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Sample records for enterococcus faecium clones

  1. Individual variability in finger-to-finger transmission efficiency of Enterococcus faecium clones

    PubMed Central

    del Campo, Rosa; Sánchez-Díaz, Ana María; Zamora, Javier; Torres, Carmen; Cintas, Luis María; Franco, Elvira; Cantón, Rafael; Baquero, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    A fingertip-to-fingertip intraindividual transmission experiment was carried out in 30 healthy volunteers, using four MLST-typed Enterococcus faecium clones. Overall results showed an adequate fit goodness to a theoretical exponential model, whereas four volunteers (13%) exhibited a significantly higher finger-to-finger bacterial transmission efficiency. This observation might have deep consequences in nosocomial epidemiology. PMID:24382843

  2. Longer Intestinal Persistence of Enterococcus faecalis Compared to Enterococcus faecium Clones in Intensive-Care-Unit Patients▿

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; del Campo, Rosa; Coque, Teresa M.; Asensio, Angel; Bonten, Marc; Willems, Rob; Baquero, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics of intestinal colonization with enterococcal clones in intensive-care-unit (ICU) patients was evaluated. Eight patients admitted directly to the neurosurgical ICU at the Ramón y Cajal University Hospital (Madrid, Spain) from the community and with no overlapping stay during a 10-month period in 2006 were studied. Rectal swab specimens were collected on admission and daily until the patients were discharged. Clonality was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. Clonal colonization dynamics were estimated by using two new parameters: the clonal diversity per patient per day (CDPD) and the clonal persistence ratio (CPR). Enterococcus faecalis isolates (n = 123) and Enterococcus faecium isolates (n = 66) were resolved into 13 and 15 clones, respectively. The CDPD of E. faecalis steadily increased during admission, and E. faecalis showed a higher (P = 0.001) CPR value than E. faecium (0.86 and 0.42, respectively). E. faecium, with the exception of an ampicillin-resistant clone belonging to clonal complex 17, frequently appeared as a short-term colonizer, even though the E. faecalis clones had significantly (P = 0.03) more days under antibiotic exposure than E. faecium (77.5 and 65 days/100 colonization days, respectively). E. faecalis had a longer persistence than E. faecium, except for the CC17 ampicillin-resistant clone, and E. faecalis showed a cumulative increase in CDPD, whereas E. faecium did not. CDPD and CPR were useful for measuring the dynamics of intestinal colonization with enterococcal clones. PMID:19052172

  3. Evolutionary origins of the emergent ST796 clone of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Buultjens, Andrew H.; Lam, Margaret M.C.; Ballard, Susan; Monk, Ian R.; Mahony, Andrew A.; Grabsch, Elizabeth A.; Grayson, M. Lindsay; Pang, Stanley; Coombs, Geoffrey W.; Robinson, J. Owen; Seemann, Torsten; Howden, Benjamin P.

    2017-01-01

    From early 2012, a novel clone of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium (assigned the multi locus sequence type ST796) was simultaneously isolated from geographically separate hospitals in south eastern Australia and New Zealand. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of Ef_aus0233, a representative ST796 E. faecium isolate. We used PacBio single molecule real-time sequencing to establish a high quality, fully assembled genome comprising a circular chromosome of 2,888,087 bp and five plasmids. Comparison of Ef_aus0233 to other E. faecium genomes shows Ef_aus0233 is a member of the epidemic hospital-adapted lineage and has evolved from an ST555-like ancestral progenitor by the accumulation or modification of five mosaic plasmids and five putative prophage, acquisition of two cryptic genomic islands, accrued chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms and a 80 kb region of recombination, also gaining Tn1549 and Tn916, transposons conferring resistance to vancomycin and tetracycline respectively. The genomic dissection of this new clone presented here underscores the propensity of the hospital E. faecium lineage to change, presumably in response to the specific conditions of hospital and healthcare environments. PMID:28149688

  4. Evolutionary origins of the emergent ST796 clone of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Buultjens, Andrew H; Lam, Margaret M C; Ballard, Susan; Monk, Ian R; Mahony, Andrew A; Grabsch, Elizabeth A; Grayson, M Lindsay; Pang, Stanley; Coombs, Geoffrey W; Robinson, J Owen; Seemann, Torsten; Johnson, Paul D R; Howden, Benjamin P; Stinear, Timothy P

    2017-01-01

    From early 2012, a novel clone of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium (assigned the multi locus sequence type ST796) was simultaneously isolated from geographically separate hospitals in south eastern Australia and New Zealand. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of Ef_aus0233, a representative ST796 E. faecium isolate. We used PacBio single molecule real-time sequencing to establish a high quality, fully assembled genome comprising a circular chromosome of 2,888,087 bp and five plasmids. Comparison of Ef_aus0233 to other E. faecium genomes shows Ef_aus0233 is a member of the epidemic hospital-adapted lineage and has evolved from an ST555-like ancestral progenitor by the accumulation or modification of five mosaic plasmids and five putative prophage, acquisition of two cryptic genomic islands, accrued chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms and a 80 kb region of recombination, also gaining Tn1549 and Tn916, transposons conferring resistance to vancomycin and tetracycline respectively. The genomic dissection of this new clone presented here underscores the propensity of the hospital E. faecium lineage to change, presumably in response to the specific conditions of hospital and healthcare environments.

  5. Identification of a novel clone, ST736, among Enterococcus faecium clinical isolates and its association with daptomycin nonsusceptibility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guiqing; Kamalakaran, Sitharthan; Dhand, Abhay; Huang, Weihua; Ojaimi, Caroline; Zhuge, Jian; Yee, Leslie Lee; Mayigowda, Pramod; Surendraiah, Pavan Kumar Makam; Dimitrova, Nevenka; Fallon, John T

    2014-08-01

    Resistance to daptomycin in enterococcal clinical isolates remains rare but is being increasingly reported in the United States and worldwide. There are limited data on the genetic relatedness and microbiological and clinical characteristics of daptomycin-nonsusceptible enterococcal clinical isolates. In this study, we assessed the population genetics of daptomycin-nonsusceptible Enterococcus faecium (DNSE) clinical isolates by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and whole-genome sequencing analysis. Forty-two nonduplicate DNSE isolates and 43 randomly selected daptomycin-susceptible E. faecium isolates were included in the analysis. All E. faecium isolates were recovered from patients at a tertiary care medical center in suburban New York City from May 2009 through December 2013. The daptomycin MICs of the DNSE isolates ranged from 6 to >256 μg/ml. Three major clones of E. faecium (ST18, ST412, and ST736) were identified among these clinical isolates by MLST and whole-genome sequence-based analysis. A newly recognized clone, ST736, was seen in 32 of 42 (76.2%) DNSE isolates and in only 14 of 43 (32.6%) daptomycin-susceptible E. faecium isolates (P < 0.0001). This report provides evidence of the association between E. faecium clone ST736 and daptomycin nonsusceptibility. The identification and potential spread of this novel E. faecium clone and its association with daptomycin nonsusceptibility constitute a challenge for patient management and infection control at our medical center. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Cloning, Production, and Functional Expression of the Bacteriocin Enterocin A, Produced by Enterococcus faecium T136, by the Yeasts Pichia pastoris, Kluyveromyces lactis, Hansenula polymorpha, and Arxula adeninivorans

    PubMed Central

    Borrero, Juan; Kunze, Gotthard; Jiménez, Juan J.; Böer, Erik; Gútiez, Loreto; Herranz, Carmen; Cintas, Luis M.

    2012-01-01

    The bacteriocin enterocin A (EntA) produced by Enterococcus faecium T136 has been successfully cloned and produced by the yeasts Pichia pastoris X-33EA, Kluyveromyces lactis GG799EA, Hansenula polymorpha KL8-1EA, and Arxula adeninivorans G1212EA. Moreover, P. pastoris X-33EA and K. lactis GG799EA produced EntA in larger amounts and with higher antimicrobial and specific antimicrobial activities than the EntA produced by E. faecium T136. PMID:22685156

  7. Complete Genome Sequences of Isolates of Enterococcus faecium Sequence Type 117, a Globally Disseminated Multidrug-Resistant Clone

    PubMed Central

    Tedim, Ana P.; Lanza, Val F.; Manrique, Marina; Pareja, Eduardo; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Cantón, Rafael; Baquero, Fernando; Tobes, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The emergence of nosocomial infections by multidrug-resistant sequence type 117 (ST117) Enterococcus faecium has been reported in several European countries. ST117 has been detected in Spanish hospitals as one of the main causes of bloodstream infections. We analyzed genome variations of ST117 strains isolated in Madrid and describe the first ST117 closed genome sequences. PMID:28360174

  8. Molecular epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Corso, Alejandra C; Gagetti, Paula S; Rodríguez, Marisa M; Melano, Roberto G; Ceriana, Paola G; Faccone, Diego F; Galas, Marcelo F

    2007-01-01

    To characterize the mechanism of glycopeptide resistance and to determine the genetic relatedness among strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium from Argentina. A total of 189 vancomycin-resistant single-patient isolates of Enterococcus faecium recovered between January 1997 and December 2000 from 30 hospitals in Argentina were studied. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by the agar dilution method and van genes were detected by PCR. PFGE was used for molecular typing. All isolates except three (vanB) were of genotype vanA. For 189 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, SmaI-PFGE indicated 35 clonal types. Most of the isolates (56%) belonged to the same clonal type 1, which was present in 19 hospitals and dominant in 17. The emergence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in Argentina seems to be related to the intra- and inter-hospital dissemination of an epidemic clone carrying the vanA element.

  9. Complete Genome Sequences of Isolates of Enterococcus faecium Sequence Type 117, a Globally Disseminated Multidrug-Resistant Clone.

    PubMed

    Tedim, Ana P; Lanza, Val F; Manrique, Marina; Pareja, Eduardo; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Cantón, Rafael; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M; Tobes, Raquel

    2017-03-30

    The emergence of nosocomial infections by multidrug-resistant sequence type 117 (ST117) Enterococcus faecium has been reported in several European countries. ST117 has been detected in Spanish hospitals as one of the main causes of bloodstream infections. We analyzed genome variations of ST117 strains isolated in Madrid and describe the first ST117 closed genome sequences. Copyright © 2017 Tedim et al.

  10. Cloning of the bile salt hydrolase (bsh) gene from Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 345 and chromosomal location of bsh genes in food enterococci.

    PubMed

    Wijaya, Agus; Hermann, Anette; Abriouel, Hikmate; Specht, Ingrid; Yousif, Nuha M K; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H; Franz, Charles M A P

    2004-12-01

    Enterococcus faecium strain FAIR-E 345 isolated from food was shown to possess bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) activity in a plate screening assay and by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The bsh gene was cloned and sequenced. DNA sequence analysis revealed that it encoded a protein of 324 amino acids, with pI 4.877. A bsh gene probe was prepared from the cloned bsh gene and was used for probing plasmid and total genomic DNA of Bsh-positive enterococci isolated from food to determine the genomic location of their bsh genes. This probe was able to detect the bsh gene among total genomic DNA preparations but not from plasmid preparations of 10 plasmid-bearing Enterococcus strains. However, the probe could detect the bsh gene from total genomic DNA preparations of 12 Enterococcus strains that did not contain detectable plasmid DNA. In no cases did the probe hybridize with plasmid DNA preparations, suggesting that the bsh gene among enterococci is probably generally chromosomally encoded. This presumptive chromosomal location of bsh genes among food enterococci suggests that transfer of this trait by conjugative plasmids is unlikely.

  11. Rapid detection of high-risk Enterococcus faecium clones by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Ana R; Sousa, Clara; Novais, Carla; Silva, Liliana; Ramos, Helena; Coque, Teresa M; Lopes, João; Peixe, Luísa

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to explore the potential of matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for early identification of dominant Enterococcus faecium (Efm) clones involved in human infections. Well-characterized Efm isolates (n=77), analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing(eBURST and BAPS [Bayesian analysis of population structure] algorithms), and belonging to different hospital (n=53) and community (n=24) phylogenomic groups, were tested. Mass spectra (Bruker) were analyzed by visual inspection and different chemometric tools. Discrimination between groups comprising isolates commonly found in hospitals (BAPS 2.1a, 3.3a1, 3.3a2) and community (BAPS 2.1b and 3.2) was achieved with >99% accuracy, while identification of sequence types belonging to different BAPS subgroups was associated with >95% correct predictions. Our work is a proof of concept with regard to the suitability of MALDI-TOF MS in the identification of high-risk Efm clones. Further studies including strains from a wider variety of clones and sources will strengthen the potential of the workflow here described.

  12. Enterococcus faecium small colony variant endocarditis in an immunocompetent patient

    PubMed Central

    Egido, S. Hernández; Ruiz, M. Siller; Inés Revuelta, S.; García, I. García; Bellido, J.L. Muñoz

    2015-01-01

    Small colony variants (SCV) are slow-growing subpopulations of bacteria usually associated with auxotrophism, causing persistent or recurrent infections. Enterococcus faecalis SCV have been seldom described, and only one case of Enterococcus faecium SCV has been reported, associated with sepsis in a leukaemia patient. Here we report the first case described of bacteraemia and endocarditis by SCV E. faecium in an immunocompetent patient. PMID:26862434

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecium Commensal Isolate E1002.

    PubMed

    Tytgat, Hanne L P; Douillard, François P; Laine, Pia K; Paulin, Lars; Willems, Rob J L; de Vos, Willem M

    2016-03-17

    The emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) has been associated with an increase in multidrug-resistant nosocomial infections. Here, we report the 2.614-Mb genome sequence of the Enterococcus faecium commensal isolate E1002, which will be instrumental in further understanding the determinants of the commensal and pathogenic lifestyle of E. faecium. Copyright © 2016 Tytgat et al.

  14. Resistance of Enterococcus faecium to neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Arduino, R C; Jacques-Palaz, K; Murray, B E; Rakita, R M

    1994-01-01

    During a previous study of the opsonic requirements for neutrophil (polymorphonuclear leukocyte [PMN])-mediated killing of enterococci, we identified two strains of Enterococcus faecium (TX0015 and TX0016) that were resistant to PMN-mediated killing. To better define the mechanism of this resistance, we examined phagocytosis with a fluorescence assay and found that TX0016 was completely resistant to phagocytosis by PMNs; this finding was confirmed by electron microscopy. Examination of multiple strains of enterococci revealed that all 20 strains of Enterococcus faecalis tested were readily phagocytosed (mean, 18 intracellular organisms per PMN; range, 7 to 28). In contrast, only 13 (50%) of 26 strains of E. faecium tested were susceptible to phagocytosis (> or = 7 organisms per PMN); the other 13 strains showed < or = 3 organisms per PMN. Enterococcus casseliflavus ATCC 25788 and one strain of Enterococcus hirae were also resistant to phagocytosis, while two strains of Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus mundtii ATCC 43186, and one strain each of Enterococcus raffinosus and Enterococcus solitarius were readily phagocytosed. Exposure of E. faecium TX0016 to sodium periodate, but not to the protease trypsin or pronase or to phospholipase C, eliminated resistance to phagocytosis. Sialic acid, a common periodate-sensitive structure used by microorganisms to resist opsonization, could not be demonstrated in E. faecium TX0016 by the thiobarbituric acid method, nor was phagocytosis of TX0016 altered by neuraminidase treatment. This study suggests that there is a difference in susceptibility to phagocytosis by PMNs between different species of enterococci and that a carbohydrate-containing moiety which is not sialic acid may be involved in the resistance of E. faecium TX0016 to phagocytosis. Images PMID:7960141

  15. Genetic variability of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis isolates from humans, chickens, and pigs in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Getachew, Yitbarek; Hassan, Latiffah; Zakaria, Zunita; Abdul Aziz, Saleha

    2013-08-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have been reported to be present in humans, chickens, and pigs in Malaysia. In the present study, representative samples of VRE isolated from these populations were examined for similarities and differences by using the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method. Housekeeping genes of Enterococcus faecium (n = 14) and Enterococcus faecalis (n = 11) isolates were sequenced and analyzed using the MLST databases eBURST and goeBURST. We found five sequence types (STs) of E. faecium and six STs of E. faecalis existing in Malaysia. Enterococcus faecium isolates belonging to ST203, ST17, ST55, ST79, and ST29 were identified, and E. faecium ST203 was the most common among humans. The MLST profiles of E. faecium from humans in this study were similar to the globally reported nosocomial-related strain lineage belonging to clonal complex 17 (CC17). Isolates from chickens and pigs have few similarities to those from humans, except for one isolate from a chicken, which was identified as ST203. E. faecalis isolates were more diverse and were identified as ST4, ST6, ST87, ST108, ST274, and ST244, which were grouped as specific to the three hosts. E. faecalis, belonging to the high-risk CC2 and CC87, were detected among isolates from humans. In conclusion, even though one isolate from a chicken was found clonal to that of humans, the MLST analysis of E. faecium and E. faecalis supports the findings of others who suggest VRE to be predominantly host specific and that clinically important strains are found mainly among humans. The infrequent detection of a human VRE clone in a chicken may in fact suggest a reverse transmission of VRE from humans to animals.

  16. Characterization of Class IIa Bacteriocin Resistance in Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Geldart, Kathryn; Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2017-04-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci, particularly resistant Enterococcus faecium, pose an escalating threat in nosocomial environments because of their innate resistance to many antibiotics, including vancomycin, a treatment of last resort. Many class IIa bacteriocins strongly target these enterococci and may offer a potential alternative for the management of this pathogen. However, E. faecium's resistance to these peptides remains relatively uncharacterized. Here, we explored the development of resistance of E. faecium to a cocktail of three class IIa bacteriocins: enterocin A, enterocin P, and hiracin JM79. We started by quantifying the frequency of resistance to these peptides in four clinical isolates of E. faecium We then investigated the levels of resistance of E. faecium 6E6 mutants as well as their fitness in different carbon sources. In order to elucidate the mechanism of resistance of E. faecium to class IIa bacteriocins, we completed whole-genome sequencing of resistant mutants and performed reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) of a suspected target mannose phosphotransferase (ManPTS). We then verified this ManPTS's role in bacteriocin susceptibility by showing that expression of the ManPTS in Lactococcus lactis results in susceptibility to the peptide cocktail. Based on the evidence found from these studies, we conclude that, in accord with other studies in E. faecalis and Listeria monocytogenes, resistance to class IIa bacteriocins in E. faecium 6E6 is likely caused by the disruption of a particular ManPTS, which we believe we have identified.

  17. Production of Enterocin P, an Antilisterial Pediocin-Like Bacteriocin from Enterococcus faecium P13, in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Jorge; Criado, Raquel; Martín, María; Herranz, Carmen; Cintas, Luis M.; Hernández, Pablo E.

    2005-01-01

    The gene encoding mature enterocin P (EntP), an antimicrobial peptide from Enterococcus faecium P13, was cloned into the pPICZαA expression vector to generate plasmid pJC31. This plasmid was integrated into the genome of P. pastoris X-33, and EntP was heterologously secreted from the recombinant P. pastoris X-33t1 derivative at a higher production and antagonistic activity than from E. faecium P13. PMID:15980385

  18. A Multicentre Hospital Outbreak in Sweden Caused by Introduction of a vanB2 Transposon into a Stably Maintained pRUM-Plasmid in an Enterococcus faecium ST192 Clone

    PubMed Central

    Sivertsen, Audun; Billström, Hanna; Melefors, Öjar; Liljequist, Barbro Olsson; Wisell, Karin Tegmark; Ullberg, Måns; Özenci, Volkan; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Hegstad, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    The clonal dissemination of VanB-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) strains in three Swedish hospitals between 2007 and 2011 prompted further analysis to reveal the possible origin and molecular characteristics of the outbreak strain. A representative subset of VREfm isolates (n = 18) and vancomycin-susceptible E. faecium (VSEfm, n = 2) reflecting the spread in time and location was approached by an array of methods including: selective whole genome sequencing (WGS; n = 3), multi locus sequence typing (MLST), antimicrobial susceptibility testing, virulence gene profiling, identification of mobile genetic elements conferring glycopeptide resistance and their ability to support glycopeptide resistance transfer. In addition, a single VREfm strain with an unrelated PFGE pattern collected prior to the outbreak was examined by WGS. MLST revealed a predominance of ST192, belonging to a hospital adapted high-risk lineage harbouring several known virulence determinants (n≥10). The VREfm outbreak strain was resistant to ampicillin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and vancomycin, and susceptible to teicoplanin. Consistently, a vanB2-subtype as part of Tn1549/Tn5382 with a unique genetic signature was identified in the VREfm outbreak strains. Moreover, Southern blot hybridisation analyses of PFGE separated S1 nuclease-restricted total DNAs and filter mating experiments showed that vanB2-Tn1549/Tn5382 was located in a 70-kb sized rep17/pRUM plasmid readily transferable between E. faecium. This plasmid contained an axe-txe toxin-antitoxin module associated with stable maintenance. The two clonally related VSEfm harboured a 40 kb rep17/pRUM plasmid absent of the 30 kb vanB2-Tn1549/Tn5382 gene complex. Otherwise, these two isolates were similar to the VREfm outbreak strain in virulence- and resistance profile. In conclusion, our observations support that the origin of the multicentre outbreak was caused by an introduction of vanB2-Tn1549/Tn5382 into a

  19. RNase 7 Contributes to the Cutaneous Defense against Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Gläser, Regine; Podschun, Rainer; Schröder, Jens-Michael; Harder, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Background Human skin is able to mount a fast response against invading microorganisms by the release of antimicrobial proteins such as the ribonuclease RNase 7. Because RNase 7 exhibits high activity against Enterococcus faecium the aim of this study was to further explore the role of RNase 7 in the cutaneous innate defense system against E. faecium. Methodology/Principal Findings Absolute quantification using real-time PCR and ELISA revealed that primary keratinocytes expressed high levels of RNase 7. Immunohistochemistry showed RNase 7 expression in all epidermal layers of the skin with an intensification in the upper more differentiated layers. Furthermore, RNase 7 was secreted by keratinocytes in vitro and in vivo in a site-dependent way. RNase 7 was still active against E. faecium at low pH (5.5) or high NaCl (150 mM) concentration and the bactericidal activity of RNase 7 against E. faecium required no ribonuclease activity as shown by recombinant RNase 7 lacking enzymatic activity. To further explore the role of RNase 7 in cutaneous defense against E. faecium, we investigated whether RNase 7 contributes to the E. faecium killing activity of skin extracts derived from stratum corneum. Treatment of the skin extract with an RNase 7 specific antibody, which neutralizes the antimicrobial activity of RNase 7, diminished its E. faecium killing activity. Conclusions/Significance Our data indicate that RNase 7 contributes to the E. faecium-killing activity of skin extracts and suggest an important role for RNase 7 in the protection of human skin against E. faecium colonization. PMID:19641608

  20. Functional genomic analysis of bile salt resistance in Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Enterococcus faecium is a Gram-positive commensal bacterium of the mammalian intestinal tract. In the last two decades it has also emerged as a multi-resistant nosocomial pathogen. In order to survive in and colonize the human intestinal tract E. faecium must resist the deleterious actions of bile. The molecular mechanisms exploited by this bacterium to tolerate bile are as yet unexplored. Results In this study we used a high-throughput quantitative screening approach of transposon mutant library, termed Microarray-based Transposon Mapping (M-TraM), to identify the genetic determinants required for resistance to bile salts in E. faecium E1162. The gene gltK, which is predicted to encode a glutamate/aspartate transport system permease protein, was identified by M-TraM to be involved in bile resistance. The role of GltK in bile salt resistance was confirmed by the subsequent observation that the deletion of gltK significantly sensitized E. faecium E1162 to bile salts. To further characterize the response of E. faecium E1162 to bile salts, we performed a transcriptome analysis to identify genes that are regulated by exposure to 0.02% bile salts. Exposure to bile salts resulted in major transcriptional rearrangements, predominantly in genes involved in carbohydrate, nucleotide and coenzyme transport and metabolism. Conclusion These findings add to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which E. faecium responds and resists the antimicrobial action of bile salts. PMID:23641968

  1. Mature biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are highly resistant to antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Anna; Rasmussen, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are important nosocomial pathogens that form biofilms on implanted materials. We compare the antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria in new (established during 24 hours) and mature (established during 120 hours) enterococcal biofilms. Mature biofilms contained more bacteria and were much more tolerant to antibiotics, including rifampicin-containing combinations, as judged by determination of minimal biofilm eradication concentrations and by time-kill experiments of bacteria in biofilms formed on beads of bone cement.

  2. High genetic diversity of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing from a hospital in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Weng, Poh Leng; Ramli, Ramliza; Shamsudin, Mariana Nor; Cheah, Yoke-Kqueen; Hamat, Rukman Awang

    2013-01-01

    Little is known on the genetic relatedness and potential dissemination of particular enterococcal clones in Malaysia. We studied the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis and subjected them to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). E. faecium and E. faecalis displayed 27 and 30 pulsotypes, respectively, and 10 representative E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates (five each) yielded few different sequence types (STs): ST17 (2 isolates), ST78, ST203, and ST601 for E. faecium, and ST6, ST16, ST28, ST179, and ST399 for E. faecalis. Resistance to tazobactam-piperacillin and ampicillin amongst E. faecium isolates was highly observed as compared to E. faecalis isolates. All of the isolates were sensitive to vancomycin and teicoplanin. The presence of epidemic and nosocomial strains of selected E. faecium STs: 17, 78, and 203 and E. faecalis ST6 as well as high rates of resistance to multiple antibiotics amongst E. faecium isolates is of a particular concern.

  3. High Genetic Diversity of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis Clinical Isolates by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Multilocus Sequence Typing from a Hospital in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Poh Leng; Ramli, Ramliza; Shamsudin, Mariana Nor; Cheah, Yoke-Kqueen; Hamat, Rukman Awang

    2013-01-01

    Little is known on the genetic relatedness and potential dissemination of particular enterococcal clones in Malaysia. We studied the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis and subjected them to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). E. faecium and E. faecalis displayed 27 and 30 pulsotypes, respectively, and 10 representative E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates (five each) yielded few different sequence types (STs): ST17 (2 isolates), ST78, ST203, and ST601 for E. faecium, and ST6, ST16, ST28, ST179, and ST399 for E. faecalis. Resistance to tazobactam-piperacillin and ampicillin amongst E. faecium isolates was highly observed as compared to E. faecalis isolates. All of the isolates were sensitive to vancomycin and teicoplanin. The presence of epidemic and nosocomial strains of selected E. faecium STs: 17, 78, and 203 and E. faecalis ST6 as well as high rates of resistance to multiple antibiotics amongst E. faecium isolates is of a particular concern. PMID:23819125

  4. New Insights into the Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus Host Interaction Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Díaz, Ana María; Romero-Hernández, Beatriz; Conde-Moreno, Elisa; Kwak, Young-Keun; Zamora, Javier; Colque-Navarro, Patricia; Möllby, Roland; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Cantón, Rafael; García-Bermejo, Laura; Del Campo, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus) were classically clustered into the Lancefield Group D streptococci and despite their taxonomic reclassification still share a similar genetic content and environment. Both species are considered as opportunistic pathogens. E. faecium is often associated with nosocomial bacteraemia, and S. gallolyticus is sporadically found in endocarditis of colorectal cancer patients. In both cases, the source of infection is commonly endogenous with a translocation process that launches through the intestinal barrier. To get new insights into the pathological processes preceding infection development of both organisms, we used an in vitro model with Caco-2 cells to study and compare the adhesion, invasion and translocation inherent abilities of 6 E. faecium and 4 S. gallolyticus well-characterized isolates. Additionally, biofilm formation on polystyrene, collagen I and IV was also explored. Overall results showed that E. faecium translocated more efficiently than S. gallolyticus, inducing a destabilization of the intestinal monolayer. Isolates Efm106, Efm121 and Efm113 (p < .001 compared to Ef222) exhibited the higher translocation ability and were able to adhere 2-3 times higher than S. gallolyticus isolates. Both species preferred the collagen IV coated surfaces to form biofilm but the S. gallolyticus structures were more compact (p = .01). These results may support a relationship between biofilm formation and vegetation establishment in S. gallolyticus endocarditis, whereas the high translocation ability of E. faecium high-risk clones might partially explain the increasing number of bacteraemia.

  5. New Insights into the Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus Host Interaction Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Hernández, Beatriz; Conde-Moreno, Elisa; Kwak, Young-Keun; Zamora, Javier; Colque-Navarro, Patricia; Möllby, Roland; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Cantón, Rafael; García-Bermejo, Laura; del Campo, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus) were classically clustered into the Lancefield Group D streptococci and despite their taxonomic reclassification still share a similar genetic content and environment. Both species are considered as opportunistic pathogens. E. faecium is often associated with nosocomial bacteraemia, and S. gallolyticus is sporadically found in endocarditis of colorectal cancer patients. In both cases, the source of infection is commonly endogenous with a translocation process that launches through the intestinal barrier. To get new insights into the pathological processes preceding infection development of both organisms, we used an in vitro model with Caco-2 cells to study and compare the adhesion, invasion and translocation inherent abilities of 6 E. faecium and 4 S. gallolyticus well-characterized isolates. Additionally, biofilm formation on polystyrene, collagen I and IV was also explored. Overall results showed that E. faecium translocated more efficiently than S. gallolyticus, inducing a destabilization of the intestinal monolayer. Isolates Efm106, Efm121 and Efm113 (p < .001 compared to Ef222) exhibited the higher translocation ability and were able to adhere 2–3 times higher than S. gallolyticus isolates. Both species preferred the collagen IV coated surfaces to form biofilm but the S. gallolyticus structures were more compact (p = .01). These results may support a relationship between biofilm formation and vegetation establishment in S. gallolyticus endocarditis, whereas the high translocation ability of E. faecium high-risk clones might partially explain the increasing number of bacteraemia. PMID:27463203

  6. Presence of virulence factors in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium susceptible and resistant to vancomycin

    PubMed Central

    Comerlato, Carolina Baldisserotto; de Resende, Mariah Costa Carvalho; Caierão, Juliana; d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing importance of Enterococcus as opportunistic pathogens, their virulence factors are still poorly understood. This study determines the frequency of virulence factors in clinical and commensal Enterococcus isolates from inpatients in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Fifty Enterococcus isolates were analysed and the presence of the gelE, asa1 and esp genes was determined. Gelatinase activity and biofilm formation were also tested. The clonal relationships among the isolates were evaluated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The asa1, gelE and esp genes were identified in 38%, 60% and 76% of all isolates, respectively. The first two genes were more prevalent in Enterococcus faecalis than in Enterococcus faecium, as was biofilm formation, which was associated with gelE and asa1 genes, but not with the esp gene. The presence of gelE and the activity of gelatinase were not fully concordant. No relationship was observed among any virulence factors and specific subclones of E. faecalis or E. faecium resistant to vancomycin. In conclusion, E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates showed significantly different patterns of virulence determinants. Neither the source of isolation nor the clonal relationship or vancomycin resistance influenced their distribution. PMID:23903974

  7. Failure of vancomycin treatment for meningitis caused by vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    van Overbeek, Ellen C; Janknegt, Rob; Ter Berg, Hans W M; Top, Janetta; Sportel, Esther; Heddema, Edou R

    2010-10-01

    This case report describes a nosocomial vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus faecium meningitis with poor response to vancomycin. E. faecium infections continue to represent a therapeutic challenge in Europe, even in countries where vancomycin resistance is still rare. In the case of vancomycin-sensitive E. faecium meningitis, intravenous chloramphenicol should be considered as a treatment option.

  8. Co-diversification of Enterococcus faecium Core Genomes and PBP5: Evidences of pbp5 Horizontal Transfer.

    PubMed

    Novais, Carla; Tedim, Ana P; Lanza, Val F; Freitas, Ana R; Silveira, Eduarda; Escada, Ricardo; Roberts, Adam P; Al-Haroni, Mohammed; Baquero, Fernando; Peixe, Luísa; Coque, Teresa M

    2016-01-01

    Ampicillin resistance has greatly contributed to the recent dramatic increase of a cluster of human adapted Enterococcus faecium lineages (ST17, ST18, and ST78) in hospital-based infections. Changes in the chromosomal pbp5 gene have been associated with different levels of ampicillin susceptibility, leading to protein variants (designated as PBP5 C-types to keep the nomenclature used in previous works) with diverse degrees of reduction in penicillin affinity. Our goal was to use a comparative genomics approach to evaluate the relationship between the diversity of PBP5 among E. faecium isolates of different phylogenomic groups as well as to assess the pbp5 transferability among isolates of disparate clonal lineages. The analyses of 78 selected E. faecium strains as well as published E. faecium genomes, suggested that the diversity of pbp5 mirrors the phylogenomic diversification of E. faecium. The presence of identical PBP5 C-types as well as similar pbp5 genetic environments in different E. faecium lineages and clones from quite different geographical and environmental origin was also documented and would indicate their horizontal gene transfer among E. faecium populations. This was supported by experimental assays showing transfer of large (≈180-280 kb) chromosomal genetic platforms containing pbp5 alleles, ponA (transglycosilase) and other metabolic and adaptive features, from E. faecium donor isolates to suitable E. faecium recipient strains. Mutation profile analysis of PBP5 from available genomes and strains from this study suggests that the spread of PBP5 C-types might have occurred even in the absence of a significant ampicillin resistance phenotype. In summary, genetic platforms containing pbp5 sequences were stably maintained in particular E. faecium lineages, but were also able to be transferred among E. faecium clones of different origins, emphasizing the growing risk of further spread of ampicillin resistance in this nosocomial pathogen.

  9. Co-diversification of Enterococcus faecium Core Genomes and PBP5: Evidences of pbp5 Horizontal Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Novais, Carla; Tedim, Ana P.; Lanza, Val F.; Freitas, Ana R.; Silveira, Eduarda; Escada, Ricardo; Roberts, Adam P.; Al-Haroni, Mohammed; Baquero, Fernando; Peixe, Luísa; Coque, Teresa M.

    2016-01-01

    Ampicillin resistance has greatly contributed to the recent dramatic increase of a cluster of human adapted Enterococcus faecium lineages (ST17, ST18, and ST78) in hospital-based infections. Changes in the chromosomal pbp5 gene have been associated with different levels of ampicillin susceptibility, leading to protein variants (designated as PBP5 C-types to keep the nomenclature used in previous works) with diverse degrees of reduction in penicillin affinity. Our goal was to use a comparative genomics approach to evaluate the relationship between the diversity of PBP5 among E. faecium isolates of different phylogenomic groups as well as to assess the pbp5 transferability among isolates of disparate clonal lineages. The analyses of 78 selected E. faecium strains as well as published E. faecium genomes, suggested that the diversity of pbp5 mirrors the phylogenomic diversification of E. faecium. The presence of identical PBP5 C-types as well as similar pbp5 genetic environments in different E. faecium lineages and clones from quite different geographical and environmental origin was also documented and would indicate their horizontal gene transfer among E. faecium populations. This was supported by experimental assays showing transfer of large (≈180–280 kb) chromosomal genetic platforms containing pbp5 alleles, ponA (transglycosilase) and other metabolic and adaptive features, from E. faecium donor isolates to suitable E. faecium recipient strains. Mutation profile analysis of PBP5 from available genomes and strains from this study suggests that the spread of PBP5 C-types might have occurred even in the absence of a significant ampicillin resistance phenotype. In summary, genetic platforms containing pbp5 sequences were stably maintained in particular E. faecium lineages, but were also able to be transferred among E. faecium clones of different origins, emphasizing the growing risk of further spread of ampicillin resistance in this nosocomial pathogen. PMID

  10. Enterococcus faecium isolated from honey synthesized bacteriocin-like substances active against different Listeria monocytogenes strains.

    PubMed

    Ibarguren, Carolina; Raya, Raúl R; Apella, María C; Audisio, M Carina

    2010-02-01

    Four Enterococcus faecium strains, isolated from honeycombs (C1 and M2d strains) and feral combs (Mori1 and M1b strains) secreted antimicrobial substances active against fourteen different Listeria spp. strains. The antimicrobial compound(s) present in the cell free supernatant were highly thermostable (121 degrees C for 15 min) and inactivated by proteolytic enzymes, but not by alpha-amylase and lipase, thus suggesting a peptidic nature. Since the structural bacteriocin gene determinants of enterocins A and B were PCR amplified from the four E. faecium isolates, only the bacteriocin produced by strain C1 was further characterized: it showed a broad band of approximately 4.0-7.0 kDa in SDS-PAGE and was bactericidal (4 log decrease) against L. monocytogenes 99/287. L. monocytogenes 99/287R, a clone spontaneously resistant to the enterocin produced by E. avium DSMZ17511 (ex PA1), was not inhibited by the enterocin-like compounds produced by strain C1. However, it was inhibited in mixed culture fermentations by E. faecium C1 and a bacteriostatic effect was observed. The bacteriocin-producer Enterococcus strains were not haemolytic; gelatinase negative and sensitive to vancomycin and other clinically relevant antibiotics.

  11. Subinhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin enhance antimicrobial resistance and pathogenicity of Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Sinel, Clara; Cacaci, Margherita; Meignen, Pierrick; Guérin, François; Davies, Bryan W; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Giard, Jean-Christophe; Cattoir, Vincent

    2017-02-13

    Enterococcus faecium has emerged as a major opportunistic pathogen for two decades, with the spread of hospital-adapted multidrug-resistant clones. Members of the intestinal microbiota, they are subjected to numerous bacterial stresses, including antibiotics at subinhibitory concentrations (SICs). Since fluoroquinolones are extensively prescribed, SICs are very likely to occur in vivo with potential effects on bacterial metabolism with subsequent modulation of opportunistic traits. The aim of the study was to evaluate globally the impact of subinhibitory concentrations (SICs) of ciprofloxacin on antimicrobial resistance and pathogenicity of E. faecium Transcriptomic analysis was performed by RNA-seq (HiSeq 2500, Illumina) using the vanB-positive reference strain E. faecium Aus0004 in the absence or presence of ciprofloxacin SIC (0.38 mg/L, i.e. MIC 1/8). Several genetic and phenotypic tests were used for validation. In the presence of ciprofloxacin SIC, 196 genes were significantly induced whereas 286 were significantly repressed, meaning that 16.8% of the E. faecium genome was altered. Amongst upregulated genes, EFAU004_02294 (fold change of 14.3) encoded a protein (EfmQnr) homologue of Qnr proteins involved in quinolone resistance in Gram-negative bacilli. Its implication in intrinsic and adaptive FQ resistance in E. faecium was experimentally ascertained. Moreover, EFAU004_02292 coding for the collagen adhesin Acm was also induced by SIC of ciprofloxacin (fold change of 8.2), and higher adhesion capabilities were demonstrated phenotypically. Both Efmqnr and Acm determinants may play an important role in the transition from a commensal to a pathogenic state of E. faecium that resides in the gut of patients receiving a fluoroquinolone therapy.

  12. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Poultry Flocks in Germany.

    PubMed

    Maasjost, J; Mühldorfer, K; Cortez de Jäckel S; Hafez, H M

    2015-03-01

    Between 2010 and 2011, 145 Enterococcus isolates (Enterococcus faecalis, n = 127; Enterococcus faecium, n = 18) were collected during routine bacteriologic diagnostics from broilers, layers, and fattening turkeys in Germany showing various clinical signs. The susceptibility to 24 antimicrobial agents was investigated by broth microdilution test to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). All E. faecalis isolates (n = 127) were susceptible to the beta-lactam antibiotics ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and penicillin. Corresponding MIC with 50% inhibition (MIC50) and MIC with 90% inhibition (MIC90) values of these antimicrobial agents were at the lower end of the test range (≤ 4 μg/ml). In addition, no vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) were found. High resistance rates were identified in both Enterococcus species for lincomycin (72%-99%) and tetracycline (67%-82%). Half or more than half of Enterococcus isolates were resistant to gentamicin (54%-72%) and the macrolide antibiotics erythromycin (44%-61%) and tylosin-tartate (44%-56%). Enterococcus faecalis isolated from fattening turkeys showed the highest prevalence of antimicrobial resistance compared to other poultry production systems. Eighty-nine out of 145 Enterococcus isolates were resistant to three or more antimicrobial classes. Again, turkeys stood out with 42 (8 1%) multiresistant isolates. The most-frequent resistance patterns of E. faecalis were gentamicin, lincomycin, and tetracycline in all poultry production systems.

  13. Distribution of aminoglycoside resistance genes in recent clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus avium.

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, N.; Alam, M.; Nishimoto, Y.; Urasawa, S.; Uehara, N.; Watanabe, N.

    2001-01-01

    Aminoglycoside modifying enzymes (AMEs) are major factors which confer aminoglycoside resistance on bacteria. Distribution of genes encoding seven AMEs was investigated by multiplex PCR for 279 recent clinical isolates of enterococci derived from a university hospital in Japan. The aac(6')-aph(2"), which is related to high level gentamicin resistance, was detected at higher frequency in Enterococcus faecalis (42.5%) than in Enterococcus faecium (4.3%). Almost half of E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates possessed ant(6)-Ia and aph(3')-IIIa. The profile of AME gene(s) detected most frequently in individual strains of E. faecalis was aac(6')aph(2") + ant(6)-Ia + aph(3')-IIIa, and isolates with this profile showed high level resistance to both gentamicin and streptomycin. In contrast, AME gene profiles of aac(6')-Ii+ ant(6)-Ia+aph(3')-IIIa, followed by aac(6')-Ii alone, were predominant in E. faecium. Only one AME gene profile of ant(6)-Ia+aph(3')-IIIa was found in Enterococcus avium. The ant(4')-Ia and ant(9)-Ia, which have been known to be distributed mostly among Staphylococcus aureus strains, were detected in a few enterococcal strains. An AME gene aph(2")-Ic was not detected in any isolates of the three enterococcal species. These findings indicated a variety of distribution profiles of AME genes among enterococci in our study site. PMID:11349969

  14. Molecular characterization of Rifr mutations in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaoxing; Hua, Xiaoting; Qu, Tingting; Jiang, Yan; Zhou, Zhihui; Yu, Yunsong

    2014-08-01

    Mutation rate is an important factor affecting the appearance and spread of acquired antibiotic resistance. The frequencies and types of enterococci mutations were determined in this study. The MICs of rifampicin in enterococci and their rifampicin-resistant mutants were determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) agar dilution method. The Enterococcus faecalis isolates A15 and 18165 showed no significant differences in mutation frequencies or mutation rates. In Enterococcus faecium, the mutation frequency and mutation rate were both 6·4-fold lower than in E. faecalis. The spectrum of mutations characterized in E. faecium B42 differed significantly from that of E. faecalis. The types and rate of mutations indicated that E. faecalis had a higher potential to develop linezolid resistance. Rifampicin resistance was associated with mutations in the rpoB gene. Rifampicin MICs for the E. faecalis mutant were 2048 mg/l, but rifampicin MICs for E. faecium mutants ranged from 64 to 1024 mg/l.

  15. Influence of enterococcal surface protein (esp) on the transport of Enterococcus faecium within saturated quartz sands.

    PubMed

    Johanson, Jennifer J; Feriancikova, Lucia; Xu, Shangping

    2012-02-07

    Enterococcus was selected by US EPA as a Gram-positive indicator microorganism for groundwater fecal contamination. It was recently reported that enterococcal surface protein (esp) was more prevalent in Enterococcus from human sources than in Enterococcus from nonhuman sources and esp could potentially be used as a source tracking tool for fecal contamination (Scott et al., 2005). In this research, we performed laboratory column transport experiments to investigate the transport of Enterococcus faecium within saturated quartz sands. Particularly, we used a wild type strain (E1162) and a mutant (E1162Δesp) to examine the influence of esp on the transport behavior of E. faecium. Our results showed that esp could significantly enhance the attachment of E. faecium cells onto the surface of silica sands and thus lower the mobility of E. faecium within sand packs. Cell surface properties (e.g., zeta potential) were determined and the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) theory was applied to explain the effects of esp on the retention of E. faecium. Overall, our results suggested that E. faecium strains with esp could display lower mobility within saturated sand packs than E. faecium strains without esp. The disparity in the transport behavior of E. faecium with and without esp could limit the effectiveness of esp as a source tracking tool within the groundwater system.

  16. ccrABEnt serine recombinase genes are widely distributed in the Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus casseliflavus species groups and are expressed in E. faecium

    PubMed Central

    Bjørkeng, Eva Katrin; Tessema, Girum Tadesse; Lundblad, Eirik Wasmuth; Butaye, Patrick; Willems, Rob; Sollid, Johanna Ericsson; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Hegstad, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    The presence, distribution and expression of cassette chromosome recombinase (ccr) genes, which are homologous to the staphylococcal ccrAB genes and are designated ccrABEnt genes, were examined in enterococcal isolates (n=421) representing 13 different species. A total of 118 (28 %) isolates were positive for ccrABEnt genes by PCR, and a number of these were confirmed by Southern hybridization with a ccrAEnt probe (n=76) and partial DNA sequencing of ccrAEnt and ccrBEnt genes (n=38). ccrABEnt genes were present in Enterococcus faecium (58/216, 27 %), Enterococcus durans (31/38, 82 %), Enterococcus hirae (27/52, 50 %), Enterococcus casseliflavus (1/4, 25 %) and Enterococcus gallinarum (1/2, 50 %). In the eight other species tested, including Enterococcus faecalis (n=94), ccrABEnt genes were not found. Thirty-eight sequenced ccrABEnt genes from five different enterococcal species showed 94–100 % nucleotide sequence identity and linkage PCRs showed heterogeneity in the ccrABEnt flanking chromosomal genes. Expression analysis of ccrABEnt genes from the E. faecium DO strain showed constitutive expression as a bicistronic mRNA. The ccrABEnt mRNA levels were lower during log phase than stationary phase in relation to total mRNA. Multilocus sequence typing was performed on 39 isolates. ccrABEnt genes were detected in both hospital-related (10/29, 34 %) and non-hospital (4/10, 40 %) strains of E. faecium. Various sequence types were represented by both ccrABEnt positive and negative isolates, suggesting acquisition or loss of ccrABEnt in E. faecium. In summary, ccrABEnt genes, potentially involved in genome plasticity, are expressed in E. faecium and are widely distributed in the E. faecium and E. casseliflavus species groups. PMID:20817645

  17. Nonclinical and Clinical Enterococcus faecium Strains, but Not Enterococcus faecalis Strains, Have Distinct Structural and Functional Genomic Features

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Bae

    2014-01-01

    Certain strains of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis contribute beneficially to animal health and food production, while others are associated with nosocomial infections. To determine whether there are structural and functional genomic features that are distinct between nonclinical (NC) and clinical (CL) strains of those species, we analyzed the genomes of 31 E. faecium and 38 E. faecalis strains. Hierarchical clustering of 7,017 orthologs found in the E. faecium pangenome revealed that NC strains clustered into two clades and are distinct from CL strains. NC E. faecium genomes are significantly smaller than CL genomes, and this difference was partly explained by significantly fewer mobile genetic elements (ME), virulence factors (VF), and antibiotic resistance (AR) genes. E. faecium ortholog comparisons identified 68 and 153 genes that are enriched for NC and CL strains, respectively. Proximity analysis showed that CL-enriched loci, and not NC-enriched loci, are more frequently colocalized on the genome with ME. In CL genomes, AR genes are also colocalized with ME, and VF are more frequently associated with CL-enriched loci. Genes in 23 functional groups are also differentially enriched between NC and CL E. faecium genomes. In contrast, differences were not observed between NC and CL E. faecalis genomes despite their having larger genomes than E. faecium. Our findings show that unlike E. faecalis, NC and CL E. faecium strains are equipped with distinct structural and functional genomic features indicative of adaptation to different environments. PMID:24141120

  18. Mutant prevention concentrations of daptomycin for Enterococcus faecium clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Sinel, Clara; Jaussaud, Clara; Auzou, Michel; Giard, Jean-Christophe; Cattoir, Vincent

    2016-10-01

    Owing to the emergence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, treatment of enterococcal infections has become challenging. Although spontaneous in vitro resistance frequencies are low, the emergence of resistance is increasingly reported during daptomycin therapy. The mutant selection window (MSW), comprised between the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the mutant prevention concentration (MPC), corresponds to the concentration range within which resistant mutants may be selected. Since no data are available for enterococci, the aim of this study was to determine MPCs and MSWs for 12 representative E. faecium clinical isolates. MICs and MPCs were determined by broth microdilution and agar dilution methods, respectively. A basic MSW-derived pharmacodynamic analysis was also performed using mean maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) values obtained with dosages from 4 to 12 mg/kg. MICs and MPCs of daptomycin ranged from 0.5 to 4 mg/L and from 2 to 32 mg/L, respectively, with no correlation between them. The wideness of MSWs ranged from 2× to 32× MIC. Mean plasma Cmax values of daptomycin were calculated from 55 to 174.5 mg/L when using a dosage from 4 to 12 mg/kg. All Cmax values were above the MPCs whatever the dosage. Taking into account the protein binding of daptomycin (ca. 90%), the unbound fraction Cmax was just within the MSW in 67-92% of strains at recommended dosages (4-6 mg/kg) and was above the MPC for the majority of strains only with the highest dosage (12 mg/kg). This study shows that free daptomycin Cmax values usually fell into MSWs when using lower dosages (<10 mg/kg).

  19. Biocide and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from the swine meat chain.

    PubMed

    Rizzotti, Lucia; Rossi, Franca; Torriani, Sandra

    2016-12-01

    In this study nine strains of Enterococcus faecalis and 12 strains of Enterococcus faecium, isolated from different sample types in the swine meat chain and previously characterized for the presence of antibiotic resistance genes, were examined for phenotypic tolerance to seven biocides (chlorexidine, benzalkonium chloride, triclosan, sodium hypochlorite, 2-propanol, formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide) and resistance to nine antibiotics (ampicillin, vancomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol). Moreover, the presence of efflux system encoding genes qacA/B, qacC, qacE, qacEΔ1, emeA, and stress response genes, sigV and gsp65, involved in the tolerance to biocides, was analysed. Most strains were not tolerant to the biocides, but showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) higher than the recommended cut-off values for all the antibiotics tested, except for vancomycin and chloramphenicol. Only weak correlations, if any, were found between biocide and antibiotic resistance data. One E. faecalis strain was tolerant to triclosan and one E. faecium strain, with higher tolerance to chlorexidine than the other strains tested, was found to carry a qacA/B gene. Our results indicated that phenotypic resistance to antibiotics is very frequent in enterococcal isolates from the swine meat chain, but phenotypic tolerance to biocides is not common. On the other hand, the gene qacA/B was found for the first time in the species E. faecium, an indication of the necessity to adopt measures suitable to control the spread of biocide resistance determinants among enterococci.

  20. An investigation of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium within the pediatric service of a large urban medical center.

    PubMed

    McNeeley, D F; Brown, A E; Noel, G J; Chung, M; De Lencastre, H

    1998-03-01

    Between 1990 to 1992 and 1993 to 1995 there was a >5-fold increase (16.7% to 89.8%) in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates as a percentage of all isolates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci on the pediatric units of The New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center (NYH-CMC). A molecular epidemiologic investigation was undertaken to determine the extent to which this increase was associated with the spread of a vanA-containing clone of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium that had been previously defined in adults hospitalized at NYH-CMC or with the spread of another vanA clone that had been defined in children hospitalized on the pediatric service at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, which shares a common pediatric intensive care unit and pediatric house staff with NYH-CMC. Molecular genotyping of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium isolates obtained from pediatric patients from 1993 to 1995 was performed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis of chromosomal SmaI digests. Southern hybridization was performed using vanA- and vanB-specific probes. Medical records of patients were reviewed for pertinent clinical and demographic information. A single vanB clone of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium was responsible for 17 (77.3%) of 22 isolates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of NYH-CMC. Two other vanB strains of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium and 2 vanA strains were identified among the 5 remaining NICU isolates. Vancomycin-resistant E. faecium isolates from the other pediatric units represented a heterogeneous population of primarily vanA strains, but vanA clonal strains previously identified from patients on adult services at NYH-CMC and from children hospitalized at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center were not detected. A newly identified vanB clone was responsible for the increase in vancomycin-resistant E. faecium isolates in the NICU of NYH-CMC. The increase of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium among children hospitalized at NYH-CMC was unrelated

  1. Identification of a novel genomic island specific to hospital-acquired clonal complex 17 Enterococcus faecium isolates.

    PubMed

    Heikens, Esther; van Schaik, Willem; Leavis, Helen L; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L

    2008-11-01

    Hospital-acquired clonal complex 17 (CC17) Enterococcus faecium strains are genetically distinct from indigenous strains and are enriched with resistance genes and virulence genes. We identified a genomic island in CC17 E. faecium tentatively encoding a metabolic pathway involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism, which may provide a competitive advantage over the indigenous E. faecium microbiota.

  2. Differences in antibiotic resistance patterns of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from farm and pet animals.

    PubMed

    Butaye, P; Devriese, L A; Haesebrouck, F

    2001-05-01

    The prevalence of acquired resistance in 146 Enterococcus faecium and 166 Enterococcus faecalis strains from farm and pet animals, isolated in 1998 and 1999 in Belgium, against antibiotics used for growth promotion and for therapy was determined. Acquired resistance against flavomycin and monensin, two antibiotics used solely for growth promotion, was not detected. Avoparcin (glycopeptide) resistance was found sporadically in E. faecium only. Avilamycin resistance was almost exclusively seen in strains from farm animals. Resistance rates were higher in E. faecium strains from broiler chickens than in strains from other animal groups with tylosin and virginiamycin and in E. faecalis as well as in E. faecium strains with narasin and bacitracin. Resistance against ampicillin was mainly found among E. faecium strains from pets and was absent in E. faecalis. Tetracycline resistance occurred most often in strains from farm animals, while enrofloxacin resistance, only found in E. faecalis, occurred equally among strains from all origins. Resistance against gentamicin was very rare in broiler strains, whereas resistance rates were high in strains from other origins. It can be concluded that resistance against antibiotics used solely for growth promotion was more prevalent in E. faecium strains than in E. faecalis strains. With few exceptions, resistance against the different categories of antibiotics was more prevalent in strains from farm animals than in those from pets.

  3. Differences in Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium Strains Isolated from Farm and Pet Animals

    PubMed Central

    Butaye, Patrick; Devriese, Luc A.; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of acquired resistance in 146 Enterococcus faecium and 166 Enterococcus faecalis strains from farm and pet animals, isolated in 1998 and 1999 in Belgium, against antibiotics used for growth promotion and for therapy was determined. Acquired resistance against flavomycin and monensin, two antibiotics used solely for growth promotion, was not detected. Avoparcin (glycopeptide) resistance was found sporadically in E. faecium only. Avilamycin resistance was almost exclusively seen in strains from farm animals. Resistance rates were higher in E. faecium strains from broiler chickens than in strains from other animal groups with tylosin and virginiamycin and in E. faecalis as well as in E. faecium strains with narasin and bacitracin. Resistance against ampicillin was mainly found among E. faecium strains from pets and was absent in E. faecalis. Tetracycline resistance occurred most often in strains from farm animals, while enrofloxacin resistance, only found in E. faecalis, occurred equally among strains from all origins. Resistance against gentamicin was very rare in broiler strains, whereas resistance rates were high in strains from other origins. It can be concluded that resistance against antibiotics used solely for growth promotion was more prevalent in E. faecium strains than in E. faecalis strains. With few exceptions, resistance against the different categories of antibiotics was more prevalent in strains from farm animals than in those from pets. PMID:11302798

  4. Citrate metabolism by Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus durans isolated from goat's and ewe's milk: influence of glucose and lactose.

    PubMed

    Cabral, María E; Abeijón Mukdsi, María C; Medina de Figueroa, Roxana B; González, Silvia N

    2007-05-01

    Citrate metabolism by Enterococcus faecium ET C9 and Enterococcus durans Ov 421 was studied as sole energy source and in presence of glucose or lactose. Both strains utilized citrate as the sole energy source. Enterococcus faecium ET C9 showed diauxic growth in the presence of a limiting concentration of glucose. Neither strain used citrate until glucose was fully metabolized. The strains showed co-metabolism of citrate and lactose. Lactate, acetate, formate, and flavour compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) were detected in both strains. The highest production of flavour compounds was detected during growth of E. durans Ov 421 in media supplemented with citrate-glucose and citrate-lactose. Citrate lyase was inducible in both strains. Acetate kinase activities presented the highest values in LAPTc medium, with E. faecium ET C9 displaying a specific activity 2.4-fold higher than E. durans. The highest levels of alpha-acetolactate synthase specific activity were detected in E. durans grown in LAPTc+g, in accordance with the maximum production of flavour compounds detected in this medium. Diacetyl and acetoinreductases displayed lower specific activity values in the presence of citrate. Enterococcus faecium and E. durans displayed citrate lyase, acetate kinase, alpha-acetolactate synthase, and diacetyl and acetoin reductase activities. These enzymes are necessary for conversion of citrate to flavour compounds that are important in fermented dairy products.

  5. Novel mechanism of resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics in Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Cremniter, Julie; Mainardi, Jean-Luc; Josseaume, Nathalie; Quincampoix, Jean-Charles; Dubost, Lionel; Hugonnet, Jean-Emmanuel; Marie, Arul; Gutmann, Laurent; Rice, Louis B.; Arthur, Michel

    2006-01-01

    Glycopeptides and β-lactams are the major antibiotics available for the treatment of infections due to Gram-positive bacteria. Emergence of cross-resistance to these drugs by a single mechanism has been considered as unlikely since they inhibit peptidoglycan polymerization by different mechanisms. The glycopeptides bind to the peptidyl-D-Ala4-D-Ala5 extremity of peptidoglycan precursors and block by steric hindrance the essential glycosyltransferase and D,D-transpeptidase activities of the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). The β-lactams are structural analogues of D-Ala4-D-Ala5 and act as suicide substrates of the D,D-transpeptidase module of the PBPs. Here we show that bypass of the PBPs by the recently described β-lactam-insensitive L,D-transpeptidase from Enterococcus faecium (Ldtfm) can lead to high-level resistance to glycopeptides and β-lactams. Cross-resistance was selected by glycopeptides alone or serially by β-lactams and glycopeptides. In the corresponding mutants, UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide was extensively converted to UDP-MurNAc-tetrapeptide following hydrolysis of D-Ala5, thereby providing the substrate of Ldtfm. Complete elimination of D-Ala5, a residue essential for glycopeptide binding, was possible since Ldtfm uses the energy of the L-Lys3-D-Ala4 peptide bond for cross-link formation in contrast to PBPs which use the energy of the D-Ala4-D-Ala5 bond. This novel mechanism of glycopeptide resistance was unrelated to the previously identified replacement of D-Ala5 by D-Ser or D-lactate. PMID:16943188

  6. Linezolid treatment of glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium in very low birth weight premature neonates.

    PubMed

    Hoehn, Rene; Groll, Andreas H; Schaefer, Volker; Bauer, Karl; Schloesser, Rolf L

    2006-03-01

    Glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen with limited therapeutic options. Here we report the successful treatment of glycopeptide-resistant E. faecium infection in two very low birth weight premature infants with the new oxazolidinone linezolid. Treatment with linezolid at a dosage of 10 mg/kg every 8 h intravenously for a duration of 16 days and 14 days, respectively, was well tolerated and led to complete clinical recovery and clearance of the organism from all body sites. The two cases support the clinical efficacy and safety of linezolid in very low birth weight premature neonates with glycopeptide-resistant E. faecium infections.

  7. Long-term clonal dynamics of Enterococcus faecium strains causing bloodstream infections (1995-2015) in Spain.

    PubMed

    Tedim, Ana P; Ruíz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Rodríguez, Maria Concepción; Rodríguez-Baños, Mercedes; Lanza, Val F; Derdoy, Laura; Cárdenas Zurita, Gonzalo; Loza, Elena; Cantón, Rafael; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the population structure of Enterococcus faecium causing bloodstream infections (BSIs) in a tertiary Spanish hospital with low glycopeptide resistance, and to enhance our knowledge of the dynamics of emergence and spread of high-risk clonal complexes. All available E. faecium causing BSIs (n = 413) in our hospital (January 1995-May 2015) were analysed for antibiotic susceptibility (CLSI), putative virulence traits (PCR, esp, hylEfm) and clonal relationship (SmaI-PFGE, MLST evaluated by goeBURST and BAPS). The increased incidence of BSIs caused by enterococci [2.3‰ of attended patients (inpatients and outpatients) in 1996 to 3.0‰ in 2014] significantly correlated with the increase in BSIs caused by E. faecium (0.33‰ of attended patients in 1996 to 1.3‰ in 2014). The BSIs Enterococcus faecalis:E. faecium ratio changed from 5:1 in 1996 to 1:1 in 2014. During the last decade an increase in E. faecium BSIs episodes in cancer patients (10.9% in 1995-2005 and 37.1% in 2006-15) was detected. Ampicillin-susceptible E. faecium (ASEfm; different STs/BAPS) and ampicillin-resistant E. faecium (AREfm; ST18/ST17-BAPS 3.3a) isolates were recovered throughout the study. Successive waves of BAPS 2.1a-AREfm (ST117, ST203 and ST80) partially replaced ASEfm and ST18-AREfm since 2006. Different AREfm clones (belonging to BAPS 2.1a and BAPS 3.3a) consistently isolated during the last decade from BSIs might be explained by a continuous and dense colonization (favouring both invasion and cross-transmission) of hospitalized patients. High-density colonization by these clones is probably enhanced in elderly patients by heavy and prolonged antibiotic exposure, particularly in oncological patients. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Dissemination of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium in a ricotta processing plant and evaluation of pathogenic and antibiotic resistance profiles.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Meg da Silva; Fujimoto, Graciela; de Souza, Leandro Pio; Kabuki, Dirce Yorika; da Silva, Márcio José; Kuaye, Arnaldo Yoshiteru

    2015-04-01

    In this work, the sources of contamination by Enterococcus spp. in a ricotta processing line were evaluated. The isolated strains were tested for virulence genes (gelE, cylA,B, M, esp, agg, ace, efaA, vanB), expression of virulence factors (hemolysin and gelatinase), and the resistance to 10 different antibiotics. Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis were subjected to discriminatory identification by intergenic spacer region (ITS)-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the ITS region. The results showed that Enterococcus spp. was detected in the raw materials, environment samples and the final product. None of the 107 Enterococcus isolates were completely free from all virulence genes considered. A fraction of 21.5% of the isolates containing all of the genes of the cylA, B, M operon also expressed β-hemolysis. Most of the isolates showed the gelE gene, but only 9.3% were able to hydrolyze gelatin. In addition, 23.5% of the observed Enterococcus isolates had the vanB gene but were susceptible to vancomycin in vitro. The dissemination of antibiotic-resistant enterococci was revealed in this study: 19.3% of the E. faecium samples and 78.0% of the E. faecalis samples were resistant to at least one of the antibiotics tested. Sequencing of region discriminated 5 and 7 distinct groups among E. faecalis and E. faecium, respectively. Although some similarity was observed among some of the isolates, all E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates had genetic differences both in the ITS region and in the virulence profile, which makes them different from each other.

  9. Horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance from Enterococcus faecium of fermented meat origin to clinical isolates of E. faecium and Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Musarrat; Zhanel, George G; Sparling, Richard; Holley, Richard A

    2015-04-16

    Enterococcus species are part of the normal intestinal flora of a large number of mammals including humans and consequently, they can be used as indicators of faecal contamination in food and water for human consumption. Their presence in large numbers in foods may indicate a lapse in sanitation and their ability to serve as a genetic reservoir of transferable antibiotic resistance is of concern. In the present study, Enterococcus spp., isolated from commercially fermented meat and human clinical specimen were studied to determine genetic relationships. SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns exhibited genomic heterogeneity within and between both groups of isolates. However, in spite of this heterogeneity there were still substantial phenotypic similarities which suggested that food might be a potential vehicle for distribution of resistant bacteria among humans. In vitro conjugation experiments demonstrated transfer of the tetracycline resistant determinant, tet(M), from Enterococcus faecium S27 isolated from fermented sausage to clinical isolates of both E. faecium and Enterococcus faecalis. The streptomycin resistance of E. faecium S27 was also transferred to a clinical strain, E. faecalis 82916, which was confirmed by the presence of the streptomycin resistance gene, aadA, in the donor and transconjugant strains. Since the aadA gene is associated with a class 1 integron, results also suggested that resistance transfer might have occurred via an integron. It appears this is the first identification of a class 1 integron in E. faecium isolated from food. The importance of food enterococci as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes and the potential for their genetic transfer to human strains following consumption of uncooked or undercooked contaminated meat is underlined by this work.

  10. Inhibitory Effect of Enterococcus faecium WB2000 on Volatile Sulfur Compound Production by Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Takuya; Nakajima, Masato; Fujimoto, Akie; Hanioka, Takashi; Hirofuji, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) produced by oral anaerobes are the major compounds responsible for oral malodor. Enterococcus faecium WB2000 is recognized as an antiplaque probiotic bacterium. In this study, the effect of E. faecium WB2000 on VSC production by Porphyromonas gingivalis was evaluated, and the mechanism of inhibition of oral malodor was investigated. P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 was cultured in the presence of four lactic acid bacteria, including E. faecium WB2000. Subsequently, P. gingivalis ATCC 33277, W50, W83, and two clinical isolates were cultured in the presence or absence of E. faecium WB2000, and the emission of VSCs from spent culture medium was measured by gas chromatography. The number of P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 in mixed culture with E. faecium WB2000 decreased at 6 h, and the rate of decrease was higher than that in mixed cultures with the other lactic acid bacteria. The numbers of five P. gingivalis strains decreased at similar rates in mixed culture with E. faecium WB2000. The concentration of methyl mercaptan was lower in spent culture medium from P. gingivalis and E. faecium WB2000 cultures compared with that from P. gingivalis alone. Therefore, E. faecium WB2000 may reduce oral malodor by inhibiting the growth of P. gingivalis and neutralizing methyl mercaptan. PMID:27799940

  11. Antiviral effects of a probiotic Enterococcus faecium strain against transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Chai, Weidong; Burwinkel, Michael; Wang, Zhenya; Palissa, Christiane; Esch, Bettina; Twardziok, Sven; Rieger, Juliane; Wrede, Paul; Schmidt, Michael F G

    2013-04-01

    The enteropathogenic coronavirus transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) causes severe disease in young piglets. We have studied the protective effects of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 (E. faecium), which is approved as a feed additive in the European Union, against TGEV infection. E. faecium was added to swine testicle (ST) cells before, concomitantly with, or after TGEV infection. Viability assays revealed that E. faecium led to a dose-dependent rescue of viability of TGEV-infected cells reaching nearly to complete protection. Virus yields of the E. faecium-treated cultures were reduced by up to three log10 units. Western blot analysis of purified TGEV revealed that the levels of all viral structural proteins were reduced after E. faecium treatment. Using transmission electron microscopy, we observed attachment of TGEV particles to the surface of E. faecium which might be a means to trap virus and to prevent infection. Increased production of nitric oxide in the cells treated with E. faecium and elevated expression of interleukin 6 and 8 pointed to stimulated cellular defense as a mechanism to fight TGEV infection.

  12. Effects of ionophores on Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium growth in pure and mixed ruminal culture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enterococcus faecalis and faecium are Gram-positive human pathogens that can live in the gastrointestinal tract of food animals. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are an increasing threat to humans as a nosocomial infection, as well as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. Ionophores ar...

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of a Vancomycin-Resistant and Vancomycin-Dependent Enterococcus faecium Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Blaschitz, Marion; Lepuschitz, Sarah; Wagner, Laura; Allerberger, Franz; Indra, Alexander; Huhulescu, Steliana

    2016-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci have emerged as major nosocomial pathogens worldwide. While antimicrobial pressure promotes nosocomial colonization with these enterococci, prolonged exposure to vancomycin may foster the transition from vancomycin resistance to vancomycin dependence. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a vancomycin-dependent Enterococcus faecium isolate showing partial teicoplanin dependence. PMID:27056211

  14. Draft Genome Sequences and Annotation of Enterococcus faecium Strain LCT-EF20.

    PubMed

    Chang, De; Zhu, Yuanfang; Chen, Jiapeng; Fang, Xiangqun; Li, Tianzhi; Wang, Junfeng; Guo, Yinghua; Su, Longxiang; Xu, Guogang; Wang, Yajuan; Chen, Zhenhong; Liu, Changting

    2013-01-01

    The space environment is reported to cause biological alterations in microorganisms, such as growth, drug resistance, and virulence. Here, we present the model of Enterococcus faecium to investigate the effects of space conditions on the microbe and on the whole-genome sequences of the strain LCT-EF20 after being exposed to space flight.

  15. Safety, beneficial and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium isolated from Brazilian cheeses

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Karina Maria Olbrich; Vieira, Antônio Diogo Silva; Salles, Hévila Oliveira; Oliveira, Jacqueline da Silva; Rocha, Cíntia Renata Costa; Borges, Maria de Fátima; Bruno, Laura Maria; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the safety and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Brazilian Coalho cheeses. High levels of co-aggregation were observed between Enterococcus faecium strains EM485 and EM925 and both Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens . Both strains presented low levels of hydrophobicity. E. faecium EM485 and EM925 were both able to grow in the presence of 0.5% of the sodium salts of taurocholic acid (TC), taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC), glycocholic acid (GC), and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDC), although they showed the ability to deconjugate only GDC and TDC. Both strains showed good survival when exposed to conditions simulating the gastro intestinal tract (GIT). When tested for the presence of virulence genes, only tyrosine decarboxylase and vancomycin B generated positive PCR results. PMID:26221113

  16. Safety, beneficial and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium isolated from Brazilian cheeses.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Karina Maria Olbrich; Vieira, Antônio Diogo Silva; Salles, Hévila Oliveira; Oliveira, Jacqueline da Silva; Rocha, Cíntia Renata Costa; Borges, Maria de Fátima; Bruno, Laura Maria; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the safety and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Brazilian Coalho cheeses. High levels of co-aggregation were observed between Enterococcus faecium strains EM485 and EM925 and both Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens . Both strains presented low levels of hydrophobicity. E. faecium EM485 and EM925 were both able to grow in the presence of 0.5% of the sodium salts of taurocholic acid (TC), taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC), glycocholic acid (GC), and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDC), although they showed the ability to deconjugate only GDC and TDC. Both strains showed good survival when exposed to conditions simulating the gastro intestinal tract (GIT). When tested for the presence of virulence genes, only tyrosine decarboxylase and vancomycin B generated positive PCR results.

  17. Serum cholesterol levels in axenic mice colonized with Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Zacconi, C; Bottazzi, V; Rebecchi, A; Bosi, E; Sarra, P G; Tagliaferri, L

    1992-10-01

    Hypocholesterolemic effect was shown in axenic, mono, bicolonized and conventional mice: the effect was different depending on probiotic properties of intestinal microorganisms. Contamination by Enterococcus faecium CX determined the highest effect: haematic cholesterol level decrease was 16.9% in females and 7.8% in males. In mice contaminated by Lactobacillus acidophilus N5 the decrease of haematic cholesterol levels was less and not relevant in mice contaminated by conventional microflora. Enterococcus faecium CX and Lactobacillus acidophilus N5 strains were able to grow in presence of bile salts, to colonize intestinal tract, to survive at gastric conditions and to assimilate cholesterol (E. faecium more than L. acidophilus). The authors consider the possibility to associate probiotic strains with these characteristics for the health of consumers.

  18. Contribution of the enterococcal surface protein Esp to pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecium endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Heikens, Esther; Singh, Kavindra V; Jacques-Palaz, Karen D; van Luit-Asbroek, Miranda; Oostdijk, Evelien A N; Bonten, Marc J M; Murray, Barbara E; Willems, Rob J L

    2011-12-01

    The enterococcal surface protein Esp, specifically linked to nosocomial Enterococcus faecium, is involved in biofilm formation. To assess the role of Esp in endocarditis, a biofilm-associated infection, an Esp-expressing E. faecium strain (E1162) or its Esp-deficient mutant (E1162Δesp) were inoculated through a catheter into the left ventricle of rats. After 24 h, less E1162Δesp than E1162 were recovered from heart valve vegetations. In addition, anti-Esp antibodies were detected in Esp-positive E. faecium bacteremia and endocarditis patient sera. In conclusion, Esp contributes to colonization of E. faecium at the heart valves. Furthermore, systemic infection elicits an Esp-specific antibody response in humans.

  19. Contribution of the Enterococcal Surface Protein Esp to pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecium endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Heikens, Esther; Singh, Kavindra V.; Jacques-Palaz, Karen D.; van Luit-Asbroek, Miranda; Oostdijk, Evelien A. N.; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Murray, Barbara E.; Willems, Rob J. L.

    2011-01-01

    The enterococcal surface protein Esp, specifically linked to nosocomial Enterococcus faecium, is involved in biofilm formation. To assess the role of Esp in endocarditis, a biofilm-associated infection, an Esp-expressing E. faecium strain (E1162) or its Esp-deficient mutant (E1162Δesp) were inoculated through a catheter into the left ventricle of rats. After 24 hours, less E1162Δesp than E1162 were recovered from heart valve vegetations. In addition, anti-Esp antibodies were detected in Esp-positive E. faecium bacteremia and endocarditis patient sera. In conclusion, Esp contributes to colonization of E. faecium at the heart valves. Furthermore, systemic infection elicits an Esp-specific antibody response in humans. PMID:21911077

  20. Multicenter clinical evaluation of VRESelect agar for identification of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Neil W; Buchan, Blake W; Young, Carol L; Newton, Duane W; Brenke, Connie; Lapsley, Linda; Granato, Paul A; Ledeboer, Nathan A

    2013-08-01

    A chromogenic medium for identification of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, VRESelect, was compared to bile esculin azide agar with 6 μg/ml vancomycin (BEAV) for the isolation of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) from stool specimens. At 24 to 28 h, VRESelect demonstrated 98.7% (confidence interval [CI], 96.1 to 99.7%) sensitivity and 99.0% (CI, 98.0 to 99.6%) specificity versus 85.1% (CI, 79.8 to 89.5%) and 90.1% (CI, 79.8 to 89.5%) sensitivity and specificity, respectively, for BEAV.

  1. Relationship between biofilm formation, the enterococcal surface protein (Esp) and gelatinase in clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Di Rosa, Roberta; Creti, Roberta; Venditti, Mario; D'Amelio, Raffaele; Arciola, Carla R; Montanaro, Lucio; Baldassarri, Lucilla

    2006-03-01

    One-hundred and twenty-eight enterococcal isolates were examined for their ability to form biofilm in relation to the presence of the gene encoding the enterococcal surface protein (esp), production of gelatinase and to the source of isolation. Neither esp nor gelatinase seemed to be required for biofilm formation: both Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium did not show a correlation between the presence of either esp or the production of gelatinase and biofilm formation. However, in E. faecium while esp was found in isolates from either source, the presence of both esp and biofilm together was only found in strains from clinical settings, suggesting that there exists a synergy between these factors which serves as an advantage for the process of infection.

  2. A new chromogenic agar medium, chromID VRE, to screen for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Ledeboer, Nathan A; Tibbetts, Robert J; Dunne, William M

    2007-12-01

    We compared the performance of a chromogenic agar medium chromID VRE (bioMérieux, Marcy-l'Etoile, France) designed to recover and identify vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) from clinical specimens with bile esculin azide vancomycin (BEAV) agar. For this study, 120 stool specimens were plated on chromID VRE and BEAV and examined after 24 and 48 h. At 24 h, the sensitivity and specificity were as follows: BEAV, 90.2% and 73%, respectively; chromID VRE, 86.3% and 100.0%, respectively. Furthermore, we determined that the sensitivity and specificity of chromID VRE for Enterococcus faecium were 85.4% and 100%, respectively, and for Enterococcus faecalis, 90% and 100%, respectively. We conclude that chromID VRE provides an equivalent sensitivity for the recovery of VRE from stool specimens, with improved specificity, and the added advantage of providing differentiation between vancomycin-resistant E. faecium and E. faecalis.

  3. Phenotypic and molecular antibiotic resistance profile of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from different traditional fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Valenzuela, Antonio; Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Benomar, Nabil; Gálvez, Antonio; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2013-02-01

    A collection of 55 enterococci (41 Enterococcus faecium and 14 E. faecalis strains) isolated from various traditional fermented foodstuffs of both animal and vegetable origins, and water was evaluated for resistance against 15 antibiotics. Lower incidence of resistance was observed with gentamicin, ampicillin, penicillin and teicoplanin. However, a high incidence of antibiotic resistance was detected for rifampicin (12 out of 14 of isolates), ciprofloxacin (9/14), and quinupristin/dalfopristin (8/14) in E. faecalis strains. Enterococcus faecium isolates were resistant to rifampicin (25/41), ciprofloxacin (23/41), erythromycin (18/41), levofloxacin (16/41), and nitrofurantoin (15/41). One Enterococcus faecalis and two E. faecium strains were resistant to vancomycin (MIC>16 μg/mL). Among 55 isolates, 27 (19 E. faecium and eight E. faecalis) were resistant to at least three antibiotics. High level of multidrug resistance to clinically important antibiotics was detected in E. faecalis strains (57% of E. faecalis versus 46% of E. faecium), which showed resistance to six to seven antibiotics, especially those isolated from foods of animal origin. So, it is necessary to re-evaluate the use of therapeutic antibiotics in stock farms at both regional and international levels due to the high number of multiple resistant (MR) bacteria. Fifty-six MR E. faecalis and E. faecium strains selected from this and previous studies (Valenzuela et al., 2008, 2010) were screened by polymerase chain reaction for antibiotic resistance genes, revealing the presence of tet(L), tet(M), ermB, cat, efrA, efrB, mphA, or msrA/B genes. The ABC Multidrug Efflux Pump EfrAB was detected in 96% of E. faecalis strains and also in 13% of E. faecium strains; this is the first report describing EfrAB in this enterococcal species. The efflux pump-associated msrA/B gene was detected in 66.66% of E. faecium strains, but not in E. faecalis strains.

  4. Selection of potential probiotic Enterococcus faecium isolated from Portuguese fermented food.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Joana; Borges, Sandra; Teixeira, Paula

    2014-11-17

    Four Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from fermented products were evaluated for potential use as probiotic strains. In addition to efaAfm gene, commonly found in E. faecium food isolates, none of the isolates possessed virulence genes and none had positive reactions for the production of tyramine, histamine, putrescine and cadaverine in the screening medium used. All of these four isolates proved to be resistant to 65 °C. E. faecium 119 did not show antimicrobial activity against any of the target bacteria investigated. E. faecium 85 and 101 inhibited Listeria innocua and E. faecium DSMZ 13590. The strain E. faecium 120 inhibited seven target bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes 7946, L. monocytogenes 7947, L. innocua 2030c, L. innocua NCTC 11286, E. faecium DSMZ 13590, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213) and was chosen as the representative to assess the ability to survive gastrointestinal tract passage simulation, as well as the protective role of two food matrices (skim milk and Alheira) during its passage. For both matrices used, no significant differences (p<0.05) were obtained between the types of digestion - quick and slow passage simulation. In the skim milk matrix the isolate was reduced to values below the detection limit of the enumeration technique by the end of the two digestions, in contrast to the Alheira matrix, for which isolate 120 showed a reduction of only ca. 1 log CFU/ml. The E. faecium strain 120 was shown to be a potential candidate for further investigations as a potential probiotic culture.

  5. Genome-Wide Identification of Ampicillin Resistance Determinants in Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinglin; Paganelli, Fernanda L.; Bierschenk, Damien; Kuipers, Annemarie; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Willems, Rob J. L.; van Schaik, Willem

    2012-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium has become a nosocomial pathogen of major importance, causing infections that are difficult to treat owing to its multi-drug resistance. In particular, resistance to the β-lactam antibiotic ampicillin has become ubiquitous among clinical isolates. Mutations in the low-affinity penicillin binding protein PBP5 have previously been shown to be important for ampicillin resistance in E. faecium, but the existence of additional resistance determinants has been suggested. Here, we constructed a high-density transposon mutant library in E. faecium and developed a transposon mutant tracking approach termed Microarray-based Transposon Mapping (M-TraM), leading to the identification of a compendium of E. faecium genes that contribute to ampicillin resistance. These genes are part of the core genome of E. faecium, indicating a high potential for E. faecium to evolve towards β-lactam resistance. To validate the M-TraM results, we adapted a Cre-lox recombination system to construct targeted, markerless mutants in E. faecium. We confirmed the role of four genes in ampicillin resistance by the generation of targeted mutants and further characterized these mutants regarding their resistance to lysozyme. The results revealed that ddcP, a gene predicted to encode a low-molecular-weight penicillin binding protein with D-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidase activity, was essential for high-level ampicillin resistance. Furthermore, deletion of ddcP sensitized E. faecium to lysozyme and abolished membrane-associated D,D-carboxypeptidase activity. This study has led to the development of a broadly applicable platform for functional genomic-based studies in E. faecium, and it provides a new perspective on the genetic basis of ampicillin resistance in this organism. PMID:22761597

  6. Kinetic analysis of Enterococcus faecium L,D-transpeptidase inactivation by carbapenems.

    PubMed

    Dubée, Vincent; Arthur, Michel; Fief, Hélène; Triboulet, Sébastien; Mainardi, Jean-Luc; Gutmann, Laurent; Sollogoub, Matthieu; Rice, Louis B; Ethève-Quelquejeu, Mélanie; Hugonnet, Jean-Emmanuel

    2012-06-01

    Bypass of classical penicillin-binding proteins by the L,D-transpeptidase of Enterococcus faecium (Ldt(fm)) leads to high-level ampicillin resistance in E. faecium mutants, whereas carbapenems remain the lone highly active β-lactams. Kinetics of Ldt(fm) inactivation was determined for four commercial carbapenems and a derivative obtained by introducing a minimal ethyl group at position 2. We show that the bulky side chains of commercial carbapenems have both positive and negative effects in preventing hydrolysis of the acyl enzyme and impairing drug binding.

  7. Differentiation of Enterococcus faecium from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains by PCR and dot-blot hybridisation.

    PubMed

    Langa, S; Fernández, A; Martín, R; Reviriego, C; Marín, M L; Fernández, L; Rodríguez, J M

    2003-12-01

    Variations in length and sequence of the 16S/23S spacer region of Enterococcus faecium provided the basis for development of simple PCR and dot-blot hybridisation assays that enabled the differentiation of potentially probiotic Enterococcus faecium strains from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Such assays may be useful for differentiation of yoghurt starter cultures and enterococcal strains when they are simultaneously present in probiotic food products.

  8. Antibiotic susceptibility, antibacterial activity and characterisation of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from breast milk

    PubMed Central

    Kıvanç, Sertaç Argun; Kıvanç, Merih; Yiğit, Tülay

    2016-01-01

    Enterococci, which have useful biotechnological applications, produce bacteriocins, including those that exert anti-Listerial activity. The present study aimed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility patterns and antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from human breast milk. The strains were identified using carbohydrate fermentation tests and ribotyping. Subsequently, the antibacterial activity of the isolates was investigated, and the quantities of lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide produced, and the proteolytic activity of E. faecium, were determined. In addition, biofilm formation by E. faecium strains was assessed. E. faecium strains exhibited antimicrobial activity against food-borne and clinical bacterial isolates. Furthermore, following 24 h incubation, the tested strains exhibited resistance to a pH range of 2.0–9.5 and tolerance of bile acid, lysozyme activity and phenol. Supernatants of the E. faecium TM13, TM15, TM17 and TM18 strains were shown to be effective against Listeria monocytogenes, and were also resistant to heat. Further studies are required in order to determine whether certain strains of E. faecium may be used for the development of novel antibacterial agents. PMID:27602088

  9. Lipoteichoic acid synthesis inhibition in combination with antibiotics abrogates growth of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Paganelli, Fernanda L; van de Kamer, Tim; Brouwer, Ellen C; Leavis, Helen L; Woodford, Neil; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L; Hendrickx, Antoni P A

    2017-03-01

    Enterococcus faecium is a multidrug-resistant (MDR) nosocomial pathogen causing significant morbidity in debilitated patients. New antimicrobials are needed to treat antibiotic-resistant E. faecium infections in hospitalised patients. E. faecium incorporates lipoteichoic acid (LTA) (1,3-polyglycerol-phosphate linked to glycolipid) in its cell wall. The small-molecule inhibitor 1771 [2-oxo-2-(5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylamino)ethyl 2-naphtho[2,1-b]furan-1-ylacetate] specifically blocks the activity of Staphylococcus aureus LtaS synthase, which polymerises 1,3-glycerolphosphate into LTA polymers. Here we characterised the effects of the small-molecule inhibitor 1771 on the growth of E. faecium isolates, alone (28 strains) or in combination with the antibiotics vancomycin, daptomycin, ampicillin, gentamicin or linezolid (15 strains), and on biofilm formation (16 strains). Inhibition of LTA synthesis at the surface of the cell by compound 1771 in combination with current antibiotic therapy abrogates enterococcal growth in vitro but does not affect mature E. faecium biofilms. Targeting LTA synthesis may provide new possibilities to treat MDR E. faecium infections.

  10. Safety assessment and probiotic evaluation of Enterococcus faecium YF5 isolated from sourdough.

    PubMed

    Tan, Qianglai; Xu, Hengyi; Aguilar, Zoraida P; Peng, Shanshan; Dong, Suqin; Wang, Baogui; Li, Ping; Chen, Tingtao; Xu, Feng; Wei, Hua

    2013-04-01

    Enterococcus faecium YF5, a strain previously isolated from sourdough, was assessed for safety and probiotic potential. Its virulence and antibiotic resistant phenotypes (cytolysin and gelatinase production, antibiotic susceptibility) and genes (cylA, gelE, ace, agg, esp, and vanA) were surveyed. Results indicated that the tested virulence determinants were nontoxic. In addition, E. faecium YF5 was sensitive to 3 antibiotics such as amoxicillin, vancomycin, and chloramphenicol. Furthermore, results of in vivo animal acute oral toxicity of E. faecium YF5 studies were similar to the control group that indicated no abnormalities. In addition, E. faecium YF5 stably survived in low pH, bile salts, gastric, and intestinal fluids in vitro. Moreover, E. faecium YF5 was found to adhere to human colon cancer cell line HT-29 at 3.39 (±0.67) × 10(5) CFU/mL. When cocultured with pathogenic organisms (Enterobacter sakazakii CMCC45402, Escherichia coli CMCC44102, enterohemorrhage Escherichia coli O157: H7 CMCC44828, Salmonella Typhimurium CMCC50071, Shigella flexneri 301, and Shigella sonnei ATCC 29930) and 2 gram-positive strains (Listeria monocytogenes CMCC54001 and Staphylococcus aureus CMCC 26003), it inhibited these foodborne pathogens with exception of S. aureus. Therefore, E. faecium YF5 can be regarded as a safe strain and it may be used as a probiotic preparation or for microecologics. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Genomic Features and Niche-Adaptation of Enterococcus faecium Strains from Korean Soybean-Fermented Foods

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Bae; Jin, Gwi-Deuk; Lee, Jun-Yeong; Choi, Yun-Jaie

    2016-01-01

    Certain strains of Enterococcus faecium contribute beneficially to human health and food fermentation. However, other E. faecium strains are opportunistic pathogens due to the acquisition of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance determinants. To characterize E. faecium from soybean fermentation, we sequenced the genomes of 10 E. faecium strains from Korean soybean-fermented foods and analyzed their genomes by comparing them with 51 clinical and 52 non-clinical strains of different origins. Hierarchical clustering based on 13,820 orthologous genes from all E. faecium genomes showed that the 10 strains are distinguished from most of the clinical strains. Like non-clinical strains, their genomes are significantly smaller than clinical strains due to fewer accessory genes associated with antibiotic resistance, virulence, and mobile genetic elements. Moreover, we identified niche-associated gene gain and loss from the soybean strains. Thus, we conclude that soybean E. faecium strains might have evolved to have distinctive genomic features that may contribute to its ability to thrive during soybean fermentation. PMID:27070419

  12. Linezolid-resistant clinical isolates of meticillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci and Enterococcus faecium from China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jia Chang; Hu, Yan Yan; Zhang, Rong; Zhou, Hong Wei; Chen, Gong-Xiang

    2012-11-01

    Seventeen meticillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS), including ten Staphylococcus capitis, four Staphylococcus cohnii, two Staphylococcus haemolyticus and one Staphylococcus sciuri, and an Enterococcus faecium isolate with various levels of linezolid resistance were isolated from intensive care units in a Chinese hospital. PFGE indicated that the four S. cohnii isolates belonged to a clonal strain, and that nine of the S. capitis isolates were indistinguishable (clone A1) and the other one was closely related (clone A2). A G2576T mutation was identified in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene in the E. faecium isolate. Besides the G2576T mutation, a novel C2104T mutation was detected in the nine clone A1 S. capitis isolates. The cfr gene was detected in all the staphylococci except an S. sciuri isolate, whose 23S rRNA gene contained the G2576T mutation. There was a clonal dissemination of linezolid-resistant MRCoNS in intensive care units of our hospital, and this is the first report, to our knowledge, of linezolid-resistant staphylococci and enterococci in China.

  13. Antibiotic resistance patterns and genetic relatedness of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from military working dogs in Korea.

    PubMed

    Bang, Kiman; An, Jae-Uk; Kim, Woohyun; Dong, Hee-Jin; Kim, Junhyung; Cho, Seongbeom

    2017-06-30

    Enterococcus spp. are normally present in the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans, but can cause opportunistic infections that can be transmitted to other animals or humans with integrated antibiotic resistance. To investigate if this is a potential risk in military working dogs (MWDs), we analyzed antibiotic resistance patterns and genetic relatedness of Enterococcus spp. isolated from fecal samples of MWDs of four different age groups. Isolation rates of Enterococcus spp., Enterococcus (E.) faecalis, and E. faecium, were 87.7% (57/65), 59.6% (34/57), and 56.1% (32/57), respectively, as determined by bacterial culture and multiplex PCR. The isolation rate of E. faecalis gradually decreased with age (puppy, 100%; adolescent, 91.7%; adult, 36.4%; and senior, 14.3%). Rates of resistance to the antibiotics ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, imipenem, and kanamycin among Enterococcus spp. increased in adolescents and adults and decreased in senior dogs, with some isolates having three different antibiotic resistance patterns. There were indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns among the age groups. The results suggest that Enterococcus is horizontally transferred, regardless of age. As such, periodic surveillance studies should be undertaken to monitor changes in antibiotic resistance, which may necessitate modification of antibiotic regimens to manage antibiotic resistance transmission.

  14. Proteome changes in the intestinal mucosa of broiler (Gallus gallus) activated by probiotic Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jianjie; Zheng, Aijuan; Meng, Kun; Chang, Wenhuan; Bai, Yingguo; Li, Ke; Cai, Huiyi; Liu, Guohua; Yao, Bin

    2013-10-08

    Probiotics are supplemented to animal diet to support a well-balanced gut microbiota, finally contributing to improved health. The molecular mechanism of probiotics in animal intestine improvement is yet unclear. We investigated the production parameters, gut morphology and microbiota, and mucosal proteome of Arbor Acres broilers (Gallus gallus) supplemented with Enterococcus faecium by performing denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, quantitative real-time PCR, two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry. E. faecium supplementation promoted the development of immune organs and gut microvilli and enlarged the gut microbial diversity and population. However, it had no effects on daily weight gain and feed intake, and slightly enhanced feed conversion ratio. A total of 42 intestinal mucosal proteins were found to be differentially abundant. Four of them are related to intestinal structure and may extend the absorptive surface area. Of 17 differential proteins related to immune and antioxidant systems, only six are abundant in the broilers fed E. faecium, indicating that these chickens employ less nutrients and energy to deal with immune and antioxidant stresses. These findings have important implications for understanding the probiotic mechanisms of E. faecium on broiler intestine. Probiotic supplementation to animal diet is closely related with improved health. The objective of this study is to determine the molecular mechanisms of probiotic E. faecium achieving its biological mission in the gut of Arbor Acres broilers (G. gallus). E. faecium supplementation did not improve daily weight gain and feed intake; however, it had effects on immune organ and gut microvillus development, and gut microbial diversity and population. Quantitative proteomic analysis of the intestinal mucosa of broilers treated with E. faecium identified 42 intestinal mucosal proteins related to substance metabolism, immune and antioxidant systems, and

  15. Emergence of endemic MLST non-typeable vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Carter, Glen P; Buultjens, Andrew H; Ballard, Susan A; Baines, Sarah L; Tomita, Takehiro; Strachan, Janet; Johnson, Paul D R; Ferguson, John K; Seemann, Torsten; Stinear, Timothy P; Howden, Benjamin P

    2016-12-01

    Enterococcus faecium is a major nosocomial pathogen causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Assessment of E. faecium using MLST to understand the spread of this organism is an important component of hospital infection control measures. Recent studies, however, suggest that MLST might be inadequate for E. faecium surveillance. To use WGS to characterize recently identified vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VREfm) isolates non-typeable by MLST that appear to be causing a multi-jurisdictional outbreak in Australia. Illumina NextSeq and Pacific Biosciences SMRT sequencing platforms were used to determine the genome sequences of 66 non-typeable E. faecium (NTEfm) isolates. Phylogenetic and bioinformatics analyses were subsequently performed using a number of in silico tools. Sixty-six E. faecium isolates were identified by WGS from multiple health jurisdictions in Australia that could not be typed by MLST due to a missing pstS allele. SMRT sequencing and complete genome assembly revealed a large chromosomal rearrangement in representative strain DMG1500801, which likely facilitated the deletion of the pstS region. Phylogenomic analysis of this population suggests that deletion of pstS within E. faecium has arisen independently on at least three occasions. Importantly, the majority of these isolates displayed a vancomycin-resistant genotype. We have identified NTEfm isolates that appear to be causing a multi-jurisdictional outbreak in Australia. Identification of these isolates has important implications for MLST-based typing activities designed to monitor the spread of VREfm and provides further evidence supporting the use of WGS for hospital surveillance of E. faecium. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Epidemic and nonepidemic multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Leavis, Helen L; Willems, Rob J L; Top, Janetta; Spalburg, Emile; Mascini, Ellen M; Fluit, Ad C; Hoepelman, Andy; de Neeling, Albert J; Bonten, Marc J M

    2003-09-01

    The epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant Entero- coccus faecium (VREF) in Europe is characterized by a large community reservoir. In contrast, nosocomial outbreaks and infections (without a community reservoir) characterize VREF in the United States. Previous studies demonstrated host-specific genogroups and a distinct genetic lineage of VREF associated with hospital outbreaks, characterized by the variant esp-gene and a specific allele-type of the purK housekeeping gene (purK1). We investigated the genetic relatedness of vanA VREF (n=108) and vancomycin-susceptible E. faecium (VSEF) (n=92) from different epidemiologic sources by genotyping, susceptibility testing for ampicillin, sequencing of purK1, and testing for presence of esp. Clusters of VSEF fit well into previously described VREF genogroups, and strong associations were found between VSEF and VREF isolates with resistance to ampicillin, presence of esp, and purK1. Genotypes characterized by presence of esp, purK1, and ampicillin resistance were most frequent among outbreak-associated isolates and almost absent among community surveillance isolates. Vancomycin-resistance was not specifically linked to genogroups. VREF and VSEF from different epidemiologic sources are genetically related; evidence exists for nosocomial selection of a subtype of E. faecium, which has acquired vancomycin-resistance through horizontal transfer.

  17. Isolation and characterization of tyramine-producing Enterococcus faecium strains from red wine.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Ladero, Victor; Beneduce, Luciano; Fernández, María; Alvarez, Miguel A; Benoit, Bach; Laurent, Barnavon; Grieco, Francesco; Spano, Giuseppe

    2011-05-01

    Enterococcus faecium strains were isolated from red wines undergoing malolactic fermentation and identified by comparison of their 16S rDNA gene sequences with those included in the GenEMBL Databases. The tyrosine decarboxylase gene was identified in all the strains analysed by PCR using gene-specific primers and the ability to produce tyramine in a synthetic media was analysed by RP-HPLC. Survival of an E. faecium strain was also evaluated in microvinification assays using two different musts with different ethanol concentrations (10% and 12% (v/v)). Tyramine production was monitored during the vinification trials. Our results suggest that E. faecium strains isolated from wine are able to produce tyramine and tolerate wine conditions following a pre-acidic stress.

  18. First record of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in Canadian wildlife.

    PubMed

    Oravcova, Veronika; Janecko, Nicol; Ansorge, Antonin; Masarikova, Martina; Literak, Ivan

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we focused on spreading of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) to the environment. We studied that weather crows in Canada may be carriers and potentially reservoirs of VRE with vanA gene. We have found one multi-resistant isolate of Enterococcus faecium sequence type (ST) 448 with vanA gene on Prince Edward Island. This study is the first report of VRE in Canadian wildlife.

  19. Partial characterization of bacteriocins produced by environmental strain Enterococcus faecium EK13.

    PubMed

    Mareková, M; Lauková, A; DeVuyst, L; Skaugen, M; Nes, I F

    2003-01-01

    The partial characterization of bacteriocins produced by an environmental strain Enterococcus faecium EK13, isolated from cattle dung water. A bacteriocin was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, followed by a SP-Sepharose column, reverse-phase chromatography and N-terminal region sequenced. The anti-microbial substance produced was found to be a heat-stable polypeptide with molecular mass 4.83 kDa, which was determined by N-terminal amino acid sequencing to be enterocin A. A second substance was specified by PCR as enterocin P. Bacteriocins were stable at 4 and -20 degrees C for long storage periods. The optimum of bacteriocin production was observed in the range of pH 5.0-6.5 at 30 and 37 degrees C. The most active substances are produced by strain EK13 in logarithmic growth phase and bacteriocins are produced after 1 h of fermentation. The highest activity detected in fermentation experiments was 51 200 AU ml(-1) and the most sensitive indicator strain was found to be Listeria innocua LMG 13568. Differences in bacteriocin activity against two indicators could be explained by more than one type of enterocin production by strain EK13, or with different mode of action or in different sensitivity of strains. Enterococcus faecium strain EK13 isolated from cattle dung water produces two bacteriocins, enterocin A and P, with an inhibitory effect against the strain of the genera Enterococcus, Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Listeria (in different origin). Enterococcus faecium EK13 environmental strain is a new producer of enterocin A and P. The E. faecium EK13, isolated from cattle dung water, is presented with the further aim to utilize it for waste treatment by biotechnological processes.

  20. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Enterococcus faecium Strains Isolated from Argentine Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Gabriela P.; Quintana, Ingrid M.; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S.; Gallina Nizo, Gabriel; Esteban, Luis

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of four Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Argentine regional cheeses. These strains were selected based on their technological properties, i.e., their ability to produce aroma compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) from citrate. The goal of our study is to provide further genetic evidence for the rational selection of enterococci strains based on their pheno- and genotype in order to be used in cheese production. PMID:26847907

  1. Clearance of infant vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium carriage after a neonatal inpatient outbreak.

    PubMed

    Lister, David M; Tan, Kenneth; Carse, Elizabeth; Stuart, Rhonda L

    2016-10-01

    A follow-up cohort study was undertaken to document clearance of fecal vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium carriage in 19 infants colonized during a hospital outbreak. By the conclusion of the 14-month study period, all participants had returned terminal negative fecal specimens, supporting the hypothesis that carriage is transient in this population. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Enterococcus faecium Strains Isolated from Argentine Cheese.

    PubMed

    Martino, Gabriela P; Quintana, Ingrid M; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S; Gallina Nizo, Gabriel; Esteban, Luis; Magni, Christian

    2016-02-04

    We report the draft genome sequences of four Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Argentine regional cheeses. These strains were selected based on their technological properties, i.e., their ability to produce aroma compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) from citrate. The goal of our study is to provide further genetic evidence for the rational selection of enterococci strains based on their pheno- and genotype in order to be used in cheese production. Copyright © 2016 Martino et al.

  3. Characterization of an anti-listerial enterocin from wheat silage based Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Bal, Emel Banu Buyukunal; Isevi, Taner; Bal, Mehmet Ali

    2012-10-01

    Two Enterococcus faecium and one E. faecalis strains isolated and identified from wheat silage were characterized based on plasmid content, hemolytic activity, antibiotic resistance patterns, bacteriocin production potential, and presence of enterocin structural genes (entA, entB, entP, entL50B). Among the isolates, only the E. faecium U7 strain exhibited bacteriocin activity against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644, and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus spp. (VRE). A combination of three structural genes (entA, entB, and entP) was detected in E. faecium U7. A relationship between the presence of enterocin structural genes, and bacteriocin activity was detected in E. faecium U7; therefore partially purified enterocin (PPE) was further investigated from the isolate. Several bands of different molecular weights were expressed from PPE extracts following tricine SDS-PAGE analysis. However, the only band showing bacteriocin activity was in an approximate 4-kDa region. PPE treatment with proteinase K, lysozyme, and α -amylase caused complete loss of bacteriocin activity. PPE heat treatment at various temperatures resulted in a notable reduction in bacteriocin expression. Enterocin U7 was relatively heat stable, and presumably exhibits a glucoprotein nature with distinct inhibitory properties. Specific bacterial inhibitory activity of enterocin U7, and the producer strain absence of β -hemolysis and vancomycin susceptibility features deserves further investigation to evaluate its potential application in silage inoculation and food preservation. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Drug-resistant and hospital-associated Enterococcus faecium from wastewater, riverine estuary and anthropogenically impacted marine catchment basin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Enterococci, ubiquitous colonizers of humans and other animals, play an increasingly important role in health-care associated infections (HAIs). It is believed that the recent evolution of two clinically relevant species, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium occurred in a big part in a hospital environment, leading to formation of high-risk enterococcal clonal complexes (HiRECCs), which combine multidrug resistance with increased pathogenicity and epidemicity. The aim of this study was to establish the species composition in wastewater, its marine recipient as well as a river estuary and to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of collected isolates. Molecular methods were additionally applied to test the presence of HiRRECC-related E. faecium. Results Two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), their marine outfalls and Vistula river that influence significantly the quality of waters in Gulf of Gdansk were sampled to investigate the presence of Enterococcus spp. Four-hundred-twenty-eight isolates were obtained, including E. faecium (244 isolates, 57.0%), E. hirae (113 isolates, 26.4%) and E. faecalis (63 isolates, 14.7%); other species (E. gallinarum/casseliflavus, E. durans and E. avium) accounted for 1.9%. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed the presence of isolates resistant to erythromycin, tetracycline, amipicillin, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides (high-level resistance), especially among E. faecium, where such isolates were usually characterized by multilocus sequence types associated with nosocomial lineages 17, 18 and 78 of this species representing HiRECC, formerly called CC17. These isolates not only carried several resistance determinants but were also enriched in genes encoding pathogenicity factors (Esp, pili) and genes associated with mobile genetic elements (MGE), a feature also typical for nosocomial HiRECC. Conclusions Our data show that WWTPs constitute an important source of enterococcal strains carrying

  5. Biological Activities of Tetrodotoxin-Producing Enterococcus faecium AD1 Isolated from Puffer Fishes.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tu Hoang Khue; Nguyen, Huu Ngoc; Nghe, Dat Van; Nguyen, Kim Hoang

    2015-01-01

    Puffer fishes were collected from the central sea in Vietnam from spring to summer season. The eggs were incubated in MRS broth that was used to test the toxicity in mice and isolate the lactic acid bacteria community that could produce tetrodotoxin (TTX). Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance lipid chromatography (HPLC) were used to detect and quantify TTX. As a result, Enterococcus faecium AD1 which was identified by biochemical test and 16S rRNA analysis could produce TTX 0.3 mg/mL when cultured in MRS broth. The bacterium was optimized for TTX production and gave 0.18 mg/mL, 0.07 mg/mL, and 0.15 mg/mL in media prepared from the meat-washing water of freshwater fishes (Pangasius bocourti, Oreochromis sp.) and sea fish (Auxis thazard), respectively, that are also hopeful to answer some poisoning cases related to eating fishes. Enterococcus faecium also showed the wide antimicrobial activities on yeast, Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. Extracted exopolysaccharide (EPS) that reacted with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl to give IC50 at 5 mg/mL equaled 11 mg/mL ascorbic acid which could show effects on Hela-6 and Hep G2 using sulforhodamine B test. Enterococcus faecium can be claimed as a promising source in tetrodotoxin and biological compounds.

  6. Biological Activities of Tetrodotoxin-Producing Enterococcus faecium AD1 Isolated from Puffer Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tu Hoang Khue; Nguyen, Huu Ngoc; Nghe, Dat Van; Nguyen, Kim Hoang

    2015-01-01

    Puffer fishes were collected from the central sea in Vietnam from spring to summer season. The eggs were incubated in MRS broth that was used to test the toxicity in mice and isolate the lactic acid bacteria community that could produce tetrodotoxin (TTX). Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance lipid chromatography (HPLC) were used to detect and quantify TTX. As a result, Enterococcus faecium AD1 which was identified by biochemical test and 16S rRNA analysis could produce TTX 0.3 mg/mL when cultured in MRS broth. The bacterium was optimized for TTX production and gave 0.18 mg/mL, 0.07 mg/mL, and 0.15 mg/mL in media prepared from the meat-washing water of freshwater fishes (Pangasius bocourti, Oreochromis sp.) and sea fish (Auxis thazard), respectively, that are also hopeful to answer some poisoning cases related to eating fishes. Enterococcus faecium also showed the wide antimicrobial activities on yeast, Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. Extracted exopolysaccharide (EPS) that reacted with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl to give IC50 at 5 mg/mL equaled 11 mg/mL ascorbic acid which could show effects on Hela-6 and Hep G2 using sulforhodamine B test. Enterococcus faecium can be claimed as a promising source in tetrodotoxin and biological compounds. PMID:26380310

  7. A LacI-Family Regulator Activates Maltodextrin Metabolism of Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinglin; Rogers, Malbert; Bierschenk, Damien; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Willems, Rob J. L.; van Schaik, Willem

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium is a gut commensal of humans and animals. In the intestinal tract, E. faecium will have access to a wide variety of carbohydrates, including maltodextrins and maltose, which are the sugars that result from the enzymatic digestion of starch by host-derived and microbial amylases. In this study, we identified the genetic determinants for maltodextrin utilization of E. faecium E1162. We generated a deletion mutant of the mdxABCD-pulA gene cluster that is homologous to maltodextrin uptake genes in other Gram-positive bacteria, and a deletion mutant of the mdxR gene, which is predicted to encode a LacI family regulator of mdxABCD-pulA. Both mutations impaired growth on maltodextrins but had no effect on the growth on maltose and glucose. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed that eight genes (including mdxABCD-pulA) were expressed at significantly lower levels in the isogenic ΔmdxR mutant strain compared to the parental strain when grown on maltose. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR confirmed the results of transcriptome analysis and showed that the transcription of a putative maltose utilization gene cluster is induced in a semi-defined medium supplemented with maltose but is not regulated by MdxR. Understanding the maltodextrin metabolism of E. faecium could yield novel insights into the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the gut commensal lifestyle of E. faecium. PMID:23951303

  8. Antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus Faecium Fair-E 198 against gram-positive pathogens

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Maristela da Silva; Moreno, Izildinha; Kuaye, Arnaldo Yoshiteru

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study investigated the antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 against Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Using the critical-dilution method, the bacteriocin produced by E. faecium FAIR-E 198 inhibited all L. monocytogenes strains evaluated (1,600 to 19,200 AU mL-1). However, none of the B. cereus and S. aureus strains investigated were inhibited. The maximum activity of this bacteriocin (800 AU mL-1) was observed in MRS broth, while the activity in milk was 100 AU mL-1. In the co-cultivation test in milk, B. cereus K1-B041 was reduced to below the detection limit (1.00 log CFU mL-1) after 48 h. E. faecium reduced the initial L. monocytogenes Scott A population by 1 log CFU mL-1 after 3 h at 35°C, However, the pathogen regained growth, reaching 3.68 log CFU mL-1 after 48 h. E. faecium did not influence the growth of S. aureus ATCC 27154 during the 48 h of co-cultivation, Therefore, it can be concluded that the effectiveness of the antimicrobial activity of E. faecium FAIR-E 198 is strictly related to the species and strain of the target microorganism and to the culture medium, PMID:24031466

  9. A LacI-family regulator activates maltodextrin metabolism of Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinglin; Rogers, Malbert; Bierschenk, Damien; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L; van Schaik, Willem

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium is a gut commensal of humans and animals. In the intestinal tract, E. faecium will have access to a wide variety of carbohydrates, including maltodextrins and maltose, which are the sugars that result from the enzymatic digestion of starch by host-derived and microbial amylases. In this study, we identified the genetic determinants for maltodextrin utilization of E. faecium E1162. We generated a deletion mutant of the mdxABCD-pulA gene cluster that is homologous to maltodextrin uptake genes in other Gram-positive bacteria, and a deletion mutant of the mdxR gene, which is predicted to encode a LacI family regulator of mdxABCD-pulA. Both mutations impaired growth on maltodextrins but had no effect on the growth on maltose and glucose. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed that eight genes (including mdxABCD-pulA) were expressed at significantly lower levels in the isogenic ΔmdxR mutant strain compared to the parental strain when grown on maltose. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR confirmed the results of transcriptome analysis and showed that the transcription of a putative maltose utilization gene cluster is induced in a semi-defined medium supplemented with maltose but is not regulated by MdxR. Understanding the maltodextrin metabolism of E. faecium could yield novel insights into the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the gut commensal lifestyle of E. faecium.

  10. Isolation of Enterococcus faecium NM113, Enterococcus faecium NM213 and Lactobacillus casei NM512 as novel probiotics with immunomodulatory properties.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Nahla M; Heine, Holger; Abdou, Sania M; Shenana, Mohamed E; Zakaria, Mohamed K; El-Diwany, Ahmed

    2014-10-01

    Probiotics, defined as living bacteria that are beneficial for human health, mainly function through their immunomodulatory abilities. Hence, these microorganisms have proven successful for treating diseases resulting from immune deregulation. The aim of this study was to find novel candidates to improve on and complement current probiotic treatment strategies. Of 60 lactic acid bacterial strains that were isolated from fecal samples of healthy, full-term, breast-fed infants, three were chosen because of their ability to activate human immune cells. These candidates were then tested with regard to immunomodulatory properties, antimicrobial effects on pathogens, required pharmacological properties and their safety profiles. To identify the immunomodulatory structures of the selected isolates, activation of specific innate immune receptors was studied. The three candidates for probiotic treatment were assigned Enterococcus faecium NM113, Enterococcus faecium NM213 and Lactobacillus casei NM512. Compared with the established allergy-protective strain Lactococcus lactis G121, these isolates induced release of similar amounts of IL-12, a potent inducer of T helper 1 cells. In addition, all three neonatal isolates had antimicrobial activity against pathogens. Analysis of pharmacological suitability showed high tolerance of low pH, bile salts and pancreatic enzymes. In terms of safe application in humans, the isolates were sensitive to three antibiotics (chloramphenicol, tetracycline and erythromycin). In addition, the Enterococcus isolates were free from the four major virulence genes (cylA, agg, efaAfs and ccf). Moreover, the isolates strongly activated Toll-like receptor 2, which suggests lipopeptides as their active immunomodulatory structure. Thus, three novel bacterial strains with great potential as probiotic candidates and promising immunomodulatory properties have here been identified and characterized. © 2014 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Global Spread of the hylEfm Colonization-Virulence Gene in Megaplasmids of the Enterococcus faecium CC17 Polyclonal Subcluster▿

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Ana R.; Tedim, Ana P.; Novais, Carla; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Werner, Guido; Laverde-Gomez, Jenny A.; Cantón, Rafael; Peixe, Luísa; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M.

    2010-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium has increasingly been reported as a nosocomial pathogen since the early 1990s, presumptively associated with the expansion of a human-associated Enterococcus faecium polyclonal subcluster known as clonal complex 17 (CC17) that has progressively acquired different antibiotic resistance (ampicillin and vancomycin) and virulence (espEfm, hylEfm, and fms) traits. We analyzed the presence and the location of a putative glycoside hydrolase hylEfm gene among E. faecium strains obtained from hospitalized patients (255 patients; outbreak, bacteremic, and/or disseminated isolates from 23 countries and five continents; 1986 to 2009) and from nonclinical origins (isolates obtained from healthy humans [25 isolates], poultry [30], swine [90], and the environment [55]; 1999 to 2007). Clonal relatedness was established by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Plasmid analysis included determination of content and size (S1-PFGE), transferability (filter mating), screening of Rep initiator proteins (PCR), and location of vanA, vanB, ermB, and hylEfm genes (S1/I-CeuI hybridization). Most E. faecium isolates contained large plasmids (>150 kb) and showed variable contents of van, hylEfm, or espEfm. The hylEfm gene was associated with megaplasmids (170 to 375 kb) of worldwide spread (ST16, ST17, and ST18) or locally predominant (ST192, ST203, ST280, and ST412) ampicillin-resistant CC17 clones collected in the five continents since the early 1990s. All but one hylEfm-positive isolate belonged to the CC17 polyclonal subcluster. The presence of hylEfm megaplasmids among CC17 from Europe, Australia, Asia, and Africa since at least the mid-1990s was documented. This study further demonstrates the pandemic expansion of particular CC17 clones before acquisition of vancomycin resistance and putative virulence traits and describes the presence of megaplasmids in most of the contemporary E. faecium isolates with different origins. PMID

  12. Characterization of functional properties of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from human gut.

    PubMed

    İspirli, Hümeyra; Demirbaş, Fatmanur; Dertli, Enes

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the functional properties of Enterococcus faecium strains identified after isolation from human faeces. Of these isolates, strain R13 showed the best resistance to low pH, bile salts, and survival in the simulated in vitro digestion assay, and demonstrated an important level of adhesion to hexadecane as a potential probiotic candidate. Analysis of the antibiotic resistance of E. faecium strains indicated that in general these isolates were sensitive to the tested antibiotics and no strain appeared to be resistant to vancomycin. Examination of the virulence determinants for E. faecium strains demonstrated that all strains contained the virulence genes common in gut- and food-originated enterococci, and strain R13 harboured the lowest number of virulence genes. Additionally, no strain contained the genes related to cytolysin metabolism and showed hemolytic activity. The antimicrobial role of E. faecium strains was tested against several pathogens, in which different levels of inhibitory effects were observed, and strain R13 was inhibitory to all tested pathogens. PCR screening of genes encoding enterocin A and B indicated the presence of these genes in E. faecium strains. Preliminary characterization of bacteriocins revealed that their activity was lost after proteolytic enzyme treatments, but no alteration in antimicrobial activity was observed at different pHs (3.5 to 9.5) and after heat treatments. In conclusion, this study revealed the functional characteristics of E. faecium R13 as a gut isolate, and this strain could be developed as a new probiotic after further tests.

  13. Contribution of the collagen adhesin Acm to pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecium in experimental endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R; Singh, Kavindra V; Murray, Barbara E

    2008-09-01

    Enterococcus faecium is a multidrug-resistant opportunist causing difficult-to-treat nosocomial infections, including endocarditis, but there are no reports experimentally demonstrating E. faecium virulence determinants. Our previous studies showed that some clinical E. faecium isolates produce a cell wall-anchored collagen adhesin, Acm, and that an isogenic acm deletion mutant of the endocarditis-derived strain TX0082 lost collagen adherence. In this study, we show with a rat endocarditis model that TX0082 Deltaacm::cat is highly attenuated versus wild-type TX0082, both in established (72 h) vegetations (P < 0.0001) and for valve colonization 1 and 3 hours after infection (P faecium pathogenesis. In contrast, no mortality differences were observed in a mouse peritonitis model. While 5 of 17 endocarditis isolates were Acm nonproducers and failed to adhere to collagen in vitro, all had an intact, highly conserved acm locus. Highly reduced acm mRNA levels (>or=50-fold reduction relative to an Acm producer) were found in three of these five nonadherent isolates, including the sequenced strain TX0016, by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, indicating that acm transcription is downregulated in vitro in these isolates. However, examination of TX0016 cells obtained directly from infected rat vegetations by flow cytometry showed that Acm was present on 40% of cells grown during infection. Finally, we demonstrated a significant reduction in E. faecium collagen adherence by affinity-purified anti-Acm antibodies from E. faecium endocarditis patient sera, suggesting that Acm may be a potential immunotarget for strategies to control this emerging pathogen.

  14. A genetic element present on megaplasmids allows Enterococcus faecium to use raffinose as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinglin; Vrijenhoek, Joyce E P; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L; van Schaik, Willem

    2011-02-01

    Enterococcus faecium is a commensal of the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. Since the 1990s, it has also emerged as a nosocomial pathogen. Little is known about carbon metabolism of E. faecium even though the ability to utilize different sugars could be an important factor in adapting to different ecological niches. In this study we identify an E. faecium gene cluster that is responsible for the metabolism of the α-galactoside sugar raffinose. Phenotypic testing of seven E. faecium isolates of which the genomes were previously sequenced showed that one isolate (strain E980) could grow on raffinose. Genome analysis identified a gene cluster containing two genes encoding α-galactosidases (termed agaA and agaB) that was uniquely present in E980. The agaA and agaB genes were significantly more frequently found in strains that are phylogenetically related to E980 and were more prevalent in surveillance isolates from hospital and community sources than in isolates from clinical infections. Disruption of the α-galactosidase gene agaB, but not of agaA, disabled growth on raffinose in strain E980. In all strains agaA and agaB are carried on megaplasmids that are between 150 and 300 kb in size. Filter-mating experiments showed that the megaplasmid of E980 can be transferred to a plasmidless recipient which then gains the ability to grow on raffinose. The observation that raffinose utilization by E. faecium is a trait carried by megaplasmids indicates that these megaplasmids can have important roles in shaping the competitive fitness of E. faecium in the environment, for example by expanding the metabolic repertoire of this organism.

  15. Growth condition-dependent Esp expression by Enterococcus faecium affects initial adherence and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Van Wamel, Willem J B; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Bonten, Marc J M; Top, Janetta; Posthuma, George; Willems, Rob J L

    2007-02-01

    A genetic subpopulation of Enterococcus faecium, called clonal complex 17 (CC-17), is strongly associated with hospital outbreaks and invasive infections. Most CC-17 strains contain a putative pathogenicity island encoding the E. faecium variant of enterococcal surface protein (Esp). Western blotting, flow cytometric analyses, and electron microscopy showed that Esp is expressed and exposed on the surface of E. faecium, though Esp expression and surface exposure are highly varied among different strains. Furthermore, Esp expression depends on growth conditions like temperature and anaerobioses. When grown at 37 degrees C, five of six esp-positive E. faecium strains showed significantly increased levels of surface-exposed Esp compared to bacteria grown at 21 degrees C, which was confirmed at the transcriptional level by real-time PCR. In addition, a significant increase in surface-exposed Esp was found in half of these strains when grown at 37 degrees C under anaerobic conditions compared to the level in bacteria grown under aerobic conditions. Finally, amounts of surface-exposed Esp correlated with initial adherence to polystyrene (R(2) = 0.7146) and biofilm formation (R(2) = 0.7535). Polystyrene adherence was competitively inhibited by soluble recombinant N-terminal Esp. This study demonstrates that Esp expression on the surface of E. faecium (i) varies consistently between strains, (ii) is growth condition dependent, and (iii) is quantitatively correlated with initial adherence and biofilm formation. These data indicate that E. faecium senses and responds to changing environmental conditions, which might play a role in the early stages of infection when bacteria transit from oxygen-rich conditions at room temperature to anaerobic conditions at body temperature. In addition, variation of surface exposure may explain the contrasting findings reported on the role of Esp in biofilm formation.

  16. Molecular Epidemiology of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium: a Prospective, Multicenter Study in South American Hospitals▿

    PubMed Central

    Panesso, Diana; Reyes, Jinnethe; Rincón, Sandra; Díaz, Lorena; Galloway-Peña, Jessica; Zurita, Jeannete; Carrillo, Carlos; Merentes, Altagracia; Guzmán, Manuel; Adachi, Javier A.; Murray, Barbara E.; Arias, Cesar A.

    2010-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen worldwide, and this trend has been associated with the dissemination of a genetic lineage designated clonal cluster 17 (CC17). Enterococcal isolates were collected prospectively (2006 to 2008) from 32 hospitals in Colombia, Ecuador, Perú, and Venezuela and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Genotyping was performed with all vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VREfm) isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing. All VREfm isolates were evaluated for the presence of 16 putative virulence genes (14 fms genes, the esp gene of E. faecium [espEfm], and the hyl gene of E. faecium [hylEfm]) and plasmids carrying the fms20-fms21 (pilA), hylEfm, and vanA genes. Of 723 enterococcal isolates recovered, E. faecalis was the most common (78%). Vancomycin resistance was detected in 6% of the isolates (74% of which were E. faecium). Eleven distinct PFGE types were found among the VREfm isolates, with most belonging to sequence types 412 and 18. The ebpAEfm-ebpBEfm-ebpCEfm (pilB) and fms11-fms19-fms16 clusters were detected in all VREfm isolates from the region, whereas espEfm and hylEfm were detected in 69% and 23% of the isolates, respectively. The fms20-fms21 (pilA) cluster, which encodes a putative pilus-like protein, was found on plasmids from almost all VREfm isolates and was sometimes found to coexist with hylEfm and the vanA gene cluster. The population genetics of VREfm in South America appear to resemble those of such strains in the United States in the early years of the CC17 epidemic. The overwhelming presence of plasmids encoding putative virulence factors and vanA genes suggests that E. faecium from the CC17 genogroup may disseminate in the region in the coming years. PMID:20220167

  17. Adherence to host extracellular matrix and serum components by Enterococcus faecium isolates of diverse origin

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Meng; Sillanpää, Jouko; Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R.; Murray, Barbara E.

    2009-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium has emerged as an important cause of nosocomial infections over the last two decades. We recently demonstrated collagen type I as a common adherence target for some E. faecium isolates and a significant correlation was found to exist between acm-mediated collagen type I adherence and clinical origin. Here, we evaluated 60 diverse E. faecium isolates for their adherence to up to 15 immobilized host extracellular matrix and serum components. Adherence phenotypes were most commonly observed to fibronectin (20% of the 60 isolates), fibrinogen (17%) and laminin (13%), while only one or two of the isolates adhered to collagen type V, transferrin or lactoferrin and none to the other host components tested. Adherence to fibronectin and laminin was almost exclusively restricted to clinical isolates, especially the endocarditis-enriched nosocomial genogroup clonal complex 17 (CC17). Thus, the ability to adhere to fibronectin and laminin, in addition to collagen type I, may have contributed to the emergence and adaptation of E. faecium, in particular CC17, as a nosocomial pathogen. PMID:19843310

  18. Enterococcus faecium stimulates human neutrophils via the formyl-peptide receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Bloes, Dominik Alexander; Otto, Michael; Peschel, Andreas; Kretschmer, Dorothee

    2012-01-01

    The human formyl-peptide receptor 2 (FPR2/ALX) senses phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) peptide toxins produced by pathogenic staphylococcal species and plays a crucial role in directing neutrophil influx during staphylococcal infection. However, it has remained unclear if FPR2 responds also to molecules from other bacterial pathogens. Here we analyzed a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens and found that apart from staphylococci only certain enterococcal strains have the capacity to stimulate FPR2/ALX. Most of the analyzed Enterococcus faecium but only sporadic Enterococcus faecalis strains released FPR2/ALX-stimulating molecules leading to neutrophil calcium ion fluxes, chemotaxis, and complement receptor upregulation. Among ten test strains vancomycin-resistant E. faecium had a significantly higher capacity to stimulate FPR2/ALX than vancomycin-susceptible strains, suggesting an association of strong FPR2/ALX activation with health-care associated strains. The enterococcal FPR2/ALX agonists were found to be peptides or proteins, which appear, however, to be unrelated to staphylococcal PSMs in sequence and physicochemical properties. Enterococci are among the most frequent invasive bacterial pathogens but the basis of enterococcal virulence and immune activation has remained incompletely understood. Our study indicates that previously unrecognized proteinaceous agonists contribute to Enterococcus-host interaction and underscores the importance of FPR2/ALX in host defense against major endogenous bacterial pathogens.

  19. Effectiveness of automated ultraviolet-C light for decontamination of textiles inoculated with Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Smolle, Christian; Huss, Fredrik; Lindblad, Marie; Reischies, Frederike; Tano, Eva

    2017-08-04

    Healthcare textiles are increasingly recognized as potential vehicles for transmission of hospital-acquired infections. We tested the ability of an automated ultraviolet-C (UV-C) room disinfection device (Tru-D(®) Smart UVC) to decontaminate textiles inoculated with Enterococcus faecium in a clinical setting. Contaminated polycotton (50/50 polyester/cotton) swatches were distributed to predefined locations in a ward room and exposed to UVC light. UVC-decontamination reduced E. faecium counts by a mean log10 reduction factor of 1.37 (all p=0.005, Wilcoxon signed rank test). UVC decontamination may be a feasible adjunctive measure to conventional laundering to preserve the cleanliness of healthcare textiles in ward rooms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. L-Lactic acid fermentation by Enterococcus faecium: a new isolate from bovine rumen.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wentao; Liu, Jianjun; Xu, Hui; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Jing

    2015-07-01

    To obtain a novel adaptable stain that can produce enantioselective L-lactic acid efficiently, reduce the operational cost of fermentation process and be suitable for scale production. Enterococcus faecium S.156 produced 126 g L-lactic acid/l with high optical purity (99.7 %), high productivity (5.25 g/l.h) and a conversion ratio >90 %. L-lactic acid production remained steady from 32 to 40 °C and at pH values from 5.5 to 6.5. O2 made no difference to both biomass growth and the L-lactic acid fermentation. 8 mg folic acid/l combined with 2 mM Fe(2+) substituted for 6 g yeast extract/l, which is a cost-saving. The special characteristics and economic traits of E. faecium S.156 make it suitable for industrial-scale production of L-lactic acid.

  1. Enterococcus faecium PBP5-S/R, the missing link between PBP5-S and PBP5-R.

    PubMed

    Pietta, Ester; Montealegre, Maria Camila; Roh, Jung Hyeob; Cocconcelli, Pier Sandro; Murray, Barbara E

    2014-11-01

    During a study to investigate the evolution of ampicillin resistance in Enterococcus faecium, we observed that a number of E. faecium strains, mainly from the recently described subclade A2, showed PBP5 sequences in between PBP5-S and PBP5-R. These hybrid PBP5-S/R patterns reveal a progression of amino acid changes from the S form to the R form of this protein; however, these changes do not strictly correlate with changes in ampicillin MICs.

  2. Failure of High-Dose Daptomycin for Bacteremia Caused by Daptomycin-Susceptible Enterococcus faecium Harboring LiaSR Substitutions

    PubMed Central

    Munita, Jose M.; Mishra, Nagendra N.; Alvarez, Danya; Tran, Truc T.; Diaz, Lorena; Panesso, Diana; Reyes, Jinnethe; Murray, Barbara E.; Adachi, Javier A.; Bayer, Arnold S.; Arias, Cesar A.

    2014-01-01

    High-dose daptomycin (DAP) therapy failed in a neutropenic patient with bloodstream infection caused by a DAP-susceptible Enterococcus faecium (minimum inhibitory concentration, 3 µg/mL) harboring genetic changes associated with DAP resistance, with persistent bacteremia and selection of additional resistances. Daptomycin monotherapy should be used cautiously against DAP-susceptible E. faecium strains with minimum inhibitory concentrations >2 µg/mL. PMID:25107294

  3. Enterococcus faecium PBP5-S/R, the Missing Link between PBP5-S and PBP5-R

    PubMed Central

    Pietta, Ester; Montealegre, Maria Camila; Roh, Jung Hyeob; Cocconcelli, Pier Sandro

    2014-01-01

    During a study to investigate the evolution of ampicillin resistance in Enterococcus faecium, we observed that a number of E. faecium strains, mainly from the recently described subclade A2, showed PBP5 sequences in between PBP5-S and PBP5-R. These hybrid PBP5-S/R patterns reveal a progression of amino acid changes from the S form to the R form of this protein; however, these changes do not strictly correlate with changes in ampicillin MICs. PMID:25182648

  4. Probiotic (Enterococcus faecium) induced responses of the hepatic proteome improves metabolic efficiency of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Aijuan; Luo, Jianjie; Meng, Kun; Li, Jianke; Bryden, Wayne L; Chang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Shu; Wang, L X N; Liu, Guohua; Yao, Bin

    2016-02-01

    The liver plays important roles in nutrient metabolism, detoxification and immunity. Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) is a probiotic that has been shown to have positive effects on broiler production. However, its molecular effects on liver metabolism have not been characterized. This study aims to further identify the biological roles of E. faecium by characterizing the hepatic proteomic changes of broilers (Gallus gallus) fed E. faecium using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and mass spectrometry (MS). Thirty-three proteins (50 protein spots) involved in nutrient metabolism, immunity and the antioxidant system were shown to be differentially expressed in the liver of broilers fed E. faecium than from birds not fed the probiotic. The biological processes of sulphur amino acids, vitamin and cellular hormone metabolism, sulphur compound biosynthesis and protein tetramerization were enhanced in the liver of broilers fed E. faecium. However, proteins involved in calcium ion flux, cell redox homeostasis and platelet activation related to hepatic immune responses were down-regulated in broilers fed E. faecium. These results indicate that the supplementation of poultry feed with E. faecium may alter the partitioning of nutrients and promote optimal nutrient utilization. This study assists in unraveling the molecular effects of the dietary probiotic, E. faecium, in the liver of broiler chickens. It shows that the probiotic improves the metabolism of nutrients and decreases inflammatory responses. Our findings extend previous knowledge of the mechanism of dietary probiotic action and provide new findings for research and future probiotic development.

  5. Distinct SagA from Hospital-Associated Clade A1 Enterococcus faecium Strains Contributes to Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Paganelli, F. L.; de Been, M.; Braat, J. C.; Hoogenboezem, T.; Vink, C.; Bayjanov, J.; Rogers, M. R. C.; Huebner, J.; Bonten, M. J. M.; Willems, R. J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium is an important nosocomial pathogen causing biofilm-mediated infections. Elucidation of E. faecium biofilm pathogenesis is pivotal for the development of new strategies to treat these infections. In several bacteria, extracellular DNA (eDNA) and proteins act as matrix components contributing to biofilm development. In this study, we investigated biofilm formation capacity and the roles of eDNA and secreted proteins for 83 E. faecium strains with different phylogenetic origins that clustered in clade A1 and clade B. Although there was no significant difference in biofilm formation between E. faecium strains from these two clades, the addition of DNase I or proteinase K to biofilms demonstrated that eDNA is essential for biofilm formation in most E. faecium strains, whereas proteolysis impacted primarily biofilms of E. faecium clade A1 strains. Secreted antigen A (SagA) was the most abundant protein in biofilms from E. faecium clade A1 and B strains, although its localization differed between the two groups. sagA was present in all sequenced E. faecium strains, with a consistent difference in the repeat region between the clades, which correlated with the susceptibility of biofilms to proteinase K. This indicates an association between the SagA variable repeat profile and the localization and contribution of SagA in E. faecium biofilms. PMID:26209668

  6. Distinct SagA from Hospital-Associated Clade A1 Enterococcus faecium Strains Contributes to Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Paganelli, F L; de Been, M; Braat, J C; Hoogenboezem, T; Vink, C; Bayjanov, J; Rogers, M R C; Huebner, J; Bonten, M J M; Willems, R J L; Leavis, H L

    2015-10-01

    Enterococcus faecium is an important nosocomial pathogen causing biofilm-mediated infections. Elucidation of E. faecium biofilm pathogenesis is pivotal for the development of new strategies to treat these infections. In several bacteria, extracellular DNA (eDNA) and proteins act as matrix components contributing to biofilm development. In this study, we investigated biofilm formation capacity and the roles of eDNA and secreted proteins for 83 E. faecium strains with different phylogenetic origins that clustered in clade A1 and clade B. Although there was no significant difference in biofilm formation between E. faecium strains from these two clades, the addition of DNase I or proteinase K to biofilms demonstrated that eDNA is essential for biofilm formation in most E. faecium strains, whereas proteolysis impacted primarily biofilms of E. faecium clade A1 strains. Secreted antigen A (SagA) was the most abundant protein in biofilms from E. faecium clade A1 and B strains, although its localization differed between the two groups. sagA was present in all sequenced E. faecium strains, with a consistent difference in the repeat region between the clades, which correlated with the susceptibility of biofilms to proteinase K. This indicates an association between the SagA variable repeat profile and the localization and contribution of SagA in E. faecium biofilms.

  7. Transient intestinal carriage after ingestion of antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus faecium from chicken and pork.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, T L; Blom, M; Monnet, D L; Frimodt-Møller, N; Poulsen, R L; Espersen, F

    2001-10-18

    Antibiotic-resistant enterococci are often present in retail meats, but it is unclear whether the ingestion of these contaminants leads to sustained intestinal carriage. We conducted a randomized, double-blind study in 18 healthy volunteers. Six ingested a mixture of 10(7) colony-forming units (CFU) of two glycopeptide-resistant strains of Enterococcus faecium obtained from chicken purchased at a grocery store, six ingested 10(7) CFU of a streptogramin-resistant strain of E. faecium obtained from a pig at slaughter, and six ingested 10(7) CFU of a glycopeptide-susceptible and streptogramin-susceptible strain of E. faecium from chicken purchased at a grocery store. Suspensions of enterococci were prepared in 250 ml of whole milk and were well within the amounts deemed acceptable by Danish food regulations. Stool samples were collected before exposure, daily for 1 week after ingestion, and at 14 and 35 days. Resistant enterococci in stools were identified by selective culture techniques; further molecular characterization of the organisms was also conducted. At the outset, none of the subjects were colonized with glycopeptide-resistant or streptogramin-resistant E. faecium. After ingestion of the study strains, these same strains were isolated from the stools of all subjects, in various concentrations. The test strain was isolated in stool from 8 of 12 subjects on day 6, and from 1 of 12 on day 14. All stool samples were negative at 35 days. The ingestion of resistant E. faecium of animal origin leads to detectable concentrations of the resistant strain in stools for up to 14 days after ingestion. The organisms survive gastric passage and multiply.

  8. Distribution of genes encoding MSCRAMMs and Pili in clinical and natural populations of Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Sillanpää, Jouko; Prakash, Vittal P; Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R; Murray, Barbara E

    2009-04-01

    Enterococcus faecium has recently emerged as an important cause of nosocomial infections. We previously identified 15 predicted surface proteins with characteristics of MSCRAMMs and/or pili and demonstrated that their genes were frequently present in 30 clinical E. faecium isolates studied; one of these, acm, has been studied in further detail. To determine the prevalence of the other 14 genes among various E. faecium populations, we have now assessed 433 E. faecium isolates, including 264 isolates from human clinical infections, 69 isolates from stools of hospitalized patients, 70 isolates from stools of community volunteers, and 30 isolates from animal-related sources. A variable distribution of the 14 genes was detected, with their presence ranging from 51% to 98% of isolates. While 81% of clinical isolates carried 13 or 14 of the 14 genes tested, none of the community group isolates and only 13% of animal isolates carried 13 or 14 genes. The presence of these genes was most frequent in endocarditis isolates, with 11 genes present in all isolates, followed by isolates from other clinical sources. The number of genes significantly associated with clinical versus fecal or animal origin (P = 0.04 to <0.0001) varied from 10 to 13, depending on whether comparisons were made against individual clinical subgroups (endocarditis, blood, and other clinical isolates) or against all clinical isolates combined as one group. The strong association of these genes with clinical isolates raises the possibility that their preservation/acquisition has favored the adaptation of E. faecium to nosocomial environments and/or patients.

  9. Evaluation of technological properties of Enterococcus faecium CECT 8849, a strain isolated from human milk, for the dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Nivia; Arroyo, Rebeca; Calzada, Javier; Peirotén, Ángela; Medina, Margarita; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Fernández, Leonides

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a variety of biochemical properties of Enterococcus faecium CECT 8849, which had been isolated from breast milk, were analyzed. Its acidifying capacity and proteolytic activity were low but, in contrast, remarkable peptidase and esterase activities were observed. Ethanol and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone were the most abundant volatile compounds found in experimental model cheese manufactured with E. faecium CECT 8849. This strain inhibited the growth of several Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua strains in vitro. Enterocin A and B structural genes were detected in E. faecium CECT 8849. Model fermented milk and cheeses were manufactured from milk inoculated or not with L. innocua CECT 8848 (2.5-3 log10 colony forming units mL(-1)) using E. faecium CECT 8849 or Lactococcus lactis ESI 153 as starter cultures. Although E. faecium CECT 8849 controlled Listeria growth in both dairy models, it led to lower reduction in Listeria counts when compared with L. lactis ESI 153.

  10. A novel putative enterococcal pathogenicity island linked to the esp virulence gene of Enterococcus faecium and associated with epidemicity.

    PubMed

    Leavis, Helen; Top, Janetta; Shankar, Nathan; Borgen, Katrine; Bonten, Marc; van Embden, Jan; Willems, Rob J L

    2004-02-01

    Enterococcus faecalis harbors a virulence-associated surface protein encoded by the esp gene. This gene has been shown to be part of a 150-kb putative pathogenicity island. A gene similar to esp has recently been found in Enterococcus faecium isolates recovered from hospitalized patients. In the present study we analyzed the polymorphism in the esp gene of E. faecium, and we investigated the association of esp with neighboring chromosomal genes. The esp gene showed considerable sequence heterogeneity in the regions encoding the nonrepeat N- and C-terminal domains of the Esp protein as well as differences in the number of repeats. DNA sequencing of chromosomal regions flanking the esp gene of E. faecium revealed seven open reading frames, representing putative genes implicated in virulence, regulation of transcription, and antibiotic resistance. These flanking regions were invariably associated with the presence or absence of the esp gene in E. faecium, indicating that esp in E. faecium is part of a distinct genetic element. Because of the presence of virulence genes in this gene cluster, the lower G+C content relative to that of the genome, and the presence of esp in E. faecium isolates associated with nosocomial outbreaks and clinically documented infections, we conclude that this genetic element constitutes a putative pathogenicity island, the first one described in E. faecium. Except for the presence of esp and araC, this pathogenicity island is completely different from the esp-containing pathogenicity island previously disclosed in E. faecalis.

  11. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium clinical isolates from two hospitals in Mexico: First detection of VanB phenotype-vanA genotype.

    PubMed

    Bocanegra-Ibarias, Paola; Flores-Treviño, Samantha; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián; Morfin-Otero, Rayo; Villarreal-Treviño, Licet; Llaca-Díaz, Jorge; Martínez-Landeros, Erik Alan; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo; Calzada-Güereca, Andrés; Maldonado-Garza, Héctor Jesús; Garza-González, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium has emerged as a multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen involved in outbreaks worldwide. Our aim was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility, biofilm production, and clonal relatedness of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VREF) clinical isolates from two hospitals in Mexico. Consecutive clinical isolates (n=56) were collected in two tertiary care hospitals in Mexico from 2011 to 2014. VREF isolates were characterized by phenotypic and molecular methods including pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). VREF isolates were highly resistant to vancomycin, erythromycin, norfloxacin, high-level streptomycin, and teicoplanin, and showed lower resistance to tetracycline, nitrofurantoin and quinupristin-dalfopristin. None of the isolates were resistant to linezolid. The vanA gene was detected in all isolates. Two VanB phenotype-vanA genotype isolates, highly resistant to vancomycin and susceptible to teicoplanin, were detected. Furthermore, 17.9% of the isolates were classified as biofilm producers, and the espfm gene was found in 98.2% of the isolates. A total of 37 distinct PFGE patterns and 6 clones (25% of the isolates as clone A, 5.4% as clone B, and 3.6% each as clone C, D, E, and F) were detected. Clone A was detected in 5 different wards of the same hospital during 14 months of surveillance. The high resistance to most antimicrobial agents and the moderate cross-transmission of VREF detected accentuates the need for continuous surveillance of E. faecium in the hospital setting. This is also the first reported incidence of the E. faecium VanB phenotype-vanA genotype in the Americas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibitory influence of Enterococcus faecium on the propagation of swine influenza A virus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenya; Chai, Weidong; Burwinkel, Michael; Twardziok, Sven; Wrede, Paul; Palissa, Christiane; Esch, Bettina; Schmidt, Michael F G

    2013-01-01

    The control of infectious diseases such as swine influenza viruses (SwIV) plays an important role in food production both from the animal health and from the public health point of view. Probiotic microorganisms and other health improving food supplements have been given increasing attention in recent years, but, no information on the effects of probiotics on swine influenza virus is available. Here we address this question by assessing the inhibitory potential of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 (E. faecium) on the replication of two porcine strains of influenza virus (H1N1 and H3N2 strain) in a continuous porcine macrophage cell line (3D4/21) and in MDBK cells. Cell cultures were treated with E. faecium at the non-toxic concentration of 1×10(6) CFU/ml in growth medium for 60 to 90 min before, during and after SwIV infection. After further incubation of cultures in probiotic-free growth medium, cell viability and virus propagation were determined at 48 h or 96 h post infection. The results obtained reveal an almost complete recovery of viability of SwIV infected cells and an inhibition of virus multiplication by up to four log units in the E. faecium treated cells. In both 3D4/21- and MDBK-cells a 60 min treatment with E. faecium stimulated nitric oxide (NO) release which is in line with published evidence for an antiviral function of NO. Furthermore, E. faecium caused a modified cellular expression of selected mediators of defence in 3D4-cells: while the expression of TNF-α, TLR-3 and IL-6 were decreased in the SwIV-infected and probiotic treated cells, IL-10 was found to be increased. Since we obtained experimental evidence for the direct adsorptive trapping of SwIV through E. faecium, this probiotic microorganism inhibits influenza viruses by at least two mechanisms, direct physical interaction and strengthening of innate defence at the cellular level.

  13. Enterococcal surface protein Esp is important for biofilm formation of Enterococcus faecium E1162.

    PubMed

    Heikens, Esther; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L

    2007-11-01

    Enterococci have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens with resistance to multiple antibiotics. Adhesion to abiotic materials and biofilm formation on medical devices are considered important virulence properties. A single clonal lineage of Enterococcus faecium, complex 17 (CC17), appears to be a successful nosocomial pathogen, and most CC17 isolates harbor the enterococcal surface protein gene, esp. In this study, we constructed an esp insertion-deletion mutant in a clinical E. faecium CC17 isolate. In addition, initial adherence and biofilm assays were performed. Compared to the wild-type strain, the esp insertion-deletion mutant no longer produced Esp on the cell surface and had significantly lower initial adherence to polystyrene and significantly less biofilm formation, resulting in levels of biofilm comparable to those of an esp-negative isolate. Capacities for initial adherence and biofilm formation were restored in the insertion-deletion mutant by in trans complementation with esp. These results identify Esp as the first documented determinant in E. faecium CC17 with an important role in biofilm formation, which is an essential factor in infection pathogenesis.

  14. Intracellular activities of RP 59500 (quinupristin-dalfopristin) and sparfloxacin against Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Insúa, I; Jacques-Palaz, K; Murray, B E; Rakita, R M

    1996-01-01

    RP 59500, a combination of the streptogramins quinupristin and dalfopristin, and sparfloxacin are new antibiotics with good in vitro activities against Enterococcus faecium, which is an increasingly important nosocomial pathogen with resistance to multiple antimicrobials. Since fluoroquinolones and related macrolides have displayed high intracellular concentrations inside host cells, we evaluated the intracellular activities of these agents inside neutrophils against three strains each of vancomycin-susceptible E. faecium (VSEF) and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VREF). At concentrations equal to four times the MIC, RP 59500 and sparfloxacin decreased the number of intracellular VSEF organisms, while both antibiotics were at best bacteriostatic against intracellular VREF strains. At concentrations equal to one-fourth of the MIC, both antibiotics were bacteriostatic against intracellular VSEF strains but were ineffective in inhibiting the growth of VREF strains. Despite their anticipated markedly higher intracellular human neutrophil (PMN) concentrations, RP 59500 and sparfloxacin activities in medium alone were equal to or greater than those inside PMNs against almost all strains. We conclude that the intracellular PMN concentrations of these antibiotics may not be directly related to their intracellular activities in our assay. The reason for the differences in their activities against VSEF versus VREF remains undefined. PMID:8849245

  15. A conserved hydrolase responsible for the cleavage of aminoacylphosphatidylglycerol in the membrane of Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Smith, Angela M; Harrison, Jesse S; Sprague, Kevin M; Roy, Hervé

    2013-08-02

    Aminoacylphosphatidylglycerol synthases (aaPGSs) are enzymes that transfer amino acids from aminoacyl-tRNAs (aa-tRNAs) to phosphatidylglycerol (PG) to form aa-PG in the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria. aa-PGs provide bacteria with resistance to a range of antimicrobial compounds and stress conditions. Enterococcus faecium encodes a triple-specific aaPGS (RakPGS) that utilizes arginine, alanine, and lysine as substrates. Here we identify a novel hydrolase (AhyD), encoded immediately adjacent to rakPGS in E. faecium, which is responsible for the hydrolysis of aa-PG. The genetic synteny of aaPGS and ahyD is conserved in >60 different bacterial species. Deletion of ahyD in E. faecium resulted in increased formation of Ala-PG and Lys-PG and increased sensitivity to bacitracin. Our results suggest that AhyD and RakPGS act together to maintain optimal levels of aa-PG in the bacterial membrane to confer resistance to certain antimicrobial compounds and stress conditions.

  16. Duplex real-time PCR assay for rapid detection of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Mohn, Stein Christian; Ulvik, Arve; Jureen, Roland; Willems, Rob J L; Top, Janetta; Leavis, Helen; Harthug, Stig; Langeland, Nina

    2004-02-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of carriers of resistant microorganisms is an important aspect of efficient infection control in hospitals. Traditional identification methods of antibiotic-resistant bacteria usually take at least 3 to 4 days after sampling. A duplex real-time PCR assay was developed for rapid detection of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (ARE). Primers and probes that are used in this assay specifically detected the D-Ala-D-Ala ligase gene of E. faecium and the modified penicillin-binding protein 5 gene (pbp5) carrying the Glu-to-Val substitution at position 629 (Val-629) in a set of 129 tested E. faecium strains with known pbp5 sequence. Presence of the Val-629 in the strain set from 11 different countries was highly correlated with ampicillin resistance. In a screening of hospitalized patients, the real-time PCR assay yielded a sensitivity and a specificity for the detection of ARE colonization of 95% and 100%, respectively. The results were obtained 4 h after samples were harvested from overnight broth of rectal swab samples, identifying both species and the resistance marker mutation in pbp5. This novel assay reliably identifies ARE 2 to 3 days more quickly than traditional culture methods, thereby increasing laboratory throughput, making it useful for rectal screening of ARE. The assay demonstrates the advantages of real-time PCR for detection of nosocomial pathogens.

  17. Outbreak of vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecium containing the wild-type vanA gene.

    PubMed

    Szakacs, Tom A; Kalan, Lindsay; McConnell, Michael J; Eshaghi, Alireza; Shahinas, Dea; McGeer, Allison; Wright, Gerry D; Low, Donald E; Patel, Samir N

    2014-05-01

    Accurate detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is essential in preventing transmission in health care settings. Chromogenic media are widely used for screening VRE because of fast turnaround times (TAT) and high sensitivity. We report an outbreak of Enterococcus faecium bearing vanA yet susceptible to vancomycin (vancomycin-variable Enterococcus [VVE]). Between October 2009 to March 2011, clinical and screening specimens (n=14,747) were screened for VRE using VRE-selective medium and/or PCR. VVE isolates were genotyped to determine relatedness. Plasmids from these isolates were characterized by sequencing. Overall, 52 VVE isolates were identified, comprising 15% of all VRE isolates identified. Isolates demonstrated growth on Brilliance VRE agar (Oxoid) at 24 h of incubation but did not grow on brain heart infusion agar with 6 μg/ml vancomycin (Oxoid) or bile esculin azide agar with 6 μg/ml vancomycin (Oxoid) and were susceptible to vancomycin. Genotyping of 20 randomly selected VVE isolates revealed that 15/20 were identical, while 5 were highly related. PCR of the VVE transposon confirmed the presence of vanHAXY gene cluster; however, vanS (sensor) and vanR (regulator) genes were absent. The outbreak was controlled through routine infection control measures. We report an emergence of a fit strain of E. faecium containing vanA yet susceptible to vancomycin. Whether this new strain represents VRE has yet to be determined; however, unique testing procedures are required for reliable identification of VVE.

  18. Investigation of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium outbreak in neonatal intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Cilo, Burcu Dalyan; Ağca, Harun; Efe, Kadir; Sınırtaş, Melda; Çelebi, Solmaz; Özkan, Hilal; Köksal, Nilgün; Hacımustafaoğlu, Mustafa; Özakın, Cüneyt

    2014-01-01

    Enterococci are one of the major agents of community-acquired and nosocomial infections. In this study we aimed to analyze the clonal relation of the vancomycin-resistant Enterococci outbreak seen at the Neonate Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Uludag University Hospital. Vancomycin resistance gene was investigated in the Enterococcus faecium strains and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to investigate the genetic relation between outbreak strains. Enterococci grown in all patient samples were identified as Enterococcus faecium by BD Phoenix 100 (Becton Dickinson, USA). We found vanA resistance gene in all of the swab samples by Xpert VanA/B test on Cepheid (Cepheid, USA). PFGE band patterns revealed two different strains, of which the majority of them (22/24) had the same clonal origin. The common clonal origin was also isolated from rectal probes. Perianal swab culture positivity was evaluated as colonization but culture growth in two blood cultures, two urine cultures and one wound culture was evaluated as infection and treated with linezolid. All of the patients survived the outbreak. Besides the infection control precautions determining the genetic relation between outbreak strains which can be done in the microbiology laboratory is necessary to control an outbreak. PFGE is a reliable method in the microbiologic analysis of outbreaks. Molecular microbiologic analysis of outbreak strains will contribute to prove the epidemiologic and evolution of outbreaks. PMID:25664041

  19. Comparison of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis Strains isolated from water and clinical samples: antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic relationships.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Mazari-Hiríart, Marisa; Ponce de León, Sergio; Amieva-Fernández, Rosa I; Agis-Juárez, Raúl A; Huebner, Johannes; López-Vidal, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Enterococci are part of the normal intestinal flora in a large number of mammals, and these microbes are currently used as indicators of fecal contamination in water and food for human consumption. These organisms are considered one of the primary causes of nosocomial and environmental infections due to their ability to survive in the environment and to their intrinsic resistance to antimicrobials. The aims of this study were to determine the biochemical patterns and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium isolates from clinical samples and from water (groundwater, water from the Xochimilco wetland, and treated water from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area) and to determine the genetic relationships among these isolates. A total of 121 enterococcus strains were studied; 31 and 90 strains were isolated from clinical samples and water (groundwater, water from the Xochimilco wetland, and water for agricultural irrigation), respectively. Identification to the species level was performed using a multiplex PCR assay, and antimicrobial profiles were obtained using a commercial kit. Twenty-eight strains were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). E. faecium strains isolated from water showed an atypical biochemical pattern. The clinical isolates showed higher resistance to antibiotics than those from water. Both the enterococci isolated from humans, and those isolated from water showed high genetic diversity according to the PFGE analysis, although some strains seemed to be closely related. In conclusion, enterococci isolated from humans and water are genetically different. However, water represents a potential route of transmission to the community and a source of antimicrobial resistance genes that may be readily transmitted to other, different bacterial species.

  20. Comparison of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis Strains Isolated from Water and Clinical Samples: Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Genetic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Mazari-Hiríart, Marisa; Ponce de León, Sergio; Amieva-Fernández, Rosa I.; Agis-Juárez, Raúl A.; Huebner, Johannes; López-Vidal, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Enterococci are part of the normal intestinal flora in a large number of mammals, and these microbes are currently used as indicators of fecal contamination in water and food for human consumption. These organisms are considered one of the primary causes of nosocomial and environmental infections due to their ability to survive in the environment and to their intrinsic resistance to antimicrobials. The aims of this study were to determine the biochemical patterns and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium isolates from clinical samples and from water (groundwater, water from the Xochimilco wetland, and treated water from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area) and to determine the genetic relationships among these isolates. A total of 121 enterococcus strains were studied; 31 and 90 strains were isolated from clinical samples and water (groundwater, water from the Xochimilco wetland, and water for agricultural irrigation), respectively. Identification to the species level was performed using a multiplex PCR assay, and antimicrobial profiles were obtained using a commercial kit. Twenty-eight strains were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). E. faecium strains isolated from water showed an atypical biochemical pattern. The clinical isolates showed higher resistance to antibiotics than those from water. Both the enterococci isolated from humans, and those isolated from water showed high genetic diversity according to the PFGE analysis, although some strains seemed to be closely related. In conclusion, enterococci isolated from humans and water are genetically different. However, water represents a potential route of transmission to the community and a source of antimicrobial resistance genes that may be readily transmitted to other, different bacterial species. PMID:23560050

  1. Characterization of the effects of Enterococcus faecium on intestinal epithelial transport properties in piglets.

    PubMed

    Klingspor, S; Martens, H; Caushi, D; Twardziok, S; Aschenbach, J R; Lodemann, U

    2013-04-01

    Probiotics have been shown to have positive effects on growth performance traits and the health of farm animals. The objective of the study was to examine whether the probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 (E. faecium) changes the absorptive and secretory transport and barrier properties of piglet jejunum in vitro and thereby to verify tendencies observed in a former feeding trial with E. faecium. Further aims were to assess a potential mechanism of probiotics by testing effects of IL-α, which is upregulated in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of E. faecium-supplemented piglets, and to test the hypothesis that IL-1α induces a change in ion transport. Sows and their piglets were randomly assigned to a control group and a probiotic group supplemented with E. faecium. The sows received the probiotic supplemented feed from d 28 before parturition and the piglets from d 12 after birth. Piglets were killed at the age of 12 ± 1, 26 ± 1, 34 ± 1, and 54 ± 1 d. Ussing chamber studies were conducted with isolated mucosae from the mid jejunum. Samples were taken for mRNA expression analysis of sodium-glucose-linked transporter 1 (SGLT1) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The Na(+)/glucose cotransport was increased in the probiotic group compared with the control group at 26 (P = 0.04) and 54 d of age (P = 0.01). The PGE2-induced short circuit current (Isc) was greater at 54 d of age in the probiotic group compared with the control group (P = 0.03). In addition, effects of age on the absorptive (P < 0.01) and secretory (P < 0.01) capacities were observed. Neither SGLT1 nor CFTR mRNA expression was changed by probiotic supplementation. Mannitol flux rates as a marker of paracellular permeability decreased in both groups with increasing age and were less in the probiotic group at the 26 d of age (P = 0.04), indicating a tighter intestinal barrier. The ΔIsc induced by IL-1α was inhibited by bumetanide (P < 0.01), indicating an

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecium Strain 58m, Isolated from Intestinal Tract Content of a Woolly Mammoth, Mammuthus primigenius.

    PubMed

    Goncharov, Artemiy; Grigorjev, Semyon; Karaseva, Alena; Kolodzhieva, Viktoria; Azarov, Daniil; Akhremenko, Yana; Tarasova, Lidia; Tikhonov, Alexei; Masharskiy, Alexey; Zueva, Lyudmila; Suvorov, Alexander

    2016-02-11

    Enterococcus faecium 58m is a putative ancient nonpathogenic strain isolated from the intestinal content of an adult woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius). Here, we report its draft genome sequence, consisting of 60 contigs. In silico genomic analysis was performed to determine the genetic features and pathogenic potential of this microorganism. Copyright © 2016 Goncharov et al.

  3. Antibiotic and disinfectant susceptibility profiles of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) isolated from community wastewater in Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) previously isolated from human wastewater effluents in a nonclinical semiclosed agri-food system in Texas were characterized for susceptibility to antibiotics and disinfectants. The 50 VRE were resistant to eight fluoroquinolones and to 10 of 17 Natio...

  4. Differential Penicillin-Binding Protein 5 (PBP5) Levels in the Enterococcus faecium Clades with Different Levels of Ampicillin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Montealegre, Maria Camila; Roh, Jung Hyeob; Rae, Meredith; Davlieva, Milya G; Singh, Kavindra V; Shamoo, Yousif; Murray, Barbara E

    2017-01-01

    Ampicillin resistance in Enterococcus faecium is a serious concern worldwide, complicating the treatment of E. faecium infections. Penicillin-binding protein 5 (PBP5) is considered the main ampicillin resistance determinant in E. faecium The three known E. faecium clades showed sequence variations in the pbp5 gene that are associated with their ampicillin resistance phenotype; however, these changes alone do not explain the array of resistance levels observed among E. faecium clinical strains. We aimed to determine if the levels of PBP5 are differentially regulated between the E. faecium clades, with the hypothesis that variations in PBP5 levels could help account for the spectrum of ampicillin MICs seen in E. faecium We studied pbp5 mRNA levels and PBP5 protein levels as well as the genetic environment upstream of pbp5 in 16 E. faecium strains that belong to the different E. faecium clades and for which the ampicillin MICs covered a wide range. Our results found that pbp5 and PBP5 levels are increased in subclade A1 and A2 ampicillin-resistant strains compared to those in clade B and subclade A2 ampicillin-susceptible strains. Furthermore, we found evidence of major clade-associated rearrangements in the region upstream of pbp5, including large DNA fragment insertions, deletions, and single nucleotide polymorphisms, that may be associated with the differential regulation of PBP5 levels between the E. faecium clades. Overall, these findings highlight the contribution of the clade background to the regulation of PBP5 abundance and point to differences in the region upstream of pbp5 as likely contributors to the differential expression of ampicillin resistance. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Feeding the Probiotic Enterococcus faecium Strain NCIMB 10415 to Piglets Specifically Reduces the Number of Escherichia coli Pathotypes That Adhere to the Gut Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Guenther, Sebastian; Oelgeschläger, Kathrin; Kinnemann, Bianca; Pieper, Robert; Hartmann, Susanne; Tedin, Karsten; Semmler, Torsten; Neumann, Konrad; Schierack, Peter; Bethe, Astrid; Wieler, Lothar H.

    2013-01-01

    Feed supplementation with the probiotic Enterococcus faecium for piglets has been found to reduce pathogenic gut microorganisms. Since Escherichia coli is among the most important pathogens in pig production, we performed comprehensive analyses to gain further insight into the influence of E. faecium NCIMB 10415 on porcine intestinal E. coli. A total of 1,436 E. coli strains were isolated from three intestinal habitats (mucosa, digesta, and feces) of probiotic-supplemented and nonsupplemented (control) piglets. E. coli bacteria were characterized via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for clonal analysis. The high diversity of E. coli was reflected by 168 clones. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to determine the phylogenetic backgrounds, revealing 79 sequence types (STs). Pathotypes of E. coli were further defined using multiplex PCR for virulence-associated genes. While these analyses discerned only a few significant differences in the E. coli population between the feeding groups, analyses distinguishing clones that were uniquely isolated in either the probiotic group only, the control group only, or both groups (shared group) revealed clear effects at the habitat level. Interestingly, extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC)-typical clones adhering to the mucosa were significantly reduced in the probiotic group. Our data show a minor influence of E. faecium on the overall population of E. coli in healthy piglets. In contrast, this probiotic has a profound effect on mucosa-adherent E. coli. This finding further substantiates a specific effect of E. faecium strain NCIMB 10415 in piglets against pathogenic E. coli in the intestine. In addition, these data question the relevance of data based on sampling fecal E. coli only. PMID:24123741

  6. Feeding the probiotic Enterococcus faecium strain NCIMB 10415 to piglets specifically reduces the number of Escherichia coli pathotypes that adhere to the gut mucosa.

    PubMed

    Bednorz, Carmen; Guenther, Sebastian; Oelgeschläger, Kathrin; Kinnemann, Bianca; Pieper, Robert; Hartmann, Susanne; Tedin, Karsten; Semmler, Torsten; Neumann, Konrad; Schierack, Peter; Bethe, Astrid; Wieler, Lothar H

    2013-12-01

    Feed supplementation with the probiotic Enterococcus faecium for piglets has been found to reduce pathogenic gut microorganisms. Since Escherichia coli is among the most important pathogens in pig production, we performed comprehensive analyses to gain further insight into the influence of E. faecium NCIMB 10415 on porcine intestinal E. coli. A total of 1,436 E. coli strains were isolated from three intestinal habitats (mucosa, digesta, and feces) of probiotic-supplemented and nonsupplemented (control) piglets. E. coli bacteria were characterized via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for clonal analysis. The high diversity of E. coli was reflected by 168 clones. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to determine the phylogenetic backgrounds, revealing 79 sequence types (STs). Pathotypes of E. coli were further defined using multiplex PCR for virulence-associated genes. While these analyses discerned only a few significant differences in the E. coli population between the feeding groups, analyses distinguishing clones that were uniquely isolated in either the probiotic group only, the control group only, or both groups (shared group) revealed clear effects at the habitat level. Interestingly, extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC)-typical clones adhering to the mucosa were significantly reduced in the probiotic group. Our data show a minor influence of E. faecium on the overall population of E. coli in healthy piglets. In contrast, this probiotic has a profound effect on mucosa-adherent E. coli. This finding further substantiates a specific effect of E. faecium strain NCIMB 10415 in piglets against pathogenic E. coli in the intestine. In addition, these data question the relevance of data based on sampling fecal E. coli only.

  7. Algorithm for pre-emptive glycopeptide treatment in patients with haematologic malignancies and an Enterococcus faecium bloodstream infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Nowadays Enterococcus faecium has become one of the most emerging and challenging nosocomial pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors in haematology patients who are at risk of an Enterococcus faecium bloodstream infection (BSI) and should be considered for pre-emptive glycopeptide treatment. With these identified risk factors a prediction model can be developed for clinical use. Methods Retrospectively clinical and microbiological data in 33 patients with an E. faecium BSI were compared to 66 control patients during a 5-year period at the haematology ward. Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore the independent risk factors and a prediction model was developed to determine the risk of an E. faecium BSI. Results E. faecium BSIs were found to be associated with high mortality rates. Independent risk factors for E. faecium BSI were colonization with E. faecium 30 days prior to blood culture (OR 5.71; CI 1.7-18.7), combination of neutropenia and abdominal focus (4.37; 1.4-13.4), age > 58 years (4.01; 1.3-12.5), hospital stay prior to blood culture > 14 days (3.55; 0.98-12.9) and CRP (C-reactive protein) level >125 mg/L (4.37; 1.1-10.2). Conclusion Using data from this study, risk stratification for the development of an E. faecium BSI in patients with haematological malignancies is possible. Pre-emptive treatment should be considered in those patients who are at high risk. Using a prediction model as designed in this study, antibiotic stewardship in terms of prudent use of glycopeptides can be improved and might be helpful in controlling further spread of VRE (vancomycin resistant enterococci). PMID:24025668

  8. High-level aminoglycoside resistance in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium causing invasive infection: Twelve-year surveillance in the Minami Ibaraki Area.

    PubMed

    Osuka, Hanako; Nakajima, Jun; Oishi, Tsuyoshi; Funayama, Yasunori; Ebihara, Tsugio; Ishikawa, Hiroichi; Saito, Kazuto; Koganemaru, Hiroshi; Hitomi, Shigemi

    2016-01-01

    We examined prevalence of high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium causing invasive infection in the Minami Ibaraki Area. Ten strains of both species each, recovered from the blood or the cerebrospinal fluid between 2003 and 2014, were randomly selected every year. High-level resistance to gentamicin (HLR-GM) and streptomycin (HLR-SM) was detected in 34% (41 of 120 strains) and 18% (21) of E. faecalis and 9% (11) and 39% (48) of E. faecium, respectively. In comparisons of the proportions among three four-year periods, HLR-SM among E. faecium was significantly lower in the 2011-2014 period. All strains with HLR-GM were positive for the aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia gene. The ant(6')-Ia gene was detected in all with HLR-SM except for one E. faecalis strain. The present study showed that prevalence of HLR-GM among E. faecalis and E. faecium causing invasive infection in this area was nearly equivalent to that described in previous studies in Japan and that proportions of strains with HLAR did not vary during the study period except for that of HLR-SM among E. faecium.

  9. No beneficial effects evident for Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 in weaned pigs infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104.

    PubMed

    Kreuzer, Susanne; Janczyk, Pawel; Assmus, Jens; Schmidt, Michael F G; Brockmann, Gudrun A; Nöckler, Karsten

    2012-07-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT 104 is the major pathogen for salmonellosis outbreaks in Europe. We tested if the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 can prevent or alleviate salmonellosis. Therefore, piglets of the German Landrace breed that were treated with E. faecium (n = 16) as a feed additive and untreated controls (n = 16) were challenged with S. Typhimurium 10 days after weaning. The presence of salmonellae in feces and selected organs, as well as the immune response, were investigated. Piglets treated with E. faecium gained less weight than control piglets (P = 0.05). The feeding of E. faecium had no effect on the fecal shedding of salmonellae and resulted in a higher abundance of the pathogen in tonsils of all challenged animals. The specific (anti-Salmonella IgG) and nonspecific (haptoglobin) humoral immune responses as well as the cellular immune response (T helper cells, cytotoxic T cells, regulatory T cells, γδ T cells, and B cells) in the lymph nodes, Peyer's patches of different segments of the intestine (jejunal and ileocecal), the ileal papilla, and in the blood were affected in the course of time after infection (P < 0.05) but not by the E. faecium treatment. These results led to the conclusion that E. faecium may not have beneficial effects on the performance of weaned piglets in the case of S. Typhimurium infection. Therefore, we suggest a critical discussion and reconsideration of E. faecium NCIMB 10415 administration as a probiotic for pigs.

  10. No Beneficial Effects Evident for Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 in Weaned Pigs Infected with Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104

    PubMed Central

    Kreuzer, Susanne; Aßmus, Jens; Schmidt, Michael F. G.; Brockmann, Gudrun A.; Nöckler, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT 104 is the major pathogen for salmonellosis outbreaks in Europe. We tested if the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 can prevent or alleviate salmonellosis. Therefore, piglets of the German Landrace breed that were treated with E. faecium (n = 16) as a feed additive and untreated controls (n = 16) were challenged with S. Typhimurium 10 days after weaning. The presence of salmonellae in feces and selected organs, as well as the immune response, were investigated. Piglets treated with E. faecium gained less weight than control piglets (P = 0.05). The feeding of E. faecium had no effect on the fecal shedding of salmonellae and resulted in a higher abundance of the pathogen in tonsils of all challenged animals. The specific (anti-Salmonella IgG) and nonspecific (haptoglobin) humoral immune responses as well as the cellular immune response (T helper cells, cytotoxic T cells, regulatory T cells, γδ T cells, and B cells) in the lymph nodes, Peyer's patches of different segments of the intestine (jejunal and ileocecal), the ileal papilla, and in the blood were affected in the course of time after infection (P < 0.05) but not by the E. faecium treatment. These results led to the conclusion that E. faecium may not have beneficial effects on the performance of weaned piglets in the case of S. Typhimurium infection. Therefore, we suggest a critical discussion and reconsideration of E. faecium NCIMB 10415 administration as a probiotic for pigs. PMID:22544257

  11. From vanA Enterococcus hirae to vanA Enterococcus faecium: a Study of Feed Supplementation with Avoparcin and Tylosin in Young Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Robredo, Beatriz; Singh, Kavindra V.; Baquero, Fernando; Murray, Barbara E.; Torres, Carmen

    1999-01-01

    Fifteen newborn chickens were isolated in separate cages after 1 month of living together, divided into three groups, and challenged for 5 weeks with seed food which either was supplemented with avoparcin (10 mg/kg of animal food) or tylosin (40 mg/kg) or was nonsupplemented. At 9 weeks of age and after the 5-week challenge, all chickens received nonsupplemented feed for 4 additional weeks. At 4, 9, and 13 weeks of life, feces were collected and inoculated on M-Enterococcus agar plates with and without vancomycin (4 μg/ml). vanA-containing Enterococcus hirae was isolated from 11 of 15 chickens before antibiotic challenge, without detection of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. At 9 weeks of age and after the 5-week avoparcin challenge, vanA E. hirae strains were no longer detected, but five of five chickens now had vanA E. faecium. At a lower frequency, vanA E. faecium had also displaced vanA E. hirae in both the tylosin group (one of four chickens) and the control group (two of five chickens). One month after avoparcin discontinuation, the number of chickens colonized with vanA E. faecium decreased from five to one. All vanA-containing E. hirae strains detected in the first month of life and most of the vanA-containing E. faecium strains detected in the second month of life showed identical ApaI and SmaI restriction patterns, respectively, when analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All vanA E. hirae isolates transferred glycopeptide and macrolide resistance to Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 in vitro; the level of glycopeptide resistance was higher in the transconjugants than in the donor E. hirae strains. These data suggest that E. hirae may be a significant source of vanA determinants with the potential of transfer to other enterococcal species from humans or animals. PMID:10223926

  12. Increased conjugation frequencies in clinical Enterococcus faecium strains harbouring the enterococcal surface protein gene esp.

    PubMed

    Lund, B; Billström, H; Edlund, C

    2006-06-01

    This study compared the in-vitro ability of Enterococcus faecium isolates of different origin to acquire vanA by conjugation in relation to the occurrence of the esp gene. In total, 29 clinical isolates (15/29 esp+), 30 normal intestinal microflora isolates (2/30 esp+) and one probiotic strain (esp-) were studied with a filter-mating assay. Conjugation events were confirmed by PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Among the infection-derived isolates, the esp+ isolates had higher conjugation frequencies compared with esp- isolates (p < 0.001), with a median value of 6.4 x 10(-6) transconjugants/donor. The probiotic strain was shown to acquire vanA vancomycin resistance in in-vitro filter mating experiments.

  13. [Detection of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium: 2 years' experience in a high complexity hospital ].

    PubMed

    Lopreto, C R; Viegas Caetano, J A; Padlog, R; Sorgentini, M; Bardi, C; Silvestri, C

    2002-01-01

    The presence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in our hospital prompted us to apply an appropriate method for assessing its rectal carriage. A screening method with bile-esculin azide agar plus different concentrations of vancomycin was used. The antimicrobial susceptibility study of enterococci isolated from clinical samples was also emphasized. The present study includes the surveillance and detection of VRE in our hospital during two years. A total of 260 samples corresponding to 138 patients were studied, 158 of them resulting positive. All EVR were Van A Enterococcus faecium, with MICs of vancomycin > or = 256 micrograms/ml. The analysis of susceptibility patterns shows variations with chloramphenicol, tetracycline and high level gentamicin concentrations. This method was easily applied because materials could be available in any clinical microbiology laboratory, and in our hands it has demonstrated to be useful for epidemiological surveillance for EVR.

  14. Novel antibiotic regimens against Enterococcus faecium resistant to ampicillin, vancomycin, and gentamicin.

    PubMed Central

    Landman, D; Mobarakai, N K; Quale, J M

    1993-01-01

    Enterococci have emerged as significant nosocomial pathogens. Enterococci with resistance to commonly used antibiotics are appearing more frequently. We encountered at our institution several infections caused by Enterococcus faecium with high-level resistance to ampicillin, vancomycin, and gentamicin. The optimal antibiotic therapy for serious infections with unusually resistant enterococci has not been established. Using time-kill studies, we tested the effectiveness of various antibiotic combinations against 15 isolates of multidrug-resistant enterococci. No antibiotic was consistently effective when used alone. The combination of ampicillin plus ciprofloxacin was bactericidal for the 12 isolates for which the ciprofloxacin MIC was < or = 8 micrograms/ml. The combination of ciprofloxacin plus novobiocin also demonstrated activity against these isolates. No combination was found to be bactericidal for the remaining three isolates, which were highly ciprofloxacin resistant. These antibiotic combinations may be important for the future treatment of serious infections caused by these resistant pathogens. PMID:8239604

  15. Enterococcus faecium isolated from Lombo, a Portuguese traditional meat product: characterisation of antibacterial compounds and factors affecting bacteriocin production.

    PubMed

    Todorov, S D; Favaro, L; Gibbs, P; Vaz-Velho, M

    2012-12-01

    Strain ST211CH, identified as a strain of Enterococcus faecium, isolated from Lombo produced a bacteriocin that inhibited the growth of Enterococcus spp., Listeria spp., Klebsiella spp., Lactobacillus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. The mode of action of the bacteriocin named as bacteriocin ST211Ch was bactericidal against Enterococcus faecalis ATCC19443. As determined by Tricine-SDS-PAGE, the approximate molecular mass of the bacteriocin was 8.0 kDa. Loss in antimicrobial activity was recorded after treatment with proteolytic enzymes. Maximum activity of bacteriocin ST211Ch was measured in broth cultures of E. faecium strain ST211Ch after 24 h; thereafter, the activity was reduced. Bacteriocin ST211Ch remained active after exposure to various temperatures and pHs, as well as to Triton X-100, Tween-80, Tween-20, sodium dodecyl sulfate, NaCl, urea and EDTA. Effect of media components on production of bacteriocin ST211Ch was also studied. On the basis of PCR reactions targeting different bacteriocin genes, i.e. enterocins, curvacins and sakacins, no evidences for the presence of these genes in the total DNA of E. faecium strain ST211Ch was obtained. The bacterium most probably produced a bacteriocin different from those mentioned above. Based on the antimicrobial spectrum, stability and mode of action of bacteriocin ST211CH, E. faecium strain ST211Ch might be considered as a potential candidate with beneficial properties for use in biopreservation to control food spoilage bacteria.

  16. Effects of organic acids on thermal inactivation of acid and cold stressed Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ana; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; López, Mercedes; Bernardo, Ana

    2009-08-01

    In this study the adaptative response to heat (70 degrees C) of Enterococcus faecium using fresh and refrigerated (at 4 degrees C for up to 1 month) stationary phase cells grown in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) buffered at pH 7.4 (non-acid-adapted cells) and acidified BHI at pH values of 6.4 and 5.4 with acetic, ascorbic, citric, lactic, malic and hydrochloric acids (acid-adapted cells) was evaluated. In all cases, the survival curves obtained were concave upward. A mathematical model based on the Weibull distribution accurately described the inactivation kinetic. The results indicate that previous adaptation to a low pH increased the bacterial heat resistance, whereas the subsequent cold storage of cells reduced E. faecium thermal tolerance. Fresh acid-adapted cells showed t(2.5)-values (time needed to obtain an inactivation level of 2.5 log10 cycles) ranging from 2.57 to 9.51 min, while non-acid-adapted cells showed t(2.5)-values of 1.92 min. The extent of increased heat tolerance varied with the acid examined, resulting in the following order: citric > or = acetic > malic > or = lactic > hydrochloric > or = ascorbic. In contrast, cold storage progressively decreased E. faecium thermal resistance. The t(2.5) values found at the end of the period studied were about 2-3-fold lower than those corresponding to non-refrigerated cells, although this decrease was more marked (about 5-fold) when cells were grown in buffered BHI and BHI acidified at pH 5.4 with hydrochloric acid. These findings highlight the need for a better understanding of microbial response to various preservation stresses in order to increase the efficiency of thermal processes and to indicate the convenience of counterbalancing the benefits of the hurdle concept.

  17. Discovery of the first inhibitors of bacterial enzyme D-aspartate ligase from Enterococcus faecium (Aslfm).

    PubMed

    Škedelj, Veronika; Perdih, Andrej; Brvar, Matjaž; Kroflič, Ana; Dubbée, Vincent; Savage, Victoria; O'Neill, Alex J; Solmajer, Tom; Bešter-Rogač, Marija; Blanot, Didier; Hugonnet, Jean-Emmanuel; Magnet, Sophie; Arthur, Michel; Mainardi, Jean-Luc; Stojan, Jure; Zega, Anamarija

    2013-09-01

    The D-aspartate ligase of Enterococcus faecium (Aslfm) is an attractive target for the development of narrow-spectrum antibacterial agents that are active against multidrug-resistant E. faecium. Although there is currently little available information regarding the structural characteristics of Aslfm, we exploited the knowledge that this enzyme belongs to the ATP-grasp superfamily to target its ATP binding site. In the first design stage, we synthesized and screened a small library of known ATP-competitive inhibitors of ATP-grasp enzymes. A series of amino-oxazoles derived from bacterial biotin carboxylase inhibitors showed low micromolar activity. The most potent inhibitor compound 12, inhibits Aslfm with a Ki value of 2.9 μM. In the second design stage, a validated ligand-based pharmacophore modeling approach was used, taking the newly available inhibition data of an initial series of compounds into account. Experimental evaluation of the virtual screening hits identified two novel structural types of Aslfm inhibitors with 7-amino-9H-purine (18) and 7-amino-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (30 and 34) scaffolds, and also with Ki values in the low micromolar range. Investigation the inhibitors modes of action confirmed that these compounds are competitive with respect to the ATP molecule. The binding of inhibitors to the target enzyme was also studied using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Compounds 6, 12, 18, 30 and 34 represent the first inhibitors of Aslfm reported to date, and are an important step forward in combating infections due to E. faecium.

  18. A Vaccine Approach for the Prevention of Infections by Multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Kodali, Srinivas; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Lin, Fiona; Khoury, Nancy; Hao, Li; Pavliak, Vilo; Jones, C Hal; Laverde, Diana; Huebner, Johannes; Jansen, Kathrin U; Anderson, Annaliesa S; Donald, Robert G K

    2015-08-07

    The incidence of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium hospital infections has been steadily increasing. With the goal of discovering new vaccine antigens, we systematically fractionated and purified four distinct surface carbohydrates from E. faecium endocarditis isolate Tx16, shown previously to be resistant to phagocytosis in the presence of human serum. The two most abundant polysaccharides consist of novel branched heteroglycan repeating units that include signature sugars altruronic acid and legionaminic acid, respectively. A minor high molecular weight polysaccharide component was recognized as the fructose homopolymer levan, and a glucosylated lipoteichoic acid (LTA) was identified in a micellar fraction. The polysaccharides were conjugated to the CRM197 carrier protein, and the resulting glycoconjugates were used to immunize rabbits. Rabbit immune sera were evaluated for their ability to kill Tx16 in opsonophagocytic assays and in a mouse passive protection infection model. Although antibodies raised against levan failed to mediate opsonophagocytic killing, the other glycoconjugates induced effective opsonic antibodies, with the altruronic acid-containing polysaccharide antisera showing the greatest opsonophagocytic assay activity. Antibodies directed against either novel heteroglycan or the LTA reduced bacterial load in mouse liver or kidney tissue. To assess antigen prevalence, we screened a diverse collection of blood isolates (n = 101) with antibodies to the polysaccharides. LTA was detected on the surface of 80% of the strains, and antigens recognized by antibodies to the two major heteroglycans were co-expressed on 63% of these clinical isolates. Collectively, these results represent the first steps toward identifying components of a glycoconjugate vaccine to prevent E. faecium infection.

  19. A Vaccine Approach for the Prevention of Infections by Multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium*

    PubMed Central

    Kodali, Srinivas; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Lin, Fiona; Khoury, Nancy; Hao, Li; Pavliak, Vilo; Jones, C. Hal; Laverde, Diana; Huebner, Johannes; Jansen, Kathrin U.; Anderson, Annaliesa S.; Donald, Robert G. K.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium hospital infections has been steadily increasing. With the goal of discovering new vaccine antigens, we systematically fractionated and purified four distinct surface carbohydrates from E. faecium endocarditis isolate Tx16, shown previously to be resistant to phagocytosis in the presence of human serum. The two most abundant polysaccharides consist of novel branched heteroglycan repeating units that include signature sugars altruronic acid and legionaminic acid, respectively. A minor high molecular weight polysaccharide component was recognized as the fructose homopolymer levan, and a glucosylated lipoteichoic acid (LTA) was identified in a micellar fraction. The polysaccharides were conjugated to the CRM197 carrier protein, and the resulting glycoconjugates were used to immunize rabbits. Rabbit immune sera were evaluated for their ability to kill Tx16 in opsonophagocytic assays and in a mouse passive protection infection model. Although antibodies raised against levan failed to mediate opsonophagocytic killing, the other glycoconjugates induced effective opsonic antibodies, with the altruronic acid-containing polysaccharide antisera showing the greatest opsonophagocytic assay activity. Antibodies directed against either novel heteroglycan or the LTA reduced bacterial load in mouse liver or kidney tissue. To assess antigen prevalence, we screened a diverse collection of blood isolates (n = 101) with antibodies to the polysaccharides. LTA was detected on the surface of 80% of the strains, and antigens recognized by antibodies to the two major heteroglycans were co-expressed on 63% of these clinical isolates. Collectively, these results represent the first steps toward identifying components of a glycoconjugate vaccine to prevent E. faecium infection. PMID:26109072

  20. Characterization and complete genome sequence analysis of novel bacteriophage IME-EFm1 infecting Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yahui; Wang, Wei; Lv, Yongqiang; Zheng, Wangliang; Mi, Zhiqiang; Pei, Guangqian; An, Xiaoping; Xu, Xiaomeng; Han, Chuanyin; Liu, Jie; Zhou, Changlin; Tong, Yigang

    2014-11-01

    We isolated and characterized a novel virulent bacteriophage, IME-EFm1, specifically infecting multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium. IME-EFm1 is morphologically similar to members of the family Siphoviridae. It was found capable of lysing a wide range of our E. faecium collections, including two strains resistant to vancomycin. One-step growth tests revealed the host lysis activity of phage IME-EFm1, with a latent time of 30 min and a large burst size of 116 p.f.u. per cell. These biological characteristics suggested that IME-EFm1 has the potential to be used as a therapeutic agent. The complete genome of IME-EFm1 was 42 597 bp, and was linear, with terminally non-redundant dsDNA and a G+C content of 35.2 mol%. The termini of the phage genome were determined with next-generation sequencing and were further confirmed by nuclease digestion analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a complete genome sequence of a bacteriophage infecting E. faecium. IME-EFm1 exhibited a low similarity to other phages in terms of genome organization and structural protein amino acid sequences. The coding region corresponded to 90.7 % of the genome; 70 putative ORFs were deduced and, of these, 29 could be functionally identified based on their homology to previously characterized proteins. A predicted metallo-β-lactamase gene was detected in the genome sequence. The identification of an antibiotic resistance gene emphasizes the necessity for complete genome sequencing of a phage to ensure it is free of any undesirable genes before use as a therapeutic agent against bacterial pathogens.

  1. Prevalence of Virulence Factors and Vancomycin-resistant Genes among Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium Isolated from Clinical Specimens

    PubMed Central

    NASAJ, Mona; MOUSAVI, Seyed Masoud; HOSSEINI, Seyed Mostafa; ARABESTANI, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of virulence determinants and vancomycin-resistant genes among Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium obtained from various clinical sources. Methods: The study was performed on the 280 enterococcal isolated from clinical specimens in Hamadan hospitals, western Iran in 2012–14. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. The presence of vancomycin-resistant genes and virulence genes was investigated using PCR. Results: Totally 280 enterococcal isolates were identified as follows: E. faecalis (62.5%), E. faecium (24%) and Enterococcus spp (13.5%). The results of antibiotic susceptibility testing showed that resistance rates to vancomycin and teicoplanin in E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates were 5% and 73%, respectively. Of Sixty vancomycin-resistant Enterococci strains, fifty-one isolates were identified as E. faecium (VREfm) and nine as E. faecalis (VREfs). Prevalence of esp, hyl, and asa1 genes were determined as 82%, 71.6%, and 100%, respectively in E. faecium strains; and 78%, 56/6%, and 97%, respectively in E. faecalis strains. Conclusion: The increased frequency of VREF, as seen with rapid rise in the number of vanA isolates should be considered in infection control practices. PMID:27648425

  2. The Capability of Tyramine Production and Correlation between Phenotypic and Genetic Characteristics of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis Strains.

    PubMed

    Bargossi, Eleonora; Gardini, Fausto; Gatto, Veronica; Montanari, Chiara; Torriani, Sandra; Tabanelli, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the diversity of tyramine production capability of four Enterococcus strains in buffered systems in relation to their genetic characteristics and environmental conditions. Cells of the strains Enterococcus faecalis EF37 and ATCC 29212, and E. faecium FC12 and FC643 were re-suspended in phosphate/citrate buffers with different pH, NaCl concentration and incubation temperature. At intervals, cell viability and tyramine production were assessed by plate counting and HPLC analysis, respectively. The activity of a purified tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC) was determined under the same conditions, as a reference. Reduced loss in cell viability was observed in all the tested conditions, except for pH 4 after 24 h. The TDC activity was greatly heterogeneous within the enterococci: EF37 and FC12 produced the higher tyramine concentrations, ATCC 29212 showed a reduced decarboxylase activity, while EF643 did not accumulate detectable amounts of tyramine in all the conditions assayed. Among the considerate variables, temperature was the most influencing factor on tyramine accumulation for enterococcal cells. To further correlate the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of the enterococci, the TDC operon region carrying the genes tyrosine decarboxylase (tyrDC), tyrosine/tyramine permease (tyrP), and Na(+)/H(+) antiporter (nhaC-2) was amplified and sequenced. The genetic organization and nucleotide sequence of this operon region were highly conserved in the enterococcal strains of the same species. The heterogeneity in tyramine production found between the two E. faecalis strains could be ascribed to different regulation mechanisms not yet elucidated. On the contrary, a codon stop was identified in the translated tyrDC sequence of E. faecium FC643, supporting its inability to accumulate tyramine in the tested conditions. In addition, the presence of an additional putative tyrosine decarboxylase with different substrate specificity and

  3. The Capability of Tyramine Production and Correlation between Phenotypic and Genetic Characteristics of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis Strains

    PubMed Central

    Bargossi, Eleonora; Gardini, Fausto; Gatto, Veronica; Montanari, Chiara; Torriani, Sandra; Tabanelli, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the diversity of tyramine production capability of four Enterococcus strains in buffered systems in relation to their genetic characteristics and environmental conditions. Cells of the strains Enterococcus faecalis EF37 and ATCC 29212, and E. faecium FC12 and FC643 were re-suspended in phosphate/citrate buffers with different pH, NaCl concentration and incubation temperature. At intervals, cell viability and tyramine production were assessed by plate counting and HPLC analysis, respectively. The activity of a purified tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC) was determined under the same conditions, as a reference. Reduced loss in cell viability was observed in all the tested conditions, except for pH 4 after 24 h. The TDC activity was greatly heterogeneous within the enterococci: EF37 and FC12 produced the higher tyramine concentrations, ATCC 29212 showed a reduced decarboxylase activity, while EF643 did not accumulate detectable amounts of tyramine in all the conditions assayed. Among the considerate variables, temperature was the most influencing factor on tyramine accumulation for enterococcal cells. To further correlate the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of the enterococci, the TDC operon region carrying the genes tyrosine decarboxylase (tyrDC), tyrosine/tyramine permease (tyrP), and Na+/H+ antiporter (nhaC-2) was amplified and sequenced. The genetic organization and nucleotide sequence of this operon region were highly conserved in the enterococcal strains of the same species. The heterogeneity in tyramine production found between the two E. faecalis strains could be ascribed to different regulation mechanisms not yet elucidated. On the contrary, a codon stop was identified in the translated tyrDC sequence of E. faecium FC643, supporting its inability to accumulate tyramine in the tested conditions. In addition, the presence of an additional putative tyrosine decarboxylase with different substrate specificity and genetic

  4. Growth and energy generation by Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 during citrate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sarantinopoulos, Panagiotis; Makras, Lefteris; Vaningelgem, Frederik; Kalantzopoulos, George; De Vuyst, Luc; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2003-07-25

    Citrate metabolism by Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198, isolated from Greek Feta cheese, was studied in various growth media containing citrate either in the presence of glucose, or as the sole carbon source, both under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) broth with increasing citrate concentrations, cometabolism of citrate and glucose took place. Glucose was stoichiometrically converted into lactate, while citrate into acetate. Glucose consumption and biomass yield were enhanced with increasing initial citrate concentrations, even though maximum specific growth rate was not. When citrate was used as the sole carbon source in increasing initial concentrations, the main end product was acetate. Small amounts of lactate, formate, ethanol, and acetoin were also produced. In all cases, no significant differences were observed between aerobic and anaerobic conditions. However, when citrate was used as sole carbon source, formate production was favored in the absence of oxygen. The present work shows that E. faecium is able to utilize citrate in synthetic media, either in the presence of glucose or as the sole carbon source, resulting in energy production and the formation of aroma compounds.

  5. Characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from swine in three Michigan counties.

    PubMed

    Donabedian, Susan M; Perri, Mary Beth; Abdujamilova, Nodira; Gordoncillo, Mary Joy; Naqvi, Amir; Reyes, Katherine C; Zervos, Marcus J; Bartlett, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci are a major cause of nosocomial infections but are rarely found in humans in the community and have not been identified in food animals in the United States. We evaluated a total of 360 fecal specimens from humans and their animals being raised for exhibit at three county fairs in Michigan. Fecal samples from 158 humans, 55 swine, 50 cattle, 25 horses, 57 sheep, 14 goats, and 1 llama were obtained and plated onto Enterococcosel agar containing 16 μg/ml of vancomycin. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) was isolated from six pigs but not from humans or any animal other than pigs. All six VREF isolates had a MIC to vancomycin of ≥256 μg/ml and contained the vanA gene. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the six VREF isolates were ≥80% similar. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) revealed sequence type 5 (ST5) (n = 2), ST6 (n = 3), and ST185 (n = 1), which are E. faecium sequence types belonging to clonal complex 5 (CC5). These findings show the dissemination of VREF strains among pigs in three Michigan counties. This is the first report of VRE found in food animals in the United States.

  6. Evaluation of Vitek system for susceptibility testing of Enterococcus faecium isolates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae Kyung; Park, Yeon-Joon; Kwon, Hi Jeong; Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Byung Kee; Kang, Chang Suk

    2004-01-01

    Although imipenem is not a first-line drug for treating enterococcal infection, it could well become a useful drug for treating mixed infections that include enterococci. However, there is no NCCLS guideline for susceptibility testing of imipenem versus enterococci. Moreover, there are no statements to indicate that in vitro susceptibility results for other antimicrobial agents can be used to predict the in vitro activity of imipenem against enterococci. In this study, 52 Enterococcus faecium isolates were collected from patients hospitalized at Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital between March 2002 and December 2002. The sources of the isolates were mainly urine specimens and wounds. For ampicillin, the "major" and "very major" error rates observed with the Vitek system were 0% and 2.0%, respectively. For penicillin, the major and very major error rates observed with the Vitek system were both 0%. For imipenem, the major and very major error rates observed with the Vitek system were 0% and 36.5%, respectively. The MICs of ampicillin and penicillin obtained using the Vitek system were reliable, but that of imipenem was unreliable. In the 52 E. faecium isolates, the in vitro activity of penicillin and ampicillin versus enterococci accurately predicted that of imipenem. Therefore, the MIC of imipenem obtained with the Vitek system must be retested by the agar dilution method, when it disagrees with those of penicillin and ampicillin.

  7. Characterization of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Swine in Three Michigan Counties▿ ‖

    PubMed Central

    Donabedian, Susan M.; Perri, Mary Beth; Abdujamilova, Nodira; Gordoncillo, Mary Joy; Naqvi, Amir; Reyes, Katherine C.; Zervos, Marcus J.; Bartlett, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci are a major cause of nosocomial infections but are rarely found in humans in the community and have not been identified in food animals in the United States. We evaluated a total of 360 fecal specimens from humans and their animals being raised for exhibit at three county fairs in Michigan. Fecal samples from 158 humans, 55 swine, 50 cattle, 25 horses, 57 sheep, 14 goats, and 1 llama were obtained and plated onto Enterococcosel agar containing 16 μg/ml of vancomycin. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) was isolated from six pigs but not from humans or any animal other than pigs. All six VREF isolates had a MIC to vancomycin of ≥256 μg/ml and contained the vanA gene. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the six VREF isolates were ≥80% similar. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) revealed sequence type 5 (ST5) (n = 2), ST6 (n = 3), and ST185 (n = 1), which are E. faecium sequence types belonging to clonal complex 5 (CC5). These findings show the dissemination of VREF strains among pigs in three Michigan counties. This is the first report of VRE found in food animals in the United States. PMID:20739498

  8. The anti-Candida activity by Ancillary Proteins of an Enterococcus faecium strain

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Utpal; Chalasani, Ajay G.; Shekh, M. Raeesh

    2015-01-01

    An antimycotic activity toward seven strains of Candida albicans was demonstrated erstwhile by a wild-type Enterococcus faecium isolated from a penguin rookery of the Antarctic region. In the present study the antimicrobial principle was purified by ion exchange and gel permeation chromatography and further was analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. In the purification steps, the dialyzed concentrate and ion exchange fractions inhibited C. albicans MTCC 3958, 183, and SC 5314. However, the gel filtration purified fractions inhibited MTCC 3958 and 183. The data obtained from the LC-ESI-MS/MS indicate that the antimicrobial activity of the anti-Candida protein produced by E. faecium is facilitated by Sag A/Bb for the binding of the indicator organism's cell membrane. Partial N-terminal sequence revealed 12 N-terminal amino acid residues and its analysis shown that it belongs to the LysM motif. The nucleotide sequence of PCR-amplified product could detect 574 nucleotides of the LysM gene responsible for binding to chitin of the cell wall of Candida sp. PMID:26005434

  9. Aroma compounds generation in citrate metabolism of Enterococcus faecium: Genetic characterization of type I citrate gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Martino, Gabriela P; Quintana, Ingrid M; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S; Magni, Christian

    2016-02-02

    Enterococcus is one of the most controversial genera belonging to Lactic Acid Bacteria. Research involving this microorganism reflects its dual behavior as regards its safety. Although it has also been associated to nosocomial infections, natural occurrence of Enterococcus faecium in food contributes to the final quality of cheese. This bacterium is capable of fermenting citrate, which is metabolized to pyruvate and finally derives in the production of the aroma compounds diacetyl, acetoin and 2,3 butanediol. Citrate metabolism was studied in E. faecium but no data about genes related to these pathways have been described. A bioinformatic approach allowed us to differentiate cit(-) (no citrate metabolism genes) from cit(+) strains in E. faecium. Furthermore, we could classify them according to genes encoding for the transcriptional regulator, the oxaloacetate decarboxylase and the citrate transporter. Thus we defined type I organization having CitI regulator (DeoR family), CitM cytoplasmic soluble oxaloacetate decarboxylase (Malic Enzyme family) and CitP citrate transporter (2-hydroxy-carboxylate transporter family) and type II organization with CitO regulator (GntR family), OAD membrane oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex (Na(+)-transport decarboxylase enzyme family) and CitH citrate transporter (CitMHS family). We isolated and identified 17 E. faecium strains from regional cheeses. PCR analyses allowed us to classify them as cit(-) or cit(+). Within the latter classification we could differentiate type I but no type II organization. Remarkably, we came upon E. faecium GM75 strain which carries the insertion sequence IS256, involved in adaptative and evolution processes of bacteria related to Staphylococcus and Enterococcus genera. In this work we describe the differential behavior in citrate transport, metabolism and aroma generation of three strains and we present results that link citrate metabolism and genetic organizations in E. faecium for the first time

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bacteriocin-Producing Strain Enterococcus faecium M3K31, Isolated from Griffon Vultures (Gyps fulvus subsp. fulvus).

    PubMed

    Arbulu, Sara; Frantzen, Cyril; Lohans, Christopher T; Cintas, Luis M; Herranz, Carmen; Holo, Helge; Diep, Dzung B; Vederas, John C; Hernández, Pablo E

    2016-03-24

    Enterococcus faeciumM3K31 is a bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolated from griffon vulture (Gyps fulvussubsp.fulvus) feces. The draft genome sequence of this strain provides genetic data that support its biotechnological potential.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bacteriocin-Producing Strain Enterococcus faecium M3K31, Isolated from Griffon Vultures (Gyps fulvus subsp. fulvus)

    PubMed Central

    Arbulu, Sara; Frantzen, Cyril; Lohans, Christopher T.; Cintas, Luis M.; Herranz, Carmen; Holo, Helge; Diep, Dzung B.; Vederas, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium M3K31 is a bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolated from griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus subsp. fulvus) feces. The draft genome sequence of this strain provides genetic data that support its biotechnological potential. PMID:27013035

  12. Inhibition of Enterococcus faecium adherence to collagen by antibodies against high-affinity binding subdomains of Acm.

    PubMed

    Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R; Sillanpää, Jouko; Ganesh, Vannakambadi K; Höök, Magnus; Murray, Barbara E

    2007-06-01

    Strains of Enterococcus faecium express a cell wall-anchored protein, Acm, which mediates adherence to collagen. Here, we (i) identify the minimal and high-affinity binding subsegments of Acm and (ii) show that anti-Acm immunoglobulin Gs (IgGs) purified against these subsegments reduced E. faecium TX2535 strain collagen adherence up to 73 and 50%, respectively, significantly more than the total IgGs against the full-length Acm A domain (28%) (P < 0.0001). Blocking Acm adherence with functional subsegment-specific antibodies raises the possibility of their use as therapeutic or prophylactic agents.

  13. β-Lactam combinations with daptomycin provide synergy against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jordan R.; Barber, Katie E.; Raut, Animesh; Aboutaleb, Mostafa; Sakoulas, George; Rybak, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Enterococcus faecalis (Efc) and Enterococcus faecium (Efm) are frequently resistant to vancomycin and β-lactams (BLs). In vitro data suggest synergy between several BLs and glycopeptides or lipopeptides against resistant pathogens. Our objective was to conduct combination MIC and time–kill experiments to evaluate BL synergy with daptomycin against enterococci. Methods Fifteen Efc and 20 Efm strains were evaluated for daptomycin enhancement via combination MICs. Daptomycin MICs were obtained by microdilution in the absence and presence of ceftaroline, ertapenem, cefepime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefazolin and ampicillin. Two Efc strains (R6981 and R7808) and one isogenic daptomycin-susceptible/daptomycin-non-susceptible Efm pair (8019/5938) were evaluated in time–kill experiments. Daptomycin at 0.5 × MIC was used in combination with BL at biological free concentration. Strain 5938 was evaluated for enhancement of daptomycin binding in fluorescently labelled daptomycin (BoDipy) experiments. Results Ceftaroline reduced daptomycin MIC values the most against all strains. In time–kill experiments, ceftaroline, ertapenem, cefepime, ceftriaxone and ampicillin demonstrated synergy with daptomycin against all strains, cefazolin demonstrated none and cefotaxime demonstrated synergy against only R7808. Bacterial reduction at 24 h was greater for daptomycin + ceftaroline, ertapenem, cefepime, ceftriaxone or ampicillin for all strains compared with any single agent or daptomycin + cefazolin or cefotaxime (P < 0.001). In BoDipy daptomycin experiments, ceftaroline enhanced daptomycin binding most compared with all other agents (P < 0.001). Conclusions The data support the potential use of daptomycin/BL combination therapy in infections caused by VRE. Combination regimens, other than those involving cefazolin and cefotaxime, provide better kill compared with daptomycin alone. Further clinical research involving daptomycin combinations is

  14. Overproduction of a low-affinity penicillin-binding protein and high-level ampicillin resistance in Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, R; Aldegheri, M; Ligozzi, M; Lopez, H; Sucari, A; Satta, G

    1994-01-01

    Five ampicillin-resistant clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium were analyzed for a correlation between overproduction of the low-affinity penicillin-binding protein (PBP 5) and the level of ampicillin resistance. Comparison was made with one susceptible clinical isolate and its ampicillin-resistant derivative obtained in the laboratory by selection with increasing concentrations of penicillin. Overproduction of the low-affinity PBP relative to the susceptible isolate was noted in moderately resistant strains (MIC, 32 micrograms/ml) but not in highly resistant strains (MIC, 128 micrograms/ml). Polyclonal antibodies specifically reacting with the low-affinity PBP of Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus faecium (M. Ligozzi, M. Aldegheri, S. C. Predari, and R. Fontana, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 83:335-340, 1991) were used to determine the amount of this PBP in the E. faecium isolates. In all strains, the antibody preparation reacted with a membrane protein of the same molecular mass as PBP 5. The amount of this protein was very small in the susceptible strain but large in all of the resistant strains. These results suggest that the highly resistant strains also overproduced the low-affinity PBP, which, compared with PBP 5 of moderately resistant strains, appeared to be modified in its penicillin-binding capability. Images PMID:7811006

  15. New Combinations of Mutations in VanD-Type Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus avium Strains ▿

    PubMed Central

    Depardieu, F.; Foucault, M.-L.; Bell, J.; Dubouix, A.; Guibert, M.; Lavigne, J.-P.; Levast, M.; Courvalin, P.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the clinical isolates Enterococcus faecium NEF1, resistant to high levels of vancomycin (MIC, 512 μg/ml) and teicoplanin (MIC, 64 μg/ml); Enterococcus faecium BM4653 and BM4656 and Enterococcus avium BM4655, resistant to moderate levels of vancomycin (MIC, 32 μg/ml) and to low levels of teicoplanin (MIC, 4 μg/ml); and Enterococcus faecalis BM4654, moderately resistant to vancomycin (MIC, 16 μg/ml) but susceptible to teicoplanin (MIC, 0.5 μg/ml). The strains were distinct, were constitutively resistant via the synthesis of peptidoglycan precursors ending in d-alanyl-d-lactate, and harbored a chromosomal vanD gene cluster that was not transferable. New mutations were found in conserved domains of VanSD: at T170I near the phosphorylation site in NEF1, at V67A at the membrane surface in BM4653, at G340S in the G2 ATP-binding domain in BM4655, in the F domain in BM4656 (a 6-bp insertion), and in the G1 and G2 domains of BM4654 (three mutations). The mutations resulted in constitutivity, presumably through the loss of the phosphatase activity of the sensor. The chromosomal Ddl d-Ala:d-Ala ligase had an IS19 copy in NEF1, a mutation in the serine (S185F) or near the arginine (T289P) involved in d-Ala1 binding in BM4653 or BM4655, respectively, and a mutation next to the lysine (P180S) involved in d-Ala2 binding in BM4654, leading to the production of an impaired enzyme. In BM4653 vanYD, a new insertion sequence, ISEfa9, belonging to the IS3 family, resulted in the absence of d,d-carboxypeptidase activity. Strain BM4656 had a functional d-Ala:d-Ala ligase, associated with high levels of both VanXD and VanYD activities, and is the first example of a VanD-type strain with a functional Ddl enzyme. Study of these five clinical isolates, displaying various assortments of mutations, confirms that all VanD-type strains isolated so far have undergone mutations in the vanSD or vanRD gene, leading to constitutive resistance, but that the Ddl host ligase is not

  16. Antibacterial activity of Enterococcus faecium derived from Koopeh cheese against Listeria monocytogenes in probiotic ultra-filtrated cheese

    PubMed Central

    Hassanzadazar, Hassan; Ehsani, Ali; Mardani, Karim

    2014-01-01

    Viability of probiotic bacteria in food during maintenance and time of consuming in food has become a challenge in food hygiene and technology and is important for representing their beneficial health effects. The aim of this study was to determine the survival of probiotic Enterococcus faecium derived from Koopeh cheese added to industrial Iranian ultra-filtrated (UF) cheese and screening for antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus faecium against Listeria monocytogenes during two months of cheese ripening. Physiochemical and standard microbial methods were used for isolation of Enterococcus strains in cheese samples. The initial number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as starter culture was 6 Log g-1 in control samples. The counts started to decrease slightly after day seven (p < 0.05) and dropped to 5 Log g-1 at the end of 60 days. The count of LAB in the test groups decreased to 11 Log g-1 on the day 60 of ripening. The number of Enterococcus faecium was 6 Log g-1 on the day 60. The count of Listeria monocytogenes after 60 days of ripening in blank sample decreased 1 Log but in test samples with protective strain decreased 3 Log in 30 days and reached to zero at 45 days. There were not significant (p < 0.05) changes in chemical parameters such as fat, protein and total solid of UF cheese treatment groups. The results showed that Enterococcus faecium of Koopeh cheese was suitable for development of an acceptable probiotic UF cheese and could be adapted to industrial production of UF cheese. PMID:25568714

  17. Application of bacteriocinogenic Enterococcus mundtii CRL35 and Enterococcus faecium ST88Ch in the control of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh Minas cheese.

    PubMed

    Vera Pingitore, Esteban; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Sesma, Fernando; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo

    2012-10-01

    Several strains of Enterococcus spp. are capable of producing bacteriocins with antimicrobial activity against important bacterial pathogens in dairy products. In this study, the bacteriocins produced by two Enterococcus strains (Enterococcus mundtii CRL35 and Enterococcus faecium ST88Ch), isolated from cheeses, were characterized and tested for their capability to control growth of Listeria monocytogenes 426 in experimentally contaminated fresh Minas cheese during refrigerated storage. Both strains were active against a variety of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms and bacteriocin absorption to various L. monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19443 and Lactobacillus sakei ATCC 15521 varied according to the strain and the testing conditions (pH, temperature, presence of salts and surfactants). Growth of L. monocytogenes 426 was inhibited in cheeses containing E. mundtii CRL35 up to 12 days at 8 °C, evidencing a bacteriostatic effect. E. faecium ST88Ch was less effective, as the bacteriostatic affect occurred only after 6 days at 8 °C. In cheeses containing nisin (12.5 mg/kg), less than one log reduction was observed. This research underlines the potential application of E. mundtii CRL35 in the control of L. monocytogenes in Minas cheese.

  18. Glycopeptide susceptibility among Danish Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis isolates of animal and human origin and PCR identification of genes within the VanA cluster.

    PubMed Central

    Aarestrup, F M; Ahrens, P; Madsen, M; Pallesen, L V; Poulsen, R L; Westh, H

    1996-01-01

    The MICs of vancomycin and avoparcin were determined for isolates of Enterococcus faecium and isolates of Enterococcus faecalis recovered from the feces of humans and animals in Denmark. Two hundred twenty-one of 376 (59%) isolates of E. faecium and 2 of 133 (1.5%) isolates of E. faecalis were resistant to vancomycin (MICs, 128 to > or = 256 micrograms/ml), and all vancomycin-resistant isolates were resistant to avoparcin (MICs, 64 to > or = 256 micrograms/ml). All vancomycin-resistant isolates examined carried the vanA, vanX, and vanR genes, suggesting that a gene cluster similar to that of the transposon Tn1546 was responsible for the resistance. PMID:8843309

  19. Human and Swine Hosts Share Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium CC17 and CC5 and Enterococcus faecalis CC2 Clonal Clusters Harboring Tn1546 on Indistinguishable Plasmids▿†

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Ana R.; Coque, Teresa M.; Novais, Carla; Hammerum, Anette M.; Lester, Camilla H.; Zervos, Marcus J.; Donabedian, Susan; Jensen, Lars B.; Francia, Maria Victoria; Baquero, Fernando; Peixe, Luísa

    2011-01-01

    VRE isolates from pigs (n = 29) and healthy persons (n = 12) recovered during wide surveillance studies performed in Portugal, Denmark, Spain, Switzerland, and the United States (1995 to 2008) were compared with outbreak/prevalent VRE clinical strains (n = 190; 23 countries; 1986 to 2009). Thirty clonally related Enterococcus faecium clonal complex 5 (CC5) isolates (17 sequence type 6 [ST6], 6 ST5, 5 ST185, 1 ST147, and 1 ST493) were obtained from feces of swine and healthy humans. This collection included isolates widespread among pigs of European Union (EU) countries since the mid-1990s. Each ST comprised isolates showing similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns (≤6 bands difference; >82% similarity). Some CC5 PFGE subtype strains from swine were indistinguishable from hospital vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) causing infections. A truncated variant of Tn1546 (encoding resistance to vancomycin) and tcrB (coding for resistance to copper) were consistently located on 150- to 190-kb plasmids (reppLG1). E. faecium CC17 (ST132) isolates from pig manure and two clinical samples showed identical PFGE profiles and contained a 60-kb mosaic plasmid (repInc18 plus reppRUM) carrying diverse Tn1546-IS1216 variants. The only Enterococcus faecalis isolate obtained from pigs (CC2-ST6) corresponded to a multidrug-resistant clone widely disseminated in hospitals in Italy, Portugal, and Spain, and both animal and human isolates harbored an indistinguishable 100-kb mosaic plasmid (reppRE25 plus reppCF10) containing the whole Tn1546 backbone. The results indicate a current intra- and international spread of E. faecium and E. faecalis clones and their plasmids among swine and humans. PMID:21227995

  20. High rates of multidrug resistance in Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium isolated from inpatients and outpatients in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jann-Tay; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Wang, Hui-Yin; Chen, Pei-Chen; Shiau, Yih-Ru; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling

    2013-04-01

    Longitudinal national data on resistance in Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium from different sources in Taiwan are rare. The present study analyzed data from the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance program to address this issue. Between 2002 and 2010, a total of 1696 E. faecalis and 452 E. faecium isolates were studied. Although these 2 species together comprised similar percentages of all enterococci in each study year (94.1-97.2%, P = 0.19), the proportion of E. faecium increased from 12.4% in 2002 to 27.3% in 2010 (P < 0.001). The most noteworthy change in susceptibilities of these 2 species was vancomycin resistance in E. faecium (VREfm), which increased from 0.3% in 2004 to 24.9% in 2010 (P < 0.001). VREfm prevalence differed significantly between geographic regions, patient age groups, and locations. Multidrug resistance was very common in both species even in isolates from outpatients (82.7% for E. faecalis and 98.1% for E. faecium), at rates similar to those from intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU patients (80.5-80.9% in E. faecalis and 97.2-98.6% in E. faecium). Nonsusceptibility to linezolid was <0.5% in both species. All tested isolates were susceptible to daptomycin. Continuous surveillance of VRE prevalence and survey of community reservoirs of multidrug-resistant enterococci are warranted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Antimicrobial resistance pattern and genetic correlation in Enterococcus faecium isolated from healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Asadian, M; Sadeghi, J; Rastegar Lari, A; Razavi, Sh; Hasannejad Bibalan, M; Talebi, M

    2016-03-01

    Enterococci are known as a cause of nosocomial infections and this aptitude is intensified by the growth of antibiotic resistance. In the present study, Enterococcus faecium isolates from healthy volunteers were considered to determine the antibiotic resistance profiles and genetic correlation. A total 91 normal flora isolates of enterococci were included in this study. Identification of Enterococcus genus and species were done by biochemical and PCR methods, respectively. Sensitivity for 10 antibiotics was determined and genetic relatedness of all isolates was assessed using Repetitive Element Palindromic PCR (REP-PCR) followed by Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) on the representative patterns. None of the isolates were resistant to teicoplanin, vancomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, chloramphenicol, ampicillin and high-level gentamicin. On the other hand, the resistance rate was detected in 30.7%, 23%, and 3.29% of isolates for erythromycin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin, respectively. The results of PFGE showed 19 (61.5% of our isolates) common types (CT) and 35 (38.5%) single types (ST) amongst the isolates. This is the first study to describe antibiotic resistance pattern and genetic relationship among normal flora enterococci in Iran. This study showed no prevalence of Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE) and high degrees of diversity among normal flora isolates by genotyping using PFGE.

  2. Ultraviolet (UV-C) inactivation of Enterococcus faecium, Salmonella choleraesuis and Salmonella typhimurium in porcine plasma

    PubMed Central

    Blázquez, Elena; Rodríguez, Carmen; Ródenas, Jesús; Pérez de Rozas, Ana; Segalés, Joaquim; Pujols, Joan

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an ultraviolet (UV-C, 254 nm) irradiation system on reducing the load of Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium), Salmonella choleraesuis (S. choleraesuis) resistant to streptomycin and Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) inoculated in sterile porcine plasma and then subjected to different UV-C irradiation doses (750, 1500, 3000, 6000 and 9000 J/L) using a pilot plant UV-C device working under turbulent flow. Results indicated that UV-C treatment induced a viability reduction of 0.38, 1.18, 3.59, 4.72 and 5.06 log10 S. typhimurium when irradiated at 750, 1500, 3000, 6000 and 9000 J/L, respectively. The observed log10 reduction of S. choleraesuis was 1.44, 2.68, 5.55, 7.07 and 7.97 at 750, 1500, 3000, 6000 and 9000 J/L, respectively. The best-fit inactivation for S. choleraesuis was the Weibull distribution curve, while the best-fit curve for S. typhimurium was the Weibull plus tail model, indicating that around 102 cfu/mL resistant S. typhimurium was detected when the liquid plasma was UV-C irradiated at doses up to 9000 J/L. Viability reduction for E. faecium was 0.44, 1.01, 3.70, 5.61 and 6.22 log10 when irradiated at 750, 1500, 3000, 6000 and 9000 J/L, respectively, with no bacterial resistance observed with UV-C doses of 6000 J/L or higher. The biphasic model was the best fit model for the inactivation curve for E. faecium. For the three microorganisms tested, about a 4 log-unit reduction was achieved when the liquid plasma was irradiated at 3000J/L. Overall results demonstrate the usefulness of the UV-C system to inactivate bacteria in liquid plasma before spray-drying. We conclude that the UV-C system can provide an additional biosafety feature that can be incorporated into the manufacturing process for spray-dried animal plasma. PMID:28399166

  3. The mazEF toxin-antitoxin system as an attractive target in clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Soheili, Sara; Ghafourian, Sobhan; Sekawi, Zamberi; Neela, Vasantha Kumari; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Taherikalani, Morovat; Khosravi, Afra; Ramli, Ramliza; Hamat, Rukman Awang

    2015-01-01

    The toxin-antitoxin (TA) system is a regulatory system where two sets of genes encode the toxin and its corresponding antitoxin. In this study, the prevalence of TA systems in independently isolated clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis was determined, the dominant TA system was identified, different virulence genes in E. faecium and E. faecalis were surveyed, the level of expression of the virulence and TA genes in normal and stress conditions was determined, and finally their associations with the TA genes were defined. Remarkably, the analysis demonstrated higBA and mazEF in all clinical isolates, and their locations were on chromosomes and plasmids, respectively. On the other hand, a quantitative analysis of TA and virulence genes revealed that the expression level in both genes is different under normal and stress conditions. The results obtained by anti-mazF peptide nucleic acids demonstrated that the expression level of virulence genes had decreased. These findings demonstrate an association between TA systems and virulence factors. The mazEF on the plasmids and the higBA TA genes on the chromosomes of all E. faecium and E. faecalis strains were dominant. Additionally, there was a decrease in the expression of virulence genes in the presence of anti-mazF peptide nucleic acids. Therefore, it is suggested that mazEF TA systems are potent and sensitive targets in all E. faecium and E. faecalis strains.

  4. A decade of genomic history for healthcare-associated Enterococcus faecium in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

    PubMed

    Raven, Kathy E; Reuter, Sandra; Reynolds, Rosy; Brodrick, Hayley J; Russell, Julie E; Török, M Estée; Parkhill, Julian; Peacock, Sharon J

    2016-10-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) is an important cause of healthcare-associated infections worldwide. We undertook whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 495 E. faecium bloodstream isolates from 2001-2011 in the United Kingdom and Ireland (UK&I) and 11 E. faecium isolates from a reference collection. Comparison between WGS and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) identified major discrepancies for 17% of isolates, with multiple instances of the same sequence type (ST) being located in genetically distant positions in the WGS tree. This confirms that WGS is superior to MLST for evolutionary analyses and is more accurate than current typing methods used during outbreak investigations. E. faecium has been categorized as belonging to three clades (Clades A1, hospital-associated; A2, animal-associated; and B, community-associated). Phylogenetic analysis of our isolates replicated the distinction between Clade A (97% of isolates) and Clade B but did not support the subdivision of Clade A into Clade A1 and A2. Phylogeographic analyses revealed that Clade A had been introduced multiple times into each hospital referral network or country, indicating frequent movement of E. faecium between regions that rarely share hospital patients. Numerous genetic clusters contained highly related vanA-positive and -negative E. faecium, which implies that control of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in hospitals also requires consideration of vancomycin-susceptible E. faecium Our findings reveal the evolution and dissemination of hospital-associated E. faecium in the UK&I and provide evidence for WGS as an instrument for infection control. © 2016 Raven et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  5. Applicability of a bacteriocin-producing Enterococcus faecium as a co-culture in Cheddar cheese manufacture.

    PubMed

    Foulquié Moreno, M R; Rea, M C; Cogan, T M; De Vuyst, L

    2003-02-25

    Two strains, Enterococcus faecium RZS C5 and E. faecium DPC 1146, produce listericidal bacteriocins, so-called enterocins. E. faecium RZS C5 was studied during batch fermentation in both a complex medium (MRS) and in milk to understand the influence of environmental factors, characteristic for milk and cheese, on both growth and bacteriocin production. Fermentation conditions were chosen in view of the applicability of in situ enterocin production during Cheddar cheese production. Enterocin production by E. faecium RZS C5 in MRS started in the early logarithmic growth phase, and enterocin activity decreased during the stationary phase. The effect of pH on enterocin production and decrease of activity was as intense as the effect on bacterial growth. Higher enterocin production took place at pH 5.5 compared with pH 6.5. The use of lactose instead of glucose increased the production of enterocin, and at higher lactose concentration, production increased more and loss of activity decreased. The production in skimmed milk compared to MRS was lower and was detected mainly in the stationary phase. When casein hydrolysate was added to the milk, enterocin production was higher and started earlier, indicating the importance of an additional nitrogen source for growth of E. faecium in milk. For co-cultures of E. faecium RZS C5 with the starters used during Cheddar cheese manufacture, no enterocin activity was detected during the milk fermentation. Furthermore, the applicability of E. faecium RZS C5 and E. faecium DPC 1146 strains was tested in Cheddar cheese manufacture on pilot scale. Enterocin production took place from the beginning of the cheese manufacturing and was stable during the whole ripening phase of the cheese. This indicates that both an early and late contamination of the milk or cheese can be combated with a stable, in situ enterocin production. The use of such a co-culture is an additional safety provision beyond good manufacturing practices.

  6. Relations between the occurrence of resistance to antimicrobial growth promoters among Enterococcus faecium isolated from broilers and broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Emborg, H-D; Andersen, J S; Seyfarth, A M; Andersen, S R; Boel, J; Wegener, H C

    2003-08-01

    From 1995 to 2001, Enterococcus faecium isolates were collected from broiler flocks at slaughter and broiler meat products at retail outlets and were tested for susceptibility to classes of antimicrobials used for growth promotion in broilers in Denmark, namely: evernimicin, glycopeptide, macrolide and streptogramin. By February 1998, all antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) were withdrawn from the Danish broiler production. The present study investigates, by logistic regression analyses, the (1) changes in the occurrence of AGP resistance among E. faecium from broilers and broiler meat from the fourth quarter of 1995 to the fourth quarter of 2001 and (2) relations between the occurrence of AGP resistance among E. faecium isolates from Danish broilers and AGP resistance among E. faecium isolates from the broiler meat of Danish and unknown origin collected in the same quarter within the year. In the present study, we showed that after the AGP withdrawal, a significant decline in resistance to avilamycin, erythromycin, vancomycin and virginiamycin was observed among E. faecium from broilers and broiler meat. In addition, a decline in the occurrence of AGP resistance among E. faecium from Danish broilers was associated with a decrease in the predicted probability of isolating an AGP-resistant E. faecium isolate from a randomly selected broiler meat product. In the analyses "relations between the occurrence of AGP resistance among E. faecium isolated from broilers and broiler meat collected in the same quarter" errors in the explanatory variable were expected. Therefore, a simulation study was performed to validate the results from logistic regression analyses. The results obtained by the two methods were similar.

  7. A decade of genomic history for healthcare-associated Enterococcus faecium in the United Kingdom and Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Raven, Kathy E.; Reuter, Sandra; Reynolds, Rosy; Brodrick, Hayley J.; Russell, Julie E.; Török, M. Estée; Parkhill, Julian; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2016-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) is an important cause of healthcare-associated infections worldwide. We undertook whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 495 E. faecium bloodstream isolates from 2001–2011 in the United Kingdom and Ireland (UK&I) and 11 E. faecium isolates from a reference collection. Comparison between WGS and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) identified major discrepancies for 17% of isolates, with multiple instances of the same sequence type (ST) being located in genetically distant positions in the WGS tree. This confirms that WGS is superior to MLST for evolutionary analyses and is more accurate than current typing methods used during outbreak investigations. E. faecium has been categorized as belonging to three clades (Clades A1, hospital-associated; A2, animal-associated; and B, community-associated). Phylogenetic analysis of our isolates replicated the distinction between Clade A (97% of isolates) and Clade B but did not support the subdivision of Clade A into Clade A1 and A2. Phylogeographic analyses revealed that Clade A had been introduced multiple times into each hospital referral network or country, indicating frequent movement of E. faecium between regions that rarely share hospital patients. Numerous genetic clusters contained highly related vanA-positive and -negative E. faecium, which implies that control of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in hospitals also requires consideration of vancomycin-susceptible E. faecium. Our findings reveal the evolution and dissemination of hospital-associated E. faecium in the UK&I and provide evidence for WGS as an instrument for infection control. PMID:27527616

  8. Increase in Bloodstream Infection Due to Vancomycin-Susceptible Enterococcus faecium in Cancer Patients: Risk Factors, Molecular Epidemiology and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gudiol, Carlota; Ayats, Josefina; Camoez, Mariana; Domínguez, M. Ángeles; García-Vidal, Carolina; Bodro, Marta; Ardanuy, Carmen; Obed, Mora; Arnan, Montserrat; Antonio, Maite; Carratalà, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a prospective study to assess the risk factors, molecular epidemiology and outcome of bloodstream infection (BSI) due to Enterococcus faecium in hospitalized cancer patients. Between 2006 and 2012, a significant increase in vancomycin-susceptible E. faecium BSI was observed among cancer patients. Comparison of 54 episodes of BSI due to E. faecium with 38 episodes of BSI due to E. faecalis showed that previous use of carbapenems was the only independent risk factor for E. faecium acquisition (OR 10.24; 95% CI, 1.35-77.66). All E. faecium isolates were susceptible to glycopeptides, whereas 97% showed high-level resistance to ampicillin and ciprofloxacin. All 30 isolates available for genotyping belonged to the hospital-associated E. faecium lineages 17, 18 and 78. After 2009, most of the isolates belonged to ST117 (lineage 78). Patients with E. faecium BSI were more likely to receive inadequate initial empirical antibiotic therapy than patients with E. faecalis BSI, and time to adequate empirical antibiotic therapy was also longer in the former group. No significant differences were found between the two groups regarding early and overall case-fatality rates. Independent risk factors for overall case-fatality were current corticosteroids (OR 4.18; 95% CI, 1.34-13.01) and intensive care unit admission (OR 9.97; 95% CI, 1.96-50.63). The emergence of E. faecium among cancer patients is a concern since there are limited treatment options and it may presage the emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. A rationale approach that combines infection control with antimicrobial stewardship. PMID:24069339

  9. Genetic Basis for In Vitro and In Vivo Resistance to Lincosamides, Streptogramins A, and Pleuromutilins (LSAP Phenotype) in Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Isnard, Christophe; Malbruny, Brigitte; Leclercq, Roland

    2013-01-01

    As opposed to Enterococcus faecalis, which is intrinsically resistant to lincosamides, streptogramins A, and pleuromutilins (LSAP phenotype) by production of the ABC protein Lsa(A), Enterococcus faecium is naturally susceptible. Since this phenotype may be selected for in vivo by quinupristin-dalfopristin (Q-D), the aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of acquired LSAP resistance in E. faecium. Six LSAP-resistant in vitro mutants of E. faecium HM1070 as well as three different pairs of clinical isolates (pre- and postexposure to Q-D) were studied. The full genome sequence of an in vitro mutant (E. faecium UCN90B) was determined by using 454 sequencing technology and was compared with that of the parental strain. Single-nucleotide replacement was carried out to confirm the role of this mutation. By comparative genomic analysis, a point mutation was found within a 1,503-bp gene coding for an ABC homologue showing 66% amino acid identity with Lsa(A). This mutation (C1349T) led to an amino acid substitution (Thr450Ile). An identical mutation was identified in all in vitro and in vivo resistant strains but was not present in susceptible strains. The wild-type allele was named eat(A) (for Enterococcus ABC transporter), and its mutated allelic variant was named eat(A)v. The introduction of eat(A)v from UCN90B into HM1070 conferred the LSAP phenotype, whereas that of eat(A) from HM1070 into UCN90B restored susceptibility entirely. This is the first description of the molecular mechanism of acquired LSAP resistance in E. faecium. Characterization of the biochemical mechanism of resistance and the physiological role of this ABC protein need further investigations. PMID:23836170

  10. Virulence Genes among Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Coastal Beaches and Human and Nonhuman Sources in Southern California and Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Talavera, Ginamary Negrón; Hernández, Luis A. Ríos; Ambrose, Richard F.; Jay, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    Most Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium are harmless to humans; however, strains harboring virulence genes, including esp, gelE, cylA, asa1, and hyl, have been associated with human infections. E. faecalis and E. faecium are present in beach waters worldwide, yet little is known about their virulence potential. Here, multiplex PCR was used to compare the distribution of virulence genes among E. faecalis and E. faecium isolated from beaches in Southern California and Puerto Rico to isolates from potential sources including humans, animals, birds, and plants. All five virulence genes were found in E. faecalis and E. faecium from beach water, mostly among E. faecalis. gelE was the most common among isolates from all source types. There was a lower incidence of asa1, esp, cylA, and hyl genes among isolates from beach water, sewage, septage, urban runoff, sea wrack, and eelgrass as compared to human isolates, indicating that virulent strains of E. faecalis and E. faecium may not be widely disseminated at beaches. A higher frequency of asa1 and esp among E. faecalis from dogs and of asa1 among birds (mostly seagull) suggests that further studies on the distribution and virulence potential of strains carrying these genes may be warranted. PMID:27144029

  11. Dispersion of Multidrug-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Isolates Belonging to Major Clonal Complexes in Different Portuguese Settings▿

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Ana R.; Novais, Carla; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Coque, Teresa M.; Peixe, Luísa

    2009-01-01

    The population structure of 56 Enterococcus faecium isolates selected from a collection of enterococci from humans, animals, and the environment in Portugal (1997 to 2007) was analyzed by multilocus sequence typing. We identified 41 sequence types clustering into CC17, CC5, CC9, CC22 and CC94, all clonal lineages comprising isolates from different hosts. Our findings highlight the role of community-associated hosts as reservoirs of enterococci able to cause human infections. PMID:19447948

  12. The first report of the vanC₁ gene in Enterococcus faecium isolated from a human clinical specimen.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingyue; Wang, Yue; Chen, Zhongju; Zhu, Xuhui; Tian, Lei; Sun, Ziyong

    2014-09-01

    The vanC₁ gene, which is chromosomally located, confers resistance to vancomycin and serves as a species marker for Enterococcus gallinarum. Enterococcus faecium TJ4031 was isolated from a blood culture and harbours the vanC₁gene. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were performed to detect vanXYc and vanTc genes. Only the vanXYc gene was found in the E. faecium TJ4031 isolate. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin and teicoplanin were 2 µg/mL and 1 µg/mL, respectively. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR results revealed that the vanC₁ and vanXYc genes were not expressed. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and southern hybridisation results showed that the vanC₁ gene was encoded in the chromosome. E. faecalis isolated from animals has been reported to harbour vanC₁gene. However, this study is the first to report the presence of the vanC₁gene in E. faecium of human origin. Additionally, our research showed the vanC₁gene cannot serve as a species-specific gene of E. gallinarum and that it is able to be transferred between bacteria. Although the resistance marker is not expressed in the strain, our results showed that E. faecium could acquire the vanC₁gene from different species.

  13. Assessment of virulence factors, antibiotic resistance and amino-decarboxylase activity in Enterococcus faecium MXVK29 isolated from Mexican chorizo.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Cisneros, Y M; Fernández, F J; Sainz-Espuñez, T; Ponce-Alquicira, E

    2017-02-01

    Enterococcus faecium MXVK29 has the ability to produce an antimicrobial compound that belongs to Class IIa of the Klaenhammer classification, and could be used as part of a biopreservation technology through direct inoculation of the strain as a starter or protective culture. However, Enterococcus is considered as an opportunistic pathogen, hence, the purpose of this work was to study the food safety determinants of E. faecium MXVK29. The strain was sensitive to all of the antibiotics tested (penicillin, tetracycline, vancomycin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, kanamycin and netilmicin) and did not demonstrate histamine, cadaverine or putrescine formation. Furthermore, tyrosine-decarboxylase activity was detected by qualitative assays and PCR. Among the virulence factors analysed for the strain, only the genes encoding the sexual pheromone cCF10 precursor lipoprotein (ccf) and cell-wall adhesion (efaAfm ) were amplified. The presence of these genes has low impact on pathogenesis, as there are no other genes encoding for virulence factors, such as aggregation proteins. Therefore, Enterococcus faecium could be employed as part of a bioconservation method, because it does not produce risk factors for consumer's health; in addition, it could be used as part of the hurdle technology in foods.

  14. Role of Combination Antimicrobial Therapy for Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Infections: Review of the Current Evidence.

    PubMed

    Yim, Juwon; Smith, Jordan R; Rybak, Michael J

    2017-03-08

    Enterococcus species are the second most common cause of nosocomial infections in the United States and are particularly concerning in critically ill patients with preexisting comorbid conditions. Rising resistance to antimicrobials that were historically used as front-line agents for treatment of enterococcal infections, such as ampicillin, vancomycin, and aminoglycosides, further complicates the treatment of these infections. Of particular concern are Enterococcus faecium strains that are associated with the highest rate of vancomycin resistance. The introduction of antimicrobial agents with specific activity against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) faecium including daptomycin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and tigecycline did not completely resolve this clinical dilemma. In this review, the mechanisms of action and resistance to currently available anti-VRE antimicrobial agents including newer agents such as oritavancin and dalbavancin will be presented. In addition, novel combination therapies including β-lactams and fosfomycin, and the promising results from in vitro, animal studies, and clinical experience in the treatment of VRE faecium will be discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Diversity of plasmids and Tn1546-type transposons among VanA Enterococcus faecium in Poland.

    PubMed

    Wardal, E; Kuch, A; Gawryszewska, I; Żabicka, D; Hryniewicz, W; Sadowy, E

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance, Tn1546 transposon variability and plasmid diversity among Polish vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) isolates of VanA phenotype in the context of their clonal structure. Two hundred sixteen clinical VREfm isolates collected between 1997 and 2010 were studied by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, MLST, MLVA and detection of IS16, esp Efm, pilA, intA and plasmid-specific genes by PCR. Tn1546 structure was revealed by overlapping PCR and sequencing. Selected isolates were subjected to PFGE-S1 and Southern hybridization analyses. The vast majority of the isolates (95.8 %) belonged to lineages 17/18 (during the whole study period 1997-2010) and 78 (mostly in 2006-2010) of hospital-adapted meroclone of E. faecium. All isolates displayed a multi-drug resistance phenotype. Twenty-eight Tn1546 types (including 26 novel ones) were associated with eight different ISs (IS1216, IS1251, ISEfa4, ISEfa5, ISEfm2, ISEf1, IS3-like, ISEfm1-like). The vanA-determinant was typically located on plasmids, which most commonly carried rep2pRE25, rep17pRUM, rep18pEF418, rep1pIP501, ω-ε-ζ and axe-txe genes. VanA isolates from 1997-2005 to 2006-2010 differed in clonal composition, prevalence of gentamicin- and tetracycline-resistance and plasmidome. Our analysis revealed high complexity of Tn1546-type transposons and vanA-plasmids, and suggested that diverse genetic events, such as conjugation transfer, recombination, chromosomal integration and DNA mutations shaped the structure of these elements among Polish VREfm.

  16. Detection of a cfr(B) Variant in German Enterococcus faecium Clinical Isolates and the Impact on Linezolid Resistance in Enterococcus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Fleige, Carola; Klare, Ingo; Fiedler, Stefan; Mischnik, Alexander; Mutters, Nico T.; Dingle, Kate E.; Werner, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The National Reference Centre for Staphylococci and Enterococci in Germany has received an increasing number of clinical linezolid-resistant E. faecium isolates in recent years. Five isolates harbored a cfr(B) variant gene locus the product of which is capable of conferring linezolid resistance. The cfr(B)-like methyltransferase gene was also detected in Clostridium difficile. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined for cfr(B)-positive and linezolid-resistant E. faecium isolates and two isogenic C. difficile strains. All strains were subjected to whole genome sequencing and analyzed with respect to mutations in the 23S rDNA, rplC, rplD and rplV genes and integration sites of the cfr(B) variant locus. To evaluate methyltransferase function, the cfr(B) variant of Enterococcus and Clostridium was expressed in both E. coli and Enterococcus spp. Ribosomal target site mutations were detected in E. faecium strains but absent in clostridia. Sequencing revealed 99.9% identity between cfr(B) of Enterococcus and cfr of Clostridium. The methyltransferase gene is encoded by transposon Tn6218 which was present in C. difficile Ox3196, truncated in some E. faecium and absent in C. difficile Ox3206. The latter finding explains the lack of linezolid and chloramphenicol resistance in C. difficile Ox3206 and demonstrates for the first time a direct correlation of elevated linezolid MICs in C. difficile upon cfr acquisition. Tn6218 insertion sites revealed novel target loci for integration, both within the bacterial chromosome and as an integral part of plasmids. Importantly, the very first plasmid-association of a cfr(B) variant was observed. Although we failed to measure cfr(B)-mediated resistance in transformed laboratory strains the occurrence of the multidrug resistance gene cfr on putatively highly mobile and/or extrachromosomal DNA in clinical isolates is worrisome with respect to dissemination of antibiotic resistances. PMID:27893790

  17. Aging eye microbiota in Dry Eye Syndrome in patients treated with Enterococcus faecium and Saccharomyces boulardii.

    PubMed

    Chisari, Giuseppe; Chisari, Eleonora Margherita; Borzì, Antonio Maria; Ozyalcin, Erdogan; Chisari, Clara Grazia

    2017-07-04

    Aging seem to have a key role in the onset and progression of ocular surface diseases. Dry Eye Syndrome (DES) is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface in which symptoms may interfere with the ability to work and carry out daily functions. This clinical trial was a pilot study to evaluate the effects of supplementation with mixture (MYA796 and Enterococcus faecium SGEf01) on the tear film. Following the run-in period subjects were randomized in two groups: group A (n.30 subjects) and group B (n.30 subjects). Group A (control) treated only with substitute tear and group B treated with substitute tear + mixture (symbiotic). The data obtained in the two study groups A and B were, respectively the following: Schirmer I: 9.2±0.2 Vs 12.8±0.4 (p< 0.001); Schirmer II: 3.6±0.1 Vs 4.6±0.2 (p<0.001); BUT 3.8±0.3 Vs 6.2±0.2 (p<0.001). Culture test showed initial bacterial growth in group "A" (placebo) 27 out of 60 samples tested, corresponding to 45.0% and "B" after treatment (probiotic) was found positive culture with growth of bacteria in 18 tests equal to 30.0%. The total numbers of isolations of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were found in both group A and B after treatment. A reduction of 23 to 16 strains of aerobic and anaerobic isolates from 13 to 7 has been found. The administration of probiotics strains was effective in reducing DES. In light of these results, we have identified in our probiotic (Saccharomyces boulardii MYA796 and Enterococcus faecium SGEf01) activity integration with the action of tear substitutes, along with standardization of clinical parameters of the tear film and microbiological activity in restoring of the microbiota ocular surface subject with DES. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Evaluation of a novel chromogenic agar medium for isolation and differentiation of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis isolates.

    PubMed

    Ledeboer, Nathan A; Das, Kingshuk; Eveland, Michael; Roger-Dalbert, Céline; Mailler, Sandrine; Chatellier, Sonia; Dunne, William Michael

    2007-05-01

    The development of reliable and rapid methods for the identification of patients colonized with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is central to the containment of this agent within a hospital environment. To this end, we evaluated a prototype chromogenic agar medium (VRE-BMX; bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) used to recover VRE from clinical specimens. This medium can also identify isolated colonies as either vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium or Enterococcus faecalis, based on distinct colony colors. We compared the performance of VRE-BMX with bile esculin azide agar supplemented with vancomycin (BEAV). For this study, 147 stool samples were plated on each test medium and examined after 24 and 48 h of incubation. At 24 h, the sensitivity and specificity of each medium were as follows: BEAV, 90.9% and 89.9%, respectively; VRE-BMX, 96.4% and 96.6%, respectively. The positive predictive values (PPV) of VRE-BMX and BEAV at 24 h were 89.8% and 80.7%, respectively. VRE-BMX provided the identification of 10 isolates of vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis and 4 isolates of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium that were not recovered by BEAV. Further, VRE-BMX was capable of identifying patients colonized with both E. faecium and E. faecalis, a feature useful for infection control purposes that is not a function of BEAV. In terms of the recovery of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium and E. faecalis, the sensitivity and PPV were as follows: BEAV, 75.7% and 74.6%, respectively; VRE-BMX, 95.5% and 91.3%, respectively. In this initial evaluation, we found that VRE-BMX provided improved recovery of VRE from stool specimens, with the added advantage of being able to differentiate between vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis and E. faecium. Extending the incubation period beyond 24 h did not significantly improve the recovery of VRE and resulted in decreased specificity.

  19. Effects of the Probiotic Enterococcus faecium and Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains in a Pig and Human Epithelial Intestinal Cell Model

    PubMed Central

    Lodemann, Ulrike; Strahlendorf, Julia; Schierack, Peter; Klingspor, Shanti; Aschenbach, Jörg R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to elucidate the effect of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 on epithelial integrity in intestinal epithelial cells and whether pre- and coincubation with this strain can reproducibly prevent damage induced by enterotoxigenic (ETEC) and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). Porcine (IPEC-J2) and human (Caco-2) intestinal epithelial cells were incubated with bacterial strains and epithelial integrity was assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and mannitol flux rates. E. faecium alone increased TEER of Caco-2 cells without affecting mannitol fluxes whereas the E. coli strains decreased TEER and concomitantly increased mannitol flux rates in both cell lines. Preincubation with E. faecium had no effect on the TEER decrease induced by E. coli in preliminary experiments. However, in a second set of experiments using a slightly different protocol, E. faecium ameliorated the TEER decrease induced by ETEC at 4 h in IPEC-J2 and at 2, 4, and 6 h in Caco-2 cells. We conclude that E. faecium positively affected epithelial integrity in monoinfected Caco-2 cells and could ameliorate the damage on TEER induced by an ETEC strain. Reproducibility of the results is, however, limited when experiments are performed with living bacteria over longer periods. PMID:25883829

  20. Reduction of Salmonella in gnotobiotic Japanese quails caused by the enterocin A-producing EK13 strain of Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Lauková, A; Guba, P; Nemcová, R; Vasilková, Z

    2003-05-01

    The effect of the enterocin A-producing EK strain of Enterococcus faecium on Salmonella dusseldorf SA31 was tested in gnotobiotic Japanese quails. Sixteen 3-day-old gnotobiotic Japanese quails, hatched from disinfected eggs placed in sterile boxes, were divided into two groups of 8 birds: a control group, which was inoculated orally with the SA31 strain (1 x 10(7) CFU/ml), and the experimental group, which was inoculated orally with 200 microl of E. faecium (1 x 10(9) CFU/ml), 16 h before infection with the S. dusseldorf. The latter group then received the same average dose of E. faecium daily in drinking water. Faecal samples were taken 8, 24, 48 and 168 h after the inoculation of S. dusseldorf and examined for S. dusseldorf and E. faecium (EK13). The quails were then killed and the number of the EK13 strain of E. faecium and of S. dusseldorf in the caecum and ileum were estimated. A reducing effect of the EK13 strain against the SA31 strain in faeces was detected in the samples taken at 24 and 48 h from the group with the EK13 strain. Significant reductions were also found in the numbers of S. dusseldorf SA31 strain in the caecum but not in the ileum.

  1. Enterococcus faecium LKE12 Cell-Free Extract Accelerates Host Plant Growth via Gibberellin and Indole-3-Acetic Acid Secretion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ko-Eun; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kang, Sang-Mo; You, Young-Hyun; Joo, Gil-Jae; Lee, In-Jung; Ko, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2015-09-01

    The use of microbial extracts containing plant hormones is a promising technique to improve crop growth. Little is known about the effect of bacterial cell-free extracts on plant growth promotion. This study, based on phytohormonal analyses, aimed at exploring the potential mechanisms by which Enterococcus faecium LKE12 enhances plant growth in oriental melon. A bacterial strain, LKE12, was isolated from soil, and further identified as E. faecium by 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The plant growth-promoting ability of an LKE12 bacterial culture was tested in a gibberellin (GA)-deficient rice dwarf mutant (waito-C) and a normal GA biosynthesis rice cultivar (Hwayongbyeo). E. faecium LKE12 significantly improved the length and biomass of rice shoots in both normal and dwarf cultivars through the secretion of an array of gibberellins (GA1, GA3, GA7, GA8, GA9, GA12, GA19, GA20, GA24, and GA53), as well as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study indicating that E. faecium can produce GAs. Increases in shoot and root lengths, plant fresh weight, and chlorophyll content promoted by E. faecium LKE12 and its cell-free extract inoculated in oriental melon plants revealed a favorable interaction of E. faecium LKE12 with plants. Higher plant growth rates and nutrient contents of magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, manganese, silicon, zinc, and nitrogen were found in cell-free extract-treated plants than in control plants. The results of the current study suggest that E. faecium LKE12 promotes plant growth by producing GAs and IAA; interestingly, the exogenous application of its cell-free culture extract can be a potential strategy to accelerate plant growth.

  2. Effects of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 on selected lactic acid bacteria and enterobacteria in co-culture.

    PubMed

    Starke, I C; Zentek, J; Vahjen, W

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 is used as a probiotic for piglets and has been shown to modify the porcine intestinal microbiota. However, the mode of action of this probiotic modification is still unclear. One possible explanation is the direct growth inhibiting or stimulating effect of the probiotic on other indigenous bacteria. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the growth interactions of the probiotic with different indigenous porcine bacteria in vitro. Reference strains were cultivated with the probiotic E. faecium strain NCIMB10415 (SF68) in a checkerboard assay with 102 to 105 cells/ml inoculum per strain. Growth kinetics were recorded for 8 h and used to determine specific growth of the co-cultures. Additionally, total DNA was extracted from the co-cultures at the end of the incubation to verify which strain in the co-culture was affected. Co-cultivation with eight Enterococcus spp. tester strains showed strain-specific growth differences. Three of four E. faecium strains were not influenced by the probiotic strain. PCR results showed reduced growth of the probiotic strain in co-culture with E. faecium DSM 6177. Three of four Enterococcus faecalis strains showed reduced specific growth in co-culture with the probiotic strain. However, E. faecalis DSM 20478 impaired growth of the probiotic E. faecium strain. The growth of Lactobacillus johnsonii DSM 10533 and Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016 was enhanced in co-culture with the probiotic strain, but co-cultivations with Lactobacillus mucosae DSM13345 or Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM10533 showed no differences. Co-cultures with the probiotic E. faecium showed no impact on the growth rate of four different enterobacterial reference strains (2 strains of Salmonella enterica and 2 strains of Escherichia coli), but PCR results showed reduced cell numbers for a pathogenic E. coli isolate at higher concentration of the probiotic strain. As the in vitro effect of the probiotic E. faecium on

  3. Diversity of clones and genotypes among vancomycin-resistant clinical Enterococcus isolates recovered in a Spanish hospital.

    PubMed

    López, María; Cercenado, Emilia; Tenorio, Carmen; Ruiz-Larrea, Fernanda; Torres, Carmen

    2012-10-01

    Forty-three vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) from different patients were recovered in a Spanish Hospital (2003-2010), representing 0.4% of the total of enterococci recovered. Mechanisms detected were vanA (five Enterococcus faecium, two E. faecalis), vanB2 (seven E. faecium, five E. faecalis), vanB1 (one E. faecalis), and vanC1/2 (22 E. gallinarum, 1 E. casseliflavus). Four different Tn1546 structures were found among the seven vanA strains, three of them with insertions (ISEf1 or IS1542) or deletions. Most of the VRE presented a multiresistance phenotype and harbored different resistance genes [erm(B), tet(M), tet(L), ant(6)-Ia, aac(6')-aph(2''), aph(3')-IIIa, and catA]. Sixteen unrelated pulsotypes were detected among the 20 vanA/vanB E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates by pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis and 11 unrelated pulsotypes among the 22 E. gallinarum isolates. Six different sequence types (ST) were demonstrated among the 12 vancomycin-resistant E. faecium strains (one of them new), and 5 were included into the clonal-complex (CC) CC17. Five different ST were detected among the eight E. faecalis strains. The esp gene was detected in 58% and 25% of E. faecium and E. faecalis strains, respectively, and the hyl gene in 78% and 89%, respectively. A high diversity of clones and genotypes of VRE were detected in this hospital.

  4. Biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from the processing of ricotta and the control of these pathogens through cleaning and sanitization procedures.

    PubMed

    da Silva Fernandes, Meg; Kabuki, Dirce Yorika; Kuaye, Arnaldo Yoshiteru

    2015-05-04

    The biofilm formation of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from the processing of ricotta on stainless steel coupons was evaluated, and the effect of cleaning and sanitization procedures in the control of these biofilms was determined. The formation of biofilms was observed while varying the incubation temperature (7, 25 and 39°C) and time (0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days). At 7°C, the counts of E. faecalis and E. faecium were below 2 log10 CFU/cm(2). For the temperatures of 25 and 39°C, after 1 day, the counts of E. faecalis and E. faecium were 5.75 and 6.07 log10 CFU/cm(2), respectively, which is characteristic of biofilm formation. The tested sanitation procedures a) acid-anionic tensioactive cleaning, b) anionic tensioactive cleaning+sanitizer and c) acid-anionic tensioactive cleaning+sanitizer were effective in removing the biofilms, reducing the counts to levels below 0.4 log10 CFU/cm(2). The sanitizer biguanide was the least effective, and peracetic acid was the most effective. These studies revealed the ability of enterococci to form biofilms and the importance of the cleaning step and the type of sanitizer used in sanitation processes for the effective removal of biofilms.

  5. In vitro probiotic profiling of novel Enterococcus faecium and Leuconostoc mesenteroides from Tunisian freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    El-Jeni, Rim; El Bour, Monia; Calo-Mata, Pilar; Böhme, Karola; Fernández-No, Inmaculada C; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge; Bouhaouala-Zahar, Balkiss

    2016-01-01

    Novel lactic acid bacteria isolated from different organs of freshwater fish were examined for their potential application as probiotics in raw and processed foods. Four isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were identified at the molecular level by 16S rRNA sequencing and random amplification of polymorphic DNA - polymerase chain reaction, and their antimicrobial activity against a panel of pathogens and food-poisoning bacteria was investigated. The whole bacteriocins of the 4 isolates were characterized by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequences in PCR. The isolates exhibited high inhibitory activities against food-borne pathogens and spoilage microbial species and have significant probiotic profiles, since they survived at pH 3.0 and in the presence of bile salts, pancreatin, and pepsin, without any detectable hemolytic activity. Further, moderate heat resistance, adhesion ability to steel surfaces, and sensitivity to clinically relevant antimicrobial agents were revealed for all the isolates. These results highlight the specific probiotic properties of the strains and give evidence for potential application in minimally processed foods subjected to moderate heat processing.

  6. Inter-batch contamination and potential sources of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium on broiler farms.

    PubMed

    Jansson, D S; Nilsson, O; Lindblad, J; Greko, C; Bengtsson, B

    2012-01-01

    1. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE(fm)) has recently spread among Swedish broiler farms. The objectives were to investigate VRE(fm) persistence within barns between flocks, and to determine whether day-old chicks, feed or forklift trucks used for loading crates could be identified as a means of transmission. 2. Faeces were collected for selective culture from 12 farms (9 culture-positive, 3 culture-negative as determined by prior monitoring), and samples were collected from the barn environment before and after cleaning and disinfection, from forklift tyres, hatcheries and feed. 3. VRE(fm) was isolated only from previously known VRE(fm)-positive farms. The proportions of culture-positive environmental samples were 75% (9 out of 9 farms) prior to and 31% (7 out of 9 farms) after cleaning/disinfection. Five out of 6 samples from forklift tyres were culture-positive. No VRE(fm) were isolated from feed or hatcheries. The majority of 27 vanA gene positive isolates showed similar banding patterns by SmaI restriction digestion and pulse-field gel electrophoresis. No consistent differences were observed regarding management between VRE(fm)-positive and negative farms. 4. We conclude that VRE(fm) contaminates barns and remains present between flocks. Forklift trucks are one possible means of transmission between farms.

  7. RelA Mutant Enterococcus faecium with Multiantibiotic Tolerance Arising in an Immunocompromised Host

    PubMed Central

    Honsa, Erin S.; Mhaissen, Mohammed N.; Frank, Matthew; Shaker, Jessica; Iverson, Amy; Rubnitz, Jeffrey; Hayden, Randall T.; Lee, Richard E.; Rock, Charles O.; Tuomanen, Elaine I.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Serious bacterial infections in immunocompromised patients require highly effective antibacterial therapy for cure, and thus, this setting may reveal novel mechanisms by which bacteria circumvent antibiotics in the absence of immune pressure. Here, an infant with leukemia developed vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) bacteremia that persisted for 26 days despite appropriate antibiotic therapy. Sequencing of 22 consecutive VRE isolates identified the emergence of a single missense mutation (L152F) in relA, which constitutively activated the stringent response, resulting in elevated baseline levels of the alarmone guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp). Although the mutant remained susceptible to both linezolid and daptomycin in clinical MIC testing and during planktonic growth, it demonstrated tolerance to high doses of both antibiotics when growing in a biofilm. This biofilm-specific gain in resistance was reflected in the broad shift in transcript levels caused by the mutation. Only an experimental biofilm-targeting ClpP-activating antibiotic was able to kill the mutant strain in an established biofilm. The relA mutation was associated with a fitness trade-off, forming smaller and less-well-populated biofilms on biological surfaces. We conclude that clinically relevant relA mutations can emerge during prolonged VRE infection, causing baseline activation of the stringent response, subsequent antibiotic tolerance, and delayed eradication in an immunocompromised state. PMID:28049149

  8. Raising the Alarmone: Within-Host Evolution of Antibiotic-Tolerant Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterococci are ancient commensal bacteria that recently emerged as leading causes of antibiotic-resistant, hospital-acquired infection. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) epitomize why drug-resistant enterococcal infections are a problem: VRE readily colonize the antibiotic-perturbed gastrointestinal (GI) tract where they amplify to large numbers, and from there, they infect other body sites, including the bloodstream, urinary tract, and surgical wounds. VRE are resistant to many antimicrobials and host defenses, which facilitates establishment at the site of infection and confounds therapeutic clearance. Having evolved to colonize the GI tract, VRE are comparatively ill adapted to the human bloodstream. A recent study by Honsa and colleagues (E. S. Honsa et al., mBio 8:e02124-16, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02124-16) found that a strain of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium evolved antibiotic tolerance within the bloodstream of an immunocompromised host by activating the stringent response through mutation of relA. Precisely how VRE colonize and infect and the selective pressures that led to the outgrowth of relA mutants are the subjects of ongoing research. PMID:28223450

  9. Purification and characterization of enterocin LR/6, a bacteriocin from Enterococcus faecium LR/6.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Tiwari, Santosh Kumar; Srivastava, Sheela

    2010-01-01

    Enterocin LR/6, a bacteriocin obtained from the culture filtrate of Enterococcus faecium strain LR/6, has been purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate precipitation, cation-exchange chromatography, gel-filtration, and checked on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. It is active at high temperatures (boiling as well as autoclaving) and over a wide range of pH (2.0-8.0). Also, it is sensitive to a number of proteolytic enzymes but is stable in the presence of surfactants and organic solvents. The protein could be stored at least up to 1 year at low temperatures (4 degrees C and -20 degrees C) without any loss of activity. The N-terminal sequence of enterocin LR/6 showed no homology with known enterocins or other bacteriocins present in the database, suggesting it to be a novel enterocin. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and tricine sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed its mass to be approximately 6.1 kDa. It showed a bactericidal mode of action against indicator strain, Micrococcus luteus.

  10. Biofilm formation on polystyrene under different temperatures by antibiotic resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from food.

    PubMed

    Marinho, A R; Martins, P D; Ditmer, E M; d'Azevedo, P A; Frazzon, J; Van Der Sand, S T; Frazzon, A P G

    2013-01-01

    The ability of antibiotic resistant E. faecalis and E. faecium isolated from food to form biofilm at different temperatures in the absence or presence of 0.75% glucose was evaluated. A synergistic effect on biofilm at 10 °C, 28 °C, 37 °C and 45 °C and glucose was observed for E. faecalis and E. faecium.

  11. Clonal Spread of a Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Strain among Bloodstream-Infecting Isolates in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Stampone, Lucia; Del Grosso, Maria; Boccia, Delia; Pantosti, Annalisa

    2005-01-01

    Recent data indicated that the rate of vancomycin resistance in bloodstream-infecting enterococcal isolates in Italy is one of the highest in Europe. The aims of this study were to characterize bloodstream-infecting vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) obtained from various Italian hospitals and to establish whether the isolates were clonally related. During the years 2001 to 2003, a total of 39 VRE isolates were obtained from 19 hospital laboratories in various areas of Italy. Species identification and resistance genotypes of the isolates were obtained by multiplex PCR. Further characterization included antibiotic susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of SmaI-digested genomic DNA, detection of virulence genes (esp and hyl), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of selected isolates. VRE were identified as 31 Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) isolates and 8 E. faecalis isolates. All but one isolate carried the vanA gene; one VREfm isolate carried the vanB gene. Analysis of the PFGE profiles showed that 28 VREfm isolates shared a similar electrophoretic profile, designed type 1, and were clonally related. All type 1 isolates were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin, and rifampin and were positive for the esp gene. MLST identified an allelic profile (ST78) comprising purK allele 1, belonging to the C1 clonal lineage, characteristic of human infection and hospital outbreak isolates. The vanB-carrying VREfm isolate, of PFGE type 2, was shown to be a single-locus variant of ST78. Our data indicate that the recent increase in the number of bloodstream infections caused by VRE in Italy is due to the spread of a hospital-adapted, multidrug-resistant VREfm clone belonging to an internationally disseminated lineage. PMID:15814968

  12. Probiotic attributes, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuromodulatory effects of Enterococcus faecium CFR 3003: in vitro and in vivo evidence.

    PubMed

    Divyashri, G; Krishna, G; Muralidhara; Prapulla, S G

    2015-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that probiotic bacteria play a vital role in modulating various aspects integral to the health and well-being of humans. In the present study, probiotic attributes and the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuromodulatory potential of Enterococcus faecium CFR 3003 were investigated by employing suitable model systems. E. faecium exhibited robust resistance to gastrointestinal stress conditions as it could withstand acid stress at pH 1.5, 2 and 3. The bacterium also survived at a bile salt concentration of 0.45 %, and better tolerance was observed towards pepsin and trypsin. E. faecium produced lactic acid as a major metabolic product, followed by butyric acid. Lyophilized cell-free supernatant (LCS) of E. faecium exhibited significant antioxidant capacity evaluated against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl, ascorbate auto-oxidation, oxygen radical absorbance and reducing power. Interestingly, E. faecium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG MTCC 1408 and LCS showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect by negatively modulating TNF-α production and upregulating IL-10 levels in LPS-stimulated macrophage cell lines. In an in vivo mice model, the propensity of probiotic supplements to modulate endogenous oxidative markers and redox status in brain regions was assessed. Young mice provided with oral supplements (daily for 28 days) of E. faecium and L. rhamnosus exhibited diminished oxidative markers in the brain and enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes with a concomitant increase in γ-aminobutyric acid and dopamine levels. Collectively, our findings clearly suggest the propensity of these bacteria to protect against tissue damage mediated through free radicals and inflammatory cytokines. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms need further studies, it is tempting to speculate that probiotics confer a neuroprotective advantage in vivo against oxidative damage-mediated neurodegenerative conditions.

  13. Bacteriocinogenic potential and safety evaluation of non-starter Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from home made white brine cheese.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Lorenzo; Basaglia, Marina; Casella, Sergio; Hue, Isabelle; Dousset, Xavier; Gombossy de Melo Franco, Bernadette Dora; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov

    2014-04-01

    Four LAB strains, isolated from Bulgarian home made white brine cheese, were selected for their effective inhibition against Listeria monocytogenes. According to their biochemical and physiological characteristics, the strains were classified as members of Enterococcus genus, and then identified as Enterococcus faecium by 16S rDNA sequencing. Their bacteriocin production and inhibitory spectrum were evaluated together with the occurrence of several bacteriocin genes (entA, entB, entP, entL50B). Their virulence potential and safety was assessed both using PCR targeted to the genes gelE, hyl, asa1, esp, cylA, efaA, ace, vanA, vanB, hdc1, hdc2, tdc and odc and by phenotypical tests for antibiotic resistance, gelatinase, lipase, DNAse and α- and β-haemolysis. The E. faecium strains harboured at least one enterocin gene while the occurrence of virulence, antibiotic resistance and biogenic amines genes was limited. Considering their strong antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes strains, the four E. faecium strains exhibited promising potential as bio-preservatives cultures for fermented food productions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of oral Enterococcus faecium strain DSM 10663 NCIMB 10415 on diarrhoea patterns and performance of sucking piglets.

    PubMed

    Büsing, K; Zeyner, A

    2015-03-01

    Effects of probiotic Enterococcus faecium DMS 10663 NCIMB 10415 on diarrhoea and performance of sucking piglets were evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Piglets from treatment group (TG, n=56) and placebo group (PG, n=53) sows were included in the study. Immediately after birth and at day 2 and 3 post natum, each of the TG piglets received 2.8×10(9) colony forming units (cfu) per os. From day 4 until weaning (day 26), 1.26×10(9) cfu E. faecium/piglet were given twice a day via a liquid additive. Piglets already suffering from diarrhoea additionally got a glucose-electrolyte solution enriched with 2.9×10(8) (week 1) and 5.8×10(8) (week 2) cfu E. faecium/day. PG piglets received corresponding placebo preparations. A score was defined to characterise the severity of diarrhoea, including accompanying symptoms. The counts of viable born, stillborn and weaned piglets were similar in TG and PG litters (P>0.05). The probiotic treatment mitigated incidence and severity of diarrhoea (P<0.05) with no impact on diarrhoea length (P>0.05). Probiotic treatment improved daily weight gain (P<0.05) yet with no provable effect on body weight at weaning (P>0.05). The additional supply of E. faecium in piglets suffering from diarrhoea had no further beneficial effect.

  15. Modelling the Biphasic Growth and Product Formation by Enterococcus faecium CECT 410 in Realkalized Fed-Batch Fermentations in Whey

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Nelson Pérez; Fajardo, Paula; Fuciños, Clara; Amado, Isabel Rodríguez; Alonso, Elisa; Torrado, Ana; Pastrana, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    The influence of initial pH on growth and nutrient (total sugars, nitrogen, and phosphorous) consumption by Enterococcus faecium CECT 410 was studied during batch cultures in whey. With these data, two realkalized fed-batch fermentations were developed using different feeding substrates. The shift from homolactic to mixed acid fermentation, the biphasic kinetics observed for cell growth and nitrogen consumption and the increase in the concentrations of biomass and products (lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol, and butane-2,3-diol) were the most noteworthy observations of these cultures. Modelling the fed-batch growth of Ent. faecium with the Logistic and bi-Logistic models was not satisfactory. However, biomass production was best mathematically described with the use of a double Monod model, which was expressed in terms of biomass, product accumulation, and nitrogen utilization. Product formation was successfully modelled with a modified form of the Luedeking and Piret model developed in this study. PMID:20689729

  16. Use of antimicrobial growth promoters in food animals and Enterococcus faecium resistance to therapeutic antimicrobial drugs in Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Wegener, H. C.; Aarestrup, F. M.; Jensen, L. B.; Hammerum, A. M.; Bager, F.

    1999-01-01

    Supplementing animal feed with antimicrobial agents to enhance growth has been common practice for more than 30 years and is estimated to constitute more than half the total antimicrobial use worldwide. The potential public health consequences of this use have been debated; however, until recently, clear evidence of a health risk was not available. Accumulating evidence now indicates that the use of the glycopeptide avoparcin as a growth promoter has created in food animals a major reservoir of Enterococcus faecium, which contains the high level glycopeptide resistance determinant vanA, located on the Tn1546 transposon. Furthermore, glycopeptide-resistant strains, as well as resistance determinants, can be transmitted from animals to humans. Two antimicrobial classes expected to provide the future therapeutic options for treatment of infections with vancomycin-resistant enterococci have analogues among the growth promoters, and a huge animal reservoir of resistant E. faecium has already been created, posing a new public health problem. PMID:10341169

  17. Antibacterial potential and genetic profile of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from human normal flora.

    PubMed

    Karimaei, Samira; Sadeghi, Javad; Asadian, Mahla; Esghaei, Maryam; Pourshafie, Mohammad Reza; Talebi, Malihe

    2016-07-01

    Enterococci have a widespread attendance in the circumference and belongs to the enteric commensal microbiota. Most of them produce the antimicrobial compounds and have an inhibition effect on pathogenic microorganisms. The objective of this study was to characterize the enterococcal strains isolated from human normal flora and assess their antibacterial activity. Enterococcal isolates were obtained from the feces of eighteen healthy humans. All enterococcal species were identified by biochemical and species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These isolates were investigated further to examine their ability to inhibit growth of Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli by well diffusion assay. Furthermore, antibiotic susceptibility test was performed and genetic relatedness of all isolates was evaluated by Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). In all, 432 isolates were obtained from fecal samples. All of the isolates identified as Enterococcus faecium by biochemical and molecular (PCR) methods. Using repetitive element palindromic (REP)-PCR method 54 patterns have been obtained and were selected for further evaluation. The results indicated that 66%, 38% and 24% of our isolates had antimicrobial effect against S. typhi, S flexneri and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), respectively. On the other hand, there was no significant inhibition effect against enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and gentamicin. On the other hand, the resistance rates for erythromycin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were 20%, 22%, and 1.8% respectively. In addition, the analysis of PFGE showed forty patterns with eight (40.7%) common types (CT) and thirty two (59.2%) single types (ST). Among eight common types, only one common type (CT5) had similar antimicrobial effect. These results suggested that enterococcal isolates obtained from

  18. Ceftaroline Restores Daptomycin Activity against Daptomycin-Nonsusceptible Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Warren; Nonejuie, Poochit; Olson, Joshua; Pogliano, Joseph; Humphries, Romney; Nizet, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Daptomycin-nonsusceptible vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) strains are a formidable emerging threat to patients with comorbidities, leaving few therapeutic options in cases of severe invasive infections. Using a previously characterized isogenic pair of VRE strains from the same patient differing in their daptomycin susceptibilities (Etest MICs of 0.38 mg/liter and 10 mg/liter), we examined the effect of ceftaroline, ceftriaxone, and ampicillin on membrane fluidity and susceptibility of VRE to surface binding and killing by daptomycin and human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL37. Synergy was noted in vitro between daptomycin, ampicillin, and ceftaroline for the daptomycin-susceptible VRE strain, but only ceftaroline showed synergy against the daptomycin-nonsusceptible VRE strain (∼2 log10 CFU reduction at 24 h). Ceftaroline cotreatment increased daptomycin surface binding with an associated increase in membrane fluidity and an increase in the net negative surface charge of the bacteria as evidenced by increased poly-l-lysine binding. Consistent with the observed biophysical changes, ceftaroline resulted in increased binding and killing of daptomycin-nonsusceptible VRE by human cathelicidin LL37. Using a pair of daptomycin-susceptible/nonsusceptible VRE strains, we noted that VRE is ceftaroline resistant, yet ceftaroline confers significant effects on growth rate as well as biophysical changes on the cell surface of VRE that can potentiate the activity of daptomycin and innate cationic host defense peptides, such as cathelicidin. Although limited to just 2 strains, these finding suggest that additional in vivo and in vitro studies need to be done to explore the possibility of using ceftaroline as adjunctive anti-VRE therapy. PMID:24366742

  19. Suitability of silica hydride stationary phase, aqueous normal phase chromatography for untargeted metabolomic profiling of Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Weisenberg, Scott A; Butterfield, Tiffany R; Fischer, Steven M; Rhee, Kyu Y

    2009-07-01

    We report the robustness of silica hydride stationary phase, aqueous normal phase (ANP) chromatography to the chemical complexity of the intracellular metabolomes of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium. We specifically demonstrate that the chromatographic behavior of known metabolites is unaffected by the intracellular chemical matrix of these microbes and that this method enables untargeted profiling of their intracellular metabolites using accurate mass-retention time (AMRT) identifiers. We further demonstrate the ability of AMRT-based metabolite profiling to differentiate bacteria along genetic and phenotypic lines. Overall, these data commend the utility of ANP-based chromatography for untargeted metabolomics-based studies of microbial physiology and antibiotic resistance.

  20. Beneficial effects of probiotic cholesterol-lowering strain of Enterococcus faecium WEFA23 from infants on diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fen; Qiu, Liang; Xu, Xiongpeng; Liu, Zhengqi; Zhan, Hui; Tao, Xueying; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to select probiotic Enterococcus strains that have the potential to improve metabolic syndrome (MS). Ten Enterococcus strains isolated from healthy infants were evaluated for their probiotic properties in vitro, and Enterococcus faecium WEFA23 was selected due to its cholesterol removal ability (1.89 ± 0.07 mg/10(10) cfu), highest glycodeoxycholic acid-hydrolase activity (1.86 ± 0.01 U/mg), and strong adhesion capacity to Caco-2 cells (17.90 ± 0.19%). The safety of E. faecium WEFA23 was verified by acute oral administration in mice, and it was found to have no adverse effects on general health status, bacterial translocation, and gut mucosal histology. Moreover, the beneficial effects of E. faecium WEFA23 on high-fat diet-induced MS in rats were investigated, and we found WEFA23 significantly decreased body weight, serum lipid levels (total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), blood glucose level, and insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat diet. This indicated that administration of E. faecium WEFA23 improved almost all key markers of MS, including obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance. Our results supported E. faecium WEFA23 as a candidate for cholesterol-lowering dairy products and improvement of MS. Our research provided novel insights on Enterococcus as a strategy to combat MS.

  1. Intestinal microbiota and oral administration of Enterococcus faecium associated with the growth performance of new-born piglets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y B; Du, W; Fu, A K; Zhang, X P; Huang, Y; Lee, K H; Yu, K; Li, W F; Li, Y L

    2016-09-01

    The oral administration of Enterococcus faecium EF1 to new-born suckling and weaning piglets along with their growth performances and intestinal microbiota was investigated in this study. Twenty-four new-born piglets were initially divided into 2 groups. The probiotics group received 2 ml of 10% sterilised skimmed milk by oral gavage supplemented with 6×10(8) cfu/ml viable E. faecium EF1 at the first, the third and the fifth day after birth, while the control group received 2 ml of 10% sterilised skimmed milk without probiotics at the same time. Results showed that oral administration of E. faecium EF1 was associated with a remarkable increase on the body weight of piglets for both suckling and weaning periods, by 30.73% (P<0.01) and 320.84% (P<0.01), and also decreased the diarrhoea rate, by 43.21% (P<0.05) and 71.42% (P<0.05), respectively. In addition, 454-pyrosequencing analysis revealed that there was no significant difference in the intestinal microbial diversity of the suckling piglets between the two groups; nevertheless, when compared to the control group, the relative abundance of Firmicutes in the probiotics group was substantially augmented, while the relative abundance of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Fusobacteria diminished. However, results indicated that oral administration of E. faecium EF1 did not have any influence on the relative abundance of Firmicutes in weaning piglets rather than increasing the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and decreasing the relative abundance of Proteobacteria. Furthermore, at the level of the Firmicutes phylum, the relative abundance of Lactobacillales in the probiotic group increased significantly. These findings suggest that oral administration of E. faecium EF1 to new-born piglets could improve the growth performance and intestinal microbiota of piglets for both suckling and weaning periods.

  2. Effect of Enterococcus faecium AL41 and Thymus vulgaris essential oil on small intestine integrity and antioxidative status of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Placha, I; Simonova, M Pogany; Cobanova, K; Laukova, A; Faix, S

    2010-10-01

    We investigated the effect of Enterococcus faecium on phagocytic activity, antioxidative status in vivo and the effect of E. faecium and 0.4% concentration of Thymus vulgaris essential oil (EO) on the duodenal tissue integrity in vitro in laying hens. The birds were fed the same standard diets and were divided into four groups. E. faecium was added to the drinking water for the second and fourth groups. EO was added to special chambers for measuring trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) for the third and fourth groups only. TEER was lower in groups where EO was added, but in the group with E. faecium TEER was not changed significantly. Our results show that EO at 0.4% concentration may negatively affect intestine integrity, and the probiotic strain E. faecium AL41 is able to eliminate this effect and can strengthen non-specific immunity. To confirm our findings further histopathological investigations of intestinal tissue are needed.

  3. Development of a multiplex PCR for the detection of asa1, gelE, cylA, esp, and hyl genes in enterococci and survey for virulence determinants among European hospital isolates of Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Vankerckhoven, Vanessa; Van Autgaerden, Tim; Vael, Carl; Lammens, Christine; Chapelle, Sabine; Rossi, Rosaria; Jabes, Daniela; Goossens, Herman

    2004-10-01

    A multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection of five virulence genes (asa1, gelE, cylA, esp, and hyl) in enterococci was developed. The presence of these genes was investigated in 153 clinical and 118 fecal Enterococcus faecium isolates from inpatients at an increased risk of developing infections (such as patients in intensive care units and hematology wards) from 13 hospitals in eight European countries. Of the 271 E. faecium isolates, 135 were vancomycin resistant E. faecium (VREF) isolates and 136 were vancomycin susceptible E. faecium (VSEF) isolates. Susceptibilities to ampicillin, gentamicin, streptomycin, vancomycin, teicoplanin, ramoplanin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and linezolid were tested by the microdilution method. Overall, the prevalence of esp was significantly higher (P = 0.03) in clinical VREF isolates (92%) than in fecal VREF isolates (73%). In Italy, the prevalence of esp was significantly higher (P = 0.02) in VREF isolates (91%) than in VSEF isolates (68%), whereas in the United Kingdom, hyl was significantly more prevalent (P = 0.01) in VREF isolates (71%) than in VSEF isolates (29%). No significant differences were found for the other countries. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to check the clonality among the strains tested and showed the spread of two center-specific (esp-positive) VREF clones in Italy and one center-specific (hyl-positive) clone in the United Kingdom. These clones were resistant to ampicillin, gentamicin, and streptomycin. The multiplex PCR reported in this study is a convenient and rapid method for the simultaneous detection of the virulence genes asa1, gelE, cylA, esp, and hyl in enterococci. Molecular analysis showed the intrahospital spread of esp-positive VREF clones (in Italy) and hyl-positive VREF clones (in the United Kingdom); the role of hyl remains to be elucidated.

  4. Purification of a dimeric arginine deiminase from Enterococcus faecium GR7 and study of its anti-cancerous activity.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Baljinder; Kaur, Rajinder

    2016-09-01

    The arginine deiminase (ADI, E.C 3.5.3.6) - a key enzyme of ADI pathway of Enterococcus faecium GR7 was purified to homogeneity. A sequential purification strategy involving ammonium sulfate fractionation, molecular sieve followed by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration was applied to the crude culture filtrate to obtain a pure enzyme preparation. The enzyme was purified with a fold of 16.92 and showed a final specific activity of 76.65IU/mg with a 49.17% yield. The dimeric ADI has a molecular mass of about 94,364.929Da, and comprises of hetrodimers of 49.1kDa and 46.5kDa as determined by MALDI-TOF and PAGE analysis. To assess anti-cancerous activity of ADI by MTT assay was carried out against cancer cell lines (MCF-7, Sp2/0-Ag14 and Hep-G2). Purified ADI exhibited the most profound antiproliferative activity against Hep-G2 cells; with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.95μg/ml. Purified ADI from E. faecium GR7 was observed to induce apoptosis in the Hep-G2 cells by DNA fragmentation assay. Our findings suggest the possibility of a future use of ADI from E. faecium GR7 as a potential anticancer drug.

  5. The recombinase IntA is required for excision of esp-containing ICEEfm1 in Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Top, Janetta; Sinnige, Jan C; Majoor, Eline A M; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L; van Schaik, Willem

    2011-02-01

    Comparative genome analysis of Enterococcus faecium recently revealed that a genomic island containing the esp gene, referred to as the esp-containing pathogenicity island (esp PAI), can be transferred by conjugation and contains a partial Tn916-like element and an integrase gene, intA. Here, we characterize the role of intA in the excision of the esp PAI. An intA insertion-deletion mutant in E. faecium E1162 (E1162ΔintA) was constructed and in trans complemented with wild-type intA (E1162ΔintA::pEF30). Circular intermediates (CI) of excised esp PAI were determined using inverse PCR analysis on purified chromosomal DNA from strains E1162, E1162Δesp, E1162ΔintA, and E1162ΔintA::pEF30. In E1162 and E1162Δesp, CI of the esp PAI were detected. No CI were detected in E1162ΔintA, while in the complemented strain E1162ΔintA::pEF30 CI formation was restored, indicating that intA is essential for excision and subsequent mobilization of the esp-containing genomic island in E. faecium. Based on the fact that this island can be mobilized and is self-transmissible, we propose to change the name of the esp PAI to ICEEfm1.

  6. Enterococcus faecium RZS C5, an interesting bacteriocin producer to be used as a co-culture in food fermentation.

    PubMed

    Leroy, F; Foulquié Moreno, M R; De Vuyst, L

    2003-12-01

    Enterocins, bacteriocins produced by enterococci, are gaining interest because of their industrial potential. Due to its bacteriocin production, Enterococcus faecium RZS C5, a natural cheese isolate, has a strong activity towards Listeria monocytogenes. For this reason, the strain may be applicable as a bacteriocin-producing co-culture in food fermentation in order to reduce the risk on Listeria outgrowth. The strain displays remarkable bacteriocin production kinetics. Whereas most lactic acid bacteria produce bacteriocin in a growth-associated way until the beginning of the stationary phase, bacteriocin production by E. faecium RZS C5 in MRS broth at controlled pH values below 7.5 is characterised by a boost of bacteriocin activity levels in the very early growth phase. In addition, bacteriocin production kinetics are closely linked to the environmental and cultural conditions. However, no straightforward statement about the effect of environmental stress on bacteriocin production can be made since the effect is dependent on the type of stress applied. Kinetic experiments in milk and on pilot scale, applying Cheddar cheese-making conditions, have indicated that the strain may be effective as a bacteriocin-producing co-culture. Further research is needed to evaluate the use of E. faecium RZS C5 as a co-culture for the production of fermented sausage.

  7. Bacteriocin production by Enterococcus faecium RZS C5 is cell density limited and occurs in the very early growth phase.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Frédéric; De, Vuyst Luc

    2002-01-30

    Enterocins, bacteriocins produced by enterococci, are gaining interest because of their antilisterial activity. Enterococcus faecium RZS C5, a natural isolate from cheese, produces such a bacteriocin. Generally, bacteriocin production by lactic acid bacteria is a growth-associated process which ceases when cell growth starts to level off. Remarkably, enterocin production by Ent. faecium RZS C5 seems to be limited to the very early growth phase and is switched off at a well-defined cell density of 0.4 g cell dry mass (CDM) l(-1). However, at pH values higher than 6.5, enterocin production displays distinct kinetics. At such pH values, enterocin production is reduced but is maintained until the end of the active growth phase. The relation with cell concentration suggests that enterocin production is part of a severely regulated mechanism. A kinetic model is set up for the description of the early enterocin activity peak. Furthermore, the influence of pH and temperature on the kinetics of growth and bacteriocin production of Ent. faecium RZS C5 was investigated. At pH 6.5, high enterocin activity was obtained in the temperature range 20-35 degrees C. At 35 degrees C, enterocin activity could only be detected between pH 5.5 and 8.0.

  8. Relations between the consumption of antimicrobial growth promoters and the occurrence of resistance among Enterococcus faecium isolated from broilers.

    PubMed

    Emborg, H D; Andersen, J S; Seyfarth, A M; Wegener, H C

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigates, at farm level, the effect of the time-span between sampling and the last time a particular antimicrobial growth promoter (AGP) was included in the feed on the probability of selecting an AGP-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolate from a broiler flock. The probability that a randomly selected E. faecium isolate was resistant to avilamycin, erythromycin or virginiamycin was 0.91, 0.92 and 0.84, respectively if the isolate originated from a broiler flock fed either avilamycin- or virginiamycin-supplemented feed. As the time-span between sampling and the last AGP consumption increased, the probability of isolating an E. faecium isolate resistant to a particular AGP decreased (probability <0.2 within 3-5 years after last exposure to AGPs). The decrease in probability over time showed little farm-to-farm variation. The number of times a particular AGP was given to previous flocks reared in the same house had no effect on the probability of isolating a resistant isolate.

  9. Relations between the consumption of antimicrobial growth promoters and the occurrence of resistance among Enterococcus faecium isolated from broilers.

    PubMed Central

    Emborg, H. D.; Andersen, J. S.; Seyfarth, A. M.; Wegener, H. C.

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigates, at farm level, the effect of the time-span between sampling and the last time a particular antimicrobial growth promoter (AGP) was included in the feed on the probability of selecting an AGP-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolate from a broiler flock. The probability that a randomly selected E. faecium isolate was resistant to avilamycin, erythromycin or virginiamycin was 0.91, 0.92 and 0.84, respectively if the isolate originated from a broiler flock fed either avilamycin- or virginiamycin-supplemented feed. As the time-span between sampling and the last AGP consumption increased, the probability of isolating an E. faecium isolate resistant to a particular AGP decreased (probability <0.2 within 3-5 years after last exposure to AGPs). The decrease in probability over time showed little farm-to-farm variation. The number of times a particular AGP was given to previous flocks reared in the same house had no effect on the probability of isolating a resistant isolate. PMID:14979595

  10. Benefits of combinative application of probiotic, enterocin M-producing strain Enterococcus faecium AL41 and Eleutherococcus senticosus in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Lauková, Andrea; Simonová, Monika Pogány; Chrastinová, Ľubica; Plachá, Iveta; Čobanová, Klaudia; Formelová, Zuzana; Chrenková, Mária; Ondruška, Ľubomír; Strompfová, Viola

    2016-03-01

    This study presents the effects of the probiotic and enterocin M-producing strain Enterococcus faecium AL41 on microbiota, phagocytic activity (PA), oxidative stress, performance and biochemical parameters when applied individually or in combination with Eleutherococcus senticosus in rabbits. The novelty of the study lies in the use of our non-rabbit-derived strain (AL41 = CCM8558) which produces new enterocin M. Ninety-six post-weaned rabbits (Hyplus breed) aged 5 weeks were divided into three experimental groups, 24 in each: E. senticosus (ES, 30 g/100 kg) in feed, E. faecium AL41 (10(9) CFU/mL marked by rifampicin to differentiate it from other enterococci) in water, and ES + AL. AL41 colonized sufficiently in rabbits to reduce coliforms, staphylococci, pseudomonads and clostridia. Slight decrease in bacteria was also found in the caecum and appendix. Phagocytic activity was significantly increased in the experimental groups compared to the control group (CG) (p < 0.001; p < 0.05). Applications did not evoke oxidative stress. Biochemical parameters in blood and caecal organic acids were slightly influenced. Average daily weight gain was slightly higher in ES and AL + ES. Combinative application of E. faecium with E. senticosus can be beneficial in rabbits. AL41 strain alone and in combination with ES produced reduction in spoilage bacteria; the highest stimulation of PA was in the AL41 + ES group.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of a UV-stable bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) produced by Enterococcus faecium strain DSH20 against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) strains.

    PubMed

    Shokri, Dariush; Zaghian, Saeideh; Khodabakhsh, Fatemeh; Fazeli, Hossein; Mobasherizadeh, Sina; Ataei, Behrooz

    2014-10-01

    The narrow spectrum of action of most bacteriocins is an important limitation for their application as antimicrobial agents. The current study describes a novel bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) that display extended spectrum antimicrobial activity against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) strains. Acquired resistance profiles of Enterococcus isolates determined based on the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definition as multidrug-resistant (MDR), extensively drug-resistant (XDR) and pandrug resistant (PDR). BLIS activity of Enterococcus isolates was investigated against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) ATCC 29212 as the indicator strain and clinical isolates including VRE, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Gram-negative bacteria containing Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Among 273 Enterococcus isolates, 27 and 2 VRE isolates, respectively, were XDR and PDR and eight isolates had BLIS activity against the indicator strain. One of these isolates, identified as E. faecium strain DSH20 based on its phenotypical and biochemical properties, as well as its 16S rRNA gene sequence, had potent BLIS production against all 29 VRE strains, but had no activity against MRSA, P. aeruginosa, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, and E. coli strains. It was heat stable up to 121°C for 15 minutes (autoclave condition), active within the pH range of 3-9 and had UV stability, but its activity disappeared by treatment with proteinase K, pepsin, and trypsin, demonstrating its proteinaceous nature. It was designated as an approximately 35kDa peptide using the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) method. This peptide is a potential agent for use as an alternative antibacterial agent for the treatment of drug-resistant strains of VRE infection. Copyright © 2013. Published by

  12. Transfer of antibiotic resistance from Enterococcus faecium of fermented meat origin to Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua.

    PubMed

    Jahan, M; Holley, R A

    2016-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen that can cause infection in children, pregnant women, the immunocompromised and the elderly. Antibiotic resistance in this species would represent a significant public health problem since the organism has a high fatality/case ratio and resistance may contribute to failure of therapeutic treatment. This study was designed to explore whether the in vitro transferability of antibiotic resistance from enterococci to Listeria spp. could occur. It was found that 2/8 Listeria strains were able to acquire tetracycline resistance from Enterococcus faecium. Listeria monocytogenes GLM-2 acquired the resistance determinant tet(M) and additional streptomycin resistance through in vitro mating with Ent. faecium S27 isolated from commercial fermented dry sausage. Similarly, Listeria innocua became more resistant to tetracycline, but the genetic basis for this change was not confirmed. It has been suggested that enterococci may transfer antibiotic resistance genes via transposons to Listeria spp., and this may explain, in part, the origin of their antibiotic resistance. Thus, the presence of enterococci in food should not be ignored since they may actively contribute to enhanced antibiotic resistance of L. monocytogenes and other pathogens. Acquisition of antibiotic resistance by pathogenic bacteria in the absence of antibiotic pressure represents an unquantified threat to human health. In the present work resistance to tetracycline and streptomycin were transferred by nonplasmid-based conjugation from Enterococcus faecium isolated from fermented sausage to Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua. Thus, natural transfer of antibiotic resistance to Listeria strains may occur in the future which reinforces the concern about the safety of enterococcal strains present in foods. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Regulation of Expression of the vanD Glycopeptide Resistance Gene Cluster from Enterococcus faecium BM4339

    PubMed Central

    Casadewall, Barbara; Reynolds, Peter E.; Courvalin, Patrice

    2001-01-01

    A new open reading frame, encoding a putative integrase-like protein, was detected downstream from the six genes of the vanD glycopeptide resistance cluster in Enterococcus faecium BM4339 (B. Casadewall and P. Courvalin, J. Bacteriol. 181:3644–3648, 1999). In this cluster, genes coding for the VanRD-VanSD two-component regulatory system were cotranscribed from the PRD promoter, whereas transcription of the vanYD, vanHD, vanD, vanXD, and intD genes was initiated from the PYD promoter located between vanSD and vanYD (the D subscript indicates that the gene is part of the vanD operon). The VanRD-VanSD regulatory system is likely to activate transcription of the resistance genes from the promoter PYD. Glycopeptide-susceptible derivatives of BM4339 were obtained by trans complementation of the frameshift mutation in the ddl gene, restoring functional d-alanine:d-alanine ligase activity in this strain. The glycopeptide-susceptible transformant BM4409, producing only d-alanyl-d-alanine-terminating peptidoglycan precursors, did not express the resistance genes encoding the VanYD d,d-carboxypeptidase, the VanHD dehydrogenase, the VanD ligase, the VanXD d,d-dipeptidase, and also the IntD integrase, although the regulatory region of the vanD cluster was still transcribed. In BM4409, the absence of VanRD-VanSD, apparently dependent, transcription from promoter PYD correlated with the lack of d-alanyl-d-lactate-terminating precursors. The vanXD gene was transcribed in BM4339, but detectable amounts of VanXD d,d-dipeptidase were not synthesized. However, the gene directed synthesis of an active enzyme when cloned on a multicopy plasmid in Escherichia coli, suggesting that the enzyme was unstable in BM4339 or that it had very low activity that was detectable only under conditions of high gene dosage. This activity is not required for glycopeptide resistance in BM4339, since this strain cannot synthesize d-alanyl-d-alanine. PMID:11344152

  14. Application of response surface methodology for optimizing arginine deiminase production medium for Enterococcus faecium sp. GR7.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Baljinder; Kaur, Rajinder

    2013-01-01

    Arginine metabolism in Enterococcus faecium sp. GR7 was enhanced via arginine deiminase pathway. Process parameters including fermentation media and environmental conditions were optimized using independent experiments and response surface methodology (central composite design). Fermentation media (EAPM) were optimized using independent experiments which resulted in 4-fold increase in arginine deiminase specific activity as compared to basal medium. To further enhance arginine deiminase activity in E. faecium sp. GR7 and biomass production including a five-level central composite design (CCD) was employed to study the interactive effect of three-process variables. Response surface methodology suggested a quadratic model which was further validated experimentally where it showed approximately 15-fold increase in arginine metabolism (in terms of arginine deiminase specific activity) over basal medium. By solving the regression equation and analyzing the response surface cartons, optimal concentrations of the media components (g/L) were determined as arginine 20.0; tryptone 15.0; lactose 10.0; K2HPO4 3.0; NaCl 1.0, MnSO4 0.6 mM; Tween 80 1%; pH 6.0 for achieving specific arginine deiminase activity of 4.6 IU/mG with concomitant biomass production of 12.1 mg/L. The model is significant as the coefficient of determination (R (2)) was 0.87 to 0.90 for all responses. Enhanced arginine deiminase yield from E. faecium, a GRAS lactic acid bacterial strain, is desirable to explore in vitro therapeutic potential of the arginine metabolizing E. faecium sp. GR7.

  15. High-Resolution Melting Genotyping of Enterococcus faecium Based on Multilocus Sequence Typing Derived Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Steven Y. C.; Xie, Shirley; Richardson, Leisha J.; Ballard, Susan A.; Dakh, Farshid; Grabsch, Elizabeth A.; Grayson, M. Lindsay; Howden, Benjamin P.; Johnson, Paul D. R.; Giffard, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) nucleated high-resolution melting (HRM) technique to genotype Enterococcus faecium. Eight SNPs were derived from the E. faecium multilocus sequence typing (MLST) database and amplified fragments containing these SNPs were interrogated by HRM. We tested the HRM genotyping scheme on 85 E. faecium bloodstream isolates and compared the results with MLST, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and an allele specific real-time PCR (AS kinetic PCR) SNP typing method. In silico analysis based on predicted HRM curves according to the G+C content of each fragment for all 567 sequence types (STs) in the MLST database together with empiric data from the 85 isolates demonstrated that HRM analysis resolves E. faecium into 231 “melting types” (MelTs) and provides a Simpson's Index of Diversity (D) of 0.991 with respect to MLST. This is a significant improvement on the AS kinetic PCR SNP typing scheme that resolves 61 SNP types with D of 0.95. The MelTs were concordant with the known ST of the isolates. For the 85 isolates, there were 13 PFGE patterns, 17 STs, 14 MelTs and eight SNP types. There was excellent concordance between PFGE, MLST and MelTs with Adjusted Rand Indices of PFGE to MelT 0.936 and ST to MelT 0.973. In conclusion, this HRM based method appears rapid and reproducible. The results are concordant with MLST and the MLST based population structure. PMID:22195020

  16. Enterococcus faecium F58, a bacteriocinogenic strain naturally occurring in Jben, a soft, farmhouse goat's cheese made in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Achemchem, F; Martínez-Bueno, M; Abrini, J; Valdivia, E; Maqueda, M

    2005-01-01

    Characterization of Ent F-58 produced by Enterococcus faecium strain F58 isolated from Jben, a soft, farmhouse goat's cheese manufactured without starter cultures. E. faecium strain F58 was isolated because of its broad inhibitory spectrum, including activity against food-borne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. The antimicrobial substance was produced during the growth phase, with maximum production after 16-20 h of incubation at 30 degrees C, and was stable over a wide pH range (4-8) and at high temperatures (5 min at 100 degrees C). The enterocin was purified to homogeneity using cation exchange and hydrophobic interaction on C-18 and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The activity was eluted as two individual active fractions (F-58A and F-58B) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis showed masses of 5210.5 and 5234.3 Da respectively. Both peptides were partially sequenced by Edman degradation, and amino-acid sequencing revealed high similarity with enterocin L50 (I). PCR-amplified fragments containing the structural genes for F-58 A and B were located in a 22-kb plasmid harboured by this strain. We verified that it also holds the structural gene for P-like enterocin. E. faecium strain F58 from Jben cheese, a producer of enterocin L50, exerts an inhibitory effect against strains of genera such as Listeria, Staphylococcus, Clostridium, Brochothrix and Bacillus. Enterocin was characterized according to its functional and biological properties, purification to homogeneity and an analysis of its amino acid and genetic sequences. E. faecium strain F58 is a newly discovered producer of enterocin L50, the biotechnological characteristics of which indicate its potential for application as a protective agent against pathogens and spoilage bacteria in foods.

  17. Enterococcus faecium EK13--an enterocin a-producing strain with probiotic character and its effect in piglets.

    PubMed

    Strompfová, Viola; Marcináková, Miroslava; Simonová, Monika; Gancarcíková, Sona; Jonecová, Zuzana; Sciranková, Luboslava; Koscová, Jana; Buleca, Viktor; Cobanová, Klaudia; Lauková, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine the effects of the inoculation of the probiotic and enterocin A-producing strain Enterococcus faecium EK13 on selected parameters of metabolic profile, gut microflora, growth, and health in newborn piglets of Slovak White Improved. Piglets for study were divided into two groups: one group (EK13 group, n=8) received strain EK13 per os once daily for 7 days (2ml per piglet, 10(9)CFU/mL of saline buffer). The control group of piglets (n=7) was given placebo-saline buffer. The experiment lasted 14 days. After 7 days, strain EK13 reached 9.8 log(10) CFU/g in faeces of E. faecium EK13 treated piglets while counts of Escherichia coli were significantly lower (P<0.01) than in piglets of the control group. The concentrations of total serum protein, calcium, haemoglobin, haematocrit, red blood cell count and index of phagocytic activity of leukocytes were significantly higher after application of strain EK13. On the other hand, cholesterol was significantly lower in the EK13 group of animals. On day 14, piglets were killed and samples of intestinal contents were taken. Total counts of bacteria in the intestinal contents (jejunum, ileum, caecum, colon) were not significantly influenced. The pH value was significantly lower (P<0.05) only in duodenum of piglets receiving E. faecium EK13. There was a significant higher concentration of lactic acid (P<0.01) and propionic acid in the colon (P<0.001) of the EK13 group. Application of E. faecium EK13 did not influence the daily body weight gain significantly.

  18. Inhibition of Bacillus cereus Strains by Antimicrobial Metabolites from Lactobacillus johnsonii CRL1647 and Enterococcus faecium SM21.

    PubMed

    Soria, M Cecilia; Audisio, M Carina

    2014-12-01

    Bacillus cereus is an endospore-forming, Gram-positive bacterium able to cause foodborne diseases. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known for their ability to synthesize organic acids and bacteriocins, but the potential of these compounds against B. cereus has been scarcely documented in food models. The present study has examined the effect of the metabolites produced by Lactobacillus johnsonii CRL1647 and Enterococcus faecium SM21 on the viability of select B. cereus strains. Furthermore, the effect of E. faecium SM21 metabolites against B. cereus strains has also been investigated on a rice food model. L. johnsonii CRL1647 produced 128 mmol/L of lactic acid, 38 mmol/L of acetic acid and 0.3 mmol/L of phenyl-lactic acid. These organic acids reduced the number of vegetative cells and spores of the B. cereus strains tested. However, the antagonistic effect disappeared at pH 6.5. On the other hand, E. faecium SM21 produced only lactic and acetic acid (24.5 and 12.2 mmol/L, respectively) and was able to inhibit both vegetative cells and spores of the B. cereus strains, at a final fermentation pH of 5.0 and at pH 6.5. This would indicate the action of other metabolites, different from organic acids, present in the cell-free supernatant. On cooked rice grains, the E. faecium SM21 bacteriocin(s) were tested against two B. cereus strains. Both of them were significantly affected within the first 4 h of contact; whereas B. cereus BAC1 cells recovered after 24 h, the effect on B. cereus 1 remained up to the end of the assay. The LAB studied may thus be considered to define future strategies for biological control of B. cereus.

  19. Combined administration of bacteriocin-producing, probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium CCM7420 with Eleutherococcus senticosus and their effect in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Simonová, M Pogány; Laukovtá, A; Chrastinová, L; Plachá, I; Strompfová, V; Cobanová, K; Formelová, Z; Chrenková, M

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Enterococcus faecium CCM7420 (EF) - enterocin-producing and probiotic strain of rabbit origin, Eleutherococcus senticosus extract (ES) and their combination (ES+EF) was determined on selected bacteria in faeces and caecum content, leukocytes phagocytosis, blood biochemistry and growth performance. Ninety-six weaned rabbits were divided into 3 experimental (ES, EF, ES+EF) and control group (CG). The rabbits in the groups ES and EF+ES were fed commercial diet enriched with E. senticosus extract (30 g/100 kg feed), rabbits in groups EF and CG were fed untreated diet. The rabbits in the EF and ES+EF groups were administered with an overnight culture of E. faecium CCM7420 strain (500 microl/animal/day into water, 109 CFU/ml). The treatment period lasted 21 days. The microbiological examinations in faecal samples confirmed the presence of E. faecium CCM7420 strain. In groups EF and ES+EF, the reduction of faecal coliforms, Pseudomonas-like sp., Clostridium-like sp. and S. aureus was recorded. Leucocyte phagocytosis significantly increased in all experimental groups (P < 0.0001) compared to CG. The lowest GPx values were measured in the ES+EF group. Higher total protein, triglycerides and calcium concentrations were detected in experimental groups compared to CG. The cholesterol concentration decreased in the ES group. The highest average daily gain was recorded in EF group; in ES+EF the better feed conversion ratio and no mortality was recorded. These results indicated that the dietary supplementation with the E. faecium CCM7420 and E. senticosus extract stimulate the leukocytes phagocytosis and reduces the potential pathogens in rabbits digestive tract without oxidative stress and improve the growth performance.

  20. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Outcompetes Enterococcus faecium via Mucus-Binding Pili: Evidence for a Novel and Heterospecific Probiotic Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Douillard, François P.; Reunanen, Justus; Rasinkangas, Pia; Hendrickx, Antoni P. A.; Laine, Pia K.; Paulin, Lars; Satokari, Reetta; de Vos, Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have become a major nosocomial threat. Enterococcus faecium is of special concern, as it can easily acquire new antibiotic resistances and is an excellent colonizer of the human intestinal tract. Several clinical studies have explored the potential use of beneficial bacteria to weed out opportunistic pathogens. Specifically, the widely studied Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG has been applied successfully in the context of VRE infections. Here, we provide new insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of this model probiotic on VRE decolonization. Both clinical VRE isolates and L. rhamnosus GG express pili on their cell walls, which are the key modulators of their highly efficient colonization of the intestinal mucosa. We found that one of the VRE pilus clusters shares considerable sequence similarity with the SpaCBA-SrtC1 pilus cluster of L. rhamnosus GG. Remarkable immunological and functional similarities were discovered between the mucus-binding pili of L. rhamnosus GG and those of the clinical E. faecium strain E1165, which was characterized at the genome level. Moreover, E. faecium strain E1165 bound efficiently to mucus, which may be prevented by the presence of the mucus-binding SpaC protein or antibodies against L. rhamnosus GG or SpaC. These results present experimental support for a novel probiotic mechanism, in which the mucus-binding pili of L. rhamnosus GG prevent the binding of a potential pathogen to the host. Hence, we provide a molecular basis for the further exploitation of L. rhamnosus GG and its pilins for prophylaxis and treatment of VRE infections. IMPORTANCE Concern about vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium causing nosocomial infections is rising globally. The arsenal of antibiotic strategies to treat these infections is nearly exhausted, and hence, new treatment strategies are urgently needed. Here, we provide molecular evidence to underpin reports of the successful

  1. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Outcompetes Enterococcus faecium via Mucus-Binding Pili: Evidence for a Novel and Heterospecific Probiotic Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tytgat, Hanne L P; Douillard, François P; Reunanen, Justus; Rasinkangas, Pia; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Laine, Pia K; Paulin, Lars; Satokari, Reetta; de Vos, Willem M

    2016-10-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have become a major nosocomial threat. Enterococcus faecium is of special concern, as it can easily acquire new antibiotic resistances and is an excellent colonizer of the human intestinal tract. Several clinical studies have explored the potential use of beneficial bacteria to weed out opportunistic pathogens. Specifically, the widely studied Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG has been applied successfully in the context of VRE infections. Here, we provide new insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of this model probiotic on VRE decolonization. Both clinical VRE isolates and L. rhamnosus GG express pili on their cell walls, which are the key modulators of their highly efficient colonization of the intestinal mucosa. We found that one of the VRE pilus clusters shares considerable sequence similarity with the SpaCBA-SrtC1 pilus cluster of L. rhamnosus GG. Remarkable immunological and functional similarities were discovered between the mucus-binding pili of L. rhamnosus GG and those of the clinical E. faecium strain E1165, which was characterized at the genome level. Moreover, E. faecium strain E1165 bound efficiently to mucus, which may be prevented by the presence of the mucus-binding SpaC protein or antibodies against L. rhamnosus GG or SpaC. These results present experimental support for a novel probiotic mechanism, in which the mucus-binding pili of L. rhamnosus GG prevent the binding of a potential pathogen to the host. Hence, we provide a molecular basis for the further exploitation of L. rhamnosus GG and its pilins for prophylaxis and treatment of VRE infections. Concern about vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium causing nosocomial infections is rising globally. The arsenal of antibiotic strategies to treat these infections is nearly exhausted, and hence, new treatment strategies are urgently needed. Here, we provide molecular evidence to underpin reports of the successful clinical application of

  2. β-Lactams enhance daptomycin activity against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium in in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jordan R; Barber, Katie E; Raut, Animesh; Rybak, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are frequently resistant to vancomycin and β-lactams. In enterococcal infections with reduced glycopeptide susceptibility, combination therapy is often administered. Our objective was to conduct pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) models to evaluate β-lactam synergy with daptomycin (DAP) against resistant enterococci. One E. faecalis strain (R6981) and two E. faecium strains (R6370 and 8019) were evaluated. DAP MICs were obtained. All strains were evaluated for response to LL37, an antimicrobial peptide, in the presence and absence of ceftaroline (CPT), ertapenem (ERT), and ampicillin (AMP). After 96 h, in vitro models were run simulating 10 mg DAP/kg body weight/day, 600 mg CPT every 8 h (q8h), 2 g AMP q4h, and 1 g ERT q24h, both alone and in combination against all strains. DAP MICs were 2, 4, and 4 μg/ml for strains R6981, R6370, and 8019, respectively. PK/PD models demonstrated bactericidal activity with DAP-CPT, DAP-AMP, and DAP-ERT combinations against strain 8019 (P < 0.001 and log10 CFU/ml reduction of >2 compared to any single agent). Against strains R6981 and R6370, the DAP-AMP combination demonstrated enhancement against R6370 but not R6981, while the combinations of DAP-CPT and DAP-ERT were bactericidal, demonstrated enhancement, and were statistically superior to all other regimens at 96 h (P < 0.001) against both strains. CPT, ERT, and AMP similarly augmented LL37 killing against strain 8019. In strains R6981 and R6370, CPT and ERT aided LL37 more than AMP (P < 0.001). Compared to DAP alone, combination regimens provide better killing and prevent resistance. Clinical research involving DAP combinations is warranted. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. β-Lactams Enhance Daptomycin Activity against Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium in In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Models

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jordan R.; Barber, Katie E.; Raut, Animesh

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are frequently resistant to vancomycin and β-lactams. In enterococcal infections with reduced glycopeptide susceptibility, combination therapy is often administered. Our objective was to conduct pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) models to evaluate β-lactam synergy with daptomycin (DAP) against resistant enterococci. One E. faecalis strain (R6981) and two E. faecium strains (R6370 and 8019) were evaluated. DAP MICs were obtained. All strains were evaluated for response to LL37, an antimicrobial peptide, in the presence and absence of ceftaroline (CPT), ertapenem (ERT), and ampicillin (AMP). After 96 h, in vitro models were run simulating 10 mg DAP/kg body weight/day, 600 mg CPT every 8 h (q8h), 2 g AMP q4h, and 1 g ERT q24h, both alone and in combination against all strains. DAP MICs were 2, 4, and 4 μg/ml for strains R6981, R6370, and 8019, respectively. PK/PD models demonstrated bactericidal activity with DAP-CPT, DAP-AMP, and DAP-ERT combinations against strain 8019 (P < 0.001 and log10 CFU/ml reduction of >2 compared to any single agent). Against strains R6981 and R6370, the DAP-AMP combination demonstrated enhancement against R6370 but not R6981, while the combinations of DAP-CPT and DAP-ERT were bactericidal, demonstrated enhancement, and were statistically superior to all other regimens at 96 h (P < 0.001) against both strains. CPT, ERT, and AMP similarly augmented LL37 killing against strain 8019. In strains R6981 and R6370, CPT and ERT aided LL37 more than AMP (P < 0.001). Compared to DAP alone, combination regimens provide better killing and prevent resistance. Clinical research involving DAP combinations is warranted. PMID:25753639

  4. Effect of dietary supplementation with a probiotic (Enterococcus faecium) on production performance, excreta microflora, ammonia emission, and nutrient utilization in ISA brown laying hens.

    PubMed

    Park, J W; Jeong, J S; Lee, S I; Kim, I H

    2016-12-01

    The ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters due to resistance issues has urged scientists to find alternatives to antibiotics. Entercoccus faecium is one of the probiotics which have been used as an alternative to antibiotics in the livestock industry. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of probiotic (Enterococcus faecium DSM 7134) supplementation on production performance, feed intake, egg quality, excreta microflora, ammonia emission, and nutrient utilization in laying hens. A total of 288 ISA brown laying hens were used in a 27 wk feeding experiment and randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments with 8 replicates of 12 birds each. The treatments were CON (basal diet), PB1 (basal diet + 0.005% E. faecium), and PB2 (basal diet + 0.01% E. faecium). Overall, our results demonstrated that E. faecium supplementation resulted in a significant increase in egg production, egg shell thickness, and nutrient digestibility (dry matter, nitrogen, and energy) in laying hens, and a significant reduction in fecal coliform counts as compared with CON. The shift of excreta fecal microbial composition by E. faecium supplementation was accompanied by increased nutrient retention and reduction in nutrient excretion, leading to improved nutrient digestibility and reduced excreta ammonia emission. Overall, E. faecium supplementation appears to have a beneficial effect in ISA brown laying hens and should be considered as a positive diet supplement to use in the industry.

  5. Enterococcus faecium biofilm formation: identification of major autolysin AtlAEfm, associated Acm surface localization, and AtlAEfm-independent extracellular DNA Release.

    PubMed

    Paganelli, Fernanda L; Willems, Rob J L; Jansen, Pamela; Hendrickx, Antoni; Zhang, Xinglin; Bonten, Marc J M; Leavis, Helen L

    2013-04-16

    Enterococcus faecium is an important multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen causing biofilm-mediated infections in patients with medical devices. Insight into E. faecium biofilm pathogenesis is pivotal for the development of new strategies to prevent and treat these infections. In several bacteria, a major autolysin is essential for extracellular DNA (eDNA) release in the biofilm matrix, contributing to biofilm attachment and stability. In this study, we identified and functionally characterized the major autolysin of E. faecium E1162 by a bioinformatic genome screen followed by insertional gene disruption of six putative autolysin genes. Insertional inactivation of locus tag EfmE1162_2692 resulted in resistance to lysis, reduced eDNA release, deficient cell attachment, decreased biofilm, decreased cell wall hydrolysis, and significant chaining compared to that of the wild type. Therefore, locus tag EfmE1162_2692 was considered the major autolysin in E. faecium and renamed atlAEfm. In addition, AtlAEfm was implicated in cell surface exposure of Acm, a virulence factor in E. faecium, and thereby facilitates binding to collagen types I and IV. This is a novel feature of enterococcal autolysins not described previously. Furthermore, we identified (and localized) autolysin-independent DNA release in E. faecium that contributes to cell-cell interactions in the atlAEfm mutant and is important for cell separation. In conclusion, AtlAEfm is the major autolysin in E. faecium and contributes to biofilm stability and Acm localization, making AtlAEfm a promising target for treatment of E. faecium biofilm-mediated infections. IMPORTANCE Nosocomial infections caused by Enterococcus faecium have rapidly increased, and treatment options have become more limited. This is due not only to increasing resistance to antibiotics but also to biofilm-associated infections. DNA is released in biofilm matrix via cell lysis, caused by autolysin, and acts as a matrix stabilizer. In this study

  6. Enhanced Control of Listeria monocytogenes by Enterococcus faecium KE82, a Multiple Enterocin-Producing Strain, in Different Milk Environments.

    PubMed

    Vandera, Elpiniki; Lianou, Alexandra; Kakouri, Athanasia; Feng, Jinbo; Koukkou, Anna-Irini; Samelis, John

    2017-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium KE82, isolated from traditional Greek Graviera cheese, was identified in pure broth cultures in vitro as a multiple enterocin-producing bacterial strain possessing the structural entA, entB, and entP enterocin genes. E. faecium KE82 was further assessed for in situ antilisterial activity in raw milk (RM) and commercially thermized milk (TM; 63°C for 30 s) in the presence of the indigenous microbiota and in sterile raw milk (SRM; 121°C for 5 min) with or without the addition of two commercial starter culture (CSC) strains Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactococcus lactis . Growth of Listeria monocytogenes was completely inhibited in RM incubated at 37°C for 6 h, whereas the pathogen was significantly inactivated in RM+KE82 samples during further incubation at 18°C for 66 h. In contrast, L. monocytogenes levels increased by approximately 2 log CFU/ml in TM, but in TM+KE82 samples, pathogen growth was retarded during the first 6 h at 37°C followed by growth cessation and partial inactivation at 18°C. After 48 to 72 h, growth of L. monocytogenes in SRM+CSC samples decreased by 4 to 5 log CFU/ml compared with the SRM control, whereas additional 10-fold decreases in the pathogen were observed in SRM+CSC+KE82 samples. Reverse transcription PCR analysis of SRM+KE82 and SRM+CSC+KE82 samples confirmed that the entA and entB genes were transcribed, but entP gene transcription was not detected. All RM and SRM samples inoculated with E. faecium KE82 displayed strong in situ inhibitory activity against L. monocytogenes in well diffusion bioassays, whereas activity was weaker to undetectable in comparable or additional TM+KE82 samples; no milk sample without E. faecium KE82 had activity against L. monocytogenes . The findings of this study indicate that E. faecium KE82 is an antilisterial agent that could be used in traditional dairy foods because it concomitantly produces enterocins A and B in situ in milk.

  7. Identification of vancomycin-susceptible major clones of clinical Enterococcus from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Bourafa, Nadjette; Abat, Cédric; Loucif, Lotfi; Olaitan, Abiola Olumuyiwa; Bentorki, Ahmed Aimen; Boutefnouchet, Nafissa; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-09-01

    The main objectives of this study were to characterize clinical strains of Enterococcus spp. isolated from Algerian inpatients and outpatients, to investigate their susceptibility to antibiotics and to analyse their phylogenetic relatedness. A total of 85 non-duplicate Enterococcus spp. isolates collected between 2010 and 2013 from various clinical samples, including urine, vaginal swab, pus, blood and semen, from Algerian inpatients (n=62) and outpatients (n=23) were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion and Etest methods. Clonal relatedness was analysed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Enterococcus faecalis was the most predominant species (75.3%), followed by Enterococcus faecium (21.2%), Enterococcus gallinarum (2.4%) and Enterococcus casseliflavus (1.2%). High-level resistance to aminoglycosides was significantly more prevalent in hospitalized patients than in outpatients. None of the E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates were resistant to vancomycin. High genetic diversity was observed among the E. faecalis isolates, with the identification of a new clonal complex (CC256), as well as the detection of E. faecalis ST6 and E. faecium lineages ST17, ST18 and ST78 associated with hospital isolates. This is the first report of E. faecalis ST6 and E. faecium ST17 and ST18 in Algeria. Although acquired vancomycin resistance was not observed among the enterococcal strains, there is a continued need to monitor the level of antibiotic resistance among enterococci as well as the evolution of the E. faecalis/E. faecium ratio.

  8. Construction of improved temperature-sensitive and mobilizable vectors and their use for constructing mutations in the adhesin-encoding acm gene of poorly transformable clinical Enterococcus faecium strains.

    PubMed

    Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R; Singh, Kavindra V; Murray, Barbara E

    2006-01-01

    Inactivation by allelic exchange in clinical isolates of the emerging nosocomial pathogen Enterococcus faecium has been hindered by lack of efficient tools, and, in this study, transformation of clinical isolates was found to be particularly problematic. For this reason, a vector for allelic replacement (pTEX5500ts) was constructed that includes (i) the pWV01-based gram-positive repAts replication region, which is known to confer a high degree of temperature intolerance, (ii) Escherichia coli oriR from pUC18, (iii) two extended multiple-cloning sites located upstream and downstream of one of the marker genes for efficient cloning of flanking regions for double-crossover mutagenesis, (iv) transcriptional terminator sites to terminate undesired readthrough, and (v) a synthetic extended promoter region containing the cat gene for allelic exchange and a high-level gentamicin resistance gene, aph(2'')-Id, to distinguish double-crossover recombination, both of which are functional in gram-positive and gram-negative backgrounds. To demonstrate the functionality of this vector, the vector was used to construct an acm (encoding an adhesin to collagen from E. faecium) deletion mutant of a poorly transformable multidrug-resistant E. faecium endocarditis isolate, TX0082. The acm-deleted strain, TX6051 (TX0082Deltaacm), was shown to lack Acm on its surface, which resulted in the abolishment of the collagen adherence phenotype observed in TX0082. A mobilizable derivative (pTEX5501ts) that contains oriT of Tn916 to facilitate conjugative transfer from the transformable E. faecalis strain JH2Sm::Tn916 to E. faecium was also constructed. Using this vector, the acm gene of a nonelectroporable E. faecium wound isolate was successfully interrupted. Thus, pTEX5500ts and its mobilizable derivative demonstrated their roles as important tools by helping to create the first reported allelic replacement in E. faecium; the constructed this acm deletion mutant will be useful for assessing the

  9. Effects of age and controlled oral dosing of Enterococcus faecium on epithelial properties in the piglet small intestine.

    PubMed

    Lodemann, U; Dillenseger, A; Aschenbach, J R; Martens, H

    2013-12-01

    Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 is a licensed probiotic for piglets that has been shown to positively affect diarrhoea incidence and to act on transport properties and immunological parameters in the porcine intestine. The aim of the present study was to examine its effects on jejunal absorptive and secretory capacities around weaning. Furthermore, the possible involvement of heat shock proteins in the effects of probiotics on epithelial functions was investigated. A significant part of the probiotic was dosed orally to reduce the variability of intake of the probiotic. The piglets were randomly assigned to a control and a probiotic feeding group, the latter receiving 4.5×109 cfu/day of E. faecium directly into the mouth for 34 days starting after birth. Additionally, their feed was supplemented with the probiotic strain. Piglets were weaned at day 29 after birth. Ussing chamber studies were conducted with the mid-jejunum of piglets aged 14, 28, 31, 35 and 56 days. Changes in short-circuit current (ΔIsc) were measured after stimulation of Na+-coupled absorption with L-glutamine or glucose or with the secretagogue prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The mRNA expression for SGLT1, CFTR and various heat shock proteins was determined. The transport properties changed significantly with age. The glucose-, L-glutamine- and PGE2-induced changes in Isc were highest at day 31 after birth. No significant differences between the feeding groups were observed. The mRNA of HSP60, HSC70, HSP70 and HSP90 was expressed in the jejunal tissues. The mRNA expression of HSC70 was higher and that of HSP60 was lower in the probiotic group. HSC70 expression increased with age. In conclusion, whereas age effects were observed on absorptive and secretory functions, controlled E. faecium dosing had no measurable effects on these functional parameters in this experimental setup. The possible role of heat shock proteins should be further evaluated.

  10. Improved detection of vanB2-containing enterococcus faecium with vancomycin susceptibility by Etest using oxgall supplementation.

    PubMed

    Grabsch, E A; Chua, K; Xie, S; Byrne, J; Ballard, S A; Ward, P B; Grayson, M L

    2008-06-01

    We have isolated a number of vanB-containing Enterococcus faecium isolates on bile esculin screening agar containing 6 mg/liter vancomycin, which on subsequent susceptibility testing using Etest have repeatedly demonstrated vancomycin MICs of faecium (n = 11), vancomycin-susceptible (van negative) E. faecium (n = 11), vancomycin-susceptible (van negative) E. faecalis (n = 11), and our LM-VRE (n = 23) isolates. After 48 h of incubation, both MHA-Oxg and BHIA-Oxg were 100% (34/34) sensitive and 100% (22/22) specific in the identification of vancomycin resistance. These findings suggest that supplementation of MHA or BHIA with 10 g/liter oxgall should be considered in laboratories where VRE detection protocols rely primarily on strain phenotype rather than early vanB gene detection by PCR.

  11. Effects of Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 as probiotic supplement on intestinal transport and barrier function of piglets.

    PubMed

    Lodemann, Ulrike; Hübener, Katrin; Jansen, Nicole; Martens, Holger

    2006-02-01

    Many studies report positive effects of probiotic supplementation on the performance and health of piglets. The intention of this study was to describe the effects of Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 on the transport and barrier functions of pig small intestine to improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of this probiotic. Ussing chamber studies were conducted with isolated jejunal epithelia of piglets at the age of 14, 28, 35 and 56 days. Jejunal tissues of the control group were compared with epithelia of piglets that had received a diet supplemented with the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415. Transport properties (absorption and secretion) of the epithelia were examined by mucosal addition of glucose or L-glutamine or by serosal addition of PGE2. Electrophysiology of the epithelia was continuously recorded and the change in short circuit current (Isc) was determined. Paracellular permeability was measured by measuring the flux rates of mannitol. The increase of Isc caused by mucosal addition of glucose was, at all glucose concentrations, higher in the probiotic group compared with the control group. However, the difference (up to 100% of the control) was not significant. The increase of Isc after the mucosal addition of L-glutamine (12mmol/l) was higher in the tissues of the probiotic group but did not reach significance. Serosal PGE2 induced a significantly higher increase of Isc in tissues of the probiotic group at the age of 28 days. No consistent differences were observed in mannitol transport rates between the feeding groups. Significant age-dependent alterations of absorptive and secretory properties of the jejunal epithelium were observed; these were independent of the treatment. A probiotic supplementation seems to influence transport properties of small intestine epithelium. The increased absorption of glucose could be interpreted as a positive effect for the animal.

  12. Clinical implications of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) with VanD phenotype and vanA genotype.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae-Hoon; Ko, Kwan Soo; Suh, Ji Yoeun; Oh, Won Sup; Kang, Cheol-In; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Lee, Nam Yong; Lee, Wee Gyo

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the clinical implications of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) with VanD phenotype and vanA genotype (VanD-vanA VRE). We tested in vitro and in vivo efficacies of teicoplanin against VanD-vanA VRE strains. Change in teicoplanin MICs was monitored during incubation with teicoplanin. In vitro and in vivo time-kill assay and survival analysis using a mouse peritonitis model were performed. Teicoplanin MICs of VanD-vanA VRE strains increased to 128 mg/L within 48 h when they were cultured with 120 mg/L teicoplanin. In vitro and in vivo time-kill assay showed that VanD-vanA VRE strains were not eliminated by 120 mg/L teicoplanin in contrast to vancomycin-susceptible E. faecium and VanD-vanB strains. The survival rate of mice infected with VanD-vanA VRE strains treated with teicoplanin was comparable with that of untreated mice. Data suggest that teicoplanin would fail in the treatment of VanD type VRE infections if the strains contained the vanA gene, which cannot be detected in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

  13. Proteome changes underpin improved meat quality and yield of chickens (Gallus gallus) fed the probiotic Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Aijuan; Luo, Jianjie; Meng, Kun; Li, Jianke; Zhang, Shu; Li, Ke; Liu, Guohua; Cai, Huiyi; Bryden, Wayne L; Yao, Bin

    2014-12-23

    Supplementation of broiler chicken diets with probiotics may improve carcass characteristics and meat quality. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, 2D-DIGE-based proteomics was employed to investigate the proteome changes associated with improved carcass traits and meat quality of Arbor Acres broilers (Gallus gallus) fed the probiotic Enterococcus faecium. The probiotic significantly increased meat colour, water holding capacity and pH of pectoral muscle but decreased abdominal fat content. These meat quality changes were related to the altered abundance of 22 proteins in the pectoral muscle following E. faecium feeding. Of these, 17 proteins have central roles in regulating meat quality due to their biological interaction network. Altered cytoskeletal and chaperon protein expression also contribute to improved water holding capacity and colour of meat, which suggests that upregulation of chaperon proteins maintains cell integrity and prevents moisture loss by enhancing folding and recovery of the membrane and cytoskeletal proteins. The down-regulation of β-enolase and pyruvate kinase muscle isozymes suggests roles in increasing the pH of meat by decreasing the production of lactic acid. The validity of the proteomics results was further confirmed by qPCR. This study reveals that improved meat quality of broilers fed probiotics is triggered by proteome alterations (especially the glycolytic proteins), and provides a new insight into the mechanism by which probiotics improve poultry production.

  14. Isolation and purification of two bacteriocins 3D produced by Enterococcus faecium with inhibitory activity against Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Bayoub, Kaoutar; Mardad, Ilham; Ammar, Emna; Serrano, Aurelio; Soukri, Abdelaziz

    2011-02-01

    Strain 3D, isolated from fermented traditional Moroccan dairy product, and identified as Enterococcus faecium, was studied for its capability to produce two bacteriocins acting against Listeria monocytogenes. Bacteriocins 3 Da and 3Db were heat stable inactivated by proteinase K, pepsin, and trypsin but not when treated with catalase. The evidenced bacteriocins were stable in a wide pH range from 2 to 11 and bactericidal activity was kept during storage at 4°C. However, the combination of temperature and pH exhibited a stability of the bacteriocins. RP-HPLC purification of the anti-microbial compounds shows two active fractions eluted at 16 and 30.5 min, respectively. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that E. faecium 3D produce two bacteriocins Enterocin 3 Da (3893.080 Da) and Enterocin 3Db (4203.350 Da). This strain is food-grade organism and its bacteriocins were heat-stable peptides at basic, neutral, and acid pH: such bacteriocins may be of interest as food preservatives.

  15. Biochemical characterization of a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance produced by Enterococcus faecium MXVK29, isolated from Mexican traditional sausage.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Cisneros, Yenizey M; Fernández, Francisco J; Wacher-Rodarte, Carmen; Aguilar, Manuel B; Sáinz Espuñes, Teresita del Rosario; Ponce-Alquicira, Edith

    2010-11-01

    Enterococci are lactic acid bacteria that can produce bacteriocins, which may offer an additional hurdle to control the growth of food-borne pathogens; moreover, these bacteriocins may have great potential as natural biopreservatives. The aim of this work was to characterize a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) with antilisterial activity produced by an enterococcal strain. The bacteriogenic strain was isolated from Mexican fermented sausages and identified as Enterococcus faecium with 99% sequence similarity. Maximal activity was detected at 16 h, where bacterial growth was in middle of the stationary phase. The producer strain was not inhibited by its own antimicrobial peptide. BLIS showed a strong anti-Listeria activity and was inactivated by proteinase K. Heating (121 °C for 15 min) induced some inactivation, but thermotolerance was higher at acid pH values. The yield obtained with a pH-mediated purification process was 32.7%, showing a band with an estimated molecular weight of 3.5 kDa. Automated N-terminal Edman degradation showed the following sequence: YYGNGVTCGSHHCSVD. Biochemical characteristics of BLIS produced by E. faecium MXVK29 suggested that it belongs to Class IIa of the Klaenhammer classification and could be considered as a natural food preservative, although further studies need to be performed. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry

  16. Healthcare-associated vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium infections in the Mansoura University Hospitals intensive care units, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Moemen, Dalia; Tawfeek, Doaa; Badawy, Wafaa

    2015-01-01

    Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) ia an emerging and challenging nosocomial pathogen. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, risk factors and clonal relationships between different VREF isolates in the intensive care units (ICUs) of the university hospitals in our geographic location. This prospective study was conducted from July, 2012 until September, 2013 on 781 patients who were admitted to the ICUs of the Mansoura University Hospitals (MUHs), and fulfilled the healthcare-associated infection (HAI) criteria. Susceptibility testing was determined using the disk diffusion method. The clonal relationships were evaluated with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Out of 52 E. faecium isolates, 12 (23.1%) were vancomycin resistant. The significant risk factors for the VREF infections were: transfer to the ICU from a ward, renal failure, an extended ICU stay and use of third-generation cephalosporins, gentamicin, or ciprofloxacin. PFGE with the 12 isolates showed 9 different patterns; 3 belonged to the same pulsotype and another 2 carried a second pulsotypes. The similar pulsotypes isolates were isolated from ICUs of one hospital (EICUs); however, all of the isolates from the other ICUs had different patterns. Infection control policy, in conjunction with antibiotic stewardship, is important to combat VREF transmission in these high-risk patients.

  17. Effect of subtherapeutic antimicrobials on genetic diversity of Enterococcus faecium from chickens.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Charlene R; Debnam, Antoinette L; Avellaneda, Gloria E; Barrett, John B; Hofacre, Charles L

    2006-03-01

    The effect of growth promotants (bacitracin, virginiamycin, and flavomycin) on the genetic population of Enterococcusfaecium isolated from a commercially integrated poultry farm was examined. A total of 551 E. faecium were isolated from chick boxliners (n=16), litter (n=334), feed (n=67), and carcass rinse (n=134) samples from four chicken houses. Two houses on the farm were control houses and did not use any antimicrobials while two other houses on the farm used flavomycin, virginiamycin, and bacitracin during six different chicken grow outs. BOX-PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) results indicated that E. faecium strains had a high degree of genetic diversity as overall clustering was independent of source, house, or grow out. Similarity of > or =60% for the majority of BOX-PCR genogroups and > or =80% for the majority of PFGE genogroups was observed for a subset of carcass rinse samples (n=45) examined. Seventy-nine percent (19/24) of isolates in BOX-PCR genogroup 2 also clustered in PFGE genogroup 2, although no association between the isolates and house or grow out was observed. These results suggest that E. faecium from chicken are genetically diverse and that growth-promoting antimicrobials do not affect the genetic population of E. faecium.

  18. Emergence of high ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates in a kidney transplant ward: role of antibiotic pressure and cross transmission.

    PubMed

    Maillard, Olivier; Corvec, Stéphane; Dantal, Jacques; Reynaud, Alain; Lucet, Jean-Christophe; Bémer, Pascale; Lepelletier, Didier

    2010-06-01

    The epidemiology of patients associated with ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (ARE) was investigated by combining both clinical approach and molecular analysis in a kidney transplant patient's ward. A case-control study was performed to identify risk factors for ARE by matching each patient with ARE with two control patients without any isolated E. faecium strain. ARE isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. From June 2004 to May 2006, 18 cases with clinical ARE samples were detected and compared with 35 control patients. By univariate analysis, recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) (odds ratio [OR], 4.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-25.6), mean number of hospitalization days in the last year (p < 0.003), pyelonephritis or UTI (OR, 9.6; 95% CI, 2.2-46.1), oral third-generation cephalosporin use (OR, 12.42; 95% CI, 2.04-109.1), and fluoroquinolone use (OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.1-18.2) were significantly associated with ARE urinary tract colonization. By conditional logistic regression, hospitalization >21 days within 1 year (adjusted OR [aOR], 6.9; 95% CI, 1.0-46.5), recent medical history of pyelonephritis or UTI (aOR, 8.6; 95% CI, 1.5-49.1), and prior oral third-generation cephalosporin use (aOR, 13.1; 95% CI, 1.2-142.6) were identified as independent factors associated with ARE urinary tract colonization. Genotyping revealed a heterogeneous epidemiological situation with two major clones in patients hospitalized in successive rooms and 10 different single pulsotypes. Emergence of highly resistant enterococcal strains is a collateral damage from antibiotic prescription and represents a potential source of patient-to-patient transmission. Combining epidemiological approach and molecular analysis is a powerful tool to delineate mechanisms of emerging resistance. Improving our knowledge on ARE emergence in high antibiotic pressure hospital wards is a key factor to better control these colonizations/infections and to prevent the

  19. Molecular characterization of resistance, virulence and clonality in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis: A hospital-based study in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing-xian; Li, Tong; Ning, Yong-zhong; Shao, Dong-hua; Liu, Jing; Wang, Shu-qin; Liang, Guo-wei

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) in China is increasing, the molecular epidemiology of VRE in China is only partly known. This study was conducted to assess the molecular characterization of resistance, virulence and clonality of 69 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) and seven vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VREfs) isolates obtained from a Chinese hospital between July 2011 and July 2013. The glycopeptide resistance genes (VanA and VanB) were screened by multiplex PCR. The presence of five putative virulence genes (esp, gelE, asa1, hyl and cylA) were evaluated by another multiplex PCR. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme was used to assess the clonality. All 76 VRE isolates exhibited VanA phenotype and harbored VanA gene. Esp was the only gene detected both in VREfm and VREfs strains, accounting for 89.9% and 42.9%, respectively. The hyl gene was merely positive in 27.5% of VREfm strains. MLST analysis demonstrated three STs (ST6, ST4 and ST470) in VREfs and twelve STs (ST78, ST571, ST17, ST564, ST389, ST18, ST547, ST341, ST414, ST343, ST262 and ST203) in VREfm, which were all designated as CC17 by eBURST algorithm. An outbreak of VREfm belonging to ST571 was found to happen within the neurology ward in this hospital. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ST6 (CC2) VREfs strains in China and the first outbreak report of VREfm strains belonging to ST571 around the world. Our data could offer important information for understanding the molecular features of VRE in China.

  20. Penicillin-Binding Protein 5 Sequence Alteration and Levels of plp5 mRNA Expression in Clinical Isolates of Enterococcus faecium with Different Levels of Ampicillin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Belhaj, Mondher; Boutiba-Ben Boubaker, Ilhem; Slim, Amin

    2016-04-01

    Eighty-two nonduplicated ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (AREF) isolates from clinical infections at the Charles Nicolle Hospital of Tunisia were investigated. They were collected from January 2001 to December 2009. Genetic relationship between them was studied using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The amino acid sequence difference variations of the C-terminal part of penicillin-binding protein 5 (PBP5) versus levels of expressed mRNA were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequencing, and real-time PCR quantification of (PBP5), respectively. No β-lactamase activity was detected and none of our strains showed resistance to glycopeptides, which retain their therapeutic efficiency against enterococcal infections in our hospital. Pattern analysis of the strains revealed six main clones disseminating in different wards. Sequence data revealed the existence of 19 different plp5 alleles with a difference in 16 amino acid positions spanning from residue 414 to 632. Each allele presented at least five amino acid substitutions (His-470→Gln, Asn-496→Lys, Ala-499→Thr, Glu-525→Asp, and Glu-629→Val). No correlation between amino acid sequence polymorphism of PBP5 and levels of ampicillin resistance was detected. The levels of plp5 mRNA expression varied between strains and did not always correlate with levels of ampicillin resistance in clinical AREF.

  1. Use of bacteriocin-producing, probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium AL41 to control intestinal microbiota in farm ostriches.

    PubMed

    Lauková, A; Kandričáková, A; Ščerbová, J

    2015-06-01

    Probiotic enterococci can produce bacteriocins. Enterococcus faecium AL41 is an Enterocin M-producing, probiotic strain which has previously shown beneficial effect in broiler chickens. In this study, it was used to control intestinal microbiota in farm ostriches in a 42-day experiment with an experimental group (EG, 40 ostriches) and a control group (CG, 46). In addition to feed mixture, the ostriches in EG received Ent. faecium AL41 (10(9) CFU ml(-1); by rifampicin-marked variant) 400 μl per animal per day in their drinking water for 21 days. Sampling was carried out at the start of the experiment (at day 0/1), at day 21 (after 21 days of AL41 application) and at day 42 (21 days after AL41 cessation). Faeces (mixture, n = 6) were treated using the standard microbiological dilution method and cultivated on selective media (ISO). The highest count of AL41 was found at day 42. Its identity was confirmed with PCR and Maldi-Tof. The ostriches were free of Salmonella and Campylobacter cells. At day 21, antimicrobial effect was demonstrated by significant reduction in coagulase-positive and negative staphylococci in EG compared to CG (P < 0·001) and coliforms, Enterobacteria and Pseudomonas-like bacteria (P < 0·001). We conclude that AL41 can be used to control intestinal microbiota in farm ostriches. Significance and impact of the study: Ostriches are excellent for high intensity farming in a wide range of climates, requiring only limited space and giving high yields per hectare. They are reared mainly for their meat. Although adult birds possess quite good immunity, young birds can be threatened by spoilage bacteria, especially when they are transferred from the nests to the farm area. Based on our previous results related to the beneficial effect of bacteriocin-producing, probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium AL41 in poultry or rabbits, we decided to test its ability to control intestinal microbiota in farming ostriches which has never been tested previously.

  2. Application of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry in the screening of vanA-positive Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-jun; Lu, Xin-xin; Wu, Wei; Sui, Wen-jun; Zhang, Gui

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate a rapid matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MAIDI-TOF MS) assay in screening vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, a total of 150 E. faecium clinical strains were studied, including 60 vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VREF) isolates and 90 vancomycin-susceptible (VSEF) strains. Vancomycin resistance genes were detected by sequencing. E. faecium were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. A genetic algorithm model with ClinProTools software was generated using spectra of 30 VREF isolates and 30 VSEF isolates. Using this model, 90 test isolates were discriminated between VREF and VSEF. The results showed that all sixty VREF isolates carried the vanA gene. The performance of VREF detection by the genetic algorithm model of MALDI-TOF MS compared to the sequencing method was sensitivity = 80%, specificity = 90%, false positive rate =10%, false negative rate =10%, positive predictive value = 80%, negative predictive value= 90%. MALDI-TOF MS can be used as a screening test for discrimination between vanA-positive E. faecium and vanA-negative E. faecium.

  3. Importance of two Enterococcus faecium loci encoding Gls-like proteins for in vitro bile salts stress response and virulence.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Tina; Singh, Kavindra V; Sillanpää, Jouko; Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R; Murray, Barbara E

    2011-04-15

    General stress proteins, Gls24 and GlsB, were previously shown to be involved in bile salts resistance of Enterococcus faecalis and in virulence. Here, we identified 2 gene clusters in Enterococcus faecium each encoding a homolog of Gls24 (Gls33 and Gls20; designated on the basis of their predicted sizes) and of GlsB (GlsB and GlsB1). The sequences of the gls33 and gls20 gene clusters from available genomes indicate distinct lineages, with those of hospital-associated CC17 isolates differing from non-CC17 by ∼7% and ∼3.5%, respectively. Deletion of an individual locus did not have a significant effect on virulence in a mouse peritonitis model, whereas a double-deletion mutant was highly attenuated (P<.004) versus wild-type. However, mutants lacking either gls33-glsB, gls20-glsB1, or both all exhibited increased sensitivity to bile salts. These results suggest that gls-encoded loci may be important for adaptation to the intestinal environment, in addition to being important for virulence functions.

  4. Inactivation of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 in a selection of low moisture foods.

    PubMed

    Rachon, Grzegorz; Peñaloza, Walter; Gibbs, Paul A

    2016-08-16

    The aims of this study were to obtain data on survival and heat resistance of cocktails of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and the surrogate Enterococcus faecium (NRRL B-2354) in four low moisture foods (confectionery formulation, chicken meat powder, pet food and savoury seasoning) during storage before processing. Inoculated samples were stored at 16°C and cell viability examined at day 0, 3, 7 and 21. At each time point, the heat resistance at 80°C was determined. The purpose was to determine a suitable storage time of inoculated foods that can be applied in heat resistance studies or process validations with similar cell viability and heat resistance characteristics. The main inactivation study was carried out within 7days after inoculation, the heat resistance of each bacterial cocktail was evaluated in each low moisture food heated in thermal cells exposed to temperatures between 70 and 140°C. The Weibull model and the first order kinetics (D-value) were used to express inactivation data and calculate the heating time to achieve 5 log reduction at each temperature. Results showed that the pathogens Salmonella and L. monocytogenes and the surrogate E. faecium NRRL B-2354, can survive well (maximum reduction <0.8 log) in low moisture foods maintained at 16°C, as simulation of warehouse raw material storage in winter and before processing. The D80 value of the pathogens and surrogate did not significantly change during the 21day storage (p>0.05). The inactivation kinetics of the pathogens and surrogate at temperatures between 70 and 140°C, were different between each organism and product. E. faecium NRRL B-2354 was a suitable Salmonella surrogate for three of the low moisture foods studied, but not for the sugar-containing confectionery formulation. Heating low moisture food in moisture-tight environments (thermal cells) to 111.2, 105.3 or 111.8°C can inactivate 5 log of Salmonella, L. monocytogenes or E. faecium NRRL B-2354 respectively.

  5. Effect of calcium and magnesium on the antimicrobial action of enterocin LR/6 produced by Enterococcus faecium LR/6.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Srivastava, Sheela

    2011-06-01

    Enterococci are well-known producers of antimicrobial peptides (enterocins) that possess potential as biopreservatives in food. In this study, divalent cations and release of intracellular potassium were used to assess the mechanism of interaction and killing of enterocin LR/6 produced by Enterococcus faecium LR/6 on three target Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, namely Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus sp. strain LR/3 and Escherichia coli K-12. Whilst treatment with enterocin LR/6 in all cases led to a significant loss of viability, suggesting a bactericidal mode of action, E. coli K-12 showed better tolerance than the other two strains. Bacteriocins have generally been reported to create pores in the membrane of sensitive cells and this function is diminished by divalent cations. In this study it was shown that Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) markedly improved the viability of enterocin LR/6-treated cells in a concentration-dependent manner. K(+) release as a sign of membrane leakiness was higher in M. luteus compared with the other two test strains. In agreement with the viability response, pre-exposure to Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) substantially reduced the amount of K(+) leakage by M. luteus and Enterococcus sp.; in the case of E. coli K-12, no leakage of K(+) was recorded. These results suggest that enterocin LR/6, which possesses good antibacterial potential, may not be very effective as a preservative in foods containing high concentrations of calcium and magnesium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 and Zinc Oxide Stimulate Immune Reactions to Trivalent Influenza Vaccination in Pigs but Do Not Affect Virological Response upon Challenge Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenya; Burwinkel, Michael; Chai, Weidong; Lange, Elke; Blohm, Ulrike; Breithaupt, Angele; Hoffmann, Bernd; Twardziok, Sven; Rieger, Juliane; Janczyk, Pawel; Pieper, Robert; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) regularly cause significant disease in pigs worldwide. Since there is no causative treatment of SIV, we tested if probiotic Enterococcus (E.) faecium NCIMB 10415 or zinc (Zn) oxide as feed supplements provide beneficial effects upon SIV infection in piglets. Seventy-two weaned piglets were fed three different diets containing either E. faecium or different levels of Zn (2500 ppm, Znhigh; 50 ppm, Znlow). Half of the piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly (VAC) twice with an inactivated trivalent SIV vaccine, while all piglets were then infected intranasally with H3N2 SIV. Significantly higher weekly weight gains were observed in the E. faecium group before virus infection, and piglets in Znhigh and E. faecium groups gained weight after infection while those in the control group (Znlow) lost weight. Using ELISA, we found significantly higher H3N2-specific antibody levels in the E. faecium+VAC group 2 days before and at the day of challenge infection as well as at 4 and 6 days after challenge infection. Higher hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers were also observed in the Znhigh+VAC and E. faecium+VAC groups at 0, 1 and 4 days after infection. However, there were no significant differences in virus shedding and lung lesions between the dietary groups. Using flow cytometry analysis significantly higher activated T helper cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte percentages in the PBMCs were detected in the Znhigh and E. faecium groups at single time points after infection compared to the Znlow control group, but no prolonged effect was found. In the BAL cells no influence of dietary supplementation on immune cell percentages could be detected. Our results suggest that feeding high doses of zinc oxide and particularly E. faecium could beneficially influence humoral immune responses after vaccination and recovery from SIV infection, but not affect virus shedding and lung pathology. PMID:24489827

  7. Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in a multi-species biofilm with Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium and control through sanitation procedures.

    PubMed

    da Silva Fernandes, Meg; Kabuki, Dirce Yorika; Kuaye, Arnaldo Yoshiteru

    2015-05-04

    The formation of mono-species biofilm (Listeria monocytogenes) and multi-species biofilms (Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and L. monocytogenes) was evaluated. In addition, the effectiveness of sanitation procedures for the control of the multi-species biofilm also was evaluated. The biofilms were grown on stainless steel coupons at various incubation temperatures (7, 25 and 39°C) and contact times (0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days). In all tests, at 7°C, the microbial counts were below 0.4 log CFU/cm(2) and not characteristic of biofilms. In mono-species biofilm, the counts of L. monocytogenes after 8 days of contact were 4.1 and 2.8 log CFU/cm(2) at 25 and 39°C, respectively. In the multi-species biofilms, Enterococcus spp. were present at counts of 8 log CFU/cm(2) at 25 and 39°C after 8 days of contact. However, the L. monocytogenes in multi-species biofilms was significantly affected by the presence of Enterococcus spp. and by temperature. At 25°C, the growth of L. monocytogenes biofilms was favored in multi-species cultures, with counts above 6 log CFU/cm(2) after 8 days of contact. In contrast, at 39°C, a negative effect was observed for L. monocytogenes biofilm growth in mixed cultures, with a significant reduction in counts over time and values below 0.4 log CFU/cm(2) starting at day 4. Anionic tensioactive cleaning complemented with another procedure (acid cleaning, disinfection or acid cleaning+disinfection) eliminated the multi-species biofilms under all conditions tested (counts of all micro-organisms<0.4 log CFU/cm(2)). Peracetic acid was the most effective disinfectant, eliminating the multi-species biofilms under all tested conditions (counts of the all microorganisms <0.4 log CFU/cm(2)). In contrast, biguanide was the least effective disinfectant, failing to eliminate biofilms under all the test conditions.

  8. Disruption of an Enterococcus faecium Species-Specific Gene, a Homologue of Acquired Macrolide Resistance Genes of Staphylococci, Is Associated with an Increase in Macrolide Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kavindra V.; Malathum, Kumthorn; Murray, Barbara E.

    2001-01-01

    The complete sequence (1,479 nucleotides) of msrC, part of which was recently reported by others using a different strain, was determined. This gene was found in 233 of 233 isolates of Enterococcus faecium but in none of 265 other enterococci. Disruption of msrC was associated with a two- to eightfold decrease in MICs of erythromycin azithromycin, tylosin, and quinupristin, suggesting that it may explain in part the apparent greater intrinsic resistance to macrolides of isolates of E. faecium relative to many streptococci. This endogenous, species-specific gene of E. faecium is 53% identical to msr(A), suggesting that it may be a remote progenitor of the acquired macrolide resistance gene found in some isolates of staphylococci. PMID:11120975

  9. Enterococcus faecium strain L-3 and glatiramer acetate ameliorate experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in rats by affecting different populations of immune cells.

    PubMed

    Abdurasulova, I N; Matsulevich, A V; Tarasova, E A; Kudryavtsev, I V; Serebrjakova, M K; Ermolenko, E I; Bisaga, G N; Klimenko, V M; Suvorov, A N

    2016-11-30

    The effect of probiotic Enterococcus faecium strain L-3 was studied in rats with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). Glatiramer acetate (GA) was used as control drug. E. faecium strain L-3 and GA both were able to reduce the severity of EAE in a similar fashion. Both approaches increased the proportion of EAE resistant rats and rats with mild disease, prolonged the inductive phase of EAE and reduced the disease duration. Study of the phenotypes of immune cells in blood revealed the differences in immunoregulatory pathways that mediate the protective action of probiotic or GA treatment of EAE. The presence of pronounced protective and immunomodulating effects of the probiotic E. faecium strain L-3 opens an opportunity of its application for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

  10. Purification and characterization of enterocin MC13 produced by a potential aquaculture probiont Enterococcus faecium MC13 isolated from the gut of Mugil cephalus.

    PubMed

    Satish Kumar, R; Kanmani, P; Yuvaraj, N; Paari, K A; Pattukumar, V; Arul, V

    2011-12-01

    A bacteriocin producer strain MC13 was isolated from the gut of Mugil cephalus (grey mullet) and identified as Enterococcus faecium. The bacteriocin of E. faecium MC13 was purified to homogeneity, as confirmed by Tricine sodium dodecyl sulphate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed a single active fraction eluted at 26 min, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis showed the molecular mass to be 2.148 kDa. The clear zone in native PAGE corresponding to enterocin MC13 band further substantiated its molecular mass. A dialyzed sample (semicrude preparation) of enterocin MC13 was broad spectrum in its action and inhibited important seafood-borne pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes , Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus. This antibacterial substance was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes: trypsin, protease, and chymotrypsin but insensitive to catalase and lipase, confirming that inhibition was due to the proteinaceous molecule, i.e., bacteriocin, and not due to hydrogen peroxide. Enterocin MC13 tolerated heat treatment (up to 90 °C for 20 min). Enterococcus faecium MC13 was effective in bile salt tolerance, acid tolerance, and adhesion to the HT-29 cell line. These properties reveal the potential of E. faecium MC13 to be a probiotic bacterium. Enterococcus faecium MC13 could be used as potential fish probiotic against pathogens such as V. parahaemolyticus, Vibrio harveyi, and Aeromonas hydrophila in fisheries. Also, this could be a valuable seafood biopreservative against L. monocytogenes.

  11. Aminoglycoside-Streptothricin Resistance Gene Cluster aadE–sat4–aphA-3 Disseminated among Multiresistant Isolates of Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Guido; Hildebrandt, Bianca; Witte, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    Seventy-two Enterococcus faecium isolates of different origins highly resistant to nourseothricin and streptomycin were studied. Sequencing of a genomic fragment from two isolates identified a gene cluster, aadE–sat4–aphA-3, which has been isolated recently in staphylococci and Campylobacter coli. Patterns of digested PCR products of aadE–sat4–aphA-3 were identical for all isolates. PMID:11600397

  12. Influence of a Probiotic Strain of Enterococcus faecium on Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104 Infection in a Porcine Animal Infection Model▿

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, István; Wieler, Lothar H.; Tedin, Karsten; Scharek-Tedin, Lydia; Taras, David; Hensel, Andreas; Appel, Bernd; Nöckler, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    The beneficial effects of probiotic Enterococcus spp. in different hosts, such as mice and humans, have previously been reported in several studies. However, studies of large domestic animals, as well as challenge studies with pathogenic microorganisms, are very rare. Here, we investigated the influence of oral treatment of pigs with the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 infections in weaning piglets. Clinical symptoms, fecal excretion, the organ distribution of Salmonella, and the humoral immune response (immunoglobulin G [IgG], IgM, and IgA levels) in serum were examined. A pool of 89 piglets was randomly divided into probiotic and control groups. The probiotic group received a feed supplement containing E. faecium starting on day 14 postpartum prior to challenge with Salmonella serovar Typhimurium DT104 at 28 days postpartum. After challenge with Salmonella serovar Typhimurium DT104, piglets in both groups showed no severe clinical signs of salmonellosis. However, fecal excretion and colonization of Salmonella in organs were significantly greater in piglets fed E. faecium. Likewise, the humoral immune response against Salmonella (serum IgM and IgA levels) was significantly greater in the probiotic group animals than in control animals. The results of this study suggest that E. faecium NCIMB 10415 treatment enhanced the course of infection in weaning piglets challenged with Salmonella serovar Typhimurium DT104. However, the probiotic treatment also appeared to result in greater production of specific antibodies against Salmonella serovar Typhimurium DT104. PMID:19270131

  13. Influence of a probiotic strain of Enterococcus faecium on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 infection in a porcine animal infection model.

    PubMed

    Szabó, István; Wieler, Lothar H; Tedin, Karsten; Scharek-Tedin, Lydia; Taras, David; Hensel, Andreas; Appel, Bernd; Nöckler, Karsten

    2009-05-01

    The beneficial effects of probiotic Enterococcus spp. in different hosts, such as mice and humans, have previously been reported in several studies. However, studies of large domestic animals, as well as challenge studies with pathogenic microorganisms, are very rare. Here, we investigated the influence of oral treatment of pigs with the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 infections in weaning piglets. Clinical symptoms, fecal excretion, the organ distribution of Salmonella, and the humoral immune response (immunoglobulin G [IgG], IgM, and IgA levels) in serum were examined. A pool of 89 piglets was randomly divided into probiotic and control groups. The probiotic group received a feed supplement containing E. faecium starting on day 14 postpartum prior to challenge with Salmonella serovar Typhimurium DT104 at 28 days postpartum. After challenge with Salmonella serovar Typhimurium DT104, piglets in both groups showed no severe clinical signs of salmonellosis. However, fecal excretion and colonization of Salmonella in organs were significantly greater in piglets fed E. faecium. Likewise, the humoral immune response against Salmonella (serum IgM and IgA levels) was significantly greater in the probiotic group animals than in control animals. The results of this study suggest that E. faecium NCIMB 10415 treatment enhanced the course of infection in weaning piglets challenged with Salmonella serovar Typhimurium DT104. However, the probiotic treatment also appeared to result in greater production of specific antibodies against Salmonella serovar Typhimurium DT104.

  14. Clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium exhibit strain-specific collagen binding mediated by Acm, a new member of the MSCRAMM family.

    PubMed

    Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R; Weinstock, George M; Murray, Barbara E

    2003-03-01

    A collagen-binding adhesin of Enterococcus faecium, Acm, was identified. Acm shows 62% similarity to the Staphylococcus aureus collagen adhesin Cna over the entire protein and is more similar to Cna (60% and 75% similarity with Cna A and B domains respectively) than to the Enterococcus faecalis collagen-binding adhesin, Ace, which shares homology with Acm only in the A domain. Despite the detection of acm in 32 out of 32 E. faecium isolates, only 11 of these (all clinical isolates, including four vancomycin-resistant endocarditis isolates and seven other isolates) exhibited binding to collagen type I (CI). Although acm from three CI-binding vancomycin-resistant E. faecium clinical isolates showed 100% identity, analysis of acm genes and their promoter regions from six non-CI-binding strains identified deletions or mutations that introduced stop codons and/or IS elements within the gene or the promoter region in five out of six strains, suggesting that the presence of an intact functional acm gene is necessary for binding of E. faecium strains to CI. Recombinant Acm A domain showed specific and concentration-dependent binding to collagen, and this protein competed with E. faecium binding to immobilized CI. Consistent with the adherence phenotype and sequence data, probing with Acm-specific IgGs purified from anti-recombinant Acm A polyclonal rabbit serum confirmed the surface expression of Acm in three out of three collagen-binding clinical isolates of E. faecium tested, but in none of the strains with a non-functional pseudo acm gene. Introduction of a functional acm gene into two non-CI-binding natural acm mutant strains conferred a CI-binding phenotype, further confirming that native Acm is sufficient for the binding of E. faecium to CI. These results demonstrate that acm, which encodes a potential virulence factor, is functional only in certain infection-derived clinical isolates of E. faecium, and suggest that Acm is the primary adhesin responsible for the

  15. Emergence of daptomycin non-susceptibility in colonizing vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates during daptomycin therapy.

    PubMed

    Lellek, Heinrich; Franke, Gefion C; Ruckert, Carolin; Wolters, Manuel; Wolschke, Christiane; Christner, Martin; Büttner, Henning; Alawi, Malik; Kröger, Nicolaus; Rohde, Holger

    2015-12-01

    Infections due to vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are of significant importance in high-risk populations, and daptomycin is a bactericidal antibiotic to treat multidrug-resistant VRE in these patients. The emergence of daptomycin non-susceptibility invasive VRE during daptomycin therapy is a major clinical issue. Here the hypothesis was tested that systemic daptomycin therapy also induces the emergence of daptomycin non-susceptible (DNS-) isolates in colonizing VRE populations. 11 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strain pairs recovered from rectal swabs were available for analysis. All initial isolates exhibited daptomycin MICs within the wild type MIC distribution of E. faecium (MIC≤4 mg/L). In follow-up isolates from five patients a 4-16-fold daptomycin MIC increase was detected. All patients carrying DNS-VRE received daptomycin (14-28 days) at 4 mg/kg body weight, while two patients in whom no DNS-VRE emerged were only treated with daptomycin for 1 and 4 days, respectively. Comparative whole genome sequencing identified DNS-VRE-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), including mutations in cardiolipin synthase (Cls), and additional SNPs in independent genes potentially relevant for the DNS phenotype. Mutations within cls were also identified in three additional, colonizing DNS-VRE. Of these, at least one strain was transmitted within the hospital. In none of the VRE isolates tested, pre-existing or de novo mutations in the liaFSR operon were detected. This is the first report documenting the emergence of DNS-VRE in colonizing strains during daptomycin treatment, putting the patient at risk for subsequent DNS-VRE infections and priming the spread of DNS-VRE within the hospital environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. AsrR is an oxidative stress sensing regulator modulating Enterococcus faecium opportunistic traits, antimicrobial resistance, and pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Lebreton, François; van Schaik, Willem; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Posteraro, Brunella; Torelli, Riccardo; Le Bras, Florian; Verneuil, Nicolas; Zhang, Xinglin; Giard, Jean-Christophe; Dhalluin, Anne; Willems, Rob J L; Leclercq, Roland; Cattoir, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress serves as an important host/environmental signal that triggers a wide range of responses in microorganisms. Here, we identified an oxidative stress sensor and response regulator in the important multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen Enterococcus faecium belonging to the MarR family and called AsrR (antibiotic and stress response regulator). The AsrR regulator used cysteine oxidation to sense the hydrogen peroxide which results in its dissociation to promoter DNA. Transcriptome analysis showed that the AsrR regulon was composed of 181 genes, including representing functionally diverse groups involved in pathogenesis, antibiotic and antimicrobial peptide resistance, oxidative stress, and adaptive responses. Consistent with the upregulated expression of the pbp5 gene, encoding a low-affinity penicillin-binding protein, the asrR null mutant was found to be more resistant to β-lactam antibiotics. Deletion of asrR markedly decreased the bactericidal activity of ampicillin and vancomycin, which are both commonly used to treat infections due to enterococci, and also led to over-expression of two major adhesins, acm and ecbA, which resulted in enhanced in vitro adhesion to human intestinal cells. Additional pathogenic traits were also reinforced in the asrR null mutant including greater capacity than the parental strain to form biofilm in vitro and greater persistance in Galleria mellonella colonization and mouse systemic infection models. Despite overexpression of oxidative stress-response genes, deletion of asrR was associated with a decreased oxidative stress resistance in vitro, which correlated with a reduced resistance to phagocytic killing by murine macrophages. Interestingly, both strains showed similar amounts of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Finally, we observed a mutator phenotype and enhanced DNA transfer frequencies in the asrR deleted strain. These data indicate that AsrR plays a major role in antimicrobial resistance and

  17. AsrR Is an Oxidative Stress Sensing Regulator Modulating Enterococcus faecium Opportunistic Traits, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Lebreton, François; van Schaik, Willem; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Posteraro, Brunella; Torelli, Riccardo; Le Bras, Florian; Verneuil, Nicolas; Zhang, Xinglin; Giard, Jean-Christophe; Dhalluin, Anne; Willems, Rob J. L.; Leclercq, Roland; Cattoir, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress serves as an important host/environmental signal that triggers a wide range of responses in microorganisms. Here, we identified an oxidative stress sensor and response regulator in the important multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen Enterococcus faecium belonging to the MarR family and called AsrR (antibiotic and stress response regulator). The AsrR regulator used cysteine oxidation to sense the hydrogen peroxide which results in its dissociation to promoter DNA. Transcriptome analysis showed that the AsrR regulon was composed of 181 genes, including representing functionally diverse groups involved in pathogenesis, antibiotic and antimicrobial peptide resistance, oxidative stress, and adaptive responses. Consistent with the upregulated expression of the pbp5 gene, encoding a low-affinity penicillin-binding protein, the asrR null mutant was found to be more resistant to β-lactam antibiotics. Deletion of asrR markedly decreased the bactericidal activity of ampicillin and vancomycin, which are both commonly used to treat infections due to enterococci, and also led to over-expression of two major adhesins, acm and ecbA, which resulted in enhanced in vitro adhesion to human intestinal cells. Additional pathogenic traits were also reinforced in the asrR null mutant including greater capacity than the parental strain to form biofilm in vitro and greater persistance in Galleria mellonella colonization and mouse systemic infection models. Despite overexpression of oxidative stress-response genes, deletion of asrR was associated with a decreased oxidative stress resistance in vitro, which correlated with a reduced resistance to phagocytic killing by murine macrophages. Interestingly, both strains showed similar amounts of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Finally, we observed a mutator phenotype and enhanced DNA transfer frequencies in the asrR deleted strain. These data indicate that AsrR plays a major role in antimicrobial resistance and

  18. Detection of a New cfr-Like Gene, cfr(B), in Enterococcus faecium Isolates Recovered from Human Specimens in the United States as Part of the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Lalitagauri M.; Ashcraft, Deborah S.; Kahn, Heather P.; Pankey, George; Jones, Ronald N.; Farrell, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Two linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates (MICs, 8 μg/ml) from unique patients of a medical center in New Orleans were included in this study. Isolates were initially investigated for the presence of mutations in the V domain of 23S rRNA genes and L3, L4, and L22 ribosomal proteins, as well as cfr. Isolates were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (just one band difference), and one representative strain was submitted to whole-genome sequencing. Gene location was also determined by hybridization, and cfr genes were cloned and expressed in a Staphylococcus aureus background. The two isolates had one out of six 23S rRNA alleles mutated (G2576T), had wild-type L3, L4, and L22 sequences, and were positive for a cfr-like gene. The sequence of the protein encoded by the cfr-like gene was most similar (99.7%) to that found in Peptoclostridium difficile, which shared only 74.9% amino acid identity with the proteins encoded by genes previously identified in staphylococci and non-faecium enterococci and was, therefore, denominated Cfr(B). When expressed in S. aureus, the protein conferred a resistance profile similar to that of Cfr. Two copies of cfr(B) were chromosomally located and embedded in a Tn6218 similar to the cfr-carrying transposon described in P. difficile. This study reports the first detection of cfr genes in E. faecium clinical isolates in the United States and characterization of a new cfr variant, cfr(B). cfr(B) has been observed in mobile genetic elements in E. faecium and P. difficile, suggesting potential for dissemination. However, further analysis is necessary to access the resistance levels conferred by cfr(B) when expressed in enterococci. PMID:26248384

  19. Altered Cytokine Expression and Barrier Properties after In Vitro Infection of Porcine Epithelial Cells with Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Probiotic Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Günzel, Dorothee; Bondzio, Angelika

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of the probiotic feed additive Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 (E. faecium) on porcine jejunal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) during an in vitro challenge with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Cells were incubated with E. faecium, ETEC, or both, and the effects on barrier function and structure and intra- and intercellular signaling were determined. Coincubation with E. faecium abolished the ETEC-induced decrease in transepithelial resistance (Rt) (p ≤ 0.05). No differences were seen in the expression levels of the intercellular connecting tight junction proteins examined. However, for the first time, a reorganization of the monolayer was observed in ETEC-infected cells but not in coincubated cells. ETEC induced an increase in cytotoxicity that was prevented by coincubation (p ≤ 0.05), whereas apoptosis rates were not affected by bacterial treatment. ETEC increased the mRNA expression and release of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1α, and IL-6 which could be prevented by coincubation for TNF-α mRNA expression and IL-6 protein (p ≤ 0.05). Likewise, cAMP concentrations elevated by ETEC were reduced in coincubated cells (p ≤ 0.05). These findings indicate a protective effect of the probiotic E. faecium on inflammatory responses during infection with ETEC. PMID:28607532

  20. Effects of two novel amino acid substitutions on the penicillin binding properties of the PBP5 C‑terminal from Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chengjiang; Niu, Haiying; Yu, Hui; Zhou, Lishe; Wang, Zhanli

    2015-10-01

    The low‑affinity penicillin‑binding protein (PBP)5 is responsible for resistance to β‑lactam antibiotics in Enterococcus faecium. (E. faecium). In order to evaluate more fully the potential of this species for the development of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, the present study aimed to examine the extent of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) variations in a collection of clinical E. faecium isolates. In the present study, the C‑terminal domain of PBP5 (PBP5‑CD) of 13 penicillin‑resistant clinical isolates of E. faecium were sequenced and the correlation between penicillin resistance and particular amino acid changes were analyzed. The present study identified for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, two novel substitutions (Tyr460Phe and Ala462Thr or Val462Thr) of E. faecium PBP5‑CD. The covalent interaction between penicillin and PBP5‑CD was also investigated using homology modeling and molecular docking methods. The theoretical calculation revealed that Phe460 and Thr462 were involved in penicillin binding, suggesting that substitutions at these positions exert effects on the affinity for penicillin, and this increased affinity translates into lower resistance in vitro.

  1. A functional collagen adhesin gene, acm, in clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium correlates with the recent success of this emerging nosocomial pathogen.

    PubMed

    Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R; Singh, Kavindra V; Okhuysen, Pablo C; Murray, Barbara E

    2008-09-01

    Enterococcus faecium recently evolved from a generally avirulent commensal into a multidrug-resistant health care-associated pathogen causing difficult-to-treat infections, but little is known about the factors responsible for this change. We previously showed that some E. faecium strains express a cell wall-anchored collagen adhesin, Acm. Here we analyzed 90 E. faecium isolates (99% acm(+)) and found that the Acm protein was detected predominantly in clinically derived isolates, while the acm gene was present as a transposon-interrupted pseudogene in 12 of 47 isolates of nonclinical origin. A highly significant association between clinical (versus fecal or food) origin and collagen adherence (P faecium infections showed reactivity with recombinant Acm, while only 4 of 30 community and hospitalized patient control group sera reacted (P faecium endocarditis patient sera. Although pulsed-field gel electrophoresis indicated that multiple strains expressed collagen adherence, multilocus sequence typing demonstrated that the majority of collagen-adhering isolates, as well as 16 of 17 endocarditis isolates, are part of the hospital-associated E. faecium genogroup referred to as clonal complex 17 (CC17), which has emerged globally. Taken together, our findings support the hypothesis that Acm has contributed to the emergence of E. faecium and CC17 in nosocomial infections.

  2. A multi-omic analysis of an Enterococcus faecium mutant reveals specific genetic mutations and dramatic changes in mRNA and protein expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background For a long time, Enterococcus faecium was considered a harmless commensal of the mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract and was used as a probiotic in fermented foods. In recent decades, E. faecium has been recognised as an opportunistic pathogen that causes diseases such as neonatal meningitis, urinary tract infections, bacteremia, bacterial endocarditis and diverticulitis. E. faecium could be taken into space with astronauts and exposed to the space environment. Thus, it is necessary to observe the phenotypic and molecular changes of E. faecium after spaceflight. Results An E. faecium mutant with biochemical features that are different from those of the wild-type strain was obtained from subculture after flight on the SHENZHOU-8 spacecraft. To understand the underlying mechanism causing these changes, the whole genomes of both the mutant and the WT strains were sequenced using Illumina technology. The genomic comparison revealed that dprA, a recombination-mediator gene, and arpU, a gene associated with cell wall growth, were mutated. Comparative transcriptomic and proteomic analyses showed that differentially expressed genes or proteins were involved with replication, recombination, repair, cell wall biogenesis, glycometabolism, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, predicted general function and energy production/conversion. Conclusion This study analysed the comprehensive genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic changes of an E. faecium mutant from subcultures that were loaded on the SHENZHOU-8 spacecraft. The implications of these gene mutations and expression changes and their underlying mechanisms should be investigated in the future. We hope that the current exploration of multiple “-omics” analyses of this E. faecium mutant will provide clues for future studies on this opportunistic pathogen. PMID:24373636

  3. Persistent, Toxin-Antitoxin System-Independent, Tetracycline Resistance-Encoding Plasmid from a Dairy Enterococcus faecium Isolate▿

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinhui; Alvarez, Valente; Harper, Willis James; Wang, Hua H.

    2011-01-01

    A tetracycline-resistant (Tetr) dairy Enterococcus faecium isolate designated M7M2 was found to carry both tet(M) and tet(L) genes on a 19.6-kb plasmid. After consecutive transfer in the absence of tetracycline, the resistance-encoding plasmid persisted in 99% of the progenies. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the 19.6-kb plasmid contained 28 open reading frames (ORFs), including a tet(M)-tet(L)-mob gene cluster, as well as a 10.6-kb backbone highly homologous (99.9%) to the reported plasmid pRE25, but without an identified toxin-antitoxin (TA) plasmid stabilization system. The derived backbone plasmid without the Tetr determinants exhibited a 100% retention rate in the presence of acridine orange, suggesting the presence of a TA-independent plasmid stabilization mechanism, with its impact on the persistence of a broad spectrum of resistance-encoding traits still to be elucidated. The tet(M)-tet(L) gene cluster from M7M2 was functional and transmissible and led to acquired resistance in Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF by electroporation and in Streptococcus mutans UA159 by natural transformation. Southern hybridization showed that both the tet(M) and tet(L) genes were integrated into the chromosome of S. mutans UA159, while the whole plasmid was transferred to and retained in E. faecalis OG1RF. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) indicated tetracycline-induced transcription of both the tet(M) and tet(L) genes of pM7M2. The results indicated that multiple mechanisms might have contributed to the persistence of antibiotic resistance-encoding genes and that the plasmids pM7M2, pIP816, and pRE25 are likely correlated evolutionarily. PMID:21784909

  4. In Vivo Transfer of the vanA Resistance Gene from an Enterococcus faecium Isolate of Animal Origin to an E. faecium Isolate of Human Origin in the Intestines of Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Camilla H.; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Sørensen, Thomas Lund; Monnet, Dominique L.; Hammerum, Anette M.

    2006-01-01

    Transient colonization by vancomycin-resistant enterococci of animal origin has been documented in the intestines of humans. However, little is known about whether transfer of the vanA gene occurs in the human intestine. Six volunteers ingested a vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolate of chicken origin, together with a vancomycin-susceptible E. faecium recipient of human origin. Transconjugants were recovered in three of six volunteers. In one volunteer, not only was vancomycin resistance transferred, but also quinupristin-dalfopristin resistance. This study shows that transfer of the vanA gene from an E. faecium isolate of animal origin to an E. faecium isolate of human origin can occur in the intestines of humans. It suggests that transient intestinal colonization by enterococci carrying mobile elements with resistance genes represents a risk for spread of resistance genes to other enterococci that are part of the human indigenous flora, which can be responsible for infections in certain groups of patients, e.g., immunocompromised patients. PMID:16436715

  5. Biochemical and genetic characterization of enterocin A from Enterococcus faecium, a new antilisterial bacteriocin in the pediocin family of bacteriocins.

    PubMed Central

    Aymerich, T; Holo, H; Håvarstein, L S; Hugas, M; Garriga, M; Nes, I F

    1996-01-01

    A new bacteriocin has been isolated from an Enterococcus faecium strain. The bacteriocin, termed enterocin A, was purified to homogeneity as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, N-terminal amino acid sequencing, and mass spectrometry analysis. By combining the data obtained from amino acid and DNA sequencing, the primary structure of enterocin A was determined. It consists of 47 amino acid residues, and the molecular weight was calculated to be 4,829, assuming that the four cysteine residues form intramolecular disulfide bridges. This molecular weight was confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis. The amino acid sequence of enterocin A shared significant homology with a group of bacteriocins (now termed pediocin-like bacteriocins) isolated from a variety of lactic acid-producing bacteria, which include members of the genera Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, and Carnobacterium. Sequencing of the structural gene of enterocin A, which is located on the bacterial chromosome, revealed an N-terminal leader sequence of 18 amino acid residues, which was removed during the maturation process. The enterocin A leader belongs to the double-glycine leaders which are found among most other small nonlantibiotic bacteriocins, some lantibiotics, and colicin V. Downstream of the enterocin A gene was located a second open reading frame, encoding a putative protein of 103 amino acid residues. This gene may encode the immunity factor of enterocin A, and it shares 40% identity with a similar open reading frame in the operon of leucocin AUL 187, another pediocin-like bacteriocin. PMID:8633865

  6. Enterocin B, a new bacteriocin from Enterococcus faecium T136 which can act synergistically with enterocin A.

    PubMed

    Casaus, P; Nilsen, T; Cintas, L M; Nes, I F; Hernández, P E; Holo, H

    1997-07-01

    The strain Enterococcus faecium T136 produces two bacteriocins, enterocin A, a member of the pediocin family of bacteriocins, and a new bacteriocin termed enterocin B. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of enterocins A and B were determined, and the gene encoding enterocin B was sequenced. The primary translation product was a 71 aa peptide containing a leader peptide of the double-glycine type which is cleaved off to give mature enterocin B of 53 aa. Enterocin B does not belong to the pediocin family of bacteriocins and shows strong homology to carnobacteriocin A. However, sequence similarities in their leader peptides and C-termini suggest that enterocin B and carnobacteriocin A are related to bacteriocins of the pediocin family. Enterocins A and B had only slightly different inhibitory spectra, and both were active against a wide range of Gram-positive bacteria, including listeriae, staphylococci and most lactic acid bacteria tested. Both had bactericidal activities, but survival at a frequency of 10(-4)-10(-2) was observed when sensitive cultures were exposed to either bacteriocin. The number of survivors was drastically reduced when a mixture of the two bacteriocins was added to the cells.

  7. Hospital and Community Ampicillin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Are Evolutionarily Closely Linked but Have Diversified through Niche Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    de Regt, Marieke J. A.; van Schaik, Willem; van Luit-Asbroek, Miranda; Dekker, Huberta A. T.; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Koning, Catherina J. M.; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Willems, Rob J. L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (ARE) has emerged as a nosocomial pathogen. Here, we quantified ARE carriage in different community sources and determined genetic relatedness with hospital ARE. Methods and Results ARE was recovered from rectal swabs of 24 of 79 (30%) dogs, 11 of 85 (13%) cats and 0 of 42 horses and from 3 of 40 (8%) faecal samples of non-hospitalized humans receiving amoxicillin. Multi-locus Sequence Typing revealed 21 sequence types (STs), including 5 STs frequently associated with hospital-acquired infections. Genes previously found to be enriched in hospital ARE, such as IS16, orf903, orf905, orf907, were highly prevalent in community ARE (≥79%), while genes with a proposed role in pathogenesis, such as esp, hyl and ecbA, were found rarely (≤5%) in community isolates. Comparative genome analysis of 2 representative dog isolates revealed that the dog strain of ST192 was evolutionarily closely linked to two previously sequenced hospital ARE, but had, based on gene content, more genes in common with the other, evolutionarily more distantly related, dog strain (ST266). Conclusion ARE were detected in dogs, cats and sporadically in healthy humans, with evolutionary linkage to hospital ARE. Yet, their accessory genome has diversified, probably as a result of niche adaptation. PMID:22363425

  8. Linezolid bladder irrigation as adjunctive treatment for a vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium catheter-associated urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Hill, David M; Wood, G Christopher; Hickerson, William L

    2015-02-01

    To describe the first reported successful use of adjunctive linezolid bladder irrigation. An 89-year-old woman with 10% TBSA burns developed septic shock and anuric acute kidney insufficiency. She acquired a urinary tract infection caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm). Based on clinical status, a linezolid bladder irrigation was initiated in addition to high-dose intravenous linezolid and demonstrated microbiological cure with 7 days of treatment. Linezolid is primarily hepatically cleared and has no labeled indication for urinary tract infections. Anuria adds an additional complication of potentially reduced urinary drug concentrations. Bladder irrigation offers the benefit of achieving high local drug concentrations, but there are no data regarding such a route for linezolid. This case report is the first demonstrating the use, stability, safety, and efficacy of linezolid as a continuous bladder irrigation. Linezolid use as a bladder irrigation may be a feasible route of administration in anuric, critically ill patients with VREfm and few antimicrobial options. Further studies are warranted. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Enterococcus faecium Mediastinitis Complicated by Disseminated Candida parapsilosis Infection after Congenital Heart Surgery in a 4-Week-Old Baby

    PubMed Central

    Renk, Hanna; Neunhoeffer, Felix; Hölzl, Florian; Hofbeck, Michael; Kumpf, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cardiac surgery offers multiple treatment options for children with congenital heart defects. However, infectious complications still remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Mediastinitis is a detrimental complication in children undergoing cardiac surgery. The risk of mediastinitis after delayed sternal closure is up to 10%. Case Presentation. We report a case of Enterococcus faecium mediastinitis in a 4-week-old female baby on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after Norwood procedure. Although repeated antibiotic irrigation, debridement, and aggressive antibiotic treatment were started early, the pulmonary situation deteriorated. Candida parapsilosis was isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage after pulmonary hemorrhage. Disseminated C. parapsilosis infection with pulmonary involvement was treated with liposomal amphotericin B. Subsequently, inflammatory markers increased again and eventually C. parapsilosis was isolated from the central venous catheter. Conclusion. Children undergoing delayed sternal closure have a higher risk of mediastinitis. Therefore, antibiotic prophylaxis, for example, for soft tissue infection seems justified. However, long-term antibiotic treatment is a risk factor for fungal superinfection. Antifungal treatment of disseminated C. parapsilosis infection may fail in PICU patients with nonbiological material in place due to capacity of this species to form biofilms on medical devices. Immediate removal of central venous catheters and other nonbiological material is life-saving in these patients. PMID:26605096

  10. Distinct but Spatially Overlapping Intestinal Niches for Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium and Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Silvia; Carter, Rebecca; Ke, Xu; Sušac, Bože; Leiner, Ingrid M; Kim, Grace J; Miller, Liza; Ling, Lilan; Manova, Katia; Pamer, Eric G

    2015-09-01

    Antibiotic resistance among enterococci and γ-proteobacteria is an increasing problem in healthcare settings. Dense colonization of the gut by antibiotic-resistant bacteria facilitates their spread between patients and also leads to bloodstream and other systemic infections. Antibiotic-mediated destruction of the intestinal microbiota and consequent loss of colonization resistance are critical factors leading to persistence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The mechanisms underlying microbiota-mediated colonization resistance remain incompletely defined and are likely distinct for different antibiotic-resistant bacterial species. It is unclear whether enterococci or γ-proteobacteria, upon expanding to high density in the gut, confer colonization resistance against competing bacterial species. Herein, we demonstrate that dense intestinal colonization with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) does not reduce in vivo growth of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. Reciprocally, K. pneumoniae does not impair intestinal colonization by VRE. In contrast, transplantation of a diverse fecal microbiota eliminates both VRE and K. pneumoniae from the gut. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrates that VRE and K. pneumoniae localize to the same regions in the colon but differ with respect to stimulation and invasion of the colonic mucus layer. While VRE and K. pneumoniae occupy the same three-dimensional space within the gut lumen, their independent growth and persistence in the gut suggests that they reside in distinct niches that satisfy their specific in vivo metabolic needs.

  11. High-level vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium related to humans and pigs found in dust from pig breeding facilities.

    PubMed

    Braga, Teresa M; Pomba, Constança; Lopes, M Fátima Silva

    2013-01-25

    Environmental dust from animal breeding facilities was never screened for the presence of enterococci, nor of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), despite the possibility of being a vehicle of transmission of strains and antibiotic resistance genes between food-producing animals and man. Bio-security measures in pig facilities include disinfection with biocides to avoid the dissemination of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria, namely enterococci and in particular VRE. We thus undertook collection of enterococci and VRE in a representative number of breeding pig facilities in Portugal (n=171) and analyzed their susceptibility to benzalkonium chloride (BC) and chlorhexidine (CHX). A prevalence of 15% of VRE was found, with 6% high-level resistance found, and MIC values for CHX and BC were similar to those commonly found among enterococcal isolates from related environments, 8 μg/ml and 4 μg/ml, respectively. Among the isolated high-level vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium carrying the vanA genotype, we found multilocus sequence types closely related to pig and human isolates from European countries and Brazil. These results strongly advise constant surveillance of this environment and its inclusion in future epidemiologic studies on VRE.

  12. Distinct but Spatially Overlapping Intestinal Niches for Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium and Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Caballero, Silvia; Carter, Rebecca; Ke, Xu; Sušac, Bože; Leiner, Ingrid M.; Kim, Grace J.; Miller, Liza; Ling, Lilan; Manova, Katia; Pamer, Eric G.

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance among enterococci and γ-proteobacteria is an increasing problem in healthcare settings. Dense colonization of the gut by antibiotic-resistant bacteria facilitates their spread between patients and also leads to bloodstream and other systemic infections. Antibiotic-mediated destruction of the intestinal microbiota and consequent loss of colonization resistance are critical factors leading to persistence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The mechanisms underlying microbiota-mediated colonization resistance remain incompletely defined and are likely distinct for different antibiotic-resistant bacterial species. It is unclear whether enterococci or γ-proteobacteria, upon expanding to high density in the gut, confer colonization resistance against competing bacterial species. Herein, we demonstrate that dense intestinal colonization with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) does not reduce in vivo growth of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. Reciprocally, K. pneumoniae does not impair intestinal colonization by VRE. In contrast, transplantation of a diverse fecal microbiota eliminates both VRE and K. pneumoniae from the gut. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrates that VRE and K. pneumoniae localize to the same regions in the colon but differ with respect to stimulation and invasion of the colonic mucus layer. While VRE and K. pneumoniae occupy the same three-dimensional space within the gut lumen, their independent growth and persistence in the gut suggests that they reside in distinct niches that satisfy their specific in vivo metabolic needs. PMID:26334306

  13. Antibiotic and disinfectant susceptibility profiles of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) isolated from community wastewater in Texas.

    PubMed

    Beier, Ross C; Duke, Sara E; Ziprin, Richard L; Harvey, Roger B; Hume, Michael E; Poole, Toni L; Scott, H Morgan; Highfield, Linda D; Alali, Walid Q; Andrews, Kathleen; Anderson, Robin C; Nisbet, David J

    2008-03-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) from human wastewater effluents in a nonclinical semiclosed agri-food system in Texas were characterized for susceptibility to antibiotics and disinfectants. The 50 VRE were resistant to eight fluoroquinolones and 10 of 17 antimicrobials typically active against Gram-positive organisms. The VRE were susceptible to quinupristin/dalfopristin and linezolid. Lack of the insertion element IS1251 correlated with VRE susceptibility to streptomycin and gentamicin at p < 0.0001 and p = 0.033, respectively. An association was observed between pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotypes Ic and II and susceptibility to streptomycin at p = 0.0006. VRE susceptibility for nine disinfectants and five disinfectant components is shown. Ninety-two percent of the isolates had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for triclosan > or =2 ppm. Triclosan MICs for many of the VRE were well over expected product application levels. No association was observed between antibiotic resistance and disinfectant susceptibility in these VRE. Enterococci multiply-resistant to vancomycin and aminoglycosides were found in a non-hospital environment where one would not expect to find them.

  14. Enterococcus faecium HDRsEf1 Protects the Intestinal Epithelium and Attenuates ETEC-Induced IL-8 Secretion in Enterocytes

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yuncai; Wang, Xiliang; Bi, Dingren

    2016-01-01

    The probiotic Enterococcus faecium HDRsEf1 (Ef1) has been shown to have positive effects on piglet diarrhoea, but the mechanism has not yet been elucidated. In this study, using the IPEC-J2 cell line to mimic intestinal epithelial cells and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88ac as a representative intestinal pathogen, the mechanism underlying Ef1 protection against an enteropathogen was investigated. The results demonstrated that Ef1 was effective in displacing K88ac from the IPEC-J2 cell layer. Moreover, Ef1 and its cell-free supernatant (S-Ef1) modulate IL-8 released by IPEC-J2 cells. Ef1 and its cell-free supernatant showed the potential to protect enterocytes from an acute inflammatory response. In addition, Ef1 and its cell-free supernatant increased the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of the enterocyte monolayer, thus strengthening the intestinal barrier against ETEC. These results may contribute to the development of therapeutic interventions using Ef1 in intestinal disorders of piglets. PMID:27890970

  15. A novel enterocin T1 with anti-Pseudomonas activity produced by Enterococcus faecium T1 from Chinese Tibet cheese.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Zhang, Lanwei; Yi, Huaxi; Han, Xue; Gao, Wei; Chi, Chunliang; Song, Wei; Li, Haiying; Liu, Chunguang

    2016-02-01

    An enterocin-producing Enterococcus faecium T1 was isolated from Chinese Tibet cheese. The enterocin was purified by SP-Sepharose and reversed phase HPLC. It was identified as unique from other reported bacteriocins based on molecular weight (4629 Da) and amino acid compositions; therefore it was subsequently named enterocin T1. Enterocin T1 was stable at 80-100 °C and over a wide pH range, pH 3.0-10.0. Protease sensitivity was observed to trypsin, pepsin, papain, proteinase K, and pronase E. Importantly, enterocin T1 was observed to inhibit the growth of numerous Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes. Take together, these results suggest that enterocin T1 is a novel bacteriocin with the potential to be used as a bio-preservative to control Pseudomonas spp. in food.

  16. Characterization of a heat stable anti-listerial bacteriocin produced by vancomycin sensitive Enterococcus faecium isolated from idli batter.

    PubMed

    Vijayendra, S V N; Rajashree, K; Halami, Prakash M

    2010-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known to produce various types of bacteriocins, ribosomally synthesized polypeptides, which have antibacterial spectrum against many food borne pathogens. Listeria monocytogenes, a pathogenic bacterium, is of particular concern to the food industry because of its ability to grow even at refrigeration temperatures and its tolerance to preservative agents. Some of the bacteriocins of LAB are known to have anti-listerial property. In the present study, the bacteriocin produced by vancomycin sensitive Enterococcus faecium El and J4 isolated from idli batter samples was characterized. The isolates were found to tolerate high temperatures of 60°C for 15 and 30 min and 70°C for 15 min. The bacteriocin was found to be heat stable and had anti-listerial activity. The bacteriocin did not lost anti-listerial activity when treated at 100°C for 30 min or at 121°C for 15 min. The bacteriocin lost its antimicrobial activity after treating with trypsin, protinase-K, protease and peptidase.

  17. Effects of dietary supplementation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 and Enterococcus faecium CECT 4515 in adult healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    González-Ortiz, Gemma; Castillejos, Lorena; Mallo, Juan José; Àngels Calvo-Torras, Ma; Dolores Baucells, Ma

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a probiotic preparation consisting of two probiotic strains, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 and Enterococcus faecium CECT 4515 (each 5 · 10(8) CFU/g feed), on faecal consistency, faecal microbiology and nutrient digestibility in adult healthy dogs. Sixteen beagles (eight males and eight females) were divided into two groups: the Control group (CON), which was fed the basal diet, and the probiotic group (PRO), which received the basal diet supplemented daily with 1 · 10(8) CFU for 39 consecutive days. Faecal score was assessed before (BS) and throughout the supplementation period (SP). Fresh faecal samples were collected before supplementation, before finishing the supplementation period and after 6 days of withdrawal for microbial enumeration and pH measurement. During the supplementation period, a digestibility trial was performed. There were no differences in faecal scores or the digestibility coefficients between groups. Between groups no statistical differences were found in most microbiota analysed or in faecal pH. However, during the supplementation period, pathogenic clostridia dropped significantly in Group PRO (5.64 vs. 2.94 ± 0.53 CFU/g faeces; p < 0.001), when compared with the period BS. The use of the probiotic preparation had no impact on nutrient digestibility by adult healthy dogs; however, it could stabilise faecal microbiota by decreasing pathogenic clostridia.

  18. Quinupristin-dalfopristin resistance in Enterococcus faecium isolates from humans, farm animals, and grocery store meat in the United States.

    PubMed

    Donabedian, S M; Perri, M B; Vager, D; Hershberger, E; Malani, P; Simjee, S; Chow, J; Vergis, E N; Muder, R R; Gay, K; Angulo, F J; Bartlett, P; Zervos, M J

    2006-09-01

    Three hundred sixty-one quinupristin-dalfopristin (Q-D)-resistant Enterococcus faecium (QDREF) isolates were isolated from humans, turkeys, chickens, swine, dairy and beef cattle from farms, chicken carcasses, and ground pork from grocery stores in the United States from 1995 to 2003. These isolates were evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to determine possible commonality between QDREF isolates from human and animal sources. PCR was performed to detect the streptogramin resistance genes vatD, vatE, and vgbA and the macrolide resistance gene ermB to determine the genetic mechanism of resistance in these isolates. QDREF from humans did not have PFGE patterns similar to those from animal sources. vatE was found in 35%, 26%, and 2% of QDREF isolates from turkeys, chickens, and humans, respectively, and was not found in QDREF isolates from other sources. ermB was commonly found in QDREF isolates from all sources. Known streptogramin resistance genes were absent in the majority of isolates, suggesting the presence of other, as-yet-undetermined, mechanisms of Q-D resistance.

  19. Isolation and mode of action of bacteriocin BacC1 produced by nonpathogenic Enterococcus faecium C1.

    PubMed

    Goh, H F; Philip, K

    2015-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are present in fermented food products and help to improve shelf life and enhance the flavor of the food. They also produce metabolites such as bacteriocins to prevent the growth of undesirable or pathogenic bacteria. In this study, Enterococcus faecium C1 isolated from fermented cow milk was able to produce bacteriocin BacC1 and inhibit the growth of selected food-spoilage bacteria. The bacteriocin was purified through 4 steps: ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction column, a series of centrifugal steps, and finally reversed-phase HPLC. A membrane permeability test using SYTOX green dye (Invitrogen, Grand Island, NY) showed that the bacteriocin caused significant disruptions to the test bacterial membrane, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. The molecular weight of the BacC1 obtained from SDS-PAGE was around 10kDa, and N-terminal sequencing revealed a partial amino acid sequence of BacC1: GPXGPXGP. The bacterial strain was nonhemolytic and not antibiotic resistant. Therefore, it has high potential for application in the food industry as an antimicrobial agent to extend the shelf life of food products.

  20. Effects of oral administration of heat-killed Enterococcus faecium strain NHRD IHARA in post-weaning piglets.

    PubMed

    Sukegawa, Shin; Ihara, Yasuhiro; Yuge, Kaoruko; Rao, Shengbin; Oka, Kentaro; Arakawa, Fumihiro; Fujimura, Tatsuya; Murakami, Hiroshi; Kurazono, Hisao; Takahashi, Motomichi; Morimatsu, Fumiki

    2014-04-01

    Probiotic bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have recently received attention as candidates for alternative anti-microbial feed additives. We previously isolated Enterococcus faecium strain NHRD IHARA (FERM BP-11090, NHRD IHARA strain) and reported its probiotic efficacy. However, we have not determined the effect of oral administration of heat-killed cells of this strain. Here, we performed two experiments to investigate the effect of oral administration of the heat-killed NHRD IHARA strain on post-weaning piglets. In Experiment 1, there was a significant improvement in growth performance (P = 0.04) and increase in serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) production (P = 0.03) in the group fed heat-killed cells. These results were similar to previous results we obtained with live cells. We also found changes in serum and fecal IgA production that were unrelated to the patterns of microbiotal change. In Experiment 2, we detected a significant improvement in villus growth in the jejunum (P = 0.0002). In conclusion, oral administration of the heat-killed NHRD IHARA strain in post-weaning piglets had the same efficacy as administration of the live strain. The heat-killed NHRD IHARA strain can be used as feed additives to improve pig growth and health on commercial farms.

  1. Design and optimization of fermentation medium for enhanced bacteriocin production by probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium MC13.

    PubMed

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Kumar, R Satish; Yuvaraj, N; Paari, K A; Pattukumar, V; Arul, Venkatesan

    2011-01-01

    Statistics-based experimental designs were used to develop a cost-effective medium for enhanced production of viable cells and bacteriocin by probiotic Enterococcus faecium MC13. Carbon, nitrogen, and mineral sources were first screened by one-variable-at-a-time (OVAT) methods. In order to increase yield production, the selected variables were further statistically optimized using response-surface methodology (RSM) with central composite design (CCD). The maximum and minimum levels of the selected variables were determined and a set of 34 experimental runs was performed. The optimum concentrations of the tested variables for production of viable cells (12.24 log CFU mL(-1)) and bacteriocin activity (25,600 AU mL(-1)) were tryptone (10.0 g/L), peptone (6.0 g/L), maltose (3.0 g/L), glucose (9.0 g/L), NaCl (15.0 g/L), sodium citrate (2.5 g/L), sodium acetate (1.0 g/L), and dipotassium PO(4) (0.1 g/L). Threefold increased yield of bacteriocin was achieved in optimized medium compared to the unoptimized counterpart, and this was two times less cost than commercial MRS medium.

  2. Comparison of four methods, including semi-automated rep-PCR, for the typing of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Bourdon, Nancy; Lemire, Astrid; Fines-Guyon, Marguerite; Auzou, Michel; Périchon, Bruno; Courvalin, Patrice; Cattoir, Vincent; Leclercq, Roland

    2011-01-01

    We have assessed the performance of semi-automated rep-PCR (Diversilab®) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) in comparison to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for typing a collection of 29 epidemiologically characterized vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE). Sixteen strains that harbored the Tn1546 element were typed by PCR mapping. The discriminative power of the typing methods was calculated by the Simpson's index of diversity, and the concordance between methods was evaluated by the Kendall's coefficient of concordance. Semi-automated rep-PCR appeared as discriminative as PFGE and was further compared with PFGE for typing 67 VRE isolated during a hospital outbreak. Rep-PCR appeared to be more discriminative than PFGE for this second set of strains. Reproducibility of DiversiLab® was also tested against 35 selected isolates. Only three showed less than 97% similarity, indicating high reproducibility at this level of discrimination. In conclusion, semi-automated rep-PCR is a useful tool for rapid screening of VRE isolates during an outbreak, although cost of the system may be limiting for routine implementation. PFGE, which remains the reference method, should be used for confirmation and evaluation of the genetic relatedness of epidemic isolates.

  3. Molecular characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates from Bermuda.

    PubMed

    Akpaka, Patrick Eberechi; Kissoon, Shivnarine; Wilson, Clyde; Jayaratne, Padman; Smith, Ashley; Golding, George R

    2017-01-01

    Molecular characteristics of vancomycin resistant enterococci isolates from Bermuda Island is currently unknown. This study was conducted to investigate phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of VRE isolates from Bermuda Island using the chromogenic agar, E-tests, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Eighteen E. faecium isolates were completely analyzed and were all resistant to vancomycin, susceptible to linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin, positive for vanA and esp genes. The MLST analysis confirmed most isolates were of the sequence types linked to clonal complex 17 (CC17) that is widely associated with outbreaks in hospitals. Infection control measures, antibiotic stewardship, and surveillance activities will continue to be a priority in hospital on the Island.

  4. Molecular characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates from Bermuda

    PubMed Central

    Akpaka, Patrick Eberechi; Kissoon, Shivnarine; Wilson, Clyde; Jayaratne, Padman; Smith, Ashley; Golding, George R.

    2017-01-01

    Molecular characteristics of vancomycin resistant enterococci isolates from Bermuda Island is currently unknown. This study was conducted to investigate phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of VRE isolates from Bermuda Island using the chromogenic agar, E-tests, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Eighteen E. faecium isolates were completely analyzed and were all resistant to vancomycin, susceptible to linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin, positive for vanA and esp genes. The MLST analysis confirmed most isolates were of the sequence types linked to clonal complex 17 (CC17) that is widely associated with outbreaks in hospitals. Infection control measures, antibiotic stewardship, and surveillance activities will continue to be a priority in hospital on the Island. PMID:28267763

  5. [MLST types of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from blood cultures].

    PubMed

    Arslan, Uğur; Demir, Esra; Oryaşin, Erman; Türk Dağı, Hatice; Tuncer, Inci; Fındık, Duygu; Bozdoğan, Bülent

    2013-07-01

    Enterococci, particularly vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), are important nosocomial pathogens with limited treatment options. Enterococci have low-level resistance to penicillins and aminoglycosides and are intrinsically resistant to cephalosporins. In addition, they can acquire high-level resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, aminoglycosides and glycopeptides. The aim of this study was to determine glycopeptide resistance mechanisms and genetic relationships of vancomycin-resistant E.faecium strains isolated from blood cultures between 2003-2009 years by molecular epidemiologic methods. A total of 38 VRE strains isolated from blood cultures were included in this study. The isolates were identified by conventional methods and Phoenix 100 BD automated system (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Systems, USA) and confirmed by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA amplicons. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method accor-ding to the CLSI standards. MIC values of vancomycin were determined in vancomycin resistant strains by E-test (AB Biodisk, Sweden) method. Vancomycin resistance genes included vanA, vanB, vanC, and vanD were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Clonal relationship between strains was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Sequence analysis was performed for examples selected for multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of each pulsotype and subtype. Thirty eight strains of enterococci isolated from blood cultures were defined as E.faecium by phenotypic methods and confirmed by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Vancomycin MIC values of strains were determined as > 256 µg/ml by E test. The vanA gene was detected in all isolates. Clonal relationship of 38 isolates E.faecium carrying the vanA gene was determined by PFGE and MLST methods. PFGE detected four pulsotypes (A-D) and one sporadic isolate. Twenty nine strains belonged to A pulsotype, three strains belonged to B pulsotype, two strains

  6. Evaluating Pediococcus acidilactici and Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 as Thermal Surrogate Microorganisms for Salmonella for In-Plant Validation Studies of Low-Moisture Pet Food Products.

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Erdogan; Bautista, Derrick A

    2015-05-01

    Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 8042 and Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 were investigated as potential surrogates for Salmonella serovars using thermal death time kinetics in products such as dry pet foods. The D-values of P. acidilactici ATCC 8042, E. faecium NRRL B-2354, and a cocktail of seven Salmonella serovars associated with low-moisture products were determined in a preservative-free dry pet food product at moisture levels of 9.1, 17.9, and 27.0% and heated between 76.7 and 87.8°C. The D-values were calculated by least squares linear regression. The D-values of P. acidilactici ATCC 8042 were higher than those for the Salmonella serovar cocktail but lower than those for E. faecium NRRL 2354. At 9.1% moisture, D-values of 6.54, 11.51, and 11.66 min at 76.7°C, 2.66, 3.22, and 4.08 min at 82.2°C, and 1.07, 1.29, and 1.69 min at 87.8°C were calculated for Salmonella serovars, P. acidilactici ATCC 8042, and E. faecium NRRL B-2354, respectively. The data suggest that the thermal inactivation characteristics of P. acidilactici ATCC 8042 can be utilized as a surrogate to predict the response of Salmonella in dry pet food products that are thermally processed at <90°C.

  7. Antimicrobial activity and the presence of virulence factors and bacteriocin structural genes in Enterococcus faecium CM33 isolated from ewe colostrum

    PubMed Central

    Nami, Yousef; Haghshenas, Babak; Haghshenas, Minoo; Yari Khosroushahi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Screening of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from ewe colostrum led to the identification and isolation of Enterococcus faecium CM33 with interesting features like high survival rates under acidic or bile salts condition, high tolerance for the simulated gastrointestinal condition, and high adhesive potential to Caco-2 cells. According the inhibition of pathogen adhesion test results, this strain can reduce more than 50% adhesion capacity of Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus to Caco-2 cells. Based on the antibiotic sensitivity test findings, E. faecium CM33 was susceptible to gentamycin, vancomycin, erythromycin, ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline, and rifampicin, but resistant to chloramphenicol, clindamycin, and kanamycin. Upon assessment of the virulence determinants for E. faecium CM33, this strain was negative for all tested virulence genes. Furthermore, the genome of this strain was evaluated for the incidence of the known enterocin genes by specific PCR amplification and discovered the genes encoding enterocins A, 31, X, and Q. Based on this study findings, the strain E. faecium CM33 can be considered as a valuable nutraceutical and can be introduced as a new potential probiotic. PMID:26284059

  8. Antimicrobial activity and the presence of virulence factors and bacteriocin structural genes in Enterococcus faecium CM33 isolated from ewe colostrum.

    PubMed

    Nami, Yousef; Haghshenas, Babak; Haghshenas, Minoo; Yari Khosroushahi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Screening of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from ewe colostrum led to the identification and isolation of Enterococcus faecium CM33 with interesting features like high survival rates under acidic or bile salts condition, high tolerance for the simulated gastrointestinal condition, and high adhesive potential to Caco-2 cells. According the inhibition of pathogen adhesion test results, this strain can reduce more than 50% adhesion capacity of Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus to Caco-2 cells. Based on the antibiotic sensitivity test findings, E. faecium CM33 was susceptible to gentamycin, vancomycin, erythromycin, ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline, and rifampicin, but resistant to chloramphenicol, clindamycin, and kanamycin. Upon assessment of the virulence determinants for E. faecium CM33, this strain was negative for all tested virulence genes. Furthermore, the genome of this strain was evaluated for the incidence of the known enterocin genes by specific PCR amplification and discovered the genes encoding enterocins A, 31, X, and Q. Based on this study findings, the strain E. faecium CM33 can be considered as a valuable nutraceutical and can be introduced as a new potential probiotic.

  9. Effects of a probiotic, Enterococcus faecium, on growth performance, intestinal morphology, immune response, and cecal microflora in broiler chickens challenged with Escherichia coli K88.

    PubMed

    Cao, G T; Zeng, X F; Chen, A G; Zhou, L; Zhang, L; Xiao, Y P; Yang, C M

    2013-11-01

    The effects of feeding dehydrated Enterococcus faecium on growth performance, immune response, and cecal microflora in broiler chickens challenged with Escherichia coli K88 were investigated. Two hundred eighty-eight 1-d-old birds were randomly assigned to 4 treatments: negative control birds (N-con) fed a basal diet and not challenged with E. coli K88; positive control birds (P-con) fed a basal diet and challenged with E. coli K88; birds fed a basal diet including dehydrated E. faecium (Ef) at 1 × 10(9) cfu/kg of feed and challenged with E. coli K88; and birds fed a basal diet including the antibiotic colistine sulfate (Anti) at 10 mg/kg of feed and challenged with E. coli K88. Birds fed E. faecium had greater (P < 0.05) BW on d 14, 21, and 28 and greater (P < 0.05) jejunal villus height on d 21 and 28 compared with birds on the other treatments. Jejunal crypt depth was decreased (P < 0.05) in birds fed either E. faecium or antibiotic compared with P-con treatment birds on d 10, 21, and 28. Birds fed E. faecium had a greater (P < 0.05) concentration of IL-4 in their jejunal mucosa than did those in the N-con treatment group on d 10, 14, and 21. Infected birds, with or without E. faecium feeding, had a higher (P < 0.05) tumor necrosis factor-α and secreted IgA in their jejunal mucosa than did those in the N-con treatment group on d 10 and 14. Birds fed E. faecium had lower (P < 0.05) concentrations of E. coli on d 14 and 28, less (P < 0.05) Clostridium perfringens on d 28, greater Lactobacillus counts on d 14 and 21, and greater (P < 0.05) Bifidobacterium in their cecal contents on d 21 than did the P-con birds. These results suggest that E. faecium can promote growth performance, improve intestinal morphology, and beneficially manipulate the cecal microflora in broilers challenged with E. coli K88.

  10. Novel Structure of Enterococcus faecium-Originated ermB-Positive Tn1546-Like Element in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Wan, Tsai-Wen; Hung, Wei-Chun; Tsai, Jui-Chang; Lin, Yu-Tzu; Lee, Hao; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Lee, Tai-Fen; Teng, Lee-Jene

    2016-10-01

    We determined the resistance determinants in 274 erythromycin-resistant methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) isolates during a 13-year period, 2000 to 2012. The resistance phenotypes, inducible macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (iMLS), constitutive MLS (cMLS), and macrolide-streptogramin (MS) resistance phenotypes, were examined by a double-disk diffusion D test. The ermB gene was more frequent (35%; 97/274) than ermC (27%; 75/274) or ermA (21%; 58/274). All 97 ermB-positive isolates harbored Tn551 and IS1216V The majority (89/97) of ermB-positive isolates displayed the cMLS phenotype and carried mobile element structure (MES)-like structures, which has been previously reported in sequence type 59 (ST59) methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The remaining 8 ermB-carrying isolates, belonging to ST7 (n = 4), ST5 (n = 3), and ST59 (n = 1), were sasK intact and did not carry MES-like structures. Unlike a MES-like structure that was located on the chromosome, the ermB elements on sasK-intact isolates were located on plasmids by S1 nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis and conjugation tests. Sequence data for the ermB-containing region (14,566 bp) from ST59 NTUH_3874 revealed that the best match was a Tn1546-like element in plasmid pMCCL2 DNA (GenBank accession number AP009486) of Macrococcus caseolyticus Tn1546 is recognized as an enterococcal transposon and was known from the vancomycin resistance gene cluster in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). So far, acquisitions of Tn1546 in S. aureus have occurred in clonal complex 5 (CC5) MRSA, but not in MSSA. This is the first report that MSSA harbors an Enterococcus faecium-originated ermB-positive Tn1546-like element located on a plasmid. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Effect of Continuous and Sequential Therapy Among Veterans Receiving Daptomycin or Linezolid for Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Britt, Nicholas S; Potter, Emily M; Patel, Nimish; Steed, Molly E

    2017-03-06

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium bloodstream infections (VREF-BSI) cause significant mortality, highlighting the need to optimize treatment. We compared the effectiveness and safety of daptomycin (DAP) and linezolid (LZD) as continuous or sequential therapy for VREF-BSI in a national, retrospective, propensity score (PS) matched cohort study of hospitalized Veterans Affairs patients (2004-2014). We compared clinical outcomes and adverse events among patients treated with continuous LZD, continuous DAP, or sequential LZD followed by DAP (LZD-DAP). Secondarily, we analyzed the impact of infectious diseases (ID) consultation and source of VREF-BSI. A total of 2,779 patients were included (LZD [n=1,348], DAP [n=1,055], LZD-DAP [n=227]). LZD was associated with increased 30-day mortality versus DAP (risk ratio [RR], 1.11; 95% CI, 1.01-1.22; P=0.042). After PS matching, this relationship persisted (RR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.02-1.26; P=0.015). LZD-DAP switchers had lower mortality than those remaining on LZD (RR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.03-1.63; P=0.021), suggesting a benefit may still be derived with sequential therapy. LZD-treated patients experienced more adverse events, including ≥ 50% reduction in platelets (RR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.03-1.11; P=0.001). DAP was associated with lower mortality than LZD in patients with endocarditis (RR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.02-1.41; P=0.024); however, there was no statistically significant association between treatment group and mortality with regard to other sources of infection. Therefore, source of infection appears to be important in selection of patients most likely to benefit from DAP.

  12. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium with vanA gene isolated for the first time from wildlife in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Oravcova, Veronika; Hadelova, Daniela; Literak, Ivan

    2016-10-15

    Corvids have been identified as an important vector of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in several European countries. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of VRE in wildlife in Slovakia and to characterize vanA-carrying VRE. At the beginning of 2013, we collected 287 fecal samples of common raven (Corvus corax) in Petrovce and 99 fecal samples of rooks (Corvus frugilegus) in Kosice. Samples were cultured selectively on Slanetz-Bartley agar with vancomycin and screened for vanA, other resistance genes, and virulence genes. PCR mapping of Tn1546 carrying vanA gene was performed. Multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were used to examine the genotypic diversity of vanA-containing VRE. The mobility of vancomycin resistance traits was tested in vitro, using filter mating experiments. VRE with the vanA gene were found in 4 (1.4%) of 287 raven samples and in one (1%) of 99 rook samples. All 5 isolates belonged to Enterococcus faecium and were multiresistant with resistance to erythromycin encoded by the erm(B) gene, tetracycline (tet(M) and tet(L) genes), and ampicillin (mutations in C-terminal region of pbp5 gene). Isolates from Petrovce also were resistant to chloramphenicol. Virulence genes were not proven. The vanA gene was carried by Tn1546 types E (combined with insertion sequence IS1216) or F5 (IS1251). One isolate from a rook in Kosice belonged to ST (sequence type) 6 and the remaining four from ravens in Petrovce belonged to new ST917 (a single locus variant of ST18). All tested VRE were able to transfer the vancomycin resistance trait. In conclusion, we identified clinically important enterococci with the vanA gene in corvids in Slovakia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Intraepithelial lymphocyte numbers and histomorphological parameters in the porcine gut after Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 feeding in a Salmonella Typhimurium challenge.

    PubMed

    Rieger, J; Janczyk, P; Hünigen, H; Neumann, K; Plendl, J

    2015-03-15

    Salmonellae are among the most widespread sources of foodborne infections and Salmonella Typhimurium, in particular, is correlated with human disease caused by the consumption of contaminated pork. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) have early contact with intestinal antigens and play an important role in the detection of pathogenic bacteria. The objective of this study was to determine whether a presumed probiotic Enterococcus faecium strain could improve histomorphological and immune system-related parameters of gut function after a Salmonella challenge in weaned pigs. In particular the morphological parameters villus length and width, crypt depth and width as well as the actual enlargement of the intestinal epithelial surface were calculated and the number of IEL was evaluated in sections of the porcine gut. Weaned piglets were challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT 104, and half of them also received Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 in the diet. Animals were sacrificed at days post infection (DPI) 2 and 28. The effect of the factors "time post-infection/age" and "probiotic treatment" on jejunal morphology and IEL numbers and distribution was evaluated by light microscopy. The time post-infection had significant effects in both feeding groups. Animals sacrificed at DPI 28 had longer and wider villi, deeper and wider crypts, a higher villus enlargement factor, a higher ratio between villus and crypt enlargement factors as well as more IEL. Probiotic treatment resulted in longer villi, a higher ratio of villus surface/crypt circumference enlargement factors and significantly more IEL. The larger total number of IEL displayed by the probiotic group resulted from significantly higher numbers of IEL at the nuclear and apical levels of the intraepithelial compartment but not from the number of IEL situated at the basement membrane. The probiotic effects were only measurable 28 DPI. It is proposed that Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 exerts an

  14. Cloning and Heterologous Production of Hiracin JM79, a Sec-Dependent Bacteriocin Produced by Enterococcus hirae DCH5, in Lactic Acid Bacteria and Pichia pastoris▿

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Jorge; Borrero, Juan; Gómez-Sala, Beatriz; Basanta, Antonio; Herranz, Carmen; Cintas, Luis M.; Hernández, Pablo E.

    2008-01-01

    Hiracin JM79 (HirJM79), a Sec-dependent bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus hirae DCH5, was cloned and produced in Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus sakei, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and Pichia pastoris. For heterologous production of HirJM79 in lactic acid bacteria (LAB), the HirJM79 structural gene (hirJM79), with or without the HirJM79 immunity gene (hiriJM79), was cloned into the plasmid pMG36c under the control of the constitutive promoter P32 and into the plasmid pNZ8048 under the control of the inducible PNisA promoter. For the production of HirJM79 in P. pastoris, the gene encoding the mature HirJM79 protein was cloned into the pPICZαA expression vector. The recombinant plasmids permitted the production of biologically active HirJM79 in the supernatants of L. lactis IL1403, L. lactis NZ9000, L. sakei Lb790, E. faecalis JH2-2, and P. pastoris X-33, the coproduction of HirJM79 and nisin A in L. lactis DPC5598, and the coproduction of HirJM79 and enterocin P in E. faecium L50/14-2. All recombinant LAB produced larger quantities of HirJM79 than E. hirae DCH5, although the antimicrobial activities of most transformants were lower than that predicted from their production of HirJM79. The synthesis, processing, and secretion of HirJM79 proceed efficiently in recombinant LAB strains and P. pastoris. PMID:18310424

  15. Intestinal Microbiota Containing Barnesiella Species Cures Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Bucci, Vanni; Caballero, Silvia; Djukovic, Ana; Toussaint, Nora C.; Equinda, Michele; Lipuma, Lauren; Ling, Lilan; Gobourne, Asia; No, Daniel; Taur, Ying; Jenq, Robert R.; van den Brink, Marcel R. M.; Xavier, Joao B.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria causing infections in hospitalized patients are increasingly antibiotic resistant. Classical infection control practices are only partially effective at preventing spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria within hospitals. Because the density of intestinal colonization by the highly antibiotic-resistant bacterium vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) can exceed 109 organisms per gram of feces, even optimally implemented hygiene protocols often fail. Decreasing the density of intestinal colonization, therefore, represents an important approach to limit VRE transmission. We demonstrate that reintroduction of a diverse intestinal microbiota to densely VRE-colonized mice eliminates VRE from the intestinal tract. While oxygen-tolerant members of the microbiota are ineffective at eliminating VRE, administration of obligate anaerobic commensal bacteria to mice results in a billionfold reduction in the density of intestinal VRE colonization. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of intestinal bacterial populations isolated from mice that cleared VRE following microbiota reconstitution revealed that recolonization with a microbiota that contains Barnesiella correlates with VRE elimination. Characterization of the fecal microbiota of patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation demonstrated that intestinal colonization with Barnesiella confers resistance to intestinal domination and bloodstream infection with VRE. Our studies indicate that obligate anaerobic bacteria belonging to the Barnesiella genus enable clearance of intestinal VRE colonization and may provide novel approaches to prevent the spread of highly antibiotic-resistant bacteria. PMID:23319552

  16. Novel Plasmid-Borne Multidrug Resistance Gene Cluster Including lsa(E) from a Linezolid-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Isolate of Swine Origin

    PubMed Central

    Si, Hongbin; Zhang, Wan-Jiang; Chu, Shengbo; Wang, Xiu-Mei; Dai, Lei; Hua, Xin; Dong, Zhimin

    2015-01-01

    A novel nonconjugative plasmid of 28,489 bp from a porcine linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolate was completely sequenced. This plasmid harbored a novel type of multiresistance gene cluster that comprised the resistance genes lnu(B), lsa(E), spw, aadE, aphA3, and two copies of erm(B), which account for resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, streptogramins, pleuromutilins, streptomycin, spectinomycin, and kanamycin/neomycin. Structural comparisons suggested that this plasmid might have developed from other enterococcal plasmids by insertion element (IS)-mediated interplasmid recombination processes. PMID:26324271

  17. The N-terminal domain of the thermo-regulated surface protein PrpA of Enterococcus faecium binds to fibrinogen, fibronectin and platelets.

    PubMed

    Guzmán Prieto, Ana M; Urbanus, Rolf T; Zhang, Xinglin; Bierschenk, Damien; Koekman, C Arnold; van Luit-Asbroek, Miranda; Ouwerkerk, Janneke P; Pape, Marieke; Paganelli, Fernanda L; Wobser, Dominique; Huebner, Johannes; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L; van Schaik, Willem

    2015-12-17

    Enterococcus faecium is a commensal of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, but is also found in non-enteric environments where it can grow between 10 °C and 45 °C. E. faecium has recently emerged as a multi-drug resistant nosocomial pathogen. We hypothesized that genes involved in the colonization and infection of mammals exhibit temperature-regulated expression control and we therefore performed a transcriptome analysis of the clinical isolate E. faecium E1162, during mid-exponential growth at 25 °C and 37 °C. One of the genes that exhibited differential expression between 25 °C and 37 °C, was predicted to encode a peptidoglycan-anchored surface protein. The N-terminal domain of this protein is unique to E. faecium and closely related enterococci, while the C-terminal domain is homologous to the Streptococcus agalactiae surface protein BibA. This region of the protein contains proline-rich repeats, leading us to name the protein PrpA for proline-rich protein A. We found that PrpA is a surface-exposed protein which is most abundant during exponential growth at 37 °C in E. faecium E1162. The heterologously expressed and purified N-terminal domain of PrpA was able to bind to the extracellular matrix proteins fibrinogen and fibronectin. In addition, the N-terminal domain of PrpA interacted with both non-activated and activated platelets.

  18. The N-terminal domain of the thermo-regulated surface protein PrpA of Enterococcus faecium binds to fibrinogen, fibronectin and platelets

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán Prieto, Ana M.; Urbanus, Rolf T.; Zhang, Xinglin; Bierschenk, Damien; Koekman, C. Arnold; van Luit-Asbroek, Miranda; Ouwerkerk, Janneke P.; Pape, Marieke; Paganelli, Fernanda L.; Wobser, Dominique; Huebner, Johannes; Hendrickx, Antoni P. A.; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Willems, Rob J. L.; van Schaik, Willem

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium is a commensal of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, but is also found in non-enteric environments where it can grow between 10 °C and 45 °C. E. faecium has recently emerged as a multi-drug resistant nosocomial pathogen. We hypothesized that genes involved in the colonization and infection of mammals exhibit temperature-regulated expression control and we therefore performed a transcriptome analysis of the clinical isolate E. faecium E1162, during mid-exponential growth at 25 °C and 37 °C. One of the genes that exhibited differential expression between 25 °C and 37 °C, was predicted to encode a peptidoglycan-anchored surface protein. The N-terminal domain of this protein is unique to E. faecium and closely related enterococci, while the C-terminal domain is homologous to the Streptococcus agalactiae surface protein BibA. This region of the protein contains proline-rich repeats, leading us to name the protein PrpA for proline-rich protein A. We found that PrpA is a surface-exposed protein which is most abundant during exponential growth at 37 °C in E. faecium E1162. The heterologously expressed and purified N-terminal domain of PrpA was able to bind to the extracellular matrix proteins fibrinogen and fibronectin. In addition, the N-terminal domain of PrpA interacted with both non-activated and activated platelets. PMID:26675410

  19. Inhibition of vancomycin and high-level aminoglycoside-resistant enterococci strains and Listeria monocytogenes by bacteriocin-like substance produced by Enterococcus faecium E86.

    PubMed

    Lemos Miguel, Marco Antônio; Dias de Castro, Angela Cristina; Ferreira Gomes Leite, Selma

    2008-11-01

    Three hundred and thirty nine lactic bacteria strains isolated from food samples were screened for antimicrobial activity. Only one strain isolated from meat pie and identified as Enterococcus faecium produced a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) showing activity against Enterococcus, Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, Listeria, Corynebacterium and Staphylococcus aureus. The BLIS produced was resistant to acid and alkali treatment and 121 masculineC for 15 min. The addition of BLIS in BHI contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes decreased the contamination in 4.8 log cycles in 24 h. The inhibition of listeria was also obtained in milk. Forty multiresistant enterococci strains were inhibited in the well-diffusion test. Two vancomycin resistant strains tested in liquid with BLIS were also inhibited. The BLIS producer showed no pathogenicity marker.

  20. Anti-Listeria monocytogenes bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances from Enterococcus faecium UQ31 isolated from artisan Mexican-style cheese.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, C; García-Almendárez, B E; Martin, S E; Regalado, C

    2005-08-01

    Artisan fresh Mexican-style cheeses are commonly made from raw milk that provides not only rich flavors, but also a diversity of associated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains. Enterococcus faecium UQ31 was isolated from panela cheese and produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) with a strong anti-Listeria activity. A modified pH-mediated adsorption-desorption purification process resulted in (after SDS-PAGE) two bands showing antimicrobial activities, where most of the activity corresponded to the band with an estimated molecular weight of 7.5 kDa. The BLIS produced by E. faecium UQ31 were heat resistant, stable at ambient storage conditions, and active in the pH range 5--9. The BLIS antimicrobial activities were detected during logarithmic growth phase and remained constant until the end of incubation time (19 h). These BLIS showed a wide anti-Listeria monocytogenes spectra. The E. faecium UQ31 strain or their BLIS represent a promising potential as antimicrobial food preservatives.

  1. Synthesis and Evaluation of 1,2,4-Triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines as Antibacterial Agents Against Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huan; Lee, Mijoon; Peng, Zhihong; Blázquez, Blas; Lastochkin, Elena; Kumarasiri, Malika; Bouley, Renee; Chang, Mayland; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2015-01-01

    Rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance is one of the most challenging global public health concerns. In particular, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium infections have been increasing in frequency, representing 25% of enterococci infections in intensive care units. A novel class of 1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines active against E. faecium is reported herein. We used a three-component Biginelli-like heterocyclization reaction for the synthesis of a series of these derivatives based on reactions of aldehydes, β-dicarbonyl compounds, and 3-alkylthio-5-amino-1,2,4-tria-zoles. The resulting compounds were assayed for antimicrobial activity against the ESKAPE panel of bacteria, followed by investigation of their in vitro activities. These analyses identified a subset of 1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines that had good narrow-spectrum antibacterial activity against E. faecium and exhibited metabolic stability with low intrinsic clearance. Macromolecular synthesis assays revealed cell-wall biosynthesis as the target of these antibiotics. PMID:25923368

  2. Genome-wide Screening Identifies Phosphotransferase System Permease BepA to Be Involved in Enterococcus faecium Endocarditis and Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Paganelli, Fernanda L; Huebner, Johannes; Singh, Kavindra V; Zhang, Xinglin; van Schaik, Willem; Wobser, Dominique; Braat, Johanna C; Murray, Barbara E; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L; Leavis, Helen L

    2016-07-15

    Enterococcus faecium is a common cause of nosocomial infections, of which infective endocarditis is associated with substantial mortality. In this study, we used a microarray-based transposon mapping (M-TraM) approach to evaluate a rat endocarditis model and identified a gene, originally annotated as "fruA" and renamed "bepA," putatively encoding a carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) permease (biofilm and endocarditis-associated permease A [BepA]), as important in infective endocarditis. This gene is highly enriched in E. faecium clinical isolates and absent in commensal isolates that are not associated with infection. Confirmation of the phenotype was established in a competition experiment of wild-type and a markerless bepA mutant in a rat endocarditis model. In addition, deletion of bepA impaired biofilm formation in vitro in the presence of 100% human serum and metabolism of β-methyl-D-glucoside. β-glucoside metabolism has been linked to the metabolism of glycosaminoglycans that are exposed on injured heart valves, where bacteria attach and form vegetations. Therefore, we propose that the PTS permease BepA is directly implicated in E. faecium pathogenesis.

  3. Enterococcus faecium QU 50: a novel thermophilic lactic acid bacterium for high-yield l-lactic acid production from xylose.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Zendo, Takeshi; Sakai, Kenji; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Production of optically pure lactic acid from lignocellulosic material for commercial purposes is hampered by several difficulties, including heterofermentation of pentose sugars and high energy consumption by mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. Here, we report a novel lactic acid bacterium, strain QU 50, that has the potential to produce optically pure l-lactic acid (≥99.2%) in a homofermentative manner from xylose under thermophilic conditions. Strain QU 50 was isolated from Egyptian fertile soil and identified as Enterococcus faecium QU 50 by analyzing its sugar fermentation pattern and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Enterococcus faecium QU 50 fermented xylose efficiently to produce lactic acid over wide pH (6.0-10.0) and temperature ranges (30-52°C), with a pH of 6.5 and temperature of 50°C being optimal. To our knowledge, this is the first report of homofermentative lactic acid production from xylose by a thermophilic lactic acid bacterium.

  4. Ampicillin Enhances Daptomycin- and Cationic Host Defense Peptide-Mediated Killing of Ampicillin- and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Arnold S.; Pogliano, Joseph; Tsuji, Brian T.; Yang, Soo-Jin; Mishra, Nagendra N.; Nizet, Victor; Yeaman, Michael R.; Moise, Pamela A.

    2012-01-01

    We studied an ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) isolate from a patient with endocarditis and bacteremia refractory to treatment with daptomycin (6 mg/kg of body weight) plus linezolid. Blood cultures cleared within 24 h of changing therapy to daptomycin (12 mg/kg) plus ampicillin. We examined the effects of ampicillin on daptomycin-induced growth inhibition and killing, surface charge, and susceptibility to several prototypical host defense cationic antimicrobial peptides. MICs and time-kill curves with daptomycin were assessed in the presence and absence of ampicillin. The impact of ampicillin on surface charge was assessed by flow cytometry and a poly-l-lysine binding assay. The effects of ampicillin preexposures upon VRE killing by five distinct cationic peptides of different structure, charge, origin, and mechanism of action were analyzed using the epidermal cathelicidin LL-37, thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal proteins (tPMPs), and a synthetic congener modeled after tPMP microbicidal domains (RP-1), human neutrophil peptide-1 (hNP-1), and polymyxin B (bacteria derived). Fluoroscein-Bodipy-labeled daptomycin was used to evaluate daptomycin binding to VRE membranes in the presence or absence of ampicillin. In media containing ampicillin (25 to 100 mg/liter), daptomycin MICs decreased from 1.0 to 0.38 mg/liter. Based on time-kill analysis and an in vitro pharmacodynamic model, ampicillin enhanced daptomycin activity against the study VRE from a bacteriostatic to a bactericidal profile. VRE grown in ampicillin (25 to 150 mg/liter) demonstrated an incremental reduction in its relative net positive surface charge. When grown in the presence (versus absence) of ampicillin (25 and 100 mg/liter), the VRE strain (i) was more susceptible to killing by LL-37, tPMPs, hNP-1, and RP-1 but not to polymyxin B and (ii) exhibited greater binding to Bodipy-labeled daptomycin. We conclude that ampicillin induces reductions in net positive

  5. Ampicillin enhances daptomycin- and cationic host defense peptide-mediated killing of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Sakoulas, George; Bayer, Arnold S; Pogliano, Joseph; Tsuji, Brian T; Yang, Soo-Jin; Mishra, Nagendra N; Nizet, Victor; Yeaman, Michael R; Moise, Pamela A

    2012-02-01

    We studied an ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) isolate from a patient with endocarditis and bacteremia refractory to treatment with daptomycin (6 mg/kg of body weight) plus linezolid. Blood cultures cleared within 24 h of changing therapy to daptomycin (12 mg/kg) plus ampicillin. We examined the effects of ampicillin on daptomycin-induced growth inhibition and killing, surface charge, and susceptibility to several prototypical host defense cationic antimicrobial peptides. MICs and time-kill curves with daptomycin were assessed in the presence and absence of ampicillin. The impact of ampicillin on surface charge was assessed by flow cytometry and a poly-l-lysine binding assay. The effects of ampicillin preexposures upon VRE killing by five distinct cationic peptides of different structure, charge, origin, and mechanism of action were analyzed using the epidermal cathelicidin LL-37, thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal proteins (tPMPs), and a synthetic congener modeled after tPMP microbicidal domains (RP-1), human neutrophil peptide-1 (hNP-1), and polymyxin B (bacteria derived). Fluoroscein-Bodipy-labeled daptomycin was used to evaluate daptomycin binding to VRE membranes in the presence or absence of ampicillin. In media containing ampicillin (25 to 100 mg/liter), daptomycin MICs decreased from 1.0 to 0.38 mg/liter. Based on time-kill analysis and an in vitro pharmacodynamic model, ampicillin enhanced daptomycin activity against the study VRE from a bacteriostatic to a bactericidal profile. VRE grown in ampicillin (25 to 150 mg/liter) demonstrated an incremental reduction in its relative net positive surface charge. When grown in the presence (versus absence) of ampicillin (25 and 100 mg/liter), the VRE strain (i) was more susceptible to killing by LL-37, tPMPs, hNP-1, and RP-1 but not to polymyxin B and (ii) exhibited greater binding to Bodipy-labeled daptomycin. We conclude that ampicillin induces reductions in net positive

  6. Effects of a probiotic Enterococcus faecium strain supplemented from birth to weaning on diarrhoea patterns and performance of piglets.

    PubMed

    Zeyner, A; Boldt, E

    2006-02-01

    This placebo-controlled double-blind study was conducted to evaluate effects of Enterococcus faecium DSM 10663 NCIMB 10415 (EcF) orally given from birth to weaning on diarrhoea and performance of piglets. At the first 3 days postnatum (p.n.), piglets from 54 [verum group (VG)] and 60 [placebo group (PG)] sows got 1 g of a gel directly per mouth by a dosing device. Gel for the VG contained 2.8 x 10(9) colony forming units (CFU) EcF/g. From day 4 p.n. until weaning (24 +/- 3.2 days p.n.) a liquid additive was given that administered twice a day 1.26 x 10(9) CFU EcF to each VG piglet. In case of diarrhoea, an electrolyte solution was used which provided daily 2.9 and 5.8 (week 1 and >or= 2, respectively) x 10(8) CFU EcF per VG piglet. Diarrhoea scores were defined as follows: (i) no diarrhoea; (ii) piglets developed diarrhoea, but were vital and (iii) piglets suffered from diarrhoea and additionally looked pale, developed rough coat, showed slackening of the flank and lethargy. Counts of viable born, stillborn and weaned piglets were normal and not different between groups (p > 0.05). Placebo group vs. VG piglets suffered more frequently from diarrhoea (40.0 vs. 14.8%, p < 0.05). Duration of diarrhoea was not affected by feeding EcF (2.2 +/- 0.81 days, p > 0.05). Diarrhoea score was lower in VG vs. PG (1.2 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.54, p < 0.05) and the daily weight gain (DWG) was higher by 17 g/day (p < 0.05). Results suggest that the daily oral supplementation of EcF from birth to weaning reduces the portion of piglets suffering from diarrhoea. This may improve performance, as the higher DWG indicates. In contrast, no obvious benefit seems to result from an additional supply of EcF via electrolyte solution when diarrhoea is always present.

  7. Influence of a probiotic Enterococcus faecium strain on development of the immune system of sows and piglets.

    PubMed

    Scharek, L; Guth, J; Reiter, K; Weyrauch, K D; Taras, D; Schwerk, P; Schierack, P; Schmidt, M F G; Wieler, L H; Tedin, K

    2005-05-01

    The influence of the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium SF68 on the immune system and the intestinal colonization of pigs were determined in a feeding experiment with sows and piglets. Mucosal immunity of the developing piglets was monitored by isolation and detection of intestinal lymphocyte cell populations from the proximal jejunal epithelium and the continuous Peyers patches by the use of flow cytometry. The levels of intestinal IgA in both groups of piglets were compared, as well as total IgG in the serum of sows and piglets. Feces of the sows and intestinal contents of the piglets were taken for determination of total anaerobe and coliform bacterial counts in both probiotic and control groups. Villus length and depth of the crypts were measured in the jejunum of sacrificed piglets to monitor the development of the intestinal mucosal surface amplification. Total serum IgG of the sows appeared to be unaffected. Piglets of both groups showed similar IgG levels up to 5 weeks after birth with a slight tendency toward lower values in the probiotic group. At an age of 8 weeks the total IgG levels of the probiotic animals were significantly lower (p<0.01). No differences were observed in the populations of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the Peyers patches. However, the levels of cytotoxic T cells (CD8+) in the jejunal epithelium of piglets of the probiotic group were significantly reduced. The depth of the jejunal crypts and length of the villi were similar in both groups, suggesting the relative T-cell population differences were not due to alterations in the epithelial cell numbers. The total anaerobe and coliform bacterial populations were not significantly affected by the probiotic treatment, either in sows or in the piglets. However, a remarkable decline in the frequency of beta-haemolytic and O141 serovars of Escherichia coli was observed in the intestinal contents of probiotic piglets, suggesting an explanation for the reduction in cytotoxic T-cell populations.

  8. Role of the Emp Pilus Subunits of Enterococcus faecium in Biofilm Formation, Adherence to Host Extracellular Matrix Components, and Experimental Infection

    PubMed Central

    Montealegre, Maria Camila; Singh, Kavindra V.; Somarajan, Sudha R.; Yadav, Puja; Chang, Chungyu; Spencer, Robert; Sillanpää, Jouko; Ton-That, Hung

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium is an important cause of hospital-associated infections, including urinary tract infections (UTIs), bacteremia, and infective endocarditis. Pili have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of Gram-positive bacteria, including E. faecium. We previously demonstrated that a nonpiliated ΔempABC::cat derivative of E. faecium TX82 was attenuated in biofilm formation and in a UTI model. Here, we studied the contributions of the individual pilus subunits EmpA, EmpB, and EmpC to pilus architecture, biofilm formation, adherence to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, and infection. We identified EmpA as the tip of the pili and found that deletion of empA reduced biofilm formation to the same level as deletion of the empABC operon, a phenotype that was restored by reconstituting in situ the empA gene. Deletion of empB also caused a reduction in biofilm, while EmpC was found to be dispensable. Significant reductions in adherence to fibrinogen and collagen type I were observed with deletion of empA and empB, while deletion of empC had no adherence defect. Furthermore, we showed that each deletion mutant was significantly attenuated in comparison to the isogenic parental strain, TX82, in a mixed-inoculum UTI model (P < 0.001 to 0.048), that reconstitution of empA restored virulence in the UTI model, and that deletion of empA also resulted in attenuation in an infective endocarditis model (P = 0.0088). Our results indicate that EmpA and EmpB, but not EmpC, contribute to biofilm and adherence to ECM proteins; however, all the Emp pilins are important for E. faecium to cause infection in the urinary tract. PMID:26930703

  9. Characterization of the ebpfm pilus-encoding operon of Enterococcus faecium and its role in biofilm formation and virulence in a murine model of urinary tract infection

    PubMed Central

    Sillanpää, Jouko; Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R.; Singh, Kavindra V.; Prakash, Vittal P.; Fothergill, Timothy; Ton-That, Hung; Murray, Barbara E.

    2010-01-01

    We recently identified 15 genes encoding putative surface proteins with features of MSCRAMMs and/or pili in the Enterococcus faecium TX16 (DO) genome, including four predicted pilus-encoding gene clusters; we also demonstrated that one of these, ebpABCfm, is transcribed as an operon, that its putative major pilus subunit, EbpCfm (also called PilB), is polymerized into high molecular weight complexes, and that it is enriched among clinical E. faecium isolates. Here, we created a deletion of the ebpABCfm operon in an endocarditis-derived E. faecium strain (TX82) and showed, by a combination of whole-cell ELISA, flow cytometry, immunoblot and immunogold electron microscopy, that this deletion abolished EbpCfm expression and eliminated EbpCfm-containing pili from the cell surface. However, transcription of the downstream sortase, bpsfm, was not affected. Importantly, the ebpABCfm deletion resulted in significantly reduced biofilm formation (p < 0.0001) and initial adherence (p < 0.0001) versus the wild-type; both were restored by complementing ebpABCfm in trans, which also restored cell surface expression of EbpCfm and pilus production. Furthermore, the deletion mutant was significantly attenuated in two independent mixed infection mouse urinary tract experiments, i.e., outnumbered by the wild-type in kidneys (p = 0.0003 and < 0.0001, respectively) and urinary bladders (p = 0.0003 and = 0.002). In conclusion, we have shown that the ebpABCfm locus encodes pili on the E. faecium TX82 cell surface and provide the first evidence that pili of this emerging pathogen are important for its ability to form biofilm and to cause infection in an ascending UTI model. PMID:20676385

  10. Role of the Emp Pilus Subunits of Enterococcus faecium in Biofilm Formation, Adherence to Host Extracellular Matrix Components, and Experimental Infection.

    PubMed

    Montealegre, Maria Camila; Singh, Kavindra V; Somarajan, Sudha R; Yadav, Puja; Chang, Chungyu; Spencer, Robert; Sillanpää, Jouko; Ton-That, Hung; Murray, Barbara E

    2016-05-01

    Enterococcus faecium is an important cause of hospital-associated infections, including urinary tract infections (UTIs), bacteremia, and infective endocarditis. Pili have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of Gram-positive bacteria, including E. faecium We previously demonstrated that a nonpiliated ΔempABC::cat derivative of E. faecium TX82 was attenuated in biofilm formation and in a UTI model. Here, we studied the contributions of the individual pilus subunits EmpA, EmpB, and EmpC to pilus architecture, biofilm formation, adherence to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, and infection. We identified EmpA as the tip of the pili and found that deletion of empA reduced biofilm formation to the same level as deletion of the empABC operon, a phenotype that was restored by reconstituting in situ the empA gene. Deletion of empB also caused a reduction in biofilm, while EmpC was found to be dispensable. Significant reductions in adherence to fibrinogen and collagen type I were observed with deletion of empA and empB, while deletion of empC had no adherence defect. Furthermore, we showed that each deletion mutant was significantly attenuated in comparison to the isogenic parental strain, TX82, in a mixed-inoculum UTI model (P < 0.001 to 0.048), that reconstitution of empA restored virulence in the UTI model, and that deletion of empA also resulted in attenuation in an infective endocarditis model (P = 0.0088). Our results indicate that EmpA and EmpB, but not EmpC, contribute to biofilm and adherence to ECM proteins; however, all the Emp pilins are important for E. faecium to cause infection in the urinary tract. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Enantioselective lactic acid production by an Enterococcus faecium strain showing potential in agro-industrial waste bioconversion: physiological and proteomic studies.

    PubMed

    Pessione, Alessandro; Zapponi, Michele; Mandili, Giorgia; Fattori, Paolo; Mangiapane, Erika; Mazzoli, Roberto; Pessione, Enrica

    2014-03-10

    The growing demand of biodegradable plastic polymers is increasing the industrial need of enantiospecific l-lactic acid (l-LA), the building block to produce polylactides. The most suitable industrial strategy to obtain high amounts of LA is the microbial fermentation of fruit and vegetable wastes by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this paper seven LAB strains from our laboratory collection, were screened for their ability to produce the highest amount of pure l-LA. A strain of Enterococcus faecium (LLAA-1) was selected and retained for further investigations. E. faecium LLAA-1 was grown in different culture media supplemented with the most abundant sugars present in agricultural wastes (i.e., glucose, fructose, cellobiose and xylose) and its ability to metabolize them to l-LA was evaluated. All tested sugars proved to be good carbon sources for the selected strain, except for xylose, which resulted in unsatisfactory biomass and LA production. Growth under aerobic conditions further stimulated l-LA production in fructose supplemented cultures with respect to anoxic-grown cultures. Proteomic profiles of E. faecium LLAA-1 grown in aerobiosis and anoxia were compared by means of two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Seventeen proteins belonging to three main functional groups were differentially expressed: the biosynthesis of 6 proteins was up-regulated in aerobic-grown cultures while 11 proteins were biosynthesized in higher amounts in anoxia. The de novo biosynthesis of the f-subunit of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase involved in the re-oxidation of NADH seems the key element of the global re-arrangement of E. faecium LLAA-1 metabolism under aerobic conditions. An improved oxidative catabolism of proteinaceous substrates (i.e., protein hydrolisates) seems the main phenomenon allowing both higher biomass growth and improved LA production under these conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Validation of Baking To Control Salmonella Serovars in Hamburger Bun Manufacturing, and Evaluation of Enterococcus faecium ATCC 8459 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as Nonpathogenic Surrogate Indicators.

    PubMed

    Channaiah, Lakshmikantha H; Holmgren, Elizabeth S; Michael, Minto; Sevart, Nicholas J; Milke, Donka; Schwan, Carla L; Krug, Matthew; Wilder, Amanda; Phebus, Randall K; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Milliken, George

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to validate a simulated commercial baking process for hamburger buns to destroy Salmonella serovars and to determine the appropriateness of using nonpathogenic surrogates (Enterococcus faecium ATCC 8459 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae) for in-plant process validation studies. Wheat flour was inoculated (∼6 log CFU/g) with three Salmonella serovars (Typhimurium, Newport, or Senftenberg 775W) or with E. faecium. Dough was formed, proofed, and baked to mimic commercial manufacturing conditions. Buns were baked for up to 13 min in a conventional oven (218.3°C), with internal crumb temperature increasing to ∼100°C during the first 8 min of baking and remaining at this temperature until removal from the oven. Salmonella and E. faecium populations were undetectable by enrichment (>6-log CFU/g reductions) after 9.0 and 11.5 min of baking, respectively, and ≥5-log-cycle reductions were achieved by 6.0 and 7.75 min, respectively. D-values of Salmonella (three-serovar cocktail) and E. faecium 8459 in dough were 28.64 and 133.33, 7.61 and 55.67, and 3.14 and 14.72 min at 55, 58, and 61°C, respectively, whereas D-values of S. cerevisiae were 18.73, 5.67, and 1.03 min at 52, 55, and 58°C, respectivly. The z-values of Salmonella, E. faecium, and S. cerevisiae were 6.58, 6.25, and 4.74°C, respectively. A high level of thermal lethality was observed for baking of typical hamburger bun dough, resulting in rapid elimination of high levels of the three-strain Salmonella cocktail; however, the lethality and microbial destruction kinetics should not be extrapolated to other bakery products without further research. E. faecium demonstrated greater thermal resistance compared with Salmonella during bun baking and could serve as a conservative surrogate to validate thermal process lethality in commercial bun baking operations. Low thermal tolerance of S. cerevisiae relative to Salmonella serovars limits its usefulness as a surrogate for process validations.

  13. Identification of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis as vanC-type Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) from sewage and river water in the provincial city of Miyazaki, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Masateru; Iguchi, Atsushi; Suzuki, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    As a first step for assessing the risk to human health posed by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in the aquatic environment, we screened sewage and urban river water samples from Miyazaki, Japan for VRE. Because vancomycin-resistant organisms are not as prevalent in sewage and river water as vancomycin-susceptible organisms, the samples were screened by minimum inhibitory concentration test using the vancomycin-supplemented membrane-Enterococcus indoxyl-β-d-glucoside (mEI) agar. The isolates, presumed to be enterococci, were identified using 16S rRNA sequencing analysis. The percentages of VRE isolates screened using 4 μg mL(-1) vancomycin-supplemented mEI agar from sewage and urban river water samples were 12% and 24%, respectively. The vancomycin-resistant genes vanC1 and vanC2/3 were detected in the isolates from both samples by PCR analysis. All enterococci isolates containing vanC1, which is a specific gene for vanC-type of VRE, were identified as Enterococcus casseliflavus/gallinarum. Further, 92% enterococci isolates containing vanC2/3 were identified as E. casseliflavus/gallinarum, the remaining isolates containing vanC2/3 were E. faecium (4%) and E. faecalis (4%). Thereafter, the distribution of E. faecium and E. faecalis, which are the major types of enterococci in humans containing vanC2/3, was observed in the water samples collected.

  14. Development of Bacteriocinogenic Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Heterologously Expressing and Secreting the Leaderless Enterocin L50 Peptides L50A and L50B from Enterococcus faecium L50▿

    PubMed Central

    Basanta, Antonio; Herranz, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Jorge; Criado, Raquel; Hernández, Pablo E.; Cintas, Luis M.

    2009-01-01

    A segregationally stable expression and secretion vector for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, named pYABD01, was constructed by cloning the yeast gene region encoding the mating pheromone α-factor 1 secretion signal (MFα1s) into the S. cerevisiae high-copy-number expression vector pYES2. The structural genes of the two leaderless peptides of enterocin L50 (EntL50A and EntL50B) from Enterococcus faecium L50 were cloned, separately (entL50A or entL50B) and together (entL50AB), into pYABD01 under the control of the galactose-inducible promoter PGAL1. The generation of recombinant S. cerevisiae strains heterologously expressing and secreting biologically active EntL50A and EntL50B demonstrates the suitability of the MFα1s-containing vector pYABD01 to direct processing and secretion of these antimicrobial peptides through the S. cerevisiae Sec system. PMID:19218405

  15. Survival of Salmonella Tennessee, Salmonella Typhimurium DT104, and Enterococcus faecium in peanut paste formulations at two different levels of water activity and fat.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Ai; Enache, Elena; Black, D Glenn; Elliott, Philip H; Napier, Carla D; Podolak, Richard; Hayman, Melinda M

    2014-08-01

    Long-term survival of heat-stressed Salmonella Tennessee, Salmonella Typhimurium DT104, and Enterococcus faecium was evaluated in four model peanut paste formulations with a combination of two water activity (aw) levels (0.3 and 0.6) and two fat levels (47 and 56%) over 12 months at 20 ± 1°C. Prior to storage, the inoculated peanut paste formulations were heat treated at 75°C for up to 50 min to obtain an approximately 1.0-log reduction of each organism. The cell population of each organism in each formulation was monitored with tryptic soy agar plate counts, immediately after heat treatment, at 2 weeks for the first month, and then monthly for up to 1 year. The log reductions (log CFU per gram) following 12 months of storage were between 1.3 and 2.4 for Salmonella Tennessee, 1.8 and 2.8 for Salmonella Typhimurium, and 1.1 and 2.1 for E. faecium in four types of model peanut paste formulations. Enhanced survivability was observed in pastes with lower aw for all organisms, compared with those with higher aw (P < 0.05). In contrast, the effect of fat level (47 and 56%) on survival of all organisms was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Whereas survivability of Salmonella Tennessee and Typhimurium DT104 did not differ significantly (P > 0.05), E. faecium demonstrated higher survivability than Salmonella (P < 0.05). Salmonella survived in the model peanut pastes well over 12 months, which is longer than the expected shelf life for peanut butter products. The information from this study can be used to design safer food processing and food safety plans for peanut butter processing.

  16. Daptomycin or teicoplanin in combination with gentamicin for treatment of experimental endocarditis due to a highly glycopeptide-resistant isolate of Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed Central

    Caron, F; Kitzis, M D; Gutmann, L; Cremieux, A C; Maziere, B; Vallois, J M; Saleh-Mghir, A; Lemeland, J F; Carbon, C

    1992-01-01

    Using an experimental endocarditis model, we studied the activity of daptomycin used alone or in combination with gentamicin against an Enterococcus faecium strain that was highly resistant to glycopeptides and susceptible to gentamicin. In vitro, the MIC of daptomycin was 1 micrograms/ml. In vivo, daptomycin appeared to be effective only when it was used in a high-dose regimen, i.e., 12 mg/kg of body weight every 8 h (-2.5 log10 CFU/g versus controls; P < 0.05), particularly when it was combined with gentamicin (-5.0 log10 CFU/g versus controls; P < 0.01). Since the distribution of daptomycin into cardiac vegetations, as evaluated by autoradiography, appeared to be homogeneous, the poor in vivo activity of daptomycin was considered to be related to its high degree of protein binding, as suggested by killing curves studies. Since the MIC of teicoplanin for the vancomycin-resistant E. faecium strain used in the study was only 64 micrograms/ml and since an in vitro synergy between teicoplanin at high dose and gentamicin was observed, a high-dose regimen of teicoplanin, i.e., 40 mg/kg every 12 h, was also assessed in vivo. This treatment provided marginal activity only when it was combined with gentamicin (-2.3 log10 CFU/g versus controls; P < 0.05). These results suggest that the levels of daptomycin or teicoplanin in serum required to cure experimental endocarditis caused by a highly glycopeptide-resistant strain of E. faecium would not be achievable in humans. Images PMID:1336339

  17. Intrinsic resistance to aminoglycosides in Enterococcus faecium is conferred by the 16S rRNA m5C1404-specific methyltransferase EfmM.

    PubMed

    Galimand, Marc; Schmitt, Emmanuelle; Panvert, Michel; Desmolaize, Benoît; Douthwaite, Stephen; Mechulam, Yves; Courvalin, Patrice

    2011-02-01

    Aminoglycosides are ribosome-targeting antibiotics and a major drug group of choice in the treatment of serious enterococcal infections. Here we show that aminoglycoside resistance in Enterococcus faecium strain CIP 54-32 is conferred by the chromosomal gene efmM, encoding the E. faecium methyltransferase, as well as by the previously characterized aac(6')-Ii that encodes a 6'-N-aminoglycoside acetyltransferase. Inactivation of efmM in E. faecium increases susceptibility to the aminoglycosides kanamycin and tobramycin, and, conversely, expression of a recombinant version of efmM in Escherichia coli confers resistance to these drugs. The EfmM protein shows significant sequence similarity to E. coli RsmF (previously called YebU), which is a 5-methylcytidine (m⁵C) methyltransferase modifying 16S rRNA nucleotide C1407. The target for EfmM is shown by mass spectrometry to be a neighboring 16S rRNA nucleotide at C1404. EfmM uses the methyl group donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine to catalyze formation of m⁵C1404 on the 30S ribosomal subunit, whereas naked 16S rRNA and the 70S ribosome are not substrates. Addition of the 5-methyl to C1404 sterically hinders aminoglycoside binding. Crystallographic structure determination of EfmM at 2.28 Å resolution reveals an N-terminal domain connected to a central methyltransferase domain that is linked by a flexible lysine-rich region to two C-terminal subdomains. Mutagenesis of the methyltransferase domain established that two cysteines at specific tertiary locations are required for catalysis. The tertiary structure of EfmM is highly similar to that of RsmF, consistent with m⁵C formation at adjacent sites on the 30S subunit, while distinctive structural features account for the enzymes' respective specificities for nucleotides C1404 and C1407.

  18. Molecular analysis and distribution of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates belonging to clonal complex 17 in a tertiary care center in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Enterococcus faecium has recently emerged as a multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen involved in outbreaks worldwide. A high rate of resistance to different antibiotics has been associated with virulent clonal complex 17 isolates carrying the esp and hyl genes and the purK1 allele. Results Twelve clinical vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) isolates were obtained from pediatric patients at the Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez (HIMFG). Among these VREF isolates, 58.3% (7/12) were recovered from urine, while 41.7% (5/12) were recovered from the bloodstream. The VREF isolates showed a 100% rate of resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, gentamicin, rifampicin, erythromycin and teicoplanin. In addition, 16.7% (2/12) of the isolates were resistant to linezolid, and 66.7% (8/12) were resistant to tetracycline and doxycycline. PCR analysis revealed the presence of the vanA gene in all 12 VREF isolates, esp in 83.3% (10/12) of the isolates and hyl in 50% (6/12) of the isolates. Phylogenetic analysis via molecular typing was performed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and demonstrated 44% similarity among the VREF isolates. MLST analysis identified four different sequence types (ST412, ST757, ST203 and ST612). Conclusion This study provides the first report of multidrug-resistant VREF isolates belonging to clonal complex 17 from a tertiary care center in Mexico City. Multidrug resistance and genetic determinants of virulence confer advantages among VREF in the colonization of their host. Therefore, the prevention and control of the spread of nosocomial infections caused by VREF is crucial for identifying new emergent subclones that could be challenging to treat in subsequent years. PMID:24330424

  19. Characterization of Structural Variations in the Peptidoglycan of Vancomycin-Susceptible Enterococcus faecium: Understanding Glycopeptide-Antibiotic Binding Sites using Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Patti, Gary J.; Chen, Jiawei; Schaefer, Jacob; Gross, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium, an opportunistic pathogen that causes a significant number of hospital-acquired infections each year, presents a serious clinical challenge because an increasing number of infections are resistant to the so-called antibiotic of last resort, vancomycin. Vancomycin and other new glycopeptide derivatives target the bacterial cell wall, thereby perturbing its biosynthesis. To help determine the modes of action of glycopeptide antibiotics, we have developed a bottom-up mass spectrometry approach complemented by solid-state NMR to elucidate important structural characteristics of vancomycin-susceptible E. faecium peptidoglycan. Using accurate-mass measurements and integrating ion-current chromatographic peaks of digested peptidoglycan, we identified individual muropeptide species and approximated the relative amount of each. Even though the organism investigated is susceptible to vancomycin, only 3% of the digested peptidoglycan has the well-known D-Ala-D-Ala vancomycin-binding site. The data are consistent with a previously proposed template model of cell-wall biosynthesis where D-Ala-D-Ala stems that are not cross-linked are cleaved in mature peptidoglycan. Additionally, our mass-spectrometry approach allowed differentiation and quantification of muropeptide species seen as unresolved chromatographic peaks. Our method provides an estimate of the extent of muropeptides containing O-acetylation, amidation and hydroxylation, and the number of species forming cyclic imides. The varieties of muropeptides on which the modifications are detected suggest that significant processing occurs in mature peptidoglycan where several enzymes are active in editing cell-wall structure. PMID:18692403

  20. High prevalence of diverse vancomycin resistance Enterococcus faecium isolates in clinical and environmental sources in ICU wards in southwest of Iran.

    PubMed

    Arshadi, Maniya; Douraghi, Masoumeh; Shokoohizadeh, Leili; Moosavian, Seyed Mojtaba; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed at determining the prevalence, antibiotic resistance patterns, and genetic linkage of Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) from different sources in the southwest of Iran. A total of 51 VREfm isolates were obtained and subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing, carriage of virulence genes, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method. All the VRE isolates exhibited a high level of resistance to teicoplanin, ampicillin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin, also carried the vanA gene. A total of 59% and 34% of the VREfm strains harbored esp and hyl genes, respectively. The results from PFGE showed 31 PFGE patterns including 10 common types (CT) and 21 single types (ST) among the VRE isolates. Furthermore, isolates from different sources in each common type revealed cross transmission between clinical and environmental sources. Overall, the study showed a high prevalence of diverse VRE faecium strains with threatening resistance phenotypes in the environment and clinical sections among different ICU wards of Ahvaz hospitals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical and molecular epidemiology of hospital Enterococcus faecium isolates in eastern France. Members of Réseau Franc-Comtois de Lutte contr les Infections Nosocomiales.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, X; Thouverez, M; Bailly, P; Cornette, C; Talon, D

    2000-06-01

    We carried out a surveillance study of Enterococcus faecium isolates in the Franche-Comtéregion of France over three years. Clinical and epidemiological strains were characterized by antibiotype and genotype (pulsed field gel electrophoresis, PFGE). Three case-control studies were performed to identify risk factors for colonization/infection with three defined resistant phenotypes (amoxycillin, high-level gentamicin and high-level kanamycin). The crude incidence of colonization/infection was 0.156%, and 68.8% of cases were classified as hospital-acquired. Incidence did not differ according to the type of hospitalization (middle term or acute care). The urinary tract was the major site of infection. Resistance rates were: 45.8% (amoxycillin), 18.7% (high-level gentamicin), 61.4% (high-level kanamycin) and 3.1% (vancomycin). No isolate produced b-lactamase and one isolate carried the vanA gene. PFGE revealed two major epidemic patterns each including resistant strains isolated in different hospitals and during different periods in the study. Previous antimicrobial treatment was not identified as a risk factor for colonization/infection with any resistant phenotype. Despite the low frequency of vancomycin-resistant isolates in this study, resistant strains were widely disseminated and had characteristics enabling them to persist and spread. If these strains acquired the vanA gene, the risk of an outbreak would be large. So, the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium in hospitals should be carefully monitored in the future.

  2. Use of the Yeast Pichia pastoris as an Expression Host for Secretion of Enterocin L50, a Leaderless Two-Peptide (L50A and L50B) Bacteriocin from Enterococcus faecium L50▿

    PubMed Central

    Basanta, Antonio; Gómez-Sala, Beatriz; Sánchez, Jorge; Diep, Dzung B.; Herranz, Carmen; Hernández, Pablo E.; Cintas, Luis M.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we report the expression and secretion of the leaderless two-peptide (EntL50A and EntL50B) bacteriocin enterocin L50 from Enterococcus faecium L50 by the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris X-33. The bacteriocin structural genes entL50A and entL50B were fused to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene region encoding the mating pheromone α-factor 1 secretion signal (MFα1s) and cloned, separately and together (entL50AB), into the P. pastoris expression and secretion vector pPICZαA, which contains the methanol-inducible alcohol oxidase promoter (PAOX1) to express the fusion genes. After transfer into the yeast, the recombinant plasmids were integrated into the genome, resulting in three bacteriocinogenic yeast strains able to produce and secrete the individual bacteriocin peptides EntL50A and EntL50B separately and together. The secretion was efficiently directed by MFα1s through the Sec system, and the precursor peptides were found to be correctly processed to form mature and active bacteriocin peptides. The present work describes for the first time the heterologous expression and secretion of a two-peptide non-pediocin-like bacteriocin by a yeast. PMID:20348300

  3. Role of EfrAB efflux pump in biocide tolerance and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from traditional fermented foods and the effect of EDTA as EfrAB inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Benomar, Nabil; Valenzuela, Antonio Sánchez; Casado Muñoz, María del Carmen; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2014-12-01

    Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from various traditional fermented foods of both animal and vegetable origins have shown multidrug resistance to several antibiotics and tolerance to biocides. Reduced susceptibility was intra and inter-species dependent and was due to specific and unspecific mechanisms such as efflux pumps. EfrAB, a heterodimeric ABC transporter efflux pump, was detected in 100% of multidrug resistant (MDR) E. faecalis strains and only in 12% of MDR E. faecium strains. EfrAB expression was induced by half of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of gentamicin, streptomycin and chloramphenicol. However, expression of efrA and efrB genes was highly dependent on the strain tested and on the antimicrobial used. Our results indicated that 3 mM EDTA highly reduced the MICs of almost all drugs tested. Nevertheless, the higher reductions (>8 folds) were obtained with gentamicin, streptomycin, chlorhexidine and triclosan. Reductions of MICs were correlated with down-regulation of EfrAB expression (10-140 folds) in all three MDR enterococci strains. This is the first report describing the role of EfrAB in the efflux of antibiotics and biocides which reflect also the importance of EfrAB in multidrug resistance in enterococci. EDTA used at low concentration as food preservative could be one of the best choices to prevent spread of multidrug resistant enterococci throughout food chain by decreasing EfrAB expression. EfrAB could be an attractive target not only in enterococci present in food matrix but also those causing infections as well by using EDTA as therapeutic agent in combination with low doses of antibiotics.

  4. Development of a Dry Inoculation Method for Thermal Challenge Studies in Low-Moisture Foods by Using Talc as a Carrier for Salmonella and a Surrogate (Enterococcus faecium).

    PubMed

    Enache, Elena; Kataoka, Ai; Black, D Glenn; Napier, Carla D; Podolak, Richard; Hayman, Melinda M

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain dry inocula of Salmonella Tennessee and Enterococcus faecium, a surrogate for thermal inactivation of Salmonella in low-moisture foods, and to compare their thermal resistance and stability over time in terms of survival. Two methods of cell growth were compared: cells harvested from a lawn on tryptic soy agar (TSA-cells) and from tryptic soy broth (TSB-cells). Concentrated cultures of each organism were inoculated onto talc powder, incubated at 35 °C for 24 h, and dried for additional 24 h at room temperature (23 ± 2 °C) to achieve a final water activity of ≤ 0.55 before sieving. Cell reductions of Salmonella and E. faecium during the drying process were between 0.14 and 0.96 log CFU/g, depending on growth method used. There was no difference between microbial counts at days 1 and 30. Heat resistance of the dry inoculum on talc inoculated into a model peanut paste (50 % fat and 0.6 water activity) was determined after 1 and 30 days of preparation, using thermal death time tests conducted at 85 °C. For Salmonella, there was no significant difference between the thermal resistance (D(85 °C)) for the TSB-cells and TSA-cells (e.g. day 1 cells D(85 °C) = 1.05 and 1.07 min, respectively), and there was no significant difference in D(85 °C) between dry inocula on talc used either 1 or 30 days after preparation (P > 0.05). However, the use the dry inocula of E. faecium yielded different results: the TSB-grown cells had a significantly (P < 0.05) greater heat resistance than TSA-grown cells (e.g. D(85 °C) for TSB-cells = 3.42 min versus 2.60 min for TSA-cells). E. faecium had significantly (P < 0.05) greater heat resistance than Salmonella Tennessee regardless what cell type was used for dry inoculum preparation; therefore, it proved to be a conservative but appropriate surrogate for thermal inactivation of Salmonella in low-moisture food matrices under the tested conditions.

  5. [Dynamics of contamination and persistence of Clostridium difficile in intestinal microbiota in newborn infants during antibiotic therapy and use of probiotic strain enterococcus faecium L3].

    PubMed

    Lo Skiavo, L A; Gonchar, N V; Fedorova, M S; Suvorov, A N

    2013-01-01

    Ninety four infants were observed as inpatients. Thirty nine of them were mature neonates and 55 were premature infants with a very low body weight. The majority of the patients were treated with antibiotics. The mature infants were treated with penicillins, aminoglycosides, cephalosporins and the premature neonates were treated in addition with carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, glycopeptides. The mature infants were randomized into 2 groups: the control group (n=18) received the standard therapy and the main group (n=21) in addition received 1 ml of liquid probiotic Enterococcus faecium L3 (with a titer of 5x10(8) CFU/ml) 2 times a day for 10 days. The premature newborn infants were also randomized into 2 groups. The control group (n=26) received the standard therapy. The main group (n=29) additionally received 1 ml of liquid probiotic E.faecium L3 2 times a day for 10 days. The effectiveness of the therapy in the mature neonates was evaluated by the frequency of dyspeptic disorders and in the premature infants by the frequency of infectious complications and the episodes of food intolerance. The intestinal microbiota of the infants was investigated by the real-time PCR and bacteriological analyses of the feces: in the mature infants on admission to the hospital and 10 days after the treatment (periods 1-2), in the premature infants on admission to the hospital and then twice with an interval of 14 days (periods 1-2-3). It was shown that the use of the probiotic strain E.faecium L3 during the antibiotic therapy in the premature infants promoted significant reduction in the frequency of infectious complications. In the mature neonates the probiotic therapy reduced the risk of dyspeptic disorder. The studies showed reduction in persistence of Clostridium difficile in the intestinal microbiota of the newborn infants receiving the antibiotic therapy in combination with probiotic E.faecium L3, that was accompanied by preserving and growth of bifidobacteria and

  6. Multilevel population genetic analysis of vanA and vanB Enterococcus faecium causing nosocomial outbreaks in 27 countries (1986-2012).

    PubMed

    Freitas, Ana R; Tedim, Ana P; Francia, Maria V; Jensen, Lars B; Novais, Carla; Peixe, Luísa; Sánchez-Valenzuela, Antonio; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Hegstad, Kristin; Werner, Guido; Sadowy, Ewa; Hammerum, Anette M; Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Willems, Rob J; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2016-12-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) have been increasingly reported since the 1980s. Despite the high number of published studies about VRE epidemiology, the dynamics and evolvability of these microorganisms are still not fully understood. A multilevel population genetic analysis of VREfm outbreak strains since 1986, representing the first comprehensive characterization of plasmid content in E. faecium, was performed to provide a detailed view of potential transmissible units. From a comprehensive MeSH search, we identified VREfm strains causing hospital outbreaks (1986-2012). In total, 53 VanA and 18 VanB isolates (27 countries, 5 continents) were analysed and 82 vancomycin-susceptible E. faecium (VSEfm) were included for comparison. Clonal relatedness was established by PFGE and MLST (goeBURST/Bayesian Analysis of Population Structure, BAPS). Characterization of van transposons (PCR mapping, RFLP, sequencing), plasmids (transfer, ClaI-RFLP, PCR typing of relaxases, replication-initiation proteins and toxin-antitoxin systems, hybridization, sequencing), bacteriocins and virulence determinants (PCR, hybridization, sequencing) was performed. VREfm were mainly associated with major human lineages ST17, ST18 and ST78. VREfm and VSEfm harboured plasmids of different families [RCR, small theta plasmids, RepA_N (pRUM/pLG1) and Inc18] able to yield mosaic elements. Tn1546-vanA was mainly located on pRUM/Axe-Txe (USA) and Inc18-pIP186 (Europe) plasmids. The VanB2 type (Tn5382/Tn1549) was predominant among VanB strains (chromosome and plasmids). Both strains and plasmids contributed to the spread and persistence of vancomycin resistance among E. faecium. Horizontal gene transfer events among genetic elements from different clonal lineages (same or different species) result in chimeras with different stability and host range, complicating the surveillance of epidemic plasmids. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British

  7. Determination of resistance and virulence genes in Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium strains isolated from poultry and their genotypic characterization by ADSRRS-fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Nowakiewicz, A; Ziólkowska, G; Troscianczyk, A; Zieba, P; Gnat, S

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance of E. faecalis and E. faecium strains isolated from poultry and to carry out genotypic characterization thereof with the ADSRRS-fingerprinting method (amplification of DNA fragments surrounding rare restriction sites) and analysis of the genetic relatedness between the isolates with different resistance and virulence determinants. Samples were collected from 70 4-week-old chickens and tested for Enterococcus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of 11 antimicrobials were determined using the broth microdilution method. Detection of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes was performed using PCR, and molecular analysis was carried out using the ADSRRS-fingerprinting method. The highest percentage of strains was resistant to tetracycline (60.5%) and erythromycin (54.4%), and a large number exhibited high-level resistance to both kanamycin (42.1%) and streptomycin (34.2%). Among 8 genes encoding AME, the tested strains showed mainly the presence of [aph(3΄)-IIIa], [ant(6)-Ia], [aac(6΄)-Ie-aph(2΄΄)-Ia], and [ant(9)-Ia] genes. Phenotypic resistance to erythromycin was encoded in 98.4% strains by the ermB gene. Genotypic resistance to tetracycline in E. faecium was associated with the presence of tetM and tetL (respectively, in 95.5 and 57.7% of the isolates); in contrast, E. faecalis strains were characterized mainly by the presence of tetO (83.3%). The virulence profile was homogenous for all E. faecium strains and included only efaAfm and ccf genes. All E. faecalis strains exhibited efaAfs, gelE, and genes encoding sex pheromones. The strains tested exhibited 34 genotypic profiles. Comparative analysis of phenotypic and genotypic resistance and virulence profiles and confrontation thereof with the genotypes of the strains tested showed that strains assigned to a particular genotype have an identical phenotypic resistance profile and a panel of resistance and virulence genes. The results of this

  8. Liofilchem(®) Chromatic VRE and vancomycin MIC Test Strip detected glycopeptide resistance in a vanB neonatal Enterococcus faecium isolate showing alternate vancomycin susceptibility and resistance with bioMérieux Vitek2.

    PubMed

    Savini, Vincenzo; Marrollo, Roberta; Coclite, Eleonora; Fusilli, Paola; D'Incecco, Carmine; Fazii, Paolo; Gherardi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    A 1-month old neonate urine sample yielded vanB Enterococcus faecium; nevertheless, the isolate alternatively showed susceptibility and resistance to vancomycin with bioMérieux Vitek2 (cards AST592, AST632, AST586), while glycopeptide resistance was detected by Liofilchem(®) vancomycin MIC Test Strip and disc along with the Chromatic VRE chromogenic medium. This communication emphasizes that, as vanB gene may be heterogeneously expressed within a given Enterococcus population, glycopeptide resistance may be missed when using automated systems for antibiotic susceptibility testing. We suggest therefore that vancomycin in vitro activity be studied on all clinical isolates through agar methods, including use of chromogenic media.

  9. Evaluation of High-Resolution Melting Curve Analysis of Ligation-Mediated Real-Time PCR, a Rapid Method for Epidemiological Typing of ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter Species) Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ryberg, Anna; Billström, Hanna; Hällgren, Anita; Nilsson, Lennart E.; Marklund, Britt-Inger; Olsson-Liljequist, Barbro; Schön, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A single-tube method, ligation-mediated real-time PCR high-resolution melt analysis (LMqPCR HRMA), was modified for the rapid typing of Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp. (ESKAPE) pathogens. A 97% agreement (60/62 isolates) was achieved in comparison to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) results, which indicates that LMqPCR HRMA is a rapid and accurate screening tool for monitoring nosocomial outbreaks. PMID:25232168

  10. Effect of a probiotic beverage consumption (Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 15707) in rats with chemically induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Celiberto, Larissa Sbaglia; Bedani, Raquel; Dejani, Naiara Naiana; Ivo de Medeiros, Alexandra; Sampaio Zuanon, José Antonio; Spolidorio, Luis Carlos; Tallarico Adorno, Maria Angela; Amâncio Varesche, Maria Bernadete; Carrilho Galvão, Fábio; Valentini, Sandro Roberto; Font de Valdez, Graciela; Rossi, Elizeu Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Background Some probiotic strains have the potential to assist in relieving the symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease. The impact of daily ingestion of a soy-based product fermented by Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus 416 with the addition of Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 15707 on chemically induced colitis has been investigated thereof within a period of 30 days. Methods Colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium. The animals were randomly assigned into five groups: Group C: negative control; Group CL: positive control; Group CLF: DSS with the fermented product; Group CLP: DSS with the non-fermented product (placebo); Group CLS: DSS with sulfasalazine. The following parameters were monitored: disease activity index, fecal microbial analyses, gastrointestinal survival of probiotic microorganisms and short-chain fatty acids concentration in the feces. At the end of the protocol the animals’ colons were removed so as to conduct a macroscopical and histopathological analysis, cytokines and nitrite quantification. Results Animals belonging to the CLF group showed fewer symptoms of colitis during the induction period and a lower degree of inflammation and ulceration in their colon compared to the CL, CLS and CLP groups (p<0.05). The colon of the animals in groups CL and CLS presented severe crypt damage, which was absent in CLF and CLP groups. A significant increase in the population of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. at the end of the protocol was verified only in the CLF animals (p<0.05). This group also showed an increase in short-chain fatty acids (propionate and acetate). Furthermore, the intestinal survival of E. faecium CRL 183 and B. longum ATCC 15707 in the CLF group has been confirmed by biochemical and molecular analyzes. Conclusions The obtained results suggest that a regular intake of the probiotic product, and placebo to a lesser extent, can reduce the severity of DSS-induced colitis on rats. PMID:28437455

  11. Population Structure of Enterococcus faecium Causing Bacteremia in a Spanish University Hospital: Setting the Scene for a Future Increase in Vancomycin Resistance?

    PubMed Central

    Coque, Teresa M.; Willems, Rob J. L.; Fortún, Jesús; Top, Janetta; Diz, Sergio; Loza, Elena; Cantón, Rafael; Baquero, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    Over an 8-year period (1995 to 2002), 86 Enterococcus faecium blood isolates from 84 patients, of which 54 were ampicillin resistant (AREF) and 32 were ampicillin susceptible (ASEF), were studied in a university hospital (1,200 beds; serving a population of 600,000) in Spain, a country characterized by a near-absence of resistance to vancomycin and very high rates of ampicillin resistance among enterococci. Clonal relatedness by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), antibiotic susceptibility, presence of the virulence/epidemicity genes espEfm and hylEfm, and identification of purK alleles were studied. A group of isolates was also analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and multilocus sequence typing. Medical charts (30 variables collected) were reviewed for 60/84 patients. ASEF showed high clonal diversity (32 PFGE types, 11 purK alleles, 4 AFLP genogroups), did not harbor putative virulence genes, and had no specific association with hospital acquisition. AREF isolates belonged to a clonal complex (CC) of genetically related strains (purK-1, AFLP genogroup C), occasionally harboring putative virulence traits, and were from patients with particular risk factors. Within this CC, previously associated with vancomycin-resistant E. faecium isolates causing outbreaks worldwide (W. L. Homan et al., J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:1963-1971, 2002), a great genetic diversity of antibiotic resistance and virulence/epidemicity profiles was found. Associations between esp and a >7-day hospital stay and between purK-1, hospital location, and nosocomial acquisition were noted (P < 0.001). These findings reflect the importance of local environmental differences in the evolution of this CC, suggesting that the emergence of vancomycin resistance among AREF strains in Spain may be a question of time. PMID:15980338

  12. Prevalence and mechanism of resistance against macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramins among Enterococcus faecium isolates from food-producing animals and hospital patients in Belgium.

    PubMed

    De Graef, E M; Decostere, A; De Leener, E; Goossens, H; Baele, M; Haesebrouck, F

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of acquired resistance to streptogramins, macrolides, and lincosamides and the genetic background of this resistance was investigated in Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from food-producing animals and hospital patients 4-5 years after the ban of streptogramins as growth promoters. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D), virginiamycin M1 (virgM1), erythromycin (ery), tylosin (tyl), and lincomycin (lin) were determined by the agar dilution method for E. faecium isolates derived from pigs (80), broilers (45), and hospitalized patients (103). Resistance or susceptibility was interpreted using a microbiological criterion and breakpoints recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), if available. The isolates were also screened by PCR for erm(B), lnu(A), lnu(B), mef(A/E), vat(D), vat(E), vga(A), vga(B), and vgb(A) genes. Acquired resistance to Q/D, virgM1, ery, tyl, and lin was detected in 34%, 96%, 46%, 46%, and 69% of the porcine strains, respectively. For broiler strains this was 15% (Q/D), 98% (virgM1), 69% (ery), 71% (tyl), and 89% (lin) and for human strains 23% (Q/D), 65% (virgM1), 54% (ery), 52% (tyl), and 60% (lin). Strains showing cross-resistance against macrolides and lincosamides almost always carried the erm(B) gene. This gene was present in 64% of the Q/D-resistant isolates. Only in two human and three broiler Q/D- and virgM1-resistant isolates, a combination of the erm(B) and vat(D) or vat(E) genes was found. The genetic background of resistance could not be determined in the other Q/D- or virgM1-resistant strains. This study demonstrates that streptogramin resistance is frequently present in strains from hospitalized patients and food-producing animals, but the genetic basis hitherto mostly remains obscure.

  13. Detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci from faecal samples of Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx, including Enterococcus faecium strains of CC17 and the new singleton ST573.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Alexandre; Igrejas, Gilberto; Radhouani, Hajer; López, María; Guerra, Ana; Petrucci-Fonseca, Francisco; Alcaide, Eva; Zorrilla, Irene; Serra, Rodrigo; Torres, Carmen; Poeta, Patrícia

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to perform the molecular characterization of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) within the faecal flora of Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx. The association with other resistance genes and the detection of virulence genes were also analysed. From 2008 to 2010, 365 faecal samples from Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx were collected and tested for VRE recovery. Mechanisms of resistance to vancomycin and other antibiotics, as well as genes encoding virulence factors were detected through PCR. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) was performed for Enterococcus faecium strains. VRE were recovered in 8 of the 365 analysed samples. The vanA gene was identified in two E. faecium isolates recovered from Iberian wolf faecal samples and the remaining six showed intrinsic resistance (3 vanC1-E. gallinarum and 3 vanC2-E. casseliflavus, from Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx faecal samples, respectively). One vanA-containing isolate showed tetracycline and erythromycin resistance [with erm(B) and tet(L) genes] and the other one also exhibited ampicillin and kanamycin resistance [with erm(B), tet(M) and aph(3')-III genes]. One of the vanA-isolates revealed a new sequence type named ST573 and the other one belonged to the CC17 clonal complex (ST18). The hyl gene was detected in one E. casseliflavus and three E. gallinarum but not among vanA-positive isolates, and the occurrence of cylA and cylL genes was confirmed in two E. casseliflavus isolates. A low prevalence of VRE has been detected in faecal samples of Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx and strains with an acquired mechanism of resistance to vancomycin have not been detected among Iberian lynx.

  14. Effect of a probiotic beverage consumption (Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 15707) in rats with chemically induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Celiberto, Larissa Sbaglia; Bedani, Raquel; Dejani, Naiara Naiana; Ivo de Medeiros, Alexandra; Sampaio Zuanon, José Antonio; Spolidorio, Luis Carlos; Tallarico Adorno, Maria Angela; Amâncio Varesche, Maria Bernadete; Carrilho Galvão, Fábio; Valentini, Sandro Roberto; Font de Valdez, Graciela; Rossi, Elizeu Antonio; Cavallini, Daniela Cardoso Umbelino

    2017-01-01

    Some probiotic strains have the potential to assist in relieving the symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease. The impact of daily ingestion of a soy-based product fermented by Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus 416 with the addition of Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 15707 on chemically induced colitis has been investigated thereof within a period of 30 days. Colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium. The animals were randomly assigned into five groups: Group C: negative control; Group CL: positive control; Group CLF: DSS with the fermented product; Group CLP: DSS with the non-fermented product (placebo); Group CLS: DSS with sulfasalazine. The following parameters were monitored: disease activity index, fecal microbial analyses, gastrointestinal survival of probiotic microorganisms and short-chain fatty acids concentration in the feces. At the end of the protocol the animals' colons were removed so as to conduct a macroscopical and histopathological analysis, cytokines and nitrite quantification. Animals belonging to the CLF group showed fewer symptoms of colitis during the induction period and a lower degree of inflammation and ulceration in their colon compared to the CL, CLS and CLP groups (p<0.05). The colon of the animals in groups CL and CLS presented severe crypt damage, which was absent in CLF and CLP groups. A significant increase in the population of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. at the end of the protocol was verified only in the CLF animals (p<0.05). This group also showed an increase in short-chain fatty acids (propionate and acetate). Furthermore, the intestinal survival of E. faecium CRL 183 and B. longum ATCC 15707 in the CLF group has been confirmed by biochemical and molecular analyzes. The obtained results suggest that a regular intake of the probiotic product, and placebo to a lesser extent, can reduce the severity of DSS-induced colitis on rats.

  15. Effect of vancomycin, tylosin, and chlortetracycline on vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium colonization of broiler chickens during grow-out

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Broiler chickens may serve as reservoirs for human colonization by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). We examined the effects of vancomycin and two commonly-used antimicrobial feed additives on VRE colonization in broiler chickens during grow-out. Chicks received unsupplemented feed or feed ...

  16. SgrA, a nidogen-binding LPXTG surface adhesin implicated in biofilm formation, and EcbA, a collagen binding MSCRAMM, are two novel adhesins of hospital-acquired Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Antoni P A; van Luit-Asbroek, Miranda; Schapendonk, Claudia M E; van Wamel, Willem J B; Braat, Johanna C; Wijnands, Lucas M; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L

    2009-11-01

    Hospital-acquired Enterococcus faecium isolates responsible for nosocomial outbreaks and invasive infections are enriched in the orf2351 and orf2430 genes, encoding the SgrA and EcbA LPXTG-like cell wall-anchored proteins, respectively. These two surface proteins were characterized to gain insight into their function, since they may have favored the rapid emergence of this nosocomial pathogen. We are the first to identify a surface adhesin among bacteria (SgrA) that binds to the extracellular matrix molecules nidogen 1 and nidogen 2, which are constituents of the basal lamina. EcbA is a novel E. faecium MSCRAMM (microbial surface component recognizing adhesive matrix molecules) that binds to collagen type V. In addition, both SgrA and EcbA bound to fibrinogen; however, SgrA targeted the alpha and beta chains, whereas EcbA bound to the gamma chain of fibrinogen. An E. faecium sgrA insertion mutant displayed reduced binding to both nidogens and fibrinogen. SgrA did not mediate binding of E. faecium cells to biotic materials, such as human intestinal epithelial cells, human bladder cells, and kidney cells, while this LPXTG surface adhesin is implicated in E. faecium biofilm formation. The acm and scm genes, encoding two other E. faecium MSCRAMMs, were expressed at the mRNA level together with sgrA during all phases of growth, whereas ecbA was expressed only in exponential and late exponential phase, suggesting orchestrated expression of these adhesins. Expression of these surface proteins, which bind to extracellular matrix proteins and are involved in biofilm formation (SgrA), may contribute to the pathogenesis of hospital-acquired E. faecium infections.

  17. Mass transfer characterization of gamma-aminobutyric acid production by Enterococcus faecium CFR 3003: encapsulation improves its survival under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Divyashri, Gangaraju; Prapulla, Siddalingaiya Gurudatt

    2015-03-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production by free and Ca-alginate encapsulated cells of Enterococcus faecium CFR 3003 was investigated. Mass transfer rates characterizing the GABA production process using encapsulated cells were investigated. Experiments were performed to investigate external film and internal pore diffusion mass transfer rates. The Damkohler and Thiele analysis provides a good description of external film and internal pore diffusion resistances, respectively. The experiments revealed that the external film effects could be neglected but the process is affected to the greater extent by internal mass transfer effects and was found to be the principal rate-controlling step. Protective effect of encapsulation on cell survivability was tested under digestive environment, when challenged to salivary α-amylase, simulated gastric fluid and intestinal fluid. Viability of encapsulated cells was significantly higher under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions and could produce higher GABA than those observed with free cells. The results indicate that the Ca-alginate encapsulated probiotics could effectively be delivered to the colonic site for effective inhibitory action.

  18. Dietary Supplementation with a Combination of Lactoferrin, Fish Oil, and Enterococcus faecium WB2000 for Treating Dry Eye: A Rat Model and Human Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Motoko; Nakamura, Shigeru; Izuta, Yusuke; Inoue, Sachiko; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    To examine the effect of a combined dietary supplement containing fish oil, lactoferrin, zinc, vitamin C, lutein, vitamin E, γ-aminobutanoic acid, and Enterococcus faecium WB2000 on dry eye. A preliminary study in a rat model and a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in humans were conducted. Forty Japanese volunteers aged 22 to 59 years were randomized into combined dietary supplement (2 capsules/day; 20 participants) and placebo (vehicle; 19 participants) groups and treated once daily for 8 weeks. Rats received the combined dietary supplement components (10 or 50 mg/kg orally) or vehicle (2% DMSO), and dry eye was mechanically induced for 2 days. Tear production was measured in rats after dry eye was induced. Humans were assessed at baseline and weeks 4 and 8 post-supplementation based on keratoconjunctival epithelial damage; fluorescein tear film breakup time; tear production; biochemical data; information regarding subjective dry eye symptoms by answering a questionnaire; and information regarding adverse events via medical interviews. Supplementation dose-dependently mitigated the decrease in tear production in rats. Among subjects with confirmed dry eye, clinical symptoms improved at weeks 4 and 8 more significantly in the supplementation group than in the placebo group (P<.05). The rate of increase in the Schirmer value was greater in the supplementation group. No adverse events occurred. Supplementation improved objective and subjective dry eye symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Colonisation of poultry by Salmonella Enteritidis S1400 is reduced by combined administration of Lactobacillus salivarius 59 and Enterococcus faecium PXN-33.

    PubMed

    Carter, Alun; Adams, Martin; La Ragione, Roberto M; Woodward, Martin J

    2017-02-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis remains a significant issue within the poultry industry and one potential solution is to use probiotic bacteria to prevent Salmonella colonisation through competitive exclusion (CE). We demonstrate that combined administration of Lactobacillus salivarius 59 and Enterococcus faecium PXN33 were effective competitive excluders of Salmonella Enteritidis S1400 in poultry. Two models were developed to evaluate the efficacy of probiotic where birds received Salmonella Enteritidis S1400 by a) oral gavage and b) sentinel bird to bird transmission. A statistically significant (p<0.001) 2 log reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis S1400 colonisation was observed in the ileum, caecum and colon at day 43 using combined administration of the two probiotic bacteria. However, no Salmonella Enteritidis S1400 colonisation reduction was observed when either probiotic was administered individually. In the sentinel bird model the combined probiotic administered at days 12 and 20 was more effective than one-off or double administrations at age 1 and 12days. In vitro cell free culture supernatant studies suggest the mechanism of Salmonella Enteritidis S1400 inhibition was due to a reduction in pH by the probiotic bacteria. Our current study provides further evidence that probiotics can significantly reduce pathogenic bacterial colonisation in poultry and that mixed preparation of probiotics provide superior performance when compared to individual bacterial preparations.

  20. The VanS-VanR two-component regulatory system controls synthesis of depsipeptide peptidoglycan precursors in Enterococcus faecium BM4147.

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, M; Molinas, C; Courvalin, P

    1992-01-01

    Plasmid pIP816 of Enterococcus faecium BM4147 confers inducible resistance to vancomycin and encodes the VanH dehydrogenase and the VanA ligase for synthesis of depsipeptide-containing peptidoglycan precursors which bind the antibiotic with reduced affinity. We have characterized a cluster of five genes of pIP816 sufficient for peptidoglycan synthesis in the presence of vancomycin. The distal part of the van cluster encodes VanH, VanA, and a third enzyme, VanX, all of which are necessary for resistance. Synthesis of these enzymes was regulated at the transcriptional level by the VanS-VanR two-component regulatory system encoded by the proximal part of the cluster. VanR was a transcriptional activator related to response regulators of the OmpR subclass. VanS stimulated VanR-dependent transcription and was related to membrane-associated histidine protein kinases which control the level of phosphorylation of response regulators. Analysis of transcriptional fusions with a reporter gene and RNA mapping indicated that the VanR-VanS two-component regulatory system activates a promoter used for cotranscription of the vanH, vanA, and vanX resistance genes. Images PMID:1556077

  1. Evaluation of a novel method based on amplification of DNA fragments surrounding rare restriction sites (ADSRRS fingerprinting) for typing strains of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Beata; Lewandowski, Krzysztof; Bronk, Marek; Samet, Alfred; Myjak, Przemysław; Kur, Józef

    2003-03-01

    In the search for an effective DNA-typing technique for use in hospital epidemiology, the performance and convenience of a novel assay based on the fingerprinting of bacterial genomes by amplification of DNA fragments surrounding rare restriction sites (ADSRRS fingerprinting) was tested. A large number of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREM) isolates from haematological ward patients of the Clinical Hospital in Gdańsk were examined. We found that ADSRRS fingerprinting analysis is a rapid method that offers good discriminatory power. The method demonstrated also excellent reproducibility. The usefulness of the ADSRRS fingerprinting method for molecular typing was compared with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method, which is currently considered the gold standard for molecular typing of isolates recovered from patients and the environment in the course of investigation and control of nosocomial outbreaks. Clustering of ADSRRS fingerprinting data matched pulsed field gel electrophoresis data. The features of ADSRRS fingerprinting technique is discussed in comparison with conventional methods. Data presented here demonstrate the complexity of the epidemiological situation concerning VREM that may occur in a single medical ward.

  2. Effect of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium SF68 on presence of diarrhea in cats and dogs housed in an animal shelter.

    PubMed

    Bybee, S N; Scorza, A V; Lappin, M R

    2011-01-01

    Beneficial effects of probiotics have never been analyzed in an animal shelter. Dogs and cats housed in an animal shelter and administered a probiotic are less likely to have diarrhea of ≥2 days duration than untreated controls. Two hundred and seventeen cats and 182 dogs. Double blinded and placebo controlled. Shelter dogs and cats were housed in 2 separate rooms for each species. For 4 weeks, animals in 1 room for each species was fed Enterococcus faecium SF68 while animals in the other room were fed a placebo. After a 1-week washout period, the treatments by room were switched and the study continued an additional 4 weeks. A standardized fecal score system was applied to feces from each animal every day by a blinded individual. Feces of animals with and without diarrhea were evaluated for enteric parasites. Data were analyzed by a generalized linear mixed model using a binomial distribution with treatment being a fixed effect and the room being a random effect. The percentage of cats with diarrhea ≥2 days was significantly lower (P = .0297) in the probiotic group (7.4%) when compared with the placebo group (20.7%). Statistical differences between groups of dogs were not detected but diarrhea was uncommon in both groups of dogs during the study. Cats fed SF68 had fewer episodes of diarrhea of ≥2 days when compared with controls suggests the probiotic may have beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal tract. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Oven, microwave, and combination roasting of peanuts: comparison of inactivation of salmonella surrogate Enterococcus faecium, color, volatiles, flavor, and lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alicia L; Perry, Jennifer J; Marshall, Julie A; Yousef, Ahmed E; Barringer, Sheryl A

    2014-08-01

    Peanut safety and quality were evaluated for different roasting technologies. Shelled raw peanuts were roasted using an oven at 163 to 204 °C, microwave, or oven and microwave combinations. The lethal effect of these treatments was investigated on peanuts inoculated with the Salmonella surrogate, Enterococcus faecium and stored at room temperature for 1 h, 24 h, or 7 d before roasting. Roasted peanut color, odor activity values (OAVs), descriptive sensory panel analysis, free fatty acid, and peroxide values were determined. Color and OAVs were also analyzed on 2 commercial peanut butters. OAVs were calculated using volatile levels quantified with selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry and known odor thresholds. All treatments resulted in a minimum of 3 log reduction of inoculated bacterial population. Resistance to the process was not influenced by storage of inoculated peanuts prior to treatment. Roasting by different methods produced equivalent, commercially ideal L* color. Based on the OAVs, treatments had similar volatiles important to flavor compared to the commercial samples. Descriptive sensory analysis showed no significant difference between the roasting treatments for most of the sensory attributes. Lipid oxidation was not significantly different between the roasting methods, displaying no evidence that roasting time or temperature affected lipid oxidation, when ideal color was produced. These results suggest that oven, microwave, or combination roasting should be sufficient to mitigate the threat of Salmonella contamination and produce similar color, OAVs, sensory attributes, and lipid oxidation results.

  4. Identification and phenotypic characterization of a second collagen adhesin, Scm, and genome-based identification and analysis of 13 other predicted MSCRAMMs, including four distinct pilus loci, in Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Sillanpää, Jouko; Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R; Prakash, Vittal P; Qin, Xiang; Höök, Magnus; Weinstock, George M; Murray, Barbara E

    2008-10-01

    Attention has recently been drawn to Enterococcus faecium because of an increasing number of nosocomial infections caused by this species and its resistance to multiple antibacterial agents. However, relatively little is known about the pathogenic determinants of this organism. We have previously identified a cell-wall-anchored collagen adhesin, Acm, produced by some isolates of E. faecium, and a secreted antigen, SagA, exhibiting broad-spectrum binding to extracellular matrix proteins. Here, we analysed the draft genome of strain TX0016 for potential microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs). Genome-based bioinformatics identified 22 predicted cell-wall-anchored E. faecium surface proteins (Fms), of which 15 (including Acm) had characteristics typical of MSCRAMMs, including predicted folding into a modular architecture with multiple immunoglobulin-like domains. Functional characterization of one [Fms10; redesignated second collagen adhesin of E. faecium (Scm)] revealed that recombinant Scm(65) (A- and B-domains) and Scm(36) (A-domain) bound to collagen type V efficiently in a concentration-dependent manner, bound considerably less to collagen type I and fibrinogen, and differed from Acm in their binding specificities to collagen types IV and V. Results from far-UV circular dichroism measurements of recombinant Scm(36) and of Acm(37) indicated that these proteins were rich in beta-sheets, supporting our folding predictions. Whole-cell ELISA and FACS analyses unambiguously demonstrated surface expression of Scm in most E. faecium isolates. Strikingly, 11 of the 15 predicted MSCRAMMs clustered in four loci, each with a class C sortase gene; nine of these showed similarity to Enterococcus faecalis Ebp pilus subunits and also contained motifs essential for pilus assembly. Antibodies against one of the predicted major pilus proteins, Fms9 (redesignated EbpC(fm)), detected a 'ladder' pattern of high-molecular-mass protein bands in a

  5. Population structure and acquisition of the vanB resistance determinant in German clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium ST192

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Jennifer K.; Kalmbach, Alexander; Fleige, Carola; Klare, Ingo; Fuchs, Stephan; Werner, Guido

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the global action plan to reduce the dissemination of antibiotic resistances it is of utmost importance to understand the population structure of resistant endemic bacterial lineages and to elucidate how bacteria acquire certain resistance determinants. Vancomycin resistant enterococci represent one such example of a prominent nosocomial pathogen on which nation-wide population analyses on prevalent lineages are scarce and data on how the bacteria acquire resistance, especially of the vanB genotype, are still under debate. With respect to Germany, an increased prevalence of VRE was noted in recent years. Here, invasive infections caused by sequence type ST192 VRE are often associated with the vanB-type resistance determinant. Hence, we analyzed 49 vanB-positive and vanB-negative E. faecium isolates by means of whole genome sequencing. Our studies revealed a distinct population structure and that spread of the Tn1549-vanB-type resistance involves exchange of large chromosomal fragments between vanB-positive and vanB-negative enterococci rather than independent acquisition events. In vitro filter-mating experiments support the hypothesis and suggest the presence of certain target sequences as a limiting factor for dissemination of the vanB element. Thus, the present study provides a better understanding of how enterococci emerge into successful multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogens. PMID:26902259

  6. Biochemical and genetic characterization of enterocin P, a novel sec-dependent bacteriocin from Enterococcus faecium P13 with a broad antimicrobial spectrum.

    PubMed

    Cintas, L M; Casaus, P; Håvarstein, L S; Hernández, P E; Nes, I F

    1997-11-01

    Enterocin P is a new bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecium P13 isolated from a Spanish dry-fermented sausage. Enterocin P inhibited most of tested spoilage and food-borne gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, such as Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, and Clostridium botulinum. Enterocin P is produced during growth in MRS broth from 16 to 45 degrees C; it is heat resistant (60 min at 100 degrees C; 15 min at 121 degrees C) and can withstand exposure to pH between 2.0 and 11.0, freeze-thawing, lyophilization, and long-term storage at 4 and -20 degrees C. The bacteriocin was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration, cation-exchange, hydrophobic-interaction, and reverse-phase liquid chromatography. The sequence of 43 amino acids of the N terminus was obtained by Edman degradation. DNA sequencing analysis of a 755-bp region revealed the presence of two consecutive open reading frames (ORFs). The first ORF encodes a 71-amino-acid protein containing a hydrophobic N-terminal sec-dependent leader sequence of 27 amino acids followed by the amino acid sequence corresponding to the purified and sequenced enterocin P. The bacteriocin is apparently synthesized as a prepeptide that is cleaved immediately after the Val-Asp-Ala residues (positions -3 to -1), resulting in the mature bacteriocin consisting of 44 amino acids, and with a theoretical molecular weight of 4,493. A second ORF, encoding a putative immunity protein composed of 88 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 9,886, was found immediately downstream of the enterocin P structural gene. Enterocin P shows a strong antilisterial activity and has the consensus sequence found in the pediocin-like bacteriocins; however, enterocin P is processed and secreted by the sec-dependent pathway.

  7. Systemic and local bactericidal potentiality in late lactation Holstein-Friesian cows following a combined antibiotics and Enterococcus faecium SF68 dry-cow treatment.

    PubMed

    Tiantong, Attapol; Piamya, Piya; Chen, Shuen-Ei; Liu, Wen-Bor; Chang, Fang-Yu; Lin, Pei-Chi; Nagahata, Hajime; Chang, Chai-Ju

    2015-08-01

    Antibiotic dry-cow treatment contributes a major part to the total use of antibiotics in dairy herds. Enterococcus faecium strain SF68 (SF68) was of human origin but has been authorized in EU as probiotic feed additive. In the present study, one of the front and rear quarters of twelve late lactation Holstein-Friesian cows were infused once with a commercial antibiotic dry-cow formula (antibiotics quarter) on the first milk-stasis day (d 1), when the contrallateral quarters were infused with 5 x 10(8)-CFU SF68 plus half-dose antibiotic dry-cow formula (SF68/antibiotics quarter) meanwhile. Gelatinase level and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production capacity were measured for blood and quarter secretion. The results showed that the count of blood total leukocytes minorly decreased on d 3 only but the microscopic somatic cell count (MSCC) continuously increased up to d 7, especially in SF68/antibiotics quarters. Plasma level of gelatinase A remained similar up to d 7 but gelatinase B was not detectable in plasma throughout the study. The level of gelatinase A in quarter secretion increased up to d 7 but gelatinase B increased even more drastically, especially in SF68/antibiotics quarters. The ROS production capacity of blood leukocytes increased temporarily only on d 3, but that of milk cells continuously increased up to d 7, especially in SF68/antitiotics quarters. Overall, late lactation Holstein-Friesian cows were systemically adaptable to the combined antibiotics and SF68 dry-cow treatment, while the local bactericidal potentiality in mammary gland was actively responsive to additional SF68 intramammary treatment.

  8. Linezolid in the treatment of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in solid organ transplant recipients: report of a multicenter compassionate-use trial.

    PubMed

    El-Khoury, J; Fishman, J A

    2003-09-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) is increasing in incidence in solid organ transplant recipients and has a high (up to 83%) associated mortality rate. Until recently, there have been no consistently effective antimicrobial therapies for VRE infection. Linezolid is a new antibiotic that belongs to the class of oxazolidinones approved by the FDA for the treatment of VRE infections, including those with bacteremia. Here, we report the experience with linezolid in an open-label, compassionate-use trial at 53 US centers for the treatment of documented VRE infections in patients with solid organ transplants. Eighty-five patients with solid organ transplants and documented VRE infections were studied. Blood cultures were positive for VRE in 43 patients, while 42 patients had other, non-rectal, sites of infection. Fifty-three patients responded well to treatment, with clinical resolution of the infection (62.4% survival rate). Of these, 47 had documented negative cultures post therapy. The mean duration of therapy for cured patients was 23.5 days. Thirty-two (37.6%) patients died, 28 due to sepsis and organ failure (32.9% failure rate), and 4 due to unrelated causes. Mortality rates for patients with bacteremia were comparable to mortality rates observed with patients who had positive cultures from other sites. Adverse reactions to linezolid included thrombocytopenia (4.7%), decreased leukocyte count (3.5%), and an increase in blood pressure (1.2%), none of which led to discontinuation of therapy. Linezolid appears to be a safe and effective treatment option for VRE, even in the presence of bacteremia, and may lead to decreased mortality in solid organ transplant recipients with VRE infection.

  9. The Enterococcus faecium enterococcal biofilm regulator, EbrB, regulates the esp operon and is implicated in biofilm formation and intestinal colonization.

    PubMed

    Top, Janetta; Paganelli, Fernanda L; Zhang, Xinglin; van Schaik, Willem; Leavis, Helen L; van Luit-Asbroek, Miranda; van der Poll, Tom; Leendertse, Masja; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, Enterococcus faecium is one of the leading nosocomial pathogens worldwide. Strains causing clinical infections or hospital outbreaks are enriched in the enterococcal surface protein (Esp) encoding ICEEfm1 mobile genetic element. Previous studies showed that Esp is involved in biofilm formation, endocarditis and urinary tract infections. In this study, we characterized the role of the putative AraC type of regulator (locus tag EfmE1162_2351), which we renamed ebrB and which is, based on the currently available whole genome sequences, always located upstream of the esp gene, and studied its role in Esp surface exposure during growth. A markerless deletion mutant of ebrB resulted in reduced esp expression and complete abolishment of Esp surface exposure, while Esp cell-surface exposure was restored when this mutant was complemented with an intact copy of ebrB. This demonstrates a role for EbrB in esp expression. However, during growth, ebrB expression levels did not change over time, while an increase in esp expression at both RNA and protein level was observed during mid-log and late-log phase. These results indicate the existence of a secondary regulation system for esp, which might be an unknown quorum sensing system as the enhanced esp expression seems to be cell density dependent. Furthermore, we determined that esp is part of an operon of at least 3 genes putatively involved in biofilm formation. A semi-static biofilm model revealed reduced biofilm formation for the EbrB deficient mutant, while dynamics of biofilm formation using a flow cell system revealed delayed biofilm formation in the ebrB mutant. In a mouse intestinal colonization model the ebrB mutant was less able to colonize the gut compared to wild-type strain, especially in the small intestine. These data indicate that EbrB positively regulates the esp operon and is implicated in biofilm formation and intestinal colonization.

  10. Virulence determinants in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium vanB: clonal distribution, prevalence and significance of esp and hyl in Australian patients with haematological disorders.

    PubMed

    Worth, L J; Slavin, M A; Vankerckhoven, V; Goossens, H; Grabsch, E A; Thursky, K A

    2008-02-01

    European studies have suggested that the esp gene and other virulence factors have roles in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) infections. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the spectrum of clinical disease and putative virulence factors in vanB VREfm isolates. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify potential virulence genes (asa1, gel E, cylA, esp and hyl) in VREfm isolates obtained from an Australian population of haematology patients. Clonality was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and automated ribotyping. Infection, requirement for intensive care unit (ICU) admission and all-cause 30-day mortality were used as clinical indicators of organism virulence. Forty-one VREfm vanB isolates (41 patients; 14 infected and 27 colonised only) were analysed. Thirty-five of these isolates were typed by PFGE, 31 of which were represented by three clusters. The esp gene was identified in 22 of 27 (81.5%) screening and 11 of 14 (78.6%) infection-associated isolates. One isolate was hyl gene positive, and no isolate contained asa1, gel E or cylA genes. VREfm infection was independently associated with host factors (underlying diagnosis of acute myeloid leukaemia, age

  11. The Enterococcus faecium Enterococcal Biofilm Regulator, EbrB, Regulates the esp Operon and Is Implicated in Biofilm Formation and Intestinal Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Top, Janetta; Paganelli, Fernanda L.; Zhang, Xinglin; van Schaik, Willem; Leavis, Helen L.; van Luit-Asbroek, Miranda; van der Poll, Tom; Leendertse, Masja; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Willems, Rob J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, Enterococcus faecium is one of the leading nosocomial pathogens worldwide. Strains causing clinical infections or hospital outbreaks are enriched in the enterococcal surface protein (Esp) encoding ICEEfm1 mobile genetic element. Previous studies showed that Esp is involved in biofilm formation, endocarditis and urinary tract infections. In this study, we characterized the role of the putative AraC type of regulator (locus tag EfmE1162_2351), which we renamed ebrB and which is, based on the currently available whole genome sequences, always located upstream of the esp gene, and studied its role in Esp surface exposure during growth. A markerless deletion mutant of ebrB resulted in reduced esp expression and complete abolishment of Esp surface exposure, while Esp cell-surface exposure was restored when this mutant was complemented with an intact copy of ebrB. This demonstrates a role for EbrB in esp expression. However, during growth, ebrB expression levels did not change over time, while an increase in esp expression at both RNA and protein level was observed during mid-log and late-log phase. These results indicate the existence of a secondary regulation system for esp, which might be an unknown quorum sensing system as the enhanced esp expression seems to be cell density dependent. Furthermore, we determined that esp is part of an operon of at least 3 genes putatively involved in biofilm formation. A semi-static biofilm model revealed reduced biofilm formation for the EbrB deficient mutant, while dynamics of biofilm formation using a flow cell system revealed delayed biofilm formation in the ebrB mutant. In a mouse intestinal colonization model the ebrB mutant was less able to colonize the gut compared to wild-type strain, especially in the small intestine. These data indicate that EbrB positively regulates the esp operon and is implicated in biofilm formation and intestinal colonization. PMID:23741484

  12. Biochemical and genetic characterization of enterocin P, a novel sec-dependent bacteriocin from Enterococcus faecium P13 with a broad antimicrobial spectrum.

    PubMed Central

    Cintas, L M; Casaus, P; Håvarstein, L S; Hernández, P E; Nes, I F

    1997-01-01

    Enterocin P is a new bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecium P13 isolated from a Spanish dry-fermented sausage. Enterocin P inhibited most of tested spoilage and food-borne gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, such as Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, and Clostridium botulinum. Enterocin P is produced during growth in MRS broth from 16 to 45 degrees C; it is heat resistant (60 min at 100 degrees C; 15 min at 121 degrees C) and can withstand exposure to pH between 2.0 and 11.0, freeze-thawing, lyophilization, and long-term storage at 4 and -20 degrees C. The bacteriocin was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration, cation-exchange, hydrophobic-interaction, and reverse-phase liquid chromatography. The sequence of 43 amino acids of the N terminus was obtained by Edman degradation. DNA sequencing analysis of a 755-bp region revealed the presence of two consecutive open reading frames (ORFs). The first ORF encodes a 71-amino-acid protein containing a hydrophobic N-terminal sec-dependent leader sequence of 27 amino acids followed by the amino acid sequence corresponding to the purified and sequenced enterocin P. The bacteriocin is apparently synthesized as a prepeptide that is cleaved immediately after the Val-Asp-Ala residues (positions -3 to -1), resulting in the mature bacteriocin consisting of 44 amino acids, and with a theoretical molecular weight of 4,493. A second ORF, encoding a putative immunity protein composed of 88 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 9,886, was found immediately downstream of the enterocin P structural gene. Enterocin P shows a strong antilisterial activity and has the consensus sequence found in the pediocin-like bacteriocins; however, enterocin P is processed and secreted by the sec-dependent pathway. PMID:9361419

  13. Effect of Vancomycin, Tylosin, and Chlortetracycline on Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Colonization of Broiler Chickens During Grow-Out.

    PubMed

    Hume, Michael E; Donskey, Curtis J

    2017-01-27

    Broiler chickens may serve as reservoirs for human colonization by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). We examined the effects of vancomycin and two commonly used antimicrobial feed additives on VRE colonization in broiler chickens during grow-out. Chicks received unsupplemented feed or feed containing vancomycin, chlortetracycline, or tylosin from day of hatch to grow-out at 6 weeks. At 3 days of age, chicks received by crop gavage 10(7) colony-forming units (CFUs) of a human or poultry VRE isolate. Cecal contents were monitored weekly for VRE, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and bacterial denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profile methods. Vancomycin promoted persistent and high-level colonization with human- and poultry-derived VRE to grow-out in comparison with controls, while treatment with chlortetracycline and tylosin did not. Colonization by the poultry isolate in control, chlortetracycline, and tylosin groups persisted throughout the grow-out period with low concentrations present at 6 weeks, whereas the human isolate decreased to an undetectable level by week 6. Vancomycin resulted in significant reductions in cecal acetic acid and butyric acid in comparison with controls, but chlortetracycline and tylosin did not. DGGE profiles contained two main clusters with all vancomycin profiles in a smaller cluster and all other profiles in a larger cluster. These results demonstrate that vancomycin, but not chlortetracycline or tylosin, disrupted the indigenous microbiota and SCFA patterns of broiler chickens and promoted colonization by VRE.

  14. Evaluation of high-resolution melting curve analysis of ligation-mediated real-time PCR, a rapid method for epidemiological typing of ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter Species) pathogens.

    PubMed

    Woksepp, Hanna; Ryberg, Anna; Billström, Hanna; Hällgren, Anita; Nilsson, Lennart E; Marklund, Britt-Inger; Olsson-Liljequist, Barbro; Schön, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    A single-tube method, ligation-mediated real-time PCR high-resolution melt analysis (LMqPCR HRMA), was modified for the rapid typing of Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp. (ESKAPE) pathogens. A 97% agreement (60/62 isolates) was achieved in comparison to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) results, which indicates that LMqPCR HRMA is a rapid and accurate screening tool for monitoring nosocomial outbreaks. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Genetic Linkage and Cotransfer of a Novel, vanB-Containing Transposon (Tn5382) and a Low-Affinity Penicillin-Binding Protein 5 Gene in a Clinical Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Carias, Lenore L.; Rudin, Susan D.; Donskey, Curtis J.; Rice, Louis B.

    1998-01-01

    Mechanisms for the intercellular transfer of VanB-type vancomycin resistance determinants and for the almost universal association of these determinants with those for high-level ampicillin resistance remain poorly defined. We report the discovery of Tn5382, a ca. 27-kb putative transposon encoding VanB-type glycopeptide resistance in Enterococcus faecium. Open reading frames internal to the right end of Tn5382 and downstream of the vanXB dipeptidase gene exhibit significant homology to genes encoding the excisase and integrase of conjugative transposon Tn916. The ends of Tn5382 are also homologous to the ends of Tn916, especially in regions bound by the integrase enzyme. PCR amplification experiments indicate that Tn5382 excises to form a circular intermediate in E. faecium. Integration of Tn5382 in the chromosome of E. faecium C68 has occurred 113 bp downstream of the stop codon for the pbp5 gene, which encodes high-level ampicillin resistance in this clinical isolate. Transfer of vancomycin, ampicillin, and tetracycline resistance from C68 to an E. faecium recipient strain occurs at low frequency in vitro and is associated with acquisition of a 130- to 160-kb segment of DNA that contains Tn5382, the pbp5 gene, and its putative repressor gene, psr. The interenterococcal transfer of this large chromosomal element appears to be the primary mechanism for vanB operon spread in northeast Ohio. These results expand the known family of Tn916-related transposons, suggest a mechanism for vanB operon entry into and dissemination among enterococci, and provide an explanation for the nearly universal association of vancomycin and high-level ampicillin resistance in clinical E. faecium strains. PMID:9721279

  16. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of SecA from Enterococcus faecalis

    SciTech Connect

    Meining, Winfried; Scheuring, Johannes; Fischer, Markus; Weinkauf, Sevil

    2006-06-01

    SecA ATPase from E. faecalis has been cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals belong to space group C2 and diffract to 2.4 Å resolution. The gene coding for SecA from Enterococcus faecalis was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. In this protein, the lysine at position 6 was replaced by an asparagine in order to reduce sensitivity towards proteases. The modified protein was purified and crystallized. Crystals diffracting to 2.4 Å resolution were obtained using the vapour-diffusion technique. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 203.4, b = 49.8, c = 100.8 Å, α = γ = 90.0, β = 119.1°. A selenomethionine derivative was prepared and is currently being tested in crystallization trials.

  17. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Enterococcus faecium aminoglycoside-2′′-phosphotransferase-Ib [APH(2′′)-Ib

    SciTech Connect

    Walanj, Rupa; Young, Paul; Baker, Heather M.; Baker, Edward N.; Metcalf, Peter; Chow, Joseph W.; Lerner, Stephen; Vakulenko, Sergei; Smith, Clyde A.

    2005-04-01

    APH(2′′)-Ib is an enzyme responsible for high-level gentamicin resistance in E. faecium isolates. Native crystals of this enzyme have been prepared and preliminary X-ray diffraction experiments have been undertaken. Bacterial resistance to the aminoglycoside antibiotics is primarily the result of deactivation of the drugs. Three families of enzymes are responsible for this activity, with one such family being the aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs). The gene encoding one of these enzymes, APH(2′′)-Ib, has been cloned and the protein (comprising 299 amino-acid residues) expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized in the presence of 16%(w/v) PEG 3350 and gentamicin. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with approximate unit-cell parameters a = 79.7, b = 58.8, c = 81.4 Å, β = 98.4°, and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis is consistent with the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit. Synchrotron diffraction data to approximately 2.65 Å resolution were collected from a native APH(2′′)-Ib crystal at beamline BL9-2 at SSRL (Stanford, CA, USA). Selenium-substituted crystals have also been produced and structure determination is proceeding.

  18. Serine/threonine protein phosphatase-mediated control of the peptidoglycan cross-linking L,D-transpeptidase pathway in Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Emmanuelle; Cortes, Mélanie; Josseaume, Nathalie; Rice, Louis B; Mainardi, Jean-Luc; Arthur, Michel

    2014-07-08

    The last step of peptidoglycan polymerization involves two families of unrelated transpeptidases that are the essential targets of β-lactam antibiotics. D,D-transpeptidases of the penicillin-binding protein (PBP) family are active-site serine enzymes that use pentapeptide precursors and are the main or exclusive cross-linking enzymes in nearly all bacteria. However, peptidoglycan cross-linking is performed mainly by active-site cysteine L,D-transpeptidases that use tetrapeptides in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Clostridium difficile, and β-lactam-resistant mutants of Enterococcus faecium. We have investigated reprogramming of the E. faecium peptidoglycan assembly pathway by a switch from pentapeptide to tetrapeptide precursors and bypass of PBPs by L,D-transpeptidase Ldtfm. Mutational alterations of two signal transduction systems were necessary and sufficient for activation of the L,D-transpeptidation pathway, which is essentially cryptic in wild-type strains. The first one is a classical two-component regulatory system, DdcRS, that controls the activity of Ldtfm at the substrate level. As previously described, loss of DdcS phosphatase activity leads to production of the D,D-carboxypeptidase DdcY and conversion of the pentapeptide into the tetrapeptide substrate of Ldtfm. Here we show that full bypass of PBPs by Ldtfm also requires increased Ser/Thr protein phosphorylation resulting from impaired activity of phosphoprotein phosphatase StpA. This enzyme negatively controlled the level of protein phosphorylation both by direct dephosphorylation of target proteins and by dephosphorylation of its cognate kinase Stk. In combination with production of DdcY, increased protein phosphorylation by this eukaryotic-enzyme-like Ser/Thr protein kinase was sufficient for activation of the L,D-transpeptidation pathway in the absence of mutational alteration of peptidoglycan synthesis enzymes. Importance: The mechanism of acquisition of high-level ampicillin resistance involving

  19. Performance of three chromogenic VRE screening agars, two Etest(®) vancomycin protocols, and different microdilution methods in detecting vanB genotype Enterococcus faecium with varying vancomycin MICs.

    PubMed

    Klare, Ingo; Fleige, Carola; Geringer, Uta; Witte, Wolfgang; Werner, Guido

    2012-10-01

    Frequencies of vanB-type Enterococcus faecium increased in Europe during the last years. VanB enterococci show various levels of vancomycin MICs even below the susceptible breakpoint challenging a reliable diagnostics. The performance of 3 chromogenic vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) screening agars, 2 Etest® vancomycin protocols, and different microdilution methods to detect 129 clinical vanB E. faecium strains was investigated. Altogether, 112 (87%) were correctly identified as VanB-type Enterococcus by microdilution MICs. An Etest® macromethod protocol was more sensitive than the standard protocol while keeping sufficient specificity in identifying 15 vanA/vanB-negative strains. Three chromogenic VRE agars performed similarly with 121 (94%), 123 (95%), and 124 (96%) vanB isolates that grew on Brilliance™ VRE Agar, CHROMagar™ VRE, and chromID™ VRE agar, respectively. Using identical media and conditions, we did not identify different growth behaviour on agar and in broth. A few vanB strains showed growth of microcolonies inside the Etest® vancomycin inhibition zones, suggesting a VanB heteroresistance phenotype. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification and phenotypic characterization of a second collagen adhesin, Scm, and genome-based identification and analysis of 13 other predicted MSCRAMMs, including four distinct pilus loci, in Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Sillanpää, Jouko; Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R.; Prakash, Vittal P.; Qin, Xiang; Hook, Magnus; Weinstock, George M.; Murray, Barbara E.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Attention has recently been drawn to Enterococcus faecium because of an increasing number of nosocomial infections caused by this species and its resistance to multiple antibacterial agents. However, relatively little is known about pathogenic determinants of this organism. We have previously identified a cell wall anchored collagen adhesin, Acm, produced by some isolates of E. faecium, and a secreted antigen, SagA, exhibiting broad spectrum binding to extracellular matrix proteins. Here, we analyzed the draft genome of strain TX0016 for potential MSCRAMMs (microbial surface component recognizing adhesive matrix molecules). Genome-based bioinformatics identified 22 predicted cell wall anchored E. faeciumsurface proteins (Fms) of which 15 (including Acm) have typical characteristics of MSCRAMMs including predicted folding into a modular architecture with multiple immunoglobulin-like domains. Functional characterization of one (Fms10, redesignated Scm for second collagen adhesin of E. faeciu m) revealed that recombinant Scm65 (A- and B-domains) and Scm36 (A-domain) bound efficiently to collagen type V in a concentration dependent manner, bound considerably less to collagen type I and fibrinogen, and differed from Acm in their binding specificities to collagen types IV and V. Results from far-UV circular dichroism of recombinant Scm36 and of Acm37 indicated that these proteins are rich in β-sheets, supporting our folding predictions. Whole-cell ELISA and FACS analyses unambiguously demonstrated surface expression of Scm in most E. faecium isolates. Strikingly, 11 of the 15 predicted MSCRAMMs clustered in four loci, each with a class C sortase gene; 9 of these showed similarity to Enterococcus faecalis Ebp pilus subunits and also contained motifs essential for pilus assembly. Antibodies against one of the predicted major pilus proteins, Fms9 (redesignated as EbpCfm), detected a “ladder” pattern of high-molecular weight protein bands in a Western blot

  1. Characterization and rapid control of a vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) outbreak in a renal transplant unit in Spain: The environment matters.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Sabina; Sorlí, Luisa; Pérez-Sáez, Maria Jose; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Barrios, Clara; Plasencia, Virginia; Montero, Milagro; Terradas, Roser; Crespo, Marta; Castells, Xavier; Cantón, Rafael; Pascual, Julio; Horcajada, Juan Pablo

    2017-01-01

    To describe a clonal outbreak due to vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) in the nephrology and renal transplant unit of a tertiary teaching hospital in Barcelona, Spain, and to highlight how active patient and environment surveillance cultures, as well as prompt and directed intervention strategies, mainly environmental, helped to successfully bring it under control. A study was conducted on patients admitted to the nephrology ward with any culture positive for VREF over a 6-month period (August 2012-January 2013). Based on the identification of a clonal link between the isolates, weekly rectal screening using swabs was implemented for all patients, as well as environmental cultures and cleaning of medical equipment and the ward. VREF isolates were identified by MicroScan and confirmed by Etest. Bacterial identification was confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS. The presence of van genes, and esp and hyl virulence genes was determined using PCR. The clonal relationship between the isolates was studied first with DiversiLab (bioMérieux), and then by PFGE-Smal and MLST. A two-tier sequence of infection control measures was implemented. During the study period, VREF was isolated from 13 patients. All cases were colonized with no criteria for infection. VREF isolates were also extensively recovered from the environment and medical equipment. Isolates carried the vanA gene, and were multidrug-resistant, including high-level resistance (MIC >16mg/L) to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Molecular analysis showed that all VREF isolates belonged to sequence type 17 (ST17) carrying hyl virulence genes. After implementing infection control measures in a two-tier sequence, and reinforcing particularly environmental and medical equipment cleaning, no further cases were detected in the follow-up year. A clonal outbreak of VREF-ST17 involving only colonization is reported. The prompt implementation of aggressive infection control measures in patients and the environment was effective

  2. Increased high-level gentamicin resistance in invasive Enterococcus faecium is associated with aac(6')Ie-aph(2″)Ia-encoding transferable megaplasmids hosted by major hospital-adapted lineages.

    PubMed

    Rosvoll, Torill C S; Lindstad, Belinda L; Lunde, Tracy M; Hegstad, Kristin; Aasnaes, Bettina; Hammerum, Anette M; Lester, Camilla H; Simonsen, Gunnar S; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Pedersen, Torunn

    2012-11-01

    Gentamicin is important in synergistic bactericidal therapy with cell wall agents for severe enterococcal infections. During 2003-2008, a 10-fold increase in the prevalence of high-level gentamicin resistance (HLGR), to above 50%, in blood culture isolates of Enterococcus faecium, was reported by the Norwegian Surveillance System for Antimicrobial Resistance. A representative national collection of invasive E. faecium isolates (n = 99) from 2008 was examined by a multilevel approach. Genotyping revealed a polyclonal population dominated by major hospital-associated lineages (mainly ST203, ST17, ST18, ST202 and ST192). The presence of aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia, encoding the bi-functional aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme, was found in 98% of HLGR isolates (56/57). Furthermore, a significantly higher prevalence of potential virulence genes, toxin-antitoxin loci as well as pRE25 and pRUM type replicons was demonstrated in isolates belonging to major hospital-associated lineages compared to other sequence types. Megaplasmids of pLG1 replicon type (200-330 kb) were present in 90% of the isolates. Co-hybridization analyses revealed genetic linkage of aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia to this replicon type. Transfer of HLGR-encoding plasmids was restricted to E. faecium. In conclusion, the increased prevalence of HLGR in invasive E. faecium in Norway is associated with hospital-adapted genetic lineages carrying aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia-encoding transferable megaplasmids of the pLG1 replicon type. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of the nucleotide sequence of the 23S ribosomal RNA and flanking spacers of an Enterococcus faecium strain, reveals insertion-deletion events in the ribosomal spacer 1 of enterococci.

    PubMed

    Naimi, A; Beck, G; Monique, M; Lefèbvre, G; Branlanti, C

    1999-02-01

    The usefulness of 16S-23S (ITS1) and 23S-5S (ITS2) ribosomal spacer nucleotide sequence determination, as a complementary approach to the biochemical tests traditionally used for enterococcal species identification, is shown by its application to the identification of a strain, E27, isolated from a natural bacteria mixture used for cheese production. Using combined approaches we showed, unambiguously, that strain E27 belongs to the Enterococcus faecium species. However, its ITS1 region has an interesting peculiarity. In our previous study of ITS1s from various enterococcal species (NAIMI et al., 1997, Microbiology 143, 823-834), the ITS1s of the two E. faecium strains studied, were found to contain an additional 115-nt long stem-loop structure as compared to the ITS1s of other enterococci, only one out of the 3 ITS1s of E. hirae ATCC 9790, was found to contain a similar 107-nt long stem-loop structure. The ITS1 of strain E27 is 100% identical to that of E. faecium ATCC 19434T, except that the 115-nt additional fragment is absent. This strongly suggests the existence of lateral DNA transfer or DNA recombination events at a hot spot position of the ITS1s from E. faecium and E. hirae. Small and large ITS1 nucleotide sequence determination for strain E27 generalized the notion of two kinds of ITSs in enterococci: one with a tRNA(Ala) gene, one without tRNA gene. To complete strain E27 characterization, its 23S rRNA sequence was established. This is the first complete 23S rRNA nucleotide sequence determined for an enterococcal species.

  4. Involvement of the Eukaryote-Like Kinase-Phosphatase System and a Protein That Interacts with Penicillin-Binding Protein 5 in Emergence of Cephalosporin Resistance in Cephalosporin-Sensitive Class A Penicillin-Binding Protein Mutants in Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Desbonnet, Charlene; Tait-Kamradt, Amelia; Garcia-Solache, Monica; Dunman, Paul; Coleman, Jeffrey; Arthur, Michel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The intrinsic resistance of Enterococcus faecium to ceftriaxone and cefepime (here referred to as “cephalosporins”) is reliant on the presence of class A penicillin-binding proteins (Pbps) PbpF and PonA. Mutants lacking these Pbps exhibit cephalosporin susceptibility that is reversible by exposure to penicillin and by selection on cephalosporin-containing medium. We selected two cephalosporin-resistant mutants (Cro1 and Cro2) of class A Pbp-deficient E. faecium CV598. Genome analysis revealed changes in the serine-threonine kinase Stk in Cro1 and a truncation in the associated phosphatase StpA in Cro2 whose respective involvements in resistance were confirmed in separate complementation experiments. In an additional effort to identify proteins linked to cephalosporin resistance, we performed tandem affinity purification using Pbp5 as bait in penicillin-exposed E. faecium; these experiments yielded a protein designated Pbp5-associated protein (P5AP). Transcription of the P5AP gene was increased after exposure to penicillin in wild-type strains and in Cro2 and suppressed in Cro2 complemented with the wild-type stpA. Transformation of class A Pbp-deficient strains with the plasmid-carried P5AP gene conferred cephalosporin resistance. These data suggest that Pbp5-associated cephalosporin resistance in E. faecium devoid of typical class A Pbps is related to the presence of P5AP, whose expression is influenced by the activity of the serine-threonine phosphatase/kinase system. PMID:27048803

  5. Cloning and sequence analysis of the muramidase-2 gene from Enterococcus hirae.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, C P; Kariyama, R; Daneo-Moore, L; Shockman, G D

    1992-01-01

    Extracellular muramidase-2 of Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790 was purified to homogeneity by substrate binding, guanidine-HCl extraction, and reversed-phase chromatography. A monoclonal antibody, 2F8, which specifically recognizes muramidase-2, was used to screen a genomic library of E. hirae ATCC 9790 DNA in bacteriophage lambda gt11. A positive phage clone containing a 4.5-kb DNA insert was isolated and analyzed. The EcoRI-digested 4.5-kb fragment was cut into 2.3-, 1.0-, and 1.5-kb pieces by using restriction enzymes KpnI, Sau3AI, and PstI, and each fragment was subcloned into plasmid pJDC9 or pUC19. The nucleotide sequence of each subclone was determined. The sequence data indicated an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 666 amino acid residues, with a calculated molecular mass of 70,678 Da. The first 24 N-terminal amino acids of purified extracellular muramidase-2 were in very good agreement with the deduced amino acid sequence after a 49-amino-acid putative signal sequence. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence showed the presence at the C-terminal region of the protein of six highly homologous repeat units separated by nonhomologous intervening sequences that are highly enriched in serine and threonine. The overall sequence showed a high degree of homology with a recently cloned Streptococcus faecalis autolysin. Images PMID:1347040

  6. Biochemical and Genetic Evidence that Enterococcus faecium L50 Produces Enterocins L50A and L50B, the sec-Dependent Enterocin P, and a Novel Bacteriocin Secreted without an N-Terminal Extension Termed Enterocin Q

    PubMed Central

    Cintas, Luis M.; Casaus, Pilar; Herranz, Carmen; Håvarstein, Leiv Sigve; Holo, Helge; Hernández, Pablo E.; Nes, Ingolf F.

    2000-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium L50 grown at 16 to 32°C produces enterocin L50 (EntL50), consisting of EntL50A and EntL50B, two unmodified non-pediocin-like peptides synthesized without an N-terminal leader sequence or signal peptide. However, the bacteriocin activity found in the cell-free culture supernatants following growth at higher temperatures (37 to 47°C) is not due to EntL50. A purification procedure including cation-exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and reverse-phase liquid chromatography has shown that the antimicrobial activity is due to two different bacteriocins. Amino acid sequences obtained by Edman degradation and DNA sequencing analyses revealed that one is identical to the sec-dependent pediocin-like enterocin P produced by E. faecium P13 (L. M. Cintas, P. Casaus, L. S. Håvarstein, P. E. Hernández, and I. F. Nes, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:4321–4330, 1997) and the other is a novel unmodified non-pediocin-like bacteriocin termed enterocin Q (EntQ), with a molecular mass of 3,980. DNA sequencing analysis of a 963-bp region of E. faecium L50 containing the enterocin P structural gene (entP) and the putative immunity protein gene (entiP) reveals a genetic organization identical to that previously found in E. faecium P13. DNA sequencing analysis of a 1,448-bp region identified two consecutive but diverging open reading frames (ORFs) of which one, termed entQ, encodes a 34-amino-acid protein whose deduced amino acid sequence was identical to that obtained for EntQ by amino acid sequencing, showing that EntQ, similarly to EntL50A and EntL50B, is synthesized without an N-terminal leader sequence or signal peptide. The second ORF, termed orf2, was located immediately upstream of and in opposite orientation to entQ and encodes a putative immunity protein composed of 221 amino acids. Bacteriocin production by E. faecium L50 showed that EntP and EntQ are produced in the temperature range from 16 to 47°C and maximally detected at 47 and 37 to 47

  7. Effect of sausage ingredients and additives on the production of enterocin A and B by Enterococcus faecium CTC492. Optimization of in vitro production and anti-listerial effect in dry fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Aymerich, T; Artigas, M G; Garriga, M; Monfort, J M; Hugas, M

    2000-04-01

    Enterocin A and B in Enterococcus faecium CTC492 were co-induced by the different factors assayed in this study (r = 0.93) and followed primary metabolic kinetics. Enterocin production was significantly inhibited by sausage ingredients and additives, with the exception of nitrate. The addition of sodium chloride and pepper decreased production 16-fold. The temperature and pH influenced enterocin production, with optima between 25 and 35 degrees C, and from 6.0 to 7.5 of initial pH. The maximum activity was achieved, under favourable growth conditions, with MRS supplemented with sucrose (2%) plus glucose (0.25%) and Tween-80 (1%). MRS concentration, NaCl plus pepper addition, absence of Tween-80 in the growth medium, incubation at 45 degrees C and an initial pH under 5.5 were detrimental to bacteriocin production. Stress conditions did not favour enterocin production. Desadsorption was Tween-dependent. Enterocin A activity in the crude extracts stored at -80 degrees C was better preserved than enterocin B (when tested against their specific indicator strain), but anti-listerial activity remained intact. Applied as anti-listerial additives in dry fermented sausages, enterocins significantly diminished Listeria counts by 1. 13 log (P < 0.001), while Enterococcus faecium CTC492 added as starter culture did not significantly reduce Listeria counts (P > 0. 1) compared with the standard starter culture (Bac-). Enterocins A and B could be considered as extra biopreservative hurdles for listeria prevention in dry fermented sausages.

  8. Purification and Genetic Characterization of Enterocin I from Enterococcus faecium 6T1a, a Novel Antilisterial Plasmid-Encoded Bacteriocin Which Does Not Belong to the Pediocin Family of Bacteriocins

    PubMed Central

    Floriano, Belén; Ruiz-Barba, José L.; Jiménez-Díaz, Rufino

    1998-01-01

    Enterocin I (ENTI) is a novel bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecium 6T1a, a strain originally isolated from a Spanish-style green olive fermentation. The bacteriocin is active against many olive spoilage and food-borne gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, including clostridia, propionibacteria, and Listeria monocytogenes. ENTI was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, binding to an SP-Sepharose fast-flow column, and phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B and C2/C18 reverse-phase chromatography. The purification procedure resulted in a final yield of 954% and a 170,000-fold increase in specific activity. The primary structure of ENTI was determined by amino acid and nucleotide sequencing. ENTI consists of 44 amino acids and does not show significant sequence similarity with any other previously described bacteriocin. Sequencing of the entI structural gene, which is located on the 23-kb plasmid pEF1 of E. faecium 6T1a, revealed the absence of a leader peptide at the N-terminal region of the gene product. A second open reading frame, ORF2, located downstream of entI, encodes a putative protein that is 72.7% identical to ENTI. entI and ORF2 appear to be cotranscribed, yielding an mRNA of ca. 0.35 kb. A gene encoding immunity to ENTI was not identified. However, curing experiments demonstrated that both enterocin production and immunity are conferred by pEF1. PMID:9835578

  9. High-level ciprofloxacin resistance from point mutations in gyrA and parC confined to global hospital-adapted clonal lineage CC17 of Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Leavis, Helen L; Willems, Rob J L; Top, Janetta; Bonten, Marc J M

    2006-03-01

    To substantiate a common genetic background of ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, 32 ciprofloxacin-resistant (Cip(r)) and 31 ciprofloxacin-susceptible (Cip(s)) isolates from outbreaks, clinical infections, surveillances, and animals from 10 different countries were genotyped by multilocus sequence typing. Additionally, susceptibilities to ampicillin and vancomycin and the presence of esp were determined and the quinolone resistance-determining regions of parC, gyrA, parB, and gyrE were sequenced. High-level Cip(r) (MIC > or = 64 microg/ml) due to point mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region was unique to a distinct hospital-adapted genetic complex in E. faecium, previously designated CC17. Low-level Cip(r) (MIC = 4 microg/ml) in non-CC17 strains is not attributable to point mutations in any subunit of the topoisomerase genes, and the mechanism of resistance remains unclear. Acquisition of mutations in parC and gyrA, leading to high-level Cip(r), is, in addition to ampicillin resistance and the presence of a putative pathogenicity island, another cumulative step in hospital adaptation of CC17.

  10. Local Genetic Patterns within a Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis Clone Isolated in Three Hospitals in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Novais, Carla; Coque, Teresa M.; Sousa, João Carlos; Baquero, Fernando; Peixe, Luisa

    2004-01-01

    Eight pulsed-field gel electrophoresis subtypes and six Tn1546 variants were identified among Enterococcus faecalis isolates of a single clone recovered in three geographically separate Portuguese hospitals. Some clonal subtypes were found in particular hospitals, and Tn1546 variants were either widespread or confined to some of them. We also report on the first Tn1546 transposon containing an ISEf1 insertion. PMID:15328141

  11. Activity of daptomycin or linezolid in combination with rifampin or gentamicin against biofilm-forming Enterococcus faecalis or E. faecium in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model using simulated endocardial vegetations and an in vivo survival assay using Galleria mellonella larvae.

    PubMed

    Luther, Megan K; Arvanitis, Marios; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; LaPlante, Kerry L

    2014-08-01

    Enterococci are the third most frequent cause of infective endocarditis. A high-inoculum stationary-phase in vitro pharmacodynamic model with simulated endocardial vegetations was used to simulate the human pharmacokinetics of daptomycin at 6 or 10 mg/kg of body weight/day or linezolid at 600 mg every 12 h (q12h), alone or in combination with gentamicin at 1.3 mg/kg q12h or rifampin at 300 mg q8h or 900 mg q24h. Biofilm-forming, vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (vancomycin-resistant enterococcus [VRE]) strains were tested. At 24, 48, and 72 h, all daptomycin-containing regimens demonstrated significantly more activity (decline in CFU/g) than any linezolid-containing regimen against biofilm-forming E. faecalis. The addition of gentamicin to daptomycin (at 6 or 10 mg/kg) in the first 24 h significantly improved bactericidal activity. In contrast, the addition of rifampin delayed the bactericidal activity of daptomycin against E. faecalis, and the addition of rifampin antagonized the activities of all regimens against VRE at 24 h. Also, against VRE, the addition of gentamicin to linezolid at 72 h improved activity and was bactericidal. Rifampin significantly antagonized the activity of linezolid against VRE at 72 h. In in vivo Galleria mellonella survival assays, linezolid and daptomycin improved survival. Daptomycin at 10 mg/kg improved survival significantly over that with linezolid against E. faecalis. The addition of gentamicin improved the efficacy of daptomycin against E. faecalis and those of linezolid and daptomycin against VRE. We conclude that in enterococcal infection models, daptomycin has more activity than linezolid alone. Against biofilm-forming E. faecalis, the addition of gentamicin in the first 24 h causes the most rapid decline in CFU/g. Of interest, the addition of rifampin decreased the activity of daptomycin against both E. faecalis and VRE.

  12. Complete Sequence of the Enterocin Q-Encoding Plasmid pCIZ2 from the Multiple Bacteriocin Producer Enterococcus faecium L50 and Genetic Characterization of Enterocin Q Production and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Criado, Raquel; Diep, Dzung B.; Aakra, Ågot; Gutiérrez, Jorge; Nes, Ingolf F.; Hernández, Pablo E.; Cintas, Luis M.

    2006-01-01

    The locations of the genetic determinants for enterocin L50 (EntL50A and EntL50B), enterocin Q (EntQ), and enterocin P (EntP) in the multiple bacteriocin producer Enterococcus faecium strain L50 were determined. These bacteriocin genes occur at different locations; entL50AB (encoding EntL50A and EntL50B) are on the 50-kb plasmid pCIZ1, entqA (encoding EntQ) is on the 7.4-kb plasmid pCIZ2, and entP (encoding EntP) is on the chromosome. The complete nucleotide sequence of pCIZ2 was determined to be 7,383 bp long and contains 10 putative open reading frames (ORFs) organized in three distinct regions. The first region contains three ORFs: entqA preceded by two divergently oriented genes, entqB and entqC. EntqB shows high levels of similarity to bacterial ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, while EntqC displays no significant similarity to any known protein. The second region encompasses four ORFs (orf4 to orf7), and ORF4 and ORF5 display high levels of similarity to mobilization proteins from E. faecium and Enterococcus faecalis. In addition, features resembling a transfer origin region (oriT) were found in the promoter area of orf4. The third region contains three ORFs (orf8 to orf10), and ORF8 and ORF9 exhibit similarity to the replication initiator protein RepE from E. faecalis and to RepB proteins, respectively. To clarify the minimum requirement for EntQ synthesis, we subcloned and heterologously expressed a 2,371-bp fragment from pCIZ2 that encompasses only the entqA, entqB, and entqC genes in Lactobacillus sakei, and we demonstrated that this fragment is sufficient for EntQ production. Moreover, we also obtained experimental results indicating that EntqB is involved in ABC transporter-mediated EntQ secretion, while EntqC confers immunity to this bacteriocin. PMID:17021217

  13. Efficacy of vacuum steam pasteurization for inactivation of Salmonella PT 30, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Enterococcus faecium on low moisture foods.

    PubMed

    Shah, Manoj K; Asa, Gladys; Sherwood, Julie; Graber, Kari; Bergholz, Teresa M

    2017-03-06

    Low moisture foods such as nuts, spices, and seeds have been implicated in several outbreaks due to Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 contamination. Such foods may be consumed raw, and can be used as ingredients in other food products. While numerous thermal inactivation studies have been conducted for Salmonella on nuts, studies on other seeds and grains are minimal. Product water activity can influence the thermal resistance of pathogens, where thermal resistance increases as water activity decreases, leading to a requirement for higher temperatures and longer exposure times to achieve significant reduction of pathogen numbers. Vacuum steam pasteurization uses steam under vacuum, which can be operated at temperatures above and below 100°C. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of vacuum steam pasteurization for inactivation of pathogens on whole flaxseed, quinoa, sunflower kernels, milled flaxseed and whole black peppercorns. The use of E. faecium as a potential surrogate for Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 in vacuum steam pasteurization was also evaluated. Pasteurization for 1min at 75°C yielded average log reductions of 5.48±1.22, 5.71±0.40 and 5.23±0.61 on flaxseed, 4.29±0.92, 5.89±0.26 and 2.39±0.83 on quinoa, and 4.01±0.74, 5.40±0.83 and 2.99±0.92 on sunflower kernels for Salmonella PT 30, E. coli O157:H7 and E. faecium, respectively. Similarly, on milled flaxseed and black peppercorns average log reductions of 3.02±0.79 and 6.10±0.64CFU/g were observed for Salmonella PT 30 after 1min of treatment at 75°C but, on average, >6.0 log reductions were observed after pasteurization at 85°C. Our data demonstrate that vacuum steam pasteurization can be effectively used to reduce pathogens on these low moisture foods at temperature as low as 75 and 85°C, and that E. faecium may be used as a potential surrogate for Salmonella PT 30 and E. coli O157:H7.

  14. Prevalence of aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia resistance gene and its linkage to Tn5281 in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates from Tabriz hospitals.

    PubMed

    Behnood, Amir; Farajnia, Safar; Moaddab, Seyed Reza; Ahdi-Khosroshahi, Shiva; Katayounzadeh, Aliakbar

    2013-09-01

    High-level gentamicin resistance (HLGR: MIC ≥ 500 µg/ml) in Enterococci is mediated by aminoglycoside modifying enzymes which is mainly encoded by aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia gene. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia gene in clinical isolates of Enterococcus facium and Enterococcus faecalis collected from hospitals in northwest of Iran. In the present study a total of 111 enterococcus isolates were collected from 4 hospitals during a two year period (July 2009-August 2011). Bacterial identification and species determination were carried out by standard biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. MICs were determined by agar dilution method. The frequency of aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia gene in the isolates was determined by PCR. The carriage of resistance gene on Tn5281 transposon was identified by long PCR and dot-blot hybridization methods. Antibiotic susceptibility tests revealed that the highest resistance was against streptomycin (74.77%) and erythromycin (67.58%) whereas the highest susceptibility was observed to vancomycin (81.1%). 36 isolates (32.43%) were identified as HLGR, 34(94.44%) of them had resistant gene in their genome. Long PCR studies revealed that 88% of HLGR clinical isolates harboured Tn5281. The aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia resistance gene was present on Tn5281 transposon in all 32 isolates according to dot blot hybridization test. The results of this study indicated that aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia resistance gene is highly prevalent in gentamicin resistant isolates. Carriage of aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia resistance gene on Tn5281 transposable element suggests possible contribution of this transposone on dissemination of resistance gene among enterococcus isolates.

  15. Immunochemical Characterization of Temperature-Regulated Production of Enterocin L50 (EntL50A and EntL50B), Enterocin P, and Enterocin Q by Enterococcus faecium L50▿

    PubMed Central

    Criado, Raquel; Gutiérrez, Jorge; Martín, María; Herranz, Carmen; Hernández, Pablo E.; Cintas, Luis M.

    2006-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies with specificity for enterocin L50A (EntL50A), enterocin L50B (EntL50B), and enterocin Q (EntQ) produced by Enterococcus faecium L50 have been generated by immunization of rabbits with chemically synthesized peptides derived from the C terminus of EntL50A (LR1) and EntL50B (LR2) and from the complete enterocin Q (EntQ) conjugated to the carrier protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). The sensitivity and specificity of these antibodies were evaluated by a noncompetitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (NCI-ELISA) and a competitive indirect ELISA (CI-ELISA). The NCI-ELISA was valuable for detecting anti-EntL50A-, anti-EntL50B-, and anti-EntQ-specific antibodies in the sera of the LR1-KLH-, LR2-KLH-, and EntQ-KLH-immunized animals, respectively. Moreover, these antibodies and those specific for enterocin P (EntP) obtained in a previous work (J. Gutiérrez, R. Criado, R. Citti, M. Martín, C. Herranz, M. F. Fernández, L. M. Cintas, and P. E. Hernández, J. Agric. Food Chem. 52:2247-2255, 2004) were used in an NCI-ELISA to detect and quantify the production of EntL50A, EntL50B, EntP, and EntQ by the multiple-bacteriocin producer E. faecium L50 grown at different temperatures (16 to 47°C). Our results show that temperature has a strong influence on bacteriocin production by this strain. EntL50A and EntL50B are synthesized at 16 to 32°C, but production becomes negligible when the growth temperature is above 37°C, whereas EntP and EntQ are synthesized at temperatures ranging from 16 to 47°C. Maximum EntL50A and EntL50B production was detected at 25°C, while EntP and EntQ are maximally produced at 37 and 47°C, respectively. The loss of plasmid pCIZ1 (50 kb) and/or pCIZ2 (7.4 kb), encoding EntL50A and EntL50B as well as EntQ, respectively, resulted in a significant increase in production and stability of the chromosomally encoded EntP. PMID:17056686

  16. Fosfomycin Synergy In Vitro with Amoxicillin, Daptomycin, and Linezolid against Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium from Renal Transplant Patients with Infected Urinary Stents

    PubMed Central

    Descourouez, Jillian L.; Jorgenson, Margaret R.; Wergin, Justine E.

    2013-01-01

    Fosfomycin is a potential option for vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) infections despite limited in vitro and clinical data. In this study, 32 VRE isolates from renal transplant patients with urinary stent infections were susceptible to fosfomycin, daptomycin, and linezolid and resistant to amoxicillin, minocycline, and nitrofurantoin based on their MIC50s and MIC90s. Fosfomycin was bacteriostatic at 0.5 to 16× the MIC (32 to 2,048 μg/ml); synergy occurred when fosfomycin was combined with daptomycin (2.8 to 3.9 log10 CFU/ml kill; P < 0.001) or amoxicillin (2.6 to 3.4; P < 0.05). These combinations may be potent options to treat VRE urinary infections pending investigation of clinical efficacy. PMID:23263002

  17. Spread of an Enterococcus faecalis sequence type 6 (CC2) clone in patients undergoing selective decontamination of the digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Muruzábal-Lecumberri, Izaskun; Girbau, Cecilia; Canut, Andrés; Alonso, Rodrigo; Fernández-Astorga, Aurora

    2015-03-01

    Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is a common cause of nosocomial infection in immunocompromised patients. The presence and dissemination of high-risk clonal complexes, such as CC2, is an ongoing problem in hospitals. The aim of this work was to characterize 24 E. faecalis isolates from ICU patients undergoing selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) by phenotypical (antimicrobial susceptibility) and genotypical (presence of virulence genes, RAPD-PCR and MLST) methods. Our results showed high prevalence of the ST6 E. faecalis clone (91.6%), especially adapted to the hospital environment, with a multidrug resistance pattern and a multitude of putative virulence genes. In addition, ST179 (4.2%) and ST191 (4.2%) were detected. By RAPD-PCR analysis, the 22 isolates identified as ST6 showed six different DNA patterns, while the two remaining isolates, ST179 and ST191, showed two additional profiles. CC2 is a known clonal complex with high adaptability to hospital environment and worldwide distribution. The high prevalence of the ST6 clone in the studied population could be related to the presence of gentamicin in the SDD mixture since most strains were gentamicin resistant. Consequently, strict surveillance should be applied for rapid detection and control of this clone to prevent future spread outside the ICU.

  18. Discontinuation of Systematic Surveillance and Contact Precautions for Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and Its Impact on the Incidence of VRE faecium Bacteremia in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Almyroudis, Nikolaos G; Osawa, Ryosuke; Samonis, George; Wetzler, M; Wang, Eunice S; McCarthy, Philip L; Segal, Brahm H

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the effect of discontinuation of systematic surveillance for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and contact isolation of colonized patients on the incidence of VRE bacteremia SETTING A hematology-oncology unit with high prevalence of VRE colonization characterized by predominantly sporadic molecular epidemiology PARTICIPANTS Inpatients with hematologic malignancies and recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation METHODS The incidence of VRE bacteremia was measured prospectively during 2 different 3-year time periods; the first during active VRE surveillance and contact precautions and the second after discontinuation of these policies. We assessed the collateral impact of this policy change on the incidence of bacteremia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium difficile infection even though we maintained contact precautions for these organisms. Incidence of infectious events was measured as number of events per 1,000 patients days per month. Time series analysis was used to evaluate trends. RESULTS The incidence of VRE bacteremia remained stable after discontinuation of VRE surveillance and contact precautions. The incidence of MRSA bacteremia and Clostridium difficile infection for which we continued contact precautions also remained stable. Aggregated antibiotic utilization and nursing hours per patient days were similar between the 2 study periods. CONCLUSION Active surveillance and contact precautions for VRE colonization did not appear to prevent VRE bacteremia in patients with hematologic malignancies and recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with high prevalence of VRE characterized by predominantly sporadic molecular epidemiology.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance profile of Enterococcus spp isolated from food in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Riboldi, Gustavo Pelicioli; Frazzon, Jeverson; d’Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-six Enterococcus spp. strains were isolated from foods in Southern Brazil, confirmed by PCR and classified as Enterococcus faecalis (27), Enterococcus faecium (23) and Enterococcus spp (6). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed resistance phenotypes to a range of antibiotics widely administrated in humans such as gentamycin, streptomycin, ampicillin and vancomycin. PMID:24031330

  20. vanA-containing E. faecium isolates of clonal complex CC17 in clinical and environmental samples in a Tunisian hospital.

    PubMed

    Elhani, Dalèle; Klibi, Naouel; Dziri, Raoudha; Ben Hassan, Meriem; Asli Mohamed, Selim; Ben Said, Laila; Mahjoub, Aouini; Ben Slama, Karim; Jemli, Boutheina; Bellaj, Ridha; Barguellil, Farouk; Torres, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    Twenty-eight vancomycin (VA)-resistant enterococci isolated from different patients (n = 16) and also from the environment (n = 12) were recovered in a Tunisian military hospital during 2012-2013. The mechanisms of resistance to VA and to other antibiotics as well as the presence of esp and hyl virulence genes were determined in these isolates by PCR, being their clonal relationship analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). VA resistance mechanisms detected were as follows (species-patient/environment): vanA (Enterococcus faecium, 13/5), vanC1 (Enterococcus gallinarum, 3/0), and vanC2 (Enterococcus casseliflavus, 0/7). Most of the VA-resistant enterococci presented a multiresistance phenotype and harbored different resistance genes (erm(B), tet(M), tet(L), ant(6)-Ia, aac(6')-aph(2"), aph(3')-IIIa, and catA). The PFGE revealed the presence of 3 clones (A, B, C) and 1 closely related pattern (A1) among the 13 vanA-containing E. faecium isolates of patients showing 11 of them the A-A1 patterns. The clone A was also detected in all 5 environmental vanA-containing E. faecium isolates. Strains did not contain esp or hyl virulence genes. Multilocus sequence typing was performed in 4 E. faecium isolates representative of the 4 detected pulsotypes (A, A1, B, and C), and 2 different sequence types were identified (ST18 and ST80), both of them included in clonal complex CC17. These strains contained the IS16 element and showed ampicillin and ciprofloxacin resistance. VA resistance could be an emerging problem in Tunisia, and this is one of the first cases described so far in this country.

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Enterococcus faecium aminoglycoside-2′′-phosphotransferase-Ib [APH(2′′)-Ib

    PubMed Central

    Walanj, Rupa; Young, Paul; Baker, Heather M.; Baker, Edward N.; Metcalf, Peter; Chow, Joseph W.; Lerner, Stephen; Vakulenko, Sergei; Smith, Clyde A.

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to the aminoglycoside antibiotics is primarily the result of deactivation of the drugs. Three families of enzymes are responsible for this activity, with one such family being the aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs). The gene encoding one of these enzymes, APH(2′′)-Ib, has been cloned and the protein (comprising 299 amino-acid residues) expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized in the presence of 16%(w/v) PEG 3350 and gentamicin. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P21, with approximate unit-cell parameters a = 79.7, b = 58.8, c = 81.4 Å, β = 98.4°, and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis is consistent with the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit. Synchrotron diffraction data to approximately 2.65 Å resolution were collected from a native APH(2′′)-Ib crystal at beamline BL9-2 at SSRL (Stanford, CA, USA). Selenium-substituted crystals have also been produced and structure determination is proceeding. PMID:16511055

  2. Global Emergence and Dissemination of Enterococci as Nosocomial Pathogens: Attack of the Clones?

    PubMed Central

    Guzman Prieto, Ana M.; van Schaik, Willem; Rogers, Malbert R. C.; Coque, Teresa M.; Baquero, Fernando; Corander, Jukka; Willems, Rob J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Enterococci are Gram-positive bacteria that are found in plants, soil and as commensals of the gastrointestinal tract of humans, mammals, and insects. Despite their commensal nature, they have also become globally important nosocomial pathogens. Within the genus Enterococcus, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus faecalis are clinically most relevant. In this review, we will discuss how E. faecium and E. faecalis have evolved to become a globally disseminated nosocomial pathogen. E. faecium has a defined sub-population that is associated with hospitalized patients and is rarely encountered in community settings. These hospital-associated clones are characterized by the acquisition of adaptive genetic elements, including genes involved in metabolism, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance. In contrast to E. faecium, clones of E. faecalis isolated from hospitalized patients, including strains causing clinical infections, are not exclusively found in hospitals but are also present in healthy individuals and animals. This observation suggests that the division between commensals and hospital-adapted lineages is less clear for E. faecalis than for E. faecium. In addition, genes that are reported to be associated with virulence of E. faecalis are often not unique to clinical isolates, but are also found in strains that originate from commensal niches. As a reflection of more ancient association of E. faecalis with different hosts, these determinants Thus, they may not represent genuine virulence genes but may act as host-adaptive functions that are useful in a variety of intestinal environments. The scope of the review is to summarize recent trends in the emergence of antibiotic resistance and explore recent developments in the molecular epidemiology, population structure and mechanisms of adaptation of E. faecium and E. faecalis. PMID:27303380

  3. Global Emergence and Dissemination of Enterococci as Nosocomial Pathogens: Attack of the Clones?

    PubMed

    Guzman Prieto, Ana M; van Schaik, Willem; Rogers, Malbert R C; Coque, Teresa M; Baquero, Fernando; Corander, Jukka; Willems, Rob J L

    2016-01-01

    Enterococci are Gram-positive bacteria that are found in plants, soil and as commensals of the gastrointestinal tract of humans, mammals, and insects. Despite their commensal nature, they have also become globally important nosocomial pathogens. Within the genus Enterococcus, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus faecalis are clinically most relevant. In this review, we will discuss how E. faecium and E. faecalis have evolved to become a globally disseminated nosocomial pathogen. E. faecium has a defined sub-population that is associated with hospitalized patients and is rarely encountered in community settings. These hospital-associated clones are characterized by the acquisition of adaptive genetic elements, including genes involved in metabolism, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance. In contrast to E. faecium, clones of E. faecalis isolated from hospitalized patients, including strains causing clinical infections, are not exclusively found in hospitals but are also present in healthy individuals and animals. This observation suggests that the division between commensals and hospital-adapted lineages is less clear for E. faecalis than for E. faecium. In addition, genes that are reported to be associated with virulence of E. faecalis are often not unique to clinical isolates, but are also found in strains that originate from commensal niches. As a reflection of more ancient association of E. faecalis with different hosts, these determinants Thus, they may not represent genuine virulence genes but may act as host-adaptive functions that are useful in a variety of intestinal environments. The scope of the review is to summarize recent trends in the emergence of antibiotic resistance and explore recent developments in the molecular epidemiology, population structure and mechanisms of adaptation of E. faecium and E. faecalis.

  4. Enterococcus faecalis Clones in Poultry and in Humans with Urinary Tract Infections, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Louise Ladefoged; Bisgaard, Magne; Son, Nguyen Thai; Trung, Nguyen Vu; An, Hoang Manh

    2012-01-01

    Enterococcus spp. as pathogens have increased, but the sources of infection often remain unclear. To investigate whether poultry might be a reservoir for E. faecalis–associated urinary tract infections (UTIs) in humans, we characterized E. faecalis isolates from patients in Vietnam with UTIs during January 2008–January 2010 and poultry living in close contact with them by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, analysis of antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns, and sequencing of virulence genes. In 7 (23%) of 31 UTI cases, we detected identical MLST, indistinguishable or closely related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, and similar antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns. Isolates from urine and poultry showed identical virulence gene profiles, except for 1 variation, and individual genes showed identical sequences. The homology of isolates from urine and poultry further indicates the zoonotic potential and global spread of E. faecalis sequence type 16, which recently was reported in humans with endocarditis and in pigs in Denmark. PMID:22709904

  5. Molecular cloning, overexpression, purification, and characterization of an aerobic FMN-dependent azoreductase from Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huizhong; Wang, Rong-Fu; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2004-04-01

    Azo dyes represent a major class of synthetic colorants that are ubiquitous in foods and consumer products. Enterococcus faecalis is a predominant member of the human gastrointestinal microflora. Strain ATCC 19433 grew in the presence of azo dyes and metabolized them to colorless products. A gene encoding a putative FMN-dependent aerobic azoreductase that shares 34% identity with azoreductase (AcpD) of Escherichia coli has been identified in this strain. The gene in E. faecalis, designated as azoA, encoded a protein of 208 amino acids with a calculated isoelectric point of 4.8. AzoA was heterologously overexpressed in E. coli with a strong band of 23 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The purified recombinant enzyme was a homodimer with a molecular weight of 43 kDa, probably containing one molecule of FMN per dimer. AzoA required FMN and NADH, but not NADPH, as a preferred electron donor for its activity. The apparent Km values for both NADH and 2-[4-(dimethylamino)phenylazo]benzoic acid (Methyl red) substrates were 0.14 and 0.024 mM, respectively. The apparent Vmax was 86.2 microM/min/mg protein. The enzyme was not only able to decolorize Methyl red, but was also able to convert sulfonated azo dyes Orange II, Amaranth, Ponceau BS, and Ponceau S. AzoA is the first aerobic azoreductase to be identified and characterized from human intestinal gram-positive bacteria.

  6. Susceptibility to disinfectants in antimicrobial-resistant and -susceptible isolates of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium from poultry-ESBL/AmpC-phenotype of E. coli is not associated with resistance to a quaternary ammonium compound, DDAC.

    PubMed

    Wieland, N; Boss, J; Lettmann, S; Fritz, B; Schwaiger, K; Bauer, J; Hölzel, C S

    2017-06-01

    The spread of bacteria that are simultaneously resistant to disinfectants and antimicrobials would constitute an unsettling scenario. In order to explore an association between antimicrobial resistance and reduced susceptibility to biocides/microbicides (disinfectants) in agriculture, we investigated Escherichia coli (n = 438) and enterococci (n = 120) isolated from six different flocks of the same poultry farm with known history of antimicrobial treatment. Susceptibility to disinfectants (formic acid and a quaternary ammonium compound (QAC), didecyldimethylammoniumchloride-DDAC) was assessed by macrodilution according to guidelines of the German Veterinary Society. Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were screened (i) for reduced biocide susceptibility and (ii) for an association of biocide susceptibility and antimicrobial resistance including the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and the hyperproduction of AmpC-type beta-lactamases. DDAC inhibited ESBL/AmpC(hyper)-producing E. coli (n = 53) from poultry at similar or slightly lower inhibitory concentrations, compared with non-ESBL/AmpC strains (median MIC = 0·36 vs 1·44 mg l(-1) ). In contrast, DDAC-MICs were positively correlated with several other antibiotic MICs (e.g. piperacillin and sulphamethoxazole + trimethoprim in E. coli, chloramphenicol in E. faecalis) and increased DDAC-MICs were statistically linked to high-level aminoglycoside resistance in enterococci (streptomycin high level). DDAC-MICs did not correlate with the presence of the integron marker qacEDelta1. This study provides indication that residual disinfectant might be able to select antimicrobial-resistant enterococci, but not ESBL-/AmpC (hyper)producing E. coli from poultry. While ESBL-/AmpC-E. coli were inhibited at disinfectant concentrations comparable to or lower than wildtype values, low concentrations of QACs might be able to select other antimicrobial-resistant E

  7. Functional cloning and expression of emeA, and characterization of EmeA, a multidrug efflux pump from Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Woo; Chen, Jing; Huda, Md Nazmul; Kuroda, Teruo; Mizushima, Tohru; Tsuchiya, Tomofusa

    2003-02-01

    A fragment of chromosomal DNA from Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 was cloned using Escherichia coli KAM32 host cells lacking major multidrug efflux pumps. E. coli KAM32 cells were sensitive to many antimicrobial agents, and the transformed cells harboring a recombinant plasmid became resistant to several structurally unrelated antimicrobial agents such as tetraphenylphosphonium chloride, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), Hoechst 33342, acriflavine, benzalkonium chloride, norfloxacin and ethidium bromide. This suggests that the cloned DNA fragment carries a gene(s) encoding a multidrug efflux pump. Determination of the nucleotide sequence of the cloned DNA revealed a gene designated as emeA. The transformed E. coli cells showed efflux activity of several antimicrobial agents such as DAPI, Hoechst 33342 and acriflavine. Efflux of DAPI via EmeA was strongly inhibited by reserpine.

  8. Different VanA Elements in E. faecalis and in E. faecium Suggest at Least Two Origins of Tn1546 Among VRE in a Brazilian Hospital.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Thaís Panhan; Dabul, Andrei Nicoli Gebieluca; Camargo, Ilana Lopes Baratella Cunha

    2015-06-01

    In 2009 during surveillance in a Brazilian hospital, many patients were confirmed to be colonized by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and a few infection cases occurred. Among 14 isolates of Enterococcus faecalis, most had the same pulsotype, virulence profile (agg(+)elrA(+)gelE(+)), and were sequence type (ST)103, indicating dissemination of a clone. The 47 Enterococcus faecium were separated into four pulsotypes, the predominant virulence profile being esp(+)acm(+). All of them harbored the hospital marker IS16, and three randomly chosen isolates were ST412, belonging to the Clonal Complex 17. E. faecalis were all susceptible to penicillin and ampicillin, while all E. faecium were resistant to them. All isolates were susceptible to daptomycin and tigecycline. There were no rep-family genes common to all VRE. The VanA element of all E. faecium lost its left-side inverted repeat (IRL) region and had a specific IS insertion. On the other hand, all E. faecalis presented intact Tn1546. The size of plasmids containing the vanA gene as well as its rep-families varied between and within species. The lack of a vanA plasmid common to all VRE, together with the differences among VanA elements, despite the fact that some patients were colonized by both species during their hospitalization, leads us to suggest at least two different Tn1546 origins.

  9. Comparative genomics of Enterococcus spp. isolated from bovine feces.

    PubMed

    Beukers, Alicia G; Zaheer, Rahat; Goji, Noriko; Amoako, Kingsley K; Chaves, Alexandre V; Ward, Michael P; McAllister, Tim A

    2017-03-08

    Enterococcus is ubiquitous in nature and is a commensal of both the bovine and human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It is also associated with clinical infections in humans. Subtherapeutic administration of antibiotics to cattle selects for antibiotic resistant enterococci in the bovine GI tract. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) may be present in enterococci following antibiotic use in cattle. If located on mobile genetic elements (MGEs) their dissemination between Enterococcus species and to pathogenic bacteria may be promoted, reducing the efficacy of antibiotics. We present a comparative genomic analysis of twenty-one Enterococcus spp. isolated from bovine feces including Enterococcus hirae (n = 10), Enterococcus faecium (n = 3), Enterococcus villorum (n = 2), Enterococcus casseliflavus (n = 2), Enterococcus faecalis (n = 1), Enterococcus durans (n = 1), Enterococcus gallinarum (n = 1) and Enterococcus thailandicus (n = 1). The analysis revealed E. faecium and E. faecalis from bovine feces share features with human clinical isolates, including virulence factors. The Tn917 transposon conferring macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance was identified in both E. faecium and E. hirae, suggesting dissemination of ARGs on MGEs may occur in the bovine GI tract. An E. faecium isolate was also identified with two integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) belonging to the Tn916 family of ICE, Tn916 and Tn5801, both conferring tetracycline resistance. This study confirms the presence of enterococci in the bovine GI tract possessing ARGs on MGEs, but the predominant species in cattle, E. hirae is not commonly associated with infections in humans. Analysis using additional complete genomes of E. faecium from the NCBI database demonstrated differential clustering of commensal and clinical isolates, suggesting that these strains may be specifically adapted to their respective environments.

  10. Intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms in enterococcus.

    PubMed

    Hollenbeck, Brian L; Rice, Louis B

    2012-08-15

    Enterococci have the potential for resistance to virtually all clinically useful antibiotics. Their emergence as important nosocomial pathogens has coincided with increased expression of antimicrobial resistance by members of the genus. The mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance in enterococci may be intrinsic to the species or acquired through mutation of intrinsic genes or horizontal exchange of genetic material encoding resistance determinants. This paper reviews the antibiotic resistance mechanisms in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis and discusses treatment options.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus faecium L50, a strain producing enterocins L50 (L50A and L50B), P and Q, against beer-spoilage lactic acid bacteria in broth, wort (hopped and unhopped), and alcoholic and non-alcoholic lager beers.

    PubMed

    Basanta, Antonio; Sánchez, Jorge; Gómez-Sala, Beatriz; Herranz, Carmen; Hernández, Pablo E; Cintas, Luis M

    2008-07-31

    Enterococcus faecium L50 produces enterocin L50 (L50A and L50B) (EntL50, EntL50A and EntL50B), enterocin P (EntP) and enterocin Q (EntQ) and displays a broad antimicrobial spectrum against the most relevant beer-spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (i.e., Lactobacillus brevis and Pediococcus damnosus), which is mainly due to the production of EntL50 (EntL50A and EntL50B). Bacteriocin assays using in vitro-synthesized EntL50 (EntL50A and EntL50B) showed that both individual peptides possess antimicrobial activity on their own, EntL50A being the most active, but when the two peptides were combined a synergistic effect was observed. The only virulence genes detected in E. faecium L50 were efaAfm (cell wall adhesin) and ccf (sex pheromone), and this strain was susceptible to most clinically relevant antibiotics. E. faecium L50 survived but did not grow nor showed antimicrobial activity in hopped and unhopped wort, and alcoholic (1 and 5% ethanol, v/v) and non-alcoholic (0% ethanol, v/v) commercial lager beers. However, when unhopped wort was supplemented with 50% (v/v) MRS broth, E. faecium L50 grew and exerted antimicrobial activity similarly as in MRS broth. The enterocins produced by this strain were bactericidal (5 log decrease) against P. damnosus and Lb. brevis in a dose- and substrate-dependent manner when challenged in MRS broth, wort (hopped and unhopped), and alcoholic (1 and 5% ethanol, v/v) and non-alcoholic (0% ethanol, v/v) lager beers at 32 degrees C, and no bacterial resistances were detected even after incubation for 6-15 days. The enterocins in wort and lager beer (5% ethanol, v/v) withstood the heat treatments commonly employed in the brewing industry during mashing, wort boiling, fermentation, and pasteurization, and retained most of their antimicrobial activity in lager beer (5% ethanol, v/v) after long-term storage at 8 and 25 degrees C.

  12. Molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus species from gut microbiota of Chilean Altiplano camelids

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero-Olmos, Katheryne; Báez, John; Valenzuela, Nicomédes; Gahona, Joselyne; del Campo, Rosa; Silva, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Background Enterococcus is one of the major human pathogens able to acquire multiple antibiotic-resistant markers as well as virulence factors which also colonize remote ecosystems, including wild animals. In this work, we characterized the Enterococcus population colonizing the gut of Chilean Altiplano camelids without foreign human contact. Material and methods Rectal swabs from 40 llamas and 10 alpacas were seeded in M-Enterococcus agar, and we selected a total of 57 isolates. Species identification was performed by biochemical classical tests, semi-automated WIDER system, mass spectrometry analysis by MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer), and, finally, nucleotide sequence of internal fragments of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, pheS, and aac(6)-I genes. Genetic diversity was measured by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)-SmaI, whereas the antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the WIDER system. Carriage of virulence factors was explored by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Our results demonstrated that the most prevalent specie was Enterococcus hirae (82%), followed by other non–Enterococcus faecalis and non–Enterococcus faecium species. Some discrepancies were detected among the identification methods used, and the most reliable were the rpoB, pheS, and aac(6)-I nucleotide sequencing. Selected isolates exhibited susceptibility to almost all studied antibiotics, and virulence factors were not detected by PCR. Finally, some predominant clones were characterized by PFGE into a diverse genetic background. Conclusion Enterococcus species from the Chilean camelids’ gut microbiota were different from those adapted to humans, and they remained free of antibiotic resistance mechanisms as well as virulence factors. PMID:25405007

  13. Inducer bacteria, unique signal peptides and low nutrient media stimulate in-vitro bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus spp. and Enterococcus spp. strains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacteriocins (BCN) provide promising potential to control bacterial infections in a variety of applications. We previously reported three Type IIa BCN produced by Lactobacillus salivarius B-30514 (OR-7), Enterococcus durans/faecium/hirae B-30745 (E 760) and Enterococcus faecium B-30746 (E 50-52). ...

  14. Population biology of Gram-positive pathogens: high-risk clones for dissemination of antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Rob J. L.; Hanage, William P; Bessen, Debra E.; Feil, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Infections caused by multi-resistant Gram positive bacteria represent a major health burden in the community as well as in hospitalized patients. Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are well-known pathogens of hospitalized patients, frequently linked with resistance against multiple antibiotics, compromising effective therapy. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes are important pathogens in the community and S. aureus has recently emerged as an important community-acquired pathogen. Population genetic studies reveal that recombination prevails as a driving force of genetic diversity in E. faecium, E. faecalis, S. pneumoniae, and S. pyogenes and thus, these species are weakly clonal. Although recombination has a relatively modest role driving the genetic variation of the core genome of S. aureus, the horizontal acquistion of resistance and virulence genes plays a key role in the emergence of new clinically relevant clones in this species. In this review we discuss the population genetics of E. faecium, E. faecalis, S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, and S. aureus. Knowledge of the population structure of these pathogens is not only highly relevant for (molecular) epidemiological research but also for identifying the genetic variation that underlies changes in clinical behaviour, to improve our understanding of the pathogenic behaviour of particular clones and to identify novel targets for vaccines or immunotherapy. PMID:21658083

  15. Multi-antibiotic resistant and putative virulence gene signatures in Enterococcus species isolated from pig farms environment.

    PubMed

    Beshiru, Abeni; Igbinosa, Isoken H; Omeje, Faith I; Ogofure, Abraham G; Eyong, Martin M; Igbinosa, Etinosa O

    2017-03-01

    The continuous misuse of antimicrobials in food animals both orally and subcutaneously as therapeutic and prophylactic agents to bacterial infections could be detrimental and contribute to the dissemination of resistant clones in livestock production. The present study was carried out to determine the antibiogram and virulence gene characteristics of Enterococcus species from pig farms. A total of 300 faecal samples were obtained from two pig farms in Benin City between February and July 2016. Standard culture-based and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay were adopted in the detection and characterization of the Enterococcus species. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile was determined using disc diffusion method. A total of 268 enterococci isolates were recovered from both farms investigated. In Farm A, 94/95 (99%) of E. faecalis isolates were resistant to clindamycin; while 23/25 (92%) of E. faecium isolates were resistant to clindamycin. In farm B, all E. faecalis isolates 119/119 (100%) were resistant to clindamycin; while 26/29 (90%) of E. faecium isolates were resistant to clindamycin. Virulence gene detected in the enterococci isolates includes aggregation (asa1) [Farm A (E. faecalis 66%, E. faecium 76%), Farm B (E. faecalis 71%, E. faecium 13%)] and others. Multidrug resistant profile of the isolates revealed that 17/95 (18%) of E. faecalis and 3/25 (12%) of E. faecium isolates from Farm A as well as, 16/119 (14%) of E. faecalis and 5/29 (17%) of E. faecium isolates from Farm B were resistant to CLI(R), PEN(R), ERY(R), GEN(R), TET(R), MEM(R), KAN(R), and PTZ(R). The high level of resistance observed in the study and their virulence gene signatures, calls for effective environmental monitoring to circumvent the environmental dissemination of resistant pathogenic clones. Thus environmental hygiene should be provided to food animals to prevent the proliferation and spread of resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of the probiotic bacteria Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 (SF68) and Bacillus cereus var. toyoi NCIMB 40112 on the development of serum IgG and faecal IgA of sows and their piglets.

    PubMed

    Scharek, Lydia; Guth, Jana; Filter, Matthias; Schmidt, Michael F G

    2007-08-01

    To examine the influence of two different probiotic bacteria on the humoral immune system of swine, two animal studies were carried out with sows and their litters. The sows' feed was supplemented with either Enterococcusfaecium NCIMB 10415 (SF68) or Bacillus cereus var. toyoi NCIMB 40112 beginning early in pregnancy. The total IgA content in the faeces as well as the total IgG concentration in the blood of the sows was recorded before and after weaning. The same parameters were determined in the blood and faeces of the piglets. In sows, only feed supplementation with B. cereus led to a clear increase in faecal IgA. Serum IgG levels were not significantly affected by any probiotic feeding in sows. In piglets, the group that was fed B. cereus showed significantly higher faecal IgA levels shortly before weaning, whereas in the E. faecium group, a significant decrease in IgA levels was observed one week after weaning. In both probiotic fed groups the post-weaning IgG levels were significantly decreased compared to the respective control groups. We conclude that B. cereus var. toyoi feed supplementation led to an increased intestinal IgA secretion both in sows and piglets. This effect could be related to a more successful mucosal defence which in turn led to a lower level in systemic IgG production in piglets after weaning.

  17. Cloning

    MedlinePlus

    Cloning describes the processes used to create an exact genetic replica of another cell, tissue or organism. ... named Dolly. There are three different types of cloning: Gene cloning, which creates copies of genes or ...

  18. [Infections caused by multi-resistant Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp.)].

    PubMed

    Cantón, Rafael; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia

    2013-10-01

    Methicillin -resistant Staphylocccus aureus (MRSA) and multirresistant entorococci are still problematic in nosocomial infections and new challenges have emerged for their containment. MRSA has increased the multiresistant profile; it has been described vancomycin and linezolid resistant isolates and isolates with decreased daptomycin susceptibility. Moreover, new clones (ST398) have emerged, initially associated with piggeries, and new mec variants (mecC) with livestock origin that escape to the detection with current molecular methods based on mecA gene have been detected. In enterococci, linzeolid resistant isolates and isolates with deceased susceptibility to daptomycin have been described. Moreover, ampicillin resistant Enterococcus faecium due to β-lactamase production has been recently found in Europe. Control of MRSA isolates and multiresistant enteroccocci should combined antibiotic stewardship strategies and epidemiological measures, including detection of colonized patients in order to reduce colonization pressure and their transmission.

  19. Enterococcus faecalis as multidrug resistance strains in clinical isolates in Imam Reza Hospital in Kermanshah, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, F; Ghafourian, S; Mohebi, R; Taherikalani, M; Pakzad, I; Valadbeigi, H; Hatami, V; Sadeghifard, N

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in E. faecalis and E. faecium and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, then dominant genes responsible for vancomycin resistance were determined. For this propose, 180 clinical isolates of Enterococcus were subjected for identification and antibiotic susceptibility assay. Then, the gene responsible vancomycin resistant strains were determined. The results demonstrated the E. faecalis as a dominant Enterococcus. Resistance to erythromycin was dominant and multidrug resistance strains observed in E. faecalis. vanA was responsible for vancomycin resistance. In conclusion, a high rate of resistance to antibiotics in Enterococcus is clearly problematic, and a novel strategy is needed to decrease resistance in Enterococcus.

  20. The Crystal Structures of Substrate and Nucleotide Complexes of Enterococcus faecium Aminoglycoside-2′′-Phosphotransferase-IIa [APH(2′′)-IIa] Provide Insights into Substrate Selectivity in the APH(2′′) Subfamily▿ ‡

    PubMed Central

    Young, Paul G.; Walanj, Rupa; Lakshmi, Vendula; Byrnes, Laura J.; Metcalf, Peter; Baker, Edward N.; Vakulenko, Sergei B.; Smith, Clyde A.

    2009-01-01

    Aminoglycoside-2′′-phosphotransferase-IIa [APH(2′′)-IIa] is one of a number of homologous bacterial enzymes responsible for the deactivation of the aminoglycoside family of antibiotics and is thus a major component in bacterial resistance to these compounds. APH(2′′)-IIa produces resistance to several clinically important aminoglycosides (including kanamycin and gentamicin) in both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, most notably in Enterococcus species. We have determined the structures of two complexes of APH(2′′)-IIa, the binary gentamicin complex and a ternary complex containing adenosine-5′-(β,γ-methylene)triphosphate (AMPPCP) and streptomycin. This is the first crystal structure of a member of the APH(2′′) family of aminoglycoside phosphotransferases. The structure of the gentamicin-APH(2′′)-IIa complex was solved by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction methods from a single selenomethionine-substituted crystal and was refined to a crystallographic R factor of 0.210 (Rfree, 0.271) at a resolution of 2.5 Å. The structure of the AMPPCP-streptomycin complex was solved by molecular replacement using the gentamicin-APH(2′′)-IIa complex as the starting model. The enzyme has a two-domain structure with the substrate binding site located in a cleft in the C-terminal domain. Gentamicin binding is facilitated by a number of conserved acidic residues lining the binding cleft, with the A and B rings of the substrate forming the majority of the interactions. The inhibitor streptomycin, although binding in the same pocket as gentamicin, is orientated such that no potential phosphorylation sites are adjacent to the catalytic aspartate residue. The binding of gentamicin and streptomycin provides structural insights into the substrate selectivity of the APH(2′′) subfamily of aminoglycoside phosphotransferases, specifically, the selectivity between the 4,6-disubstituted and the 4,5-disubstituted aminoglycosides. PMID:19429619

  1. A New High-Level Gentamicin Resistance Gene, aph(2")-Id, in Enterococcus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Shane F.; Zervos, Marcus J.; Clewell, Don B.; Donabedian, Susan M.; Sahm, Daniel F.; Chow, Joseph W.

    1998-01-01

    Enterococcus casseliflavus UC73 is a clinical blood isolate with high-level resistance to gentamicin. DNA preparations from UC73 failed to hybridize with intragenic probes for aac(6′)-Ie-aph(2")-Ia and aph(2")-Ic. A 4-kb fragment from UC73 was cloned and found to confer resistance to gentamicin in Escherichia coli DH5α transformants. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed the presence of a 906-bp open reading frame whose deduced amino acid sequence had a region with homology to the aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme APH(2")-Ic and to the C-terminal domain of the bifunctional enzyme AAC(6′)-APH(2"). The gene is designated aph(2")-Id, and its observed phosphotransferase activity is designated APH(2")-Id. A PCR-generated intragenic probe hybridized to the genomic DNA from 17 of 118 enterococcal clinical isolates (108 with high-level gentamicin resistance) from five hospitals. All 17 were vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates, and pulsed-field typing revealed three distinct clones. The combination of ampicillin plus either amikacin or neomycin exhibited synergistic killing against E. casseliflavus UC73. Screening and interpretation of high-level aminoglycoside resistance in enterococci may need to be modified to include detection of APH(2")-Id. PMID:9593155

  2. Experimental study of the impact of antimicrobial treatments on Campylobacter, Enterococcus and PCR-capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism profiles of the gut microbiota of chickens.

    PubMed

    Mourand, Gwenaëlle; Jouy, Eric; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Dheilly, Alexandra; Kérouanton, Annaëlle; Zeitouni, Salman; Kempf, Isabelle

    2014-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the impact of antimicrobial treatments on the susceptibility of Campylobacter, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis, and on the diversity of broiler microbiota. Specific-pathogen-free chickens were first orally inoculated with strains of Campylobacter and Enterococcus faecium. Birds were then orally treated with recommended doses of oxytetracycline, sulfadimethoxine/trimethoprim, amoxicillin or enrofloxacin. Faecal samples were collected before, during and after antimicrobial treatment. The susceptibility of Campylobacter, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated on supplemented or non-supplemented media was studied and PCR-capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism (CE-SSCP) profiles of the gut microbiota were analysed. Enrofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter were selected in the enrofloxacin-treated group and showed the Thr86Ile mutation in the gyrA gene. Acquisition of the tetO gene in Campylobacter coli isolates was significantly more frequent in birds given oxytetracycline. No impact of amoxicillin treatment on the susceptibility of Campylobacter could be detected. Ampicillin- and sulfadimethoxine/trimethoprim-resistant Enterococcus faecium were selected in amoxicillin-treated broilers, but no selection of the inoculated vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium could be detected, although it was also resistant to tetracycline and sulfadimethoxine/trimethoprim. PCR-CE-SSCP revealed significant variations in a few peaks in treated birds as compared with non-treated chickens. In conclusion, antimicrobial treatments perturbed chicken gut microbiota, and certain antimicrobial treatments selected or co-selected resistant strains of Campylobacter and Enterococcus.

  3. Cloning

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2001, researchers produced the first clone of an endangered species: a type of Asian ox known as a ... few days after its birth. In 2003, another endangered type of ox, called the ... many species that would otherwise disappear, others argue that cloning ...

  4. Enterococcus Xinjiangensis sp. nov., Isolated from Yogurt of Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaopu; Li, Mingyang; Guo, Dongqi

    2016-09-01

    A Gram-strain-positive bacterial strain 48(T) was isolated from traditional yogurt in Xinjiang Province, China. The bacterium was characterized by a polyphasic approach, including 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, polymerase α subunit (rpoA) gene sequence analysis, determination of DNA G+C content, DNA-DNA hybridization with the type strain of Enterococcus ratti and analysis of phenotypic features. Strain 48(T) accounted for 96.1, 95.8, 95.8, and 95.7 % with Enterococcus faecium CGMCC 1.2136(T), Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790(T), Enterococcus durans CECT 411(T), and E. ratti ATCC 700914(T) in the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, respectively. The sequence of rpoA gene showed similarities of 99.0, 96.0, 96.0, and 96 % with that of E. faecium ATCC 19434(T), Enterococcus villorum LMG12287, E. hirae ATCC 9790(T), and E. durans ATCC 19432(T), respectively. Based upon of polyphasic characterization data obtained in the study, a novel species, Enterococcus xinjiangensis sp. nov., was proposed and the type strain was 48(T)(=CCTCC AB 2014041(T) = JCM 30200(T)).

  5. Enterococcus lactis sp. nov., from Italian raw milk cheeses.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Stefano; Cremonesi, Paola; Povolo, Milena; Brasca, Milena

    2012-08-01

    Ten atypical Enterococcus strains were isolated from Italian raw milk cheeses. The 16S rRNA gene, phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase alpha subunit (pheS), RNA polymerase alpha subunit (rpoA) and the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR and the phenotypic properties revealed that the isolates represent a novel enterococcal species. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates were closely related to Enterococcus hirae ATCC 8043(T), Enterococcus durans CECT 411(T) and Enterococcus faecium ATCC 19434(T), with 98.8, 98.9 and 99.4% sequence similarity, respectively. On the basis of sequence analysis of the housekeeping gene pheS, the reference strain, BT159(T), occupied a position separate from E. faecium LMG 16198. The group of isolates could be easily differentiated from recognized species of the genus Enterococcus by 16S-23S rRNA ITS analysis, RAPD-PCR and phenotypic characteristics. The name Enterococcus lactis sp. nov. is proposed, with BT159(T) ( = DSM 23655(T) = LMG 25958(T)) as the type strain.

  6. Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance Enterococcus Surveillance Programme annual report, 2010.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Geoffrey W; Pearson, Julie C; Christiansen, Keryn; Gottlieb, Thomas; Bell, Jan M; George, Narelle; Turnidge, John D

    2013-09-30

    In 2010, 15 institutions around Australia conducted a period prevalence study of key resistances in isolates of Enterococcus species associated with a range of clinical disease amongst in- and outpatients. Each institution collected up to 100 consecutive isolates and tested these for susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobials using standardised methods. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis were characterised by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Multilocus sequence typing was performed on representative pulsotypes of E. faecium. Susceptibility results were compared with similar surveys conducted in 1995, 1999, 2003, 2005, 2007 and 2009. In the 2010 survey, E. faecalis (1,201 isolates) and E. faecium (170 isolates) made up 98.9% of the 1,386 isolates tested. Ampicillin resistance was very common (85.3%) in E. faecium and absent in E. faecalis. Non-susceptibility to vancomycin was 36.5% in E. faecium (similar to the 35.2% in 2009 but up from 15.4% in the 2007 survey) and 0.5% in E. faecalis. There were significant differences in the proportion of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium between the states ranging from 0% in Western Australia to 54.4% in South Australia. The vanB gene was detected in 62 E. faecium and 3 E. faecalis isolates. The vanA gene was detected in 1 E. faecium isolate. All vancomycin-resistant E. faecium belonged to clonal complex 17. The most common sequence type (ST) was ST203, which was found in all regions that had reports of vancomycin resistant enterococci. ST341 was detected only in New South Wales/Australian Capital Territory and ST414 only in South Australia and Victoria. High-level resistance to gentamicin was 34.1% in E. faecalis and 66.1% in E. faecium. A subset of isolates was tested against high-level streptomycin, linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin. High-level streptomycin resistance was found in 8.2% of E. faecalis isolates and 43.8% of E. faecium isolates. Linezolid non

  7. Macrolide Resistance Genes in Enterococcus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Portillo, Aránzazu; Ruiz-Larrea, Fernanda; Zarazaga, Myriam; Alonso, Ana; Martinez, Jose Luis; Torres, Carmen

    2000-01-01

    Seventy-eight isolates of different Enterococcus species (E. faecalis, n = 27; E. faecium, n = 23; E. durans, n = 8; E. avium, n = 6; E. hirae, n = 9; E. gallinarum, n = 3; and E. casseliflavus, n = 2) with a variety of erythromycin resistance phenotypes were examined for the presence of macrolide resistance genes (ermA, ermB, ermC, ermTR, mefA/E, and msrA). Positive PCR amplifications of ermB were obtained for 39 of 40 highly erythromycin-resistant Enterococcus isolates (MICs, >128 μg/ml) of different species; the remaining highly resistant E. faecium isolate was positive for PCR amplification of ermA but was negative for PCR amplification of the ermB and ermC genes. For all enterococcal strains for which erythromycin MICs were ≤32 μg/ml PCRs were negative for erm methylase genes. For all E. faecium isolates PCR amplified products of the expected size of 400 bp were obtained when msrA primers were used, with the results being independent of the erythromycin resistance phenotype. All the other enterococcal species gave negative results by msrA PCRs. Sequencing of the msrA PCR products from either erythromycin-susceptible, low-level-resistant, or highly resistant E. faecium strains showed that the amplicons did not correspond to the msrA gene described for Staphylococcus epidermidis but corresponded to a new putative efflux determinant, which showed 62% identity with the msrA gene at the DNA level and 72% similarity at the amino acid level. This new gene was named msrC. PMID:10722498

  8. Diverse antimicrobial activity from Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-30746 bacteriocin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antibiotic therapy to resolve bacterial disease has been compromised by the increased prevalence and magnitude of bacterial antibiotic resistance. In our efforts to identify new effective antimicrobials, bacteria isolated from poultry intestinal contents were screened for bacteriocin synthesis again...

  9. The rise of the Enterococcus: beyond vancomycin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Cesar A.; Murray, Barbara E.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Enterococcus includes some of the most important nosocomial multidrug-resistant organisms, and these pathogens usually affect patients who are debilitated by other, concurrent illnesses and undergoing prolonged hospitalization. This Review discusses the factors involved in the changing epidemiology of enterococcal infections, with an emphasis on Enterococcus faecium as an emergent and challenging nosocomial problem. The effects of antibiotics on the gut microbiota and on colonization with vancomycin-resistant enterococci are highlighted, including how enterococci benefit from the antibiotic-mediated eradication of Gram-negative members of the gut microbiota. Analyses of enterococcal genomes indicate that there are certain genetic lineages, including an E. faecium clade of ancient origin, with the ability to succeed in the hospital environment, and the possible virulence determinants that are found in these genetic lineages are discussed. Finally, we review the most important mechanisms of resistance to the antibiotics that are used to treat vancomycin-resistant enterococci. PMID:22421879

  10. Eight-year Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance among Enterococcus Spp. Isolated in the First Bethune Hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiancheng; Wang, Liqiang; Wang, Kai; Zhou, Qi

    This study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. isolated in 8 consecutive years in the First Bethune Hospital. Disk diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5 software according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Most of 1446 strains of Enterococcus spp. were collected from urine 640 (44.3%), sputum 315 (21.8%), secretions and pus 265 (18.3%) during the past 8 years. The rates of high-level aminoglycoside resistance in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were 57.4%∼75.9% and 69.0%∼93.8% during the past 8 years, respectively. No Enterococcus spp. was resistant to vancomycin. The antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. had increased in recent 8 years. The change of the antimicrobial resistance should be investigated in order to direct rational drug usage in the clinic and prevent bacterial strain of drug resistance from being transmitted.

  11. Enterococcus spp. in a single blood culture: bacteremia or contamination?

    PubMed

    Khatib, R; Labalo, V; Sharma, M; Johnson, L B; Riederer, K

    2017-03-01

    We retrospectively evaluated adult cases with Enterococcus spp. in 1 blood culture (BC) (1/1/2010-12/31/2015; n=294) and stratified them into bacteremia or contamination. Contamination frequency was similar in community versus hospital-onset, E. faecalis versus E. faecium, and number of BC drawn per day. Contamination predictors were vancomycin-resistance, ampicillin-resistance, commensal organism copresence, and nonurinary/abdominal sources.

  12. Characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus isolates from broilers in Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Getachew, Y M; Hassan, L; Zakaria, Z; Saleha, A A; Kamaruddin, M I; Che Zalina, M Z

    2009-12-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) is an emerging nosocomial pathogen in humans. The use of antibiotics in human therapy and in the production of food animals has been incriminated in the emergence of this organism. The present study describes the distribution of VRE species, the vancomycin-resistant genes detected, the vancomycin resistance pattern observed, and the genetic diversity of the isolates found in live broiler chickens in Malaysia. Overall 140 VRE were isolated with species comprising Enterococcus faecalis (48%), Enterococcus faecium (25.7%), Enterococcus gallinarum (12.1%), Enterococcus casseliflavus (1.4%) and other Enterococcus species (12.8%). Vancomycin resistance gene vanA and intrinsic genes vanC1 and vanC2/3 were detected in the study population. VanA was detected in 15 (63.9%) of E. faecium, 23 (22.4%) of E. faecalis and in 3 (17.6%) E. gallinarum isolates. E-test was conducted on randomly selected 41 of the isolates and the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of vancomycin for five (11.9%) of tested isolates is more than 256 μg/ml. Genotypic analysis using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) showed genetic diversity within the Enterococcus species.

  13. AN EFFICIENT IMMUNOMAGNETIC CAPTURE SYSTEM FOR ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS AND ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enterococci detection is one of the two approved procedures by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) used for the assessment of the microbiological quality of recreational waters. The action levels established by the EPA for enterococci are 35 pr 100 ml in marine recreati...

  14. Population biology of intestinal enterococcus isolates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized individuals in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Tedim, Ana P; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2015-03-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n = 133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n = 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages ≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized persons (77.44% to 79.77%) of all age groups (75.0% to 82.61%). Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were predominant, although seven other Enterococcus species were identified. E. faecalis and E. faecium (including ampicillin-resistant E. faecium) colonization rates in nonhospitalized persons were age independent. For inpatients, E. faecalis colonization rates were age independent, but E. faecium colonization rates (particularly the rates of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium colonization) significantly increased with age. The population structure of E. faecium and E. faecalis was determined by superimposing goeBURST and Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS). Most E. faecium sequence types (STs; 150 isolates belonging to 75 STs) were linked to BAPS groups 1 (22.0%), 2 (31.3%), and 3 (36.7%). A positive association between hospital isolates and BAPS subgroups 2.1a and 3.3a (which included major ampicillin-resistant E. faecium human lineages) and between community-based ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates and BAPS subgroups 1.2 and 3.3b was found. Most E. faecalis isolates (130 isolates belonging to 58 STs) were grouped into 3 BAPS groups, BAPS groups 1 (36.9%), 2 (40.0%), and 3 (23.1%), with each one comprising widespread lineages. No positive associations with age or hospitalization were established. The diversity and dynamics of enterococcal populations in the fecal microbiota of healthy humans are largely unexplored, with the available knowledge being fragmented and contradictory. The study offers a novel and comprehensive analysis of enterococcal population landscapes and suggests that E. faecium

  15. Population Biology of Intestinal Enterococcus Isolates from Hospitalized and Nonhospitalized Individuals in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Tedim, Ana P.; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M.; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J.; Baquero, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n = 133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n = 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages ≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized persons (77.44% to 79.77%) of all age groups (75.0% to 82.61%). Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were predominant, although seven other Enterococcus species were identified. E. faecalis and E. faecium (including ampicillin-resistant E. faecium) colonization rates in nonhospitalized persons were age independent. For inpatients, E. faecalis colonization rates were age independent, but E. faecium colonization rates (particularly the rates of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium colonization) significantly increased with age. The population structure of E. faecium and E. faecalis was determined by superimposing goeBURST and Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS). Most E. faecium sequence types (STs; 150 isolates belonging to 75 STs) were linked to BAPS groups 1 (22.0%), 2 (31.3%), and 3 (36.7%). A positive association between hospital isolates and BAPS subgroups 2.1a and 3.3a (which included major ampicillin-resistant E. faecium human lineages) and between community-based ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates and BAPS subgroups 1.2 and 3.3b was found. Most E. faecalis isolates (130 isolates belonging to 58 STs) were grouped into 3 BAPS groups, BAPS groups 1 (36.9%), 2 (40.0%), and 3 (23.1%), with each one comprising widespread lineages. No positive associations with age or hospitalization were established. The diversity and dynamics of enterococcal populations in the fecal microbiota of healthy humans are largely unexplored, with the available knowledge being fragmented and contradictory. The study offers a novel and comprehensive analysis of enterococcal population landscapes and suggests that E. faecium

  16. Novel vitamin B12-producing Enterococcus spp. and preliminary in vitro evaluation of probiotic potentials.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Gu, Qing; Wang, Yuejiao; Yu, Yue; Yang, Lanlan; Chen, Jieyan V

    2017-08-01

    Vitamin B12 is an essential nutrient required for crucial metabolic processes in humans. Vitamin B12-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been attracting increased attentions currently because of the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status. Most of recent studies focused on Lactobacillus, and little is known about B12-producing Enterococcus. In the present study, five Enterococcus strains isolated from infant feces were identified as vitamin B12 producers. Among them, Enterococcus faecium LZ86 had the highest B12 production (499.8 ± 83.7 μg/L), and the B12 compound from LZ86 was identified as the biological active adenosylcobalamin, using reversed phase high-performance liquid (RP-HPLC) chromatogram. We examined basic probiotic and safety properties of E. faecium LZ86 and found that it was able to survive harsh environmental conditions (hot temperature, cold temperature, ethanol and osmotic stresses), tolerate gastric acid (pH 2.0, 3 h) and bile salts (0.3%), and adhere to Caco-2 cells. We also showed that E. faecium LZ86 is devoid of transferable antibiotic resistance and potential virulence factors. Together, here we report a B12-producing E. faecium strain LZ86 firstly, which has desirable probiotic properties and may serve as a good candidate for vitamin B12 fortification in food industry.

  17. Multiple antibiotic resistances of Enterococcus isolates from raw or sand-filtered sewage.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junyi; Gallert, Claudia; Winter, Josef

    2007-02-01

    Fifty antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus strains were isolated from raw sewage of a wastewater treatment plant and from the same sewage after trickling through a 25-cm sand column, which retained >99% of the initial population. All 50 Enterococcus isolates were resistant against triple sulfa and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and none were resistant against vancomycin. Most of the isolates from raw sewage were resistant to more antibiotics than the isolates from sand column effluent. One Enterococcus isolate from raw sewage (no. 61) and one Enterococcus isolate from sand column effluent (no. 95) had ten antibiotic resistances each. Isolate no. 95 maintained its resistances in the absence of antibiotics during the whole study. It was compared with isolate no. 70, which was one of the isolates, being resistant only against the two sulfonamides. Phenotypically and biochemically, the two organisms were strains of Enterococcus faecalis. Sequence analysis of partical 16S rDNA allowed alignment of isolate no. 95 as a strain of Enterococcus faecium and of isolate no. 70 as a strain of E. faecalis. E. faecium strain no. 95 carried at least six different plasmids, whereas for E. faecalis strain no. 70, no discrete plasmid band was seen on the gels.

  18. Identification and tracing of Enterococcus spp. by RAPD-PCR in traditional fermented sausages and meat environment.

    PubMed

    Martín, B; Corominas, L; Garriga, M; Aymerich, T

    2009-01-01

    Four local small-scale factories were studied to determine the sources of enterococci in traditional fermented sausages. Different points during the production of a traditional fermented sausage type (fuet) were evaluated. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR was used to type 596 Enterococcus isolates from the final products, the initial meat batter, the casing, the workers' hands and the equipment. Species-specific PCR-multiplex and the partial sequencing of atpA gene and 16S rRNA gene sequencing allowed the identification of the isolates: Enterococcus faecalis (31.4%), Enterococcus faecium (30.7%), Enterococcus sanguinicola (14.9%), Enterococcus devriesei (9.7%), Enterococcus malodoratus (7.2%), Enterococcus gilvus (1.0%), Enterococcus gallinarum (1.3%), Enterococcus casseliflavus (3.4%), Enterococcus hermanniensis (0.2%), and Enterococcus durans (0.2%). A total of 92 different RAPD-PCR profiles were distributed among the different factories and samples evaluated. Most of the genotypes found in fuet samples were traced back to their source. The major sources of enterococci in the traditional fermented sausages studied were mainly the equipment followed by the raw ingredients, although a low proportion was traced back to human origin. This work contributes to determine the source of enterococcal contamination in fermented sausages and also to the knowledge of the meat environment.

  19. Use of Enterococcus, BST and sterols as indicators for poultry pollution source tracking in surface and groundwater

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study has applied Enterococcus, Bacterial Source Tracking (BST) and sterol analysis for pollution source identification from poultry sources. Fecal contamination was detected in 100% of surface water and 15% of groundwater sites tested. E. faecium was the dominant species in aged litter sampl...

  20. Insertion sequence-driven diversification creates a globally dispersed emerging multiresistant subspecies of E. faecium.

    PubMed

    Leavis, Helen L; Willems, Rob J L; van Wamel, Willem J B; Schuren, Frank H; Caspers, Martien P M; Bonten, Marc J M

    2007-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium, an ubiquous colonizer of humans and animals, has evolved in the last 15 years from an avirulent commensal to the third most frequently isolated nosocomial pathogen among intensive care unit patients in the United States. E. faecium combines multidrug resistance with the potential of horizontal resistance gene transfer to even more pathogenic bacteria. Little is known about the evolution and virulence of E. faecium, and genomic studies are hampered by the absence of a completely annotated genome sequence. To further unravel its evolution, we used a mixed whole-genome microarray and hybridized 97 E. faecium isolates from different backgrounds (hospital outbreaks (n = 18), documented infections (n = 34) and asymptomatic carriage of hospitalized patients (n = 15), and healthy persons (n = 15) and animals (n = 21)). Supported by Bayesian posterior probabilities (PP = 1.0), a specific clade containing all outbreak-associated strains and 63% of clinical isolates was identified. Sequencing of 146 of 437 clade-specific inserts revealed mobile elements (n = 74), including insertion sequence (IS) elements (n = 42), phage genes (n = 6) and plasmid sequences (n = 26), hypothetical (n = 58) and membrane proteins (n = 10), and antibiotic resistance (n = 9) and regulatory genes (n = 11), mainly located on two contigs of the unfinished E. faecium DO genome. Split decomposition analysis, varying guanine cytosine content, and aberrant codon adaptation indices all supported acquisition of these genes through horizontal gene transfer with IS16 as the predicted most prominent insert (98% sensitive, 100% specific). These findings suggest that acquisition of IS elements has facilitated niche adaptation of a distinct E. faecium subpopulation by increasing its genome plasticity. Increased genome plasticity was supported by higher diversity indices (ratio of average genetic similarities of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multi locus sequence typing) for clade

  1. Enterococcus species composition determined by capillary electrophoresis of the groESL gene spacer region DNA.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, M; Paar, J; Doolittle, M; Brochi, J; Pancorbo, O C; Tang, R J; Stoner, R E; Shiaris, M P

    2010-07-01

    Marine recreational beaches are monitored for fecal contamination by Enterococcus spp. (ENT) counts. Although different ENT species in the environment tend to thrive in and originate from distinct hosts, the current monitoring method does not differentiate among species. Time-consuming isolation-based species identification precludes routine analysis of environmental ENT communities. Therefore, an isolation-independent DNA fingerprinting method was developed to characterize environmental ENT communities using DNA length polymorphism of the spacer region between the groES and groEL genes common to most ENT species. Capillary electrophoresis resulted in distinct peak sizes of PCR products that carried polymorphic groESL spacers (300-335 bp in length) among 8 different ENT species (Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus mundtii, Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus durans, and Enterococcus faecalis). Distortions in true species ratios observed in electropherograms were caused by PCR biases arising in a mixed ENT community DNA template. E. faecalis was overestimated and E. avium and E. faecium were underestimated compared to the original species ratios in the mixed community. The PCR product bias was constant between species, so good approximation of the species ratio in ENT communities is possible. In environmental samples, a high percentage of E. faecalis (96%) together with high total ENT counts were observed in samples collected from a sewer line and from several sites in a storm drain system where sewage leaks were suspected. In contrast, samples with <400 CFU 100 ml-1 ENT were either dominated by E. mundtii or had 4 or more ENT species. The latter ENT community profiles are considered to be signatures of enterococci rarely associated with animals with low or of non-fecal origin.

  2. Drug resistance & virulence determinants in clinical isolatesof Enterococcus species

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Sanal C.; Dhanashree, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Enterococci are the leading cause of nosocomial infections, and are thus a persisting clinical problem globally. We undertook this study to determine the virulence factors and the antibiotic resistance in Enterococcus clinical isolates. Methods: One hundred and fifty Enterococcus isolates obtained from various clinical specimens were speciated biochemically and subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Resistance to vancomycin was determined by using agar screen method. Haemolysin and gelatinase productions were detected using 5 per cent sheep blood agar and 12 per cent gelatin agar, respectively. Results: Among the 150 Enterococcus isolates, 84 (56%) were E. faecalis. 51(34%) E. faecium, and 15 (10%) were other Enterococcus spp. Haemolysin production was seen among 123 (82%) isolates while 61 (40.6%) isolates produced gelatinase. Nearly 50 per cent of the isolates showed high level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR). A total of 13 (8.6%) isolates showed vancomycin resistance, of which 11(7.3%) had an MIC >8 μg/ml. Interpretation & conclusions: Presence of VRE was found to be low among the isolates studied. However, occurrence of VRE along with HLAR calls for regular detection of vancomycin resistance promptly and accurately to recognize VRE colonization and infection. Early detection of VRE and HLAR along with their virulence trait will help in preventing the establishment and spread of multidrug resistant Enterococcus species. PMID:23760387

  3. [Influence of staphylococcin T on Enterococcus sp. growth].

    PubMed

    Białucha, Agata; Kozuszko, Sylwia; Gospodarek, Eugenia; Bugalski, Roman Marian; Gierlotka, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesised, extracellular bacterial products. Generally, spectrum of inhibition is limited to the same or closely related species to bacteriocin producer. Staphylococcin T is produced by Staphylococcus cohnii strain. The present study concerns influence of StT to 267 Enterococcus sp. strains growth isolated between 2003 and 2006 in Department of Microbiology University Hospital of dr. A. Jurasz in Bydgoszcz. S. cohnii T antagonistic ability evaluated towards bacteries on Mueller-Hinton Agar (bio Mérieux) in aerobic conditions. After 24 and 48 hours tested enterococci suspensions were plated perpendiculary. Susceptibility to antibiotics was assessed by disc diffusion method according to the guideless of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and National Reference Centre for Antimicrobial Susceptibility. Among Enterococcus sp. strains tested 7.1% were sensitive to StT. The highest percentage of sensitive enterococci isolated from wound swabs, urine, blood and pus. Enterococcus faecium strains dominated (63.2%) among enterococci sensitive to StT. Moderate inhibition degree on S. cohnii T bacteriocin action was observed in majority sensitive enterococci strains. Enterococcus sp. sensitive to StT strains were frequently multidrug resistant (68.4%). According to the study results and increasing resistance to antibiotics, StT could be an alternative agent used to treat infections caused by Enterococcus sp.

  4. [Comparison of Phoenix Automated System, API ID 32 Strep System and LightCycler Enterococcus MGRADE System in the Identification of Clinical Enterococcus Isolates].

    PubMed

    Cekin, Yeşim; Ozhak Baysan, Betil; Mutlu, Derya; Sepin Özen, Nevgün; Ongüt, Gözde; Dönmez, Levent; Oğünç, Dilara; Colak, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    Enterococci which are part of the commensal flora of the human gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts, are increasing in importance as the cause of hospital-acquired infections. Identification of Enterococcus spp. at the species level is of great importance, for appropriate treatment of patients, infection control and to supply epidemiological data. Conventional methods for the identification of enterococcus isolates at species level is difficult and time consuming. Correct identification of enterococcus isolates in clinical microbiology laboratory by conventional methods is replaced by semi-automated or automated identification and molecular methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Phoenix automated system (BD Diagnostic Systems, USA), API Rapid ID 32 Strep System (bioMerieux, France) and Enterococcus MGRADE LightCycler kit (Roche Molecular Biochemicals, Germany) used in real-time polymerase chain reaction (Rt-PCR), for the species level identification of enterococcus strains isolated from clinical specimens. A total of 90 vancomycin susceptible enterococci isolated from different patients were identified by all of the three commercial systems, together with conventional methods. Of the strains, 59 were identified as E.faecalis, 28 were E.faecium, and one of each as E.raffinosus, E.hirae and E.casseliflavus with conventional methods. One E.faecalis strain identified by the conventional system was identified as E.faecium by Phoenix system and one E.faecium strain as E.durans. One E.raffinosus strain identifed by the conventional method was identified as E.avium by API. Conventionally identified four E.faecalis strains were determined to be E.faecium by Rt-PCR and one E.faecium, one E.raffinosus and one E.casseliflavus as E.faecalis. Accordingly, the consistency of Phoenix, API Rapid ID 32 Strep and LightCycler Enterococcus MGRADE systems with the conventional methods were detected as 97.8% (88/90), 98.9% (89/90), and 92.2% (83

  5. Prevalence of enterococcus species and their virulence genes in fresh water prior to and after storm events.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, J P S; Skelly, E; Hodgers, L; Ahmed, W; Li, Y; Toze, S

    2014-01-01

    Enterococcus spp. isolates (n = 286) collected from six surface water bodies in subtropical Brisbane, Australia, prior to and after storm events, were identified to species level and tested for the presence of seven clinically important virulence genes (VGs). Enterococcus faecalis (48%), Enterococcus faecium (14%), Enterococcus mundtii (13%), and Enterococcus casseliflavus (13%) were frequently detected at all sites. The frequency of E. faecium occurrence increased from 6% in the dry period to 18% after the wet period. The endocarditis antigen (efaA), gelatinase (gelE), collagen-binding protein (ace), and aggregation substance (asa1) were detected in 61%, 43%, 43%, and 23% of Enterococcus isolates, respectively. The chances of occurrence of ace, gelE, efaA, and asa1 genes in E. faecalis were found to be much higher compared to the other Enterococcus spp. The observed odds ratio of occurrence of ace and gelE genes in E. faecalis was much higher at 7.96 and 6.40 times, respectively. The hyl gene was 3.84 times more likely to be detected in E. casseliflavus. The presence of multiple VGs in most of the E. faecalis isolates underscores the importance of E. faecalis as a reservoir of VGs in the fresh water aquatic environment. Consequently, if contaminated surface water is to be used for production of potable and nonpotable water some degree of treatment depending upon intended use such as detention in basins prior to use or chlorination is required.

  6. Targeting Enterococcus faecalis biofilms with phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Leron; Brosh, Yair; Gelman, Daniel; Coppenhagen-Glazer, Shunit; Beyth, Shaul; Poradosu-Cohen, Ronit; Que, Yok-Ai; Beyth, Nurit; Hazan, Ronen

    2015-04-01

    Phage therapy has been proven to be more effective, in some cases, than conventional antibiotics, especially regarding multidrug-resistant biofilm infections. The objective here was to isolate an anti-Enterococcus faecalis bacteriophage and to evaluate its efficacy against planktonic and biofilm cultures. E. faecalis is an important pathogen found in many infections, including endocarditis and persistent infections associated with root canal treatment failure. The difficulty in E. faecalis treatment has been attributed to the lack of anti-infective strategies to eradicate its biofilm and to the frequent emergence of multidrug-resistant strains. To this end, an anti-E. faecalis and E. faecium phage, termed EFDG1, was isolated from sewage effluents. The phage was visualized by electron microscopy. EFDG1 coding sequences and phylogeny were determined by whole genome sequencing (GenBank accession number KP339049), revealing it belongs to the Spounavirinae subfamily of the Myoviridae phages, which includes promising candidates for therapy against Gram-positive pathogens. This analysis also showed that the EFDG1 genome does not contain apparent harmful genes. EFDG1 antibacterial efficacy was evaluated in vitro against planktonic and biofilm cultures, showing effective lytic activity against various E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates, regardless of their antibiotic resistance profile. In addition, EFDG1 efficiently prevented ex vivo E. faecalis root canal infection. These findings suggest that phage therapy using EFDG1 might be efficacious to prevent E. faecalis infection after root canal treatment.

  7. Targeting Enterococcus faecalis Biofilms with Phage Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Khalifa, Leron; Brosh, Yair; Gelman, Daniel; Coppenhagen-Glazer, Shunit; Beyth, Shaul; Poradosu-Cohen, Ronit; Que, Yok-Ai; Beyth, Nurit

    2015-01-01

    Phage therapy has been proven to be more effective, in some cases, than conventional antibiotics, especially regarding multidrug-resistant biofilm infections. The objective here was to isolate an anti-Enterococcus faecalis bacteriophage and to evaluate its efficacy against planktonic and biofilm cultures. E. faecalis is an important pathogen found in many infections, including endocarditis and persistent infections associated with root canal treatment failure. The difficulty in E. faecalis treatment has been attributed to the lack of anti-infective strategies to eradicate its biofilm and to the frequent emergence of multidrug-resistant strains. To this end, an anti-E. faecalis and E. faecium phage, termed EFDG1, was isolated from sewage effluents. The phage was visualized by electron microscopy. EFDG1 coding sequences and phylogeny were determined by whole genome sequencing (GenBank accession number KP339049), revealing it belongs to the Spounavirinae subfamily of the Myoviridae phages, which includes promising candidates for therapy against Gram-positive pathogens. This analysis also showed that the EFDG1 genome does not contain apparent harmful genes. EFDG1 antibacterial efficacy was evaluated in vitro against planktonic and biofilm cultures, showing effective lytic activity against various E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates, regardless of their antibiotic resistance profile. In addition, EFDG1 efficiently prevented ex vivo E. faecalis root canal infection. These findings suggest that phage therapy using EFDG1 might be efficacious to prevent E. faecalis infection after root canal treatment. PMID:25662974

  8. [Comparison of microdilution method and Phoenix automated system for testing antimicrobial susceptibilities of Enterococcus strains].

    PubMed

    Gülmez, Dolunay; Hasçelik, Gülşen

    2011-01-01

    Enterococcus spp. are important pathogens which are intrinsically resistant to most of the commonly used antimicrobial agents such as aminoglycosides and cephalosporins. Accurate determination of resistance is important to ensure appropriate antimicrobial therapy. This study was undertaken to compare the susceptibility results obtained by Phoenix system (Becton Dickinson, USA) with reference microdilution method. We included 1248 Enterococcus spp. (903 Enterococcus faecalis, 345 Enterococcus faecium) strains isolated from clinical samples between 2005-2007 in routine microbiology laboratory of Hacettepe University Hospital. The strains were identified and the antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined by the Phoenix system. Antimicrobial susceptibilities to ampicillin, teicoplanin, vancomycin, gentamicin and streptomycin were also studied by microdilution method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Evaluation revealed excellent agreement for all of the antibiotics with category agreement rates of > 97%. Among 1248 strains, 76 revealed discordant results. Very major error rates were 1.5% for ampicillin, 1.3% for gentamicin, and 0.9% for streptomycin. Major error rates were 1.4% for streptomycin, 0.6% for ampicillin and vancomycin and 0.3% for gentamicin. Minor error rates were found as 0.2% for vancomycin, and 0.1% for teicoplanin. Resistance rates obtained by microdilution were as follows; high level streptomycin 44%, high level gentamicin 29.7%, ampicillin 25.6%, vancomycin 2.2% and teicoplanin 2.2%. Resistance rates were higher in E.faecium than E.faecalis and 96.4% of the vancomycin resistant enterococcus isolates were identified as E.faecium. In conclusion, based on the data obtained, Phoenix system is reliable for testing susceptibilities of Enterococcus spp. to these antimicrobials. Since isolation of vancomycin resistant enterococci has an important impact in terms of hospital infection control, vancomycin

  9. Development of a Rapid Identification Method for the Differentiation of Enterococcus Species Using a Species-Specific Multiplex PCR Based on Comparative Genomics.