asn40Asp polymorphism of the μ-opioid receptor gene (OPRMI) predicted response to naltrexone, as had been reported in Caucasians. Methods Randomized, controlled trial enrolling 101 Alaskans with alcohol dependence, including 68 American Indians/Alaska Natives. Participants received 16 weeks of either (1) placebo (placebo naltrexone + placebo sertraline), (2) naltrexone monotherapy (50 mg naltrexone + sertraline placebo) and (3) naltrexone + sertraline (100 mg) plus nine sessions of medical management and supportive advice. Primary outcomes included Time to First Heavy Drinking Day and Total Abstinence. Results Naltrexone monotherapy demonstrated significantly higher total abstinence (35%) compared with placebo (12%, p = 0027) and longer, but not statistically different, Time to First Heavy Drinking Day (p = 0.093). On secondary measures, naltrexone compared with placebo demonstrated significant improvements in percent days abstinent (p = 0.024) and drinking-related consequences (p = 0.02). Combined sertraline and naltrexone did not differ from naltrexone alone. The pattern of findings was generally similar for the American Indian/Alaska Native sub-sample. Naltrexone treatment response was significant within the group of 75 individuals who were homozygous for OPRM1 Asn40 allele. There was a small number of Asp40 carriers, precluding statistical testing of the effect of this allele on response. Conclusions Naltrexone can be used effectively to treat alcoholism in remote and rural communities, with evidence of benefit for American Indians and Alaska Natives. New models of care incorporating pharmacotherapy could reduce important health

  13. Employment-Based Reinforcement of Adherence to Oral Naltrexone Treatment in Unemployed Injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Kelly; Defulio, Anthony; Everly, Jeffrey J.; Donlin, Wendy D.; Aklin, Will M.; Nuzzo, Paul A.; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S.; Umbricht, Annie; Fingerhood, Michael; Bigelow, George E.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Naltrexone has high potential for use as a relapse prevention pharmacotherapy for opiate dependence; however suffers from notoriously poor adherence when prescribed for oral self-administration. This study evaluated whether entry to a therapeutic workplace could be used to reinforce adherence with oral naltrexone. Opiate-dependent and cocaine-using injection drug users were detoxified, inducted onto oral naltrexone, and randomly assigned to a Contingency (n=35) or Prescription (n=32) group for a 26-week period. Contingency participants were required to ingest naltrexone under staff observation to gain access to the therapeutic workplace. Prescription participants received a take-home supply of naltrexone and could access the workplace independent of naltrexone ingestion. Primary outcome measures were percent of urine samples positive for naltrexone at 30-day assessments and negative for opiates and cocaine at 30-day assessments. Contingency participants provided significantly more urine samples that were positive for naltrexone compared to Prescription participants (72% vs. 21%, P<.01), however no effect of experimental group was observed on percent opiate-negative (71% vs. 60%, P=.19.) or cocaine-negative (56% vs. 53%, P=.82) samples in the Contingency and Prescription groups, respectively. Opiate-positive samples were significantly more likely to occur in conjunction with cocaine (P<.001), and when not protected by naltrexone (P<.02), independent of experimental group. Overall, these results show that contingent access to a therapeutic workplace significantly promoted adherence to oral naltrexone, and that the majority of opiate use occurred in conjunction with cocaine use, suggesting that untreated cocaine use may limit the effectiveness of oral naltrexone in promoting opiate abstinence. PMID:23205722

  14. Improving clinical outcomes for naltrexone as a management of problem alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    Hulse, Gary K

    2013-01-01

    Despite being a relatively effective and safe treatment, the clinical management of alcohol abuse/dependence by oral naltrexone can be compromised due to the patient's non-compliance with daily use of this medication. Over the past decade an increasing body of research has suggested that the use of sustained release depot naltrexone preparations can overcome this issue and deliver improved clinical outcomes. However, at the same time, research findings from diverse areas of pharmacogenetics, neurobiology and behavioural psychology have also been converging to identify variables including genetic markers, patient psychosocial characteristics and drug use history differences, or clusters of these variables that play a major role in mediating the response of alcohol abuse/dependent persons to treatment by naltrexone. While this article does not attempt to review all available data pertaining to an individual alcohol dependent patient's response to treatment by naltrexone, it does identify relevant research areas and highlights the importance of data arising from them. The characterization of clinical markers, to identify those patients who are most likely to benefit from naltrexone and to tailor a more individual naltrexone treatment, will ultimately provide significant benefit to both patients and clinicians by optimizing treatment outcome. PMID:22946873

  15. Effectiveness of low-dose naltrexone in the post-detoxification treatment of opioid dependence.

    PubMed

    Mannelli, Paolo; Patkar, Ashwin A; Peindl, Kathleen; Murray, Heather W; Wu, Li-Tzy; Hubbard, Robert

    2007-10-01

    The clinical use of naltrexone (NTX) in the treatment of opioid dependence has been limited because of poor compliance and inconsistent outcomes. In particular, the therapeutic benefit of extended treatment with NTX after opioid detoxification is unclear. The present study evaluated whether the augmentation with low-dose NTX during the post-detoxification treatment of opioid dependence would improve outcomes. In an open-label naturalistic design, 435 opioid-dependent patients who had completed inpatient detoxification were offered the choice of entering 1 of the 2 outpatient treatment arms: clonidine extended treatment (CET) (clonidine + psychosocial treatment), or enhanced extended treatment (EET) (oral NTX [1-10 mg/d] + CET) for 21 days. The primary outcome measure was retention in treatment. Secondary outcomes included abstinence from opioids, dropouts, and adherence to postdischarge care. One hundred sixty-two patients (37.2%) accepted EET. Subjects receiving EET stayed longer in the program (F = 64.4; P = 0.000), were less likely to drop out, used less opioids, and followed through with referral to long-term outpatient treatment in a higher number, compared with patients in the CET arm (P = 0.000 in each case). The NTX + clonidine combination was safe and well tolerated. This preliminary study indicates the potential benefit of augmentation with low-dose NTX to improve outcomes after opioid detoxification for a preferred group of patients. Randomized controlled trials are necessary to further evaluate the role of low-dose NTX in the outpatient treatment of opioid dependence.

  16. Randomized Trial of Long-Acting Sustained-Release Naltrexone Implant vs Oral Naltrexone or Placebo for Preventing Relapse to Opioid Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Krupitsky, Evgeny; Zvartau, Edwin; Blokhina, Elena; Verbitskaya, Elena; Wahlgren, Valentina; Tsoy-Podosenin, Marina; Bushara, Natalia; Burakov, Andrey; Masalov, Dmitry; Romanova, Tatyana; Tyurina, Arina; Palatkin, Vladimir; Slavina, Tatyana; Pecoraro, Anna; Woody, George E.

    2013-01-01

    Context Sustained-release naltrexone implants may improve outcomes of nonagonist treatment of opioid addiction. Objective To compare outcomes of naltrexone implants, oral naltrexone hydrochloride, and nonmedication treatment. Design Six-month double-blind, double-dummy, randomized trial. Setting Addiction treatment programs in St Petersburg, Russia. Participants Three hundred six opioid-addicted patients recently undergoing detoxification. Interventions Biweekly counseling and 1 of the following 3 treatments for 24 weeks: (1) 1000-mg naltrexone implant and oral placebo (NI+OP group; 102 patients); (2) placebo implant and 50-mg oral naltrexone hydrochloride (PI+ON group; 102 patients); or (3) placebo implant and oral placebo (PI+OP group; 102 patients). Main Outcome Measure Percentage of patients retained in treatment without relapse. Results By month 6, 54 of 102 patients in the NI+OP group (52.9%) remained in treatment without relapse compared with 16 of 102 patients in the PI+ON group (15.7%) (survival analysis, log-rank test, P<.001) and 11 of 102 patients in the PI+OP group (10.8%) (P<.001). The PI+ON vs PI+OP comparison showed a nonsignificant trend favoring the PI+ON group (P=.07). Counting missing test results as positive, the proportion of urine screening tests yielding negative results for opiates was 63.6% (95% CI, 60%-66%) for the NI+OP group; 42.7% (40%-45%) for the PI+ON group; and 34.1% (32%-37%) for the PI+OP group (P<.001, Fisher exact test, compared with the NI+OP group). Twelve wound infections occurred among 244 implantations (4.9%) in the NI+OP group, 2 among 181 (1.1%) in the PI+ON group, and 1 among 148 (0.7%) in the PI+OP group (P=.02). All events were in the first 2 weeks after implantation and resolved with antibiotic therapy. Four local-site reactions (redness and swelling) occurred in the second month after implantation in the NI+OP group (P=.12), and all resolved with antiallergy medication treatment. Other nonlocal-site adverse effects

  17. Naltrexone for treatment of impaired awareness of hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Moheet, Amir; Mangia, Silvia; Kumar, Anjali; Tesfaye, Nolawit; Eberly, Lynn E; Bai, Yun; Kubisiak, Kristine; Seaquist, Elizabeth R

    2016-01-01

    Aims Impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH) is a limiting factor in the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and is a challenging condition to reverse. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that naltrexone therapy in subjects with T1D and IAH will improve counterregulatory hormone response and recognition of hypoglycemia symptoms during hypoglycemia. Methods We performed a pilot randomized double blind trial of 4 weeks of naltrexone therapy (n=10) or placebo (n=12) given orally in subjects with T1D and IAH. Outcome measures included hypoglycemia symptom scores, counterregulatory hormone levels and thalamic activation as measured by cerebral blood flow using MRI during experimental hypoglycemia in all subjects before and after 4 weeks of intervention. Results After 4 weeks of therapy with naltrexone or placebo, no significant differences in response to hypoglycemia were seen in any outcomes of interest within each group. Conclusions In this small study, short-term treatment with naltrexone did not improve recognition of hypoglycemia symptoms or counterregulatory hormone response during experimental hypoglycemia in subjects with T1D and IAH. Whether this lack of effect is related to the small sample size or due to the dose, the advanced stage of study population or the drug itself should be the subject of future investigation. PMID:26345338

  18. Naltrexone implants compared to methadone: outcomes six months after prison release.

    PubMed

    Lobmaier, Philipp P; Kunøe, Nikolaj; Gossop, Michael; Katevoll, Tormod; Waal, Helge

    2010-01-01

    After prison release, offenders with heroin use problems are at high risk of relapse and overdose death. There is a particular need for treatments that can be initiated in prison and continued after release into the community. Methadone maintenance treatment has been shown to reduce heroin use, criminality and mortality. Naltrexone implant treatment has not previously been evaluated in prison settings. This study compares the effects of naltrexone implants and methadone treatment on heroin and other illicit drug use, and criminality among heroin-dependent inmates after release from prison. Forty-six volunteers were randomly allocated to naltrexone implants or methadone before release. Intention-to-treat analyses showed reductions in both groups in frequency of use of heroin and benzodiazepines, as well as criminality, 6 months after prison release. Naltrexone implants may be a valuable treatment option in prison settings. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Morphine sulfate and naltrexone hydrochloride extended-release capsules: naltrexone release, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Franklin; Setnik, Beatrice

    2011-01-01

    Morphine sulfate and naltrexone hydrochloride extended-release capsules (EMBEDA, King Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Bristol, TN), indicated for management of chronic, moderate-to-severe pain, contain pellets of extended-release morphine sulfate with a sequestered naltrexone core (MS-sNT). Taken as directed, morphine provides analgesia while naltrexone remains sequestered; if tampered with by crushing, naltrexone is released to mitigate morphine-induced euphoric effects. While it is necessary to establish that formulations intended to reduce attractiveness for abuse are successful in doing so, it is also necessary to demonstrate that product therapeutic integrity is maintained for patients. Data were reviewed from 3 studies to determine: 1) the quantity of naltrexone released when MS-sNT pellets are crushed (MS-sNTC) for at least 2 minutes with mortar and pestle); 2) the extent to which the naltrexone released upon crushing mitigated morphine-induced subjective effects; and 3) whether sequestered naltrexone precipitates opioid withdrawal when MS-sNT is taken as directed. The naltrexone bioavailability study compared naltrexone release from MS-sNTC with that from whole intact MS-sNT capsules (MS-sNTW) and an equal naltrexone solution (NS) dose. Equivalent bioavailability was established if 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for geometric mean ratios (maximum plasma naltrexone concentration [Cmax] and area under the concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity [AUC∞]) fell between 80% and 125%. The oral pharmacodynamic study assessed drug liking and euphoria and pharmacokinetic properties of MS-sNTC and MS-sNTW compared with morphine sulfate solution (MSS) and placebo. The 12-month, open-label (OL) safety study evaluated safety of MS-sNT administered orally as directed in patients with chronic, moderate-to-severe pain. Safety assessments included withdrawal symptoms based on the Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS). Naltrexone from MS-sNTC met criteria for equivalent

  20. High-dose naltrexone therapy for cocaine-alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Joy M; Lindsay, Jan A; Green, Charles E; Herin, David V; Stotts, Angela L; Moeller, F Gerard

    2009-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study compared the effects of high-dose (100 mg/d) naltrexone versus placebo in a sample of 87 randomized subjects with both cocaine and alcohol dependence. Medication conditions were crossed with two behavioral therapy platforms that examined whether adding contingency management (CM) that targeted cocaine abstinence would enhance naltrexone effects compared to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) without CM. Primary outcome measures for cocaine (urine screens) and alcohol use (timeline followback) were collected thrice-weekly during 12 weeks of treatment. Retention in treatment and medication compliance rates were low. Rates of cocaine use and drinks per day did not differ between treatment groups; however naltrexone did reduce frequency of heavy drinking days, as did CBT without CM. Notably, adding CM to CBT did not enhance treatment outcomes. These weak findings suggest that pharmacological and behavioral interventions that have shown efficacy in the treatment of a single drug dependence disorder may not provide the coverage needed when targeting dual drug dependence.

  1. Long-Acting Injectable Naltrexone Induction: A Randomized Trial of Outpatient Opioid Detoxification With Naltrexone Versus Buprenorphine.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Maria; Bisaga, Adam; Pavlicova, Martina; Choi, C Jean; Mishlen, Kaitlyn; Carpenter, Kenneth M; Levin, Frances R; Dakwar, Elias; Mariani, John J; Nunes, Edward V

    2017-05-01

    At present there is no established optimal approach for transitioning opioid-dependent adults to extended-release injection naltrexone (XR-naltrexone) while preventing relapse. The authors conducted a trial examining the efficacy of two methods of outpatient opioid detoxification for induction to XR-naltrexone. Participants were 150 opioid-dependent adults randomly assigned 2:1 to one of two outpatient detoxification regimens, naltrexone-assisted detoxification or buprenorphine-assisted detoxification, followed by an injection of XR-naltrexone. Naltrexone-assisted detoxification lasted 7 days and included a single day of buprenorphine followed by ascending doses of oral naltrexone along with clonidine and other adjunctive medications. Buprenorphine-assisted detoxification included a 7-day buprenorphine taper followed by a week-long delay before administration of XR-naltrexone, consistent with official prescribing information for XR-naltrexone. Participants from both groups received behavioral therapy focused on medication adherence and a second dose of XR-naltrexone. Compared with participants in the buprenorphine-assisted detoxification condition, participants assigned to naltrexone-assisted detoxification were significantly more likely to be successfully inducted to XR-naltrexone (56.1% compared with 32.7%) and to receive the second injection at week 5 (50.0% compared with 26.9%). Both models adjusted for primary type of opioid use, route of opioid administration, and morphine equivalents at baseline. These results demonstrate the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of low-dose naltrexone, in conjunction with single-day buprenorphine dosing and adjunctive nonopioid medications, for initiating adults with opioid dependence to XR-naltrexone. This strategy offers a promising alternative to the high rates of attrition and relapse currently observed with agonist tapers in both inpatient and outpatient settings.

  2. Comparative treatment and mortality correlates and adverse event profile of implant naltrexone and sublingual buprenorphine.

    PubMed

    Reece, Albert Stuart

    2009-10-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of implantable naltrexone as a new treatment for opiate dependence. This center has been one of the leaders in this form of treatment in Australia and has recently completed a registry-controlled review of our mortality data. As part of the study of the safety profile of this therapy, we were interested to review both the treatment correlates of previously presented mortality data and of adverse events. A total of 255 naltrexone implant therapy (NIT) and 2,518 buprenorphine (BUP) patients were followed for 1,322.22 and 8,030.02 patient-years, respectively. NIT patients had significantly longer days in treatment per episode (mean +/- standard deviation, 238.32 +/- 110.11 vs. 46.96 +/- 109.79), total treatment duration (371.21 +/- 284.64 vs. 162.50 +/- 245.76), and mean treatment times but fewer treatment episodes than BUP (all p < .0001). Serious local tissue reaction or infection each occurred in 1% of 200 NIT episodes. These data show that NIT economizes treatment resources without compromising safety concerns.

  3. Opposing neural effects of naltrexone on food reward and aversion: implications for the treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Murray, Elizabeth; Brouwer, Sietske; McCutcheon, Rob; Harmer, Catherine J; Cowen, Philip J; McCabe, Ciara

    2014-11-01

    Opioid antagonism reduces the consumption of palatable foods in humans but the neural substrates implicated in these effects are less well understood. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of the opioid antagonist, naltrexone, on neural response to rewarding and aversive sight and taste stimuli. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural responses to the sight and taste of pleasant (chocolate) and aversive (mouldy strawberry) stimuli in 20 healthy volunteers who received a single oral dose of naltrexone (50 mg) and placebo in a double-blind, repeated-measures cross-over, design. Relative to placebo, naltrexone decreased reward activation to chocolate in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and caudate, and increased aversive-related activation to unpleasant strawberry in the amygdala and anterior insula. These findings suggest that modulation of key brain areas involved in reward processing, cognitive control and habit formation such as the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and caudate might underlie reduction in food intake with opioid antagonism. Furthermore we show for the first time that naltrexone can increase activations related to aversive food stimuli. These results support further investigation of opioid treatments in obesity.

  4. Favorable mortality profile of naltrexone implants for opiate addiction.

    PubMed

    Reece, Albert Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Several reports express concern at the mortality associated with the use of oral naltrexone for opiate dependency. Registry controlled follow-up of patients treated with naltrexone implant and buprenorphine was performed. In the study, 255 naltrexone implant patients were followed for a mean (+/- standard deviation) of 5.22 +/- 1.87 years and 2,518 buprenorphine patients were followed for a mean (+/- standard deviation) of 3.19 +/- 1.61 years, accruing 1,332.22 and 8,030.02 patient-years of follow-up, respectively. The crude mortality rates were 3.00 and 5.35 per 1,000 patient-years, respectively, and the age standardized mortality rate ratio for naltrexone compared to buprenorphine was 0.676 (95% confidence interval = 0.014 to 1.338). Most sex, treatment group, and age comparisons significantly favored the naltrexone implant group. Mortality rates were shown to be comparable to, and intermediate between, published mortality rates of an age-standardized methadone treated cohort and the Australian population. These data suggest that the mortality rate from naltrexone implant is comparable to that of buprenorphine, methadone, and the Australian population.

  5. Injectable and implantable sustained release naltrexone in the treatment of opioid addiction

    PubMed Central

    Kunøe, Nikolaj; Lobmaier, Philipp; Ngo, Hanh; Hulse, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Sustained release technologies for administering the opioid antagonist naltrexone (SRX) have the potential to assist opioid-addicted patients in their efforts to maintain abstinence from heroin and other opioid agonists. Recently, reliable SRX formulations in intramuscular or implantable polymers that release naltrexone for 1–7 months have become available for clinical use and research. This qualitative review of the literature provides an overview of the technologies currently available for SRX and their effectiveness in reducing opioid use and other relevant outcomes. The majority of studies indicate that SRX is effective in reducing heroin use, and the most frequently studied SRX formulations have acceptable adverse events profiles. Registry data indicate a protective effect of SRX on mortality and morbidity. In some studies, SRX also seems to affect other outcomes, such as concomitant substance use, vocational training attendance, needle use, and risk behaviour for blood-borne diseases such as hepatitis or human immunodeficiency virus. There is a general need for more controlled studies, in particular to compare SRX with agonist maintenance treatment, to study combinations of SRX with behavioural interventions, and to study at-risk groups such as prison inmates or opioid-addicted pregnant patients. The literature suggests that sustained release naltrexone is a feasible, safe and effective option for assisting abstinence efforts in opioid addiction. PMID:23088328

  6. Injectable and implantable sustained release naltrexone in the treatment of opioid addiction.

    PubMed

    Kunøe, Nikolaj; Lobmaier, Philipp; Ngo, Hanh; Hulse, Gary

    2014-02-01

    Sustained release technologies for administering the opioid antagonist naltrexone (SRX) have the potential to assist opioid-addicted patients in their efforts to maintain abstinence from heroin and other opioid agonists. Recently, reliable SRX formulations in intramuscular or implantable polymers that release naltrexone for 1-7 months have become available for clinical use and research. This qualitative review of the literature provides an overview of the technologies currently available for SRX and their effectiveness in reducing opioid use and other relevant outcomes. The majority of studies indicate that SRX is effective in reducing heroin use, and the most frequently studied SRX formulations have acceptable adverse events profiles. Registry data indicate a protective effect of SRX on mortality and morbidity. In some studies, SRX also seems to affect other outcomes, such as concomitant substance use, vocational training attendance, needle use, and risk behaviour for blood-borne diseases such as hepatitis or human immunodeficiency virus. There is a general need for more controlled studies, in particular to compare SRX with agonist maintenance treatment, to study combinations of SRX with behavioural interventions, and to study at-risk groups such as prison inmates or opioid-addicted pregnant patients. The literature suggests that sustained release naltrexone is a feasible, safe and effective option for assisting abstinence efforts in opioid addiction. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Outcome predictors for problem drinkers treated with combined cognitive behavioral therapy and naltrexone.

    PubMed

    Vuoristo-Myllys, Salla; Lipsanen, Jari; Lahti, Jari; Kalska, Hely; Alho, Hannu

    2014-03-01

    The opioid antagonist naltrexone, combined with cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), has proven efficacious for patients with alcohol dependence, but studies examining how this treatment works in a naturalistic treatment setting are lacking. This study examined predictors of the outcome of targeted naltrexone and CBT in a real-life outpatient setting. Participants were 315 patients who attended a treatment program providing CBT combined with the targeted use of naltrexone. Mixture models for estimating developmental trajectories were used to examine change in patients' alcohol consumption and symptoms of alcohol craving from treatment entry until the end of the treatment (20 weeks) or dropout. Predictors of treatment outcome were examined with analyses of multinomial logistic regression. Minimal exclusion criteria were applied to enhance the generalizability of the findings. Regular drinking pattern, having no history of previous treatments, and high-risk alcohol consumption level before the treatment were associated with less change in alcohol use during the treatment. The patients with low-risk alcohol consumption level before the treatment had the most rapid reduction in alcohol craving. Patients who drank more alcohol during the treatment had lower adherence with naltrexone. Medication non-adherence is a major barrier to naltrexone's effectiveness in a real-life treatment setting. Patients with more severe alcohol problems may need more intensive treatment for achieving better treatment outcome in real-word treatment settings.

  8. Naltrexone Reverses Ethanol Preference and Protein Kinase C Activation in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Koyyada, Rajeswari; Latchooman, Nilesh; Jonaitis, Julius; Ayoub, Samir S.; Corcoran, Olivia; Casalotti, Stefano O.

    2018-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a major health, social and economic problem for which there are few effective treatments. The opiate antagonist naltrexone is currently prescribed clinically with mixed success. We have used naltrexone in an established behavioral assay (CAFE) in Drosophila melanogaster that measures the flies' preference for ethanol-containing food. We have confirmed that Drosophila exposed to ethanol develop a preference toward this drug and we demonstrate that naltrexone, in a dose dependant manner, reverses the ethanol-induced ethanol preference. This effect is not permanent, as preference for alcohol returns after discontinuing naltrexone. Additionally, naltrexone reduced the alcohol-induced increase in protein kinase C activity. These findings are of interest because they confirm that Drosophila is a useful model for studying human responses to addictive drugs. Additionally because of the lack of a closely conserved opiate system in insects, our results could either indicate that a functionally related system does exist in insects or that in insects, and potentially also in mammals, naltrexone binds to alternative sites. Identifying such sites could lead to improved treatment strategies for AUD. PMID:29593550

  9. An Evaluation of μ-Opioid Receptor (OPRM1) as a Predictor of Naltrexone Response in the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Raymond F.; Oroszi, Gabor; O'Malley, Stephanie; Couper, David; Swift, Robert; Pettinati, Helen; Goldman, David

    2008-01-01

    Context: Naltrexone hydrochloride treatment for alcohol dependence works for some individuals but not for everyone. Asn40Asp, a functional polymorphism of the μ-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1), might predict naltrexone response. Objective: To evaluate whether individuals with alcoholism who are heterozygous (Asp40/Asn40) or homozygous (Asp40/Asp40) for the OPRM1 Asp40 allele respond better to naltrexone. Design: Pharmacogenetic analysis conducted between January 1, 2001, and January 31, 2004. Setting: Eleven academic sites in the COMBINE Study. Participants: Recently abstinent volunteers who met all 3 of the following conditions: (1) DSM-IV criteria for primary alcohol dependence; (2) participation in the COMBINE Study; and (3) availability of DNA. Interventions: Alcoholic subjects were treated for 16 weeks with 100 mg of naltrexone hydrochloride (234 Asn40 homozygotes and 67 with at least 1 copy of the Asp40 allele) or placebo (235 Asn40 homozygotes and 68 with at least 1 copy of the Asp40 allele). All participants received medical management (MM) alone or with combined behavioral intervention (CBI). Main Outcome Measures: Time trends in percentage of days abstinent, percentage of heavy drinking days, and rates of good clinical outcome. Results: Alcoholic subjects with an Asp40 allele receiving MM alone (no CBI) had an increased percentage of days abstinent (P=.07) and a decreased percentage of heavy drinking days (P=.04) if treated with naltrexone vs placebo, while those with the Asn40/Asn40 genotype showed no medication differences. If treated with MM alone and naltrexone, 87.1% of Asp40 carriers had a good clinical outcome, compared with only 54.8% of individuals with the Asn40/Asn40 genotype (odds ratio, 5.75; confidence interval, 1.88-17.54), while, if treated with placebo, 48.6% of Asp40 carriers and 54.0% of individuals with the Asn40/Asn40 genotype had a good clinical outcome (interaction between medication and genotype, P=.005). No gene

  10. Low dose Naltrexone for induction of remission in inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    PubMed

    Lie, Mitchell R K L; van der Giessen, Janine; Fuhler, Gwenny M; de Lima, Alison; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; van der Ent, Cokkie; van der Woude, C Janneke

    2018-03-09

    Around 30% of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are refractory to current IBD drugs or relapse over time. Novel treatments are called for, and low dose Naltrexone (LDN) may provide a safe, easily accessible alternative treatment option for these patients. We investigated the potential of LDN to induce clinical response in therapy refractory IBD patients, and investigated its direct effects on epithelial barrier function. Patients not in remission and not responding to conventional therapy were offered to initiate LDN as a concomitant treatment. In total 47 IBD patients prescribed LDN were followed prospectively for 12 weeks. Where available, endoscopic remission data, serum and biopsies were collected. Further the effect of Naltrexone on wound healing (scratch assay), cytokine production and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (GRP78 and CHOP western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry) were investigated in HCT116 and CACO2 intestinal epithelial cells, human IBD intestinal organoids and patient samples. Low dose Naltrexone induced clinical improvement in 74.5%, and remission in 25.5% of patients. Naltrexone improved wound healing and reduced ER stress induced by Tunicamycin, lipopolysaccharide or bacteria in epithelial barriers. Inflamed mucosa from IBD patients showed high ER stress levels, which was reduced in patients treated with LDN. Cytokine levels in neither epithelial cells nor serum from IBD patients were affected. Naltrexone directly improves epithelial barrier function by improving wound healing and reducing mucosal ER stress levels. Low dose Naltrexone treatment is effective and safe, and could be considered for the treatment of therapy refractory IBD patients.

  11. The Mixed Opioid Receptor Antagonist Naltrexone Mitigates Stimulant-Induced Euphoria: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Naltrexone.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Thomas J; Bhide, Pradeep; Zhu, Jinmin; Faraone, Stephen V; Fitzgerald, Maura; Yule, Amy M; Uchida, Mai; Spencer, Andrea E; Hall, Anna M; Koster, Ariana J; Feinberg, Leah; Kassabian, Sarah; Storch, Barbara; Biederman, Joseph

    Supratherapeutic doses of methylphenidate activate μ-opioid receptors, which are linked to euphoria. This study assessed whether naltrexone, a mixed μ-opioid antagonist, may attenuate the euphoric effects of stimulants, thereby minimizing their abuse potential in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted a 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of naltrexone in adults with DSM-IV ADHD receiving open treatment with a long-acting formulation of methylphenidate (January 2013 to June 2015). Spheroidal Oral Drug Absorption System methylphenidate (SODAS-MPH) was administered twice daily, was titrated to ~1 mg/kg/d over 3 weeks, and was continued for 3 additional weeks depending on response and adverse effects. Subjects were adults with ADHD preselected for having experienced euphoria with an oral test dose of 60 mg of immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH). The primary outcome measure was Question 2 (Liking a Drug Effect) on the Drug Rating Questionnaire, Subject version, which was assessed after oral test doses of 60 mg of IR-MPH were administered after the third and sixth weeks of treatment with SODAS-MPH. Thirty-seven subjects who experienced stimulant-induced (mild) euphoria at a baseline visit were started in the open trial of SODAS-MPH and randomized to naltrexone 50 mg/d or placebo. Thirty-one subjects completed through week 3, and 25 completed through week 6. Naltrexone significantly diminished the euphoric effect of IR-MPH during the heightened-risk titration phase (primary outcome; first 3 weeks) (χ² = 5.07, P = .02) but not the maintenance phase (weeks 4-6) (χ² = 0.22, P = .64) of SODAS-MPH treatment. Preclinical findings are extended to humans showing that naltrexone may mitigate stimulant-associated euphoria. Our findings provide support for further studies combining opioid receptor antagonists with stimulants to reduce abuse potential. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01673594.

  12. Meta-analysis of naltrexone and acamprosate for treating alcohol use disorders: When are these medications most helpful?

    PubMed Central

    Maisel, Natalya C.; Blodgett, Janet C.; Wilbourne, Paula L.; Humphreys, Keith; Finney, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Although debates over the efficacy of oral naltrexone and acamprosate in treating alcohol use disorders tend to focus on their global efficacy relative to placebo or their efficacy relative to each other, the underlying reality may be more nuanced. This meta-analysis examined when naltrexone and acamprosate are most helpful by testing: (1) the relative efficacy of each medication given its presumed mechanism of action (reducing heavy drinking versus fostering abstinence) and (2) whether different ways of implementing each medication (required abstinence before treatment, detoxification before treatment, goal of treatment, length of treatment, dosage) moderate its effects. Methods A systematic literature search identified 64 randomized, placebo-controlled, English-language clinical trials completed between 1970 and 2009 focused on acamprosate or naltrexone. Results Acamprosate had a significantly larger effect size than naltrexone on the maintenance of abstinence, and naltrexone had a larger effect size than acamprosate on the reduction of heavy drinking and craving. For naltrexone, requiring abstinence before the trial was associated with larger effect sizes for abstinence maintenance and reduced heavy drinking compared to placebo. For acamprosate, detoxification before medication administration was associated with better abstinence outcomes compared to placebo. Conclusions In treatment for alcohol use disorders, acamprosate has been found to be slightly more efficacious in promoting abstinence and naltrexone slightly more efficacious in reducing heavy drinking and craving. Detoxification before treatment or a longer period of required abstinence before treatment is associated with larger medication effects for acamprosate and naltrexone, respectively. PMID:23075288

  13. Effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of oxycodone and naltrexone from ALO-02, an extended release formulation of oxycodone with sequestered naltrexone.

    PubMed

    Gandelman, Kuan; Lamson, Michael; Salageanu, Joanne; Bramson, Candace; Matschke, Kyle; Malhotra, Bimal

    2015-09-01

    ALO-02 is being developed as an abuse-deterrent formulation of extended-release oxycodone hydrochloride with naltrexone hydrochloride sequestered in the core of pellets contained in capsules. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effects of administration of ALO-02 capsule whole under fed conditions or sprinkling the pellets from ALO-02 capsule on applesauce under fasting conditions on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of oxycodone, naltrexone and 6-ß-naltrexol compared with ALO-02 capsule administered whole under fasting conditions. The plasma naltrexone and 6-ß-naltrexol concentrations were used to assess the sequestration of naltrexone in the ALO-02 formulation. The secondary objective was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of single 40 mg doses of ALO-02 in healthy volunteers. This was an IRB-approved, open-label, single-dose, randomized, 3-period crossover study in 24 healthy adult volunteers, aged 18-55 years. Each subject was assigned to receive single 40 mg doses of ALO-02 administered whole (intact capsule) under fasting conditions, administered whole under fed conditions (high-fat breakfast ∼ 950 calories), or sprinkling the contents of the ALO-02 capsule (pellets) over applesauce and swallowing the dose without chewing under fasting conditions. Each treatment was separated by a 7-day washout interval. Plasma samples were analyzed just before dosing through 48 hours postdose for oxycodone, and through 120 hours postdose for naltrexone and its major metabolite, 6-ß-naltrexol. Pharmacokinetic parameters included maximum plasma concentration [Cmax ], area under the plasma concentration-time profile from time 0 to infinity [AUCinf ] and to the last quantifiable concentration [AUClast ], time to Cmax [Tmax ], and terminal half life [t1/2 ]. Adverse events, vital signs, and laboratory parameters were monitored for safety assessment. The t1/2 and Tmax values for oxycodone were similar for all 3 treatments. There was a lack of effect of

  14. Long-acting injectable versus oral naltrexone maintenance therapy with psychosocial intervention for heroin dependence: a quasi-experiment.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Adam C; Comer, Sandra D; Sullivan, Maria A; Bisaga, Adam; Carpenter, Kenneth M; Raby, Wilfrid M; Yu, Elmer; O'Brien, Charles P; Nunes, Edward V

    2010-10-01

    To conduct a quasi-experimental comparison of early clinical outcomes between injectable, sustained-release, depot naltrexone formulation versus oral naltrexone maintenance therapy in individuals with opiate dependence. Early retention in treatment and urine-confirmed opiate use in the first 8 weeks postdetoxification were compared between patients (diagnosed as opiate-dependent according to DSM-IV criteria) participating in 2 concurrently run randomized clinical trials of oral (n = 69; patients treated from September 1999 to May 2002) and long-acting injectable (n = 42; patients treated from November 2000 to June 2003) naltrexone maintenance therapy with psychosocial therapy. Long-acting injectable naltrexone produced significantly better outcome than oral naltrexone on days retained in treatment (F(1,106) = 6.49, P = .012) and for 1 measure of opiate use (F(1,106) = 5.26, P = .024); other measures were not significantly different, but differences were in the same direction. In subanalyses, there were interaction effects between baseline heroin use severity and type of treatment. In subanalyses, heroin users with more severe baseline use showed better retention with oral naltrexone maintenance therapy combined with intensive psychotherapy (behavioral naltrexone therapy) as compared to retention shown by severe heroin users treated with long-acting naltrexone injections combined with standard cognitive-behavioral therapy (χ²(1)= 9.31, P = .002); less severe heroin users evidenced better outcomes when treated with long-acting injectable naltrexone. This quasi-experimental analysis provides tentative indications of superior outcomes for heroin-dependent patients treated with long-acting injectable naltrexone compared to oral naltrexone. The finding that heroin users with more severe baseline use achieved better outcomes with oral naltrexone is most probably attributable to the intensive nature of the psychosocial treatments provided and points to the opportunity

  15. Naltrexone treatment reverses astrocyte atrophy and immune dysfunction in self-harming macaques

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kim M.; Chiu, Kevin B.; Didier, Peter J.; Baker, Kate C.; MacLean, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    The role of glia in the development and treatment of behavioral abnormalities is understudied. Recent reports have observed glial activation in several disorders, including depression, autism spectrum disorders and self-injurious behaviors (SIB). In the current study, we examined SIB in the physiologically and anatomically relevant nonhuman primate (NHP) model. At the Tulane National Primate Research Center (TNPRC), approximately 5% of singly housed macaques develop symptoms of SIB. We have previously demonstrated that naltrexone hydrochloride can be effective in reducing SIB. We have also demonstrated that the astrocytes of animals with SIB are distinctly atrophic and display heightened innate immune activation compared with control animals. We have added a third group of animals (five macaques identified with SIB and treated with oral naltrexone at a dose of 3.2 mg/kg) to the previous cohort (six macaques with a history of SIB but not treated, and nine animals with no history of SIB) for this study. Gray and white matter astrocytes from frontal cortical tissue were examined following necropsy. Innate immune activation of astrocytes, which was increased in SIB animals, was markedly decreased in animals receiving naltrexone, as was atrophy of both grey and white matter astrocytes. This was concomitant with improved behavioral correlates. Preventing astrocyte activation in select areas of the brain to reduce injurious behavior is an innovative concept with implications for mental health studies. Differences in multiple areas of primate brain would help determine how self-injurious behavior develops. These studies suggest a stronger role for astrocytes in the cellular events associated with self-injurious behaviors. PMID:26191654

  16. Cigarette Smoking Predicts Differential Benefit from Naltrexone for Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Fucito, Lisa M.; Park, Aesoon; Gulliver, Suzy Bird; Mattson, Margaret E.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza V.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Identifying factors that modify responsiveness to pharmacotherapies for alcohol dependence is important for treatment planning. Cigarette smoking predicts more severe alcohol dependence and poorer treatment response in general. Nevertheless, there is limited research on cigarette smoking as a potential predictor of differential response to pharmacological treatment of alcoholism. Methods We examined the association between cigarette smoking and drinking outcomes in the COMBINE study, a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled 16-week trial comparing combinations of medications (i.e., acamprosate and naltrexone) and behavioral interventions (i.e., medical management (MM), combined behavioral therapy (CBI)) in 1383 alcohol dependent individuals. Results Smokers (i.e., more than half the sample) significantly differed from nonsmokers on several demographic and drinking-related variables at baseline and generally had poorer treatment outcomes than nonsmokers. However, smokers who received naltrexone had better drinking outcomes than smokers who received placebo, whereas alcohol use among nonsmokers did not vary by naltrexone assignment. This pattern of findings occurred independent of whether patients received CBI or MM and remained after controlling for alcoholism typology and baseline demographic differences. Approximately 9% of smokers quit smoking and an additional 10% reduced their cigarette intake during treatment. Reductions in smoking did not vary by treatment assignment. Conclusions These results suggest that naltrexone may be particularly beneficial for improving alcohol use outcomes in alcohol dependent smokers. Trial Registration The COMBINE Study, NCT000626, http://www.cscc.unc.edu/combine/. PMID:22541040

  17. Combined administration of buprenorphine and naltrexone produces antidepressant-like effects in mice

    PubMed Central

    Almatroudi, Abdulrahman; Husbands, Stephen M.; Bailey, Christopher P.; Bailey, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    Opiates have been used historically for the treatment of depression. Renewed interest in the use of opiates as antidepressants has focussed on the development of kappa opioid receptor (κ-receptor) antagonists. Buprenorphine acts as a partial μ-opioid receptor agonist and a κ-receptor antagonist. By combining buprenorphine with the opioid antagonist naltrexone, the activation of μ-opioid receptors would be reduced and the κ-antagonist properties enhanced. We have established that a combination dose of buprenorphine (1mg/kg) with naltrexone (1mg/kg) functions as a short-acting κ-antagonist in the mouse tail withdrawal test. Furthermore, this dose combination is neither rewarding nor aversive in the conditioned place preference paradigm and is without significant locomotor effects. We have shown for the first time that systemic co-administration of buprenorphine (1mg/kg) with naltrexone (1mg/kg) in CD-1 mice produced significant antidepressant-like responses in behaviours in both the forced swim test and novelty induced hypophagia task. Behaviours in the elevated plus maze and light dark box were not significantly altered by treatment with buprenorphine alone, or in combination with naltrexone. We propose that the combination of buprenorphine with naltrexone represents a novel, and potentially a readily translatable approach, to the treatment of depression. PMID:26045511

  18. [Treatment of a serious autistic disorder in a child with Naltrexone in an oral suspension form].

    PubMed

    Desjardins, S; Doyen, C; Contejean, Y; Kaye, K; Paubel, P

    2009-04-01

    CLINICAL BACKGROUND: Autism is a developmental disorder that is usually diagnosed in early childhood. According to ICD-10 criteria, autism can be characterized by delays in language skills, by impaired social interaction, verbal or non-verbal communication and by repetitive, stereotyped or severely restricted activities and interests. The causes of autism are not yet elucidated, but both genetics and environment seem to play a role in 10 to 25% of autism cases. Several biochemical abnormalities, such as impairment of serotoninergic, catecholinergic, dopaminergic, and opioid systems have been reported. Autism therapies are designed to treat symptoms, and medication can be associated with psychoeducational and environmental interventions. Generally, the medications that are currently used are not intended for autism, and must be used with caution and selected according to the type and intensity of symptoms. The most common medication consists of psychotropic therapies by administration of dopaminergic and/or serotoninergic receptor antagonists (haloperidol, risperidone, clomipramine). Several drugs, such as anxiolytics (buspirone), mood stabilisers (lithium, sodium valproate), vitamins (vitamins B6, B12) or opioid antagonists (naltrexone) can be prescribed, in second intention, in cases of severe behavioural disorders. The prescription of opioid antagonists is based on the possible implication of an opioid system disorder observed in some cases. Nevertheless, several clinical studies reveal its variable effectiveness. Naltrexone is a competitive antagonist of opioid receptors OPRM1, OPRD1 and OPRK1. In France, this drug is prescribed for treating opioid and alcohol dependence. Moreover, several studies describe naltrexone as a possible treatment of autistic children in cases of developmental disorder and hyperactivity. In the Child and Adolescent Psychopathology Department of Sainte-Anne's Hospital, autistic children benefit from a multidisciplinary treatment program

  19. Opioid Detoxification and Naltrexone Induction Strategies: Recommendations for Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Sigmon, Stacey C.; Bisaga, Adam; Nunes, Edward V.; O'Connor, Patrick G.; Kosten, Thomas; Woody, George

    2015-01-01

    Background Opioid dependence is a significant public health problem associated with high risk for relapse if treatment is not ongoing. While maintenance on opioid agonists (i.e., methadone, buprenorphine) often produces favorable outcomes, detoxification followed by treatment with the μ-opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone may offer a potentially useful alternative to agonist maintenance for some patients. Method Treatment approaches for making this transition are described here based on a literature review and solicitation of opinions from several expert clinicians and scientists regarding patient selection, level of care, and detoxification strategies. Conclusion Among the current detoxification regimens, the available clinical and scientific data suggest that the best approach may be using an initial 2–4 mg dose of buprenorphine combined with clonidine, other ancillary medications, and progressively increasing doses of oral naltrexone over 3–5 days up to the target dose of naltrexone. However, more research is needed to empirically validate the best approach for making this transition. PMID:22404717

  20. Naltrexone treatment reverses astrocyte atrophy and immune dysfunction in self-harming macaques.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kim M; Chiu, Kevin B; Didier, Peter J; Baker, Kate C; MacLean, Andrew G

    2015-11-01

    The role of glia in the development and treatment of behavioral abnormalities is understudied. Recent reports have observed glial activation in several disorders, including depression, autism spectrum disorders and self-injurious behaviors (SIB). In the current study, we examined SIB in the physiologically and anatomically relevant nonhuman primate (NHP) model. At the Tulane National Primate Research Center (TNPRC), approximately 5% of singly housed macaques develop symptoms of SIB. We have previously demonstrated that naltrexone hydrochloride can be effective in reducing SIB. We have also demonstrated that the astrocytes of animals with SIB are distinctly atrophic and display heightened innate immune activation compared with control animals. We have added a third group of animals (five macaques identified with SIB and treated with oral naltrexone at a dose of 3.2mg/kg) to the previous cohort (six macaques with a history of SIB but not treated, and nine animals with no history of SIB) for this study. Gray and white matter astrocytes from frontal cortical tissue were examined following necropsy. Innate immune activation of astrocytes, which was increased in SIB animals, was markedly decreased in animals receiving naltrexone, as was atrophy of both grey and white matter astrocytes. This was concomitant with improved behavioral correlates. Preventing astrocyte activation in select areas of the brain to reduce injurious behavior is an innovative concept with implications for mental health studies. Differences in multiple areas of primate brain would help determine how self-injurious behavior develops. These studies suggest a stronger role for astrocytes in the cellular events associated with self-injurious behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultra-low dose naltrexone attenuates chronic morphine-induced gliosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Mattioli, Theresa-Alexandra M; Milne, Brian; Cahill, Catherine M

    2010-04-16

    The development of analgesic tolerance following chronic morphine administration can be a significant clinical problem. Preclinical studies demonstrate that chronic morphine administration induces spinal gliosis and that inhibition of gliosis prevents the development of analgesic tolerance to opioids. Many studies have also demonstrated that ultra-low doses of naltrexone inhibit the development of spinal morphine antinociceptive tolerance and clinical studies demonstrate that it has opioid sparing effects. In this study we demonstrate that ultra-low dose naltrexone attenuates glial activation, which may contribute to its effects on attenuating tolerance. Spinal cord sections from rats administered chronic morphine showed significantly increased immuno-labelling of astrocytes and microglia compared to saline controls, consistent with activation. 3-D images of astrocytes from animals administered chronic morphine had significantly larger volumes compared to saline controls. Co-injection of ultra-low dose naltrexone attenuated this increase in volume, but the mean volume differed from saline-treated and naltrexone-treated controls. Astrocyte and microglial immuno-labelling was attenuated in rats co-administered ultra-low dose naltrexone compared to morphine-treated rats and did not differ from controls. Glial activation, as characterized by immunohistochemical labelling and cell size, was positively correlated with the extent of tolerance developed. Morphine-induced glial activation was not due to cell proliferation as there was no difference observed in the total number of glial cells following chronic morphine treatment compared to controls. Furthermore, using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine, no increase in spinal cord cell proliferation was observed following chronic morphine administration. Taken together, we demonstrate a positive correlation between the prevention of analgesic tolerance and the inhibition of spinal gliosis by treatment with ultra-low dose naltrexone

  2. Naltrexone Maintenance Decreases Cannabis Self-Administration and Subjective Effects in Daily Cannabis Smokers.

    PubMed

    Haney, Margaret; Ramesh, Divya; Glass, Andrew; Pavlicova, Martina; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D

    2015-10-01

    Given that cannabis use is increasing in the United States, pharmacological treatment options to treat cannabis use disorder are needed. Opioid antagonists modulate cannabinoid effects and may offer a potential approach to reducing cannabis use. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study, we assessed the effects of naltrexone maintenance on the reinforcing, subjective, psychomotor, and cardiovascular effects of active and inactive cannabis. Nontreatment-seeking, daily cannabis smokers were randomized to receive naltrexone (50 mg: n=18 M and 5 F) or placebo (0 mg; n=26 M and 2 F) capsules for 16 days. Before, during, and after medication maintenance, participants completed 10 laboratory sessions over 4-6 weeks, assessing cannabis' behavioral and cardiovascular effects. Medication compliance was verified by observed capsule administration, plasma naltrexone, and urinary riboflavin. Relative to placebo, maintenance on naltrexone significantly reduced both active cannabis self-administration and its positive subjective effects ('good effect'). Participants in the placebo group had 7.6 times (95% CI: 1.1-51.8) the odds of self-administering active cannabis compared with the naltrexone group. This attenuation of reinforcing and positive subjective effects also influenced cannabis use in the natural ecology. Naltrexone had intrinsic effects: decreasing ratings of friendliness, food intake, and systolic blood pressure, and increasing spontaneous reports of stomach upset and headache, yet dropout rates were comparable between groups. In summary, we show for the first time that maintenance on naltrexone decreased cannabis self-administration and ratings of 'good effect' in nontreatment-seeking daily cannabis smokers. Clinical studies in patients motivated to reduce their cannabis use are warranted to evaluate naltrexone's efficacy as a treatment for cannabis use disorder.

  3. Naltrexone in alcohol dependence: a randomised controlled trial of effectiveness in a standard clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Latt, Noeline C; Jurd, Stephen; Houseman, Jennie; Wutzke, Sonia E

    2002-06-03

    To determine whether naltrexone is beneficial in the treatment of alcohol dependence in the absence of obligatory psychosocial intervention. Multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Hospital-based drug and alcohol clinics, 18 March 1998 - 22 October 1999. 107 patients (mean age, 45 years) fulfilling Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th edition) criteria for alcohol dependence. Patients with alcohol dependence were randomly allocated to naltrexone (50 mg/day) or placebo for 12 weeks. They were medically assessed, reviewed and advised by one physician, and encouraged to strive for abstinence and attend counselling and/or Alcoholics Anonymous, but this was not obligatory. Relapse rate; time to first relapse; side effects. On an intention-to-treat basis, the Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed a clear advantage in relapse rates for naltrexone over placebo (log-rank test, chi(2)(1) = 4.15; P = 0.042). This treatment effect was most marked in the first 6 weeks of the trial. The median time to relapse was 90 days for naltrexone, compared with 42 days for placebo. In absolute numbers, 19 of 56 patients (33.9%) taking naltrexone relapsed, compared with 27 of 51 patients (52.9%) taking placebo (P = 0.047). Naltrexone was well tolerated. Unlike previous studies, we have shown that naltrexone with adjunctive medical advice is effective in the treatment of alcohol dependence irrespective of whether it is accompanied by psychosocial interventions.

  4. Maternally Administered Sustained-Release Naltrexone in Rats Affects Offspring Neurochemistry and Behaviour in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Krstew, Elena V.; Tait, Robert J.; Hulse, Gary K.

    2012-01-01

    Naltrexone is not recommended during pregnancy. However, sustained-release naltrexone implant use in humans has resulted in cases of inadvertent foetal exposure. Here, we used clinically relevant dosing to examine the effects of maternally administered sustained-release naltrexone on the rat brain by examining offspring at birth and in adulthood. Maternal treatment (naltrexone or placebo implant) started before conception and ceased during gestation, birth or weaning. Morphometry was assessed in offspring at birth and adulthood. Adult offspring were evaluated for differences in locomotor behaviour (basal and morphine-induced, 10 mg/kg, s.c.) and opioid neurochemistry, propensity to self-administer morphine and cue-induced drug-seeking after abstinence. Blood analysis confirmed offspring exposure to naltrexone during gestation, birth and weaning. Naltrexone exposure increased litter size and reduced offspring birth-weight but did not alter brain morphometry. Compared to placebo, basal motor activity of naltrexone-exposed adult offspring was lower, yet they showed enhanced development of psychomotor sensitization to morphine. Developmental naltrexone exposure was associated with resistance to morphine-induced down-regulation of striatal preproenkephalin mRNA expression in adulthood. Adult offspring also exhibited greater operant responding for morphine and, in addition, cue-induced drug-seeking was enhanced. Collectively, these data show pronounced effects of developmental naltrexone exposure, some of which persist into adulthood, highlighting the need for follow up of humans that were exposed to naltrexone in utero. PMID:23300784

  5. Naltrexone Maintenance Decreases Cannabis Self-Administration and Subjective Effects in Daily Cannabis Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Haney, Margaret; Ramesh, Divya; Glass, Andrew; Pavlicova, Martina; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D

    2015-01-01

    Given that cannabis use is increasing in the United States, pharmacological treatment options to treat cannabis use disorder are needed. Opioid antagonists modulate cannabinoid effects and may offer a potential approach to reducing cannabis use. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study, we assessed the effects of naltrexone maintenance on the reinforcing, subjective, psychomotor, and cardiovascular effects of active and inactive cannabis. Nontreatment-seeking, daily cannabis smokers were randomized to receive naltrexone (50 mg: n=18 M and 5 F) or placebo (0 mg; n=26 M and 2 F) capsules for 16 days. Before, during, and after medication maintenance, participants completed 10 laboratory sessions over 4–6 weeks, assessing cannabis' behavioral and cardiovascular effects. Medication compliance was verified by observed capsule administration, plasma naltrexone, and urinary riboflavin. Relative to placebo, maintenance on naltrexone significantly reduced both active cannabis self-administration and its positive subjective effects (‘good effect'). Participants in the placebo group had 7.6 times (95% CI: 1.1–51.8) the odds of self-administering active cannabis compared with the naltrexone group. This attenuation of reinforcing and positive subjective effects also influenced cannabis use in the natural ecology. Naltrexone had intrinsic effects: decreasing ratings of friendliness, food intake, and systolic blood pressure, and increasing spontaneous reports of stomach upset and headache, yet dropout rates were comparable between groups. In summary, we show for the first time that maintenance on naltrexone decreased cannabis self-administration and ratings of ‘good effect' in nontreatment-seeking daily cannabis smokers. Clinical studies in patients motivated to reduce their cannabis use are warranted to evaluate naltrexone's efficacy as a treatment for cannabis use disorder. PMID:25881117

  6. Naltrexone

    MedlinePlus

    ... other information should I know? Brand names IMPORTANT WARNING: Naltrexone may cause liver damage when taken in ... these symptoms or those listed in the IMPORTANT WARNING section, call your doctor immediately: confusion hallucinations (seeing ...

  7. Naltrexone in organic bulimia: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Childs, A

    1987-01-01

    Multiple lines of experimental evidence point to the involvement of endogenous opiates in appetite regulation. Post brain injury patients often exhibit driven eating behaviour. Since this problem fails to respond to behaviour modification, appetite suppressants, lithium, or any other usual approach, the use of the oral narcotic antagonist, Naltrexone, was given to three such patients. Naltrexone binds multiple opiate receptor sites in the hypothalamus, including the kappa receptors which have been implicated in appetite regulation, the use of this narcotic antagonist in hypothalamic hyperphagia appears to be a rational approach to this intractable problem. In this open trial, lasting from 4 1/2 to 9 months, the minimal effective dose appeared to be in the range of 100 mg per day. No side-effects (for example elevations in liver enzymes) were noted. All of the patients had an improved sense of well-being and their behaviours were less difficult to manage when on the Naltrexone. The significance of this preliminary trial is that narcotic antagonists may have a role in the treatment of brain-injured patients with bulimia. Also, Naltrexone may be useful in treating other maladaptive behavioural consequences of head trauma such as stealing, manipulation, demandingness, and depression. Likewise, the effects on the deranged endocrine system, such as the hypogonadism, are significant and deserve further exploration.

  8. Relative oral bioavailability of morphine and naltrexone derived from crushed morphine sulfate and naltrexone hydrochloride extended-release capsules versus intact product and versus naltrexone solution: a single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, three-way crossover trial in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Franklin K; Stark, Jeffrey G; Bieberdorf, Frederick A; Stauffer, Joe

    2010-06-01

    Morphine sulfate/sequestered naltrexone hydrochloride (HCl) (MS-sNT) extended-release fixed-dose combination capsules, approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in August 2009 for chronic moderate to severe pain, contain extended-release morphine pellets with a sequestered core of the opioid antagonist naltrexone. MS-sNT was designed so that if the product is tampered with by crushing, the naltrexone becomes bioavailable to mitigate morphine-induced subjective effects, rendering the product less attractive for tampering. The primary aim of this study was to compare the oral bioavailability of naltrexone and its metabolite 6-beta-naltrexol, derived from crushed pellets from MS-sNT capsules, to naltrexone solution. This study also assessed the relative bioavailability of morphine from crushed pellets from MS-sNT capsules and that from the whole, intact product. This single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, 3-period, 3-treatment crossover trial was conducted in healthy volunteers. Adults admitted to the study center underwent a 10-hour overnight fast before study drug administration. Each subject received all 3 of the following treatments, 1 per session, separated by a 14-day washout: tampered pellets (crushed for >or=2 minutes with a mortar and pestle) from a 60-mg MS-sNT capsule (60 mg morphine/2.4 mg naltrexone); 60-mg whole, intact MS-sNT capsule; and oral naltrexone HCl (2.4 mg) solution. Plasma concentrations of naltrexone and 6-beta-naltrexol were measured 0 to 168 hours after administration. Morphine pharmaco-kinetics of crushed and whole pellets were determined 0 to 72 hours after administration. The analysis of relative bioavailability was based on conventional FDA criteria for assuming bioequivalence; that is, 90% CIs for ratios of geometric means (natural logarithm [In]-transformed C(max) and AUC) fell within the range of 80% to 125%. Subjects underwent physical examinations, clinical laboratory tests, and ECG at screening and study

  9. Naltrexone + bupropion (Mysimba). Too risky for only modest weight loss.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    Weight loss and its long-term maintenance are mainly based on dietary measures and regular physical activity. There are currently no weight-loss medications with a favourable harm-benefit balance. Bupropion is chemically related to certain amphetamines, while naltrexone is an opioid receptor antagonist. A fixed-dose combination of these two drugs has received marketing authorisation in the European Union for obese patients and for over-weight patients with other cardiovascular risk factors. In five placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blind trials, the patients, weighing on average between 100 kg and 105 kg (average body mass index 36 kg/m2), the naltrexone + bupropion combination was associated with an average weight loss of a few additional kilograms compared with placebo, after 6 months or one year of treatment. There are no post-trial follow-up data to show whether or not the patients regained their lost weight after treatment discontinuation. One trial including more than 8900 patients examined the effect of the naltrexone + bupropion combination on the freauency of maior cardiovascular events, but poor handling of an interim analysis undermined the validity of the final results. The known adverse effects of bupropion consist of potentially severe neuropsychiatric disorders such as aggressiveness, depression and suicidal ideation, and also allergic reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Misuse and excessive consumption have been reported. In trials in obese or overweight patients, the naltrexone + bupropion combination caused sometimes severe neuropsychiatric disorders, including seizures, cognitive impairment, dizziness, anxiety, sleep disorders and psychotic symptoms. In clinical trials, the combination led to an increase in blood pressure compared with placebo, and also an excess of cardiac arrhythmias. About half of patients who took naltrexone + bupropion experienced gastrointestinal disorders such as nausea, vomiting and constipation. The

  10. Effects of Naltrexone on Smoking Cessation Outcomes and Weight Gain in Nicotine-Dependent Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    King, Andrea C.; Cao, Dingcai; O'Malley, Stephanie S.; Kranzler, Henry R.; Cai, Xiaochen; deWit, Harriet; Matthews, Alicia K.; Stachoviak, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone is efficacious in smoking cessation and whether sex moderates the response. We assessed smoking quit rates and weight gain in a double-blind randomized trial comparing oral naltrexone (n = 162) with placebo (n = 154) in nicotine-dependent participants who wanted to quit smoking. The medication was gradually titrated up to 50 mg during the week before the quit date and then maintained at this dose for 12 weeks. For the first 4 weeks after the quit date, all participants received a nicotine patch to mitigate tobacco withdrawal and attended weekly individual cognitive-behavioral smoking cessation counseling sessions. After this time, participants continued with naltrexone or placebo through 12 weeks. Follow-up assessments were conducted at 26 and 52 weeks. During treatment, naltrexone (vs placebo) increased quit rates, attenuated smoking urge, and reduced weight gain. At follow-up, after medication discontinuation, the effect of naltrexone on improving quit rates was no longer evident. Men and women experienced different benefits from naltrexone; men showed greater reductions in smoking, whereas women showed greater reductions in weight gain. In sum, naltrexone showed acute efficacy in treating nicotine dependence, but after the medication was discontinued, the effect on quit rate was not maintained. Further study of naltrexone in smoking cessation treatment and reduction of cessation-related weight gain, as well as preclinical investigation of mechanisms underlying sex differences, is warranted. PMID:22926596

  11. Optimization of naltrexone diclofenac codrugs for sustained drug delivery across microneedle-treated skin.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Priyanka; Lee, DoMin; Kim, Kyung Bo; Stinchcomb, Audra L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to optimize the structure of codrugs for extended delivery across microneedle treated skin. Naltrexone, the model compound was linked with diclofenac, a nonspecific cyclooxygenase inhibitor to enhance the pore lifetime following microneedle treatment and develop a 7 day transdermal system for naltrexone. Four different codrugs of naltrexone and diclofenac were compared in terms of stability and solubility. Transdermal flux, permeability and skin concentration of both parent drugs and codrugs were quantified to form a structure permeability relationship. The results indicated that all codrugs bioconverted in the skin. The degree of conversion was dependent on the structure, phenol linked codrugs were less stable compared to the secondary alcohol linked structures. The flux of naltrexone across microneedle treated skin and the skin concentration of diclofenac were higher for the phenol linked codrugs. The polyethylene glycol link enhanced solubility of the codrugs, which translated into flux enhancement. The current studies indicated that formulation stability of codrugs and the flux of naltrexone can be enhanced via structure design optimization. The polyethylene glycol linked naltrexone diclofenac codrug is better suited for a 7 day drug delivery system both in terms of stability and drug delivery.

  12. Employment-based Reinforcement of Adherence to Oral Naltrexone in Unemployed Injection Drug Users: 12-month Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Kelly; DeFulio, Anthony; Everly, Jeffrey J.; Donlin, Wendy D.; Aklin, Will M.; Nuzzo, Paul A.; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S.; Umbricht, Annie; Fingerhood, Michael; Bigelow, George E.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Oral naltrexone could be a promising relapse prevention pharmacotherapy for recently detoxified opioid-dependent patients, however interventions are often needed to promote adherence with this treatment approach. We recently conducted a study to evaluate a 26-week employment-based reinforcement intervention of oral naltrexone in unemployed injection drug users (Dunn et al., 2013). Participants were randomly assigned into a Contingency (n=35) group required to ingest naltrexone under staff observation to gain entry into a therapeutic workplace, or a Prescription (n=32) group given a take-home supply of oral naltrexone and access to the workplace without observed ingestion. Monthly urine samples were collected and analyzed for evidence for naltrexone adherence, opioid use, and cocaine use. As previously reported, Contingency participants provided significantly more naltrexone-positive urine samples than Prescription participants during the 26-week intervention period. The goal of this current study is to report the 12-month outcomes, which occurred 6 months after the intervention ended. Results at the 12-month visit showed no between-group differences in naltrexone-positive, opioid-negative, or cocaine-negative urine samples, and no participant self-reported using naltrexone at the follow-up visit. These results show that even after a period of successfully reinforced oral naltrexone adherence longer-term naltrexone use is unlikely to be maintained after reinforcement contingencies are discontinued. PMID:25134047

  13. What role does measuring medication compliance play in evaluating the efficacy of naltrexone?

    PubMed

    Baros, Alicia M; Latham, Patricia K; Moak, Darlene H; Voronin, Konstantin; Anton, Raymond F

    2007-04-01

    Compliance with medication in pharmacotherapy trials of alcoholism has been shown to be equal to, or more, important than in other areas of medicine. Research has suggested that naltrexone's effectiveness can be greatly influenced by the compliance of participants in clinical trials. Presently, we compare 2 compliance measurement methods [urine riboflavin and medication event monitoring system (MEMS)] used simultaneously to evaluate naltrexone's efficacy and the impact of compliance on the size of observable treatment effects. One hundred and thirty-seven of 160 randomized alcoholic patients completed 12-weeks (84 days) of naltrexone or placebo and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or motivational enhancement therapy (MET). Urine riboflavin was determined during study weeks 2, 6, and 12. The MEMS provided a detailed computerized record of when a participant opened their medication bottle throughout the trial. Baseline predictors of MEMS (80% openings) and urine riboflavin (>or=1,500 ng/mL by fluorimetry) compliance were examined. The effects of the treatments in the compliant participants defined by one, the other, or both methods were compared and contrasted with a previously reported intent-to-treat analysis where compliance was not taken into account. Age was predictive of compliance. 105 participants were deemed compliant via urine riboflavin criteria, 87 via MEMS, and 77 when both criteria were met, with no significant differences between treatment groups. The most compliant participants showed a significant medication by therapy interaction. Those treated with naltrexone/CBT showed more abstinence days (p<0.03), less heavy drinking days (p<0.03) and less total drinks (p<0.03) than the other groups. The effect size of this interaction increased from about 0.2 in the intent-to-treat analysis, to about 0.4 to 0.5 in the compliant group analyses, with little difference between compliance measurement methods. Compliance measurement does appear to influence the

  14. Low dose naltrexone administration in morphine dependent rats attenuates withdrawal-induced norepinephrine efflux in forebrain.

    PubMed

    Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J; Qian, Yaping; Sterling, Robert C; Page, Michelle E

    2008-05-15

    The administration of low dose opioid antagonists has been explored as a potential means of detoxification in opiate dependence. Previous results from our laboratory have shown that concurrent administration of low dose naltrexone in the drinking water of rats implanted with subcutaneous morphine pellets attenuates behavioral and biochemical signs of withdrawal in brainstem noradrenergic nuclei. Noradrenergic projections originating from the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and the locus coeruleus (LC) have previously been shown to be important neural substrates involved in the somatic expression of opiate withdrawal. The hypothesis that low dose naltrexone treatment attenuates noradrenergic hyperactivity typically associated with opiate withdrawal was examined in the present study by assessing norepinephrine tissue content and norepinephrine efflux using in vivo microdialysis coupled to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection (ED). The frontal cortex (FC), amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and cerebellum were analyzed for tissue content of norepinephrine following withdrawal in morphine dependent rats. Naltrexone-precipitated withdrawal elicited a significant decrease in tissue content of norepinephrine in the BNST and amygdala. This decrease was significantly attenuated in the BNST of rats that received low dose naltrexone pre-treatment compared to controls. No significant difference was observed in the other brain regions examined. In a separate group of rats, norepinephrine efflux was assessed with in vivo microdialysis in the BNST or the FC of morphine dependent rats or placebo treated rats subjected to naltrexone-precipitated withdrawal that received either naltrexone in their drinking water (5 mg/L) or unadulterated water. Following baseline dialysate collection, withdrawal was precipitated by injection of naltrexone and sample collection continued for an additional 4 h. At the end of the experiment

  15. Fibromyalgia symptoms are reduced by low-dose naltrexone: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Younger, Jarred; Mackey, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain disorder that is characterized by diffuse musculoskeletal pain and sensitivity to mechanical stimulation. In this pilot clinical trial, we tested the effectiveness of low-dose naltrexone in treating the symptoms of fibromyalgia. Participants completed a single-blind, crossover trial with the following time line: baseline (2 weeks), placebo (2 weeks), drug (8 weeks), and washout (2 weeks). Ten women meeting criteria for fibromyalgia and not taking an opioid medication. Naltrexone, in addition to antagonizing opioid receptors on neurons, also inhibits microglia activity in the central nervous system. At low doses (4.5 mg), naltrexone may inhibit the activity of microglia and reverse central and peripheral inflammation. Participants completed reports of symptom severity everyday, using a handheld computer. In addition, participants visited the lab every 2 weeks for tests of mechanical, heat, and cold pain sensitivity. Low-dose naltrexone reduced fibromyalgia symptoms in the entire cohort, with a greater than 30% reduction of symptoms over placebo. In addition, laboratory visits showed that mechanical and heat pain thresholds were improved by the drug. Side effects (including insomnia and vivid dreams) were rare, and described as minor and transient. Baseline erythrocyte sedimentation rate predicted over 80% of the variance in drug response. Individuals with higher sedimentation rates (indicating general inflammatory processes) had the greatest reduction of symptoms in response to low-dose naltrexone. We conclude that low-dose naltrexone may be an effective, highly tolerable, and inexpensive treatment for fibromyalgia.

  16. A Comparison of Sexual Side Effects of Antidepressants With and Without Naltrexone.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Mona; Petrakis, Ismene; Ralevski, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the rate of sexual side effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine versus the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine and to examine the effect of co-prescription of naltrexone on sexual side effects among participants in a randomized clinical trial. This was a secondary analysis (N = 88) of veterans who participated in a 12-week trial. All veterans were randomized into one of four treatment groups: (a) desipramine/naltrexone, (b) desipramine/placebo, (c) paroxetine/naltrexone, and (d) paroxetine/placebo. The main outcome measure was the frequency of sexual side effects consisting of "decreased sex drive" and/or "impotence" reported by veterans at each weekly visit. Approximately 61% of the veterans reported sexual side effects at least once during the trial, and 26.4% reported sexual side effects throughout the study. There were no significant differences in the frequency of sexual side effects among the four treatment groups. The results were similar when the comparison was made between the two antidepressant groups. There were no significant differences in the reporting of sexual side effects between those receiving desipramine and paroxetine. Also, the comparison between naltrexone and placebo did not alter the results. This is the first study to compare frequency of sexual side effect reporting between paroxetine and desipramine. We found no statistically significant differences in sexual side effect reporting between the two antidepressants. Also, the addition of naltrexone did not show any beneficial effect on the sexual side effect profile.

  17. Oxytrex: an oxycodone and ultra-low-dose naltrexone formulation.

    PubMed

    Webster, Lynn R

    2007-08-01

    Oxytrex (Pain Therapeutics, Inc.) is an oral opioid that combines a therapeutic amount of oxycodone with an ultra-low dose of the antagonist naltrexone. Animal data indicate that this combination minimizes the development of physical dependence and analgesic tolerance while prolonging analgesia. Oxytrex is in late-stage clinical development by Pain Therapeutics for the treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic pain. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the oxycodone/naltrexone combination, three clinical studies have been conducted, one in healthy volunteers and the other two in patients with chronic pain. The putative mechanism of ultra-low-dose naltrexone is to prevent an alteration in G-protein coupling by opioid receptors that is associated with opioid tolerance and dependence. Opioid agonists are initially inhibitory but become excitatory through constant opioid receptor activity. The agonist/antagonist combination of Oxytrex may reduce the conversion from an inhibitory to an excitatory receptor, thereby decreasing the development of tolerance and physical dependence.

  18. Reduction of Alcohol Drinking in Young Adults by Naltrexone: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial of Efficacy and Safety

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Stephanie S.; Corbin, William R.; Leeman, Robert F.; DeMartini, Kelly S.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Ikomi, Jolomi; Romano, Denise M.; Wu, Ran; Toll, Benjamin A.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Kranzler, Henry R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, may facilitate reduction in drinking among young adults. We compared the efficacy and safety of naltrexone administered daily plus targeted dosing with placebo to reduce drinking in heavy drinking young adults. Methods Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, outpatient research center, March 2008-January 2012. Participants were ages 18-25, reporting ≥ 4 heavy drinking days in the prior 4 weeks. Interventions included naltrexone 25 mg daily plus 25 mg targeted (at most daily) in anticipation of drinking (n = 61) or daily/targeted placebo (n = 67). All received a personalized feedback session and brief counseling every other week. Primary outcomes were percent days heavy drinking (PHDD) and percent days abstinent (PDA) over the 8-week treatment period. Secondary outcomes included drinks/drinking day and percent days with estimated blood alcohol levels ≥0.08 g/dL. Results Of 140 randomized, 128 began treatment, comprising the evaluable sample. During treatment, PHDD (Naltrexone M=21.60, SD=16.05; Placebo M=22.90, SD=13.20) (p=0.58) and PDA (Naltrexone M=56.60, SD=22.52; Placebo M=62.50, SD=15.75) (p=0.39) did not differ by group. Naltrexone significantly reduced drinks per drinking day (Naltrexone M=4.90, SD=2.28; Placebo M=5.90, SD=2.51) (p=0.009) and percentage of drinking days with estimated BAC ≥0.08 g/dL (Naltrexone M=35.36, SD=28.40; Placebo M=45.74, SD=26.80) (p=0.042). There were no serious adverse events. Sleepiness was more common with naltrexone. Conclusions Naltrexone did not reduce frequency of drinking or heavy drinking days, but reduced secondary measures of drinking intensity. While effects were modest, the risk-benefit ratio favors offering naltrexone to help young adult heavy drinkers reduce their drinking. Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT00568958 PMID:25742208

  19. Naltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking ... injection is also used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped abusing ...

  20. Synthesis of Novel Basic Skeletons Derived from Naltrexone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagase, Hiroshi; Fujii, Hideaki

    We will describe eight interesting reactions using naltrexone derivatives. Almost all these reactions are characteristic of naltrexone derivatives, and can lead to the synthesis of many novel skeletons that provide new interesting pharmacological data. Some of the new reactions that were found with naltrexone derivatives were expanded into general reactions. For example, the reaction of 6α-hydroxyaldehyde derived from naltrexone led to the oxazoline dimer and the 1,3,5-trioxazatriquinane skeleton (triplet drug); this reaction was applied to general ketones which were converted to α-hydroxyaldehydes, followed by conversion to dimers and trimers, as described in Sect. 7.

  1. Low-Dose Naltrexone: A New Therapy Option for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I Patients.

    PubMed

    Sturn, Kayla M; Collin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Naltrexone (an opioid antagonist) has long been used in patients overcoming alcohol and opioid dependency. However, at doses one-tenth of those commonly prescribed for the above conditions, an unexpected effect occurs that aids in alleviating pain. Although there are currently no randomized clinical trials supporting the use of low-dose naltrexone, we present a case study describing the impact of compounding low-dose naltrexone that has dramatically improved the patient's pain symptoms which were refractory to other treatments. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  2. Ultra-low dose naltrexone enhances cannabinoid-induced antinociception.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Jay; Olmstead, Mary C; Olmstead, Mary

    2005-12-01

    Both opioids and cannabinoids have inhibitory effects at micromolar doses, which are mediated by activated receptors coupling to Gi/o-proteins. Surprisingly, the analgesic effects of opioids are enhanced by ultra-low doses (nanomolar to picomolar) of the opioid antagonist, naltrexone. As opioid and cannabinoid systems interact, this study investigated whether ultra-low dose naltrexone also influences cannabinoid-induced antinociception. Separate groups of Long-Evans rats were tested for antinociception following an injection of vehicle, a sub-maximal dose of the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55 212-2, naltrexone (an ultra-low or a high dose) or a combination of WIN 55 212-2 and naltrexone doses. Tail-flick latencies were recorded for 3 h, at 10-min intervals for the first hour, and at 15-min intervals thereafter. Ultra-low dose naltrexone elevated WIN 55 212-2-induced tail flick thresholds without extending its duration of action. This enhancement was replicated in animals receiving intraperitoneal or intravenous injections. A high dose of naltrexone had no effect on WIN 55 212-2-induced tail flick latencies, but a high dose of the cannabinoid 1 receptor antagonist SR 141716 blocked the elevated tail-flick thresholds produced by WIN 55 212-2+ultra-low dose naltrexone. These data suggest a mechanism of cannabinoid-opioid interaction whereby activated opioid receptors that couple to Gs-proteins may attenuate cannabinoid-induced antinociception and/or motor functioning.

  3. Genetic ancestry as an effect modifier of naltrexone in smoking cessation among African Americans: an analysis of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Bress, Adam; Kittles, Rick; Wing, Coady; Hooker, Stanley E; King, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine if there were differential quit rates between AA and European Americans (EA) with the experimental treatment naltrexone, and examine the role of genetic ancestry on these outcomes among AAs. Methods Data from a previous randomized trial of 315 smokers to naltrexone vs. placebo were reanalyzed using West African (WA) genetic ancestry to define sub-populations. Logistic regression models were used to estimate treatment effects on early and end of treatment quit rates, by race and WA ancestry. Results Among EAs (n=136), naltrexone significantly increased quit rates at four weeks (62% vs. 43%, p=0.03) with directional, but not statistically significant effects at 12 weeks (30% vs. 18%, p=0.12). In contrast, among the AAs (n=95), quit rates did not differ between naltrexone and placebo groups at either interval (four weeks: 43% vs. 32%, p=0.27; 12 weeks: 22% vs. 18%, p=0.60). A median split was conducted in AAs for WA ancestry. Among AAs with low WA ancestry, quit rates were significantly higher with naltrexone compared with placebo (60% vs. 27%, p=0.03). There was no advantage in quit rates with naltrexone for the high WA ancestry group. Conclusions Naltrexone efficacy for smoking cessation varies across AA subjects with different levels of WA ancestry. These results suggest that genetic background may partially explain racial differences in drug response. PMID:25918964

  4. Extended-release naltrexone opioid treatment at jail reentry (XOR)

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Ryan D.; Tofighi, Babak; Laska, Eugene; Goldfeld, Keith; Bonilla, Wanda; Flannery, Mara; Santana-Correa, Nadina; Johnson, Christopher W.; Leibowitz, Neil; Rotrosen, John; Gourevitch, Marc N.; Lee, Joshua D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) is an injectable monthly sustained-release mu opioid receptor antagonist, which blocks the typical effects of heroin and other opioid agonists. Use of XR-NTX among opioid dependent persons leaving jails and prisons is increasing despite scant high-quality evidence regarding XR-NTX’s effectiveness at re-entry. Methods This 24-week, open-label randomized controlled trial examines the effectiveness of XR-NTX as opioid relapse prevention at release from jail (N = 85) compared to enhanced treatment as usual (ETAU, N = 85). A third, non-randomized, quasi-experimental naturalistic arm of participants who have newly initiated a jail-to-community methadone treatment program (MTP, N = 85) allows for comparisons to a methadone standard-of-care. Results We describe the rationale, design, and primary and secondary outcomes of the study. The primary outcome is an opioid relapse event; the primary contrast is a time-to-relapse comparison of XR-NTX and ETAU over a 24-week treatment phase. Secondary outcomes are rates of: (a) post-release opioid treatment participation, (b) opioid, alcohol, and cocaine use, (c) injection drug use and HIV sexual risk behaviors, (d) overdose (fatal and non-fatal) and all-cause mortality, and, (e) re-incarceration. Conclusions XR-NTX is a potentially important, effective treatment and relapse prevention option for a large US population of persons with opioid use disorders leaving jails. This study will estimate XR-NTX’s effectiveness relative to existing standards of care, including counseling-only treatment-as-usual and methadone maintenance. PMID:27178765

  5. Safety and tolerability of low-dose naltrexone therapy in children with moderate to severe Crohn's disease: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jill P; Field, Douglas; Bingaman, Sandra I; Evans, Robert; Mauger, David T

    2013-04-01

    There is an unmet need for safe and effective medicines to treat children with Crohn's disease. Recently, investigations have shown an association between endogenous opioid peptides and inflammatory cells. The aims of this study were to evaluate the safety and tolerability of an opioid antagonist, naltrexone, in children with moderate to severe Crohn's disease. A pilot clinical trial was conducted in children with moderate to severe Crohn's disease. Fourteen subjects with a mean age of 12.3 years (range, 8 to 17 y) were enrolled. Children were randomized to placebo or naltrexone (0.1 mg/kg) orally for 8 weeks followed by open-labeled treatment with 8 additional weeks of naltrexone. Safety and toxicity were monitored by physical examinations and blood chemistries. Clinical activity was assessed by the Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index (PCDAI) and Quality of life was monitored by the Impact III survey. Oral naltrexone was well tolerated without any serious adverse events in children with moderate to severe Crohn's disease. PCDAI scores significantly decreased from pretreatment values (34.2±3.3) with an 8-week course of naltrexone therapy (21.7±3.9) (P=0.005). Twenty-five percent of those treated with naltrexone were considered in remission (score ≤10) and 67% had improved with mild disease activity (decrease in PCDAI score by at least 10 points) at the end of the study. Systemic and social quality of life improved with naltrexone treatment (P=0.035). Naltrexone therapy seems safe with limited toxicity when given to children with Crohn's disease and may reduce disease activity.

  6. A Combination of Buprenorphine and Naltrexone Blocks Compulsive Cocaine Intake in Rodents Without Producing Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Sunmee; Vendruscolo, Leandro F.; Misra, Kaushik K.; Schlosburg, Joel E.; Koob, George F.

    2012-01-01

    Buprenorphine, a synthetic opioid that acts at both μ and κ opioid receptors, can decrease cocaine use in individuals with opioid addiction. However, the potent agonist action of buprenorphine at μ opioid receptors raises its potential for creating opioid dependence in non–opioid-dependent cocaine abusers. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a combination of buprenorphine and naltrexone (a potent μ opioid antagonist with weaker δ and κ antagonist properties) could block compulsive cocaine self-administration without producing opioid dependence. The effects of buprenorphine and various doses of naltrexone on cocaine self-administration were assessed in rats that self-administered cocaine under conditions of either short access (noncompulsive cocaine seeking) or extended access (compulsive cocaine seeking). Buprenorphine alone reproducibly decreased cocaine self-administration. Although this buprenorphine-alone effect was blocked in a dose-dependent manner by naltrexone in both the short-access and the extended-access groups, the combination of the lowest dose of naltrexone with buprenorphine blocked cocaine self-administration in the extended-access group but not in the short-access group. Rats given this low dose of naltrexone with buprenorphine did not exhibit the physical opioid withdrawal syndrome seen in rats treated with buprenorphine alone, and naltrexone at this dose did not block κ agonist–induced analgesia. The results suggest that the combination of buprenorphine and naltrexone at an appropriate dosage decreases compulsive cocaine self-administration with minimal liability to produce opioid dependence and may be useful as a treatment for cocaine addiction. PMID:22875830

  7. A combination of buprenorphine and naltrexone blocks compulsive cocaine intake in rodents without producing dependence.

    PubMed

    Wee, Sunmee; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Misra, Kaushik K; Schlosburg, Joel E; Koob, George F

    2012-08-08

    Buprenorphine, a synthetic opioid that acts at both μ and κ opioid receptors, can decrease cocaine use in individuals with opioid addiction. However, the potent agonist action of buprenorphine at μ opioid receptors raises its potential for creating opioid dependence in non-opioid-dependent cocaine abusers. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a combination of buprenorphine and naltrexone (a potent μ opioid antagonist with weaker δ and κ antagonist properties) could block compulsive cocaine self-administration without producing opioid dependence. The effects of buprenorphine and various doses of naltrexone on cocaine self-administration were assessed in rats that self-administered cocaine under conditions of either short access (noncompulsive cocaine seeking) or extended access (compulsive cocaine seeking). Buprenorphine alone reproducibly decreased cocaine self-administration. Although this buprenorphine-alone effect was blocked in a dose-dependent manner by naltrexone in both the short-access and the extended-access groups, the combination of the lowest dose of naltrexone with buprenorphine blocked cocaine self-administration in the extended-access group but not in the short-access group. Rats given this low dose of naltrexone with buprenorphine did not exhibit the physical opioid withdrawal syndrome seen in rats treated with buprenorphine alone, and naltrexone at this dose did not block κ agonist-induced analgesia. The results suggest that the combination of buprenorphine and naltrexone at an appropriate dosage decreases compulsive cocaine self-administration with minimal liability to produce opioid dependence and may be useful as a treatment for cocaine addiction.

  8. Does naltrexone affect craving in abstinent opioid-dependent patients?

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Boukje A G; De Jong, Cor A J; Bluschke, Sarah M; Krabbe, Paul F M; van der Staak, Cees P F

    2007-06-01

    Naltrexone blocks the opioid receptors that modulate the release of dopamine in the brain reward system and therefore blocks the rewarding effects of heroin and alcohol. It is generally assumed that naltrexone leads to reduction of craving, but few studies have been performed to prove this. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of the administration of naltrexone on craving level after rapid opioid detoxification induced by naltrexone. A naturalistic study was carried out in which patients were followed during 10 months after rapid detoxification. Data about abstinence, relapse, and naltrexone use were collected by means of urine specimens. Craving was measured by the visual analogue scale craving, the Obsessive Compulsive Drug Use Scale, and the Desires for Drug Questionnaire. Results showed that patients who relapsed in opioid use experienced obviously more craving than abstinent people. Patients who took naltrexone did not experience significant less craving than those who did not. These results suggest that the use of opioids is associated with increased craving and that abstinence for opioids is associated with less craving, independent of the use of naltrexone. This is in contrast to the general opinion. Because of the naturalistic design of the study, no firm conclusions can be drawn, but the results grounded the needs of an experimental study.

  9. Contrave, a bupropion and naltrexone combination therapy for the potential treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Padwal, Raj

    2009-10-01

    Contrave, under development by Orexigen Therapeutics Inc for the potential treatment of obesity, is an oral, sustained-release combination of the dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake antagonist bupropion and the opioid antagonist naltrexone. The proposed dual mechanism of action of the compound involves complementary stimulation of central melanocortin pathways, resulting in increased energy expenditure and reduced appetite. At the time of publication, Contrave was being assessed in phase III clinical trials. Preliminary data demonstrated placebo-subtracted weight losses of 3 to 7% and improvements in obesity-related comorbidities and cardiovascular risk factors. The primary adverse effect leading to discontinuation of treatment was nausea. Assuming that the results of the Contrave phase III clinical program reaffirm the efficacy and safety of the drug combination, this agent could be approved and launched to become a market leader in the anti-obesity therapeutic arena.

  10. Extended release naltrexone injection is performed in the majority of opioid dependent patients receiving outpatient induction: a very low dose naltrexone and buprenorphine open label trial.

    PubMed

    Mannelli, Paolo; Wu, Li-Tzy; Peindl, Kathleen S; Swartz, Marvin S; Woody, George E

    2014-05-01

    The approval of extended release injectable naltrexone (XR-NTX; Vivitrol(®)) has introduced a new option for treating opioid addiction, but studies are needed to identify its place within the spectrum of available therapies. The absence of physiological opioid dependence is a necessary and challenging first step for starting XR-NTX. Outpatient detoxification gives poor results and inpatient detoxification is either unavailable or too brief for the physiological effects of opioids to resolve. Here we present findings from an open label study that tested whether the transition from opioid addiction to XR-NTX can be safely and effectively performed in an outpatient setting using very low dose naltrexone and buprenorphine. Twenty treatment seeking opioid addicted individuals were given increasing doses of naltrexone starting at 0.25mg with decreasing doses of buprenorphine starting at 4 mg during a 7-day outpatient XR-NTX induction procedure. Withdrawal discomfort, craving, drug use, and adverse events were assessed daily until the XR-NTX injection, then weekly over the next month. Fourteen of the 20 participants received XR-NTX and 13 completed weekly assessments. Withdrawal, craving, and opioid or other drug use were significantly lower during induction and after XR-NTX administration compared with baseline, and no serious adverse events were recorded. Outpatient transition to XR-NTX combining upward titration of very low dose naltrexone with downward titration of low dose buprenorphine was safe, well tolerated, and completed by most participants. Further studies with larger numbers of subjects are needed to see if this approach is useful for naltrexone induction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional modulation on macrophage by low dose naltrexone (LDN).

    PubMed

    Yi, Zhe; Guo, Shengnan; Hu, Xu; Wang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Griffin, Noreen; Shan, Fengping

    2016-10-01

    Previously it was confirmed that naltrexone, a non-peptide δ-opioid receptor selective antagonist is mainly used for alcoholic dependence and opioid addiction treatment. However, there is increasing data on immune regulation of low dose naltrexone (LDN). The aim of this work was to explore the effect of LDN on the phenotype and function of macrophage. The changes of macrophage after treatment with LDN were examined using flow cytometry (FCM); FITC-dextran phagocytosis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We have found that LDN enhances function of macrophage as confirmed by up-regulating MHC II molecule and CD64 on macrophage while down-regulating CD206 expression. Furthermore the productions of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, increased significantly. Macrophages in LDN treated group performed the enhanced phagocytosis. Therefore it is concluded that LDN could promote function of macrophage and this work has provided concrete data of impact on immune system by LDN. Especially the data would support interaction between CD4+T cell and macrophage in AIDS treatment with LDN in Africa (LDN has already been approved in Nigeria for the use in AIDS treatment). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. The use of low-dose naltrexone (LDN) as a novel anti-inflammatory treatment for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Younger, Jarred; Parkitny, Luke; McLain, David

    2014-04-01

    Low-dose naltrexone (LDN) has been demonstrated to reduce symptom severity in conditions such as fibromyalgia, Crohn's disease, multiple sclerosis, and complex regional pain syndrome. We review the evidence that LDN may operate as a novel anti-inflammatory agent in the central nervous system, via action on microglial cells. These effects may be unique to low dosages of naltrexone and appear to be entirely independent from naltrexone's better-known activity on opioid receptors. As a daily oral therapy, LDN is inexpensive and well-tolerated. Despite initial promise of efficacy, the use of LDN for chronic disorders is still highly experimental. Published trials have low sample sizes, and few replications have been performed. We cover the typical usage of LDN in clinical trials, caveats to using the medication, and recommendations for future research and clinical work. LDN may represent one of the first glial cell modulators to be used for the management of chronic pain disorders.

  13. Low-dose naltrexone augmentation of nicotine replacement for smoking cessation with reduced weight gain: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Toll, Benjamin A; White, Marney; Wu, Ran; Meandzija, Boris; Jatlow, Peter; Makuch, Robert; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2010-10-01

    Fear of weight gain is a significant obstacle to smoking cessation, preventing some smokers from attempting to quit. Several previous studies of naltrexone yielded promising results for minimization of post-quit weight gain. Given these encouraging findings, we endeavored to test whether minimization of weight gain might translate to better quit outcomes for a population that is particularly concerned about gaining weight upon quitting. Smokers (N=172) in this investigation were prospectively randomized to receive either 25 mg naltrexone or placebo for 27 weeks (1 week pre-, 26 weeks post-quit) for minimization of post-quit weight gain and smoking cessation. All participants received open label therapy with the nicotine patch for the first 8 weeks post-quit and behavioral counseling over the 27-week treatment. The 2 pre-specified primary outcomes were change in weight for continuously abstinent participants and biologically verified end-of-treatment 7-day point-prevalence abstinence at 26 weeks after the quit date. The difference in weight at 26 weeks post-quit between the naltrexone and placebo groups (naltrexone: 6.8 lbs ± 8.94 vs placebo: 9.7 lbs ± 9.19, p = 0.45) was not statistically different. Seven-day point-prevalence smoking abstinence rates at 26 weeks post-quit was not significantly different between the 2 groups (naltrexone: 22% vs placebo: 27%, p = 0.43). For smokers high in weight concern, the relatively small reduction in weight gain with low-dose naltrexone is not worth the potential for somewhat lower rates of smoking abstinence. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. SAFETY AND TOLERABILITY OF LOW DOSE NALTREXONE THERAPY IN CHILDREN WITH MODERATE TO SEVERE CROHN’S DISEASE: A PILOT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jill P.; Field, Douglas; Bingaman, Sandra; Evans, Robert; Mauger, David

    2012-01-01

    Background There is an unmet need for safe and effective medicines to treat children with Crohn’s disease. Recently, investigations have shown an association between endogenous opioid peptides and inflammatory cells. Aims The aims of this study were to evaluate the safety and tolerability of an opioid antagonist, naltrexone, in children with moderate to severe Crohn’s disease. Methods A pilot clinical trial was conducted in children with moderate to severe Crohn’s disease. Fourteen subjects with a mean age of 12.3 years (8–17, range) were enrolled. Children were randomized to placebo or naltrexone 0.1 mg/kg orally for 8 weeks followed by open-labeled treatment with 8 additional weeks of naltrexone. Safety and toxicity were monitored by physical examinations and blood chemistries. Clinical activity was assessed by the PCDAI (Pediatric Crohn’s Disease Activity Index) and Quality of life was monitored by the Impact III survey. Results Oral naltrexone was well tolerated without any serious adverse events in children with moderate to severe Crohn’s disease. PCDAI scores significantly decreased from pretreatment values (34.2±3.3) with an eight-week course of naltrexone therapy (21.7±3.9) (p=0.005). Twenty-five percent of those treated with naltrexone were considered in remission (score < 10) and 67% had improved with mild disease activity (decrease PCDAI score by at least 10 points) at the end of the study. Systemic and social quality of life improved with naltrexone treatment (p=0.035). Conclusions Naltrexone therapy appears safe with limited toxicity when given to children with Crohn’s disease and may reduce disease activity. PMID:23188075

  15. New opioid receptor antagonist: Naltrexone-14-O-sulfate synthesis and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Zádor, Ferenc; Király, Kornél; Váradi, András; Balogh, Mihály; Fehér, Ágnes; Kocsis, Dóra; Erdei, Anna I; Lackó, Erzsébet; Zádori, Zoltán S; Hosztafi, Sándor; Noszál, Béla; Riba, Pál; Benyhe, Sándor; Fürst, Susanna; Al-Khrasani, Mahmoud

    2017-08-15

    Opioid antagonists, naloxone and naltrexone have long been used in clinical practice and research. In addition to their low selectivity, they easily pass through the blood-brain barrier. Quaternization of the amine group in these molecules, (e.g. methylnaltrexone) results in negligible CNS penetration. In addition, zwitterionic compounds have been reported to have limited CNS access. The current study, for the first time gives report on the synthesis and the in vitro [competition binding, G-protein activation, isolated mouse vas deferens (MVD) and mouse colon assay] pharmacology of the zwitterionic compound, naltrexone-14-O-sulfate. Naltrexone, naloxone, and its 14-O-sulfate analogue were used as reference compounds. In competition binding assays, naltrexone-14-O-sulfate showed lower affinity for µ, δ or κ opioid receptor than the parent molecule, naltrexone. However, the μ/κ opioid receptor selectivity ratio significantly improved, indicating better selectivity. Similar tendency was observed for naloxone-14-O-sulfate when compared to naloxone. Naltrexone-14-O-sulfate failed to activate [ 35 S]GTPγS-binding but inhibit the activation evoked by opioid agonists (DAMGO, Ile 5,6 deltorphin II and U69593), similarly to the reference compounds. Schild plot constructed in MVD revealed that naltrexone-14-O-sulfate acts as a competitive antagonist. In mouse colon, naltrexone-14-O-sulfate antagonized the inhibitory effect of morphine with lower affinity compared to naltrexone and higher affinity when compared to naloxone or naloxone-14-O-sulfate. In vivo (mouse tail-flick test), subcutaneously injected naltrexone-14-O-sulfate antagonized morphine's antinociception in a dose-dependent manner, indicating it's CNS penetration, which was unexpected from such zwitter ionic structure. Future studies are needed to evaluate it's pharmacokinetic profile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute Generalized Erythrodermic Pustular Psoriasis Associated with Bupropion/Naltrexone (Contrave®).

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyanka A; Cassel, Kerry P; Moscati, Ronald M; Eckersley, David

    2017-04-01

    We report a case of erythrodermic pustular psoriasis associated with initiation of bupropion/naltrexone (Contrave®; Orexigen Therapeutics, La Jolla, CA) in a patient with no history of psoriasis. A 55-year-old woman was transferred to our tertiary medical center from a community hospital for possible Stevens-Johnson syndrome 3 weeks after initiation of bupropion/naltrexone. The patient was admitted to the burn unit for wound treatment and hydration. She received intravenous cyclosporine during the admission that resulted in acute kidney injury and the therapy was discontinued. The skin biopsy ruled out Stevens-Johnson syndrome and was more consistent with generalized pustular psoriasis. After discharge, the patient followed up with her dermatologist. She was diagnosed with acute generalized and erythrodermic psoriasis and the patient was restarted on cyclosporine 100 mg twice a day. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Few case reports of bupropion-induced generalized pustular psoriasis and erythrodermic psoriasis in patients with a history of psoriasis have been reported. To our knowledge, acute generalized erythrodermic pustular psoriasis associated with bupropion/naltrexone has not been reported in a patient without history of psoriasis. Due to increases in obesity and increases in prescribing of bupropion/naltrexone SR, health care providers should be aware of this possible severe adverse reaction. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Naltrexone ER/Bupropion ER: A Review in Obesity Management.

    PubMed

    Greig, Sarah L; Keating, Gillian M

    2015-07-01

    Oral naltrexone extended-release/bupropion extended-release (naltrexone ER/bupropion ER; Contrave(®), Mysimba(™)) is available as an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity in adults with an initial body mass index (BMI) of ≥ 30 kg/m(2) (i.e. obese) or a BMI of ≥ 27 kg/m(2) (i.e. overweight) in the presence of at least one bodyweight-related comorbidity, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension or dyslipidaemia. In 56-week phase III trials in these patient populations, oral naltrexone ER/bupropion ER 32/360 mg/day was significantly more effective than placebo with regard to percentage bodyweight reductions from baseline and the proportion of patients who achieved bodyweight reductions of ≥ 5 and ≥ 10%. Significantly greater improvements in several cardiometabolic risk factors were also observed with naltrexone ER/bupropion ER versus placebo, as well as greater improvements in glycated haemoglobin levels in obese or overweight adults with type 2 diabetes. Naltrexone ER/bupropion ER was generally well tolerated in phase III trials, with nausea being the most common adverse event. Thus, naltrexone ER/bupropion ER 32/360 mg/day as an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity, is an effective and well tolerated option for chronic bodyweight management in obese adults or overweight adults with at least one bodyweight-related comorbidity.

  18. Effect of naltrexone plus bupropion on weight loss in overweight and obese adults (COR-I): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Greenway, Frank L; Fujioka, Ken; Plodkowski, Raymond A; Mudaliar, Sunder; Guttadauria, Maria; Erickson, Janelle; Kim, Dennis D; Dunayevich, Eduardo

    2010-08-21

    Despite increasing public health concerns regarding obesity, few safe and effective drug treatments are available. Combination treatment with sustained-release naltrexone and bupropion was developed to produce complementary actions in CNS pathways regulating bodyweight. The Contrave Obesity Research I (COR-I) study assessed the effect of such treatment on bodyweight in overweight and obese participants. Men and women aged 18-65 years who had a body-mass index (BMI) of 30-45 kg/m(2) and uncomplicated obesity or BMI 27-45 kg/m(2) with dyslipidaemia or hypertension were eligible for enrolment in this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial undertaken at 34 sites in the USA. Participants were prescribed mild hypocaloric diet and exercise and were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive sustained-release naltrexone 32 mg per day plus sustained-release bupropion 360 mg per day combined in fixed-dose tablets (also known as NB32), sustained-release naltrexone 16 mg per day plus sustained-release bupropion 360 mg per day combined in fixed-dose tablets (also known as NB16), or matching placebo twice a day, given orally for 56 weeks. The trial included a 3-week dose escalation. Randomisation was done by use of a centralised, computer-generated, web-based system and was stratified by study centre. Co-primary efficacy endpoints at 56 weeks were percentage change in bodyweight and proportion of participants who achieved a decrease in bodyweight of 5% or more. The primary analysis included all randomised participants with a baseline weight measurement and a post-baseline weight measurement while on study drug (last observation carried forward). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00532779. 1742 participants were enrolled and randomised to double-blind treatment (naltrexone 32 mg plus bupropion, n=583; naltrexone 16 mg plus bupropion, n=578; placebo, n=581). 870 (50%) participants completed 56 weeks of treatment (n=296; n=284; n

  19. Effectiveness of Injectable Extended-Release Naltrexone vs Daily Buprenorphine-Naloxone for Opioid Dependence: A Randomized Clinical Noninferiority Trial.

    PubMed

    Tanum, Lars; Solli, Kristin Klemmetsby; Latif, Zill-E-Huma; Benth, Jurate Šaltyte; Opheim, Arild; Sharma-Haase, Kamni; Krajci, Peter; Kunøe, Nikolaj

    2017-12-01

    To date, extended-release naltrexone hydrochloride has not previously been compared directly with opioid medication treatment (OMT), currently the most commonly prescribed treatment for opioid dependence. To determine whether treatment with extended-release naltrexone will be as effective as daily buprenorphine hydrochloride with naloxone hydrochloride in maintaining abstinence from heroin and other illicit substances in newly detoxified individuals. A 12-week, multicenter, outpatient, open-label randomized clinical trial was conducted at 5 urban addiction clinics in Norway between November 1, 2012, and December 23, 2015; the last follow-up was performed on October 23, 2015. A total of 232 adult opioid-dependent (per DSM-IV criteria) individuals were recruited from outpatient addiction clinics and detoxification units and assessed for eligibility. Intention-to-treat analyses of efficacy end points were performed with all randomized participants. Randomization to either daily oral flexible dose buprenorphine-naloxone, 4 to 24 mg/d, or extended-release naltrexone hydrochloride, 380 mg, administered intramuscularly every fourth week for 12 weeks. Primary end points (protocol) were the randomized clinical trial completion rate, the proportion of opioid-negative urine drug tests, and number of days of use of heroin and other illicit opioids. Secondary end points included number of days of use of other illicit substances. Safety was assessed by adverse event reporting. Of 159 participants, mean (SD) age was 36 (8.6) years and 44 (27.7%) were women. Eighty individuals were randomized to extended-release naltrexone and 79 to buprenorphine-naloxone; 105 (66.0%) completed the trial. Retention in the extended-release naltrexone group was noninferior to the buprenorphine-naloxone group (difference, -0.1; with 95% CI, -0.2 to 0.1; P = .04), with mean (SD) time of 69.3 (25.9) and 63.7 (29.9) days, correspondingly (P = .33, log-rank test). Treatment with extended

  20. Effects of baclofen and naltrexone, alone and in combination, on the consumption of palatable food in male rats.

    PubMed

    Avena, Nicole M; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Murray, Susan; Gold, Mark S

    2014-10-01

    Excess consumption of palatable food has been shown to affect reward-related brain regions, and pharmaceutical treatments for drug addiction may also be effective in treating overeating of such foods. The GABA-B agonist baclofen and opioid antagonist naltrexone have both been used to treat addiction, and have been shown to suppress intake of certain foods. The combination of these drugs has shown to be more effective in reducing alcohol consumption than either drug alone. The present study assessed the effects of naltrexone and baclofen, alone and in combination, on intake of foods comprised of various macronutrients. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 12-hr daily access to chow and a fat emulsion, sugar-fat emulsion, or a sugar solution for 21 days. Rats were then administered (intraperitoneal) baclofen-naltrexone combinations (0.1 mg/kg naltrexone and 1.0 mg/kg baclofen, 1.0 mg/kg naltrexone and 1.8 mg/kg baclofen), and naltrexone (0.1, 1.0 mg/kg) and baclofen (1.0, 1.8 mg/kg) alone. The high dose of the baclofen-naltrexone combination reduced palatable food intake in both the fat and sugar-fat groups compared with vehicle, without affecting chow consumption in these groups. Naltrexone showed little significant effects on intake of either palatable food or chow. Baclofen also reduced palatable food intake in the fat and fat-sugar groups, but differences were only noted between the low and high dose. The combination of baclofen and naltrexone may be a useful tool in selectively targeting the consumption of high-fat and sugar- and fat-rich foods. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Effect of naltrexone and ondansetron on alcohol cue-induced activation of the ventral striatum in alcohol-dependent people.

    PubMed

    Myrick, Hugh; Anton, Raymond F; Li, Xingbao; Henderson, Scott; Randall, Patrick K; Voronin, Konstantin

    2008-04-01

    Medication for the treatment of alcoholism is currently not particularly robust. Neuroimaging techniques might predict which medications could be useful in the treatment of alcohol dependence. To explore the effect of naltrexone, ondansetron hydrochloride, or the combination of these medications on cue-induced craving and ventral striatum activation. Functional brain imaging was conducted during alcohol cue presentation. Participants were recruited from the general community following media advertisement. Experimental procedures were performed in the magnetic resonance imaging suite of a major training hospital and medical research institute. Ninety non-treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent (by DSM-IV criteria) and 17 social drinking (< 14 drinks per week) paid volunteers recruited through advertisements at an academic center. A taste of alcohol and a series of alcohol-related pictures, neutral beverage pictures, and visual control images were provided to volunteers after 7 days of double-blind randomly assigned daily dosing with 50 mg of naltrexone (n = 23), 0.50 mg of ondansetron hydrochloride (n = 23), the combination of the 2 medications (n = 20), or matching placebos (n = 24). Difference in brain blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance when viewing alcohol pictures vs neutral beverage pictures with a particular focus on ventral striatum activity comparison across medication groups. Self-ratings of alcohol craving. The combination treatment decreased craving for alcohol. Naltrexone with (P = .02) or without (P = .049) ondansetron decreased alcohol cue-induced activation of the ventral striatum. Ondansetron by itself was similar to naltrexone and the combination in the overall analysis but intermediate in a region-specific analysis. Consistent with animal data that suggest that both naltrexone and ondansetron reduce alcohol-stimulated dopamine output in the ventral striatum, the current study found evidence that these medications, alone or in combination

  2. Bupropion-SR plus naltrexone-SR for the treatment of mild-to-moderate obesity.

    PubMed

    Ali, Khawla F; Shukla, Alpana P; Aronne, Louis J

    2016-01-01

    Naltrexone-bupropion is a recently approved drug combination for chronic weight management. In this article, we discuss the rationale for its use as a combination followed by a comprehensive review of safety and efficacy data from major preclinical, phase II and III clinical trials.

  3. Ultra-Low Doses of Naltrexone Enhance the Antiallodynic Effect of Pregabalin or Gabapentin in Neuropathic Rats.

    PubMed

    Pineda-Farias, Jorge B; Caram-Salas, Nadia L; Salinas-Abarca, Ana B; Ocampo, Jorge; Granados-Soto, Vinicio

    2017-12-01

    Preclinical Research Treatment of neuropathic pain is an area of largely unmet medical need. Pregabalin and gabapentin are anticonvulsants widely used for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Unfortunately, these drugs are only effective in 50-60% of the treated patients. In addition, both drugs have substantial side effects. Several studies have reported that ultralow doses of opioid receptor antagonists can induce analgesia and enhance the analgesic effect of opioids in rodents and humans. The objective of the present study was to assess the antiallodynic synergistic interaction between gabapentinoids and naltrexone in rats. Oral administration of pregabalin (ED 50  = 2.79 ± 0.16 mg/kg) or gabapentin (ED 50  = 21.04 ± 2.87 mg/kg) as well as intrathecal naltrexone (ED 50  = 0.11 ± 0.02 ng) reduced in a dose-dependent manner tactile allodynia in rats. Maximal antiallodynic effects (∼100%) were reached with 30 mg/kg of pregabalin, 300 mg/kg of gabapentin or 0.5 ng of naltrexone. Co-administration of pregabalin or gabapentin and naltrexone in a fixed-dose ratio (1:1) remarkably reduced spinal nerve ligation-induced tactile allodynia showing a synergistic interaction. The data indicate that combinations of pregabalin or gabapentin and ultra-low doses of naltrexone are able to reduce tactile allodynia in neuropathic rats with lower doses that those used when drugs are given individually and with an improved side effects profile. Drug Dev Res 78 : 371-380, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Acute behavioural effects of bupropion and naltrexone, alone and in combination, in non-deprived male rats presented with palatable mash.

    PubMed

    Wright, F L; Rodgers, R J

    2013-07-01

    In appetite research, drugs frequently progress to clinical trials on the basis of outcome (reduced food intake/body weight gain) with insufficient attention to process (behavioural analysis). Although bupropion and naltrexone (alone and in combination) reduce food consumption in rodents and humans, their effects on behaviour during feeding tests have not been thoroughly investigated. This study aimed to assess the behavioural specificity of anorectic responses to bupropion, naltrexone and their combination. Video analysis was employed to characterise the behavioural effects of acute systemic treatment with bupropion (10.0-40.0 mg/kg), naltrexone (0.1-3.0 mg/kg) and combined bupropion (20 mg/kg) plus naltrexone (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) in non-deprived male rats exposed for 1 h to palatable mash. Particular attention was paid to the behavioural satiety sequence (BSS). In experiment 1, the anorectic response to 40 mg/kg bupropion was associated with significant psychomotor stimulation and a complete disruption of the BSS. In experiment 2, the anorectic response to 3 mg/kg naltrexone was associated with an accelerated but otherwise normal BSS. In experiment 3, the co-administration of 20 mg/kg bupropion and naltrexone (0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg) not only produced an additive anorectic profile (including a reduced rate of eating), but the addition of the opioid receptor antagonist also concurrently attenuated the psychomotor stimulant response to the atypical antidepressant. Low-dose co-treatment with naltrexone and bupropion produces a stronger suppression of appetite than that seen with either agent alone and has the additional advantage of reducing some of the unwanted effects of bupropion.

  5. Trial of Naltrexone and Dextromethorphan for Gulf War Veterans’ Illness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-09-2-0065 TITLE: Trial of Naltrexone and Dextromethorphan ...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Trial of Naltrexone and Dextromethorphan for Gulf War Veterans’ Illness 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-09-2-0065 5c...Sciences has demonstrated that Morphine-related analogs, including Naltrexone and Dextromethorphan , have great potency in anti-inflammation and

  6. Trial of Naltrexone and Dextromethorphan for Gulf War Veterans’ Illness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-09-2-0065 TITLE: Trial of Naltrexone and Dextromethorphan ...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Trial of Naltrexone and Dextromethorphan for Gulf War Veterans’ Illness 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-09-2-0065...ABSTRACT Approval to separate the study into a separate dextromethorphan arm and naltrexone arm from the Department of Defense Institutional Review

  7. Trial of Naltrexone and Dextromethorphan for Gulf War Veterans’ Illness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    09-2-0065 TITLE: Trial of Naltrexone and Dextromethorphan for Gulf War Veterans’ Illness PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: William Joel Meggs, MD, PhD...From - To) 1 JUL 2009 - 30 JUN 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Trial of Naltrexone and Dextromethorphan for Gulf War Veteravns’ Illness 5a... dextromethorphan & naltrexone for gulf war illness. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Dextromethorphan , naltexone, gulf war illness 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  8. Effects of naltrexone on alcohol drinking patterns and extinction of alcohol seeking in baboons

    PubMed Central

    Kaminski, Barbara J.; Duke, Angela N.; Weerts, Elise M.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Understanding naltrexone’s effect on motivation to drink and pattern of drinking is important for better treatment outcomes and for comparison with novel medications. Objectives Naltrexone’s effects on number and pattern of seeking, self-administration, and extinction responses were evaluated in two groups of baboons trained under a 3 component chained schedule of reinforcement (CSR). Methods Alcohol (4% w/v; n=4; Alcohol Group) or a preferred non-alcoholic beverage (n=4; Control Group) was available for self-administration only in Component 3 of the CSR. Responses in Component 2 provided indices of motivation to drink (seeking). Naltrexone (0.32 – 3.2 mg/kg) and saline were administered before drinking and Component 2 extinction sessions. Results Acute doses of naltrexone significantly decreased total self-administration responses (p<0.01), intake volume (p<0.001) and g/kg of alcohol (p<0.01) in the Alcohol Group only. Pattern of drinking did not change, but number of drinks during the initial drinking bout was decreased significantly by naltrexone for both groups (P<0.05). During within-session extinction tests, acute naltrexone significantly decreased time to reach extinction (p<0.01) and number of seeking responses (p<0.05), particularly early in the extinction period in the Alcohol Group only. When administered chronically, naltrexone did not decrease progressive-ratio breaking points to gain access to alcohol, but dose-dependently reduced alcohol self-administration (p<0.05) by decreasing the magnitude of the initial drinking bout. Conclusions The results support clinical observations that naltrexone may be most effective at reducing self-administration in the context of ongoing alcohol availability and may reduce motivation to drink in the presence of alcohol-related cues. PMID:22451093

  9. Low-dose naltrexone for the treatment of fibromyalgia: findings of a small, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced, crossover trial assessing daily pain levels.

    PubMed

    Younger, Jarred; Noor, Noorulain; McCue, Rebecca; Mackey, Sean

    2013-02-01

    To determine whether low dosages (4.5 mg/day) of naltrexone reduce fibromyalgia severity as compared with the nonspecific effects of placebo. In this replication and extension study of a previous clinical trial, we tested the impact of low-dose naltrexone on daily self-reported pain. Secondary outcomes included general satisfaction with life, positive mood, sleep quality, and fatigue. Thirty-one women with fibromyalgia participated in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced, crossover study. During the active drug phase, participants received 4.5 mg of oral naltrexone daily. An intensive longitudinal design was used to measure daily levels of pain. When contrasting the condition end points, we observed a significantly greater reduction of baseline pain in those taking low-dose naltrexone than in those taking placebo (28.8% reduction versus 18.0% reduction; P = 0.016). Low-dose naltrexone was also associated with improved general satisfaction with life (P = 0.045) and with improved mood (P = 0.039), but not improved fatigue or sleep. Thirty-two percent of participants met the criteria for response (defined as a significant reduction in pain plus a significant reduction in either fatigue or sleep problems) during low-dose naltrexone therapy, as contrasted with an 11% response rate during placebo therapy (P = 0.05). Low-dose naltrexone was rated equally tolerable as placebo, and no serious side effects were reported. The preliminary evidence continues to show that low-dose naltrexone has a specific and clinically beneficial impact on fibromyalgia pain. The medication is widely available, inexpensive, safe, and well-tolerated. Parallel-group randomized controlled trials are needed to fully determine the efficacy of the medication. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  10. A Retrospective Cohort Study of Obstetric Outcomes in Opioid-Dependent Women Treated with Implant Naltrexone, Oral Methadone or Sublingual Buprenorphine, and Non-Dependent Controls.

    PubMed

    Kelty, Erin; Hulse, Gary

    2017-07-01

    Opioid pharmacotherapies play an important role in the treatment of opioid-dependent women; however, very little is known about the safety of naltrexone in pregnant patients. This study examined the obstetric health of opioid-dependent women who were treated with implant naltrexone during pregnancy, and compared them with women treated with methadone and/or buprenorphine and a cohort of non-opioid-dependent controls. Women treated with implant naltrexone, oral methadone or sublingual buprenorphine between 2001 and 2010, along with a cohort of age-matched controls, were linked with records from midwives, hospital and emergency departments (EDs) and the death registry to identify pregnancy and health events that occurred during pregnancy and in the post-partum period. Overall rates of pregnancy loss (requiring hospital or ED attendance) were significantly elevated in naltrexone-treated women compared with buprenorphine-treated women (p = 0.018) and controls (p < 0.001); however, they were not statistically different to methadone-treated women (p = 0.210). Birth rates in women on naltrexone implant treatment were significantly higher than in all three comparison groups (p < 0.001). Rates of hospital and ED attendance during pregnancy in the naltrexone-treated women were not statistically different to those of either the methadone or buprenorphine groups, and neither were overall complications during pregnancy and labour. Overall rates of complications during pregnancy were significantly higher in the naltrexone-treated women than in the controls. Opioid-dependent women treated with naltrexone implant had higher rates of birth than the other three groups (methadone- or buprenorphine-treated women, or age-matched controls). Overall rates of complications during pregnancy were elevated in naltrexone-treated women when compared with the control group, but were generally not significantly different to rates in methadone- or buprenorphine-treated women.

  11. Long-term treatment with low dose naltrexone maintains stable health in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Michael D; Turel, Anthony P; Zagon, Ian S; McLaughlin, Patricia J

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted on patients at Penn State Hershey Medical Center diagnosed with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis between 2006 and 2015. Laboratory and clinical data collected over this 10-year period were reviewed. Two cohorts of patients were established based on their relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis therapy at the time of their first visit to Penn State. One group of patients ( n  = 23) was initially prescribed low dose naltrexone at the time first seen at Hershey. This group was offered low dose naltrexone because of symptoms of fatigue or refusal to take an available disease-modifying therapy. The second group of patients ( n  = 31) was treated with the glatiramer acetate (Copaxone) and offered low dose naltrexone as an adjunct therapy to their disease-modifying therapy. Patient data from visits after 1-50 months post-diagnosis were evaluated in a retrospective manner. Data obtained from patient charts included clinical laboratory values from standard blood tests, timed 25-foot walking trials, and changes in magnetic resonance imaging reports. Statistical analyses between the groups and for each patient over time indicated no significant differences in clinical laboratory values, timed walking, or changes in magnetic resonance imaging. These data suggest that the apparently non-toxic, inexpensive, biotherapeutic is safe and if taken alone did not result in an exacerbation of disease symptoms.

  12. Effects of incentives for naltrexone adherence on opiate abstinence in heroin-dependent adults

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Brantley P.; Holtyn, August F.; DeFulio, Anthony; Dunn, Kelly E.; Everly, Jeffrey J.; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S.; Umbricht, Annie; Fingerhood, Michael; Bigelow, George E.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Aim To test whether an incentive-based intervention that increased adherence to naltrexone also increased opiate abstinence. Design Post-hoc combined analysis of three earlier randomized controlled trials that individually showed that incentives for adherence to oral and to extended-release injection naltrexone dosing schedules increased naltrexone adherence but not opiate abstinence. Setting Outpatient therapeutic workplace in Baltimore, MD, USA. Participants 140 unemployed heroin-dependent adults participating from 2006–2010. Interventions Participants were hired in a model workplace for 26 weeks and randomized to a Contingency (n=72) or Prescription (n=68) group. Both groups were offered naltrexone. Contingency participants were required to take scheduled doses of naltrexone in order to work and earn wages. Prescription participants could earn wages independent of naltrexone adherence. Measures Thrice-weekly and monthly urine samples tested for opiates and cocaine and measures of naltrexone adherence (percentage of monthly urine samples positive for naltrexone or percentage of scheduled injections received). All analyses included prerandomization attendance, opiate use, and cocaine use as covariates. Additional analyses controlled for cocaine use and naltrexone adherence during the intervention. Findings Contingency participants had more opiate abstinence than Prescription participants (68.1% vs. 52.9% opiate-negative thrice-weekly urine samples, respectively; and 71.9% vs. 61.7% opiate-negative monthly urine samples, respectively) based on initial analyses (thrice-weekly samples, OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.7–6.5, p < .01; monthly samples, OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.0–7.1, p = .06) and on analyses that controlled for cocaine use (thrice-weekly samples, OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 3.3–4.5, p < .01; monthly samples, OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.1–11.1, p =.04), which was high and associated with opiate use. The difference in opiate abstinence rates between Contingency participants

  13. The Placebo Effect in Clinical Trials for Alcohol Dependence: An Exploratory Analysis of 51 Naltrexone and Acamprosate Studies

    PubMed Central

    Litten, Raye Z.; Castle, I-Jen P.; Falk, Daniel; Ryan, Megan; Fertig, Joanne; Chen, Chiung M.; Yi, Hsiao-ye

    2013-01-01

    Background The placebo effect often undermines efforts to determine treatment effectiveness in clinical trials. A significant placebo response occurs in alcohol trials, but it is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize the placebo response across multiple naltrexone and acamprosate studies. Methods Fifty-one trials, 3 with a naltrexone and an acamprosate arm, 31 with at least 1 naltrexone arm, and 17 with at least 1 acamprosate arm, were identified from Cochrane reviews and PubMed search. To be included in this study, patients had to be at least 18 years old, abstinent from alcohol before randomization, and meet a diagnosis of alcohol dependence. Pearson correlation coefficients (rp) and simple linear regression were used to describe the strength of linear relationships between placebo response and treatment effect size. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients (rs) were used to examine the strength of associations between study characteristics and placebo response. Results For the end-point measures of percent days abstinent and total abstinence, a negative relationship was evident between placebo response and treatment effect size in the naltrexone trials (rp = −0.55, p < 0.01 and rp = −0.20, p = 0.35, respectively) as well as in the acamprosate trials (rp = −0.45, p = 0.09 and rp = −0.56, p = 0.01, respectively). The placebo response for percent days abstinent was negatively correlated with mean age of participants (rs = −0.42, p = 0.05) across naltrexone trials and positively correlated with publication year (rs = 0.57, p = 0.03) across acamprosate trials. However, these two study characteristics were not significantly correlated with treatment effect size. Conclusion The placebo response varied considerably across trials and was negatively correlated with the treatment effect size. Additional studies are required to fully understand the complex nature of the placebo response and to evaluate approaches to minimize its

  14. Pharmacodynamic Profile of Tramadol in Humans: Influence of Naltrexone Pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    Stoops, William W.; Lofwall, Michelle R.; Nuzzo, Paul A.; Craig, Lori B.; Siegel, Anthony J.; Walsh, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Tramadol is a prescription analgesic that activates mu opioid and monoamine receptor systems. Tramadol is thought to have limited abuse potential compared to mu opioid agonists, but laboratory data indicate that it shares some of their pharmacodynamic effects. Objectives This study evaluated the effect of mu opioid receptor blockade with naltrexone on the pharmacodynamic action of tramadol in humans. Methods This inpatient, double-blind, randomized, within-subject study examined the effects of oral placebo, tramadol (87.5, 175 and 350 mg) and hydromorphone (4 and 16 mg; positive control) after 1 hr pretreatment with oral naltrexone (0 and 50 mg). Ten recreational opioid users completed the study. Pharmacodynamic effects were measured before and for 7 hr after initial drug administration. Results Lower doses of tramadol and hydromorphone were generally placebo-like. Hydromorphone (16 mg) produced prototypic mu opioid agonist-like effects that were blocked by naltrexone. Tramadol (350 mg) produced miosis and increased ratings of “Good Effects” and “Liking ,” but also increased ratings of “Bad Effects.” Naltrexone reversed tramadol-induced physiological effects and mydriasis emerged, but unlike results with hydromorphone, naltrexone only partially attenuated tramadol’s positive subjective effects and actually enhanced several unpleasant subjective ratings. Conclusions Naltrexone can be used to disentangle the mixed neuropharmacological actions of tramadol. High dose tramadol produces a mixed profile of effects. These data suggest that both mu and non-mu opioid actions play a role in tramadol’s subjective profile of action. PMID:22623016

  15. Role of Bupropion Plus Naltrexone for the Management of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Kemper; Clements, Jennifer N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of bupropion plus naltrexone for weight loss were reviewed. Data Sources. A MEDLINE search (1970 to November 2015) was conducted for English-language articles using specific MESH terms. Study Selection and Data Extraction. Published Phase 3 clinical trials with primary endpoints related to weight loss were included and critiqued in this review. Study Selection and Data Extraction. Five trials were retrieved and reviewed regarding the efficacy and safety of bupropion plus naltrexone among obese and overweight patients. Data Synthesis. Bupropion is a dopamine/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, and naltrexone is an opioid receptor antagonist. The combination of these agents has led to increased weight loss, compared to placebo, among overweight and obese patients with a body mass index (BMI) at or above 30 or BMI at or above 27 with a comorbid condition. The combination of bupropion and naltrexone can produce an average placebo-subtracted weight loss of 4.25% over 56 weeks. Gastrointestinal (ie, nausea, vomiting, constipation) and central nervous system adverse events (ie, headache, dizziness) were commonly reported, and there was a high dropout rate among participants. Conclusions. Bupropion plus naltrexone has demonstrated effective weight loss, in conjunction with lifestyle modifications, among overweight and obese patients with and without comorbidities. Bupropion plus naltrexone has not been studied among special patient populations, such as those with sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, or extreme BMIs. Additional clinical trials and postmarketing data will provide a better understanding of this medication for weight loss.

  16. Fatal and non-fatal opioid overdose in opioid dependent patients treated with methadone, buprenorphine or implant naltrexone.

    PubMed

    Kelty, Erin; Hulse, Gary

    2017-08-01

    Illicit opioid use is associated with high rates of fatal and non-fatal opioid overdose. This study aims to compare rates of fatal and serious but non-fatal opioid overdose in opioid dependent patients treated with methadone, buprenorphine or implant naltrexone, and to identify risk factors for fatal opioid overdose. Opioid dependent patients treated with methadone (n=3515), buprenorphine (n=3250) or implant naltrexone (n=1461) in Western Australia for the first time between 2001 and 2010, were matched against state mortality and hospital data. Rates of fatal and non-fatal serious opioid overdoses were calculated and compared for the three treatments. Risk factors associated with fatal opioid overdose were examined using multivariate cox proportional hazard models. No significant difference was observed between the three groups in terms of crude rates of fatal or non-fatal opioid overdoses. During the first 28days of treatment, rates of non-fatal opioid overdose were high in all three groups, as were fatal opioid overdoses in patients treated with methadone. However, no fatal opioid overdoses were observed in buprenorphine or naltrexone patients during this period. Following the first 28 days, buprenorphine was shown to be protective, particularly in terms of non-fatal opioid overdoses. After the cessation of treatment, rates of fatal and non-fatal opioid overdoses were similar between the groups, with the exception of lower rates of non-fatal opioid overdose in the naltrexone treated patients compared with the methadone treated patients. After the commencement of treatment, gender, and hospitalisations with a diagnosis of opioid poisoning, cardiovascular or mental health problems were significant predictors of subsequent fatal opioid overdose. Rates of fatal and non-fatal opioid overdose were not significantly different in patients treated with methadone, buprenorphine or implant naltrexone. Gender and prior cause-specific hospitalisations can be used to identify

  17. Trial of Naltrexone and Dextromethorphan for Gulf War Veterans’ Illnesses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    09-2-0065 TITLE: Trial of Naltrexone and Dextromethorphan for Gulf War Veterans Illnesses PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: William J. Meggs, MD, PhD... Dextromethorphan and Naltrexone for Gulf War Veterens’ Illness 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-09-2-0065 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...neuron-inflammation, which can be down regulated, by Naltrexone and Dextromethorphan . This is untested but potentially ground breaking concept that

  18. The combination very low-dose naltrexone-clonidine in the management of opioid withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Mannelli, Paolo; Peindl, Kathleen; Wu, Li-Tzy; Patkar, Ashwin A; Gorelick, David A

    2012-05-01

    The management of withdrawal absorbs substantial clinical efforts in opioid dependence (OD). The real challenge lies in improving current pharmacotherapies. Although widely used, clonidine causes problematic adverse effects and does not alleviate important symptoms of opioid withdrawal, alone or in combination with the opioid antagonist naltrexone. Very low-dose naltrexone (VLNTX) has been shown to attenuate withdrawal intensity and noradrenaline release following opioid agonist taper, suggesting a combination with clonidine may result in improved safety and efficacy. We investigated the effects of a VLNTX-clonidine combination in a secondary analysis of data from a double-blind, randomized opioid detoxification trial. Withdrawal symptoms and treatment completion were compared following VLNTX (.125 or .25 mg/day) and clonidine (.1-.2 mg q6h) in 127 individuals with OD undergoing 6-day methadone inpatient taper at a community program. VLNTX was more effective than placebo or clonidine in reducing symptoms and signs of withdrawal. The use of VLNTX in combination with clonidine was associated with attenuated subjective withdrawal compared with each medication alone, favoring detoxification completion in comparison with clonidine or naltrexone placebo. VLNTX/clonidine was effective in reducing symptoms that are both undertreated and well controlled with clonidine treatment and was not associated with significant adverse events compared with other treatments. Preliminary results elucidate neurobiological mechanisms of OD and support the utility of controlled studies on a novel VLNTX + low-dose clonidine combination for the management of opioid withdrawal.

  19. 'Miracle cure' or 'liquid handcuffs': reporting on naltrexone and methadone in the Australian print media.

    PubMed

    Matthew-Simmons, Francis; Ritter, Alison

    2014-09-01

    The news media is an important source of information regarding new developments in medicine and public health interventions. Previous research has indicated that in many cases, reporting on new treatments can be inaccurate or sensationalist. This paper presents analysis of Australian print media reporting on two treatment options for heroin dependence (naltrexone and methadone). The aim of this study was to quantitatively compare the volume and content of Australian print media reporting on these two treatments, one of which had a long history of use in Australia, and the other which was comparatively newer. The study constituted a quantitative content analysis of a sample of 859 Australian newspaper articles, published over a 10-year period (1997-2007). Each article paragraph was coded for positive outcomes/benefits of treatment, as well as negative outcomes associated with treatment. The analysis revealed that during this period, the Australian print media was significantly more likely to report the potential positive outcomes of naltrexone treatment, compared with the negative outcomes. In contrast, reporting on methadone focused more on the negative outcomes and side effects. The relative frequency by which the benefits of naltrexone were mentioned in this sample of news content is somewhat at odds with the extant efficacy and effectiveness research evidence. The findings suggest that reporting on these treatments in the Australian print media has not been balanced. This type of reporting has potential implications for public attitudes, as well as policy decisions. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  20. Low-dose naltrexone (LDN): A promising treatment in immune-related diseases and cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Zijian; You, Yue; Griffin, Noreen; Feng, Juan; Shan, Fengping

    2018-06-06

    Naltrexone, a non-selective antagonist of opioid receptors, is mainly used as rehabilitation therapy for discharged opiate addicts to eliminate addiction in order to maintain a normal life and prevent or reduce relapse. In recent years, there have been some novel and significant findings on the off-label usage of naltrexone. Within a specific dosage window, LDN can act as an immunomodulator in multiple autoimmune diseases and malignant tumors as well as alleviate the symptoms of some mental disorders. The results of increasing studies indicate that LDN exerts its immunoregulatory activity by binding to opioid receptors in or on immune cells and tumor cells. These new discoveries indicate that LDN may become a promising immunomodulatory agent in the therapy for cancer and many immune-related diseases. In this article, we review the pharmacological functions and mechanisms of LDN as well as its clinical therapeutic potential as revealed by our team and other researchers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Separate and Combined Effects of Naltrexone and Extended-Release Alprazolam on the Reinforcing, Subject-Rated, and Cardiovascular Effects of Methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Katherine R.; Lile, Joshua A.; Stoops, William W.; Glaser, Paul E.A.; Hays, Lon R.; Rush, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Opioid antagonists (e.g., naltrexone) and positive modulators of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors (e.g., alprazolam) each modestly attenuate the abuse-related effects of stimulants. A previous study demonstrated that acute pretreatment with the combination of naltrexone and alprazolam attenuated a greater number of the subject-rated effects of d-amphetamine than the constituent drugs alone. This study tested the hypothesis that maintenance on the combination of naltrexone and alprazolam XR would attenuate the reinforcing and “positive” subject-rated effects of methamphetamine to a greater extent than the constituent drugs alone. Eight non-treatment-seeking, stimulant-using individuals completed a placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind inpatient protocol. Participants were maintained on naltrexone (0 and 50 mg), alprazolam XR (0 and 1 mg), and the combination of naltrexone and alprazolam XR (50 mg and 1 mg, respectively) for 6–7 days. Under each maintenance condition, participants sampled intranasal doses of methamphetamine (0, 10, and 30 mg), and were then offered the opportunity to work for the sampled dose on a modified progressive-ratio procedure. Subject-rated drug effect questionnaires, psychomotor, and physiology assessments were collected. Intranasal methamphetamine functioned as a reinforcer and produced prototypical stimulant-like “positive” subject-rated and physiological effects. Maintenance on naltrexone significantly decreased the reinforcing, but not subject-rated drug effects of 10 mg methamphetamine. Alprazolam XR and the combination of naltrexone and alprazolam XR did not impact methamphetamine self-administration or subject-rated drug effects. The results support the continued evaluation of naltrexone for methamphetamine dependence, as well as the identification of other drugs that enhance its ability to reduce drug-taking behavior. PMID:27043121

  2. Separate and Combined Effects of Naltrexone and Extended-Release Alprazolam on the Reinforcing, Subject-Rated, and Cardiovascular Effects of Methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Marks, Katherine R; Lile, Joshua A; Stoops, William W; Glaser, Paul E A; Hays, Lon R; Rush, Craig R

    2016-06-01

    Opioid antagonists (eg, naltrexone) and positive modulators of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (eg, alprazolam) each modestly attenuate the abuse-related effects of stimulants. A previous study demonstrated that acute pretreatment with the combination of naltrexone and alprazolam attenuated a greater number of the subject-rated effects of D-amphetamine than the constituent drugs alone. This study tested the hypothesis that maintenance on the combination of naltrexone and alprazolam XR would attenuate the reinforcing and "positive" subject-rated effects of methamphetamine to a greater extent than the constituent drugs alone.Eight non-treatment-seeking, stimulant-using individuals completed a placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind inpatient protocol. Participants were maintained on naltrexone (0 and 50 mg), alprazolam XR (0 and 1 mg), and the combination of naltrexone and alprazolam XR (50 mg and 1 mg, respectively) for 6 to 7 days. Under each maintenance condition, participants sampled intranasal doses of methamphetamine (0, 10, and 30 mg), and were then offered the opportunity to work for the sampled dose on a modified progressive-ratio procedure. Subject-rated drug effect questionnaires, psychomotor, and physiology assessments were collected.Intranasal methamphetamine functioned as a reinforcer and produced prototypical stimulant-like "positive" subject-rated and physiological effects. Maintenance on naltrexone significantly decreased the reinforcing, but not subject-rated drug effects of 10-mg methamphetamine. Alprazolam XR and the combination of naltrexone and alprazolam XR did not impact methamphetamine self-administration or subject-rated drug effects. The results support the continued evaluation of naltrexone for methamphetamine dependence, as well as the identification of other drugs that enhance its ability to reduce drug-taking behavior.

  3. Naltrexone modulates dopamine release following chronic, but not acute amphetamine administration: a translational study

    PubMed Central

    Jayaram-Lindström, N; Guterstam, J; Häggkvist, J; Ericson, M; Malmlöf, T; Schilström, B; Halldin, C; Cervenka, S; Saijo, T; Nordström, A-L; Franck, J

    2017-01-01

    The opioid antagonist naltrexone has been shown to attenuate the subjective effects of amphetamine. However, the mechanisms behind this modulatory effect are currently unknown. We hypothesized that naltrexone would diminish the striatal dopamine release induced by amphetamine, which is considered an important mechanism behind many of its stimulant properties. We used positron emission tomography and the dopamine D2-receptor radioligand [11C]raclopride in healthy subjects to study the dopaminergic effects of an amphetamine injection after pretreatment with naltrexone or placebo. In a rat model, we used microdialysis to study the modulatory effects of naltrexone on dopamine levels after acute and chronic amphetamine exposure. In healthy humans, naltrexone attenuated the subjective effects of amphetamine, confirming our previous results. Amphetamine produced a significant reduction in striatal radioligand binding, indicating increased levels of endogenous dopamine. However, there was no statistically significant effect of naltrexone on dopamine release. The same pattern was observed in rats, where an acute injection of amphetamine caused a significant rise in striatal dopamine levels, with no effect of naltrexone pretreatment. However, in a chronic model, naltrexone significantly attenuated the dopamine release caused by reinstatement of amphetamine. Collectively, these data suggest that the opioid system becomes engaged during the more chronic phase of drug use, evidenced by the modulatory effect of naltrexone on dopamine release following chronic amphetamine administration. The importance of opioid-dopamine interactions in the reinforcing and addictive effects of amphetamine is highlighted by the present findings and may help to facilitate medication development in the field of stimulant dependence. PMID:28440810

  4. Problem drinking and low-dose naltrexone-assisted opioid detoxification.

    PubMed

    Mannelli, Paolo; Peindl, Kathleen; Patkar, Ashwin A; Wu, Li-Tzy; Tharwani, Haresh M; Gorelick, David A

    2011-05-01

    The influence of alcohol use on opioid dependence is a major problem that warrants a search for more effective treatment strategies. The addition of very-low-dose naltrexone (VLNTX) to methadone taper was recently associated with reduced withdrawal intensity during detoxification. In a secondary analysis of these data, we sought to determine whether problem drinking affects detoxification outcomes and whether symptoms are influenced by VLNTX use. Opioid-dependent patients (N = 174) received naltrexone (0.125 or 0.250 mg/day) or placebo in a double-blind, randomized design during methadone-based, 6-day inpatient detoxification. Alcohol consumption was assessed at admission using the Addiction Severity Index and selfreport. Outcome measures were opioid withdrawal intensity, craving, and retention in treatment. Problem drinking-opioid dependent patients (n = 79) showed episodic heavy alcohol use and reported increased subjective opioid withdrawal intensity (p = .001), craving (p = .001), and significantly lower rate of retention in treatment (p = .02). Individuals with problem drinking and opioid dependence who were treated with VLNTX (n = 55) showed reduced withdrawal (p = .05) and a lower rate of treatment discontinuation (p = .03), resuming alcohol intake in smaller numbers the day following discharge (p = .03). Treatment effects were more pronounced on anxiety, perspiration, shakiness, nausea, stomach cramps, and craving. There were no group differences in use of adjuvant medications and no treatment-related adverse events. Heavy drinking is associated with worse opioid detoxification outcomes. The addition of VLNTX is safe and is associated with reduced withdrawal symptoms and better completion rate in these patients. Further studies should explore the use of VLNTX in detoxification and long-term treatment of combined alcohol-opioid dependence and alcohol dependence alone.

  5. Effects of alcoholism typology on response to naltrexone in the COMBINE study

    PubMed Central

    Bogenschutz, Michael P.; Tonigan, J. Scott; Pettinati, Helen M.

    2008-01-01

    Background This study investigated whether subgroups of alcohol dependent patients responded differently to naltrexone vs. placebo in the NIAAA COMBINE study. In particular, the A vs. B and the Early Onset vs. Late Onset typologies were examined. Relative to Type A alcoholics, Type Bs are characterized by greater severity, earlier onset, stronger family history, more childhood risk factors (e.g., conduct disorder), and greater frequency of comorbid psychiatric and substance use disorders. Methods COMBINE study participants were categorized as Type A or Type B using k-means cluster analysis and variables from 5 domains that have been shown to replicate the original Babor typology efficiently. Early Onset was defined as alcohol dependence beginning before age 25. For the planned analyses, the sample was reduced to the 618 participants receiving naltrexone alone or placebo, either with medical management (MM) alone or with MM plus the Combined Behavioral Intervention (CBI). The a priori primary outcome was percent heavy drinking days during treatment in the groups receiving MM without CBI. Results Among those receiving MM without CBI, Type A alcoholics had better drinking outcomes with naltrexone than placebo, whereas medication condition did not influence outcomes significantly in the Type Bs. Age of onset was not significantly related to outcome. For those receiving CBI, no significant effects were found for either typology. Conclusions In this sample, the beneficial effects of opioid antagonism were limited to Type A alcoholics receiving treatment in a medical management model. Future studies should investigate the relationship between clinically relevant genotypes, phenotypes such as typologies, and treatment response. More work is also needed to develop practical algorithms for phenotypic assignment. PMID:18828797

  6. Effects of alcoholism typology on response to naltrexone in the COMBINE study.

    PubMed

    Bogenschutz, Michael P; Scott Tonigan, J; Pettinati, Helen M

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated whether subgroups of alcohol-dependent patients responded differently to naltrexone versus placebo in the NIAAA COMBINE study. In particular, the A versus B and the Early Onset versus Late Onset typologies were examined. Relative to Type A alcoholics, Type B alcoholics are characterized by greater severity, earlier onset, stronger family history, more childhood risk factors (e.g., conduct disorder), and greater frequency of comorbid psychiatric and substance use disorders. COMBINE study participants were categorized as Type A or Type B using k-means cluster analysis and variables from 5 domains that have been shown to replicate the original Babor typology efficiently. Early Onset was defined as alcohol dependence beginning before age 25. For the planned analyses, the sample was reduced to the 618 participants receiving naltrexone alone or placebo, either with medical management (MM) alone or with MM plus the Combined Behavioral Intervention (CBI). The a priori primary outcome was percent heavy drinking days during treatment in the groups receiving MM without CBI. Among those receiving MM without CBI, Type A alcoholics had better drinking outcomes with naltrexone than placebo, whereas medication condition did not influence outcomes significantly in the Type Bs. Age of onset was not significantly related to outcome. For those receiving CBI, no significant effects were found for either typology. In this sample, the beneficial effects of opioid antagonism were limited to Type A alcoholics receiving treatment in a MM model. Future studies should investigate the relationship between clinically relevant genotypes, phenotypes such as typologies, and treatment response. More work is also needed to develop practical algorithms for phenotypic assignment.

  7. Effects of amylin and bupropion/naltrexone on food intake and body weight are interactive in rodent models.

    PubMed

    Clapper, Jason R; Athanacio, Jennifer; Wittmer, Carrie; Griffin, Pete S; D'Souza, Lawrence; Parkes, David G; Roth, Jonathan D

    2013-01-05

    Antagonism of opioid systems (e.g., with naltrexone) has been explored as an anti-obesity strategy, and is particularly effective when co-administered with dual inhibitors of dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake (e.g., bupropion). Previously, we demonstrated that amylin enhances the food intake lowering and weight loss effects of neurohormonal (e.g., leptin, cholecystokinin, melanocortins) and small molecule (e.g., phentermine, sibutramine) agents. Here, we sought to characterize the interaction of amylin with naltrexone/bupropion on energy balance. Wild-type and amylin knockout mice were similarly responsive to the food intake lowering effects of either naltrexone (1mg/kg, subcutaneous) or bupropion (50mg/kg, subcutaneous) suggesting that they act independently of amylinergic systems and could interact additively when given in combination with amylin. To test this, diet-induced obese rats were treated (for 11 days) with vehicle, rat amylin (50 μg/kg/d, infused subcutaneously), naltrexone/bupropion (1 and 20mg/kg, respectively by twice daily subcutaneous injection) or their combination. We found that amylin+naltrexone/bupropion combination therapy exerted additive effects to reduce cumulative food intake, body weight and fat mass. In a separate study, the effects of amylin and naltrexone/bupropion administered at the same doses (for 14 days) were compared to a pair-fed group. Although the combination and pair-fed groups lost a similar amount of body weight, rats treated with the combination lost 68% more fat and better maintained their lean mass. These findings support the strategy of combined amylin agonism with opioid and catecholaminergic signaling systems for the treatment of obesity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Featured Article: Serum [Met5]-enkephalin levels are reduced in multiple sclerosis and restored by low-dose naltrexone.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Michael D; Zagon, Ian S; McLaughlin, Patricia J

    2017-09-01

    autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice, [Met 5 ]-enkephalin levels were depressed prior to the appearance of clinical disease, and were restored with low-dose naltrexone treatment. Low-dose naltrexone therapy had no effect on serum [Met 5 ]-enkephalin or β-endorphin in normal mice. Thus, [Met 5 ]-enkephalin (i.e. opioid growth factor) may be a reasonable candidate biomarker for multiple sclerosis, and may signal new pathways for treatment of autoimmune disorders. Impact statement This report presents human and animal data identifying a novel biomarker for the onset and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). Humans diagnosed with MS have reduced serum levels of OGF (i.e. [Met 5 ]-enkephalin) relative to non-MS neurologic patients, and low-dose naltrexone (LDN) therapy restored their enkephalin levels. Serum OGF levels were reduced in mice immunized with MOG 35-55 prior to any clinical behavioral sign of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and LDN therapy restored their serum OGF levels. β-endorphin concentrations were not altered by LDN in humans or mice. Thus, blood levels of OGF may serve as a new, selective biomarker for the progression of MS, as well as response to therapy.

  9. Accelerated in vitro release testing method for naltrexone loaded PLGA microspheres.

    PubMed

    Andhariya, Janki V; Choi, Stephanie; Wang, Yan; Zou, Yuan; Burgess, Diane J; Shen, Jie

    2017-03-30

    The objective of the present study was to develop a discriminatory and reproducible accelerated release testing method for naltrexone loaded parenteral polymeric microspheres. The commercially available naltrexone microsphere product (Vivitrol ® ) was used as the testing formulation in the in vitro release method development, and both sample-and-separate and USP apparatus 4 methods were investigated. Following an in vitro drug stability study, frequent media replacement and addition of anti-oxidant in the release medium were used to prevent degradation of naltrexone during release testing at "real-time" (37°C) and "accelerated" (45°C), respectively. The USP apparatus 4 method was more reproducible than the sample-and-separate method. In addition, the accelerated release profile obtained using USP apparatus 4 had a shortened release duration (within seven days), and good correlation with the "real-time" release profile. Lastly, the discriminatory ability of the developed accelerated release method was assessed using compositionally equivalent naltrexone microspheres with different release characteristics. The developed accelerated USP apparatus 4 release method was able to detect differences in the release characteristics of the prepared naltrexone microspheres. Moreover, a linear correlation was observed between the "real-time" and accelerated release profiles of all the formulations investigated, suggesting that the release mechanism(s) may be similar under both conditions. These results indicate that the developed accelerated USP apparatus 4 method has the potential to be an appropriate fast quality control tool for long-acting naltrexone PLGA microspheres. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The efficacy of a low dose combination of topiramate and naltrexone on ethanol reinforcement and consumption in rat models.

    PubMed

    Moore, Catherine F; Protzuk, Omar A; Johnson, Bankole A; Lynch, Wendy J

    2014-01-01

    Combined medication approaches, by targeting multiple neurotransmitter systems involved in alcohol use disorders (AUDs), may be more efficacious than single-medication approaches. We examined, in animal models of consumption and reinforcement, the combined effects of naltrexone (an opioid antagonist) and topiramate (a GABA/glutamate modulator), two medications that have shown promise for treating AUDs, hypothesizing that their combination would be more efficacious than either alone. The effects of naltrexone and topiramate on ethanol consumption were examined in alcohol preferring (P) rats (N=10) and in rats from their background strain (Wistar, N=9) using conditions that induce high levels of consumption (24-h, 3-bottle, free-choice procedure). Low doses of each medication (1mg/kg, naltrexone; 10mg/kg, topiramate) were selected in an attempt to maximize their combined efficacy while minimizing potential side-effects. Their effects on ethanol reinforcement were assessed under a progressive-ratio schedule in additional groups of (N=22) P rats. A moderate dose of topiramate (20mg/kg) was also included to verify topiramate's efficacy on its own. In P rats, but not in Wistar rats, the combination effectively and persistently reduced consumption; whereas, neither dose alone was effective. The combination and naltrexone alone were equally effective at reducing ethanol reinforcement; however, with the combination, but not naltrexone alone, this effect was selective for ethanol. All treatments produced a similar decrease in home-cage food consumption. The 20mg/kg dose of topiramate also effectively reduced ethanol consumption and reinforcement. With greater efficacy and fewer side-effects, the combination shows promise as a treatment for AUDs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The efficacy of a low dose combination of topiramate and naltrexone on ethanol reinforcement and consumption in rat models

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Catherine F; Protzuk, Omar A; Johnson, Bankole A; Lynch, Wendy J

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Combined medication approaches, by targeting multiple neurotransmitter systems involved in alcohol use disorders (AUDs), may be more efficacious than single-medication approaches. Objectives We examined, in animals models of consumption and reinforcement, the combined effects of naltrexone (an opioid antagonist) and topiramate (a GABA/glutamate modulator), two medications that have shown promise for treating AUDs, hypothesizing that their combination would be more efficacious than either alone. Methods The effects of naltrexone and topiramate on ethanol consumption were examined in alcohol preferring (P) rats (N=10) and in rats from their background strain (Wistar, N=9) using conditions that induce high levels of consumption (24-hr, 3-bottle, free-choice procedure). Low doses of each medication (1 mg/kg, naltrexone; 10 mg/kg, topiramate) were selected in an attempt to maximize their combined efficacy while minimizing potential side-effects. Their effects on ethanol reinforcement were assessed under a progressive-ratio schedule in additional groups of (N=22) P rats. A moderate dose of topiramate (20 mg/kg) was also included to verify topiramate’s efficacy on its own. Results In P rats, but not Wistar rats, the combination effectively and persistently reduced consumption; whereas, neither dose alone was effective. The combination and naltrexone alone were equally effective at reducing ethanol reinforcement; however, with the combination, but not naltrexone alone, this effect was selective for ethanol. All treatments produced a similar decrease in home-cage food consumption. The 20 mg/kg dose of topiramate also effectively reduced ethanol consumption and reinforcement. Conclusions With greater efficacy and fewer side-effects, the combination shows promise as a treatment for AUDs. PMID:24252444

  12. Naltrexone moderates the relationship between cue-induced craving and subjective response to methamphetamine in individuals with methamphetamine use disorder.

    PubMed

    Roche, Daniel J O; Worley, Matthew J; Courtney, Kelly E; Bujarski, Spencer; London, Edythe D; Shoptaw, Steven; Ray, Lara A

    2017-07-01

    Reductions in cue-induced craving and subjective response to drugs of abuse are commonly used as initial outcome measures when testing novel medications for the treatment of addiction. Yet neither the relationship between these two measures at the individual level nor the moderating effects of pharmacotherapies on this relationship has been examined. This secondary data analysis sought to examine (1) the predictive relationship between cue-induced craving and subsequent acute subjective response to methamphetamine (MA) and (2) whether the opioid-receptor antagonist naltrexone moderated this association in a sample of non-treatment-seeking individuals who met DSM-IV criteria for MA use disorder (abuse or dependence). Participants (n = 30) completed two 4-day medication regimens (oral naltrexone 50 mg or placebo, in a randomized, counterbalanced, and double-blind fashion). On day 4 of each medication regimen, participants completed a cue-reactivity paradigm followed by intravenous MA administration. Methamphetamine craving was assessed after the cue-reactivity paradigm, and subjective response to MA was assessed during MA infusion. Cue-induced craving for MA was positively associated with post-infusion subjective MA effects, including positive (i.e., stimulation, good effects, feel drug, high), negative (i.e., anxious and depressed), and craving-related (i.e., want more, would like access to drug, crave) responses. Naltrexone, vs. placebo, significantly reduced the association between cue-induced craving and positive subjective response to MA. The findings indicate that naltrexone moderates the predictive relationship between cue-induced craving and positive subjective effects of MA, thereby suggesting a behavioral mechanism by which naltrexone may be efficacious in treating MA use disorder.

  13. Employment-Based Reinforcement of Adherence to Depot Naltrexone in Unemployed Opioid-Dependent Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Everly, Jeffrey J.; DeFulio, Anthony; Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S.; Donlin, Wendy D.; Aklin, Will M.; Umbricht, Annie; Fingerhood, Michael; Bigelow, George E.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Aims Naltrexone can be used to treat opioid dependence, but patients refuse to take it. Extended-release depot formulations may improve adherence, but long-term adherence rates to depot naltrexone are not known. This study determined long-term rates of adherence to depot naltrexone and whether employment-based reinforcement can improve adherence. Design Participants who were inducted onto oral naltrexone were randomly assigned to Contingency (n=18) or Prescription (n=17) groups. Participants were offered six depot naltrexone injections and invited to work at the therapeutic workplace weekdays for 26 weeks where they earned stipends for participating in job skills training. Contingency participants were required to accept naltrexone injections to maintain workplace access and to maintain maximum pay. Prescription participants could work independent of whether they accepted injections. Setting The therapeutic workplace, a model employment-based intervention for drug addiction and unemployment. Participants Opioid-dependent unemployed adults. Measurements Depot naltrexone injections accepted and opiate-negative urine samples. Findings Contingency participants accepted significantly more naltrexone injections than Prescription participants (81% versus 42%), and were more likely to accept all injections (66% versus 35%). At monthly assessments (with missing urine samples imputed as positive), the groups provided similar percentages of samples negative for opiates (74% versus 62%) and for cocaine (56% versus 54%). Opiate positive samples were more likely when samples were also positive for cocaine. Conclusions Employment-based reinforcement can maintain adherence to depot naltrexone. Future research should determine whether persistent cocaine use compromises naltrexone's effect on opiate use. Workplaces may be useful for promoting sustained adherence to depot naltrexone. PMID:21320227

  14. Employment-based reinforcement of adherence to depot naltrexone in unemployed opioid-dependent adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Everly, Jeffrey J; DeFulio, Anthony; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Donlin, Wendy D; Aklin, Will M; Umbricht, Annie; Fingerhood, Michael; Bigelow, George E; Silverman, Kenneth

    2011-07-01

    Naltrexone can be used to treat opioid dependence, but patients refuse to take it. Extended-release depot formulations may improve adherence, but long-term adherence rates to depot naltrexone are not known. This study determined long-term rates of adherence to depot naltrexone and whether employment-based reinforcement can improve adherence. Participants who were inducted onto oral naltrexone were assigned randomly to contingency (n = 18) or prescription (n = 17) groups. Participants were offered six depot naltrexone injections and invited to work at the therapeutic workplace on week days for 26 weeks, where they earned stipends for participating in job skills training. Contingency participants were required to accept naltrexone injections to maintain workplace access and to maintain maximum pay. Prescription participants could work independently of whether they accepted injections. The therapeutic workplace, a model employment-based intervention for drug addiction and unemployment. Opioid-dependent unemployed adults. Depot naltrexone injections accepted and opiate-negative urine samples. Contingency participants accepted significantly more naltrexone injections than prescription participants (81% versus 42%), and were more likely to accept all injections (66% versus 35%). At monthly assessments (with missing urine samples imputed as positive), the groups provided similar percentages of samples negative for opiates (74% versus 62%) and for cocaine (56% versus 54%). Opiate-positive samples were more likely when samples were also positive for cocaine. Employment-based reinforcement can maintain adherence to depot naltrexone. Future research should determine whether persistent cocaine use compromises naltrexone's effect on opiate use. Workplaces may be useful for promoting sustained adherence to depot naltrexone. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Potentiation of low dose ketamine effects by naltrexone: potential implications for the pharmacotherapy of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Krystal, John H; Madonick, Steven; Perry, Edward; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Brush, Laura; Wray, Yola; Belger, Aysenil; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2006-08-01

    The interplay of opiate and NMDA glutamate receptors may contribute to psychosis, cognitive function, alcoholism, and substance dependence. Ketamine and ethanol block the NMDA glutamate receptor. The purpose of this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study was to evaluate whether the interactive effects of drugs acting at opiate and NMDA glutamate receptors might partially explain the efficacy of naltrexone for the treatment of alcoholism, that is, whether naltrexone 25 mg pretreatment would modulate ketamine effects in healthy human subjects. Two groups of healthy subjects were studied. An initial group (n=31) received a perception-altering subanesthetic dose of ketamine (bolus of 0.23 mg/kg over 1 min followed by a 60-min infusion of 0.58 mg/kg or saline bolus and infusion). A second group (n=24) completed the same testing procedures, but received a subperceptual ketamine dose (bolus 0.081 mg/kg over 10 min followed by an infusion of 0.4 mg/kg/h). Ketamine produced positive symptoms, negative symptoms, emotional discomfort, and cognitive effects as measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) in a dose-related fashion. The lower ketamine dose produced subjective effects similar to two standard ethanol drinks, whereas the higher ketamine dose produced effects similar to five standard drinks. Although naltrexone produced no significant behavioral effects, it significantly magnified the increase in the total PANSS score produced by the lower subperceptual dose of ketamine, but not the higher perception-altering dose of ketamine. These data suggest that the interplay of opiate receptor antagonism and NMDA receptor antagonism may be relevant to the protective effects of naltrexone on alcohol consumption via potentiation of dysphoric effects associated with the NMDA receptor antagonist effects of ethanol. However, these data suggest that at levels of NMDA receptor antagonism associated with heavy drinking, this protective

  16. Safety assessment of combination therapies in the treatment of obesity: focus on naltrexone/bupropion extended release and phentermine-topiramate extended release.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Bruno; Mancini, Marcio C

    2017-01-01

    Few studies on combination therapies for the treatment of obesity had been conducted until recently, when two fixed-dose combinations, bupropion-naltrexone ER fixed-dose combination and phentermine-topiramate ER titrated-dose combinations were evaluated in clinical studies that ultimately led to FDA approval. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss safety concerns about both combinations, the rationale and history of combination therapies for obesity (including phentermine plus fenfluramine), and possible future new combinations. Expert opinion: Combination therapies are a promising new area in obesity treatment, similar to what occurs with diabetes and hypertension. Safety assessment is highly important due to the high number of potential users on a chronic basis.

  17. Naltrexone potentiates 4-aminopyridine seizures in the rat.

    PubMed

    Mihály, A; Bencsik, K; Solymosi, T

    1990-01-01

    The effects of a pharmacological blockade of the mu opiate receptors on the manifestation of tonic-clonic seizures were investigated in freely moving animals. 4-aminopyridine, a specific blocker of the neuronal K+ channels was used to produce generalized convulsions. After pretreatment of adult rats with 1 mg/kg naltrexone HCl, 3, 5, 7, 9, 14 mg/kg 4-aminopyridine was injected intraperitoneally, and the latencies of the symptoms generated by 4-aminopyridine were measured. Naltrexone HCl decreased these latencies and enhanced the seizures significantly. The experiments provided further evidence for the existence of a tonic anticonvulsant opioid system in the brain.

  18. Opioids and social bonding: naltrexone reduces feelings of social connection

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Lara A.; Irwin, Michael R.; Way, Baldwin M.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.

    2016-01-01

    Close social bonds are critical to a happy and fulfilled life and yet little is known, in humans, about the neurochemical mechanisms that keep individuals feeling close and connected to one another. According to the brain opioid theory of social attachment, opioids may underlie the contented feelings associated with social connection and may be critical to continued bonding. However, the role of opioids in feelings of connection toward close others has only begun to be examined in humans. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of naltrexone (an opioid antagonist), 31 volunteers took naltrexone for 4 days and placebo for 4 days (separated by a 10-day washout period). Participants came to the laboratory once on the last day of taking each drug to complete a task designed to elicit feelings of social connection. Participants also completed daily reports of feelings of social connection while on naltrexone and placebo. In line with hypotheses, and for the first time in humans, results demonstrated that naltrexone (vs placebo) reduced feelings of connection both in the laboratory and in daily reports. These results highlight the importance of opioids for social bonding with close others, lending support to the brain opioid theory of social attachment. PMID:26796966

  19. Opiate Antagonists Do Not Interfere With the Clinical Benefits of Stimulants in ADHD: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of the Mixed Opioid Receptor Antagonist Naltrexone.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Thomas J; Bhide, Pradeep; Zhu, Jinmin; Faraone, Stephen V; Fitzgerald, Maura; Yule, Amy M; Uchida, Mai; Spencer, Andrea E; Hall, Anna M; Koster, Ariana J; Biederman, Joseph

    Methylphenidate activates μ-opioid receptors, which are linked to euphoria. μ-Opioid antagonists, such as naltrexone, may attenuate the euphoric effects of stimulants, thereby minimizing their abuse potential. This study assessed whether the combination of naltrexone with methylphenidate is well-tolerated while preserving the clinical benefits of stimulants in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted a 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of naltrexone in adults with DSM-IV ADHD receiving open treatment with a long-acting formulation of methylphenidate from January 2013 to July 2015. Spheroidal Oral Drug Absorption System (SODAS) methylphenidate was administered twice daily, was titrated to approximately 1 mg/kg/d over 3 weeks, and was continued for 3 additional weeks depending on response and adverse effects. Subjects were adults with ADHD preselected for having experienced euphoria with a test dose of immediate-release methylphenidate. The primary outcome measure was the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Report Scale (AISRS). Thirty-seven subjects who experienced stimulant-induced (mild) euphoria at a baseline visit were started in the open trial of SODAS methylphenidate and randomly assigned to naltrexone 50 mg or placebo. Thirty-one subjects completed the study through week 3, and 25 completed through week 6. Throughout 6 weeks of blinded naltrexone and open methylphenidate treatment, the coadministration of naltrexone with methylphenidate did not interfere with the clinical effectiveness of methylphenidate for ADHD symptoms. Additionally, the combination of naltrexone and methylphenidate did not produce an increase in adverse events compared with methylphenidate alone. Our findings provide support for the concept of combining opioid receptor antagonists with stimulants to provide an effective stimulant formulation with less abuse potential. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01673594​.

  20. Behavioural profile of exendin-4/naltrexone dose combinations in male rats during tests of palatable food consumption.

    PubMed

    Wright, F L; Rodgers, R J

    2014-09-01

    The glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist exendin-4 potently suppresses food intake in animals and humans. However, little is known about the behavioural specificity of this effect either when administered alone or when co-administered with another anorectic agent. The present study characterises the effects of exendin-4, both alone and in combination with naltrexone, on behaviours displayed by male rats during tests with palatable mash. Experiment 1 examined the dose-response effects of exendin-4 (0.025-2.5 μg/kg, IP), while experiment 2 profiled the effects of low-dose combinations of the peptide (0.025 and 0.25 μg/kg) and naltrexone (0.1 mg/kg). In experiment 1, exendin-4 dose dependently suppressed food intake as well as the frequency and rate of eating. However, these effects were accompanied by dose-dependent reductions in all active behaviours and, at 2.5 μg/kg, a large increase in resting and disruption of the behavioural satiety sequence (BSS). In experiment 2, while exendin-4 (0.25 μg/kg) and naltrexone each produced a significant reduction in intake and feeding behaviour (plus an acceleration in the BSS), co-treatment failed to produce stronger effects than those seen in response to either compound alone. Similarities between the behavioural signature of exendin-4 and that previously reported for the emetic agent lithium chloride would suggest that exendin-4 anorexia is related to the aversive effects of the peptide. Furthermore, as low-dose combinations of the peptide with naltrexone failed to produce an additive/synergistic anorectic effect, this particular co-treatment strategy would not appear to have therapeutic significance.

  1. The Safety and Efficacy of Low-Dose Naltrexone in the Management of Chronic Pain and Inflammation in Multiple Sclerosis, Fibromyalgia, Crohn's Disease, and Other Chronic Pain Disorders.

    PubMed

    Patten, Denise K; Schultz, Bob G; Berlau, Daniel J

    2018-03-01

    Chronic inflammatory diseases are complex to treat and have an impact on a large number of patients. Due to the difficulty of treating these diseases and the great impact on quality of life, patients often seek off-label, complimentary, or alternative medicines to gain relief from symptoms. Low-dose naltrexone has been used off-label for treatment of pain and inflammation in multiple sclerosis, Crohn's disease, fibromyalgia, and other diseases. Naltrexone is a mu-opioid receptor antagonist indicated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for opioid and alcohol dependence. It is hypothesized that lower than standard doses of naltrexone inhibit cellular proliferation of T and B cells and block Toll-like receptor 4, resulting in an analgesic and antiinflammatory effect. It is the purpose of this review to examine the evidence of the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of low-dose naltrexone for use in chronic pain and inflammatory conditions. Currently, evidence supports the safety and tolerability of low-dose naltrexone in multiple sclerosis, fibromyalgia, and Crohn's disease. Fewer studies support the efficacy of low-dose naltrexone, with most of these focusing on subjective measures such as quality of life or self-reported pain. These studies do demonstrate that low-dose naltrexone has subjective benefits over placebo, but evidence for more objective measures is limited. However, further randomized controlled trials are needed to determine the efficacy of low-dose naltrexone due to insufficient evidence supporting its use in these disease states. This review provides practitioners with the extent of low-dose naltrexone evidence so that they can be cognizant of situations where it may not be the most appropriate therapy. © 2018 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  2. The mesolimbic system participates in the naltrexone-induced reversal of sexual exhaustion: opposite effects of intra-VTA naltrexone administration on copulation of sexually experienced and sexually exhausted male rats.

    PubMed

    Garduño-Gutiérrez, René; León-Olea, Martha; Rodríguez-Manzo, Gabriela

    2013-11-01

    Male rats allowed to copulate until reaching sexual exhaustion exhibit a long-lasting sexual behavior inhibition (around 72 h) that can be reversed by systemic opioid receptor antagonist administration. Copulation activates the mesolimbic dopaminergic system (MLS) and promotes endogenous opioid release. In addition, endogenous opioids, acting at the ventral tegmental area (VTA), modulate the activity of the MLS. We hypothesized that endogenous opioids participate in the sexual exhaustion phenomenon by interacting with VTA opioid receptors and consequently, its reversal by opioid antagonists could be exerted at those receptors. In this study we determined the effects of intra-VTA infusion of different doses of the non-specific opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (0.1-1.0 μg/rat) on the already established sexual behavior inhibition of sexually exhausted male rats. To elucidate the possible involvement of VTA δ-opioid receptors in the naltrexone-mediated reversal of sexual exhaustion, the effects of different doses of the selective δ-opioid receptor antagonist, naltrindole (0.03-1.0 μg/rat) were also tested. Results showed that intra-VTA injection of 0.3 μg naltrexone reversed the sexual inhibition of sexually exhausted rats, evidenced by an increased percentage of animals capable of showing two successive ejaculations. Intra-VTA infused naltrindole did not reverse sexual exhaustion at any dose. It is concluded that the MLS is involved in the reversal of sexual exhaustion induced by systemic naltrexone, and that μ-, but not δ-opioid receptors participate in this effect. Intra-VTA naltrexone infusion to sexually experienced male rats had an inhibitory effect on sexual activity. The opposite effects of intra-VTA naltrexone on male rat sexual behavior expression of sexually experienced and sexually exhausted rats is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Employment-based reinforcement of adherence to an FDA approved extended release formulation of naltrexone in opioid-dependent adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    DeFulio, Anthony; Everly, Jeffrey J; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Umbricht, Annie; Fingerhood, Michael; Bigelow, George E; Silverman, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Naltrexone provides excellent opioid blockade, but its clinical utility is limited because opioid-dependent patients typically refuse it. An injectable suspension of naltrexone for extended release (XR-NTX) was recently approved by the FDA for treatment of opioid dependence. XR-NTX treatment may require concurrent behavioral intervention to maximize adherence and effectiveness, thus we sought to evaluate employment-based reinforcement as a method of improving adherence to XR-NTX in opiate dependent adults. Opioid-dependent adults (n=38) were detoxified and inducted onto oral naltrexone, then randomly assigned to contingency or prescription conditions. Participants received up to six doses of XR-NTX at four-week intervals. All participants could earn vouchers for attendance and performance at a therapeutic workplace. Contingency participants were required to accept XR-NTX injections to access the workplace and earn vouchers. Prescription participants could earn vouchers independent of their acceptance of XR-NTX injections. Contingency participants accepted significantly more naltrexone injections than prescription participants (87% versus 52%, p=.002), and were more likely to accept all injections (74% versus 26%, p=.004). Participants in the two conditions provided similar percentages of samples negative for opiates (72% versus 65%) and for cocaine (58% versus 54%). Opiate positivity was significantly more likely when samples were also cocaine positive, independent of naltrexone blockade (p=.002). Long-term adherence to XR-NTX in unemployed opiate dependent adults is low under usual care conditions. Employment-based reinforcement can maintain adherence to XR-NTX. Ongoing cocaine use appears to interfere with the clinical effectiveness of XR-NTX on opiate use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of in vitro-in vivo correlation of parenteral naltrexone loaded polymeric microspheres.

    PubMed

    Andhariya, Janki V; Shen, Jie; Choi, Stephanie; Wang, Yan; Zou, Yuan; Burgess, Diane J

    2017-06-10

    Establishment of in vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIVCs) for parenteral polymeric microspheres has been very challenging, due to their complex multiphase release characteristics (which is affected by the nature of the drug) as well as the lack of compendial in vitro release testing methods. Previously, a Level A correlation has been established and validated for polymeric microspheres containing risperidone (a practically water insoluble small molecule drug). The objectives of the present study were: 1) to investigate whether a Level A IVIVC can be established for polymeric microspheres containing another small molecule drug with different solubility profiles compared to risperidone; and 2) to determine whether release characteristic differences (bi-phasic vs tri-phasic) between microspheres can affect the development and predictability of IVIVCs. Naltrexone was chosen as the model drug. Three compositionally equivalent formulations of naltrexone microspheres with different release characteristics were prepared using different manufacturing processes. The critical physicochemical properties (such as drug loading, particle size, porosity, and morphology) as well as the in vitro release characteristics of the prepared naltrexone microspheres and the reference-listed drug (Vivitrol®) were determined. The pharmacokinetics of the naltrexone microspheres were investigated using a rabbit model. The obtained pharmacokinetic profiles were deconvoluted using the Loo-Riegelman method, and compared with the in vitro release profiles of the naltrexone microspheres obtained using USP apparatus 4. Level A IVIVCs were established and validated for predictability. The results demonstrated that the developed USP 4 method was capable of detecting manufacturing process related performance changes, and most importantly, predicting the in vivo performance of naltrexone microspheres in the investigated animal model. A critical difference between naltrexone and risperidone loaded

  5. Daily relations among affect, urge, targeted naltrexone, and alcohol use in young adults.

    PubMed

    Bold, Krysten W; Fucito, Lisa M; Corbin, William R; DeMartini, Kelly S; Leeman, Robert F; Kranzler, Henry R; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2016-10-01

    Heavy drinking among young adults is a serious public health problem. Naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, has been shown to reduce drinking in young adults compared to placebo and can be taken on a targeted (i.e., as needed) basis. Understanding risk factors for drinking and naltrexone effects within-person in young adults may help to optimize the use of targeted naltrexone. The current study was a secondary analysis of daily diary data from 127 (n = 40 female) young adults (age 18-25) enrolled in a double-blind clinical trial of daily (25 mg) plus targeted (25 mg) naltrexone versus placebo. Hierarchical linear models were used to examine the effects of daily affect, urge, and taking targeted medication on same-day risk of drinking to intoxication (defined as estimated blood-alcohol-concentration, BAC ≥ .08 g%). Results indicated urge significantly mediated within-person positive affect-drinking relations on a daily level. Specifically, positive affect was associated with greater urge to drink, which in turn was associated with greater odds of BAC ≥ .08 g%. Furthermore, days of greater positive affect and urge were associated with taking a targeted dose of medication, which reduced the likelihood of intoxication by nearly 23% in the naltrexone group compared to placebo. Gender and family history of alcohol dependence were examined as moderators of these daily level effects. These results provide further evidence of naltrexone's ability to reduce alcohol consumption in young adults and identify potential within-person risk processes related to heavy drinking that could inform alcohol-related interventions for this population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Sucrose and naltrexone prevent increased pain sensitivity and impaired long-term memory induced by repetitive neonatal noxious stimulation: Role of BDNF and β-endorphin.

    PubMed

    Nuseir, Khawla Q; Alzoubi, Karem H; Alhusban, Ahmed; Bawaane, Areej; Al-Azzani, Mohammed; Khabour, Omar F

    2017-10-01

    Pain in neonates is associated with short and long-term adverse outcomes. Data demonstrated that long-term consequences of untreated pain are linked to the plasticity of the neonate's brain. Sucrose is effective and safe for reducing painful procedures from single events. However, the mechanism of sucrose-induced analgesia is not fully understood. The role of the opioid system in this analgesia using the opioid receptor antagonist Naltrexone was investigated, plus the long-term effects on learning and memory formation during adulthood. Pain was induced in rat pups via needle pricks of the paws. Sucrose solution and/or naltrexone were administered before the pricks. All treatments started on day one of birth and continued for two weeks. At the end of 8weeks, behavioral studies were conducted to test spatial learning and memory using radial arm water maze (RAWM), and pain threshold via foot-withdrawal response to a hot plate. The hippocampus was dissected; levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and endorphins were assessed using ELISA. Acute repetitive neonatal pain increased pain sensitivity later in life, while naltrexone with sucrose decreased pain sensitivity. Naltrexone and/or sucrose prevented neonatal pain induced impairment of long-term memory, while neonatal pain decreased levels of BDNF in the hippocampus; this decrease was averted by sucrose and naltrexone. Sucrose with naltrexone significantly increased β-endorphin levels in noxiously stimulated rats. In conclusion, naltrexone and sucrose can reverse increased pain sensitivity and impaired long-term memory induced by acute repetitive neonatal pain probably by normalizing BDNF expression and increasing β-endorphin levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A non-rewarding, non-aversive buprenorphine/naltrexone combination attenuates drug-primed reinstatement to cocaine and morphine in rats in a conditioned place preference paradigm.

    PubMed

    Cordery, Sarah F; Taverner, Alistair; Ridzwan, Irna E; Guy, Richard H; Delgado-Charro, M Begoña; Husbands, Stephen M; Bailey, Christopher P

    2014-07-01

    Concurrent use of cocaine and heroin is a major public health issue with no effective relapse prevention treatment currently available. To this purpose, a combination of buprenorphine and naltrexone, a mixed very-low efficacy mu-opioid receptor agonist/kappa-opioid receptor antagonist/nociceptin receptor agonist, was investigated. The tail-withdrawal and the conditioned place preference (CPP) assays in adult Sprague Dawley rats were used to show that naltrexone dose-dependently blocked the mu-opioid receptor agonism of buprenorphine. Furthermore, in the CPP assay, a combination of 0.3 mg/kg buprenorphine and 3.0 mg/kg naltrexone was aversive. A combination of 0.3 mg/kg buprenorphine and 1.0 mg/kg naltrexone was neither rewarding nor aversive, but still possessed mu-opioid receptor antagonist properties. In the CPP extinction and reinstatement method, a combination of 0.3 mg/kg buprenorphine and 1.0 mg/kg naltrexone completely blocked drug-primed reinstatement in cocaine-conditioned rats (conditioned with 3 mg/kg cocaine, drug prime was 3 mg/kg cocaine) and attenuated drug-primed reinstatement in morphine-conditioned rats (conditioned with 5 mg/kg morphine, drug prime was 1.25 mg/kg morphine). These data add to the growing evidence that a buprenorphine/naltrexone combination may be protective against relapse in a polydrug abuse situation. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Neuropsychological functioning in buprenorphine maintained patients versus abstinent heroin abusers on naltrexone hydrochloride therapy.

    PubMed

    Messinis, Lambros; Lyros, Epameinondas; Andrian, Virginia; Katsakiori, Paraskevi; Panagis, George; Georgiou, Vasileios; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2009-10-01

    Methadone and buprenorphine are among the most widely employed pharmacological treatments currently available for opioid addiction. Cognitive effects of buprenorphine in abstinent heroin abusers are nevertheless far from being understood. Neuropsychological performance of 18 buprenorphine-maintained patients (BMP) was evaluated relative to that of 32 currently abstinent heroin abusers on naltrexone hydrochloride therapy (FHAN), and 34 non-drug dependent controls. The three groups were demographically balanced. Clinical groups reported histories of similar patterns of drug use and had increased periods of abstinence from any illicit substance use including heroin. The BMP group performed poorer than controls on the RAVLT (encoding and delayed recall of verbal information), CTT (conceptual flexibility, executive functions) and the RBANS figure copy (visual perception) and delayed recall of visual information. There were no significant differences in any of the cognitive measures between the BMP and FHAN groups or between the FHAN group and controls. Furthermore, the non-differing percentage of abnormal cases between the two patient groups led us to infer that treatment with either BPM or FHAN is not accompanied by qualitative differences in the cognitive profiles of these patients. Overall, results suggest that treatment with naltrexone in abstinent heroin abusers may result in less impairment of cognitive functions compared to treatment with buprenorphine. These findings are relevant for improved prognosis and treatment strategies in opioid dependence.

  9. Effectiveness, safety and feasibility of extended-release naltrexone for opioid dependence: a 9-month follow-up to a 3-month randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Solli, Kristin Klemmetsby; Latif, Zill-E-Huma; Opheim, Arild; Krajci, Peter; Sharma-Haase, Kamni; Benth, Jūratė Šaltytė; Tanum, Lars; Kunoe, Nikolaj

    2018-05-28

    This is a follow-up study of a previously published randomized clinical trial conducted in Norway that compared extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) to buprenorphine-naloxone (BP-NLX) over 3 months. At the conclusion of the trial, participants were offered their choice of study medication for an additional 9 months. While BP-NLX was available at no cost through opioid maintenance treatment programmes, XR-NTX was available only through study participation, accounting for why almost all participants chose XR-NTX in the follow-up. The aim of this follow-up study was to compare differences in outcome between adults with opioid dependence continuing XR-NTX and those inducted on XR-NTX for a 9-month period, on measures of effectiveness, safety and feasibility. In this prospective cohort study, participants were either continuing XR-NTX, changed from BP-NLX to XR-NTX or re-included into the study and inducted on XR-NTX treatment. Five urban, out-patient addiction clinics in Norway. Opioid-dependent adults continuing (n = 54) or inducted on (n = 63) XR-NTX. XR-NTX administrated as intramuscular injections (380 mg) every fourth week. Data on retention, use of heroin and other illicit substances, opioid craving, treatment satisfaction, addiction-related problems and adverse events were reported every fourth week. Nine-month follow-up completion rates were 51.9% among participants continuing XR-NTX in the follow-up and 47.6% among those inducted on XR-NTX. Opioid abstinence rates were, respectively, 53.7 and 44.4%. No significant group differences were found in use of heroin and other opioids. Opioid-dependent individuals who elect to switch from buprenorphine-naltrexone treatment after 3 months to extended-release naltrexone treatment for 9 months appear to experience similar treatment completion and abstinence rates and similar adverse event profiles to individuals who had been on extended-release naltrexone from the start of treatment. © 2018 Society for the

  10. Sensitivity of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to the opiate antagonists naltrexone and naloxone: receptor blockade and up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Luis E F; Pereira, Edna F R; Camara, Adriana L; Maelicke, Alfred; Albuquerque, Edson X

    2004-04-19

    In HEK293 cells stably expressing alpha4beta2 nAChRs, naltrexone, but not naloxone, blocked alpha4beta2 nAChRs via an open-channel blocking mechanism. In primary hippocampal cultures, naltrexone inhibited alpha7 nAChRs up-regulated by nicotine, and in organotypic hippocampal cultures naltrexone caused a time-dependent up-regulation of functional alpha7 nAChRs that was detected after removal of the drug. These results indicate that naltrexone could be used as a smoking cessation aid.

  11. Pilot trial of low-dose naltrexone and quality of life in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cree, Bruce A C; Kornyeyeva, Elena; Goodin, Douglas S

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of 4.5mg nightly naltrexone on the quality of life of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. This single-center, double-masked, placebo-controlled, crossover study evaluated the efficacy of 8 weeks of treatment with 4.5mg nightly naltrexone (low-dose naltrexone, LDN) on self-reported quality of life of MS patients. Eighty subjects with clinically definite MS were enrolled, and 60 subjects completed the trial. Ten withdrew before completing the first trial period: 8 for personal reasons, 1 for a non-MS-related adverse event, and 1 for perceived benefit. Database management errors occurred in 4 other subjects, and quality of life surveys were incomplete in 6 subjects for unknown reasons. The high rate of subject dropout and data management errors substantially reduced the trial's statistical power. LDN was well tolerated, and serious adverse events did not occur. LDN was associated with significant improvement on the following mental health quality of life measures: a 3.3-point improvement on the Mental Component Summary score of the Short Form-36 General Health Survey (p = 0.04), a 6-point improvement on the Mental Health Inventory (p < 0.01), a 1.6-point improvement on the Pain Effects Scale (p =.04), and a 2.4-point improvement on the Perceived Deficits Questionnaire (p = 0.05). LDN significantly improved mental health quality of life indices. Further studies with LDN in MS are warranted.

  12. Trial of Naltrexone and Dextromethorphan for Gulf War Veterans’ Illness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    1 Award Number: W81XWH-09-2-0065 TITLE: Trial of Naltrexone and Dextromethorphan for Gulf War Veterans’ Illness PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: William J... Dextromethorphan for Gulf War Veterans’ Illness 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-09-2-0065 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) William...is related to low grade neuron-inflammation, which can be down regulated, by Naltrexone and Dextromethorphan . This is untested but potentially

  13. Sex differences in acute hormonal and subjective response to naltrexone: the impact of menstrual cycle phase

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Daniel J.O.; King, Andrea C.

    2015-01-01

    Women often exhibit larger hormonal and subjective responses to opioid receptor antagonists than men, but the biological mechanisms mediating this effect remain unclear. Among women, fluctuations in estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) across the menstrual cycle (MC) affect the endogenous opioid system. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to compare acute naltrexone response between women in the early follicular phase of the MC (low E2 and P4), women in the luteal phase of the MC (high E2 and P4), and men. Seventy healthy controls (n = 46 women) participated in two morning sessions in which they received 50 mg naltrexone or placebo in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Women were randomized to complete both sessions in either the early follicular (n = 23) or luteal phase of the MC. Serum cortisol, prolactin, and luteinizing hormone (LH), salivary cortisol, and subjective response were assessed upon arrival to the laboratory and at regular intervals after pill administration. In luteal and early follicular women but not men, naltrexone (vs. placebo) increased serum cortisol and prolactin levels from baseline; however, the naltrexone-induced increases in these hormones were significantly greater in luteal women than early follicular women. Additionally, only luteal women demonstrated an increase from baseline in salivary cortisol levels and the severity of adverse drug effects in response to naltrexone. In sum, the results indicate that luteal phase women are more sensitive to acute hormonal and subjective effects of naltrexone than early follicular women and men. These findings may have important implications for the use of naltrexone in women. PMID:25459893

  14. Topical Naltrexone Is a Safe and Effective Alternative to Standard Treatment of Diabetic Wounds.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Patricia J; Cain, Jarrett D; Titunick, Michelle B; Sassani, Joseph W; Zagon, Ian S

    2017-09-01

    Objective: Diabetes affects more than 29 million individuals in the United States, resulting in healthcare costs approaching $245 billion. Approximately 15% of these individuals will develop a chronic, non-healing foot ulcer (diabetic foot ulcer [DFU]) that, if untreated, may lead to amputation. The current treatments for DFU are expensive, have significant side-effects, and often result in non-compliance. A new topical treatment is described that accelerates cutaneous wound repair and is disease modifying by targeting underlying aberrant diabetic pathways. Approach: The efficacy of naltrexone (NTX), an opioid receptor antagonist, and Regranex ® was compared in preclinical studies using type 1 diabetic rats. Dorsal cutaneous wounds were treated topically with 0.03% NTX, Regranex, or moisturizing cream alone. Wound closure, DNA synthesis, and cytokine production were monitored. Results: Wound closure rates with topical NTX in type 1 diabetic rats were comparable to Regranex. Topical NTX accelerated DNA synthesis, as measured by BrdU incorporation, increased mast cells, and enhanced expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a marker for angiogenesis. Regranex had little effect on DNA synthesis, mast cells, and VEGF expression relative to vehicle-treated wounds, and it only temporarily increased PDGF expression. Fibroblast growth factor expression was not altered by either treatment. Innovation: Topical application of 0.03% NTX cream accelerates diabetic wound closure. Conclusion: Blockade of the opioid growth factor (OGF)-OGF receptor (OGFr) axis utilizing 0.03% NTX cream is comparable to standard care in preclinical studies, and it provides a safe, inexpensive, and effective alternative for treatment of diabetic wounds.

  15. The cannabinoid anticonvulsant effect on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure is potentiated by ultra-low dose naltrexone in mice.

    PubMed

    Bahremand, Arash; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Nasrabady, Sara Ebrahimi; Gholizadeh, Shervin; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2008-09-01

    Cannabinoid compounds are anticonvulsant since they have inhibitory effects at micromolar doses, which are mediated by activated receptors coupling to G(i/o) proteins. Surprisingly, both the analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of opioids are enhanced by ultra-low doses (nanomolar to picomolar) of the opioid antagonist naltrexone and as opioid and cannabinoid systems interact, it has been shown that ultra-low dose naltrexone also enhances cannabinoid-induced antinociception. Thus, concerning the seizure modulating properties of both classes of receptors this study investigated whether the ultra-low dose opioid antagonist naltrexone influences cannabinoid anticonvulsant effects. The clonic seizure threshold was tested in separate groups of male NMRI mice following injection of vehicle, the cannabinoid selective agonist arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide (ACEA) and ultra-low doses of the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone and a combination of ACEA and naltrexone doses in a model of clonic seizure induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Systemic injection of ultra-low doses of naltrexone (1pg/kg to 1ng/kg, i.p.) significantly potentiated the anticonvulsant effect of ACEA (1mg/kg, i.p.). Moreover, the very low dose of naltrexone (500pg/kg) unmasked a strong anticonvulsant effect for very low doses of ACEA (10 and 100microg/kg). A similar potentiation by naltrexone (500pg/kg) of anticonvulsant effects of non-effective dose of ACEA (1mg/kg) was also observed in the generalized tonic-clonic model of seizure. The present data indicate that the interaction between opioid and cannabinoid systems extends to ultra-low dose levels and ultra-low doses of opioid receptor antagonist in conjunction with very low doses of cannabinoids may provide a potent strategy to modulate seizure susceptibility.

  16. A Pilot Study of Naltrexone and BASICS for Heavy Drinking Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Palmer, Rebekka S.; Corbin, William R.; Romano, Denise M.; Meandzija, Boris; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy drinking young adults often have limited motivation to change their drinking behavior. Adding pharmacotherapy to brief counseling is a novel approach to treating this population. A small open-label pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of offering eight weeks of daily and targeted (i.e., taken as needed in anticipation of drinking) naltrexone with BASICS (brief motivational) counseling to heavy drinking young adults; to assess the tolerability of the medication in this population and to obtain preliminary efficacy data. The sample (N = 14) showed strong adherence to study appointments and medication taking, supporting the feasibility of this approach. Overall, the medication was well-tolerated. Significant reductions from baseline were observed in drinks per drinking day and in percent heavy drinking days and these gains were maintained one month after treatment ended. A significant decrease in alcohol-related consequences was also observed. Findings from this small pilot study suggest that naltrexone in combination with BASICS represents a promising strategy to reduce heavy drinking among young adults. PMID:18502591

  17. Evaluation of the counter-regulatory responses to hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes during opiate receptor blockade with naltrexone.

    PubMed

    Naik, Sarita; Belfort-DeAguiar, Renata; Sejling, Anne-Sophie; Szepietowska, Barbara; Sherwin, Robert S

    2017-05-01

    Hypoglycaemia is the major limiting factor in achieving optimal glycaemic control in people with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), especially intensively treated patients with impaired glucose counter-regulation during hypoglycaemia. Naloxone, an opiate receptor blocker, has been reported to enhance the acute counter-regulatory response to hypoglycaemia when administered intravenously in humans. The current study was undertaken to investigate the oral formulation of the long-acting opiate antagonist, naltrexone, and determine if it could have a similar effect, and thus might be useful therapeutically in treatment of T1DM patients with a high risk of hypoglycaemia. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, cross-over study in which 9 intensively treated subjects with T1DM underwent a 2-step euglycaemic-hypoglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp on 2 separate occasions. At 12 hours and at 1 hour before the clamp study, participants received 100 mg of naltrexone or placebo orally. Counter-regulatory hormonal responses were assessed at baseline and during each step of the hyperinsulinaemic-clamp. Glucose and insulin levels did not differ significantly between the naltrexone and placebo visits; nor did the glucose infusion rates required to keep glucose levels at target. During hypoglycaemia, naltrexone, in comparison with the placebo group, induced an increase in epinephrine levels ( P  = .05). However, no statistically significant differences in glucagon, cortisol and growth hormone responses were observed. In contrast to the intravenous opiate receptor blocker naloxone, overnight administration of the oral long-acting opiate receptor blocker, naltrexone, at a clinically used dose, had a limited effect on the counter-regulatory response to hypoglycaemia in intensively treated subjects with T1DM. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. 21 CFR 522.1465 - Naltrexone hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in elk and moose—(1) Amount. 100 milligrams of naltrexone...) Indications for use. As an antagonist to carfentanil citrate immobilization in free-ranging or confined elk and moose (Cervidae). (3) Limitations. Available data are inadequate to recommend use in pregnant...

  19. Randomized controlled trial of a mobile phone intervention for improving adherence to naltrexone for alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Stoner, Susan A; Arenella, Pamela B; Hendershot, Christian S

    2015-01-01

    Naltrexone is a front-line treatment for alcohol use disorders, but its efficacy is limited by poor medication adherence. This randomized controlled trial evaluated whether a mobile health intervention could improve naltrexone adherence. Treatment-seeking participants with an alcohol use disorder (N = 76) were randomized to intervention and control conditions. All participants received naltrexone (50 mg/day) with a medication event monitoring system (MEMS) and a prepaid smartphone, and received a daily text message querying medication side effects, alcohol use, and craving. Those in the intervention arm received additional medication reminders and adherence assessment via text message. The primary outcome, proportion of participants with adequate adherence (defined as ≥80% of prescribed doses taken through Week 8), did not differ between groups in intent-to-treat analyses (p = .34). Mean adherence at study midpoint (Week 4) was 83% in the intervention condition and 77% in the control condition (p = .35). Survival analysis found that the intervention group sustained adequate adherence significantly longer (M = 19 days [95% CI = 0.0-44.0]) than those in the control group (M = 3 days [95% CI = 0.0-8.1]) during the first month of treatment (p = .04). Medication adherence did not predict drinking outcomes. These results suggest that in the context of daily monitoring and assessment via cell phone, additional text message reminders do not further improve medication adherence. Although this initial trial does not provide support for the efficacy of text messaging to improve adherence to pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorders, additional trials with larger samples and alternate designs are warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01349985.

  20. Daily relations among affect, urge, targeted naltrexone, and alcohol use in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bold, Krysten W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Corbin, William R.; DeMartini, Kelly S.; Leeman, Robert F.; Kranzler, Henry R.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy drinking among young adults is a serious public health problem. Naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, has been shown to reduce drinking in young adults compared to placebo and can be taken on a targeted (i.e., as needed) basis. Understanding risk factors for drinking and naltrexone effects within-person in young adults may help to optimize the use of targeted naltrexone. The current study was a secondary analysis of daily diary data from 127 (n=40 female) young adults (age 18-25) enrolled in a double-blind clinical trial of daily (25 mg) plus targeted (25 mg) naltrexone versus placebo. Hierarchical linear models were used to examine the effects of daily affect, urge, and taking targeted medication on same-day risk of drinking to intoxication (defined as estimated blood-alcohol-concentration, BAC≥.08g%). Results indicated urge significantly mediated within-person positive affect–drinking relations on a daily level. Specifically, positive affect was associated with greater urge to drink, which in turn was associated with greater odds of BAC≥.08g%. Furthermore, days of greater positive affect and urge were associated with taking a targeted dose of medication, which reduced the likelihood of intoxication by nearly 23% in the naltrexone group compared to placebo. Gender and family history of alcohol dependence were examined as moderators of these daily level effects. These results provide further evidence of naltrexone’s ability to reduce alcohol consumption in young adults and identify potential within-person risk processes related to heavy drinking that could inform alcohol-related interventions for this population. PMID:27690505

  1. Depot naltrexone in lieu of incarceration: a behavioral analysis of coerced treatment for addicted offenders.

    PubMed

    Marlowe, Douglas B

    2006-09-01

    This article is part of a series of articles examining a proposal to offer depot naltrexone to certain nonviolent opiate-addicted criminal offenders in exchange for release from incarceration or diversion from prosecution. This "negative-reinforcement" behavioral paradigm could have a better chance of success than what has heretofore been attempted with drug-abusing offenders. Traditional correctional efforts have been largely unsuccessful due to the complexities of implementation and the side effects of punishment. Although positive reinforcement can be more efficacious, it has often been strenuously resisted on the ground that it is inequitable to reward antisocial individuals for doing what is minimally expected of most citizens. Negative reinforcement steers between these hurdles by avoiding the iatrogenic effects of punishment, while also being palatable to stakeholders. More research is needed to identify the effects, costs, and side effects of negative-reinforcement arrangements for drug offenders. The current proposal provides an excellent platform for conducting this research because the target intervention (depot naltrexone) is demonstrably efficacious, nonpsychoactive, and has few, if any, side effects. Therefore, use of this medication would be unlikely to invoke the same types of legal and ethical objections that have traditionally been levied against the use of psychoactive medications with vulnerable populations of institutionalized offenders. Specific recommendations are offered for questions that must be addressed in future research studies.

  2. Low-dose prazosin alone and in combination with propranolol or naltrexone: effects on ethanol and sucrose seeking and self-administration in the P rat.

    PubMed

    Verplaetse, Terril L; Czachowski, Cristine L

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that the noradrenergic system mediates ethanol reinforcement. However, preclinical studies suggest that noradrenergic antagonists block other oral reinforcers indicating possible unwanted secondary medication effects. This study examined combinations of low-dose prazosin with propranolol or naltrexone using a behavioral paradigm that separately assesses reinforcer seeking and self-administration. Male alcohol-preferring (P) rats (n = 20/experiment) were trained to complete a response requirement (RR) resulting in access to 1 % sucrose (n = 10) or 10 % ethanol (n = 10) for 20 min. Rats received vehicle, prazosin alone (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (IP)), or prazosin in combination with propranolol (5 mg/kg (IP); Exp. 1) or in combination with naltrexone (0.03 mg/kg, subcutaneously (SC); Exp. 2). For Exp. 1, prazosin alone effectively decreased sucrose seeking more than ethanol seeking, but decreased ethanol self-administration only. Propranolol alone effectively decreased ethanol seeking more than sucrose seeking and decreased ethanol intake only. At some dose combinations, there was a greater attenuation of ethanol and sucrose intake relative to either drug alone. For Exp. 2, prazosin alone and naltrexone alone were effective in decreasing ethanol seeking and intake only. Combination treatment was more effective than either drug alone at decreasing ethanol seeking and consumption and sucrose intake, but not sucrose seeking. Propranolol and naltrexone alone were specific to ethanol indicating that low doses of either medication may be beneficial in treating alcohol use disorders. Prazosin in combination with propranolol or naltrexone was more effective than either drug alone and also reduced sucrose-reinforced behaviors. These data suggest that the noradrenergic system is a viable target for developing treatment approaches for problem drinkers.

  3. Low-Dose Prazosin Alone and in Combination with Propranolol or Naltrexone: Effects on Ethanol- and Sucrose-Seeking and Self-Administration in the P Rat

    PubMed Central

    Verplaetse, Terril L.; Czachowski, Cristine L.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Evidence suggests that the noradrenergic system mediates ethanol-reinforcement. However, preclinical studies suggest that noradrenergic antagonists block other oral reinforcers indicating possible unwanted secondary medication effects. Methods This study examined combinations of low-dose prazosin with propranolol or naltrexone using a behavioral paradigm that separately assesses reinforcer-seeking and self-administration. Male alcohol-preferring (P) rats (n=20/experiment) were trained to complete a response requirement (RR) resulting in access to 1% sucrose (n=10) or 10% ethanol (n=10) for 20min. Rats received vehicle, prazosin alone (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 mg/kg; intraperitoneally (IP)) or prazosin in combination with propranolol (5 mg/kg (IP); Exp1) or in combination with naltrexone (0.03 mg/kg (subcutaneously (SC); Exp2). Results For Exp1, prazosin alone effectively decreased sucrose-seeking more than ethanol-seeking, but decreased ethanol self-administration only. Propranolol alone effectively decreased ethanol-seeking more than sucrose-seeking and decreased ethanol intake only. At some dose combinations, there was a greater attenuation of ethanol and sucrose intake relative to either drug alone. For Exp2, prazosin alone and naltrexone alone were effective in decreasing ethanol-seeking and intake only. Combination treatment was more effective than either drug alone at decreasing ethanol-seeking and consumption and sucrose intake, but not sucrose-seeking. Conclusions Propranolol and naltrexone alone were specific to ethanol indicating that low doses of either medication may be beneficial in treating alcohol use disorders. Prazosin in combination with propranolol or naltrexone was more effective than either drug alone, but also reduced sucrose-reinforced behaviors. These data suggest that the noradrenergic system is a viable target for developing treatment approaches for problem drinkers. PMID:25743758

  4. Evaluating the Impact of Naltrexone on the Rat Gambling Task to Test Its Predictive Validity for Gambling Disorder.

    PubMed

    Di Ciano, Patricia; Le Foll, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Gambling Disorder has serious consequences and no medications are currently approved for the treatment of this disorder. One factor that may make medication development difficult is the lack of animal models of gambling that would allow for the pre-clinical screening of efficacy. Despite this, there is evidence from clinical trials that opiate antagonists, in particular naltrexone, may be useful in treating gambling disorder. To-date, the effects of naltrexone on pre-clinical models of gambling have not been evaluated. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of naltrexone in an animal model of gambling, the rat gambling task (rGT), to determine whether this model has some predictive validity. The rGT is a model in which rats are given a choice of making either a response that produces a large reward or a small reward. The larger the reward, the greater the punishment, and thus this task requires that the animal inhibit the 'tempting' choice, as the smaller reward option produces overall the most number of rewards per session. People with gambling disorder chose the tempting option more, thus the rGT may provide a model of problem gambling. It was found that naltrexone improved performance on this task in a subset of animals that chose the 'tempting', disadvantageous choice, more at baseline. Thus, the results of this study suggest that the rGT should be further investigated as a pre-clinical model of gambling disorder and that further investigation into whether opioid antagonists are effective in treating Gambling Disorder may be warranted.

  5. Determination of naltrexone and 6beta-naltrexol in human blood: comparison of high-performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric and tandem-mass-spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Brünen, Sonja; Krüger, Ralf; Finger, Susann; Korf, Felix; Kiefer, Falk; Wiedemann, Klaus; Lackner, Karl J; Hiemke, Christoph

    2010-02-01

    We present data for a comparison of a liquid-chromatographic method coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and a high-performance liquid-chromatographic method with column switching and UV spectrophotometric detection. The two methods were developed for determination of naltrexone and 6beta-naltrexol in blood serum or plasma aiming to be used for therapeutic drug monitoring to guide the treatment of patients with naltrexone. For the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/UV detection, online sample cleanup was conducted on Perfect Bond C(18) material with 2% (vol/vol) acetonitrile in deionized water. Drugs were separated on a C(18) column using 11.5% (vol/vol) acetonitrile and 0.4% (vol/vol) N,N,N,N-tetramethylethylenediamine within 20 min. LC-MS/MS used naltrexone-d (3) and 6beta-naltrexol-d (4) as internal standards. After protein precipitation, the chromatographic separation was performed on a C(18) column by applying a methanol gradient (5-100%, vol/vol) with 0.1% formic acid over 9.5 min. The HPLC/UV method was found to be linear for concentrations ranging from 2 to 100 ng/ml, with a regression correlation coefficient of r (2) > 0.998 for naltrexone and 6beta-naltrexol. The limit of quantification was 2 ng/ml for naltrexone and 6beta-naltrexol. For the LC-MS/MS method the calibration curves were linear (r(2) > 0.999) from 0.5 to 200 ng/ml for both substances, and the limit of quantification was 0.5 ng/ml. The concentrations measured by the two methods correlated significantly for both substances (r(2) > 0.967; p < 0.001). Both methods could be used for therapeutic drug monitoring. The HPLC/UV method was advantageous regarding automatization and costs, whereas LC-MS/MS was superior with regard to sensitivity.

  6. Clinical Effects of Naltrexone on Autistic Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingarelli, Gene; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Eight young adults (ages 19-39) with autism were given the opiate antagonist naltrexone to control self-injurious behavior and maladaptive idiosyncratic mannerisms. Although one subject appeared to have partial decreases in maladaptive behaviors, the drug did not clearly reduce the self-injurious and other maladaptive behaviors of the subjects.…

  7. Time-dependent regional brain distribution of methadone and naltrexone in the treatment of opioid addiction.

    PubMed

    Teklezgi, Belin G; Pamreddy, Annapurna; Baijnath, Sooraj; Kruger, Hendrik G; Naicker, Tricia; Gopal, Nirmala D; Govender, Thavendran

    2018-02-14

    Opioid addiction is a serious public health concern with severe health and social implications; therefore, extensive therapeutic efforts are required to keep users drug free. The two main pharmacological interventions, in the treatment of addiction, involve management with methadone an mu (μ)-opioid agonist and treatment with naltrexone, μ-opioid, kappa (κ)-opioid and delta (δ)-opioid antagonist. MET and NAL are believed to help individuals to derive maximum benefit from treatment and undergo a full recovery. The aim of this study was to determine the localization and distribution of MET and NAL, over a 24-hour period in rodent brain, in order to investigate the differences in their respective regional brain distributions. This would provide a better understanding of the role of each individual drug in the treatment of addiction, especially NAL, whose efficacy is controversial. Tissue distribution was determined by using mass spectrometric imaging (MSI), in combination with quantification via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. MSI image analysis showed that MET was highly localized in the striatal and hippocampal regions, including the nucleus caudate, putamen and the upper cortex. NAL was distributed with high intensities in the mesocorticolimbic system including areas of the cortex, caudate putamen and ventral pallidum regions. Our results demonstrate that MET and NAL are highly localized in the brain regions with a high density of μ-receptors, the primary sites of heroin binding. These areas are strongly implicated in the development of addiction and are the major pathways that mediate brain stimulation during reward. © 2018 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Effects of Varenicline Alone and in Combination With Low-dose Naltrexone on Alcohol-primed Smoking in Heavy-drinking Tobacco Users: A Preliminary Laboratory Study.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Walter; Shi, Julia M; Tetrault, Jeanette M; McKee, Sherry A

    Heavy-drinking tobacco users are less likely to successfully quit smoking than their moderate-drinking counterparts, even when they are prescribed smoking cessation medication. One strategy for improving treatment outcomes in this subgroup of tobacco users may be to combine medication therapies to target both alcohol and tobacco use simultaneously. Adding naltrexone to frontline smoking cessation treatments may improve treatment outcomes in this group. This double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study examined the effects of varenicline (2 mg/d) and varenicline (2 mg/d), combined with a low dose of naltrexone (25 mg/d) on alcohol-primed smoking behavior in a laboratory model of smoking relapse in heavy-drinking tobacco users (n = 30). Participants attended a laboratory session and received an alcohol challenge (target breath alcohol concentration = 0.030 g/dL). They completed a smoking delay task that assessed their ability to resist smoking followed by an ad libitum smoking phase (primary outcomes). They also provided ratings of subjective drug effects and craving, and carbon monoxide levels were measured after smoking (secondary outcomes). Participants receiving varenicline monotherapy delayed smoking longer and smoked fewer cigarettes than those on placebo. Participants receiving varenicline + low-dose naltrexone did not delay smoking longer than those receiving varenicline alone. Participants in both active medication arms smoked fewer cigarettes ad libitum than those receiving placebo. Varenicline can improve smoking outcomes even after an alcohol prime, supporting its use in heavy drinkers who wish to quit smoking. Findings did not support increased efficacy of combined varenicline + low-dose naltrexone relative to varenicline monotherapy.

  9. [Role of nutritional support in the treatment of enteric fistulas].

    PubMed

    Amodeo, Corrado; Caglià, Pietro; Gandolfo, Luigi; Veroux, Massimiliano; Brancato, Giovanna; Donati, Marcello

    2002-01-01

    Enteric fistulas are nowadays considered an important therapeutic challenge. Artificial, total parenteral and enteral nutrition have allowed an improvement in the healing of these fistulas and a lower incidence of mortality. Fourteen patients with enteric fistulas (10 men, 4 women; mean age: 64.4 years; range: 20-80 years) were observed. The fistula was located in the large bowel in 11 patients, in the ileum in 2, and in the jejunum in 1. Thirteen patients received enteral nutrition. The patient with the jejunal fistula received total parenteral nutrition for 30 days and then enteral nutrition. The fistulas were successfully treated in 11 patients. One patients underwent surgery after 6 weeks of treatment with enteral nutrition because of lack of improvement of the symptomatology. In two patients, with advanced cancer of the colon and stomach, respectively, only a reduction of the fistula output was achieved. Nutritional support in the treatment of enteric fistulas is an effective procedure widely utilised to restore adequate nutritional status and bowel rest, which are two important targets for achieving fistula closure. Nutritional support is also useful in the management of patients undergoing surgery in order to reduce the postoperative complication rate.

  10. Endogenous opioids, mu-opiate receptors and chloroquine-induced pruritus: a double-blind comparison of naltrexone and promethazine in patients with malaria fever who have an established history of generalized chloroquine-induced itching.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, A A; Kolawole, B A; Udoh, S J

    2004-12-01

    Chloroquine induces a severe generalized pruritus, in predisposed Black African patients, during treatment of malaria fever, and also in some Caucasian patients treated for rheumatological diseases. We have previously shown that chloroquine may release endogenous opioids and/or interact with micro-opiate receptors in rats, and that both histamine and malaria parasite blood density, contribute to the itching severity in malaria fever in humans. The aim of our present study was to assess and compare the antipruritic efficacy of the micro-opiate receptor antagonist, naltrexone, and the antihistamine, promethazine, in chloroquine treated patients with malaria fever. A double-blind, randomized, parallel group comparison of the chloroquine-induced pruritus intensity and time profile in patients with parasitologically proven malaria fever, who were pretreated with a single dose of either naltrexone 50 mg or promethazine 25 mg orally (six patients each). All patients had an established history of severe pruritus following chloroquine treatment of malaria fever. A self-assessed itching severity score was undertaken at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after initial chloroquine dosing, and the areas under the pruritus-intensity time curve AUCP0-72 h was determined in each patient and correlated to the malaria parasite density in blood. Both naltrexone and promethazine subjectively reduced itching severity compared with prior historical experience. One patient on naltrexone and two on promethazine never experienced any itching. There was no statistically significant treatment effect, but a significant time effect (P = 0.001, F = 4.77 d.f. 5) by two-way repeated measures ANOVA. The AUCP for naltrexone was 82 +/- 25 units/h, and 57 +/- 34 units/h for promethazine [95% confidence interval for the difference being -73 to 123]. However, the malaria parasite density in the naltrexone group (740 +/- 178 microl(-1)) tended to be higher than in the promethazine group 314 +/- 69 microl(-1) (P

  11. On the behavioural specificity of hypophagia induced in male rats by mCPP, naltrexone, and their combination.

    PubMed

    Wright, F L; Rodgers, R J

    2014-02-01

    Serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and opioidergic mechanisms are intimately involved in appetite regulation. In view of recent evidence of positive anorectic interactions between opioid and various non-opioid substrates, our aim was to assess the behavioural specificity of anorectic responses to the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone, the 5-HT2C/1B receptor agonist mCPP and their combination. Behavioural profiling techniques, including the behavioural satiety sequence (BSS), were used to examine acute drug effects in non-deprived male rats tested with palatable mash. Experiment 1 characterised the dose-response profile of mCPP (0.1-3.0 mg/kg), while experiment 2 assessed the effects of combined treatment with a sub-anorectic dose of mCPP (0.1 mg/kg) and one of two low doses of naltrexone (0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg). Experiment 1 confirmed the dose-dependent anorectic efficacy of mCPP, with robust effects on intake and feeding-related measures observed at 3.0 mg/kg. However, that dose was also associated with other behavioural alterations including increased grooming, reductions in locomotion and sniffing, and disruption of the BSS. In experiment 2, naltrexone dose-dependently reduced food intake and time spent feeding, effects accompanied by a behaviourally selective acceleration in the BSS. However, the addition of 0.1 mg/kg mCPP did not significantly alter the behavioural changes observed in response to either dose of naltrexone given alone. In contrast to recently reported positive anorectic interactions involving low-dose combinations of opioid receptor antagonists or mCPP with cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists, present results would not appear to provide any support for potentially clinically relevant anorectic interactions between opioid and 5-HT2C/1B receptor mechanisms.

  12. Co-relationship between sexual dysfunction and high-risk sexual behavior in patients receiving buprenorphine and naltrexone maintenance therapy for opioid dependence.

    PubMed

    Ramdurg, Santosh; Ambekar, Atul; Lal, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    People suffering from substance dependence suffer from various sexual dysfunctions and are at risk for indulging in various high-risk sexual behaviors and thus are vulnerable to acquire various infections such as HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between sexual dysfunction and high-risk sexual behavior in opioid-dependent men receiving buprenorphine and naltrexone maintenance therapy. Semi-structured questionnaire, brief male sexual functioning inventory and HIV-risk taking behavior scale was administered to a sample of 60 sexually active men, receiving buprenorphine (n = 30) and naltrexone (n = 30) maintenance therapy for opioid dependence. The main outcomes are correlation between severity of sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior. The study results showed 83% of the men on buprenorphine and 90% on naltrexone reported at least one of the sexual dysfunction symptoms. There was a negative correlation between sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior that suggest severe the dysfunction, higher the risk taking behavior. Significant correlation was present with overall sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior (P = 0.028 and in naltrexone receiving group premature ejaculation versus HIV-risk taking behavior however, (P = 0.022, P < 0.05) there were no significant differences among both the groups except above findings. Conclusion was treatment is associated with sexual dysfunctions and HIV-risk taking behavior, which has clinical implication. Future research should explore this further using biochemical analyses.

  13. Co-relationship between sexual dysfunction and high-risk sexual behavior in patients receiving buprenorphine and naltrexone maintenance therapy for opioid dependence

    PubMed Central

    Ramdurg, Santosh; Ambekar, Atul; Lal, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: People suffering from substance dependence suffer from various sexual dysfunctions and are at risk for indulging in various high-risk sexual behaviors and thus are vulnerable to acquire various infections such as HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between sexual dysfunction and high-risk sexual behavior in opioid-dependent men receiving buprenorphine and naltrexone maintenance therapy. Materials and Methods: Semi-structured questionnaire, brief male sexual functioning inventory and HIV-risk taking behavior scale was administered to a sample of 60 sexually active men, receiving buprenorphine (n = 30) and naltrexone (n = 30) maintenance therapy for opioid dependence. Results: The main outcomes are correlation between severity of sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior. The study results showed 83% of the men on buprenorphine and 90% on naltrexone reported at least one of the sexual dysfunction symptoms. There was a negative correlation between sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior that suggest severe the dysfunction, higher the risk taking behavior. Significant correlation was present with overall sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior (P = 0.028 and in naltrexone receiving group premature ejaculation versus HIV-risk taking behavior however, (P = 0.022, P < 0.05) there were no significant differences among both the groups except above findings. Conclusion: Conclusion was treatment is associated with sexual dysfunctions and HIV-risk taking behavior, which has clinical implication. Future research should explore this further using biochemical analyses. PMID:26257480

  14. Early outcomes following low dose naltrexone enhancement of opioid detoxification.

    PubMed

    Mannelli, Paolo; Patkar, Ashwin A; Peindl, Kathleen; Gottheil, Edward; Wu, Li-Tzy; Gorelick, David A

    2009-01-01

    Although withdrawal severity and treatment completion are the initial focus of opioid detoxification, post-detoxification outcome better defines effective interventions. Very low dose naltrexone (VLNTX) in addition to methadone taper was recently associated with attenuated withdrawal intensity during detoxification. We describe the results of a seven-day follow-up evaluation of 96 subjects who completed inpatient detoxification consisting of the addition of VLNTX (0.125 or 0.250 mg per day) or placebo to methadone taper in a double blind, randomized investigation. Individuals receiving VLNTX during detoxification reported reduced withdrawal and drug use during the first 24 hours after discharge. VLNTX addition was also associated with higher rates of negative drug tests for opioids and cannabis and increased engagement in outpatient treatment after one week. Further studies are needed to test the utility of this approach in easing the transition from detoxification to various follow-up treatment modalities designed to address opioid dependence.

  15. Low-dose naltrexone for disease prevention and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Brown, Norman; Panksepp, Jaak

    2009-03-01

    The use of low-dose naltrexone (LDN) for the treatment and prophylaxis of various bodily disorders is discussed. Accumulating evidence suggests that LDN can promote health supporting immune-modulation which may reduce various oncogenic and inflammatory autoimmune processes. Since LDN can upregulate endogenous opioid activity, it may also have a role in promoting stress resilience, exercise, social bonding, and emotional well-being, as well as amelioration of psychiatric problems such a autism and depression. It is proposed that LDN can be used effectively as a buffer for a large variety of bodily and mental ailments through its ability to beneficially modulate both the immune system and the brain neurochemistries that regulate positive affect.

  16. Treatment of pruritus with topically applied opiate receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Bigliardi, Paul L; Stammer, Holger; Jost, Gerhard; Rufli, Theo; Büchner, Stanislaw; Bigliardi-Qi, Mei

    2007-06-01

    Pruritus is the most common and distressing skin symptom, and treatment of itch is a problem for thousands of people. The currently available therapies are not very effective. Therefore there is an urgent need to find new effective topical drugs against itching. We conducted two separate studies to evaluate the efficacy of topically applied naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist, in the treatment of severe pruritus. The objective of the first open study was to correlate the clinical efficacy of topically applied naltrexone in different pruritic skin disorders to a change of epidermal mu-opiate receptor (MOR) expression. The second study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study on pruritus in atopic dermatitis. Initially we performed an open pilot study on 18 patients with different chronic pruritic disorders using a topical formulation of 1% naltrexone for 2 weeks. A punch biopsy was performed in 11 patients before and after the application of the naltrexone cream and the staining of epidermal MOR was measured. Subsequently, a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial was performed with the same formulation. We included in this trial 40 patients with localized and generalized atopic dermatitis with severe pruritus. In the open study more than 70% of the patients using the 1% naltrexone cream experienced a significant reduction of pruritus. More interestingly, the topical treatment with naltrexone caused an increase of epidermal MOR staining. The regulation of the epidermal opioid receptor correlated with the clinical assessment. The placebo-controlled, crossover trial demonstrated clearly that the cream containing naltrexone had an overall 29.4% better effect compared with placebo. The formulation containing naltrexone required a median of 46 minutes to reduce the itch symptoms to 50%; the placebo, 74 minutes. We could only take biopsy specimens in 11 patients, which means that a satisfactory statistical analysis of the changes of epidermal

  17. Alterations of naltrexone-induced conditioned place avoidance by pre-exposure to high fructose corn syrup or heroin in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Stephen; Marshall, Paul; Leri, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    It has been suggested that withdrawal from sugar produces a set of symptoms that resemble those observed following withdrawal from opiate drugs. This study explored naltrexone-induced withdrawal in animals pre-exposed to acute, chronic, and intermittent high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or acute and chronic heroin administration. Experiment 1 examined conditioned place avoidance (CPA) induced by different doses of naltrexone (0.01-1 mg/kg) in naïve male Sprague-Dawley rats. In experiment 2, rats received continuous or intermittent home cage HFCS access (0 or 50 %) prior to conditioning with 1 mg/kg naltrexone. In experiment 3, HFCS ingestion was increased by food restriction and rats were conditioned with 3 mg/kg naltrexone. In experiment 4, the timing and quantity of HFCS ingestion (0, 0.5, 1, 2 g/kg) was controlled by intragastric administration, and rats were conditioned with 1 mg/kg naltrexone. In experiment 5, rats received acute (2 mg/kg) or chronic heroin (3.5 mg/kg/day) prior to conditioning with 1 mg/kg naltrexone. Administration of naltrexone produced moderate conditioned place avoidance in naïve rats. Importantly, acute, continuous, and intermittent HFCS pre-exposure did not significantly amplify this effect, but acute and chronic heroin pre-exposure did. As assessed by CPA, these results in rats fail to support the hypothesis that an opioid antagonist can precipitate similar affective withdrawal states following pre-exposure to sugars and opiates.

  18. Potentiation of buprenorphine antinociception with ultra-low dose naltrexone in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Hay, J L; La Vincente, S F; Somogyi, A A; Chapleo, C B; White, J M

    2011-03-01

    Previous reports have demonstrated greater antinociception following administration of a buprenorphine/naloxone combination compared to buprenorphine alone among healthy volunteers. The aim of the current investigation was to determine whether buprenorphine antinociception could be enhanced with the addition of ultra-low dose naltrexone, using a range of dose ratios. A repeated-measures, double-blind, cross-over trial was undertaken with 10 healthy participants. The effects of each buprenorphine:naltrexone ratio (100:1, 133:1, 166:1, and 200:1) on cold pressor tolerance time and respiration were compared to the effects of buprenorphine only. The 166:1 ratio was associated with significantly greater tolerance time to cold pressor pain than buprenorphine alone. Minimal respiratory depression and few adverse events were observed in all conditions. These findings suggest that, as previously described with naloxone, the addition of ultra-low dose naltrexone can enhance the antinociceptive effect of buprenorphine in humans. This potentiation is dose-ratio dependent and occurs without a concomitant increase in adverse effects. Copyright © 2010 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of chronic delivery of the Toll-like receptor 4 antagonist (+)-Naltrexone on incubation of heroin craving

    PubMed Central

    Theberge, Florence R.; Li, Xuan; Kambhampati, Sarita; Pickens, Charles L.; St. Laurent, Robyn; Bossert, Jennifer M.; Baumann, Michael H.; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Rice, Kenner C.; Watkins, Linda R.; Shaham, Yavin

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent evidence implicates toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in opioid analgesia, tolerance, conditioned place preference, and self-administration. Here we determined the effect of the TLR4 antagonist (+)-naltrexone (a μ-opioid receptor inactive isomer) on the time-dependent increases in cue-induced heroin seeking after withdrawal (incubation of heroin craving). Methods In an initial experiment, we trained rats for 9 h/day to self-administer heroin (0.1 mg/kg/infusion) for 9 days; lever presses were paired with a 5-sec tone-light cue. We then assessed cue-induced heroin seeking in 30-min extinction sessions on withdrawal day 1; immediately after testing, we surgically implanted rats with Alzet minipumps delivering (+)-naltrexone (0, 7.5, 15, 30 mg/kg/day, s.c.) for 14 days. We then tested the rats for incubated cue-induced heroin seeking in 3-h extinction tests on withdrawal day 13. Results We found that chronic delivery of (+)-naltrexone via minipumps during the withdrawal phase decreased incubated cue-induced heroin seeking. In follow-up experiments, we found that acute injections of (+)-naltrexone immediately before withdrawal day 13 extinction test had no effect on incubated cue-induced heroin seeking. Furthermore, chronic delivery of (+)-naltrexone (15 or 30 mg/kg/day) or acute systemic injections (15 or 30 mg/kg) had no effect on ongoing extended access heroin self-administration. Finally, in rats trained to self-administer methamphetamine (0.1 mg/kg/infusion, 9 h/d, 9 days), chronic delivery of (+)-naltrexone (30 mg/kg/day) during the withdrawal phase had no effect on incubated cue-induced methamphetamine seeking. Conclusions The present results suggest a critical role of TLR4 in the development of incubation of heroin, but not methamphetamine, craving. PMID:23384483

  20. Reduction of conditioned pain modulation in humans by naltrexone: an exploratory study of the effects of pain catastrophizing

    PubMed Central

    Goodin, Burel; Kindler, Lindsay L.; Caudle, Robert M.; Edwards, Robert R.; Gravenstein, Nikolaus; Riley, Joseph L.; Fillingim, Roger B.

    2013-01-01

    The current study tested the hypothesis that conditioned pain modulation is mediated by the release of endogenous opioids with a placebo-controlled (sugar pill) study of naltrexone (50 mg) in 33 healthy volunteers over two counter-balanced sessions. Pain modulation consisted of rating of heat pain (palm) during concurrent cold water immersion (foot). Compared to baseline heat pain ratings, concurrent foot immersion lowered pain intensity ratings, which suggests an inhibitory effect, was reduced with naltrexone, suggesting at least partial dependence of inhibition on endogenous opioids. An exploratory analysis revealed that individual differences in catastrophizing moderated the effects of naltrexone; endogenous opioid blockade abolished modulation in subjects lower in catastrophizing while modulation was unaffected by naltrexone among high catastrophizers. The results suggest a role of endogenous opioids in endogenous analgesia, but hint that multiple systems might contribute to conditioned pain modulation, and that these systems might be differentially activated as a function of individual differences in responses to pain. PMID:22534819

  1. Elevated mu-opioid receptor expression in the nucleus of the solitary tract accompanies attenuated withdrawal signs after chronic low dose naltrexone in opiate-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Van Bockstaele, E J; Rudoy, C; Mannelli, P; Oropeza, V; Qian, Y

    2006-02-15

    We previously described a decrease in withdrawal behaviors in opiate-dependent rats that were chronically treated with very low doses of naltrexone in their drinking water. Attenuated expression of withdrawal behaviors correlated with decreased c-Fos expression and intracellular signal transduction elements [protein kinase A regulatory subunit II (PKA) and phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (pCREB)] in brainstem noradrenergic nuclei. In this study, to determine whether similar cellular changes occurred in forebrain nuclei associated with drug reward, expressions of PKA and pCREB were analyzed in the ventral tegmental area, frontal cortex, striatum, and amygdala of opiate-treated rats that received low doses of naltrexone in their drinking water. No significant difference in PKA or pCREB was detected in these regions following drug treatment. To examine further the cellular mechanisms in noradrenergic nuclei that could underlie attenuated withdrawal behaviors following low dose naltrexone administration, the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and locus coeruleus (LC) were examined for opioid receptor (OR) protein expression. Results showed a significant increase in muOR expression in the NTS of morphine-dependent rats that received low doses of naltrexone in their drinking water, and increases in muOR expression were also found to be dose dependent. Protein expression of muOR in the LC and deltaOR in either brain region remained unchanged. In conclusion, our previously reported decreases in c-Fos and PKA expression in the NTS following pretreatment with low doses of naltrexone may be partially explained by a greater inhibition of NTS neurons resulting from increased muOR expression in this region.

  2. Effects of naltrexone on electrocutaneous pain in patients with hypertension compared to normotensive individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ring, Christopher; France, Christopher R.; al'Absi, Mustafa; Edwards, Louisa; McIntyre, David; Carroll, Douglas; Martin, Una

    2008-01-01

    An opioid mechanism may help explain hypertensive hypoalgesia. A double-blind placebo-controlled design compared the effects of opioid blockade (naltrexone) and placebo on electrocutaneous pain threshold, pain tolerance, and retrospective McGill Pain Questionnaire ratings in 35 unmedicated patients with essential hypertension and 28 normotensive individuals. The hypertensives experienced less pain than normotensives during the assessment of their pain tolerance; however, this manifestation of hypertensive hypoalgesia was not moderated by naltrexone. These findings fail to support the hypothesis that essential hypertension is characterised by relative opioid insensitivity. PMID:18031920

  3. Naltrexone at low doses upregulates a unique gene expression not seen with normal doses: Implications for its use in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wai M; Scott, Katherine A; Dennis, Jayne L; Kaminska, Elwira; Levett, Alan J; Dalgleish, Angus G

    2016-08-01

    It has been reported that lower doses of the opioid antagonist naltrexone are able to reduce tumour growth by interfering with cell signalling as well as by modifying the immune system. We have evaluated the gene expression profile of a cancer cell line after treatment with low-dose naltrexone (LDN), and assessed the effect that adapting treatment schedules with LDN may have on enhancing efficacy. LDN had a selective impact on genes involved with cell cycle regulation and immune modulation. Similarly, the pro-apoptotic genes BAD and BIK1 were increased only after LDN. Continuous treatment with LDN had little effect on growth in different cell lines; however, altering the treatment schedule to include a phase of culture in the absence of drug following an initial round of LDN treatment, resulted in enhanced cell killing. Furthermore, cells pre-treated with LDN were more sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of a number of common chemotherapy agents. For example, priming HCT116 with LDN before treatment with oxaliplatin significantly increased cell killing to 49±7.0 vs. 14±2.4% in cultures where priming was not used. Interestingly, priming with NTX before oxaliplatin resulted in just 32±1.8% cell killing. Our data support further the idea that LDN possesses anticancer activity, which can be improved by modifying the treatment schedule.

  4. Aversion to injection limits acceptability of extended-release naltrexone among homeless, alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Peter D; Mello, Dawn; Lonergan, Sean; Bourgault, Claire; O'Toole, Thomas P

    2013-01-01

    Ending homelessness is a major priority of the Department of Veteran Affairs (VA), and alcohol use can be a barrier to stable housing. Clinical trials suggest that depot extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) is efficacious in reducing alcohol consumption among alcohol-dependent subjects. An open-label, randomized pilot study sought to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of XR-NTX versus oral naltrexone to improve alcohol consumption and housing stability among homeless, alcohol-dependent veterans at the Providence Veteran Affairs Medical Center. Of 215 potential candidates approached over a 16-month recruitment period, only 15 agreed to consider study entry and 7 were randomized. The primary reasons given for refusal were not wanting an injection; fear of needles; and not wanting to change drinking habits. Only 1 participant in the XR-NTX group returned after the first injection. Three participants in the oral naltrexone group attended all 7 visits and had good outcomes. Although XR-NTX has demonstrated efficacy in reducing heavy drinking, limited acceptance of the injection might reduce its effectiveness among homeless, alcohol-dependent patients.

  5. Effects of naltrexone on post-abstinence alcohol drinking in C57BL/6NCRL and DBA/2J mice.

    PubMed

    Tomie, Arthur; Azogu, Idu; Yu, Lei

    2013-07-01

    The present experiment evaluated the effects of naltrexone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, on post-abstinence alcohol drinking in C57BL/6NCRL and DBA/2J male mice. Home cage 2-bottle (alcohol vs. water) free-choice procedures were employed. During the pre-abstinence period, alcohol intake was much lower for the DBA/2J mice relative to the C57BL/6NCRL mice, and this strain difference was observed for groups receiving either 3% or 10% alcohol concentrations. The four-day abstinence period effectively reduced alcohol intakes (i.e., a negative alcohol deprivation effect, negative ADE) in both groups of DBA/2J mice, but had no effect on alcohol intakes in either group of C57BL/6NCRL mice. Both groups trained with 3% alcohol received the second four-day abstinence period, where the effects of acute administration of either naltrexone or saline on post-abstinence alcohol drinking were assessed. Naltrexone was more effective in reducing post-abstinence drinking of 3% alcohol in the DBA/2J mice than in the C57BL/6NCRL mice. In the DBA/2J mice, naltrexone further reduced, relative to saline-injected controls, the low levels of post-abstinence alcohol intake. Thus, the low baseline levels of alcohol drinking in DBA/2J mice were further diminished by the four-day abstinence period (negative ADE), and this suppressed post-abstinence level of alcohol drinking was still further reduced by acute administration of naltrexone. The results indicate that naltrexone is effective in reducing further the low levels of alcohol drinking induced by the negative ADE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Maintenance on naltrexone+amphetamine decreases cocaine-vs.-food choice in male rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Moerke, Megan J; Banks, Matthew L; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C; Negus, S Stevens

    2017-12-01

    Cocaine use disorder remains a significant public health issue for which there are no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies. Amphetamine maintenance reduces cocaine use in preclinical and clinical studies, but the mechanism of this effect is unknown. Previous studies indicate a role for endogenous opioid release and subsequent opioid receptor activation in some amphetamine effects; therefore, the current study examined the role of mu-opioid receptor activation in d-amphetamine treatment effects in an assay of cocaine-vs-food choice. Adult male rhesus monkeys with double-lumen intravenous catheters responded for concurrently available food pellets and cocaine injections (0-0.1mg/kg/injection) during daily sessions. Cocaine choice and overall reinforcement rates were evaluated during 7-day treatments with saline or test drugs. During saline treatment, cocaine maintained a dose-dependent increase in cocaine-vs.-food choice. The mu-opioid receptor agonist morphine (0.032-0.32mg/kg/h) dose-dependently increased cocaine choice and decreased rates of reinforcement. A dose of the mu-selective opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (0.0032mg/kg/h) that completely blocked morphine effects had no effect on cocaine choice when it was administered alone, but it enhanced the effectiveness of a threshold dose of 0.032mg/kg/h amphetamine to decrease cocaine choice without also enhancing nonselective behavioral disruption by this dose of amphetamine. Conversely, the kappa-selective opioid antagonist norbinalorphimine did not enhance amphetamine effects on cocaine choice. These results suggest that amphetamine maintenance produces mu opioid-receptor mediated effects that oppose its anti-cocaine effects. Co-administration of naltrexone may selectively enhance amphetamine potency to decrease cocaine choice without increasing amphetamine potency to produce general behavioral disruption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Does adding low doses of oral naltrexone to morphine alter the subsequent opioid requirements and side effects in trauma patients?

    PubMed

    Farahmand, Shervin; Ahmadi, Omid; Dehpour, Ahmadreza; Khashayar, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to assess the influence of ultra-low doses of opioid antagonists on the analgesic properties of opioids and their side effects. In the present randomized, double-blind controlled trial, the influence of the combination of ultra-low-dose naltrexone and morphine on the total opioid requirement and the frequency of the subsequent side effects was compared with that of morphine alone (added with placebo) in patients with trauma in the upper or lower extremities. Although the morphine and naltrexone group required 0.04 mg more opioids during the study period, there was no significant difference between the opioid requirements of the 2 groups. Nausea was less frequently reported in patients receiving morphine and naltrexone. The combination of ultra-low-dose naltrexone and morphine in extremity trauma does not affect the opioid requirements; it, however, lowers the risk of nausea. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment need and utilization among youth entering the juvenile corrections system.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Timothy P; Cho, Young Ik; Fendrich, Michael; Graf, Ingrid; Kelly-Wilson, Lisa; Pickup, Lillian

    2004-03-01

    Relatively little is known about the substance abuse treatment need patterns and experiences of youth incarcerated in the United States juvenile justice system. To address this issue, four analytic questions concerned with understanding the predictors of treatment need and utilization patterns among adolescents entering the juvenile corrections system are examined. Data analyzed were collected as part of a face-to-face survey of 401 youth who entered the Illinois juvenile correctional system in mid-2000. Overall, need for treatment and treatment utilization each were predicted by sets of social environmental and personal characteristics, in addition to several sociodemographic variables. Less than half of youth with an identified need for treatment reported receiving treatment. Considerable variability in the effects of demographic and social environmental indicators on treatment need and utilization across race groups also was observed. These findings underscore the need for the continual development of the cultural competence of treatment providers and the expansion of on-site provision of substance abuse treatment services to incarcerated juveniles.

  9. Prevalence of physical health problems among youth entering residential treatment.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Timothy D; Smith, Tori R; Thompson, Ronald W; Epstein, Michael H; Griffith, Annette K; Hurley, Kristin Duppong; Tonniges, Thomas F

    2011-11-01

    To examine the prevalence of physical health problems among youth entering residential treatment. The sample included 1744 youth (mean age: 14.6 ± 1.8 years) entering a large residential treatment program between 2000 and 2010. Youth received an intake medical evaluation, including a review of available records, detailed medical history, and physical examination. Medical conditions present at the time of the evaluation were recorded by the examining physician and later coded by the research team. Only diagnoses recognized by the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, were included in the analyses. To maintain the focus on physical health problems, behavioral and emotional disorders listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision were excluded. Obesity, acne, and allergies were also excluded. Approximately one-third (33.7%) of youth had a physical health diagnosis at the time of intake. Asthma was the most prevalent condition diagnosed (15.3% of the sample). Girls were significantly more likely to have a diagnosis than were boys (37.1% vs 31.5%). Age was not associated with diagnostic status. Rates of physical health conditions differed significantly by ethnicity: black (36.4%) and white (35.4%) youth had the highest rates, and Hispanic youth (23.2%) had the lowest. Youth who enter residential treatment have high rates of physical health conditions. These problems could complicate mental health treatment and should be considered in multidisciplinary treatment planning.

  10. Passive diffusion of naltrexone into human and animal cells and upregulation of cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fan; McLaughlin, Patricia J; Banks, William A; Zagon, Ian S

    2009-09-01

    Naltrexone (NTX) is a potent opioid antagonist that promotes cell proliferation by upregulating DNA synthesis through displacement of the tonically active inhibitory peptide, opioid growth factor (OGF) from its receptor (OGFr). To investigate how NTX enters cells, NTX was fluorescently labeled [1-(N)-fluoresceinyl NTX thiosemicarbazone; FNTX] to study its uptake by living cultured cells. When human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line (SCC-1) was incubated with FNTX for as little as 1 min, cells displayed nuclear and cytoplasmic staining of FNTX as determined by fluorescent deconvolution microscopy, with enrichment of fluorescent signal in the nucleus and nucleolus. The same temporal-spatial distribution of FNTX was detected in a human pancreatic cancer cell line (MIA PaCa-2), African green monkey kidney cell line (COS-7), and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). FNTX remained in cells for as long as 48 h. FNTX was internalized in SCC-1 cells when incubation occurred at 4 degrees C, with the signal being comparable to that recorded at 37 degrees C. A 100-fold excess of NTX or a variety of other opioid ligands did not alter the temporal-spatial distribution of FNTX. Neither fluorescein-labeled dextran nor fluorescein alone entered the cells. To study the effect of FNTX on DNA synthesis, cells incubated with FNTX at concentrations ranging from 10(-5) to 10(-8) M had a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine index that was 39-82% greater than for vehicle-treated cells and was comparable to that of unlabeled NTX (37-70%). Taken together, these results suggested that NTX enters cells by passive diffusion in a nonsaturable manner.

  11. Separate and combined impact of acute naltrexone and alprazolam on subjective and physiological effects of oral d-amphetamine in stimulant users.

    PubMed

    Marks, Katherine R; Lile, Joshua A; Stoops, William W; Rush, Craig R

    2014-07-01

    Opioid antagonists (e.g., naltrexone) and positive modulators of γ-aminobutyric-acidA (GABAA) receptors (e.g., alprazolam) modestly attenuate the abuse-related effects of stimulants like amphetamine. The use of higher doses to achieve greater efficacy is precluded by side effects. Combining naltrexone and alprazolam might safely maximize efficacy while avoiding the untoward effects of the constituent compounds. The present pilot study tested the hypothesis that acute pretreatment with the combination of naltrexone and alprazolam would not produce clinically problematic physiological effects or negative subjective effects and would reduce the positive subjective effects of d-amphetamine to a greater extent than the constituent drugs alone. Eight nontreatment-seeking, stimulant-using individuals completed an outpatient experiment in which oral d-amphetamine (0, 15, and 30 mg) was administered following acute pretreatment with naltrexone (0 and 50 mg) and alprazolam (0 and 0.5 mg). Subjective effects, psychomotor task performance, and physiological measures were collected. Oral d-amphetamine produced prototypical physiological and stimulant-like positive subjective effects (e.g., VAS ratings of Active/Alert/Energetic, Good Effect, and High). Pretreatment with naltrexone, alprazolam, and their combination did not produce clinically problematic acute physiological effects or negative subjective effects. Naltrexone and alprazolam each significantly attenuated some of the subjective effects of d-amphetamine. The combination attenuated a greater number of subjective effects than the constituent drugs alone. The present results support the continued evaluation of an opioid receptor antagonist combined with a GABAA-positive modulator using more clinically relevant experimental conditions like examining the effect of chronic dosing with these drugs on methamphetamine self-administration.

  12. Combination of Levo-Tetrahydropalmatine and Low Dose Naltrexone: A Promising Treatment for Prevention of Cocaine Relapse.

    PubMed

    Sushchyk, Sarah; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Wang, Jia Bei

    2016-05-01

    Relapse to drug use is often cited as the major obstacle in overcoming a drug addiction. Whereas relapse can occur for a myriad of reasons, it is well established that complex neuroadaptations that occur over the course of addiction are major factors. Cocaine, as a potent dopamine transporter blocker, specifically induces alterations in the dopaminergic as well as other monoaminergic neurotransmissions, which lead to cocaine abuse and dependence. Evidence also suggests that adaptations in the endogenous opioids play important roles in pathophysiology of cocaine addiction. Following this evidence, we investigated a combination medication, levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) and low dose naltrexone (LDN), targeting primarily dopaminergic and endogenous opioid systems as a cocaine-relapse-prevention treatment. In the present study Wistar rats were used to assess the effects ofl-THP and LDN on cocaine self-administration, drug-seeking behavior during cocaine reinstatement, spontaneous locomotion, and effects on the endogenous opioid system. We determined that the combination ofl-THP and LDN reduces drug-seeking behavior during reinstatement more potently thanl-THP alone. Additionally, the combination ofl-THP and LDN attenuates the sedative locomotor effect induced byl-THP. Furthermore, we revealed that treatment with the combination ofl-THP and LDN has an upregulatory effect on both plasmaβ-endorphin and hypothalamic POMC that was not observed inl-THP-treated groups. These results suggest that the combination ofl-THP and LDN has great potential as an effective and well-tolerated medication for cocaine relapse prevention. U.S. Government work not protected by U.S. copyright.

  13. Combination of Levo-Tetrahydropalmatine and Low Dose Naltrexone: A Promising Treatment for Prevention of Cocaine Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Sushchyk, Sarah; Xi, Zheng-Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Relapse to drug use is often cited as the major obstacle in overcoming a drug addiction. Whereas relapse can occur for a myriad of reasons, it is well established that complex neuroadaptations that occur over the course of addiction are major factors. Cocaine, as a potent dopamine transporter blocker, specifically induces alterations in the dopaminergic as well as other monoaminergic neurotransmissions, which lead to cocaine abuse and dependence. Evidence also suggests that adaptations in the endogenous opioids play important roles in pathophysiology of cocaine addiction. Following this evidence, we investigated a combination medication, levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) and low dose naltrexone (LDN), targeting primarily dopaminergic and endogenous opioid systems as a cocaine-relapse-prevention treatment. In the present study Wistar rats were used to assess the effects of l-THP and LDN on cocaine self-administration, drug-seeking behavior during cocaine reinstatement, spontaneous locomotion, and effects on the endogenous opioid system. We determined that the combination of l-THP and LDN reduces drug-seeking behavior during reinstatement more potently than l-THP alone. Additionally, the combination of l-THP and LDN attenuates the sedative locomotor effect induced by l-THP. Furthermore, we revealed that treatment with the combination of l-THP and LDN has an upregulatory effect on both plasma β-endorphin and hypothalamic POMC that was not observed in l-THP-treated groups. These results suggest that the combination of l-THP and LDN has great potential as an effective and well-tolerated medication for cocaine relapse prevention. PMID:26903543

  14. Enteral feeding during indomethacin and ibuprofen treatment of a patent ductus arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Clyman, Ronald; Wickremasinghe, Andrea; Jhaveri, Nami; Hassinger, Denise C.; Attridge, Joshua T.; Sanocka, Ulana; Polin, Richard; Gillam-Krakauer, Maria; Reese, Jeff; Mammel, Mark; Couser, Robert; Mulrooney, Neil; Yanowitz, Toby D.; Derrick, Matthew; Jegatheesan, Priya; Walsh, Michele; Fujii, Alan; Porta, Nicolas; Carey, William A.; Swanson, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that infants who are just being introduced to enteral feedings will advance to full enteral nutrition at a faster rate if they receive “trophic” (15 ml/kg/day) enteral feedings while receiving indomethacin or ibuprofen treatment for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Study design Infants were eligible for the study if they were 231/7 – 306/7 weeks gestation, weighed 401–1250 g at birth, received maximum enteral volumes ≤60 ml/kg/day and were about to be treated with indomethacin or ibuprofen. A standardized “feeding advance regimen” and guidelines for managing feeding intolerance were followed at each site (n=13). Results Infants (n=177; 26.3±1.9 wks (±SD) gestation) were randomized at 6.5±3.9 days to receive “trophic” feeds (“feeding” group, n=81: indomethacin=80%, ibuprofen=20%) or no feeds (“fasting (npo)” group, n=96: indomethacin=75%, ibuprofen=25%) during the drug administration period. Maximum daily enteral volumes prior to study entry were 14±15 ml/kg/day. After drug treatment, infants randomized to the “feeding” arm required fewer days to reach the study’s feeding volume endpoint (120 ml/kg/day). Although the enteral feeding endpoint was reached at an earlier postnatal age, the age at which central venous lines were removed did not differ between the two groups. There were no differences between the two groups in the incidence of infection, necrotizing enterocolitis, spontaneous intestinal perforation or other neonatal morbidities. Conclusion Infants required less time to reach the feeding volume endpoint if they were given “trophic” enteral feedings when they received indomethacin or ibuprofen treatments. PMID:23472765

  15. Tolerance to the anticonvulsant effect of morphine in mice: blockage by ultra-low dose naltrexone.

    PubMed

    Roshanpour, Maryam; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Riazi, Kiarash; Rafiei-Tabatabaei, Neda; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2009-02-01

    The present study evaluated the development of tolerance to the anticonvulsant effect of morphine in a mouse model of clonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole, and whether ultra-low doses of the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone which selectively block G(s) opioid receptors were capable of preventing the observed tolerance. The results showed that the morphine anticonvulsant effect could be subject to tolerance after repeated administration. Both the development and expression of tolerance were inhibited by ultra-low doses of naltrexone, suggesting the possible involvement of G(s)-coupled opioid receptors in the development of tolerance to the anticonvulsant effect of morphine.

  16. Separate and combined impact of acute naltrexone and alprazolam on subjective and physiological effects of oral d-amphetamine in stimulant users

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Katherine R.; Lile, Joshua A.; Stoops, William W.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Opioid antagonists (e.g., naltrexone) and positive modulators of γ-aminobutyric-acidA (GABAA) receptors (e.g., alprazolam) modestly attenuate the abuse-related effects of stimulants like amphetamine. The use of higher doses to achieve greater efficacy is precluded by side effects. Combining naltrexone and alprazolam might safely maximize efficacy while avoiding the untoward effects of the constituent compounds. Objectives The present pilot study tested the hypothesis that acute pretreatment with the combination of naltrexone and alprazolam would not produce clinically problematic physiological effects or negative subjective effects and would reduce the positive subjective effects of d-amphetamine to a greater extent than the constituent drugs alone. Methods Eight nontreatment-seeking, stimulant-using individuals completed an outpatient experiment in which oral d-amphetamine (0, 15, and 30 mg) was administered following acute pretreatment with naltrexone (0 and 50 mg) and alprazolam (0 and 0.5 mg). Subjective effects, psychomotor task performance, and physiological measures were collected. Results Oral d-amphetamine produced prototypical physiological and stimulant-like positive subjective effects (e.g., VAS ratings of Active/Alert/Energetic, Good Effect, and High). Pretreatment with naltrexone, alprazolam, and their combination did not produce clinically problematic acute physiological effects or negative subjective effects. Naltrexone and alprazolam each significantly attenuated some of the subjective effects of d-amphetamine. The combination attenuated a greater number of subjective effects than the constituent drugs alone. Conclusions The present results support the continued evaluation of an opioid receptor antagonist combined with a GABAA-positive modulator using more clinically relevant experimental conditions like examining the effect of chronic dosing with these drugs on methamphetamine self-administration. PMID:24464531

  17. Varenicline, low dose naltrexone, and their combination for heavy-drinking smokers: human laboratory findings.

    PubMed

    Ray, Lara A; Courtney, Kelly E; Ghahremani, Dara G; Miotto, Karen; Brody, Arthur; London, Edythe D

    2014-10-01

    Heavy-drinking smokers constitute a sizeable and hard-to-treat subgroup of smokers, for whom tailored smoking cessation therapies are not yet available. The present study used a double-blind, randomized, 2 × 2 medication design, testing varenicline alone (VAR; 1 mg twice daily), low dose naltrexone alone (L-NTX; 25 mg once daily), varenicline plus naltrexone, and placebo for effects on cigarette craving and subjective response to alcohol and cigarettes in a sample (n = 130) of heavy-drinking daily smokers (≥10 cigarettes/day). All participants were tested after a 9-day titration period designed to reach a steady state on the target medication. Testing was completed at 12 h of nicotine abstinence, after consuming a standard dose of alcohol (target breath alcohol concentration = 0.06 g/dl) and after smoking the first cigarette of the day. The combination of VAR + L-NTX was superior to placebo, and at times superior to monotherapy, in attenuating cigarette craving, cigarette and alcohol "high," and in reducing ad-lib consumption of both cigarettes and alcohol during the 9-day medication titration period. These preliminary findings indicate that clinical studies of the combination of VAR + L-NTX for heavy drinkers trying to quit smoking are warranted and may ultimately improve clinical care for this sizeable and treatment-resistant subgroup of smokers.

  18. Prescription drug monitoring program data tracking of opioid addiction treatment outcomes in integrated dual diagnosis care involving injectable naltrexone.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Ayesha; Whiteman, Aaron; Bell, Richard L; Greene, Marion S; Engleman, Eric A; Chambers, R Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Fourfold increases in opioid prescribing and dispensations over 2 decades in the U.S. has paralleled increases in opioid addictions and overdoses, requiring new preventative, diagnostic, and treatment strategies. This study examines Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP) tracking as a novel measure of opioid addiction treatment outcomes in a university-affiliated integrated mental health-addiction treatment clinic. Repeated measure parametrics examined PDMP and urine drug screening (UDS) data before and after first injection for all patients (N = 68) who received at least one long-acting naltrexone injection (380 mg/IM) according to diagnostic groupings of having either (i) alcohol (control); (ii) opioid; or (iii) combined alcohol and opioid use disorders. There were no group differences post-injection in treatment days, injections delivered, or treatment service encounters. UDS and PDMP measures of opioid exposures were greater in opioid compared to alcohol-only patients. Post-first injection, UDS's positive for opioids declined (p < .05) along with PDMP measures of opioid prescriptions (p < .001), doses (p < .01), types (p < .001), numbers of dispensing prescribers (p < .001) and pharmacies (p < .001). Opioid patients without alcohol disorders showed the best outcomes with 50% to 80% reductions in PDMP-measures of opioids, down to levels of alcohol-only patients. This study shows PDMP utility for measuring opioid addiction treatment outcomes, supporting the routine use of PDMPs in clinical and research settings. These findings demonstrate that opioid addiction in patients with complex addictions and mental illnesses comorbidities can show effective treatment responses as measured by PDMP tracking of decreases in opioid prescriptions to those patients. (Am J Addict 2016;25:557-564). © 2016 The Authors. The American Journal on Addictions Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Academy of Addiction

  19. Prescription drug monitoring program data tracking of opioid addiction treatment outcomes in integrated dual diagnosis care involving injectable naltrexone

    PubMed Central

    Sajid, Ayesha; Whiteman, Aaron; Bell, Richard L.; Greene, Marion S.; Engleman, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Fourfold increases in opioid prescribing and dispensations over 2 decades in the U.S. has paralleled increases in opioid addictions and overdoses, requiring new preventative, diagnostic, and treatment strategies. This study examines Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP) tracking as a novel measure of opioid addiction treatment outcomes in a university‐affiliated integrated mental health‐addiction treatment clinic. Methods Repeated measure parametrics examined PDMP and urine drug screening (UDS) data before and after first injection for all patients (N = 68) who received at least one long‐acting naltrexone injection (380 mg/IM) according to diagnostic groupings of having either (i) alcohol (control); (ii) opioid; or (iii) combined alcohol and opioid use disorders. Results There were no group differences post‐injection in treatment days, injections delivered, or treatment service encounters. UDS and PDMP measures of opioid exposures were greater in opioid compared to alcohol‐only patients. Post‐first injection, UDS's positive for opioids declined (p < .05) along with PDMP measures of opioid prescriptions (p < .001), doses (p < .01), types (p < .001), numbers of dispensing prescribers (p < .001) and pharmacies (p < .001). Opioid patients without alcohol disorders showed the best outcomes with 50% to 80% reductions in PDMP‐measures of opioids, down to levels of alcohol‐only patients. Conclusions This study shows PDMP utility for measuring opioid addiction treatment outcomes, supporting the routine use of PDMPs in clinical and research settings. Scientific Significance These findings demonstrate that opioid addiction in patients with complex addictions and mental illnesses comorbidities can show effective treatment responses as measured by PDMP tracking of decreases in opioid prescriptions to those patients. (Am J Addict 2016;25:557–564) PMID:27647699

  20. Low dose naltrexone (LDN) enhances maturation of bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs).

    PubMed

    Meng, Jingjuan; Meng, Yiming; Plotnikoff, Nicholas P; Youkilis, Gene; Griffin, Noreen; Shan, Fengping

    2013-12-01

    It has been demonstrated previously that immune cell activation and proliferation were sensitive to the effects of naltrexone, a non-peptidic δ-opioid receptor selective antagonist and opioid receptors on BMDCs have been detected [1]. However, there is little prior data published on naltrexone and DCs. Therefore, we hypothesized that LDN could exert modulating effect on BMDCs. In present study, we studied influence of LDN on both phenotypic and functional maturation of BMDCs. Changes of BMDC post-treatment with LDN were evaluated using conventional light microscope and transmission electron microscopy (TEM); flow cytometry(FCM); cytochemistry; acid phosphatase activity(ACP) test; FITC-dextran bio-assay; mixed lymphocytes and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We have found that LDN enhances maturation of BMDCs as evidenced by 1) up-regulating the expression of MHC II, CD40, CD83, CD80 and CD86 molecules on BMDCs; 2) down-regulating the rates of pinocytosis and phagocytosis accompanied by the results of decreased ACP, and FITC-dextran bio-assay; 3) mounting potential of BMDCs to drive T cell; and 4) inducing secretion of higher levels of IL-12 and TNF-α. It is therefore concluded that LDN can efficiently promote the maturation of BMDCs via precise modulation inside and outside BMDCs. Our study has provided meaningful mode of action on the role of LDN in immunoregulation, and rationale on future application of LDN for enhancing host immunity in cancer therapy and potent use in the design of DC-based vaccines for a number of diseases.

  1. Healthcare utilization in adults with opioid dependence receiving extended release naltrexone compared to treatment as usual.

    PubMed

    Soares, William E; Wilson, Donna; Rathlev, Niels; Lee, Joshua D; Gordon, Michael; Nunes, Edward V; O'Brien, Charles P; Friedmann, Peter D

    2018-02-01

    Opioid use disorders have reached epidemic proportions, with overdose now the leading cause of accidental death in the United States. Extended release naltrexone (XR-NTX) has emerged as a medication treatment that reduces opioid use and craving. However, the effect of XR-NTX therapy on acute healthcare utilization, including emergency department visits and inpatient hospitalizations, remains uncertain. The objective of the current study is to evaluate hospital-based healthcare resource utilization in adults involved in the criminal justice system with a history of opioid use disorder randomized to XR-NTX therapy compared with treatment as usual (TAU) during a 6-month treatment phase and 12months post-treatment follow up. This retrospective exploratory analysis uses data collected in a published randomized trial. Comparisons of the number of emergency department visits and hospital admissions (for drug detox, psychiatric care and other medical reasons) were performed using chi square tests for any admission and negative binomial models for number of admissions. Of the 308 participants randomized, 96% had utilization data (76% complete 6months, 67% complete follow up). No significant differences were seen in overall healthcare utilization (IRR=0.88, 95%CI 0.63-1.23, p=0.45), or substance use-related drug detox hospitalizations (IRR=0.83, 95%CI 0.32-2.16, p=0.71). Despite having more participants report chronic medical problems at baseline (43% vs. 32%, p=0.05), those receiving XR-NTX generally experienced equivalent or lower rates of healthcare utilization compared to TAU. The XR-NTX group had significantly lower medical/surgical related hospital admissions (IRR=0.55, 95%CI 0.30-1.00, p=0.05) during the course of the entire study. XR-NTX did not significantly increase rates of healthcare utilization compared to TAU. Provider concerns regarding healthcare utilization should not preclude the consideration of XR-NTX as therapy for opioid use disorders. Copyright © 2018

  2. Previous administration of naltrexone did not change synergism between paracetamol and tramadol in mice.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Hugo F; Noriega, Viviana; Prieto, Juan Carlos

    2012-07-01

    In the treatment of acute and chronic pain the most frequently used drugs are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), e.g., paracetamol; opioids, e.g., tramadol, and a group of drugs called coanalgesics or adjuvants (e.g., antidepressants, anticonvulsants). The aim of this work was to determine the nature of the interaction induced by intraperitoneal or intrathecal coadministration of paracetamol and tramadol. The type of interaction was evaluated by means of isobolographic analysis, using the acetic acid writhing test as an algesiometer in mice. In addition, the involvement of opioid receptors in the interaction was studied using naltrexone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist. The administration of paracetamol or tramadol induced a dose-dependent antinociceptive activity in the assay. The dose-response curves were characterized by equal efficacy but different potencies, being i.t. paracetamol 11.84 times more potent than i.p. paracetamol, and i.t. tramadol 3.54 times more potent than the i.p. tramadol. The isobolographic analysis indicates a synergistic interaction between the coadministration of i.p. or i.t. paracetamol with tramadol. The interaction index values were similar for the i.p. and i.t. coadministration with values of 0.414 and 0.364, respectively. The different mechanisms of action of paracetamol and tramadol strongly explain the analgesic synergism between them, in agreement with the general theory of drug interaction. This synergic interaction was not modified by the non selective opioid antagonist, naltrexone. This association could be of clinical significance in the treatment of pain with a reduction of doses and adverse effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Opioid Challenge Evaluation of Blockade by Extended-Release Naltrexone in Opioid-Abusing Adults: Dose-Effects and Time-Course

    PubMed Central

    Bigelow, George E.; Preston, Kenzie L.; Schmittner, John; Dong, Qunming; Gastfriend, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral naltrexone's effectiveness as an opioid antagonist has been limited due to poor patient adherence. A long-acting naltrexone formulation may be beneficial. This study evaluated the effects of extended-release injectable naltrexone (XR-NTX), targeted for a one-month duration of action, in blocking opioid agonist challenge effects in humans. Methods Outpatient non-dependent opioid abusers (N=27) were randomly assigned to a single double-blind IM administration of 75, 150, or 300 mg XR-NTX. To assess the extent of opioid blockade, hydromorphone challenges (0, 3, 4.5, 6 mg IM in ascending order at 1-hr intervals [up to 13.5 mg total]) were given at pretreatment baseline and on days 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 56. Opioid blockade was assessed via (1) tolerability of the ascending hydromorphone doses; (2) Visual Analog Scale (VAS) ratings of subjective opioid effects and (3) pupil diameter. Effects on the VAS and pupils were assessed via the slope of the time-action function over ascending hydromorphone doses, with zero slope indicating complete blockade. Results Blockade of the VAS “any drug effect” response to 3 mg hydromorphone was complete for 14, 21, and 28 days, respectively, for the XR-NTX doses of 75, 150 and 300 mg. Subjective effects were more readily blocked than was pupil constriction. Higher hydromorphone doses produced only modest increases in agonist effects. With the 300 mg XR-NTX dose the slope of VAS responses remained at or near zero for one month even with maximal cumulative hydromorphone dosing. Conclusions These data quantify the month-long opioid blockade underlying XR-NTX's efficacy in opioid dependence treatment. PMID:22079773

  4. Mental health treatment need among pregnant and postpartum women/girls entering substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H

    2012-06-01

    Substance use during pregnancy is widely acknowledged as a major public health concern with detrimental effects on both mother and unborn child. Mental health issues often co-occur with substance use and may trigger continued use during pregnancy or relapse to use postpartum, though little is known about the extent of these issues in pregnant and postpartum women entering substance abuse treatment. The purpose of this study is: (a) to examine self-reported mental health in a population of women and girls who were pregnant in the past year and are entering substance abuse treatment, and (b) to determine whether disparity exists in mental health treatment received across groups by race and age if a treatment need is present. Secondary data analysis was conducted with Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN) data from 502 female adolescents and adults who reported having been pregnant in the past year and who completed the GAIN upon entry into substance abuse treatment. Participants were compared on demographic, diagnostic, and problem severity variables by race and age. Results indicate that mental health treatment need is high among the whole pregnant and postpartum sample, but African American and Hispanic women and girls are receiving less mental health treatment than other groups despite having a need for it. No mental health treatment acquisition disparity was found by age.

  5. Very low dose naltrexone addition in opioid detoxification: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mannelli, Paolo; Patkar, Ashwin A; Peindl, Kathi; Gorelick, David A; Wu, Li-Tzy; Gottheil, Edward

    2009-04-01

    Although current treatments for opioid detoxification are not always effective, medical detoxification remains a required step before long-term interventions. The use of opioid antagonist medications to improve detoxification has produced inconsistent results. Very low dose naltrexone (VLNTX) was recently found to reduce opioid tolerance and dependence in animal and clinical studies. We decided to evaluate safety and efficacy of VLNTX adjunct to methadone in reducing withdrawal during detoxification. In a multi-center, double-blind, randomized study at community treatment programs, where most detoxifications are performed, 174 opioid-dependent subjects received NTX 0.125 mg, 0.250 mg or placebo daily for 6 days, together with methadone in tapering doses. VLNTX-treated individuals reported attenuated withdrawal symptoms [F = 7.24 (2,170); P = 0.001] and reduced craving [F = 3.73 (2,107); P = 0.03]. Treatment effects were more pronounced at discharge and were not accompanied by a significantly higher retention rate. There were no group differences in use of adjuvant medications and no treatment-related adverse events. Further studies should explore the use of VLNTX, combined with full and partial opioid agonist medications, in detoxification and long-term treatment of opioid dependence.

  6. Changes in the incentive value of food after naltrexone treatment depend on a differential preference for a palatable food in male rats.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Bañuelos, Mariana; Barrios De Tomasi, Eliana; Juárez, Jorge

    2017-09-01

    Opioid antagonist treatments such as naltrexone (NTX) and naloxone reduce consummatory behavior of palatable food (PF) and other incentives. Meanwhile, a significant increase in alcohol consumption has been observed when it is offered immediately after ending NTX treatment, an effect apparently produced by increased opioidergic activity caused by up-regulation of opioid receptors. On this basis we assessed changes in the consumption of PF after opioid antagonist treatment in rats with different preferences for that food. The preference of male Wistar rats for a PF was classified as low, medium, or high in a baseline period, after which the animals in each preference level were sub-divided into control and experimental groups that received injections of either NTX (2 mg/kg twice per day/6 days) or a saline solution with a space of 8 hours between doses. At the end of pharmacological treatment (PT), subjects were re-exposed to the PF. Increased PF intake was found only in the low-preference group, but the increase was observed in both the experimental and control animals. Also, a decrease in chow intake during PT was observed in all preference groups, while recovery after treatment was noted only in the low-preference rats. The increased intake observed in the low-preference rats after treatment phase suggests that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation during PT could have enhanced the rewarding characteristics of the sweet food and so facilitated and increased its consumption in the re-exposure period.

  7. Ex vivo studies for the passive transdermal delivery of low-dose naltrexone from a cream; detection of naltrexone and its active metabolite, 6β-naltrexol, using a novel LC Q-ToF MS assay.

    PubMed

    Dodou, Kalliopi; Armstrong, Andrew; Kelly, Ivan; Wilkinson, Simon; Carr, Kevin; Shattock, Paul; Whiteley, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Naltrexone (NTX) is a long-acting opiate antagonist. Low-dose naltrexone (LDN) therapy has shown promising results in the treatment of several autoimmune disorders. Our aim was to formulate NTX into a cream for the delivery of LDN and develop an analytical technique for the quantification of NTX and its active metabolite 6-β-naltrexol (NTXol) during transdermal diffusion cell permeation studies. A 1% w/w NTX cream was formulated and drug permeation was examined over 24 h using static Franz diffusion cells mounted with pig skin. A Liquid Chromatography Quadrupole-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS Q-ToF) method was developed for the detection of NTX and NTXol in the receptor solution, skin membrane and residual cream on the donor chamber after completion of the diffusion studies. The cream formulation exhibited steady state release of NTX over 24 h after an initial lag time of 2.74 h. The bioconversion of NTX to NTXol in the skin membrane was 1.1%. It was concluded that the cream may be an effective formulation for the sustained transdermal delivery of LDN. The novel LC Q-ToF MS method allowed the accurate measurement of NTX and NTXol levels across the diffusion cell assemblies and the quantification of NTX metabolism in the skin.

  8. Enhanced sensitivity to naltrexone-induced drinking suppression of fluid intake and sucrose consumption in maternally separated rats.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Clifford C; Holtzman, Stephen G

    2007-04-01

    Early-life stress has been identified as a risk factor in the development of a host of disorders, including substance abuse; however the link between early postnatal stress and changes in measures of reward has not been thoroughly researched. The current study had two main objectives: 1) to determine the impact of maternal separation (an animal model of early-life stress) on the consumption of 10% and 2.5% sucrose solutions by Long-Evans rat dams and male and female offspring, and 2) to determine the effect of the opioid antagonist naltrexone (0.1-3.0 mg/kg) on drinking by each of those groups. Dam-pup separations occurred for varying lengths of time during the first two postnatal weeks. In Experiment 1, a two-bottle choice test (sucrose solution vs. water) was administered across five days to both nonhandled (NH) and maternally-separated (MS) offspring as adults and to dams 2-4 weeks post-weaning. In Experiment 2, naltrexone was administered prior to two-bottle choice tests. MS males and the dams of MS litters exhibited increased intake of total fluid and sucrose solutions, whereas results from females were less consistent. Naltrexone elicited a greater decrease in fluid intake and sucrose intake in male MS offspring compared to male NH offspring. These results indicate that early postnatal stress alters both sucrose consumption, a non-drug measure of reward, and apparently the brain opioid systems that mediate naltrexone-induced drinking suppression.

  9. Effects of Alcohol Availability, Access to Alcohol, and Naltrexone on Self-Reported Craving and Patterns of Drinking in Response to an Alcohol-Cue Availability Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Marc I.; Radnovich, Alexander J.; Kalapatapu, Raj K.; Mehdiyoun, Nicole; Chambers, R. Andrew; Davidson, Dena

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Craving has long been cited by patients and providers as a principal construct in alcohol use disorders and an essential target for treatment. The goal of the current study was to examine the effects of alcohol availability (20% vs. 80% availability), access to alcohol (“open” vs. “locked” trials), and medication (oral naltrexone [Revia] vs. placebo) on self-reported craving and two behavioral measures of drinking (latency of attempt to access alcohol, amount of alcohol consumed when access permitted) in response to an alcohol-cue availability procedure. Method: Non-treatment-seeking, alcohol-dependent men and women (N = 58) self-referred for an alcohol administration study and were administered a modified alcohol-cue availability procedure under two medication conditions (naltrexone, placebo) using a within-subjects, repeated-measures design. Results: Analyses demonstrated that the experimental manipulations used in this study had differential effects on craving and patterns of drinking. Specifically, reduced availability of alcohol (i.e., when alcohol was available in only 20% as opposed to 80% of trials) resulted in greater amounts of alcohol consumed per open trial; the unanticipated blocking of access to alcohol (i.e., a “locked” trial during the 80% availability condition) triggered more rapid attempts to obtain alcohol on subsequent trials. Naltrexone, relative to placebo, was associated with significant reductions in cravings for alcohol. Conclusions: Taken together, these findings offer partial support for the cognitive processing model and reinforce the utility of evaluating both self-report and behavioral indicators of motivation to drink in studies designed to identify factors associated with the construct of craving. PMID:22333328

  10. Extended-release intramuscular naltrexone (VIVITROL®): a review of its use in the prevention of relapse to opioid dependence in detoxified patients.

    PubMed

    Syed, Yahiya Y; Keating, Gillian M

    2013-10-01

    Naltrexone is a μ-opioid receptor antagonist that blocks the euphoric effects of heroin and prescription opioids. In order to improve treatment adherence, a once-monthly, intramuscular, extended-release formulation of naltrexone (XR-NTX) [VIVITROL(®)] has been developed, and approved in the USA and Russia for the prevention of relapse to opioid dependence, after opioid detoxification. The clinical efficacy of this formulation in patients with opioid dependence was demonstrated in a 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre, phase III trial (ALK21-013; n = 250). In this trial, opioid-detoxified patients receiving XR-NTX 380 mg once every 4 weeks, in combination with psychosocial support, had a significantly higher median proportion of weeks of confirmed opioid abstinence during weeks 5-24, compared with those receiving placebo (primary endpoint). A significantly higher proportion of patients receiving XR-NTX achieved total confirmed abstinence during this period than those receiving placebo. XR-NTX was also associated with a significantly greater reduction in opioid craving and a significantly longer treatment retention period than placebo. XR-NTX was generally well tolerated in the phase III trial. The most common (incidence ≥5 %) treatment-emergent adverse events that also occurred more frequently with XR-NTX than with placebo were hepatic enzyme abnormalities, nasopharyngitis, insomnia, hypertension, influenza and injection-site pain. Thus, XR-NTX is a useful treatment option for the prevention of relapse to opioid dependence, following opioid detoxification.

  11. Characteristics of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals entering substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Bryan N; Cauce, Ana Mari

    2006-03-01

    Previous research has suggested that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals enter treatment for substance abuse with more severe problems than heterosexual individuals. However, methodological difficulties, particularly the difficulty of obtaining a representative sample, have limited the ability to draw conclusions about LGBT individuals who receive services for substance abuse. This study took advantage of a unique opportunity to examine a representative sample of openly LGBT clients receiving publicly funded substance abuse treatment by using data gathered by treatment providers in Washington State. Baseline differences between openly LGBT and heterosexual clients were compared in a variety of domains. Results demonstrated that openly LGBT clients enter treatment with more severe substance abuse problems, greater psychopathology, and greater medical service utilization when compared with heterosexual clients. When the analyses were stratified based on sex, different patterns of substance use and associated psychosocial characteristics emerged for the LGBT clients. Implications for provision of appropriate services and recommendations to treatment agencies are discussed in this article.

  12. Putting the brakes on the "drive to eat": Pilot effects of naltrexone and reward based eating on food cravings among obese women

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Ashley E.; Laraia, Barbara; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Hecht, Frederick M.; Lustig, Robert H.; Puterman, Eli; Adler, Nancy; Dallman, Mary; Kiernan, Michaela; Gearhardt, Ashley N.; Epel, Elissa S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Obese individuals vary in their experience of food cravings and tendency to engage in reward-driven eating, both of which can be modulated by the neural reward system rather than physiological hunger. We examined two predictions in a sample of obese women: (1) whether opioidergic blockade reduced food-craving intensity, and (2) whether opioidergic blockade reduced an association between food-craving intensity and reward-driven eating, which is a trait-like index of three factors (lack of control over eating, lack of satiation, preoccupation with food). Methods Forty-four obese, pre-menopausal women completed the Reward-based Eating Drive (RED) scale at study start and daily food-craving intensity on 5 days on which they ingested either a pill-placebo (2 days), a 25mg naltrexone dose (1 day), or a standard 50mg naltrexone dose (2 days). Results Craving intensity was similar under naltrexone and placebo doses. The association between food-craving intensity and reward-driven eating significantly differed between placebo and 50mg naltrexone doses. Reward-driven eating and craving intensity were significantly positively associated under both placebo doses. As predicted, opioidergic blockade (for both doses 25mg and 50mg naltrexone) reduced this positive association between reward-driven eating and craving intensity to non-significance. Conclusions Opioidergic blockade did not reduce craving intensity; however, blockade reduced an association between trait-like reward-driven eating and daily food-craving intensity, and may help identify an important endophenotype within obesity. PMID:26164674

  13. Acute Myocardial Infarction following Naltrexone Consumption; a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Dadpour, Bita; Gholoobi, Arash; Tajoddini, Shahrad; Habibi, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular effects of opioid withdrawal have long been studied. It was reported that patients with underlying ischemic heart disease and atherosclerotic vessels may be complicated by a sudden physical and emotional stress due to withdrawal syndrome. But some other believes sudden increase in catecholamine level as a sympathetic overflow might effect on heart with and without underlying ischemia. In the current study, a patient on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) who experienced myocardial infarction (MI) after taking naltrexone was described.

  14. Reward and relief dimensions of temptation to drink: construct validity and role in predicting differential benefit from acamprosate and naltrexone.

    PubMed

    Roos, Corey R; Mann, Karl; Witkiewitz, Katie

    2017-11-01

    Researchers have sought to distinguish between individuals whose alcohol use disorder (AUD) is maintained by drinking to relieve negative affect ('relief drinkers') and those whose AUD is maintained by the rewarding effects of alcohol ('reward drinkers'). As an opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone may be particularly effective for reward drinkers. Acamprosate, which has been shown to down-regulate the glutamatergic system, may be particularly effective for relief drinkers. This study sought to replicate and extend prior work (PREDICT study; Glöckner-Rist et al. ) by examining dimensions of reward and relief temptation to drink and subtypes of individuals with distinct patterns of reward/relief temptation. We utilized data from two randomized clinical trials for AUD (Project MATCH, n = 1726 and COMBINE study, n = 1383). We also tested whether classes of reward/relief temptation would predict differential response to naltrexone and acamprosate in COMBINE. Results replicated prior work by identifying reward and relief temptation factors, which had excellent reliability and construct validity. Using factor mixture modeling, we identified five distinct classes of reward/relief temptation that replicated across studies. In COMBINE, we found a significant class-by-acamprosate interaction effect. Among those most likely classified in the high relief/moderate reward temptation class, individuals had better drinking outcomes if assigned to acamprosate versus placebo. We did not find a significant class-by-naltrexone interaction effect. Our study questions the orthogonal classification of drinkers into only two types (reward or relief drinkers) and adds to the body of research on moderators of acamprosate, which may inform clinical decision making in the treatment of AUD. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Motivation and maltreatment history among youth entering substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, Susan E; Henderson, Joanna L; Muller, Robert T; Goodman, Ilana R

    2012-03-01

    Research has established that maltreatment experiences are common in the life histories of youth with substance abuse problems, and efforts are now moving in the direction of enhancing our understanding of the unique clinical presentations and treatment needs of this population. The current study endeavored to contribute to this body of research by examining associations between experiences of maltreatment and levels of motivation among youth entering outpatient substance abuse treatment. Upon admission, 188 youth (131 males, 57 females) completed a package of self-report questionnaires including measures of motivation to change, motivation for treatment, and history of maltreatment experiences. Results indicated that youth with histories of all forms of maltreatment examined tended to be more aware of the problematic aspects of their substance use, more ready to engage in treatment, more motivated by feelings of shame, and more motivated by external influences. Emotional abuse was the form of maltreatment that predicted level of motivation most strongly. Emotional abuse was particularly strongly associated with the form of motivation reflecting shame regarding substance use, predicting this form of motivation over and above other factors previously reported to be associated with motivation, such as severity of substance abuse and age. While clinicians are increasingly attending to exposure to traumatic events among youth entering substance abuse treatment, these findings suggest that attending to experiences of emotional abuse is also important. Such experiences appear to be related to treatment motivation and may be important to treatment processes and outcomes for these vulnerable youth. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. A SMART Data Analysis Method for Constructing Adaptive Treatment Strategies for Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ertefaie, Ashkan; Lucy, Xi; Lynch, Kevin G.; McKay, James R.; Oslin, David; Almirall, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Aims To demonstrate how Q-learning, a novel data analysis method, can be used with data from a sequential, multiple assignment, randomized trial (SMART) to construct empirically an adaptive treatment strategy (ATS) that is more tailored than the ATSs already embedded in a SMART. Method We use Q-learning with data from the Extending Treatment Effectiveness of Naltrexone (ExTENd) SMART (N=250) to construct empirically an ATS employing naltrexone, behavioral intervention, and telephone disease management to reduce alcohol consumption over 24 weeks in alcohol dependent individuals. Results Q-learning helped to identify a subset of individuals who, despite showing early signs of response to naltrexone, require additional treatment to maintain progress. Conclusions Q-learning can inform the development of more cost-effective, stepped-care strategies for treating substance use disorders. PMID:28029718

  17. Perceived Self-Control is Related to Mental Distress in Patients Entering Substance Use Disorder Treatment.

    PubMed

    Abel, Kristine Fiksdal; Skjærvø, Ingeborg; Ravndal, Edle; Clausen, Thomas; Bramness, Jørgen G

    2018-01-05

    Levels of mental distress are high in patients with substance use disorders (SUD) and investigation of correlates may broaden our understanding of this comorbidity. We investigated self-reported symptoms of mental distress among individuals entering either outpatient opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) or other inpatient SUD treatment and related factors, with a particular focus on perceived self-control. A cross-sectional study including substance users (n = 548; mean age 34 years; 27% women) entering treatment at 21 different treatment-centers across Norway, interviewed between December 2012 and April 2015. Symptoms of mental distress were assessed with Global Symptom Index (GSI) score. Adjusted relative risk ratios (RRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated through multinomial logistic regression. More than half of the participants in both treatment groups reported mental distress (GSI) above clinical cut-off. The use of alcohol and exposure to violence were associated with increased likelihood of high GSI for both patient groups. Also, lower perceived self-control was related to high GSI in both treatment groups. Symptoms of mental distress were equally common among patients entering OMT and those entering other inpatient SUD treatment, even if the patients differed on a number of clinical characteristics. Use of alcohol and exposure to violence were associated with more mental distress in both groups. Perceived self-control also appeared to be important when explaining symptoms of mental distress among these SUD patients.

  18. Combined varenicline and naltrexone treatment reduces smoking topography intensity in heavy-drinking smokers.

    PubMed

    Roche, Daniel J O; Bujarski, Spencer; Hartwell, Emily; Green, ReJoyce; Ray, Lara A

    2015-07-01

    Heavy drinking smokers constitute a distinct sub-population of smokers for whom traditional smoking cessation therapies may not be effective. Recent evidence suggested that combined varenicline (VAR) and naltrexone (NTX) therapy may be more efficacious than either monotherapy alone in reducing smoking and drinking-related behavior in this population. The manner in which individuals smoke a cigarette (i.e., smoking topography) may be predictive of smoking cessation outcomes, yet the effects of smoking pharmacotherapies on puffing behavior have not been thoroughly examined. Therefore, the current double-blind medication study examined the effects of VAR alone (1mg BID), low dose NTX alone (25mg QD), the combination of VAR+NTX, and placebo on smoking topography measures in heavy drinking, non-treatment seeking daily smokers (n=120). After a 9-day titration period, participants completed a laboratory session in which they smoked their first cigarette of the day using a smoking topography device following 12h of nicotine abstinence and consumption of an alcoholic beverage (BrAC=0.06g/dl). The primary measures were puff count, volume, duration, and velocity and inter-puff interval (IPI). Independent of medication group, puff velocity and IPI increased, while puff volume and duration decreased, over the course of the cigarette. The active medication groups, vs. the placebo group, had significantly blunted puff duration and velocity slopes over the course of the cigarette, and this effect was particularly evident in the VAR+NTX group. Additionally, the VAR+NTX group demonstrated lower average IPI than the monotherapy groups and lower average puff volume than all other groups. These results suggest that smoking pharmacotherapies, particularly the combination of VAR+NTX, alter smoking topography in heavy drinking smokers, producing a pattern of less intense puffing behavior. As smoking topography has been predictive of the ability to quit smoking, future studies should

  19. Combined Varenicline and naltrexone treatment reduces smoking topography intensity in heavy-drinking smokers

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Daniel J.O.; Bujarski, Spencer; Hartwell, Emily; Green, ReJoyce; Ray, Lara A.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy drinking smokers constitute a distinct sub-population of smokers for whom traditional smoking cessation therapies may not be effective. Recent evidence suggested that combined varenicline (VAR) and naltrexone (NTX) therapy may be more efficacious than either monotherapy alone in reducing smoking and drinking-related behavior in this population. The manner in which individuals smoke a cigarette (i.e., smoking topography) may be predictive of smoking cessation outcomes, yet the effects of smoking pharmacotherapies on puffing behavior have not been thoroughly examined. Therefore, the current double-blind medication study examined the effects of VAR alone (1mg BID), low dose NTX alone (25mg QD), the combination of VAR+NTX, and placebo on smoking topography measures in heavy drinking, non-treatment seeking daily smokers (n=120). After a 9-day titration period, participants completed a laboratory session in which they smoked their first cigarette of the day using a smoking topography device following 12-hrs of nicotine abstinence and consumption of an alcoholic beverage (BrAC = 0.06 g/dl). The primary measures were puff count, volume, duration, and velocity and inter-puff interval (IPI). Independent of medication group, puff velocity and IPI increased, while puff volume and duration decreased, over the course of the cigarette. The active medication groups, vs. the placebo group, had significantly blunted puff duration and velocity slopes over the course of the cigarette, and this effect was particularly evident in the VAR+NTX group. Additionally, the VAR+NTX group demonstrated lower average IPI than the monotherapy groups and lower average puff volume than all other groups. These results suggest that smoking pharmacotherapies, particularly the combination of VAR+NTX, alter smoking topography in heavy drinking smokers, producing a pattern of less intense puffing behavior. As smoking topography has been predictive of the ability to quit smoking, future studies should

  20. [Pharmacogenetics and the treatment of addiction].

    PubMed

    Schellekens, Arnt

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the current scientific knowledge regarding pharmacogenetic predictors of treatment outcome for substance-dependent patients. PubMed was searched for articles on pharmacogenetics and addiction. This search yielded 53 articles, of which 27 were selected. The most promising pharmacogenetic findings are related to the treatment of alcohol dependence. Genetic variation in the µ-opioid receptor (OPRM1) and the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) appear to be associated with treatment outcomes for naltrexone and ondansetron, respectively. Genetic variation in CYP2D6 is related to efficacy of methadone treatment for opiate dependence. Pharmacogenetics may help explain the great inter-individual variation in treatment response. In the future, treatment matching, based on genetic characteristics of individual patients, could lead to a 'personalized medicine' approach. Pharmacogenetic matching of naltrexone in alcohol-dependent carriers of the OPRM1 G-allele currently seems most promising.

  1. Cessation of Long-Term Naltrexone Therapy and Self-Injury: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crews, W. David, Jr.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This case study of a woman with profound mental retardation and a history of severe self-injurious behavior (SIB) found that the dramatic decrease in SIB following Naltrexone administration was maintained through placebo and no drug phases and at six-month follow-up. Findings are discussed in terms of endogenous opioid system theories of SIB. (DB)

  2. Injectable Ammonium Chloride Used Enterally for the Treatment of Persistent Metabolic Alkalosis in Three Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Jennie T.; Bio, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Enteral administration of injectable ammonium chloride may offer an effective method for the treatment of persistent metabolic alkalosis, without the adverse effects associated with the intravenous route. This case series describes 3 pediatric patients who received ammonium chloride enterally for the treatment of persistent metabolic alkalosis. The patients were a 2-month-old female infant, a 6-week-old male infant, and a 3-year-old male toddler. Four to 18 doses of ammonium chloride were administered enterally (range, 3-144 mEq/dose). Two of the 3 patients achieved resolution of metabolic alkalosis with ammonium chloride, while 1 patient's condition was refractory to treatment. Resolution of metabolic alkalosis occurred at 4 and 8 days, which required a total weight-based dose of 10.7 mEq/kg and 18 mEq/kg, respectively. No adverse effects were recorded. The use of ammonium chloride injection administered enterally was a safe and effective option in 2 of the 3 pediatric patients with persistent metabolic alkalosis. PMID:23118664

  3. Gestational naltrexone ameliorates fetal ethanol exposures enhancing effect on the postnatal behavioral and neural response to ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Youngentob, Steven L; Kent, Paul F; Youngentob, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    The association between gestational exposure to ethanol and adolescent ethanol abuse is well established. Recent animal studies support the role of fetal ethanol experience-induced chemosensory plasticity as contributing to this observation. Previously, we established that fetal ethanol exposure, delivered through a dam’s diet throughout gestation, tuned the neural response of the peripheral olfactory system of early postnatal rats to the odor of ethanol. This occurred in conjunction with a loss of responsiveness to other odorants. The instinctive behavioral response to the odor of ethanol was also enhanced. Importantly, there was a significant contributory link between the altered response to the odor of ethanol and increased ethanol avidity when assessed in the same animals. Here, we tested whether the neural and behavioral olfactory plasticity, and their relationship to enhanced ethanol intake, is a result of the mere exposure to ethanol or whether it requires the animal to associate ethanol’s reinforcing properties with its odor attributes. In this later respect, the opioid system is important in the mediation (or modulation) of the reinforcing aspects of ethanol. To block endogenous opiates during prenatal life, pregnant rats received daily intraperitoneal administration of the opiate antagonist naltrexone from gestational day 6–21 jointly with ethanol delivered via diet. Relative to control progeny, we found that gestational exposure to naltrexone ameliorated the enhanced postnatal behavioral response to the odor of ethanol and postnatal drug avidity. Our findings support the proposition that in utero ethanol-induced olfactory plasticity (and its relationship to postnatal intake) requires, at least in part, the associative pairing between ethanol’s odor quality and its reinforcing aspects. We also found suggestive evidence that fetal naltrexone ameliorated the untoward effects of gestational ethanol exposure on the neural response to non

  4. Bupropion and Naltrexone for Smoking Cessation: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Marc E.; Schmitz, Joy M.; Allen, Sharon; Grabowski, John; Pentel, Paul; Oliver, Andrew; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2016-01-01

    Combination of non-nicotine pharmacotherapies has been under-examined for cigarette smoking cessation. A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group double-dummy study evaluated two medications, bupropion (BUP) and naltrexone (NTX), in treatment-seeking cigarette smokers (N = 121) over a 7-week treatment intervention with 6-month follow-up. Smokers were randomized to either BUP (300 mg/day) + Placebo (PBO) or BUP (300 mg/day) + NTX (50 mg/day). The primary outcome was biochemically-verified (saliva cotinine, carbon monoxide) 7-day, point-prevalence abstinence. BUP+NTX was associated with significantly higher point-prevalence abstinence rates after 7-weeks of treatment (BUP+NTX, 54.1%; BUP+PBO, 33.3%), p = 0.0210, but not at 6-month follow-up (BUP+NTX, 27.9%; BUP+PBO, 15.0%), p = 0.09. Continuous abstinence rates did not differ, p = 0.0740 (BUP+NTX, 26.2%; BUP+PBO, 13.3%). Those receiving BUP+NTX reported reduced nicotine withdrawal, p = 0.0364. The BUP+NTX combination was associated with elevated rates of some side effects, but with no significant difference in retention between the groups. PMID:27213949

  5. Evaluation of an outpatient protocol in the treatment of canine parvoviral enteritis.

    PubMed

    Venn, Emilee C; Preisner, Karolina; Boscan, Pedro L; Twedt, David C; Sullivan, Lauren A

    2017-01-01

    To compare 2 treatment protocols (standard in-hospital versus modified outpatient) in affecting the duration of treatment or survival of dogs with parvoviral enteritis. Prospective, randomized study. University teaching hospital. Client-owned dogs with naturally acquired parvovirus were randomized to receive either an inpatient (n = 20) or outpatient (n = 20) treatment protocol. Both groups received intravenous (IV) fluid resuscitation and correction of hypoglycemia at hospital admission. Following stabilization, basic inpatient interventions included administration of IV fluids, administration of cefoxitin (22 mg/kg IV q 8 h), and maropitant (1 mg/kg IV q 24 h). Basic outpatient interventions (provided in-hospital) included administration of subcutaneous (SC) fluid (30 mL/kg q 6 h), administration of maropitant (1 mg/kg SC q 24 h) and cefovecin (8 mg/kg SC once). Using daily electrolyte and glucose evaluations, dextrose and potassium supplementation was provided intravenously (inpatients) or orally (outpatients) as indicated. Rescue criteria were used in both groups for analgesia and nausea. All dogs were syringe fed a commercial canine convalescence diet (1 mL/kg PO q 6 h) until voluntary appetite returned. Protocol success, defined as survival to hospital discharge, was 90% (18/20) for the inpatient group compared to 80% (16/20) for the outpatient group (P = 0.66). There was no difference detected in duration of hospitalization for inpatient dogs (4.6 ± 2 days) versus outpatient dogs (3.8 ± 1.8 days, P = 0.20). Metabolic disturbances were frequent in the outpatient group, with 50% of dogs requiring dextrose supplementation and 60% of dogs requiring potassium supplementation. An outpatient protocol may be a reasonable alternative for dogs that cannot receive standard in-hospital treatment for parvoviral enteritis. Diligent supportive care and monitoring are still required to optimize treatment of dogs with parvoviral enteritis in an outpatient setting.

  6. Patient-reported health-related quality of life, work productivity, and activity impairment during treatment with ALO-02 (extended-release oxycodone and sequestered naltrexone) for moderate-to-severe chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Weil, Arnold J; Masters, Elizabeth T; Barsdorf, Alexandra I; Bass, Almasa; Pixton, Glenn; Wilson, Jacquelyn G; Wolfram, Gernot

    2017-10-17

    The efficacy of ALO-02, an abuse-deterrent formulation containing extended-release oxycodone and sequestered naltrexone, in the treatment of chronic low back pain (CLBP) was studied in a 12-week randomized controlled trial. Primary efficacy endpoint results have been published previously (Rauck et al., 2015). The current paper focuses on patient-reported outcomes for health-related quality of life (HRQL), work productivity, and activity impairment that were assessed during this study. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized withdrawal study in patients with moderate-to-severe CLBP. After a screening period (≤2 weeks), patients entered an open-label titration period (4-6 weeks). Treatment responders were then randomized to a double-blind placebo-controlled treatment period (12 weeks). HRQL was assessed using changes in the Short Form-36 v2 Health Survey (SF-36v2) and the EuroQol-5 Dimensions Health Questionnaire 3-Level version (EQ-5D-3L). Work productivity and regular activities were evaluated using the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire: Specific Health Problem (WPAI:SHP). A total of 410 patients received ALO-02 during the open-label titration period, of which 280 (intent-to-treat (ITT) population) were treated during the double-blind placebo-controlled treatment period (placebo, n = 134; ALO-02, n = 146). Significant improvement was observed for all SF-36v2 subscales and component scores (p < 0.005) and the EQ-5D-3L summary index and visual analog scale (p < 0.0001) during the titration period. Improvement was also significant (p < 0.0001) for all WPAI:SHP outcomes except 'work time missed due to CLBP' for the titration period. Significant differences favoring ALO-02 compared with placebo were only observed for the SF-36v2 Bodily Pain subscale (p ≤ 0.0232; ITT population) during the double-blind treatment period and the overall study period (screening to the end of the double-blind treatment period). The percentage change

  7. Extended-Release Naltrexone: A Qualitative Analysis of Barriers to Routine Use.

    PubMed

    Alanis-Hirsch, Kelly; Croff, Raina; Ford, James H; Johnson, Kim; Chalk, Mady; Schmidt, Laura; McCarty, Dennis

    2016-03-01

    The Medication Research Partnership (a national health plan and nine addiction treatment centers contracted with the health plan) sought to facilitate the adoption of pharmacotherapy for alcohol and opioid use disorders. Qualitative analysis of interviews with treatment center change leaders, individuals working for the manufacturer and its technical assistance contractor, and health plan managers extracted details on the processes used to order, store, bill for, and administer extended-release naltrexone. Qualitative themes were categorized using domains from the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, and provider characteristics). Characteristics of XR-NTX that inhibited use included the complexity of ordering and using the medication; cost was also a barrier. Outer setting barriers reflected patient needs and external health plan policies on formulary coverage, benefit management, and reimbursement. Program structures, the lack of physician linkages, a culture resistant to the use of medication, and unease with change were inner setting elements that limited use of XR-NTX. Patient stereotypes and a lack of knowledge about XR-NTX affected practitioner willingness to treat patients and prescribe XR-NTX. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research provided a useful lens to understand and interpret the processes affecting access to XR-NTX. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nutrition accesses among patients receiving enteral treatment in the home environment.

    PubMed

    Sznajder, Janusz; Ślefarska-Wasilewska, Marta; Wójcik, Piotr

    2017-10-31

    Enteral feeding in the home environment is connected with creating access to digestive tract, and thanks to that, this kind of treatment is possible. The gold standard in enteral nutrition is PEG, other types of access are: nasogastric tube, gastronomy and jejunostomy. In the article 851 patients who were treated nutritionally in the home environment, in the nutrition clinic, Nutrimed Górny Śląsk, were analyzed. It was described how, in practice, the schedule of nutrition access looks like in the nutrition clinic at a time of qualifying patients to the treatment (PEG 47,35%, gastronomy 18,91%, nasogastric tube 17,39%,jejunostomy 16,33%) and how it changes among patients treated in the nutrition clinic during specific period of time - to the treatment there were qualified patients with at least three-month period of therapy ( second evaluation: PEG 37,01%, gastrostomy 31,13%, nasogastric tube 16,98%, jejunostomy 15,86%). The structure of changes was described, also the routine and the place in what exchanging or changing nutrition access was analyzed. The biggest changes in quantity, among all groups of ill people concerned patients with PEG and gastronomy. In most cases the intervention connected with exchanging access to the digestive tract could be implemented at patient's home.

  9. Evaluation of mortality rate and predictors of outcome in dogs receiving outpatient treatment for parvoviral enteritis.

    PubMed

    Sarpong, Kathryn J; Lukowski, Jennifer M; Knapp, Cassandra G

    2017-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine mortality rates and prognostic factors for dogs with parvoviral enteritis receiving outpatient treatment. DESIGN Retrospective case series and case-control study. ANIMALS 130 client-owned dogs with a diagnosis of parvoviral enteritis between August 1, 2012, and January 31, 2015, that were treated with outpatient care. PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed and data extracted regarding dog age, body weight, breed, and vaccination history; treatments administered; and short-term (≥ 3 day) outcome (determined via telephone call with owner). Treatments were administered according to clinician preference. Mortality rates were calculated overall and for various signalment and treatment groupings and compared. RESULTS 97 (75%) dogs survived and 33 (25%) dogs failed to survive for ≥ 3 days after initial diagnosis of parvoviral enteritis. Compared with distributions in the general hospital population, Chihuahuas, German Shepherd Dogs, pit bull-type dogs, and males were overrepresented. No significant difference was identified between survivors and nonsurvivors regarding age, body weight, or sex. Dogs prescribed a caloric supplement fed every 2 to 4 hours had a mortality rate of 19% (16/85). Most of these dogs had also received fluids administered SC, an antiemetic, and antimicrobials. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Clinicians should note the 25% mortality rate of the dogs with parvoviral enteritis that received outpatient care in this study setting when discussing treatment options with owners of affected dogs who are financially unable to pursue hospitalization.

  10. Brief screening for co-occurring disorders among women entering substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Alisa K; Liebschutz, Jane M; Chernoff, Miriam; Nguyen, Dana; Amaro, Hortensia

    2006-09-07

    Despite the importance of identifying co-occurring psychiatric disorders in substance abuse treatment programs, there are few appropriate and validated instruments available to substance abuse treatment staff to conduct brief screen for these conditions. This paper describes the development, implementation and validation of a brief screening instrument for mental health diagnoses and trauma among a diverse sample of Black, Hispanic and White women in substance abuse treatment. With input from clinicians and consumers, we adapted longer existing validated instruments into a 14 question screen covering demographics, mental health symptoms and physical and sexual violence exposure. All women entering treatment (methadone, residential and out-patient) at five treatment sites were screened at intake (N = 374). Eighty nine percent reported a history of interpersonal violence, and 70% reported a history of sexual assault. Eighty-eight percent reported mental health symptoms in the last 30 days. The screening questions administered to 88 female clients were validated against in-depth psychiatric diagnostic assessments by trained mental health clinicians. We estimated measures of predictive validity, including sensitivity, specificity and predictive values positive and negative. Screening items were examined multiple ways to assess utility. The screen is a useful and valid proxy for PTSD but not for other mental illness. Substance abuse treatment programs should incorporate violence exposure questions into clinical use as a matter of policy. More work is needed to develop brief screening tools measures for front-line treatment staff to accurately assess other mental health needs of women entering substance abuse treatment.

  11. Characteristics of Transgender Individuals Entering Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Nicholas C.; Sorensen, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the needs or characteristics of transgender individuals in substance abuse treatment settings. Transgender (n=199) and non-transgender (cisgender, n=13440) individuals were compared on psychosocial factors related to treatment, health risk behaviors, medical and mental health status and utilization, and substance use behaviors within a database that documented individuals entering substance abuse treatment in San Francisco, CA from 2007–2009 using logistic and linear regression analyses (run separately by identified gender). Transgender men (assigned birth sex of female) differed from cisgender men across many psychosocial factors, including having more recent employment, less legal system involvement, greater incidence of living with a substance abuser, and greater family conflict, while transgender women (assigned birth sex of male) were less likely to have minor children than cisgender women. Transgender women reported greater needle use and HIV testing rates were greater among transgender women. Transgender men and women reported higher rates of physical health problems, mental health diagnoses, and psychiatric medications but there were no differences in service utilization. There were no differences in substance use behaviors except that transgender women were more likely to endorse primary methamphetamine use. Transgender individuals evidence unique strengths and challenges that could inform targeted services in substance abuse treatment. PMID:24561017

  12. Naltrexone-sensitive analgesia following exposure of mice to 2450-MHz radiofrequency radiation (RFR)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Maillefer, R.H.; Quock, R.M.

    1991-03-11

    This study was conducted to determine whether exposure to RFR might induce sufficient thermal stress to activate endogenous opioid mechanisms and induce analgesia. Male Swiss Webster mice, 20-25 g, were exposed to 10, 15 or 20 mV/cm{sup 2} RFR in a 2,450-MHz waveguide system for 10 min, then tested in the abdominal constriction paradigm. Specific absorption rates (SAR) were 23.7 W/kg at 10 mW/cm{sup 2}, 34.6 W/kg at 15 mW/cm{sup 2} and 45.5 W/kg at 20 mW/cm{sup 2}. Confinement in the exposure chamber alone did not appreciably alter body temperature but did appear to induce a stress-associated analgesia that wasmore » insensitive to the opioid receptor blocker naltrexone. Exposure of confined mice to RFR elevated body temperature and further increased analgesia in SAR-dependent manner. The high-SAR RFR-induced analgesia, but not the hyperthermia, was reduced by naltrexone. These findings suggest that (1) RFR produces SAR-dependent hyperthermia and analgesia and (2) RFR-induced analgesia is mediated by opioid mechanisms while confinement-induced analgesia involves non-opioid mechanisms.« less

  13. Prevalence and health correlates of prostitution among patients entering treatment for substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Burnette, Mandi L; Lucas, Emma; Ilgen, Mark; Frayne, Susan M; Mayo, Julia; Weitlauf, Julie C

    2008-03-01

    Studies of prostitution have focused largely on individuals involved in the commercial sex trade, with an emphasis on understanding the public health effect of this behavior. However, a broader understanding of how prostitution affects mental and physical health is needed. In particular, the study of prostitution among individuals in substance use treatment would improve efforts to provide comprehensive treatment. To document the prevalence of prostitution among women and men entering substance use treatment, and to test the association between prostitution, physical and mental health, and health care utilization while adjusting for reported history of childhood sexual abuse, a known correlate of prostitution and poor health outcomes. Cross-sectional, secondary data analysis of 1606 women and 3001 men entering substance use treatment in the United States who completed a semistructured intake interview as part of a larger study. Self-reported physical health (respiratory, circulatory, neurological, and internal organ conditions, bloodborne infections) and mental health (depression, anxiety, psychotic symptoms, and suicidal behavior), and use of emergency department, clinic, hospital, or inpatient mental health services within the past year. Many participants reported prostitution in their lifetime (50.8% of women and 18.5% of men) and in the past year (41.4% of women and 11.2% of men). Prostitution was associated with increased risk for bloodborne viral infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and mental health symptoms. Prostitution was associated with use of emergency care in women and use of inpatient mental health services for men. Prostitution was common among a sample of individuals entering substance use treatment in the United States and was associated with higher risk of physical and mental health problems. Increased efforts toward understanding prostitution among patients in substance use treatment are warranted. Screening for prostitution in substance

  14. Investigation of structure, vibrational and NMR spectra of oxycodone and naltrexone: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakol, Hossein; Esfandyari, Maryam; Taheri, Salman; Heydari, Akbar

    2011-08-01

    In this work, two important opioid antagonists, naltrexone and oxycodone, were prepared from thebaine and were characterized by IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, computational NMR and IR parameters were obtained using density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. Complete NMR and vibrational assignment were carried out using the observed and calculated spectra. The IR frequencies and NMR chemical shifts, determined experimentally, were compared with those obtained theoretically from DFT calculations, showed good agreements. The RMS errors observed between experimental and calculated data for the IR absorptions are 85 and 105 cm -1, for the 1H NMR peaks are 0.87 and 0.17 ppm and for those of 13C NMR are 5.6 and 5.3 ppm, respectively for naltrexone and oxycodone.

  15. Oxycodone plus ultra-low-dose naltrexone attenuates neuropathic pain and associated mu-opioid receptor-Gs coupling.

    PubMed

    Largent-Milnes, Tally M; Guo, Wenhong; Wang, Hoau-Yan; Burns, Lindsay H; Vanderah, Todd W

    2008-08-01

    Both peripheral nerve injury and chronic opioid treatment can result in hyperalgesia associated with enhanced excitatory neurotransmission at the level of the spinal cord. Chronic opioid administration leads to a shift in mu-opioid receptor (MOR)-G protein coupling from G(i/o) to G(s) that can be prevented by cotreatment with an ultra-low-dose opioid antagonist. In this study, using lumbar spinal cord tissue from rats with L(5)/L(6) spinal nerve ligation (SNL), we demonstrated that SNL injury induces MOR linkage to G(s) in the damaged (ipsilateral) spinal dorsal horn. This MOR-G(s) coupling occurred without changing G(i/o) coupling levels and without changing the expression of MOR or Galpha proteins. Repeated administration of oxycodone alone or in combination with ultra-low-dose naltrexone (NTX) was assessed on the SNL-induced MOR-G(s) coupling as well as on neuropathic pain behavior. Repeated spinal oxycodone exacerbated the SNL-induced MOR-G(s) coupling, whereas ultra-low-dose NTX cotreatment slightly but significantly attenuated this G(s) coupling. Either spinal or oral administration of oxycodone plus ultra-low-dose NTX markedly enhanced the reductions in allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia produced by oxycodone alone and minimized tolerance to these effects. The MOR-G(s) coupling observed in response to SNL may in part contribute to the excitatory neurotransmission in spinal dorsal horn in neuropathic pain states. The antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic effects of oxycodone plus ultra-low-dose NTX (Oxytrex, Pain Therapeutics, Inc., San Mateo, CA) suggest a promising new treatment for neuropathic pain. The current study investigates whether Oxytrex (oxycodone with an ultra-low dose of naltrexone) alleviates mechanical and thermal hypersensitivities in an animal model of neuropathic pain over a period of 7 days, given locally or systemically. In this report, we first describe an injury-induced shift in mu-opioid receptor coupling from G(i/o) to G(s), suggesting

  16. A blinded randomised controlled trial to determine the effect of enteric coating on enzyme treatment for canine exocrine pancreatic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Mas, Aran; Noble, Peter-John M; Cripps, Peter J; Batchelor, Daniel J; Graham, Peter; German, Alexander J

    2012-07-28

    Enzyme treatment is the mainstay for management of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) in dogs. 'Enteric-coated' preparations have been developed to protect the enzyme from degradation in the stomach, but their efficacy has not been critically evaluated. The hypothesis of the current study was that enteric coating would have no effect on the efficacy of pancreatic enzyme treatment for dogs with EPI.Thirty-eight client-owned dogs with naturally occurring EPI were included in this multicentre, blinded, randomised controlled trial. Dogs received either an enteric-coated enzyme preparation (test treatment) or an identical preparation without the enteric coating (control treatment) over a period of 56 days. There were no significant differences in either signalment or cobalamin status (where cobalamin deficient or not) between the dogs on the test and control treatments. Body weight and body condition score increased in both groups during the trial (P<0.001) but the magnitude of increase was greater for the test treatment compared with the control treatment (P<0.001). By day 56, mean body weight increase was 17% (95% confidence interval 11-23%) in the test treatment group and 9% (95% confidence interval 4-15%) in the control treatment group. The dose of enzyme required increased over time (P<0.001) but there was no significant difference between treatments at any time point (P=0.225). Clinical disease severity score decreased over time for both groups (P=0.011) and no difference was noted between groups (P=0.869). No significant adverse effects were reported, for either treatment, for the duration of the trial. Enteric coating a pancreatic enzyme treatment improves response in canine EPI.

  17. UPDATE ON NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL TREATMENTS FOR ALCOHOLISM: SCIENTIFIC BASIS AND CLINICAL FINDINGS

    PubMed Central

    JOHNSON, BANKOLE A.

    2008-01-01

    The past decade has seen an expansion of research and knowledge on pharmacotherapy for the treatment of alcohol dependence. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved medications naltrexone and acamprosate have shown mixed results in clinical trials. Oral naltrexone and naltrexone depot formulations have generally demonstrated efficacy at treating alcohol dependence, but their treatment effect size is small, and more research is needed to compare the effects of different doses on drinking outcome. Acamprosate has demonstrated efficacy for treating alcohol dependence in European trials, but with a small effect size. In U.S. trials, acamprosate has not proved to be efficacious. Research continues to explore which types of alcohol-dependent individual would benefit the most from treatment with naltrexone or acamprosate. The combination of the two medications demonstrated efficacy for treating alcohol dependence in one European study but not in a multi-site U.S. study. Another FDA-approved medication, disulfiram, is an aversive agent that does not diminish craving for alcohol. Disulfiram is most effective when given to those who are highly compliant or who are receiving their medication under supervision. Of the non-approved medications, topiramate is among the most promising, with a medium effect size in clinical trials. Another promising medication, baclofen, has shown efficacy in small trials. Serotonergic agents such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and the serotonin-3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron, appear to be efficacious only among certain genetic subtypes of alcoholic. As neuroscientific research progresses, other promising medications, as well as medication combinations, for treating alcohol dependence continue to be explored. PMID:17880925

  18. Intranasal naltrexone and atipamezole for reversal of white-tailed deer immobilized with carfentanil and medetomidine

    PubMed Central

    Shury, Todd K.; Caulkett, Nigel A.; Woodbury, Murray R.

    2010-01-01

    Carfentanil and medetomidine were used to immobilize 8 captive female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) using mean dosages [± standard deviation (s)] of 14.2 ± 1.11 μg/kg carfentanil and 17.8 ± 2.03 μg/kg of medetomidine. Deer were reversed by intranasally or intramuscularly administered naltrexone and atipamezole. Dosages of carfentanil and medetomidine proved reliable for immobilization of most, but not all deer, with a mean induction time of 13.3 ± 3.13 min. Effective and reliable immobilization will require higher dosages of carfentanil and possibly medetomidine than were used in this study. No significant differences in recovery times were observed for deer given reversal agents intranasally (9.45 ± 5.37 min) versus intramuscularly (7.60 ± 4.42 min). Naltrexone and atipamezole can be administered intranasally at 1.5 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg, respectively to safely and quickly reverse the effects of carfentanil and medetomidine in immobilized white-tailed deer. This route could potentially be useful for other reversal agents. PMID:20676292

  19. A Randomized, Phase 3 Trial of Naltrexone SR/Bupropion SR on Weight and Obesity-related Risk Factors (COR-II)

    PubMed Central

    Apovian, Caroline M; Aronne, Louis; Rubino, Domenica; Still, Christopher; Wyatt, Holly; Burns, Colleen; Kim, Dennis; Dunayevich, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of naltrexone/bupropion (NB) combination therapy on weight and weight-related risk factors in overweight and obese participants. Design and Methods CONTRAVE Obesity Research-II (COR-II) was a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 1,496 obese (BMI 30-45 kg/m2) or overweight (27-45 kg/m2 with dyslipidemia and/or hypertension) participants randomized 2:1 to combined naltrexone sustained-release (SR) (32 mg/day) plus bupropion SR (360 mg/day) (NB32) or placebo for up to 56 weeks. The co-primary endpoints were percent weight change and proportion achieving ≥5% weight loss at week 28. Results Significantly (P < 0.001) greater weight loss was observed with NB32 versus placebo at week 28 (−6.5% vs. −1.9%) and week 56 (−6.4% vs. −1.2%). More NB32-treated participants (P < 0.001) experienced ≥5% weight loss versus placebo at week 28 (55.6% vs. 17.5%) and week 56 (50.5% vs. 17.1%). NB32 produced greater improvements in various cardiometabolic risk markers, participant-reported weight-related quality of life, and control of eating. The most common adverse event with NB was nausea, which was generally mild to moderate and transient. NB was not associated with increased events of depression or suicidality versus placebo. Conclusion NB represents a novel pharmacological approach to the treatment of obesity, and may become a valuable new therapeutic option. PMID:23408728

  20. A randomized, phase 3 trial of naltrexone SR/bupropion SR on weight and obesity-related risk factors (COR-II).

    PubMed

    Apovian, Caroline M; Aronne, Louis; Rubino, Domenica; Still, Christopher; Wyatt, Holly; Burns, Colleen; Kim, Dennis; Dunayevich, Eduardo

    2013-05-01

    To examine the effects of naltrexone/bupropion (NB) combination therapy on weight and weight-related risk factors in overweight and obese participants. CONTRAVE Obesity Research-II (COR-II) was a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 1,496 obese (BMI 30-45 kg/m(2) ) or overweight (27-45 kg/m(2) with dyslipidemia and/or hypertension) participants randomized 2:1 to combined naltrexone sustained-release (SR) (32 mg/day) plus bupropion SR (360 mg/day) (NB32) or placebo for up to 56 weeks. The co-primary endpoints were percent weight change and proportion achieving ≥ 5% weight loss at week 28. Significantly (P < 0.001) greater weight loss was observed with NB32 versus placebo at week 28 (-6.5% vs. -1.9%) and week 56 (-6.4% vs. -1.2%). More NB32-treated participants (P < 0.001) experienced ≥ 5% weight loss versus placebo at week 28 (55.6% vs. 17.5%) and week 56 (50.5% vs. 17.1%). NB32 produced greater improvements in various cardiometabolic risk markers, participant-reported weight-related quality of life, and control of eating. The most common adverse event with NB was nausea, which was generally mild to moderate and transient. NB was not associated with increased events of depression or suicidality versus placebo. NB represents a novel pharmacological approach to the treatment of obesity, and may become a valuable new therapeutic option. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  1. Preoperative enteral access is not necessary prior to multimodality treatment of esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Thomas K; Lopez, Alexandra N; Sarosi, George A; Ben-David, Kfir; Thomas, Ryan M

    2018-04-01

    Surgical enteral access prior to multimodality treatment for esophageal cancer is controversial as dysphagia is often used for feeding tube referral. We hypothesized that enteral access before neoadjuvant chemoradiation for esophageal cancer provides no benefit compared to that placed during definitive esophagectomy. Patients undergoing esophagectomy for esophageal malignancy from 2007 - 2014 were retrospectively identified. Clinicopathologic factors were recorded including preoperative enteral access, weight change, nutritional laboratory works, and perioperative complications. Of 156 identified patients, 99 (63.5%) received neoadjuvant chemoradiation and comprised the study cohort. Fifty (50.5%) underwent enteral access (gastrostomy [14], jejunostomy [32], other [4]; "Access Group") prior to chemoradiation followed by esophagectomy and were compared to 49 "No-Access" patients who underwent enteral access during esophagectomy. Clinicopathologic variables were similar between cohorts. The Access and No-Access cohorts had similar reported dysphagia (86% vs 75.5%, respectively; P = .2) and mean preesophagectomy serum albumin (3.9 vs 4 gm/dL, respectively; P = .2). Weight loss ± 6-month periesophagectomy was similar between access versus No-Access cohorts (-11.2% vs -15.4%, respectively; P = .1). Weight loss during this period was likewise similar for patients with dysphagia in the Access (-11%) versus No-Access group (-15.2%, P = .1). No difference in complication rates was noted between Access (64%) and No-Access groups (51%, P = .2). Despite healthcare provider bias, there seems to be no nutritional or perioperative benefit for enteral access before neoadjuvant chemoradiation for esophageal malignancy. Patients with esophageal malignancy should therefore proceed to appropriate neoadjuvant and surgical therapy with enteral access performed during definitive resection or reserved for those with frank obstruction on endoscopy. Published by

  2. Effects of the Opioid Receptor Antagonist Naltrexone on Smoking and Related Behaviors in Smokers Preparing to Quit: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    King, Andrea; Cao, Dingcai; Zhang, Lingjiao; Rueger, Sandra Yu

    2013-01-01

    Aims To determine if naltrexone affects smoking behaviours in smokers preparing to quit, and whether such pre-quit responses predict post-quit date outcomes. Design Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. Current study focused on smoking-related outcomes in the pre-quit phase, which was one week prior to the quit date, and these findings were linked with reductions in same outcomes demonstrated in the post-quit phase previously published for this RCT in mediation analyses. Setting Community sample of adult smokers desiring to quit in Chicago, Illinois USA. Participants Participants were 315 smokers randomized to naltrexone (n=161; mean age=42.6 years; 60% white) or placebo (n=154; mean age=41.3 years; 55% white). Measurements Difference from baseline in the number of cigarettes smoked during pre-quit phase interval was the primary outcome. Secondary pre-quit outcomes were assessed using Likert scales of subjective responses and consumption of cigarettes, alcohol, and food. Number of cigarettes smoked, alcoholic drinks consumed, and the Brief Questionnaire of Smoking Urges were assessed in the post-quit phase. Findings Relative to placebo, naltrexone decreased the number of cigarettes smoked (−4.21 vs. −2.93, p<.05), smoking urge (p=.02), and number of alcoholic drinks consumed (p=.04). Exploratory mediation analyses linking outcomes of the pre quit and post quit phases found that naltrexone’s effects on reducing smoking urge, cigarettes smoked and alcoholic drinks consumed in the pre-quit phase demonstrated full mediation of their respective effects during the post-quit phase. Conclusions Naltrexone taken in the week before a quit attempt appears to reduce cigarette consumption, urges to smoke and alcohol consumption relative to placebo. The size of the effect statistically mediates the size of similar effects after the quit date. PMID:23714324

  3. Chronic illness histories of adults entering treatment for co-occurring substance abuse and other mental health disorders.

    PubMed

    Chesher, Nicholas J; Bousman, Chad A; Gale, Maiken; Norman, Sonya B; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Heaton, Robert K; Everall, Ian P; Judd, Patricia A

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the medical status of individuals entering treatment for co-occurring substance abuse and other mental disorders (COD). We analyzed the medical histories of 169 adults entering outpatient treatment for CODs, estimating lifetime prevalence of chronic illness and current smoking, comparing these rates to the general population, and examining psychiatric and substance-related correlates of chronic illness. Results revealed significantly higher prevalence of hypertension, asthma, arthritis, and smoking compared to the general US population, and showed an association between chronic illness and psychiatric symptom distress and substance use severity. Findings support integration of chronic illness management into COD treatment.  Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  4. Pharmacogenetically driven treatments for alcoholism: are we there yet?

    PubMed

    Arias, Albert J; Sewell, R Andrew

    2012-06-01

    Pharmacogenetic analyses of treatments for alcohol dependence attempt to predict treatment response and side-effect risk for specific medications. We review the literature on pharmacogenetics relevant to alcohol dependence treatment, and describe state-of-the-art methods of pharmacogenetic research in this area. Two main pharmacogenetic study designs predominate: challenge studies and treatment-trial analyses. Medications studied include US FDA-approved naltrexone and acamprosate, both indicated for treating alcohol dependence, as well as several investigational (and off-label) treatments such as sertraline, olanzapine and ondansetron. The best-studied functional genetic variant relevant to alcoholism treatment is rs1799971, a single-nucleotide polymorphism in exon 1 of the OPRM1 gene that encodes the μ-opioid receptor. Evidence from clinical trials suggests that the presence of the variant G allele of rs1799971 may predict better treatment response to opioid receptor antagonists such as naltrexone. Evidence from clinical trials also suggests that several medications interact pharmacogenetically with variation in genes that encode proteins involved in dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission. Variation in the DRD4 gene, which encodes the dopamine D(4) receptor, may predict better response to naltrexone and olanzapine. A polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 promoter region appears related to differential treatment response to sertraline depending on the subject's age of onset of alcoholism. Genetic variation in SLC6A4 may also be associated with better treatment response to ondansetron. Initial pharmacogenetic efforts in alcohol research have identified functional variants with potential clinical utility, but more research is needed to further elucidate the mechanism of these pharmacogenetic interactions and their moderators in order to translate them into clinical practice.

  5. Four-year follow-up study of pharmacological treatment in pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Oded; Dinur, Limor Klein; Dannon, Pinhas N

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade, we have witnessed the emergence of pharmacological treatments for pathological gambling with some success but many question marks. We aimed to explore pharmacological treatments that have been previously explored with some success, with the intent of comparing their efficacy and pave the way to larger placebo-controlled trials. In this study, we allocated 78 patients to 4 different types of psychotropic medications: naltrexone, topiramate, bupropion, and escitalopram. We treated patients for more than 2 years, with additional 2-year follow-ups without medication. The sample was evaluated using the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, the Global Assessment of Functioning, and the Visual Analog Scale to measure general well-being before enrollment as well as at 1 month, 6 months, 24 months, and 48 months after beginning medication treatment. During the first 2 years of treatment, 34 patients dropped out, with one more dropping out during the additional 2 years of follow-up. Significant improvement on all rating scales was seen in all groups after 2 years, except HAMD in the group that received topiramate. We found the naltrexone-treated group of patients to have a statistically significant lower dropout rate compared with other groups, statistically significant lower HAMD scores in comparison to the group treated with bupropion, statistically significant lower Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale score compared to the groups treated with escitalopram and topiramate, and significantly higher Visual Analog Scale scores compared to the groups treated with bupropion and topiramate. Pathological gambling is essentially a biopsychological disorder that may be attenuated provided that patients adhere to medication. In our study, among 4 medications with different mechanisms of action, naltrexone was found to be the most effective. Placebo-controlled studies involving large numbers of subjects are required before

  6. Ligand-induced μ opioid receptor internalization in enteric neurons following chronic treatment with the opiate fentanyl.

    PubMed

    Anselmi, Laura; Jaramillo, Ingrid; Palacios, Michelle; Huynh, Jennifer; Sternini, Catia

    2013-06-01

    Morphine differs from most opiates its poor ability to internalize μ opioid receptors (μORs). However, chronic treatment with morphine produces adaptational changes at the dynamin level, which enhance the efficiency of acute morphine stimulation to promote μOR internalization in enteric neurons. This study tested the effect of chronic treatment with fentanyl, a μOR-internalizing agonist, on ligand-induced endocytosis and the expression of the intracellular trafficking proteins, dynamin and β-arrestin, in enteric neurons using organotypic cultures of the guinea pig ileum. In enteric neurons from guinea pigs chronically treated with fentanyl, μOR immunoreactivity was predominantly at the cell surface after acute exposure to morphine with a low level of μOR translocation, slightly higher than in neurons from naïve animals. This internalization was not due to morphine's direct effect, because it was also observed in neurons exposed to medium alone. By contrast, D-Ala2-N-Me-Phe4-Gly-ol5-enkephalin (DAMGO), a potent μOR-internalizing agonist, induced pronounced and rapid μOR endocytosis in enteric neurons from animals chronically treated with fentanyl or from naïve animals. Chronic fentanyl treatment did not alter dynamin or β-arrestin expression. These findings indicate that prolonged activation of μORs with an internalizing agonist such as fentanyl does not enhance the ability of acute morphine to trigger μOR endocytosis or induce changes in intracellular trafficking proteins, as observed with prolonged activation of μORs with a poorly internalizing agonist such as morphine. Cellular adaptations induced by chronic opiate treatment might be ligand dependent and vary with the agonist efficiency to induce receptor internalization. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The Survey of Treatment Entry Pressures (STEP): identifying client's reasons for entering substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Dugosh, Karen Leggett; Festinger, David S; Lynch, Kevin G; Marlowe, Douglas B

    2014-10-01

    Systematically identifying reasons that clients enter substance abuse treatment may allow clinicians to immediately focus on issues of greatest relevance to the individual and enhance treatment engagement. We developed the Survey of Treatment Entry Pressures (STEP) to identify the specific factors that precipitated an individual's treatment entry. The instrument contains 121 items from 6 psychosocial domains (i.e., family, financial, social, medical, psychiatric, legal). The current study examined the STEP's psychometric properties. A total of 761 participants from various treatment settings and modalities completed the STEP prior to treatment admission and 4-7 days later. Analyses were performed to examine the instrument's psychometric properties including item response rates, test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and factor structure. The items displayed adequate test-retest reliability and internal consistency within each psychosocial domain. Generally, results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses support a 2-factor structure reflecting type of reinforcement schedule. The study provides preliminary support for the psychometric properties of the STEP. The STEP may provide a reliable way for clinicians to characterize and capitalize on a client's treatment motivation early on which may serve to improve treatment retention and therapeutic outcomes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [Six-month follow-up study of drug treatment for cannabis addiction: comparison study of four drugs].

    PubMed

    Shoenfeld, Netta; Bodnik, Dana; Rosenberg, Oded; Kotler, Moshe; Dannon, Pinhas

    2011-12-01

    Marijuana addiction is one of the most common forms of addiction worldwide. A variety of reasons for use exist, however, there are only a few tested treatments with frequent relapses. In this study, we examined the efficacy of four pharmacotherapy agents for the treatment of marijuana addiction: naltrexone, bupropion, escitalopram and bromazepam. A total of 59 patients were randomly assigned into four groups. Each group received one of the pharmacological agents for 120 days. Four types of questionnaires were employed: The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression--21 items, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety, the Global Assessment of Functioning and a Visual Analogue Scale for perceived need of the drug. In addition, random urine tests were performed to detect tetrahydrocannabinol [THC). Naltrexone proved to be the most efficacious of the four agents, with only four dropouts. Other agents proved less efficacious with six, seven and eights dropouts for bupropion, bromazepam and escitalopram, respectively. In addition, naltrexone was most efficacious in reducing anxiety and depression rates, and increasing functioning and perceived need for drug use. Out of four pharmacological agents, naltrexone proved to be most efficacious in treating marijuana addiction and related disorders. Further studies are needed to confirm our results.

  9. Investigating the safety and efficacy of naltrexone for anti-psychotic induced weight gain in severe mental illness: study protocol of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tek, Cenk; Guloksuz, Sinan; Srihari, Vinod H; Reutenauer, Erin L

    2013-06-27

    Obesity is a growing health problem leading to high rates of mortality and morbidity in patients with severe mental illness (SMI). The increased rate of obesity is largely attributed to antipsychotic use. The effect of antipsychotic medications on H1 and 5HT2 receptors has been associated with weight gain, but there is also a substantial amount of evidence showing that D2 receptor blockade may be responsible for weight gain by interacting with the dopamine-opioid system. Unfortunately, current available medications for weight loss have limited efficacy in this population. Naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist, may be a promising agent to reduce antipsychotic induced weight gain by decreasing food cravings. We aim to investigate the safety and efficacy of two doses of naltrexone (25 mg & 50 mg) versus placebo for weight and health risk reduction in overweight and obese individuals (BMI ≥ 28) with SMI, who gained weight while being treated with antipsychotics. One hundred and forty four patients will be recruited throughout the greater New Haven area. The participants will be randomized to naltrexone 25 mg/day, naltrexone 50 mg/day, or placebo in a 1:1:1 ratio. Participants will be on the study medication for 52 weeks, and assessed weekly for the first 4 weeks and bi-weekly thereafter. The primary outcome measurements are weight reduction and percentage achieving clinically significant weight loss (5% of total body weight). Waist circumference, body mass index, serum lipid profile, fasting glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin are the secondary outcome measures. The effect of naltrexone on other outcome measurements such as schizophrenia symptoms, depression, dietary consumption, quality of life, cognitive functioning, physical activity, metabolism/inflammation markers, serum leptin, ghrelin, peptide YY, adinopectin, high sensitivity CRP, interleukin 6, interleukin-1B, interleukin-18, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) will be evaluated. The data will be

  10. Reduced Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines after Eight Weeks of Low-Dose Naltrexone for Fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Parkitny, Luke; Younger, Jarred

    2017-04-18

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a complex, multi-symptom condition that predominantly affects women. The majority of those affected are unlikely to gain significant symptomatic control from the few treatments that are approved for FM. In this 10-week, single-blind, crossover trial we tested the immune effects of eight weeks of oral administration of low-dose naltrexone (LDN). We enrolled eight women with an average age of 46 years, symptom severity of 62 out of 100, and symptom duration of 14 years. We found that LDN was associated with reduced plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-17A, IL-27, interferon (IFN)-α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-α, TGF-β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). We also found a 15% reduction of FM-associated pain and an 18% reduction in overall symptoms. The findings of this pilot trial suggest that LDN treatment in fibromyalgia is associated with a reduction of several key pro-inflammatory cytokines and symptoms. The potential role of LDN as an atypical anti-inflammatory medication should be explored further.

  11. Effects of different animal waste treatment technologies on detection and viability of porcine enteric viruses.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Verónica P; Azevedo, Ana C; Li, Xin; Williams, Mike C; Michel, Frederick C; Saif, Linda J

    2007-08-01

    Enteric pathogens in animal waste that is not properly processed can contaminate the environment and food. The persistence of pathogens in animal waste depends upon the waste treatment technology, but little is known about persistence of porcine viruses. Our objectives were to characterize the porcine enteric viruses (porcine noroviruses [PoNoVs], porcine sapoviruses [PoSaVs], rotavirus A [RV-A], RV-B, and RV-C) in fresh feces or manure and to evaluate the effects of different candidate environmentally superior technologies (ESTs) for animal waste treatment on the detection of these viruses. Untreated manure and samples collected at different stages during and after treatment were obtained from swine farms that used conventional waste management (CWM) and five different candidate ESTs. The RNA from porcine enteric viruses was detected by reverse transcription-PCR and/or seminested PCR; PoSaV and RV-A were also detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell culture immunofluorescence (CCIF) and experimental inoculation of gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs were used to determine RV-A/C infectivity in posttreatment samples. The PoSaV and RV-A were detected in pretreatment samples from each farm, whereas PoNoV and RV-C were detected in pretreatment feces from three of five and four of five farms using the candidate ESTs, respectively. After treatment, PoSaV RNA was detected only in the samples from the farm using CWM and not from the farms using the candidate ESTs. RV-A and RV-C RNAs were detected in four of five and three of four candidate ESTs, respectively, after treatment, but infectious particles were not detected by CCIF, nor were clinical signs or seroconversion detected in inoculated Gn pigs. These results indicate that only RV-A/C RNA, but no viral infectivity, was detected after treatment. Our findings address a public health concern regarding environmental quality surrounding swine production units.

  12. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy and safety study of ALO-02 (extended-release oxycodone surrounding sequestered naltrexone) for moderate-to-severe chronic low back pain treatment.

    PubMed

    Rauck, Richard L; Hale, Martin E; Bass, Almasa; Bramson, Candace; Pixton, Glenn; Wilson, Jacquelyn G; Setnik, Beatrice; Meisner, Paul; Sommerville, Kenneth W; Malhotra, Bimal K; Wolfram, Gernot

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized withdrawal study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ALO-02, an abuse-deterrent formulation containing pellets of extended-release oxycodone hydrochloride (HCl) surrounding sequestered naltrexone HCl, compared with placebo in the treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic low back pain. An open-label titration period in which all patients received ALO-02 was followed by a double-blind treatment period where patients meeting treatment response criteria were randomized to either a fixed dose of ALO-02 or placebo. Daily average low back pain was assessed using an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS)-Pain. Of the 663 patients screened, 410 received ALO-02 during the open-label conversion and titration period and 281 patients were randomized to the double-blind treatment period (n = 134, placebo; n = 147, ALO-02). Change in the mean NRS-Pain score from randomization baseline to the final 2 weeks of the treatment period was significantly different favoring ALO-02 compared with placebo (P = 0.0114). Forty-four percent of patients treated with placebo and 57.5% of patients treated with ALO-02 reported ≥30% improvement in weekly average NRS-Pain scores from screening to the final 2 weeks of the treatment period (P = 0.0248). In the double-blind treatment period, 56.8% of patients in the ALO-02 group and 56.0% of patients in the placebo group experienced a treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE). The most common treatment-related TEAEs for ALO-02 during the treatment period were nausea, vomiting, and constipation, consistent with opioid therapy. ALO-02 has been demonstrated to provide significant reduction of pain in patients with chronic low back pain and has a safety profile similar to other opioids.

  13. Efficacy of enteral nutrition for the treatment of pancreatitis using standard enteral formula.

    PubMed

    Makola, Diklar; Krenitsky, Joe; Parrish, Carol; Dunston, Emily; Shaffer, Hubert A; Yeaton, Paul; Kahaleh, Michel

    2006-10-01

    Elemental formula delivered distal to the ligament of Treitz has demonstrated efficacy in patients with pancreatitis, presumably by decreasing pancreatic stimulation. Few data exist on the use of standard enteral formula in such patients. This study describes the outcomes of pancreatitis patients managed with long-term standard enteral nutrition (EN). One hundred twenty-six patients managed at the University of Virginia Health System with pancreatitis requiring nutritional support between August 2000 and June 2004 received a standard formula delivered distal to the ligament of Treitz and were followed prospectively to resolution of their disease process. Predictors of improvement in CT Severity Index, duration of EN, and length of hospital stay were identified. Changes in body weight and serum albumin were determined. Mean age was 50.8 +/- 15.2 yr (male, 83). Etiology included alcohol (46), gallstones (49), idiopathic (15), post-ERCP (7), drug (5), hyperlipidemia (3), and pancreas divisum (1). EN lasted a median of 18.9 (2.4 to 111.7) wk. Median CT Severity Index decreased from 4 to 2 (p < 0.001). Underweight patients gained 9.8 lbs; overweight and obese patients lost 7.2 and 28.8 lbs, respectively. Albumin concentration increased from 3 to 3.8 g/dL (p < 0.001). Standard enteral formula is effective in the management of patients with complicated pancreatitis.

  14. New treatment for IgA nephropathy: enteric budesonide targeted to the ileocecal region ameliorates proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Smerud, Hilde Kloster; Bárány, Peter; Lindström, Karin; Fernström, Anders; Sandell, Anna; Påhlsson, Peter; Fellström, Bengt

    2011-10-01

    Systemic corticosteroid treatment has been shown to exert some protection against renal deterioration in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) but is not commonly recommended for long-term use due to the well-known systemic side effects. In this study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of a new enteric formulation of the locally acting glucocorticoid budesonide (Nefecon®), designed to release the active compound in the ileocecal region. The primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy of targeted release budesonide on albuminuria. Budesonide 8 mg/day was given to 16 patients with IgAN for 6 months, followed by a 3-month follow-up period. The efficacy was measured as change in 24-h urine albumin excretion, serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The median relative reduction in urinary albumin excretion was 23% during the treatment period (interquartile range: -0.36 to -0.04, P = 0.04) with pretreatment values ranging from 0.3 to 6 g/24 h (median: 1.5 g/24 h). The median reduction in urine albumin peaked at 40% (interquartile range: -0.58 to -0.15) 2 months after treatment discontinuation. Serum creatinine was reduced by 6% (interquartile range: -0.12 to -0.02; P = 0.003), and eGFR [Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD)] increased ∼8% (interquartile range: 0.02-0.16, P = 0.003) during treatment. No major corticosteroid-related side effects were observed. In the present pilot study, enteric budesonide targeted to the ileocecal region had a significant effect on urine albumin excretion, accompanied by a minor reduction of serum creatinine and a modest increase of eGFR calculated by the MDRD equation, while eGFR calculated from Cockcroft-Gault equation and cystatin C was not changed. Enteric budesonide may represent a new treatment of IgAN warranting further investigation.

  15. Oxytocin and Naltrexone Successfully Treat Hypothalamic Obesity in a Boy Post-Craniopharyngioma Resection.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Eugenie A; Miller, Jennifer L; Perez, Francisco A; Roth, Christian L

    2018-02-01

    Hypothalamic obesity, a treatment-resistant condition common to survivors of craniopharyngioma (CP), is strongly associated with a poor quality of life in this population. Oxytocin (OT), a hypothalamic neuropeptide, has been shown to play a role in the regulation of energy balance and to have anorexigenic effects in animal studies. Naltrexone (NAL), an opiate antagonist, has been shown to deter hedonic eating and to potentiate OT's effects. In this parent-observed study, we tested the administration of intranasal OT for 10 weeks (phase 1), followed by a combination of intranasal OT and NAL for 38 weeks (phase 2) in a 13-year-old male with confirmed hypothalamic obesity and hyperphagia post-CP resection. Treatment resulted in 1) reduction in body mass index (BMI) z score from 1.77 to 1.49 over 10 weeks during phase 1; 2) reduction in BMI z score from 1.49 to 0.82 over 38 weeks during phase 2; 3) reduced hyperphagia during phases 1 and 2; 4) continued hedonic high-carbohydrate food-seeking in the absence of hunger during phases 1 and 2; and 5) sustained weight reduction during decreased parental monitoring and free access to unlocked food in the home during the last 10 weeks of phase 2. This successful intervention of CP-related hypothalamic obesity and hyperphagia by OT alone and in combination with NAL is promising for conducting future studies of this treatment-recalcitrant form of obesity. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  16. Neural correlates of adherence to extended-release naltrexone pharmacotherapy in heroin dependence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, A-L; Elman, I; Lowen, S B; Blady, S J; Lynch, K G; Hyatt, J M; O'Brien, C P; Langleben, D D

    2015-01-01

    Injectable extended-release naltrexone (XRNTX) presents an effective therapeutic strategy for opioid addiction, however its utility could be hampered by poor adherence. To gain a better insight into this phenomenon, we utilized blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in conjunction with a validated cue-induced craving procedure to examine neural correlates of XRNTX adherence. We operationalized treatment adherence as the number of monthly XRNTX injections (range: 0–3) administered to a group of fully detoxified heroin-dependent subjects (n=32). Additional outcomes included urine toxicology screening and self-reported tobacco use. The presented heroin-related visual cues reliably elicited heroin craving in all tested subjects. Nine, five, three and 15 of the participants, respectively, received zero, one, two and three XRNTX injections, predicted by the individual baseline fMRI signal change in response to the cues in the medial prefrontal cortex, a brain region involved in inhibitory self-control and emotional appraisal. The incidence of opioid-positive urines during the XRNTX therapy was low and remained about half the pre-treatment rate after the XRNTX ended. During the treatment, cigarette smoking behaviors followed patterns of opioid use, while cocaine consumption was increased with reductions in opioid use. The present data support the hypothesis that medial prefrontal cortex functions are involved in adherence to opioid antagonist therapy. A potential role of concurrent non-opioid addictive substances consumption during the XRNTX pharmacotherapy warrants further investigation. Our findings set the stage for further bio-behavioral investigations of the mechanisms of relapse prevention in opioid dependence. PMID:25781230

  17. Trends in Opioid Use Disorder Diagnoses and Medication Treatment Among Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Shiner, Brian; Leonard Westgate, Christine; Bernardy, Nancy C; Schnurr, Paula P; Watts, Bradley V

    2017-01-01

    in use of naltrexone across years. Opioid use disorder is an uncommon but increasing comorbidity among patients with PTSD. Patients entering VA treatment for PTSD have their opioid use disorder treated with opioid agonist treatments in large and increasing numbers. There is a need for research both on the epidemiology of opioid use disorder among patients with PTSD and on screening for opioid use disorder.

  18. Human abuse liability assessment of oxycodone combined with ultra-low-dose naltrexone.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, David Andrew; Lanier, Ryan K; Harrison, Joseph A; Strain, Eric C; Bigelow, George E

    2010-07-01

    Prescription opioid abuse has risen dramatically in the United States as clinicians have increased opioid prescribing for alleviation of both acute and chronic pain. Opioid analgesics with decreased risk for abuse are needed. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that opioids combined with ultra-low-dose naltrexone (NTX) may have increased analgesic potency and have suggested reduced abuse or dependence liability. This study addressed whether addition of ultra-low-dose naltrexone might decrease the abuse liability of oxycodone (OXY) in humans. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study systematically examined the subjective and physiological effects of combining oral OXY and ultra-low NTX doses in 14 experienced opioid abusers. Seven acute drug conditions given at least 5 days apart were compared in a within-subject crossover design: placebo, OXY 20 mg, OXY 40 mg, plus each of the active OXY doses combined with 0.0001 and 0.001 mg NTX. The methods were sensitive to detecting opioid effects on abuse liability indices, with significant differences between all OXY conditions and placebo as well as between 20 and 40 mg OXY doses on positive subjective ratings (e.g., "I feel a good drug effect" or "I like the drug"), on observer- and participant-rated opioid agonist effects, and on a drug-versus-money value rating. There were no significant differences or evident trends associated with the addition of either NTX dose on any abuse liability indices. The addition of ultra-low-dose NTX to OXY did not decrease abuse liability of acutely administered OXY in experienced opioid abusers.

  19. Successful enteral nutrition in the treatment of esophagojejunal fistula after total gastrectomy in gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Portanova, Michel

    2010-08-16

    Esophagojejunal fistula is a serious complication after total gastrectomy in gastric cancer patients. This study describes the successful conservative management in 3 gastric cancer patients with esophagojejunal fistula after total gastrectomy using total enteral nutrition. Between January 2004 to December 2008, 588 consecutive patients with a proven diagnosis of gastric cancer were taken to the operation room to try a curative treatment. Of these, 173 underwent total gastrectomy, 9 of them had esophagojejunal fistula (5.2%). In three selected patients a trans-anastomotic naso-enteral feeding tube was placed under fluoroscopic vision when the fistula was clinically detected and a complete polymeric enteral formula was used. The complete closing of the esophagojejunal fistula was obtained in day 8, 14 and 25 respectively. In some selected cases it is possible to make a successful enteral nutrition using a feeding tube distal to the leak area inserted with the help of fluoroscopic vision. The specialized management of a gastric surgery unit and nutritional therapy unit are highlighted.

  20. Temporary Rumenostomy for the Treatment of Forestomach Diseases and Enteral Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Callan, Robert J; Applegate, Tanya J

    2017-11-01

    Temporary rumenostomy is a useful procedure for the treatment, management, and support of patients with forestomach disease of various types. The rumenostomy provides a mechanism for relief of chronic rumen tympany or distention, removal of rumen contents and lavage of the rumen, removal of some rumen foreign bodies, administration of rumen fluid transfaunation, and administration of enteral nutrition or other medications. When the rumenostomy is no longer necessary, it can be allowed to close by second intention or by surgical resection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Different Animal Waste Treatment Technologies on Detection and Viability of Porcine Enteric Viruses▿

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, Verónica P.; Azevedo, Ana C.; Li, Xin; Williams, Mike C.; Michel, Frederick C.; Saif, Linda J.

    2007-01-01

    Enteric pathogens in animal waste that is not properly processed can contaminate the environment and food. The persistence of pathogens in animal waste depends upon the waste treatment technology, but little is known about persistence of porcine viruses. Our objectives were to characterize the porcine enteric viruses (porcine noroviruses [PoNoVs], porcine sapoviruses [PoSaVs], rotavirus A [RV-A], RV-B, and RV-C) in fresh feces or manure and to evaluate the effects of different candidate environmentally superior technologies (ESTs) for animal waste treatment on the detection of these viruses. Untreated manure and samples collected at different stages during and after treatment were obtained from swine farms that used conventional waste management (CWM) and five different candidate ESTs. The RNA from porcine enteric viruses was detected by reverse transcription-PCR and/or seminested PCR; PoSaV and RV-A were also detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell culture immunofluorescence (CCIF) and experimental inoculation of gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs were used to determine RV-A/C infectivity in posttreatment samples. The PoSaV and RV-A were detected in pretreatment samples from each farm, whereas PoNoV and RV-C were detected in pretreatment feces from three of five and four of five farms using the candidate ESTs, respectively. After treatment, PoSaV RNA was detected only in the samples from the farm using CWM and not from the farms using the candidate ESTs. RV-A and RV-C RNAs were detected in four of five and three of four candidate ESTs, respectively, after treatment, but infectious particles were not detected by CCIF, nor were clinical signs or seroconversion detected in inoculated Gn pigs. These results indicate that only RV-A/C RNA, but no viral infectivity, was detected after treatment. Our findings address a public health concern regarding environmental quality surrounding swine production units. PMID:17601821

  2. Naltrexone-loaded poly[La-(Glc-Leu)] polymeric microspheres for the treatment of alcohol dependence: in vitro characterization and in vivo biocompatibility assessment.

    PubMed

    Pagar, Kunal P; Vavia, Pradeep R

    2014-06-01

    The poly[La-(Glc-Leu)] copolymer was applied in the present investigation as polymeric carrier to fabricate naltrexone (NTX)-loaded poly[La-(Glc-Leu)] microspheres in the single emulsion solvent evaporation technique for the long-term treatment of alcohol dependence. Newly synthesized poly[La-(Glc-Leu)] copolymer exhibited diminished crystallanity, good biocompatibility and favorable biodegradability to be explored for drug delivery application. Scanning Electron Microscopy study revealed smooth and spherical-shaped NTX-loaded polymeric microspheres with a mean size of 10-90 µm. Influence of various decisive formulation variables such as amount of polymer, stabilizer concentration, homogenization speed, homogenization time, drug loading and organic-to-aqueous phase ratio on particle size, and entrapment efficiency was studied. Differential scanning calorimeter and X-ray diffractometry study confirmed the drug entrapment within polymer matrix into the microsphere environment. In vitro drug release showed the sustained drug release of formulation for the period of 28 d giving biphasic release pattern. Histological examination of NTX-loaded poly[La-(Glc-Leu)] microspheres injected intramuscularly into the thigh muscle of Wistar rats showed minimal inflammatory reaction, demonstrating that NTX-loaded microspheres were biocompatible. Insignificant increase in the serum creatine phosphokinase level (p < 0.05) as compared with the normal value revealed good muscle compatibility of the poly[La-(Glc-Leu)] microsphere system. Biocompatible nature and sustained drug-release action of poly[La-(Glc-Leu)] microspheres may have potential application in depot therapy.

  3. Low dose naltrexone for induction of remission in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Segal, Dan; Macdonald, John K; Chande, Nilesh

    2014-02-21

    Crohn's disease is a transmural, relapsing inflammatory condition afflicting the digestive tract. Opioid signalling, long known to affect secretion and motility in the gut, has been implicated in the inflammatory cascade of Crohn's disease. Low dose naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, has garnered interest as a potential therapy. The primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of low dose naltrexone for induction of remission in Crohn's disease. A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and the Cochrane Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Functional Bowel Disorders Review Group Specialized Register was performed from inception to February 2013 to identify relevant studies. Abstracts from major gastroenterology conferences including Digestive Disease Week and United European Gastroenterology Week and reference lists from retrieved articles were also reviewed. Randomized controlled trials of low dose naltrexone (LDN) for treatment of active Crohn's disease were included. Data were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis using Review Manager (RevMan 5.2). The primary outcome was induction of clinical remission defined by a Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) of < 150 or a pediatric Crohn's disease activity index (PCDAI) of < 10. Secondary outcomes included clinical response (70- or 100-point decrease in CDAI from baseline), endoscopic remission or response, quality of life, and adverse events as defined by the included studies. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for dichotomous outcomes. The methodological quality of included studies was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. The overall quality of the evidence supporting the primary outcome and selected secondary outcomes was assessed using the GRADE criteria. Two studies were identified (46 participants). One study assessed the efficacy and safety of 12 weeks of LDN (4.5 mg/day) treatment compared to placebo in adult patients (N = 34). The other study assessed

  4. Low dose naltrexone for induction of remission in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Parker, Claire E; Nguyen, Tran M; Segal, Dan; MacDonald, John K; Chande, Nilesh

    2018-04-01

    Crohn's disease is a transmural, relapsing inflammatory condition afflicting the digestive tract. Opioid signalling, long known to affect secretion and motility in the gut, has been implicated in the inflammatory cascade of Crohn's disease. Low dose naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, has garnered interest as a potential therapy. The primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of low dose naltrexone for induction of remission in Crohn's disease. A systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, CENTRAL, and the Cochrane IBD Group Specialized Register was performed from inception to 15 January 2018 to identify relevant studies. Abstracts from major gastroenterology conferences including Digestive Disease Week and United European Gastroenterology Week and reference lists from retrieved articles were also screened. Randomized controlled trials of low dose naltrexone (LDN) for treatment of active Crohn's disease were included. Data were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis using Review Manager (RevMan 5.3.5). The primary outcome was induction of clinical remission defined by a Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) of < 150 or a pediatric Crohn's disease activity index (PCDAI) of < 10. Secondary outcomes included clinical response (70- or 100-point decrease in CDAI from baseline), endoscopic remission or response, quality of life, and adverse events as defined by the included studies. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for dichotomous outcomes. The methodological quality of included studies was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. The overall quality of the evidence supporting the primary outcome and selected secondary outcomes was assessed using the GRADE criteria. Two studies were identified (46 participants). One study assessed the efficacy and safety of 12 weeks of LDN (4.5 mg/day) treatment compared to placebo in adult patients (N = 34). The other study assessed eight weeks of LDN (0.1 mg/kg, maximum 4.5 mg

  5. Open-label pilot study of extended-release naltrexone to reduce drinking and driving among repeat offenders.

    PubMed

    Lapham, Sandra C; McMillan, Garnett P

    2011-09-01

    A high proportion of persons convicted of driving while impaired repeat the offense. Many continue drinking and driving, even when faced with long jail terms. Hence, they pose a serious public health threat. This preliminary study evaluated extended-release, injectable naltrexone suspension (XR-NTX) and supportive therapy in reducing (1) drinking and (2) attempts to drive after drinking among repeat driving while impaired offenders with an ignition interlock device installed in their vehicles. Treatment-seeking volunteers received medical management therapy and 3 monthly injections of XR-NTX. We compared data on alcohol consumption, alcohol biomarkers, and interlock information before, during, and after treatment using summary measures and Sign tests. Of 12 consented subjects, 10 received at least 1 injection, and 7 received all 3 injections. All subjects receiving medication reported a decrease in average drinks per day (P < 0.01) and abstinent days (P = 0.02) while on treatment versus pretreatment levels. Average daily drinks decreased by 77%, from 3.0 to 0.69 (P < 0.01), during treatment with XR-NTX. Average drinks per drinking day also declined by 39% during treatment, from 6.6 to 4.0 (P = 0.04). Percent days abstinent increased by 31%, from 56.8 to 81.96 (P = 0.02), which persisted after treatment completion. Biomarkers were consistent with reduced drinking. The percentage of vehicular failures to start due to elevated breath alcohol decreased from 3.1% of tests to 1.29% of tests. A randomized, controlled clinical trial is needed to demonstrate the efficacy of this promising treatment regimen for repeat offenders.

  6. Enteritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... enteritis E coli enteritis Food poisoning Radiation enteritis Salmonella enteritis Shigella enteritis Staph aureus food poisoning Symptoms ... store food that needs to stay chilled. Images Salmonella typhi organism Yersinia enterocolitica organism Campylobacter jejuni organism ...

  7. Do enteric neurons make hypocretin?

    PubMed

    Baumann, Christian R; Clark, Erika L; Pedersen, Nigel P; Hecht, Jonathan L; Scammell, Thomas E

    2008-04-10

    Hypocretins (orexins) are wake-promoting neuropeptides produced by hypothalamic neurons. These hypocretin-producing cells are lost in people with narcolepsy, possibly due to an autoimmune attack. Prior studies described hypocretin neurons in the enteric nervous system, and these cells could be an additional target of an autoimmune process. We sought to determine whether enteric hypocretin neurons are lost in narcoleptic subjects. Even though we tried several methods (including whole mounts, sectioned tissue, pre-treatment of mice with colchicine, and the use of various primary antisera), we could not identify hypocretin-producing cells in enteric nervous tissue collected from mice or normal human subjects. These results raise doubts about whether enteric neurons produce hypocretin.

  8. Firearm ownership in veterans entering residential PTSD treatment: Associations with suicide ideation, attempts, and combat exposure.

    PubMed

    Smith, Phillip N; Currier, Joseph; Drescher, Kent

    2015-09-30

    This study aimed to describe the frequency of firearm ownership in veterans entering residential treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and examine the association of firearm ownership with suicide ideation and suicide attempt history, combat exposure, and PTSD symptom severity. Two samples of veterans entering residential PTSD treatment were assessed at intake using self-report measures. Approximately one third of participants endorsed firearm ownership across the two samples. Analyses with a sample predominantly comprised of Vietnam Veterans found that those who endorsed both suicide ideation and prior suicide attempts were less likely to own a firearm compared to suicide ideators and non-suicidal participants. In addition, more frequent combat exposure, but not PTSD symptom severity, was associated with firearm ownership in both samples and most participants endorsed using safe storage practices. These lower rates of firearm ownership generally, and in those with suicide ideation and prior attempts in particular, may reflect an increased focused on means restriction in treatment for combat-related PTSD. Means restriction counseling among PTSD treatment seeking veterans should target those with combat exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adolescents entering chemical dependency treatment in private managed care: ethnic differences in treatment initiation and retention.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Cynthia I; Weisner, Constance; Sterling, Stacy

    2006-04-01

    There has been little research on adolescents of different ethnicities in chemical dependency (CD) treatment, despite a focus on ethnic disparities in health care in recent years. In particular, little is known about ethnic differences in utilization of adolescent CD services. We examined treatment initiation and treatment retention in a sample of African American, Native American, Latino, Asian American, and Caucasian adolescents entering CD treatment in a private, managed care health plan (n = 419). Our conceptual framework included ethnicity as the main factor as well as measures of external pressure and internal motivation/readiness for treatment, family environment, psychiatric co-morbidities, and severity of alcohol and drug problems. Logistic and Poisson regression were used to examine differences. The study found ethnic differences in treatment initiation and treatment retention. Native American adolescents had lower odds of returning after intake to initiate treatment compared with Caucasians (odds ratio [OR] .35, p = .009), and African American youth spent less time in treatment than Caucasians (RR: .49, p < .001). Study findings indicate differences in treatment initiation for Native Americans and in treatment retention for African Americans. Intake and orientation sessions offer an opportunity to intervene with Native American youth. Given their high psychiatric co-morbidity, they may also benefit from the availability of psychiatric services. Even after adjusting for severity, we found shorter treatment retention for African American adolescents and suggest that organizational factors, such as cultural competency, may play an important role.

  10. Exploring Post-Treatment Reversion of Antimicrobial Resistance in Enteric Bacteria of Food Animals as a Resistance Mitigation Strategy.

    PubMed

    Volkova, Victoriya V; KuKanich, Butch; Riviere, Jim E

    2016-11-01

    Antimicrobial drug use in food animals is associated with an elevation in relative abundance of bacteria resistant to the drug among the animal enteric bacteria. Some of these bacteria are potential foodborne pathogens. Evidence suggests that at least in the enteric nontype-specific Escherichia coli, after treatment the resistance abundance reverts to the background pre-treatment levels, without further interventions. We hypothesize that it is possible to define the distribution of the time period after treatment within which resistance to the administered drug, and possibly other drugs in case of coselection, in fecal bacteria of the treated animals returns to the background pre-treatment levels. Furthermore, it is possible that a novel resistance mitigation strategy for microbiological food safety could be developed based on this resistance reversion phenomenon. The strategy would be conceptually similar to existing antimicrobial drug withdrawal periods, which is a well-established and accepted mitigation strategy for avoiding violative drug residues in the edible products from the treated animals. For developing resistance-relevant withdrawals, a mathematical framework can be used to join the necessary pharmacological, microbiological, and animal production components to project the distributions of the post-treatment resistance reversion periods in the production animal populations for major antimicrobial drug classes in use. The framework can also help guide design of empirical studies into the resistance-relevant withdrawal periods and development of mitigation approaches to reduce the treatment-associated elevation of resistance in animal enteric bacteria. We outline this framework, schematically and through exemplar equations, and how its components could be formulated.

  11. Weight loss with naltrexone SR/bupropion SR combination therapy as an adjunct to behavior modification: the COR-BMOD trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This 56-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial examined the efficacy and safety of naltrexone plus bupropion as an adjunct to intensive behavior modification (BMOD). A total of 793 participants (BMI = 36.5 +/- 4.2 kg/m(2)) was randomly assigned in a 1:3 ratio to: (i) placebo + BMOD (N = 202); or...

  12. [Indications and practice of enteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Hallay, Judit; Nagy, Dániel; Fülesdi, Béla

    2014-12-21

    Malnutrition in hospitalised patients has a significant and disadvantageous impact on treatment outcome. If possible, enteral nutrition with an energy/protein-balanced nutrient should be preferred depending on the patient's condition, type of illness and risk factors. The aim of the nutrition therapy is to increase the efficacy of treatment and shorten the length of hospital stay in order to ensure rapid rehabilitation. In the present review the authors summarize the most important clinical and practical aspects of enteral nutrition therapy.

  13. Weight Loss With Naltrexone SR/Bupropion SR Combination Therapy as an adjunct to Behavior Modification: The COR-BMOD Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wadden, Thomas A.; Foreyt, John P.; Foster, Gary D.; Hill, James O.; Klein, Samuel; O’Neil, Patrick M.; Perri, Michael G.; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Rock, Cheryl L.; Erickson, Janelle S.; Maier, Holly N.; Kim, Dennis D.; Dunayevich, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    This 56-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial examined the efficacy and safety of naltrexone plus bupropion as an adjunct to intensive behavior modification (BMOD). A total of 793 participants (BMI = 36.5 ± 4.2 kg/m2) was randomly assigned in a 1:3 ratio to: (i) placebo + BMOD (N = 202); or (ii) naltrexone sustained-release (SR, 32 mg/day), combined with bupropion SR (360 mg/day) plus BMOD (i.e., NB32 + BMOD; N = 591). Both groups were prescribed an energy-reduced diet and 28 group BMOD sessions. Co-primary end points were percentage change in weight and the proportion of participants who lost ≥5% weight at week 56. Efficacy analyses were performed on a modified intent-to-treat population (ITT; i.e., participants with ≥1 postbaseline weight while taking study drug (placebo + BMOD, N = 193; NB32 + BMOD, N = 482)). Missing data were replaced with the last observation obtained on study drug. At week 56, weight loss was 5.1 ± 0.6% with placebo + BMOD vs. 9.3 ± 0.4% with NB32 + BMOD (P < 0.001). A completers analysis revealed weight losses of 7.3 ± 0.9% (N = 106) vs. 11.5 ± 0.6% (N = 301), respectively (P < 0.001). A third analysis, which included all randomized participants, yielded losses of 4.9 ± 0.6 vs. 7.8 ± 0.4%, respectively (P < 0.001). Significantly more NB32 + BMOD- vs. placebo + BMOD-treated participants lost ≥5 and ≥10% of initial weight, and the former had significantly greater improvements in markers of cardiometabolic disease risk. NB32 + BMOD was generally well tolerated, although associated with more reports of nausea than placebo + BMOD. The present findings support the efficacy of combined naltrexone/bupropion therapy as an adjunct to intensive BMOD for obesity. PMID:20559296

  14. Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) attenuates brain responses to alcohol cues in alcohol-dependent volunteers: a bold FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Lukas, Scott E; Lowen, Steven B; Lindsey, Kimberly P; Conn, Nina; Tartarini, Wendy; Rodolico, John; Mallya, Gopi; Palmer, Christopher; Penetar, David M

    2013-09-01

    Oral naltrexone reduces heavy drinking, but is less consistent as an abstinence promoter, whereas once-monthly extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) also maintains abstinence. The present study sought to determine if alcohol cue reactivity is attenuated by XR-NTX. Twenty-eight detoxified alcohol-dependent adult male and female volunteers received a single i.m. injection of either XR-NTX or placebo under double-blind conditions. An fMRI/cue reactivity procedure was conducted immediately before and two weeks after injection. At baseline, alcohol-related visual and olfactory cues elicited significant increases in orbital and cingulate gyri, inferior frontal and middle frontal gyri. Subsequently, brain activation was significantly altered in XR-NTX-treated individuals. These affected brain regions are associated with the integration of emotion, cognition, reward, punishment, and learning/memory, suggesting that XR-NTX attenuates the salience of alcohol-related cues. Such an effect on brain function may interrupt the processes associated with "slips" and relapse, which may account for XR-NTX's ability to maintain abstinence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. From intravenous to enteral ketogenic diet in PICU: A potential treatment strategy for refractory status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Chiusolo, F; Diamanti, A; Bianchi, R; Fusco, L; Elia, M; Capriati, T; Vigevano, F; Picardo, S

    2016-11-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) has been used to treat refractory status epilepticus (RSE). KD is a high-fat, restricted-carbohydrate regimen that may be administered with different fat to protein and carbohydrate ratios (3:1 and 4:1 fat to protein and carbohydrate ratios). Other ketogenic regimens have a lower fat and higher protein and carbohydrate ratio to improve taste and thus compliance to treatment. We describe a case of RSE treated with intravenous KD in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). An 8-year-old boy was referred to the PICU because of continuous tonic-clonic and myoclonic generalized seizures despite several antiepileptic treatments. After admission he was intubated and treated with intravenous thiopental followed by ketamine. Seizures continued with frequent myoclonic jerks localized on the face and upper arms. EEG showed seizure activity with spikes on rhythmic continuous waves. Thus we decided to begin KD. The concomitant ileus contraindicated KD by the enteral route and we therefore began IV KD. The ketogenic regimen consisted of conventional intravenous fat emulsion, plus dextrose and amino-acid hyperalimentation in a 2:1 then 3:1 fat to protein and carbohydrate ratio. Exclusive IV ketogenic treatment, well tolerated, was maintained for 3 days; peristalsis then reappeared so KD was continued by the enteral route at 3:1 ratio. Finally, after 8 days and no seizure improvement, KD was deemed unsuccessful and was discontinued. Our experience indicates that IV KD may be considered as a temporary "bridge" towards enteral KD in patients with partial or total intestinal failure who need to start KD. It allows a prompt initiation of KD, when indicated for the treatment of severe diseases such as RSE. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Long-Term Survival of a Patient With Stage IV Renal Cell Carcinoma Following an Integrative Treatment Approach Including the Intravenous α-Lipoic Acid/Low-Dose Naltrexone Protocol.

    PubMed

    Berkson, Burton M; Calvo Riera, Francisco

    2017-12-01

    In this case report, we describe the treatment of a 64-year-old male patient diagnosed with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in June of 2008. In spite of a left nephrectomy and the standard oncological protocols, the patient developed a solitary left lung metastasis that continued to grow. He was informed that given his diagnosis and poor response to conventional therapy, any further treatment would, at best, be palliative. The patient arrived at the Integrative Medical Center of New Mexico in August of 2010. He was in very poor health, weak, and cachectic. An integrative program-developed by one of the authors using intravenous (IV) α-lipoic acid, IV vitamin C, low-dose naltrexone, and hydroxycitrate, and a healthy life style program-was initiated. From August 2010 to August 2015, the patient's RCC with left lung metastasis was followed closely using computed tomography and positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging. His most recent positron emission tomography scan demonstrated no residual increased glucose uptake in his left lung. After only a few treatments of IV α-lipoic acid and IV vitamin C, his symptoms began to improve, and the patient regained his baseline weight. His energy and outlook improved, and he returned to work. The patient had stable disease with disappearance of the signs and symptoms of stage IV RCC, a full 9 years following diagnosis, with a gentle integrative program, which is essentially free of side effects. As of November 2017 the patient feels well and is working at his full-time job.

  17. Enteral nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Gassull, M A; Abad, A; Cabré, E; González-Huix, F; Giné, J J; Dolz, C

    1986-01-01

    To assess the effect of the addition of enteral tube feeding with polymeric diets to the standard treatment of acute attacks of inflammatory bowel disease a total of 43 patients admitted to hospital (23 with Crohn's disease and 20 with ulcerative colitis) were studied retrospectively. Total enteral nutrition was given to 26 as the sole nutritional supply and to 17 in conjunction with a normal ward diet, when appropriate, according to the severity of attack (control group). Nutritional state was assessed and classified in all patients at admission and at the end of the study, by measuring the triceps skinfold thickness, mid arm muscle circumference, and serum albumin concentration as representative of body fat, muscle protein, and visceral protein, respectively. At admission the three nutritional variables were not statistically different between the groups. There was a significantly positive effect on mid arm muscle circumference in patients on total enteral nutrition compared with the control group, but there was no effect on either triceps skinfold thickness or serum albumin concentration. The percentage of subjects requiring intravenous albumin infusion, however, was significantly less in the group fed enterally than in the control group. In addition, fewer patients in the group fed enterally required surgical treatment compared with the control group, despite the fact that one of the criteria for starting enteral nutritional support was the expectancy that surgery would be needed. Total enteral nutrition was well tolerated and no major side effects arose during its use in patients with acute exacerbations of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:3098646

  18. Effectiveness of the herbal medicine daikenchuto for radiation-induced enteritis.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Takashi; Kamiura, Shouji; Kimura, Tadashi

    2008-07-01

    Radiation-induced enteritis is a serious clinical problem for which there is currently no recommended standard management. Daikenchuto (DKT) is a Japanese herbal medicine that has been used to treat adhesive bowel obstruction in Japan. This report describes a patient with radiation-induced enteritis whose clinical symptoms were much improved by treatment with DKT. The patient was administered DKT, a traditional Japanese herbal formula, orally (2.5 g 3 times daily). Abdominal distention was evaluated objectively with computed tomography. Gastrointestinal symptoms associated with radiation-induced enteritis were controlled successfully with DKT treatment. DKT treatment may be useful for the management of radiation-induced enteritis.

  19. Stereological study of rat spleen following acute ethanol treatment.

    PubMed

    Budec, M; Milićević, Z; Koko, V

    2000-05-01

    To investigate the acute effect of ethanol (4 g/kg, i.p.) on spleen adult female Wistar rats were treated intraperitoneally with: a) ethanol (4 g/kg body wt), b) naltrexone (5 mg/kg body wt) followed 45 minutes later by ethanol (4 g/kg body wt) and c) naltrexone (5 mg/kg body wt) alone. Untreated and saline-treated rats were used as controls. Twenty hours after the ethanol treatment the animals were sacrificed and the spleens were removed. A piece of tissue from the central part of each organ was fixed in Bouin's solution. Paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and analysed using stereological measurements. The volume densities of the following tissue compartments: red pulp, white pulp (divided in follicles, periarterioral lymphatic sheath and marginal zone) and the connective tissue were determined. Stereological analysis also included parameters of follicles: the areal numerical density (the number of follicles per 1 mm2 of tissue section), the numerical density (the number of follicles per mm3 of tissue) and the mean follicle diameter. The immunoarchitecture of the spleen was preserved following acute ethanol treatment. Unlike other parameters that were unaffected, ethanol evoked a decrease in both volume density of follicle and the mean follicle diameter. Naltrexone pretreatment had no influence on ethanol-induced changes. The data obtained indicate that a single dose of ethanol has a profound effect on rat spleen affecting the follicles, but the mechanism of its action remains to be elucidated.

  20. Presence and fate of coliphages and enteric viruses in three wastewater treatment plants effluents and activated sludge from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Jebri, Sihem; Jofre, Juan; Barkallah, Insaf; Saidi, Mouldi; Hmaied, Fatma

    2012-07-01

    The role of water in the transmission of infectious diseases is well defined; it may act as a reservoir of different types of pathogens. Enteric viruses can survive and persist for a long time in water, maintaining infectivity in many instances. This suggests the need to include virus detection in the evaluation of the microbiological quality of waters. In this study, enteric viruses (enteroviruses and hepatitis A virus (HAV)) were investigated by RT-PCR and coliphages (known as indicators of viral contamination) were enumerated with the double-layer technique agar in effluents and sewage sludge from three Tunisian wastewater treatment plants. The molecular detection of enteric viruses revealed 7.7% of positive activated sludge samples for enteroviruses. None of the samples was positive for HAV. Molecular virus detection threshold was estimated to be 10(3) PFU/100 ml. All samples contained high concentrations of coliphages except those of dry sludge. Reductions in the concentrations of bacteriophages attained by the wastewater treatment plants are of the order of magnitude as reductions described elsewhere. Peak concentrations in raw wastewater were associated with winter rains and suspended materials rate in analysed samples. Our data which is the first in North Africa showed that similar trends of coliphages distribution to other studies in other countries. No clear correlation between studied enteric viruses and coliphages concentration was proved. Coliphages abundance in collected samples should raise concerns about human enteric viruses transmission as these residues are reused in agricultural fields.

  1. 76 FR 26750 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Documentation Requirements for Articles Entered Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... Activities: Documentation Requirements for Articles Entered Under Various Special Tariff Treatment Provisions...: Documentation Requirements for Articles Entered Under Various Special Tariff Treatment Provisions. This request... collection: Title: Documentation Requirements for Articles Entered Under Various Special Tariff Treatment...

  2. Enteral Nutrition in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Pediatric patients require specialized attention and have diverse demands for proper growth and development, and thus need a different approach and interest in nutritional assessment and supply. Enteral nutrition is the most basic and important method of nutritional intervention, and its indications should be identified. Also, the sites, modes, types, and timing of nutritional intervention according to the patient's condition should be determined. In addition, various complications associated with enteral nutrition supply should be identified, and prevention and treatment are required. This approach to enteral nutrition and proper administration can help in the proper growth and recovery of pediatric patients with nutritional imbalances or nutritional needs. PMID:29383300

  3. [Effects of early enteral nutrition in the treatment of patients with severe burns].

    PubMed

    Wu, Y W; Liu, J; Jin, J; Liu, L J; Wu, Y F

    2018-01-20

    Objective: To investigate the effects of early enteral nutrition (EEN) in the treatment of patients with severe burns. Methods: Medical records of 52 patients with severe burns hospitalized in the three affiliations of authors from August to September in 2014 were retrospectively analyzed and divided into EEN group ( n =28) and non-early enteral nutrition (NEEN) group ( n =24) according to the initiation time of enteral nutrition. On the basis of routine treatment, enteral nutrition was given to patients in group EEN within post injury day (POD) 3, while enteral nutrition was given to patients in group NEEN after POD 3. The following items were compared between patients of the two groups, such as the ratio of enteral nutrition intake to total energy intake, the ratio of parenteral nutrition intake to total energy intake, the ratio of total energy intake to energy target on POD 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 14, 21, and 28, the levels of prealbumin, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation Ⅱ (APACHE Ⅱ) score on POD 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28, the first operation time, the number of operations, and the frequencies of abdominal distension, diarrhea, vomiting, aspiration, catheter blockage, and low blood sugar within POD 28. Data were processed with χ (2)test, t test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and Bonferroni correction. Results: (1) The ratio of parenteral nutrition intake to total energy intake of patients in group EEN on POD 1 was obviously lower than that in group NEEN ( Z =2.078, P <0.05). The ratio of enteral nutrition intake to total energy intake and the ratio of total energy intake to energy target of patients in group EEN on POD 2 and 3 were obviously higher than those in group NEEN ( Z =5.766, 6.404, t =4.907, 6.378, P <0.01). The ratio of total energy intake to energy target of patients in group EEN was obviously lower than that in group NEEN on POD 4, 5, 6, and 7 ( t =4.635, 2.547, 3

  4. Do enteric neurons make hypocretin? ☆

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Christian R.; Clark, Erika L.; Pedersen, Nigel P.; Hecht, Jonathan L.; Scammell, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Hypocretins (orexins) are wake-promoting neuropeptides produced by hypothalamic neurons. These hypocretin-producing cells are lost in people with narcolepsy, possibly due to an autoimmune attack. Prior studies described hypocretin neurons in the enteric nervous system, and these cells could be an additional target of an autoimmune process. We sought to determine whether enteric hypocretin neurons are lost in narcoleptic subjects. Even though we tried several methods (including whole mounts, sectioned tissue, pre-treatment of mice with colchicine, and the use of various primary antisera), we could not identify hypocretin-producing cells in enteric nervous tissue collected from mice or normal human subjects. These results raise doubts about whether enteric neurons produce hypocretin. PMID:18191238

  5. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) Treatment: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loved One Overcome Addiction (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Also in Spanish Naltrexone (American Society of Health-System Pharmacists) Naltrexone for Alcoholism (American Academy of Family ...

  6. Substance use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients entering substance abuse treatment: Comparisons to heterosexual clients.

    PubMed

    Flentje, Annesa; Heck, Nicholas C; Sorensen, James L

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated whether sexual orientation-specific differences in substance use behaviors exist among adults entering substance abuse treatment. Admissions records (July 2007-December 2009) were examined for treatment programs in San Francisco, California receiving government funding. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons (n = 1,441) were compared to heterosexual persons (n = 11,770) separately by sex, examining primary problem substance of abuse, route of administration, age of first use, and frequency of use prior to treatment. Regarding bisexual males, the only significant finding of note was greater prevalence of methamphetamine as the primary substance of abuse. When compared to heterosexual men, gay and bisexual men evidenced greater rates of primary problem methamphetamine use (44.5% and 21.8%, respectively, vs. 7.7%, adjusted odds ratios [ORs] 6.43 and 2.94), and there was lower primary heroin use among gay men (9.3% vs. 25.8%, OR 0.35). Among LGB individuals, race and ethnicity did not predict primary problem substance, except that among LGB men and women, a non-White race predicted cocaine use (OR 4.83 and 6.40, respectively), and among lesbian and bisexual women, Hispanic ethnicity predicted lower odds of primary cocaine use (OR 0.24). When compared to heterosexual men, gay men were more likely to smoke their primary problem substance (OR 1.61), first used this substance at an older age (M = 23.16 vs. M = 18.55, p < .001), and used this substance fewer days prior to treatment (M = 8.75 vs. M = 11.41, p < .001). There were no differences between heterosexual and lesbian or bisexual women. There were unique patterns of substance use for gay and bisexual men entering substance abuse treatment, but women did not evidence differences. Gay men evidenced unique factors that may reflect less severity of use when entering treatment including fewer days of use and a later age of initiation of their primary problem substances. The results underscore the

  7. The efficacy of (+)-Naltrexone on alcohol preference and seeking behaviour is dependent on light-cycle.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Jonathan Henry W; Buisman-Pijlman, Femke T A; Mustafa, Sanam; Rice, Kenner C; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2018-01-01

    Circadian rhythm affects drug-induced reward behaviour and the innate immune system. Peaks in reward-associated behaviour and immune responses typically occur during the active (dark) phase of rodents. While the role of the immune system, specifically, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, an innate immune receptor) in drug-induced reward is becoming increasingly appreciated, it is unclear whether its effects vary according to light-cycle. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterise the effects of the phase of the light-cycle and the state of the innate immune system on alcohol reward behaviour and subsequently determine whether the efficacy of targeting the immune component of drug reward depends upon the light-cycle. This study demonstrates that mice exhibit greater alcohol-induced conditioned place preference and alcohol two-bottle choice preference during the dark cycle. This effect overlapped with elevations in reward-, thirst- and immune-related genes. Administration of (+)-Naltrexone, a TLR4 antagonist, reduced immune-related gene mRNA expression and alcohol preference with its effects most pronounced during the dark cycle. However, (+)-Naltrexone, like other TLR4 antagonists exhibited off-target side effects, with a significant reduction in overall saccharin intake - an effect likely attributable to a reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) mRNA expression levels. Collectively, the study highlights a link between a time-of-day dependent influence of TLR4 on natural and alcohol reward-like behaviour in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychological adjustment of infertile women entering IVF treatment: differentiating aspects and influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Bringhenti, F; Martinelli, F; Ardenti, R; La Sala, G B

    1997-05-01

    To evaluate the psychological adjustment of infertile women compared with a control group of mothers and to determine which personal or marital factors influence the amount of emotional disorders in the infertile group. Cross-sectional questionnaire study with a group of infertile women and a group of mothers attending a routine gynecological examination. Infertile women and mothers received the questionnaires after a psychological or medical examination respectively, at a Sterility Center in a Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. One hundred and twenty-two infertile women, entering an IVF program, and 57 mothers attending a routine care visit. Stressful events, self-esteem, job and marital satisfaction, care and control measures of intimate bond, state-trait anxiety, depression, psychophysiological symptoms and global emotional factor scores. The organic infertile group was higher than mothers on satisfaction with their relationship with their husbands, perception of care and state-anxiety. The emotional factor scores of infertile women, controlled for stressful events, were influenced by a) number of IVF-cycles and availability for adoption, b) job position, job satisfaction and self-esteem, c) personality dimensions. State and trait anxiety scores were influenced by the level of global marital satisfaction. Infertile women, entering an IVF treatment program, do not necessarily show signs of psychological maladjustment. Their level of state-anxiety can be considered a situational response to the treatment stress. The infertility condition and its treatment can be effectively dealt with by women having a good personality disposition, a high level of self-esteem, who are satisfied with their job and relationship with their husband, and who are willing to adopt a child as a last solution for their maternal need.

  9. State-Targeted Funding and Technical Assistance to Increase Access to Medication Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Amanda J; Andrews, Christina M; Grogan, Colleen M; Pollack, Harold A; D'Aunno, Thomas; Humphreys, Keith; Friedmann, Peter D

    2018-04-01

    As the United States grapples with an opioid epidemic, expanding access to effective treatment for opioid use disorder is a major public health priority. Identifying effective policy tools that can be used to expand access to care is critically important. This article examines the relationship between state-targeted funding and technical assistance and adoption of three medications for treating opioid use disorder: oral naltrexone, injectable naltrexone, and buprenorphine. This study draws from the 2013-2014 wave of the National Drug Abuse Treatment System Survey, a nationally representative, longitudinal study of substance use disorder treatment programs. The sample includes data from 695 treatment programs (85.5% response rate) and representatives from single-state agencies in 49 states and Washington, D.C. (98% response rate). Logistic regression was used to examine the relationships of single-state agency targeted funding and technical assistance to availability of opioid use disorder medications among treatment programs. State-targeted funding was associated with increased program-level adoption of oral naltrexone (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=3.14, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.49-6.60, p=.004) and buprenorphine (AOR=2.47, 95% CI=1.31-4.67, p=.006). Buprenorphine adoption was also correlated with state technical assistance to support medication provision (AOR=1.18, 95% CI=1.00-1.39, p=.049). State-targeted funding for medications may be a viable policy lever for increasing access to opioid use disorder medications. Given the historically low rates of opioid use disorder medication adoption in treatment programs, single-state agency targeted funding is a potentially important tool to reduce mortality and morbidity associated with opioid disorders and misuse.

  10. A novel non-opioid protocol for medically supervised opioid withdrawal and transition to antagonist treatment.

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Gregory; Walsh, Jim; Plawman, Abigail; Gianutsos, Paul; Alto, William; Mancl, Lloyd; Rudolf, Vania

    2018-01-01

    The clinical feasibility of a novel non-opioid and benzodiazepine-free protocol was assessed for the treatment of medically supervised opioid withdrawal and transition to subsequent relapse prevention strategies. A retrospective chart review of DSM-IV diagnosed opioid-dependent patients admitted for inpatient medically supervised withdrawal examined 84 subjects (52 males, 32 females) treated with a 4-day protocol of scheduled tizanidine, hydroxyzine, and gabapentin. Subjects also received ancillary medications as needed, and routine counseling. Primary outcomes were completion of medically supervised withdrawal, and initiation of injectable extended release (ER) naltrexone treatment. Secondary outcomes included the length of hospital stay, Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS) scores, and facilitation to substance use disorder treatment intervention. Ancillary medication use and adverse effects were also assessed. A total of 79 (94%) of subjects completed medically supervised withdrawal. A total of 27 (32%) subjects chose to pursue transition to ER naltrexone, and 24 of the 27 (89%) successfully received the injection prior to hospital discharge. The protocol subjects had a mean length of hospital stay of 3.6 days, and the mean COWS scores was 3.3, 3.4, 2.8, and 2.4 on Day 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Furthermore, 71 (85%) engaged in an inpatient or outpatient substance use disorder (SUD) treatment program following protocol completion. This retrospective chart review suggests the feasibility of a novel protocol for medically supervised opioid withdrawal and transition to relapse prevention strategies, including injectable ER naltrexone. This withdrawal protocol does not utilize opioid agonists or other controlled substances.‬‬‬‬.

  11. Enteric glia.

    PubMed

    Rühl, A; Nasser, Y; Sharkey, K A

    2004-04-01

    The enteric nervous system is composed of both enteric neurones and enteric glia. Enteric glial cells were first described by Dogiel and are now known to outnumber neurones approximately 4 : 1. In the past, these cells were assumed to subserve a largely supportive role; however, recent evidence indicates that enteric glial cells may play a more active role in the control of gut function. In transgenic mouse models, where enteric glial cells are selectively ablated, the loss of glia results in intestinal inflammation and disruption of the epithelial barrier. Enteric glia are activated specifically by inflammatory insults and may contribute actively to inflammatory pathology via antigen presentation and cytokine synthesis. Enteric glia also express receptors for neurotransmitters and so may serve as intermediaries in enteric neurotransmission. Thus, enteric glia may serve as a link between the nervous and immune systems of the gut and may also have an important role in maintaining the integrity of the mucosal barrier and in other aspects of intestinal homeostasis.

  12. Presence of enteric viruses in freshwater and their removal by the conventional drinking water treatment process.

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, C. J.

    1991-01-01

    A review of results published in English or French between 1980 and 1990 was carried out to determine the levels of indigenous human enteric viruses in untreated surface and subsurface freshwaters, as well as in drinking water that had undergone the complete conventional treatment process. For this purpose, the conventional treatment process was defined as an operation that included coagulation followed by sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection. Also assessed was the stepwise efficiency of the conventional treatment process, as practised at full-scale facilities, for removing indigenous viruses from naturally occurring freshwaters. A list was compiled of statistical correlations relating to the occurrence of indigenous viruses in water. PMID:1647273

  13. [Enteral nutrition in burn patients].

    PubMed

    Pereira, J L; Garrido, M; Gómez-Cía, T; Serrera, J L; Franco, A; Pumar, A; Relimpio, F; Astorga, R; García-Luna, P P

    1992-01-01

    Nutritional support plays an important role in the treatment of patients with burns. Due to the severe hypercatabolism that develops in these patients, oral support is insufficient in most cases, and this makes it essential to initiate artificial nutritional support (either enteral or parenteral). Enteral nutrition is more physiological than parenteral, and data exist which show that in patients with burns, enteral nutrition exercises a protective effect on the intestine and may even reduce the hypermetabolic response in these patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerance of enteral nutritional support with a hypercaloric, hyperproteic diet with a high content of branched amino acids in the nutritional support of patients suffering from burns. The study included 12 patients (8 males and 4 females), admitted to the Burns Unit. Average age was 35 +/- 17 years (range: 21-85 years). The percentage of body surface affected by the burns was 10% in two cases, between 10-30% in three cases, between 30-50% in five cases and over 50% in two cases. Initiation of the enteral nutrition was between twenty-four hours and seven days after the burn. The patients were kept in the unit until they were discharged, and the average time spent in the unit was 31.5 days (range: 17-63 days). Total energetic requirements were calculated based on Harris-Benedict, with a variable aggression factor depending on the body surface burned, which varied from 2,000 and 4,000 cal day. Nitrogenous balance was determined on a daily basis, and plasmatic levels of total proteins, albumin and prealbumin on a weekly basis. There was a significant difference between the prealbumin values at the initiation and finalization of the enteral nutrition (9.6 +/- 2.24 mg/dl compared with 19.75 +/- 5.48 mg/dl; p < 0.001). The nitrogenous balance improved, changing from -5.4 in the second week to positive values by the fourth and fifth weeks of treatment. Tolerance to the enteral

  14. Perioperative Pain Management of a Patient Taking Naltrexone HCl/Bupropion HCl (Contrave): A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ninh, Allen; Kim, Sang; Goldberg, Andrew

    2017-10-15

    A 42-year-old obese woman (body mass index = 30.2 kg/m) presented for urgent anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion. She had been taking oral naltrexone-bupropion extended-release (Contrave, Orexigen Therapeutics Inc, La Jolla, CA) for the past 6 months and continued using it until 12 hours preoperatively. Despite discontinuation of this medication, and employing an intraoperative and postoperative multimodal analgesia strategy, immediate pain control was inadequately achieved. Patients taking opioid antagonists who present for surgery pose unique challenges to the anesthesiologist and require extensive preoperative interdisciplinary discussions and planning for pain control throughout the perioperative period.

  15. Prevention and diminished expression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by low dose naltrexone (LDN) or opioid growth factor (OGF) for an extended period: Therapeutic implications for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rahn, Kristen A; McLaughlin, Patricia J; Zagon, Ian S

    2011-03-24

    Endogenous opioids inhibit the onset and progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) with 30days of treatment. This study examined the long term effects of the opioid growth factor (OGF, [Met(5)]-enkephalin) and a low dose of the opioid antagonist naltrexone (LDN) on expression of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced EAE. C57BL/6 mice began receiving daily injections of 10mg/kg OGF (MOG+OGF), 0.1mg/kg naltrexone (MOG+LDN), or saline (MOG+Vehicle) at the time of EAE induction and continuing for 60days. In contrast to 100% of the MOG+Vehicle group with behavioral symptoms of EAE, 63% and 68% of the MOG+OGF and MOG+LDN mice expressed disease. Both severity and disease indices of EAE in OGF- and LDN-treated mice were notably decreased from MOG+Vehicle cohorts. By day 60, 6- and 3-fold more animals in the MOG+OGF and MOG+LDN groups, respectively, had a remission compared to MOG+Vehicle mice. Neuropathological studies revealed i) astrocyte activation and neuronal damage as early as day 10 (prior to behavioral symptoms) in all MOG-injected groups, ii) a significant reduction of activated astrocytes in MOG+OGF and MOG+LDN groups compared to MOG+Vehicle mice at day 30, and iii) no demyelination on day 60 in mice treated with OGF or LDN and not displaying disease symptoms. These results indicate that treatment with OGF or LDN had no deleterious long-term repercussions and did not exacerbate EAE, but i) halted progression of disease, ii) reversed neurological deficits, and iii) prevented the onset of neurological dysfunction across a considerable span of time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute ethanol treatment increases level of progesterone in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Budec, Mirela; Koko, Vesna; Milovanović, Tatjana; Balint-Perić, Ljiljana; Petković, Aleksandra

    2002-04-01

    To determine whether an increased level of progesterone in adult female rats after acute ethanol treatment, described previously in our study, is the result of activation of adrenal glands, we analyzed adrenal cortex morphologically and measured serum levels of corticosterone and progesterone in ovariectomized rats. In addition, a possible involvement of the opioid system in an observed phenomenon was tested. Adult female Wistar rats were ovariectomized, and 3 weeks after surgery they were treated intraperitoneally with (a) ethanol (4 g/kg), (b) naltrexone (5 mg/kg), followed by ethanol (4 g/kg) 45 min later, and (c) naltrexone (5 mg/kg), followed by saline 45 min later. Untreated and saline-injected rats were used as controls. The animals were killed 0.5 h after ethanol administration. Morphometric analysis was carried out on paraffin sections of adrenal glands, stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and the following parameters were determined: absolute volume of the zona glomerulosa, the zona fasciculata, and the zona reticularis; numerical density, volume, and the mean diameter of adrenocortical cells and of their nuclei; and mean diameter and length of capillaries. The results showed that acute ethanol treatment significantly increased absolute volume of the zona fasciculata and length of its capillaries but did not alter other stereological parameters. Also, serum levels of corticosterone and progesterone were enhanced. Pretreatment with naltrexone had no effect on ethanol-induced changes. These findings are consistent with our previous hypothesis that an ethanol-induced increase of the progesterone level in adult female rats originates from the adrenal cortex.

  17. The opioid growth factor (OGF) and low dose naltrexone (LDN) suppress human ovarian cancer progression in mice.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Renee N; McLaughlin, Patricia J; Zagon, Ian S

    2011-08-01

    The opioid growth factor (OGF) and its receptor, OGFr, serve as a tonically active inhibitory axis regulating cell proliferation in normal cells and a variety of cancers, including human ovarian cancer. Blockade of OGF and OGFr with the nonselective opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (NTX) upregulates expression of OGF and OGFr. Administration of a low dosage of NTX (LDN) blocks endogenous opioids from opioid receptors for a short period of time (4-6 h) each day, providing a window of 18-20 h for the upregulated opioids and receptors to interact. The present study investigated the repercussions of upregulating the OGF-OGFr axis by treatment with OGF or LDN on human ovarian tumorigenesis in vivo. Female nude mice were transplanted intraperitoneally with SKOV-3 human ovarian cancer cells and treated on a daily basis with OGF (10 mg/kg), LDN (0.1 mg/kg), or an equivalent volume of vehicle (saline). Tumor burden, as well as DNA synthesis, apoptosis, and angiogenesis was assessed in tumor tissue following 40 days of treatment. OGF and LDN markedly reduced ovarian tumor burden (tumor nodule number and weight). The mechanism of action was targeted to an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis; no changes in cell survival were noted. This study shows that a native opioid pathway can suppress human ovarian cancer in a xenograft model, and provides novel non-toxic therapies for the treatment of this lethal neoplasia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Prazosin and Naltrexone on Script Induced Alcohol Craving in Veterans with Alcohol Use Disorders with and without Co-occurring PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    status, moderate medication response. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Alcohol Drinking, Drinking Behavior, Naltrexone, Prazosin, Adrenergic Agents, Adrenergice ...primates and humans express α1 adrenergic receptors. Given the interplay of the noradrenergic system with craving-related brain systems, blocking α1...Antagonists, Adrenergic alpha-1 receptor antagonists, Adrenergic alpha- antagonists, Antihypertensive agents, Narcotic antagonists, Therapeutic uses

  19. Low-dose naltrexone suppresses ovarian cancer and exhibits enhanced inhibition in combination with cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Renee N; McLaughlin, Patricia J; Zagon, Ian S

    2011-07-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancies. Although initial therapeutic modalities are successful, 65% of these women relapse with only palliative treatments available thereafter. Endogenous opioids repress the proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells in vitro, and do so in a receptor-mediated manner. The present study examined whether modulation of opioid systems by the opioid antagonist naltrexone (NTX), alone or in combination with standard of care therapies (taxol/paclitaxel, cisplatin), alters human ovarian cancer cell proliferation in tissue culture and tumor progression in mice. Administration of NTX for six hours every two days, but not continuously, reduced DNA synthesis and cell replication from vehicle-treated controls in tissue culture. Moreover, brief exposure to NTX in combination with taxol or cisplatin had an enhanced anticancer action. Mice with established ovarian tumors and treated with a low dosage of NTX (LDN), which invokes a short period of opioid receptor blockade, repressed tumor progression in a non-toxic fashion by reducing DNA synthesis and angiogenesis but not altering cell survival. The combination of LDN with cisplatin, but not taxol, resulted in an additive inhibitory effect on tumorigenesis with enhanced depression of DNA synthesis and angiogenesis. LDN combined with cisplatin alleviated the toxicity (e.g. weight loss) associated with cisplatin. LDN treatment upregulated the expression of the opioid growth factor (OGF, chemical term ([Met(5)]-enkephalin) and its receptor, OGFr. Previous tissue culture studies have reported that OGF is the only opioid peptide with antiproliferative activity on ovarian cancer cells, with OGF action mediated by OGFr. Thus, the common denominator of intermittent opioid receptor blockade by short-term NTX or LDN on ovarian cancer proliferation and tumorigenesis recorded herein appears to be related to the OGF-OGFr axis. These preclinical data may offer a non

  20. Cravings as a mediator and moderator of drinking outcomes in the COMBINE Study

    PubMed Central

    Lendle, Samuel; van der Laan, Mark; Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Ahern, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Aims Investigators of the COMBINE (Combining Medications and Behavioral Interventions for Alcoholism) Study examined whether combining medications with a behavioral intervention would improve outcomes over monotherapies. Unexpectedly, the combination did not offer any advantage over either treatment alone. This study aimed to explain the lack of incremental benefit offered by the combination over either monotherapy by assessing the role of cravings as a treatment mediator and moderator. Design Secondary mediation and moderation analyses of COMBINE study data. Setting Eleven United States academic sites. Participants 863 patients randomized to one of four treatment groups: naltrexone (100mg/d; n=209), the Combined Behavioral Intervention (CBI, n=236), naltrexone and CBI combined (n=213), and placebo naltrexone (n=205). Measurements Percent Days Abstinent (PDA) measured between 13 and 16 weeks post-baseline. Cravings, the potential mediator/moderator, was measured at baseline, week 4 and week 12 using the Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale. Findings Compared to placebo, naltrexone, CBI, and the combination all increased PDA by an additional 6–10 percentage points for those with high cravings (p<0.05 for all three treatment groups). None had significant effects on PDA for those with low cravings. The effects of all three treatments were at least partially mediated by cravings; craving reduction explained 48–53% of treatment effects (p<0.05 for all three treatment groups). Furthermore, naltrexone appeared to reduce cravings at 4 weeks, while CBI did not reduce cravings until 12 weeks. Conclusions Naltrexone and the behavioral intervention both improved abstinence by reducing cravings and were no longer effective once cravings were low. Furthermore, naltrexone reduced cravings by 4 weeks, while the behavioral intervention took longer to affect cravings. The COMBINE naltrexone + CBI combination may not have been more beneficial than either monotherapy because

  1. Current and Potential Pharmacological Treatment Options for Maintenance Therapy in Opioid-Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Tetrault, Jeanette M.; Fiellin, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Opioid dependence, manifesting as addiction to heroin and pharmaceutical opioids is increasing. Internationally, there are an estimated 15.6 million illicit opioid users. The global economic burden of opioid dependence is profound both in terms of HIV and hepatitis C virus transmission, direct healthcare costs, and indirectly through criminal activity, absenteeism and lost productivity. Opioid agonist medications, such as methadone and buprenorphine, that stabilize neuronal systems and provide narcotic blockade are the most effective treatments. Prolonged provision of these medications, defined as maintenance treatment, typically produces improved outcomes when compared with short-duration tapers and withdrawal. The benefits of opioid agonist maintenance include decreased illicit drug use, improved retention in treatment, decreased HIV risk behaviours and decreased criminal behaviour. While regulations vary by country, these medications are becoming increasingly available internationally, especially in regions experiencing rapid transmission of HIV due to injection drug use. In this review, we describe the rationale for maintenance treatment of opioid dependence, discuss emerging uses of opioid antagonists such as naltrexone, and sustained-release formulations of naltrexone and buprenorphine, and provide a description of the experimental therapies. PMID:22235870

  2. Commentary: implications for assessment and treatment of addictive and mentally disordered offenders entering prisons.

    PubMed

    Easton, Caroline J; Devine, Susan; Scott, Melanie; Wupperman, Peggilee

    2008-01-01

    In this commentary, we discuss the main findings of the research study by Gunter et al., "The Frequency of Mental Health and Addictive Disorders Among 320 Men and Women Entering the Iowa Prison System: Use of the MINI-PLUS." This commentary provides an overview on the use of standardized assessments with prison populations; prevalence rates of mental and addictive disorders within prisons; substance use disorders, as opposed to substance-induced psychiatric disorders, among prison populations; and research on diversion treatment programs within the community for nonviolent mentally ill and substance-using offenders.

  3. Randomized, proof-of-concept trial of low dose naltrexone for patients with breakthrough symptoms of major depressive disorder on antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Mischoulon, David; Hylek, Lindsay; Yeung, Albert S; Clain, Alisabet J; Baer, Lee; Cusin, Cristina; Ionescu, Dawn Flosnik; Alpert, Jonathan E; Fava, Maurizio; Soskin, David P

    2017-01-15

    Given the proposed dopaminergic mechanism of low-dose naltrexone (LDN), we examined its efficacy as augmentation for depressive breakthrough on pro-dopaminergic antidepressant regimens. 12 adults (67% female, mean age = 45±12) with recurrent DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) on dopaminergic antidepressant regimens (stimulants, dopamine agonists, bupropion [≥300mg/day], aripiprazole [≤2.5mg/day], or sertraline [≥150mg/day]) were randomized to naltrexone 1mg b.i.d. (n=6) or placebo (n=6) augmentation for 3 weeks. All subjects completed the trial. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D-17) scores (primary outcome measure) decreased from 21.2±2.0 to 11.7±7.7 for LDN, from 23.7±2.3 to 17.8±5.9 for placebo (Cohen's d=0.62; p=0.3 between treatment groups). HAM-D-28 scores decreased from 26.2±4.0 to 12.0±9.8 for LDN, from 26.3±2.6 to 19.8±6.6 for placebo (d=1.15; p=0.097). Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-10 item) scores decreased from 30.4±4.9 to 12.2±8.4 for LDN, from 30.7±4.3 to 22.8±8.5) for placebo (d=1.45; p=0.035). MADRS-15 item scores decreased from 36.6±6.2 to 13.2±8.8 for LDN, from 36.7±4.2 to 26.0±10.0 for placebo (d=1.49; p=0.035). Clinical Global Improvement Scale-Severity (CGI-S) scores decreased from 4.3±0.5 to 3.0±1.1 for LDN, from 4.3±0.5 to 4.0±0.6 for placebo (d=1.22; p=0.064). Small study; restrictions on allowed antidepressants. LDN augmentation showed some benefit for MDD relapse on dopaminergic agents. Confirmation in larger studies is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Anhedonia to music and mu-opioids: Evidence from the administration of naltrexone.

    PubMed

    Mallik, Adiel; Chanda, Mona Lisa; Levitin, Daniel J

    2017-02-08

    Music's universality and its ability to deeply affect emotions suggest an evolutionary origin. Previous investigators have found that naltrexone (NTX), a μ-opioid antagonist, may induce reversible anhedonia, attenuating both positive and negative emotions. The neurochemical basis of musical experience is not well-understood, and the NTX-induced anhedonia hypothesis has not been tested with music. Accordingly, we administered NTX or placebo on two different days in a double-blind crossover study, and assessed participants' responses to music using both psychophysiological (objective) and behavioral (subjective) measures. We found that both positive and negative emotions were attenuated. We conclude that endogenous opioids are critical to experiencing both positive and negative emotions in music, and that music uses the same reward pathways as food, drug and sexual pleasure. Our findings add to the growing body of evidence for the evolutionary biological substrates of music.

  5. [Esophagus-enteric anastomosis ulceration caused by alendronate].

    PubMed

    Duques, P; Araújo, R S; de Amorim, W P

    2001-01-01

    Alendronate sodium is an aminobisphosphonate indicated for the treatment of osteoporosis in post-menopausal women and has been associated with esophagitis in many reports. Esophageal stenosis, gastrointestinal symptoms as dyspepsia, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain could be present. Report a case of a patient who underwent total gastrectomy with Y-en-Roux anastomosis for a gastric carcinoid tumor and developed an esophagus-enteric anastomosis ulceration after the use of alendronate. A 63-year-old woman started medical therapy with alendronate in a dose of 10 mg daily. After a period of one month of medical treatment with this drug she began to complain of dysphagic symptoms and abdominal pain. She was submitted to endoscopic examination that showed an esophageal ulceration, an enteric ulceration of the anastomosis and an esophageal stenosis. Medical treatment with alendronate was discontinued and the symptom of abdominal pain disappeared. The intensity of dysphagia has decreased. The ulcerated lesion remitted although esophageal stenosis did not. The patient was subsequently treated with esophagus-enteric anastomosis dilation. She improved in her general state and nowadays she is free of symptoms. Alendronate sodium could cause lesions of the inferior esophageal portion or in distal segments of the gastrointestinal tube, in patients with a fast gastrointestinal transit. Special attention must be given to gastrectomized patients that use this drug because of the possibility to develop mucosal lesions in the enteric anastomosed part and its fearful complications as stenosis.

  6. Characteristics and service utilization of homeless veterans entering VA substance use treatment.

    PubMed

    Cox, Koriann B; Malte, Carol A; Saxon, Andrew J

    2017-05-01

    This article compares characteristics and health care utilization patterns of homeless veterans entering substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. Baseline self-report and medical record data were collected from 181 homeless veterans participating in a randomized trial of SUD/housing case management. Veterans, categorized as newly (n = 45), episodically (n = 61), or chronically homeless (n = 75), were compared on clinical characteristics and health care utilization in the year prior to baseline. Between-groups differences were seen in stimulant use, bipolar, and depressive disorders. A significant majority accessed VA emergency department services, and nearly half accessed inpatient services, with more utilization among chronically versus newly homeless. A majority in all groups attended VA primary care (73.5%) and mental health (56.9%) visits, and 26.7% newly, 32.8% episodically, and 56.0% chronically homeless veterans initiated multiple SUD treatment episodes (p = .002). A significant proportion of veterans struggling with homelessness and SUDs appear to remain unstable despite high utilization of VA acute and preventative services. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Effects of injectable extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) for opioid dependence on residential rehabilitation outcomes and early follow-up.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Douglas L; Milchak, William; Gastfriend, David R; Herschman, Philip L; Bixler, Edward O; Velott, Diana L; Meyer, Roger E

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about the use of extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) during residential rehabilitation, and its effects on early outcomes and rates of follow-up treatment. This study examined patient characteristics and rates of treatment completion and engagement in post-residential care of opioid dependent patients who received XR-NTX during residential rehabilitation, compared with patients who did not receive this medication. Electronic records for opioid dependent patients from three Pennsylvania residential detoxification and treatment facilities (N = 7,687) were retrospectively analyzed. We determined the proportion of patients who received XR-NTX (INJ), and compared rates of treatment completion and engagement in follow-up care relative to a naturalistic control group of patients recommended for, but not administered, XR-NTX (Non-INJ). Data on whether the patient initiated follow-up care were available from one site (N = 3,724). Overall, 598 (7.8%) patients were recommended for XR-NTX and of these, 168 (28.1%) received injections. Compared to non-INJ patients, INJ patients were less likely to leave against medical advice (4.8% vs. 30.2%, p < .001) and more likely to initiate follow-up care (37.7% vs. 19.7%, p < .001). These differences remained significant after controlling for demographic covariates using regression analysis. XR-NTX was associated with higher rates of residential and early post-residential care engagement in patients with opioid dependence. XR-NTX may be an effective adjunct in the residential treatment and aftercare of patients with opioid dependence. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  8. Patient preferences and extended-release naltrexone: A new opportunity to treat opioid use disorders in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Ruthanne; Makarenko, Iuliia; Mazhnaya, Alyona; Zelenev, Alexei; Polonsky, Maxim; Madden, Lynn; Filippovych, Sergii; Dvoriak, Sergii; Springer, Sandra A; Altice, Frederick L

    2017-10-01

    Scaling up HIV prevention for people who inject drugs (PWID) using opioid agonist therapies (OAT) in Ukraine has been restricted by individual and structural factors. Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX), however, provides new opportunities for treating opioid use disorders (OUDs) in this region, where both HIV incidence and mortality continue to increase. Survey results from 1613 randomly selected PWID from 5 regions in Ukraine who were currently, previously or never on OAT were analyzed for their preference of pharmacological therapies for treating OUDs. For those preferring XR-NTX, independent correlates of their willingness to initiate XR-NTX were examined. Among the 1613 PWID, 449 (27.8%) were interested in initiating XR-NTX. Independent correlates associated with interest in XR-NTX included: being from Mykolaiv (AOR=3.7, 95% CI=2.3-6.1) or Dnipro (AOR=1.8, 95% CI=1.1-2.9); never having been on OAT (AOR=3.4, 95% CI=2.1-5.4); shorter-term injectors (AOR=0.9, 95% CI 0.9-0.98); and inversely for both positive (AOR=0.8, CI=0.8-0.9), and negative attitudes toward OAT (AOR=1.3, CI=1.2-1.4), respectively. In the context of Eastern Europe and Central Asia where HIV is concentrated in PWID and where HIV prevention with OAT is under-scaled, new options for treating OUDs are urgently needed. here suggest that XR-NTX could become an option for addiction treatment and HIV prevention especially for PWID who have shorter duration of injection and who harbor negative attitudes to OAT. Decision aids that inform patient preferences with accurate information about the various treatment options are likely to guide patients toward better, patient-centered treatments and improve treatment entry and retention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Removal of enteric bacteria in constructed treatment wetlands with emergent macrophytes: a review.

    PubMed

    Vymazal, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Domestic and municipal sewage contains various pathogenic or potentially pathogenic microorganisms which, depending on species concentration, pose a potential risk to human health and whose presence must therefore be reduced in the course of wastewater treatment. The removal of microbiological pollution is seldom a primary target for constructed treatment wetlands (CWs). However, wetlands are known to act as excellent biofilters through a complex of physical, chemical and biological factors which all participate in the reduction of the number of bacteria. Measurement of human pathogenic organisms in untreated and treated wastewater is expensive and technically challenging. Consequently, environmental engineers have sought indicator organisms that are (1) easy to monitor and (2) correlate with population of pathogenic organisms. The most frequently used indicators are total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci and Escherichia coli. The literature survey of 60 constructed wetlands with emergent vegetation around the world revealed that removal of total and fecal coliforms in constructed wetlands with emergent macrophytes is high, usually 95 to > 99% while removal of fecal streptococci is lower, usually 80-95%. Because bacterial removal efficiency is a function of inflow bacteria number, the high removal effects are achieved for untreated or mechanically pretreated wastewater. Therefore, the outflow numbers of bacteria are more important. For TC and FC the outflow concentrations are usually in the range of 10(2) to 10(5) CFU/ 100 ml while for FS the range is between 10(2) and 10(4) CFU/ 100 ml. Results from operating systems suggest that enteric microbe removal efficiency in CWs with emergent macrophytes is primarily influenced by hydraulic loading rate (HLR) and the resultant hydraulic residence time (HRT) and the presence of vegetation. Removal of enteric bacteria follows approximately a first-order relationship.

  10. Examination of the effects of varenicline, bupropion, lorcaserin, or naltrexone on responding for conditioned reinforcement in nicotine-exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Guy, Elizabeth G; Fisher, Daniel C; Higgins, Guy A; Fletcher, Paul J

    2014-12-01

    Smoking tobacco remains one of the leading causes of preventable deaths in North America. Nicotine reinforces smoking behavior, in part, by enhancing the reinforcing properties of reward-related stimuli, or conditioned stimuli (CSs), associated with tobacco intake. To investigate how pharmaceutical interventions may affect this property of nicotine, we examined the effect of four US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs on the ability of nicotine to enhance operant responding for a CS as a conditioned reinforcer. Thirsty rats were exposed to 13 Pavlovian sessions where a CS was paired with water delivery. Nicotine (0.4 mg/kg) injections were administered before each Pavlovian session. Then, in separate groups of rats, the effects of varenicline (1 mg/kg), bupropion (10 and 30 mg/kg), lorcaserin (0.6 mg/kg), and naltrexone (2 mg/kg), and their interaction with nicotine on responding for conditioned reinforcement were examined. Varenicline and lorcaserin each reduced nicotine-enhanced responding for conditioned reinforcement, whereas naltrexone had a modest effect of reducing response enhancements by nicotine. In contrast, bupropion enhanced the effect of nicotine on this measure. The results of these studies may inform how pharmaceutical interventions can affect smoking cessation attempts and relapse through diverse mechanisms, either substituting for, or interacting with, the reinforcement-enhancing properties of nicotine.

  11. Combining naltrexone and prazosin in a single oral medication decreases alcohol drinking more effectively than does either drug alone.

    PubMed

    Froehlich, Janice C; Hausauer, Brett J; Rasmussen, Dennis D

    2013-10-01

    Naltrexone (NTX) is underutilized in clinical treatment settings because its efficacy is modest, and it is not effective for all alcoholics and, when it is effective, a significant number of alcoholics fail to maintain initial treatment gains and subsequently relapse to heavy drinking. This has slowed acceptance of NTX by the treatment community, and there is a clear need for additional treatments for alcoholism and alcohol use disorders. Given that NTX and prazosin can each reduce alcohol drinking in rats selectively bred for alcohol preference and high voluntary alcohol drinking (alcohol-preferring "P" rats), we tested whether a combination of NTX + prazosin is more effective in decreasing alcohol drinking than is either drug alone. P rats were given access to a 15% (v/v) alcohol solution for 2 hours daily. Rats were fed NTX and prazosin, alone or in combination, prior to onset of the daily 2-hour alcohol access period for 4 weeks and the effect of drug treatment on alcohol and water intake was assessed. During the first week of treatment, neither a low dose of NTX, nor prazosin, was effective in decreasing alcohol intake when each drug was administered alone, but combining the 2 drugs in a single medication significantly reduced alcohol intake. The combination was as effective as was a higher dose of NTX. Using a low dose of NTX in combination with prazosin may reduce the potential for undesirable side effects early in treatment which, in turn, may improve patient compliance and result in a more successful outcome when NTX is used for treating alcoholism and alcohol use disorders. Combining low-dose NTX and prazosin in a single medication may be more useful than is either drug alone for treating both inpatient and outpatient alcoholics and heavy drinkers early in the treatment process. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  12. Anhedonia to music and mu-opioids: Evidence from the administration of naltrexone

    PubMed Central

    Mallik, Adiel; Chanda, Mona Lisa; Levitin, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Music’s universality and its ability to deeply affect emotions suggest an evolutionary origin. Previous investigators have found that naltrexone (NTX), a μ-opioid antagonist, may induce reversible anhedonia, attenuating both positive and negative emotions. The neurochemical basis of musical experience is not well-understood, and the NTX-induced anhedonia hypothesis has not been tested with music. Accordingly, we administered NTX or placebo on two different days in a double-blind crossover study, and assessed participants’ responses to music using both psychophysiological (objective) and behavioral (subjective) measures. We found that both positive and negative emotions were attenuated. We conclude that endogenous opioids are critical to experiencing both positive and negative emotions in music, and that music uses the same reward pathways as food, drug and sexual pleasure. Our findings add to the growing body of evidence for the evolutionary biological substrates of music. PMID:28176798

  13. Continuous delivery of naltrexone and nalmefene leads to tolerance in reducing alcohol drinking and to supersensitivity of brain opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Korpi, Esa R; Linden, Anni-Maija; Hytönen, Heidi R; Paasikoski, Nelli; Vashchinkina, Elena; Dudek, Mateusz; Herr, Deron R; Hyytiä, Petri

    2017-07-01

    Opioid antagonist treatments reduce alcohol drinking in rodent models and in alcohol-dependent patients, with variable efficacy across different studies. These treatments may suffer from the development of tolerance and opioid receptor supersensitivity, as suggested by preclinical models showing activation of these processes during and after subchronic high-dose administration of the short-acting opioid antagonist naloxone. In the present study, we compared equipotent low and moderate daily doses of naltrexone and nalmefene, two opioid antagonists in the clinical practice for treatment of alcoholism. The antagonists were given here subcutaneously for 7 days either as daily injections or continuous osmotic minipump-driven infusions to alcohol-preferring AA rats having trained to drink 10% alcohol in a limited access protocol. One day after stopping the antagonist treatment, [ 35 S]GTPγS autoradiography on brain cryostat sections was carried out to examine the coupling of receptors to G protein activation. The results prove the efficacy of repeated injections over infused opioid antagonists in reducing alcohol drinking. Tolerance to the reducing effect on alcohol drinking and to the enhancement of G protein coupling to μ-opioid receptors in various brain regions were consistently detected only after infused antagonists. Supersensitivity of κ-opioid receptors was seen in the ventral and dorsal striatal regions especially by infused nalmefene. Nalmefene showed no clear agonistic activity in rat brain sections or at human recombinant κ-opioid receptors. The findings support the as-needed dosing practice, rather than the standard continual dosing, in the treatment of alcoholism with opioid receptor antagonists. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Diclofenac enables unprecedented week-long microneedle-enhanced delivery of a skin impermeable medication in humans

    PubMed Central

    Brogden, Nicole K.; Banks, Stan L.; Crofford, Leslie J.; Stinchcomb, Audra L.

    2013-01-01

    Microneedles applied to the skin create micropores, allowing transdermal drug delivery of skin-impermeable compounds. The first human study with this technique demonstrated delivery of naltrexone (an opioid antagonist) for two to three days. Rapid micropore closure, however, blunts the delivery window. Application of diclofenac (an anti-inflammatory) allows seven days of naltrexone delivery in animals. Purpose the purpose of the current work was to demonstrate delivery of naltrexone for seven days following one microneedle treatment in humans. Methods Human subjects were treated with microneedles, diclofenac (or placebo), and naltrexone. Impedance measurements were used as a surrogate marker to measure micropore formation, and plasma naltrexone concentrations were measured for seven days post-microneedle application. Results Impedance dropped significantly from baseline to post-microneedle treatment, confirming micropore formation. Naltrexone was detected for seven days in Group 1 (diclofenac + naltrexone, n = 6), vs. 72 hours in Group 2 (placebo + naltrexone, n = 2). At study completion, a significant difference in impedance was observed between intact and microneedle-treated skin in Group 1 (confirming the presence of micropores). Conclusion This is the first study demonstrating week-long drug delivery after one microneedle application, which would increase patient compliance and allow delivery of therapies for chronic diseases. PMID:23761054

  15. [Acute abdomen caused by eosinophilic enteritis: six observations].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ubieto, Fernando; Bueno-Delgado, Alvaro; Jiménez-Bernadó, Teresa; Santero Ramírez, María Pilar; Arribas-Del Amo, Dolores; Martínez-Ubieto, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic enteritis is a rather rare condition characterized by infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract by eosinophils; as a casue of acute abdomen it is really exceptional. The etiology is unclear and its description in the literature is sparse, but associations have been made with collagen vascular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, food allergy and parasitic infections as it was confirmed in one of our pathologic studies. From 1997 to 2011 six cases of eosinophilic enteritis that involved a small bowel segment were diagnosed. A partial resection by an irreversible necrosis was necessary in three of them; in the other three only a biopsy was necessary due to the inflammatory aspect of the affected loop causing the acute abdomen. Eosinophilic enteritis can originate acute abdomen processes where an urgent surgical treatment is necessary. The intraoperative aspect can be from a segment of small bowel with inflammatory signs up to a completely irrecoverable loop, where removing of the affected segment is the correct treatment, which can be done laparoscopically.

  16. 76 FR 39416 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Documentation Requirements for Articles Entered Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Activities: Documentation Requirements for Articles Entered Under Various Special Tariff Treatment Provisions... accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Documentation Requirements for Articles Entered Under Various... techniques or other forms of information. Title: Documentation Requirements for Articles Entered Under...

  17. Oxycodone Plus Ultra-Low-Dose Naltrexone Attenuates Neuropathic Pain and Associated μ-Opioid Receptor–Gs Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Largent-Milnes, Tally M.; Guo, Wenhong; Wang, Hoau-Yan; Burns, Lindsay H.; Vanderah, Todd W.

    2017-01-01

    Both peripheral nerve injury and chronic opioid treatment can result in hyperalgesia associated with enhanced excitatory neurotransmission at the level of the spinal cord. Chronic opioid administration leads to a shift in μ-opioid receptor (MOR)–G protein coupling from Gi/o to Gs that can be prevented by cotreatment with an ultra-low-dose opioid antagonist. In this study, using lumbar spinal cord tissue from rats with L5/L6 spinal nerve ligation (SNL), we demonstrated that SNL injury induces MOR linkage to Gs in the damaged (ipsilateral) spinal dorsal horn. This MOR-Gs coupling occurred without changing Gi/o coupling levels and without changing the expression of MOR or Gα proteins. Repeated administration of oxycodone alone or in combination with ultra-low-dose naltrexone (NTX) was assessed on the SNL-induced MOR-Gs coupling as well as on neuropathic pain behavior. Repeated spinal oxycodone exacerbated the SNL-induced MOR-Gs coupling, whereas ultra-low-dose NTX cotreatment slightly but significantly attenuated this Gs coupling. Either spinal or oral administration of oxycodone plus ultra-low-dose NTX markedly enhanced the reductions in allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia produced by oxycodone alone and minimized tolerance to these effects. The MOR-Gs coupling observed in response to SNL may in part contribute to the excitatory neurotransmission in spinal dorsal horn in neuropathic pain states. The antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic effects of oxycodone plus ultra-low-dose NTX (Oxytrex, Pain Therapeutics, Inc., San Mateo, CA) suggest a promising new treatment for neuropathic pain. PMID:18468954

  18. [Treatment of enteric fistula in open abdomen].

    PubMed

    Evenson, R A; Fischer, J E

    2006-07-01

    Formation of enteric fistulas frequently complicates the open abdomen in patients who have sustained traumatic injury. The post-traumatic subset of patients with enterocutaneous fistula enjoy better than average recovery. To optimize this recovery, a systematic management approach is required. Patients must first be stabilized with nutritional support, control of sepsis, and special wound management systems to prevent further deterioration of the abdominal wall. Investigation of the origin, course, and characteristics of the fistula provides information about its likelihood to close without operation. Definitive operative therapy may be necessary to resolve the fistula and close the abdominal wall. Finally, healing support includes nutritional support and physical and occupational therapies to restore patients to pre-injury states.

  19. Diffusion of naltrexone across reconstituted human oral epithelium and histomorphological features.

    PubMed

    Giannola, Libero Italo; De Caro, Viviana; Giandalia, Giulia; Siragusa, Maria Gabriella; Campisi, Giuseppina; Florena, Ada Maria; Ciach, Tomasz

    2007-02-01

    In transbuccal absorption a major limitation could be the low permeability of the mucosa which implies low drug bioavailability. The ability of naltrexone hydrochloride (NLX) to penetrate a resembling histologically human buccal mucosa was assessed and the occurrence of any histomorphological changes observed. We used reconstituted human oral (RHO) non-keratinised epithelium as mucosal section and a Transwell diffusion cells system as bicompartmental model. Buccal permeation was expressed in terms of drug flux (J(s)) and permeability coefficients (K(p)). Data were collected using both artificial and natural human saliva. The main finding was that RHO does not restrain NLX permeation. Drug transport across the epithelium was observed also in presence of various concentrations of penetration enhancers, without any significant differences. On the contrary, the flux throughout the mucosa was extensively affected by iontophoresis. Histologically, no sign of flogosis was observed in any specimen under experiment without iontophoresis, whereas cytoarchitectural changes, up to nuclear pycnosis or cellular swelling, were determined as a consequence of the application of electric fields.

  20. Low dose naltrexone in multiple sclerosis: Effects on medication use. A quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Raknes, Guttorm; Småbrekke, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Low dose naltrexone (LDN) has become a popular off-label therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS). A few small, randomized studies indicate that LDN may have beneficial effects in MS and other autoimmune diseases. If proven efficacious, it would be a cheap and safe alternative to the expensive treatments currently recommended for MS. We investigated whether a sudden increase in LDN use in Norway in 2013 was followed by changes in dispensing of other medications used to treat MS. We performed a quasi-experimental before-and-after study based on population data from the Norwegian Prescription Database (NorPD). We included all patients that collected at least one LDN prescription in 2013, and had collected at least two medications with a reimbursement code for MS, or collected a medication with MS as the only indication in 2009 or 2010. Outcomes were differences in cumulative dispensed doses and incidence of users of disease modifying MS therapies, and medications used to treat MS symptoms two years before and two years after dispensing the initial LDN prescription. The eligible 341 patients collected 20 921 prescriptions in the observation period. Apart from changes in line with general trends in MS therapy in Norway, there was no difference in neither dispensed cumulative doses or number of prevalent users of MS specific medication. Initiation of LDN was not followed by reductions of other medications used to treat symptoms associated with MS.

  1. White paper on guidelines concerning enteric nervous system stem cell therapy for enteric neuropathies⋆

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Alan J.; Goldstein, Allan M.; Newgreen, Donald F.; Stamp, Lincon; Schäfer, Karl-Herbert; Metzger, Marco; Hotta, Ryo; Young, Heather M.; Andrews, Peter W.; Thapar, Nikhil; Belkind-Gerson, Jaime; Bondurand, Nadege; Bornstein, Joel C.; Chan, Wood Yee; Cheah, Kathryn; Gershon, Michael D.; Heuckeroth, Robert O.; Hofstra, Robert M.W.; Just, Lothar; Kapur, Raj P.; King, Sebastian K.; McCann, Conor J.; Nagy, Nandor; Ngan, Elly; Obermayr, Florian; Pachnis, Vassilis; Pasricha, Pankaj J.; Sham, Mai Har; Tam, Paul; Berghe, Pieter Vanden

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, there has been increasing focus on the development of novel stem cell based therapies for the treatment of disorders and diseases affecting the enteric nervous system (ENS) of the gastrointestinal tract (so-called enteric neuropathies). Here, the idea is that ENS progenitor/stem cells could be transplanted into the gut wall to replace the damaged or absent neurons and glia of the ENS. This White Paper sets out experts’ views on the commonly used methods and approaches to identify, isolate, purify, expand and optimize ENS stem cells, transplant them into the bowel, and assess transplant success, including restoration of gut function. We also highlight obstacles that must be overcome in order to progress from successful preclinical studies in animal models to ENS stem cell therapies in the clinic. PMID:27059883

  2. Thermal Inactivation of Enteric Viruses and Bioaccumulation of Enteric Foodborne Viruses in Live Oysters (Crassostrea virginica)

    PubMed Central

    Araud, Elbashir; DiCaprio, Erin; Ma, Yuanmei; Lou, Fangfei; Gao, Yu; Kingsley, David; Hughes, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Human enteric viruses are among the main causative agents of shellfish-associated outbreaks. In this study, the kinetics of viral bioaccumulation in live oysters and the heat stabilities of the predominant enteric viruses were determined both in tissue culture and in oyster tissues. A human norovirus (HuNoV) GII.4 strain, HuNoV surrogates (murine norovirus [MNV-1], Tulane virus [TV]), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and human rotavirus (RV) bioaccumulated to high titers within oyster tissues, with different patterns of bioaccumulation for the different viruses. We tested the thermal stability of each virus at 62, 72, and 80°C in culture medium. The viruses can be ranked from the most heat resistant to the least stable as follows: HAV, RV, TV, MNV-1. In addition, we found that oyster tissues provided protection to the viruses during heat treatment. To decipher the mechanism underlying viral inactivation by heat, purified TV was treated at 80°C for increasing time intervals. It was found that the integrity of the viral capsid was disrupted, whereas viral genomic RNA remained intact. Interestingly, heat treatment leading to complete loss of TV infectivity was not sufficient to completely disrupt the receptor binding activity of TV, as determined by the porcine gastric mucin–magnetic bead binding assay. Similarly, HuNoV virus-like particles (VLPs) and a HuNoV GII.4 strain retained some receptor binding ability following heat treatment. Although foodborne viruses have variable heat stability, 80°C for >6 min was sufficient to completely inactivate enteric viruses in oysters, with the exception of HAV. PMID:26826225

  3. The effect of alcohol treatment on social costs of alcohol dependence: results from the COMBINE study.

    PubMed

    Zarkin, Gary A; Bray, Jeremy W; Aldridge, Arnie; Mills, Michael; Cisler, Ron A; Couper, David; McKay, James R; O'Malley, Stephanie

    2010-05-01

    The COMBINE (combined pharmacotherapies and behavioral intervention) clinical trial recently evaluated the efficacy of pharmacotherapies, behavioral therapies, and their combinations for the treatment of alcohol dependence. Previously, the cost and cost-effectiveness of COMBINE have been studied. Policy makers, patients, and nonalcohol-dependent individuals may be concerned not only with alcohol treatment costs but also with the effect of alcohol interventions on broader social costs and outcomes. To estimate the sum of treatment costs plus the costs of health care utilization, arrests, and motor vehicle accidents for the 9 treatments in COMBINE 3 years postrandomization. A cost study based on a randomized controlled clinical trial. : The study involved 786 participants 3 years postrandomization. Multivariate results show no significant differences in mean costs between any of the treatment arms as compared with medical management (MM) + placebo for the 3-year postrandomization sample. The median costs of MM + acamprosate, MM + naltrexone, MM + acamprosate + naltrexone, and MM + acamprosate + combined behavioral intervention were significantly lower than the median cost for MM + placebo. The results show that social cost savings are generated relative to MM + placebo by 3 years postrandomization, and the magnitude of these cost savings is greater than the costs of the COMBINE treatment received 3 years prior. Our study suggests that several alcohol treatments may indeed lead to reduced median social costs associated with health care, arrests, and motor vehicle accidents.

  4. Novel and emerging treatments for autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rossignol, Daniel A

    2009-01-01

    Currently, only one medication (risperidone) is FDA-approved for the treatment of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Perhaps for this reason, the use of novel, unconventional, and off-label treatments for ASD is common, with up to 74% of children with ASD using these treatments; however, treating physicians are often unaware of this usage. A systematic literature search of electronic scientific databases was performed to identify studies of novel and emerging treatments for ASD, including nutritional supplements, diets, medications, and nonbiological treatments. A grade of recommendation ("Grade") was then assigned to each treatment using a validated evidence-based guideline as outlined in this review: A: Supported by at least 2 prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or 1 systematic review. B: Supported by at least 1 prospective RCT or 2 nonrandomized controlled trials. C: Supported by at least 1 nonrandomized controlled trial or 2 case series. D: Troublingly inconsistent or inconclusive studies or studies reporting no improvements. Potential adverse effects for each treatment were also reviewed. Grade A treatments for ASD include melatonin, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, naltrexone, and music therapy. Grade B treatments include carnitine, tetrahydrobiopterin, vitamin C, alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, hyperbaric oxygen treatment, immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory treatments, oxytocin, and vision therapy. Grade C treatments for ASD include carnosine, multivitamin/mineral complex, piracetam, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin B6/magnesium, elimination diets, chelation, cyproheptadine, famotidine, glutamate antagonists, acupuncture, auditory integration training, massage, and neurofeedback. The reviewed treatments for ASD are commonly used, and some are supported by prospective RCTs. Promising treatments include melatonin, antioxidants, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, naltrexone, and music therapy. All of the reviewed treatments are currently considered

  5. The Effects of Naltrexone on Subjective Response to Methamphetamine in a Clinical Sample: a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Laboratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Lara A; Bujarski, Spencer; Courtney, Kelly E; Moallem, Nathasha R; Lunny, Katy; Roche, Daniel; Leventhal, Adam M; Shoptaw, Steve; Heinzerling, Keith; London, Edythe D; Miotto, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) use disorder is a serious psychiatric condition for which there are no FDA-approved medications. Naltrexone (NTX) is an opioid receptor antagonist with demonstrated efficacy, albeit moderate, for the treatment of alcoholism and opioid dependence. Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that NTX may be useful for the treatment of MA use disorder. To inform treatment development, we conducted a double-blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled human laboratory study of NTX. Non-treatment-seeking individuals meeting DSM-IV criteria for MA abuse or dependence (n=30) completed two separate 5-day inpatient stays. During each admission, participants completed testing sessions comprised of MA cue-reactivity and intravenous MA administration (30 mg) after receiving oral NTX (50 mg) or placebo for 4 days. This study tested the hypotheses that NTX would (a) attenuate cue-induced MA craving, and (b) reduce subjective responses to MA administration. Results largely supported the study hypotheses such that (a) NTX significantly blunted cue-induced craving for MA and (b) attenuated several of the hedonic subjective effects of MA, including craving, during controlled MA administration and as compared with placebo. NTX decreased overall subjective ratings of ‘crave drug,' ‘stimulated,' and ‘would like drug access,' decreased the the post-MA administration timecourse of ‘anxious' and increased ratings of ‘bad drug effects,' as compared with placebo. These findings support a potential mechanism of action by showing that NTX reduced cue-induced craving and subjective responses to MA. This is consistent with positive treatment studies of NTX for amphetamine dependence, as well as ongoing clinical trials for MA. PMID:25801501

  6. Narcotic antagonists. Treatment tool for addiction.

    PubMed

    Valentine, N M; Meyer, R E

    1976-09-01

    Narcotic antagonists have recently gained attention through research aimed at evaluating both biochemical effects and treatment potential for opiate addiction. Narcotic antagonists are a classification of drugs which block the euphoric (and all other) effects of opiates. Naltrexone is the most promising narcotic antagonist based on ability to produce blockade, length of duration, and relative absence of side effects. The narcotic antagonists offer an adjunctive or alternative method of treatment for opiate addicts based on Wikler's biobehavioral theory of conditioned abstinence. Narcotic antagonists are presently being investigated at seven research centers throughout the United States and may be available for clinical use in the future.

  7. HIV Risk Behavior Among Methamphetamine Users Entering Substance Abuse Treatment in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Meade, Christina S; Lion, Ryan R; Cordero, Daniella M; Watt, Melissa H; Joska, John A; Gouse, Hetta; Burnhams, Warren

    2016-10-01

    South Africa is experiencing a growing methamphetamine problem, and there is concern that methamphetamine use may accelerate HIV transmission. There has been little research on the HIV prevention needs of methamphetamine users receiving substance abuse treatment in South Africa. This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of HIV risk behaviors among 269 methamphetamine users entering substance abuse treatment in two clinics in Cape Town. The prevalence of sexual risk behaviors was high among sexually active participants: 34 % multiple partners, 26 % unprotected intercourse with a casual partner, and 24 % sex trading for money/methamphetamine. The strongest predictor of all sexual risk behaviors was concurrent other drug use. Over half had not been HIV tested in the past year, and 25 % had never been tested, although attitudes toward HIV testing were overwhelmingly positive. This population of primarily heterosexual, non-injecting methamphetamine users is a high-risk group in need of targeted HIV prevention interventions. Substance abuse treatment is an ideal setting in which to reach methamphetamine users for HIV services.

  8. The Neurobiology of Opioid Dependence: Implications for Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kosten, Thomas R.; George, Tony P.

    2002-01-01

    Opioid tolerance, dependence, and addiction are all manifestations of brain changes resulting from chronic opioid abuse. The opioid abuser’s struggle for recovery is in great part a struggle to overcome the effects of these changes. Medications such as methadone, LAAM, buprenorphine, and naltrexone act on the same brain structures and processes as addictive opioids, but with protective or normalizing effects. Despite the effectiveness of medications, they must be used in conjunction with appropriate psychosocial treatments. PMID:18567959

  9. Bacteriophages as indicators of faecal pollution and enteric ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Bacteriophages are an attractive alternative to fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), particularly as surrogates of enteric virus fate and transport due to their closer morphological and biological properties compared to FIB. Based on a meta-analysis of published data, we summarize concentrations of coliphages (F+ and somatic), Bacteroides spp. and enterococci bacteriophages (phages) in human waste, non-human waste, fresh and marine waters as well as removal through wastewater treatment processes. We also provide comparisons with FIB and enteric viruses whenever possible. Lastly, we examine fate and transport characteristics in the environment and provide an overview of the methods available for detection and enumeration of bacteriophages. In summary, concentrations of FIB bacteriophages in various sources were consistently lower than FIB, but more reflective of infectious enteric virus levels. Our investigation supports use of bacteriophages as viral surrogates especially for wastewater treatment processes, while additional research is needed to clarify their utility as indicators of viral fate and transport in the ambient water. Describes concentrations and removal through environmental and engineered systems of bacteriophages, fecal indicator bacteria and viral pathogens.

  10. Bacteriophages as indicators of faecal pollution and enteric virus removal.

    PubMed

    McMinn, B R; Ashbolt, N J; Korajkic, A

    2017-07-01

    Bacteriophages are an attractive alternative to faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), particularly as surrogates of enteric virus fate and transport, due to their closer morphological and biological properties. Based on a review of published data, we summarize densities of coliphages (F+ and somatic), Bacteroides spp. and enterococci bacteriophages (phages) in individual human waste, raw wastewater, ambient fresh and marine waters and removal through wastewater treatment processes utilizing traditional treatments. We also provide comparisons with FIB and enteric viruses whenever possible. Lastly, we examine fate and transport characteristics in the aquatic environment and provide an overview of the environmental factors affecting their survival. In summary, concentrations of bacteriophages in various sources were consistently lower than FIB, but more reflective of infectious enteric virus levels. Overall, our investigation indicates that bacteriophages may be adequate viral surrogates, especially in built systems, such as wastewater treatment plants. Bacteriophage are alternative fecal indicators that may be better surrogates for viral pathogens than fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). This report offers a summary of the existing literature concerning the utility of bacteriophage as indicators of viral presence (fecal sources and surface waters) and persistence (in built infrastructure and aquatic environments). Our findings indicate that bacteriophage levels in all matrices examined are consistently lower than FIB, but similar to viral pathogens. Furthermore, in built infrastructure (e.g. wastewater treatment systems) bacteriophage closely mimic viral pathogen persistence suggesting they may be adequate sentinels of enteric virus removal. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Cravings as a mediator and moderator of drinking outcomes in the COMBINE study.

    PubMed

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Lendle, Samuel; van der Laan, Mark; Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Ahern, Jennifer

    2013-10-01

    Investigators of the COMBINE (Combining Medications and Behavioral Interventions for Alcoholism) study examined whether combining medications with a behavioral intervention would improve outcomes over monotherapies. Unexpectedly, the combination did not offer any advantage over either treatment alone. This study aimed to explain the lack of incremental benefit offered by the combination over either monotherapy by assessing the role of cravings as a treatment mediator and moderator. Secondary mediation and moderation analyses of COMBINE study data. Eleven United States academic sites. A total of 863 patients randomized to one of four treatment groups: naltrexone (100 mg/day; n = 209), the combined behavioral intervention (CBI, n = 236), naltrexone and CBI combined (n = 213) and placebo naltrexone (n = 205). Percentage of days abstinent (PDA) measured between 13 and 16 weeks post-baseline. Cravings, the potential mediator/moderator, were measured at baseline, weeks 4 and 12 using the Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale. Compared with placebo, naltrexone, CBI and the combination all increased PDA by an additional 6-10 percentage points for those with high cravings (P < 0.05 for all three treatment groups). None had significant effects on PDA for those with low cravings. The effects of all three treatments were mediated at least partially by cravings; craving reduction explained 48-53% of treatment effects (P < 0.05 for all three treatment groups). Furthermore, naltrexone appeared to reduce cravings at 4 weeks, while CBI did not reduce cravings until 12 weeks. The Combining Medications and Behavioral Interventions for Alcoholism (COMBINE) naltrexone + CBI combination may not be more beneficial than either monotherapy because craving reduction is a common mechanism of both. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Treatment of alcohol use disorder and co-occurring PTSD.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mandrill; Petrakis, Ismene; Ralevski, Elizabeth

    2017-07-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a serious psychiatric disorder with medical, psychiatric, and social consequences. In individuals with comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), treatment outcomes are notably worse in comparison with treatment outcomes associated with either disorder occurring alone. There is a growing literature evaluating treatments, both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy focused, in individuals with co-occurring AUD and PTSD. The main objective of this review was to evaluate pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy studies that were specifically designed to evaluate the treatment of individuals with comorbid AUD and PTSD. MEDLINE and PUBMED databases were searched with no specific time period. Studies focusing on SUD treatments were excluded. Because the number of random clinical trial (RCT) studies was small, all publications (including open label, single case, and secondary analyses) were included. Sixteen studies met criteria and were organized based on whether they evaluated the efficacy of pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or both. Pharmacological interventions with either AUD or PTSD agents were mainly effective in reducing drinking outcomes; only one study using sertraline found that the active study medication was superior to placebo in reducing PTSD symptoms. Psychotherapies were not superior to a comparative treatment in reducing drinking outcomes. Only 1 study showed reduction in PTSD symptoms in a small sample of completers. The single RCT that evaluated the efficacy of naltrexone in combination with psychotherapies (prolonged exposure or supportive counseling) found that naltrexone in combination with prolonged exposure was better for drinking outcomes at follow-up. Although these studies represent a good start in terms of research in treatment interventions of co-occurring AUD and PTSD, the studies are very limited, most lack adequate power, and the majority suffer from inadequate control groups. In particular, there is a strong need to

  13. Cost-effectiveness of extended release naltrexone to prevent relapse among criminal justice-involved individuals with a history of opioid use disorder.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean M; Polsky, Daniel; Lee, Joshua D; Friedmann, Peter D; Kinlock, Timothy W; Nunes, Edward V; Bonnie, Richard J; Gordon, Michael; Chen, Donna T; Boney, Tamara Y; O'Brien, Charles P

    2017-08-01

    Criminal justice-involved individuals are highly susceptible to opioid relapse and overdose-related deaths. In a recent randomized trial, we demonstrated the effectiveness of extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX; Vivitrol ® ) in preventing opioid relapse among criminal justice-involved US adults with a history of opioid use disorder. The cost of XR-NTX may be a significant barrier to adoption. Thus, it is important to account for improved quality of life and downstream cost-offsets. Our aims were to (1) estimate the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained for XR-NTX versus treatment as usual (TAU) and evaluate it relative to generally accepted value thresholds; and (2) estimate the incremental cost per additional year of opioid abstinence. Economic evaluation of the aforementioned trial from the taxpayer perspective. Participants were randomized to 25 weeks of XR-NTX injections or TAU; follow-up occurred at 52 and 78 weeks. Five study sites in the US Northeast corridor. A total of 308 participants were randomized to XR-NTX (n = 153) or TAU (n = 155). Incremental costs relative to incremental economic and clinical effectiveness measures, QALYs and abstinent years, respectively. The 25-week cost per QALY and abstinent-year figures were $162 150 and $46 329, respectively. The 78-week figures were $76 400/QALY and $16 371/abstinent year. At 25 weeks, we can be 10% certain that XR-NTX is cost-effective at a value threshold of $100 000/QALY and 62% certain at $200 000/QALY. At 78 weeks, the cost-effectiveness probabilities are 59% at $100 000/QALY and 76% at $200 000/QALY. We can be 95% confident that the intervention would be considered 'good value' at $90 000/abstinent year at 25 weeks and $500/abstinent year at 78 weeks. While extended-release naltrexone appears to be effective in increasing both quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and abstinence, it does not appear to be cost-effective using generally accepted value

  14. RNA-Seq Expression Analysis of Enteric Neuron Cells with Rotenone Treatment and Prediction of Regulated Pathways.

    PubMed

    Guan, Qiang; Wang, Xijin; Jiang, Yanyan; Zhao, Lijuan; Nie, Zhiyu; Jin, Lingjing

    2017-02-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) is involved in the initiation and development of the pathological process of Parkinson's disease (PD). The effect of rotenone on the ENS may trigger the progression of PD through the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we used RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis to examine differential expression genes (DEGs) and pathways induced by in vitro treatment of rotenone in the enteric nervous cells isolated from rats. We identified 45 up-regulated and 30 down-regulated genes. The functional categorization revealed that the DEGs were involved in the regulation of cell differentiation and development, response to various stimuli, and regulation of neurogenesis. In addition, the pathway and network analysis showed that the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK), Toll-like receptor, Wnt, and Ras signaling pathways were intensively involved in the effect of rotenone on the ENS. Additionally, the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction result for the selected seven DEGs matched those of the RNA-seq analysis. Our results present a significant step in the identification of DEGs and provide new insight into the progression of PD in the rotenone-induced model.

  15. Epidemiologic and Molecular Pathophysiology of Chronic Opioid Dependence and the Place of Naltrexone Extended-Release Formulations in its Clinical Management

    PubMed Central

    Reece, Albert Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Naltrexone implants and depot injections (NI) are a novel form of treatment for opiate dependence (OD). Major questions relate to their absolute and relative efficacy and safety. Opportunely, six recent clinical trial data from several continents have uniformly provided dramatic evidence of the potent, dose-related and highly significant efficacy of NI, with minimal or manageable accompanying toxicity and safety concerns. The opiate-free lifestyle is attained significantly more often with NI adjusted O.R. = 6.00 (95% C.I. 3.86–9.50), P < 10−10. Other drug use and drug craving are also rapidly reduced. The optimum manner in which to commence NI remains to be established. Of particular relevance is the relative safety of NI compared to the chronic opiate agonists (COA) usually employed, as the long-term toxicity of COA is only just being elucidated. Large population-based studies have found elevated rates of cardiovascular disease, six cancers, liver and respiratory disease, and all-cause mortality in COA. Whilst opiates have been shown to trigger numerous molecular pathways, the most interesting is the demonstration that the opiate morphinan’s nucleus binds to the endotoxin groove of the TLR4-MD2 heterodimer. This has the effect of triggering a low grade endotoxaemic-like state, which over time may account for these protean clinical findings, an effect which is reversed by opiate antagonists. This emerging evidence suggests an exciting new treatment paradigm for OD and a corresponding increase in the role of NI in treatment. PMID:23055738

  16. New perspective for nutritional support of cancer patients: Enteral/parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Gamze

    2011-07-01

    Cancer and its treatment result in severe biochemical and physiological alterations associated with a deterioration of quality of life (QoL). Cancer-related malnutrition may evolve into cancer cachexia due to complex interactions between pro-inflammatory cytokines and the host metabolism. Depending on the type of cancer treatment (either curative or palliative), the clinical condition of the patient and nutritional status, adequate and patient-tailored nutritional intervention should be prescribed (diet counseling, oral supplementation, enteral or total parenteral nutrition). Nutritional support has been widely advocated as adjunctive therapy for a variety of underlying illnesses, including surgery and medical oncotherapy (radiation or chemotherapy for cancer). Glutamine, n-3 fatty acids and probiotics/prebiotics are therapeutic factors that potentially modulate gastrointestinal toxicity related to cancer treatments. Enteral and parenteral nutrition may help improve patient survival, functional status and QoL, yet the benefits appear to be primarily limited to patients with good functional status and with gastrointestinal disease affecting nutritional intake. Parenteral nutrition offers the possibility of increased or maintenance of the nutrient intake in patients for whom normal food intake is inadequate and for whom enteral nutrition is not feasible, is contraindicated or is not accepted by the patient. This article reviews evidence on issues relevant to enteral and parenteral nutrition in patients with cancer.

  17. A pharmaceutical industry perspective on the economics of treatments for alcohol and opioid use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gastfriend, David R

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with alcohol and/or drug use disorders often fail to receive care, or evidence-based care, yet the literature shows health economic benefits. Comparative effectiveness research is emerging that examines approved approaches in terms of real, total healthcare cost/utilization. Comprehensive retrospective insurance claims analyses are few but tend to be nationally distributed and large. The emerging pattern is that, while treatment in general is cost effective, specific therapeutics can yield different health economic outcomes. Cost/utilization data consistently show greater savings with pharmacotherapies (despite their costs) versus psychosocial treatment alone. All FDA-approved addiction pharmacotherapies (oral naltrexone, extended-release naltrexone, acamprosate, disulfiram, buprenorphine, buprenorphine/naloxone, and methadone) are intended for use in conjunction with psychosocial management, not as stand-alone therapeutics; hence, pharmacotherapy costs must offer benefits in addition to abstinence alone or psychological therapy. Patient persistence is problematic, and (despite its cost) extended-release pharmacotherapy may be associated with lower or no greater total healthcare cost, mostly due to reduced hospitalization. The reviewed studies use rigorous case-mix adjustment to balance treatment cohorts but lack the randomization that clinical trials use to protect against confounding. Unlike trials, however, these studies can offer generalizability to diverse populations, providers, and payment models—and are of particular salience to payers. PMID:25236185

  18. The adoption of medications in substance abuse treatment: associations with organizational characteristics and technology clusters.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Ducharme, Lori J; Roman, Paul M

    2007-03-16

    Despite growing interest in closing the "research to practice gap", there are few data on the availability of medications in American substance abuse treatment settings. Recent research suggests that organizational characteristics may be associated with medication availability. It is unclear if the availability of medications can be conceptualized in terms of "technology clusters", where the availability of a medication is positively associated with the likelihood that other medications are also offered. Using data from 403 privately funded and 363 publicly funded specialty substance abuse treatment centers in the US, this research models the availability of agonist medications, naltrexone, disulfiram, and SSRIs. Bivariate logistic regression models indicated considerable variation in adoption across publicly funded non-profit, government-owned, privately funded non-profit, and for-profit treatment centers. Some of these differences were attenuated by organizational characteristics, such as accreditation, the presence of staff physicians, and the availability of detoxification services. There was some evidence that naltrexone, disulfiram, and SSRIs represent a group of less intensely regulated medications that is distinct from more intensely regulated medications. These types of medications were associated with somewhat different correlates. Future research should continue to investigate the similarities and differences in the predictors of medication availability across national contexts.

  19. Enteral and parenteral nutrition in the conservative treatment of pancreatic fistula: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Klek, Stanislaw; Sierzega, Marek; Turczynowski, Lukasz; Szybinski, Piotr; Szczepanek, Kinga; Kulig, Jan

    2011-07-01

    Postoperative pancreatic fistula is the most common and potentially life-threatening complication after pancreatic surgery. Although nutritional support is a key component of conservative therapy in such cases, there have been no well-designed clinical trials substantiating the superiority of either total parenteral nutrition or enteral nutrition. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of both routes of nutritional intervention. A randomized clinical trial was conducted in a tertiary surgical center of pancreatic and gastrointestinal surgery. Seventy-eight patients with postoperative pancreatic fistula were treated conservatively and randomly assigned to groups receiving for 30 days either enteral nutrition or total parenteral nutrition. The primary end point was the 30-day fistula closure rate. After 30 days, closure rates in patients receiving enteral and parenteral nutrition were 60% (24 of 40) and 37% (14 of 38), respectively (P=.043). The odds ratio for the probability that fistula closes on enteral nutrition compared to total parenteral nutrition was 2.571 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.031-6.411). Median time to closure was 27 days (95% CI: 21-33) for enteral nutrition, and no median time was reached in total parenteral nutrition (P=.047). A logistic regression analysis identified only 2 factors significantly associated with fistula closure, ie, enteral nutrition (odds ratio=6.136; 95% CI: 1.204-41.623; P=.043) and initial fistula output of ≤200 mL/day (odds ratio=12.701; 95% CI: 9.102-47.241; P<.001). Enteral nutrition is associated with significantly higher closure rates and shorter time to closure of postoperative pancreatic fistula. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Naltrexone sustained-release/bupropion sustained-release for the management of obesity: review of the data to date

    PubMed Central

    Caixàs, Assumpta; Albert, Lara; Capel, Ismael; Rigla, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is an emerging disease worldwide. Changes in living habits, especially with increased consumption of high-calorie foods and decreased levels of physical activity, lead to an energy imbalance that brings weight gain. Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for several chronic diseases (including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer), reduce quality of life, and are associated with higher mortality. For all these reasons, it is of the utmost importance that the trend be reversed and obese people enabled to lose weight. It is known that eating a healthy diet and exercising regularly can help prevent obesity, but data show that in many cases these steps are not enough. This is the reason why, over the last few decades, several antiobesity drugs have been developed. However, the disappointing results demonstrated for the vast majority of them have not discouraged the pharmaceutical industry from continuing to look for an effective drug or combination of drugs. The systematic review presented here focuses on naltrexone sustained-release/bupropion sustained-release combination (Contrave®). We conclude from the current published reports that its effectiveness in the treatment of obesity can be estimated as a placebo-subtracted weight loss of around 4.5%. This weight reduction is moderate but similar to other antiobesity drugs. The safety profile of this combination is acceptable, despite additional data regarding cardiovascular disease being needed. PMID:25258511

  1. Naltrexone sustained-release/bupropion sustained-release for the management of obesity: review of the data to date.

    PubMed

    Caixàs, Assumpta; Albert, Lara; Capel, Ismael; Rigla, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is an emerging disease worldwide. Changes in living habits, especially with increased consumption of high-calorie foods and decreased levels of physical activity, lead to an energy imbalance that brings weight gain. Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for several chronic diseases (including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer), reduce quality of life, and are associated with higher mortality. For all these reasons, it is of the utmost importance that the trend be reversed and obese people enabled to lose weight. It is known that eating a healthy diet and exercising regularly can help prevent obesity, but data show that in many cases these steps are not enough. This is the reason why, over the last few decades, several antiobesity drugs have been developed. However, the disappointing results demonstrated for the vast majority of them have not discouraged the pharmaceutical industry from continuing to look for an effective drug or combination of drugs. The systematic review presented here focuses on naltrexone sustained-release/bupropion sustained-release combination (Contrave(®)). We conclude from the current published reports that its effectiveness in the treatment of obesity can be estimated as a placebo-subtracted weight loss of around 4.5%. This weight reduction is moderate but similar to other antiobesity drugs. The safety profile of this combination is acceptable, despite additional data regarding cardiovascular disease being needed.

  2. East London Experience with Enteric Fever 2007-2012

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Jayshree; Millar, Michael; Maxeiner, Horst; Freedman, Joanne; Meade, Rachel; Rosmarin, Caryn; Jordan, Matthew; Andrews, Nick; Holliman, Richard; Sefton, Armine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The clinical presentation and epidemiology for patients with enteric fever at two hospitals in East London during 2007–2012 is described with the aim to identify preventive opportunities and to reduce the cost of treatment. Methods A retrospective analysis of case notes from patients admitted with enteric fever during 2007 to 2012 with a microbiologically confirmed diagnosis was undertaken. Details on clinical presentation, travel history, demographic data, laboratory parameters, treatment, patient outcome and vaccination status were collected. Results Clinical case notes were available for 98/129 (76%) patients including 69 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and 29 Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi). Thirty-four patients (35%) were discharged from emergency medicine without a diagnosis of enteric fever and then readmitted after positive blood cultures. Seventy-one of the 98 patients (72%) were UK residents who had travelled abroad, 23 (23%) were foreign visitors/new entrants to the UK and four (4%) had not travelled abroad. Enteric fever was not considered in the initial differential diagnosis for 48/98 (49%) cases. The median length of hospital stay was 7 days (range 0–57 days). The total cost of bed days for managing enteric fever was £454,000 in the two hospitals (mean £75,666/year). Median time to clinical resolution was five days (range 1–20). Seven of 98 (7%) patients were readmitted with relapsed or continued infection. Six of the 71 (8%) patients had received typhoid vaccination, 34 (48%) patients had not received vaccination, and for 31 cases (44%) vaccination status was unknown. Conclusions Further interventions regarding education and vaccination of travellers and recognition of the condition by emergency medicine clinicians in travellers to South Asia is required. PMID:25790017

  3. Commercial enteral formulas and nutrition support teams improve the outcome of home enteral tube feeding.

    PubMed

    Klek, Stanislaw; Szybinski, Piotr; Sierzega, Marek; Szczepanek, Kinga; Sumlet, Magdalena; Kupiec, Monika; Koczur-Szozda, Elzbieta; Steinhoff-Nowak, Malgorzata; Figula, Krzysztof; Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Kulig, Jan

    2011-05-01

    The benefits of home enteral tube feeding (HETF) provided by nutrition support teams (NSTs) have been questioned recently, given the growing costs to the healthcare system. This study examined the effect of a specialized home enteral nutrition program on clinical outcome variables in HETF patients. The observational study included 203 patients (103 women, 100 men; mean age 52.5 years) receiving HETF with homemade diets for at least 12 months before starting a specialized home nutrition program for another 12 months consisting of provision of commercial enteral formulas and the guidance of an NST. Both study periods were compared regarding the number of hospital admissions, length of hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and costs of hospitalization. A specialized HETF program significantly reduced the number of hospital admissions and the duration of hospital and ICU stays. The need for hospitalization and ICU admission was significantly reduced, with odds ratios of 0.083 (95% confidence interval, 0.051-0.133, P < .001) and 0.259 (95% confidence interval, 0.124-0.539, P < .001), respectively. Specialized HETF was associated with a significant decrease in the prevalence of pneumonia (24.1% vs 14.2%), respiratory failure (7.3% vs 1.9%), urinary tract infection (11.3% vs 4.9%), and anemia (3.9% vs 0%) requiring hospitalization. The average yearly cost of hospital treatment decreased from $764.65 per patient to $142.66 per year per patient. The specialized HETF care program reduces morbidity and costs related to long-term enteral feeding at home.

  4. Entering Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawless, Ann; Sedorkin, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a short story of the authors, who show how they have "entered research", that is, entered the earliest conception of research and the early formation of research collaboration. As the authors worked together, they realised they had common concerns and life experiences. Each proudly identifies as working class…

  5. Low-dose naltrexone and opioid consumption: a drug utilization cohort study based on data from the Norwegian prescription database.

    PubMed

    Raknes, Guttorm; Småbrekke, Lars

    2017-06-01

    Low-dose naltrexone (LDN) is used in a wide range of conditions, including chronic pain and fibromyalgia. Because of the opioid antagonism of naltrexone, LDN users are probably often warned against concomitant use with opioids. In this study, based on data from the Norwegian prescription database, we examine changes in opioid consumption after starting LDN therapy. We included all Norwegian patients (N = 3775) with at least one recorded LDN prescription in 2013 and at least one dispensed opioid prescription during the 365 days preceding the first LDN prescription. We allocated the patients into three subgroups depending on the number of collected LDN prescriptions and recorded the number of defined daily doses (DDDs) on collected prescriptions on opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and other analgesics and antipyretics from the same patients. Among the patients collecting ≥4 LDN prescriptions, annual average opioid consumption was reduced by 41 DDDs per person (46%) compared with that of the previous year. The reduction was 12 DDDs per person (15%) among users collecting two to three prescriptions and no change among those collecting only one LDN prescription. We observed no increase in the number of DDDs in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or other analgesics and antipyretics corresponding to the decrease in opioid use. Possibly, LDN users avoided opioids because of warnings on concomitant use or the patients continuing on LDN were less opioid dependent than those terminating LDN. Therapeutic effects of LDN contributing to lower opioid consumption cannot be ruled out. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. How cognitive assessment through clinical neurophysiology may help optimize chronic alcoholism treatment.

    PubMed

    Campanella, S; Petit, G; Verbanck, P; Kornreich, C; Noel, X

    2011-07-01

    Alcohol dependence constitutes a serious worldwide public health problem. The last few decades have seen many pharmacological studies devoted to the improvement of alcoholism treatment. Although psychosocial treatments (e.g. individual or group therapy) have historically been the mainstay of alcoholism treatment, a successful approach for alcohol dependence consists in associating pharmacologic medications with therapy, as 40-70% of patients following only psychosocial therapy typically resume alcohol use within a year of post-detoxification treatment. Nowadays, two main pharmacological options, naltrexone and acomprosate, both approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, are available and seemingly improve on the results yielded by standard techniques employed in the management of alcoholism. However, insufficient data exist to confirm the superiority of one drug over the other, and research is ongoing to determine what type of alcohol-dependent individual benefits the most from using either medication. Available data on the application of both drugs clearly suggest different practical applications. Thus, a fundamental question remains as to how we can identify which alcoholic patients are likely to benefit from the use of naltrexone, acamprosate or both, and which are not. The aim of the present manuscript is to suggest the use of cognitive event-related potentials as an interesting way to identify subgroups of alcoholic patients displaying specific clinical symptoms and cognitive disturbances. We propose that this may help clinicians improve their treatment of alcoholic patients by focusing therapy on individual cognitive disturbances, and by adapting the pharmaceutical approach to the specific needs of the patient. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Betting on change: modeling transitional probabilities to guide therapy development for opioid dependence.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Kenneth M; Jiang, Huiping; Sullivan, Maria A; Bisaga, Adam; Comer, Sandra D; Raby, Wilfrid Noel; Brooks, Adam C; Nunes, Edward V

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated the process of change by modeling transitions among four clinical states encountered in 64 detoxified opiate-dependent individuals treated with daily oral naltrexone: no opiate use, blocked opiate use (i.e., opiate use while adhering to oral naltrexone), unblocked opiate use (i.e., opiate use after having discontinued oral naltrexone), and treatment dropout. The effects of baseline characteristics and two psychosocial interventions of differing intensity, behavioral naltrexone therapy (BNT) and compliance enhancement (CE), on these transitions were studied. Participants using greater quantities of opiates were more likely than other participants to be retained in BNT relative to CE. Markov modeling indicated a transition from abstinence to treatment dropout was approximately 3.56 times greater among participants in CE relative to participants in BNT, indicating the more comprehensive psychosocial intervention kept participants engaged in treatment longer. Transitions to stopping treatment were more likely to occur after unblocked opiate use in both treatments. Continued opiate use while being blocked accounted for a relatively low proportion of transitions to abstinence and may have more deleterious effects later in a treatment episode. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Settling and survival profile of enteric pathogens in the swine effluent for water reuse purpose.

    PubMed

    Fongaro, G; Kunz, A; Magri, M E; Schissi, C D; Viancelli, A; Philippi, L S; Barardi, C R M

    2016-11-01

    The present study evaluated the pathogens persistence and settling profile in swine effluent. We determined the enteric pathogens settling characteristics, their survival and inactivation profile in swine effluent (for water reuse purpose) and in sludge (generated after aerobic treatment - during secondary settling process). The study was performed in laboratorial-scale and in full-scale (manure treatment plant). Enteric viruses and enteric bacteria were used as biomarkers. Results showed that these enteric pathogens were significantly reduced from swine effluent during secondary settling process, and enteric viruses removal was correlated with the suspended solids decantation. The design of secondary settlers can be adapted to improve pathogens removal, by diminishing the solids loading rate per area and time, ending in higher hydraulic retention times. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. A multicenter, 12-month, open-label, single-arm safety study of oxycodone-hydrochloride/naltrexone-hydrochloride extended-release capsules (ALO-02) in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic noncancer pain.

    PubMed

    Arora, Samir; Setnik, Beatrice; Michael, Drass; Hudson, John D; Clemmer, Ray; Meisner, Paul; Pixton, Glenn C; Goli, Veeraindar; Sommerville, Kenneth W

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term safety of oxycodone-hydrochloride and sequestered naltrexone-hydrochloride (ALO-02) administered for up to 12 months. Open-label, single-arm safety study. Thirty-two US research centers (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01428583). Three hundred ninety-five adults (opioid experienced and opioid naïve) with moderate-to-severe chronic noncancer pain (CNCP). Open-label, oral ALO-02 capsules, daily dose ranging from 20 to 160 mg oxycodone for up to 12 months. Number and type of adverse events (AEs) and drugrelated AEs, including assessments of withdrawal (Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale; COWS), pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and aberrant behaviors (Current Opioid Misuse Measure). A total of 193 (48.9 percent) patients received ALO-02 for ≥181 days and 105 (26.6 percent) patients for ≥361 days. The most common treatment-emergent AEs were nausea (25.3 percent), constipation (21.3 percent), vomiting (13.9 percent), and headache (11.6 percent). The most common drug-related AEs were constipation (18.0 percent), nausea (14.9 percent), somnolence (8.4 percent), fatigue (6.8 percent), dizziness (5.6 percent), and vomiting (5.1 percent). A majority of patients (86.6 percent) had a maximum COWS total score below the level for mild withdrawal symptoms at every visit throughout the study. Pain severity scores as measured by the short Form of the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI-SF) decreased over time. Repeat dosing of ALO-02 for up to 12 months is safe and well tolerated in a CNCP population of both opioid-experienced and opioid-naïve patients. ALO-02 demonstrated a safety profile consistent with extended-release opioids and the expected analgesic efficacy. The addition of sequestered naltrexone had no significant clinical effect on patients when taken as directed.

  10. Co-Administration of Low-Dose Naltrexone and Bupropion Reduces Alcohol Drinking in Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Emily R; Dilley, Julian E; Froehlich, Janice C

    2018-03-01

    This study examined whether combining naltrexone (NTX) with bupropion (BUP) is more effective in reducing alcohol drinking in alcohol-preferring (P) rats with a genetic predisposition toward high voluntary alcohol intake than either drug alone. Alcohol-experienced, adult, male, P rats were fed NTX alone in a dose of 10.0 mg/kg BW, BUP alone in a dose of 10.0 mg/kg BW, BUP alone in a dose of 20.0 mg/kg BW, NTX (10.0 mg/kg BW) + BUP (10.0 mg/kg BW), or vehicle (VEH) at 1 hour prior to onset of a daily 2-hour alcohol access period for 5 consecutive days. When administered alone, neither NTX (10.0 mg/kg BW) nor BUP, in either of 2 doses (10.0 mg/kg BW or 20.0 mg/kg BW), reduced voluntary alcohol intake in P rats. However, NTX combined with BUP (10.0 mg/kg NTX + 10.0 mg/kg BUP) and given as a single medication significantly reduced alcohol consumption throughout prolonged treatment. Combining low doses of NTX and BUP, each of which is ineffective when given alone, increases the efficacy of the medication. Low drug doses circumvent the problem of negative side effects that can occur with higher doses of either drug. A reduction in side effects can facilitate patient compliance and improve clinical outcomes for alcoholics and heavy drinkers who want to reduce their alcohol intake. The results, together with those from our prior studies, demonstrate the strength of a combinatorial pharmacotherapeutic approach to the treatment of alcohol use disorder. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  11. Treatment of canine parvoviral enteritis with interferon-omega in a placebo-controlled field trial.

    PubMed

    de Mari, K; Maynard, L; Eun, H M; Lebreux, B

    2003-01-25

    The clinical efficacy of a recombinant feline interferon (IFN) (type omega) was evaluated under field conditions for the treatment of dogs with parvoviral enteritis. In this multicentric, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 94 dogs from one to 28 months old were randomly assigned to two groups which were treated intravenously either with IFN (2.5 million units/kg) or placebo once a day for three consecutive days, and monitored for clinical signs and mortality for 10 days. Each dog received individual supportive treatment The data from 92 interpretable cases (43 IFN-treated and 49 placebo) showed that the clinical signs of the IFN-treated animals improved significantly in comparison with the control animals, and that there were only three deaths in the IFN group compared with 14 deaths in the placebo group (P = 0.0096) corresponding to a 4.4-fold reduction. Alternative analyses of the data taking into account the prior vaccination status of the dogs against canine parvovirus suggested that the IFN therapy resulted in a 6.4-fold reduction in mortality (P = 0.044) in the unvaccinated cohort, a significant reduction when compared with the vaccinated cohort.

  12. New perspective for nutritional support of cancer patients: Enteral/parenteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    AKBULUT, GAMZE

    2011-01-01

    Cancer and its treatment result in severe biochemical and physiological alterations associated with a deterioration of quality of life (QoL). Cancer-related malnutrition may evolve into cancer cachexia due to complex interactions between pro-inflammatory cytokines and the host metabolism. Depending on the type of cancer treatment (either curative or palliative), the clinical condition of the patient and nutritional status, adequate and patient-tailored nutritional intervention should be prescribed (diet counseling, oral supplementation, enteral or total parenteral nutrition). Nutritional support has been widely advocated as adjunctive therapy for a variety of underlying illnesses, including surgery and medical oncotherapy (radiation or chemotherapy for cancer). Glutamine, n-3 fatty acids and probiotics/prebiotics are therapeutic factors that potentially modulate gastrointestinal toxicity related to cancer treatments. Enteral and parenteral nutrition may help improve patient survival, functional status and QoL, yet the benefits appear to be primarily limited to patients with good functional status and with gastrointestinal disease affecting nutritional intake. Parenteral nutrition offers the possibility of increased or maintenance of the nutrient intake in patients for whom normal food intake is inadequate and for whom enteral nutrition is not feasible, is contraindicated or is not accepted by the patient. This article reviews evidence on issues relevant to enteral and parenteral nutrition in patients with cancer. PMID:22977559

  13. Behavioral economic analysis of drug preference using multiple choice procedure data.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, Mark K

    2008-01-11

    The multiple choice procedure has been used to evaluate preference for psychoactive drugs, relative to money amounts (price), in human subjects. The present re-analysis shows that MCP data are compatible with behavioral economic analysis of drug choices. Demand curves were constructed from studies with intravenous fentanyl, intramuscular hydromorphone and oral methadone in opioid-dependent individuals; oral d-amphetamine, oral MDMA alone and during fluoxetine treatment, and smoked marijuana alone or following naltrexone pretreatment in recreational drug users. For each participant and dose, the MCP crossover point was converted into unit price (UP) by dividing the money value ($) by the drug dose (mg/70kg). At the crossover value, the dose ceases to function as a reinforcer, so "0" was entered for this and higher UPs to reflect lack of drug choice. At lower UPs, the dose functions as a reinforcer and "1" was entered to reflect drug choice. Data for UP vs. average percent choice were plotted in log-log space to generate demand functions. Rank of order of opioid inelasticity (slope of non-linear regression) was: fentanyl>hydromorphone (continuing heroin users)>methadone>hydromorphone (heroin abstainers). Rank order of psychostimulant inelasticity was d-amphetamine>MDMA>MDMA+fluoxetine. Smoked marijuana was more inelastic with high-dose naltrexone. These findings show this method translates individuals' drug preferences into estimates of population demand, which has the potential to yield insights into pharmacotherapy efficacy, abuse liability assessment, and individual differences in susceptibility to drug abuse.

  14. Method‐of‐use study of naltrexone sustained release (SR)/bupropion SR on body weight in individuals with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Kevin; Walsh, Brandon; Gilder, Kye; Fujioka, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the effects of 32 mg naltrexone sustained release (SR)/360 mg bupropion SR (NB) on body weight in adults with obesity, with comprehensive lifestyle intervention (CLI), for 78 weeks. Methods In this phase 3b, randomized, open‐label, controlled study, subjects received NB + CLI or usual care (standard diet/exercise advice) for 26 weeks. NB subjects not achieving 5% weight loss at week 16 were discontinued, as indicated by product labeling. After week 26, usual care subjects began NB + CLI. Assessments continued through week 78. The primary end point was percent change in weight from baseline to week 26 in the per protocol population. Other end points included percentage of subjects achieving ≥5%, ≥10%, and ≥15% weight loss, percent change in weight at week 78, and adverse events (AEs) necessitating study medication discontinuation. Results NB + CLI subjects lost significantly more weight than usual care subjects at week 26 (8.52% difference; P < 0.0001). Weight loss persisted through 78 weeks. In total, 20.7% of subjects discontinued medication for AEs, including 7.0% for nausea. Conclusions Treatment with NB, used as indicated by prescribing information and with CLI, significantly improved weight loss over usual care alone. NB‐facilitated weight loss was sustained for 78 weeks and was deemed safe and well tolerated. PMID:28026920

  15. Cumulative proportion of responders analysis (CPRA) as a tool to assess treatment outcome in alcohol clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Falk, Daniel E; Litten, Raye Z; Anton, Raymond F; Kranzler, Henry R; Johnson, Bankole A

    2014-03-01

    Several definitions of treatment response have been proposed for alcohol clinical trials (e.g., abstinence and no heavy drinking). However, each of these outcomes allows only one definition of successful response. In contrast, the cumulative proportion of responders analysis (CPRA) includes all of the possible drinking response cutoff points, providing a more complete picture of the therapeutic effects of a treatment. CPRA has been used to examine the efficacy of analgesics but not alcohol pharmacotherapy. To demonstrate its potential utility, we conducted CPRA in two large alcohol treatment trials: the COMBINE (Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions for Alcohol Dependence) trial (naltrexone) and a multisite topiramate trial. CPRA was used to demonstrate the efficacy of naltrexone and topiramate on continuous measures of in-treatment drinking-heavy drinking days and drinks per day-and their reductions from pretreatment. All possible cutoff points were portrayed for each measure. We provide graphs to illustrate the effects of the active medications compared with placebo and examined them statistically over a number of salient drinking outcomes to evaluate their efficacy. Treatment group responder curves were not parallel across the entire range of cutoff points; rather, they separated only at lower levels of drinking. In general, effect sizes increased by 0.10-0.15 when going from the lowest drinking level cutoff (i.e., abstinence and no heavy drinking) to the cutoff associated with the maximal treatment effect. CPRA may be useful in designing subsequent trials and helping to illustrate for treatment providers the likelihood of treatment success given various definitions of a positive response.

  16. The incidence of infants with rotavirus enteritis combined with lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yulian; Gui, Linyan; Chang, Jing; Liu, Jingyan; Xu, Shuling; Deng, Caiyan; Yu, Fengqin; Ma, Zhanmin; Wang, Guangzhou; Zhang, Changjun

    2016-01-01

    This study was to research the incidence of infants with rotavirus enteritis combined with lactose intolerance and the clinical effect of low lactose milk powder for infantile rotavirus enteritis with lactose intolerance. The control groups were 126 cases of infants with diarrhea randomly collected from our hospital at the same period, which their rotavirus detection was negative. The observation group was 185 cases of infants with rotavirus, which was tested to be positive. Through the urine galactose determination, 62 cases of the control group were positive and 124 cases of the observation group were positive. Then 124 cases of infants with rotavirus combined with lactose intolerance were randomly divided into two groups. 60 cases in the control group were given rehydration, correction of acidosis, oral smecta, Intestinal probiotics and other conventional treatment, then continued to the original feeding method. While, 64 cases in the treatment group, on the basis of routine treatment, applied the low lactose milk feeding. To observe the total effective rate for the two groups. The incidence of lactose intolerance in children with rotavirus enteritis (67.03%) was significantly higher than that of children with diarrhea (49.2%), which was tested to be negative. And the difference was statistically significant (p<0.5). In the aspect of reducing the frequency of diarrhea, and diarrhea stool forming time, the treatment group has the obvious superiority. The total effective rate was 95.4% for treatment group, which was higher than that in the control group (76.7%), the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Infants with rotavirus enteritis was easier to merge with lactose intolerance. The low lactose milk powder could improve the therapeutic effectively and could reduce the duration of disease, and restored to normal diet for 2 weeks feeding time.

  17. Opioid Dependence Treatment: Options In Pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Stotts, Angela L.; Dodrill, Carrie L.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    The development of effective treatments for opioid dependence is of great importance given the devastating consequences of the disease. Pharmacotherapies for opioid addiction include opioid agonists, partial agonists, opioid antagonists, and alpha-2-adrenergic agonists, which are targeted toward either detoxification or long-term agonist maintenance. Agonist maintenance therapy is currently the recommended treatment for opioid dependence due to its superior outcomes relative to detoxification. Detoxification protocols have limited long term efficacy and patient discomfort remains a significant therapy challenge. Buprenorphine’s effectiveness relative to methadone remains a controversy and may be most appropriate for patients in need of low doses of agonist treatment. Buprenorphine appears superior to alpha-2 agonists, however, and office-based treatment with buprenorphine in the US is gaining support. Studies of sustained-release formulations of naltrexone suggest improved effectiveness for retention and sustained abstinence, however, randomized clinical trials are needed. PMID:19538000

  18. COMBINE genetics study: the pharmacogenetics of alcoholism treatment response: genes and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Goldman, David; Oroszi, Gabor; O'Malley, Stephanie; Anton, Raymond

    2005-07-01

    Partial efficacy of treatment and differences in adverse events across individuals are a challenge and an opportunity in the treatment of alcoholism. Individuation of therapy and understanding origins of differential treatment response may require identification of inherited functional variants of genes. The neurobiology of reward, executive cognitive function, anxiety and dysphoria have been identified as critical domains that may have a genetic basis that could predict treatment response. The COMBINE Study presents a unique opportunity to evaluate specific genetic loci (markers) that affect neurobiology central to addiction and extended withdrawal. The study also addresses variation in drug metabolism and action. Candidate genetic markers are selected for study based on functionality and abundance. COMT Vall58Met is a common (minor allele frequency 0.42), functional, catecholamine-metabolizing enzyme polymorphism with threefold relevance. Vall58Met alters executive cognitive function, stress and anxiety responses and brain endogenous opioid function. OPRM1 Asn40Asp is a common (minor allele frequency 0.10), functional polymorphism of the mu-opioid receptor, which may serve as a gatekeeper molecule in naltrexone's actions and was recently reported to affect naltrexone response. HTTLPR (minor allele frequency 0.40) alters serotonin transporter function to affect anxiety, dysphoria and obsessional behavior, which are assessed in COMBINE and may be related to relapse and addictive behavior. All genetic testing is consented through a separate human research protocol, and the testing is conducted nonclinically, confidentially and apart from the clinical record to protect human research participants who have volunteered for this aspect of COMBINE.

  19. Therapeutic drug monitoring for drugs used in the treatment of substance-related disorders: literature review using a therapeutic drug monitoring appropriateness rating scale.

    PubMed

    Brünen, Sonja; Vincent, Philippe D; Baumann, Pierre; Hiemke, Christoph; Havemann-Reinecke, Ursula

    2011-10-01

    The efficacy of drugs for the treatment of substance-related disorders is moderate at best. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) could be an instrument to improve outcomes. Because TDM for most of those drugs is not established, the authors reviewed the literature and built a rating scale to detect the potential added value of TDM for these pharmacologic agents. A literature search was performed for acamprosate, bupropion, buprenorphine, clomethiazole, disulfiram, methadone, naltrexone, and varenicline. The rating scale included 22 items and was divided in five categories: efficacy, toxicity, pharmacokinetics, patient characteristics, and cost-effectiveness. Three reference substances with established TDM were similarly assessed for comparison: clozapine, lithium, and nortriptyline. The three reference substances achieved scores of 15, 12, and 14 points, respectively. Drugs for treatment of substance-related disorders achieved 3 to 17 points, 17 for methadone, 11 for buprenorphine, 10 for disulfiram, also 10 for naltrexone for the indication opioid-dependence and 9 for the indication alcohol dependence as well as bupropion, 7 points for acamprosate, 6 points for clomethiazole, and 3 for varenicline. It is concluded that systematic evaluation of drug- and patient-related variables with the new rating scale can estimate the appropriateness of TDM. Because their rating revealed similar scores as the three reference drugs, it is proposed that TDM should be established for bupropion, buprenorphine, disulfiram or a metabolite, methadone, and naltrexone. An objective rating of drug- and patient-related characteristics could help laboratories focus their method development on the most likely drugs to require TDM along with a thorough drug use evaluation.

  20. 19 CFR 10.570 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Singapore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.570 Goods re-entered... alterations” means restoration, addition, renovation, re-dyeing, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment...

  1. 19 CFR 10.1034 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Korea Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.1034 Goods re-entered... alterations” means restoration, addition, renovation, re-dyeing, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment...

  2. 19 CFR 10.1034 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Korea Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.1034 Goods re-entered... alterations” means restoration, addition, renovation, re-dyeing, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment...

  3. 19 CFR 10.570 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Singapore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.570 Goods re-entered... alterations” means restoration, addition, renovation, re-dyeing, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment...

  4. 19 CFR 10.570 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Singapore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.570 Goods re-entered... alterations” means restoration, addition, renovation, re-dyeing, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment...

  5. 19 CFR 10.570 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Singapore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.570 Goods re-entered... alterations” means restoration, addition, renovation, re-dyeing, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment...

  6. 19 CFR 10.570 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Singapore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.570 Goods re-entered... alterations” means restoration, addition, renovation, re-dyeing, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment...

  7. 19 CFR 10.1034 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Korea Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.1034 Goods re-entered... alterations” means restoration, addition, renovation, re-dyeing, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment...

  8. [Modular enteral nutrition in pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Murillo Sanchís, S; Prenafeta Ferré, M T; Sempere Luque, M D

    1991-01-01

    Modular Enteral Nutrition may be a substitute for Parenteral Nutrition in children with different pathologies. Study of 4 children with different pathologies selected from a group of 40 admitted to the Maternal-Childrens Hospital "Valle de Hebrón" in Barcelona, who received modular enteral nutrition. They were monitored on a daily basis by the Dietician Service. Modular enteral nutrition consists of modules of proteins, peptides, lipids, glucids and mineral salts-vitamins. 1.--Craneo-encephalic traumatisms with loss of consciousness, Feeding with a combination of parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition for 7 days. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended and modular enteral nutrition alone used up to a total of 43 days. 2.--55% burns with 36 days of hyperproteic modular enteral nutrition together with normal feeding. A more rapid recovery was achieved with an increase in total proteins and albumin. 3.--Persistent diarrhoea with 31 days of modular enteral nutrition, 5 days on parenteral nutrition alone and 8 days on combined parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended. 4.--Mucoviscidosis with a total of 19 days on modular enteral nutrition, 12 of which were exclusively on modular enteral nutrition and 7 as a night supplement to normal feeding. We administered proteic intakes of up to 20% of the total calorific intake and in concentrations of up to 1.2 calories/ml of the final preparation, always with a good tolerance. Modular enteral nutrition can and should be used as a substitute for parenteral nutrition in children with different pathologies, thus preventing the complications inherent in parenteral nutrition.

  9. Pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence: perceived treatment barriers and action strategies among Veterans Health Administration service providers.

    PubMed

    Harris, Alex H S; Ellerbe, Laura; Reeder, Rachelle N; Bowe, Thomas; Gordon, Adam J; Hagedorn, Hildi; Oliva, Elizabeth; Lembke, Anna; Kivlahan, Daniel; Trafton, Jodie A

    2013-11-01

    Although access to and consideration of pharmacological treatments for alcohol dependence are consensus standards of care, receipt of these medications by patients is generally rare and highly variable across treatment settings. The goal of the present project was to survey and interview the clinicians, managers, and pharmacists affiliated with addiction treatment programs within Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facilities to learn about their perceptions of barriers and facilitators regarding greater and more reliable consideration of pharmacological treatments for alcohol dependence. Fifty-nine participants from 19 high-adopting and 11 low-adopting facilities completed the survey (facility-level response rate = 50%) and 23 participated in a structured interview. The top 4 barriers to increased consideration and use of pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence were consistent across high- and low-adopting facilities and included perceived low patient demand, pharmacy procedures or formulary restrictions, lack of provider skills or knowledge regarding pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence, and lack of confidence in treatment effectiveness. Low patient demand was rated as the most important barrier for oral naltrexone and disulfiram, whereas pharmacy or formulary restrictions were rated as the most important barrier for acamprosate and extended-release naltrexone. The 4 strategies rated across low- and high-adopting facilities as most likely to facilitate consideration and use of pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence were more education to patients about existing medications, more education to health care providers about medications, increased involvement of physicians in treatment for alcohol dependence, and more compelling research on existing medications. This knowledge provides a foundation for designing, deploying, and evaluating targeted implementation efforts.

  10. Enteric microbiota leads to new therapeutic strategies for ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Xu; Ren, Li-Hua; Shi, Rui-Hua

    2014-11-14

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a leading form of inflammatory bowel disease that involves chronic relapsing or progressive inflammation. As a significant proportion of UC patients treated with conventional therapies do not achieve remission, there is a pressing need for the development of more effective therapies. The human gut contains a large, diverse, and dynamic population of microorganisms, collectively referred to as the enteric microbiota. There is a symbiotic relationship between the human host and the enteric microbiota, which provides nutrition, protection against pathogenic organisms, and promotes immune homeostasis. An imbalance of the normal enteric microbiota composition (termed dysbiosis) underlies the pathogenesis of UC. A reduction of enteric microbiota diversity has been observed in UC patients, mainly affecting the butyrate-producing bacteria, such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, which can repress pro-inflammatory cytokines. Many studies have shown that enteric microbiota plays an important role in anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities, which can benefit UC patients. Therefore, manipulation of the dysbiosis is an attractive approach for UC therapy. Various therapies targeting a restoration of the enteric microbiota have shown efficacy in treating patients with active and chronic forms of UC. Such therapies include fecal microbiota transplantation, probiotics, prebiotics, antibiotics, helminth therapy, and dietary polyphenols, all of which can alter the abundance and composition of the enteric microbiota. Although there have been many large, randomized controlled clinical trials assessing these treatments, the effectiveness and safety of these bacteria-driven therapies need further evaluation. This review focuses on the important role that the enteric microbiota plays in maintaining intestinal homeostasis and discusses new therapeutic strategies targeting the enteric microbiota for UC.

  11. 19 CFR 10.827 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Bahrain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.827 Goods re-entered...” means restoration, addition, renovation, re-dyeing, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment which...

  12. 19 CFR 10.934 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.934 Goods re-entered...” means restoration, addition, renovation, re-dyeing, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment that...

  13. 19 CFR 10.890 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Oman.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Oman Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.890 Goods re-entered...” means restoration, renovation, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment which does not destroy the...

  14. 19 CFR 10.827 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Bahrain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.827 Goods re-entered...” means restoration, addition, renovation, re-dyeing, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment which...

  15. 19 CFR 10.934 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.934 Goods re-entered...” means restoration, addition, renovation, re-dyeing, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment that...

  16. 19 CFR 10.890 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Oman.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Oman Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.890 Goods re-entered...” means restoration, renovation, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment which does not destroy the...

  17. 19 CFR 10.787 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Morocco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.787 Goods re-entered...” means restoration, addition, renovation, re-dyeing, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment which...

  18. 19 CFR 10.787 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Morocco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.787 Goods re-entered...” means restoration, addition, renovation, re-dyeing, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment which...

  19. 19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.490 Goods re-entered...” means restoration, addition, renovation, re-dyeing, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment which...

  20. 19 CFR 10.787 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Morocco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.787 Goods re-entered...” means restoration, addition, renovation, re-dyeing, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment which...

  1. 19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.490 Goods re-entered...” means restoration, addition, renovation, re-dyeing, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment which...

  2. 19 CFR 10.827 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Bahrain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.827 Goods re-entered...” means restoration, addition, renovation, re-dyeing, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment which...

  3. 19 CFR 10.890 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Oman.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Oman Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.890 Goods re-entered...” means restoration, renovation, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment which does not destroy the...

  4. 19 CFR 10.827 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Bahrain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.827 Goods re-entered...” means restoration, addition, renovation, re-dyeing, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment which...

  5. 19 CFR 10.827 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Bahrain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.827 Goods re-entered...” means restoration, addition, renovation, re-dyeing, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment which...

  6. 19 CFR 10.890 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Oman.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Oman Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.890 Goods re-entered...” means restoration, renovation, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment which does not destroy the...

  7. 19 CFR 10.787 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Morocco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.787 Goods re-entered...” means restoration, addition, renovation, re-dyeing, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment which...

  8. 19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.490 Goods re-entered...” means restoration, addition, renovation, re-dyeing, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment which...

  9. 19 CFR 10.934 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.934 Goods re-entered...” means restoration, addition, renovation, re-dyeing, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment that...

  10. 19 CFR 10.787 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Morocco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.787 Goods re-entered...” means restoration, addition, renovation, re-dyeing, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment which...

  11. 19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.490 Goods re-entered...” means restoration, addition, renovation, re-dyeing, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment which...

  12. 19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.490 Goods re-entered...” means restoration, addition, renovation, re-dyeing, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment which...

  13. Association of Pharmacological Treatments for Obesity With Weight Loss and Adverse Events

    PubMed Central

    Khera, Rohan; Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Chandar, Apoorva K.; Dulai, Parambir S.; Wang, Zhen; Prokop, Larry J.; Loomba, Rohit; Camilleri, Michael; Singh, Siddharth

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Five medications have been approved for the management of obesity, but data on comparative effectiveness are limited. OBJECTIVE To compare weight loss and adverse events among drug treatments for obesity using a systematic review and network meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane Central from inception to March 23, 2016; clinical trial registries. STUDY SELECTION Randomized clinical trials conducted among overweight and obese adults treated with US Food and Drug Administration–approved long-term weight loss agents (orlistat, lorcaserin, naltrexone-bupropion, phentermine-topiramate, or liraglutide) for at least 1 year compared with another active agent or placebo. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Two investigators identified studies and independently abstracted data using a predefined protocol. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed and relative ranking of agents was assessed using surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) probabilities. Quality of evidence was assessed using GRADE criteria. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Proportions of patients with at least 5%weight loss and at least 10% weight loss, magnitude of decrease in weight, and discontinuation of therapy because of adverse events at 1 year. RESULTS Twenty-eight randomized clinical trials with 29018 patients (median age, 46 years; 74%women; median baseline body weight, 100.5 kg; median baseline body mass index, 36.1) were included. A median 23%of placebo participants had at least 5%weight loss vs 75%of participants taking phentermine-topiramate (odds ratio [OR], 9.22; 95%credible interval [CrI], 6.63–12.85; SUCRA, 0.95), 63%of participants taking liraglutide (OR, 5.54; 95%CrI, 4.16–7.78; SUCRA, 0.83), 55%taking naltrexone-bupropion (OR, 3.96; 95%CrI, 3.03–5.11; SUCRA, 0.60), 49%taking lorcaserin (OR, 3.10; 95%CrI, 2.38–4.05; SUCRA, 0.39), and 44%taking orlistat (OR, 2.70; 95%CrI, 2.34–3.09; SUCRA, 0.22). All active agents were associated

  14. Topical naltrexone accelerates full-thickness wound closure in type 1 diabetic rats by stimulating angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Patricia J; Immonen, Jessica A; Zagon, Ian S

    2013-07-01

    Delays in wound healing often result in infection, chronic ulceration, and possible amputation of extremities. Impaired wound healing is a major complication of the 23 million people in the USA with diabetes, and financial and medical burdens are demanding new treatments for wound healing. Previous studies have demonstrated that topical application of the opioid antagonist naltrexone (NTX) dissolved in moisturizing cream reverses delays in wound closure in rats with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes. A target of NTX's action is DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. In this study, granulation tissue was evaluated to ascertain the specific cellular targets that were impaired in diabetic wounds, as well as those that were enhanced following NTX application. Mast cell number as well as the number of new blood vessels immunoreactive to fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) antibodies were recorded at 3, 5, 8, 10, 15, and 20 days following creation of full-thickness dorsal cutaneous wounds in normal and type 1 diabetic rats. Diabetic rats displayed delays in wound closure as well as a reduction in the number of mast cells responding to the injury, and delays in the spatial and temporal expression of FGF-2, VEGF, and α-SMA in capillaries. Topical NTX accelerated the rate of wound closure and stimulated expression of angiogenic factors within granulation tissue of diabetic rats relative to control animals receiving saline in moisturizing cream. These data support observations that a novel biological pathway is impaired under diabetic conditions and can be modulated by topical NTX to enhance proliferative events in wound healing.

  15. Metformin, naltrexone, or the combination of prednisolone and antiandrogenic oral contraceptives as first-line therapy in hyperinsulinemic women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hadžiomerović-Pekić, Dijana; Wildt, Ludwig; Weiss, Jürgen Michael; Moeller, Kay; Mattle, Verena; Seeber, Beata E

    2010-11-01

    To compare the short-term effects of metformin (M), naltrexone (N), and a combination of OC and prednisolone (OC/Pr) on the metabolic state and the ovarian function of PCOS women, we randomized 29 women to a 3-month course of therapy. We observed significant improvements in hyperandrogenemia and ovulation rates in PCOS women of all three groups, in the absence of changes in the metabolic state, suggesting that insulin resistance in PCOS patients is only one of several factors leading to hyperandrogenemic ovarian failure. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Enteric viruses of chickens and turkeys

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although enteric disease in commercial poultry operations is common, and often unofficially reported and discussed by field veterinarians as “non-specific enteric disease”, three recognized enteric syndromes do exist in poultry: poult enteritis complex (PEC) and poult enteritis mortality syndrome (P...

  17. Naltrexone alters the processing of social and emotional stimuli in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Wardle, Margaret C; Bershad, Anya K; de Wit, Harriet

    2016-12-01

    Endogenous opioids have complex social effects that may depend on specific receptor actions and vary depending on the "stage" of social behavior (e.g., seeking vs. responding to social stimuli). We tested the effects of a nonspecific opioid antagonist, naltrexone (NTX), on social processing in humans. NTX is used to treat alcohol and opiate dependence, and may affect both mu and kappa-opioid systems. We assessed attention ("seeking"), and subjective and psychophysiological responses ("responding") to positive and negative social stimuli. Based on literature suggesting mu-opioid blockade impairs positive social responses, we hypothesized that NTX would decrease responses to positive social stimuli. We also tested responses to negative stimuli, which might be either increased by NTX's mu-opioid effects or decreased by its kappa-opioid effects. Thirty-four healthy volunteers received placebo, 25 mg, or 50 mg NTX across three sessions under double-blind conditions. At each session, participants completed measures of attention, identification, and emotional responses for emotional faces and scenes. NTX increased attention to emotional expressions, slowed identification of sadness and fear, and decreased ratings of arousal for social and nonsocial emotional scenes. These findings are more consistent with anxiolytic kappa-antagonist than mu-blocking effects, suggesting effects on kappa receptors may contribute to the clinical effects of NTX.

  18. Quality of life, binge eating and sexual function in participants treated for obesity with sustained release naltrexone/bupropion.

    PubMed

    Halseth, A; Shan, K; Gilder, K; Malone, M; Acevedo, L; Fujioka, K

    2018-04-01

    This multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label trial examined weight-related quality of life, control over eating behaviour and sexual function after 26 weeks of treatment with either 32 mg naltrexone sustained release (SR)/360 mg bupropion SR plus a comprehensive lifestyle intervention program (NB + CLI, N = 153) or usual care (UC, N = 89), which included minimal lifestyle intervention. Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite, Binge Eating Scale and Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale were assessed at baseline (BL) and weeks 16 and 26. NB + CLI and UC participants lost 9.46 and 0.94% respectively of initial body weight at week 26 (P < 0.0001). NB + CLI participants had greater improvements in Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite total score than UC participants (P < 0.0001). In participants with moderate/severe Binge Eating Scale scores at BL, 91% of NB + CLI and 18% of UC participants experienced categorical improvements. In participants with Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale-defined sexual dysfunction at BL, 58% of NB + CLI and 19% of UC participants no longer met dysfunction criteria at week 26. The most frequent adverse events leading to discontinuation before week 26 in NB + CLI included nausea (10.5%); anxiety (3.3%); and headache, hypertension, insomnia and palpitations (1.3% each). Compared with UC, participants treated with NB + CLI experienced greater improvements in weight-related quality of life, control over eating behaviour, and sexual function.

  19. Behavioral Economic Analysis of Drug Preference Using Multiple Choice Procedure Data

    PubMed Central

    Greenwald, Mark K.

    2008-01-01

    The Multiple Choice Procedure has been used to evaluate preference for psychoactive drugs, relative to money amounts (price), in human subjects. The present re-analysis shows that MCP data are compatible with behavioral economic analysis of drug choices. Demand curves were constructed from studies with intravenous fentanyl, intramuscular hydromorphone and oral methadone in opioid-dependent individuals; oral d-amphetamine, oral MDMA alone and during fluoxetine treatment, and smoked marijuana alone or following naltrexone pretreatment in recreational drug users. For each participant and dose, the MCP crossover point was converted into unit price (UP) by dividing the money value ($) by the drug dose (mg/70 kg). At the crossover value, the dose ceases to function as a reinforcer, so “0” was entered for this and higher UPs to reflect lack of drug choice. At lower UPs, the dose functions as a reinforcer and “1” was entered to reflect drug choice. Data for UP vs. average percent choice were plotted in log-log space to generate demand functions. Rank of order of opioid inelasticity (slope of non-linear regression) was: fentanyl > hydromorphone (continuing heroin users) > methadone > hydromorphone (heroin abstainers). Rank order of psychostimulant inelasticity was d-amphetamine > MDMA > MDMA + fluoxetine. Smoked marijuana was more inelastic with high-dose naltrexone. These findings show this method translates individuals’ drug preferences into estimates of population demand, which has the potential to yield insights into pharmacotherapy efficacy, abuse liability assessment, and individual differences in susceptibility to drug abuse. PMID:17949924

  20. Combined enteral and parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Wernerman, Jan

    2012-03-01

    To review and discuss the evidence and arguments to combine enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition in the ICU, in particular with reference to the Early Parenteral Nutrition Completing Enteral Nutrition in Adult Critically Ill Patients (EPaNIC) study. The EPaNIC study shows an advantage in terms of discharges alive from the ICU when parenteral nutrition is delayed to day 8 as compared with combining enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition from day 3 of ICU stay. The difference between the guidelines from the European Society of Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition in Europe and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition/Society of Critical Care Medicine in North America concerning the combination of enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition during the initial week of ICU stay was reviewed. The EPaNIC study clearly demonstrates that early parenteral nutrition in the ICU is not in the best interests of most patients. Exactly at what time point the combination of enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition should be considered is still an open question.

  1. The enter-educate approach.

    PubMed

    Piotrow, P T; Coleman, P L

    1992-03-01

    This article describes how the Population Communication Services (PCS) has seized on the "enter-educate" approach, the blending of popular entertainment with social messages, to change reproductive health behavior. The enter-educate approach spreads its message through songs, soap operas, variety shows, and other types of popular entertainment mediums. Because they entertain, enter-educate projects can capture the attention of an audience -- such as young people -- who would otherwise scorn social messages. And the use of population mediums makes it possible to reach a variety of audiences. Funded by USAID, PCS began its first enter-educate project in response to the increasing number of teenage pregnancies in Latin America. PCS developed 2 songs and videos, which featured popular teenage singers to serve as role models, to urge abstinence. The songs became instant hits. Since then, PCS has mounted more then 80 major projects in some 40 countries. Highlights of programs range from a successful multi-media family planning campaign in Turkey to humorous television ads in Brazil promoting vasectomy. Recently, PCS initiated projects to teach AIDS awareness. At the core of the enter-educate approach is the social learning theory which holds that much behavior is learned through the observation of role-models. Health professionals work alongside entertainers to produce works that have audience appeal and factual social messages. The enter-educate approach works because it is popular, pervasive, personal, persuasive, and profitable. PCS has found that enter-educate programs pay for themselves through cost sharing and cost recovery.

  2. Interaction of Human Enteric Viruses with Microbial Compounds: Implication for Virus Persistence and Disinfection Treatments.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Prunelle; Meseguer, Alba; Lucas, Françoise; Moulin, Laurent; Wurtzer, Sébastien

    2017-12-05

    Although the interaction between phages and bacteria has already been well described, it only recently emerged that human viruses also interact with bacteria in the mammalian gut. We studied whether this interaction could occur in tap water and thus confer enteric viruses protection against temperature and the classical disinfection treatments used in drinking water production. We demonstrated that the addition of lipopolysaccharide or peptidoglycan of bacterial origin to enterovirus provides thermal protection through stabilization of the viral capsid. This interaction plays a role when viruses are exposed to disinfection that targets the capsid, but less so when the virus genome is directly targeted. The interaction seems to be serotype-specific, suggesting that the capsid protein sequence could be important. The protection is linked to a direct association between viral particles and bacterial compounds as observed by microscopy. These results show that bacterial compounds present in the environment can affect virus inactivation.

  3. Non-stereoselective reversal of neuropathic pain by naloxone and naltrexone

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Mark R.; Zhang, Yingning; Brown, Kimberley; Coats, Benjamen D.; Shridhar, Mitesh; Sholar, Paige W.; Patel, Sonica J.; Crysdale, Nicole Y.; Harrison, Jacqueline A.; Maier, Steven F.; Rice, Kenner C.; Watkins, Linda R.

    2008-01-01

    Although activated spinal cord glia contribute importantly to neuropathic pain, how nerve injury activates glia remains controversial. It has recently been proposed, on the basis of genetic approaches, that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) may be a key receptor for initiating microglial activation following L5 spinal nerve injury. The present studies extend this idea pharmacologically by showing that TLR4 is key for maintaining neuropathic pain following sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI). Established neuropathic pain was reversed by intrathecally delivered TLR4 receptor antagonists derived from lipopolysaccharide. Additionally, (+)-naltrexone, (+)-naloxone, and (-))-naloxone, which we show here to be TLR4 antagonists in vitro on both stably transfected HEK293-TLR4 and microglial cell lines, suppressed neuropathic pain with complete reversal upon chronic infusion. Immunohistochemical analyses of spinal cords following chronic infusion revealed suppression of CCI-induced microglial activation by (+)-naloxone and (-))-naloxone, paralleling reversal of neuropathic pain. Together, these CCI data support the conclusion that neuron-to-glia signaling through TLR4 is important not only for initiating neuropathic pain, as suggested previously, but also for maintaining established neuropathic pain. Furthermore, these studies suggest that the novel TLR4 antagonists (+)-naloxone and (-))-naloxone can each fully reverse established neuropathic pain upon multi-day administration. This finding with (+)-naloxone is of potential clinical relevance. This is because (+)-naloxone is an antagonist that is inactive at the (-))-opioid selective receptors on neurons that produce analgesia. Thus, these data suggest that (+)-opioid antagonists such as (+)-naloxone may be useful clinically to suppress glial activation, yet (-))-opioid agonists suppress pain. PMID:18662331

  4. A pharmaceutical industry perspective on the economics of treatments for alcohol and opioid use disorders.

    PubMed

    Gastfriend, David R

    2014-10-01

    Individuals with alcohol and/or drug use disorders often fail to receive care, or evidence-based care, yet the literature shows health economic benefits. Comparative effectiveness research is emerging that examines approved approaches in terms of real, total healthcare cost/utilization. Comprehensive retrospective insurance claims analyses are few but tend to be nationally distributed and large. The emerging pattern is that, while treatment in general is cost effective, specific therapeutics can yield different health economic outcomes. Cost/utilization data consistently show greater savings with pharmacotherapies (despite their costs) versus psychosocial treatment alone. All FDA-approved addiction pharmacotherapies (oral naltrexone, extended-release naltrexone, acamprosate, disulfiram, buprenorphine, buprenorphine/naloxone, and methadone) are intended for use in conjunction with psychosocial management, not as stand-alone therapeutics; hence, pharmacotherapy costs must offer benefits in addition to abstinence alone or psychological therapy. Patient persistence is problematic, and (despite its cost) extended-release pharmacotherapy may be associated with lower or no greater total healthcare cost, mostly due to reduced hospitalization. The reviewed studies use rigorous case-mix adjustment to balance treatment cohorts but lack the randomization that clinical trials use to protect against confounding. Unlike trials, however, these studies can offer generalizability to diverse populations, providers, and payment models--and are of particular salience to payers. © 2014 Alkermes, Inc. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Revisiting the ALA/N (alpha-lipoic acid/low-dose naltrexone) protocol for people with metastatic and nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer: a report of 3 new cases.

    PubMed

    Berkson, Burton M; Rubin, Daniel M; Berkson, Arthur J

    2009-12-01

    The authors, in a previous article, described the long-term survival of a man with pancreatic cancer and metastases to the liver, treated with intravenous alpha-lipoic acid and oral low-dose naltrexone (ALA/N) without any adverse effects. He is alive and well 78 months after initial presentation. Three additional pancreatic cancer case studies are presented in this article. At the time of this writing, the first patient, GB, is alive and well 39 months after presenting with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas with metastases to the liver. The second patient, JK, who presented to the clinic with the same diagnosis was treated with the ALA/N protocol and after 5 months of therapy, PET scan demonstrated no evidence of disease. The third patient, RC, in addition to his pancreatic cancer with liver and retroperitoneal metastases, has a history of B-cell lymphoma and prostate adenocarcinoma. After 4 months of the ALA/N protocol his PET scan demonstrated no signs of cancer. In this article, the authors discuss the poly activity of ALA: as an agent that reduces oxidative stress, its ability to stabilize NF(k)B, its ability to stimulate pro-oxidant apoptosic activity, and its discriminative ability to discourage the proliferation of malignant cells. In addition, the ability of lowdose naltrexone to modulate an endogenous immune response is discussed. This is the second article published on the ALA/N protocol and the authors believe the protocol warrants clinical trial.

  6. Gatifloxacin versus chloramphenicol for uncomplicated enteric fever: an open-label, randomised, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Arjyal, Amit; Basnyat, Buddha; Koirala, Samir; Karkey, Abhilasha; Dongol, Sabina; Agrawaal, Krishna Kumar; Shakya, Nikki; Shrestha, Kabina; Sharma, Manish; Lama, Sanju; Shrestha, Kasturi; Khatri, Nely Shrestha; Shrestha, Umesh; Campbell, James I; Baker, Stephen; Farrar, Jeremy; Wolbers, Marcel; Dolecek, Christiane

    2011-06-01

    We aimed to investigate whether gatifloxacin, a new generation and affordable fluoroquinolone, is better than chloramphenicol for the treatment of uncomplicated enteric fever in children and adults. We did an open-label randomised superiority trial at Patan Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal, to investigate whether gatifloxacin is more effective than chloramphenicol for treating uncomplicated enteric fever. Children and adults clinically diagnosed with enteric fever received either gatifloxacin (10 mg/kg) once a day for 7 days, or chloramphenicol (75 mg/kg per day) in four divided doses for 14 days. Patients were randomly allocated treatment (1:1) in blocks of 50, without stratification. Allocations were placed in sealed envelopes opened by the study physician once a patient was enrolled into the trial. Masking was not possible because of the different formulations and ways of giving the two drugs. The primary outcome measure was treatment failure, which consisted of at least one of the following: persistent fever at day 10, need for rescue treatment, microbiological failure, relapse until day 31, and enteric-fever-related complications. The primary outcome was assessed in all patients randomly allocated treatment and reported separately for culture-positive patients and for all patients. Secondary outcome measures were fever clearance time, late relapse, and faecal carriage. The trial is registered on controlled-trials.com, number ISRCTN 53258327. 844 patients with a median age of 16 (IQR 9-22) years were enrolled in the trial and randomly allocated a treatment. 352 patients had blood-culture-confirmed enteric fever: 175 were treated with chloramphenicol and 177 with gatifloxacin. 14 patients had treatment failure in the chloramphenicol group, compared with 12 in the gatifloxacin group (hazard ratio [HR] of time to failure 0·86, 95% CI 0·40-1·86, p=0·70). The median time to fever clearance was 3·95 days (95% CI 3·68-4·68) in the chloramphenicol group and 3·90 days

  7. A Randomized Controlled Comparison of Azithromycin and Ofloxacin for Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant or Nalidixic Acid-Resistant Enteric Fever

    PubMed Central

    Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Parry, Christopher M.; Ly, Nguyen Thi; Ha, Huynh Duy; Thong, Mai Xuan; Diep, To Song; Wain, John; White, Nicholas J.; Farrar, Jeremy J.

    2000-01-01

    To examine the efficacy and safety of short courses of azithromycin and ofloxacin for treating multidrug-resistant (MDR, i.e., resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and cotrimoxazole) and nalidixic acid-resistant enteric fever, azithromycin (1 g once daily for 5 days at 20 mg/kg/day) and ofloxacin (200 mg orally twice a day for 5 days at 8 mg/kg/day) were compared in an open randomized study in adults admitted to a hospital with uncomplicated enteric fever. A total of 88 blood culture-confirmed patients were enrolled in the study (86 with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and 2 with S. enterica serovar Paratyphi A). Of these, 44 received azithromycin and 44 ofloxacin. A total of 68 of 87 (78%) isolates were MDR serovar Typhi, and 46 of 87 (53%) were nalidixic acid resistant. The MIC90 (range) of azithromycin was 8 (4 to 16) μg/ml for the isolates. The MIC90 (range) of ofloxacin for the nalidixic acid-sensitive isolates was 0.03 (0.015 to 0.06) μg/ml and for the nalidixic acid-resistant isolates it was 0.5 (0.25 to 1.0) μg/ml. There was no significant difference in the overall clinical cure rate with ofloxacin and azithromycin (38 of 44 [86.4%] versus 42 of 44 [95.5%]; P = 0.27) or in the patients infected with nalidixic acid-resistant typhoid (17 of 21 [81.0%] versus 24 of 25 [96.0%]; P = 0.16). However, patients with nalidixic acid-resistant typhoid treated with ofloxacin had a longer fever clearance time compared with those treated with azithromycin (174 [60 to 264] versus 135 [72 to 186] h; P = 0.004) and had positive fecal cultures after the end of treatment (7 of 17 [41%] versus 0 of 19 [0%]; P = 0.002). Both antibiotics were well tolerated. A 5-day course of azithromycin was effective for the treatment of enteric fever due to MDR and nalidixic-acid-resistant serovar Typhi, whereas the ofloxacin regimen chosen was less satisfactory for these strains. PMID:10858343

  8. Hepatitis C: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Home » Hepatitis C » Hepatitis C Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment for Veterans and the Public Treatment ...

  9. Enteric nervous system: sensory physiology, diarrhea and constipation.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jackie D

    2010-03-01

    The enteric nervous system integrates secretion and motility into homeostatic patterns of behavior susceptible to disorder. Progress in understanding mechanosensory detection in these processes, disordered enteric nervous system integration in diarrhea and constipation and pharmacotherapy is summarized. Most neurons in the enteric nervous system discharge in response to distortion. Drugs acting directly to open chloride conductance channels in the mucosal epithelium are therapeutic options for constipation. Mechanoreception is required for negative feedback control. At issue is identification of the neurons that fulfil the requirement for mechanoreception. Understanding secretomotor neurons is basic to understanding neurogenic secretory diarrhea and constipation and therapeutic strategies. A strategy for treatment of chronic constipation is development of agents that act directly to open Cl channels, which thereby increases the liquidity of the luminal contents. Lubiprostone, a recently Food and Drug Administration-approved drug, increases intraluminal liquidity by opening Cl channels. The future for the drug is clouded by controversy over whether its action is directly at one or the other of chloride channel type 2 (ClC-2) or cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channels or both and whether action reflects involvement of G protein-coupled prostaglandin receptors expressed by mucosal epithelial cells.

  10. Suicide attempts and overdoses among adults entering addictions treatment: comparing correlates in a U.S. National Study.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, Amy S B; Roeder, Kathryn M; Ilgen, Mark A

    2011-12-01

    Suicide attempts and non-fatal overdoses are both associated with substance use. The aim of the present study was to examine correlates of suicide attempts and non-fatal overdoses simultaneously among individuals seeking addictions treatment. A large U.S. national sample of individuals entering addictions treatment participated in a cross-sectional survey (n=5892). Multinomial logistic regression modeling tested the adjusted associations of violence, injection drug use, specific substances, and depressive symptoms with a four-category outcome variable based on prior histories of suicide attempt and non-fatal overdose (neither, suicide attempt only, overdose only, both), adjusting for demographic and treatment characteristics. Sexual and physical victimization was associated with suicide attempts with or without overdoses (ORs 1.25-2.84), while perpetrating violence was associated with having experienced either or both outcomes (ORs 1.25-1.56). Depressive symptoms had a stronger association with suicide attempts (OR=3.05) than overdoses (OR=1.29). Injection drug use was associated with overdoses with or without suicide attempts (ORs 2.65-3.22). Individuals seeking treatment for marijuana use were less likely have overdosed or attempted suicide (ORs 0.39-0.67), while individuals seeking treatment for heroin use were more likely to have overdosed (OR=1.46). Seeking treatment for use of more than one substance was associated with overdose and overdose and suicide attempt (ORs 1.58-2.51), but not suicide attempt alone. The present findings indicate that suicide and overdose are connected yet distinct problems. Individuals who have had a history of both may be a group with particularly poor psychological functioning as well as more severe drug-related problems. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Effects of cannabidiol plus naltrexone on motivation and ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Viudez-Martínez, Adrián; García-Gutiérrez, María S; Fraguas-Sánchez, Ana Isabel; Torres-Suárez, Ana Isabel; Manzanares, Jorge

    2018-06-02

    The aim of this study was to explore if the administration of naltrexone (NTX) together with cannabidiol (CBD) may improve the efficacy in reducing alcohol consumption and motivation rather than any of the drugs given separately. The effects of low doses of NTX (0.7 mg/kg; p.o.) and/or CBD (20 mg/kg/day; s.c.) on ethanol consumption and motivation to drink were evaluated in the oral-ethanol self-administration paradigm in C57BL/6 mice. Gene expression analyses of μ opioid receptor (Oprm1) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT 1A ) in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) were carried out by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The role of 5-HT 1A on the ethanol reduction induced by the administration of CBD + NTX was analysed by using the 5-HT 1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.). The administration of CBD + NTX significantly reduced motivation and ethanol intake in the oral self-administration procedure in a greater proportion than the drugs given alone. Only the combination of both drugs significantly reduced Oprm1, TH and 5-HT 1A gene expressions in the NAc, VTA and DR, respectively. Interestingly, the administration of WAY100635 significantly blocked the actions of CBD + NTX but had no effects by itself. The combination of low doses of CBD plus NTX resulted more effective to reduce ethanol consumption and motivation to drink. These effects, appears to be mediated, at least in part, by 5-HT 1A receptors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Quality of life, binge eating and sexual function in participants treated for obesity with sustained release naltrexone/bupropion

    PubMed Central

    Shan, K.; Gilder, K.; Malone, M.; Acevedo, L.; Fujioka, K.

    2018-01-01

    Summary Objective This multicenter, randomized, controlled, open‐label trial examined weight‐related quality of life, control over eating behaviour and sexual function after 26 weeks of treatment with either 32 mg naltrexone sustained release (SR)/360 mg bupropion SR plus a comprehensive lifestyle intervention program (NB + CLI, N = 153) or usual care (UC, N = 89), which included minimal lifestyle intervention. Methods Impact of Weight on Quality of Life‐Lite, Binge Eating Scale and Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale were assessed at baseline (BL) and weeks 16 and 26. Results NB + CLI and UC participants lost 9.46 and 0.94% respectively of initial body weight at week 26 (P < 0.0001). NB + CLI participants had greater improvements in Impact of Weight on Quality of Life‐Lite total score than UC participants (P < 0.0001). In participants with moderate/severe Binge Eating Scale scores at BL, 91% of NB + CLI and 18% of UC participants experienced categorical improvements. In participants with Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale‐defined sexual dysfunction at BL, 58% of NB + CLI and 19% of UC participants no longer met dysfunction criteria at week 26. The most frequent adverse events leading to discontinuation before week 26 in NB + CLI included nausea (10.5%); anxiety (3.3%); and headache, hypertension, insomnia and palpitations (1.3% each). Conclusion Compared with UC, participants treated with NB + CLI experienced greater improvements in weight‐related quality of life, control over eating behaviour, and sexual function. PMID:29670752

  13. Diagnosing clostridial enteric disease in poultry.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Kerry K; Songer, J Glenn; Uzal, Francisco A

    2013-05-01

    The world's poultry industry has grown into a multibillion-dollar business, the success of which hinges on healthy intestinal tracts, which result in effective feed conversion. Enteric disease in poultry can have devastating economic effects on producers, due to high mortality rates and poor feed efficiency. Clostridia are considered to be among the most important agents of enteric disease in poultry. Diagnosis of enteric diseases produced by clostridia is usually challenging, mainly because many clostridial species can be normal inhabitants of the gut, making it difficult to determine their role in virulence. The most common clostridial enteric disease in poultry is necrotic enteritis, caused by Clostridium perfringens, which typically occurs in broiler chickens but has also been diagnosed in various avian species including turkeys, waterfowl, and ostriches. Diagnosis is based on clinical and pathological findings. Negative culture and toxin detection results may be used to rule out this disease, but isolation of C. perfringens and/or detection of its alpha toxin are of little value to confirm the disease because both are often found in the intestine of healthy birds. Ulcerative enteritis, caused by Clostridium colinum, is the other major clostridial enteric disease of poultry. Diagnosis of ulcerative enteritis is by documentation of typical pathological findings, coupled with isolation of C. colinum from the intestine of affected birds. Other clostridial enteric diseases include infections produced by Clostridium difficile, Clostridium fallax, and Clostridium baratii.

  14. Enteral Nutrition With an Enteral Formula Containing Egg Yolk Lecithin After Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Akashi, Tetsuro; Hashimoto, Risa; Ohno, Akihisa; Matsumoto, Kazuhide; Nakamura, Yukari

    2018-01-01

    The occurrence of diarrhea at the beginning of enteral nutrition complicates the continuation of enteral nutrition. Recently, studies in Japan indicated that diarrhea could be improved by changing the enteral formula to one that is emulsified with egg yolk lecithin. In this study, we administered the enteral formula K-2S plus, which is emulsified with egg yolk lecithin, to 15 patients (four men and 11 women; mean age, 79.9 ± 2.0 years) after they had undergone a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) to prevent the occurrence of diarrhea related to enteral nutrition. Two days after the PEG, the patients would receive 200 mL K-2S plus intermittently three times daily; thereafter, the amount of K-2S plus was increased according to the patient’s condition. The administration rate was scheduled as 200 mL/h when 200 mL were administered at one time. For ≥ 300 mL, the scheduled administration rate was 300 mL/h. When we administered K-2S plus at the beginning of enteral nutrition after the PEG, the dose of the enteral formula could be increased without any occurrence of diarrhea or vomiting. Five patients had received intravenous nutrition before the PEG; thus, we were concerned about diarrhea in these patients. In conclusion, an enteral formula emulsified with egg yolk lecithin may be safely used at the time of enteral nutrition initiation without causing diarrhea. PMID:29707085

  15. Fathers Entering Substance Abuse Treatment: An Examination of Substance Abuse, Trauma Symptoms and Parenting Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Stover, Carla Smith; Hall, Chelsea; McMahon, Thomas J.; Easton, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Objective The relationship between fatherhood and both psychiatric distress and severity of substance abuse (SA) among men entering SA treatment has not been well explored. This study was designed to (a) examine differences in symptoms of men presenting for SA assessment based on fatherhood status and (b) determine how PTSD symptoms and severity of SA were associated with parenting for men who were fathers. Methods PTSD symptoms, severity of SA and parenting data reported on structured questionnaires were collected from 126 men presenting for an SA evaluation at a forensic drug diversion clinic. Results There were no differences in severity of alcohol or drug use between fathers and non-fathers; however fathers with more PTSD symptoms reported greater severity of alcohol and drug use. Among the fathers, PTSD symptoms correlated significantly and positively with negative parenting behaviors, while SA did not. Fathers with more significant PTSD symptoms were more likely to want help with parenting. Conclusions Further exploration of the impact of trauma related symptoms on the parenting behaviors of substance-abusing men is warranted. PMID:22305235

  16. Tuberculous Enteritis: A Rare Complication of Miliary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Nilmarie; Isache, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculous enteritis is a clinical rarity even in immunocompromised patients. We present a case of miliary tuberculosis with gastrointestinal involvement. A 47-year-old homosexual male from Philippines with no significant medical history presented with productive cough, night sweats, subjective fevers, shortness of breath, watery diarrhea, and 25-pound weight loss in past one year. On physical exam he was afebrile, mildly hypotensive, tachycardic, and tachypneic, but saturating well on room air. He was cachectic with oral thrush and bilateral fine rales. Chest X-ray revealed a miliary pattern. His sputum AFB smear was strongly positive. PCR and sputum culture were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. He was started on Rifampin, Isoniazid, Ethambutol, and Pyrazinamide. He was found to be HIV positive with an absolute CD4 count of 4 cells/μL. Due to persistent diarrhea, stool was sent for AFB culture and grew M. tuberculosis. He responded well to treatment with resolution of symptoms. Tuberculous enteritis occurs in about 2% of the patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Although it is uncommon, it should be considered in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis and abdominal complaints. A presumptive diagnosis of tuberculous enteritis can be made in the setting of active pulmonary tuberculosis with suggestive clinical, endoscopic, and/or radiographic findings. PMID:27022494

  17. Tuberculous Enteritis: A Rare Complication of Miliary Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Danisha; Guzman, Nilmarie; Isache, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculous enteritis is a clinical rarity even in immunocompromised patients. We present a case of miliary tuberculosis with gastrointestinal involvement. A 47-year-old homosexual male from Philippines with no significant medical history presented with productive cough, night sweats, subjective fevers, shortness of breath, watery diarrhea, and 25-pound weight loss in past one year. On physical exam he was afebrile, mildly hypotensive, tachycardic, and tachypneic, but saturating well on room air. He was cachectic with oral thrush and bilateral fine rales. Chest X-ray revealed a miliary pattern. His sputum AFB smear was strongly positive. PCR and sputum culture were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. He was started on Rifampin, Isoniazid, Ethambutol, and Pyrazinamide. He was found to be HIV positive with an absolute CD4 count of 4 cells/μL. Due to persistent diarrhea, stool was sent for AFB culture and grew M. tuberculosis. He responded well to treatment with resolution of symptoms. Tuberculous enteritis occurs in about 2% of the patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Although it is uncommon, it should be considered in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis and abdominal complaints. A presumptive diagnosis of tuberculous enteritis can be made in the setting of active pulmonary tuberculosis with suggestive clinical, endoscopic, and/or radiographic findings.