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Sample records for enterococcus faeciumstrains reveals

  1. Multilocus sequence typing of hospital-associated Enterococcus faecium from Brazil reveals their unique evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Titze-de-Almeida, Ricardo; Van Belkum, Alex; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares; Zanella, Rosemeire C; Top, Janetta; Willems, Rob J L

    2006-01-01

    We studied the genetic relationships between vancomycin-susceptible (n = 11) and -resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE, n = 20) recovered from Brazil using a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme. Grouping of allelic profiles revealed six clusters of related sequence types (STs) that differ in no more than two of the seven alleles. Of these, one cluster harbored 16 of the 20 isolates recovered during the first VRE outbreak in Brazil. The ampicillin and gentamicin resistance profiles were stable in the isolates that clustered within the groups I-III. Comparison with the allelic profiles of 139 E. faecium from different geographical regions and origins found in the international database http://www.mlst.net revealed that the Brazilian outbreak clone did not cluster in the previously named complex-17. This genetic complex contains hospital epidemic and clinical isolates recovered from different countries and continents. Twenty two of the 31 Brazilian isolates, including the VRE outbreak clone, clustered apart from the E. faecium isolates from the database, suggesting that these Brazilian isolates have a distinct evolutionary history. PMID:16922628

  2. Genetic relationships among Enterococcus faecalis isolates from different sources as revealed by multilocus sequence typing.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Song, Y Q; Xu, H Y; Menghe, B L G; Zhang, H P; Sun, Z H

    2015-08-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is part of the natural gut flora of humans and other mammals; some isolates are also used in food production. So, it is important to evaluate the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among E. faecalis isolates from different sources. Multilocus sequence typing protocol was used to compare 39 E. faecalis isolates from Chinese traditional food products (including dairy products, acidic gruel) and 4 published E. faecalis isolates from other sources including human-derived isolates employing 5 housekeeping genes (groEL, clpX, recA, rpoB, and pepC). A total of 23 unique sequence types were identified, which were grouped into 5 clonal complexes and 10 singletons. The value of standardized index of association of the alleles (IA(S)=0.1465) and network structure indicated a high frequency of intraspecies recombination across these isolates. Enterococcus faecalis lineages also exhibited clearly source-clustered distributions. The isolates from dairy source were clustered together. However, the relationship between isolates from acidic gruel and one isolate from a human source was close. The MLST scheme presented in this study provides a sharable and continuously growing sequence database enabling global comparison of strains from different sources, and will further advance our understanding of the microbial ecology of this important species.

  3. Genetic relationships among Enterococcus faecalis isolates from different sources as revealed by multilocus sequence typing.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Song, Y Q; Xu, H Y; Menghe, B L G; Zhang, H P; Sun, Z H

    2015-08-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is part of the natural gut flora of humans and other mammals; some isolates are also used in food production. So, it is important to evaluate the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among E. faecalis isolates from different sources. Multilocus sequence typing protocol was used to compare 39 E. faecalis isolates from Chinese traditional food products (including dairy products, acidic gruel) and 4 published E. faecalis isolates from other sources including human-derived isolates employing 5 housekeeping genes (groEL, clpX, recA, rpoB, and pepC). A total of 23 unique sequence types were identified, which were grouped into 5 clonal complexes and 10 singletons. The value of standardized index of association of the alleles (IA(S)=0.1465) and network structure indicated a high frequency of intraspecies recombination across these isolates. Enterococcus faecalis lineages also exhibited clearly source-clustered distributions. The isolates from dairy source were clustered together. However, the relationship between isolates from acidic gruel and one isolate from a human source was close. The MLST scheme presented in this study provides a sharable and continuously growing sequence database enabling global comparison of strains from different sources, and will further advance our understanding of the microbial ecology of this important species. PMID:26074239

  4. Drosophila host model reveals new enterococcus faecalis quorum-sensing associated virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Neuza; Varahan, Sriram; Gorman, Matthew J; Palmer, Kelli L; Zaidman-Remy, Anna; Yokohata, Ryoji; Nakayama, Jiro; Hancock, Lynn E; Jacinto, António; Gilmore, Michael S; de Fátima Silva Lopes, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis V583 is a vancomycin-resistant clinical isolate which belongs to the hospital-adapted clade, CC2. This strain harbours several factors that have been associated with virulence, including the fsr quorum-sensing regulatory system that is known to control the expression of GelE and SprE proteases. To discriminate between genes directly regulated by Fsr, and those indirectly regulated as the result of protease expression or activity, we compared gene expression in isogenic mutants of V583 variously defective in either Fsr quorum sensing or protease expression. Quorum sensing was artificially induced by addition of the quorum signal, GBAP, exogenously in a controlled manner. The Fsr regulon was found to be restricted to five genes, gelE, sprE, ef1097, ef1351 and ef1352. Twelve additional genes were found to be dependent on the presence of GBAP-induced proteases. Induction of GelE and SprE by GBAP via Fsr resulted in accumulation of mRNA encoding lrgAB, and this induction was found to be lytRS dependent. Drosophila infection was used to discern varying levels of toxicity stemming from mutations in the fsr quorum regulatory system and the genes that it regulates, highlighting the contribution of LrgAB and bacteriocin EF1097 to infection toxicity. A contribution of SprE to infection toxicity was also detected. This work brought to light new players in E. faecalis success as a pathogen and paves the way for future studies on host tolerance mechanisms to infections caused by this important nosocomial pathogen.

  5. The Transcriptome of the Nosocomial Pathogen Enterococcus faecalis V583 Reveals Adaptive Responses to Growth in Blood

    PubMed Central

    Vebø, Heidi C.; Snipen, Lars; Nes, Ingolf F.; Brede, Dag A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Enterococcus faecalis plays a dual role in human ecology, predominantly existing as a commensal in the alimentary canal, but also as an opportunistic pathogen that frequently causes nosocomial infections like bacteremia. A number of virulence factors that contribute to the pathogenic potential of E. faecalis have been established. However, the process in which E. faecalis gains access to the bloodstream and establishes a persistent infection is not well understood. Methodology/Principal Findings To enhance our understanding of how this commensal bacterium adapts during a bloodstream infection and to examine the interplay between genes we designed an in vitro experiment using genome-wide microarrays to investigate what effects the presence of and growth in blood have on the transcriptome of E. faecalis strain V583. We showed that growth in both 2xYT supplemented with 10% blood and in 100% blood had a great impact on the transcription of many genes in the V583 genome. We identified several immediate changes signifying cellular processes that might contribute to adaptation and growth in blood. These include modulation of membrane fatty acid composition, oxidative and lytic stress protection, acquisition of new available substrates, transport functions including heme/iron transporters and genes associated with virulence in E. faecalis. Conclusions/Significance The results presented here reveal that cultivation of E. faecalis in blood in vitro has a profound impact on its transcriptome, which includes a number of virulence traits. Observed regulation of genes and pathways revealed new insight into physiological features and metabolic capacities which enable E. faecalis to adapt and grow in blood. A number of the regulated genes might potentially be useful candidates for development of new therapeutic approaches for treatment of E. faecalis infections. PMID:19888459

  6. The structure and competitive substrate inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase from Enterococcus faecalis reveal restrictions to cofactor docking.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Christina R; Wakeham, Nancy; Webb, Nicole; Nammalwar, Baskar; Bunce, Richard A; Berlin, K Darrell; Barrow, William W

    2014-02-25

    We are addressing bacterial resistance to antibiotics by repurposing a well-established classic antimicrobial target, the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme. In this work, we have focused on Enterococcus faecalis, a nosocomial pathogen that frequently harbors antibiotic resistance determinants leading to complicated and difficult-to-treat infections. An inhibitor series with a hydrophobic dihydrophthalazine heterocycle was designed from the anti-folate trimethoprim. We have examined the potency of this inhibitor series based on inhibition of DHFR enzyme activity and bacterial growth, including in the presence of the exogenous product analogue folinic acid. The resulting preferences were rationalized using a cocrystal structure of the DHFR from this organism with a propyl-bearing series member (RAB-propyl). In a companion apo structure, we identify four buried waters that act as placeholders for a conserved hydrogen-bonding network to the substrate and indicate an important role in protein stability during catalytic cycling. In these structures, the nicotinamide of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate cofactor is visualized outside of its binding pocket, which is exacerbated by RAB-propyl binding. Finally, homology models of the TMP(R) sequences dfrK and dfrF were constructed. While the dfrK-encoded protein shows clear sequence changes that would be detrimental to inhibitor binding, the dfrF-encoded protein model suggests the protein would be relatively unstable. These data suggest a utility for anti-DHFR compounds for treating infections arising from E. faecalis. They also highlight a role for water in stabilizing the DHFR substrate pocket and for competitive substrate inhibitors that may gain advantages in potency by the perturbation of cofactor dynamics.

  7. Evolutionary dynamics of Enterococcus faecium reveals complex genomic relationships between isolates with independent emergence of vancomycin resistance

    PubMed Central

    van Hal, Sebastiaan J.; Ip, Camilla L. C.; Ansari, M. Azim; Wilson, Daniel J.; Espedido, Bjorn A.; Jensen, Slade O.; Bowden, Rory

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium, a major cause of hospital-acquired infections, remains problematic because of its propensity to acquire resistance to vancomycin, which currently is considered first-line therapy. Here, we assess the evolution and resistance acquisition dynamics of E. faecium in a clinical context using a series of 132 bloodstream infection isolates from a single hospital. All isolates, of which 49 (37 %) were vancomycin-resistant, underwent whole-genome sequencing. E. faecium was found to be subject to high rates of recombination with little evidence of sequence importation from outside the local E. faecium population. Apart from disrupting phylogenetic reconstruction, recombination was frequent enough to invalidate MLST typing in the identification of clonal expansion and transmission events, suggesting that, where available, whole-genome sequencing should be used in tracing the epidemiology of E. faecium nosocomial infections and establishing routes of transmission. Several forms of the Tn1549-like element–vanB gene cluster, which was exclusively responsible for vancomycin resistance, appeared and spread within the hospital during the study period. Several transposon gains and losses and instances of in situ evolution were inferred and, although usually chromosomal, the resistance element was also observed on a plasmid background. There was qualitative evidence for clonal expansions of both vancomycin-resistant and vancomycin-susceptible E. faecium with evidence of hospital-specific subclonal expansion. Our data are consistent with continuing evolution of this established hospital pathogen and confirm hospital vancomycin-susceptible and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium patient transmission events, underlining the need for careful consideration before modifying current E. faecium infection control strategies. PMID:27713836

  8. Multilocus sequence typing scheme for Enterococcus faecalis reveals hospital-adapted genetic complexes in a background of high rates of recombination.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Bonten, Marc J M; Robinson, D Ashley; Top, Janetta; Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R; Torres, Carmen; Coque, Teresa M; Cantón, Rafael; Baquero, Fernando; Murray, Barbara E; del Campo, Rosa; Willems, Rob J L

    2006-06-01

    A multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme based on seven housekeeping genes was used to investigate the epidemiology and population structure of Enterococcus faecalis. MLST of 110 isolates from different sources and geographic locations revealed 55 different sequence types that grouped into four major clonal complexes (CC2, CC9, CC10, and CC21) by use of eBURST. Two of these clonal complexes, CC2 and CC9, are particularly fit in the hospital environment, as CC2 includes the previously described BVE clonal complex identified by an alternative MLST scheme and CC9 includes exclusively isolates from hospitalized patients. Identical alleles were found in genetically diverse isolates with no linkage disequilibrium, while the different MLST loci gave incongruent phylogenetic trees. This demonstrates that recombination is an important mechanism driving genetic variation in E. faecalis and suggests an epidemic population structure for E. faecalis. Our novel MLST scheme provides an excellent tool for investigating local and short-term epidemiology as well as global epidemiology, population structure, and genetic evolution of E. faecalis.

  9. The Identification and Functional Characterization of WxL Proteins from Enterococcus faecium Reveal Surface Proteins Involved in Extracellular Matrix Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Galloway-Peña, Jessica R.; Liang, Xiaowen; Singh, Kavindra V.; Yadav, Puja; Chang, Chungyu; La Rosa, Sabina Leanti; Shelburne, Samuel; Ton-That, Hung; Höök, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    The WxL domain recently has been identified as a novel cell wall binding domain found in numerous predicted proteins within multiple Gram-positive bacterial species. However, little is known about the function of proteins containing this novel domain. Here, we identify and characterize 6 Enterococcus faecium proteins containing the WxL domain which, by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and genomic analyses, are located in three similarly organized operons, deemed WxL loci A, B, and C. Western blotting, electron microscopy, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) determined that genes of WxL loci A and C encode antigenic, cell surface proteins exposed at higher levels in clinical isolates than in commensal isolates. Secondary structural analyses of locus A recombinant WxL domain-containing proteins found they are rich in β-sheet structure and disordered segments. Using Biacore analyses, we discovered that recombinant WxL proteins from locus A bind human extracellular matrix proteins, specifically type I collagen and fibronectin. Proteins encoded by locus A also were found to bind to each other, suggesting a novel cell surface complex. Furthermore, bile salt survival assays and animal models using a mutant from which all three WxL loci were deleted revealed the involvement of WxL operons in bile salt stress and endocarditis pathogenesis. In summary, these studies extend our understanding of proteins containing the WxL domain and their potential impact on colonization and virulence in E. faecium and possibly other Gram-positive bacterial species. PMID:25512313

  10. Enterococcus lactis sp. nov., from Italian raw milk cheeses.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Stefano; Cremonesi, Paola; Povolo, Milena; Brasca, Milena

    2012-08-01

    Ten atypical Enterococcus strains were isolated from Italian raw milk cheeses. The 16S rRNA gene, phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase alpha subunit (pheS), RNA polymerase alpha subunit (rpoA) and the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR and the phenotypic properties revealed that the isolates represent a novel enterococcal species. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates were closely related to Enterococcus hirae ATCC 8043(T), Enterococcus durans CECT 411(T) and Enterococcus faecium ATCC 19434(T), with 98.8, 98.9 and 99.4% sequence similarity, respectively. On the basis of sequence analysis of the housekeeping gene pheS, the reference strain, BT159(T), occupied a position separate from E. faecium LMG 16198. The group of isolates could be easily differentiated from recognized species of the genus Enterococcus by 16S-23S rRNA ITS analysis, RAPD-PCR and phenotypic characteristics. The name Enterococcus lactis sp. nov. is proposed, with BT159(T) ( = DSM 23655(T) = LMG 25958(T)) as the type strain.

  11. A genomic virulence reference map of Enterococcus faecalis reveals an important contribution of phage03-like elements in nosocomial genetic lineages to pathogenicity in a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, Sabina Leanti; Snipen, Lars-Gustav; Murray, Barbara E; Willems, Rob J L; Gilmore, Michael S; Diep, Dzung B; Nes, Ingolf F; Brede, Dag Anders

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, the commensal and pathogenic host-microbe interaction of Enterococcus faecalis was explored using a Caenorhabditis elegans model system. The virulence of 28 E. faecalis isolates representing 24 multilocus sequence types (MLSTs), including human commensal and clinical isolates as well as isolates from animals and of insect origin, was investigated using C. elegans strain glp-4 (bn2ts); sek-1 (km4). This revealed that 6 E. faecalis isolates behaved in a commensal manner with no nematocidal effect, while the remaining strains showed a time to 50% lethality ranging from 47 to 120 h. Principal component analysis showed that the difference in nematocidal activity explained 94% of the variance in the data. Assessment of known virulence traits revealed that gelatinase and cytolysin production accounted for 40.8% and 36.5% of the observed pathogenicity, respectively. However, coproduction of gelatinase and cytolysin did not increase virulence additively, accounting for 50.6% of the pathogenicity and therefore indicating a significant (26.7%) saturation effect. We employed a comparative genomic analysis approach using the 28 isolates comprising a collection of 82,356 annotated coding sequences (CDS) to identify 2,325 patterns of presence or absence among the investigated strains. Univariate statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) established that individual patterns positively correlated (n = 61) with virulence. The patterns were investigated to identify potential new virulence traits, among which we found five patterns consisting of the phage03-like gene clusters. Strains harboring phage03 showed, on average, 17% higher killing of C. elegans (P = 4.4e(-6)). The phage03 gene cluster was also present in gelatinase-and-cytolysin-negative strain E. faecalis JH2-2. Deletion of this phage element from the JH2-2 clinical strain rendered the mutant apathogenic in C. elegans, and a similar mutant of the nosocomial V583 isolate showed significantly attenuated

  12. Enterococcus infection biology: lessons from invertebrate host models.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Grace J; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2014-03-01

    The enterococci are commensals of the gastrointestinal tract of many metazoans, from insects to humans. While they normally do not cause disease in the intestine, they can become pathogenic when they infect sites outside of the gut. Recently, the enterococci have become important nosocomial pathogens, with the majority of human enterococcal infections caused by two species, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Studies using invertebrate infection models have revealed insights into the biology of enterococcal infections, as well as general principles underlying host innate immune defense. This review highlights recent findings on Enterococcus infection biology from two invertebrate infection models, the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella and the free-living bacteriovorous nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:24585051

  13. Dissemination of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium in a ricotta processing plant and evaluation of pathogenic and antibiotic resistance profiles.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Meg da Silva; Fujimoto, Graciela; de Souza, Leandro Pio; Kabuki, Dirce Yorika; da Silva, Márcio José; Kuaye, Arnaldo Yoshiteru

    2015-04-01

    In this work, the sources of contamination by Enterococcus spp. in a ricotta processing line were evaluated. The isolated strains were tested for virulence genes (gelE, cylA,B, M, esp, agg, ace, efaA, vanB), expression of virulence factors (hemolysin and gelatinase), and the resistance to 10 different antibiotics. Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis were subjected to discriminatory identification by intergenic spacer region (ITS)-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the ITS region. The results showed that Enterococcus spp. was detected in the raw materials, environment samples and the final product. None of the 107 Enterococcus isolates were completely free from all virulence genes considered. A fraction of 21.5% of the isolates containing all of the genes of the cylA, B, M operon also expressed β-hemolysis. Most of the isolates showed the gelE gene, but only 9.3% were able to hydrolyze gelatin. In addition, 23.5% of the observed Enterococcus isolates had the vanB gene but were susceptible to vancomycin in vitro. The dissemination of antibiotic-resistant enterococci was revealed in this study: 19.3% of the E. faecium samples and 78.0% of the E. faecalis samples were resistant to at least one of the antibiotics tested. Sequencing of region discriminated 5 and 7 distinct groups among E. faecalis and E. faecium, respectively. Although some similarity was observed among some of the isolates, all E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates had genetic differences both in the ITS region and in the virulence profile, which makes them different from each other.

  14. Purification and characterization of enterocin 4, a bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecalis INIA 4.

    PubMed Central

    Joosten, H M; Nunez, M; Devreese, B; Van Beeumen, J; Marugg, J D

    1996-01-01

    A simple two-step procedure was developed to obtain pure enterocin 4, a bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecalis INIA 4. Chemical and genetic characterization revealed that the primary structure of enterocin 4 is identical to that of peptide antibiotic AS-48 from Enterococcus faecalis S-48. In contrast to the reported inhibitory spectrum of AS-48, enterocin 4 displayed no activity against gram-negative bacteria. PMID:8900014

  15. Characterization of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium from wild flowers.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Valenzuela, Antonio; Benomar, Nabil; Abriouel, Hikmate; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Martínez Cañamero, Magdalena; Gálvez, Antonio

    2012-05-01

    Wild flowers in the South of Spain were screened for Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Enterococci were frequently associated with prickypear and fieldpoppy flowers. Forty-six isolates, from 8 different flower species, were identified as E. faecalis (28 isolates) or E. faecium (18 isolates) and clustered in well-defined groups by ERIC-PCR fingerprinting. A high incidence of antibiotic resistance was detected among the E. faecalis isolates, especially to quinupristin/dalfopristin (75%), rifampicin (68%) and ciprofloxacin (57%), and to a lesser extent to levofloxacin (35.7%), erythromycin (28.5%), tetracycline (3.5%), chloramphenicol (3.5%) and streptomycin (3.5%). Similar results were observed for E. faecium isolates, except for a higher incidence of resistance to tetracycline (17%) and lower to erythromycin (11%) or quinupristin/dalfopristin (22%). Vancomycin or teicoplanin resistances were not detected. Most isolates (especially E. faecalis) were proteolytic and carried the gelatinase gene gelE. Genes encoding other potential virulence factors (ace, efaA (fs), ccf and cpd) were frequently detected. Cytolysin genes were mainly detected in a few haemolytic E. faecium isolates, three of which also carried the collagen adhesin acm gene. Hyaluronidase gene (hyl ( Efm )) was detected in two isolates. Many isolates produced bacteriocins and carried genes for enterocins A, B, and L50 mainly. The similarities found between enterococci from wild flowers and those from animal and food sources raise new questions about the puzzling lifestyle of these commensals and opportunistic pathogens.

  16. Enterococcus species diversity and molecular characterization of biomarker genes in Enterococcus faecalis in Port Blair Bay, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.

    PubMed

    Meena, Balakrishnan; Anburajan, Lawrance; Sathish, Thadikamala; Raghavan, Rangamaran Vijaya; Jha, Dilip Kumar; Venkateshwaran, Pitchiah; Das, Apurba Kumar; Dheenan, Palaiya Sukumaran; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Dharani, Gopal; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-05-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the abundance and diversity of Enterococcus sp. and the distribution of biomarker genes in Enterococcus faecalis in Port Blair Bay, Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The Enterococcus sp. densities at the seven sampling stations were highly influenced by tidal fluctuations and season. The distributions and diversities of species varied in the inner and outer regions of Port Blair Bay. Among the 1816 total isolates, the occurrence of fecal Enterococcus was high (1.78×10(4) CFU/100 mL) in Phoenix Bay. Moreover, 67.76% of the isolates were identified as Enterococcus, and the most frequently identified species were E. hirae, E. avium and E. faecalis. Assessments of antibiotic resistance and biomarker genes revealed the maximum occurrence in the Aberdeen Bay isolates. The most prevalent biomarker genes observed in the E. faecalis isolates were gelE and asa1, whereas cyl was not found among the isolates. In silico sequence analysis of biomarker genes of E. faecalis also revealed that they are evolutionarily well conserved with those of earlier reports. Further, multivariate analysis distinguished the JB, PB and OS stations from the other stations according to distinctive microbial densities and compositions. In addition, the Shannon-Wiener diversity indices and box-whisker plots further facilitated and supported the multivariate results.

  17. Determination of the nucleotide sequence of the 23S ribosomal RNA and flanking spacers of an Enterococcus faecium strain, reveals insertion-deletion events in the ribosomal spacer 1 of enterococci.

    PubMed

    Naimi, A; Beck, G; Monique, M; Lefèbvre, G; Branlanti, C

    1999-02-01

    The usefulness of 16S-23S (ITS1) and 23S-5S (ITS2) ribosomal spacer nucleotide sequence determination, as a complementary approach to the biochemical tests traditionally used for enterococcal species identification, is shown by its application to the identification of a strain, E27, isolated from a natural bacteria mixture used for cheese production. Using combined approaches we showed, unambiguously, that strain E27 belongs to the Enterococcus faecium species. However, its ITS1 region has an interesting peculiarity. In our previous study of ITS1s from various enterococcal species (NAIMI et al., 1997, Microbiology 143, 823-834), the ITS1s of the two E. faecium strains studied, were found to contain an additional 115-nt long stem-loop structure as compared to the ITS1s of other enterococci, only one out of the 3 ITS1s of E. hirae ATCC 9790, was found to contain a similar 107-nt long stem-loop structure. The ITS1 of strain E27 is 100% identical to that of E. faecium ATCC 19434T, except that the 115-nt additional fragment is absent. This strongly suggests the existence of lateral DNA transfer or DNA recombination events at a hot spot position of the ITS1s from E. faecium and E. hirae. Small and large ITS1 nucleotide sequence determination for strain E27 generalized the notion of two kinds of ITSs in enterococci: one with a tRNA(Ala) gene, one without tRNA gene. To complete strain E27 characterization, its 23S rRNA sequence was established. This is the first complete 23S rRNA nucleotide sequence determined for an enterococcal species.

  18. vanA in Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus casseliflavus detected in French cattle.

    PubMed

    Haenni, Marisa; Saras, Estelle; Châtre, Pierre; Meunier, Danièle; Martin, Sylvie; Lepage, Gérard; Ménard, Marie-Françoise; Lebreton, Patricia; Rambaud, Thomas; Madec, Jean-Yves

    2009-11-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the presence of enterococci species presenting van-mediated glycopeptide resistance in French cattle. Fecal samples were collected from healthy and sick animals, and enterococci were screened for vancomycin resistance. Vancomycin resistance was principally encountered in Enterococcus gallinarum and Enterococcus casseliflavus strains. However, glycopeptide resistance was detected in three different species of enterococci (E. faecalis, E. faecium, and E. casseliflavus). Molecular characterization of the genetic support proved that they all presented the prototypic VanA element. Interestingly, the E. casseliflavus strain displayed a remarkable VanB phenotype/vanA-vanC genotype. Transferability, associated resistances, and factors of vanA cotransfer were sought. This study proved that acquired vanA genes can still be detected in food-producing animals more than a decade after the avoparcin ban. Indeed, calves, which are recurrently exposed to antibiotics in France, may allow the re-emergence of glycopeptide resistance through coselection factors, and this might potentially be concerning for human health. PMID:19694552

  19. Abundance of Enterococcus species, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, essential indicators of fecal pollution, in river water.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Kanda, Naoki; Furukawa, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Enterococci such as Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium are considered as the most suitable indicators of fecal pollution in an aquatic environment, and new methods for Enterococcus determination have been developed, namely, membrane filtration (MF) using membrane-Enterococcus indoxyl-β-D-glucoside agar (mEI) and defined substrate technology (DST) using Enterolert®. This study used PCR analysis to identify E. faecalis and E. faecium among Enterococcus strains in river water isolated using both mEI plates and Enterolert® trays. There was a significantly high correlation between MF and DST in terms of enterococcal counts for river water samples. The combined percentages of E. faecalis and E. faecium with respect to the total number of all strains obtained using mEI plates and Enterolert® trays were approximately 30 % and >30 %, respectively. Other than E. faecalis and E. faecium, a large number of Enterococcus species were unspecified in the actual urban river samples. A comparison of the predominance of E. faecalis and E. faecium found that the abundance of a species depended on the sampling river and date. E. faecium is a non-predominant species in intestinal and fecal Enterococci, and it was one of the main Enterococcus species detected in surface water.

  20. Targeting Enterococcus faecalis biofilms with phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Leron; Brosh, Yair; Gelman, Daniel; Coppenhagen-Glazer, Shunit; Beyth, Shaul; Poradosu-Cohen, Ronit; Que, Yok-Ai; Beyth, Nurit; Hazan, Ronen

    2015-04-01

    Phage therapy has been proven to be more effective, in some cases, than conventional antibiotics, especially regarding multidrug-resistant biofilm infections. The objective here was to isolate an anti-Enterococcus faecalis bacteriophage and to evaluate its efficacy against planktonic and biofilm cultures. E. faecalis is an important pathogen found in many infections, including endocarditis and persistent infections associated with root canal treatment failure. The difficulty in E. faecalis treatment has been attributed to the lack of anti-infective strategies to eradicate its biofilm and to the frequent emergence of multidrug-resistant strains. To this end, an anti-E. faecalis and E. faecium phage, termed EFDG1, was isolated from sewage effluents. The phage was visualized by electron microscopy. EFDG1 coding sequences and phylogeny were determined by whole genome sequencing (GenBank accession number KP339049), revealing it belongs to the Spounavirinae subfamily of the Myoviridae phages, which includes promising candidates for therapy against Gram-positive pathogens. This analysis also showed that the EFDG1 genome does not contain apparent harmful genes. EFDG1 antibacterial efficacy was evaluated in vitro against planktonic and biofilm cultures, showing effective lytic activity against various E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates, regardless of their antibiotic resistance profile. In addition, EFDG1 efficiently prevented ex vivo E. faecalis root canal infection. These findings suggest that phage therapy using EFDG1 might be efficacious to prevent E. faecalis infection after root canal treatment.

  1. Transcriptional response of Enterococcus faecalis to sunlight.

    PubMed

    Sassoubre, Lauren M; Ramsey, Matthew M; Gilmore, Michael S; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2014-01-01

    Microarrays were used to investigate the transcriptional response of Enterococcus faecalis to photostress. E. faecalis are Gram-positive bacteria used as indicators of water quality and have been shown to vary diurnally in response to sunlight. E. faecalis in filtered seawater microcosms were exposed to artificial sunlight for 12h and then placed in the dark for 12h. Transcript abundance was measured at 0, 2, 6, 12, and 24h in the sunlit microcosm and a dark control using microarrays. Culturable E. faecalis concentrations decreased 6-7 orders of magnitude within the first 6h of light exposure. After 12h in the dark, no evidence of dark-repair was observed. Expression data collected after 12h of sunlight exposure revealed a difference in transcript abundance in the light relative to dark microcosms for 35 unique ORFs, 33 ORFs showed increased transcript abundance and 2 ORFs showed reduced transcript abundance. A majority (51%) of the ORFs with increased transcript abundance in the sunlit relative to dark microcosms encoded hypothetical proteins; others were associated with protein synthesis, oxidative stress and DNA repair. Results suggest that E. faecalis exposed to sunlight actively transcribe RNA in response to photostress.

  2. Enterococcus casseliflavus and Enterococcus gallinarum as causative agents of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Narciso-Schiavon, Janaína Luz; Borgonovo, Ariane; Marques, Paula Couto; Tonon, Débora; Bansho, Emilia Tiemi Oshiro; Maggi, Dariana Carla; Dantas-Corrêa, Esther Buzaglo; de Lucca Schiavon, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Infection by multidrug resistant bacteria is arousing as a relevant issue among hospitalized subjects and is of particular interest in patients with cirrhosis given the frequent use of broad spectrum antibiotics and their altered immune response. We report the first case report of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) caused by Enterococcus casseliflavus and the sixth case of SBP caused by Enterococcus gallinarum.

  3. Genetic Diversity among Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Shonna M.; Fischetti, Vincent A.; LeBlanc, Donald J.; Moellering, Robert C.; Gilmore, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis, a ubiquitous member of mammalian gastrointestinal flora, is a leading cause of nosocomial infections and a growing public health concern. The enterococci responsible for these infections are often resistant to multiple antibiotics and have become notorious for their ability to acquire and disseminate antibiotic resistances. In the current study, we examined genetic relationships among 106 strains of E. faecalis isolated over the past 100 years, including strains identified for their diversity and used historically for serotyping, strains that have been adapted for laboratory use, and isolates from previously described E. faecalis infection outbreaks. This collection also includes isolates first characterized as having novel plasmids, virulence traits, antibiotic resistances, and pathogenicity island (PAI) components. We evaluated variation in factors contributing to pathogenicity, including toxin production, antibiotic resistance, polymorphism in the capsule (cps) operon, pathogenicity island (PAI) gene content, and other accessory factors. This information was correlated with multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) data, which was used to define genetic lineages. Our findings show that virulence and antibiotic resistance traits can be found within many diverse lineages of E. faecalis. However, lineages have emerged that have caused infection outbreaks globally, in which several new antibiotic resistances have entered the species, and in which virulence traits have converged. Comparing genomic hybridization profiles, using a microarray, of strains identified by MLST as spanning the diversity of the species, allowed us to identify the core E. faecalis genome as consisting of an estimated 2057 unique genes. PMID:17611618

  4. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Poultry Flocks in Germany.

    PubMed

    Maasjost, J; Mühldorfer, K; Cortez de Jäckel S; Hafez, H M

    2015-03-01

    Between 2010 and 2011, 145 Enterococcus isolates (Enterococcus faecalis, n = 127; Enterococcus faecium, n = 18) were collected during routine bacteriologic diagnostics from broilers, layers, and fattening turkeys in Germany showing various clinical signs. The susceptibility to 24 antimicrobial agents was investigated by broth microdilution test to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). All E. faecalis isolates (n = 127) were susceptible to the beta-lactam antibiotics ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and penicillin. Corresponding MIC with 50% inhibition (MIC50) and MIC with 90% inhibition (MIC90) values of these antimicrobial agents were at the lower end of the test range (≤ 4 μg/ml). In addition, no vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) were found. High resistance rates were identified in both Enterococcus species for lincomycin (72%-99%) and tetracycline (67%-82%). Half or more than half of Enterococcus isolates were resistant to gentamicin (54%-72%) and the macrolide antibiotics erythromycin (44%-61%) and tylosin-tartate (44%-56%). Enterococcus faecalis isolated from fattening turkeys showed the highest prevalence of antimicrobial resistance compared to other poultry production systems. Eighty-nine out of 145 Enterococcus isolates were resistant to three or more antimicrobial classes. Again, turkeys stood out with 42 (8 1%) multiresistant isolates. The most-frequent resistance patterns of E. faecalis were gentamicin, lincomycin, and tetracycline in all poultry production systems. PMID:26292548

  5. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Poultry Flocks in Germany.

    PubMed

    Maasjost, J; Mühldorfer, K; Cortez de Jäckel S; Hafez, H M

    2015-03-01

    Between 2010 and 2011, 145 Enterococcus isolates (Enterococcus faecalis, n = 127; Enterococcus faecium, n = 18) were collected during routine bacteriologic diagnostics from broilers, layers, and fattening turkeys in Germany showing various clinical signs. The susceptibility to 24 antimicrobial agents was investigated by broth microdilution test to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). All E. faecalis isolates (n = 127) were susceptible to the beta-lactam antibiotics ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and penicillin. Corresponding MIC with 50% inhibition (MIC50) and MIC with 90% inhibition (MIC90) values of these antimicrobial agents were at the lower end of the test range (≤ 4 μg/ml). In addition, no vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) were found. High resistance rates were identified in both Enterococcus species for lincomycin (72%-99%) and tetracycline (67%-82%). Half or more than half of Enterococcus isolates were resistant to gentamicin (54%-72%) and the macrolide antibiotics erythromycin (44%-61%) and tylosin-tartate (44%-56%). Enterococcus faecalis isolated from fattening turkeys showed the highest prevalence of antimicrobial resistance compared to other poultry production systems. Eighty-nine out of 145 Enterococcus isolates were resistant to three or more antimicrobial classes. Again, turkeys stood out with 42 (8 1%) multiresistant isolates. The most-frequent resistance patterns of E. faecalis were gentamicin, lincomycin, and tetracycline in all poultry production systems.

  6. Pathogenicity of the enterococcus in surgical infections.

    PubMed Central

    Barie, P S; Christou, N V; Dellinger, E P; Rout, W R; Stone, H H; Waymack, J P

    1990-01-01

    The enterococcus has been relegated to a position of unimportance in the pathogenesis of surgical infections. However the increasing prevalence and virulence of these bacteria prompt reconsideration of this view, particularly because the surgical patient has become increasingly vulnerable to infectious morbidity due to debility, immunosuppression, and therapy with increasingly potent antibiotics. The enterococcus is a versatile opportunistic nosocomial pathogen, causing such diverse infections as wound, intra-abdominal, and urinary tract infections; catheter-associated infection; suppurative thrombophlebitis; endocarditis; and pneumonia. Although surgical drainage remains the cornerstone of therapy for enterococcal infections involving a discrete focus, in the circumstances typified by the compromised surgical patient, specific antibacterial therapy directed against the enterococcus is warranted. Recent evidence indicates that parenteral antibiotic therapy for enterococcal bacteremia is mandatory and that appropriate therapy clearly reduces the number of deaths. PMID:2198000

  7. Experimental study of the impact of antimicrobial treatments on Campylobacter, Enterococcus and PCR-capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism profiles of the gut microbiota of chickens.

    PubMed

    Mourand, Gwenaëlle; Jouy, Eric; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Dheilly, Alexandra; Kérouanton, Annaëlle; Zeitouni, Salman; Kempf, Isabelle

    2014-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the impact of antimicrobial treatments on the susceptibility of Campylobacter, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis, and on the diversity of broiler microbiota. Specific-pathogen-free chickens were first orally inoculated with strains of Campylobacter and Enterococcus faecium. Birds were then orally treated with recommended doses of oxytetracycline, sulfadimethoxine/trimethoprim, amoxicillin or enrofloxacin. Faecal samples were collected before, during and after antimicrobial treatment. The susceptibility of Campylobacter, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated on supplemented or non-supplemented media was studied and PCR-capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism (CE-SSCP) profiles of the gut microbiota were analysed. Enrofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter were selected in the enrofloxacin-treated group and showed the Thr86Ile mutation in the gyrA gene. Acquisition of the tetO gene in Campylobacter coli isolates was significantly more frequent in birds given oxytetracycline. No impact of amoxicillin treatment on the susceptibility of Campylobacter could be detected. Ampicillin- and sulfadimethoxine/trimethoprim-resistant Enterococcus faecium were selected in amoxicillin-treated broilers, but no selection of the inoculated vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium could be detected, although it was also resistant to tetracycline and sulfadimethoxine/trimethoprim. PCR-CE-SSCP revealed significant variations in a few peaks in treated birds as compared with non-treated chickens. In conclusion, antimicrobial treatments perturbed chicken gut microbiota, and certain antimicrobial treatments selected or co-selected resistant strains of Campylobacter and Enterococcus.

  8. Ecology of Enterococcus faecalis and niche adapted or non-niche-adapted Enterococcus faecium in continuous-flow anaerobic cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: To study the survivability of niche adapted Enterococcus faecium I.3rif (I.3rif) vs. non-niche adapted Enterococcus faecium (GRE47) in cultures that contain Enterococcus faecalis I.2. Methods: An anaerobic continuous-flow culture of chicken microflora (CCF) that models the chicken gastr...

  9. Mature biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are highly resistant to antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Anna; Rasmussen, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are important nosocomial pathogens that form biofilms on implanted materials. We compare the antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria in new (established during 24 hours) and mature (established during 120 hours) enterococcal biofilms. Mature biofilms contained more bacteria and were much more tolerant to antibiotics, including rifampicin-containing combinations, as judged by determination of minimal biofilm eradication concentrations and by time-kill experiments of bacteria in biofilms formed on beads of bone cement.

  10. Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis in blood of newborns with suspected nosocomial infection.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Isabela; Xavier, Paula Cristhina Niz; Tavares, Luciana Venhofen Martinelli; Alves, Fabiana; Martins, Sarah Fonseca; Martins, Almir de Sousa; Palhares, Durval Batista

    2014-01-01

    Enterococci are Gram-positive cocci saprophyte of the human gastrointestinal tract, diners who act as opportunistic pathogens. They can cause infections in patients hospitalized for a long time or who have received multiple antibiotic therapy. Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are the most common species in human infections. To evaluate the possibility of rapid detection of these species and their occurrence in the blood of newborns with suspected nosocomial infection, blood samples were collected from 50 newborns with late infections, admitted to the Neonatal Care Unit of the University Hospital Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS-HU), from September 2010 to January 2011. The samples were subjected to conventional PCR and real time PCR (qPCR) to search for Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis, respectively. The PCR results were compared with respective blood cultures from 40 patients. No blood cultures were positive for Enterococci, however, eight blood samples were identified as genomic DNA of Enterococcus faecium by qPCR and 22 blood samples were detected as genomic DNA of Enterococcus faecalis by conventional PCR. These findings are important because of the clinical severity of the evaluated patients who were found positive by conventional PCR and not through routine microbiological methods.

  11. 9230 FECAL ENTEROCOCCUS/STREPTOCOCCUS GROUPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1903 the genus name Enterococcus was proposed for gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid-shaped bacterial of intestinal origin. Several years later, it was suggested that the genus name be changed to Streptococcus because of the organisms' ability to form chains of coccoid...

  12. Emphysematous pyometra secondary to Enterococcus avium infection in a dog.

    PubMed

    Chang, An-Chi; Cheng, Ching-Chang; Wang, Hsien-Chi; Lee, Wei-Ming; Shyu, Ching-Lin; Lin, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Kuan-Sheng

    2016-06-16

    A 5-year-old female intact Mastiff dog was presented with a history of vaginal discharge for 1 day. Physical examination revealed a sanguineo-purulent vaginal discharge and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Abdominal radiographs showed several dilated and gas- filled tubular loops. The differential diagnoses included emphysematous pyometra or small intestinal mechanical ileus. Surgical exploration of the abdomen demonstrated a severely dilated and gas-filled uterus, and emphysematous pyometra was confirmed. The patient's clinical signs resolved after ovariohysterectomy. Histopathology revealed mild endometrial cystic hyperplasia with infiltration of inflammatory cells in the superficial endometrial epithelia. Enterococcus avium, an α-hemolytic gram-positive coccus, was isolated from the uterus. This paper highlights the radiographic features of emphysematous pyometra and a pathogen that has never been reported to be associated with canine pyometra previously. PMID:27111397

  13. Heterologous expression and characterization of tyrosine decarboxylase from Enterococcus faecalis R612Z1 and Enterococcus faecium R615Z1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Xu, Wenjuan; Du, Lihui; Wang, Daoying; Zhu, Yongzhi; Geng, Zhiming; Zhang, Muhan; Xu, Weimin

    2014-04-01

    Tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC) is responsible for tyramine production and can catalyze phenylalanine to produce β-phenylethylamine. Enterococcus strains are a group of bacteria predominantly producing tyramine and β-phenylethylamine in water-boiled salted duck. In this study, the heterologous expression and characterization of two TDCs from Enterococcus faecalis R612Z1 (612TDC) and Enterococcus faecium R615Z1 (615TDC) were studied. The recombinant putative proteins of 612TDC and 615TDC were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. 612TDC is a 620-amino-acid protein with a molecular mass of 70.0 kDa, whereas 615TDC is a 625-amino-acid protein with a molecular mass of 70.3 kDa. Both 612TDC and 615TDC showed an optimum temperature of 25 °C for the tyrosine and phenylalanine substrates. However, 612TDC revealed maximal activity at pH 5.5, whereas 615TDC revealed maximal activity at pH 6.0. Kinetic studies showed that 612TDC and 615TDC exhibited higher specificity for tyrosine than for phenylalanine. The catalysis abilities of both 612TDC and 615TDC for phenylalanine were restrained significantly with the increase in NaCl concentration, but this was not the case for tyrosine. This study revealed that the enzyme properties of the purified recombinant 612TDC and 615TDC were similar, although their amino acid sequences had 84% identity. PMID:24680070

  14. Nonclinical and clinical Enterococcus faecium strains, but not Enterococcus faecalis strains, have distinct structural and functional genomic features.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Bae; Marco, Maria L

    2014-01-01

    Certain strains of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis contribute beneficially to animal health and food production, while others are associated with nosocomial infections. To determine whether there are structural and functional genomic features that are distinct between nonclinical (NC) and clinical (CL) strains of those species, we analyzed the genomes of 31 E. faecium and 38 E. faecalis strains. Hierarchical clustering of 7,017 orthologs found in the E. faecium pangenome revealed that NC strains clustered into two clades and are distinct from CL strains. NC E. faecium genomes are significantly smaller than CL genomes, and this difference was partly explained by significantly fewer mobile genetic elements (ME), virulence factors (VF), and antibiotic resistance (AR) genes. E. faecium ortholog comparisons identified 68 and 153 genes that are enriched for NC and CL strains, respectively. Proximity analysis showed that CL-enriched loci, and not NC-enriched loci, are more frequently colocalized on the genome with ME. In CL genomes, AR genes are also colocalized with ME, and VF are more frequently associated with CL-enriched loci. Genes in 23 functional groups are also differentially enriched between NC and CL E. faecium genomes. In contrast, differences were not observed between NC and CL E. faecalis genomes despite their having larger genomes than E. faecium. Our findings show that unlike E. faecalis, NC and CL E. faecium strains are equipped with distinct structural and functional genomic features indicative of adaptation to different environments.

  15. Enterococcus olivae sp. nov., isolated from Spanish-style green-olive fermentations.

    PubMed

    Lucena-Padrós, Helena; González, Juan M; Caballero-Guerrero, Belén; Ruiz-Barba, José Luis; Maldonado-Barragán, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    Six strains of a hitherto unknown, Gram-stain-positive coccus were recovered from samples of Spanish-style green-olive fermentations. The 16S rRNA gene sequences from these isolates shared 98.7% and 98.5% of their nucleotide positions with those from Enterococcus saccharolyticus subsp. taiwanensis 812(T) and from E. saccharolyticus subsp. saccharolyticus ATCC 43076(T), respectively. The sequence of the rpoA gene in the isolates was 95% similar to that of E. saccharolyticus CECT 4309(T) ( = ATCC 43076(T)). The 16S rRNA and rpoA gene phylogenies revealed that the isolates grouped in a statistically well-supported cluster separate from E. saccharolyticus. Enzyme activity profiles as well as fermentation patterns differentiated the novel bacteria from other members of the Enterococcus genus. Finally, phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic data supported the identification of a novel species of the genus Enterococcus, for which the name Enterococcus olivae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IGG16.11(T) ( = CECT 8063(T) = DSM 25431(T)).

  16. Environmental waters as a source of antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus species in Belgrade, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Veljović, Katarina; Popović, Nikola; Vidojević, Amarela Terzić; Tolinački, Maja; Mihajlović, Sanja; Jovčić, Branko; Kojić, Milan

    2015-09-01

    Despite the number of studies on antibiotic-resistant enterococci from Serbian clinical settings, there are no data about environmental contamination with these bacteria. Thus, this study investigated the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant enterococci in Belgrade, Serbia. Enterococcus species collected from ten surface water sites, including a lake, two major river systems, and springs, were tested. Among enterococci, we found single (21.7 %), double (17.4 %), and multiple antibiotic resistance patterns (56.3 %). Vancomycin-resistant strains were not found, indicating that their abundance in Belgrade is tightly linked to clinical settings. The multiple drug-resistant strains Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus mundtii were frequently detected in the lake during the swimming season and in the rivers near industrial zones. We confirmed the presence of ermB, ermC, ant(6)-Ia, tetM, and tetL and mutations in gyrA genes. The phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene of E. faecium isolates that harbor esp gene classified them into two groups based on high-bootstraps scores in the tree analysis. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of antibiotic-resistant enterococci revealed genomic similarity ranging from 75 to 100 %. This study indicates the importance of anthropogenic impact to the spread of antibiotic-resistant enterococci in environmental waters of Belgrade, Serbia.

  17. Presence of virulence factors in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium susceptible and resistant to vancomycin.

    PubMed

    Comerlato, Carolina Baldisserotto; Resende, Mariah Costa Carvalho de; Caierão, Juliana; d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves

    2013-08-01

    Despite the increasing importance of Enterococcus as opportunistic pathogens, their virulence factors are still poorly understood. This study determines the frequency of virulence factors in clinical and commensal Enterococcus isolates from inpatients in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Fifty Enterococcus isolates were analysed and the presence of the gelE, asa1 and esp genes was determined. Gelatinase activity and biofilm formation were also tested. The clonal relationships among the isolates were evaluated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The asa1, gelE and esp genes were identified in 38%, 60% and 76% of all isolates, respectively. The first two genes were more prevalent in Enterococcus faecalis than in Enterococcus faecium, as was biofilm formation, which was associated with gelE and asa1 genes, but not with the esp gene. The presence of gelE and the activity of gelatinase were not fully concordant. No relationship was observed among any virulence factors and specific subclones of E. faecalis or E. faecium resistant to vancomycin. In conclusion, E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates showed significantly different patterns of virulence determinants. Neither the source of isolation nor the clonal relationship or vancomycin resistance influenced their distribution.

  18. Wide distribution of virulence genes among Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Soheili, Sara; Ghafourian, Sobhan; Sekawi, Zamberi; Neela, Vasanthakumari; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Ramli, Ramliza; Hamat, Rukman Awang

    2014-01-01

    Enterococcus, a Gram-positive facultative anaerobic cocci belonging to the lactic acid bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes, is known to be able to resist a wide range of hostile conditions such as different pH levels, high concentration of NaCl (6.5%), and the extended temperatures between 5(°)C and 65(°)C. Despite being the third most common nosocomial pathogen, our understanding on its virulence factors is still poorly understood. The current study was aimed to determine the prevalence of different virulence genes in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. For this purpose, 79 clinical isolates of Malaysian enterococci were evaluated for the presence of virulence genes. pilB, fms8, efaAfm, and sgrA genes are prevalent in all clinical isolates. In conclusion, the pathogenicity of E. faecalis and E. faecium could be associated with different virulence factors and these genes are widely distributed among the enterococcal species.

  19. Rapid detection of Enterococcus spp. direct from blood culture bottles using Enterococcus QuickFISH method: a multicenter investigation.

    PubMed

    Deck, Melissa K; Anderson, Erica S; Buckner, Rebecca J; Colasante, Georgia; Davis, Thomas E; Coull, James M; Crystal, Benjamin; Latta, Phyllis Della; Fuchs, Martin; Fuller, Deanna; Harris, Will; Hazen, Kevin; Klimas, Lisa L; Lindao, Daniel; Meltzer, Michelle C; Morgan, Margie; Shepard, Janeen; Stevens, Sharon; Wu, Fann; Fiandaca, Mark J

    2014-04-01

    The performance of a diagnostic method for detection and identification of Enterococcus spp. directly from positive blood culture was evaluated in a clinical study. The method, Enterococcus QuickFISH BC, is a second-generation peptide nucleic acid (PNA) fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) test, which uses a simplified, faster assay procedure. The test uses fluorescently labeled PNA probes targeting 16S rRNA to differentiate Enterococcus faecalis from other Enterococcus spp. by the color of the cellular fluorescence. Three hundred fifty-six routine blood culture samples were tested; only 2 discordant results were recorded. The sensitivities for detection of Enterococcus faecalis and non-faecalis Enterococcus were 100% (106/106) and 97.0% (65/67), respectively, and the combined specificity of the assay was 100%. The combined positive and negative predictive values of the assay were 100% (171/171) and 98.9% (185/187), respectively.

  20. Draft Genome Sequences of the Probiotic Enterococcus faecalis Symbioflor 1 Clones DSM16430 and DSM16434

    PubMed Central

    Fritzenwanker, Moritz; Chakraborty, Anindita; Hain, Torsten; Zimmermann, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    The probiotic Symbioflor 1 is a historical concoction of 10 isolates of Enterococcus faecalis. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed two groups: one comprising eight identical clones (DSM16430, DSM16432, DSM16433, DSM16435 to DSM16439) and a further two isolates (DSM16431, DSM16434) with marginally different profiles. Here, we report a comparative analysis of the draft genome sequences of representative isolates. PMID:27688319

  1. Draft Genome Sequences of the Probiotic Enterococcus faecalis Symbioflor 1 Clones DSM16430 and DSM16434.

    PubMed

    Fritzenwanker, Moritz; Chakraborty, Anindita; Hain, Torsten; Zimmermann, Kurt; Domann, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    The probiotic Symbioflor 1 is a historical concoction of 10 isolates of Enterococcus faecalis Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed two groups: one comprising eight identical clones (DSM16430, DSM16432, DSM16433, DSM16435 to DSM16439) and a further two isolates (DSM16431, DSM16434) with marginally different profiles. Here, we report a comparative analysis of the draft genome sequences of representative isolates. PMID:27688319

  2. Detection and DNA quantification of Enterococcus casseliflavus in a foal with septic meningitis.

    PubMed

    Stefanetti, Valentina; Beccati, Francesca; Passamonti, Fabrizio; Sgariglia, Elisa; Coletti, Mauro; Vuerich, Matteo; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa

    2016-07-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 3-month-old 180-kg (396-lb) Hanoverian colt was examined because of fever, lethargy, inappetence, drooping of the left ear, and stiff neck posture. Initial treatment included empirical antimicrobial treatment and NSAIDs. CLINICAL FINDINGS Initial findings were consistent with CNS anomalies. Endoscopy revealed hyperemia, ecchymosis, and some mucopurulent exudate in the right guttural pouch. Hematologic findings were consistent with neutrophilic inflammation. On the third day of hospitalization, severe neurologic signs were observed. Computed tomography of the skull revealed a comminuted fracture of the axial aspect of the right mandibular condyle. Examination of CSF revealed turbidity, xanthochromia, and intracellular and extracellular cocci, consistent with septic meningitis. After DNA extraction from blood and CSF, sequenced products from a PCR assay for the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were 99% identical to Enterococcus casseliflavus. Microbial culture of CSF and blood samples yielded bacteria with Enterococcus spp morphology; antimicrobials were selected on the basis of susceptibility testing that identified the isolate as vancomycin resistant. A quantitative PCR assay was used to estimate Enterococcus DNA concentrations in CSF and blood. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Treatment for E casseliflavus meningitis, including trimethoprim-sulfadiazine and ampicillin sodium administration, resulted in resolution of clinical signs. Culture of CSF and blood samples after 12 days of the targeted treatment yielded no growth. CLINICAL RELEVANCE To the authors' knowledge, this was the first report of E casseliflavus meningitis in a horse. Treatment was successful; vancomycin-resistant enterococci can be a clinical problem and may potentially be zoonotic.

  3. [High level of aminoglycoside resistance among Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium strains].

    PubMed

    Kozuszko, Sylwia; Białucha, Agata; Bogiel, Tomasz; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    Enterococcus sp. strains are believed as important reason of serious nosocomial infections currently. These infections are cured by using combination of beta-lactams and aminoglycosides for their treatment. Enterococcus sp. resistant to high-level doses of aminoglycosides, beta-lactams and vancomycin are responsible for therapeutic failure. The aim of our study was to evaluate the incidence of isolation and susceptibility to antibiotics of HLAR Enterococcus sp. strains isolated between 2007 and 2010 from the patients of University Hospital No. 1 of dr A. Jurasz Collegium Medicum of L. Rydygier in Bydgoszcz Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń. Amongst 6137 Enterococcus sp. strains 1124 (18,3%) presented HLAR phenotype; 53,1% of them was identified as E. faecalis and 46,9% as E. faecium. The highest percentage of all examined strains was isolated from the patients of different surgery clinics, Intensive Care Units, and Pediatrics, Hematology and Oncology Clinic. HLAR and HLSR phenotypes were noted in E. faecalis, for 45,7% and 27,5% strains, in E. faecium - 29,8% and 9,5%, respectively. HLGR phenotype was presented twice more often in E. faecium than E. faecalis. Highest percentages of E. faecium resistant to glycopeptides and rifampicin were observed when compared with E. faecalis. The highest percentages of strains intermediate, resistant to vancomycin and resistant to glycopeptides were noted for E. faecium strains with phenotypes HLAR, HLGR and HLSR.

  4. Phenotypic and molecular antibiotic resistance profile of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from different traditional fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Valenzuela, Antonio; Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Benomar, Nabil; Gálvez, Antonio; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2013-02-01

    A collection of 55 enterococci (41 Enterococcus faecium and 14 E. faecalis strains) isolated from various traditional fermented foodstuffs of both animal and vegetable origins, and water was evaluated for resistance against 15 antibiotics. Lower incidence of resistance was observed with gentamicin, ampicillin, penicillin and teicoplanin. However, a high incidence of antibiotic resistance was detected for rifampicin (12 out of 14 of isolates), ciprofloxacin (9/14), and quinupristin/dalfopristin (8/14) in E. faecalis strains. Enterococcus faecium isolates were resistant to rifampicin (25/41), ciprofloxacin (23/41), erythromycin (18/41), levofloxacin (16/41), and nitrofurantoin (15/41). One Enterococcus faecalis and two E. faecium strains were resistant to vancomycin (MIC>16 μg/mL). Among 55 isolates, 27 (19 E. faecium and eight E. faecalis) were resistant to at least three antibiotics. High level of multidrug resistance to clinically important antibiotics was detected in E. faecalis strains (57% of E. faecalis versus 46% of E. faecium), which showed resistance to six to seven antibiotics, especially those isolated from foods of animal origin. So, it is necessary to re-evaluate the use of therapeutic antibiotics in stock farms at both regional and international levels due to the high number of multiple resistant (MR) bacteria. Fifty-six MR E. faecalis and E. faecium strains selected from this and previous studies (Valenzuela et al., 2008, 2010) were screened by polymerase chain reaction for antibiotic resistance genes, revealing the presence of tet(L), tet(M), ermB, cat, efrA, efrB, mphA, or msrA/B genes. The ABC Multidrug Efflux Pump EfrAB was detected in 96% of E. faecalis strains and also in 13% of E. faecium strains; this is the first report describing EfrAB in this enterococcal species. The efflux pump-associated msrA/B gene was detected in 66.66% of E. faecium strains, but not in E. faecalis strains.

  5. Enterococcus gallinarum endocarditis in a diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Ortu, Massimiliano; Gabrielli, Eugenia; Caramma, Ilaria; Rossotti, Roberto; Gambirasio, Maria; Gervasoni, Cristina

    2008-07-01

    Recent studies pointed out the increasing rate of infective endocarditis (IE) in diabetic patients. As diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence is expected to increase in the coming years, infective endocarditis could be more frequently reported in these patients. We here describe a rare case of Enterococcus gallinarum endocarditis developing on normal native heart valve in an elderly diabetic woman. Therapeutic options were restricted due to resistance factors of the microorganism, limited guidance in the medical literature, and the patient's history and underlying condition. Despite these challenges, adequate antibiotic therapy led to the patient's recovery. PMID:18457897

  6. Pheromone-inducible conjugation in Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Kozlowicz, Briana K.; Dworkin, Martin; Dunny, Gary M.

    2009-01-01

    Pheromone-inducible transfer of the plasmid pCF10 in Enterococcus faecalis is regulated using a complicated network of proteins and RNAs. The plasmid itself has been assembled from parts garnered from a variety of sources, and many aspects of the system resemble a biological kluge. Recently several new functions of various pCF10 gene products that participate in regulation of plasmid transfer have been identified. The results indicate that selective pressures controlling the evolution of the plasmid have produced a highly complex regulatory network with multiple biological functions that may serve well as a model for the evolution of biological complexity. PMID:16503196

  7. Enterococcus bulliens sp. nov., a novel lactic acid bacterium isolated from camel milk.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Zaina; Spitaels, Freek; Cnockaert, Margo; Praet, Jessy; El Farricha, Omar; Swings, Jean; Vandamme, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Four lactic acid bacteria isolates obtained from fresh dromedary camel milk produced in Dakhla, a city in southern Morocco, were characterised in order to determine their taxonomic position. The four isolates had highly similar MALDI-TOF MS and RAPD fingerprints and identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Comparative sequence analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the four isolates was most similar to that of Enterococcus sulfureus ATCC 49903(T) and Enterococcus italicus DSM 15952(T) (99.33 and 98.59% similarity, respectively). However, sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS), RNA polymerase (rpoA) and ATP synthase (atpA) genes revealed that the taxon represented by strain LMG 28766(T) was well separated from E. sulfureus LMG 13084(T) and E. italicus LMG 22039(T), which was further confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization values that were clearly below the species demarcation threshold. The novel taxon was easily differentiated from its nearest neighbour species through sequence analysis of protein encoding genes, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and multiple biochemical tests, but had a similar percentage G+C content of about 39%. We therefore propose to formally classify these isolates as Enterococcus bulliens sp. nov., with LMG 28766(T) (=CCMM B1177(T)) as the type strain.

  8. Transcriptome analysis of Enterococcus faecalis in response to alkaline stress.

    PubMed

    Ran, Shujun; Liu, Bin; Jiang, Wei; Sun, Zhe; Liang, Jingping

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly isolated species from endodontic failure root canals; its persistence in treated root canals has been attributed to its ability to resist high pH stress. The goal of this study was to characterize the E. faecalis transcriptome and to identify candidate genes for response and resistance to alkaline stress using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing. We found that E. faecalis could survive and form biofilms in a pH 10 environment and that alkaline stress had a great impact on the transcription of many genes in the E. faecalis genome. The transcriptome sequencing results revealed that 613 genes were differentially expressed (DEGs) for E. faecalis grown in pH 10 medium; 211 genes were found to be differentially up-regulated and 402 genes differentially down-regulated. Many of the down-regulated genes found are involved in cell energy production and metabolism and carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and the up-regulated genes are mostly related to nucleotide transport and metabolism. The results presented here reveal that cultivation of E. faecalis in alkaline stress has a profound impact on its transcriptome. The observed regulation of genes and pathways revealed that E. faecalis reduced its carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and increased nucleotide synthesis to adapt and grow in alkaline stress. A number of the regulated genes may be useful candidates for the development of new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of E. faecalis infections.

  9. Transcriptome analysis of Enterococcus faecalis in response to alkaline stress

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Shujun; Liu, Bin; Jiang, Wei; Sun, Zhe; Liang, Jingping

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly isolated species from endodontic failure root canals; its persistence in treated root canals has been attributed to its ability to resist high pH stress. The goal of this study was to characterize the E. faecalis transcriptome and to identify candidate genes for response and resistance to alkaline stress using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing. We found that E. faecalis could survive and form biofilms in a pH 10 environment and that alkaline stress had a great impact on the transcription of many genes in the E. faecalis genome. The transcriptome sequencing results revealed that 613 genes were differentially expressed (DEGs) for E. faecalis grown in pH 10 medium; 211 genes were found to be differentially up-regulated and 402 genes differentially down-regulated. Many of the down-regulated genes found are involved in cell energy production and metabolism and carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and the up-regulated genes are mostly related to nucleotide transport and metabolism. The results presented here reveal that cultivation of E. faecalis in alkaline stress has a profound impact on its transcriptome. The observed regulation of genes and pathways revealed that E. faecalis reduced its carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and increased nucleotide synthesis to adapt and grow in alkaline stress. A number of the regulated genes may be useful candidates for the development of new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of E. faecalis infections. PMID:26300863

  10. Comparison of risk factors and outcome in patients with Enterococcus faecalis vs Enterococcus faecium bacteraemia.

    PubMed

    Suppola, J P; Kuikka, A; Vaara, M; Valtonen, V V

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine retrospectively the risk factors for the acquisition of Enterococcus faecalis vs E. faecium bacteraemia, as well as the clinical outcomes of these patients. 62 patients with Enterococcus faecalis bacteraemia were compared to 31 patients with E. faecium bacteraemia. Haematologic malignancies, neutropenia, high-risk source and previous use of aminoglycosides, carbapenems, cephalosporins and clindamycin were significantly associated with E. faecium bacteraemia. Instead, urinary catheterization was found to be related to Enterococcus faecalis bacteraemia. The mortality rates within 7 d and 30 d were 13% and 27%, respectively, in patients with E. faecalis bacteraemia and 6% and 29%, respectively, in patients with E. faecium bacteraemia. There was no difference in mortality between E. faecalis and E. faecium bacteraemia, nor was there a difference in seriousness of disease at the time of bacteraemia. In the subgroups of patients with monomicrobial or clinically significant E. faecalis vs E. faecium bacteraemia, the mortality rates were similar to the results of all subjects. Our results do not support the theory that E. faecium would be a more virulent organism than E. faecalis.

  11. Prevalence and characterization of antibiotic resistant Enterococcus faecalis in French cheeses.

    PubMed

    Jamet, Emmanuel; Akary, Elodie; Poisson, Marie-Ange; Chamba, Jean-François; Bertrand, Xavier; Serror, Pascale

    2012-09-01

    Prevalence of enterococci and antibiotic resistance profiles of Enterococcus faecalis was analyzed in 126 French cheeses from retail stores. Forty-four percent of pasteurized or thermised-milk cheeses, and up to 92% of raw-milk cheeses contained detectable enterococci. A total of 337 antibiotic resistant enterococci were isolated in 29% and 60% of pasteurized-milk and raw-milk cheeses, respectively. E. faecalis was the predominant antibiotic resistant species recovered (81%), followed by Enterococcus faecium (13%), and Enterococcus durans (6%). The most prevalent antibiotic resistances were tetracycline (Tet) and minocycline (Min), followed by erythromycin (Ery), kanamycin (Kan) and chloramphenicol (Cm). The most common multiple antibiotic resistance phenotype was Cm Ery Kan Min Tet. The occurrence of antibiotic genes, as searched by PCR, was 100 % for aph3'IIIa, 96 % for ermB, 90 % for tetM and 80 % for catA in isolates resistant to Kan, Ery, Tet or Cm, respectively. MLST analysis of 30 multidrug resistant E. faecalis revealed that ST19, CC21, CC25 and CC55 isolates were the most common in cheeses. In conclusion, as in many other European countries, French cheeses do contain enterococci with multiple antibiotics resistances. However, low occurrence of high-level gentamicin resistant or sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim-resistant enterococci and absence of vancomycin- or ampicillin- resistant enterococci indicate that cheeses cannot be considered as a major reservoir for nosocomial multi-drug resistant enterococci.

  12. Transferable multiresistance plasmids carrying cfr in Enterococcus spp. from swine and farm environment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Yang; Schwarz, Stefan; Li, Yun; Shen, Zhangqi; Zhang, Qijing; Wu, Congming; Shen, Jianzhong

    2013-01-01

    Seventy-seven porcine Enterococcus isolates with florfenicol MICs of ≥16 μg of were/ml screened for the presence of the multiresistance gene cfr, its location on plasmids, and its genetic environment. Three isolates-Enterococcus thailandicus 3-38 (from a porcine rectal swab collected at a pig farm), Enterococcus thailandicus W3, and Enterococcus faecalis W9-2 (the latter two from sewage at a different farm), carried the cfr gene. The SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of the three isolates differed distinctly. In addition, E. faecalis W9-2 was assigned to a new multilocus sequence type ST469. Mating experiments and Southern blot analysis indicated that cfr is located on conjugative plasmids pW3 (∼75 kb) from E. thailandicus W3, p3-38 (∼72 kb) from E. thailandicus 3-38, and pW9-2 (∼55 kb) from E. faecalis W9-2; these plasmids differed in their sizes, additional resistance genes, and the analysis of the segments encompassing the cfr gene. Sequence analysis revealed that all plasmids harbored a 4,447-bp central region, in which cfr was bracketed by two copies of the novel insertion sequence ISEnfa4 located in the same orientation. The sequences flanking the central regions of these plasmids, including the partial tra gene regions and a ω-ε-ζ toxin-antitoxin module, exhibited >95% nucleotide sequence identity to the conjugative plasmid pAMβ1 from E. faecalis. Conjugative plasmids carrying cfr appear to play an important role in the dissemination and maintenance of the multiresistance gene cfr among enterococcal isolates and possibly other species of Gram-positive bacteria.

  13. Transferable multiresistance plasmids carrying cfr in Enterococcus spp. from swine and farm environment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Yang; Schwarz, Stefan; Li, Yun; Shen, Zhangqi; Zhang, Qijing; Wu, Congming; Shen, Jianzhong

    2013-01-01

    Seventy-seven porcine Enterococcus isolates with florfenicol MICs of ≥16 μg of were/ml screened for the presence of the multiresistance gene cfr, its location on plasmids, and its genetic environment. Three isolates-Enterococcus thailandicus 3-38 (from a porcine rectal swab collected at a pig farm), Enterococcus thailandicus W3, and Enterococcus faecalis W9-2 (the latter two from sewage at a different farm), carried the cfr gene. The SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of the three isolates differed distinctly. In addition, E. faecalis W9-2 was assigned to a new multilocus sequence type ST469. Mating experiments and Southern blot analysis indicated that cfr is located on conjugative plasmids pW3 (∼75 kb) from E. thailandicus W3, p3-38 (∼72 kb) from E. thailandicus 3-38, and pW9-2 (∼55 kb) from E. faecalis W9-2; these plasmids differed in their sizes, additional resistance genes, and the analysis of the segments encompassing the cfr gene. Sequence analysis revealed that all plasmids harbored a 4,447-bp central region, in which cfr was bracketed by two copies of the novel insertion sequence ISEnfa4 located in the same orientation. The sequences flanking the central regions of these plasmids, including the partial tra gene regions and a ω-ε-ζ toxin-antitoxin module, exhibited >95% nucleotide sequence identity to the conjugative plasmid pAMβ1 from E. faecalis. Conjugative plasmids carrying cfr appear to play an important role in the dissemination and maintenance of the multiresistance gene cfr among enterococcal isolates and possibly other species of Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23070165

  14. The life and times of the Enterococcus.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, B E

    1990-01-01

    Enterococci are important human pathogens that are increasingly resistant to antimicrobial agents. These organisms were previously considered part of the genus Streptococcus but have recently been reclassified into their own genus, called Enterococcus. To date, 12 species pathogenic for humans have been described, including the most common human isolates, Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium. Enterococci cause between 5 and 15% of cases of endocarditis, which is best treated by the combination of a cell wall-active agent (such as penicillin or vancomycin, neither of which alone is usually bactericidal) and an aminoglycoside to which the organism is not highly resistant; this characteristically results in a synergistic bactericidal effect. High-level resistance (MIC, greater than or equal to 2,000 micrograms/ml) to the aminoglycoside eliminates the expected bactericidal effect, and such resistance has now been described for all aminoglycosides. Enterococci can also cause urinary tract infections; intraabdominal, pelvic, and wound infections; superinfections (particularly in patients receiving expanded-spectrum cephalosporins); and bacteremias (often together with other organisms). They are now the third most common organism seen in nosocomial infections. For most of these infections, single-drug therapy, most often with penicillin, ampicillin, or vancomycin, is adequate. Enterococci have a large number of both inherent and acquired resistance traits, including resistance to cephalosporins, clindamycin, tetracycline, and penicillinase-resistant penicillins such as oxacillin, among others. The most recent resistance traits reported are penicillinase resistance (apparently acquired from staphylococci) and vancomycin resistance, both of which can be transferred to other enterococci. It appears likely that we will soon be faced with increasing numbers of enterococci for which there is no adequate therapy. PMID:2404568

  15. Comparative analysis of classical and molecular microbiology methods for the detection of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. in well water.

    PubMed

    Maheux, Andrée F; Huppé, Vicky; Bissonnette, Luc; Boissinot, Maurice; Rodrigue, Lynda; Bérubé, Ève; Bergeron, Michel G

    2012-11-01

    The microbiological quality of 165 1 litre well water samples collected in the Québec City region was assessed by culture-based methods (mFC agar, Chromocult coliform agar, Colilert(®), MI agar, Chromocult enterococci, Enterolert™, and mEI agar) and by a molecular microbiology strategy, dubbed CRENAME-rtPCR, developed for the detection of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Enterococcus faecalis/faecium, and Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii. In these drinking water samples, approved culture-based methods detected E. coli at rates varying from 1.8 to 3.6% and Enterococcus spp. at rates varying from 3.0 to 11.5%, while the molecular microbiology approach for E. coli was found to be as efficient, detecting contamination in 3.0% of samples. In contrast, CRENAME-rtPCR detected Enterococcus spp. in 27.9% of samples while the E. faecalis/faecium molecular assay did not uncover a single contaminated sample, thereby revealing a discrepancy in the coverage of waterborne enterococcal species detected by classical and molecular microbiology methods. The validation of the CRENAME-E. coli rtPCR test as a new tool to assess the quality of drinking water will require larger scale studies elaborated to demonstrate its equivalence to approved methods.

  16. Enterococcus Xinjiangensis sp. nov., Isolated from Yogurt of Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaopu; Li, Mingyang; Guo, Dongqi

    2016-09-01

    A Gram-strain-positive bacterial strain 48(T) was isolated from traditional yogurt in Xinjiang Province, China. The bacterium was characterized by a polyphasic approach, including 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, polymerase α subunit (rpoA) gene sequence analysis, determination of DNA G+C content, DNA-DNA hybridization with the type strain of Enterococcus ratti and analysis of phenotypic features. Strain 48(T) accounted for 96.1, 95.8, 95.8, and 95.7 % with Enterococcus faecium CGMCC 1.2136(T), Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790(T), Enterococcus durans CECT 411(T), and E. ratti ATCC 700914(T) in the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, respectively. The sequence of rpoA gene showed similarities of 99.0, 96.0, 96.0, and 96 % with that of E. faecium ATCC 19434(T), Enterococcus villorum LMG12287, E. hirae ATCC 9790(T), and E. durans ATCC 19432(T), respectively. Based upon of polyphasic characterization data obtained in the study, a novel species, Enterococcus xinjiangensis sp. nov., was proposed and the type strain was 48(T)(=CCTCC AB 2014041(T) = JCM 30200(T)). PMID:27260143

  17. Enterococcus Xinjiangensis sp. nov., Isolated from Yogurt of Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaopu; Li, Mingyang; Guo, Dongqi

    2016-09-01

    A Gram-strain-positive bacterial strain 48(T) was isolated from traditional yogurt in Xinjiang Province, China. The bacterium was characterized by a polyphasic approach, including 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, polymerase α subunit (rpoA) gene sequence analysis, determination of DNA G+C content, DNA-DNA hybridization with the type strain of Enterococcus ratti and analysis of phenotypic features. Strain 48(T) accounted for 96.1, 95.8, 95.8, and 95.7 % with Enterococcus faecium CGMCC 1.2136(T), Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790(T), Enterococcus durans CECT 411(T), and E. ratti ATCC 700914(T) in the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, respectively. The sequence of rpoA gene showed similarities of 99.0, 96.0, 96.0, and 96 % with that of E. faecium ATCC 19434(T), Enterococcus villorum LMG12287, E. hirae ATCC 9790(T), and E. durans ATCC 19432(T), respectively. Based upon of polyphasic characterization data obtained in the study, a novel species, Enterococcus xinjiangensis sp. nov., was proposed and the type strain was 48(T)(=CCTCC AB 2014041(T) = JCM 30200(T)).

  18. Linezolid resistance in Enterococcus faecium isolated in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Patel, Samir N; Memari, Nader; Shahinas, Dea; Toye, Baldwin; Jamieson, Frances B; Farrell, David J

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have described linezolid-resistant MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) occurring worldwide, including an outbreak of linezolid-resistant MRSA. The objective of this study was to determine if linezolid-resistant enterococci are present in clinical isolates in Ontario, Canada. From January 2010 to June 2012, all enterococcal isolates submitted to the Public Health Ontario Laboratory (PHOL) for confirmation of VRE and susceptibility testing were included in this study. Of 2829 enterococcal isolates tested, 12 Enterococcus faecium were found to be resistant to linezolid. All linezolid-resistant isolates were also resistant to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and vancomycin. In addition, 33% of isolates were non-susceptible to daptomycin, whereas 41% were resistant to quinupristin/dalfopristin. Molecular characterization of these isolates showed that 8/12 isolates (66.7%) contained the mutation G2576T in 23S rRNA, which has been associated with linezolid resistance. Amplification and sequencing of L3- and L4-coding genes did not reveal mutations associated with linezolid resistance. One isolate contained the cfr gene, which is associated with linezolid resistance, and has been found in staphylococcal species and E. faecalis. These data show that occurrence of linezolid resistance is still rare among enterococcal isolates referred to PHOL though detection of cfr in E. faecium is concerning as it has the potential to disseminate among other enterococci.

  19. Peptide pheromone signaling in Streptococcus and Enterococcus.

    PubMed

    Cook, Laura C; Federle, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Intercellular chemical signaling in bacteria, commonly referred to as quorum sensing (QS), relies on the production and detection of compounds known as pheromones to elicit coordinated responses among members of a community. Pheromones produced by Gram-positive bacteria are comprised of small peptides. Based on both peptide structure and sensory system architectures, Gram-positive bacterial signaling pathways may be classified into one of four groups with a defining hallmark: cyclical peptides of the Agr type, peptides that contain Gly-Gly processing motifs, sensory systems of the RNPP family, or the recently characterized Rgg-like regulatory family. The recent discovery that Rgg family members respond to peptide pheromones increases substantially the number of species in which QS is likely a key regulatory component. These pathways control a variety of fundamental behaviors including conjugation, natural competence for transformation, biofilm development, and virulence factor regulation. Overlapping QS pathways found in multiple species and pathways that utilize conserved peptide pheromones provide opportunities for interspecies communication. Here we review pheromone signaling identified in the genera Enterococcus and Streptococcus, providing examples of all four types of pathways.

  20. Enterococcus cecorum infection in a racing pigeon.

    PubMed

    Jung, Arne; Teske, Lydia; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2014-12-01

    Until now, Enterococcus cecorum (EC) has been known as a pathogen for broilers, broiler breeders, and Pekin ducks. In the present report, we describe a fatal systemic EC infection in a young racing pigeon (Columba livia forma domestica). EC was isolated from the heart, liver, spleen, and intestine of the bird in pure culture. In the pathologic examination, the pigeon showed enteritis and an ulcerative gastritis, which may have been predisposing factors for the development of the generalized EC infection. An accumulation of gram-positive cocci in spleen tissue was found in the histopathologic examination and confirms the presence of a systemic EC infection in the pigeon. Additionally, EC was isolated from cloacal swabs of other pigeons in the same loft, but no additional pigeons were submitted for necropsy. All EC isolates tested were negative by PCR for the enterococcal virulence factors cytolysin, enterococcal surface protein, aggregation substance, hyaluronidase, and gelatinase. Therefore, the reason for the enhanced virulence of the EC isolate remains unknown. Our report confirms EC as a disease-causing agent in pigeons and presents the first data concerning the analysis of EC for virulence factors.

  1. Enterococcus faecium PBP5-S/R, the missing link between PBP5-S and PBP5-R.

    PubMed

    Pietta, Ester; Montealegre, Maria Camila; Roh, Jung Hyeob; Cocconcelli, Pier Sandro; Murray, Barbara E

    2014-11-01

    During a study to investigate the evolution of ampicillin resistance in Enterococcus faecium, we observed that a number of E. faecium strains, mainly from the recently described subclade A2, showed PBP5 sequences in between PBP5-S and PBP5-R. These hybrid PBP5-S/R patterns reveal a progression of amino acid changes from the S form to the R form of this protein; however, these changes do not strictly correlate with changes in ampicillin MICs.

  2. Molecular characterization of Rifr mutations in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaoxing; Hua, Xiaoting; Qu, Tingting; Jiang, Yan; Zhou, Zhihui; Yu, Yunsong

    2014-08-01

    Mutation rate is an important factor affecting the appearance and spread of acquired antibiotic resistance. The frequencies and types of enterococci mutations were determined in this study. The MICs of rifampicin in enterococci and their rifampicin-resistant mutants were determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) agar dilution method. The Enterococcus faecalis isolates A15 and 18165 showed no significant differences in mutation frequencies or mutation rates. In Enterococcus faecium, the mutation frequency and mutation rate were both 6·4-fold lower than in E. faecalis. The spectrum of mutations characterized in E. faecium B42 differed significantly from that of E. faecalis. The types and rate of mutations indicated that E. faecalis had a higher potential to develop linezolid resistance. Rifampicin resistance was associated with mutations in the rpoB gene. Rifampicin MICs for the E. faecalis mutant were 2048 mg/l, but rifampicin MICs for E. faecium mutants ranged from 64 to 1024 mg/l.

  3. Identification of Multiple Bacteriocins in Enterococcus spp. Using an Enterococcus-Specific Bacteriocin PCR Array

    PubMed Central

    Henning, Chris; Gautam, Dhiraj; Muriana, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-two bacteriocin-producing Enterococcus isolates obtained from food and animal sources, and demonstrating activity against Listeria monocytogenes, were screened for bacteriocin-related genes using a bacteriocin PCR array based on known enterococcal bacteriocin gene sequences in the NCBI GenBank database. The 22 bacteriocin-positive (Bac+) enterococci included En. durans (1), En. faecalis (4), En. faecium (12), En. hirae (3), and En. thailandicus (2). Enterocin A (entA), enterocins mr10A and mr10B (mr10AB), and bacteriocin T8 (bacA) were the most commonly found structural genes in order of decreasing prevalence. Forty-five bacteriocin genes were identified within the 22 Bac+ isolates, each containing at least one of the screened structural genes. Of the 22 Bac+ isolates, 15 possessed two bacteriocin genes, seven isolates contained three different bacteriocins, and three isolates contained as many as four different bacteriocin genes. These results may explain the high degree of bactericidal activity observed with various Bac+ Enterococcus spp. Antimicrobial activity against wild-type L. monocytogenes and a bacteriocin-resistant variant demonstrated bacteriocins having different modes-of-action. Mixtures of bacteriocins, especially those with different modes-of-action and having activity against foodborne pathogens, such as L. monocytogenes, may play a promising role in the preservation of food.

  4. Biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from the processing of ricotta and the control of these pathogens through cleaning and sanitization procedures.

    PubMed

    da Silva Fernandes, Meg; Kabuki, Dirce Yorika; Kuaye, Arnaldo Yoshiteru

    2015-05-01

    The biofilm formation of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from the processing of ricotta on stainless steel coupons was evaluated, and the effect of cleaning and sanitization procedures in the control of these biofilms was determined. The formation of biofilms was observed while varying the incubation temperature (7, 25 and 39°C) and time (0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days). At 7°C, the counts of E. faecalis and E. faecium were below 2 log10 CFU/cm(2). For the temperatures of 25 and 39°C, after 1 day, the counts of E. faecalis and E. faecium were 5.75 and 6.07 log10 CFU/cm(2), respectively, which is characteristic of biofilm formation. The tested sanitation procedures a) acid-anionic tensioactive cleaning, b) anionic tensioactive cleaning+sanitizer and c) acid-anionic tensioactive cleaning+sanitizer were effective in removing the biofilms, reducing the counts to levels below 0.4 log10 CFU/cm(2). The sanitizer biguanide was the least effective, and peracetic acid was the most effective. These studies revealed the ability of enterococci to form biofilms and the importance of the cleaning step and the type of sanitizer used in sanitation processes for the effective removal of biofilms.

  5. The mazEF toxin-antitoxin system as an attractive target in clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Soheili, Sara; Ghafourian, Sobhan; Sekawi, Zamberi; Neela, Vasantha Kumari; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Taherikalani, Morovat; Khosravi, Afra; Ramli, Ramliza; Hamat, Rukman Awang

    2015-01-01

    The toxin-antitoxin (TA) system is a regulatory system where two sets of genes encode the toxin and its corresponding antitoxin. In this study, the prevalence of TA systems in independently isolated clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis was determined, the dominant TA system was identified, different virulence genes in E. faecium and E. faecalis were surveyed, the level of expression of the virulence and TA genes in normal and stress conditions was determined, and finally their associations with the TA genes were defined. Remarkably, the analysis demonstrated higBA and mazEF in all clinical isolates, and their locations were on chromosomes and plasmids, respectively. On the other hand, a quantitative analysis of TA and virulence genes revealed that the expression level in both genes is different under normal and stress conditions. The results obtained by anti-mazF peptide nucleic acids demonstrated that the expression level of virulence genes had decreased. These findings demonstrate an association between TA systems and virulence factors. The mazEF on the plasmids and the higBA TA genes on the chromosomes of all E. faecium and E. faecalis strains were dominant. Additionally, there was a decrease in the expression of virulence genes in the presence of anti-mazF peptide nucleic acids. Therefore, it is suggested that mazEF TA systems are potent and sensitive targets in all E. faecium and E. faecalis strains.

  6. Biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from the processing of ricotta and the control of these pathogens through cleaning and sanitization procedures.

    PubMed

    da Silva Fernandes, Meg; Kabuki, Dirce Yorika; Kuaye, Arnaldo Yoshiteru

    2015-05-01

    The biofilm formation of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from the processing of ricotta on stainless steel coupons was evaluated, and the effect of cleaning and sanitization procedures in the control of these biofilms was determined. The formation of biofilms was observed while varying the incubation temperature (7, 25 and 39°C) and time (0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days). At 7°C, the counts of E. faecalis and E. faecium were below 2 log10 CFU/cm(2). For the temperatures of 25 and 39°C, after 1 day, the counts of E. faecalis and E. faecium were 5.75 and 6.07 log10 CFU/cm(2), respectively, which is characteristic of biofilm formation. The tested sanitation procedures a) acid-anionic tensioactive cleaning, b) anionic tensioactive cleaning+sanitizer and c) acid-anionic tensioactive cleaning+sanitizer were effective in removing the biofilms, reducing the counts to levels below 0.4 log10 CFU/cm(2). The sanitizer biguanide was the least effective, and peracetic acid was the most effective. These studies revealed the ability of enterococci to form biofilms and the importance of the cleaning step and the type of sanitizer used in sanitation processes for the effective removal of biofilms. PMID:25702883

  7. Postneurosurgical Central Nervous System Infection Due to Enterococcus faecalis Successfully Treated With Intraventricular Vancomycin

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Trisha; Lewis, Mark E.; Niesley, Michelle L.; Chowdhury, Mashiul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Infections from Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are uncommon in the post-neurosurgical intervention setting., [1, 2, 3, 4] Intraventricular antibiotics are recommended when standard intravenous therapy fails. [5] Here we present a case of post-neurosurgical ventriculitis, meningitis, and cerebritis in an oncology patient caused by refractory Enterococcus faecalis successfully treated with intraventricular vancomycin. PMID:27226704

  8. Enterococcus gallinarum Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in an HCV Cirrhotic.

    PubMed

    Abidali, Hussein; Sheikh, Maheen; Abidali, Moustapha; Abidali, Ali; Farraji, Hamoudi S; Berry, Andrew C

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 60-year-old Caucasian male with history of hepatitis C viral cirrhosis with portosystemic encephalopathy and ascites with evidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) with absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of 944 cells/µL blood. Despite adequate treatment, the abdominal pain and elevated creatinine continued to persist. Initial ascites fluid cultures returned back positive for growth of Enterococcus gallinarum. Empiric antibiotics were then substituted with ampicillin/sulbactam. Our case of Enterococcus gallinarum causing SBP is only the seventh case reported in the literature to date. PMID:26064715

  9. RNase 7 Contributes to the Cutaneous Defense against Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Gläser, Regine; Podschun, Rainer; Schröder, Jens-Michael; Harder, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Background Human skin is able to mount a fast response against invading microorganisms by the release of antimicrobial proteins such as the ribonuclease RNase 7. Because RNase 7 exhibits high activity against Enterococcus faecium the aim of this study was to further explore the role of RNase 7 in the cutaneous innate defense system against E. faecium. Methodology/Principal Findings Absolute quantification using real-time PCR and ELISA revealed that primary keratinocytes expressed high levels of RNase 7. Immunohistochemistry showed RNase 7 expression in all epidermal layers of the skin with an intensification in the upper more differentiated layers. Furthermore, RNase 7 was secreted by keratinocytes in vitro and in vivo in a site-dependent way. RNase 7 was still active against E. faecium at low pH (5.5) or high NaCl (150 mM) concentration and the bactericidal activity of RNase 7 against E. faecium required no ribonuclease activity as shown by recombinant RNase 7 lacking enzymatic activity. To further explore the role of RNase 7 in cutaneous defense against E. faecium, we investigated whether RNase 7 contributes to the E. faecium killing activity of skin extracts derived from stratum corneum. Treatment of the skin extract with an RNase 7 specific antibody, which neutralizes the antimicrobial activity of RNase 7, diminished its E. faecium killing activity. Conclusions/Significance Our data indicate that RNase 7 contributes to the E. faecium-killing activity of skin extracts and suggest an important role for RNase 7 in the protection of human skin against E. faecium colonization. PMID:19641608

  10. Antibiotic resistance and virulence traits in clinical and environmental Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates.

    PubMed

    Rathnayake, I U; Hargreaves, M; Huygens, F

    2012-07-01

    This study compared virulence and antibiotic resistance traits in clinical and environmental Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates. E. faecalis isolates harboured a broader spectrum of virulence determinants compared to E. faecium isolates. The virulence traits Cyl-A, Cyl-B, Cyl-M, gel-E, esp and acm were tested and environmental isolates predominantly harboured gel-E (80% of E. faecalis and 31.9% of E. faecium) whereas esp was more prevalent in clinical isolates (67.8% of E. faecalis and 70.4% of E. faecium). E. faecalis and E. faecium isolated from water had different antibiotic resistance patterns compared to those isolated from clinical samples. Linezolid resistance was not observed in any isolates tested and vancomycin resistance was observed only in clinical isolates. Resistance to other antibiotics (tetracycline, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and ampicillin) was detected in both clinical and water isolates. Clinical isolates were more resistant to all the antibiotics tested compared to water isolates. Multi-drug resistance was more prevalent in clinical isolates (71.2% of E. faecalis and 70.3% of E. faecium) compared to water isolates (only 5.7% E. faecium). tet L and tet M genes were predominantly identified in tetracycline-resistant isolates. All water and clinical isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin and ampicillin contained mutations in the gyrA, parC and pbp5 genes. A significant correlation was found between the presence of virulence determinants and antibiotic resistance in all the isolates tested in this study (p<0.05). The presence of antibiotic resistant enterococci, together with associated virulence traits, in surface recreational water could be a public health risk.

  11. Biocide and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from the swine meat chain.

    PubMed

    Rizzotti, Lucia; Rossi, Franca; Torriani, Sandra

    2016-12-01

    In this study nine strains of Enterococcus faecalis and 12 strains of Enterococcus faecium, isolated from different sample types in the swine meat chain and previously characterized for the presence of antibiotic resistance genes, were examined for phenotypic tolerance to seven biocides (chlorexidine, benzalkonium chloride, triclosan, sodium hypochlorite, 2-propanol, formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide) and resistance to nine antibiotics (ampicillin, vancomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol). Moreover, the presence of efflux system encoding genes qacA/B, qacC, qacE, qacEΔ1, emeA, and stress response genes, sigV and gsp65, involved in the tolerance to biocides, was analysed. Most strains were not tolerant to the biocides, but showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) higher than the recommended cut-off values for all the antibiotics tested, except for vancomycin and chloramphenicol. Only weak correlations, if any, were found between biocide and antibiotic resistance data. One E. faecalis strain was tolerant to triclosan and one E. faecium strain, with higher tolerance to chlorexidine than the other strains tested, was found to carry a qacA/B gene. Our results indicated that phenotypic resistance to antibiotics is very frequent in enterococcal isolates from the swine meat chain, but phenotypic tolerance to biocides is not common. On the other hand, the gene qacA/B was found for the first time in the species E. faecium, an indication of the necessity to adopt measures suitable to control the spread of biocide resistance determinants among enterococci. PMID:27554158

  12. Molecular Screening of Enterococcus Virulence Determinants and Potential for Genetic Exchange between Food and Medical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Tracy J.; Gasson, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Enterococci are used as starter and probiotic cultures in foods, and they occur as natural food contaminants. The genus Enterococcus is of increased significance as a cause of nosocomial infections, and this trend is exacerbated by the development of antibiotic resistance. In this study, we investigated the incidence of known virulence determinants in starter, food, and medical strains of Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, and E. durans. PCR and gene probe strategies were used to screen enterococcal isolates from both food and medical sources. Different and distinct patterns of incidence of virulence determinants were found for the E. faecalis and E. faecium strains. Medical E. faecalis strains had more virulence determinants than did food strains, which, in turn, had more than did starter strains. All of the E. faecalis strains tested possessed multiple determinants (between 6 and 11). E. faecium strains were generally free of virulence determinants, with notable exceptions. Significantly, esp and gelE determinants were identified in E. faecium medical strains. These virulence determinants have not previously been identified in E. faecium strains and may result from regional differences or the evolution of pathogenic E. faecium. Phenotypic testing revealed the existence of apparently silent gelE and cyl genes. In E. faecalis, the trend in these silent genes mirrors that of the expressed determinants. The potential for starter strains to acquire virulence determinants by natural conjugation mechanisms was investigated. Transconjugation in which starter strains acquired additional virulence determinants from medical strains was demonstrated. In addition, multiple pheromone-encoding genes were identified in both food and starter strains, indicating their potential to acquire other sex pheromone plasmids. These results suggest that the use of Enterococcus spp. in foods requires careful safety evaluation. PMID:11282615

  13. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with specific DNA probes offers adequate detection of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium in clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Waar, Karola; Degener, John E; van Luyn, Marja J; Harmsen, Hermie J M

    2005-10-01

    Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are among the leading causes of hospital-acquired infections. Reliable and quick identification of E. faecalis and E. faecium is important for accurate treatment and understanding their role in the pathogenesis of infections. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of whole bacterial cells with oligonucleotides targeted at the 16S rRNA molecule leads to a reduced time to identification. In clinical practice, FISH therefore can be used in situations in which quick identification is necessary for optimal treatment of the patient. Furthermore, the abundance, spatial distribution and bacterial cell morphology can be observed in situ. This report describes the design of two fluorescent-labelled oligonucleotides that, respectively, detect the 16S rRNA of E. faecalis and the 16S rRNA of E. faecium, Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus mundtii, Enterococcus villorum and Enterococcus saccharolyticus. Different protocols for the application of these oligonucleotides with FISH in different clinical samples such as faeces or blood cultures are given. Enterococci in a biofilm attached to a biomaterial were also visualized. Embedding of the biomaterial preserved the morphology and therefore the architecture of the biofilm could be observed. The usefulness of other studies describing FISH for detection of enterococci is generally hampered by the fact that they have only focused on one material and one protocol to detect the enterococci. However, the results of this study show that the probes can be used both in the routine laboratory to detect and determine the enterococcal species in different clinical samples and in a research setting to enumerate and detect the enterococci in their physical environment.

  14. Enterococcus faecalis as multidrug resistance strains in clinical isolates in Imam Reza Hospital in Kermanshah, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, F; Ghafourian, S; Mohebi, R; Taherikalani, M; Pakzad, I; Valadbeigi, H; Hatami, V; Sadeghifard, N

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in E. faecalis and E. faecium and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, then dominant genes responsible for vancomycin resistance were determined. For this propose, 180 clinical isolates of Enterococcus were subjected for identification and antibiotic susceptibility assay. Then, the gene responsible vancomycin resistant strains were determined. The results demonstrated the E. faecalis as a dominant Enterococcus. Resistance to erythromycin was dominant and multidrug resistance strains observed in E. faecalis. vanA was responsible for vancomycin resistance. In conclusion, a high rate of resistance to antibiotics in Enterococcus is clearly problematic, and a novel strategy is needed to decrease resistance in Enterococcus.

  15. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus strains isolated from poultry.

    PubMed

    Stępień-Pyśniak, Dagmara; Marek, Agnieszka; Banach, Tomasz; Adaszek, Łukasz; Pyzik, Ewelina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Winiarczyk, Stanisław

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of occurrence of bacteria of the genus Enterococcus in poultry, to identify them by means of matrixassisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDITOF MS), and to analyse the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolated strains to the drugs most frequently used in poultry. The material for the bacteriological tests was obtained mainly from the heart (97%) of the birds investigated. Of a total of 2,970 samples tested, 911 (30.7%) tested positive for Enterococcus spp. Enterococci were detected in broilers (88.1%), laying hens (5.3%), turkeys (3.9%), breeding hens (2.2%), and geese (0.4%). The most commonly identified species were Enterococcus (E.) faecalis (74.7%), E. faecium (10.1%), E. gallinarum (5.5%), E. hirae (4.6%), and E. cecorum (4.1%). The most frequent resistance properties were resistance to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (88%), tylosin (71.4%), enrofloxacin (69.4%), doxycycline (67.3%), and lincomycin/spectinomycin (56.1%). Only one vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, E. cecorum from a broiler, was found. PMID:27342087

  16. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus strains isolated from poultry.

    PubMed

    Stępień-Pyśniak, Dagmara; Marek, Agnieszka; Banach, Tomasz; Adaszek, Łukasz; Pyzik, Ewelina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Winiarczyk, Stanisław

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of occurrence of bacteria of the genus Enterococcus in poultry, to identify them by means of matrixassisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDITOF MS), and to analyse the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolated strains to the drugs most frequently used in poultry. The material for the bacteriological tests was obtained mainly from the heart (97%) of the birds investigated. Of a total of 2,970 samples tested, 911 (30.7%) tested positive for Enterococcus spp. Enterococci were detected in broilers (88.1%), laying hens (5.3%), turkeys (3.9%), breeding hens (2.2%), and geese (0.4%). The most commonly identified species were Enterococcus (E.) faecalis (74.7%), E. faecium (10.1%), E. gallinarum (5.5%), E. hirae (4.6%), and E. cecorum (4.1%). The most frequent resistance properties were resistance to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (88%), tylosin (71.4%), enrofloxacin (69.4%), doxycycline (67.3%), and lincomycin/spectinomycin (56.1%). Only one vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, E. cecorum from a broiler, was found.

  17. An antimicrobial peptidoglycan hydrolase for treating Enterococcus faecalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enterococcus faecalis is an intestinal bacteria species that can become an opportunistic pathogen in humans and farm animals with antibiotic resistant strains becoming increasingly common. In farm animals, strong antimicrobials, such as Vancomycin, should not be used due to the risk of propagation ...

  18. Global transcriptional analysis of the stringent response in Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Gaca, Anthony O.; Abranches, Jacqueline; Kajfasz, Jessica K.

    2012-01-01

    In Enterococcus faecalis, production of guanosine tetraphosphate/guanosine pentaphosphate [(p)ppGpp], the effector molecule of the stringent response, is controlled by the bifunctional synthetase/hydrolase RelA and the monofunctional synthetase RelQ. Previously, the (p)ppGpp profiles of strains lacking relA, relQ or both genes indicated that RelA is the primary enzyme responsible for (p)ppGpp synthesis under stress conditions, while the contributions of RelQ to the stringent response and cell homeostasis remained elusive. Here, survival within the mouse-derived macrophage cell line J774A.1 and killing of Galleria mellonella supported initial evidence that virulence was attenuated in the (p)ppGpp0 ΔrelAΔrelQ strain but not in the ΔrelA or ΔrelQ strains. We performed, for the first time to our knowledge, global transcriptome analysis in a documented (p)ppGpp0 Gram-positive bacterium and provided the first insights into the role of a Gram-positive monofunctional (p)ppGpp synthetase in transcriptional regulation. Transcription profiling after mupirocin treatment confirmed that RelA is the major enzyme responsible for the (p)ppGpp-mediated transcriptional repression of genes associated with macromolecular biosynthesis, but also revealed that RelQ is required for full and timely stringent response induction. The delayed transcriptional response of ΔrelQ could not be correlated with reduced or slower production of (p)ppGpp, in part because RelA-dependent (p)ppGpp accumulation occurred very rapidly. Comparisons of the transcriptional responses of ΔrelA or ΔrelAΔrelQ strains with the parent strain under starvation conditions revealed upregulation of operons involved in energy metabolism in the (p)ppGpp0 strain. Thus, while ΔrelA and ΔrelAΔrelQ cannot use (p)ppGpp to sense and respond to stresses, fitness of ΔrelAΔrelQ may be further impaired due to an unbalanced metabolism. PMID:22653948

  19. Outbreak of vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecium containing the wild-type vanA gene.

    PubMed

    Szakacs, Tom A; Kalan, Lindsay; McConnell, Michael J; Eshaghi, Alireza; Shahinas, Dea; McGeer, Allison; Wright, Gerry D; Low, Donald E; Patel, Samir N

    2014-05-01

    Accurate detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is essential in preventing transmission in health care settings. Chromogenic media are widely used for screening VRE because of fast turnaround times (TAT) and high sensitivity. We report an outbreak of Enterococcus faecium bearing vanA yet susceptible to vancomycin (vancomycin-variable Enterococcus [VVE]). Between October 2009 to March 2011, clinical and screening specimens (n=14,747) were screened for VRE using VRE-selective medium and/or PCR. VVE isolates were genotyped to determine relatedness. Plasmids from these isolates were characterized by sequencing. Overall, 52 VVE isolates were identified, comprising 15% of all VRE isolates identified. Isolates demonstrated growth on Brilliance VRE agar (Oxoid) at 24 h of incubation but did not grow on brain heart infusion agar with 6 μg/ml vancomycin (Oxoid) or bile esculin azide agar with 6 μg/ml vancomycin (Oxoid) and were susceptible to vancomycin. Genotyping of 20 randomly selected VVE isolates revealed that 15/20 were identical, while 5 were highly related. PCR of the VVE transposon confirmed the presence of vanHAXY gene cluster; however, vanS (sensor) and vanR (regulator) genes were absent. The outbreak was controlled through routine infection control measures. We report an emergence of a fit strain of E. faecium containing vanA yet susceptible to vancomycin. Whether this new strain represents VRE has yet to be determined; however, unique testing procedures are required for reliable identification of VVE. PMID:24523464

  20. Synergistic Antibacterial Effect of the Combination of ε-Polylysine and Nisin against Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Liu, Mei; Du, Lihui; Wang, Daoying; Geng, Zhiming; Zhang, Muhan; Sun, Chong; Xu, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Yongzhi; Xu, Weimin

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the antibacterial effect of the combination of ε-polylysine (ε-PL) and nisin against Enterococcus faecalis strains. The combination of ε-PL and nisin showed synergistic antibacterial activity against three Enterococcus strains. Scanning electron microscopy and a membrane permeability assay revealed that the combined treatment with ε-PL and nisin synergistically damaged the cell morphology of E. faecalis strain R612Z1 cells. Both ε-PL and nisin can dissipate the transmembrane electric potential of E. faecalis R612Z1 cells, but these peptides did not affect the transmembrane pH gradient. The combination of ε-PL and nisin can produce a high reactive oxygen species level in E. faecalis R612Z1 cells. The results indicated that the uptake of ε-PL into cells was promoted through nisin and that the combination of ε-PL and nisin could produce a high reactive oxygen species level in E. faecalis R612Z1 cells, leading to cell growth inhibition.

  1. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiles of Enterococcus spp. isolated from horses in korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Ho; Chung, Yeon Soo; Park, Young Kyung; Yang, Soo-Jin; Lim, Suk Kyung; Park, Yong Ho; Park, Kun Taek

    2016-10-01

    Antimicrobial-resistant (AR) enterococci have emerged as leading nosocomial pathogens. Transmission of AR Enterococci from animals to humans has been demonstrated. However, there is limited information on the transmission of enterococci from horses to humans. To address this issue, we characterized 260 enterococci isolated from horse-associated samples in Korea in 2013 based on their AR profiles and virulence traits. AR profiling revealed an average ratio of AR enterococci of 23.8%. Seven isolates (2.7%) were multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecalis. Most tetracycline-resistant enterococci harbored either tetM or tetL or both genes; genes conferring resistance to other antimicrobials were detected at low rates. Biofilm formation and gelatinase activity were observed in 51.1% and 47.7% of isolates, respectively; most were E. faecalis harboring the gelE gene. Evidence of transmission of AR enterococci between horses and their environments was provided by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and highlights the risk of AR enterococcus transmission to horse riders and handlers through close contact. PMID:27638114

  2. Effect of Nanosilver Gel, Chlorhexidine Gluconate, and Camphorated Phenol on Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm.

    PubMed

    Bo, Dong; Kayombo, Cecilia Marcellino

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To assess the effectiveness of nanosilver gel (NSG) in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and camphorated phenol (CP) against Enterococcus faecalis (E.f) biofilm. Methods and Materials. Two tests were done, methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis, to determine the effectiveness of NSG, CHX, and CP on E.f biofilm. Polystyrene microtiter 96- and 6-well plates were used for MTT and CLSM, respectively. Nanosilver gel was in three concentrations (0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2%), chlorhexidine gluconate used was 2%, and camphorated phenol and normal saline were as control. Analysis was done using one-way ANOVA; the post hoc test was run for multiple comparisons. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. One-way ANOVA showed significant differences among groups (0.05% NSG and CP, 0.1% NSG and CP, 0.2% NSG and CP, 0.1% NSG and 2% CHX, 0.2% and NSG and 2% CHX) (P < 0.001) and also showed significant difference between groups (P < 0.001), f-ratio 87.823. A post hoc Tukey's test revealed no significant difference between chlorhexidine gluconate and 0.05% nanosilver gel (P > 0.05). Conclusions. 0.1% and 0.2% nanosilver gel is more effective on Enterococcus faecalis biofilm as compared to chlorhexidine gluconate and camphorated phenol.

  3. Multilevel selection of bcrABDR-mediated bacitracin resistance in Enterococcus faecalis from chicken farms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mu-Ya; Lira, Felipe; Liang, Hua-Qing; Wu, Rui-Ting; Duan, Jia-Hong; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Martínez, José L.; Liu, Ya-Hong; Sun, Jian

    2016-01-01

    In this study we isolated 109 Enterococcus faecalis from chicken faecal samples in 6 provinces of China to investigate the prevalence and transmission mechanism of the bacitracin resistance locus bcrABDR in E. faecalis. Thirty-seven bcrABDR-positive E. faecalis were detected with 26 different PFGE clusters. The MLST of 14 positive strains belonged to ST16 and we also detected three new sequence types. S1-PFGE analysis indicated that the locus was located on plasmids presenting different sizes, with the most prevalent size being ~50 kb (13/37). Sequence analysis revealed that 17 out of the 37 strains harbored a 5400-bp central region, in which locus bcrABDR was bracketed by two ISEnfa1 of the same orientation. Two types of bcrABDR alleles, differing in around 10% of their sequence were found. In silico analysis showed that bcrABDR is present in a variety of bacteria including the chicken commensal Enterococcus cecorum. Our results indicate that the use of bacitracin at farms might trigger the emergence and spread of the bacitracin resistance determinant bcrABDR among human bacterial pathogens. The finding of bcrABDR in the chicken commensal E. cecorum indicates that farm animals microbiota can be an important reservoir of resistance genes with relevance for human health. PMID:27731342

  4. Investigation of mechanism and molecular epidemiology of linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecalis in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lipeng; He, Yunyan; Xia, Yun; Wang, Huijuan; Liang, Shumei

    2014-08-01

    Enterococcus is a major cause of important nosocomial infections. Linezolid, the first member of an entirely new class of antibiotics (oxazolidinones), is effective against serious infections caused by Enterococcus. However, resistance to linezolid has been discovered throughout the world rapidly. From 2011 to 2013, nine linezolid-resistant E. faecalis isolates were collected and the possible mechanisms of linezolid resistance, including mutations in domain V of 23S rRNA genes and in ribosomal proteins L3 and L4, and the multiresistance gene cfr, were investigated. Furthermore, an epidemiological survey of the nine linezolid-resistant E. faecalis isolates was performed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and DiversiLab. The three methods were compared to evaluate their merits and demerits, respectively. We failed to find the resistance mechanisms that have been revealed in recent years by PCR and sequencing analysis in the linezolid-resistant E. faecalis. Epidemiological investigation suggested that a small-scale outbreak of linezolid-resistant E. faecalis emerged in neurosurgery ICU from March to May of 2013. DiversiLab was a reliable typing tool and a suitable alternative to PFGE because it was as discriminatory as PFGE and better than MLST.

  5. Growth condition-dependent cell surface proteome analysis of Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Sinnige, Jan C; de Been, Mark; Zhou, Miaomiao; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L; Top, Janetta

    2015-11-01

    The last 30 years Enterococcus faecium has become an important nosocomial pathogen in hospitals worldwide. The aim of this study was to obtain insight in the cell surface proteome of E. faecium when grown in laboratory and clinically relevant conditions. Enterococcus faecium E1162, a clinical blood stream isolate, was grown until mid-log phase in brain heart infusion medium (BHI) with, or without 0.02% bile salts, Tryptic Soy Broth with 1% glucose (TSBg) and urine, and its cell surface was "shaved" using immobilized trypsin. Peptides were identified using MS/MS. Mapping against the translated E1162 whole genome sequence identified 67 proteins that were differentially detected in different conditions. In urine, 14 proteins were significantly more and nine proteins less abundant relative to the other conditions. Growth in BHI-bile and TSBg, revealed four and six proteins, respectively, which were uniquely present in these conditions while two proteins were uniquely present in both conditions. Thus, proteolytic shaving of E. faecium cells identified differentially surface exposed proteins in different growth conditions. These proteins are of special interest as they provide more insight in the adaptive mechanisms and may serve as targets for the development of novel therapeutics against this multi-resistant emerging pathogen. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002497 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD002497).

  6. Outbreak of vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecium containing the wild-type vanA gene.

    PubMed

    Szakacs, Tom A; Kalan, Lindsay; McConnell, Michael J; Eshaghi, Alireza; Shahinas, Dea; McGeer, Allison; Wright, Gerry D; Low, Donald E; Patel, Samir N

    2014-05-01

    Accurate detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is essential in preventing transmission in health care settings. Chromogenic media are widely used for screening VRE because of fast turnaround times (TAT) and high sensitivity. We report an outbreak of Enterococcus faecium bearing vanA yet susceptible to vancomycin (vancomycin-variable Enterococcus [VVE]). Between October 2009 to March 2011, clinical and screening specimens (n=14,747) were screened for VRE using VRE-selective medium and/or PCR. VVE isolates were genotyped to determine relatedness. Plasmids from these isolates were characterized by sequencing. Overall, 52 VVE isolates were identified, comprising 15% of all VRE isolates identified. Isolates demonstrated growth on Brilliance VRE agar (Oxoid) at 24 h of incubation but did not grow on brain heart infusion agar with 6 μg/ml vancomycin (Oxoid) or bile esculin azide agar with 6 μg/ml vancomycin (Oxoid) and were susceptible to vancomycin. Genotyping of 20 randomly selected VVE isolates revealed that 15/20 were identical, while 5 were highly related. PCR of the VVE transposon confirmed the presence of vanHAXY gene cluster; however, vanS (sensor) and vanR (regulator) genes were absent. The outbreak was controlled through routine infection control measures. We report an emergence of a fit strain of E. faecium containing vanA yet susceptible to vancomycin. Whether this new strain represents VRE has yet to be determined; however, unique testing procedures are required for reliable identification of VVE.

  7. High Frequency of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Faecalis in an Iranian Referral Children Medical Hospital

    PubMed Central

    POURAKBARI, Babak; AGHDAM, Mojtaba Kamali; MAHMOUDI, Shima; ASHTIANI, Mohammad Taghi Haghi; SABOUNI, Farah; MOVAHEDI, Zahra; ALYARI, Amir Esmael; SADEGHI, Reihane Hosseinpour; MAMISHI, Setareh

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Enterococci have emerged in recent years as important nosocomial pathogens. Although most enterococcal human infections are caused by Enterococcus faecalis, studies on vancomycin resistance are usually limited to Enterococcus faecium isolates and a little is known about E. faecalis. Therefore we undertook this study to obtain information about the prevalence of vancomycin -resistant E. faecalis (VREF) and genes responsible for resistance. Material and methods: Ninety-one E. faecalis isolates of different patients admitted at Children's Medical Center from August 2009 to June 2010 were included in this cross-sectional study. Antimicrobial testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to Clinical Laboratories Standards Institute (CLSI). Results: Among all isolates, 15 (16%) were identified as VR E. faecalis. PCR analysis revealed that all VREF isolates were positive for the vanA gene. Conclusion: The present study reports the highest range of VREF in Iran. The increased frequency of VREF, as seen with rapid rise in the number of VanA isolates should be considered in infection control practices. PMID:23400108

  8. Molecular basis and transferability of tetracycline resistance in Enterococcus italicus LMG 22195 from fermented milk.

    PubMed

    Zago, Miriam; Huys, Geert; Giraffa, Giorgio

    2010-08-15

    A tetracycline-resistant Enterococcus italicus strain from fermented milk, LMG 22195, was found to contain a tet(S) gene located on a plasmid of approximately 20kb. Filter mating demonstrated that the tet(S) gene was transferable from LMG 22195 to the recipient Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2. PCR-based detection and Southern blot experiments revealed that the confirmed transconjugants acquired the tet(S)-carrying plasmid. Similar to the donor strain, transconjugants displayed a tetracycline MIC of 64 microg/ml. Results of this study suggest that E. italicus, like other enterococcal species, is able to disseminate antibiotic-resistance genes, although a more definitive proof on this statement will be provided when a higher number of strains will be tested. Because of the recent isolation of E. italicus from human clinical specimens and its concomitant presence in various dairy products, the ability of this organism to horizontally transfer tet(S) or other resistance genes may potentially pose safety concerns, especially for its possible use in food fermentations. PMID:20580457

  9. Synergistic Antibacterial Effect of the Combination of ε-Polylysine and Nisin against Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Liu, Mei; Du, Lihui; Wang, Daoying; Geng, Zhiming; Zhang, Muhan; Sun, Chong; Xu, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Yongzhi; Xu, Weimin

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the antibacterial effect of the combination of ε-polylysine (ε-PL) and nisin against Enterococcus faecalis strains. The combination of ε-PL and nisin showed synergistic antibacterial activity against three Enterococcus strains. Scanning electron microscopy and a membrane permeability assay revealed that the combined treatment with ε-PL and nisin synergistically damaged the cell morphology of E. faecalis strain R612Z1 cells. Both ε-PL and nisin can dissipate the transmembrane electric potential of E. faecalis R612Z1 cells, but these peptides did not affect the transmembrane pH gradient. The combination of ε-PL and nisin can produce a high reactive oxygen species level in E. faecalis R612Z1 cells. The results indicated that the uptake of ε-PL into cells was promoted through nisin and that the combination of ε-PL and nisin could produce a high reactive oxygen species level in E. faecalis R612Z1 cells, leading to cell growth inhibition. PMID:26613915

  10. Comparison between automated system and PCR-based method for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of clinical Enterococcus spp.

    PubMed

    Furlaneto-Maia, Luciana; Rocha, Kátia Real; Siqueira, Vera Lúcia Dias; Furlaneto, Márcia Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Enterococci are increasingly responsible for nosocomial infections worldwide. This study was undertaken to compare the identification and susceptibility profile using an automated MicrosScan system, PCR-based assay and disk diffusion assay of Enterococcus spp. We evaluated 30 clinical isolates of Enterococcus spp. Isolates were identified by MicrosScan system and PCR-based assay. The detection of antibiotic resistance genes (vancomycin, gentamicin, tetracycline and erythromycin) was also determined by PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibilities to vancomycin (30 µg), gentamicin (120 µg), tetracycline (30 µg) and erythromycin (15 µg) were tested by the automated system and disk diffusion method, and were interpreted according to the criteria recommended in CLSI guidelines. Concerning Enterococcus identification the general agreement between data obtained by the PCR method and by the automatic system was 90.0% (27/30). For all isolates of E. faecium and E. faecalis we observed 100% agreement. Resistance frequencies were higher in E. faecium than E. faecalis. The resistance rates obtained were higher for erythromycin (86.7%), vancomycin (80.0%), tetracycline (43.35) and gentamicin (33.3%). The correlation between disk diffusion and automation revealed an agreement for the majority of the antibiotics with category agreement rates of > 80%. The PCR-based assay, the van(A) gene was detected in 100% of vancomycin resistant enterococci. This assay is simple to conduct and reliable in the identification of clinically relevant enterococci. The data obtained reinforced the need for an improvement of the automated system to identify some enterococci.

  11. Review of virulence factors of enterococcus: an emerging nosocomial pathogen.

    PubMed

    Giridhara Upadhyaya, P M; Ravikumar, K L; Umapathy, B L

    2009-01-01

    Enterococcus, considered a normal commensal of intestinal tract, is fast emerging as a pathogen causing serious and life threatening hospital borne infections. This is attributed to acquisition of multi drug resistance and virulence factors of the organisms. The sequencing of Enterococcus faecalis has given a lot of insight into its genetic makeup. The E. faecalis strain V583, which has been sequenced, contains a total of 3182 open reading frames (ORFs) with 1760 of these showing similarity to known proteins and 221 of unknown functions. Strikingly unique to this genome is the fact that over 25% of the genome is made up of mobile and exogenously acquired DNA which includes a number of conjugative and composite transposons, a pathogenicity island, integrated plasmid genes and phage regions, and a high number of insertion sequence (IS) elements. This review addresses the genomic arrangement and the study of virulence factors that have occurred since the sequencing of the genome. PMID:19736397

  12. Risk factors for elevated Enterococcus concentrations in a rural tropical island watershed.

    PubMed

    Ragosta, Guy; Evensen, Carl; Atwill, E R; Walker, Mark; Ticktin, Tamara; Asquith, Adam; Tate, Kenneth W

    2011-08-01

    Associations were examined between riparian canopy cover, presence of cattle near streams, and month of year with the concentration of Enterococcus (Most Probable Number (MPN)/100 ml) in surface water at Waipā watershed on the North Side of the Hawaiian island Kaua'i. Each one percent decrease in riparian canopy cover was associated with a 3.6 MPN/100 ml increase of waterborne Enterococcus. Presence of cattle near monitoring sites was associated with an increase of 99.3 MPN/100 ml of Enterococcus in individual grab samples. Lastly, summer samples (July) were substantially higher in concentration of Enterococcus than winter collected samples (February) in Enterococcus in sampled streams. These results suggest that reducing canopy cover and introduction of cattle into riparian zones may contribute to increases of Enterococcus concentrations in stream water.

  13. Eight-year Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance among Enterococcus Spp. Isolated in the First Bethune Hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiancheng; Wang, Liqiang; Wang, Kai; Zhou, Qi

    This study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. isolated in 8 consecutive years in the First Bethune Hospital. Disk diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5 software according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Most of 1446 strains of Enterococcus spp. were collected from urine 640 (44.3%), sputum 315 (21.8%), secretions and pus 265 (18.3%) during the past 8 years. The rates of high-level aminoglycoside resistance in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were 57.4%∼75.9% and 69.0%∼93.8% during the past 8 years, respectively. No Enterococcus spp. was resistant to vancomycin. The antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. had increased in recent 8 years. The change of the antimicrobial resistance should be investigated in order to direct rational drug usage in the clinic and prevent bacterial strain of drug resistance from being transmitted.

  14. Enterococcus gallinarum meningitis in an immunocompetent host: a case report.

    PubMed

    Antonello, Vicente Sperb; Zenkner, Francis de Moura; França, Josiane; Santos, Breno Riegel

    2010-01-01

    We describe a rare case of a 53-year-old man with a long history of alcohol abuse, with Enterococcus gallinarum meningitis, an organism that rarely causes human infection and is primarily found in the gastrointestinal tract of poultry. The patient improved with high-dose ampicillin and gentamicin therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first Brazilian reported case of E. gallinarum meningitis and probably the first case described in an immunocompetent host. PMID:20464133

  15. Cloning of an Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis antigen: homology with adhesins from some oral streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, A M; Lambert, P A; Smith, A W

    1995-01-01

    Serum from a patient with Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis was used to identify the gene efaA cloned in Lambda ZapII in Escherichia coli. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed a 924-bp open reading frame encoding a protein with a predicted molecular weight of 34,768. The amino acid sequence of EfaA shows 55 to 60% homology to a group of streptococcal proteins, FimA from Streptococcus parasanguis, SsaB from Streptococcus sanguis, ScaA from Streptococcus gordonii, and PsaA from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Members of this group have been shown to be adhesins, and we hypothesize that EfaA may function as an adhesin in endocarditis. PMID:7822045

  16. Enterococcus rivorum sp. nov., from water of pristine brooks.

    PubMed

    Niemi, R Maarit; Ollinkangas, Tuula; Paulin, Lars; Svec, Pavel; Vandamme, Peter; Karkman, Antti; Kosina, Marcel; Lindström, Kristina

    2012-09-01

    A significant number of Enterococcus strains from pristine waters of two brooks in Finland formed a distinct cluster on the basis of whole-cell protein fingerprinting by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE. The strains shared the following characteristics. Cells were ovoid, Gram-positive-staining and non-spore-forming, appearing singly or in pairs or chains. They were facultatively anaerobic and catalase-negative. Growth in broth containing 6.5 % NaCl or at 45 °C was weak or absent. Production of D antigen was variable. The strains tolerated 60 °C for 30 min, 40 % bile and tellurite, hydrolysed aesculin strongly and gelatin weakly, produced no acid from hippurate and did not reduce it, grew weakly at 10 °C, showed a strong reaction for the Voges-Proskauer test and produced acid from methyl α-d-glucoside, mannitol, sorbitol and sucrose, with weak or no production of acid from methyl α-d-mannoside, l-arabinose, gluconate and l-xylose. Several of the strains were selected for identification on the basis of sequencing of almost the whole 16S rRNA gene and partial atpA and pheS genes and of (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprints. Partial atpA and pheS gene sequencing was also performed for those type strains of Enterococcus species without available sequences in the database. The pristine brook isolates formed a novel species, for which the name Enterococcus rivorum sp. nov. (type strain S299(T) = HAMBI 3055(T) = LMG 25899(T) = CCM 7986(T)) is proposed. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, E. rivorum sp. nov. is related to the Enterococcus faecalis genogoup. It is distinguished from described Enterococcus species on the basis of 16S rRNA, atpA and pheS gene sequences and whole-cell protein and (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprints. It is most closely related to E. faecalis, but DNA-DNA hybridization confirms it to represent a novel species.

  17. Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis are able to incorporate and enhance a pre-formed Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm.

    PubMed

    Castro, Joana; Machado, Daniela; Cerca, Nuno

    2016-04-01

    Gardnerella vaginalis is the most frequent microorganism found in bacterial vaginosis (BV), while Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis are amongst the most frequent pathogens found in urinary tract infections (UTIs). This study aimed to evaluate possible interactions between UTIs pathogens and G. vaginalis using an in vitro dual-species biofilm model. Our results showed that dual-species biofilms reached significantly higher bacterial concentration than monospecies biofilms. Moreover, visualization of dual-populations species in the biofilms, using the epifluorescence microscopy, revealed that all of the urogenital pathogens coexisted with G. vaginalis. In conclusion, our work demonstrates that uropathogens can incorporate into mature BV biofilms. PMID:26782142

  18. Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis are able to incorporate and enhance a pre-formed Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm.

    PubMed

    Castro, Joana; Machado, Daniela; Cerca, Nuno

    2016-04-01

    Gardnerella vaginalis is the most frequent microorganism found in bacterial vaginosis (BV), while Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis are amongst the most frequent pathogens found in urinary tract infections (UTIs). This study aimed to evaluate possible interactions between UTIs pathogens and G. vaginalis using an in vitro dual-species biofilm model. Our results showed that dual-species biofilms reached significantly higher bacterial concentration than monospecies biofilms. Moreover, visualization of dual-populations species in the biofilms, using the epifluorescence microscopy, revealed that all of the urogenital pathogens coexisted with G. vaginalis. In conclusion, our work demonstrates that uropathogens can incorporate into mature BV biofilms.

  19. Role of house flies in the ecology of Enterococcus faecalis from wastewater treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Doud, C W; Scott, H M; Zurek, L

    2014-02-01

    Enterococci are important nosocomial pathogens, with Enterococcus faecalis most commonly responsible for human infections. In this study, we used several measures to test the hypothesis that house flies, Musca domestica (L.), acquire and disseminate antibiotic-resistant and potentially virulent E. faecalis from wastewater treatment facilities (WWTF) to the surrounding urban environment. House flies and sludge from four WWTF (1-4) as well as house flies from three urban sites close to WWTF-1 were collected and cultured for enterococci. Enterococci were identified, quantified, screened for antibiotic resistance and virulence traits, and assessed for clonality. Of the 11 antibiotics tested, E. faecalis was most commonly resistant to tetracycline, doxycycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, and erythromycin, and these traits were intra-species horizontally transferrable by in vitro conjugation. Profiles of E. faecalis (prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and virulence traits) from each of WWTF sludge and associated house flies were similar, indicating that flies successfully acquired these bacteria from this substrate. The greatest number of E. faecalis with antibiotic resistance and virulence factors (i.e., gelatinase, cytolysin, enterococcus surface protein, and aggregation substance) originated from WWTF-1 that processed meat waste from a nearby commercial meat-processing plant, suggesting an agricultural rather than human clinical source of these isolates. E. faecalis from house flies collected from three sites 0.7-1.5 km away from WWTF-1 were also similar in their antibiotic resistance profiles; however, antibiotic resistance was significantly less frequent. Clonal diversity assessment using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed the same clones of E. faecalis from sludge and house flies from WWTF-1 but not from the three urban sites close to WWTF-1. This study demonstrates that house flies acquire antibiotic-resistant enterococci from WWTF and potentially

  20. Role of house flies in the ecology of Enterococcus faecalis from wastewater treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Doud, C W; Scott, H M; Zurek, L

    2014-02-01

    Enterococci are important nosocomial pathogens, with Enterococcus faecalis most commonly responsible for human infections. In this study, we used several measures to test the hypothesis that house flies, Musca domestica (L.), acquire and disseminate antibiotic-resistant and potentially virulent E. faecalis from wastewater treatment facilities (WWTF) to the surrounding urban environment. House flies and sludge from four WWTF (1-4) as well as house flies from three urban sites close to WWTF-1 were collected and cultured for enterococci. Enterococci were identified, quantified, screened for antibiotic resistance and virulence traits, and assessed for clonality. Of the 11 antibiotics tested, E. faecalis was most commonly resistant to tetracycline, doxycycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, and erythromycin, and these traits were intra-species horizontally transferrable by in vitro conjugation. Profiles of E. faecalis (prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and virulence traits) from each of WWTF sludge and associated house flies were similar, indicating that flies successfully acquired these bacteria from this substrate. The greatest number of E. faecalis with antibiotic resistance and virulence factors (i.e., gelatinase, cytolysin, enterococcus surface protein, and aggregation substance) originated from WWTF-1 that processed meat waste from a nearby commercial meat-processing plant, suggesting an agricultural rather than human clinical source of these isolates. E. faecalis from house flies collected from three sites 0.7-1.5 km away from WWTF-1 were also similar in their antibiotic resistance profiles; however, antibiotic resistance was significantly less frequent. Clonal diversity assessment using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed the same clones of E. faecalis from sludge and house flies from WWTF-1 but not from the three urban sites close to WWTF-1. This study demonstrates that house flies acquire antibiotic-resistant enterococci from WWTF and potentially

  1. Enterococcus asini sp. nov. isolated from the caecum of donkeys (Equus asinus).

    PubMed

    de Vaux, A; Laguerre, G; Diviès, C; Prévost, H

    1998-04-01

    Several Gram-positive, non-spore-forming and non-motile bacteria consisting of pairs or chains of cocci were isolated during an investigation of the bacterial flora of the caecum of donkeys. Physiological and metabolic data indicated that the strains belong to the genus Enterococcus; phenotypic traits of these organisms were not consistent with any of the currently known Enterococcus species. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed these strains in the genus Enterococcus. Their closest relatives are Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus pseudoavium with a sequence similarity of 97.4%. This group of strains can be differentiated from the other Enterococcus spp. by their phenotypic characteristics: strains do not grow in 6.5% NaCl; they do not produce acid from mannitol, sorbitol, sorbose, sucrose, raffinose, ribose and tagatose; they produce acid from D-xylose; they are able to utilize pyruvate; and they present a negative reaction on arginine. The name Enterococcus asini sp. nov. is proposed for these strains; the type strain is AS2T (= DSM 11492T).

  2. Genetic analysis of a novel plasmid encoded durancin locus in Enterococcus durans 41D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enterococcus durans is commonly found in the intestinal tract in humans and animals and several strains are known to produce bacteriocins. Durancin GL, a novel bacteriocin of Enterococcus durans 41D with antilisterial activity was isolated from artisanal cheese samples and its genetic determinants ...

  3. Comparison of the effect of monolaurin on the growth and survival of Enterococcus and Salmonella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of monolaurin, a glyceride ester derivative of lauric acid, on the growth of Enterococcus sp. and Salmonella sp. was determined. Salmonella is considered one of the main pathogens in poultry industry, and Enterococcus is an important indicator of fecal contamination and an important cause...

  4. Bioprosthetic Aortic Valve Endocarditis in Association with Enterococcus durans

    PubMed Central

    Di Gioacchino, Lorena; Balestrini, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Enterococci are common organisms associated with endocarditis, but infection by Enterococcus durans is very rare. To our knowledge, only 3 cases have been reported in the medical literature, and all 3 have involved native valves. Here we publish the first reported case (to our knowledge) of E. durans endocarditis in association with a bioprosthetic aortic valve. After the organism and its antibiotic susceptibility were identified, the 74-year-old male patient was treated successfully with teicoplanin and gentamicin, over a course of 6 weeks. PMID:27127436

  5. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, S; Pandey, A; Asthana, A K; Chauhan, K; Madan, M

    2014-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), especially Enterococcus faecium has emerged as an important nososcomial pathogen and represents a serious threat to patients with impaired host defense. Early detection of patients colonised or infected with VRE is an essential component of any hospital program designed to prevent nosocomial transmission of this organism. The authors report two cases of VRE isolated from blood and surgical site pus of two neonates admitted in the same neonatal unit, highlighting that early detection, prompt and appropriate infection control measures were keys to successful containment of this dreaded pathogen.

  6. Draft genome sequence of Enterococcus faecium strain LMG 8148.

    PubMed

    Michiels, Joran E; Van den Bergh, Bram; Fauvart, Maarten; Michiels, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium, traditionally considered a harmless gut commensal, is emerging as an important nosocomial pathogen showing increasing rates of multidrug resistance. We report the draft genome sequence of E. faecium strain LMG 8148, isolated in 1968 from a human in Gothenburg, Sweden. The draft genome has a total length of 2,697,490 bp, a GC-content of 38.3 %, and 2,402 predicted protein-coding sequences. The isolation of this strain predates the emergence of E. faecium as a nosocomial pathogen. Consequently, its genome can be useful in comparative genomic studies investigating the evolution of E. faecium as a pathogen. PMID:27610213

  7. Erythromycin- and copper-resistant Enterococcus hirae from marine sediment and co-transfer of erm(B) and tcrB to human Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Pasquaroli, Sonia; Di Cesare, Andrea; Vignaroli, Carla; Conti, Giulia; Citterio, Barbara; Biavasco, Francesca

    2014-09-01

    An erythromycin-, copper- and cadmium-resistant isolate of Enterococcus hirae from marine sediment was shown to harbor the plasmid pRE25 and to co-transfer erm(B) and tcrB to Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2. These data highlight the scope for antibiotic resistance selection by the marine environment through heavy metals and its possible involvement in antibiotic-resistant enterococcal infections.

  8. Genetic variability of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis isolates from humans, chickens, and pigs in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Getachew, Yitbarek; Hassan, Latiffah; Zakaria, Zunita; Abdul Aziz, Saleha

    2013-08-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have been reported to be present in humans, chickens, and pigs in Malaysia. In the present study, representative samples of VRE isolated from these populations were examined for similarities and differences by using the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method. Housekeeping genes of Enterococcus faecium (n = 14) and Enterococcus faecalis (n = 11) isolates were sequenced and analyzed using the MLST databases eBURST and goeBURST. We found five sequence types (STs) of E. faecium and six STs of E. faecalis existing in Malaysia. Enterococcus faecium isolates belonging to ST203, ST17, ST55, ST79, and ST29 were identified, and E. faecium ST203 was the most common among humans. The MLST profiles of E. faecium from humans in this study were similar to the globally reported nosocomial-related strain lineage belonging to clonal complex 17 (CC17). Isolates from chickens and pigs have few similarities to those from humans, except for one isolate from a chicken, which was identified as ST203. E. faecalis isolates were more diverse and were identified as ST4, ST6, ST87, ST108, ST274, and ST244, which were grouped as specific to the three hosts. E. faecalis, belonging to the high-risk CC2 and CC87, were detected among isolates from humans. In conclusion, even though one isolate from a chicken was found clonal to that of humans, the MLST analysis of E. faecium and E. faecalis supports the findings of others who suggest VRE to be predominantly host specific and that clinically important strains are found mainly among humans. The infrequent detection of a human VRE clone in a chicken may in fact suggest a reverse transmission of VRE from humans to animals.

  9. Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Enterococcus Species Isolated from Hospital and Domestic Wastewater Effluents in Alice, Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Iweriebor, Benson Chuks; Gaqavu, Sisipho; Obi, Larry Chikwelu; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms are on the increase worldwide and are responsible for substantial cases of therapeutic failures. Resistance of species of Enterococcus to antibiotics is linked to their ability to acquire and disseminate antimicrobial resistance determinants in nature, and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are considered to be one of the main reservoirs of such antibiotic resistant bacteria. We therefore determined the antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiles of some common Enterococcus spp that are known to be associated with human infections that were recovered from hospital wastewater and final effluent of the receiving wastewater treatment plant in Alice, Eastern Cape. Methods: Wastewater samples were simultaneously collected from two sites (Victoria hospital and final effluents of a municipal WWTP) in Alice at about one to two weeks interval during the months of July and August 2014. Samples were screened for the isolation of enterococci using standard microbiological methods. The isolates were profiled molecularly after targeted generic identification and speciation for the presence of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. Results: Out of 66 presumptive isolates, 62 were confirmed to belong to the Enterococcus genusof which 30 were identified to be E. faecalis and 15 E. durans. The remaining isolates were not identified by the primers used in the screening procedure. Out of the six virulence genes that were targeted only three of them; ace, efaA, and gelE were detected. There was a very high phenotypic multiple resistance among the isolates and these were confirmed by genetic analyses. Conclusions: Analyses of the results obtained indicated that hospital wastewater may be one of the sources of antibiotic resistant bacteria to the receiving WWTP. Also, findings revealed that the final effluent discharged into the environment was contaminated with multi-resistant enterococci species thus posing a health hazard

  10. Surotomycin demonstrates low in vitro frequency of resistance and rapid bactericidal activity in Clostridium difficile, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Mascio, Carmela T M; Chesnel, Laurent; Thorne, Grace; Silverman, Jared A

    2014-07-01

    Surotomycin (CB-183,315) is an orally administered, minimally absorbed, selective bactericidal cyclic lipopeptide in phase 3 development for the treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the emergence of resistance in C. difficile (ATCC 700057 and three recent clinical isolates from the restriction endonuclease analysis groups BI, BK, and K), vancomycin-susceptible (VS) Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 49452), vancomycin-resistant (VR) E. faecalis (ATCC 700802), VS Enterococcus faecium (ATCC 6569), and VR E. faecium (ATCC 51559) under anaerobic conditions. The rate of spontaneous resistance was below the limit of detection (<10(-8) to <10(-9)) for surotomycin at 16 and 32× the MIC for all isolates tested. Under selective pressure by serial passage, C. difficile grew in a maximum of 4 μg/ml surotomycin (final MICs of 2 to 8 μg/ml [4- to 16-fold higher than those of the naive control]) at day 15, with the exception of the C. difficile BK strain, which grew in 16 to 32 μg/ml (final MICs of 8 to 32 μg/ml [16- to 64-fold higher than those of the naive control]). Enterococci remained relatively unchanged over 15 days, growing in a maximum of 8 μg/ml surotomycin (final MICs of 2 to 16 μg/ml [8- to 64-fold higher than those of the naive control]). Of the isolates tested, no cross-resistance to vancomycin, rifampin, ampicillin, metronidazole, or moxifloxacin was observed. Surotomycin at 20× MIC demonstrated equally rapid bactericidal activity (≥ 3-log-unit reduction in CFU/ml in ≤ 8 h) against naive and reduced-susceptibility isolates of C. difficile, VS Enterococcus (VSE), and VR Enterococcus (VRE), except for C. difficile BK (2.6-log-unit reductions for both). These results suggest that emergence of resistance to surotomycin against C. difficile, E. faecalis, and E. faecium is likely to be rare.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterococcus strains isolated from poultry faeces.

    PubMed

    Tejedor-Junco, M T; Afonso-Rodríguez, O; Martín-Barrasa, J L; González-Martín, M

    2005-02-01

    We have investigated the resistance of Enterococcus isolated from poultry faeces to antibiotics commonly used as therapy of enterococcal infections. Identification was made by the method of Facklam and Collins. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin and teicoplanin were determined and high level aminoglycoside resistance was investigated. Genes codifying high level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) were determined by PCR. Fifty five Enterococcus strains were isolated (63.6% E. faecalis, 12.7% E. mundtii, 9.1% E. faecium, 7.3% E. casseliflavus, 3.7% E. durans and 3.6% E. hirae). None of the strains were resistant to VAN, TEC, P or AM. HLAR was found in 34.5% of strains for SM, 27.3% for KM and 7.3% for GM. The gene for the bifunctional enzyme was found only in one strain, that showed HLAR to GM and KM. Fourteen strains harboured the gene aph(3')-III, being 11 resistant to KM and STR, and three resistant to GM, KM and STR. The remaining six strains showed HLAR to STR, but were negative for the three genes tested by PCR. The gene ant(4'4") was not detected in any of the strains. No unexpected vancomycin resistance was detected. The resistance rates among poultry strains were lower than those found among human strains isolated from hospital patients in recent Canary studies.

  12. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by Enterococcus mundtii isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Bigwood, T; Hudson, J A; Cooney, J; McIntyre, L; Billington, C; Heinemann, J A; Wall, F

    2012-12-01

    Two bacterial isolates with inhibitory activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococcus faecalis were obtained from soil. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization identified them as Enterococcus mundtii, a species whose ability to compete with L. monocytogenes is relatively unexplored compared to other members of the genus. The thermal stability of the inhibitory factor and its sensitivity to proteolytic enzymes indicate that it is most likely a bacteriocin. Both isolates grew at comparable rates to L. monocytogenes at 5 °C and 10 °C in vitro. One isolate killed L. monocytogenes when it reached concentrations of 10(6)-10(8) CFU ml(-1). Minimum inocula of 10(6) and 10(5) CFU ml(-1) of E. mundtii were required to reduce and maintain L. monocytogenes concentrations beneath the level of detection at 5 °C and 10 °C, respectively. In situ experiments at 5 °C showed that E. mundtii inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes on vacuum-packed cold smoked salmon during its four week shelf life. E. mundtii could, therefore, control the growth of L. monocytogenes at low temperatures, indicating a potential application in controlling this pathogen in chilled foods. To control growth of Listeria, the concentration of E. mundtii needs to be high, but it is possible that a purified bacteriocin could be used to achieve the same effect.

  13. Antibiotic Resistance in Enterococcus faecalis Isolated from Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Balaei Gajan, Esrafil; Shirmohammadi, Adileh; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Alizadeh, Mohammad; Sighari Deljavan, Alireza; Ahmadpour, Farzin

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Enterococci are Gram-positive cocci that often occur in pairs (diplococci) or short chains. Be-side developing high level of antibiotic resistance, these bacteria can cause wide range of disease in human, thus to help provide an effective treatment for infections caused by this genus, this study was conceived to provide information on Enterococcus faecalis Antibiotic resistance to widely used antibiotics in hospitalized patients. Materials and methods Disk diffusion agar and Broth dilution methods were used to perform Antibiogram test on isolated Enterococcus faecalis. Culture medium used for Disk diffusion agar test was Muller Hinton agar, and for Broth dilution methods, Muller Hinton broth culture medium was utilized. In disk diffusion agar method, different commercial antibiotics disks produced by Pharmaceutical companies were used. Microsoft Excel software was used to perform statistical analysis. Results Based on antibiograms of 105 cases, a high resistance to Synercid, Nalidixic acid, Oxacillin and Teofilin was de-tected whereas the lowest resistance observed in Nitrofurantoin, Vancomycin, Linezolid and Teicoplanin antibiotics. Conclusion According to the results, Teicoplanin, Vancomycin, Linezolid and Nitrofurantoin are recommended against E. faecalis species. PMID:23875089

  14. Characterization of different food-isolated Enterococcus strains by MALDI-TOF mass fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Quintela-Baluja, Marcos; Böhme, Karola; Fernández-No, Inmaculada C; Morandi, Stefano; Alnakip, Mohammed E; Caamaño-Antelo, Sonia; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge; Calo-Mata, Pilar

    2013-08-01

    Enterococcus is a controversial genus due to its great variability; this genus includes pathogenic strains, spoilage strains, and apparently safe strains including some probiotic strains. Previous studies focused on the characterization of strains of Enterococcus spp. involved in nosocomial infections. However, little research has been conducted on Enterococcus strains in foodstuffs. In the present work, 36 strains of different species of Enterococcus have been characterized by means of MALDI-TOF MS, resulting in highly specific mass spectral fingerprints. Characteristic peak masses common to certain bacterial species of Enterococcus have been identified. Thus, a peak at m/z 4426 ± 1 was assigned as a genus-specific biomarker. In addition, phyloproteomic relationships based on the mass spectral data were compared to the results of a phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence. A better grouping at the species level was observed in the phyloproteomic tree, especially for the Enterococcus faecium group. Presumably, the assortment of some strains or ecotypes could be related to their ecological niche specialization. The approach described in this study leads the way toward the rapid and specific identification of different strains and species of Enterococcus in food based on molecular protein markers, aiming at the early detection of pathogenic strains and strains implicated in food poisoning or food spoilage.

  15. Enterococcus species composition determined by capillary electrophoresis of the groESL gene spacer region DNA.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, M; Paar, J; Doolittle, M; Brochi, J; Pancorbo, O C; Tang, R J; Stoner, R E; Shiaris, M P

    2010-07-01

    Marine recreational beaches are monitored for fecal contamination by Enterococcus spp. (ENT) counts. Although different ENT species in the environment tend to thrive in and originate from distinct hosts, the current monitoring method does not differentiate among species. Time-consuming isolation-based species identification precludes routine analysis of environmental ENT communities. Therefore, an isolation-independent DNA fingerprinting method was developed to characterize environmental ENT communities using DNA length polymorphism of the spacer region between the groES and groEL genes common to most ENT species. Capillary electrophoresis resulted in distinct peak sizes of PCR products that carried polymorphic groESL spacers (300-335 bp in length) among 8 different ENT species (Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus mundtii, Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus durans, and Enterococcus faecalis). Distortions in true species ratios observed in electropherograms were caused by PCR biases arising in a mixed ENT community DNA template. E. faecalis was overestimated and E. avium and E. faecium were underestimated compared to the original species ratios in the mixed community. The PCR product bias was constant between species, so good approximation of the species ratio in ENT communities is possible. In environmental samples, a high percentage of E. faecalis (96%) together with high total ENT counts were observed in samples collected from a sewer line and from several sites in a storm drain system where sewage leaks were suspected. In contrast, samples with <400 CFU 100 ml-1 ENT were either dominated by E. mundtii or had 4 or more ENT species. The latter ENT community profiles are considered to be signatures of enterococci rarely associated with animals with low or of non-fecal origin.

  16. Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and probiotic potential of Enterococcus hirae isolated from the rumen of Bos primigenius.

    PubMed

    Arokiyaraj, Selvaraj; Hairul Islam, Villianur Ibrahim; Bharanidharan, R; Raveendar, Sebastian; Lee, Jinwook; Kim, Do Hyung; Oh, Young Kyoon; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Kyoung Hoon

    2014-07-01

    In the present study bacterial strains were isolated from the rumen fluids of Bos primigenius and investigated their in vitro probiotic properties with potent antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory effects. 9 g positive bacterial isolates were obtained and three isolates could able to tolerate gastric conditions, high bile salt concentrations and exhibited significant bactericidal effect against the enteric pathogens Vibrio cholera, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter aerogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Moreover it showed above 70% cell surface hydrophobicity, significant low-invasion ability and potential adherence capacity in Caco-2 cells when compared with the control. The proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α) was greatly reduced in rumen bacteria treatment and ARBS-1 modulate the immune response by activating the IL-4 secretion in parallel to TNF-α suppression. The 16s rRNA gene sequence of the active isolates were identified as Enterococcus hirae (ARBS-1), Pediococcus acidilactici (ARBS-4) and Bacillus licheniformis (ARBS-7). This study revealed the probiotic bactericidal properties of E. hirae obtained from the rumen of B. primigenius with potential antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. Future studies with the strains may yield some novel probiotic product for livestock's.

  17. The first report of the vanC₁ gene in Enterococcus faecium isolated from a human clinical specimen.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingyue; Wang, Yue; Chen, Zhongju; Zhu, Xuhui; Tian, Lei; Sun, Ziyong

    2014-09-01

    The vanC₁ gene, which is chromosomally located, confers resistance to vancomycin and serves as a species marker for Enterococcus gallinarum. Enterococcus faecium TJ4031 was isolated from a blood culture and harbours the vanC₁gene. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were performed to detect vanXYc and vanTc genes. Only the vanXYc gene was found in the E. faecium TJ4031 isolate. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin and teicoplanin were 2 µg/mL and 1 µg/mL, respectively. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR results revealed that the vanC₁ and vanXYc genes were not expressed. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and southern hybridisation results showed that the vanC₁ gene was encoded in the chromosome. E. faecalis isolated from animals has been reported to harbour vanC₁gene. However, this study is the first to report the presence of the vanC₁gene in E. faecium of human origin. Additionally, our research showed the vanC₁gene cannot serve as a species-specific gene of E. gallinarum and that it is able to be transferred between bacteria. Although the resistance marker is not expressed in the strain, our results showed that E. faecium could acquire the vanC₁gene from different species.

  18. Atomic force microscopy visualization of injuries in Enterococcus faecalis surface caused by Er,Cr:YSGG and diode lasers

    PubMed Central

    López-Jiménez, Lidia; Viñas, Miguel; Vinuesa, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To visualize by Atomic Force Microscopy the alterations induced on Enterococcus. faecalis surface after treatment with 2 types of laser: Erbium chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser and Diode laser. Material and Methods: Bacterial suspensions from overnight cultures of E. faecalis were irradiated during 30 seconds with the laser-lights at 1 W and 2 W of power, leaving one untreated sample as control. Surface alterations on treated E. faecalis were visualized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and its surface roughness determined. Results: AFM imaging showed that at high potency of laser both cell morphology and surface roughness resulted altered, and that several cell lysis signs were easily visualized. Surface roughness clearly increase after the treatment with Er,Cr:YSGG at 2W of power, while the other treatments gave similar values of surface roughness. The effect of lasers on bacterial surfaces visualized by AFM revealed drastic alterations. Conclusions: AFM is a good tool to evaluate surface injuries after laser treatment; and could constitute a measure of antimicrobial effect that can complete data obtained by determination of microbial viability. Key words:Atomic force microscopy, Er,Cr:YSGG laser, diode laser, Enterococcus faecalis, surface roughness. PMID:25475770

  19. Comparative Study of Bacteremias Caused by Enterococcus spp. with and without High-Level Resistance to Gentamicin

    PubMed Central

    Caballero-Granado, Francisco Javier; Cisneros, J. M.; Luque, R.; Torres-Tortosa, M.; Gamboa, F.; Díez, F.; Villanueva, J. L.; Pérez-Cano, R.; Pasquau, J.; Merino, D.; Menchero, A.; Mora, D.; López-Ruz, M. A.; Vergara, A.; Infecciosas, for the Grupo Andaluz Para El Estudio De Las Enfermedades

    1998-01-01

    A prospective, multicenter study was carried out over a period of 10 months. All patients with clinically significant bacteremia caused by Enterococcus spp. were included. The epidemiological, microbiological, clinical, and prognostic features and the relationship of these features to the presence of high-level resistance to gentamicin (HLRG) were studied. Ninety-three patients with enterococcal bacteremia were included, and 31 of these cases were caused by HLRG (33%). The multivariate analysis selected chronic renal failure, intensive care unit stay, previous use of antimicrobial agents, and Enterococcus faecalis species as the independent risk factors that influenced the development of HLRG. The strains with HLRG showed lower levels of susceptibility to penicillin and ciprofloxacin. Clinical features (except for chronic renal failure) were similar in both groups of patients. HLRG did not influence the prognosis for patients with enterococcal bacteremia in terms of either the crude mortality rate (29% for patients with bacteremia caused by enterococci with HLRG and 28% for patients not infected with strains with HLRG) or the hospital stay after the acquisition of enterococcal bacteremia. Hemodynamic compromise, inappropriate antimicrobial therapy, and mechanical ventilation were revealed in the multivariate analysis to be the independent risk factors for mortality. Prolonged hospitalization was associated with the nosocomial acquisition of bacteremia and polymicrobial infections. PMID:9466769

  20. A Rex Family Transcriptional Repressor Influences H2O2 Accumulation by Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Vesić, Dušanka

    2013-01-01

    Rex factors are bacterial transcription factors thought to respond to the cellular NAD+/NADH ratio in order to modulate gene expression by differentially binding DNA. To date, Rex factors have been implicated in regulating genes of central metabolism, oxidative stress response, and biofilm formation. The genome of Enterococcus faecalis, a low-GC Gram-positive opportunistic pathogen, encodes EF2638, a putative Rex factor. To study the role of E. faecalis Rex, we purified EF2638 and evaluated its DNA binding activity in vitro. EF2638 was able to bind putative promoter segments of several E. faecalis genes in an NADH-responsive manner, indicating that it represents an authentic Rex factor. Transcriptome analysis of a ΔEF2638 mutant revealed that genes likely to be involved in anaerobic metabolism were upregulated during aerobic growth, and the mutant exhibited an altered NAD+/NADH ratio. The ΔEF2638 mutant also exhibited a growth defect when grown with aeration on several carbon sources, suggesting an impaired ability to cope with oxidative stress. Inclusion of catalase in the medium alleviated the growth defect. H2O2 measurements revealed that the mutant accumulates significantly more H2O2 than wild-type E. faecalis. In summary, EF2638 represents an authentic Rex factor in E. faecalis that influences the production or detoxification of H2O2 in addition to its more familiar role as a regulator of anaerobic gene expression. PMID:23417491

  1. Identification of the Enterococcus faecalis Tyrosine Decarboxylase Operon Involved in Tyramine Production

    PubMed Central

    Connil, Nathalie; Le Breton, Yoann; Dousset, Xavier; Auffray, Yanick; Rincé, Alain; Prévost, Hervé

    2002-01-01

    Screening of a library of Enterococcus faecalis insertional mutants allowed isolation of a mutant affected in tyramine production. The growth of this mutant was similar to that of the wild-type E. faecalis JH2-2 strain in Maijala broth, whereas high-performance liquid chromatography analyses showed that tyramine production, which reached 1,000 μg ml−1 for the wild-type strain, was completely abolished. Genetic analysis of the insertion locus revealed a gene encoding a decarboxylase with similarity to eukaryotic tyrosine decarboxylases. Sequence analysis revealed a pyridoxal phosphate binding site, indicating that this enzyme belongs to the family of amino acid decarboxylases using this cofactor. Reverse transcription-PCR analyses demonstrated that the gene (tdc) encoding the putative tyrosine decarboxylase of E. faecalis JH2-2 is cotranscribed with the downstream gene encoding a putative tyrosine-tyramine antiporter and with the upstream tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase gene. This study is the first description of a tyrosine decarboxylase gene in prokaryotes. PMID:12089039

  2. Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis in the gut

    PubMed Central

    Garsin, Danielle A; Lorenz, Michael C

    2013-01-01

    The fungus Candida albicans and the gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecalis are both normal residents of the human gut microbiome and cause opportunistic disseminated infections in immunocompromised individuals. Using a nematode infection model, we recently showed that co-infection resulted in less pathology and less mortality than infection with either species alone and this was partly explained by an interkingdom signaling event in which a bacterial-derived product inhibits hyphal morphogenesis of C. albicans. In this addendum we discuss these findings in the contest of other described bacterial-fungal interactions and recent data suggesting a potentially synergistic relationship between these two species in the mouse gut as well. We suggest that E. faecalis and C. albicans promote a mutually beneficial association with the host, in effect choosing a commensal lifestyle over a pathogenic one. PMID:23941906

  3. Production of bacteriocin inhibitory to Listeria species by Enterococcus hirae.

    PubMed

    Siragusa, G R

    1992-11-01

    A bovine intestinal bacterial isolate, identified as Enterococcus hirae, was found to produce a bacteriocin (designated hiraecin S) inhibitory to Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. Identification to species level was determined by comprehensive biochemical and morphological tests which were verified by DNA-DNA homology assays. The antimicrobial agent was inactivated by pronase and papain and was insensitive to catalase. The antimicrobial activity was not due to hydrogen peroxide or acid formation, nor was lysozyme or muramidase activity observed in cell-free bacteriocin preparations. Inhibition of selected gram-negative bacteria was not observed. Other enterococci were sensitive to the bacteriocin, and except for Listeria spp., no other gram-positive bacteria tested were inhibited. PMID:1482176

  4. Genetic characteristics of vancomycin resistance gene cluster in Enterococcus spp.

    PubMed

    Chunhui, Chen; Xiaogang, Xu

    2015-05-01

    Vancomycin resistant enterococci has become an important nosocomial pathogen since it is discovered in late 1980s. The products, encoded by vancomycin resistant gene cluster in enterococci, catalyze the synthesis of peptidoglycan precursors with low affinity with glycopeptide antibiotics including vancomycin and teicoplanin and lead to resistance. These vancomycin resistant gene clusters are classified into nine types according to their gene sequences and organization, or D-Ala:D-Lac (VanA, VanB, VanD and VanM) and D-Ala:D-Ser (VanC, VanE, VanG, VanL and VanN) ligase gene clusters based on the differences of their encoded ligases. Moreover, these gene clusters are characterized by their different resistance levels and infection models. In this review, we summarize the classification, gene organization and infection model of vancomycin resistant gene cluster in Enterococcus spp.

  5. Application of bacteriocinogenic Enterococcus mundtii CRL35 and Enterococcus faecium ST88Ch in the control of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh Minas cheese.

    PubMed

    Vera Pingitore, Esteban; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Sesma, Fernando; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo

    2012-10-01

    Several strains of Enterococcus spp. are capable of producing bacteriocins with antimicrobial activity against important bacterial pathogens in dairy products. In this study, the bacteriocins produced by two Enterococcus strains (Enterococcus mundtii CRL35 and Enterococcus faecium ST88Ch), isolated from cheeses, were characterized and tested for their capability to control growth of Listeria monocytogenes 426 in experimentally contaminated fresh Minas cheese during refrigerated storage. Both strains were active against a variety of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms and bacteriocin absorption to various L. monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19443 and Lactobacillus sakei ATCC 15521 varied according to the strain and the testing conditions (pH, temperature, presence of salts and surfactants). Growth of L. monocytogenes 426 was inhibited in cheeses containing E. mundtii CRL35 up to 12 days at 8 °C, evidencing a bacteriostatic effect. E. faecium ST88Ch was less effective, as the bacteriostatic affect occurred only after 6 days at 8 °C. In cheeses containing nisin (12.5 mg/kg), less than one log reduction was observed. This research underlines the potential application of E. mundtii CRL35 in the control of L. monocytogenes in Minas cheese.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from retail food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although enterococci are considered opportunistic nosocomial pathogens, their contribution to food-borne illnesses via dissemination through retail food remains undefined. In this study, prevalence and association of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors of 80 Enterococcus faecalis isolate...

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of an Enterococcus faecalis Strain Isolated from a Neonatal Blood Sepsis Patient.

    PubMed

    Kropp, K A; Lucid, A; Carroll, J; Belgrudov, V; Walsh, P; Kelly, B; Smith, C; Dickinson, P; O'Driscoll, A; Templeton, K; Ghazal, P; Sleator, R D

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we report the draft genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis ED-NGS-1009, cultivated from a blood sample taken from a neonatal sepsis patient at the Royal Infirmary in Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom. PMID:25212626

  8. Comparison of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis Strains Isolated from Water and Clinical Samples: Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Genetic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Mazari-Hiríart, Marisa; Ponce de León, Sergio; Amieva-Fernández, Rosa I.; Agis-Juárez, Raúl A.; Huebner, Johannes; López-Vidal, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Enterococci are part of the normal intestinal flora in a large number of mammals, and these microbes are currently used as indicators of fecal contamination in water and food for human consumption. These organisms are considered one of the primary causes of nosocomial and environmental infections due to their ability to survive in the environment and to their intrinsic resistance to antimicrobials. The aims of this study were to determine the biochemical patterns and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium isolates from clinical samples and from water (groundwater, water from the Xochimilco wetland, and treated water from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area) and to determine the genetic relationships among these isolates. A total of 121 enterococcus strains were studied; 31 and 90 strains were isolated from clinical samples and water (groundwater, water from the Xochimilco wetland, and water for agricultural irrigation), respectively. Identification to the species level was performed using a multiplex PCR assay, and antimicrobial profiles were obtained using a commercial kit. Twenty-eight strains were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). E. faecium strains isolated from water showed an atypical biochemical pattern. The clinical isolates showed higher resistance to antibiotics than those from water. Both the enterococci isolated from humans, and those isolated from water showed high genetic diversity according to the PFGE analysis, although some strains seemed to be closely related. In conclusion, enterococci isolated from humans and water are genetically different. However, water represents a potential route of transmission to the community and a source of antimicrobial resistance genes that may be readily transmitted to other, different bacterial species. PMID:23560050

  9. Comparison of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis Strains isolated from water and clinical samples: antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic relationships.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Mazari-Hiríart, Marisa; Ponce de León, Sergio; Amieva-Fernández, Rosa I; Agis-Juárez, Raúl A; Huebner, Johannes; López-Vidal, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Enterococci are part of the normal intestinal flora in a large number of mammals, and these microbes are currently used as indicators of fecal contamination in water and food for human consumption. These organisms are considered one of the primary causes of nosocomial and environmental infections due to their ability to survive in the environment and to their intrinsic resistance to antimicrobials. The aims of this study were to determine the biochemical patterns and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium isolates from clinical samples and from water (groundwater, water from the Xochimilco wetland, and treated water from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area) and to determine the genetic relationships among these isolates. A total of 121 enterococcus strains were studied; 31 and 90 strains were isolated from clinical samples and water (groundwater, water from the Xochimilco wetland, and water for agricultural irrigation), respectively. Identification to the species level was performed using a multiplex PCR assay, and antimicrobial profiles were obtained using a commercial kit. Twenty-eight strains were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). E. faecium strains isolated from water showed an atypical biochemical pattern. The clinical isolates showed higher resistance to antibiotics than those from water. Both the enterococci isolated from humans, and those isolated from water showed high genetic diversity according to the PFGE analysis, although some strains seemed to be closely related. In conclusion, enterococci isolated from humans and water are genetically different. However, water represents a potential route of transmission to the community and a source of antimicrobial resistance genes that may be readily transmitted to other, different bacterial species.

  10. Macrolide, glycopeptide resistance and virulence genes in Enterococcus species isolates from dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Iweriebor, Benson C; Obi, Larry C; Okoh, Anthony I

    2016-07-01

    The genus Enterococcus is known to possess the capacity to acquire and disseminate antimicrobial resistant determinants alongside the ability to produce various virulence genes that enables it to establish infections. We assessed the prevalence and antibiogram profiles of Enterococcus spp. in faecal samples of dairy cattle. Faecal swab samples were collected from 400 dairy cattle from two commercial cattle farms in two rural communities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Confirmation of enterococci isolates was carried out by PCR targeting of the tuf gene. Species delineation was by species-specific primers targeting the superoxide dismutase (sod A) gene in a multiplex PCR assay. Isolates were screened for the presence of the following virulence genes (ace, gel E, esp, efa A, cyl A and hyl E) and antimicrobial resistance determinants to erythromycin, vancomycin and streptomycin were evaluated molecularly. A total of 340 isolates were confirmed as belonging to the genus Enterococcus . Species distribution among the isolates consisted of Enterococcus faecium (52.94 %) and Enterococcus durans (23.53 %) in preponderance compared to the three other species, namely Enterococcus faecalis (8.8 %), Enterococcus hirae (8.6 %) and Enterococcus casseliflavus (5.9 %). All were resistant to vancomycin, while 99 % showed resistance to aminoglycoside and 94 % to macrolide. Three virulence genes (ace, gel E and esp) were detected in almost all the confirmed isolates. The resistance determinants van B (19.7 %), van C1 (25 %), van C2/3 (26.3 %) erm B (40.29 %) and str A (50.88 %) were detected among the isolates. A high prevalence of multidrug-resistant enterococci isolates was detected in this study and the genetic repertoire to survive in the presence of antimicrobial agents was present in these organisms.

  11. Macrolide, glycopeptide resistance and virulence genes in Enterococcus species isolates from dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Iweriebor, Benson C; Obi, Larry C; Okoh, Anthony I

    2016-07-01

    The genus Enterococcus is known to possess the capacity to acquire and disseminate antimicrobial resistant determinants alongside the ability to produce various virulence genes that enables it to establish infections. We assessed the prevalence and antibiogram profiles of Enterococcus spp. in faecal samples of dairy cattle. Faecal swab samples were collected from 400 dairy cattle from two commercial cattle farms in two rural communities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Confirmation of enterococci isolates was carried out by PCR targeting of the tuf gene. Species delineation was by species-specific primers targeting the superoxide dismutase (sod A) gene in a multiplex PCR assay. Isolates were screened for the presence of the following virulence genes (ace, gel E, esp, efa A, cyl A and hyl E) and antimicrobial resistance determinants to erythromycin, vancomycin and streptomycin were evaluated molecularly. A total of 340 isolates were confirmed as belonging to the genus Enterococcus . Species distribution among the isolates consisted of Enterococcus faecium (52.94 %) and Enterococcus durans (23.53 %) in preponderance compared to the three other species, namely Enterococcus faecalis (8.8 %), Enterococcus hirae (8.6 %) and Enterococcus casseliflavus (5.9 %). All were resistant to vancomycin, while 99 % showed resistance to aminoglycoside and 94 % to macrolide. Three virulence genes (ace, gel E and esp) were detected in almost all the confirmed isolates. The resistance determinants van B (19.7 %), van C1 (25 %), van C2/3 (26.3 %) erm B (40.29 %) and str A (50.88 %) were detected among the isolates. A high prevalence of multidrug-resistant enterococci isolates was detected in this study and the genetic repertoire to survive in the presence of antimicrobial agents was present in these organisms. PMID:27166215

  12. Biodegradation of C.I. Reactive Red 195 by Enterococcus faecalis strain YZ66.

    PubMed

    Mate, Madhuri Sahasrabudhe; Pathade, Girish

    2012-03-01

    Synthetic dyes are extensively used in textile dyeing, paper, printing, colour photography, pharmaceutics, cosmetics and other industries. Among these, azodyes represents the largest and most versatile class of synthetic dyes. As high as 50% of the dyes are released into the environment during manufacture and usage. Traditional methods of treatment are found to be expensive and have operational problems. Biological decolourization has been investigated as a method to transform, degrade or mineralize azo dyes. In the present studies bacteria from soil from dye waste area, dye waste, sewage and dung were subjected to acclimatization with C.I. Reactive Red 195 an azo dye, in the basal nutrient media. The most promising bacterial isolate was used for further dye degradation studies. The 16s rRNA gene sequencing and biochemical characteristics revealed the isolated organism as Enterococcus faecalis strain YZ66. The strain showed 99.5% decolourization of the selected dye (Reactive Red 195-50 mg/l) within one and half hour in static anoxic condition. The optimum pH and temperature for the decolourization was 5.0 and 40°C respectively. The biodegradation was monitored by UV-Vis, FTIR, TLC and HPLC. The final products were characterized by Gas chromatography and Mass Spectrophotometry. Toxicity study demonstrated no toxicity of the biodegradation product. The results suggest that the isolated organism E. faecalis strain YZ 66 can be used as a useful tool to treat waste water containing reactive dyes.

  13. Link between Culture Zeta Potential Homogeneity and Ebp in Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Muhammad; Bruijs, Chissa; Krom, Bastiaan P.

    2012-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis, a commensal of the gastrointestinal tract and an opportunistic pathogen, has the ability to adhere to surfaces and form biofilms. It has been shown earlier that only 10 to 20% of an E. faecalis OG1RF culture expresses endocarditis- and biofilm-associated pili (Ebp), which are involved in biofilm formation. Another study revealed that E. faecalis clinical isolates, as well as OG1RF, are heterogeneous with respect to their apparent zeta potential, which was also correlated with increased ability to form biofilm. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the heterogeneity in the presence of Ebp is correlated to that in apparent zeta potential. Heterogeneous cultures of OG1RF showed two distinct subpopulations with the most (−38 mV) and least (−26 mV) negative zeta potential. Deletion of EbpR, the activator of the ebp operon, or the structural genes ebpABC resulted in homogeneous culture with the most negative zeta potential. Conversely, overexpression of EbpR or the structural genes ebpABC resulted in homogeneous culture with the least negative zeta potential. The results show that ebp operon expression in E. faecalis, as measured by using Pebp-gfp promoter fusion, is the cause of heterogeneity in zeta potential and that pilus production causes the cells to behave as the least negative particle in an electric field. PMID:22267669

  14. Transcriptomic and Functional Analysis of NaCl-Induced Stress in Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Solheim, Margrete; La Rosa, Sabina Leanti; Mathisen, Thomas; Snipen, Lars G.; Nes, Ingolf F.; Brede, Dag Anders

    2014-01-01

    The robust physiology of Enterococcus faecalis facilitates tolerance to various stresses. We here report the transcriptional response of E. faecalis V583 to growth in the presence of 6.5% NaCl. Among the early responses observed was an immediate down-regulation of mscL, accompanied by an up-regulation of genes predicted to be involved in uptake of extracellular potassium and glycine betaine. The high NaCl concentration also induced expression of chaperons and cell envelope related traits, such as the enterococcal polysaccharide antigen (epa) locus. Functional genetic analysis revealed reduced salt stress resistance in both epaB and epaE mutants. The reduced salt resistance phenotype associated with the epaB mutant was restored by complementation, hence demonstrating a role of Epa in the physiological robustness of E. faecalis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Epa confers increased resistance towards multiple cell envelope stress-inducing factors. Accordingly, these findings delineate a potential link between the robust nature of E. faecalis and its ability to perform as a human pathogen, and provide a new perspective on the mechanisms by which Epa contributes to virulence. Notably, the high NaCl concentration also resulted in strict repression of the gelE-sprE operon and impaired gelatinase activity. We demonstrate that NaCl antagonize the GBAP-pheromone dependent induction in a concentration dependent manner. PMID:24755907

  15. Probiotic assessment of Enterococcus durans 6HL and Lactococcus lactis 2HL isolated from vaginal microflora.

    PubMed

    Nami, Yousef; Abdullah, Norhafizah; Haghshenas, Babak; Radiah, Dayang; Rosli, Rozita; Khosroushahi, Ahmad Yari

    2014-08-01

    Forty-five lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from the vaginal specimens of healthy fertile women, and the identities of the bacteria were confirmed by sequencing of their 16S rDNA genes. Among these bacteria, only four isolates were able to resist and survive in low pH, bile salts and simulated in vitro digestion conditions. Lactococcus lactis 2HL, Enterococcus durans 6HL, Lactobacillus acidophilus 36YL and Lactobacillus plantarum 5BL showed the best resistance to these conditions. These strains were evaluated further to assess their ability to adhere to human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Lactococcus lactis 2HL and E. durans 6HL were the most adherent strains. In vitro tests under neutralized pH proved the antimicrobial activity of both strains. Results revealed that the growth of Escherichia coli O26, Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella flexneri was suppressed by both LAB strains. The antibiotic susceptibility tests showed that these strains were sensitive to all nine antibiotics: vancomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, penicillin, gentamicin, erythromycin, clindamycin, sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol. These data suggest that E. durans 6HL and Lactococcus lactis 2HL could be examined further for their useful properties and could be developed as new probiotics.

  16. Inhibition of initial adhesion of uropathogenic Enterococcus faecalis by biosurfactants from Lactobacillus isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Velraeds, M M; van der Mei, H C; Reid, G; Busscher, H J

    1996-01-01

    In this study, 15 Lactobacillus isolates were found to produce biosurfactants in the mid-exponential and stationary growth phases. The stationary-phase biosurfactants from lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus 36 and ATCC 7469, Lactobacillus fermentum B54, and Lactobacillus acidophilus RC14 were investigated further to determine their capacity to inhibit the initial adhesion of uropathogenic Enterococcus faecalis 1131 to glass in a parallel-plate flow chamber. The initial deposition rate of E. faecalis to glass with an adsorbed biosurfactant layer from L. acidophilus RC14 or L. fermentum B54 was significantly decreased by approximately 70%, while the number of adhering enterococci after 4 h of adhesion was reduced by an average of 77%. The surface activity of the biosurfactants and their activity inhibiting the initial adhesion of E. faecalis 1131 were retained after dialysis (molecular weight cutoff, 6,000 to 8,000) and freeze-drying. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the freeze-dried biosurfactants from L. acidophilus RC14 and L. fermentum B54 were richest in protein, while those from L. casei subsp. rhamnosus 36 and ATCC 7469 had relatively high polysaccharide and phosphate contents. PMID:8787394

  17. Efficacy of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma as an Antibacterial Agent Against Enterococcus Faecalis in Vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yingguang; Yang, Ping; Lu, Xinpei; Xiong, Zilan; Ye, Tao; Xiong, Qing; Sun, Ziyong

    2011-02-01

    Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is a microorganism that can survive extreme challenges in obturated root canals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma plume against E. faecalis in vitro. A non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet device which could generate a cold plasma plume carrying a peak current of 300 mA was used. The antibacterial efficacy of this device against E. faecalis and its biofilm under different conditions was detected. The antibacterial efficacy of the plasma against E. faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was also evaluated. After plasma treatment, the average diameter of inhibition zone on S. aureus and E. faecalis was 2.62±0.26 cm and 1.06±0.30 cm, respectively (P < 0.05). The diameter was increased with prolongation of the treatment duration. The diameters of inhibition zone of the sealed Petri dishes were larger than those of the uncovered Petri dishes. There was significant difference in colony-forming units between plasma group and control group on E. faecalis biofilm (P < 0.01). The transmission electron microscopy revealed that the ultrastructural changes cytoderm of E. faecalis were observed after treatment for 2 min. It is concluded that the non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma could serve as an effective adjunct to standard endodontic microbial treatment.

  18. Crystal structure of enterococcus faecalis sly A-like transcriptional factor.

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, R.; Zhang, R.; Zagnitko, O.; Dementieva, I.; Maltsev, N.; Watson, J. D.; Laskowski, R.; Gornicki, P.; Joachimiak, A.; Univ. of Chicago; European Bioinformatics Inst.

    2003-05-30

    The crystal structure of a SlyA transcriptional regulator at 1.6 {angstrom} resolution is presented, and structural relationships between members of the MarR/SlyA family are discussed. The SlyA family, which includes SlyA, Rap, Hor, and RovA proteins, is widely distributed in bacterial and archaeal genomes. Current evidence suggests that SlyA-like factors act as repressors, activators, and modulators of gene transcription. These proteins have been shown to up-regulate the expression of molecular chaperones, acid-resistance proteins, and cytolysin, and down-regulate several biosynthetic enzymes. The structure of SlyA from Enterococcus faecalis, determined as a part of an ongoing structural genomics initiative (www.mcsg.anl.gov), revealed the same winged helix DNA-binding motif that was recently found in the MarR repressor from Escherichia coli and the MexR repressor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a sequence homologue of MarR. Phylogenetic analysis of the MarR/SlyA family suggests that Sly is placed between the SlyA and MarR subfamilies and shows significant sequence similarity to members of both subfamilies.

  19. Transcriptomic and functional analysis of NaCl-induced stress in Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Solheim, Margrete; La Rosa, Sabina Leanti; Mathisen, Thomas; Snipen, Lars G; Nes, Ingolf F; Brede, Dag Anders

    2014-01-01

    The robust physiology of Enterococcus faecalis facilitates tolerance to various stresses. We here report the transcriptional response of E. faecalis V583 to growth in the presence of 6.5% NaCl. Among the early responses observed was an immediate down-regulation of mscL, accompanied by an up-regulation of genes predicted to be involved in uptake of extracellular potassium and glycine betaine. The high NaCl concentration also induced expression of chaperons and cell envelope related traits, such as the enterococcal polysaccharide antigen (epa) locus. Functional genetic analysis revealed reduced salt stress resistance in both epaB and epaE mutants. The reduced salt resistance phenotype associated with the epaB mutant was restored by complementation, hence demonstrating a role of Epa in the physiological robustness of E. faecalis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Epa confers increased resistance towards multiple cell envelope stress-inducing factors. Accordingly, these findings delineate a potential link between the robust nature of E. faecalis and its ability to perform as a human pathogen, and provide a new perspective on the mechanisms by which Epa contributes to virulence. Notably, the high NaCl concentration also resulted in strict repression of the gelE-sprE operon and impaired gelatinase activity. We demonstrate that NaCl antagonize the GBAP-pheromone dependent induction in a concentration dependent manner.

  20. Structural Studies on Cytosolic Domain of Magnesium Transporter MgtE from Enterococcus faecalis

    SciTech Connect

    Ragumani, S.; Sauder, J; Burley, S; Swaminathan, S

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg{sup 2+}) is an essential element for growth and maintenance of living cells. It acts as a cofactor for many enzymes and is also essential for stability of the plasma membrane. There are two distinct classes of magnesium transporters identified in bacteria that convey Mg{sup 2+} from periplasm to cytoplasm [ATPase-dependent (MgtA and MgtB) and constitutively active (CorA and MgtE)]. Previously published work on Mg{sup 2+} transporters yielded structures of full length MgtE from Thermus thermophilus, determined at 3.5 {angstrom} resolution, and its cytoplasmic domain with and without bond Mg{sup 2+} determined at 2.3 and 3.9 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Here, they report the crystal structure of the Mg{sup 2+} bound form of the cytosolic portion of MgtE (residues 6-262) from Enterococcus faecalis at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution. The present structure and magnesium bound cytosolic domain structure from T. thermophilus (PDB ID: 2YVY) are structurally similar. Three magnesium binding sites are common to both MgtE full length and the present structure. Their work revealed an additional Mg{sup 2+} binding site in the E. faecalis structure. In this report, they discuss the functional significance of Mg{sup 2+} binding sites in the cytosolic domains of MgtE transporters.

  1. The Spx Regulator Modulates Stress Responses and Virulence in Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Kajfasz, Jessica K.; Mendoza, Jorge E.; Gaca, Anthony O.; Miller, James H.; Koselny, Kristy A.; Giambiagi-deMarval, Marcia; Wellington, Melanie; Abranches, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    The ability to cope with endogenous or host-generated reactive oxygen species is considered a key virulence attribute of the opportunistic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis, a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. In this study, we used in silico and mutational analyses to identify and characterize the role of the Spx global regulator in oxidative stress tolerance and virulence in E. faecalis. While the Δspx strain grew as well as the wild-type strain under anaerobic conditions, the mutant strain exhibited impaired growth under aerobic conditions and was highly sensitive to oxidative stress agents. The spx mutant strain was also sensitive to a variety of other stressful conditions, including antibiotic stress and killing by the mouse-derived macrophage cell line J774. Using a murine model of foreign body-associated peritonitis, we demonstrated that the ability of the Δspx strain to colonize the peritoneum and disseminate in the bloodstream was significantly reduced compared to that of the parent strain. Transcriptional analysis revealed that a large number of known oxidative stress genes are under positive control by Spx. Collectively, our results show that Spx is a major stress gene regulator and is implicated in the pathophysiology of E. faecalis. The relationship of Spx to other oxidative stress regulators is also discussed. PMID:22508863

  2. Intraspecies Genomic Groups in Enterococcus faecium and Their Correlation with Origin and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Vancanneyt, Marc; Lombardi, Angiolella; Andrighetto, Christian; Knijff, Edo; Torriani, Sandra; Björkroth, K. Johanna; Franz, Charles M. A. P.; Foulquié Moreno, María R.; Revets, Hilde; Vuyst, Luc De; Swings, Jean; Kersters, Karel; Dellaglio, Franco; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.

    2002-01-01

    Seventy-eight Enterococcus faecium strains from various sources were characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of SmaI restriction patterns. Two main genomic groups (I and II) were obtained in both RAPD-PCR and AFLP analyses. DNA-DNA hybridization values between representative strains of both groups demonstrated a mean DNA-DNA reassociation level of 71%. PFGE analysis revealed high genetic strain diversity within the two genomic groups. Only group I contained strains originating from human clinical samples or strains that were vancomycin-resistant or beta-hemolytic. No differentiating phenotypic features between groups I and II were found using the rapid ID 32 STREP system. The two groups could be further subdivided into, respectively, four and three subclusters in both RAPD-PCR and AFLP analyses, and a high correlation was seen between the subclusters generated by these two methods. Subclusters of group I were to some extent correlated with origin, pathogenicity, and bacteriocinogeny of the strains. Host specificity of E. faecium strains was not confirmed. PMID:11872491

  3. Characterization of Enterococcus faecium bacteriophage IME-EFm5 and its endolysin LysEFm5.

    PubMed

    Gong, Pengjuan; Cheng, Mengjun; Li, Xinwei; Jiang, Haiyan; Yu, Chuang; Kahaer, Nadire; Li, Juecheng; Zhang, Lei; Xia, Feifei; Hu, Liyuan; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Lei, Liancheng; Han, Wenyu; Gu, Jingmin

    2016-05-01

    Due to the worldwide prevalence of antibiotic resistant strains, phages therapy has been revitalized recently. In this study, an Enterococcus faecium phage named IME-EFm5 was isolated from hospital sewage. Whole genomic sequence analysis demonstrated that IME-EFm5 belong to the Siphoviridae family, and has a double-stranded genome of 42,265bp (with a 35.51% G+C content) which contains 70 putative coding sequences. LysEFm5, the endolysin of IME-EFm5, contains an amidase domain in its N-terminal and has a wider bactericidal spectrum than its parental phage IME-EFm5, including 7 strains of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium. The mutagenesis analysis revealed that the zinc ion binding residues (H27, H132, and C140), E90, and T138 are required for the catalysis of LysEFm5. However, the antibacterial activity of LysEFm5 is zinc ion independent, which is inconsistent with most of other amidase members. The phage lysin LysEFm5 might be an alternative treatment strategy for infections caused by multidrug-resistant E. faecium.

  4. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Enterococcus species isolated from meat and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Pieniz, S; Andreazza, R; Okeke, B C; Camargo, F A O; Brandelli, A

    2015-11-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have an important role in a great variety of fermented foods. In addition to their contribution to sensory characteristics, they enhance food preservation and can be used as probiotics. In this study, the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of culture supernatants and cell free extracts of 16 LAB isolated from meat and dairy products were investigated. The bacterial were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. GenBank BLAST analysis revealed that all the isolates belong to Enterococcus faecium species. Antimicrobial activity against the indicator microorganism (Listeria monocytogenes) was observed at 11 culture supernatants and 4 cell free extracts. The sensibility of culture supernatant was evaluated by proteinase K and trypsin and it was observed that activity of antimicrobial substance was completely lost after the treatment. All of the isolates showed antioxidant activity as determined by the Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) method with both types of extracts. When the antioxidant capacity was investigated using ABTS•+ method (2,2 azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) and DPPH method (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) it was observed that only culture supernatants showed antioxidant capacity. These bacteria could particularly help to reduce or inhibit pathogenic microorganisms as well as oxidative spoilage in foods and feed.

  5. TLR-7 activation enhances IL-22–mediated colonization resistance against vancomycin-resistant enterococcus

    PubMed Central

    Abt, Michael C.; Buffie, Charlie G.; Sušac, Bože; Becattini, Simone; Carter, Rebecca A.; Leiner, Ingrid; Keith, James W.; Artis, David; Osborne, Lisa C.; Pamer, Eric G.

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic administration can disrupt the intestinal microbiota and down-regulate innate immune defenses, compromising colonization resistance against orally acquired bacterial pathogens. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), a major cause of antibiotic-resistant infections in hospitalized patients, thrives in the intestine when colonization resistance is compromised, achieving extremely high densities that can lead to bloodstream invasion and sepsis. Viral infections, by mechanisms that remain incompletely defined, can stimulate resistance against invading bacterial pathogens. We report that murine norovirus infection reduces the density of VRE in the intestinal tract of mice with antibiotic-induced loss of colonization resistance. Resiquimod (R848), a synthetic ligand for Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR-7) that stimulates antiviral innate immune defenses, restores expression of the antimicrobial peptide Reg3γ and reestablishes colonization resistance against VRE in antibiotic-treated mice. Orally administered R848 triggers TLR-7 on CD11c+ dendritic cells, inducing interleukin-23 (IL-23) expression followed by a burst of IL-22 secretion by innate lymphoid cells, leading to Reg3γ expression and restoration of colonization resistance against VRE. Our findings reveal that an orally bioavailable TLR-7 ligand that stimulates innate antiviral immune defenses in the intestine restores colonization resistance against a highly antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogen. PMID:26912904

  6. [Emergence of linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecalis strains from two inpatients in a pediatric ward].

    PubMed

    Nihonyanagi, Shin; Adachi, Yuzuru; Onuki, Tomoyo; Nakazaki, Nobuhiko; Hirata, Yasuyosi; Fujiki, Kuniko; Takayama, Yoko; Kanoh, Yuhsaku; Bandoh, Yuki; Dantsuji, Yurika; Hanaki, Hideaki; Sunakawa, Keisuke

    2012-09-01

    We report herein on the isolation of three linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecalis strains in 2011 from two pediatric inpatients at Kitasato University Hospital, Japan. Three linezolid resistant strains were isolated from two patients who shared the same room of a pediatric inpatient ward. Two linezolid resistant strains were isolated from patient A who had been treated with a total of 17,600mg of linezolid during 60 days of hospitalization (strains 1 and 2). The linezolid resistant E. faecalis persisted through the time that the patient had been discharged from the hospital. Another linezolid resistant strain was isolated from patient B who had no history of linezolid administration. The resistant strain in patient B phased out spontaneously. The minimum inhibitory concentration of linezolid in these strains ranged from 8.0 to 16.0 microg/mL. PCR amplification of the chromosomal gene encoding domain V of the 23S rRNA and subsequent nucleotide sequencing revealed that all the strains had at least one G2576T mutation. The pulse-field-gel electrophoretograms of the DNA treated with the SmaI restriction enzyme showed an identical profile suggesting that they were derived from a single resistant strain. These results suggested that the resistant strain occurred in patient A and was transmitted to patient B within the inpatient ward. PMID:23198574

  7. Insidious Onset of Tetraparesis due to Cervical Epidural Abscess from Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Soultanis, Konstantinos Chr; Sakellariou, Vasileios I; Starantzis, Konstantinos A; Stavropoulos, Nikolaos A; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of cervical epidural abscess from Enterococcus faecalis, which caused an insidious onset of tetraparesis. This 53-year-old female with a history of diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure under hemodialysis presented with pain and progressive weakness of upper and lower extremities without fever. Although a recent MRI she did at the beginning of symptoms showed no significant pathologies, except for a cervical disc herniation and adjacent spinal degeneration, and stenosis that confused the diagnostic procedure, newer imaging with CT and MRI, which was performed due to progression of tetraparesis, revealed the formation of a cervical epidural abscess. Surgical drainage was done after a complete infection workup. The patient showed immediate neurological improvement after surgery. She received antibiotics intravenously for 3 weeks and orally for another 6 weeks. The patient was free from complications 24 months after surgery. A high index of suspicion is most important in making a rapid and correct diagnosis of spinal epidural abscess. The classic clinical triad (fever, local pain, and neurologic deficits) is not sensitive enough for early detection. Continuous clinical, laboratory, and imaging monitoring are of paramount importance. Early diagnosis and surgical intervention could optimize the final functional outcome. PMID:23573096

  8. In vitro probiotic profiling of novel Enterococcus faecium and Leuconostoc mesenteroides from Tunisian freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    El-Jeni, Rim; El Bour, Monia; Calo-Mata, Pilar; Böhme, Karola; Fernández-No, Inmaculada C; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge; Bouhaouala-Zahar, Balkiss

    2016-01-01

    Novel lactic acid bacteria isolated from different organs of freshwater fish were examined for their potential application as probiotics in raw and processed foods. Four isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were identified at the molecular level by 16S rRNA sequencing and random amplification of polymorphic DNA - polymerase chain reaction, and their antimicrobial activity against a panel of pathogens and food-poisoning bacteria was investigated. The whole bacteriocins of the 4 isolates were characterized by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequences in PCR. The isolates exhibited high inhibitory activities against food-borne pathogens and spoilage microbial species and have significant probiotic profiles, since they survived at pH 3.0 and in the presence of bile salts, pancreatin, and pepsin, without any detectable hemolytic activity. Further, moderate heat resistance, adhesion ability to steel surfaces, and sensitivity to clinically relevant antimicrobial agents were revealed for all the isolates. These results highlight the specific probiotic properties of the strains and give evidence for potential application in minimally processed foods subjected to moderate heat processing. PMID:26651241

  9. The anti-Candida activity by Ancillary Proteins of an Enterococcus faecium strain

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Utpal; Chalasani, Ajay G.; Shekh, M. Raeesh

    2015-01-01

    An antimycotic activity toward seven strains of Candida albicans was demonstrated erstwhile by a wild-type Enterococcus faecium isolated from a penguin rookery of the Antarctic region. In the present study the antimicrobial principle was purified by ion exchange and gel permeation chromatography and further was analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. In the purification steps, the dialyzed concentrate and ion exchange fractions inhibited C. albicans MTCC 3958, 183, and SC 5314. However, the gel filtration purified fractions inhibited MTCC 3958 and 183. The data obtained from the LC-ESI-MS/MS indicate that the antimicrobial activity of the anti-Candida protein produced by E. faecium is facilitated by Sag A/Bb for the binding of the indicator organism's cell membrane. Partial N-terminal sequence revealed 12 N-terminal amino acid residues and its analysis shown that it belongs to the LysM motif. The nucleotide sequence of PCR-amplified product could detect 574 nucleotides of the LysM gene responsible for binding to chitin of the cell wall of Candida sp. PMID:26005434

  10. Molecular Characterization of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Isolates from Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Kwan Soo; Baek, Jin Yang; Lee, Ji-Young; Oh, Won Sup; Peck, Kyong Ran; Lee, NamYong; Lee, Wee Gyo; Lee, Kyungwon; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2005-01-01

    A total of 98 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) isolates from four tertiary-care hospitals in Korea during the period between 1998 and 2004 were analyzed for genotypic characteristics using the multiplex PCR, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and esp gene analysis. Ninety-two isolates of VREF with VanA phenotype and five of six isolates with VanB phenotype possessed the vanA gene. MLST analysis revealed 9 sequence types (STs), which belonged to a single clonal complex (CC78, clonal lineage C1). Five strains showing incongruence between phenotype and genotype (VanB-vanA) did not belong to the same genotypic clone. The esp gene was detected in all VREF strains, showing 12 different esp repeat profiles. Data suggest that an epidemic clonal group of VREF, CC78 with esp gene, is also present in Asia and has differentiated into multiple diverse genotypic clones during the evolutionary process. PMID:15872259

  11. Constitutively vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium resistant to synergistic beta-lactam combinations.

    PubMed Central

    Green, M; Binczewski, B; Pasculle, A W; Edmund, M; Barbadora, K; Kusne, S; Shlaes, D M

    1993-01-01

    Vancomycin resistance among enterococci has recently been recognized. Synergy between vancomycin and penicillin has been shown in vitro for isolates of Enterococcus faecium resistant to both of these antibiotics. We describe three isolates of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium which demonstrate unique phenotypic characteristics. The isolates exhibited high-level resistance to both vancomycin and teicoplanin, consistent with the VanA phenotype. However, resistance in these isolates could not be induced or cured, and mating experiments failed to detect a transfer of resistance. The combination of vancomycin and penicillin did not significantly change the MIC of penicillin for any of the three isolates. Immunoblotting with polyclonal anti-VanB antibody showed no reaction with the cellular proteins of these strains. Probing with a vanA oligonucleotide revealed hybridization with chromosomal but not plasmid DNA. The mechanism of constitutive resistance of those strains remains unclear. A second mutational change, perhaps involving PBP 5, may explain the presence of resistance to synergistic combination penicillin-vancomycin therapy. In vitro evaluation of penicillin-vancomycin should be carried out in all clinical cases where this therapeutic regimen is being considered. Images PMID:8328775

  12. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Enterococcus species isolated from meat and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Pieniz, S; Andreazza, R; Okeke, B C; Camargo, F A O; Brandelli, A

    2015-11-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have an important role in a great variety of fermented foods. In addition to their contribution to sensory characteristics, they enhance food preservation and can be used as probiotics. In this study, the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of culture supernatants and cell free extracts of 16 LAB isolated from meat and dairy products were investigated. The bacterial were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. GenBank BLAST analysis revealed that all the isolates belong to Enterococcus faecium species. Antimicrobial activity against the indicator microorganism (Listeria monocytogenes) was observed at 11 culture supernatants and 4 cell free extracts. The sensibility of culture supernatant was evaluated by proteinase K and trypsin and it was observed that activity of antimicrobial substance was completely lost after the treatment. All of the isolates showed antioxidant activity as determined by the Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) method with both types of extracts. When the antioxidant capacity was investigated using ABTS•+ method (2,2 azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) and DPPH method (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) it was observed that only culture supernatants showed antioxidant capacity. These bacteria could particularly help to reduce or inhibit pathogenic microorganisms as well as oxidative spoilage in foods and feed. PMID:26675908

  13. Effect of the quorum-sensing luxS gene on biofilm formation by Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    He, Zhiyan; Liang, Jingping; Zhou, Wei; Xie, Qian; Tang, Zisheng; Ma, Rui; Huang, Zhengwei

    2016-06-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is the species of bacterium most frequently isolated from the root canals of teeth that exhibit chronic apical periodontitis refractory to endodontic treatment. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the S-ribosylhomocysteine lyase (luxS) quorum-sensing gene on E. faecalis biofilm formation by constructing a knockout mutant. The biofilms formed by both E. faecalis and its luxS mutant strain were evaluated using the MTT method. Important parameters that influence biofilm formation, including cell-surface hydrophobicity and the nutrient content of the growth medium, were also studied. Biofilm structures were observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and expression of biofilm-related genes was investigated using RT-PCR. The results showed that the luxS gene can affect biofilm formation, whereas it does not affect the bacterial growth rate. Deletion of the luxS gene also increased cell-surface hydrophobicity. Biofilm formation was accelerated by the addition of increasing concentrations of glucose. The CLSM images revealed that the luxS mutant strain tends to aggregate into distinct clusters and relatively dense structures, whereas the wild-type strain appears confluent and more evenly distributed. All genes examined were up-regulated in the biofilms formed by the luxS mutant strain. The quorum-sensing luxS gene can affect E. faecalis biofilm formation.

  14. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Enterococcus Species: A Hospital-Based Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Wei; Li, Gang; Wang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus species isolated from a university hospital, and explore the mechanisms underlying the antimicrobial resistance, so as to provide clinical evidence for the inappropriate clinical use of antimicrobial agents and the control and prevention of enterococcal infections. Methods: a total of 1,157 enterococcal strains isolated from various clinical specimens from January 2010 to December 2012 in the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University were identified to species level with a VITEK-2 COMPACT fully automated microbiological system, and the antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterococcus species was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The multiple-drug resistant enterococcal isolates were screened from the clinical isolates of Enterococcus species from the burns department. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Enterococcus species to the three fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin and levofloxacin was determined with the agar dilution method, and the changes in the MIC of Enterococcus species to the three fluoroquinolones following reserpine treatment were evaluated. The β-lactam, aminoglycoside, tetracycline, macrolide, glycopeptide resistance genes and the efflux pump emeA genes were detected in the enterococcal isolates using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Results: the 1,157 clinical isolates of Enterococcus species included 679 E. faecium isolates (58.7%), 382 E. faecalis isolates (33%), 26 E. casseliflavus isolates (2.2%), 24 E. avium isolates (2.1%), and 46 isolates of other Enterococcus species (4%). The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance varied significantly between E. faecium and E. faecalis, and ≤1.1% of these two Enterococcus species were found to be resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin or linezolid. In addition, the Enterococcus species isolated from different departments of the hospital exhibited various

  15. [Submucosal bacterial abscesses of the ascending colon and liver associated with portal and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis due to Enterococcus faecalis infection: a case report].

    PubMed

    Norimura, Daisuke; Takeshima, Fuminao; Satou, Yoshiaki; Nakagoe, Tohru; Ohnita, Ken; Isomoto, Hajime; Nakao, Kazuhiko

    2014-06-01

    A 72-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus was admitted with fever and general fatigue. Blood biochemistry showed elevated hepatic and biliary enzyme levels, abdominal computed tomography showed multiple liver abscesses with portal and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis, and total colonoscopy revealed a submucosal bacterial abscess in the ascending colon. The abscesses were determined to be associated with Enterococcus faecalis infection. The patient was treated conservatively with antibiotics (meropenem) and anticoagulants (warfarin), which led to a gradual amelioration of symptoms and resolution of thrombosis.

  16. Identification of aminoglycoside resistance genes by Triplex PCR in Enterococcus spp. isolated from ICUs.

    PubMed

    Mirnejad, Reza; Sajjadi, Nikta; Masoumi Zavaryani, Sara; Piranfar, Vahhab; Hajihosseini, Maryam; Roshanfekr, Maliheh

    2016-09-01

    Early detection of antibiotic-resistant enterococci is an important part of patient treatment. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the resistance patterns and simultaneously identify and characterise the resistance genes in Enterococcus spp. using a triplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. In all, 150 consecutive Enterococcus spp were collected from several hospitals in Tehran (Iran) from January to December 2015. The Enterococcus species were identified by standard phenotypic/biochemical tests and PCR. The antimicrobial resistance patterns were determined using a disk diffusion method. The triplex PCR method was designed to identify gentamicin and other aminoglycoside resistance genes. Among the 150 Enterococcus specimens, 87 cases (58%) were Enterococcus faecalis, and 63 cases (42%) were Enterococcus faecium. The highest frequency of resistance was observed for tetracycline while the lowest was found for vancomycin. Among the identified samples, 56.9% contained the aac(6')-Ie-aph(2'')-Ia gene, 22.2% contained the aph(3')-IIIa gene, and 38.8% contained the ant(4')-?a gene. Eight percent of the isolates contained the three aminoglycoside resistance genes. Data analysis showed that there was a significant correlation between the phenotypic gentamicin resistance and the presence of the aminoglycoside resistance genes (18.9%, p <0.05), while the correlation between the phenotypic streptomycin resistance and the corresponding genes was not significant (2.8%, p ≥0.5). Nearly half of the identified Enterococcus strains had increased aminoglycoside resistance. The direct correlation between resistance genes, such as the aminoglycoside resistance factor, and phenotypic resistance was not significant (p > 0.05). PMID:27668903

  17. Enterococcus phages as potential tool for identifying sewage inputs in the Great Lakes region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; K.Vijayavel,; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; J. Ebdon,; ,; H. Taylor,; ,; Whitman, Richard L.; ,; D.R. Kashian,

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses living in bacteria that can be used as a tool to detect fecal contamination in surface waters around the world. However, the lack of a universal host strain makes them unsuitable for tracking fecal sources. We evaluated the suitability of two newly isolated Enterococcus host strains (ENT-49 and ENT-55) capable for identifying sewage contamination in impacted waters by targeting phages specific to these hosts. Both host strains were isolated from wastewater samples and identified as E. faecium by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Occurrence of Enterococcus phages was evaluated in sewage samples (n = 15) from five wastewater treatment plants and in fecal samples from twenty-two species of wild and domesticated animals (individual samples; n = 22). Levels of Enterococcus phages, F + coliphages, Escherichia coli and enterococci were examined from four rivers, four beaches, and three harbors. Enterococcus phages enumeration was at similar levels (Mean = 6.72 Log PFU/100 mL) to F + coliphages in all wastewater samples, but were absent from all non-human fecal sources tested. The phages infecting Enterococcus spp. and F + coliphages were not detected in the river samples (detection threshold < 10 PFU/100 mL), but were present in the beach and harbor samples (range = 1.83 to 2.86 Log PFU/100 mL). Slightly higher concentrations (range = 3.22 to 3.69 Log MPN/100 mL) of E. coli and enterococci when compared to F + coliphages and Enterococcus phages, were observed in the river, beach and harbor samples. Our findings suggest that the bacteriophages associated with these particular Enterococcus host strains offer potentially sensitive and human-source specific indicators of enteric pathogen risk.

  18. Identification of aminoglycoside resistance genes by Triplex PCR in Enterococcus spp. isolated from ICUs.

    PubMed

    Mirnejad, Reza; Sajjadi, Nikta; Masoumi Zavaryani, Sara; Piranfar, Vahhab; Hajihosseini, Maryam; Roshanfekr, Maliheh

    2016-09-01

    Early detection of antibiotic-resistant enterococci is an important part of patient treatment. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the resistance patterns and simultaneously identify and characterise the resistance genes in Enterococcus spp. using a triplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. In all, 150 consecutive Enterococcus spp were collected from several hospitals in Tehran (Iran) from January to December 2015. The Enterococcus species were identified by standard phenotypic/biochemical tests and PCR. The antimicrobial resistance patterns were determined using a disk diffusion method. The triplex PCR method was designed to identify gentamicin and other aminoglycoside resistance genes. Among the 150 Enterococcus specimens, 87 cases (58%) were Enterococcus faecalis, and 63 cases (42%) were Enterococcus faecium. The highest frequency of resistance was observed for tetracycline while the lowest was found for vancomycin. Among the identified samples, 56.9% contained the aac(6')-Ie-aph(2'')-Ia gene, 22.2% contained the aph(3')-IIIa gene, and 38.8% contained the ant(4')-?a gene. Eight percent of the isolates contained the three aminoglycoside resistance genes. Data analysis showed that there was a significant correlation between the phenotypic gentamicin resistance and the presence of the aminoglycoside resistance genes (18.9%, p <0.05), while the correlation between the phenotypic streptomycin resistance and the corresponding genes was not significant (2.8%, p ≥0.5). Nearly half of the identified Enterococcus strains had increased aminoglycoside resistance. The direct correlation between resistance genes, such as the aminoglycoside resistance factor, and phenotypic resistance was not significant (p > 0.05).

  19. Molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus species from gut microbiota of Chilean Altiplano camelids

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero-Olmos, Katheryne; Báez, John; Valenzuela, Nicomédes; Gahona, Joselyne; del Campo, Rosa; Silva, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Background Enterococcus is one of the major human pathogens able to acquire multiple antibiotic-resistant markers as well as virulence factors which also colonize remote ecosystems, including wild animals. In this work, we characterized the Enterococcus population colonizing the gut of Chilean Altiplano camelids without foreign human contact. Material and methods Rectal swabs from 40 llamas and 10 alpacas were seeded in M-Enterococcus agar, and we selected a total of 57 isolates. Species identification was performed by biochemical classical tests, semi-automated WIDER system, mass spectrometry analysis by MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer), and, finally, nucleotide sequence of internal fragments of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, pheS, and aac(6)-I genes. Genetic diversity was measured by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)-SmaI, whereas the antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the WIDER system. Carriage of virulence factors was explored by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Our results demonstrated that the most prevalent specie was Enterococcus hirae (82%), followed by other non–Enterococcus faecalis and non–Enterococcus faecium species. Some discrepancies were detected among the identification methods used, and the most reliable were the rpoB, pheS, and aac(6)-I nucleotide sequencing. Selected isolates exhibited susceptibility to almost all studied antibiotics, and virulence factors were not detected by PCR. Finally, some predominant clones were characterized by PFGE into a diverse genetic background. Conclusion Enterococcus species from the Chilean camelids’ gut microbiota were different from those adapted to humans, and they remained free of antibiotic resistance mechanisms as well as virulence factors. PMID:25405007

  20. Probiotic potential of Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from meconium

    PubMed Central

    Al Atya, Ahmed K.; Drider-Hadiouche, Karima; Ravallec, Rozenn; Silvain, Amadine; Vachee, Anne; Drider, Djamel

    2015-01-01

    107 bacterial isolates with Gram positive staining and negative catalase activity, presumably assumed as lactic acid bacteria, were isolated from samples of meconium of 6 donors at Roubaix hospital, in the north of France. All these bacterial isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as Enterococcus faecalis. However, only six isolates among which E. faecalis 14, E. faecalis 28, E. faecalis 90, E. faecalis 97, and E. faecalis 101 (obtained from donor 3), and E. faecalis 93 (obtained from donor 5) were active against some Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria , through production of lactic acid, and bacteriocin like inhibitory substances. The identification of these isolates was confirmed by 16rDNA sequencing and their genetic relatedness was established by REP-PCR and pulsed field gel electrophoresis methods. Importantly, the aforementioned antagonistic isolates were sensitive to various classes of antibiotics tested, exhibited high scores of coaggregation and hydrophobicity, and were not hemolytic. Taken together, these properties render these strains as potential candidates for probiotic applications. PMID:25883590

  1. Functional genomic analysis of bile salt resistance in Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Enterococcus faecium is a Gram-positive commensal bacterium of the mammalian intestinal tract. In the last two decades it has also emerged as a multi-resistant nosocomial pathogen. In order to survive in and colonize the human intestinal tract E. faecium must resist the deleterious actions of bile. The molecular mechanisms exploited by this bacterium to tolerate bile are as yet unexplored. Results In this study we used a high-throughput quantitative screening approach of transposon mutant library, termed Microarray-based Transposon Mapping (M-TraM), to identify the genetic determinants required for resistance to bile salts in E. faecium E1162. The gene gltK, which is predicted to encode a glutamate/aspartate transport system permease protein, was identified by M-TraM to be involved in bile resistance. The role of GltK in bile salt resistance was confirmed by the subsequent observation that the deletion of gltK significantly sensitized E. faecium E1162 to bile salts. To further characterize the response of E. faecium E1162 to bile salts, we performed a transcriptome analysis to identify genes that are regulated by exposure to 0.02% bile salts. Exposure to bile salts resulted in major transcriptional rearrangements, predominantly in genes involved in carbohydrate, nucleotide and coenzyme transport and metabolism. Conclusion These findings add to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which E. faecium responds and resists the antimicrobial action of bile salts. PMID:23641968

  2. Antimicrobial effect of alexidine and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Shik; Woo Chang, Seok; Baek, Seung-Ho; Han, Seung Hyun; Lee, Yoon; Zhu, Qiang; Kum, Kee-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    A previous study demonstrated that alexidine has greater affinity for the major virulence factors of bacteria than chlorhexidine. The aim of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of 1% alexidine with that of 2% chlorhexidine using Enterococcus faecalis-infected dentin blocks. Sixty bovine dentin blocks were prepared and randomly divided into six groups of 10 each. E. faecalis was inoculated on 60 dentin blocks using the Luppens apparatus for 24 h and then the dentin blocks were soaked in 2% chlorhexidine or 1% alexidine solutions for 5 and 10 min, respectively. Sterile saline was used as a control. The antimicrobial efficacy was assessed by counting the number of bacteria adhering to the dentin surface and observing the degradation of bacterial shape or membrane rupture under a scanning electron microscope. Significantly fewer bacteria were observed in the 2% chlorhexidine- or 1% alexidine-soaked groups than in the control group (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the number of bacteria adhering to the dentinal surface between the two experimental groups or between the two soaking time groups (P>0.05). Ruptured or antiseptic-attached bacteria were more frequently observed in the 10-min-soaked chlorhexidine and alexidine groups than in the 5-min-soaked chlorhexidine and alexidine groups. In conclusion, 10-min soaking with 1% alexidine or 2% chlorhexidine can be effective against E. faecalis infection. PMID:23492900

  3. Phage therapy against Enterococcus faecalis in dental root canals.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Leron; Shlezinger, Mor; Beyth, Shaul; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Coppenhagen-Glazer, Shunit; Beyth, Nurit; Hazan, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem faced by all major sectors of health care, including dentistry. Recurrent infections related to multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in hospitals are untreatable and question the effectiveness of notable drugs. Two major reasons for these recurrent infections are acquired antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. None of the traditionally known effective techniques have been able to efficiently resolve these issues. Hence, development of a highly effective antibacterial practice has become inevitable. One example of a hard-to-eradicate pathogen in dentistry is Enterococcus faecalis, which is one of the most common threats observed in recurrent root canal treatment failures, of which the most problematic to treat are its biofilm-forming VRE strains. An effective response against such infections could be the use of bacteriophages (phages). Phage therapy was found to be highly effective against biofilm and multidrug-resistant bacteria and has other advantages like ease of isolation and possibilities for genetic manipulations. The potential of phage therapy in dentistry, in particular against E. faecalis biofilms in root canals, is almost unexplored. Here we review the efforts to develop phage therapy against biofilms. We also focus on the phages isolated against E. faecalis and discuss the possibility of using phages against E. faecalis biofilm in root canals. PMID:27640530

  4. Enterococcus faecalis promotes osteoclastogenesis and semaphorin 4D expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Deng, Zuhui; Seneviratne, Chaminda J; Cheung, Gary S P; Jin, Lijian; Zhao, Baohong; Zhang, Chengfei

    2015-10-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is considered a major bacterial pathogen implicated in endodontic infections and contributes considerably to periapical periodontitis. This study aimed to investigate the potential mechanisms by which E. faecalis accounts for the bone destruction in periapical periodontitis in vitro. Osteoclast precursor RAW264.7 cells were treated with E. faecalis ATCC 29212 and a wild strain of E. faecalis derived clinically from an infected root canal. The results showed that, to some extent, E. faecalis induced the RAW264.7 cells to form tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated osteoclast-like cells. This pathogen markedly stimulated RAW264.7 cells to express semaphorin 4D (Sema4D), which inhibits bone formation. Once RAW264.7 cells were primed by low-dose receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL), E. faecalis could significantly increase the production of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells and up-regulate the expression of osteoclast-specific markers, including NFATc1, TRAP and cathepsin K. Both p38 and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathways were activated by E. faecalis in RANKL-primed RAW264.7 cells, and meanwhile the expression of Sema4D was highly increased. In conclusion, E. faecalis may greatly contribute to the bone resorption in periapical periodontitis by promoting RANKL-dependent osteoclastogenesis and expression of Sema4D through activation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathways.

  5. Rapid Kill—Novel Endodontic Sealer and Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Zaltsman, Nathan; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Abramovitz, Itzhak; Davidi, Michael Perez; Weiss, Ervin I.

    2013-01-01

    With growing concern over bacterial resistance, the identification of new antimicrobial means is paramount. In the oral cavity microorganisms are essential to the development of periradicular diseases and are the major causative factors associated with endodontic treatment failure. As quaternary ammonium compounds have the ability to kill a wide array of bacteria through electrostatic interactions with multiple anionic targets on the bacterial surface, it is likely that they can overcome bacterial resistance. Melding these ideas, we investigated the potency of a novel endodontic sealer in limiting Enterococcus faecalis growth. We used a polyethyleneimine scaffold to synthesize nano-sized particles, optimized for incorporation into an epoxy-based endodontic sealer. The novel endodontic sealer was tested for its antimicrobial efficacy and evaluated for biocompatibility and physical eligibility. Our results show that the novel sealer foundation affixes the nanoparticles, achieving surface bactericidal properties, but at the same time impeding nanoparticle penetration into eukaryotic cells and thereby mitigating a possible toxic effect. Moreover, adequate physical properties are maintained. The nanosized quaternary amine particles interact within minutes with bacteria, triggering cell death across wide pH values. Throughout this study we demonstrate a new antibacterial perspective for endodontic sealers; a novel antibacterial, effective and safe antimicrobial means. PMID:24223159

  6. Covalent immobilization of Enterococcus faecalis Esawy dextransucrase and dextran synthesis.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Amal M; Gamal, Amira A; Hassan, Mohamed E; Hassanein, Naziha M; Esawy, Mona A

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis Esawy dextransucrase was immobilized in Fe(3+)-cross-linked alginate/carboxymethyl cellulose (AC) beads. The gel beads were modified with polyethylenimine (PEI) followed by glutaraldehyde (GA) to form Fe(3+) (ACPG) beads. Fe(3+) (ACPG) was characterized using FTIR and DSC techniques. GA activated beads showed new two peaks. The first was at 1,717 cm(-1) which refers to (CO) group of a free aldehyde end of glutaraldehyde, and another peak was at 1,660 cm(-1) referring to (CN) group. The immobilization process improved the optimum temperature from 35 to 45°C. The immobilized enzyme showed its optimum activity in wide pH range (4.5-5.4) compared to pH 5.4 in case of free form. Also, the immobilization process improved the thermal and pH enzyme stability to great extent. Reusability test proved that the enzyme activity retained 60% after 15 batch reactions. Immobilized enzyme was applied successfully in the synthesis of oligosaccharides and different molecular weights of dextran.

  7. Biohybrid polymer-antimicrobial peptide medium against Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Eckhard, Lea H; Sol, Asaf; Abtew, Ester; Shai, Yechiel; Domb, Abraham J; Bachrach, Gilad; Beyth, Nurit

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are conserved evolutionary components of the innate immune system that are being tested as alternatives to antibiotics. Slow release of AMPs using biodegradable polymers can be advantageous in maintaining high peptide levels for topical treatment, especially in the oral environment in which dosage retention is challenged by drug dilution with saliva flow and by drug inactivation by salivary enzymatic activity. Enterococcus faecalis is a multidrug resistant nosocomial pathogen and a persistent pathogen in root canal infections. In this study, four ultra-short lipopeptides (C16-KGGK, C16-KLLK, C16-KAAK and C16-KKK) and an amphipathic α-helical antimicrobial peptide (Amp-1D) were tested against E. faecalis. The antibacterial effect was determined against planktonic bacteria and bacteria grown in biofilm. Of the five tested AMPs, C16-KGGK was the most effective. Next C16-KGGK was formulated with one of two polymers poly (lactic acid co castor oil) (DLLA) or ricinoleic acid-based poly (ester-anhydride) P(SA-RA). Peptide-synthetic polymer conjugates, also referred to as biohybrid mediums were tested for antibacterial activity against E. faecalis grown in suspension and in biofilms. The new formulations exhibited strong and improved anti-E. faecalis activity.

  8. Biohybrid Polymer-Antimicrobial Peptide Medium against Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Eckhard, Lea H.; Sol, Asaf; Abtew, Ester; Shai, Yechiel; Domb, Abraham J.

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are conserved evolutionary components of the innate immune system that are being tested as alternatives to antibiotics. Slow release of AMPs using biodegradable polymers can be advantageous in maintaining high peptide levels for topical treatment, especially in the oral environment in which dosage retention is challenged by drug dilution with saliva flow and by drug inactivation by salivary enzymatic activity. Enterococcus faecalis is a multidrug resistant nosocomial pathogen and a persistent pathogen in root canal infections. In this study, four ultra-short lipopeptides (C16-KGGK, C16-KLLK, C16-KAAK and C16-KKK) and an amphipathic α-helical antimicrobial peptide (Amp-1D) were tested against E. faecalis. The antibacterial effect was determined against planktonic bacteria and bacteria grown in biofilm. Of the five tested AMPs, C16-KGGK was the most effective. Next C16-KGGK was formulated with one of two polymers poly (lactic acid co castor oil) (DLLA) or ricinoleic acid-based poly (ester-anhydride) P(SA-RA). Peptide-synthetic polymer conjugates, also referred to as biohybrid mediums were tested for antibacterial activity against E. faecalis grown in suspension and in biofilms. The new formulations exhibited strong and improved anti- E. faecalis activity. PMID:25279943

  9. Phage therapy against Enterococcus faecalis in dental root canals

    PubMed Central

    Khalifa, Leron; Shlezinger, Mor; Beyth, Shaul; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Coppenhagen-Glazer, Shunit; Beyth, Nurit; Hazan, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem faced by all major sectors of health care, including dentistry. Recurrent infections related to multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in hospitals are untreatable and question the effectiveness of notable drugs. Two major reasons for these recurrent infections are acquired antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. None of the traditionally known effective techniques have been able to efficiently resolve these issues. Hence, development of a highly effective antibacterial practice has become inevitable. One example of a hard-to-eradicate pathogen in dentistry is Enterococcus faecalis, which is one of the most common threats observed in recurrent root canal treatment failures, of which the most problematic to treat are its biofilm-forming VRE strains. An effective response against such infections could be the use of bacteriophages (phages). Phage therapy was found to be highly effective against biofilm and multidrug-resistant bacteria and has other advantages like ease of isolation and possibilities for genetic manipulations. The potential of phage therapy in dentistry, in particular against E. faecalis biofilms in root canals, is almost unexplored. Here we review the efforts to develop phage therapy against biofilms. We also focus on the phages isolated against E. faecalis and discuss the possibility of using phages against E. faecalis biofilm in root canals. PMID:27640530

  10. Mathematical models for Enterococcus faecalis recovery after microwave water disinfection.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Earl; Reznik, Aron; Benjamin, Ellis; Pramanik, Saroj K; Sowers, Louise; Williams, Arthur L

    2009-12-01

    Microwave water disinfection is a rapid purification technique which can give billions of people access to clean drinking water. However, better understanding of bacterial recovery after microwave heating over time is necessary to determine parameters such as delayed bacterial growth rates and maximum bacterial yields. Mathematical models for Enterococcus faecalis recovery after microwave treatment in optimum growth conditions were developed for times up to 5 minutes using an optical absorbance method. Microwave times below 3 minutes (2,450 MHz, 130W) showed that bacterial recovery maintained a time-dependent sigmoidal form which included a maximum value. At microwave times greater than three minutes, bacterial recovery, with a time-dependent exponential form, significantly decreased and did not reach the maximum value within the interval of observance (0-8 hours). No bacterial growth was found after 6 minutes of microwave treatment. The prepared mathematical models were produced by transforming the given variables to the logistic or exponential functions. We found that time-dependent maximum growth rates and lag times could be approximated with second order polynomial functions. The determined models can be used as a template to illustrate bacterial survival during water purification using microwave irradiation, in both commercial and industrial processes.

  11. Identification of Enterococcus faecalis antigens specifically expressed in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Shet, Uttom K.; Park, Sang-Won; Lim, Hyun-Pil; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Kang, Seong Soo; Kim, Se Eun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Molecular mechanism of the pathogenicity of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis), a suspected endodontic pathogen, has not yet been adequately elucidated due to limited information on its virulence factors. Here we report the identification of in vivo expressed antigens of E. faecalis by using a novel immunoscreening technique called change-mediated antigen technology (CMAT) and an experimental animal model of endodontic infection. Materials and Methods Among 4,500 E. coli recombinant clones screened, 19 positive clones reacted reproducibly with hyperimmune sera obtained from rabbits immunized with E. faecalis cells isolated from an experimental endodontic infection. DNA sequences from 16 of these in vivo-induced (IVI) genes were determined. Results Identified protein antigens of E. faecalis included enzymes involved in housekeeping functions, copper resistance protein, putative outer membrane proteins, and proteins of unknown function. Conclusions In vivo expressed antigens of E. faecalis could be identified by using a novel immune-screening technique CMAT and an experimental animal model of endodontic infection. Detailed analysis of these IVI genes will lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the endodontic infection of E. faecalis. PMID:26587417

  12. In vitro effectiveness of Brazilian brown propolis against Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Hévelin Couto; Violante, Ivana Maria Povoa; Musis, Carlo Ralph de; Borges, Álvaro Henrique; Aranha, Andreza Maria Fábio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Brazilian brown propolis as an intracanal medication against Enterococcus faecalis. Thirty dentin discs prepared from intact freshly extracted bovine maxillary central incisors were infected with E. faecalis for 21 days. The specimens were distributed into six groups according to the medicament used as follows: G1- calcium hydroxide paste; G2- Carbowax 400 (control group); G3- 20% brown propolis paste; G4- 40% brown propolis paste; G5- 20% brown propolis paste + calcium hydroxide paste; and G6- 40% brown propolis paste + calcium hydroxide paste. The experimental pastes were placed into the canal lumen and left for 14 days. After each period, irrigation was performed with sterile saline to remove the medicament, and the canals were dried with sterile paper points. The dentin chips were removed from the canals with sequential sterile round burs at low speed and were immediately collected in separate test tubes containing BHI broth. The tubes were incubated at 37°C, and microbial growth was analyzed by spectrophotometry after 15 days. All the experimental medications significantly reduced the number of viable bacteria. The G4 and G5 pastes were more effective than the G1 paste, with 35.8%, 41%, and 21.3% antibacterial activity, respectively. Brazilian brown propolis shows antibacterial capacity against E. faecalis.

  13. Endocarditis and biofilm-associated pili of Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R.; Singh, Kavindra V.; Sillanpää, Jouko; Garsin, Danielle A.; Höök, Magnus; Erlandsen, Stanley L.; Murray, Barbara E.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing multidrug resistance in Enterococcus faecalis, a nosocomial opportunist and common cause of bacterial endocarditis, emphasizes the need for alternative therapeutic approaches such as immunotherapy or immunoprophylaxis. In an earlier study, we demonstrated the presence of antibodies in E. faecalis endocarditis patient sera to recombinant forms of 9 E. faecalis cell wall–anchored proteins; of these, we have now characterized an in vivo–expressed locus of 3 genes and an associated sortase gene (encoding sortase C; SrtC). Here, using mutation analyses and complementation, we demonstrated that both the ebp (encoding endocarditis and biofilm-associated pili) operon and srtC are important for biofilm production of E. faecalis strain OG1RF. In addition, immunogold electron microscopy using antisera against EbpA–EbpC proteins as well as patient serum demonstrated that E. faecalis produces pleomorphic surface pili. Assembly of pili and their cell wall attachment appeared to occur via a mechanism of cross-linking of the Ebp proteins by the designated SrtC. Importantly, a nonpiliated, allelic replacement mutant was significantly attenuated in an endocarditis model. These biologically important surface pili, which are antigenic in humans during endocarditis and encoded by a ubiquitous E. faecalis operon, may be a useful immunotarget for studies aimed at prevention and/or treatment of this pathogen. PMID:17016560

  14. Enterococcus growth on eelgrass (Zostera marina); implications for water quality.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Donna M; Weisberg, Stephen B; Hagedorn, Charles; De Leon, Kristine; Mofidi, Vida; Wolfe, Julia; Zimmerman, May; Jay, Jennifer A

    2016-04-01

    Enterococci are fecal indicator bacteria used to monitor fecal pollution of recreational waters. When enterococci levels exceed health standards, fecal pollution is assumed as the cause. Enterococci growing on plants limit their usefulness as fecal indicator bacteria. Here we examined enterococcal growth on eelgrass in Mission Bay, CA where enterococci levels have exceeded water quality thresholds. A total of 69 eelgrass samples were collected from six sites, shaken to remove enterococci attached to plant surfaces and the eluant filtered onto culture media. Isolates were then identified to species using biochemical methods, and DNA typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was done to assess clonality of strains. Enterococci concentrations among eelgrass ranged from 8 to 14 000 CFU g(-1) dry weight. The most predominant enterococcal species found were Enterococcus casseliflavus and E. hirae followed by E. faecalis. Cluster analysis indicated a high level of clonality among isolates across all species, with clonal isolates consistently associated with individual eelgrass samples. Finding high densities of E. casseliflavus, E. hirae and E. faecalis on eelgrass that included clonal strains indicates the capability of enterococcal growth on eelgrass. Amplification of enterococci on eelgrass presents challenges for regulatory agencies that interpret elevated levels of these bacteria as an indication of fecal pollution.

  15. Citrate Metabolism by Enterococcus faecalis FAIR-E 229

    PubMed Central

    Sarantinopoulos, Panagiotis; Kalantzopoulos, George; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2001-01-01

    Citrate metabolism by Enterococcus faecalis FAIR-E 229 was studied in various growth media containing citrate either in the presence of glucose or lactose or as the sole carbon source. In skim milk (130 mM lactose, 8 mM citrate), cometabolism of citrate and lactose was observed from the first stages of the growth phase. Lactose was stoichiometrically converted into lactate, while citrate was converted into acetate, formate, and ethanol. When de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) broth containing lactose (28 mM) instead of glucose was used, E. faecalis FAIR-E 229 catabolized only the carbohydrate. Lactate was the major end product, and small amounts of ethanol were also detected. Increasing concentrations of citrate (10, 40, 70, and 100 mM) added to MRS broth enhanced both the maximum growth rate of E. faecalis FAIR-E 229 and glucose catabolism, although citrate itself was not catabolized. Glucose was converted stoichiometrically into lactate, while small amounts of ethanol were produced as well. Finally, when increasing initial concentrations of citrate (10, 40, 70, and 100 mM) were used as the sole carbon sources in MRS broth without glucose, the main end products were acetate and formate. Small amounts of lactate, ethanol, and acetoin were also detected. This work strongly supports the suggestion that enterococcal strains have the metabolic potential to metabolize citrate and therefore to actively contribute to the flavor development of fermented dairy products. PMID:11722896

  16. Isolation and Biochemical Fingerprinting of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium From Meat, Chicken and Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Malihe; Sadeghi, Javad; Rahimi, Fateh; Pourshafie, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are important nosocomial pathogens and food chain has been considered as an assumed source for dissemination of VRE to human. Objectives: The presence of VRE isolates from food samples and typing of these isolates with Phene plate, a biochemical fingerprinting method, were investigated. Materials and Methods: Thirty samples of meat, chicken and cheese were analyzed for VRE during 2010. Antibiotic susceptibility tests and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were also examined. VRE isolates were typed with the Phene plate system (PhPlate), a biochemical fingerprinting method. Results: A total of 70 VRE isolates were obtained and identified as Enterococcus faecium by species-specific PCR. All the isolates carried vanA, while none of them harbored vanB. The VRE isolates included 35, 27, and 8 isolates from meat, chicken and cheese, respectively. Typing with the PhPlate revealed a diversity index of 0.78 for E. faecium, containing 10 common and four single types. The results of antibiotic susceptibility and MIC tests showed an increased resistance to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, ampicillin and gentamicin, to which, 100%, 100%, 100%, and 95% of VRE isolates were resistant, respectively. Only 5% of the isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol and the MIC of the isolates for vancomycin and teicoplanin was ≥ 256 µg/mL and for gentamicin-resistant isolates it was 1024 µg/mL. Conventional and molecular identification tests exhibited that all the isolates were E. faecium carrying vanA. None of the isolates harbored vanB. Conclusions: The results showed that enterococci are common contaminants in food. Indeed, this study indicates a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant enterococci in food of animal origin in Iran. Isolating some persisting enterococcal isolates revealed that continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in enterococci from food is essential. PMID:26034532

  17. Characterization of functional properties of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from human gut.

    PubMed

    İspirli, Hümeyra; Demirbaş, Fatmanur; Dertli, Enes

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the functional properties of Enterococcus faecium strains identified after isolation from human faeces. Of these isolates, strain R13 showed the best resistance to low pH, bile salts, and survival in the simulated in vitro digestion assay, and demonstrated an important level of adhesion to hexadecane as a potential probiotic candidate. Analysis of the antibiotic resistance of E. faecium strains indicated that in general these isolates were sensitive to the tested antibiotics and no strain appeared to be resistant to vancomycin. Examination of the virulence determinants for E. faecium strains demonstrated that all strains contained the virulence genes common in gut- and food-originated enterococci, and strain R13 harboured the lowest number of virulence genes. Additionally, no strain contained the genes related to cytolysin metabolism and showed hemolytic activity. The antimicrobial role of E. faecium strains was tested against several pathogens, in which different levels of inhibitory effects were observed, and strain R13 was inhibitory to all tested pathogens. PCR screening of genes encoding enterocin A and B indicated the presence of these genes in E. faecium strains. Preliminary characterization of bacteriocins revealed that their activity was lost after proteolytic enzyme treatments, but no alteration in antimicrobial activity was observed at different pHs (3.5 to 9.5) and after heat treatments. In conclusion, this study revealed the functional characteristics of E. faecium R13 as a gut isolate, and this strain could be developed as a new probiotic after further tests.

  18. Changes in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium causing outbreaks in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Palazzo, I C V; Pitondo-Silva, A; Levy, C E; da Costa Darini, A L

    2011-09-01

    Enterococci have been implicated in severe human infections as a consequence of associated determinants of virulence and antimicrobial resistance. The majority of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE(fm)) connected to outbreaks worldwide pertains to the clonal complex 17 (CC17). In Brazil, the majority of VRE(fm) involved in outbreaks reported so far are not related to CC17. VRE(fm) strains responsible for an outbreak and sporadic cases in hospitals located in the city of Campinas, Brazil, were compared to other VRE(fm) strains in the country. Twenty-two out of 23 E. faecium were vancomycin-resistant and harboured the vanA gene. One vancomycin-susceptible E. faecium (VSE(fm)) strain was included in this study because it was isolated from a patient who one week later harboured a VRE(fm). All strains, except VSE, showed the same alteration in the VanA element characterised by deletion of the left extremity of the transposon and insertion of IS1251 between the vanS and vanH genes. Genes codifying virulence factors such as collagen-adhesin protein, enterococcal surface protein and hyaluronidase were detected in the VRE(fm) and VSE(fm) studied. Both pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) revealed that VRE(fm) and VSE(fm) strains have a clonal relationship. New sequence types (STs) were identified by MLST as ST447, ST448, ST478 and ST412 but all belonged to the CC17. The present study revealed that VRE(fm) outbreaks in Brazil were caused by strains that did not share a common evolutionary history, and that VRE(fm) strains belonging to CC17 could be predominant in Brazil as in other countries. PMID:21741112

  19. The Heterodimeric ABC Transporter EfrCD Mediates Multidrug Efflux in Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Hürlimann, Lea M.; Corradi, Valentina; Hohl, Michael; Bloemberg, Guido V.; Tieleman, D. Peter

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial infections with Enterococcus faecalis are an emerging health problem. However, drug efflux pumps contributing to intrinsic drug resistance are poorly studied in this Gram-positive pathogen. In this study, we functionally investigated seven heterodimeric ABC transporters of E. faecalis that are annotated as drug efflux pumps. Deletion of ef0789-ef0790 on the chromosome of E. faecalis resulted in increased susceptibility to daunorubicin, doxorubicin, ethidium, and Hoechst 33342, and the corresponding transporter was named EfrCD. Unexpectedly, the previously described heterodimeric multidrug ABC transporter EfrAB contributes marginally to drug efflux in the endogenous context of E. faecalis. In contrast, heterologous expression in Lactococcus lactis revealed that EfrAB, EfrCD, and the product of ef2226-ef2227 (EfrEF) mediate the efflux of fluorescent substrates and confer resistance to multiple dyes and drugs, including fluoroquinolones. Four of seven transporters failed to exhibit drug efflux activity for the set of drugs and dyes tested, even upon overexpression in L. lactis. Since all seven transporters were purified as heterodimers after overexpression in L. lactis, a lack of drug efflux activity is not attributed to poor expression or protein aggregation. Reconstitution of the purified multidrug transporters EfrAB, EfrCD, and EfrEF in proteoliposomes revealed functional coupling between ATP hydrolysis and drug binding. Our analysis creates an experimental basis for the accurate prediction of drug efflux transporters and indicates that many annotated multidrug efflux pumps might be incapable of drug transport and thus might fulfill other physiological functions in the cell. PMID:27381387

  20. Drug-resistant and hospital-associated Enterococcus faecium from wastewater, riverine estuary and anthropogenically impacted marine catchment basin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Enterococci, ubiquitous colonizers of humans and other animals, play an increasingly important role in health-care associated infections (HAIs). It is believed that the recent evolution of two clinically relevant species, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium occurred in a big part in a hospital environment, leading to formation of high-risk enterococcal clonal complexes (HiRECCs), which combine multidrug resistance with increased pathogenicity and epidemicity. The aim of this study was to establish the species composition in wastewater, its marine recipient as well as a river estuary and to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of collected isolates. Molecular methods were additionally applied to test the presence of HiRRECC-related E. faecium. Results Two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), their marine outfalls and Vistula river that influence significantly the quality of waters in Gulf of Gdansk were sampled to investigate the presence of Enterococcus spp. Four-hundred-twenty-eight isolates were obtained, including E. faecium (244 isolates, 57.0%), E. hirae (113 isolates, 26.4%) and E. faecalis (63 isolates, 14.7%); other species (E. gallinarum/casseliflavus, E. durans and E. avium) accounted for 1.9%. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed the presence of isolates resistant to erythromycin, tetracycline, amipicillin, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides (high-level resistance), especially among E. faecium, where such isolates were usually characterized by multilocus sequence types associated with nosocomial lineages 17, 18 and 78 of this species representing HiRECC, formerly called CC17. These isolates not only carried several resistance determinants but were also enriched in genes encoding pathogenicity factors (Esp, pili) and genes associated with mobile genetic elements (MGE), a feature also typical for nosocomial HiRECC. Conclusions Our data show that WWTPs constitute an important source of enterococcal strains carrying

  1. Virulence determinants and production of extracellular enzymes in Enterococcus spp. from surface water sources.

    PubMed

    Molale, Lesego Gertrude; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Virulence factors in Enterococcus may be indicative of potential pathogenicity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the presence of clinically relevant virulence genes, in Enterococcus spp. from environmental water, and their in vitro expression. One hundred and twenty-four Enterococcus isolates (seven species), from five surface water systems in the North West Province, South Africa, were screened for the presence of asa1, cylA, esp, gelE and hyl using polymerase chain reaction. The expression of cylA, hyl and gelE was determined by phenotypic assessments. Sixty-five percent of the isolates were positive for one virulence gene and 13% for two or more. Most frequently detected genes were gelE (32%) and cylA (28%). Enterococcal surface protein was absent in all isolates screened. The presence of virulence genes was correlated with their extracellular enzyme production. The results show that a large percentage of these environmental Enterococcus spp. possess virulence factors that could be expressed in vitro. This is a cause for concern and could have implications for individuals using this water for recreational and cultural purposes. Further investigation is required into the sources of these potential pathogenic Enterococcus isolates and measures to minimize their presence in water sources.

  2. Novel mechanism of resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics in Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Cremniter, Julie; Mainardi, Jean-Luc; Josseaume, Nathalie; Quincampoix, Jean-Charles; Dubost, Lionel; Hugonnet, Jean-Emmanuel; Marie, Arul; Gutmann, Laurent; Rice, Louis B.; Arthur, Michel

    2006-01-01

    Glycopeptides and β-lactams are the major antibiotics available for the treatment of infections due to Gram-positive bacteria. Emergence of cross-resistance to these drugs by a single mechanism has been considered as unlikely since they inhibit peptidoglycan polymerization by different mechanisms. The glycopeptides bind to the peptidyl-D-Ala4-D-Ala5 extremity of peptidoglycan precursors and block by steric hindrance the essential glycosyltransferase and D,D-transpeptidase activities of the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). The β-lactams are structural analogues of D-Ala4-D-Ala5 and act as suicide substrates of the D,D-transpeptidase module of the PBPs. Here we show that bypass of the PBPs by the recently described β-lactam-insensitive L,D-transpeptidase from Enterococcus faecium (Ldtfm) can lead to high-level resistance to glycopeptides and β-lactams. Cross-resistance was selected by glycopeptides alone or serially by β-lactams and glycopeptides. In the corresponding mutants, UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide was extensively converted to UDP-MurNAc-tetrapeptide following hydrolysis of D-Ala5, thereby providing the substrate of Ldtfm. Complete elimination of D-Ala5, a residue essential for glycopeptide binding, was possible since Ldtfm uses the energy of the L-Lys3-D-Ala4 peptide bond for cross-link formation in contrast to PBPs which use the energy of the D-Ala4-D-Ala5 bond. This novel mechanism of glycopeptide resistance was unrelated to the previously identified replacement of D-Ala5 by D-Ser or D-lactate. PMID:16943188

  3. Mechanisms for Photoinactivation of Enterococcus faecalis in Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Sassoubre, Lauren M.; Nelson, Kara L.

    2012-01-01

    Field studies in fresh and marine waters consistently show diel fluctuations in concentrations of enterococci, indicators of water quality. We investigated sunlight inactivation of Enterococcus faecalis to gain insight into photoinactivation mechanisms and cellular responses to photostress. E. faecalis bacteria were exposed to natural sunlight in clear, filtered seawater under both oxic and anoxic conditions to test the relative importance of oxygen-mediated and non-oxygen-mediated photoinactivation mechanisms. Multiple methods were used to assess changes in bacterial concentration, including cultivation, quantitative PCR (qPCR), propidium monoazide (PMA)-qPCR, LIVE/DEAD staining using propidium iodide (PI), and cellular activity, including ATP concentrations and expression of the superoxide dismutase-encoding gene, sodA. Photoinactivation, based on numbers of cultivable cells, was faster in oxic than in anoxic microcosms exposed to sunlight, suggesting that oxygen-mediated photoinactivation dominated. There was little change in qPCR signal over the course of the experiment, demonstrating that the nucleic acid targets were not damaged to a significant extent. The PMA-qPCR signal was also fairly stable, consistent with the observation that the fraction of PI-permeable cells was constant. Thus, damage to the membrane was minimal. Microbial ATP concentrations decreased in all microcosms, particularly the sunlit oxic microcosms. The increase in relative expression of the sodA gene in the sunlit oxic microcosms suggests that cells were actively responding to oxidative stress. Dark repair was not observed. This research furthers our understanding of photoinactivation mechanisms and the conditions under which diel fluctuations in enterococci can be expected in natural and engineered systems. PMID:22941072

  4. First outbreak of linezolid-resistant vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in an Irish hospital, February to September 2014.

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, C; Murphy, V; Doyle, O; Wrenn, C; Flynn, A; O'Flaherty, N; Fenelon, L E; Schaffer, K; FitzGerald, S F

    2015-12-01

    An outbreak of linezolid-resistant vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (LRVREfm) occurred in the hepatology ward of a tertiary referral hospital in Ireland between February and September 2014. LRVREfm was isolated from 15 patients; pulsed-field gel electrophoresis confirmed spread of a single clone. This is the first report of an outbreak of linezolid-resistant vancomycin-resistant enterococcus in Ireland.

  5. Detection of vanC1 gene transcription in vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Moura, Tiane Martin de; Cassenego, Ana Paula Vaz; Campos, Fabrício Souza; Ribeiro, Andrea Machado Leal; Franco, Ana Cláudia; d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Frazzon, Jeverson; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

    2013-06-01

    Here we report the presence and expression levels of the vanC1 and vanC(2/3) genes in vancomycin-susceptible strains of Enterococcus faecalis. The vanC1 and vanC(2/3) genes were located in the plasmid DNA and on the chromosome, respectively. Specific mRNA of the vanC1 gene was detected in one of these strains. Additionally, analysis of the vanC gene sequences showed that these genes are related to the vanC genes of Enterococcus gallinarum and Enterococcus casseliflavus. The presence of vanC genes is useful for the identification of E. gallinarum and E. casseliflavus. Moreover, this is the first report of vanC mRNA in E. faecalis.

  6. Infection of Central Nervous System by Motile Enterococcus: First Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kurup, Asok; Tee, Wen Sim Nancy; Loo, Liat Hui; Lin, Raymond

    2001-01-01

    A 66-year-old man with four indwelling ventriculoperitoneal shunts for multiloculated hydrocephalus from a complicated case of meningitis a year before developed shunt infection based on a syndrome of fever, drowsiness, and cerebrospinal fluid neutrophil pleocytosis in the background of repeated surgical manipulation to relieve successive shunt blockages. The cerebrospinal fluid culture, which yielded a motile Enterococcus species, was believed to originate from the gut. This isolate was lost in storage and could not be characterized further. The patient improved with vancomycin and high-dose ampicillin therapy. He relapsed a month later with Enterococcus gallinarum shunt infection, which responded to high-dose ampicillin and gentamicin therapy. This is probably the first case report of motile Enterococcus infection of the central nervous system. PMID:11158162

  7. Identification of vancomycin-susceptible major clones of clinical Enterococcus from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Bourafa, Nadjette; Abat, Cédric; Loucif, Lotfi; Olaitan, Abiola Olumuyiwa; Bentorki, Ahmed Aimen; Boutefnouchet, Nafissa; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-09-01

    The main objectives of this study were to characterize clinical strains of Enterococcus spp. isolated from Algerian inpatients and outpatients, to investigate their susceptibility to antibiotics and to analyse their phylogenetic relatedness. A total of 85 non-duplicate Enterococcus spp. isolates collected between 2010 and 2013 from various clinical samples, including urine, vaginal swab, pus, blood and semen, from Algerian inpatients (n=62) and outpatients (n=23) were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion and Etest methods. Clonal relatedness was analysed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Enterococcus faecalis was the most predominant species (75.3%), followed by Enterococcus faecium (21.2%), Enterococcus gallinarum (2.4%) and Enterococcus casseliflavus (1.2%). High-level resistance to aminoglycosides was significantly more prevalent in hospitalized patients than in outpatients. None of the E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates were resistant to vancomycin. High genetic diversity was observed among the E. faecalis isolates, with the identification of a new clonal complex (CC256), as well as the detection of E. faecalis ST6 and E. faecium lineages ST17, ST18 and ST78 associated with hospital isolates. This is the first report of E. faecalis ST6 and E. faecium ST17 and ST18 in Algeria. Although acquired vancomycin resistance was not observed among the enterococcal strains, there is a continued need to monitor the level of antibiotic resistance among enterococci as well as the evolution of the E. faecalis/E. faecium ratio.

  8. Identification of vancomycin-susceptible major clones of clinical Enterococcus from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Bourafa, Nadjette; Abat, Cédric; Loucif, Lotfi; Olaitan, Abiola Olumuyiwa; Bentorki, Ahmed Aimen; Boutefnouchet, Nafissa; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-09-01

    The main objectives of this study were to characterize clinical strains of Enterococcus spp. isolated from Algerian inpatients and outpatients, to investigate their susceptibility to antibiotics and to analyse their phylogenetic relatedness. A total of 85 non-duplicate Enterococcus spp. isolates collected between 2010 and 2013 from various clinical samples, including urine, vaginal swab, pus, blood and semen, from Algerian inpatients (n=62) and outpatients (n=23) were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion and Etest methods. Clonal relatedness was analysed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Enterococcus faecalis was the most predominant species (75.3%), followed by Enterococcus faecium (21.2%), Enterococcus gallinarum (2.4%) and Enterococcus casseliflavus (1.2%). High-level resistance to aminoglycosides was significantly more prevalent in hospitalized patients than in outpatients. None of the E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates were resistant to vancomycin. High genetic diversity was observed among the E. faecalis isolates, with the identification of a new clonal complex (CC256), as well as the detection of E. faecalis ST6 and E. faecium lineages ST17, ST18 and ST78 associated with hospital isolates. This is the first report of E. faecalis ST6 and E. faecium ST17 and ST18 in Algeria. Although acquired vancomycin resistance was not observed among the enterococcal strains, there is a continued need to monitor the level of antibiotic resistance among enterococci as well as the evolution of the E. faecalis/E. faecium ratio. PMID:27530845

  9. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. isolated from the river and coastal waters in northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Majid; Hajiesmaili, Reza; Talebjannat, Maryam; Yahyapour, Yousef

    2014-01-01

    As fecal streptococci commonly inhabit the intestinal tract of humans and warm blooded animals, and daily detection of all pathogenic bacteria in coastal water is not practical, thus these bacteria are used to detect the fecal contamination of water. The present study examined the presence and the antibiotic resistance patterns of Enterococcus spp. isolated from the Babolrud River in Babol and coastal waters in Babolsar. Seventy samples of water were collected in various regions of the Babolrud and coastal waters. Isolated bacteria were identified to the species level using standard biochemical tests and PCR technique. In total, 70 Enterococcus spp. were isolated from the Babolrud River and coastal waters of Babolsar. Enterococcus faecalis (68.6%) and Enterococcus faecium (20%) were the most prevalent species. Resistance to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and tetracyclin was prevalent. The presence of resistant Enterococcus spp. in coastal waters may transmit resistant genes to other bacteria; therefore, swimming in such environments is not suitable.

  10. Transfer of tetracycline resistance genes with aggregation substance in food-borne Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong-Mi; Woo, Gun-Jo

    2015-04-01

    Enterococcus faecalis has the ability to conjugate with the aid of aggregation substance (AS) and inducible sex pheromones to exchange genetic elements in food matrix. To evaluate the food safety condition and the transferable factor, 250 tetracycline-resistant food-borne E. faecalis were collected in Korea. Among the isolates, a majority of tetracycline-resistant isolates (49.6 %) harbored both the tet(M) and tet(L) genes together, followed by tet(M) (19.6 %), and tet(L) (6.8 %) alone. Also, we found the combination of tet(L)/tet(M)/tet(O) or tet(M)/tet(O). We identified two tet(S) genes including the isolate carrying tet(M) + tet(S) genes. Additionally, most E. faecalis were positive for cpd and ccf (both 96.8 %) followed by cob (57.2 %). Through mating experiments, we confirmed E. faecalis possessing the Int-Tn gene and/or any AS gene successfully transferred tet genes to JH2-2 E. faecalis, whereas neither E. faecalis carrying AS genes nor the Int-Tn gene showed the conjugation. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis results supported a distinct pattern, implying transfer of genetic information. Our study revealed a high occurrence of tetracycline resistance genes in E. faecalis from various foods. The widespread dissemination of tetracycline resistance genes would be promoted to transfer tetracycline resistance genes by pheromone-mediated conjugation systems.

  11. Identification of an unusual VanA element in glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium in Brazil following international transfer of a bone marrow transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Camargo, I L B C; Del Peloso, P F; Da Costa Leite, C F; Goldman, G H; Darini, A L C

    2004-09-01

    A vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) was isolated from a blood culture of a patient in a Brazilian hospital who had a treatment history of a bone marrow transplant in the USA. The organism was identified as Enterococcus faecium, which exhibited an MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) >or= 256 microg/mL for vancomycin. This was confirmed by E-test and the vanA gene was detected by PCR. Overlapping PCR revealed a left IR deletion and an additional 1.5 kb fragment between vanSH genes. DdeI digestion of vanRSHAX genes showed the determinant to be a T type variant, and the element was cloned and sequenced. These results revealed an IS1251 downstream of nucleotide 5820 of the VanA element. Insertions like this have not been reported previously in Brazil, but have been detected in the USA. The genotype and association with a patient previously treated in the USA suggest that this VRE was introduced from abroad, probably through inter-hospital strain spread. PMID:15644931

  12. Horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance from Enterococcus faecium of fermented meat origin to clinical isolates of E. faecium and Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Musarrat; Zhanel, George G; Sparling, Richard; Holley, Richard A

    2015-04-16

    Enterococcus species are part of the normal intestinal flora of a large number of mammals including humans and consequently, they can be used as indicators of faecal contamination in food and water for human consumption. Their presence in large numbers in foods may indicate a lapse in sanitation and their ability to serve as a genetic reservoir of transferable antibiotic resistance is of concern. In the present study, Enterococcus spp., isolated from commercially fermented meat and human clinical specimen were studied to determine genetic relationships. SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns exhibited genomic heterogeneity within and between both groups of isolates. However, in spite of this heterogeneity there were still substantial phenotypic similarities which suggested that food might be a potential vehicle for distribution of resistant bacteria among humans. In vitro conjugation experiments demonstrated transfer of the tetracycline resistant determinant, tet(M), from Enterococcus faecium S27 isolated from fermented sausage to clinical isolates of both E. faecium and Enterococcus faecalis. The streptomycin resistance of E. faecium S27 was also transferred to a clinical strain, E. faecalis 82916, which was confirmed by the presence of the streptomycin resistance gene, aadA, in the donor and transconjugant strains. Since the aadA gene is associated with a class 1 integron, results also suggested that resistance transfer might have occurred via an integron. It appears this is the first identification of a class 1 integron in E. faecium isolated from food. The importance of food enterococci as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes and the potential for their genetic transfer to human strains following consumption of uncooked or undercooked contaminated meat is underlined by this work.

  13. Occurrence and spread of antibiotic resistances in Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Klare, Ingo; Konstabel, Carola; Badstübner, Dietlinde; Werner, Guido; Witte, Wolfgang

    2003-12-01

    Enterococci are the second to third most important bacterial genus in hospital infections. Especially Enterococcus (E.) faecium possesses a broad spectrum of natural and acquired antibiotic resistances which are presented in detail in this paper. From medical point of view, the transferable resistances to glycopeptides (e.g., vancomycin, VAN, or teicoplanin, TPL) and streptogramins (e.g., quinupristin/dalfopristin, Q/D) in enterococci are of special interest. The VanA type of enterococcal glycopeptide resistance is the most important one (VAN-r, TPL-r); its main reservoir is E. faecium. Glycopeptide-resistant E. faecium (GREF) can be found in hospitals and outside of them, namely in European commercial animal husbandry in which the glycopeptide avoparcin (AVO) was used as growth promoter in the past. There are identical types of the vanA gene clusters in enterococci from different ecological origins (faecal samples of animals, animal feed, patients in hospitals, persons in the community, waste water samples). Obviously, across the food chain (by GREF-contaminated meat products), these multiple-resistant bacteria or their vanA gene clusters can reach humans. In hospital infections, widespread epidemic-virulent E. faecium isolates of the same clone with or without glycopeptide resistance can occur; these strains often harbour different plasmids and the esp gene. This indicates that hospital-adapted epidemic-virulent E. faecium strains have picked up the vanA gene cluster after they were already widely spread. The streptogramin virginiamycin was also used as feed additive in commercial animal husbandry in Europe for more than 20 years, and it created reservoirs for streptogramin-resistant E. faecium (SREF). In 1998/1999, SREF could be isolated in Germany from waste water of sewage treatment plants, from faecal samples and meat products of animals that were fed virginiamycin (cross resistance to Q/D), from stools of humans in the community, and from clinical samples

  14. Torque Generation of Enterococcus hirae V-ATPase*

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Hiroshi; Minagawa, Yoshihiro; Hara, Mayu; Rahman, Suhaila; Yamato, Ichiro; Muneyuki, Eiro; Noji, Hiroyuki; Murata, Takeshi; Iino, Ryota

    2014-01-01

    V-ATPase (VoV1) converts the chemical free energy of ATP into an ion-motive force across the cell membrane via mechanical rotation. This energy conversion requires proper interactions between the rotor and stator in VoV1 for tight coupling among chemical reaction, torque generation, and ion transport. We developed an Escherichia coli expression system for Enterococcus hirae VoV1 (EhVoV1) and established a single-molecule rotation assay to measure the torque generated. Recombinant and native EhVoV1 exhibited almost identical dependence of ATP hydrolysis activity on sodium ion and ATP concentrations, indicating their functional equivalence. In a single-molecule rotation assay with a low load probe at high ATP concentration, EhVoV1 only showed the “clear” state without apparent backward steps, whereas EhV1 showed two states, “clear” and “unclear.” Furthermore, EhVoV1 showed slower rotation than EhV1 without the three distinct pauses separated by 120° that were observed in EhV1. When using a large probe, EhVoV1 showed faster rotation than EhV1, and the torque of EhVoV1 estimated from the continuous rotation was nearly double that of EhV1. On the other hand, stepping torque of EhV1 in the clear state was comparable with that of EhVoV1. These results indicate that rotor-stator interactions of the Vo moiety and/or sodium ion transport limit the rotation driven by the V1 moiety, and the rotor-stator interactions in EhVoV1 are stabilized by two peripheral stalks to generate a larger torque than that of isolated EhV1. However, the torque value was substantially lower than that of other rotary ATPases, implying the low energy conversion efficiency of EhVoV1. PMID:25258315

  15. Dispersion of the Vancomycin Resistance Genes vanA and vanC of Enterococcus Isolated from Nile Tilapia on Retail Sale: A Public Health Hazard

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Kamelia M.; Ali, Mohamed N.; Radwan, Ismail; ElHofy, Fatma; Abed, Ahmed H.; Orabi, Ahmed; Fawzy, Nehal M.

    2016-01-01

    Although normally regarded harmless commensals, enterococci may cause a range of different infections in humans, including urinary tract infections, sepsis, and endocarditis. The acquisition of vancomycin resistance by enterococci (VRE) has seriously affected the treatment and infection control of these organisms. VRE are frequently resistant to all antibiotics that are effective treatment for vancomycin-susceptible enterococci, which leaves clinicians treating VRE infections with limited therapeutic options. With VRE emerging as a global threat to public health, we aimed to isolate, identify enterococci species from tilapia and their resistance to van-mediated glycopeptide (vanA and vanC) as well as the presence of enterococcal surface protein (esp) using conventional and molecular methods. The cultural, biochemical (Vitek 2 system) and polymerase chain reaction results revealed eight Enterococcus isolates from the 80 fish samples (10%) to be further identified as E. faecalis (6/8, 75%) and E gallinarum (2/8, 25%). Intraperitoneal injection of healthy Nile tilapia with the eight Enterococcus isolates caused significant morbidity (70%) within 3 days and 100% mortality at 6 days post-injection with general signs of septicemia. All of the eight Enterococcus isolates were found to be resistant to tetracycline. The 6/6 E. faecalis isolates were susceptible for penicillin, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, and streptomycin. On the other hand 5/6 were susceptible for ampicillin, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin. The two isolates of E. gallinarum were sensitive to rifampicin and ciprofloxacin and resistant to vancomycin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin. Molecular characterization proved that they all presented the prototypic vanC element. On the whole, one of the two vancomycin resistance gene was present in 3/8 of the enterococci isolates, while the esp virulence gene was present in 1/8 of the enterococci isolates. The results in this study emphasize the

  16. Dispersion of the Vancomycin Resistance Genes vanA and vanC of Enterococcus Isolated from Nile Tilapia on Retail Sale: A Public Health Hazard

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Kamelia M.; Ali, Mohamed N.; Radwan, Ismail; ElHofy, Fatma; Abed, Ahmed H.; Orabi, Ahmed; Fawzy, Nehal M.

    2016-01-01

    Although normally regarded harmless commensals, enterococci may cause a range of different infections in humans, including urinary tract infections, sepsis, and endocarditis. The acquisition of vancomycin resistance by enterococci (VRE) has seriously affected the treatment and infection control of these organisms. VRE are frequently resistant to all antibiotics that are effective treatment for vancomycin-susceptible enterococci, which leaves clinicians treating VRE infections with limited therapeutic options. With VRE emerging as a global threat to public health, we aimed to isolate, identify enterococci species from tilapia and their resistance to van-mediated glycopeptide (vanA and vanC) as well as the presence of enterococcal surface protein (esp) using conventional and molecular methods. The cultural, biochemical (Vitek 2 system) and polymerase chain reaction results revealed eight Enterococcus isolates from the 80 fish samples (10%) to be further identified as E. faecalis (6/8, 75%) and E gallinarum (2/8, 25%). Intraperitoneal injection of healthy Nile tilapia with the eight Enterococcus isolates caused significant morbidity (70%) within 3 days and 100% mortality at 6 days post-injection with general signs of septicemia. All of the eight Enterococcus isolates were found to be resistant to tetracycline. The 6/6 E. faecalis isolates were susceptible for penicillin, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, and streptomycin. On the other hand 5/6 were susceptible for ampicillin, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin. The two isolates of E. gallinarum were sensitive to rifampicin and ciprofloxacin and resistant to vancomycin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin. Molecular characterization proved that they all presented the prototypic vanC element. On the whole, one of the two vancomycin resistance gene was present in 3/8 of the enterococci isolates, while the esp virulence gene was present in 1/8 of the enterococci isolates. The results in this study emphasize the

  17. Dispersion of the Vancomycin Resistance Genes vanA and vanC of Enterococcus Isolated from Nile Tilapia on Retail Sale: A Public Health Hazard.

    PubMed

    Osman, Kamelia M; Ali, Mohamed N; Radwan, Ismail; ElHofy, Fatma; Abed, Ahmed H; Orabi, Ahmed; Fawzy, Nehal M

    2016-01-01

    Although normally regarded harmless commensals, enterococci may cause a range of different infections in humans, including urinary tract infections, sepsis, and endocarditis. The acquisition of vancomycin resistance by enterococci (VRE) has seriously affected the treatment and infection control of these organisms. VRE are frequently resistant to all antibiotics that are effective treatment for vancomycin-susceptible enterococci, which leaves clinicians treating VRE infections with limited therapeutic options. With VRE emerging as a global threat to public health, we aimed to isolate, identify enterococci species from tilapia and their resistance to van-mediated glycopeptide (vanA and vanC) as well as the presence of enterococcal surface protein (esp) using conventional and molecular methods. The cultural, biochemical (Vitek 2 system) and polymerase chain reaction results revealed eight Enterococcus isolates from the 80 fish samples (10%) to be further identified as E. faecalis (6/8, 75%) and E gallinarum (2/8, 25%). Intraperitoneal injection of healthy Nile tilapia with the eight Enterococcus isolates caused significant morbidity (70%) within 3 days and 100% mortality at 6 days post-injection with general signs of septicemia. All of the eight Enterococcus isolates were found to be resistant to tetracycline. The 6/6 E. faecalis isolates were susceptible for penicillin, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, and streptomycin. On the other hand 5/6 were susceptible for ampicillin, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin. The two isolates of E. gallinarum were sensitive to rifampicin and ciprofloxacin and resistant to vancomycin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin. Molecular characterization proved that they all presented the prototypic vanC element. On the whole, one of the two vancomycin resistance gene was present in 3/8 of the enterococci isolates, while the esp virulence gene was present in 1/8 of the enterococci isolates. The results in this study emphasize the

  18. Individual variability in finger-to-finger transmission efficiency of Enterococcus faecium clones

    PubMed Central

    del Campo, Rosa; Sánchez-Díaz, Ana María; Zamora, Javier; Torres, Carmen; Cintas, Luis María; Franco, Elvira; Cantón, Rafael; Baquero, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    A fingertip-to-fingertip intraindividual transmission experiment was carried out in 30 healthy volunteers, using four MLST-typed Enterococcus faecium clones. Overall results showed an adequate fit goodness to a theoretical exponential model, whereas four volunteers (13%) exhibited a significantly higher finger-to-finger bacterial transmission efficiency. This observation might have deep consequences in nosocomial epidemiology. PMID:24382843

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterococcus mundtii QAUEM2808, Isolated from Dahi, a Fermented Milk Product

    PubMed Central

    Farah, N.; Mehdi, A.; Soomro, S. I.; Soomro, N. I.; Tareb, R.; Desmasures, N.; Vernoux, J. P.; Bakhtiar, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus mundtii QAUEM2808 has been isolated from dahi, an indigenous fermented milk product of Pakistan. Here, we report the draft genome sequence for this strain, which consists of 160 contigs corresponding to 2,957,514 bp and a G+C content of 38.5%. PMID:27635009

  20. Performance of Vitek 2 for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp.

    PubMed

    Bobenchik, April M; Hindler, Janet A; Giltner, Carmen L; Saeki, Sandra; Humphries, Romney M

    2014-02-01

    Vitek 2 (bioMérieux, Inc., Durham, NC) is a widely used commercial antimicrobial susceptibility testing system. We compared MIC results obtained by Vitek 2 to those obtained by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution (BMD) reference method for 134 staphylococcal and 84 enterococcal clinical isolates. Nineteen agents were evaluated, including all those available on Vitek 2 for testing staphylococci and enterococci. The resistance phenotypes tested included methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (n = 58), S. aureus with inducible clindamycin resistance (ICR) (n = 30), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant MRSA (n = 10), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (n = 37), high-level gentamicin-resistant Enterococcus (n = 15), linezolid-resistant Enterococcus (n = 5), and daptomycin-nonsusceptible Enterococcus faecalis (n = 6). For the staphylococci, there was 98.9% categorical agreement (CA). There was one very major error (VME) for gentamicin in a Staphylococcus hominis isolate, six VMEs for inducible clindamycin in S. aureus isolates, and two major errors (ME) for daptomycin in an S. aureus and a Staphylococcus epidermidis isolate. For enterococci, there was 97.3% CA. Two VMEs were observed for daptomycin in isolates of E. faecalis and 2 ME, 1 for high-level gentamicin resistance and 1 for nitrofurantoin, in E. faecium isolates. Overall, there was 98.3% CA and 99% essential agreement for the testing of staphylococci and enterococci by the Vitek 2. With the exception of detecting ICR in S. aureus, Vitek 2 performed reliably for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of staphylococci and enterococci.

  1. Lack of antibacterial activity of Ruta graveolens extracts against Enterococcus fecalis.

    PubMed

    Saeidinia, Amin; Keihanian, Fatemeh; Delavar, Sadegh Fallah; Keihanian, Fereshteh; Ranjbar, Arash; Karkan, Morteza Fallah

    2016-07-01

    Enterococcus fecalis is responsible for majority of enterococci infections and can cause clinical disorders in adult and pediatrics. In order to adverse effects of synthetic drugs, it has made a positive attitude toward alternative and complementary medicine. Ruta graveolens has a wide therapeutic application for various diseases. Aim of this study was to see the effect of this herb on Enterococcus fecalis growth. In this investigation we used standard Enterococcus fecalis. Effect of hydro-alcoholic, aqueous and methanolic extracts of Ruta graveolens on growth of bacteria has been evaluated by disc diffusion and serial dilution method and compared with eight prevalent antibiotics. None of disks with different extracts in the range of 50 to 400μ/ μl show any non-growth hallo. Disks with 500μg of all type extracts in comparison with antibiotic disks did not avoid from growth of bacteria. Third test showed the growth of bacteria and ineffectiveness of various amount of extracts. It seems that this ineffectiveness is because of low antibacterial substance against the bacteria in extracts of the herb and high resistant nature of Enterococcus fecalis to antibiotics and it needs more studies. PMID:27592474

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of a New Enterococcus faecalis Bacteriophage, vB_EfaS_IME197

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shi; Xing, Shaozhen; Zhang, Xianglilan; Pei, Guangqian; An, Xiaoping; Mi, Zhiqiang; Huang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    We report here the whole-genome sequence of a new Enterococcus faecalis phage, vB_EfaS_IME197, which has a linear double-stranded DNA genome of 41,307 bp with 34% G+C content. We describe the main features of the genome of vB_EfaS_IME197. PMID:27634987

  3. Individual variability in finger-to-finger transmission efficiency of Enterococcus faecium clones.

    PubMed

    del Campo, Rosa; Sánchez-Díaz, Ana María; Zamora, Javier; Torres, Carmen; Cintas, Luis María; Franco, Elvira; Cantón, Rafael; Baquero, Fernando

    2014-02-01

    A fingertip-to-fingertip intraindividual transmission experiment was carried out in 30 healthy volunteers, using four MLST-typed Enterococcus faecium clones. Overall results showed an adequate fit goodness to a theoretical exponential model, whereas four volunteers (13%) exhibited a significantly higher finger-to-finger bacterial transmission efficiency. This observation might have deep consequences in nosocomial epidemiology. PMID:24382843

  4. Investigation of genes involved in nisin production in Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from raw goat milk.

    PubMed

    Perin, Luana Martins; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2016-09-01

    Different strains of Lactococcus lactis are capable of producing the bacteriocin nisin. However, genetic transfer mechanisms allow the natural occurrence of genes involved in nisin production in members of other bacterial genera, such as Enterococcus spp. In a previous study, nisA was identified in eight enterococci capable of producing antimicrobial substances. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of genes involved in nisin production in Enterococcus spp. strains, as well as nisin expression. The nisA genes from eight Enterococcus spp. strains were sequenced and the translated amino acid sequences were compared to nisin amino-acid sequences previously described in databases. Although containing nisin structural and maturation related genes, the enterococci strains tested in the present study did not present the immunity related genes (nisFEG and nisI). The translated sequences of nisA showed some point mutations, identical to those presented by Lactococcus strains isolated from goat milk. All enterococci were inhibited by nisin, indicating the absence of immunity and thus that nisin cannot be expressed. This study demonstrated for the first time the natural occurrence of nisin structural genes in Enterococcus strains and highlights the importance of providing evidence of a link between the presence of bacteriocin genes and their expression.

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecalis Strain W11 Isolated from an Algal Food Product

    PubMed Central

    Takizawa, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis strain W11 isolated from an algal food product in Japan. This study should facilitate the identification of a novel mechanism of glycerol metabolic control in lactic acid bacteria. PMID:27688337

  6. Effects of ionophores on Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium growth in pure and mixed ruminal culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enterococcus faecalis and faecium are Gram-positive human pathogens that can live in the gastrointestinal tract of food animals. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are an increasing threat to humans as a nosocomial infection, as well as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. Ionophores ar...

  7. An indigenous gut bacterium, Enterococcus faecalis (Lactobacillales: Enterococcaceae), increases seed consumption by Harpalus pensylvanicus (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harpalus pensylvanicus is a beneficial beetle contributing to insect control and seed predation in North American cropland. The bacterial endosymbiont Enterococcus faecalis is found in the intestinal tract of H. pensylvanicus and is thought to contribute to the digestion of the insect's seed diet. W...

  8. REAL-TIME PCR METHOD TO DETECT ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 16S rDNA real-time PCR method was developed to detect Enterococcus faecalis in water samples. The dynamic range for cell detection spanned five logs and the detection limit was determined to be 6 cfu/reaction. The assay was capable of detecting E. faecalis cells added to biof...

  9. Detection and quantification limits of the EPA Enterococcus qPCR method

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA will be recommending a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method targeting Enterococcus spp. as an option for monitoring recreational beach water quality in 2013 and has published preliminary proposed water quality criteria guidelines for the method. An im...

  10. Lack of antibacterial activity of Ruta graveolens extracts against Enterococcus fecalis.

    PubMed

    Saeidinia, Amin; Keihanian, Fatemeh; Delavar, Sadegh Fallah; Keihanian, Fereshteh; Ranjbar, Arash; Karkan, Morteza Fallah

    2016-07-01

    Enterococcus fecalis is responsible for majority of enterococci infections and can cause clinical disorders in adult and pediatrics. In order to adverse effects of synthetic drugs, it has made a positive attitude toward alternative and complementary medicine. Ruta graveolens has a wide therapeutic application for various diseases. Aim of this study was to see the effect of this herb on Enterococcus fecalis growth. In this investigation we used standard Enterococcus fecalis. Effect of hydro-alcoholic, aqueous and methanolic extracts of Ruta graveolens on growth of bacteria has been evaluated by disc diffusion and serial dilution method and compared with eight prevalent antibiotics. None of disks with different extracts in the range of 50 to 400μ/ μl show any non-growth hallo. Disks with 500μg of all type extracts in comparison with antibiotic disks did not avoid from growth of bacteria. Third test showed the growth of bacteria and ineffectiveness of various amount of extracts. It seems that this ineffectiveness is because of low antibacterial substance against the bacteria in extracts of the herb and high resistant nature of Enterococcus fecalis to antibiotics and it needs more studies.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of a New Enterococcus faecalis Bacteriophage, vB_EfaS_IME197.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shi; Xing, Shaozhen; Zhang, Xianglilan; Pei, Guangqian; An, Xiaoping; Mi, Zhiqiang; Huang, Yong; Tong, Yigang

    2016-01-01

    We report here the whole-genome sequence of a new Enterococcus faecalis phage, vB_EfaS_IME197, which has a linear double-stranded DNA genome of 41,307 bp with 34% G+C content. We describe the main features of the genome of vB_EfaS_IME197. PMID:27634987

  12. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. isolated from environmental samples in the area of intensive poultry production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we investigated antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. from different environmental compartments including litter from two farms, 12 surface and 28 groundwater sites in an area of intensive poultry production and litter application. The enumerated isolates (n=250) were tested ...

  13. Antimicrobial resistance, virulence determinants, and genetic profiles of clinical and nonclinical Enterococcus cecorum from poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although enterococci are considered commensal bacteria, they are capable of causing disease in humans and animals. Enterococcus cecorum has been implicated as a possible cause of disease in poultry across the world. However, the characteristics that contribute to pathogenesis of E. cecorum in poul...

  14. Biotechnological and safety characterization of Enterococcus lactis, a recently described species of dairy origin.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Stefano; Silvetti, Tiziana; Brasca, Milena

    2013-01-01

    The biotechnological and safety properties of a recently described enterococcal species, Enterococcus lactis, were investigated. With regard to the technological properties, in milk all the strains tested had weak acidifying and proteolytic activities, generally medium reduction activity over 24 h (-102 mV < Eh < -2 mV) and low lipolytic activity on tributyrin agar. The isolates were tested for resistance against 14 antibiotics and none of the studied strains were classified as resistant to clinically important antibiotics such as ampicillin, erythromycin, penicillin G, tetracycline and vancomycin. Furthermore, PCR-based detection did not identify any of the common genetic determinants for vancomycin, tetracycline and erythromycin resistance. The E. lactis strains showed good survival in simulated in vitro digestion and were able to inhibit the growth of Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Clostridium sporogenes, Clostridium tyrobutyricum and Pseudomonas syringae. Screening for enterocin structural genes showed that all isolates harboured the entP gene. The presence of nine virulence factor genes (cylA, asa1, gelE, hyl, esp, ace, efaA, hdc and tdc) was investigated by PCR and no virulence determinants were detected. This study highlights that the recently described E. lactis may be a potential source of novel strains with interesting features that could be used for fermented dairy foods.

  15. Biotechnological and safety characterization of Enterococcus lactis, a recently described species of dairy origin.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Stefano; Silvetti, Tiziana; Brasca, Milena

    2013-01-01

    The biotechnological and safety properties of a recently described enterococcal species, Enterococcus lactis, were investigated. With regard to the technological properties, in milk all the strains tested had weak acidifying and proteolytic activities, generally medium reduction activity over 24 h (-102 mV < Eh < -2 mV) and low lipolytic activity on tributyrin agar. The isolates were tested for resistance against 14 antibiotics and none of the studied strains were classified as resistant to clinically important antibiotics such as ampicillin, erythromycin, penicillin G, tetracycline and vancomycin. Furthermore, PCR-based detection did not identify any of the common genetic determinants for vancomycin, tetracycline and erythromycin resistance. The E. lactis strains showed good survival in simulated in vitro digestion and were able to inhibit the growth of Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Clostridium sporogenes, Clostridium tyrobutyricum and Pseudomonas syringae. Screening for enterocin structural genes showed that all isolates harboured the entP gene. The presence of nine virulence factor genes (cylA, asa1, gelE, hyl, esp, ace, efaA, hdc and tdc) was investigated by PCR and no virulence determinants were detected. This study highlights that the recently described E. lactis may be a potential source of novel strains with interesting features that could be used for fermented dairy foods. PMID:22961639

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterococcus mundtii QAUEM2808, Isolated from Dahi, a Fermented Milk Product.

    PubMed

    Farah, N; Mehdi, A; Soomro, S I; Soomro, N I; Tareb, R; Desmasures, N; Vernoux, J P; Bakhtiar, S M; Imran, M

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus mundtii QAUEM2808 has been isolated from dahi, an indigenous fermented milk product of Pakistan. Here, we report the draft genome sequence for this strain, which consists of 160 contigs corresponding to 2,957,514 bp and a G+C content of 38.5%. PMID:27635009

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of a Vancomycin-Resistant and Vancomycin-Dependent Enterococcus faecium Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Blaschitz, Marion; Lepuschitz, Sarah; Wagner, Laura; Allerberger, Franz; Indra, Alexander; Huhulescu, Steliana

    2016-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci have emerged as major nosocomial pathogens worldwide. While antimicrobial pressure promotes nosocomial colonization with these enterococci, prolonged exposure to vancomycin may foster the transition from vancomycin resistance to vancomycin dependence. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a vancomycin-dependent Enterococcus faecium isolate showing partial teicoplanin dependence. PMID:27056211

  18. Comparison of temperature effects on E. coli, Salmonella, and Enterococcus survival in surface waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare the dependencies of survival rates on temperature for indicator organisms E. coli and Enterococcus and the pathogen Salmonella in surface waters. A database consisting of 86 survival datasets from peer-reviewed papers on inactivation of E. coli, Salmonella...

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecalis Strain W11 Isolated from an Algal Food Product.

    PubMed

    Doi, Yuki; Takizawa, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis strain W11 isolated from an algal food product in Japan. This study should facilitate the identification of a novel mechanism of glycerol metabolic control in lactic acid bacteria. PMID:27688337

  20. Comparing Temperature Effects on E. Coli, Salmonella, and Enterococcus Survival in Surface Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to compare dependency of survival rates on temperature for indicator organisms E. coli and Enterococcus and the pathogen Salmonella in surface waters. A database of 86 survival datasets from peer-reviewed papers on inactivation of E. coli, Salmonel...

  1. Influence of enterococcal surface protein (esp) on the transport of Enterococcus faecium within saturated quartz sands.

    PubMed

    Johanson, Jennifer J; Feriancikova, Lucia; Xu, Shangping

    2012-02-01

    Enterococcus was selected by US EPA as a Gram-positive indicator microorganism for groundwater fecal contamination. It was recently reported that enterococcal surface protein (esp) was more prevalent in Enterococcus from human sources than in Enterococcus from nonhuman sources and esp could potentially be used as a source tracking tool for fecal contamination (Scott et al., 2005). In this research, we performed laboratory column transport experiments to investigate the transport of Enterococcus faecium within saturated quartz sands. Particularly, we used a wild type strain (E1162) and a mutant (E1162Δesp) to examine the influence of esp on the transport behavior of E. faecium. Our results showed that esp could significantly enhance the attachment of E. faecium cells onto the surface of silica sands and thus lower the mobility of E. faecium within sand packs. Cell surface properties (e.g., zeta potential) were determined and the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) theory was applied to explain the effects of esp on the retention of E. faecium. Overall, our results suggested that E. faecium strains with esp could display lower mobility within saturated sand packs than E. faecium strains without esp. The disparity in the transport behavior of E. faecium with and without esp could limit the effectiveness of esp as a source tracking tool within the groundwater system.

  2. Enterococcus diestrammenae sp. nov., isolated from the gut of Diestrammena coreana

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joon Yong; Shin, Na-Ri; Na, Hong-Kyung; Hyun, Dong-Wook; Whon, Tae Woong; Kim, Pil Soo; Yun, Ji-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    A novel Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile and lactic-acid-producing bacterium, designated strain ORL-24T, was isolated from the gut of the camel cricket, Diestrammena coreana. Optimal growth occurred at 37 °C, pH 8 and with 0 % (w/v) NaCl. The ratio of l-lactate to d-lactate in strain ORL-24T was 96 : 4. Lancefield antigen D was not detected. The strain was negative for oxidase activity and catalase activity. According to a phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain ORL-24T was most closely related to the type strain of Enterococcus asini (96.9 % similarity). Comparative pheS and rpoA sequence analyses of strain ORL-24T indicated that the strain belonged to the genus Enterococcus. The major fatty acids were C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c. The DNA G+C content was 41.3 mol%. Based on phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic analyses, strain ORL-24T represents a novel species of the genus Enterococcus, for which the name Enterococcus diestrammenae is proposed. The type strain is ORL-24T ( = KACC 16708T = JCM 18359T). PMID:23907226

  3. Enterococcus populations in artisanal Manchego cheese: biodiversity, technological and safety aspects.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Arribas, Pedro; Seseña, Susana; Poveda, Justa M; Chicón, Rosa; Cabezas, Lourdes; Palop, Llanos

    2011-08-01

    Enterococci represent a considerable proportion of the microbiota in Manchego cheeses. In this study, a total of 132 enterococci isolated from good quality Manchego cheeses from two dairies at different ripening times were genotypically characterized and identified using molecular techniques. Representative isolates from the clusters obtained after genotyping were assayed for some enzymatic activities considered to have a potential role in cheese ripening, and for 2,3-butanedione and acetoin production, evaluation of odor intensity and appearance in milk and safety evaluation. Enterococcus faecalis was the predominant specie, accounting for 81.8% of the total isolates, while Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus hirae and Enterococcus avium were present in low proportions. The number of genotypes involved at each ripening time varied both between dairies and with the ripening times; genotype E. faecalis Q1 being present in almost all the samples from both dairies. Eight isolates showed a higher proteolytic activity and 3 isolates produced high quantities of acetoin-diacetyl, for which reason they are interesting from a technological standpoint. A low antibiotic resistance was found and almost all the strains were susceptible to clinically important antibiotics. On the contrary, only four isolates (E. faecalis C4W1 and N0W5, and E. faecium N32W1 and C16W2) did not harbor some of the virulence genes assayed. PMID:21569931

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of the Tyramine Producer Enterococcus durans Strain IPLA 655

    PubMed Central

    Ladero, Victor; Linares, Daniel M.; del Rio, Beatriz; Fernandez, Maria; Martin, M. Cruz

    2013-01-01

    We here report a 3.059-Mbp draft assembly for the genome of Enterococcus durans strain IPLA 655. This dairy isolate provides a model for studying the regulation of the biosynthesis of tyramine (a toxic compound). These results should aid our understanding of tyramine production and allow tyramine accumulation in food to be reduced. PMID:23682153

  5. Emergence of linezolid resistance in hepatobiliary infections caused by Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Niebel, Marc; Perera, M Thamara P R; Shah, Tahir; Marudanayagam, Ravi; Martin, Kate; Oppenheim, Beryl A; David, Miruna D

    2016-02-01

    Enterococcal infections are common in liver transplantation and hepatopancreaticobiliary (HPB) surgery. Linezolid is frequently used to treat not only vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), but also vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus (VSE) infections, and resistance can develop. This study evaluated all the Liver Unit patients who developed infections with linezolid-resistant Enterococcus (LRE) in order to elicit the association with prior linezolid usage, to explore possible risk factors for infection, and to better understand the epidemiology of these isolates in this patient group. Between 2010 and 2015, infections with LRE developed in 10 patients (8 following liver transplantation and 2 following HPB surgery) after 22-108 days of treatment. Selected pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated that 2 out of 10 patients were cocolonized with different strains and indicated that cross-transmission may have occurred. In conclusion, in this group of patients with complex hepatobiliary infections, the optimal antibiotic strategies for the treatment of Enterococcus faecium infections are not clearly defined, and there is a significant risk of emergence of resistance to linezolid in E. faecium after exposure to this agent in patients, especially in the presence of a deep source of infection on a background of hepatic artery insufficiency. Caution is needed when using prolonged courses of linezolid in this setting, and further studies are necessary to determine the optimum treatment.

  6. Prevalence of enterococcus species and their virulence genes in fresh water prior to and after storm events.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, J P S; Skelly, E; Hodgers, L; Ahmed, W; Li, Y; Toze, S

    2014-01-01

    Enterococcus spp. isolates (n = 286) collected from six surface water bodies in subtropical Brisbane, Australia, prior to and after storm events, were identified to species level and tested for the presence of seven clinically important virulence genes (VGs). Enterococcus faecalis (48%), Enterococcus faecium (14%), Enterococcus mundtii (13%), and Enterococcus casseliflavus (13%) were frequently detected at all sites. The frequency of E. faecium occurrence increased from 6% in the dry period to 18% after the wet period. The endocarditis antigen (efaA), gelatinase (gelE), collagen-binding protein (ace), and aggregation substance (asa1) were detected in 61%, 43%, 43%, and 23% of Enterococcus isolates, respectively. The chances of occurrence of ace, gelE, efaA, and asa1 genes in E. faecalis were found to be much higher compared to the other Enterococcus spp. The observed odds ratio of occurrence of ace and gelE genes in E. faecalis was much higher at 7.96 and 6.40 times, respectively. The hyl gene was 3.84 times more likely to be detected in E. casseliflavus. The presence of multiple VGs in most of the E. faecalis isolates underscores the importance of E. faecalis as a reservoir of VGs in the fresh water aquatic environment. Consequently, if contaminated surface water is to be used for production of potable and nonpotable water some degree of treatment depending upon intended use such as detention in basins prior to use or chlorination is required.

  7. Characterization of aminoglycoside resistance and virulence genes among Enterococcus spp. isolated from a hospital in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanxiang; Li, Jing; Wei, Quhao; Hu, Qingfeng; Lin, Xiaowei; Chen, Mengquan; Ye, Renji; Lv, Huoyang

    2015-03-11

    This study investigated the aminoglycoside resistance phenotypes and genotypes, as well as the prevalence of virulence genes, in Enterococcus species isolated from clinical patients in China. A total of 160 enterococcal isolates from various clinical samples collected from September 2013 to July 2014 were identified to the species level using the VITEK-2 COMPACT system. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of the identified Enterococcus strains were determined by the Kirby-Bauer (K-B) disc diffusion method. PCR-based assays were used to detect the aminoglycoside resistance and virulence genes in all enterococcal isolates. Of 160 Enterococcus isolates, 105 were identified as E. faecium, 35 as E. faecalis, and 20 isolates were classified as "other" Enterococcus species. High-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) for gentamicin, streptomycin, and both antibiotics was identified in 58.8, 50, and 34.4% of strains, respectively. The most common virulence gene (50.6% of isolates) was efaA, followed by asa1 (28.8%). The most prevalent aminoglycoside resistance genes were aac(6')-Ie-aph(2''), aph(2')-Id, aph(3')-IIIa, and ant(6')-Ia, present in 49.4%, 1.3%, 48.8% and 31.3% of strains, respectively. Overall, E. faecium and E. faecalis were most frequently associated with hospital-acquired enterococcal infections in Zhejiang Province. All aminoglycoside resistance genes, except aph(2'')-Id, were significantly more prevalent in HLAR strains than amongst high level aminoglycoside susceptible (HLAS) strains, while there was no significant difference between HLAR and HLAS strains in regard to the prevalence of virulence genes, apart from esp, therefore, measures should be taken to manage infections caused by multi-drug resistant Enterococcus species.

  8. First report of multiresistance gene cfr in Enterococcus species casseliflavus and gallinarum of swine origin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Yang; Dai, Lei; Wu, Congming; Shen, Jianzhong

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and genetic environment of the multiresistance gene cfr in Enterococcus species of swine origin. Twenty-five cfr-carrying Enterococcus isolates were collected from swine in Beijing, Guangzhou, and Shandong, China. The isolates consist of 24 Enterococcus casseliflavus and one Enterococcus gallinarum isolate, and exhibited six SmaI PFGE patterns. The cfr gene was located on plasmids in all isolates except E. casseliflavus En83, in which cfr was located on the chromosomal DNA. The cfr gene environments in most of these isolates contain DNA sequences similar to pEF-01, which was first found in Enterococcus. However, inverse PCR analysis suggested that the cfr-carrying circular forms might be different from pEF-01. The circular forms in Eg51 and its transconjugant, and En23, En10, and En94 are similar to the circular form in pEF-01, except for the truncated IS1216, which is replaced by a transposase of the IS256 family in En24. The cfr circular form could not be detected in either En77 or En83, and the same cfr-carrying segments of ∼ 10 kb had only 3500bp of sequence similar to pEF-01. This is the first report of cfr gene in E. casseliflavus and E. gallinarum. The potential dissemination of the multidrug resistance gene amongst different bacterial species, especially in enterococci of human and animal origins, is concerning and should be closely monitored.

  9. Partial purification and characterization of bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecalis DU10 and its probiotic attributes.

    PubMed

    Perumal, Venkatesh; Repally, Ayyanna; Dasari, Ankaiah; Venkatesan, Arul

    2016-10-01

    A novel bacteriocin produced by avian duck isolated lactic acid bacterium Enterococcus faecalis DU10 was isolated. This bacteriocin showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against important food-borne pathogens and was purified by size exclusion chromatography followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography in a C-18 column. Tricine-SDS PAGE revealed the presence of a band with an estimated molecular mass of 6.3 kDa. The zymogram clearly linked the antimicrobial activity with this band. This result was further confirmed by mass-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, since a sharp peak corresponding to 6.313 kDa was detected and the functional groups were revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Bacteriocin DU10 activity was found sensitive to proteinase-K and pepsin and partially affected by trypsin and α-chymotrypsin. The activity of bacteriocin DU10 was partially resistant to heat treatments ranging from 30 to 90°C for 30 min. It also withstood a treatment at 121°C for 10 min. Cytotoxicity of bacteriocin DU10 by methyl-thiazolyl-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay showed that the viability of HT-29 and HeLa cells decreased 60 ± 0.7% and 43 ± 4.8%, respectively, in the presence of 3,200 AU/mL of bacteriocin. The strain withstood 0.3% w/v of bile oxgall and pH 2 affected the bacterial growth between 2 and 4 hr of incubation. Adhesion properties examined with HT-29 cell line showed 69.85% initial population of strain E. faecalis DU10, which was found to be strongly adhered to this cell line. These results conclude bacteriocin DU10 may be used as a potential biopreservative and E. faecalis DU10 may be used as a potential probiont to control Salmonella infections. PMID:26786752

  10. Partial purification and characterization of bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecalis DU10 and its probiotic attributes.

    PubMed

    Perumal, Venkatesh; Repally, Ayyanna; Dasari, Ankaiah; Venkatesan, Arul

    2016-10-01

    A novel bacteriocin produced by avian duck isolated lactic acid bacterium Enterococcus faecalis DU10 was isolated. This bacteriocin showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against important food-borne pathogens and was purified by size exclusion chromatography followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography in a C-18 column. Tricine-SDS PAGE revealed the presence of a band with an estimated molecular mass of 6.3 kDa. The zymogram clearly linked the antimicrobial activity with this band. This result was further confirmed by mass-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, since a sharp peak corresponding to 6.313 kDa was detected and the functional groups were revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Bacteriocin DU10 activity was found sensitive to proteinase-K and pepsin and partially affected by trypsin and α-chymotrypsin. The activity of bacteriocin DU10 was partially resistant to heat treatments ranging from 30 to 90°C for 30 min. It also withstood a treatment at 121°C for 10 min. Cytotoxicity of bacteriocin DU10 by methyl-thiazolyl-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay showed that the viability of HT-29 and HeLa cells decreased 60 ± 0.7% and 43 ± 4.8%, respectively, in the presence of 3,200 AU/mL of bacteriocin. The strain withstood 0.3% w/v of bile oxgall and pH 2 affected the bacterial growth between 2 and 4 hr of incubation. Adhesion properties examined with HT-29 cell line showed 69.85% initial population of strain E. faecalis DU10, which was found to be strongly adhered to this cell line. These results conclude bacteriocin DU10 may be used as a potential biopreservative and E. faecalis DU10 may be used as a potential probiont to control Salmonella infections.

  11. Relation between Enterococcus concentrations and turbidity in fresh and saline recreational waters, coastal Horry County, South Carolina, 2003–04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, James E.; Garigen, Thomas J.

    2016-06-24

    The positive relation observed between turbidity and Enterococcus concentrations in surface water at the water-quality data collection station located in the channel that drains a freshwater swamp may be attributed to bacterial survival in the abundant channel bed sediments that characterized this more naturalized area. Surface-water bed sediments collected near each water-quality data collection station and the surf zone were incubated in static microcosms in the laboratory and analyzed for Enterococcus concentrations over time. Enterococcus concentrations continued to persist in bed sediments collected in the channel that drains the swamp even after almost 4 months of incubation. Conversely, enterococci w

  12. Campylobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Yersinia spp., and Cryptosporidium oocysts in semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Northern Finland and Norway

    PubMed Central

    Kemper, N; Aschfalk, A; Höller, C

    2006-01-01

    The specific aim of this study was to assess the faecal shedding of zoonotic enteropathogens by semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) to deduce the potential risk to human health through modern reindeer herding. In total, 2,243 faecal samples of reindeer from northern regions of Finland and Norway were examined for potentially enteropathogenic bacteria (Campylobacter species, Enterococcus species, Escherichia coli, Salmonella species and Yersinia species) and parasites (Cryptosporidium species) in accordance with standard procedures. Escherichia coli were isolated in 94.7%, Enterococcus species in 92.9%, Yersinia species in 4.8% of the samples and Campylobacter species in one sample only (0.04%). Analysis for virulence factors in E. coli and Yersinia species revealed no pathogenic strains. Neither Salmonella species nor Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected. The public health risk due to reindeer husbandry concerning zoonotic diseases included in this study has to be considered as very low at present but a putative epidemiological threat may arise when herding conditions are changed with respect to intensification and crowding. PMID:16987403

  13. The Generalist Inside the Specialist: Gut Bacterial Communities of Two Insect Species Feeding on Toxic Plants Are Dominated by Enterococcus sp.

    PubMed Central

    Vilanova, Cristina; Baixeras, Joaquín; Latorre, Amparo; Porcar, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Some specialist insects feed on plants rich in secondary compounds, which pose a major selective pressure on both the phytophagous and the gut microbiota. However, microbial communities of toxic plant feeders are still poorly characterized. Here, we show the bacterial communities of the gut of two specialized Lepidoptera, Hyles euphorbiae and Brithys crini, which exclusively feed on latex-rich Euphorbia sp. and alkaloid-rich Pancratium maritimum, respectively. A metagenomic analysis based on high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the gut microbiota of both insects is dominated by the phylum Firmicutes, and especially by the common gut inhabitant Enterococcus sp. Staphylococcus sp. are also found in H. euphorbiae though to a lesser extent. By scanning electron microscopy, we found a dense ring-shaped bacterial biofilm in the hindgut of H. euphorbiae, and identified the most prominent bacterium in the biofilm as Enterococcus casseliflavus through molecular techniques. Interestingly, this species has previously been reported to contribute to the immobilization of latex-like molecules in the larvae of Spodoptera litura, a highly polyphagous lepidopteran. The E. casseliflavus strain was isolated from the gut and its ability to tolerate natural latex was tested under laboratory conditions. This fact, along with the identification of less frequent bacterial species able to degrade alkaloids and/or latex, suggest a putative role of bacterial communities in the tolerance of specialized insects to their toxic diet. PMID:27446044

  14. Bacteriocin protein BacL1 of Enterococcus faecalis is a peptidoglycan D-isoglutamyl-L-lysine endopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Kurushima, Jun; Hayashi, Ikue; Sugai, Motoyuki; Tomita, Haruyoshi

    2013-12-27

    Enterococcus faecalis strains are commensal bacteria in humans and other animals, and they are also the causative agent of opportunistic infectious diseases. Bacteriocin 41 (Bac41) is produced by certain E. faecalis clinical isolates, and it is active against other E. faecalis strains. Our genetic analyses demonstrated that the extracellular products of the bacL1 and bacA genes, which are encoded in the Bac41 operon, coordinately express the bacteriocin activity against E. faecalis. In this study, we investigated the molecular functions of the BacL1 and BacA proteins. Immunoblotting and N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis revealed that BacL1 and BacA are secreted without any processing. The coincidental treatment with the recombinant BacL1 and BacA showed complete bacteriocin activity against E. faecalis, but neither BacL1 nor BacA protein alone showed the bacteriocin activity. Interestingly, BacL1 alone demonstrated substantial degrading activity against the cell wall fraction of E. faecalis in the absence of BacA. Furthermore, MALDI-TOF MS analysis revealed that BacL1 has a peptidoglycan D-isoglutamyl-L-lysine endopeptidase activity via a NlpC/P60 homology domain. These results collectively suggest that BacL1 serves as a peptidoglycan hydrolase and, when BacA is present, results in the lysis of viable E. faecalis cells.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecium Strain LCT-EF301, Which Shows Changes in Biochemical Metabolism following Space Flight.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenhong; Li, Yinhu; Chang, De; An, Li; Guo, Yinghua; Wang, Junfeng; Li, Tianzhi; Wang, Yajuan; Zhang, Xiaojun; Dai, Wenkui; Liu, Changting

    2014-05-01

    An Enterococcus faecium strain was sent into space on the Shenzhou-VIII mission. After the space flight, the strain E. faecium LCT-EF301 was isolated and sequenced based on the changes to its metabolic properties.

  16. Molecular characterization of resistance, virulence and clonality in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis: A hospital-based study in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing-xian; Li, Tong; Ning, Yong-zhong; Shao, Dong-hua; Liu, Jing; Wang, Shu-qin; Liang, Guo-wei

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) in China is increasing, the molecular epidemiology of VRE in China is only partly known. This study was conducted to assess the molecular characterization of resistance, virulence and clonality of 69 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) and seven vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VREfs) isolates obtained from a Chinese hospital between July 2011 and July 2013. The glycopeptide resistance genes (VanA and VanB) were screened by multiplex PCR. The presence of five putative virulence genes (esp, gelE, asa1, hyl and cylA) were evaluated by another multiplex PCR. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme was used to assess the clonality. All 76 VRE isolates exhibited VanA phenotype and harbored VanA gene. Esp was the only gene detected both in VREfm and VREfs strains, accounting for 89.9% and 42.9%, respectively. The hyl gene was merely positive in 27.5% of VREfm strains. MLST analysis demonstrated three STs (ST6, ST4 and ST470) in VREfs and twelve STs (ST78, ST571, ST17, ST564, ST389, ST18, ST547, ST341, ST414, ST343, ST262 and ST203) in VREfm, which were all designated as CC17 by eBURST algorithm. An outbreak of VREfm belonging to ST571 was found to happen within the neurology ward in this hospital. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ST6 (CC2) VREfs strains in China and the first outbreak report of VREfm strains belonging to ST571 around the world. Our data could offer important information for understanding the molecular features of VRE in China.

  17. Development of quantitative PCR assays targeting the 16S rRNA genes of Enterococcus spp. and their application to the identification of enterococcus species in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hodon; Henson, Michael; Elk, Michael; Toledo-Hernandez, Carlos; Griffith, John; Blackwood, Denene; Noble, Rachel; Gourmelon, Michèle; Glassmeyer, Susan; Santo Domingo, Jorge W

    2013-01-01

    The detection of environmental enterococci has been determined primarily by using culture-based techniques that might exclude some enterococcal species as well as those that are nonculturable. To address this, the relative abundances of enterococci were examined by challenging fecal and water samples against a currently available genus-specific assay (Entero1). To determine the diversity of enterococcal species, 16S rRNA gene-based group-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were developed and evaluated against eight of the most common environmental enterococcal species. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequences of 439 presumptive environmental enterococcal strains were analyzed to study further the diversity of enterococci and to confirm the specificities of group-specific assays. The group-specific qPCR assays showed relatively high amplification rates with targeted species (>98%), although some assays cross-amplified with nontargeted species (1.3 to 6.5%). The results with the group-specific assays also showed that different enterococcal species co-occurred in most fecal samples. The most abundant enterococci in water and fecal samples were Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, although we identified more water isolates as Enterococcus casseliflavus than as any of the other species. The prevalence of the Entero1 marker was in agreement with the combined number of positive signals determined by the group-specific assays in most fecal samples, except in gull feces. On the other hand, the number of group-specific assay signals was lower in all water samples tested, suggesting that other enterococcal species are present in these samples. While the results highlight the value of genus- and group-specific assays for detecting the major enterococcal groups in environmental water samples, additional studies are needed to determine further the diversity, distributions, and relative abundances of all enterococcal species found in water.

  18. Isolation of Enterococcus faecium NM113, Enterococcus faecium NM213 and Lactobacillus casei NM512 as novel probiotics with immunomodulatory properties.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Nahla M; Heine, Holger; Abdou, Sania M; Shenana, Mohamed E; Zakaria, Mohamed K; El-Diwany, Ahmed

    2014-10-01

    Probiotics, defined as living bacteria that are beneficial for human health, mainly function through their immunomodulatory abilities. Hence, these microorganisms have proven successful for treating diseases resulting from immune deregulation. The aim of this study was to find novel candidates to improve on and complement current probiotic treatment strategies. Of 60 lactic acid bacterial strains that were isolated from fecal samples of healthy, full-term, breast-fed infants, three were chosen because of their ability to activate human immune cells. These candidates were then tested with regard to immunomodulatory properties, antimicrobial effects on pathogens, required pharmacological properties and their safety profiles. To identify the immunomodulatory structures of the selected isolates, activation of specific innate immune receptors was studied. The three candidates for probiotic treatment were assigned Enterococcus faecium NM113, Enterococcus faecium NM213 and Lactobacillus casei NM512. Compared with the established allergy-protective strain Lactococcus lactis G121, these isolates induced release of similar amounts of IL-12, a potent inducer of T helper 1 cells. In addition, all three neonatal isolates had antimicrobial activity against pathogens. Analysis of pharmacological suitability showed high tolerance of low pH, bile salts and pancreatic enzymes. In terms of safe application in humans, the isolates were sensitive to three antibiotics (chloramphenicol, tetracycline and erythromycin). In addition, the Enterococcus isolates were free from the four major virulence genes (cylA, agg, efaAfs and ccf). Moreover, the isolates strongly activated Toll-like receptor 2, which suggests lipopeptides as their active immunomodulatory structure. Thus, three novel bacterial strains with great potential as probiotic candidates and promising immunomodulatory properties have here been identified and characterized.

  19. Effect of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB10415 on cell numbers of total Enterococcus spp., E. faecium and E. faecalis in the intestine of piglets.

    PubMed

    Vahjen, W; Taras, D; Simon, O

    2007-03-01

    Sows and their piglets were fed a diet supplemented with or without the probiotic E. faecium NCIMB10415 (also known as SF68). Piglets were sacrificed 14, 28, 35 and 56 days after birth and DNA from intestinal segments was extracted and purified. A real time PCR assay was used to distinguish Enterococcus spp. (16s rDNA based), E. faecium (Efaafm gene), E. faecalis (Efaafs gene) as well as the probiotic strain (unique plasmid sequence). Extracts of autoclaved sow feces inoculated with E. faecium and E. faecalis cultures were used to calibrate real time PCR results. The probiotic strain was detected in 14 day old suckling piglets before the piglets had access to the starter diet. In piglets of the probiotic group, probiotic E. faecium cell counts were always a significant proportion of total E. faecium cells in stomach digesta (4-20%), however only a small fraction of the total Enterococcus spp. cell number on day 14 and 28 in all intestinal segments (0.1-0.7%). Compared to control samples, the probiotic E. faecium strain significantly (p < or = 0.05) decreased the amount of total Enterococcus spp. and E. faecalis cells in the colon of 14 day old suckling piglets as well as in jejunum and colon samples one week after weaning. E. faecium cell counts were not modified on any sampling day or intestinal segment. This study showed that the presence of probiotic E. faecium NCIMB10415 coincided with reduced total E. faecalis, but not total E. faecium cell numbers in the intestine of piglets. In view of unchanged cell numbers and ratios in sow feces, modifications must have taken place within the intestine of suckling piglets.

  20. Development of Quantitative PCR Assays Targeting the 16S rRNA Genes of Enterococcus spp. and Their Application to the Identification of Enterococcus Species in Environmental Samples

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hodon; Henson, Michael; Elk, Michael; Toledo-Hernandez, Carlos; Griffith, John; Blackwood, Denene; Noble, Rachel; Gourmelon, Michèle; Glassmeyer, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The detection of environmental enterococci has been determined primarily by using culture-based techniques that might exclude some enterococcal species as well as those that are nonculturable. To address this, the relative abundances of enterococci were examined by challenging fecal and water samples against a currently available genus-specific assay (Entero1). To determine the diversity of enterococcal species, 16S rRNA gene-based group-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were developed and evaluated against eight of the most common environmental enterococcal species. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequences of 439 presumptive environmental enterococcal strains were analyzed to study further the diversity of enterococci and to confirm the specificities of group-specific assays. The group-specific qPCR assays showed relatively high amplification rates with targeted species (>98%), although some assays cross-amplified with nontargeted species (1.3 to 6.5%). The results with the group-specific assays also showed that different enterococcal species co-occurred in most fecal samples. The most abundant enterococci in water and fecal samples were Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, although we identified more water isolates as Enterococcus casseliflavus than as any of the other species. The prevalence of the Entero1 marker was in agreement with the combined number of positive signals determined by the group-specific assays in most fecal samples, except in gull feces. On the other hand, the number of group-specific assay signals was lower in all water samples tested, suggesting that other enterococcal species are present in these samples. While the results highlight the value of genus- and group-specific assays for detecting the major enterococcal groups in environmental water samples, additional studies are needed to determine further the diversity, distributions, and relative abundances of all enterococcal species found in water. PMID:23087032

  1. Differentiation of Enterococcus faecium from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains by PCR and dot-blot hybridisation.

    PubMed

    Langa, S; Fernández, A; Martín, R; Reviriego, C; Marín, M L; Fernández, L; Rodríguez, J M

    2003-12-01

    Variations in length and sequence of the 16S/23S spacer region of Enterococcus faecium provided the basis for development of simple PCR and dot-blot hybridisation assays that enabled the differentiation of potentially probiotic Enterococcus faecium strains from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Such assays may be useful for differentiation of yoghurt starter cultures and enterococcal strains when they are simultaneously present in probiotic food products.

  2. Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in a multi-species biofilm with Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium and control through sanitation procedures.

    PubMed

    da Silva Fernandes, Meg; Kabuki, Dirce Yorika; Kuaye, Arnaldo Yoshiteru

    2015-05-01

    The formation of mono-species biofilm (Listeria monocytogenes) and multi-species biofilms (Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and L. monocytogenes) was evaluated. In addition, the effectiveness of sanitation procedures for the control of the multi-species biofilm also was evaluated. The biofilms were grown on stainless steel coupons at various incubation temperatures (7, 25 and 39°C) and contact times (0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days). In all tests, at 7°C, the microbial counts were below 0.4 log CFU/cm(2) and not characteristic of biofilms. In mono-species biofilm, the counts of L. monocytogenes after 8 days of contact were 4.1 and 2.8 log CFU/cm(2) at 25 and 39°C, respectively. In the multi-species biofilms, Enterococcus spp. were present at counts of 8 log CFU/cm(2) at 25 and 39°C after 8 days of contact. However, the L. monocytogenes in multi-species biofilms was significantly affected by the presence of Enterococcus spp. and by temperature. At 25°C, the growth of L. monocytogenes biofilms was favored in multi-species cultures, with counts above 6 log CFU/cm(2) after 8 days of contact. In contrast, at 39°C, a negative effect was observed for L. monocytogenes biofilm growth in mixed cultures, with a significant reduction in counts over time and values below 0.4 log CFU/cm(2) starting at day 4. Anionic tensioactive cleaning complemented with another procedure (acid cleaning, disinfection or acid cleaning+disinfection) eliminated the multi-species biofilms under all conditions tested (counts of all micro-organisms<0.4 log CFU/cm(2)). Peracetic acid was the most effective disinfectant, eliminating the multi-species biofilms under all tested conditions (counts of the all microorganisms <0.4 log CFU/cm(2)). In contrast, biguanide was the least effective disinfectant, failing to eliminate biofilms under all the test conditions.

  3. Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in a multi-species biofilm with Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium and control through sanitation procedures.

    PubMed

    da Silva Fernandes, Meg; Kabuki, Dirce Yorika; Kuaye, Arnaldo Yoshiteru

    2015-05-01

    The formation of mono-species biofilm (Listeria monocytogenes) and multi-species biofilms (Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and L. monocytogenes) was evaluated. In addition, the effectiveness of sanitation procedures for the control of the multi-species biofilm also was evaluated. The biofilms were grown on stainless steel coupons at various incubation temperatures (7, 25 and 39°C) and contact times (0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days). In all tests, at 7°C, the microbial counts were below 0.4 log CFU/cm(2) and not characteristic of biofilms. In mono-species biofilm, the counts of L. monocytogenes after 8 days of contact were 4.1 and 2.8 log CFU/cm(2) at 25 and 39°C, respectively. In the multi-species biofilms, Enterococcus spp. were present at counts of 8 log CFU/cm(2) at 25 and 39°C after 8 days of contact. However, the L. monocytogenes in multi-species biofilms was significantly affected by the presence of Enterococcus spp. and by temperature. At 25°C, the growth of L. monocytogenes biofilms was favored in multi-species cultures, with counts above 6 log CFU/cm(2) after 8 days of contact. In contrast, at 39°C, a negative effect was observed for L. monocytogenes biofilm growth in mixed cultures, with a significant reduction in counts over time and values below 0.4 log CFU/cm(2) starting at day 4. Anionic tensioactive cleaning complemented with another procedure (acid cleaning, disinfection or acid cleaning+disinfection) eliminated the multi-species biofilms under all conditions tested (counts of all micro-organisms<0.4 log CFU/cm(2)). Peracetic acid was the most effective disinfectant, eliminating the multi-species biofilms under all tested conditions (counts of the all microorganisms <0.4 log CFU/cm(2)). In contrast, biguanide was the least effective disinfectant, failing to eliminate biofilms under all the test conditions. PMID:25655573

  4. Inhibitory influence of Enterococcus faecium on the propagation of swine influenza A virus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenya; Chai, Weidong; Burwinkel, Michael; Twardziok, Sven; Wrede, Paul; Palissa, Christiane; Esch, Bettina; Schmidt, Michael F G

    2013-01-01

    The control of infectious diseases such as swine influenza viruses (SwIV) plays an important role in food production both from the animal health and from the public health point of view. Probiotic microorganisms and other health improving food supplements have been given increasing attention in recent years, but, no information on the effects of probiotics on swine influenza virus is available. Here we address this question by assessing the inhibitory potential of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 (E. faecium) on the replication of two porcine strains of influenza virus (H1N1 and H3N2 strain) in a continuous porcine macrophage cell line (3D4/21) and in MDBK cells. Cell cultures were treated with E. faecium at the non-toxic concentration of 1×10(6) CFU/ml in growth medium for 60 to 90 min before, during and after SwIV infection. After further incubation of cultures in probiotic-free growth medium, cell viability and virus propagation were determined at 48 h or 96 h post infection. The results obtained reveal an almost complete recovery of viability of SwIV infected cells and an inhibition of virus multiplication by up to four log units in the E. faecium treated cells. In both 3D4/21- and MDBK-cells a 60 min treatment with E. faecium stimulated nitric oxide (NO) release which is in line with published evidence for an antiviral function of NO. Furthermore, E. faecium caused a modified cellular expression of selected mediators of defence in 3D4-cells: while the expression of TNF-α, TLR-3 and IL-6 were decreased in the SwIV-infected and probiotic treated cells, IL-10 was found to be increased. Since we obtained experimental evidence for the direct adsorptive trapping of SwIV through E. faecium, this probiotic microorganism inhibits influenza viruses by at least two mechanisms, direct physical interaction and strengthening of innate defence at the cellular level.

  5. Safety, beneficial and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium isolated from Brazilian cheeses.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Karina Maria Olbrich; Vieira, Antônio Diogo Silva; Salles, Hévila Oliveira; Oliveira, Jacqueline da Silva; Rocha, Cíntia Renata Costa; Borges, Maria de Fátima; Bruno, Laura Maria; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the safety and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Brazilian Coalho cheeses. High levels of co-aggregation were observed between Enterococcus faecium strains EM485 and EM925 and both Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens . Both strains presented low levels of hydrophobicity. E. faecium EM485 and EM925 were both able to grow in the presence of 0.5% of the sodium salts of taurocholic acid (TC), taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC), glycocholic acid (GC), and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDC), although they showed the ability to deconjugate only GDC and TDC. Both strains showed good survival when exposed to conditions simulating the gastro intestinal tract (GIT). When tested for the presence of virulence genes, only tyrosine decarboxylase and vancomycin B generated positive PCR results.

  6. Safety, beneficial and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium isolated from Brazilian cheeses

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Karina Maria Olbrich; Vieira, Antônio Diogo Silva; Salles, Hévila Oliveira; Oliveira, Jacqueline da Silva; Rocha, Cíntia Renata Costa; Borges, Maria de Fátima; Bruno, Laura Maria; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the safety and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Brazilian Coalho cheeses. High levels of co-aggregation were observed between Enterococcus faecium strains EM485 and EM925 and both Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens . Both strains presented low levels of hydrophobicity. E. faecium EM485 and EM925 were both able to grow in the presence of 0.5% of the sodium salts of taurocholic acid (TC), taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC), glycocholic acid (GC), and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDC), although they showed the ability to deconjugate only GDC and TDC. Both strains showed good survival when exposed to conditions simulating the gastro intestinal tract (GIT). When tested for the presence of virulence genes, only tyrosine decarboxylase and vancomycin B generated positive PCR results. PMID:26221113

  7. Safety, beneficial and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium isolated from Brazilian cheeses.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Karina Maria Olbrich; Vieira, Antônio Diogo Silva; Salles, Hévila Oliveira; Oliveira, Jacqueline da Silva; Rocha, Cíntia Renata Costa; Borges, Maria de Fátima; Bruno, Laura Maria; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the safety and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Brazilian Coalho cheeses. High levels of co-aggregation were observed between Enterococcus faecium strains EM485 and EM925 and both Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens . Both strains presented low levels of hydrophobicity. E. faecium EM485 and EM925 were both able to grow in the presence of 0.5% of the sodium salts of taurocholic acid (TC), taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC), glycocholic acid (GC), and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDC), although they showed the ability to deconjugate only GDC and TDC. Both strains showed good survival when exposed to conditions simulating the gastro intestinal tract (GIT). When tested for the presence of virulence genes, only tyrosine decarboxylase and vancomycin B generated positive PCR results. PMID:26221113

  8. Identification and methods for prevention of Enterococcus mundtii infection in silkworm larvae, Bombyx mori, reared on artificial diet.

    PubMed

    Nwibo, Don Daniel; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2015-06-01

    Previously, it was reported that Enterococcus mundtii (E. mundtii) was associated with flacherie disease of silkworm larvae reared on artificial diet. In this study, we report that E. mundtii was isolated from diseased silkworm larvae, and validated as a pathogenic bacterium of the animal. When silkworm larva was infected with 1.04 × 10⁶ colony-forming units of E. mundtii via oral administration of diet, half population died within six days, indicating that the bacterium is pathogenic to silkworm. Less severe infection was found to cause anorexia and hamper the development of larvae. This pathogen was found to proliferate in both time- and dose-dependent manner in the gastrointestinal tract of the animal. The bacterium was isolated from powder of artificial diet made from mulberry leaves, and from mulberry leaves growing at a field. Minimum inhibitory concentration determination revealed that this bacterium was susceptible to tested antibiotics. Vancomycin treatment of diet significantly decreased the number of E. mundtii in intestine of silkworm larvae infected with the bacteria, compared to control. Furthermore, autoclaving or gamma ray irradiation of diet was also effective for exclusion of E. mundtii from the diet without the loss of its nutrient capacities. These results suggest that mulberry leaves used in making artificial diet for silkworm larvae is one of the sources of E. mundtii infection; and that antibiotic treatment, autoclaving or gamma ray irradiation of artificial diet can exclude the bacteria.

  9. Synthesis and functional characterization of antibiofilm exopolysaccharide produced by Enterococcus faecium MC13 isolated from the gut of fish.

    PubMed

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Suganya, K; Kumar, R Satish; Yuvaraj, N; Pattukumar, V; Paari, K A; Arul, Venkatesan

    2013-02-01

    The synthesis and functional characterization of an antibiofilm exopolysaccharide (EPS) from a probiotic Enterococcus faecium MC13 were investigated. The temperature of 35 °C, pH of 6.5, and salinity of 1-2% were found to be optimum for EPS production. The sucrose (30 g l⁻¹) and yeast extract (20 g l⁻¹) acted as suitable carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, which strongly influenced EPS production with yield of 11.33 and 11.91 g l⁻¹. Based on the thin layer chromatography, EPS of E. faecium MC13 was found to be a heteropolysaccharide, composed of galactose and glucose sugar units with a molecular mass of 2.0 × 10⁵ Da. Fourier transform infrared spectrum analysis of the EPS revealed many predominant functional groups including hydroxyl, carboxyl, and amide groups. EPS exhibited better emulsifying and flocculating activities which is relatively similar to those of commercial polysaccharides. In vitro antioxidant inspect of EPS showed lesser antioxidant activity than that of the control ascorbic acid. Thermal behavior of EPS was different from the other EPS produced by other lactic acid bacteria. In vitro antibiofilm assay of EPS exhibited significant biofilm inhibition, especially with Listeria monocytogenes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on EPS of E. faecium with strong emulsifying and flocculating activities.

  10. C-Terminal WxL Domain Mediates Cell Wall Binding in Enterococcus faecalis and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria▿

    PubMed Central

    Brinster, Sophie; Furlan, Sylviane; Serror, Pascale

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of the genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolate V583 revealed novel genes encoding surface proteins. Twenty-seven of these proteins, annotated as having unknown functions, possess a putative N-terminal signal peptide and a conserved C-terminal region characterized by a novel conserved domain designated WxL. Proteins having similar characteristics were also detected in other low-G+C-content gram-positive bacteria. We hypothesized that the WxL region might be a determinant of bacterial cell location. This hypothesis was tested by generating protein fusions between the C-terminal regions of two WxL proteins in E. faecalis and a nuclease reporter protein. We demonstrated that the C-terminal regions of both proteins conferred a cell surface localization to the reporter fusions in E. faecalis. This localization was eliminated by introducing specific deletions into the domains. Interestingly, exogenously added protein fusions displayed binding to whole cells of various gram-positive bacteria. We also showed that the peptidoglycan was a binding ligand for WxL domain attachment to the cell surface and that neither proteins nor carbohydrates were necessary for binding. Based on our findings, we propose that the WxL region is a novel cell wall binding domain in E. faecalis and other gram-positive bacteria. PMID:16963569

  11. Interference in Pheromone-Responsive Conjugation of a High-Level Bacitracin Resistant Enterococcus faecalis Plasmid of Poultry Origin

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Cindy-Love; Archambault, Marie

    2013-01-01

    The current study reports on contact interference of a high-level bacitracin- resistant pheromone-responsive plasmid of Enterococcus faecalis strain 543 of poultry origin during conjugative transfer of bcr antimicrobial resistance genes using a polyclonal antiserum aggregation substance44–560 (AS). After induction with pheromones produced by the recipient strain E. faecalis JH2-2, clumping of the donor E. faecalis strain 543 was observed as well as high transfer frequencies of bcr in short time broth mating. Filter mating assays from donor strain E. faecalis 543 to the recipient strain E. faecalis JH2-2 revealed conjugative transfer of asa1 (AS), bcrRAB and traB (negative regulator pheromone response) genes. The presence of these genes in transconjugants was confirmed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR, Southern hybridization and sequencing. A significant reduction in formation of aggregates was observed when the polyclonal anti-AS44–560 was added in the pheromone-responsive conjugation experiments as compared to the induced state. Moreover, interference of anti-AS44–560 antibodies in pheromone-responsive conjugation was demonstrated by a reduction in horizontal transfer of asa1 and bcr genes between E. faecalis strain 543 and E. faecalis JH2-2. Reducing the pheromone-responsive conjugation of E. faecalis is of interest because of its clinical importance in the horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:24030654

  12. Biochemical and Structural Basis for Inhibition of Enterococcus faecalis Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Synthase, mvaS, by Hymeglusin

    SciTech Connect

    Skaff, D. Andrew; Ramyar, Kasra X.; McWhorter, William J.; Barta, Michael L.; Geisbrecht, Brian V.; Miziorko, Henry M.

    2012-07-25

    Hymeglusin (1233A, F244, L-659-699) is established as a specific {beta}-lactone inhibitor of eukaryotic hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGCS). Inhibition results from formation of a thioester adduct to the active site cysteine. In contrast, the effects of hymeglusin on bacterial HMG-CoA synthase, mvaS, have been minimally characterized. Hymeglusin blocks growth of Enterococcus faecalis. After removal of the inhibitor from culture media, a growth curve inflection point at 3.1 h is observed (vs 0.7 h for the uninhibited control). Upon hymeglusin inactivation of purified E. faecalis mvaS, the thioester adduct is more stable than that measured for human HMGCS. Hydroxylamine cleaves the thioester adduct; substantial enzyme activity is restored at a rate that is 8-fold faster for human HMGCS than for mvaS. Structural results explain these differences in enzyme-inhibitor thioester adduct stability and solvent accessibility. The E. faecalis mvaS-hymeglusin cocrystal structure (1.95 {angstrom}) reveals virtually complete occlusion of the bound inhibitor in a narrow tunnel that is largely sequestered from bulk solvent. In contrast, eukaryotic (Brassica juncea) HMGCS binds hymeglusin in a more solvent-exposed cavity.

  13. Isolation and mode of action of bacteriocin BacC1 produced by nonpathogenic Enterococcus faecium C1.

    PubMed

    Goh, H F; Philip, K

    2015-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are present in fermented food products and help to improve shelf life and enhance the flavor of the food. They also produce metabolites such as bacteriocins to prevent the growth of undesirable or pathogenic bacteria. In this study, Enterococcus faecium C1 isolated from fermented cow milk was able to produce bacteriocin BacC1 and inhibit the growth of selected food-spoilage bacteria. The bacteriocin was purified through 4 steps: ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction column, a series of centrifugal steps, and finally reversed-phase HPLC. A membrane permeability test using SYTOX green dye (Invitrogen, Grand Island, NY) showed that the bacteriocin caused significant disruptions to the test bacterial membrane, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. The molecular weight of the BacC1 obtained from SDS-PAGE was around 10kDa, and N-terminal sequencing revealed a partial amino acid sequence of BacC1: GPXGPXGP. The bacterial strain was nonhemolytic and not antibiotic resistant. Therefore, it has high potential for application in the food industry as an antimicrobial agent to extend the shelf life of food products.

  14. Effects of storage temperature on tyramine production by Enterococcus faecalis R612Z1 in water-boiled salted ducks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Du, Lihui; Wu, Haihong; Wang, Daoying; Zhu, Yongzhi; Geng, Zhiming; Zhang, Muhan; Xu, Weimin

    2014-10-01

    Tyramine production by Enterococcus faecalis R612Z1 in water-boiled salted ducks was evaluated during storage at different temperatures. The results showed that E. faecalis R612Z1 could produce tyramine in meat samples when the storage temperature was no less than 4°C. The E. faecalis R612Z1 counts of the meat samples reached 10(8) CFU/g on day 7 at 4°C and on day 4 at 10°C. However, the tyramine content of the meat samples stored at 10°C increased to 23.73 μg/g (on day 10), which was greater than the level in the samples stored at 4°C (7.56 μg/g). Reverse transcription quantitative PCR detection of the expression level of the tyrDC gene in E. faecalis R612Z1 in the meat samples revealed no significant changes at different storage temperatures. Thus, the changes in tyramine production of E. faecalis R612Z1 may be due to the different enzymatic activities at different storage temperatures.

  15. Decolorization and detoxification of sulfonated toxic diazo dye C.I. Direct Red 81 by Enterococcus faecalis YZ 66.

    PubMed

    Sahasrabudhe, Madhuri M; Saratale, Rijuta G; Saratale, Ganesh D; Pathade, Girish R

    2014-01-01

    Isolated Enterococcus faecalis YZ 66 strain shows ability to decolorize various industrial dyes among which, it showed complete decolorization and degradation of toxic, sulfonated recalcitrant diazo dye Direct Red 81 (50 mg/L) within 1.5 h of incubation under static anoxic condition. The optimum pH and temperature for decolorization was 7.0 and 40°C, respectively. Significant induction in the activity of intracellular oxidoreductive enzymes suggested its involvement in the decolorization of Direct Red 81. The biodegradation of Direct Red 81 was monitored by UV-Visible, FT-IR spectroscopy and HPLC. The final products were characterized by GC-MS and possible pathway of the degradation of the dye was proposed. The phytotoxicity assay (with respect to plants Sorghum vulgare and Phaseolus mungo) revealed that the degradation of Direct Red 81 produced nontoxic metabolites. Finally E. faecalis was employed to decolorize actual industrial effluent showing decolorization (in terms of ADMI value) with moderate COD and BOD reduction. Moreover the result increases the applicability of the strain for the treatment of industrial wastewaters containing dye pollutants. PMID:25649265

  16. Decolorization and detoxification of sulfonated toxic diazo dye C.I. Direct Red 81 by Enterococcus faecalis YZ 66.

    PubMed

    Sahasrabudhe, Madhuri M; Saratale, Rijuta G; Saratale, Ganesh D; Pathade, Girish R

    2014-01-01

    Isolated Enterococcus faecalis YZ 66 strain shows ability to decolorize various industrial dyes among which, it showed complete decolorization and degradation of toxic, sulfonated recalcitrant diazo dye Direct Red 81 (50 mg/L) within 1.5 h of incubation under static anoxic condition. The optimum pH and temperature for decolorization was 7.0 and 40°C, respectively. Significant induction in the activity of intracellular oxidoreductive enzymes suggested its involvement in the decolorization of Direct Red 81. The biodegradation of Direct Red 81 was monitored by UV-Visible, FT-IR spectroscopy and HPLC. The final products were characterized by GC-MS and possible pathway of the degradation of the dye was proposed. The phytotoxicity assay (with respect to plants Sorghum vulgare and Phaseolus mungo) revealed that the degradation of Direct Red 81 produced nontoxic metabolites. Finally E. faecalis was employed to decolorize actual industrial effluent showing decolorization (in terms of ADMI value) with moderate COD and BOD reduction. Moreover the result increases the applicability of the strain for the treatment of industrial wastewaters containing dye pollutants.

  17. Isolation and mode of action of bacteriocin BacC1 produced by nonpathogenic Enterococcus faecium C1.

    PubMed

    Goh, H F; Philip, K

    2015-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are present in fermented food products and help to improve shelf life and enhance the flavor of the food. They also produce metabolites such as bacteriocins to prevent the growth of undesirable or pathogenic bacteria. In this study, Enterococcus faecium C1 isolated from fermented cow milk was able to produce bacteriocin BacC1 and inhibit the growth of selected food-spoilage bacteria. The bacteriocin was purified through 4 steps: ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction column, a series of centrifugal steps, and finally reversed-phase HPLC. A membrane permeability test using SYTOX green dye (Invitrogen, Grand Island, NY) showed that the bacteriocin caused significant disruptions to the test bacterial membrane, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. The molecular weight of the BacC1 obtained from SDS-PAGE was around 10kDa, and N-terminal sequencing revealed a partial amino acid sequence of BacC1: GPXGPXGP. The bacterial strain was nonhemolytic and not antibiotic resistant. Therefore, it has high potential for application in the food industry as an antimicrobial agent to extend the shelf life of food products. PMID:26004828

  18. Identification of vancomycin interaction with Enterococcus faecalis within 30 min of interaction time using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Cora; Kirchhoff, Johanna; Beleites, Claudia; Hey, Jessica; Kostudis, Sophia; Pfister, Wolfgang; Schlattmann, Peter; Popp, Jürgen; Neugebauer, Ute

    2015-11-01

    Vancomycin is an important glycopeptide antibiotic which is used to treat serious infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. However, during the last years, a tremendous rise in vancomycin resistances, especially among Enterococci, was reported, making fast diagnostic methods inevitable. In this contribution, we apply Raman spectroscopy to systematically characterize vancomycin-enterococci interactions over a time span of 90 min using a sensitive Enterococcus faecalis strain and two different vancomycin concentrations above the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Successful action of the drug on the pathogen could be observed already after 30 min of interaction time. Characteristic spectral changes are visualized with the help of multivariate statistical analysis (linear discriminant analysis and partial least squares regressions). Those changes were employed to train a statistical model to predict vancomycin treatment based on the Raman spectra. The robustness of the model was tested using data recorded by an independent operator. Classification accuracies of >90 % were obtained for vancomycin concentrations in the lower range of a typical trough serum concentration recommended for most patients during appropriate vancomycin therapy. Characterization of drug-pathogen interactions by means of label-free spectroscopic methods, such as Raman spectroscopy, can provide the knowledge base for innovative and fast susceptibility tests which could speed up microbiological analysis as well as finding applications in novel antibiotic screenings assays. Graphical Abstract E. faecalis is incubated with vancomycin and characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy after different time points. Characteristic spectral changes reveal efficient vancomycin-enterococci-interaction.

  19. [Antibiotic resistance analysis of Enterococcus spp. and Enterobacteriaceae spp. isolated from food].

    PubMed

    Korotkevich, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    The isolates from foods were screened for sensitivity to clinically significant antibiotics to assess the actual situation related to the prevalence of the antibiotic-resistant microorganisms in food. The goal of this work was to study the phenotypic characteristics of the antibiotic susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus spp. isolated from the good quality foods, and evaluation of the prevalence of tetracycline resistance in this groups of microbial contaminants. 68 strains of Enterobacteriaceae family and Enterococcus spp. isolated from poultry and livestock meat, pasteurized dairy products, acquired in the retail in the Moscow region, were studied. The disk-diffusion method (DDM) analysis showed a rather high prevalence of bacteria that are resistant and forming resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics: in general 38% of Enterobacteriaceae strains and 40% of Enterococcus spp., isolated from meat products were resistant to tetracycline and doxycycline, and 21 and 33% - from dairy products, respectively; 26% of milk isolates and 54% of meat isolates were resistant to ampicillin. Considering that the tetracyclines is the most frequently used in animal husbandry and veterinary, the incidence and levels of tetracycline resistance were evaluated using tests with higher sensitivity to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), than the DDM. It was shown that among the Enterobacteriaceae strains 26% of isolates and 38% isolates were highly resistant to tetracycline (MIC ranged from 8 to 120 mg/kg) and 17-40% - among Enterococcus spp. These data obtained on a small number of samples, however, correspond to the frequency of tetracycline resistant strains detected in animal products in the EU (10-50%). Two multidrug-resistant enterobacteria strains - Klebsiella pneumoniae (farmer cheese) and Escherichia coli (minced turkey) were found among the .46 strains (4.4%), and they were resistant to 8 antibiotics.

  20. A rare case of Enterococcus faecalis-induced orbital cellulitis and myositis

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Piyush; Ichhpujani, Parul; Bansal, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Orbital cellulitis is an infection of soft tissue behind the orbital septum. Common pathogens isolated include Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. It is a straightforward diagnosis and usually responds to empirical treatment without any sequela. We report a case of orbital cellulitis caused by Enterococcus faecalis, which was complicated by myositis of levator palpebrae superioris. To the best of our knowledge, only one case report exists dating way back to 1986. PMID:27688288

  1. Synergy characterization for Enterococcus faecalis strains displaying moderately high-level gentamicin and streptomycin resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Bantar, C E; Micucci, M; Fernandez Canigia, L; Smayevsky, J; Bianchini, H M

    1993-01-01

    Synergy of 14 Enterococcus faecalis strains displaying moderately high-level aminoglycoside resistance (MICs, 500 and 256 to 1,000 micrograms/ml for gentamicin and streptomycin, respectively) was characterized by time-kill studies. All strains proved resistant to penicillin plus the respective aminoglycoside. Strains with moderately high-level aminoglycoside resistance should be considered to exhibit high-level resistance in severe infections. PMID:8349776

  2. Synergy characterization for Enterococcus faecalis strains displaying moderately high-level gentamicin and streptomycin resistance.

    PubMed

    Bantar, C E; Micucci, M; Fernandez Canigia, L; Smayevsky, J; Bianchini, H M

    1993-07-01

    Synergy of 14 Enterococcus faecalis strains displaying moderately high-level aminoglycoside resistance (MICs, 500 and 256 to 1,000 micrograms/ml for gentamicin and streptomycin, respectively) was characterized by time-kill studies. All strains proved resistant to penicillin plus the respective aminoglycoside. Strains with moderately high-level aminoglycoside resistance should be considered to exhibit high-level resistance in severe infections.

  3. Clonal spread of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium between patients in three hospitals in two states.

    PubMed Central

    Chow, J W; Kuritza, A; Shlaes, D M; Green, M; Sahm, D F; Zervos, M J

    1993-01-01

    The DNAs of 3* vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates from five hospitals in three states were analyzed by contour-clamped homogeneous electric field electrophoresis and plasmid analysis. There were 22 strain types. One strain type was common to patients in three hospitals in two states. These results suggest the apparent intra- and interhospital spread of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium. Images PMID:8315004

  4. A rare case of Enterococcus faecalis-induced orbital cellulitis and myositis.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Piyush; Ichhpujani, Parul; Bansal, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-08-01

    Orbital cellulitis is an infection of soft tissue behind the orbital septum. Common pathogens isolated include Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. It is a straightforward diagnosis and usually responds to empirical treatment without any sequela. We report a case of orbital cellulitis caused by Enterococcus faecalis, which was complicated by myositis of levator palpebrae superioris. To the best of our knowledge, only one case report exists dating way back to 1986. PMID:27688288

  5. Deactivation of Enterococcus Faecalis Bacteria by an Atmospheric Cold Plasma Brush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Huang, Jun; Du, Ning; Liu, Xiao-Di; Lv, Guo-Hua; Wang, Xing-Quan; Zhang, Guo-Ping; Guo, Li-Hong; Yang, Si-Ze

    2012-07-01

    An atmospheric cold plasma brush suitable for large area and low-temperature plasma-based sterilization is designed and used to treat enterococcus faecalis bacteria. The results show that the efficiency of the inactivation process by helium plasma is dependent on applied power and exposure time. After plasma treatments, the cell structure and morphology changes can be observed by scanning electron microscopy. Optical emission measurements indicate that reactive species such as O and OH play a significant role in the sterilization process.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecalis Strain F165 Isolated from a Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pieta, Luiza; Prichula, Janira; Sambrano, Gustavo E.; Soares, Renata; Bello, Aline Dall; Frazzon, Jeverson; d’Azevedo, Pedro A.

    2016-01-01

    We report here a draft genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis strain F165 isolated from a urine specimen in South Brazil. The genome size was 3,049,734 bp, with a G+C content of 37.38%, and genes related to antimicrobial resistance and adherence were found in the strain. These findings are consistent with pathogenesis of E. faecalis species. PMID:27795252

  7. Complete genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis LD33, a bacteriocin-producing strain.

    PubMed

    Yuehua, Jiao; Lanwei, Zhang; Fei, Liu; Huaxi, Yi; Xue, Han

    2016-06-10

    Enterococcus faecalis LD33 strain was originally isolated from traditional naturally fermented cream in Inner Mongolia of China. Its complete genome sequence was carried out using the Illumina Hiseq and the PacBio RSII platform. The genome only has a circular chromosome and a GC content of 37.58%. Other core information shown in the genome sequencing results further insight on this bacterium's genetic elements for bacteriocin production and the genes related to respiratory chain.

  8. Is a single positive blood culture for Enterococcus species representative of infection or contamination?

    PubMed

    Jindai, K; Strerath, M S; Hess, T; Safdar, N

    2014-11-01

    Data on the clinical outcomes of patients with a single compared with multiple positive blood cultures for Enterococcus species is limited. We undertook a retrospective cohort study in adults with at least one positive blood culture for Enterococcus species in a single institution. Clinical outcomes included death and elimination of infection. We included 471 positive blood cultures from 206 enterococcal positive blood culture episodes in 189 patients. Multiple positive blood cultures for Enterococcus species occurred in 110/206 (53.4 %) episodes; 31.6 % of patients had diabetes mellitus; 42.9 % of patients had solid or hematologic malignancy; 26.5 % of patients were solid organ transplant recipients; hospital-acquired and healthcare-associated acquisition represented 55.3 % and 33.0 % of episodes, respectively. Thirty-five patients died and 110 episodes of enterococcal bloodstream infection were successfully treated. In the multivariable analysis, multiple positive blood cultures were not statistically significantly associated with an increased likelihood of in-hospital death [odds ratio (OR) 1.00, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.42-2.40] or elimination (OR 1.41, 95 % CI 0.76-2.64) compared with single positive blood cultures. Hematologic malignancy and diabetes mellitus were independently associated with in-hospital death (OR 2.83, 95 % Cl 1.02-7.82; OR 2.79, 95 % Cl 1.16-6.70, respectively). Infectious disease consultation was associated with a greater likelihood of elimination (OR 2.50, 95 % Cl 1.32-4.72). The clinical outcomes of patients with single versus multiple positive blood cultures with Enterococcus species were similar in our institution. Further studies should examine efficient methods to detect contamination versus true infection.

  9. Complete genome sequence of Enterococcus durans KLDS6.0930, a strain with probiotic properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Li, Bailiang; Du, Jincheng; Yu, Shangfu; Li, Wan; Evivie, Smith Etareri; Guo, Lidong; Ding, Xiuyun; Xu, Min; Huo, Guicheng

    2016-01-10

    Enterococcus durans KLDS6.0930 strain was originally isolated from traditional naturally fermented cream in Inner Mongolia of China. The complete genome sequence of E. durans KLDS6.0930 was carried out using the PacBio RSII platform. The genome contains a circular chromosome and two circular plasmids. Genome sequencing information provides the genetic basis for bioinformatics analysis of bile salt and acid tolerance, cell adhesion, and molecular mechanisms responsible for lipid metabolism.

  10. Detection of CC17 Enterococcus faecium in dogs and a comparison with human isolates.

    PubMed

    Kwon, K H; Moon, B Y; Hwang, S Y; Park, Y H

    2012-09-01

    Enterococcus faecium strains of clonal complex (CC) 17 were isolated from domestic dogs. The strains were more prevalent in infectious isolates than in colonized isolates, suggesting that strains of the CC17 lineage may have an advantage in causing infections in dogs. The pulsed field gel electrophoresis patterns of some dog and human isolates were over 90% similar. However, antimicrobial resistance patterns and virulence factors were not identical, which might reflect different use of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine or in host specificity.

  11. [Antibiotic resistance analysis of Enterococcus spp. and Enterobacteriaceae spp. isolated from food].

    PubMed

    Korotkevich, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    The isolates from foods were screened for sensitivity to clinically significant antibiotics to assess the actual situation related to the prevalence of the antibiotic-resistant microorganisms in food. The goal of this work was to study the phenotypic characteristics of the antibiotic susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus spp. isolated from the good quality foods, and evaluation of the prevalence of tetracycline resistance in this groups of microbial contaminants. 68 strains of Enterobacteriaceae family and Enterococcus spp. isolated from poultry and livestock meat, pasteurized dairy products, acquired in the retail in the Moscow region, were studied. The disk-diffusion method (DDM) analysis showed a rather high prevalence of bacteria that are resistant and forming resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics: in general 38% of Enterobacteriaceae strains and 40% of Enterococcus spp., isolated from meat products were resistant to tetracycline and doxycycline, and 21 and 33% - from dairy products, respectively; 26% of milk isolates and 54% of meat isolates were resistant to ampicillin. Considering that the tetracyclines is the most frequently used in animal husbandry and veterinary, the incidence and levels of tetracycline resistance were evaluated using tests with higher sensitivity to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), than the DDM. It was shown that among the Enterobacteriaceae strains 26% of isolates and 38% isolates were highly resistant to tetracycline (MIC ranged from 8 to 120 mg/kg) and 17-40% - among Enterococcus spp. These data obtained on a small number of samples, however, correspond to the frequency of tetracycline resistant strains detected in animal products in the EU (10-50%). Two multidrug-resistant enterobacteria strains - Klebsiella pneumoniae (farmer cheese) and Escherichia coli (minced turkey) were found among the .46 strains (4.4%), and they were resistant to 8 antibiotics. PMID:27455596

  12. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Enterococcus faecium Strains Isolated from Argentine Cheese.

    PubMed

    Martino, Gabriela P; Quintana, Ingrid M; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S; Gallina Nizo, Gabriel; Esteban, Luis; Magni, Christian

    2016-02-04

    We report the draft genome sequences of four Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Argentine regional cheeses. These strains were selected based on their technological properties, i.e., their ability to produce aroma compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) from citrate. The goal of our study is to provide further genetic evidence for the rational selection of enterococci strains based on their pheno- and genotype in order to be used in cheese production.

  13. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Enterococcus faecium Strains Isolated from Argentine Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Gabriela P.; Quintana, Ingrid M.; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S.; Gallina Nizo, Gabriel; Esteban, Luis

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of four Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Argentine regional cheeses. These strains were selected based on their technological properties, i.e., their ability to produce aroma compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) from citrate. The goal of our study is to provide further genetic evidence for the rational selection of enterococci strains based on their pheno- and genotype in order to be used in cheese production. PMID:26847907

  14. Mycotic Aneurysm of the Popliteal Artery Secondary to Enterococcus Endo-carditis : a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Yogeswaran, S K; Stabel, P; Avet, J; Daenen, G

    2014-01-01

    A mycotic popliteal aneurysm (MAAP) is a very rare condition [1]. We describe a 87-year-old Caucasian male who presented with a MAAP of the right leg due to an enterococcus mitral valve endocarditis. The aneurysm was excised and a reversed vein graft was interposed between the normal popliteal artery and the posterior tibial artery. A second vein graft was interposed between the first graft and the anterior tibial artery.

  15. Study of antimicrobial effects of vancomycin loaded PLGA nanoparticles against enterococcus clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Lotfipour, F; Abdollahi, S; Jelvehgari, M; Valizadeh, H; Hassan, M; Milani, M

    2014-07-01

    Researchers have demonstrated that antimicrobial agents in nanoparticle (NP) forms have better activities. Vancomycin (VCM), as a glycopeptide antibiotic with antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria, is poorly absorbed from the intestinal tract. Enterococcus is a genus of bacteria that became resistant to a wide range of antibiotics in last decades, and cause severe infections in hospitalized patients. This paper describes preparation of VCM--loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs and compares the antimicrobial effects with drug solution against clinical Enterococcus isolates. VCM-loaded PLGA NPs were fabricated by W1/O/W2 solvent evaporation method. The comparison of obtained Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values showed a significant decrease in the antimicrobial effect of VCM -loaded NPs. Results also indicated that the potency of the NPs against VCM resistant isolates of Enterococcus was less than VCM susceptible isolates. The reduced antimicrobial effect of formulated NPs in invitro condition is perhaps related to the strong electrostatic linkage between hydrophilic drug (VCM) and hydrophobic polymer (PLGA) that lead to the slow release of the antibiotic from polymeric NPs.

  16. Undomesticated animals as a reservoir of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus in eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Nowakiewicz, Aneta; Ziółkowska, Grażyna; Zięba, Przemysław; Kostruba, Anna

    2014-07-01

    To assess implications for public health we compared the resistance of Enterococcus spp. strains to antibacterial drugs in wild and exotic animals with strains originating in domesticated animals and characterized correlations between Enterococcus species, the source of the isolate, and the degree of resistance to selected antibiotics. All strains, regardless of source, were susceptible to β-lactams, gentamicin, linezolid, and teicoplanin; the highest resistance was to kanamycin, quinupristin, and rifampicin. Thirteen strains from undomesticated animals were resistant to vancomycin, and one strain, from a fox, was resistant to streptomycin (high-dose). Multidrug-resistant strains accounted for 46% of the strains from wild animals and 59% of the strains from an exotic animal (the Russian tortoise; Testudo horsfieldii). Despite the relatively low level of resistance in the strains isolated from wild and exotic animals, the large number of intermediately susceptible strains in these groups is an indication of the evolutionary character of the development of resistance, suggesting that these animals may be potential reservoirs of Enterococcus strains resistant to a wide panel of currently used antibiotics.

  17. In vitro antibacterial effect of different irrigating solutions on Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Bulacio, María de los Angeles; Cangemi, Rosa; Cecilia, Marta; Raiden, Guillermo

    2006-01-01

    Was evaluated the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the antibacterial effect (AE) of 2.5% NaOCl, 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and 17% EDTA on Enterococcus faecalis. The antibacterial capacity was assessed by difusion in agar. The AE was evaluated on contaminated root dentin, employing apical and middle portions of human roots, sterilized and contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis, immersed in the irrigation solutions and incubated at 37 degrees C. Viable cells were counted at 0, 4, 8 and 24 hours. MIC: NaOCl and CHX: 0.2%, EDTA below 5%. Diffusion in agar: NaOCl 2.5% = 21 mm. CHX 0.2% = 14 mm. EDTA 17% = 20 mm. Effect on root dentin: NaOCl 2.5%: Enterococcus faecalis was totally inhibited for 24 hours in the apical area, and for 8 hours in the middle area. CHX 0.2% elicited a reduction of more than 5 log CFU and EDTA 17% induced a reduction of more than 3 log CFU at all the time points examined in the apical and middle areas.

  18. Studies on the drug resistance profile of Enterococcus faecium distributed from poultry retailers to hospitals.

    PubMed

    Limayem, Alya; Donofrio, Robert Scott; Zhang, Chao; Haller, Edward; Johnson, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    The multidrug resistant Enterococcus faecium (MEF) strains originating from farm animals are proliferating at a substantial pace to impact downstream food chains and could reach hospitals. This study was conducted to elucidate the drug susceptibility profile of MEF strains collected from poultry products in Ann Arbor, MI area and clinical settings from Michigan State Lab and Moffitt Cancer Center (MCC) in Florida. Presumptive positive Enterococcus isolates at species level were identified by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis. The antibiotic susceptibility profile for both poultry and clinical strains was determined by the Thermo Scientific's Sensititre conform to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) and validated via quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods. Out of 50 poultry samples (Turkey: n = 30; Chicken: n = 20), 36 samples were positive for Enterococcus species from which 20.83% were identified as E. faecium. All the E. faecium isolates were multidrug resistant and displayed resistance to the last alternative drug, quinupristin/dalfopristin (QD) used to treat vancomycin resistant E. faecium (VRE) in hospitals. Results indicate the presence of MEF strains in food animals and clinical settings that are also resistant to QD.

  19. Comparison of Enterococcus species diversity in marine water and wastewater using Enterolert and EPA Method 1600.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Donna M; Griffith, John F; McGee, Charles D; Weisberg, Stephen B; Hagedorn, Charles

    2013-01-01

    EPA Method 1600 and Enterolert are used interchangeably to measure Enterococcus for fecal contamination of public beaches, but the methods occasionally produce different results. Here we assess whether these differences are attributable to the selectivity for certain species within the Enterococcus group. Both methods were used to obtain 1279 isolates from 17 environmental samples, including influent and effluent of four wastewater treatment plants, ambient marine water from seven different beaches, and freshwater urban runoff from two stream systems. The isolates were identified to species level. Detection of non-Enterococcus species was slightly higher using Enterolert (8.4%) than for EPA Method 1600 (5.1%). E. faecalis and E. faecium, commonly associated with human fecal waste, were predominant in wastewater; however, Enterolert had greater selectivity for E. faecalis, which was also shown using a laboratory-created sample. The same species selectivity was not observed for most beach water and urban runoff samples. These samples had relatively higher proportions of plant associated species, E. casseliflavus (18.5%) and E. mundtii (5.7%), compared to wastewater, suggesting environmental inputs to beaches and runoff. The potential for species selectivity among water testing methods should be considered when assessing the sanitary quality of beaches so that public health warnings are based on indicators representative of fecal sources.

  20. First detection of the antiseptic resistance gene qacA/B in Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Meike; Bauer, Johann; Preikschat, Petra; Schwaiger, Karin; Mölle, Gabriele; Hölzel, Christina

    2012-02-01

    Resistance to disinfectants is well investigated in staphylococci and pseudomonads but nearly unexplored in bacteria of the genus Enterococcus, despite their rising significance as nosocomial pathogens. In this study, Enterococcus faecalis (n=585) from blood (n=42) and stool (n=109) of hospitalized humans, from faeces of farm animals (n=226), and from food (milk and dairy products, n=96; meat and meat products, n=112) were screened for the presence of qac-genes (qacA, qacB, qacC, smr [qacC+qacD], qacEΔ1, qacG, qacH, qacJ) via PCR. The isolates' susceptibility to a quaternary ammonium compound (didecyldimethylammoniumchloride, DDAC) and antibiotics was assessed by microdilution. Four E. faecalis strains were positive for qac-genes: qacA/B was found in one isolate from cattle and one isolate from human blood; smr (qacC+qacD) was detected in one isolate from human stool and in one isolate from cheese ("Camembert"). The sequences of the qacA/B-amplicons differed in two basepairs. DDAC had an elevated minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2.45-3.5 mg/L in one qacA/B-positive strain from human blood, whereas the other qac-gene carriers had wild-type MIC-values for DDAC (1.05 mg/L). This is the first detection of qacA/B in the genus Enterococcus.

  1. Host range susceptibility of Enterococcus sp. strains isolated from diseased turbot: possible routes of infection.

    PubMed Central

    Romalde, J L; Magariños, B; Nuñez, S; Barja, J L; Toranzo, A E

    1996-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the pathogenicity of Enterococcus sp. strains isolated from diseased turbot for several fish species (turbot, salmon, trout, and seabream), as well as for mice. The intraperitoneal injection assays indicated that the tested strains showed host specificity for turbot, with a high degree of virulence (50% lethal dose of 10(4) cells per g of fish). The Spanish Enterococcus sp. isolates were nonpathogenic for the other fish species studied and for mice. The possible routes of infection were determined by bath exposure (with and without prior abrasion of the skin) and by intragastric inoculations with food and feces contaminated with the pathogen. The bath challenges indicated that the Enterococcus isolates were able to overcome the defense mechanisms present on the surface of the turbot only if the skin was abraded prior to the exposure. The antibacterial activities of components of a glycoprotein nature present in the turbot skin mucus are probably responsible in part for the resistance in noninjured fish to infection. On the other hand, we demonstrated the capacity of this pathogen to overcome adverse conditions in the stomachs of fish when associated with food or fecal material, since it is able to establish an infective state and to produce mortalities after 16 to 20 days postingestion. From all of these findings, we can conclude that horizontal transmissions through water and the fecal-oral route are the main avenues of infection of turbot streptococcosis. PMID:8593061

  2. Biological Activities of Tetrodotoxin-Producing Enterococcus faecium AD1 Isolated from Puffer Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tu Hoang Khue; Nguyen, Huu Ngoc; Nghe, Dat Van; Nguyen, Kim Hoang

    2015-01-01

    Puffer fishes were collected from the central sea in Vietnam from spring to summer season. The eggs were incubated in MRS broth that was used to test the toxicity in mice and isolate the lactic acid bacteria community that could produce tetrodotoxin (TTX). Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance lipid chromatography (HPLC) were used to detect and quantify TTX. As a result, Enterococcus faecium AD1 which was identified by biochemical test and 16S rRNA analysis could produce TTX 0.3 mg/mL when cultured in MRS broth. The bacterium was optimized for TTX production and gave 0.18 mg/mL, 0.07 mg/mL, and 0.15 mg/mL in media prepared from the meat-washing water of freshwater fishes (Pangasius bocourti, Oreochromis sp.) and sea fish (Auxis thazard), respectively, that are also hopeful to answer some poisoning cases related to eating fishes. Enterococcus faecium also showed the wide antimicrobial activities on yeast, Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. Extracted exopolysaccharide (EPS) that reacted with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl to give IC50 at 5 mg/mL equaled 11 mg/mL ascorbic acid which could show effects on Hela-6 and Hep G2 using sulforhodamine B test. Enterococcus faecium can be claimed as a promising source in tetrodotoxin and biological compounds. PMID:26380310

  3. Biological Activities of Tetrodotoxin-Producing Enterococcus faecium AD1 Isolated from Puffer Fishes.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tu Hoang Khue; Nguyen, Huu Ngoc; Nghe, Dat Van; Nguyen, Kim Hoang

    2015-01-01

    Puffer fishes were collected from the central sea in Vietnam from spring to summer season. The eggs were incubated in MRS broth that was used to test the toxicity in mice and isolate the lactic acid bacteria community that could produce tetrodotoxin (TTX). Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance lipid chromatography (HPLC) were used to detect and quantify TTX. As a result, Enterococcus faecium AD1 which was identified by biochemical test and 16S rRNA analysis could produce TTX 0.3 mg/mL when cultured in MRS broth. The bacterium was optimized for TTX production and gave 0.18 mg/mL, 0.07 mg/mL, and 0.15 mg/mL in media prepared from the meat-washing water of freshwater fishes (Pangasius bocourti, Oreochromis sp.) and sea fish (Auxis thazard), respectively, that are also hopeful to answer some poisoning cases related to eating fishes. Enterococcus faecium also showed the wide antimicrobial activities on yeast, Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. Extracted exopolysaccharide (EPS) that reacted with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl to give IC50 at 5 mg/mL equaled 11 mg/mL ascorbic acid which could show effects on Hela-6 and Hep G2 using sulforhodamine B test. Enterococcus faecium can be claimed as a promising source in tetrodotoxin and biological compounds. PMID:26380310

  4. High-level aminoglycoside resistance in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium causing invasive infection: Twelve-year surveillance in the Minami Ibaraki Area.

    PubMed

    Osuka, Hanako; Nakajima, Jun; Oishi, Tsuyoshi; Funayama, Yasunori; Ebihara, Tsugio; Ishikawa, Hiroichi; Saito, Kazuto; Koganemaru, Hiroshi; Hitomi, Shigemi

    2016-01-01

    We examined prevalence of high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium causing invasive infection in the Minami Ibaraki Area. Ten strains of both species each, recovered from the blood or the cerebrospinal fluid between 2003 and 2014, were randomly selected every year. High-level resistance to gentamicin (HLR-GM) and streptomycin (HLR-SM) was detected in 34% (41 of 120 strains) and 18% (21) of E. faecalis and 9% (11) and 39% (48) of E. faecium, respectively. In comparisons of the proportions among three four-year periods, HLR-SM among E. faecium was significantly lower in the 2011-2014 period. All strains with HLR-GM were positive for the aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia gene. The ant(6')-Ia gene was detected in all with HLR-SM except for one E. faecalis strain. The present study showed that prevalence of HLR-GM among E. faecalis and E. faecium causing invasive infection in this area was nearly equivalent to that described in previous studies in Japan and that proportions of strains with HLAR did not vary during the study period except for that of HLR-SM among E. faecium.

  5. High genetic diversity of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing from a hospital in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Weng, Poh Leng; Ramli, Ramliza; Shamsudin, Mariana Nor; Cheah, Yoke-Kqueen; Hamat, Rukman Awang

    2013-01-01

    Little is known on the genetic relatedness and potential dissemination of particular enterococcal clones in Malaysia. We studied the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis and subjected them to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). E. faecium and E. faecalis displayed 27 and 30 pulsotypes, respectively, and 10 representative E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates (five each) yielded few different sequence types (STs): ST17 (2 isolates), ST78, ST203, and ST601 for E. faecium, and ST6, ST16, ST28, ST179, and ST399 for E. faecalis. Resistance to tazobactam-piperacillin and ampicillin amongst E. faecium isolates was highly observed as compared to E. faecalis isolates. All of the isolates were sensitive to vancomycin and teicoplanin. The presence of epidemic and nosocomial strains of selected E. faecium STs: 17, 78, and 203 and E. faecalis ST6 as well as high rates of resistance to multiple antibiotics amongst E. faecium isolates is of a particular concern.

  6. High Genetic Diversity of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis Clinical Isolates by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Multilocus Sequence Typing from a Hospital in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Poh Leng; Ramli, Ramliza; Shamsudin, Mariana Nor; Cheah, Yoke-Kqueen; Hamat, Rukman Awang

    2013-01-01

    Little is known on the genetic relatedness and potential dissemination of particular enterococcal clones in Malaysia. We studied the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis and subjected them to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). E. faecium and E. faecalis displayed 27 and 30 pulsotypes, respectively, and 10 representative E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates (five each) yielded few different sequence types (STs): ST17 (2 isolates), ST78, ST203, and ST601 for E. faecium, and ST6, ST16, ST28, ST179, and ST399 for E. faecalis. Resistance to tazobactam-piperacillin and ampicillin amongst E. faecium isolates was highly observed as compared to E. faecalis isolates. All of the isolates were sensitive to vancomycin and teicoplanin. The presence of epidemic and nosocomial strains of selected E. faecium STs: 17, 78, and 203 and E. faecalis ST6 as well as high rates of resistance to multiple antibiotics amongst E. faecium isolates is of a particular concern. PMID:23819125

  7. High prevalence of ST-78 infection-associated vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium from hospitals in Asunción, Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Khan, M A; Northwood, J B; Loor, R G J; Tholen, A T R; Riera, E; Falcón, M; van Belkum, A; van Westreenen, M; Hays, J P

    2010-06-01

    Forty infection-associated VanA-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) strains obtained from five collaborating hospitals in Asunción, Paraguay were investigated. Genotyping using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing revealed the presence of 17 cluster types and four STs, with 93% (37/40) of isolates comprising ST type 78. Other ST types included ST-132, ST-210 and one new ST type (ST-438). All but one isolate (ST-438) were associated with clonal complex 17 (CC17), and 97% of the total isolates carried the esp gene. Three Tn1546 variants were found, including a new lineage containing an ISEfa5 insertion in an existing IS1251 element.

  8. Bacteremia with an iliopsoas abscess and osteomyelitis of the femoral head caused by Enterococcus avium in a patient with end-stage kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Okada, Akira; Hangai, Mika; Oda, Toshimi

    2015-01-01

    A 70-year-old man on hemodialysis for end-stage kidney disease due to polycystic kidney disease presented with hip pain on extension and a high C-reactive protein level. Further examinations revealed an iliopsoas abscess and femoral head osteomyelitis caused by Enterococcus avium (E. avium) detected in blood and pus cultures. Complete resolution of the infection with ampicillin-resistant E. avium required six months of vancomycin therapy and two surgical drainage procedures. There have been no previous case reports in which both blood and abscess cultures confirmed E. avium infection. Careful attention should be paid to the detection of non-specific symptoms in patients on hemodialysis, with blood cultures being essential in such cases.

  9. Evaluation of the quality of coastal bathing waters in Spain through fecal bacteria Escherichia coli and Enterococcus.

    PubMed

    Aragonés, L; López, I; Palazón, A; López-Úbeda, R; García, C

    2016-10-01

    Sun. and beach tourism is very important to the economy of Spain, so the control of the quality of the environment on the beaches is essential. Therefore, the analysis and control of the quality of bathing water is necessary, which is defined by the European Directive 2006/7/EC as excellent, good or sufficient depending on the presence of microbiological contamination or other organisms or waste presenting a risk to bathers' health. For that, 1392 beaches of the Iberian Peninsula and its islands were analysed, taking into account: fecal bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus), physical characteristics of sediment, level of urbanization, climatic and anthropogenic factors, and maritime climate. Thus, it was observed that urban sand beaches located in seas with fewer hours of sunshine and important tide have higher concentrations of E. coli and Enterococcus. There is also an indirect relationship between these microorganisms with salinity (R(2) 0.746 for E. coli and 0.606 for Enterococcus), temperature (R(2) 0.743 for E. coli and 0.604 for Enterococcus) and hours of sunshine (R(2) 0.781 for E. coli and 0.706 for Enterococcus), while this relationship is direct with rainfall (R(2) 0.640 for E. coli and 0.607 for Enterococcus) or wave height (R(2) 0.769 for E. coli and 0.601 for Enterococcus). From all this, it follows that the Directive 2006/7/EC should define more specific criteria as to the place and time of sampling, and take into account the different environment variables that influence the survival of bacteria, so that the results may reflect reality, and avoid staff responsible for sampling freely choose the place and time of sampling.

  10. Evaluation of the quality of coastal bathing waters in Spain through fecal bacteria Escherichia coli and Enterococcus.

    PubMed

    Aragonés, L; López, I; Palazón, A; López-Úbeda, R; García, C

    2016-10-01

    Sun. and beach tourism is very important to the economy of Spain, so the control of the quality of the environment on the beaches is essential. Therefore, the analysis and control of the quality of bathing water is necessary, which is defined by the European Directive 2006/7/EC as excellent, good or sufficient depending on the presence of microbiological contamination or other organisms or waste presenting a risk to bathers' health. For that, 1392 beaches of the Iberian Peninsula and its islands were analysed, taking into account: fecal bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus), physical characteristics of sediment, level of urbanization, climatic and anthropogenic factors, and maritime climate. Thus, it was observed that urban sand beaches located in seas with fewer hours of sunshine and important tide have higher concentrations of E. coli and Enterococcus. There is also an indirect relationship between these microorganisms with salinity (R(2) 0.746 for E. coli and 0.606 for Enterococcus), temperature (R(2) 0.743 for E. coli and 0.604 for Enterococcus) and hours of sunshine (R(2) 0.781 for E. coli and 0.706 for Enterococcus), while this relationship is direct with rainfall (R(2) 0.640 for E. coli and 0.607 for Enterococcus) or wave height (R(2) 0.769 for E. coli and 0.601 for Enterococcus). From all this, it follows that the Directive 2006/7/EC should define more specific criteria as to the place and time of sampling, and take into account the different environment variables that influence the survival of bacteria, so that the results may reflect reality, and avoid staff responsible for sampling freely choose the place and time of sampling. PMID:27232959

  11. A decade of genomic history for healthcare-associated Enterococcus faecium in the United Kingdom and Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Raven, Kathy E.; Reuter, Sandra; Reynolds, Rosy; Brodrick, Hayley J.; Russell, Julie E.; Török, M. Estée; Parkhill, Julian; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2016-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) is an important cause of healthcare-associated infections worldwide. We undertook whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 495 E. faecium bloodstream isolates from 2001–2011 in the United Kingdom and Ireland (UK&I) and 11 E. faecium isolates from a reference collection. Comparison between WGS and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) identified major discrepancies for 17% of isolates, with multiple instances of the same sequence type (ST) being located in genetically distant positions in the WGS tree. This confirms that WGS is superior to MLST for evolutionary analyses and is more accurate than current typing methods used during outbreak investigations. E. faecium has been categorized as belonging to three clades (Clades A1, hospital-associated; A2, animal-associated; and B, community-associated). Phylogenetic analysis of our isolates replicated the distinction between Clade A (97% of isolates) and Clade B but did not support the subdivision of Clade A into Clade A1 and A2. Phylogeographic analyses revealed that Clade A had been introduced multiple times into each hospital referral network or country, indicating frequent movement of E. faecium between regions that rarely share hospital patients. Numerous genetic clusters contained highly related vanA-positive and -negative E. faecium, which implies that control of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in hospitals also requires consideration of vancomycin-susceptible E. faecium. Our findings reveal the evolution and dissemination of hospital-associated E. faecium in the UK&I and provide evidence for WGS as an instrument for infection control. PMID:27527616

  12. The Prevalence and the Characterization of the Enterococcus Species from Various Clinical Samples in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, S.; Babu P.R., Sreenivasa; Prathab, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Enterococci form a part of the normal flora of the intestinal tract, the oral cavity, and the vagina, but in recent times, they have become emerging nosocomial pathogens. Their increasing importance is largely due to their resistance to antimicrobials. The therapeutic failures in enterococcal infections are mainly due to the intrinsic as well as transferable drug resistance. The main aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of the Enterococcus infection and to determine the antibiogram in a tertiary care hospital. Method Enterococcus was isolated from a total of 5555 clinical samples like urine , pus, tissue, blood and body fluids during the period from January to December 2008. The isolates were speciated by using conventional biochemical tests (Facklam and Collins). The antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Confirmation of vancomycin susceptibility was done by the Epsilometer test (E test) to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Result From various clinical samples, 128 Enterococcus species were isolated in a period of one year and the rate of the infection was estimated to be 2.3%. Among the isolates, those of Enterococcus faecalis (E.faecalis) were 97(76%) and the remaining 31(24%) were of Enterococcus faecium (E.faecium). The maximum number of isolates were from pus 55(43%), followed by the isolates from urine 40(31%). The sensitivity pattern of these isolates showed an increased resistance to penicillin, ampicillin and ciprofloxacin. A High Level of Gentamicin Resistance (HLGR) was present in 60 (47% ) isolates of Enterococcus and 35(27%) isolates were intermediately sensitive to vancomycin by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. All the intermediately sensitive isolates to vancomycin were further tested by the E test and they were found to be vancomycin sensitive. Conclusion Various studies have shown an increase in the rate of infection and the antibiotic resistance in the

  13. Modeling Enterococcus densities measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and membrane filtration using environmental conditions at four Great Lakes beaches.

    PubMed

    Telech, Justin W; Brenner, Kristen P; Haugland, Rich; Sams, Elizabeth; Dufour, Alfred P; Wymer, Larry; Wade, Timothy J

    2009-11-01

    Data collected by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) during the summer months of 2003 and 2004 at four US Great Lakes beaches were analyzed using linear regression analysis to identify relationships between meteorological, physical water characteristics, and beach characteristics data and the fecal indicator bacteria, Enterococcus. Water samples were analyzed for Enterococcus densities by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and membrane filtration (MF). This paper investigates the ability of regression models to accurately predict Enterococcus densities above or below a threshold value, using environmental data on a beach-by-beach basis for both methods. The ability to create statistical models for real-time water quality analysis would allow beach managers to make more accurate decisions regarding beach safety. Results from linear regression models indicate that environmental factors explain more of the variability in Enterococcus densities measured by MF than Enterococcus densities measured by qPCR. Results also show that models for both methods did not perform well at predicting occurrences in which water quality levels exceeded a threshold.

  14. Speciation and frequency of virulence genes of Enterococcus spp. isolated from rainwater tank samples in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Sidhu, J P S; Toze, S

    2012-06-19

    In this study, 212 Enterococcus isolates from 23 rainwater tank samples in Southeast Queensland (SEQ), Australia were identified to the species level. The isolates were also tested for the presence of 6 virulence genes associated with Enterococcus related infections. Among the 23 rainwater tank samples, 20 (90%), 10 (44%), 7 (30%), 5 (22%), 4 (17%), 2 (9%), and 1 (4%) samples yielded E. faecalis, E. mundtii, E. casseliflavus, E. faecium, E. hirae, E. avium, and E. durans, respectively. Among the 6 virulence genes tested, gelE and efaA were most prevalent, detected in 19 (83%) and 18 (78%) of 23 rainwater tank samples, respectively. Virulence gene ace was also detected in 14 (61%) rainwater tank samples followed by AS, esp (E. faecalis variant), and cylA genes which were detected in 3 (13%), 2 (9%), and 1 (4%) samples, respectively. In all, 120 (57%) Enterococcus isolates from 20 rainwater tank samples harbored virulence genes. Among these tank water samples, Enterococcus spp. from 5 (25%) samples harbored a single virulence gene and 15 (75%) samples were harboring two or more virulence genes. The significance of these strains in terms of health implications remains to be assessed. The potential sources of these strains need to be identified for the improved management of captured rainwater quality. Finally, it is recommended that Enterococcus spp. should be used as an additional fecal indicator bacterium in conjunction with E. coli for the microbiological assessment of rainwater tanks.

  15. Native Microbial Colonization of Drosophila melanogaster and Its Use as a Model of Enterococcus faecalis Pathogenesis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Christopher R.; Gilmore, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    Enterococci are commensal organisms of the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of a broad range of mammalian and insect hosts, but they are also leading causes of nosocomial infection. Little is known about the ecological role of enterococci in the GI tract consortia. To develop a tractable model for studying the roles of these organisms as commensals and pathogens, we characterized the Drosophila melanogaster microflora and examined the occurrence of enterococci in the gastrointestinal consortium of Drosophila. In a survey of laboratory-reared Drosophila and wild-captured flies, we found that Drosophila was naturally colonized by representatives of five bacterial phyla. Among these organisms were several species of enterococci, including Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus gallinaraum, and Enterococcus durans, as well as a previously detected but uncultured Enterococcus species. Drosophila could be cured of enterococcal carriage by antibiotic treatment and could be reassociated with laboratory strains. High-level colonization by a well-characterized strain expressing the enterococcal cytolysin was found to be detrimental to Drosophila compared to the effect of an isogenic, noncytolytic control. The anatomical distribution of enterococci in the Drosophila GI tract was determined by immunohistochemical staining of thin sections of naturally colonized and reassociated flies. PMID:17220307

  16. Mortality in Kittens Is Associated with a Shift in Ileum Mucosa-Associated Enterococci from Enterococcus hirae to Biofilm-Forming Enterococcus faecalis and Adherent Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Borst, Luke; Stauffer, Stephen H.; Suyemoto, Mitsu; Moisan, Peter; Zurek, Ludek

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 15% of foster kittens die before 8 weeks of age, with most of these kittens demonstrating clinical signs or postmortem evidence of enteritis. While a specific cause of enteritis is not determined in most cases, these kittens are often empirically administered probiotics that contain enterococci. The enterococci are members of the commensal intestinal microbiota but also can function as opportunistic pathogens. Given the complicated role of enterococci in health and disease, it would be valuable to better understand what constitutes a “healthy” enterococcal community in these kittens and how this microbiota is impacted by severe illness. In this study, we characterized the ileum mucosa-associated enterococcal community of 50 apparently healthy and 50 terminally ill foster kittens. In healthy kittens, Enterococcus hirae was the most common species of ileum mucosa-associated enterococci and was often observed to adhere extensively to the small intestinal epithelium. These E. hirae isolates generally lacked virulence traits. In contrast, non-E. hirae enterococci, notably Enterococcus faecalis, were more commonly isolated from the ileum mucosa of kittens with terminal illness. Isolates of E. faecalis had numerous virulence traits and multiple antimicrobial resistances. Moreover, the attachment of Escherichia coli to the intestinal epithelium was significantly associated with terminal illness and was not observed in any kitten with adherent E. hirae. These findings identify a significant difference in the species of enterococci cultured from the ileum mucosa of kittens with terminal illness compared to the species cultured from healthy kittens. In contrast to prior case studies that associated enteroadherent E. hirae with diarrhea in young animals, these controlled studies identified E. hirae as more often isolated from healthy kittens and adherence of E. hirae as more common and extensive in healthy kittens than in sick kittens. PMID:23966487

  17. Molecular analysis and distribution of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates belonging to clonal complex 17 in a tertiary care center in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Enterococcus faecium has recently emerged as a multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen involved in outbreaks worldwide. A high rate of resistance to different antibiotics has been associated with virulent clonal complex 17 isolates carrying the esp and hyl genes and the purK1 allele. Results Twelve clinical vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) isolates were obtained from pediatric patients at the Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez (HIMFG). Among these VREF isolates, 58.3% (7/12) were recovered from urine, while 41.7% (5/12) were recovered from the bloodstream. The VREF isolates showed a 100% rate of resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, gentamicin, rifampicin, erythromycin and teicoplanin. In addition, 16.7% (2/12) of the isolates were resistant to linezolid, and 66.7% (8/12) were resistant to tetracycline and doxycycline. PCR analysis revealed the presence of the vanA gene in all 12 VREF isolates, esp in 83.3% (10/12) of the isolates and hyl in 50% (6/12) of the isolates. Phylogenetic analysis via molecular typing was performed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and demonstrated 44% similarity among the VREF isolates. MLST analysis identified four different sequence types (ST412, ST757, ST203 and ST612). Conclusion This study provides the first report of multidrug-resistant VREF isolates belonging to clonal complex 17 from a tertiary care center in Mexico City. Multidrug resistance and genetic determinants of virulence confer advantages among VREF in the colonization of their host. Therefore, the prevention and control of the spread of nosocomial infections caused by VREF is crucial for identifying new emergent subclones that could be challenging to treat in subsequent years. PMID:24330424

  18. Inducer bacteria, unique signal peptides and low nutrient media stimulate in-vitro bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus spp. and Enterococcus spp. strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteriocins (BCN) provide promising potential to control bacterial infections in a variety of applications. We previously reported three Type IIa BCN produced by Lactobacillus salivarius B-30514 (OR-7), Enterococcus durans/faecium/hirae B-30745 (E 760) and Enterococcus faecium B-30746 (E 50-52). ...

  19. Diversity, distribution and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus spp. recovered from tomatoes, leaves, water and soil on U.S. Mid-Atlantic farms.

    PubMed

    Micallef, Shirley A; Goldstein, Rachel E Rosenberg; George, Ashish; Ewing, Laura; Tall, Ben D; Boyer, Marc S; Joseph, Sam W; Sapkota, Amy R

    2013-12-01

    Antibiotic-resistant enterococci are important opportunistic pathogens and have been recovered from retail tomatoes. However, it is unclear where and how tomatoes are contaminated along the farm-to-fork continuum. Specifically, the degree of pre-harvest contamination with enterococci is unknown. We evaluated the prevalence, diversity and antimicrobial susceptibilities of enterococci collected from tomato farms in the Mid-Atlantic United States. Tomatoes, leaves, groundwater, pond water, irrigation ditch water, and soil were sampled and tested for enterococci using standard methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Sensititre microbroth dilution system. Enterococcus faecalis isolates were characterized using amplified fragment length polymorphism to assess dispersal potential. Enterococci (n = 307) occurred in all habitats and colonization of tomatoes was common. Seven species were identified: Enterococcus casseliflavus, E. faecalis, Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus avis, Enterococcus hirae and Enterococcus raffinosus. E. casseliflavus predominated in soil and on tomatoes and leaves, and E. faecalis predominated in pond water. On plants, distance from the ground influenced presence of enterococci. E. faecalis from samples within a farm were more closely related than those from samples between farms. Resistance to rifampicin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin was prevalent. Consumption of raw tomatoes as a potential exposure risk for antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus spp. deserves further attention.

  20. Differences between endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis and Enterococcus spp. and their association with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Corredoira, J; García-País, M J; Coira, A; Rabuñal, R; García-Garrote, F; Pita, J; Rodríguez-Macías, A; Blanco, M; Lopez-Roses, L; López-Álvarez, M J; Alonso-García, M P

    2015-08-01

    Streptococcus bovis group and Enterococcus spp. share phenotypic characteristics and intestinal habitat. Both have been associated with endocarditis and colorectal neoplasm (CRN). We studied all cases of endocarditis diagnosed between 1988 and 2014 in our centre and caused by S. bovis (109, 48.8 % of the bacteremia) and by Enterococcus spp. (36, 3.4 % of the bacteremia). Patients were seen until death or during a long-term follow-up, in order to rule out a concomitant CRN. The 109 cases of S. bovis endocarditis (SbIE) compared with the 36 caused by enterococci showed: a higher proportion of males (91 % vs. 72 %, p=0.005), more multivalvular involvement (28 % vs. 6 %, p=0.004), embolic complications (44 vs. 22 %, p=0.02) and colorectal neoplasm (64 % vs. 25 %, p=0.001). SbIE showed fewer co-morbidities (32 vs. 58 %, p=0.005), and less frequently urinary infection source (0 vs. 25 %, p=0.001) and healthcare-related infection (2 vs. 44 %, p=0.001). A total of 123 patients were followed up for an extended period (mean: 65.9 ± 57.5 months). During the follow-up, 6 of 28 (21 %) cases with enterococcal endocarditis and 43 of 95 (45.2 %, p=0.01) cases with SbIE developed a new CRN. These neoplasiae appeared a mean of 60.4 months later (range 12-181 months). Among the 43 cases with SbIE and CRN, 12 had had a previously normal colonoscopy and 31 had had a previous CRN and developed a second neoplasm. Cases of SbIE present important differences with those caused by Enterococcus spp. Colonoscopy must be mandatory both in the initial evaluation of SbIE, as during the follow-up period.

  1. Acute Pyelonephritis with Bacteremia Caused by Enterococcus hirae: A Rare Infection in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Pãosinho, Ana; Azevedo, Telma; Alves, João V.; Costa, Isabel A.; Carvalho, Gustavo; Peres, Susana R.; Baptista, Teresa; Borges, Fernando; Mansinho, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Enterococci are one of the usual residents of the microflora in humans. In the last decade this genus has been reported as the third most common cause of bacteremia. We present the case of a 78-year-old female who was admitted to the emergency room because of nausea, lipothymia, and weakness. She was diagnosed with a pyelonephritis with bacteremia, with the isolation in blood and urine cultures of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus hirae. This last microorganism is a rarely isolated pathogen in humans. Currently it is estimated to represent 1–3% of all enterococcal species isolated in clinical practice. PMID:27127665

  2. Complete genome sequencing and comparative analysis of the linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecalis strain DENG1.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhijian; Chen, Zhong; Cheng, Hang; Zheng, Jinxin; Li, Duoyun; Deng, Xiangbin; Pan, Weiguang; Yang, Weizhi; Deng, Qiwen

    2014-07-01

    Genome level analysis of bacterial strains provides information on genetic composition and resistance mechanisms to clinically relevant antibiotics. To date, whole genome characterization of linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecalis isolated in the clinic is lacking. In this study, we report the entire genome sequence, genomic characteristics and virulence factors of a pathogenic E. faecalis strain, DENG1. Our results showed considerable differences in genomic characteristics and virulence factors compared with other E. faecalis strains (V583 and OG1RF). The genome of this LZD-resistant E. faecalis strain can be used as a reference to study the mechanism of LZD resistance and the phylogenetic relationship of E. faecalis strains worldwide.

  3. Effects of nitrogen sources on bacteriocin production by Enterococcus faecium A 2000.

    PubMed

    Pantev, A; Kabadjova, P; Valcheva, R; Danova, S; Dousset, X; Haertlé, T; Chobert, J M; Ivanova, I

    2002-01-01

    The production of a novel broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide enterococcin A 2000, active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms including Listeria subsp. and Escherichia coli, by Enterococcus faecium strain A 2000 isolated from the surface of traditional Bulgarian yellow cheese "kash-kaval" is considerably influenced by complex nitrogen sources in the production medium. Medium components, especially peptone and yeast extract, and their concentration contributed to the increase in bacteriocin production during the stationary phase (16-46 h) of cultivation even in the absence of one of the components present in the basal cultivation MRS medium.

  4. Vancomycin for multi-drug resistant Enterococcus faecium cholangiohepatitis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Pressel, Michelle A; Fox, Leslie E; Apley, Michael D; Simutis, Frank J

    2005-10-01

    A 12-year-old, neutered male domestic shorthair cat was evaluated with a life-long history of intermittent, predominantly small bowel diarrhea and a 3 day history of hematochezia. At presentation, the cat had increased liver enzyme activities and an inflammatory leukogram. Histopathology demonstrated inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), cholangiohepatitis and pancreatitis. The cholangiohepatitis was associated with a multi-drug resistant Enterococcus faecium. Gallbladder agenesis was also documented. Treatment with vancomycin was safely instituted for 10 days. Clinical signs resolved, however, cure of the bacterial cholangiohepatitis was not achieved. The risk of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in human and veterinary medicine is discussed. PMID:16182186

  5. Enterocin P Selectively Dissipates the Membrane Potential of Enterococcus faecium T136

    PubMed Central

    Herranz, C.; Chen, Y.; Chung, H.-J.; Cintas, L. M.; Hernández, P. E.; Montville, T. J.; Chikindas, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    Enterocin P is a pediocin-like, broad-spectrum bacteriocin which displays a strong inhibitory activity against Listeria monocytogenes. The bacteriocin was purified from the culture supernatant of Enterococcus faecium P13, and its molecular mechanism of action against the sensitive strain E. faecium T136 was evaluated. Although enterocin P caused significant reduction of the membrane potential (ΔΨ) and the intracellular ATP pool of the indicator organism, the pH gradient (ΔpH) component of the proton motive force (Δp) was not dissipated. By contrast, enterocin P caused carboxyfluorescein efflux from E. faecium T136-derived liposomes. PMID:11282622

  6. Effect of peptide AS-48 on Enterococcus faecalis subsp. liquefaciens S-47.

    PubMed Central

    Galvez, A; Valdivia, E; Martinez, M; Maqueda, M

    1989-01-01

    The enterococcal peptide AS-48 exerts a concentration-dependent bactericidal effect on Enterococcus faecalis subsp. liquefaciens S-47; cell rescue by cardiolipin and trypsin can be effected only in the first few minutes after antibiotic addition. Gramicidin-exposed cells are protected from killing by AS-48. Long-term and pulse incorporation of radiolabeled substrates into trichloroacetic acid-precipitable material, O2 consumption, and the ability to maintain intracellular potassium levels are impaired shortly after addition of AS-48. PMID:2473710

  7. Enterocin 226NWC, a bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecalis 226, active against Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Villani, F; Salzano, G; Sorrentino, E; Pepe, O; Marino, P; Coppola, S

    1993-04-01

    Enterococcus faecalis 226, isolated from natural whey cultures utilized as starters in the manufacture of mozzarella cheese from water-buffalo milk, produces a bacteriocin designated enterocin 226NWC. The bacteriocin was isolated from culture supernatant fluids of the producer strain and was active against strains of the same species and Listeria monocytogenes, but not against useful lactic acid bacteria. Enterocin 226NWC is a protein with an apparent molecular weight of about 5800; it is relatively heat-stable and has a bactericidal mode of action. Listeria monocytogenes, growing in the presence of the enterocin 226NWC producer strain in broth and in reconstituted skim milk, was inhibited.

  8. Riboflavin-shuttled extracellular electron transfer from Enterococcus faecalis to electrodes in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Enren; Cai, Yamin; Luo, Yue; Piao, Zhe

    2014-11-01

    Great attention has been focused on Gram-negative bacteria in the application of microbial fuel cells. In this study, the Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecalis was employed in microbial fuel cells. Bacterial biofilms formed by E. faecalis ZER6 were investigated with respect to electricity production through the riboflavin-shuttled extracellular electron transfer. Trace riboflavin was shown to be essential for transferring electrons derived from the oxidation of glucose outside the peptidoglycan layer in the cell wall of E. faecalis biofilms formed on the surface of electrodes, in the absence of other potential electron mediators (e.g., yeast extract).

  9. A Comparison between Antibacterial Activity of Propolis and Aloe vera on Enterococcus faecalis (an In Vitro Study).

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Maryam; Amin Marashi, Mahmood; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Issazadeh, Maryam; Khafri, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Removing the bacteria, including Enterococcus faecalis, from the root canal is one of the important aims in endodontic treatment.We aimed to compare the antibacterial activity of Chlorhexidine with two natural drugs. The antibacterial activities of three different propolis extracts (alcohol concentrations: 0, 15, 40%) and Aloe vera gel on E. faecalis were compared using three methods: disk diffusion, microdilution and direct contact test. In addition to the above bacterium, the Aloe vera gel effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans was evaluated. Disk diffusion test revealed that propolis ethanolic extracts (the alcohol concentration of 15 and 40%) and Aloe vera gel have antibacterial activities but aqueous extract of propolis did not show any effect in this test. The MICs for propolis ethanolic extracts, Aloe vera gel and aqueous extract of propolis (0% alcohol) were 313 µg/ml, 750 µg/ml, 2250 µg/ml, and ≥ 500 µg/ml respectively, much higher than the Chlorhexidine one. In direct contact test, contrary to Aloe vera, all three propolis extracts showed antibacterial effects on E. faecalis. The Aloe vera gel also showed significant antibacterial effect on S.aureus and S.mutans. The hydroalcoholic extracts of propolis and Aloe vera gel had antibacterial effects on E. faecalis, however, propolis is more potent than Aloe vera. The antibacterial effect of Aloe vera on S. aureus and S. mutans is low (MIC ≥ 2250 µg/ml). Appropriate concentrations of alcoholic extracts of propolis and some fractions of Aloe vera gel might be good choices for disinfecting the root canal in endodontic treatments.

  10. Feeding of the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 differentially affects shedding of enteric viruses in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Effects of probiotic bacteria on viral infections have been described previously. Here, two groups of sows and their piglets were fed with or without feed supplementation of the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415. Shedding of enteric viruses naturally occurring in these pigs was analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. No differences between the groups were recorded for hepatitis E virus, encephalomyocarditis virus and norovirus. In contrast, astrovirus was exclusively detected in the non-supplemented control group. Rotavirus was shedded later and with lower amounts in the probiotic piglet group (p < 0.05); rotavirus-shedding piglets gained less weight than non-infected animals (p < 0.05). Serum titres of anti-rotavirus IgA and IgG antibodies were higher in piglets from the control group, whereas no difference was detected between sow groups. Phenotype analysis of immune cell antigens revealed significant differences of the CD4 and CD8β (p < 0.05) as well as CD8α and CD25 (p < 0.1) T cell populations of the probiotic supplemented group compared to the non-supplemented control group. In addition, differences were evident for CD21/MHCII-positive (p < 0.05) and IgM-positive (p < 0.1) B cell populations. The results indicate that probiotic bacteria could have effects on virus shedding in naturally infected pigs, which depend on the virus type. These effects seem to be caused by immunological changes; however, the distinct mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. PMID:22838386

  11. Unraveling antimicrobial resistance genes and phenotype patterns among Enterococcus faecalis isolated from retail chicken products in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hidano, Arata; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Hayama, Yoko; Muroga, Norihiko; Kobayashi, Sota; Nishida, Takeshi; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant enterococci are considered crucial drivers for the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance determinants within and beyond a genus. These organisms may pass numerous resistance determinants to other harmful pathogens, whose multiple resistances would cause adverse consequences. Therefore, an understanding of the coexistence epidemiology of resistance genes is critical, but such information remains limited. In this study, our first objective was to determine the prevalence of principal resistance phenotypes and genes among Enterococcus faecalis isolated from retail chicken domestic products collected throughout Japan. Subsequent analysis of these data by using an additive Bayesian network (ABN) model revealed the co-appearance patterns of resistance genes and identified the associations between resistance genes and phenotypes. The common phenotypes observed among E. faecalis isolated from the domestic products were the resistances to oxytetracycline (58.4%), dihydrostreptomycin (50.4%), and erythromycin (37.2%), and the gene tet(L) was detected in 46.0% of the isolates. The ABN model identified statistically significant associations between tet(L) and erm(B), tet(L) and ant(6)-Ia, ant(6)-Ia and aph(3')-IIIa, and aph(3')-IIIa and erm(B), which indicated that a multiple-resistance profile of tetracycline, erythromycin, streptomycin, and kanamycin is systematic rather than random. Conversely, the presence of tet(O) was only negatively associated with that of erm(B) and tet(M), which suggested that in the presence of tet(O), the aforementioned multiple resistance is unlikely to be observed. Such heterogeneity in linkages among genes that confer the same phenotypic resistance highlights the importance of incorporating genetic information when investigating the risk factors for the spread of resistance. The epidemiological factors that underlie the persistence of systematic multiple-resistance patterns warrant further investigations with appropriate

  12. Unraveling Antimicrobial Resistance Genes and Phenotype Patterns among Enterococcus faecalis Isolated from Retail Chicken Products in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hidano, Arata; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Hayama, Yoko; Muroga, Norihiko; Kobayashi, Sota; Nishida, Takeshi; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant enterococci are considered crucial drivers for the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance determinants within and beyond a genus. These organisms may pass numerous resistance determinants to other harmful pathogens, whose multiple resistances would cause adverse consequences. Therefore, an understanding of the coexistence epidemiology of resistance genes is critical, but such information remains limited. In this study, our first objective was to determine the prevalence of principal resistance phenotypes and genes among Enterococcus faecalis isolated from retail chicken domestic products collected throughout Japan. Subsequent analysis of these data by using an additive Bayesian network (ABN) model revealed the co-appearance patterns of resistance genes and identified the associations between resistance genes and phenotypes. The common phenotypes observed among E. faecalis isolated from the domestic products were the resistances to oxytetracycline (58.4%), dihydrostreptomycin (50.4%), and erythromycin (37.2%), and the gene tet(L) was detected in 46.0% of the isolates. The ABN model identified statistically significant associations between tet(L) and erm(B), tet(L) and ant(6)-Ia, ant(6)-Ia and aph(3’)-IIIa, and aph(3’)-IIIa and erm(B), which indicated that a multiple-resistance profile of tetracycline, erythromycin, streptomycin, and kanamycin is systematic rather than random. Conversely, the presence of tet(O) was only negatively associated with that of erm(B) and tet(M), which suggested that in the presence of tet(O), the aforementioned multiple resistance is unlikely to be observed. Such heterogeneity in linkages among genes that confer the same phenotypic resistance highlights the importance of incorporating genetic information when investigating the risk factors for the spread of resistance. The epidemiological factors that underlie the persistence of systematic multiple-resistance patterns warrant further investigations with

  13. Identification and functional characterization of the putative polysaccharide biosynthesis protein (CapD) of Enterococcus faecium U0317.

    PubMed

    Ali, Liaqat; Spiess, Meike; Wobser, Dominique; Rodriguez, Marta; Blum, Hubert E; Sakιnç, Türkân

    2016-01-01

    Most bacterial species produce capsular polysaccharides that contribute to disease pathogenesis through evasion of the host innate immune system and are also involved in inhibiting leukocyte killing. In the present study, we identified a gene in Enterococcus faecium U0317 with homologies to the polysaccharide biosynthesis protein CapD that is made up of 336 amino acids and putatively catalyzes N-linked glycosylation. A capD deletion mutant was constructed and complemented by homologous recombination that was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. The mutant revealed different growth behavior and morphological changes compared to wild-type by scanning electron microscopy, also the capD mutant showed a strong hydrophobicity and that was reversed in the reconstituted mutant. For further characterization and functional analyses, in-vitro cell culture and in-vivo a mouse infection models were used. Antibodies directed against alpha lipotechoic acid (αLTA) and the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (αPpiC), effectively mediated the opsonophagocytic killing in the capD knock-out mutant, while this activity was not observed in the wild-type and reconstituted mutant. By comparison more than 2-fold decrease was seen in mutant colonization and adherence to both T24 and Caco2 cells. However, a significant higher bacterial colonization was observed in capD mutant during bacteremia in the animal model, while virulence in a mouse UTI (urinary tract infection) model, there were no obvious differences. Further studies are needed to elucidate the function of capsular polysaccharide synthesis gene clusters and its involvement in the disease pathogenesis with the aim to develop targeted therapies to treat multidrug-resistant E. faecium infections.

  14. Enterococcus faecium LKE12 Cell-Free Extract Accelerates Host Plant Growth via Gibberellin and Indole-3-Acetic Acid Secretion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ko-Eun; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kang, Sang-Mo; You, Young-Hyun; Joo, Gil-Jae; Lee, In-Jung; Ko, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2015-09-01

    The use of microbial extracts containing plant hormones is a promising technique to improve crop growth. Little is known about the effect of bacterial cell-free extracts on plant growth promotion. This study, based on phytohormonal analyses, aimed at exploring the potential mechanisms by which Enterococcus faecium LKE12 enhances plant growth in oriental melon. A bacterial strain, LKE12, was isolated from soil, and further identified as E. faecium by 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The plant growth-promoting ability of an LKE12 bacterial culture was tested in a gibberellin (GA)-deficient rice dwarf mutant (waito-C) and a normal GA biosynthesis rice cultivar (Hwayongbyeo). E. faecium LKE12 significantly improved the length and biomass of rice shoots in both normal and dwarf cultivars through the secretion of an array of gibberellins (GA1, GA3, GA7, GA8, GA9, GA12, GA19, GA20, GA24, and GA53), as well as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study indicating that E. faecium can produce GAs. Increases in shoot and root lengths, plant fresh weight, and chlorophyll content promoted by E. faecium LKE12 and its cell-free extract inoculated in oriental melon plants revealed a favorable interaction of E. faecium LKE12 with plants. Higher plant growth rates and nutrient contents of magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, manganese, silicon, zinc, and nitrogen were found in cell-free extract-treated plants than in control plants. The results of the current study suggest that E. faecium LKE12 promotes plant growth by producing GAs and IAA; interestingly, the exogenous application of its cell-free culture extract can be a potential strategy to accelerate plant growth.

  15. Comparison of antibiotic resistance and virulence between biofilm-producing and non-producing clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Sieńko, Anna; Wieczorek, Piotr; Majewski, Piotr; Ojdana, Dominika; Wieczorek, Anna; Olszańska, Dorota; Tryniszewska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    An increase in the antibiotic resistance among Enterococcus faecium strains has been observed worldwide. Moreover, this bacteria has the ability to produce several virulence factors and to form biofilm that plays an important role in human infections. This study was designed to compare the antibiotic resistance and the prevalence of genes encoding surface protein (esp), aggregation substance (as), surface adhesin (efaA), collagen adhesin (ace), gelatinase (gelE), and hialuronidase (hyl) between biofilm-producing and non-producing E. faecium strains. Therefore, ninety E. faecium clinical isolates were tested for biofilm-forming ability, and then were assigned to two groups: biofilm-positive (BIO(+), n =70) and biofilm-negative (BIO(-), n = 20). Comparison of these groups showed that BIO(+) isolates were resistant to β-lactams, whereas 10% of BIO(-) strains were susceptible to ampicillin (statistically significant difference, p = 0.007) and 5% to imipenem. Linezolid and tigecycline were the only antibiotics active against all tested isolates. Analysis of the virulence factors revealed that ace, efaA, and gelE genes occurred more frequently in BIO(-) strains (ace in 50% BIO(+) vs. 75% BIO(-); efaA 44.3% vs. 85%; gelE 2.9% vs. 15%, respectively), while hyl gene appeared more frequently in BIO(+) isolates (87.1% BIO(+) vs. 65% BIO(-)). These differences were significant (p < 0.05). We concluded that BIO(+) strains were more resistant to antibiotics than BIO(-) strains, but interestingly, BIO(-) isolates were characterized by possession of higher virulence capabilities.

  16. An antibacterial and antiviral peptide produced by Enterococcus mundtii ST4V isolated from soya beans.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Svetoslav D; Wachsman, Mónica B; Knoetze, Hendriëtte; Meincken, Martina; Dicks, Leon M T

    2005-06-01

    Enterococcus mundtii ST4V, isolated from soya beans, produces a 3950Da antibacterial peptide active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. The peptide also inactivated the herpes simplex viruses HSV-1 (strain F) and HSV-2 (strain G), a polio virus (PV3, strain Sabin) and a measles virus (strain MV/BRAZIL/001/91, an attenuated strain of MV). MV, HSV-1 and HSV-2 were 95.5%-99.9% inactivated by peptide ST4V at 400 microg/ml. Monkey kidney Vero cells were not inactivated, even at four times the level peptide ST4V displayed antiviral activity, indicating that the effect was not due to cytotoxicity. Complete inactivation or significant reduction in antimicrobial activity was observed after treatment of peptide ST4V with Proteinase K, pronase, pepsin and trypsin. No change in antimicrobial activity was recorded after treatment with alpha-amylase, suggesting that peptide ST4V was not glycosylated. This is the first description of an antibacterial and antiviral peptide with such broad-spectrum of activity, produced by a lactic acid bacterium.

  17. Sensitivity of antibiotic resistant and antibiotic susceptible Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus strains against ozone.

    PubMed

    Heß, Stefanie; Gallert, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    Tolerance of antibiotic susceptible and antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus strains from clinical and wastewater samples against ozone was tested to investigate if ozone, a strong oxidant applied for advanced wastewater treatment, will affect the release of antibiotic resistant bacteria into the aquatic environment. For this purpose, the resistance pattern against antibiotics of the mentioned isolates and their survival after exposure to 4 mg/L ozone was determined. Antibiotic resistance (AR) of the isolates was not correlating with higher tolerance against ozone. Except for ampicillin resistant E. coli strains, which showed a trend towards increased resistance, E. coli strains that were also resistant against cotrimoxazol, ciprofloxacin or a combination of the three antibiotics were similarly or less resistant against ozone than antibiotic sensitive strains. Pigment-producing Enterococcus casseliflavus and Staphylococcus aureus seemed to be more resistant against ozone than non-pigmented species of these genera. Furthermore, aggregation or biofilm formation apparently protected bacteria in subsurface layers from inactivation by ozone. The relatively large variance of tolerance against ozone may indicate that resistance to ozone inactivation most probably depends on several factors, where AR, if at all, does not play a major role.

  18. EFFICACY OF SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE AND CHLORHEXIDINE AGAINST Enterococcus faecalis – A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Estrela, Carlos; Silva, Julio Almeida; de Alencar, Ana Helena Gonçalves; Leles, Claudio Rodrigues; Decurcio, Daniel Almeida

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of the sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX) on Enterococcus faecalis was evaluated by systematic review and meta-analysis. The search strategies included search in electronic biomedical journal databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL) and handsearching records, using different matches of keywords for NaOCl, CHX and Enterococcus faecalis. From 41 in vivo studies, 5 studies met the inclusion criteria. In a sample containing 159 teeth, E. faecalis was detected initially in 16 (10%) teeth by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 42 (26.4%) teeth by microbial culture techniques. After root canal disinfection, this species was observed in 11 (6.9%) teeth by PCR and 12 (7.5%) teeth by culture. Risk differences of included studies were combined as generic inverse variance data type (Review Manager Version 5.0 – Cochrane Collaboration, http://www.cc-ims.net, accessed 15 May 2008), taking into account the separate tracking of positive and negative cultures/PCR. The level of statistical significance was set at p<0.05. In conclusion, NaOCl or CHX showed low ability to eliminate E. faecalis when evaluated by either PCR or culture techniques. PMID:19082392

  19. Enterococcus faecium isolated from honey synthesized bacteriocin-like substances active against different Listeria monocytogenes strains.

    PubMed

    Ibarguren, Carolina; Raya, Raúl R; Apella, María C; Audisio, M Carina

    2010-02-01

    Four Enterococcus faecium strains, isolated from honeycombs (C1 and M2d strains) and feral combs (Mori1 and M1b strains) secreted antimicrobial substances active against fourteen different Listeria spp. strains. The antimicrobial compound(s) present in the cell free supernatant were highly thermostable (121 degrees C for 15 min) and inactivated by proteolytic enzymes, but not by alpha-amylase and lipase, thus suggesting a peptidic nature. Since the structural bacteriocin gene determinants of enterocins A and B were PCR amplified from the four E. faecium isolates, only the bacteriocin produced by strain C1 was further characterized: it showed a broad band of approximately 4.0-7.0 kDa in SDS-PAGE and was bactericidal (4 log decrease) against L. monocytogenes 99/287. L. monocytogenes 99/287R, a clone spontaneously resistant to the enterocin produced by E. avium DSMZ17511 (ex PA1), was not inhibited by the enterocin-like compounds produced by strain C1. However, it was inhibited in mixed culture fermentations by E. faecium C1 and a bacteriostatic effect was observed. The bacteriocin-producer Enterococcus strains were not haemolytic; gelatinase negative and sensitive to vancomycin and other clinically relevant antibiotics. PMID:20221729

  20. First Japanese case of infectious endocarditis due to Enterococcus faecalis small-colony variants.

    PubMed

    Ogihara, Shinji; Saito, Ryoichi; Sawabe, Etsuko; Hagihara, Michio; Tohda, Shuji

    2016-10-01

    A male patient was admitted to our hospital due to infectious endocarditis. He had been treated with levofloxacin for 6 weeks, sulbactam/cefoperazone for 4 weeks, and benzylpenicillin for 2 days prior to valve replacement surgery. Gram-positive cocci, with morphology consistent with γ-Streptococcus, were detected in blood cultures obtained at admission, as well as in vegetation obtained from the aortic valve. However, the strain could not be identified using biochemical methods. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the culture was a small-colony variant of Enterococcus faecalis. This is the first case in Japan of infectious endocarditis due to E. faecalis small-colony variants. Small-colony variants are subpopulations of bacteria with slow growth, reduced sugar fermentation, and unstable phenotype. As a result, these strains tend to be misidentified. Further, small-colony variants are associated with recurrent and persistent infections such as prosthetic joint infection and infectious endocarditis. These strains are found in various bacterial species, including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but rarely in Enterococcus species. The case highlights the need to be vigilant of E. faecalis small-colony variants, especially in patients who received long-term courses of antibiotics.

  1. Identification of Polyketide Inhibitors Targeting 3-Dehydroquinate Dehydratase in the Shikimate Pathway of Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Valladares, Maria; Go, Maybelle Kho; Tung, Alvin; Aguda, Adeleke H.; Robinson, Robert C.; Yew, Wen Shan

    2014-01-01

    Due to the emergence of resistance toward current antibiotics, there is a pressing need to develop the next generation of antibiotics as therapeutics against infectious and opportunistic diseases of microbial origins. The shikimate pathway is exclusive to microbes, plants and fungi, and hence is an attractive and logical target for development of antimicrobial therapeutics. The Gram-positive commensal microbe, Enterococcus faecalis, is a major human pathogen associated with nosocomial infections and resistance to vancomycin, the “drug of last resort”. Here, we report the identification of several polyketide-based inhibitors against the E. faecalis shikimate pathway enzyme, 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase (DHQase). In particular, marein, a flavonoid polyketide, both inhibited DHQase and retarded the growth of Enterococcus faecalis. The purification, crystallization and structural resolution of recombinant DHQase from E. faecalis (at 2.2 Å resolution) are also reported. This study provides a route in the development of polyketide-based antimicrobial inhibitors targeting the shikimate pathway of the human pathogen E. faecalis. PMID:25072253

  2. An antibacterial and antiviral peptide produced by Enterococcus mundtii ST4V isolated from soya beans.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Svetoslav D; Wachsman, Mónica B; Knoetze, Hendriëtte; Meincken, Martina; Dicks, Leon M T

    2005-06-01

    Enterococcus mundtii ST4V, isolated from soya beans, produces a 3950Da antibacterial peptide active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. The peptide also inactivated the herpes simplex viruses HSV-1 (strain F) and HSV-2 (strain G), a polio virus (PV3, strain Sabin) and a measles virus (strain MV/BRAZIL/001/91, an attenuated strain of MV). MV, HSV-1 and HSV-2 were 95.5%-99.9% inactivated by peptide ST4V at 400 microg/ml. Monkey kidney Vero cells were not inactivated, even at four times the level peptide ST4V displayed antiviral activity, indicating that the effect was not due to cytotoxicity. Complete inactivation or significant reduction in antimicrobial activity was observed after treatment of peptide ST4V with Proteinase K, pronase, pepsin and trypsin. No change in antimicrobial activity was recorded after treatment with alpha-amylase, suggesting that peptide ST4V was not glycosylated. This is the first description of an antibacterial and antiviral peptide with such broad-spectrum of activity, produced by a lactic acid bacterium. PMID:15869868

  3. Incidence of Type II CRISPR1-Cas Systems in Enterococcus Is Species-Dependent.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Casandra; Raustad, Nicole; Bustos, Mario A; Shiaris, Michael

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas systems, which obstruct both viral infection and incorporation of mobile genetic elements by horizontal transfer, are a specific immune response common to prokaryotes. Antiviral protection by CRISPR-Cas comes at a cost, as horizontally-acquired genes may increase fitness and provide rapid adaptation to habitat change. To date, investigations into the prevalence of CRISPR have primarily focused on pathogenic and clinical bacteria, while less is known about CRISPR dynamics in commensal and environmental species. We designed PCR primers and coupled these with DNA sequencing of products to detect and characterize the presence of cas1, a universal CRISPR-associated gene and proxy for the Type II CRISPR1-Cas system, in environmental and non-clinical Enterococcus isolates. CRISPR1-cas1 was detected in approximately 33% of the 275 strains examined, and differences in CRISPR1 carriage between species was significant. Incidence of cas1 in E. hirae was 73%, nearly three times that of E. faecalis (23.6%) and 10 times more frequent than in E. durans (7.1%). Also, this is the first report of CRISPR1 presence in E. durans, as well as in the plant-associated species E. casseliflavus and E. sulfureus. Significant differences in CRISPR1-cas1 incidence among Enterococcus species support the hypothesis that there is a tradeoff between protection and adaptability. The differences in the habitats of enterococcal species may exert varying selective pressure that results in a species-dependent distribution of CRISPR-Cas systems.

  4. Are Enterococcus populations present during malolactic fermentation of red wine safe?

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martín, Fátima; Seseña, Susana; Izquierdo, Pedro Miguel; Palop, María Llanos

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was the genetic characterisation and safety evaluation of 129 Enterococcus isolates obtained from wine undergoing malolactic fermentation. Genetic characterisation by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR displayed 23 genotypes. 25 isolates representative of all genotypes were identified as Enterococcus faecium by species-specific PCR and assayed for antibiotic resistance, presence of virulence genes and aminobiogenic capacity, both in decarboxylase medium and wine. The aminobiogenic capacity in wine was analysed in presence (assay 1) and absence (assay 2) of Oenococcus oeni CECT 7621. Resistance to tetracycline, cotrimoxazol, vancomycin and teicoplanin was exhibited by 96% of the strains, but none of them harboured the assayed virulence genes. All of the strains harboured the tyrosine decarboxylase (tdc) gene, while 44% were positive for tyramine in decarboxylase medium. Only five out of 25 strains survived in wine after seven days of incubation, and when concentrations of biogenic amines in wines were determined by HPLC, only those wines in which the five surviving strains occurred contained biogenic amines. Histamine, putrescine and cadaverine were detected in wines from both assays, although concentrations were higher in assay 2. Tyramine and phenylethylamine were detected only in absence of O. oeni. This research contributes for the knowledge of safety aspects of enterococci related to winemaking.

  5. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence traits in Enterococcus strains isolated from dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Iseppi, Ramona; Messi, Patrizia; Anacarso, Imacolata; Bondi, Moreno; Sabia, Carla; Condò, Carla; de Niederhausern, Simona

    2015-07-01

    We investigated presence and prevalence of antibiotic-resistances and other biological characters in enterococci isolated from faeces of healthy dogs and cats because these microorganisms represent important human and veterinary pathogens/opportunists, and a significant burden for healthcare systems. In all samples (n=115) we detected enterococci, with a predominance of Enterococcus faecium (42; 36.5%) and Enterococcus faecalis (36; 31.3%) species, endowed with virulence traits and multidrug-resistance. The two predominant resistance patterns (erythromycin, tetracycline) were examined by polymerase chain reaction for tet and erm genes. Only tetM for tetracycline, and ermA and ermB for erythromycin were detected. PCR for gelatinase gene (gelE) was positive in 62.6% of isolates, but only 26.1% produce gelatinase suggesting the existence of silent genes. efaAfs and efaAfm genes were found in E. faecalis and E. faecium respectively. 89.6% of isolates produced bacteriocin-like substances with a prevailing action against Listeria genus and, among these, 33.9% were positive for the bacteriocin structural genes entA, entL50 or entP. According to our study, pet animals can be considered a reservoir of potentially pathogenic enterococci and we cannot exclude that those microorganisms may be responsible for opportunistic infections in high-risk pet owners.

  6. Antibacterial Effect of All-in-one Self-etch Adhesives on Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi Chaharom, Mohammad Esmaeel; Ajami, Amir Ahmad; Abed Kahnamouei, Mehdi; Jafari Navimipour, Elmira; Tehranchi, Pardis; Zand, Vahid; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Sohrabi, Aydin

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of one-step self-etch adhesives on Enterococcus faecalis on days 1, 7 and 14 with the use of modified direct contact test. Materials and methods. The modified directcontact test was used to evaluate the antibacterial effect of Adper Easy One, Bond Force, Clearfil S3 Bond, Futurabond M, G-Bond, iBond and OptiBond All-in-one adhesives on Enterococcus faecalis after aging the samples in phosphate-buffered saline for one, seven and fourteen days. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Aging effect of each adhesive was evaluated by paired-sample test. In this study, P<0.05 was considered significant. Results. All the tested adhesives exhibited antibacterial activity after one day and had significant differences with the positive control group (P<0.05). After one week, OptiBond All-in-one, iBond and Futurabond M exhibited significant differences in bacterial growth from other groups (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the groups in two weeks (P>0.05). Conclusion. iBond exhibited the highest antibacterial effect on E. faecalis after one week. Futurabond and OptiBond All-in-one exhibited antibacterial effects against E. faecalis for one week. PMID:25587384

  7. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and chloroform alone and combinated with cetrimide against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer Luque, Carmen Maria; González-Rodríguez, Maria Paloma; Arias-Moliz, Maria Teresa; Baca, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Enterococcus faecalis bacteria have been identified as the most commonly recovered species from teeth with persistent endodontic infections. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and chloroform (CHL), alone and in association with various concentrations of cetrimide (CTR), against biofilm of Enterococcus faecalis was investigated. Solutions of CHL, eucalyptus oil (EO) and orange oil (OO) associated with CTR at 0.3%, 0.2%, 0.1%, and 0.05% were used to determine antimicrobial activity by exposing treated bovine dentine blocks to E. faecalis. Biofilms grown in the dentine blocks for 7 days were exposed to solutions for 2 and 5 min. Biofilm reduction between OO and EO at 2 min did not show any significant differences; however, OO had a higher kill percentage of biofilms than did the eucalyptus oil at 5 min (p < 0.01). Combinations with CTR at all concentrations achieved a 100% kill rate at 2 and 5 min. The association of CTR with solvent agents achieved the maximum antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis biofilms in dentine. PMID:24265917

  8. DNA Persistence and Relapses Questions on the Treatment Strategies of Enterococcus Infections of Prosthetic Valves

    PubMed Central

    Casalta, Jean-Paul; Thuny, Franck; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Lepidi, Hubert; Habib, Gilbert; Grisoli, Dominique; Raoult, Didier

    2012-01-01

    We used amplification of the 16S rRNA gene followed by sequencing to evaluate the persistence of bacterial DNA in explanted heart valve tissue as part of the routine work of a clinical microbiology laboratory, and we analyzed the role of this persistence in the relapses observed in our center. We enrolled 286 patients treated for infective endocarditis (IE) who had valve replacement surgery and were diagnosed according to the modified Duke’s criteria described by Li et al. from a total of 579 IE cases treated in our center. The patients were grouped based on the infecting bacteria, and we considered the 4 most common bacterial genus associated with IE separately (144 were caused by Streptococcus spp., 52 by Enterococcus spp., 58 by Staphylococcus aureus and 32 by coagulase-negative Staphylococcus). Based on our cohort, the risk of relapse in patients with enterococcal prosthetic valve infections treated with antibiotics alone was 11%. Bacterial DNA is cleared over time, but this might be a very slow process, especially with Enterococcus spp. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature performed on Medline, most reports still advise combined treatment with penicillin and an aminoglycoside for as long as 4–6 weeks, but there has been no consensus for the treatment of enterococcal infection of prostheses in IE patients. PMID:23300913

  9. Antibiotic-resistance and virulence genes in Enterococcus isolated from tropical recreational waters

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M.; Rivera, Jessica I.; Coradin, Mariel; Toranzos, Gary A.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of enterococci harboring tetracycline and vancomycin-resistance genes, as well as the enterococcal surface protein (esp) has mostly been determined in clinical settings, but their prevalence in tropical recreational waters remains largely unknown. The present study determined the prevalence of tetM (tetracycline-resistance), vanA and vanB (vancomycin-resistance) in the bacterial and viral fractions, enterococci and their induced phages isolated from tropical recreational marine and fresh waters, dry and wet sands. Since lysogenic phages can act as vectors for antibiotic-resistance and virulence factors, the prevalence of the mentioned genes, as well as that of an integrase-encoding gene (int) specific for Enterococcus faecalis phages was determined. Up to 60 % and 54 % of the bacterial fractions and enterococci harbored at least one of the tested genes, respectively, suggesting that bacteria in tropical environments may be reservoirs of antibiotic-resistance and virulence genes. int was detected in the viral fractions and in one Enterococcus isolate after induction. This study opens the opportunity to determine if the presence of bacteria harboring antibiotic-resistance and virulence genes in tropical recreational waters represents a threat to public health. PMID:23981868

  10. First Japanese case of infectious endocarditis due to Enterococcus faecalis small-colony variants.

    PubMed

    Ogihara, Shinji; Saito, Ryoichi; Sawabe, Etsuko; Hagihara, Michio; Tohda, Shuji

    2016-10-01

    A male patient was admitted to our hospital due to infectious endocarditis. He had been treated with levofloxacin for 6 weeks, sulbactam/cefoperazone for 4 weeks, and benzylpenicillin for 2 days prior to valve replacement surgery. Gram-positive cocci, with morphology consistent with γ-Streptococcus, were detected in blood cultures obtained at admission, as well as in vegetation obtained from the aortic valve. However, the strain could not be identified using biochemical methods. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the culture was a small-colony variant of Enterococcus faecalis. This is the first case in Japan of infectious endocarditis due to E. faecalis small-colony variants. Small-colony variants are subpopulations of bacteria with slow growth, reduced sugar fermentation, and unstable phenotype. As a result, these strains tend to be misidentified. Further, small-colony variants are associated with recurrent and persistent infections such as prosthetic joint infection and infectious endocarditis. These strains are found in various bacterial species, including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but rarely in Enterococcus species. The case highlights the need to be vigilant of E. faecalis small-colony variants, especially in patients who received long-term courses of antibiotics. PMID:27094238

  11. Comparison of Enterococcus qPCR analysis results from fresh and marine water samples on two real-time instruments -

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is currently considering a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method, targeting Enterococcus spp., for beach monitoring. Improvements in the method’s cost-effectiveness may be realized by the use of newer instrumentation such as the Applied Biosystems StepOneTM a...

  12. Relation between Enterococcus concentrations and turbidity in fresh and saline recreational waters, coastal Horry County, South Carolina, 2003–04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, James E.; Garigen, Thomas J.

    2016-06-24

    The positive relation observed between turbidity and Enterococcus concentrations in surface water at the water-quality data collection station located in the channel that drains a freshwater swamp may be attributed to bacterial survival in the abundant channel bed sediments that characterized this more naturalized area. Surface-water bed sediments collected near each water-quality data collection station and the surf zone were incubated in static microcosms in the laboratory and analyzed for Enterococcus concentrations over time. Enterococcus concentrations continued to persist in bed sediments collected in the channel that drains the swamp even after almost 4 months of incubation. Conversely, enterococci were not observed to persist in bed sediments characterized by high specific conductance. Although it is currently (2016) unknown whether this persistence of enterococci demonstrates growth or viability, the data indicate that enterococci can exist in channel bed-sediment environments outside of a host for a long time. This observation confirms previous reports that challenge the use of Enterococcus concentrations as an indicator of the recent introduction of fecal-related material and the associated acute risk to other pathogens.

  13. Role of Tyramine Synthesis by Food-Borne Enterococcus durans in Adaptation to the Gastrointestinal Tract Environment ▿

    PubMed Central

    Fernández de Palencia, Pilar; Fernández, Maria; Mohedano, Maria Luz; Ladero, Victor; Quevedo, Cristina; Alvarez, Miguel A.; López, Paloma

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic amines in food constitute a human health risk. Here we report that tyramine-producing Enterococcus durans strain IPLA655 (from cheese) was able to produce tyramine under conditions simulating transit through the gastrointestinal tract. Activation of the tyramine biosynthetic pathway contributed to binding and immunomodulation of enterocytes. PMID:21097601

  14. COMPARISON OF ENTEROCOCCUS MEASUREMENTS IN FRESHWATER AT TWO RECREATIONAL BEACHES BY QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION AND MEMBRANE FILER CULTURE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cell densities of the fecal pollution indicator genus, Enterococcus, were determined by a rapid (2-3 hr) quantitative PCR (QPCR) analysis based method in 100 ml water samples collected from recreational beaches on Lake Michigan and Lake Erie during the summer of 2003. Enumeration...

  15. Depth-dependent inactivation of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis in soil after manure application and simulated rainfall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    E.coli and Enterococcus serve as important water quality indicator organisms. Rainfall action on manured fields and pastures releases these organisms into soil with infiltrating water. They can then be released back to runoff during subsequent rainfall or irrigation events as soil solution interacts...

  16. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of the Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Isolate Enterococcus faecium VRE16

    PubMed Central

    de Mello, Suelen Scarpa; Van Tyne, Daria; Dabul, Andrei Nicoli Gebieluca; Gilmore, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Specific lineages of the commensal bacterium Enterococcus faecium belonging to CC17, especially ST412, have been isolated from patients in several hospitals worldwide and harbor antibiotic resistance genes and virulence factors. Here, we report a high-quality draft genome sequence and highlight features of E. faecium VRE16, a representative of this ST. PMID:27660781

  17. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of the Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Isolate Enterococcus faecium VRE16.

    PubMed

    de Mello, Suelen Scarpa; Van Tyne, Daria; Dabul, Andrei Nicoli Gebieluca; Gilmore, Michael S; Camargo, Ilana L B C

    2016-01-01

    Specific lineages of the commensal bacterium Enterococcus faecium belonging to CC17, especially ST412, have been isolated from patients in several hospitals worldwide and harbor antibiotic resistance genes and virulence factors. Here, we report a high-quality draft genome sequence and highlight features of E. faecium VRE16, a representative of this ST. PMID:27660781

  18. satG, Conferring Resistance to Streptogramin A, Is Widely Distributed in Enterococcus faecium Strains but Not in Staphylococci

    PubMed Central

    Haroche, Julien; Allignet, Jeanine; Aubert, Sylvie; Van Den Bogaard, Anthony E.; El Solh, Névine

    2000-01-01

    A gene almost identical to satG was isolated from an Enterococcus faecium strain. This gene was transferred to a Staphylococcus aureus recipient strain where it conferred resistance to streptogramin A. satG was found to be widely distributed among E. faecium strains but not detected among staphylococci. PMID:10602747

  19. Use of Enterococcus, BST and sterols as indicators for poultry pollution source tracking in surface and groundwater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study has applied Enterococcus, Bacterial Source Tracking (BST) and sterol analysis for pollution source identification from poultry sources. Fecal contamination was detected in 100% of surface water and 15% of groundwater sites tested. E. faecium was the dominant species in aged litter sampl...

  20. Identification, antimicrobial susceptibility, and virulence factors of Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from Camels in Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Tejedor Junco, María Teresa; Gonzalez-Martin, Margarita; Rodriguez Gonzalez, Noe Francisco; Gutierrez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of Enterococcus spp. strains in camel faeces, their virulence factors, and resistance to the antibiotics commonly used as therapy of enterococcal infections. One hundred and seventy three Enterococcus strains were isolated and identified to species level using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Susceptibility to 11 antimicrobials was determined by disk diffusion method. Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin, teicoplanin, gentamicin, and streptomycin were all determined. Genes encoding resistance to vancomycin, tetracycline, and erythromycin as well as genes encoding some virulence factors were identified by PCR. Enterococcus hirae (54.3%) and Enterococcus faecium (25.4%) were the species most frequently isolated. None of the strains were resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin, ampicillin or showed high level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR). Strains resistant to rifampicin (42.42%) were those most commonly found followed those resistant to trimethoprim - sulfamethoxazole (33.33%). The genes tetM, tetL, vanC1, and vanC2-C3 were detected in some strains. Virulence genes were not detected. Monitoring the presence of resistant strains of faecal enterococci in animal used with recreational purposes is important to prevent transmission of those strains to humans and to detect resistance or virulence genes that could be transferred to other clinically important bacteria.

  1. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus spp. isolated from retail cheese, ready-to-eat salads, ham, and raw meat.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, G; Calonico, C; Ducci, B; Magnanini, A; Lo Nostro, A

    2014-08-01

    Food specimens were analyzed in order to research Enterococcus spp.: 636 samples of raw meat (227 beef, 238 poultry, and 171 pork), 278 samples of cheese (110 fresh soft cheese and 168 mozzarella cheese), 214 samples of ready-to-eat salads, and 187 samples of ham. 312 strains of Enterococcus spp samples were isolated, then identified and submitted to susceptibility tests against 11 antimicrobial agents. The predominant species were Enterococcus faecalis in raw meat and Enterococcus faecium in retail products. Low percentages of microorganisms were resistant to vancomycin (3.53%), teicoplanin (2.24%), linezolid (0.32%), and amoxicillin in combination with clavulanic acid (0.32%). A high percentage of resistance was noted in E. faecalis at high level gentamicin (21.9%) and tetracycline (60.6%). In general, strains of E. faecalis were more resistant than E. faecium. Enterococci should be considered not only potential pathogens, but also a reservoir of genes encoding antibiotic resistance which can be transferred to other microorganisms. Continuous monitoring of their incidence and emerging resistance is important in order to identify foods which potentially represent a real risk to the population, and to ensure effective treatment of human enterococcal infections. PMID:24750807

  2. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus spp. isolated from retail cheese, ready-to-eat salads, ham, and raw meat.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, G; Calonico, C; Ducci, B; Magnanini, A; Lo Nostro, A

    2014-08-01

    Food specimens were analyzed in order to research Enterococcus spp.: 636 samples of raw meat (227 beef, 238 poultry, and 171 pork), 278 samples of cheese (110 fresh soft cheese and 168 mozzarella cheese), 214 samples of ready-to-eat salads, and 187 samples of ham. 312 strains of Enterococcus spp samples were isolated, then identified and submitted to susceptibility tests against 11 antimicrobial agents. The predominant species were Enterococcus faecalis in raw meat and Enterococcus faecium in retail products. Low percentages of microorganisms were resistant to vancomycin (3.53%), teicoplanin (2.24%), linezolid (0.32%), and amoxicillin in combination with clavulanic acid (0.32%). A high percentage of resistance was noted in E. faecalis at high level gentamicin (21.9%) and tetracycline (60.6%). In general, strains of E. faecalis were more resistant than E. faecium. Enterococci should be considered not only potential pathogens, but also a reservoir of genes encoding antibiotic resistance which can be transferred to other microorganisms. Continuous monitoring of their incidence and emerging resistance is important in order to identify foods which potentially represent a real risk to the population, and to ensure effective treatment of human enterococcal infections.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bacteriocinogenic Strain Enterococcus faecalis DBH18, Isolated from Mallard Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    PubMed Central

    Arbulu, Sara; Jimenez, Juan J.; Borrero, Juan; Sánchez, Jorge; Frantzen, Cyril; Herranz, Carmen; Nes, Ingolf F.; Cintas, Luis M.; Diep, Dzung B.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis DBH18, a bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolated from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). The assembly contains 2,836,724 bp, with a G+C content of 37.6%. The genome is predicted to contain 2,654 coding DNA sequences (CDSs) and 50 RNAs. PMID:27417838

  4. Antibiotic and disinfectant susceptibility profiles of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) isolated from community wastewater in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) previously isolated from human wastewater effluents in a nonclinical semiclosed agri-food system in Texas were characterized for susceptibility to antibiotics and disinfectants. The 50 VRE were resistant to eight fluoroquinolones and to 10 of 17 Natio...

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bacteriocinogenic Strain Enterococcus faecalis DBH18, Isolated from Mallard Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Arbulu, Sara; Jimenez, Juan J; Borrero, Juan; Sánchez, Jorge; Frantzen, Cyril; Herranz, Carmen; Nes, Ingolf F; Cintas, Luis M; Diep, Dzung B; Hernández, Pablo E

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis DBH18, a bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolated from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). The assembly contains 2,836,724 bp, with a G+C content of 37.6%. The genome is predicted to contain 2,654 coding DNA sequences (CDSs) and 50 RNAs. PMID:27417838

  6. Comparison of Enterococcus qPCR analysis results from fresh and marine waters on two real-tme instruments

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will be recommending a quantitativ e polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method targeting Enterococcus spp. as an option for monitoring recreational beach water quality. A practical consideration for widespread implementation of this o...

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterococcus hirae R17, a Daptomycin-Resistant Bacterium Isolated from Retail Pork in China

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zixin; Wang, Wei; Hu, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    Daptomycin-resistant Enterococcus hirae R17 was isolated from retail pork sold at a free-trade market in Beijing, China. The complete genome sequence of R17 contains a circular 2,886,481-bp chromosome and a circular 73,574-bp plasmid. Genes involved in cell envelope homeostasis of this bacterium were identified by whole-genome analysis. PMID:27340071

  8. Virulence Genes among Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Coastal Beaches and Human and Nonhuman Sources in Southern California and Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Talavera, Ginamary Negrón; Hernández, Luis A. Ríos; Ambrose, Richard F.; Jay, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    Most Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium are harmless to humans; however, strains harboring virulence genes, including esp, gelE, cylA, asa1, and hyl, have been associated with human infections. E. faecalis and E. faecium are present in beach waters worldwide, yet little is known about their virulence potential. Here, multiplex PCR was used to compare the distribution of virulence genes among E. faecalis and E. faecium isolated from beaches in Southern California and Puerto Rico to isolates from potential sources including humans, animals, birds, and plants. All five virulence genes were found in E. faecalis and E. faecium from beach water, mostly among E. faecalis. gelE was the most common among isolates from all source types. There was a lower incidence of asa1, esp, cylA, and hyl genes among isolates from beach water, sewage, septage, urban runoff, sea wrack, and eelgrass as compared to human isolates, indicating that virulent strains of E. faecalis and E. faecium may not be widely disseminated at beaches. A higher frequency of asa1 and esp among E. faecalis from dogs and of asa1 among birds (mostly seagull) suggests that further studies on the distribution and virulence potential of strains carrying these genes may be warranted. PMID:27144029

  9. Virulence Genes among Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Coastal Beaches and Human and Nonhuman Sources in Southern California and Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Donna M; Talavera, Ginamary Negrón; Hernández, Luis A Ríos; Weisberg, Stephen B; Ambrose, Richard F; Jay, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Most Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium are harmless to humans; however, strains harboring virulence genes, including esp, gelE, cylA, asa1, and hyl, have been associated with human infections. E. faecalis and E. faecium are present in beach waters worldwide, yet little is known about their virulence potential. Here, multiplex PCR was used to compare the distribution of virulence genes among E. faecalis and E. faecium isolated from beaches in Southern California and Puerto Rico to isolates from potential sources including humans, animals, birds, and plants. All five virulence genes were found in E. faecalis and E. faecium from beach water, mostly among E. faecalis. gelE was the most common among isolates from all source types. There was a lower incidence of asa1, esp, cylA, and hyl genes among isolates from beach water, sewage, septage, urban runoff, sea wrack, and eelgrass as compared to human isolates, indicating that virulent strains of E. faecalis and E. faecium may not be widely disseminated at beaches. A higher frequency of asa1 and esp among E. faecalis from dogs and of asa1 among birds (mostly seagull) suggests that further studies on the distribution and virulence potential of strains carrying these genes may be warranted.

  10. Virulence Genes among Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Coastal Beaches and Human and Nonhuman Sources in Southern California and Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Donna M; Talavera, Ginamary Negrón; Hernández, Luis A Ríos; Weisberg, Stephen B; Ambrose, Richard F; Jay, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Most Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium are harmless to humans; however, strains harboring virulence genes, including esp, gelE, cylA, asa1, and hyl, have been associated with human infections. E. faecalis and E. faecium are present in beach waters worldwide, yet little is known about their virulence potential. Here, multiplex PCR was used to compare the distribution of virulence genes among E. faecalis and E. faecium isolated from beaches in Southern California and Puerto Rico to isolates from potential sources including humans, animals, birds, and plants. All five virulence genes were found in E. faecalis and E. faecium from beach water, mostly among E. faecalis. gelE was the most common among isolates from all source types. There was a lower incidence of asa1, esp, cylA, and hyl genes among isolates from beach water, sewage, septage, urban runoff, sea wrack, and eelgrass as compared to human isolates, indicating that virulent strains of E. faecalis and E. faecium may not be widely disseminated at beaches. A higher frequency of asa1 and esp among E. faecalis from dogs and of asa1 among birds (mostly seagull) suggests that further studies on the distribution and virulence potential of strains carrying these genes may be warranted. PMID:27144029

  11. Antibacterial activity of Enterococcus faecium derived from Koopeh cheese against Listeria monocytogenes in probiotic ultra-filtrated cheese

    PubMed Central

    Hassanzadazar, Hassan; Ehsani, Ali; Mardani, Karim

    2014-01-01

    Viability of probiotic bacteria in food during maintenance and time of consuming in food has become a challenge in food hygiene and technology and is important for representing their beneficial health effects. The aim of this study was to determine the survival of probiotic Enterococcus faecium derived from Koopeh cheese added to industrial Iranian ultra-filtrated (UF) cheese and screening for antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus faecium against Listeria monocytogenes during two months of cheese ripening. Physiochemical and standard microbial methods were used for isolation of Enterococcus strains in cheese samples. The initial number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as starter culture was 6 Log g-1 in control samples. The counts started to decrease slightly after day seven (p < 0.05) and dropped to 5 Log g-1 at the end of 60 days. The count of LAB in the test groups decreased to 11 Log g-1 on the day 60 of ripening. The number of Enterococcus faecium was 6 Log g-1 on the day 60. The count of Listeria monocytogenes after 60 days of ripening in blank sample decreased 1 Log but in test samples with protective strain decreased 3 Log in 30 days and reached to zero at 45 days. There were not significant (p < 0.05) changes in chemical parameters such as fat, protein and total solid of UF cheese treatment groups. The results showed that Enterococcus faecium of Koopeh cheese was suitable for development of an acceptable probiotic UF cheese and could be adapted to industrial production of UF cheese. PMID:25568714

  12. Population Biology of Intestinal Enterococcus Isolates from Hospitalized and Nonhospitalized Individuals in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Tedim, Ana P.; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M.; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J.; Baquero, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n = 133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n = 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages ≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized persons (77.44% to 79.77%) of all age groups (75.0% to 82.61%). Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were predominant, although seven other Enterococcus species were identified. E. faecalis and E. faecium (including ampicillin-resistant E. faecium) colonization rates in nonhospitalized persons were age independent. For inpatients, E. faecalis colonization rates were age independent, but E. faecium colonization rates (particularly the rates of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium colonization) significantly increased with age. The population structure of E. faecium and E. faecalis was determined by superimposing goeBURST and Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS). Most E. faecium sequence types (STs; 150 isolates belonging to 75 STs) were linked to BAPS groups 1 (22.0%), 2 (31.3%), and 3 (36.7%). A positive association between hospital isolates and BAPS subgroups 2.1a and 3.3a (which included major ampicillin-resistant E. faecium human lineages) and between community-based ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates and BAPS subgroups 1.2 and 3.3b was found. Most E. faecalis isolates (130 isolates belonging to 58 STs) were grouped into 3 BAPS groups, BAPS groups 1 (36.9%), 2 (40.0%), and 3 (23.1%), with each one comprising widespread lineages. No positive associations with age or hospitalization were established. The diversity and dynamics of enterococcal populations in the fecal microbiota of healthy humans are largely unexplored, with the available knowledge being fragmented and contradictory. The study offers a novel and comprehensive analysis of enterococcal population landscapes and suggests that E. faecium

  13. Population biology of intestinal enterococcus isolates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized individuals in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Tedim, Ana P; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2015-03-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n = 133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n = 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages ≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized persons (77.44% to 79.77%) of all age groups (75.0% to 82.61%). Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were predominant, although seven other Enterococcus species were identified. E. faecalis and E. faecium (including ampicillin-resistant E. faecium) colonization rates in nonhospitalized persons were age independent. For inpatients, E. faecalis colonization rates were age independent, but E. faecium colonization rates (particularly the rates of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium colonization) significantly increased with age. The population structure of E. faecium and E. faecalis was determined by superimposing goeBURST and Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS). Most E. faecium sequence types (STs; 150 isolates belonging to 75 STs) were linked to BAPS groups 1 (22.0%), 2 (31.3%), and 3 (36.7%). A positive association between hospital isolates and BAPS subgroups 2.1a and 3.3a (which included major ampicillin-resistant E. faecium human lineages) and between community-based ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates and BAPS subgroups 1.2 and 3.3b was found. Most E. faecalis isolates (130 isolates belonging to 58 STs) were grouped into 3 BAPS groups, BAPS groups 1 (36.9%), 2 (40.0%), and 3 (23.1%), with each one comprising widespread lineages. No positive associations with age or hospitalization were established. The diversity and dynamics of enterococcal populations in the fecal microbiota of healthy humans are largely unexplored, with the available knowledge being fragmented and contradictory. The study offers a novel and comprehensive analysis of enterococcal population landscapes and suggests that E. faecium

  14. Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance Enterococcus Surveillance Programme annual report, 2010.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Geoffrey W; Pearson, Julie C; Christiansen, Keryn; Gottlieb, Thomas; Bell, Jan M; George, Narelle; Turnidge, John D

    2013-09-01

    In 2010, 15 institutions around Australia conducted a period prevalence study of key resistances in isolates of Enterococcus species associated with a range of clinical disease amongst in- and outpatients. Each institution collected up to 100 consecutive isolates and tested these for susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobials using standardised methods. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis were characterised by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Multilocus sequence typing was performed on representative pulsotypes of E. faecium. Susceptibility results were compared with similar surveys conducted in 1995, 1999, 2003, 2005, 2007 and 2009. In the 2010 survey, E. faecalis (1,201 isolates) and E. faecium (170 isolates) made up 98.9% of the 1,386 isolates tested. Ampicillin resistance was very common (85.3%) in E. faecium and absent in E. faecalis. Non-susceptibility to vancomycin was 36.5% in E. faecium (similar to the 35.2% in 2009 but up from 15.4% in the 2007 survey) and 0.5% in E. faecalis. There were significant differences in the proportion of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium between the states ranging from 0% in Western Australia to 54.4% in South Australia. The vanB gene was detected in 62 E. faecium and 3 E. faecalis isolates. The vanA gene was detected in 1 E. faecium isolate. All vancomycin-resistant E. faecium belonged to clonal complex 17. The most common sequence type (ST) was ST203, which was found in all regions that had reports of vancomycin resistant enterococci. ST341 was detected only in New South Wales/Australian Capital Territory and ST414 only in South Australia and Victoria. High-level resistance to gentamicin was 34.1% in E. faecalis and 66.1% in E. faecium. A subset of isolates was tested against high-level streptomycin, linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin. High-level streptomycin resistance was found in 8.2% of E. faecalis isolates and 43.8% of E. faecium isolates. Linezolid non

  15. The annotated complete DNA sequence of Enterococcus faecalis bacteriophage φEf11 and its comparison with all available phage and predicted prophage genomes.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Roy H; Ektefaie, Mahmoud R; Fouts, Derrick E

    2011-04-01

    φEf11 is a temperate Siphoviridae bacteriophage isolated by induction from a lysogenic Enterococcus faecalis strain. The φEf11 DNA was completely sequenced and found to be 42,822 bp in length, with a G+C mol% of 34.4%. Genome analysis revealed 65 ORFs, accounting for 92.8% of the DNA content. All except for seven of the ORFs displayed sequence similarities to previously characterized proteins. The genes were arranged in functional modules, organized similar to that of several other phages of low GC Gram-positive bacteria; however, the number and arrangement of lysis-related genes were atypical of these bacteriophages. A 159 bp noncoding region between predicted cI and cro genes is highly similar to the functionally characterized early promoter region of lactococcal temperate phage TP901-1, and possessed a predicted stem-loop structure in between predicted P(L) and P(R) promoters, suggesting a novel mechanism of repression of these two bacteriophages from the λ paradigm. Comparison with all available phage and predicted prophage genomes revealed that the φEf11 genome displays unique features, suggesting that φEf11 may be a novel member of a larger family of temperate prophages that also includes lactococcal phages. Trees based on the blast score ratio grouped this family by tail fiber similarity, suggesting that these trees are useful for identifying phages with similar tail fibers. PMID:21204936

  16. Characterization of the Deoxynucleotide Triphosphate Triphosphohydrolase (dNTPase) Activity of the EF1143 Protein from Enterococcus faecalis and Crystal Structure of the Activator-Substrate Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Vorontsov, Ivan I.; Minasov, George; Kiryukhina, Olga; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Shuvalova, Ludmilla; Anderson, Wayne F.

    2012-06-19

    The EF1143 protein from Enterococcus faecalis is a distant homolog of deoxynucleotide triphosphate triphosphohydrolases (dNTPases) from Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus. These dNTPases are important components in the regulation of the dNTP pool in bacteria. Biochemical assays of the EF1143 dNTPase activity demonstrated nonspecific hydrolysis of all canonical dNTPs in the presence of Mn{sup 2+}. In contrast, with Mg{sup 2+} hydrolysis required the presence of dGTP as an effector, activating the degradation of dATP and dCTP with dGTP also being consumed in the reaction with dATP. The crystal structure of EF1143 and dynamic light scattering measurements in solution revealed a tetrameric oligomer as the most probable biologically active unit. The tetramer contains four dGTP specific allosteric regulatory sites and four active sites. Examination of the active site with the dATP substrate suggests an in-line nucleophilic attack on the {alpha}-phosphate center as a possible mechanism of the hydrolysis and two highly conserved residues, His-129 and Glu-122, as an acid-base catalytic dyad. Structural differences between EF1143 apo and holo forms revealed mobility of the {alpha}3 helix that can regulate the size of the active site binding pocket and could be stabilized in the open conformation upon formation of the tetramer and dGTP effector binding.

  17. A Cluster of Genes Involved in Polysaccharide Biosynthesis from Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi; Murray, Barbara E.; Weinstock, George M.

    1998-01-01

    Our previous work identified a cosmid clone containing a 43-kb insert from Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF that produced a nonprotein antigen in Escherichia coli. In the present work, we studied this clone in detail. Periodate treatment of lysates of the clone confirmed that the antigen was carbohydrate in nature. Analysis of DNA sequences and transposon insertion mutants suggested that the insert contained a multicistronic gene cluster. Database comparison showed that the cluster contained genes similar to genes involved in the biosynthesis of dTDP-rhamnose, glycosyltransferases, and ABC transporters involved in the export of sugar polymers from both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Insertions in several genes within the cluster abolished the immunoreactivity of the clone. This is the first report on a gene cluster of E. faecalis involved in the biosynthesis of an antigenic polysaccharide. PMID:9712783

  18. Inductive effects of environmental concentration of atrazine on Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Koutsotoli, A D; Dimou, D S; Alamanos, Y P; Maipa, V E

    2005-01-01

    Atrazine solutions (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 microg/L) inoculated with Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis under natural conditions significantly increased (p < or = 0.05) the population levels of both test bacteria; it indicates the ability of bacterial cells to degrade atrazine and to use the original compound or its degradation products as nutrient(s). In some cases, alterations in the morphology of the colonies were also observed on selective solid media. Biochemical differentiation was also found and, on the other hand, a loss of culturability was recorded; this suggests that bacteria have entered in a viable but nonculturable state. A re-appearance of the colonies occurred after inoculation on tryptone-soy agar with atrazine. PMID:16408845

  19. Enterococcus Faecalis Biofilm. Formation and Development in Vitro Observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bulacio, María de Los Á; Galván, Lucas R; Gaudioso, Cristina; Cangemi, Rosa; Erimbaue, Marta I

    2015-12-01

    Biofilm produced by Enterococcus faecalis isolated from root canals was detected by growing it on microplates and using 10% crystal violet stain, elution with alcohol and three procedures: no fixation, heat fixation and 10% formaldehyde fixation. The biofilm was evaluated using a Versamax Microplate Reader (USA). Twenty sterile root portions were incubated in TS broth with E. faecalis (108) for 48 hours, 4, 7, 14 and 30 days, after which they were processed and observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Significantly more biofilm was found on the microplates for formaldehyde fixation than for heat fixation or no fixation (ANOVA p<0.0001). SEM showed E. faecalis growth at all times and biofilm development as from 14 days' incubation. Fixation with 10% formaldehyde was the most appropriate technique for detecting E. faecalis biofilm development on microplates. SEM confirmed biofilm formation after 14 days incubation.

  20. Enterococcus fecalis Sepsis and Leukemoid Reaction: An Unusual Association at Birth.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Preetam; Basu, Sriparna

    2015-10-01

    Enterococcus fecalis is a nosocomial, opportunistic pathogen, known to cause late-onset sepsis in preterm neonates and is notorious for its association with high mortality and resistance to commonly used antibiotics, such as penicillin, ampicillin, aminoglycosides, and vancomycin. Neonatal leukemoid reaction, defined as the white blood cell count ≥50×10/L or absolute neutrophil count >30×10/L, is a poor prognostic factor in chorioamnionitis. Occurrence of neonatal leukemoid reaction in E. fecalis-mediated sepsis is rare. We report development of leukemoid reaction in a preterm, extremely low-birth-weight neonate with early-onset sepsis caused by E. fecalis that was resistant to ampicillin and aminoglycosides. PMID:26334428

  1. Differential antimicrobial susceptibility between human and chicken isolates of vancomycin-resistant and sensitive Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Chen, Han Yuan; Hill, Robert L R; Kirk, Monica; Casewell, Mark W; Beighton, David

    2002-01-01

    To compare the differential antimicrobial susceptibilities of Enterococcus faecium from humans and whole chicken carcasses, MICs of 12 antimicrobial agents were determined for 54 clinical-isolates (31 vancomycin-resistant [VREF]) and 60 chicken-isolates (29 VREF). Chicken VREF were slightly but consistently more resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin and avoparcin, compared with human VREF (P<0.01). MICs of LY333328 were

  2. Assessment of Enterococcus Levels in Recreational Beach Sand Along the Rhode Island Coast.

    PubMed

    Coakley, Eugenie; Parris, Amie L; Wyman, Al; Latowsky, Gretchen

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that coastal beach sand as well as coastal ocean water can be contaminated with fecal indicator Enterococcus bacteria (ENT). A study of sand ENT concentrations over a four-week period at 12 Rhode Island beaches was conducted during the summer of 2009. While average contamination was low relative to water quality standards, every beach had at least one day with very high sand ENT readings. On 10 of the 12 beaches, a statistically significant gradient occurred in geometric mean ENT concentrations among tidal zones, with dry (supratidal, or above high tide mark) sand having the highest level, followed by wet (intratidal, or below high tide mark) and underwater sand. Beaches with higher wave action had significantly lower ENT levels in wet and underwater sand compared to beaches with lower wave action.

  3. Multifunctional properties of soy milk fermented by Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from raw soy milk.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Torino, Maria Ines; Martín, V; Arroyo, Rebeca; Garcia-Mora, Patricia; Estrella Pedrola, Isabel; Vidal-Valverde, Concepcion; Rodriguez, Juan Miguel; Frias, Juana

    2012-10-17

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from soy milk were used to produce a multifunctional fermented food. Seven isolates were screened for their ability to produce peptides and free isoflavones in soy milk. The antihypertensive, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of the resulting fermented soy milks were evaluated in vitro using biochemical assays. Isolates 1-5 were found to be producers of fermented soy milk with angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity (ACEI). Isolate 3 was found to be a producer of free isoflavones that increased the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of fermented soy milk. LAB isolates 2-5 were submitted to genetic profiling and a characterization scheme. These isolates were identified as Enterococcus faecium , and none of them contained virulence determinants or resistance to antibiotics. In conclusion, this study shows that the application of E. faecium isolate 3 for multifunctional food production from soy milk could be a promising strategy in the prevention therapy against cardiovascular disease.

  4. [In vitro activity of ampicillin-ceftriaxone against Enterococcus faecalis isolates recovered from invasive infections].

    PubMed

    Burguer Moreira, Noelia; Nastro, Marcela; Vay, Carlos; Famiglietti, Ángela; Rodríguez, Carlos Hernán

    2016-01-01

    In vitro activity of the combination of ampicillin- ceftriaxone against 30 Enterococcus faecalis isolates recovered from invasive infections in patients admitted to Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martin in the city of Buenos Aires was assessed. Ampicillin- ceftriaxone synergies were determined by microdilution in Müeller-Hinton (MH) broth with and without subinhibitory concentrations of ceftriaxone. Synergy was detected in 22/30 isolates. A decrease in both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was observed in 14/30 isolates, whereas in 6/30 isolates the decrease was observed in the MIC value and only in the MBC value in the 2 remaining isolates. The bactericidal activity of the combination showed to be higher at low concentrations of ampicillin (< 1 μg/ml). We detected in vitro synergy using the ampicillin-ceftriaxone combination and thus, its efficacy was confirmed in the treatment of severe infections by E. faecalis.

  5. Treatment of enterococcus faecalis bacteria by a helium atmospheric cold plasma brush with oxygen addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Huang, Jun; Du, Ning; Liu, Xiao-Di; Wang, Xing-Quan; Lv, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Guo-Ping; Guo, Li-Hong; Yang, Si-Ze

    2012-07-01

    An atmospheric cold plasma brush suitable for large area and low-temperature plasma-based sterilization is designed. Results demonstrate that the He/O2 plasma more effectively kills Enterococcus faecalis than the pure He plasma. In addition, the sterilization efficiency values of the He/O2 plasma depend on the oxygen fraction in Helium gas. The atmospheric cold plasma brush using a proper ratio of He/O2 (2.5%) reaches the optimum sterilization efficiency. After plasma treatment, the cell structure and morphology changes can be observed by the scanning electron microscopy. Optical emission measurements indicate that reactive species such as O and OH play a significant role in the sterilization process.

  6. The surface rhamnopolysaccharide epa of Enterococcus faecalis is a key determinant of intestinal colonization.

    PubMed

    Rigottier-Gois, Lionel; Madec, Clément; Navickas, Albertas; Matos, Renata C; Akary-Lepage, Elodie; Mistou, Michel-Yves; Serror, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a commensal bacterium of the human intestine and a major opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised and elderly patients. The pathogenesis of E. faecalis infection relies in part on its capacity to colonize the gut. Following disruption of intestinal homeostasis, E. faecalis can overgrow, cross the intestinal barrier, and enter the lymph and bloodstream. To identify and characterize E. faecalis genes that are key to intestinal colonization, our strategy consisted in screening mutants for the following phenotypes related to intestinal lifestyle: antibiotic resistance, overgrowth, and competition against microbiota. From the identified colonization genes, epaX encodes a glycosyltransferase located in a variable region of the enterococcal polysaccharide antigen (epa) locus. We demonstrated that EpaX acts on sugar composition, promoting resistance to bile salts and cell wall integrity. Given that EpaX is enriched in hospital-adapted isolates, this study points to the importance of the epa variability as a key determinant for enterococcal intestinal colonization.

  7. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of SecA from Enterococcus faecalis

    SciTech Connect

    Meining, Winfried; Scheuring, Johannes; Fischer, Markus; Weinkauf, Sevil

    2006-06-01

    SecA ATPase from E. faecalis has been cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals belong to space group C2 and diffract to 2.4 Å resolution. The gene coding for SecA from Enterococcus faecalis was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. In this protein, the lysine at position 6 was replaced by an asparagine in order to reduce sensitivity towards proteases. The modified protein was purified and crystallized. Crystals diffracting to 2.4 Å resolution were obtained using the vapour-diffusion technique. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 203.4, b = 49.8, c = 100.8 Å, α = γ = 90.0, β = 119.1°. A selenomethionine derivative was prepared and is currently being tested in crystallization trials.

  8. Treatment of enterococcus faecalis bacteria by a helium atmospheric cold plasma brush with oxygen addition

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Wei; Huang Jun; Wang Xingquan; Lv Guohua; Zhang Guoping; Du Ning; Liu Xiaodi; Guo Lihong; Yang Size

    2012-07-01

    An atmospheric cold plasma brush suitable for large area and low-temperature plasma-based sterilization is designed. Results demonstrate that the He/O{sub 2} plasma more effectively kills Enterococcus faecalis than the pure He plasma. In addition, the sterilization efficiency values of the He/O{sub 2} plasma depend on the oxygen fraction in Helium gas. The atmospheric cold plasma brush using a proper ratio of He/O{sub 2} (2.5%) reaches the optimum sterilization efficiency. After plasma treatment, the cell structure and morphology changes can be observed by the scanning electron microscopy. Optical emission measurements indicate that reactive species such as O and OH play a significant role in the sterilization process.

  9. Effect of NaCl Treatments on Tyramine Biosynthesis of Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Wang, Xinxin; Du, Lihui; Wang, Daoying; Zhu, Yongzhi; Geng, Zhiming; Xu, Xiaoxi; Xu, Weimin

    2015-05-01

    The effect of NaCl stress (0 to 8%, wt/vol) on the growth and tyramine production in two Enterococcus faecalis strains was examined during culture time. The growth of E. faecalis was inhibited by the increase in NaCl concentration, but tyramine production was unaffected. Tyramine accumulated rapidly during the logarithmic phase of the strains, and the final tyramine levels were approximately 800 μg/ml. Relative gene expression of four genes in the tyrosine decarboxylase locus, namely, tyrRS, tyrDC, tyrP, and nhaC, was evaluated at different incubation times. The results showed that NaCl stress could upregulate the expression of tyrDC and tyrP to improve the tyramine production of a single E. faecalis strain under certain conditions, and TyrS could act as a negative regulator on the genetic regulation of the tyramine cluster.

  10. Enterococcus faecalis cytolysin without effect on the intestinal growth of susceptible enterococci in mice.

    PubMed

    Huycke, M M; Joyce, W A; Gilmore, M S

    1995-07-01

    A murine model was developed to determine whether the Enterococcus faecalis cytolysin, through its bacteriolytic action on gram-positive bacteria, could promote intestinal overgrowth of cytolytic strains. Sets of E. faecalis strains with varying cytolytic production and susceptibility to cytolytic activity were mixed 1:1 and allowed to compete in vitro in broth or in vivo after orogastric administration in mice pretreated with antibiotics. In general, cytolytic strains outgrew, by as much as 2000-fold, competing cytolysin-susceptible or -hypersusceptible strains in vitro. In contrast, no growth advantage was observed in vivo, despite similar transient colonization of the murine intestinal tract by both cytolytic and cytolysin-susceptible strains. These data suggest that cytolysin plays little role in promoting intestinal overgrowth of enterococci through bacteriolytic activity. PMID:7797930

  11. Bactericidal Effects of Diode Laser Irradiation on Enterococcus faecalis Using Periapical Lesion Defect Model

    PubMed Central

    Nagayoshi, Masato; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Nakashima, Keisuke; Iwaki, Shigetsugu; Chen, Ker-Kong; Terashita, Masamichi; Kitamura, Chiaki

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Photodynamic therapy has been expanded for use in endodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of diode laser irradiation on endodontic pathogens in periapical lesions using an in vitro apical lesion model. Study Design. Enterococcus faecalis in 0.5% semisolid agar with a photosensitizer was injected into apical lesion area of in vitro apical lesion model. The direct effects of irradiation with a diode laser as well as heat produced by irradiation on the viability of microorganisms in the lesions were analyzed. Results. The viability of E. faecalis was significantly reduced by the combination of a photosensitizer and laser irradiation. The temperature caused by irradiation rose, however, there were no cytotoxic effects of heat on the viability of E. faecalis. Conclusion. Our results suggest that utilization of a diode laser in combination with a photosensitizer may be useful for clinical treatment of periapical lesions. PMID:21991489

  12. Occurrence of Enterococcus species with virulence markers in an urban flow-influenced tropical recreational beach.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Asmat; Dada, Ayokunle Christopher; Usup, Gires; Heng, Lee Yook

    2014-05-15

    Median enterococci counts of beach water samples gradually increased at statistically significant levels (χ2: 26.53, df: 4; p<0.0001) with increasing proximity to river influx. The difference in proportion of antibiotic resistant enterococci in beach water and river water samples was statistically significant (p<0.05) for the tested antibiotics with river isolates generally presenting higher resistance frequencies. Virulence genes cyl, esp, gelE and asa were detected at varying frequencies (7.32%, 21.95%, 100% and 63.41% respectively) among river isolates. On the other hand, the prevalence of these genes was lower (0%, 20%, 67.27% and 41.82% respectively) among beach water isolates. Multi-Locus-Sequence-Typing analysis of Enterococcus faecalis presented four sequence types (ST) one of which shared six out of seven tested loci with ST6, a member of the clonal complex of multi-drug resistant strains associated with hospital outbreaks.

  13. Detection of vanA-containing Enterococcus species in faecal microbiota of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Barros, Joana; Andrade, Margarida; Radhouani, Hajer; López, Maria; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patricia; Torres, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium and E. durans isolates with the genotype vanA were detected in 7 of 118 faecal samples (5.9%) of natural gilthead seabream recovered off the coast of Portugal, and one vancomycin-resistant isolate/sample was further characterized. The genes erm(B), tet(L), tet(M), aac(6')-aph(2"), aph(3')-IIIa and/or ant(6)-Ia were identified in most of the 7 vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Sequence types ST273, ST313 and ST76 were detected in three E. faecium isolates and ST6 in two E. faecalis isolates. VanA-containing enterococci are suggested to be disseminated in fish in marine ecosystems close to areas of human activity.

  14. [Infections caused by multi-resistant Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp.)].

    PubMed

    Cantón, Rafael; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia

    2013-10-01

    Methicillin -resistant Staphylocccus aureus (MRSA) and multirresistant entorococci are still problematic in nosocomial infections and new challenges have emerged for their containment. MRSA has increased the multiresistant profile; it has been described vancomycin and linezolid resistant isolates and isolates with decreased daptomycin susceptibility. Moreover, new clones (ST398) have emerged, initially associated with piggeries, and new mec variants (mecC) with livestock origin that escape to the detection with current molecular methods based on mecA gene have been detected. In enterococci, linzeolid resistant isolates and isolates with deceased susceptibility to daptomycin have been described. Moreover, ampicillin resistant Enterococcus faecium due to β-lactamase production has been recently found in Europe. Control of MRSA isolates and multiresistant enteroccocci should combined antibiotic stewardship strategies and epidemiological measures, including detection of colonized patients in order to reduce colonization pressure and their transmission.

  15. Redefining the Role of psr in β-Lactam Resistance and Cell Autolysis of Enterococcus hirae

    PubMed Central

    Sapunaric, Frédéric; Franssen, Christine; Stefanic, Patrick; Amoroso, Ana; Dardenne, Olivier; Coyette, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    The contribution of penicillin-binding protein 5 (PBP5) and the PBP5 synthesis repressor (Psr) to the β-lactam resistance, growth, and cell autolysis of wild-type strain ATCC 9790 and resistant strain R40 of Enterococcus hirae was investigated by disruption or substitution of the corresponding pbp5 and psr genes by Campbell-type recombination. The resulting modifications were confirmed by hybridization and PCR. The low susceptibility of E. hirae to β-lactams was confirmed to be largely dependent on the presence of PBP5. However, against all expectations, inactivation of psr in ATCC 9790 or complementation of R40 cells with psr did not modify the susceptibility to benzylpenicillin or the growth and cell autolysis rates. These results indicated that the psr gene does not seem to be involved in the regulation of PBP5 synthesis and consequently in β-lactam resistance or in the regulation of cell autolysis in E. hirae. PMID:14526002

  16. P087, a lactococcal phage with a morphogenesis module similar to an Enterococcus faecalis prophage.

    PubMed

    Villion, Manuela; Chopin, Marie-Christine; Deveau, Hélène; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Moineau, Sylvain; Chopin, Alain

    2009-05-25

    The virulent lactococcal phage P087 was isolated from a dairy environment in 1978. This phage was then recognized as the reference member for one of the ten phage groups currently known to infect Lactococcus lactis strains. The double-stranded DNA genome of this Siphoviridae phage is composed of 60,074 bp and is circularly permuted. Five tRNA and 88 orfs were found within an uncommon genome architecture. Eleven structural proteins were also identified through SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS analyses. Of note, 11 translated orfs from the structural module of phage P087 have identities to gene products found in a prophage located in the genome of Enterococcus faecalis V583. The alignment of both genomic sequences suggests that DNA exchanges could occur between these two phages which are infecting low G+C bacteria found in similar ecological niches.

  17. Ag-loaded mesoporous bioactive glasses against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm in root canal of human teeth.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wei; Wu, Daming; Ma, Tengjiao; Fan, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Ag-loaded mesoporous bioactive glass (Ag-MBG) powders were synthesized and characterized. The ions release of Ag-MBGs in Tris-HCl and the pH stability of simulated body fluids after immersing Ag-MBGs were tested. Root canals were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis for 4 weeks, and the antibacterial activity of MBGs, Ag-MBGs and calcium hydroxide against E. faecalis biofilm were evaluated. Results showed that Ag-MBGs possessed highly ordered mesoporous structure with silver nanoparticles deposited in the mesopores, which enabled a sustained Ag ions released. The biofilms treated with Ag-MBGs showed a significant structural disruption compared with MBGs. These results indicated that Ag-MBGs possess a potent antibacterial effect against E.faecalis biofilm in root canal, and the antibacterial activity was induced by the release of Ag ions from Ag-MBGs.

  18. The antimicrobial effect of MTAD, sodium hypochlorite, doxycycline, and citric acid on Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Krause, Trisha A; Liewehr, Frederick R; Hahn, Chin-Lo

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the antimicrobial effect of MTAD, two of its components, doxycycline and citric acid, and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in two in vitro models on Enterococcus faecalis. In the bovine tooth model, the lumens of 30 bovine dentin discs were infected with E. faecalis for 2 weeks before treating with either one of the experimental irrigants or saline. Bacteria in the shavings were collected with two sizes of burs and enumerated after overnight culturing. Zones of inhibition were recorded in the agar diffusion model for each irrigant. In the tooth model, NaOCl and doxycycline were more effective than control in killing E. faecalis at the shallow bur depth, but at the deeper bur depth only NaOCl was superior. In the agar diffusion model, NaOCl produced less inhibition than MTAD or doxycycline.

  19. A febrile neutropenic patient with Enterococcus gallinarum sepsis treated with daptomycin and gentamicin.

    PubMed

    Barber, Gerard R; Lauretta, Joseph; Saez, Ruben

    2007-06-01

    Gram-positive pathogens are increasingly implicated in today's changing epidemiology of hospital-acquired infections. Staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci are among the most frequently identified causes of surgical site, complicated skin-structure, and bloodstream infections. In accordance, the use of antimicrobial agents with gram-positive activity, especially those with activity against resistant organisms, has also increased. We describe a septic, neutropenic patient with bacteremia due to Enterococcus gallinarum. Therapeutic options were restricted due to resistance factors of the organism, limited guidance in the medical literature, and the patient's history and underlying condition. Despite these challenges, the patient was successfully treated with a combination of daptomycin and gentamicin and replacement of her indwelling central line. As antimicrobial stewards and diagnosticians, we must bear in mind that selective pressures exerted by the increasing use of agents with gram-positive activity may result in an increased prevalence of organisms such as E. gallinarum. PMID:17542774

  20. Effect of freezing on photoreactivation of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Williams, A; Gao, W; Leung, K T

    2012-06-01

    The effect of freezing on photoreactivation of two strains of Escherichia coli (ATCC strain 25922 and O157:H7 strain 961019) and two strains of Enterococcus faecalis (strain ATCC 51299, vancomycin-resistant and strain ATCC 29212, vancomycin-sensitive) following ultraviolet irradiation were examined. The level of log photoreactivation of the freezing treated test organisms (frozen at -7, -15, or -30 degrees C then thawed at room temperature prior to ultraviolet irradiation) was compared with that of the samples that had not been frozen. Freezing had obvious impact on the response of the test organisms to visible light following ultraviolet irradiation. Significantly lower levels of photoreactivation were observed in the freezing treated cells. The effect of freezing on the ability of the test microbes to photoreactivate seems to be strain and species dependent. Overall, the experimental results suggest that less photoreactivation could be expected if freezing is used as a treatment method prior to ultraviolet disinfection.

  1. Assessment of Enterococcus Levels in Recreational Beach Sand Along the Rhode Island Coast.

    PubMed

    Coakley, Eugenie; Parris, Amie L; Wyman, Al; Latowsky, Gretchen

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that coastal beach sand as well as coastal ocean water can be contaminated with fecal indicator Enterococcus bacteria (ENT). A study of sand ENT concentrations over a four-week period at 12 Rhode Island beaches was conducted during the summer of 2009. While average contamination was low relative to water quality standards, every beach had at least one day with very high sand ENT readings. On 10 of the 12 beaches, a statistically significant gradient occurred in geometric mean ENT concentrations among tidal zones, with dry (supratidal, or above high tide mark) sand having the highest level, followed by wet (intratidal, or below high tide mark) and underwater sand. Beaches with higher wave action had significantly lower ENT levels in wet and underwater sand compared to beaches with lower wave action. PMID:27188067

  2. Prevalence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) in pig faeces from slaughterhouses in Spain.

    PubMed

    Herrero, I A; Teshager, T; Garde, J; Moreno, M A; Domínguez, L

    2000-12-01

    A study to estimate the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in faecal samples from pigs at slaughterhouses in Spain was carried out between November 1998 and January 1999 with 900 samples taken from four abattoirs representing 9.7% of all pig slaughtered in 1998. Using a selective enrichment broth with vancomycin (8microg/ml), 64 samples (7.1%; 95% CI: 5.5, 9.0%) had E. faecium vancomycin-resistant strains that showed minimal inhibitory concentrations of 256microg/ml (62 strains) and 512microg/ml (two strains). Results by farm showed that 43 of the 240 pig farms represented in the sampling had at least one faecal sample with vancomycin-resistant E. faecium. PMID:11087956

  3. Conjugal transfer of plasmid-borne bacteriocin production in Enterococcus faecalis 226 NWC.

    PubMed

    Salzano, G; Villani, F; Pepe, O; Sorrentino, E; Moschetti, G; Coppola, S

    1992-11-15

    Enterococcus faecalis 226 NWC, isolated from natural whey cultures utilized as starter in water-buffalo Mozzarella cheese manufacture, produces a bacteriocin, designated Enterocin 226 NWC, which is inhibitory to Listeria monocytogenes. Plasmid analysis of E. faecalis 226 NWC showed a single 5.2-kb plasmid, pEF226. In conjugation experiments, pEF226 was transferred into a plasmid-free strain of E. faecalis JH2-2. The transfer required direct cell-to-cell contact and was not inhibited by DNase. The identity of conjugation was confirmed by digestion with SmaI restriction endonuclease and subsequent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of the genomic DNA of E. faecalis 226, E. faecalis JH2-2 and of the isolates after the mating. The data indicate that the ability of E. faecalis 226 NWC to produce the bacteriocin is linked to the 5.2-kb conjugative plasmid pEF226.

  4. The effect of berberine hydrochloride on Enterococcus faecalis biofilm formation and dispersion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lihua; Bu, Qianqian; Xu, Huan; Liu, Yuan; She, Pengfei; Tan, Ruichen; Wu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is one of the major causes of biofilm infections. Berberine hydrochloride (BBH) has diverse pharmacological effects; however, the effects and mechanisms of BBH on E. faecalis biofilm formation and dispersion have not been reported. In this study, 99 clinical isolates from the urine samples of patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) were collected and identified. Ten strains of E. faecalis with biofilm formation ability were studied. BBH inhibited E. faecalis biofilm formation and promoted the biofilm dispersion of E. faecalis. In addition, sortase A and esp expression levels were elevated during early E. faecalis biofilm development, whereas BBH significantly reduced their expression levels. The results of this study indicated that BBH effectively prevents biofilm formation and promotes biofilm dispersion in E. faecalis, most likely by inhibiting the expressions of sortase A and esp. PMID:27242142

  5. Effects of Enterococcus faecalis CECT 7121 on Cryptosporidium parvum infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Del Coco, Valeria F; Sparo, Mónica D; Sidoti, Alicia; Santín, Mónica; Basualdo, Juan Angel; Córdoba, María Alejandra

    2016-08-01

    Cryptosporidium is an opportunistic protozoan parasite of humans and animals worldwide and causes diarrheal disease that is typically self-limiting in immunocompetent hosts but often life threatening to immunocompromised individuals. However, there is a lack of completely efficient therapy available. Probiotics have attracted the attention as potential antiparasite compounds against protozoa involved in intestinal infections. This study investigated the effects of administration of probiotic Enterococcus faecalis CECT 7121 on Cryptosporidium parvum infection in immunosuppressed mice. Effects on C. parvum infection at the intestinal mucosa were studied and scored at each portion of the gut. It was demonstrated that Ef CECT 7121 interfered with C. parvum infection when both probiotic and parasite were present in the same intestinal location suggesting that Ef CECT 7121 supplementation can alleviate the negative effects of C. parvum infection. PMID:27193238

  6. Contribution of the enterococcal surface protein Esp to pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecium endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Heikens, Esther; Singh, Kavindra V; Jacques-Palaz, Karen D; van Luit-Asbroek, Miranda; Oostdijk, Evelien A N; Bonten, Marc J M; Murray, Barbara E; Willems, Rob J L

    2011-12-01

    The enterococcal surface protein Esp, specifically linked to nosocomial Enterococcus faecium, is involved in biofilm formation. To assess the role of Esp in endocarditis, a biofilm-associated infection, an Esp-expressing E. faecium strain (E1162) or its Esp-deficient mutant (E1162Δesp) were inoculated through a catheter into the left ventricle of rats. After 24 h, less E1162Δesp than E1162 were recovered from heart valve vegetations. In addition, anti-Esp antibodies were detected in Esp-positive E. faecium bacteremia and endocarditis patient sera. In conclusion, Esp contributes to colonization of E. faecium at the heart valves. Furthermore, systemic infection elicits an Esp-specific antibody response in humans.

  7. Atypical genetic locus associated with constitutive production of enterocin B by Enterococcus faecium BFE 900.

    PubMed

    Franz, C M; Worobo, R W; Quadri, L E; Schillinger, U; Holzapfel, W H; Vederas, J C; Stiles, M E

    1999-05-01

    A purified bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecium BFE 900 isolated from black olives was shown by Edman degradation and mass spectrometric analyses to be identical to enterocin B produced by E. faecium T136 from meat (P. Casaus, T. Nilsen, L. M. Cintas, I. F. Nes, P. E. Hernández, and H. Holo, Microbiology 143:2287-2294, 1997). The structural gene was located on a 2.2-kb HindIII fragment and a 12.0-kb EcoRI chromosomal fragment. The genetic characteristics and production of EntB by E. faecium BFE 900 differed from that described so far by the presence of a conserved sequence like a regulatory box upstream of the EntB gene, and its production was constitutive and not regulated. The 2.2-kb chromosomal fragment contained the hitherto undetected immunity gene for EntB in an atypical orientation that is the reverse of that of the structural gene. Typical transport and other genes associated with bacteriocin production were not detected on the 12.0-kb chromosomal fragment containing the EntB structural gene. This makes the EntB genetic system different from most other bacteriocin systems, where transport and possible regulatory genes are clustered. EntB was subcloned and expressed by the dedicated secretion machinery of Carnobacterium piscicola LV17A. The structural gene was amplified by PCR, fused to the divergicin A signal peptide, and expressed by the general secretory pathway in Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433.

  8. Incidence of Type II CRISPR1-Cas Systems in Enterococcus Is Species-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Casandra; Raustad, Nicole; Bustos, Mario A.; Shiaris, Michael

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas systems, which obstruct both viral infection and incorporation of mobile genetic elements by horizontal transfer, are a specific immune response common to prokaryotes. Antiviral protection by CRISPR-Cas comes at a cost, as horizontally-acquired genes may increase fitness and provide rapid adaptation to habitat change. To date, investigations into the prevalence of CRISPR have primarily focused on pathogenic and clinical bacteria, while less is known about CRISPR dynamics in commensal and environmental species. We designed PCR primers and coupled these with DNA sequencing of products to detect and characterize the presence of cas1, a universal CRISPR-associated gene and proxy for the Type II CRISPR1-Cas system, in environmental and non-clinical Enterococcus isolates. CRISPR1-cas1 was detected in approximately 33% of the 275 strains examined, and differences in CRISPR1 carriage between species was significant. Incidence of cas1 in E. hirae was 73%, nearly three times that of E. faecalis (23.6%) and 10 times more frequent than in E. durans (7.1%). Also, this is the first report of CRISPR1 presence in E. durans, as well as in the plant-associated species E. casseliflavus and E. sulfureus. Significant differences in CRISPR1-cas1 incidence among Enterococcus species support the hypothesis that there is a tradeoff between protection and adaptability. The differences in the habitats of enterococcal species may exert varying selective pressure that results in a species-dependent distribution of CRISPR-Cas systems. PMID:26600384

  9. Incidence of Type II CRISPR1-Cas Systems in Enterococcus Is Species-Dependent.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Casandra; Raustad, Nicole; Bustos, Mario A; Shiaris, Michael

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas systems, which obstruct both viral infection and incorporation of mobile genetic elements by horizontal transfer, are a specific immune response common to prokaryotes. Antiviral protection by CRISPR-Cas comes at a cost, as horizontally-acquired genes may increase fitness and provide rapid adaptation to habitat change. To date, investigations into the prevalence of CRISPR have primarily focused on pathogenic and clinical bacteria, while less is known about CRISPR dynamics in commensal and environmental species. We designed PCR primers and coupled these with DNA sequencing of products to detect and characterize the presence of cas1, a universal CRISPR-associated gene and proxy for the Type II CRISPR1-Cas system, in environmental and non-clinical Enterococcus isolates. CRISPR1-cas1 was detected in approximately 33% of the 275 strains examined, and differences in CRISPR1 carriage between species was significant. Incidence of cas1 in E. hirae was 73%, nearly three times that of E. faecalis (23.6%) and 10 times more frequent than in E. durans (7.1%). Also, this is the first report of CRISPR1 presence in E. durans, as well as in the plant-associated species E. casseliflavus and E. sulfureus. Significant differences in CRISPR1-cas1 incidence among Enterococcus species support the hypothesis that there is a tradeoff between protection and adaptability. The differences in the habitats of enterococcal species may exert varying selective pressure that results in a species-dependent distribution of CRISPR-Cas systems. PMID:26600384

  10. Mutations associated with reduced surotomycin susceptibility in Clostridium difficile and Enterococcus species.

    PubMed

    Adams, Hannah M; Li, Xiang; Mascio, Carmela; Chesnel, Laurent; Palmer, Kelli L

    2015-07-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is an urgent public health concern causing considerable clinical and economic burdens. CDI can be treated with antibiotics, but recurrence of the disease following successful treatment of the initial episode often occurs. Surotomycin is a rapidly bactericidal cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic that is in clinical trials for CDI treatment and that has demonstrated superiority over vancomycin in preventing CDI relapse. Surotomycin is a structural analogue of the membrane-active antibiotic daptomycin. Previously, we utilized in vitro serial passage experiments to derive C. difficile strains with reduced surotomycin susceptibilities. The parent strains used included ATCC 700057 and clinical isolates from the restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) groups BI and K. Serial passage experiments were also performed with vancomycin-resistant and vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis. The goal of this study is to identify mutations associated with reduced surotomycin susceptibility in C. difficile and enterococci. Illumina sequence data generated for the parent strains and serial passage isolates were compared. We identified nonsynonymous mutations in genes coding for cardiolipin synthase in C. difficile ATCC 700057, enoyl-(acyl carrier protein) reductase II (FabK) and cell division protein FtsH2 in C. difficile REA type BI, and a PadR family transcriptional regulator in C. difficile REA type K. Among the 4 enterococcal strain pairs, 20 mutations were identified, and those mutations overlap those associated with daptomycin resistance. These data give insight into the mechanism of action of surotomycin against C. difficile, possible mechanisms for resistance emergence during clinical use, and the potential impacts of surotomycin therapy on intestinal enterococci.

  11. Selection of potential probiotic Enterococcus faecium isolated from Portuguese fermented food.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Joana; Borges, Sandra; Teixeira, Paula

    2014-11-17

    Four Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from fermented products were evaluated for potential use as probiotic strains. In addition to efaAfm gene, commonly found in E. faecium food isolates, none of the isolates possessed virulence genes and none had positive reactions for the production of tyramine, histamine, putrescine and cadaverine in the screening medium used. All of these four isolates proved to be resistant to 65 °C. E. faecium 119 did not show antimicrobial activity against any of the target bacteria investigated. E. faecium 85 and 101 inhibited Listeria innocua and E. faecium DSMZ 13590. The strain E. faecium 120 inhibited seven target bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes 7946, L. monocytogenes 7947, L. innocua 2030c, L. innocua NCTC 11286, E. faecium DSMZ 13590, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213) and was chosen as the representative to assess the ability to survive gastrointestinal tract passage simulation, as well as the protective role of two food matrices (skim milk and Alheira) during its passage. For both matrices used, no significant differences (p<0.05) were obtained between the types of digestion - quick and slow passage simulation. In the skim milk matrix the isolate was reduced to values below the detection limit of the enumeration technique by the end of the two digestions, in contrast to the Alheira matrix, for which isolate 120 showed a reduction of only ca. 1 log CFU/ml. The E. faecium strain 120 was shown to be a potential candidate for further investigations as a potential probiotic culture.

  12. Mutations Associated with Reduced Surotomycin Susceptibility in Clostridium difficile and Enterococcus Species

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Hannah M.; Li, Xiang; Mascio, Carmela; Chesnel, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is an urgent public health concern causing considerable clinical and economic burdens. CDI can be treated with antibiotics, but recurrence of the disease following successful treatment of the initial episode often occurs. Surotomycin is a rapidly bactericidal cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic that is in clinical trials for CDI treatment and that has demonstrated superiority over vancomycin in preventing CDI relapse. Surotomycin is a structural analogue of the membrane-active antibiotic daptomycin. Previously, we utilized in vitro serial passage experiments to derive C. difficile strains with reduced surotomycin susceptibilities. The parent strains used included ATCC 700057 and clinical isolates from the restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) groups BI and K. Serial passage experiments were also performed with vancomycin-resistant and vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis. The goal of this study is to identify mutations associated with reduced surotomycin susceptibility in C. difficile and enterococci. Illumina sequence data generated for the parent strains and serial passage isolates were compared. We identified nonsynonymous mutations in genes coding for cardiolipin synthase in C. difficile ATCC 700057, enoyl-(acyl carrier protein) reductase II (FabK) and cell division protein FtsH2 in C. difficile REA type BI, and a PadR family transcriptional regulator in C. difficile REA type K. Among the 4 enterococcal strain pairs, 20 mutations were identified, and those mutations overlap those associated with daptomycin resistance. These data give insight into the mechanism of action of surotomycin against C. difficile, possible mechanisms for resistance emergence during clinical use, and the potential impacts of surotomycin therapy on intestinal enterococci. PMID:25941217

  13. Enterococcus gallinarum carrying the vanA gene cluster: first report in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Camargo, I L B C; Barth, A L; Pilger, K; Seligman, B G S; Machado, A R L; Darini, A L C

    2004-11-01

    In 2000, Enterococcus faecalis resistant to vancomycin was first reported at a tertiary hospital in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. The resistance spread to other hospitals and surveillance programs were established by hospital infection committees to prevent the spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. In February 2002, an isolate initially identified at the genus level as Enterococcus was obtained by surveillance culture (rectal swab) from a patient admitted to a hospital for treatment of septic arthritis in the shoulder. The isolate proved to be resistant to vancomycin by the disc diffusion method and confirmed by an E-test resulting in a minimal inhibitory concentration of > or = 256 microg/ml. This isolate was sent to a reference laboratory (Laboratorio Especial de Bacteriologia e Epidemiologia Molecular, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, USP) for further study and proved to be an E. gallinarum by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers for the species. Due to the phenotype of unusually high vancomycin resistance, the isolate presumably had the resistance genes (vanA and vanB) and this was confirmed by PCR, which indicated the presence of the vanA gene. A 10.8-kb Tn1546-related transposon was also identified by long-PCR. Interspecies transfer of the vancomycin-resistance gene from the donor E. gallinarum was performed in a successful conjugation experiment in vitro, using E. faecium GE-1 and E. faecalis JH22 as receptors. This is the first report of the detection of a vanA determinant naturally acquired by E. gallinarum in Brazil, indicating the importance of characterizing VRE by both phenotype and genotype methods.

  14. Bacteriocin Production in Vancomycin-Resistant and Vancomycin-Susceptible Enterococcus Isolates of Different Origins

    PubMed Central

    Del Campo, Rosa; Tenorio, Carmen; Jiménez-Díaz, Rufino; Rubio, Carmen; Gómez-Lus, Rafael; Baquero, Fernando; Torres, Carmen

    2001-01-01

    Bacteriocin production was determined for 218 Enterococcus isolates (Enterococcus faecalis [93] and E. faecium [125]) obtained from different origins (human clinical samples [87], human fecal samples [78], sewage [28], and chicken samples [25]) and showing different vancomycin susceptibility patterns (vancomycin resistant, all of them vanA positive [56], and vancomycin susceptible [162]). All enterococcal isolates were randomly selected except for the vancomycin-resistant ones. A total of 33 isolates of eight different bacterial genera were used as indicators for bacteriocin production. Forty-seven percent of the analyzed enterococcal isolates were bacteriocin producers (80.6% of E. faecalis and 21.6% of E. faecium isolates). The percentage of bacteriocin producers was higher among human clinical isolates (63.2%, 81.8% of vancomycin-resistant isolates and 60.5% of vancomycin-susceptible ones) than among isolates from the other origins (28 to 39.3%). Only one out of the 15 vancomycin-resistant isolates from human fecal samples was a bacteriocin producer, while 44.4% of fecal vancomycin-susceptible isolates were. The bacteriocin produced by the vanA-containing E. faecium strain RC714, named bacteriocin RC714, was further characterized. This bacteriocin activity was cotransferred together with the vanA genetic determinant to E. faecalis strain JH2-2. Bacteriocin RC714 was purified to homogeneity and its primary structure was determined by amino acid sequencing, showing an identity of 88% and a similarity of 92% with the previously described bacteriocin 31 from E. faecalis YI717. The presence of five different amino acids in bacteriocin RC714 suggest that this could be a new bacteriocin. The results obtained suggest that the epidemiology of vancomycin resistance may be influenced by different factors, including bacteriocin production. PMID:11181378

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bacteriocin-Producing Strain Enterococcus faecium M3K31, Isolated from Griffon Vultures (Gyps fulvus subsp. fulvus).

    PubMed

    Arbulu, Sara; Frantzen, Cyril; Lohans, Christopher T; Cintas, Luis M; Herranz, Carmen; Holo, Helge; Diep, Dzung B; Vederas, John C; Hernández, Pablo E

    2016-03-24

    Enterococcus faeciumM3K31 is a bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolated from griffon vulture (Gyps fulvussubsp.fulvus) feces. The draft genome sequence of this strain provides genetic data that support its biotechnological potential.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bacteriocin-Producing Strain Enterococcus faecium M3K31, Isolated from Griffon Vultures (Gyps fulvus subsp. fulvus)

    PubMed Central

    Arbulu, Sara; Frantzen, Cyril; Lohans, Christopher T.; Cintas, Luis M.; Herranz, Carmen; Holo, Helge; Diep, Dzung B.; Vederas, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium M3K31 is a bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolated from griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus subsp. fulvus) feces. The draft genome sequence of this strain provides genetic data that support its biotechnological potential. PMID:27013035

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bacteriocin-Producing Strain Enterococcus faecium M3K31, Isolated from Griffon Vultures (Gyps fulvus subsp. fulvus).

    PubMed

    Arbulu, Sara; Frantzen, Cyril; Lohans, Christopher T; Cintas, Luis M; Herranz, Carmen; Holo, Helge; Diep, Dzung B; Vederas, John C; Hernández, Pablo E

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faeciumM3K31 is a bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolated from griffon vulture (Gyps fulvussubsp.fulvus) feces. The draft genome sequence of this strain provides genetic data that support its biotechnological potential. PMID:27013035

  18. Transcriptomic and metabolic responses of Staphylococcus aureus in mixed culture with Lactobacillus plantarum, Streptococcus thermophilus and Enterococcus durans in milk.

    PubMed

    Zdenkova, Kamila; Alibayov, Babek; Karamonova, Ludmila; Purkrtova, Sabina; Karpiskova, Renata; Demnerova, Katerina

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major food-borne pathogen due to the production of enterotoxin and is particularly prevalent in contaminated milk and dairy products. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used as biocontrol agents in fermented foods which can inhibit pathogenic flora. In our work, we investigated the influence of three strains of LAB (Lactobacillus plantarum, Streptococcus thermophilus and Enterococcus durans) on the relative expression of three enterotoxin genes (sea, sec, sell) and eight virulence and/or regulatory genes (sarA, saeS, codY, srrA, rot, hld/RNAIII, agrA/RNAII, sigB) in two S. aureus strains (MW2 and Sa1612) in TSB and reduced-fat milk (1.5 %) at 30 °C over a 24-h period. The tested LAB and S. aureus strains proved to be mutually non-competitive or only slightly competitive during co-cultivation. In addition, under the above-mentioned conditions, differential gene expression between the S. aureus MW2 and Sa1612 strains was well documented. S. aureus growth was changed in mixed culture with LAB; however, its effect on the repression of sea and sec expression correlated with production of these virulence factors. In comparison, the presence of LAB strains generally inhibited the expression of sec, sell, sarA, seaS, agrA/RNAII and hld/RNAIII genes. The effect of LAB strains presence on the expression of sea, codY, srrA, rot and sigB genes was medium, time, LAB and S. aureus strain specific. SEA and SEC production was significantly reduced in milk compared to TSB in pure culture. After the 24-h cultivation, S. aureus MW2 and Sa1612 SEC production was 187 and 331 times lower in milk compared to TSB, respectively (0.07 and 0.39 ng/mL in milk, versus 13.1 and 129.2 ng/mL in TSB, respectively). At the same time S. aureus MW2 and Sa1612 SEA production was 77 and 68 times lower in milk compared to TSB, respectively (0.99 and 0.17 ng/mL in milk, versus 76.4 and 11.5 ng/mL in TSB, respectively). This study has revealed new insights into the

  19. Transcriptomic and metabolic responses of Staphylococcus aureus in mixed culture with Lactobacillus plantarum, Streptococcus thermophilus and Enterococcus durans in milk.

    PubMed

    Zdenkova, Kamila; Alibayov, Babek; Karamonova, Ludmila; Purkrtova, Sabina; Karpiskova, Renata; Demnerova, Katerina

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major food-borne pathogen due to the production of enterotoxin and is particularly prevalent in contaminated milk and dairy products. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used as biocontrol agents in fermented foods which can inhibit pathogenic flora. In our work, we investigated the influence of three strains of LAB (Lactobacillus plantarum, Streptococcus thermophilus and Enterococcus durans) on the relative expression of three enterotoxin genes (sea, sec, sell) and eight virulence and/or regulatory genes (sarA, saeS, codY, srrA, rot, hld/RNAIII, agrA/RNAII, sigB) in two S. aureus strains (MW2 and Sa1612) in TSB and reduced-fat milk (1.5 %) at 30 °C over a 24-h period. The tested LAB and S. aureus strains proved to be mutually non-competitive or only slightly competitive during co-cultivation. In addition, under the above-mentioned conditions, differential gene expression between the S. aureus MW2 and Sa1612 strains was well documented. S. aureus growth was changed in mixed culture with LAB; however, its effect on the repression of sea and sec expression correlated with production of these virulence factors. In comparison, the presence of LAB strains generally inhibited the expression of sec, sell, sarA, seaS, agrA/RNAII and hld/RNAIII genes. The effect of LAB strains presence on the expression of sea, codY, srrA, rot and sigB genes was medium, time, LAB and S. aureus strain specific. SEA and SEC production was significantly reduced in milk compared to TSB in pure culture. After the 24-h cultivation, S. aureus MW2 and Sa1612 SEC production was 187 and 331 times lower in milk compared to TSB, respectively (0.07 and 0.39 ng/mL in milk, versus 13.1 and 129.2 ng/mL in TSB, respectively). At the same time S. aureus MW2 and Sa1612 SEA production was 77 and 68 times lower in milk compared to TSB, respectively (0.99 and 0.17 ng/mL in milk, versus 76.4 and 11.5 ng/mL in TSB, respectively). This study has revealed new insights into the

  20. Revealing Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prockter, L. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Head, J. W.; Watters, T. R.; Murchie, S. L.; Robinson, M. S.; Chapman, C. R.; McNutt, R. L.

    2009-04-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, developed under NASA's Discovery Program, launched in August 2004. En route to insertion into orbit about Mercury in 2011, MESSENGER flies by Mercury three times. The first and second of these encounters were accomplished in January and October of 2008. These flybys viewed portions of Mercury's surface that were not observed by Mariner 10 during its reconnaissance of somewhat less than half of the planet in 1974-1975. All MESSENGER instruments operated during each flyby and returned a wealth of new data. Many of the new observations were focused on the planet's geology, including monochrome imaging at resolutions as high as 100 m/pixel, multispectral imaging in 11 filters at resolutions as high as 500 m/pixel, laser altimetry tracks extending over several thousands of kilometers, and high-resolution spectral measurements of several types of terrain. Here we present an overview of the first inferences on the global geology of Mercury from the MESSENGER observations. Whereas evidence for volcanism was equivocal from Mariner 10 data, the new MESSENGER images and altimetry provide compelling evidence that volcanism was widespread and protracted on Mercury. Color imaging reveals three common spectral units on the surface: a higher-reflectance, relatively red material occurring as a distinct class of smooth plains, typically with distinct embayment relationships interpreted to indicate volcanic emplacement; a lower-reflectance, relatively blue material typically excavated by impact craters and therefore inferred to be more common at depth; and a spectrally intermediate terrain that constitutes much of the uppermost crust. Three more minor spectral units are also seen: fresh crater ejecta, reddish material associated with rimless depressions interpreted to be volcanic centers, and high-reflectance deposits seen in some crater floors. Preliminary measurements of crater size

  1. Effects of two novel amino acid substitutions on the penicillin binding properties of the PBP5 C‑terminal from Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chengjiang; Niu, Haiying; Yu, Hui; Zhou, Lishe; Wang, Zhanli

    2015-10-01

    The low‑affinity penicillin‑binding protein (PBP)5 is responsible for resistance to β‑lactam antibiotics in Enterococcus faecium. (E. faecium). In order to evaluate more fully the potential of this species for the development of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, the present study aimed to examine the extent of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) variations in a collection of clinical E. faecium isolates. In the present study, the C‑terminal domain of PBP5 (PBP5‑CD) of 13 penicillin‑resistant clinical isolates of E. faecium were sequenced and the correlation between penicillin resistance and particular amino acid changes were analyzed. The present study identified for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, two novel substitutions (Tyr460Phe and Ala462Thr or Val462Thr) of E. faecium PBP5‑CD. The covalent interaction between penicillin and PBP5‑CD was also investigated using homology modeling and molecular docking methods. The theoretical calculation revealed that Phe460 and Thr462 were involved in penicillin binding, suggesting that substitutions at these positions exert effects on the affinity for penicillin, and this increased affinity translates into lower resistance in vitro.

  2. Effectiveness of KTP laser versus 980 nm diode laser to kill Enterococcus faecalis in biofilms developed in experimentally infected root canals.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Umberto; Palaia, Gaspare; Nardo, Alessia; Tenore, Gianluca; Telesca, Vito; Kornblit, Roly; Del Vecchio, Alessandro; Frioni, Alessandra; Valenti, Piera; Berlutti, Francesca

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial action of KTP (potassium-titanyl-phosphate) laser irradiations (compared with 980 nm diode laser), associated with conventional endodontic procedures, on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. Fifty-six dental roots with single canals were prepared with Ni-Ti rotary instruments, autoclaved, inoculated with an E. faecalis suspension and incubated for 72 h. They were randomly allocated to control and treatment groups. Laser parameters were as follows: power 2.5 W, Ton 35 ms, Toff 50 ms (KTP laser); power 2.5 W, Ton 30 ms, Toff 30 ms (980 nm diode laser). To evaluate the residual bacterial load, BioTimer Assay was employed. The chemo-mechanical treatment together with laser irradiations (KTP and 980 nm diode lasers) achieved a considerable reduction of bacterial load (higher than 96% and 93%, respectively). Regarding both laser systems, comparisons with conventional endodontic procedures (mortality rate of about 67%) revealed statistically highly significant differences (P ≤ 0.01). This study confirms that laser systems can provide an additional aid in endodontic disinfection.

  3. Expression of the agmatine deiminase pathway in Enterococcus faecalis is activated by the AguR regulator and repressed by CcpA and PTS(Man) systems.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Cristian; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Víctor S; Magni, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Although the agmatine deiminase system (AgDI) has been investigated in Enterococcus faecalis, little information is available with respect to its gene regulation. In this study we demonstrate that the presence of exogenous agmatine induces the expression of agu genes in this bacterium. In contrast to the homologous and extensively characterized AgDI system of S. mutants, the aguBDAC operon in E. faecalis is not induced in response to low pH. In spite of this, agmatine catabolism in this bacterium contributes by neutralizing the external medium while enhancing bacterial growth. Our results indicate that carbon catabolic repression (CCR) operates on the AgDI system via a mechanism that involves interaction of CcpA and P-Ser-HPr with a cre site found in an unusual position considering the aguB promoter (55 nt upstream the +1 position). In addition, we found that components of the mannose phosphotransferase (PTS(Man)) system also contributed to CCR in E. faecalis since a complete relief of the PTS-sugars repressive effect was observed only in a PTS(Man) and CcpA double defective strain. Our gene context analysis revealed that aguR is present in oral and gastrointestinal microorganisms. Thus, regulation of the aguBDAC operon in E. faecalis seems to have evolved to obtain energy and resist low pH conditions in order to persist and colonize gastrointestinal niches.

  4. Mass transfer characterization of gamma-aminobutyric acid production by Enterococcus faecium CFR 3003: encapsulation improves its survival under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Divyashri, Gangaraju; Prapulla, Siddalingaiya Gurudatt

    2015-03-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production by free and Ca-alginate encapsulated cells of Enterococcus faecium CFR 3003 was investigated. Mass transfer rates characterizing the GABA production process using encapsulated cells were investigated. Experiments were performed to investigate external film and internal pore diffusion mass transfer rates. The Damkohler and Thiele analysis provides a good description of external film and internal pore diffusion resistances, respectively. The experiments revealed that the external film effects could be neglected but the process is affected to the greater extent by internal mass transfer effects and was found to be the principal rate-controlling step. Protective effect of encapsulation on cell survivability was tested under digestive environment, when challenged to salivary α-amylase, simulated gastric fluid and intestinal fluid. Viability of encapsulated cells was significantly higher under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions and could produce higher GABA than those observed with free cells. The results indicate that the Ca-alginate encapsulated probiotics could effectively be delivered to the colonic site for effective inhibitory action.

  5. Biofilm forming capacity of Enterococcus faecalis on Gutta-percha points treated with four disinfectants using confocal scanning laser microscope: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Ravi Chandra, Polavarapu Venkata; Kumar, Vemisetty Hari; Reddy, Surakanti Jayaprada; Kiran, Dandolu Ram; Krishna, Muppala Nagendra; Kumar, Golla Vinay

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the in vitro biofilm forming capacity of Enterococcus faecalis on Gutta-percha points disinfected with four disinfectants. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 Gutta-percha points used in this study were divided into four test groups based on disinfectant (5.25% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate, 20% neem, 13% benzalkonium chloride [BAK]), and one control group. The Gutta-percha points were initially treated with corresponding disinfectants followed by anaerobic incubation in Brain Heart Infusion broth suspended with human serum and E. faecalis strain for 14 days. After incubation, these Gutta-percha points were stained with Acridine Orange (Sigma – Aldrich Co., St. Louis, MO, USA) and 0.5 mm thick cross section samples were prepared. The biofilm thickness of E. faecalis was analyzed quantitatively using a confocal scanning laser microscope. Results statistically analyzed using analysis of variance. P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Confocal scanning laser microscope showed reduced amount of E. faecalis biofilm on Gutta-percha points treated with BAK and sodium hypochlorite. Post-hoc (least square differences) test revealed that there is no statistically significant difference between BAK and sodium hypochlorite groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: This study illustrates that the Gutta-percha points disinfected with sodium hypochlorite and BAK showed minimal biofilm growth on its surface. PMID:26288622

  6. Expression of the Agmatine Deiminase Pathway in Enterococcus faecalis Is Activated by the AguR Regulator and Repressed by CcpA and PTSMan Systems

    PubMed Central

    Blancato, Víctor S.; Magni, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Although the agmatine deiminase system (AgDI) has been investigated in Enterococcus faecalis, little information is available with respect to its gene regulation. In this study we demonstrate that the presence of exogenous agmatine induces the expression of agu genes in this bacterium. In contrast to the homologous and extensively characterized AgDI system of S. mutants, the aguBDAC operon in E. faecalis is not induced in response to low pH. In spite of this, agmatine catabolism in this bacterium contributes by neutralizing the external medium while enhancing bacterial growth. Our results indicate that carbon catabolic repression (CCR) operates on the AgDI system via a mechanism that involves interaction of CcpA and P-Ser-HPr with a cre site found in an unusual position considering the aguB promoter (55 nt upstream the +1 position). In addition, we found that components of the mannose phosphotransferase (PTSMan) system also contributed to CCR in E. faecalis since a complete relief of the PTS-sugars repressive effect was observed only in a PTSMan and CcpA double defective strain. Our gene context analysis revealed that aguR is present in oral and gastrointestinal microorganisms. Thus, regulation of the aguBDAC operon in E. faecalis seems to have evolved to obtain energy and resist low pH conditions in order to persist and colonize gastrointestinal niches. PMID:24155893

  7. The Viable but Nonculturable State and Starvation Are Different Stress Responses of Enterococcus faecalis, as Determined by Proteome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Sabina; Del Mar Lleo, Maria; Bonato, Barbara; Guzman, Carlos A.; Canepari, Pietro

    2002-01-01

    The protein expression patterns of exponentially growing, starved, and viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Enterococcus faecalis cells were analyzed to establish whether differences exist between the VBNC state and other stress responses. The results indicate that the protein profile of VBNC cells differs from that of either starved or exponentially growing bacteria. This demonstrates that the VBNC state is a distinct physiological phase within the life cycle of E. faecalis, which is activated in response to multiple environmental stresses. PMID:12426365

  8. Diversity and Evolution of the Tn5801-tet(M)-Like Integrative and Conjugative Elements among Enterococcus, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus

    PubMed Central

    León-Sampedro, Ricardo; Novais, Carla; Peixe, Luísa; Baquero, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the diversity and evolution of Tn5801 among enterococci, staphylococci, and streptococci based on analysis of the 5,073 genomes of these bacterial groups available in gene databases. We also examined 610 isolates of Enterococcus (from 10 countries, 1987 to 2010) for the presence of this and other known CTn-tet(M) elements due to the scarcity of data about Tn5801 among enterococci. Genome location (by ICeu-I–pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE] hybridization/integration site identification), conjugation and fitness (by standard methods), Tn5801 characterization (by long-PCR mapping/sequencing), and clonality (by PFGE/multilocus sequence typing [MLST]) were studied. Twenty-three Tn5801 variants (17 unpublished) clustered in two groups, designated “A” (25 kb; n = 14; predominant in Staphylococcus aureus) and “B” (20 kb; n = 9; predominant in Streptococcus agalactiae). The percent GC content of the common backbone suggests a streptococcal origin of Tn5801 group B, with further acquisition of a 5-kb fragment that resulted in group A. Deep sequence analysis allowed identification of variants associated with clonal lineages of S. aureus (clonal complex 8 [CC8], sequence type 239 [ST239]), S. agalactiae (CC17), Enterococcus faecium (ST17/ST18), or Enterococcus faecalis (ST8), local variants, or variants located in different species and geographical areas. All Tn5801 elements were chromosomally located upstream of the guaA gene, which serves as an integration hot spot. Transferability was demonstrated only for Tn5801 type B among E. faecalis clonal backgrounds, which eventually harbored another Tn5801 copy. The study documents early acquisition of Tn5801 by Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus. Clonal waves of these pathogens seem to have contributed to the geographical spread and local evolution of the transposon. Horizontal transfer, also demonstrated, could explain the variability observed, with the isolates often containing

  9. Diversity and Evolution of the Tn5801-tet(M)-Like Integrative and Conjugative Elements among Enterococcus, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus.

    PubMed

    León-Sampedro, Ricardo; Novais, Carla; Peixe, Luísa; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2016-01-04

    This work describes the diversity and evolution of Tn5801 among enterococci, staphylococci, and streptococci based on analysis of the 5,073 genomes of these bacterial groups available in gene databases. We also examined 610 isolates of Enterococcus (from 10 countries, 1987 to 2010) for the presence of this and other known CTn-tet(M) elements due to the scarcity of data about Tn5801 among enterococci. Genome location (by ICeu-I-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE] hybridization/integration site identification), conjugation and fitness (by standard methods), Tn5801 characterization (by long-PCR mapping/sequencing), and clonality (by PFGE/multilocus sequence typing [MLST]) were studied. Twenty-three Tn5801 variants (17 unpublished) clustered in two groups, designated "A" (25 kb; n = 14; predominant in Staphylococcus aureus) and "B" (20 kb; n = 9; predominant in Streptococcus agalactiae). The percent GC content of the common backbone suggests a streptococcal origin of Tn5801 group B, with further acquisition of a 5-kb fragment that resulted in group A. Deep sequence analysis allowed identification of variants associated with clonal lineages of S. aureus (clonal complex 8 [CC8], sequence type 239 [ST239]), S. agalactiae (CC17), Enterococcus faecium (ST17/ST18), or Enterococcus faecalis (ST8), local variants, or variants located in different species and geographical areas. All Tn5801 elements were chromosomally located upstream of the guaA gene, which serves as an integration hot spot. Transferability was demonstrated only for Tn5801 type B among E. faecalis clonal backgrounds, which eventually harbored another Tn5801 copy. The study documents early acquisition of Tn5801 by Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus. Clonal waves of these pathogens seem to have contributed to the geographical spread and local evolution of the transposon. Horizontal transfer, also demonstrated, could explain the variability observed, with the isolates often containing sequences of

  10. Characteristics of prosthetic joint infections due to Enterococcus sp. and predictors of failure: a multi-national study.

    PubMed

    Tornero, E; Senneville, E; Euba, G; Petersdorf, S; Rodriguez-Pardo, D; Lakatos, B; Ferrari, M C; Pilares, M; Bahamonde, A; Trebse, R; Benito, N; Sorli, L; del Toro, M D; Baraiaetxaburu, J M; Ramos, A; Riera, M; Jover-Sáenz, A; Palomino, J; Ariza, J; Soriano, A

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to review the characteristics and outcome of prosthetic joint infections (PJI) due to Enterococcus sp. collected in 18 hospitals from six European countries. Patients with a PJI due to Enterococcus sp. diagnosed between January 1999 and July 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Relevant information about demographics, comorbidity, clinical characteristics, microbiological data, surgical treatment and outcome was registered. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed. A total of 203 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean (SD) was 70.4 (13.6) years. In 59 patients the infection was diagnosed within the first 30 days (29.1%) from arthroplasty, in 44 (21.7%) between 31 and 90 days, in 54 (26.6%) between 91 days and 2 years and in 43 (21%) after 2 years. Enterococcus faecalis was isolated in 176 cases (89%). In 107 (54%) patients the infection was polymicrobial. Any comorbidity (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.18-5.40, p 0.01), and fever (OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.23-5.69, p 0.01) were independently associated with failure. The only factor associated with remission was infections diagnosed later than 2 years (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.09-0.71, p 0.009). In conclusion, prosthetic joint infections due to Enterococcus sp. were diagnosed within the first 2 years from arthroplasty in >70% of the patients, almost 50% had at least one comorbidity and infections were frequently polymicrobial (54%). The global failure rate was 44% and patients with comorbidities, fever, and diagnosed within the first 2 years from arthroplasty had a poor prognosis.

  11. Antibacterial Efficacy of Calcium Hypochlorite with Vibringe Sonic Irrigation System on Enterococcus faecalis: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Dumani, Aysin; Guvenmez, Hatice Korkmaz; Yilmaz, Sehnaz; Yoldas, Oguz; Kurklu, Zeliha Gonca Bek

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro efficacy of calcium hypochlorite (Ca[OCl]2) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) associated with sonic (Vibringe) irrigation system in root canals which were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. Material and Methods. The root canals of 84 single-rooted premolars were enlarged up to a file 40, autoclaved, inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis, and incubated for 21 days. The samples were divided into 7 groups according to the irrigation protocol: G0: no treatment; G1: distilled water; G2: 2.5% NaOCl; G3: 2.5% Ca(OCl)2; G4: distilled water with sonic activation; G5: 2.5% NaOCl with sonic activation; and G6: 2.5% Ca(OCl)2 with sonic activation. Before and after decontamination procedures microbiological samples were collected and the colony-forming units were counted and the percentages of reduction were calculated. Results. Distilled water with syringe irrigation and sonic activation groups demonstrated poor antibacterial effect on Enterococcus faecalis compared to other experimental groups (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between syringe and sonic irrigation systems with Ca(OCl)2 and NaOCl. Conclusion. The antimicrobial property of Ca(OCl)2 has been investigated and compared with that of NaOCl. Both conventional syringe irrigation and sonic irrigation were found effective at removing E. faecalis from the root canal of extracted human teeth.

  12. Antibacterial Efficacy of Calcium Hypochlorite with Vibringe Sonic Irrigation System on Enterococcus faecalis: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Dumani, Aysin; Guvenmez, Hatice Korkmaz; Yilmaz, Sehnaz; Yoldas, Oguz; Kurklu, Zeliha Gonca Bek

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro efficacy of calcium hypochlorite (Ca[OCl]2) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) associated with sonic (Vibringe) irrigation system in root canals which were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. Material and Methods. The root canals of 84 single-rooted premolars were enlarged up to a file 40, autoclaved, inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis, and incubated for 21 days. The samples were divided into 7 groups according to the irrigation protocol: G0: no treatment; G1: distilled water; G2: 2.5% NaOCl; G3: 2.5% Ca(OCl)2; G4: distilled water with sonic activation; G5: 2.5% NaOCl with sonic activation; and G6: 2.5% Ca(OCl)2 with sonic activation. Before and after decontamination procedures microbiological samples were collected and the colony-forming units were counted and the percentages of reduction were calculated. Results. Distilled water with syringe irrigation and sonic activation groups demonstrated poor antibacterial effect on Enterococcus faecalis compared to other experimental groups (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between syringe and sonic irrigation systems with Ca(OCl)2 and NaOCl. Conclusion. The antimicrobial property of Ca(OCl)2 has been investigated and compared with that of NaOCl. Both conventional syringe irrigation and sonic irrigation were found effective at removing E. faecalis from the root canal of extracted human teeth. PMID:27218106

  13. Expression of Alzheimer-Type Neurofibrillary Epitopes in Primary Rat Cortical Neurons Following Infection with Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Underly, Robert; Song, Mee-Sook; Dunbar, Gary L.; Weaver, Charles L.

    2016-01-01

    The neurofibrillary tau pathology and amyloid deposits seen in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) also have been seen in bacteria-infected brains. However, few studies have examined the role of these bacteria in the generation of tau pathology. One suggested link between infection and AD is edentulism, the complete loss of teeth. Edentulism can result from chronic periodontal disease due to infection by Enterococcus faecalis. The current study assessed the ability to generate early Alzheimer-like neurofibrillary epitopes in primary rat cortical neurons through bacterial infection by E. faecalis. Seven-day old cultured neurons were infected with E. faecalis for 24 and 48 h. An upward molecular weight shift in tau by Western blotting (WB) and increased appearance of tau reactivity in cell bodies and degenerating neurites was found in the 48 h infection group for the antibody CP13 (phospho-Serine 202). A substantial increase in reactivity of Alz-50 was seen at 24 and 48 h after infection. Furthermore, extensive microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) reactivity also was seen at 24 and 48 h post-infection. Our preliminary findings suggest a potential link between E. faecalis infection and intracellular changes that may help facilitate early AD-like neurofibrillary pathology. HighlightsEnterococcus faecalis used in the generation of AD neurofibrillary epitopes in rat.Infection increases Alz-50, phospho-Serine 202 tau, and MAP2 expression.Infection by Enterococcus may play a role in early Alzheimer neurofibrillary changes. PMID:26834627

  14. A novel method for simultaneous Enterococcus species identification/typing and van genotyping by high resolution melt analysis.

    PubMed

    Gurtler, Volker; Grando, Danilla; Mayall, Barrie C; Wang, Jenny; Ghaly-Derias, Shahbano

    2012-09-01

    In order to develop a typing and identification method for van gene containing Enterococcus faecium, two multiplex PCR reactions were developed for use in HRM-PCR (High Resolution Melt-PCR): (i) vanA, vanB, vanC, vanC23 to detect van genes from different Enterococcus species; (ii) ISR (intergenic spacer region between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes) to detect all Enterococcus species and obtain species and isolate specific HRM curves. To test and validate the method three groups of isolates were tested: (i) 1672 Enterococcus species isolates from January 2009 to December 2009; (ii) 71 isolates previously identified and typed by PFGE (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) and MLST (multi-locus sequence typing); and (iii) 18 of the isolates from (i) for which ISR sequencing was done. As well as successfully identifying 2 common genotypes by HRM from the Austin Hospital clinical isolates, this study analysed the sequences of all the vanB genes deposited in GenBank and developed a numerical classification scheme for the standardised naming of these vanB genotypes. The identification of Enterococcus faecalis from E. faecium was reliable and stable using ISR PCR. The typing of E. faecium by ISR PCR: (i) detected two variable peaks corresponding to different copy numbers of insertion sequences I and II corresponding to peak I and II respectively; (ii) produced 7 melt profiles for E. faecium with variable copy numbers of sequences I and II; (iii) demonstrated stability and instability of peak heights with equal frequency within the patient sample (36.4±4.5 days and 38.6±5.8 days respectively for 192 patients); (iv) detected ISR-HRM types with as much discrimination as PFGE and more than MLST; and (v) detected ISR-HRM types that differentiated some isolates that were identical by PFGE and MLST. In conjunction with the rapid and accurate van genotyping method described here, this ISR-HRM typing and identification method can be used as a stable identification and typing method with

  15. Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. in rainwater tank samples: comparison of culture-based methods and 23S rRNA gene quantitative PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Richardson, K; Sidhu, J P S; Toze, S

    2012-10-16

    In this study, culture-based methods and quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were compared with each other for the measurement of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. in water samples collected from rainwater tanks in Southeast Queensland, Australia. Among the 50 rainwater tank samples tested, 26 (52%) and 46 (92%) samples yielded E. coli numbers as measured by EPA Method 1603 and E. coli 23S rRNA gene qPCR assay, respectively. Similarly, 49 (98%) and 47 (94%) samples yielded Enterococcus spp. numbers as measured by EPA Method 1600 and Enterococcus spp. 23S rRNA gene qPCR assay, respectively. The mean E. coli (2.49 ± 0.85) log(10) and Enterococcus spp. (2.72 ± 0.32) log(10) numbers as measured by qPCR assays were significantly (P < 0001) different than E. coli (0.91 ± 0.80) log(10) and Enterococcus spp. (1.86 ± 0.60) log(10) numbers as measured by culture-based method. Weak but significant correlations were observed between both EPA Method 1603 and the E. coli qPCR assay (r = 0.47, P = 0.0009), and EPA Method 1600 and the Enterococcus spp. qPCR assay (r = 0.42, P = 0.002). Good qualitative agreement was found between the culture-based method and the Enterococcus spp. qPCR assay in terms of detecting fecal pollution in water samples from the studied rainwater tanks. More research studies, however, are needed to shed some light on the discrepancies associated with the culture-based methods and qPCR assays for measuring fecal indicator bacteria.

  16. Hybrid Potential Simulation of the Acylation of Enterococcus faecium l,d-Transpeptidase by Carbapenems.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Nicholus; Field, Martin J; Simorre, Jean-Pierre; Arthur, Michel; Bougault, Catherine M

    2016-06-01

    The l,d-transpeptidases, Ldts, catalyze peptidoglycan cross-linking in β-lactam-resistant mutant strains of several bacteria, including Enterococcus faecium and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although unrelated to the essential d,d-transpeptidases, which are inactivated by the β-lactam antibiotics, they are nevertheless inhibited by the carbapenem antibiotics, making them potentially useful targets in the treatment of some important diseases. In this work, we have investigated the acylation mechanism of the Ldt from E. faecium by the carbapenem, ertapenem, using computational techniques. We have employed molecular dynamics simulations in conjunction with QC/MM hybrid potential calculations to map out possible reaction paths. We have focused on determining the following: (i) the protonation state of the nucleophilic cysteine of the enzyme when it attacks; (ii) whether nucleophilic attack and β-lactam ring-opening are concerted or stepwise, the latter occurring via an oxyanion intermediate; and (iii) the identities of the proton acceptors at the beginning and end of the reaction. Overall, we note that there is considerable plasticity in the mechanisms, owing to the significant flexibility of the enzyme, but find that the preferred pathways are ones in which nucleophilic attack of cysteine thiolate is concerted with β-lactam ring-opening. PMID:27196382

  17. Transcriptome profiling of TDC cluster deletion mutant of Enterococcus faecalis V583.

    PubMed

    Perez, Marta; Ladero, Victor; Del Rio, Beatriz; Redruello, Begoña; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P; Kok, Jan; Martin, M Cruz; Fernandez, Maria; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2016-09-01

    The species Enterococcus faecalis is able to catabolise the amino acid tyrosine into the biogenic amine tyramine by the tyrosine decarboxilase (TDC) pathway Ladero et al. (2012) [1]. The TDC cluster comprises four genes: tyrS, an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-like gene; tdcA, which encodes the tyrosine decarboxylase; tyrP, a tyrosine/tyramine exchanger gene and nhaC-2, which encodes an Na(+)/H(+) antiporter and whose role in the tyramine biosynthesis remains unknown [2]. In E. faecalis V583 the last three genes are co-transcribed as a single polycistronic mRNA forming the catabolic operon, while tyrS is transcribed independently of the catabolic genes as a monocistronic mRNA [2]. The catabolic operon is transcriptionally induced by tyrosine and acidic pH. On the opposite, the tyrS expression is repressed by tyrosine concentrations [2]. In this work we report the transcriptional profiling of the TDC cluster deletion mutant (E. faecalis V583 ΔTDC) [2] compared to the wild-type strain, both grown in M17 medium supplemented with tyrosine. The transcriptional profile data of TDC cluster-regulated genes were deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under accession no. GSE77864. PMID:27408815

  18. Capsular polysaccharide production in Enterococcus faecalis and contribution of CpsF to capsule serospecificity.

    PubMed

    Thurlow, Lance R; Thomas, Vinai Chittezham; Hancock, Lynn E

    2009-10-01

    Many bacterial species produce capsular polysaccharides that contribute to pathogenesis through evasion of the host innate immune system. The gram-positive pathogen Enterococcus faecalis was previously reported to produce one of four capsule serotypes (A, B, C, or D). Previous studies describing the four capsule serotypes of E. faecalis were based on immunodetection methods; however, the underlying genetics of capsule production did not fully support these findings. Previously, it was shown that capsule production for serotype C (Maekawa type 2) was dependent on the presence of nine open reading frames (cpsC to cpsK). Using a novel genetic system, we demonstrated that seven of the nine genes in the cps operon are essential for capsule production, indicating that serotypes A and B do not make a capsular polysaccharide. In support of this observation, we showed that serotype C and D capsule polysaccharides mask lipoteichoic acid from detection by agglutinating antibodies. Furthermore, we determined that the genetic basis for the difference in antigenicity between serotypes C and D is the presence of cpsF in serotype C strains. High-pH anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection analysis of serotype C and D capsules indicated that cpsF is responsible for glucosylation of serotype C capsular polysaccharide in E. faecalis.

  19. Persistence of Enterococcus faecalis in Aquatic Environments via Surface Interactions with Copepods

    PubMed Central

    Signoretto, Caterina; Burlacchini, Gloria; Pruzzo, Carla; Canepari, Pietro

    2005-01-01

    Several human pathogens and fecal-pollution indicators may persist as viable organisms in natural environments, owing to their ability to activate different types of survival strategies. These strategies include adhesion on both abiotic and biotic surfaces and the entrance to the so-called viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state. In an 18-month survey for the detection of enterococci in both lake water and seawater, C. Signoretto et al. (Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:6892-6896, 2004) have shown that Enterococcus faecalis was detected mostly bound to plankton and in the VBNC state. In the present study, we show that in vitro adhesion of E. faecalis to copepods accelerated the entry of cells into the VBNC state relative to that of planktonic bacteria. VBNC E. faecalis cells maintained their adhesive properties to copepods and chitin (the main component of the copepod carapace), though to a reduced extent in comparison with growing cells. Sugar competition experiments showed interference with adhesion to both copepods and chitin by GlcNAc and only to copepods by d-mannose. Four enterococcal cell wall proteins present in both growing and VBNC cells and lipoteichoic acid were shown to be capable of binding chitin. The results indicate that copepods may represent an additional environmental reservoir of enterococci, thus suggesting the advisability of redesigning the protocols currently used for microbial detection during the evaluation of the microbiological quality of environmental samples. PMID:15870369

  20. Competitive polymerase chain reaction for quantification of nonculturable Enterococcus faecalis cells in lake water.

    PubMed

    del Mar Lleó M; Tafi; Signoretto; Dal Cero C; Canepari

    1999-12-01

    Among the survival strategies developed by bacteria when faced with adverse environmental conditions, the viable but nonculturable (VNC) state has been described. In this state, bacteria are unable to form colonies but are still alive and capable of metabolic activity. The VNC state has been described in numerous Gram-negative species, but recently also in Enterococcus faecalis, a Gram-positive species which can be found in the environment. In this study we describe a competitive PCR (cPCR) protocol to detect and quantify a specific sequence of DNA from culturable and nonculturable E. faecalis cells present in water samples. The protocol was found to be specific and capable of detecting amounts of DNA up to 0.1 pg corresponding to approximately 2 cells ml(-1). Moreover, it allows an internal standard to be used to quantify the amount of specific DNA present in samples from different environments. The application of this cPCR method to water samples from Lake Garda enabled us to demonstrate the presence of nonculturable forms of E. faecalis in lake water and to quantify their DNA and the corresponding concentration of nonculturable cells.

  1. The Natural Surfactant Glycerol Monolaurate Significantly Reduces Development of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Donavon J.; Henry-Stanley, Michelle J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Bacterial biofilms are involved in a large proportion of clinical infections, including device-related infections. Unfortunately, biofilm-associated bacteria are typically less susceptible to antibiotics, and infected devices must often be removed. On the basis of a recent observation that lipid-rich biofilm matrix material is present in early biofilm formation and may protect a population of bacteria from interacting with ordinarily diffusible small molecules, we hypothesized that surfactants may be useful in preventing biofilm development. Methods: Experimental Staphylococcus aureus or Enterococcus faecalis biofilms were cultivated on surgical suture suspended in a growth medium supplemented with the natural surfactant glycerol monolaurate (GML) or with a component molecule, lauric acid. After 16 h incubation, the numbers of viable biofilm-associated bacteria were measured by standard microbiologic techniques and biofilm biomass was measured using the colorimetric crystal violet assay. Results: Both GML and lauric acid were effective in inhibiting biofilm development as measured by decreased numbers of viable biofilm-associated bacteria as well as decreased biofilm biomass. Compared with lauric acid on a molar basis, GML represented a more effective inhibitor of biofilms formed by either S. aureus or E. faecalis. Conclusions: Because the natural surfactant GML inhibited biofilm development, resulting data were consistent with the hypothesis that lipids may play an important role in biofilm growth, implying that interfering with lipid formation may help control development of clinically relevant biofilms. PMID:26110557

  2. Characterisation of an antiviral pediocin-like bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Wachsman, Monica; Tomé, Elisabetta; Dousset, Xavier; Destro, Maria Teresa; Dicks, Leon Milner Theodore; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Vaz-Velho, Manuella; Drider, Djamel

    2010-10-01

    The bacteriocin-producing strain Enterococcus faecium ST5Ha was isolated from smoked salmon and identified by biomolecular techniques. Ent. faecium ST5Ha produces a pediocin-like bacteriocin with activity against several lactic acid bacteria, Listeria spp. and some other human and food pathogens, and remarkably against HSV-1 virus. Bacteriocin ST5Ha was produced at high levels in MRS broth at 30 degrees C and 37 degrees C, reaching a maximum production of 1.0 x 10(9) AU/ml, checked against Listeria ivanovii ATCC19119 as target strain and surrogate of pathogenic strain Listeria monocytogenes. The molecular weight of bacteriocin ST5Ha was estimated to be 4.5 kDa according to tricine-SDS-PAGE data. Ent. faecium ST5Ha harbors a 1.044 kb chromosomal DNA fragment fitting in size to that of pediocin PA-1/AcH. In addition, the sequencing of bacteriocin ST5Ha gene indicated 99% of DNA homology to pediocin PA-1/AcH. The combined application of low levels (below MIC) of ciprofloxacin and bacteriocin ST5Ha resulted in a synergetic effect in the inhibition of target strain L. ivanovii ATCC19119. Bacteriocin ST5Ha displayed antiviral activity against HSV-1, an important human pathogen, with a selectivity index of 173. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on Ent. faecium as a potential producer of pediocin-like bacteriocin with antiviral activity.

  3. Production of lactic acid using a new homofermentative Enterococcus faecalis isolate.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Mohan Raj; Talluri, Suvarna; Christopher, Lew P

    2015-03-01

    Lactic acid is an intermediate-volume specialty chemical for a wide range of food and industrial applications such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and chemical syntheses. Although lactic acid production has been well documented, improved production parameters that lead to reduced production costs are always of interest in industrial developments. In this study, we describe the production of lactic acid at high concentration, yield and volumetric productivity utilizing a novel homofermentative, facultative anaerobe Enterococcus faecalis CBRD01. The highest concentration of 182 g lactic acid l(-1) was achieved after 38 h of fed-batch fermentation on glucose. The bacterial isolate utilized only 2-13% of carbon for its growth and energy metabolism, while 87-98% of carbon was converted to lactic acid at an overall volumetric productivity of 5 g l(-1)  h(-1). At 13 h of fermentation, the volumetric productivity of lactate production reached 10.3 g l(-1)  h(-1), which is the highest ever reported for microbial production of lactic acid. The lactic acid produced was of high purity as formation of other metabolites was less than 0.1%. The present investigation demonstrates a new opportunity for enhanced production of lactic acid with potential for reduced purification costs. PMID:24894833

  4. Heat-Killed Enterococcus faecalis EF-2001 Ameliorates Atopic Dermatitis in a Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Ju; Iwasa, Masahiro; Han, Kwon-Il; Kim, Wan-Jae; Tang, Yujiao; Hwang, Young Joung; Chae, Jeong Ryong; Han, Weon Cheol; Shin, Yu-Su; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2016-03-01

    Recent reports have shown the immunomodulatory effect of heat-killed lactic acid bacteria. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an allergic skin disease, caused by immune dysregulation among other factors. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of heat-killed Enterococcus faecalis EF-2001 (EF-2001) on AD. We established an in vivo AD model by repeated local exposure of Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE; house dust mite extract) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to the ears of mice. After oral administration of EF-2001 for four weeks, the epidermal and dermal ear thickness, mast cell infiltration, and serum immunoglobulin levels were measured. In addition, the gene expression levels of pathogenic cytokines in the ears, lymph nodes, and splenocytes were assayed. EF-2001 attenuated AD symptoms based on the ear thickness, histopathological analysis, and serum immunoglobulin levels. Moreover, EF-2001 decreased the DFE/DNCB-induced expression of various pathogenic cytokines in the ears, lymph nodes, and splenocytes. These results suggest that EF-2001 has therapeutic potential in the treatment of AD owing to its immunomodulatory effects. PMID:26959058

  5. Phenotypic and Genotypic Alterations of Durancin GL-Resistant Enterococcus durans Strains.

    PubMed

    Du, Lihui; Liu, Lingping; Liu, Fang; Ju, Xingrong; Yuan, Jian

    2016-06-01

    The emergence and spread of bacteriocin-resistant bacteria threaten the efficiency of bacteriocin usage as food preservatives. In this experiment, 19 selected Enterococcus durans strains acquired resistance after exposure to durancin GL, and the mutants had similar intermediate levels of resistance. One wild-type E. durans KLDS 6.0603 and its two resistant mutants, E. durans KLDS 6.0603-2 and E. durans KLDS 6.0603-3, were used to characterize phenotypic and genotypic differences. Approximately 100 μg/mL of durancin GL can penetrate the cytoplasmic membrane of E. durans KLDS 6.0603, causing damage to bacterial cells, but cannot penetrate E. durans KLDS 6.0603-2 and KLDS 6.0603-3 membranes. Unsaturated fatty acid content in resistant strains was significantly increased compared with wild-type strains, indicating that the former has more fluidity of cell membrane than the latter. Decreased mannose phosphotransferase system gene expression (mptD) was observed in the two resistant strains. Results showed that the factors, including the increased unsaturated fatty acid and decreased mptD expression, could contribute to durancin GL resistance. PMID:27096434

  6. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. isolated from environmental samples in an area of intensive poultry production.

    PubMed

    Furtula, Vesna; Jackson, Charlene R; Farrell, Erin Gwenn; Barrett, John B; Hiott, Lari M; Chambers, Patricia A

    2013-03-12

    Enterococcus spp. from two poultry farms and proximate surface and ground water sites in an area of intensive poultry production were tested for resistance to 16 clinical antibiotics. Resistance patterns were compared to assess trends and possible correlations for specific antimicrobials and levels of resistance. Enterococci were detected at all 12 surface water sites and three of 28 ground water sites. Resistance to lincomycin, tetracycline, penicillin and ciprofloxacin in poultry litter isolates was high (80.3%, 65.3%, 61.1% and 49.6%, respectively). Resistance in the surface water to the same antibiotics was 87.1%, 24.1%, 7.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Overall, 86% of litter isolates, 58% of surface water isolates and 100% of ground water isolates were resistant to more than one antibiotic. Fifty-four different resistance patterns were recognised in isolates obtained from litter and environmental samples and several E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates from litter and environment samples shared the same resistance pattern. Multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) indices calculated to assess health risks due to the presence of resistant enterococci suggested an increased presence of antibiotics in surface water, likely from poultry sources as no other wastewater contributions in the area were documented.

  7. Tn5381, a conjugative transposon identifiable as a circular form in Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, L B; Marshall, S H; Carias, L L

    1992-01-01

    We have identified two 19-kb conjugative transposons (Tn5381 and Tn5383) in separate strains of multiply resistant Enterococcus faecalis. These transposons confer resistance to tetracycline and minocycline via a tetM gene, are capable of both chromosomal and plasmid integration in a Rec- environment, and transfer between strains in the absence of detectable plasmid DNA at frequencies ranging from < 1 x 10(-9) to 2 x 10(-5) per donor CFU, depending on the donor strain and the growth conditions. Hybridization studies indicate that these transposons are closely related to Tn916. We have identified bands of ca. 19 kb on agarose gel separations of alkaline lysis preparations from E. faecalis strains containing chromosomal copies of Tn5381, which we have confirmed to be a circularized form of this transposon. This phenomenon has previously been observed only when Tn916 has been cloned in Escherichia coli. Overnight growth of donor strains in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of tetracycline results in an approximately 10-fold increase in transfer frequency of Tn5381 into enterococcal recipients and an increase in the amount of the circular form of Tn5381 as detectable by hybridization. These results suggest that Tn5381 is a Tn916-related conjugative transposon for which the appearance of a circular form and the conjugative-transfer frequency are regulated by a mechanism(s) affected by the presence of tetracycline in the growth medium. Images PMID:1331026

  8. Evaluation of the presence of Enterococcus Faecalis in root cementum: A confocal laser scanning microscope analysis

    PubMed Central

    Halkai, Rahul; Hegde, Mithra N; Halkai, Kiran

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to address the cause of persistent infection of root cementum by Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: A sample of 60 human single-rooted teeth were divided into three groups. Group I (control group) had no access opening and one-third of the apical root cementum was sealed using varnish. Group II had no preparation of teeth samples. In group III, apical root cementum was exposed to organic acid and roughened using diamond point to mimic apical resorption. After access opening in groups II and III, all teeth samples were sterilized using gamma irradiation (25 kGy). E. faecalis broth was placed in the root canal and apical one-third of the tooth was immersed in the broth for 8 weeks with alternate day refreshment followed by biomechanical preparation, obturation and coronal seal. Apical one-third of all teeth samples were again immersed in the broth for 8 weeks with alternate day refreshment to mimic secondary infection. The samples were observed under a confocal microscope after splitting the teeth into two halves. Results: E. faecalis penetrated 160 μm deep into the root cementum in group III samples and only showed adhesion in group II samples. Conclusion: Penetration and survival of E. faecalis deep inside the cementum in extreme conditions could be the reason for persistent infection. PMID:24778505

  9. Eradication of Intracanal Enterococcus Faecalis Biofilm by Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation and RinsEndo System

    PubMed Central

    Toljan, Ivana; Bago, Ivona; Anić, Ivica

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of the study was to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of three irrigation techniques after the use of standardized volume of NaOCl and with standardized time and irrigation. Methodology Forty-eight single rooted teeth were inoculated with an Enterococcus faecalis suspension for 24 h. The remaining six canals served as negative controls. The 36 root canals were randomly distributed into three experimental groups; group 1, conventional syringe irrigation; group 2, automated-dynamic irrigation (RinsEndo); group 3, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI). In the first protocol, the standardized volume of 3% NaOCl (20 mL) was used and in the second protocol, and standardized irrigation time (45 seconds) was used. Samples from root canals were cultured and the colony-forming units (CFUs) were counted. Results When the volume of the irrigant was standardized, RinsEndo was more effective than PUI (p<0.01). When the irrigation time was standardized, there were no significant differences between any irrigation techniques (p>0.05). The RinsEndo group had the highest percentage of minimal counts of E. faecalis CFUs. Conclusions RinsEndo was more effective than PUI only when the volume of the irrigant was standardized. However, the RinsEndo provided higher bacterial reduction in both protocols when using the least amount of the irrigant and providing longer contact time. PMID:27688422

  10. Persistence of vanA-type Enterococcus faecium in Korean livestock after ban on avoparcin.

    PubMed

    Lim, Suk-Kyung; Kim, Tae-Soon; Lee, Hee-Soo; Nam, Hyang-Mi; Joo, Yi-Seok; Koh, Hong-Bum

    2006-01-01

    Prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) was investigated in Korean livestock 4 years after the ban of avoparcin in feed additives. VRE were isolated from approximately 16.7% of the chicken samples (57 strains from 342 meat samples) and 1.9% of the pig samples (4 from 214 fecal samples). No VRE, however, was isolated from 110 bovine fecal samples. All the 61 VRE isolates were vanA-type Enterococcus faecium expressing a high-level resistance to vancomycin, and showed resistance to teicoplanin as well except two poultry isolates. In addition, the VRE isolates had heterogeneous pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of SmaI-digested DNA, although identical or closely related profiles were observed among strains isolated from the same farm. Although the chicken isolates were all poultry type with G at position 8,234 of the vanX gene, the pig isolates were all swine type with T at position 8,234 of the vanX gene. PMID:16922630

  11. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. isolated from environmental samples in an area of intensive poultry production.

    PubMed

    Furtula, Vesna; Jackson, Charlene R; Farrell, Erin Gwenn; Barrett, John B; Hiott, Lari M; Chambers, Patricia A

    2013-03-01

    Enterococcus spp. from two poultry farms and proximate surface and ground water sites in an area of intensive poultry production were tested for resistance to 16 clinical antibiotics. Resistance patterns were compared to assess trends and possible correlations for specific antimicrobials and levels of resistance. Enterococci were detected at all 12 surface water sites and three of 28 ground water sites. Resistance to lincomycin, tetracycline, penicillin and ciprofloxacin in poultry litter isolates was high (80.3%, 65.3%, 61.1% and 49.6%, respectively). Resistance in the surface water to the same antibiotics was 87.1%, 24.1%, 7.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Overall, 86% of litter isolates, 58% of surface water isolates and 100% of ground water isolates were resistant to more than one antibiotic. Fifty-four different resistance patterns were recognised in isolates obtained from litter and environmental samples and several E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates from litter and environment samples shared the same resistance pattern. Multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) indices calculated to assess health risks due to the presence of resistant enterococci suggested an increased presence of antibiotics in surface water, likely from poultry sources as no other wastewater contributions in the area were documented. PMID:23481592

  12. A Conserved Hydrolase Responsible for the Cleavage of Aminoacylphosphatidylglycerol in the Membrane of Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Angela M.; Harrison, Jesse S.; Sprague, Kevin M.; Roy, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Aminoacylphosphatidylglycerol synthases (aaPGSs) are enzymes that transfer amino acids from aminoacyl-tRNAs (aa-tRNAs) to phosphatidylglycerol (PG) to form aa-PG in the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria. aa-PGs provide bacteria with resistance to a range of antimicrobial compounds and stress conditions. Enterococcus faecium encodes a triple-specific aaPGS (RakPGS) that utilizes arginine, alanine, and lysine as substrates. Here we identify a novel hydrolase (AhyD), encoded immediately adjacent to rakPGS in E. faecium, which is responsible for the hydrolysis of aa-PG. The genetic synteny of aaPGS and ahyD is conserved in >60 different bacterial species. Deletion of ahyD in E. faecium resulted in increased formation of Ala-PG and Lys-PG and increased sensitivity to bacitracin. Our results suggest that AhyD and RakPGS act together to maintain optimal levels of aa-PG in the bacterial membrane to confer resistance to certain antimicrobial compounds and stress conditions. PMID:23793054

  13. A LacI-Family Regulator Activates Maltodextrin Metabolism of Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinglin; Rogers, Malbert; Bierschenk, Damien; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Willems, Rob J. L.; van Schaik, Willem

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium is a gut commensal of humans and animals. In the intestinal tract, E. faecium will have access to a wide variety of carbohydrates, including maltodextrins and maltose, which are the sugars that result from the enzymatic digestion of starch by host-derived and microbial amylases. In this study, we identified the genetic determinants for maltodextrin utilization of E. faecium E1162. We generated a deletion mutant of the mdxABCD-pulA gene cluster that is homologous to maltodextrin uptake genes in other Gram-positive bacteria, and a deletion mutant of the mdxR gene, which is predicted to encode a LacI family regulator of mdxABCD-pulA. Both mutations impaired growth on maltodextrins but had no effect on the growth on maltose and glucose. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed that eight genes (including mdxABCD-pulA) were expressed at significantly lower levels in the isogenic ΔmdxR mutant strain compared to the parental strain when grown on maltose. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR confirmed the results of transcriptome analysis and showed that the transcription of a putative maltose utilization gene cluster is induced in a semi-defined medium supplemented with maltose but is not regulated by MdxR. Understanding the maltodextrin metabolism of E. faecium could yield novel insights into the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the gut commensal lifestyle of E. faecium. PMID:23951303

  14. Heat-Killed Enterococcus faecalis EF-2001 Ameliorates Atopic Dermatitis in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun-Ju; Iwasa, Masahiro; Han, Kwon-Il; Kim, Wan-Jae; Tang, Yujiao; Hwang, Young Joung; Chae, Jeong Ryong; Han, Weon Cheol; Shin, Yu-Su; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have shown the immunomodulatory effect of heat-killed lactic acid bacteria. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an allergic skin disease, caused by immune dysregulation among other factors. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of heat-killed Enterococcus faecalis EF-2001 (EF-2001) on AD. We established an in vivo AD model by repeated local exposure of Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE; house dust mite extract) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to the ears of mice. After oral administration of EF-2001 for four weeks, the epidermal and dermal ear thickness, mast cell infiltration, and serum immunoglobulin levels were measured. In addition, the gene expression levels of pathogenic cytokines in the ears, lymph nodes, and splenocytes were assayed. EF-2001 attenuated AD symptoms based on the ear thickness, histopathological analysis, and serum immunoglobulin levels. Moreover, EF-2001 decreased the DFE/DNCB-induced expression of various pathogenic cytokines in the ears, lymph nodes, and splenocytes. These results suggest that EF-2001 has therapeutic potential in the treatment of AD owing to its immunomodulatory effects. PMID:26959058

  15. Increased Enterococcus faecalis infection is associated with clinically active Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Youlian; Chen, Huiting; He, Hanchang; Du, Yanlei; Hu, Jiaqi; Li, Yingfei; Li, Yuyuan; Zhou, Yongjian; Wang, Hong; Chen, Ye; Nie, Yuqiang

    2016-09-01

    This study was performed to investigate the relationship between the abundance of pathogenic gut microbes in Chinese patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and disease severity.We collected clinical data and fecal samples from 47 therapy-naive Chinese patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 67 patients with Crohn disease (CD), and 48 healthy volunteers. Bacteria levels of Fusobacterium species (spp), enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (B fragilis), enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (E coli), and Enterococcus faecalis (E faecalis) were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated to test associations between bacterial content and clinical parameters.Compared to healthy controls, the levels of both Fusobacterium spp and E faecalis were significantly increased in the feces of patients with IBD (P < 0.01). B fragilis levels were higher (P < 0.05) and E faecalis levels lower (P < 0.05) in patients with CD compared to those with UC. Increased E faecalis colonization in CD associated positively with disease activity (P = 0.015), Crohn disease activity index (CDAI; R = 0.3118, P = 0.0108), and fecal calprotectin (P = 0.016).E faecalis and Fusobacterium spp are significantly enriched in patients with IBD, and increased E faecalis infection is associated with clinically active CD. PMID:27684872

  16. Sodium chloride and potassium sorbate: a synergistic combination against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    van der Waal, Suzette V; Jiang, Lei-Meng; de Soet, Johannes J; van der Sluis, Lucas W M; Wesselink, Paul R; Crielaard, Wim

    2012-10-01

    Incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is a major cause of post-treatment disease. This study aimed to investigate the disinfecting property of organic acid salts and sodium chloride (NaCl), in a double-hurdle strategy, on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. First of all, the high-throughput resazurin metabolism assay (RMA) was used to test a range of organic acid salts. Then, to gain more insight into the efficacy of sorbate salt solutions, 48-h E. faecalis biofilms were evaluated in colony-forming unit (CFU) assays. Chlorhexidine (CHX) and calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)(2) ] were tested in parallel as controls. Sorbate salt produced the largest and most significant reduction of fluorescence intensity in the RMA assay. Neither NaCl nor potassium sorbate (KS) alone induced a clinically relevant reduction of CFU counts after 1 h. Surprisingly, the combination of the two in a single solution had a synergistic effect on the inactivation of E. faecalis. Potassium sorbate amplified the efficacy of NaCl. Of the salts tested, NaCl with KS eradicated E. faecalis biofilms within 1 h. This study showed that the double-hurdle strategy indeed leads to synergistic efficacy and is a possible next step in the complete disinfection of endodontic infections. PMID:22985004

  17. Proteolytic activity of Enterococcus faecalis VB63F for reduction of allergenicity of bovine milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Biscola, V; Tulini, F L; Choiset, Y; Rabesona, H; Ivanova, I; Chobert, J-M; Todorov, S D; Haertlé, T; Franco, B D G M

    2016-07-01

    With the aim of screening proteolytic strains of lactic acid bacteria to evaluate their potential for the reduction of allergenicity of the major bovine milk proteins, we isolated a new proteolytic strain of Enterococcus faecalis (Ent. faecalis VB63F) from raw bovine milk. The proteases produced by this strain had strong activity against caseins (αS1-, αS2-, and β-casein), in both skim milk and sodium caseinate. However, only partial hydrolysis of whey proteins was observed. Proteolysis of Na-caseinate and whey proteins, observed after sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE, was confirmed by analysis of peptide profiles by reversed-phase HPLC. Inhibition of proteolysis with EDTA indicated that the proteases produced by Ent. faecalis VB63F belonged to the group of metalloproteases. The optimal conditions for their activity were 42°C and pH 6.5. The majority of assessed virulence genes were absent in Ent. faecalis VB63F. The obtained results suggest that Ent. faecalis VB63F could be efficient in reducing the immunoreactivity of bovine milk proteins. PMID:27179865

  18. Genetic analysis of faropenem-resistant Enterococcus faecalis in urinary isolates.

    PubMed

    Hiraga, Noriyuki; Muratani, Tetsuro; Naito, Seiji; Matsumoto, Tetsuro

    2008-04-01

    We isolated faropenem-resistant Enterococcus faecalis in urine specimens and studied the mechanisms of resistance to faropenem in these isolates. Three mechanisms of penicillin resistance have been reported in E. faecalis; (1) beta-lactamase production, (2) overproduction of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 4 or PBP5, and (3) decreasing affinities of penicillins for PBP4 by the occurrence of point mutations of the penicillin-binding domain. None of the E. faecalis isolates examined produced beta-lactamase or overproduced any PBPs, but the affinities of faropenem for PBP4 were decreased in faropenem-insensitive and -resistant strains. We found single amino acid substitutions at positions 475, 520 or 605 in PBP4 in the insensitive strains and two amino acid substitutions at positions 520 and 605 in PBP4 in the resistant strains by sequencing the entire pbp4 gene from each isolate. We conclude that development of resistance to faropenem in E. faecalis is due to decreasing affinities for PBP4 that are the result of the occurrence of one or two point mutations. PMID:18503200

  19. Vitality of Enterococcus faecalis inside dentinal tubules after five root canal disinfection methods

    PubMed Central

    Vatkar, Niranjan Ashok; Hegde, Vivek; Sathe, Sucheta

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare the vitality of Enterococcus faecalis within dentinal tubules after subjected to five root canal disinfection methods. Materials and Methods: Dentin blocks (n = 60) were colonized with E. faecalis. After 4 weeks of incubation, the dentin blocks were divided into one control and five test groups (n = 10 each). The root canals of test groups were subjected to one of the disinfection methods, namely, normal saline (NS), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd: YAG) laser, and diode laser. The effect of disinfection methods was assessed by LIVE/DEAD BacLight stain under the confocal laser scanning microscopy to determine the “zone of dead bacteria” (ZDB). Mean values were calculated for ZDB and the difference between groups was established. Results: Penetration of E. faecalis was seen to a depth of >1000 μm. Viable bacteria were detected with NS irrigation. NaOCl and CHX showed partial ZDB. When the root canals were disinfected with Nd: YAG and diode lasers, no viable bacteria were found. Conclusion: E. faecalis has the ability to colonize inside dentinal tubules to a depth of >1000 μm. In contrast to conventional irrigants, both Nd: YAG and diode lasers were effective in eliminating the vitality of E. faecalis. NS, NaOCl, and CHX showed viable bacteria remaining in dentinal tubules.

  20. Antimicrobial Activity of Calcium Hydroxide and Betamethasone on Enterococcus faecalis; An in vitro Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizizadeh, Mahdi; Rasti, Mojtaba; Ayatollahi, Fatemeh; Mossadegh, Mohammad Hossein; Zandi, Hengameh; Dehghan, Farzad; Mousavi, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Calcium hydroxide (CH) is one of the most common intracanal medications. Corticosteroids (CS) are used in endodontics because of their anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of CH+betamethasone and CH+saline against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) using agar diffusion test and measuring the microbial zone of inhibition (ZOI). Methods and Materials: Four plates containing Mueller-Hinton broth and E. faecalis culture media, were prepared. In each plate, 5 holes (5×3 mm) were created and a creamy mixture of CH+betamethasone was inserted into the holes (10 holes for each material). Two holes with ampicillin disks and two empty holes were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Plates were incubated for 24 h and then the diameter of microbial ZOI was measured. The pH of each mixture was measured by pH meter. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: The mean diameter of ZOI for CH+betamethasone and CH+saline was 3.4 and 3 mm, respectively. The difference was not significant (P=0.143). The pH was 12.5 for CH+saline and 12.3 CH+betamethasone, respectively. Conclusion: The mixture of CH+betamethasone had good antimicrobial effects against E. faecalis. Further studies are needed to confirm the value of this mixture in clinical settings. PMID:26213541

  1. Inhibitory Effect of Enterococcus faecium WB2000 on Volatile Sulfur Compound Production by Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Takuya; Nakajima, Masato; Fujimoto, Akie; Hanioka, Takashi; Hirofuji, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) produced by oral anaerobes are the major compounds responsible for oral malodor. Enterococcus faecium WB2000 is recognized as an antiplaque probiotic bacterium. In this study, the effect of E. faecium WB2000 on VSC production by Porphyromonas gingivalis was evaluated, and the mechanism of inhibition of oral malodor was investigated. P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 was cultured in the presence of four lactic acid bacteria, including E. faecium WB2000. Subsequently, P. gingivalis ATCC 33277, W50, W83, and two clinical isolates were cultured in the presence or absence of E. faecium WB2000, and the emission of VSCs from spent culture medium was measured by gas chromatography. The number of P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 in mixed culture with E. faecium WB2000 decreased at 6 h, and the rate of decrease was higher than that in mixed cultures with the other lactic acid bacteria. The numbers of five P. gingivalis strains decreased at similar rates in mixed culture with E. faecium WB2000. The concentration of methyl mercaptan was lower in spent culture medium from P. gingivalis and E. faecium WB2000 cultures compared with that from P. gingivalis alone. Therefore, E. faecium WB2000 may reduce oral malodor by inhibiting the growth of P. gingivalis and neutralizing methyl mercaptan. PMID:27799940

  2. Enterococcus faecalis 6-Phosphogluconolactonase Is Required for Both Commensal and Pathogenic Interactions with Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Jonathan F.; Frank, Kristi L.; Du, Jing; Guan, Changhui; Handelsman, Jo

    2014-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a commensal and pathogen of humans and insects. In Manduca sexta, E. faecalis is an infrequent member of the commensal gut community, but its translocation to the hemocoel results in a commensal-to-pathogen switch. To investigate E. faecalis factors required for commensalism, we identified E. faecalis genes that are upregulated in the gut of M. sexta using recombinase-based in vivo expression technology (RIVET). The RIVET screen produced 113 clones, from which we identified 50 genes that are more highly expressed in the insect gut than in culture. The most frequently recovered gene was locus OG1RF_11582, which encodes a 6-phosphogluconolactonase that we designated pglA. A pglA deletion mutant was impaired in both pathogenesis and gut persistence in M. sexta and produced enhanced biofilms compared with the wild type in an in vitro polystyrene plate assay. Mutation of four other genes identified by RIVET did not affect persistence in caterpillar guts but led to impaired pathogenesis. This is the first identification of genetic determinants for E. faecalis commensal and pathogenic interactions with M. sexta. Bacterial factors identified in this model system may provide insight into colonization or persistence in other host-associated microbial communities and represent potential targets for interventions to prevent E. faecalis infections. PMID:25385794

  3. Prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis in saliva and filled root canals of teeth associated with apical periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Cheng-Fei; Chu, Chun-Hung; Zhu, Xiao-Fei

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis in saliva and filled root canals of patients requiring endodontic retreatment for apical periodontitis. Patients with apical periodontitis who were referred for endodontic retreatment were examined. The type and quality of the restoration, symptoms, quality of obturation were recorded. During retreatment, an oral rinse sample and root canal sample were cultured using brain-heart infusion agar and bile esculinazide agar to select for E. faecalis. The 16S rRNA technique was used to identify E. faecalis. A total of 32 women and 22 men (mean age: 38 years; s.d.: 11 years) and 58 teeth were studied. The prevalence of E. faecalis was 19% in the saliva and 38% in the root canals. The odds that root canals harbored E. faecalis were increased if the saliva habored this bacterium (odds ratio=9.7; 95% confidence interval=1.8–51.6; P<0.05). Teeth with unsatisfactory root obturation had more cultivable bacterial species in root canals than teeth with satisfactory root obturation (P<0.05). E. faecalis is more common in root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis than in saliva. The prevalence of E. faecalis in root canals is associated with the presence of E. faecalis in saliva. PMID:22422085

  4. Identification and Characterization of Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus species Frequently Isolated from Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Hitoki; Takagi, Toshikazu; Ohsawa, Makiko; Yamamoto, Naoto; Kubo, Noriaki; Takemoto, Takahira; Sasano, Shoko; Masuyama, Ritsuko; Ohsawa, Kazutaka

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of drug resistant bacteria colonizing laboratory mice, we isolated and characterized vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus species (VRE) from commercially available mice. A total of 24 VRE isolates were obtained from 19 of 21 mouse strains supplied by 4 commercial breeding companies. Of these, 19 isolates of E. gallinarum and 5 isolates of E. casseliflavus possessing the vanC1 and vanC2/3 genes intrinsically, exhibited intermediate resistance to vancomycin respectively. In addition, these isolates also exhibited diverse resistant patterns to erythromycin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin, whereas the use of antibiotics had not been undertaken in mouse strains tested in this study. Although 6 virulence-associated genes (ace, asa, cylA, efaA, esp, and gelE) and secretion of gelatinase and hemolysin were not detected in all isolates, 23 of 24 isolates including the isolates of E. casselifalvus secreted ATP into culture supernatants. Since secretion of ATP by bacteria resident in the intestinal tract modulates the local immune responses, the prevalence of ATP-secreting VRE in mice therefore needs to be considered in animal experiments that alter the gut microflora by use of antibiotics. PMID:25077759

  5. Overexpression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase from Enterococcus faecalis

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Ji Yong; Lee, Hyung Ho; Yoon, Hye Jin; Kim, Hyoun Sook; Suh, Se Won

    2006-11-01

    Phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase from En. faecalis was crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.70 Å resolution. Phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase, an essential enzyme in the coenzyme A biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes the reversible transfer of an adenylyl group from ATP to 4′-phosphopantetheine, yielding 3′-dephospho-CoA and pyrophosphate. Enterococcus faecalis PPAT has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion with a C-terminal purification tag and crystallized at 297 K using a reservoir solution consisting of 0.1 M sodium HEPES pH 7.5, 0.8 M sodium dihydrogen phosphate and 0.8 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.70 Å at 100 K. The crystals belong to the primitive tetragonal space group P4{sub 1} (or P4{sub 3}), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 160.81, c = 225.68 Å. Four copies of the hexameric molecule are likely to be present in the asymmetric unit, giving a crystal volume per protein weight (V{sub M}) of 3.08 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 60.1%.

  6. Bactericial effect of a non-thermal plasma needle against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chunqi; Schaudinn, C.; Jaramillo, D. E.; Sedghizadeh, P. P.; Webster, P.; Costerton, J. W.

    2011-10-01

    Up to 3 cm long submillimeter-in-scale plasma needle was generated in ambient atmosphere for root canal disinfection. Powered with 1-2 kHz, multi-kilovolt nanosecond electric pulses, this He/(1%)O2 plasma jet consists of ionization fronts propagating at speeds of the order of 107 cm/s. Plasma treatment of Enterococcus faecalis biofilms on hydroxyapatite (HA) discs for 5 min resulted in severe damage of the bacterial cells and sterilized HA surfaces of more than 3 mm in diameter, observed by the scanning electron microscopy. With a curing dielectric microtube placed 1 cm or less below the nozzle, the plasma jet entered even at a sharp angle and followed the curvature of the tube, and reached the bottom of the tube. The bactericidal effect of the plasma needle against E. faecalis biofilm grown on the inner surfaces of the tube was demonstrated. However, the bactericidal effect weakens or diminishes for the bacteria grown deeper in the tube, indicating improvement of the plasma treatment scheme is needed. Mechanisms of the plasma bactericidal effects are discussed. Supported by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  7. Biological changes of Enterococcus faecalis in the viable but nonculturable state.

    PubMed

    E, J; Jiang, Y T; Yan, P F; Liang, J P

    2015-11-23

    Enterococcus faecalis may enter a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state under adverse conditions. E. faecalis, the major bacterial species present in failed root canal treatments, is thought to survive after endodontic treatment by entering a VBNC state. In this study, we characterized the VBNC state of E. faecalis. We designed 3 different protocols to successfully induce the VBNC state. Approximately one-third of bacteria entered a VBNC state after 15-30 days, and all remained viable for at least 2 months. The morphology, glycometabolism, and adhesion capabilities of VBNC cells differed from those of E. faecalis during the exponential growth phase. Specifically, VBNC E. faecalis cells could not decompose lactose, D-mannitol, or D-sorbitol, although they were able to metabolize sucrose. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the morphology of the VBNC E. faecalis cells changed significantly; the cytoplasmic matrix was unevenly condensed and the overall morphology of the cells became irregular, but the cell membranes remained intact. Although the adhesion ability of the bacteria decreased, VBNC E. faecalis could still adhere to collagen fiber type I and tooth dentine. The persistence of this adhesion ability may be important in the virulence of VBNC E. faecalis.

  8. Enterococcus faecalis zinc-responsive proteins mediate bacterial defence against zinc overload, lysozyme and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Abrantes, Marta C; Kok, Jan; Silva Lopes, Maria de Fátima

    2014-12-01

    Two Enterococcus faecalis genes encoding the P-type ATPase EF1400 and the putative SapB protein EF0759 were previously shown to be strongly upregulated in the presence of high concentrations of zinc. In the present work, we showed that a Zn(2+)-responsive DNA-binding motif (zim) is present in the promoter regions of these genes. Both proteins were further studied with respect to their involvement in zinc homeostasis and invasion of the host. EF0759 contributed to intramacrophage survival by an as-yet unknown mechanism(s). EF1400, here renamed ZntAEf, is an ATPase with specificity for zinc and plays a role in dealing with several host defences, i.e. zinc overload, oxidative stress and lysozyme; it provides E. faecalis cells with the ability to survive inside macrophages. As these three host defence mechanisms are important at several sites in the host, i.e. inside macrophages and in saliva, this work suggested that ZntAEf constitutes a crucial E. faecalis defence mechanism that is likely to contribute to the ability of this bacterium to endure life inside its host.

  9. Inorganic Cation Transport and Energy Transduction in Enterococcus hirae and Other Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Kakinuma, Yoshimi

    1998-01-01

    Energy metabolism by bacteria is well understood from the chemiosmotic viewpoint. We know that bacteria extrude protons across the plasma membrane, establishing an electrochemical potential that provides the driving force for various kinds of physiological work. Among these are the uptake of sugars, amino acids, and other nutrients with the aid of secondary porters and the regulation of the cytoplasmic pH and of the cytoplasmic concentration of potassium and other ions. Bacteria live in diverse habitats and are often exposed to severe conditions. In some circumstances, a proton circulation cannot satisfy their requirements and must be supplemented with a complement of primary transport systems. This review is concerned with cation transport in the fermentative streptococci, particularly Enterococcus hirae. Streptococci lack respiratory chains, relying on glycolysis or arginine fermentation for the production of ATP. One of the major findings with E. hirae and other streptococci is that ATP plays a much more important role in transmembrane transport than it does in nonfermentative organisms, probably due to the inability of this organism to generate a large proton potential. The movements of cations in streptococci illustrate the interplay between a variety of primary and secondary modes of transport. PMID:9841664

  10. The Prophylactic Effect of Probiotic Enterococcus lactis IW5 against Different Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nami, Yousef; Haghshenas, Babak; Haghshenas, Minoo; Abdullah, Norhafizah; Yari Khosroushahi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus lactis IW5 was obtained from human gut and the potential probiotic characteristics of this organism were then evaluated. Results showed that this strain was highly resistant to low pH and high bile salt and adhered strongly to Caco-2 human epithelial colorectal cell lines. The supernatant of E. lactis IW5 strongly inhibited the growth of several pathogenic bacteria and decreased the viability of different cancer cells, such as HeLa, MCF-7, AGS, HT-29, and Caco-2. Conversely, E. lactis IW5 did not inhibit the viability of normal FHs-74 cells. This strain did not generate toxic enzymes, including β-glucosidase, β-glucuronidase, and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase and was highly susceptible to ampicillin, gentamycin, penicillin, vancomycin, clindamycin, sulfamethoxazol, and chloramphenicol but resistant to erythromycin and tetracyclin. This study provided evidence for the effect of E. lactis IW5 on cancer cells. Therefore, E. lactis IW5, as a bioactive therapeutics, should be subjected to other relevant tests to verify the therapeutic suitability of this strain for clinical applications. PMID:26635778

  11. Pheromone killing of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecalis V583 by native commensal strains

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Michael S.; Rauch, Marcus; Ramsey, Matthew M.; Himes, Paul R.; Varahan, Sriram; Manson, Janet M.; Lebreton, Francois; Hancock, Lynn Ernest

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecalis possess numerous mobile elements that encode virulence and antibiotic resistance traits as well as new metabolic pathways, often constituting over one-quarter of the genome. It was of interest to determine how this large accretion of mobile elements affects competitive growth in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract consortium. We unexpectedly observed that the prototype clinical isolate strain V583 was actively killed by GI tract flora, whereas commensal enterococci flourished. It was found that killing of V583 resulted from lethal cross-talk between accumulated mobile elements and that this cross-talk was induced by a heptapeptide pheromone produced by native E. faecalis present in the fecal consortium. These results highlight two important aspects of the evolution of multidrug-resistant enterococci: (i) the accretion of mobile elements in E. faecalis V583 renders it incompatible with commensal strains, and (ii) because of this incompatibility, multidrug-resistant strains sharing features found in V583 cannot coexist with commensal strains. The accumulation of mobile elements in hospital isolates of enterococci can include those that are inherently incompatible with native flora, highlighting the importance of maintaining commensal populations as means of preventing colonization and subsequent infection by multidrug-resistant strains. PMID:26039987

  12. Genome-based characterization of hospital-adapted Enterococcus faecalis lineages

    PubMed Central

    Raven, Kathy E.; Reuter, Sandra; Gouliouris, Theodore; Reynolds, Rosy; Russell, Julie E.; Brown, Nicholas M.; Török, M. Estée; Parkhill, Julian; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2016-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VREfs) is an important nosocomial pathogen1,2. We undertook whole genome sequencing of E. faecalis associated with bloodstream infection in the UK and Ireland over more than a decade to determine the population structure and genetic associations with hospital adaptation. Three lineages predominated in the population, two of which (L1 and L2) were nationally distributed, and one (L3) geographically restricted. Genome comparison with a global collection identified that L1 and L3 were also present in the USA, but were genetically distinct. Over 90% of VREfs belonged to L1–L3, with resistance acquired and lost multiple times in L1 and L2, but only once followed by clonal expansion in L3. Putative virulence and antibiotic resistance genes were over-represented in L1, L2 and L3 isolates combined, versus the remainder. Each of the three main lineages contained a mixture of vancomycin-resistant and -susceptible E. faecalis (VSEfs), which has important implications for infection control and antibiotic stewardship. PMID:27213049

  13. Eradication of Intracanal Enterococcus Faecalis Biofilm by Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation and RinsEndo System

    PubMed Central

    Toljan, Ivana; Bago, Ivona; Anić, Ivica

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of the study was to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of three irrigation techniques after the use of standardized volume of NaOCl and with standardized time and irrigation. Methodology Forty-eight single rooted teeth were inoculated with an Enterococcus faecalis suspension for 24 h. The remaining six canals served as negative controls. The 36 root canals were randomly distributed into three experimental groups; group 1, conventional syringe irrigation; group 2, automated-dynamic irrigation (RinsEndo); group 3, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI). In the first protocol, the standardized volume of 3% NaOCl (20 mL) was used and in the second protocol, and standardized irrigation time (45 seconds) was used. Samples from root canals were cultured and the colony-forming units (CFUs) were counted. Results When the volume of the irrigant was standardized, RinsEndo was more effective than PUI (p<0.01). When the irrigation time was standardized, there were no significant differences between any irrigation techniques (p>0.05). The RinsEndo group had the highest percentage of minimal counts of E. faecalis CFUs. Conclusions RinsEndo was more effective than PUI only when the volume of the irrigant was standardized. However, the RinsEndo provided higher bacterial reduction in both protocols when using the least amount of the irrigant and providing longer contact time.

  14. Aerobic conditions increase isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway gene expression levels for carotenoid production in Enterococcus gilvus.

    PubMed

    Hagi, Tatsuro; Kobayashi, Miho; Nomura, Masaru

    2015-06-01

    Some lactic acid bacteria that harbour carotenoid biosynthesis genes (crtNM) can produce carotenoids. Although aerobic conditions can increase carotenoid production and crtNM expression levels, their effects on the pathways that synthesize carotenoid precursors such as mevalonate and isoprene are not completely understood. In this study, we investigated whether aerobic conditions affected gene expression levels involved in the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway that includes the mevalonate and isoprene biosynthesis pathways in Enterococcus gilvus using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. NADH oxidase (nox) and superoxide dismutase (sod) gene expression levels were investigated as controls for aerobic conditions. The expression levels of nox and sod under aerobic conditions were 7.2- and 8.0-fold higher, respectively, than those under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic conditions concomitantly increased the expression levels of crtNM carotenoid biosynthesis genes. HMG-CoA synthase gene expression levels in the mevalonate pathway were only slightly increased under aerobic conditions, whereas the expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase and five other genes in the isoprene biosynthesis pathways were 1.2-2.3-fold higher than those under anaerobic conditions. These results demonstrated that aerobic conditions could increase the expression levels of genes involved in the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway via mevalonate in E. gilvus.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance, virulence determinants and genetic profiles of clinical and nonclinical Enterococcus cecorum from poultry.

    PubMed

    Jackson, C R; Kariyawasam, S; Borst, L B; Frye, J G; Barrett, J B; Hiott, L M; Woodley, T A

    2015-02-01

    Enterococcus cecorum has been implicated as a possible cause of disease in poultry. However, the characteristics that contribute to pathogenesis of Ent. cecorum in poultry have not been defined. In this study, Ent. cecorum from carcass rinsates (n = 75) and diseased broilers and broiler breeders (n = 30) were compared based upon antimicrobial resistance phenotype, the presence of virulence determinants and genetic relatedness using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Of the 16 antimicrobials tested, Ent. cecorum from carcass rinsates and clinical cases were resistant to ten and six of the antimicrobials, respectively. The majority of Ent. cecorum from carcass rinsates was resistant to lincomycin (54/75; 72%) and tetracycline (46/75; 61.3%) while the highest level of resistance among clinical Ent. cecorum was to tetracycline (22/30; 73.3%) and erythromycin (11/30; 36.7%). Multidrug resistance (resistance to ≥2 antimicrobials) was identified in Ent. cecorum from carcass rinsates (53/75; 70.7%) and diseased poultry (18/30; 60%). Of the virulence determinants tested, efaAfm was present in almost all of the isolates (104/105; 99%). Using PFGE, the majority of clinical isolates clustered together; however, a few clinical isolates grouped with Ent. cecorum from carcass rinsates. These data suggest that distinguishing the two groups of isolates is difficult based upon the characterization criteria used.

  16. Cluster of linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecium ST117 in Norwegian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Hegstad, Kristin; Longva, Jørn-Åge; Hide, Reidar; Aasnæs, Bettina; Lunde, Tracy M; Simonsen, Gunnar Skov

    2014-10-01

    A linezolid-resistant, vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecium strain was isolated from 3 patients who had not received linezolid. The first patient was hospitalized in the same hospitals and wards as the 2 following patients. The E. faecium isolates were resistant to linezolid (minimum inhibitory concentration 8-32 mg/l), ampicillin, and high levels of gentamicin. Resistance to linezolid was associated with a G2576T mutation in 23S rDNA. The cfr linezolid resistance gene was not detected. The 3 isolates showed identical DNA fingerprints by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, belonged to ST117, and harboured virulence genes esp, hyl, acm, efaAfm, srgA, ecbA, scm, pilA, pilB, and pstD typically associated with high-risk E. faecium genotypes. The linezolid-resistant E. faecium high-risk clone caused bacteraemia in the first 2 cancer patients and survived in the hospital environment for more than a year before appearing in the urethral catheter of the third patient.

  17. Characterization of an Enterococcus hirae penicillin-binding protein 3 with low penicillin affinity.

    PubMed

    Piras, G; el Kharroubi, A; van Beeumen, J; Coeme, E; Coyette, J; Ghuysen, J M

    1990-12-01

    Enterococcus hirae S185, a clinical isolate from swine intestine, exhibits a relatively high resistance to penicillin and contains two 77-kDa penicillin-binding proteins 3 of high (PBP 3s) and low (PBP 3r) affinity to penicillin, respectively. A laboratory mutant S185r has been obtained which overproduces PBP 3r and has a highly increased resistance to penicillin. Peptide fragments specifically produced by trypsin and SV8 protease digestions of PBP 3r were isolated, and the amino acid sequences of their amino terminal regions were determined. On the basis of these sequences, oligonucleotides were synthesized and used as primers to generate, by polymerization chain reaction, a 233-bp DNA fragment the sequence of which translated into a 73-amino-acid peptide segment of PBP 3r. These structural data led to the conclusion that the E. hirae PBP 3r and the methicillin-resistant staphylococcal PBP 2' are members of the same class of high-Mr PBPs. As shown by immunological tests, PBP 3r is not related to PBP 3s but, in contrast, is related to the 71-kDa PBP 5 of low penicillin affinity which is responsible for penicillin resistance in E. hirae ATCC 9790 and R40. PMID:2254261

  18. Antimicrobial Resistance in Enterococcus spp. Isolated from Environmental Samples in an Area of Intensive Poultry Production

    PubMed Central

    Furtula, Vesna; Jackson, Charlene R.; Farrell, Erin Gwenn; Barrett, John B.; Hiott, Lari M.; Chambers, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus spp. from two poultry farms and proximate surface and ground water sites in an area of intensive poultry production were tested for resistance to 16 clinical antibiotics. Resistance patterns were compared to assess trends and possible correlations for specific antimicrobials and levels of resistance. Enterococci were detected at all 12 surface water sites and three of 28 ground water sites. Resistance to lincomycin, tetracycline, penicillin and ciprofloxacin in poultry litter isolates was high (80.3%, 65.3%, 61.1% and 49.6%, respectively). Resistance in the surface water to the same antibiotics was 87.1%, 24.1%, 7.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Overall, 86% of litter isolates, 58% of surface water isolates and 100% of ground water isolates were resistant to more than one antibiotic. Fifty-four different resistance patterns were recognised in isolates obtained from litter and environmental samples and several E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates from litter and environment samples shared the same resistance pattern. Multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) indices calculated to assess health risks due to the presence of resistant enterococci suggested an increased presence of antibiotics in surface water, likely from poultry sources as no other wastewater contributions in the area were documented. PMID:23481592

  19. Identification of malic and soluble oxaloacetate decarboxylase enzymes in Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Espariz, Martín; Repizo, Guillermo; Blancato, Víctor; Mortera, Pablo; Alarcón, Sergio; Magni, Christian

    2011-06-01

    Two paralogous genes, maeE and citM, that encode putative malic enzyme family members were identified in the Enterococcus faecalis genome. MaeE (41 kDa) and CitM (42 kDa) share a high degree of homology between them (47% identities and 68% conservative substitutions). However, the genetic context of each gene suggested that maeE is associated with malate utilization whereas citM is linked to the citrate fermentation pathway. In the present work, we focus on the biochemical characterization and physiological contribution of these enzymes in E. faecalis. With this aim, the recombinant versions of the two proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli, affinity purified and finally their kinetic parameters were determined. This approach allowed us to establish that MaeE is a malate oxidative decarboxylating enzyme and CitM is a soluble oxaloacetate decarboxylase. Moreover, our genetic studies in E. faecalis showed that the citrate fermentation phenotype is not affected by citM deletion. On the other hand, maeE gene disruption resulted in a malate fermentation deficient strain indicating that MaeE is responsible for malate metabolism in E. faecalis. Lastly, it was demonstrated that malate fermentation in E. faecalis is associated with cytoplasmic and extracellular alkalinization which clearly contributes to pH homeostasis in neutral or mild acidic conditions. PMID:21518252

  20. Cloning and sequence analysis of the muramidase-2 gene from Enterococcus hirae.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, C P; Kariyama, R; Daneo-Moore, L; Shockman, G D

    1992-01-01

    Extracellular muramidase-2 of Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790 was purified to homogeneity by substrate binding, guanidine-HCl extraction, and reversed-phase chromatography. A monoclonal antibody, 2F8, which specifically recognizes muramidase-2, was used to screen a genomic library of E. hirae ATCC 9790 DNA in bacteriophage lambda gt11. A positive phage clone containing a 4.5-kb DNA insert was isolated and analyzed. The EcoRI-digested 4.5-kb fragment was cut into 2.3-, 1.0-, and 1.5-kb pieces by using restriction enzymes KpnI, Sau3AI, and PstI, and each fragment was subcloned into plasmid pJDC9 or pUC19. The nucleotide sequence of each subclone was determined. The sequence data indicated an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 666 amino acid residues, with a calculated molecular mass of 70,678 Da. The first 24 N-terminal amino acids of purified extracellular muramidase-2 were in very good agreement with the deduced amino acid sequence after a 49-amino-acid putative signal sequence. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence showed the presence at the C-terminal region of the protein of six highly homologous repeat units separated by nonhomologous intervening sequences that are highly enriched in serine and threonine. The overall sequence showed a high degree of homology with a recently cloned Streptococcus faecalis autolysin. Images PMID:1347040

  1. The Intraperitoneal Transcriptome of the Opportunistic Pathogen Enterococcus faecalis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Cécile; Cacaci, Margherita; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Rattei, Thomas; Eder, Thomas; Giard, Jean-Christophe; Kalinowski, Jörn; Hain, Torsten; Hartke, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive lactic acid intestinal opportunistic bacterium with virulence potential. For a better understanding of the adapation of this bacterium to the host conditions, we performed a transcriptome analysis of bacteria isolated from an infection site (mouse peritonitis) by RNA-sequencing. We identified a total of 211 genes with significantly higher transcript levels and 157 repressed genes. Our in vivo gene expression database reflects well the infection process since genes encoding important virulence factors like cytolysin, gelatinase or aggregation substance as well as stress response proteins, are significantly induced. Genes encoding metabolic activities are the second most abundant in vivo induced genes demonstrating that the bacteria are metabolically active and adapt to the special nutrient conditions of the host. α- and β- glucosides seem to be important substrates for E. faecalis inside the host. Compared to laboratory conditions, the flux through the upper part of glycolysis seems to be reduced and more carbon may enter the pentose phosphate pathway. This may reflect the need of the bacteria under infection conditions to produce more reducing power for biosynthesis. Another important substrate is certainly glycerol since both pathways of glycerol catabolism are strongly induced. Strongly in vivo induced genes should be important for the infection process. This assumption has been verified in a virulence test using well characterized mutants affected in glycerol metabolism. This showed indeed that mutants unable to metabolize this sugar alcohol are affected in organ colonisation in a mouse model. PMID:25978463

  2. A LacI-family regulator activates maltodextrin metabolism of Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinglin; Rogers, Malbert; Bierschenk, Damien; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L; van Schaik, Willem

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium is a gut commensal of humans and animals. In the intestinal tract, E. faecium will have access to a wide variety of carbohydrates, including maltodextrins and maltose, which are the sugars that result from the enzymatic digestion of starch by host-derived and microbial amylases. In this study, we identified the genetic determinants for maltodextrin utilization of E. faecium E1162. We generated a deletion mutant of the mdxABCD-pulA gene cluster that is homologous to maltodextrin uptake genes in other Gram-positive bacteria, and a deletion mutant of the mdxR gene, which is predicted to encode a LacI family regulator of mdxABCD-pulA. Both mutations impaired growth on maltodextrins but had no effect on the growth on maltose and glucose. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed that eight genes (including mdxABCD-pulA) were expressed at significantly lower levels in the isogenic ΔmdxR mutant strain compared to the parental strain when grown on maltose. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR confirmed the results of transcriptome analysis and showed that the transcription of a putative maltose utilization gene cluster is induced in a semi-defined medium supplemented with maltose but is not regulated by MdxR. Understanding the maltodextrin metabolism of E. faecium could yield novel insights into the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the gut commensal lifestyle of E. faecium.

  3. Sodium chloride and potassium sorbate: a synergistic combination against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    van der Waal, Suzette V; Jiang, Lei-Meng; de Soet, Johannes J; van der Sluis, Lucas W M; Wesselink, Paul R; Crielaard, Wim

    2012-10-01

    Incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is a major cause of post-treatment disease. This study aimed to investigate the disinfecting property of organic acid salts and sodium chloride (NaCl), in a double-hurdle strategy, on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. First of all, the high-throughput resazurin metabolism assay (RMA) was used to test a range of organic acid salts. Then, to gain more insight into the efficacy of sorbate salt solutions, 48-h E. faecalis biofilms were evaluated in colony-forming unit (CFU) assays. Chlorhexidine (CHX) and calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)(2) ] were tested in parallel as controls. Sorbate salt produced the largest and most significant reduction of fluorescence intensity in the RMA assay. Neither NaCl nor potassium sorbate (KS) alone induced a clinically relevant reduction of CFU counts after 1 h. Surprisingly, the combination of the two in a single solution had a synergistic effect on the inactivation of E. faecalis. Potassium sorbate amplified the efficacy of NaCl. Of the salts tested, NaCl with KS eradicated E. faecalis biofilms within 1 h. This study showed that the double-hurdle strategy indeed leads to synergistic efficacy and is a possible next step in the complete disinfection of endodontic infections.

  4. Antibiotic susceptibility, antibacterial activity and characterisation of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from breast milk

    PubMed Central

    Kıvanç, Sertaç Argun; Kıvanç, Merih; Yiğit, Tülay

    2016-01-01

    Enterococci, which have useful biotechnological applications, produce bacteriocins, including those that exert anti-Listerial activity. The present study aimed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility patterns and antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from human breast milk. The strains were identified using carbohydrate fermentation tests and ribotyping. Subsequently, the antibacterial activity of the isolates was investigated, and the quantities of lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide produced, and the proteolytic activity of E. faecium, were determined. In addition, biofilm formation by E. faecium strains was assessed. E. faecium strains exhibited antimicrobial activity against food-borne and clinical bacterial isolates. Furthermore, following 24 h incubation, the tested strains exhibited resistance to a pH range of 2.0–9.5 and tolerance of bile acid, lysozyme activity and phenol. Supernatants of the E. faecium TM13, TM15, TM17 and TM18 strains were shown to be effective against Listeria monocytogenes, and were also resistant to heat. Further studies are required in order to determine whether certain strains of E. faecium may be used for the development of novel antibacterial agents. PMID:27602088

  5. The Presence and Origin of Enterococcus faecalis in Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachman, A. J.; Sturm, P.; Viqueira Ríos, R.

    2015-12-01

    Currently, a watershed management plan is being developed for Cabo Rojo region in Southwest Puerto Rico. This project fills in major gaps for water quality data on the Rio Viejo, a tributary on the Guanajibio River. The Rio Viejo flows through the town of Cabo Rojo, a town of 51,245 people. The project has identified 5 sites along the river to track bacterial loads. In the tropics, Enterococcus faecalis is an important indicator for fecal contamination in surface waters as it does not reproduce as quickly soils as E. coli. A combination of EPA 1600 and 9230B from Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater for identification of E. faecalis were utilized. The assay is a four step procedure that identifies the four criteria of bacteria in the group D Streptococcus system. The criteria require that the bacteria are Gram-positive cocci and Esculin-positive. There also must be growth in Brain Heart Infusion Broth at 35C and 45C as well as growth in Brain Heart Infusion broth + 6.5% NaCl. Further research will be conducted at North Carolina State University to ascertain the vertebrate species that is the source of the contamination through the use of qPCR.

  6. New Insights into the Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus Host Interaction Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Díaz, Ana María; Romero-Hernández, Beatriz; Conde-Moreno, Elisa; Kwak, Young-Keun; Zamora, Javier; Colque-Navarro, Patricia; Möllby, Roland; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Cantón, Rafael; García-Bermejo, Laura; Del Campo, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus) were classically clustered into the Lancefield Group D streptococci and despite their taxonomic reclassification still share a similar genetic content and environment. Both species are considered as opportunistic pathogens. E. faecium is often associated with nosocomial bacteraemia, and S. gallolyticus is sporadically found in endocarditis of colorectal cancer patients. In both cases, the source of infection is commonly endogenous with a translocation process that launches through the intestinal barrier. To get new insights into the pathological processes preceding infection development of both organisms, we used an in vitro model with Caco-2 cells to study and compare the adhesion, invasion and translocation inherent abilities of 6 E. faecium and 4 S. gallolyticus well-characterized isolates. Additionally, biofilm formation on polystyrene, collagen I and IV was also explored. Overall results showed that E. faecium translocated more efficiently than S. gallolyticus, inducing a destabilization of the intestinal monolayer. Isolates Efm106, Efm121 and Efm113 (p < .001 compared to Ef222) exhibited the higher translocation ability and were able to adhere 2-3 times higher than S. gallolyticus isolates. Both species preferred the collagen IV coated surfaces to form biofilm but the S. gallolyticus structures were more compact (p = .01). These results may support a relationship between biofilm formation and vegetation establishment in S. gallolyticus endocarditis, whereas the high translocation ability of E. faecium high-risk clones might partially explain the increasing number of bacteraemia.

  7. Vitality of Enterococcus faecalis inside dentinal tubules after five root canal disinfection methods

    PubMed Central

    Vatkar, Niranjan Ashok; Hegde, Vivek; Sathe, Sucheta

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare the vitality of Enterococcus faecalis within dentinal tubules after subjected to five root canal disinfection methods. Materials and Methods: Dentin blocks (n = 60) were colonized with E. faecalis. After 4 weeks of incubation, the dentin blocks were divided into one control and five test groups (n = 10 each). The root canals of test groups were subjected to one of the disinfection methods, namely, normal saline (NS), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd: YAG) laser, and diode laser. The effect of disinfection methods was assessed by LIVE/DEAD BacLight stain under the confocal laser scanning microscopy to determine the “zone of dead bacteria” (ZDB). Mean values were calculated for ZDB and the difference between groups was established. Results: Penetration of E. faecalis was seen to a depth of >1000 μm. Viable bacteria were detected with NS irrigation. NaOCl and CHX showed partial ZDB. When the root canals were disinfected with Nd: YAG and diode lasers, no viable bacteria were found. Conclusion: E. faecalis has the ability to colonize inside dentinal tubules to a depth of >1000 μm. In contrast to conventional irrigants, both Nd: YAG and diode lasers were effective in eliminating the vitality of E. faecalis. NS, NaOCl, and CHX showed viable bacteria remaining in dentinal tubules. PMID:27656064

  8. Genetic features and molecular epidemiology of Enterococcus faecium isolated in two university hospitals in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Leila Priscilla Pinheiro; Pitondo-Silva, André; Martinez, Roberto; da Costa Darini, Ana Lúcia

    2012-11-01

    The global emergence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) has been characterized by a clonal spread of strains belonging to clonal complex 17 (CC17). Genetic features and clonal relationships of 53 VREfm isolated from patients in 2 hospitals in Ribeirao Preto, São Paulo, Brazil, during 2005-2010 were determined as a contribution to the Brazilian evolutionary history of these nosocomial pathogens. All isolates were daptomycin susceptible, vancomycin-resistant, and had the vanA gene. The predominant virulence genes were acm and esp. Only 5 VREfm isolated in 2005-2006 had intact Tn1546, while 81% showed Tn1546 with deleted left extremity and insertion of IS1251 between the vanS and vanH genes. Multilocus sequence typing analysis permitted the identification of 9 different sequence types (STs), with 5 being new ones (656, 657, 658, 659, and 660). Predominant STs were ST412 and ST478, all belonging to CC17, except ST658. This is the first report of the ST78 in Brazil. PMID:22959818

  9. Antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus Faecium Fair-E 198 against gram-positive pathogens

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Maristela da Silva; Moreno, Izildinha; Kuaye, Arnaldo Yoshiteru

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study investigated the antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 against Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Using the critical-dilution method, the bacteriocin produced by E. faecium FAIR-E 198 inhibited all L. monocytogenes strains evaluated (1,600 to 19,200 AU mL-1). However, none of the B. cereus and S. aureus strains investigated were inhibited. The maximum activity of this bacteriocin (800 AU mL-1) was observed in MRS broth, while the activity in milk was 100 AU mL-1. In the co-cultivation test in milk, B. cereus K1-B041 was reduced to below the detection limit (1.00 log CFU mL-1) after 48 h. E. faecium reduced the initial L. monocytogenes Scott A population by 1 log CFU mL-1 after 3 h at 35°C, However, the pathogen regained growth, reaching 3.68 log CFU mL-1 after 48 h. E. faecium did not influence the growth of S. aureus ATCC 27154 during the 48 h of co-cultivation, Therefore, it can be concluded that the effectiveness of the antimicrobial activity of E. faecium FAIR-E 198 is strictly related to the species and strain of the target microorganism and to the culture medium, PMID:24031466

  10. New Insights into the Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus Host Interaction Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Hernández, Beatriz; Conde-Moreno, Elisa; Kwak, Young-Keun; Zamora, Javier; Colque-Navarro, Patricia; Möllby, Roland; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Cantón, Rafael; García-Bermejo, Laura; del Campo, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus) were classically clustered into the Lancefield Group D streptococci and despite their taxonomic reclassification still share a similar genetic content and environment. Both species are considered as opportunistic pathogens. E. faecium is often associated with nosocomial bacteraemia, and S. gallolyticus is sporadically found in endocarditis of colorectal cancer patients. In both cases, the source of infection is commonly endogenous with a translocation process that launches through the intestinal barrier. To get new insights into the pathological processes preceding infection development of both organisms, we used an in vitro model with Caco-2 cells to study and compare the adhesion, invasion and translocation inherent abilities of 6 E. faecium and 4 S. gallolyticus well-characterized isolates. Additionally, biofilm formation on polystyrene, collagen I and IV was also explored. Overall results showed that E. faecium translocated more efficiently than S. gallolyticus, inducing a destabilization of the intestinal monolayer. Isolates Efm106, Efm121 and Efm113 (p < .001 compared to Ef222) exhibited the higher translocation ability and were able to adhere 2–3 times higher than S. gallolyticus isolates. Both species preferred the collagen IV coated surfaces to form biofilm but the S. gallolyticus structures were more compact (p = .01). These results may support a relationship between biofilm formation and vegetation establishment in S. gallolyticus endocarditis, whereas the high translocation ability of E. faecium high-risk clones might partially explain the increasing number of bacteraemia. PMID:27463203

  11. Biochemical and Genetic Characterization of the Enterococcus faecalis Oxaloacetate Decarboxylase Complex

    PubMed Central

    Repizo, Guillermo D.; Blancato, Víctor S.; Mortera, Pablo; Lolkema, Juke S.

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis encodes a biotin-dependent oxaloacetate decarboxylase (OAD), which is constituted by four subunits: E. faecalis carboxyltransferase subunit OadA (termed Ef-A), membrane pump Ef-B, biotin acceptor protein Ef-D, and the novel subunit Ef-H. Our results show that in E. faecalis, subunits Ef-A, Ef-D, and Ef-H form a cytoplasmic soluble complex (termed Ef-AHD) which is also associated with the membrane. In order to characterize the role of the novel Ef-H subunit, coexpression of oad genes was performed in Escherichia coli, showing that this subunit is vital for Ef-A and Ef-D interaction. Diminished growth of the oadA and oadD single deletion mutants in citrate-supplemented medium indicated that the activity of the complex is essential for citrate utilization. Remarkably, the oadB-deficient strain was still capable of growing to wild-type levels but with a delay during the citrate-consuming phase, suggesting that the soluble Ef-AHD complex is functional in E. faecalis. These results suggest that the Ef-AHD complex is active in its soluble form, and that it is capable of interacting in a dynamic way with the membrane-bound Ef-B subunit to achieve its maximal alkalinization capacity during citrate fermentation. PMID:23435880

  12. Hybrid Potential Simulation of the Acylation of Enterococcus faecium l,d-Transpeptidase by Carbapenems.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Nicholus; Field, Martin J; Simorre, Jean-Pierre; Arthur, Michel; Bougault, Catherine M

    2016-06-01

    The l,d-transpeptidases, Ldts, catalyze peptidoglycan cross-linking in β-lactam-resistant mutant strains of several bacteria, including Enterococcus faecium and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although unrelated to the essential d,d-transpeptidases, which are inactivated by the β-lactam antibiotics, they are nevertheless inhibited by the carbapenem antibiotics, making them potentially useful targets in the treatment of some important diseases. In this work, we have investigated the acylation mechanism of the Ldt from E. faecium by the carbapenem, ertapenem, using computational techniques. We have employed molecular dynamics simulations in conjunction with QC/MM hybrid potential calculations to map out possible reaction paths. We have focused on determining the following: (i) the protonation state of the nucleophilic cysteine of the enzyme when it attacks; (ii) whether nucleophilic attack and β-lactam ring-opening are concerted or stepwise, the latter occurring via an oxyanion intermediate; and (iii) the identities of the proton acceptors at the beginning and end of the reaction. Overall, we note that there is considerable plasticity in the mechanisms, owing to the significant flexibility of the enzyme, but find that the preferred pathways are ones in which nucleophilic attack of cysteine thiolate is concerted with β-lactam ring-opening.

  13. Enterococcus faecalis reconfigures its gene regulatory network activation under copper exposure

    PubMed Central

    Latorre, Mauricio; Galloway-Peña, Jessica; Roh, Jung Hyeob; Budinich, Marko; Reyes-Jara, Angélica; Murray, Barbara E.; Maass, Alejandro; González, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    A gene regulatory network was generated in the bacterium Enterococcus faecalis in order to understand how this organism can activate its expression under different copper concentrations. The topological evaluation of the network showed common patterns described in other organisms. Integrating microarray experiments allowed the identification of sub-networks activated under low (0.05 mM CuSO4) and high (0.5 mM CuSO4) copper concentrations. The analysis indicates the presence of specific functionally activated modules induced by copper, highlighting the regulons LysR, ArgR as global regulators and CopY, Fur and LexA as local regulators. Taking advantage of the fact that E. faecalis presented a homeostatic module isolated, we produced an in vivo intervention removing this system from the cell without affecting the connectivity of the global transcriptional network. This strategy led us to find that this bacterium can reconfigure its gene expression to maintain cellular homeostasis, activating new modules principally related to glucose metabolism and transcriptional processes. Finally, these results position E. faecalis as the organism having the most complete and controllable systemic model of copper homeostasis available to date. PMID:24382465

  14. Genome-based characterization of hospital-adapted Enterococcus faecalis lineages.

    PubMed

    Raven, Kathy E; Reuter, Sandra; Gouliouris, Theodore; Reynolds, Rosy; Russell, Julie E; Brown, Nicholas M; Török, M Estée; Parkhill, Julian; Peacock, Sharon J

    2016-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VREfs) is an important nosocomial pathogen(1,2). We undertook whole genome sequencing of E. faecalis associated with bloodstream infection in the UK and Ireland over more than a decade to determine the population structure and genetic associations with hospital adaptation. Three lineages predominated in the population, two of which (L1 and L2) were nationally distributed, and one (L3) geographically restricted. Genome comparison with a global collection identified that L1 and L3 were also present in the USA, but were genetically distinct. Over 90% of VREfs belonged to L1-L3, with resistance acquired and lost multiple times in L1 and L2, but only once followed by clonal expansion in L3. Putative virulence and antibiotic resistance genes were over-represented in L1, L2 and L3 isolates combined, versus the remainder. Each of the three main lineages contained a mixture of vancomycin-resistant and -susceptible E. faecalis (VSEfs), which has important implications for infection control and antibiotic stewardship. PMID:27572164

  15. Detection of Enterococcus faecalis in Necrotic Teeth Root Canals by Culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction Methods

    PubMed Central

    Cogulu, Dilsah; Uzel, Atac; Oncag, Ozant; Aksoy, Semiha C.; Eronat, Cemal

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Enterococcus faecalis in endodontic infections in both deciduous and permanent teeth by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Methods A total of 145 children aged 5–13 years old were involved in this study. The presence of E. faecalis in necrotic deciduous and permanent teeth root canals was studied using culture and polymerase chain reaction methods. Results Among 145 molar teeth, 57% (n=83) presented necrotic asymptomatic pulp tissues and were included in this study. Culture and PCR methods detected the test species in 18 and 22 of 83 teeth involved, respectively. E. faecalis was cultured from 8 (18%) of 45 necrotic deciduous teeth and from 10 (26%) of 38 necrotic permanent teeth. PCR detection identified the target species in 10 (22%) and 12 (32%) of necrotic deciduous and permanent teeth respectively. Statistically significant difference in the presence of E. faecalis in deciduous and permanent teeth was found by culture and PCR methods (P=0.03 and 0.02, respectively). The difference in the presence of E. faecalis between two different methods was not statistically significant (P>.05). Conclusions The results of the present study confirm that both culture and PCR methods are sensitive to detect E. faecalis in root canals. PMID:19212470

  16. Bacteriocin of Enterococcus from lactoserum able to cause oxidative stress in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Eraso, Alberto Jorge; Inés, Albesa

    2004-02-13

    The effect of a bacteriocin of Enterococcus on the oxidative metabolism of sensitive bacteria was investigated through the detection of oxidative stress by chemiluminescence (CL). The bacteriocin named EntB was purified to study the action on Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cosmetic. Chromatographic separation of EntB indicated different states of oligomerization with molecular weights multiple of 12,000Da monomeric form. The monomer purified by ion exchange was studied in its capacity to affect the oxidative metabolism of S. aureus, which showed increase of anion superoxide (O(2)(-)) when incubated with EntB. This effect was compared to the action of EntB on leukocytes as an assay of toxicity. EntB did not generate significant oxidative stress in leukocytes. Pyoverdin, a leukotoxic pigment of Pseudomonas fluorescens, was taken as reference, and it was found that this pigment caused similar oxidative stress to EntB in S. aureus; however, pyoverdin generated high production of anion superoxide (O(2)(-)) in leukocytes, while EntB did not increase the level of O(2)(-). PMID:14741721

  17. Identification of nor-β-lapachone derivatives as potential antibacterial compounds against Enterococcus faecalis clinical strain.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, André L; Abreu, Paula A; Leal, Bruno; da Silva Júnior, Eufrânio N; Pinto, Antonio V; Pinto, Maria do Carmo F R; Souza, Alessandra M T; Novais, Juliana S; Paiva, Marcela B; Cabral, Lucio M; Rodrigues, Carlos R; Ferreira, Vitor F; Castro, Helena C

    2011-02-01

    A broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy has led to medical complications and emergence of multiresistant bacteria including Enterococcus faecalis. In this study, we designed, synthesized, and evaluated the antibacterial activity of 13 nor-β-lapachone derivatives against a drug resistant E. faecalis strain. Two triazole substituted compounds (1e = 8 μg/ml and 1c = 16 μg/ml) and the non-substituted derivative (1a = 8 μg/ml) were promising compared to chloramphenicol (12 μg/ml), an antibiotic currently available in the market. We also performed a structure-activity relationship analysis using a molecular modeling approach that pointed the low HOMO energy values; HOMO density concentrated on the nor-β-lapachone ring, lipophilicity, solubility and number HBA as important stereoelectronic features for the antibacterial profile. In addition the triazole compounds presented low theoretical toxicity profile, and drug-score higher than commercial antibiotics also fulfilling the Lipinski "Rule of Five", which pointed them as promising candidates for further studies in infections caused by multiresistant E. faecalis hospital strains.

  18. The effect of Carvacrol on Enterococcus faecalis as a final irrigant

    PubMed Central

    Nosrat, Ali; Bolhari, Behnam; Sharifian, Mohammad Reza; Aligholi, Marziyeh; Mortazavi, Mahsa Sadat

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is an effective antimicrobial irrigant, however its toxic effects and deterrent odor are not ideal. Carvacrol is an edible plant extract with anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties that is effective against Enterococcus (E) faecalis. The aim of this study was to evaluate Carvacrol's antibacterial efficacy against E. faecalis bacteria as a final irrigant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty extracted single-rooted human teeth were utilized. After mechanical preparations, samples were randomly divided into three experimental (A, B and C) and two control groups. E. faecalis was cultured in both experimental and positive control groups. After bacterial counting in all canals, 5.25% NaOCl, 0.6% Carvacrol emulsion and MTAD were used as final irrigants in groups A, B and C respectively. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. RESULTS: There was no meaningful difference in bacterial reduction between groups A and B; however, group C showed significantly lower efficacy compared to other groups (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The 0.6% Carvacrol disinfects root canals effectively. It also has anti-inflammatory qualities and therefore may be an acceptable alternative for NaOCl. PMID:24003329

  19. Chlorine disinfection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, total coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis: revisiting reclaimed water regulations.

    PubMed

    Coronel-Olivares, Claudia; Reyes-Gómez, Lidia María; Hernández-Muñoz, Aurelio; Martínez-Falcón, Ana Paola; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Gabriela A; Iturbe, Ulises

    2011-01-01

    Pathogenic organisms can be transmitted orally through drinking water or through skin and mucosae by both direct and indirect contact, and their presence in water thus has a negative impact on public health. In wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), water is disinfected to inactivate pathogens. The quantification of several microbial indicators in aquatic systems is required to estimate the biological quality of such systems. So far, coliform bacteria have been used as traditional indicators world-wide. This study has assessed the resistance of total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis to three dosages of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) at two exposure times. The bacteria were isolated from secondary effluents of a WWTP located in Hidalgo, Mexico. The results show that the number of colony-forming units of all studied bacterial types decreased when both the NaClO concentration and exposure times increased. However, they were not eliminated. The inclusion of the species Pseudomonas aeruginosa in regulations for treated wastewater quality as a new indicator is highly recommended due to its importance as an opportunistic pathogen. The detection of this species along with the traditional organisms could be particulary significant for reclaimed water to be used with direct human contact.

  20. Safety assessment and probiotic evaluation of Enterococcus faecium YF5 isolated from sourdough.

    PubMed

    Tan, Qianglai; Xu, Hengyi; Aguilar, Zoraida P; Peng, Shanshan; Dong, Suqin; Wang, Baogui; Li, Ping; Chen, Tingtao; Xu, Feng; Wei, Hua

    2013-04-01

    Enterococcus faecium YF5, a strain previously isolated from sourdough, was assessed for safety and probiotic potential. Its virulence and antibiotic resistant phenotypes (cytolysin and gelatinase production, antibiotic susceptibility) and genes (cylA, gelE, ace, agg, esp, and vanA) were surveyed. Results indicated that the tested virulence determinants were nontoxic. In addition, E. faecium YF5 was sensitive to 3 antibiotics such as amoxicillin, vancomycin, and chloramphenicol. Furthermore, results of in vivo animal acute oral toxicity of E. faecium YF5 studies were similar to the control group that indicated no abnormalities. In addition, E. faecium YF5 stably survived in low pH, bile salts, gastric, and intestinal fluids in vitro. Moreover, E. faecium YF5 was found to adhere to human colon cancer cell line HT-29 at 3.39 (±0.67) × 10(5) CFU/mL. When cocultured with pathogenic organisms (Enterobacter sakazakii CMCC45402, Escherichia coli CMCC44102, enterohemorrhage Escherichia coli O157: H7 CMCC44828, Salmonella Typhimurium CMCC50071, Shigella flexneri 301, and Shigella sonnei ATCC 29930) and 2 gram-positive strains (Listeria monocytogenes CMCC54001 and Staphylococcus aureus CMCC 26003), it inhibited these foodborne pathogens with exception of S. aureus. Therefore, E. faecium YF5 can be regarded as a safe strain and it may be used as a probiotic preparation or for microecologics. PMID:23488799

  1. Monoclonal antibodies recognizing the Enterococcus faecalis collagen-binding MSCRAMM Ace: conditional expression and binding analysis.

    PubMed

    Hall, Andrea E; Gorovits, Elena L; Syribeys, Peter J; Domanski, Paul J; Ames, Brenda R; Chang, Cathy Y; Vernachio, John H; Patti, Joseph M; Hutchins, Jeff T

    2007-01-01

    Enterococci are opportunistic pathogens known to cause numerous clinical infections and complications in humans. Adhesin-mediated binding to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins of the host is thought to be a crucial step in the pathogenesis of these bacterial infections. Adhesin of collagen from Enterococcus faecalis (Ace) is a cell-wall anchored protein of E. faecalis that has been shown to be important for bacterial binding to the ECM. In this report, we characterize the conditions for Ace expression and demonstrate Ace binding to mammalian epithelial and endothelial cells as well as to collagens found in the ECM. To further characterize Ace expression and function, we report the generation of a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against this important E. faecalis virulence factor. Through the use of multiple in vitro assays, surface plasmon resonance and flow cytometry, we have characterized this panel of mAbs which may prove to be not only beneficial in studies that address the precise biological role of adhesion of E. faecalis, but may also serve as beneficial therapeutic agents against E. faecalis infections. PMID:17521860

  2. Effect of high-intensity focused ultrasound on Enterococcus faecalis planktonic suspensions and biofilms.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Kulsum; Ohl, Siew-Wan; Khoo, Boo-Cheong; Neo, Jennifer; Fawzy, Amr S

    2013-05-01

    In this study, the effect of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) on Enterococcus faecalis on both planktonic suspensions and biofilms was investigated. E. faecalis persist in secondary dental infections as biofilms. Glass-bottom Petri dishes with biofilms were centered at the focal point of the HIFU wave generated by a 250-kHz transducer. Specimens were subjected to HIFU exposure at different periods of 30, 60 and 120 s. The viable bacteria, removal effect and bacterial viability of biofilms attached to the Petri dish surface were studied by colony-forming units (CFUs), scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy, respectively. The removal and bactericidal effects of HIFU are dependent on the exposure time. A significant reduction in biofilm thickness and CFU was found with the increase in HIFU exposure. The removal or bactericidal effect of HIFU was more significant starting from 60 s of exposure. This study highlighted the potential application of HIFU as a novel method for root canal disinfection. PMID:23453374

  3. Transcriptome profiling of TDC cluster deletion mutant of Enterococcus faecalis V583.

    PubMed

    Perez, Marta; Ladero, Victor; Del Rio, Beatriz; Redruello, Begoña; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P; Kok, Jan; Martin, M Cruz; Fernandez, Maria; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2016-09-01

    The species Enterococcus faecalis is able to catabolise the amino acid tyrosine into the biogenic amine tyramine by the tyrosine decarboxilase (TDC) pathway Ladero et al. (2012) [1]. The TDC cluster comprises four genes: tyrS, an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-like gene; tdcA, which encodes the tyrosine decarboxylase; tyrP, a tyrosine/tyramine exchanger gene and nhaC-2, which encodes an Na(+)/H(+) antiporter and whose role in the tyramine biosynthesis remains unknown [2]. In E. faecalis V583 the last three genes are co-transcribed as a single polycistronic mRNA forming the catabolic operon, while tyrS is transcribed independently of the catabolic genes as a monocistronic mRNA [2]. The catabolic operon is transcriptionally induced by tyrosine and acidic pH. On the opposite, the tyrS expression is repressed by tyrosine concentrations [2]. In this work we report the transcriptional profiling of the TDC cluster deletion mutant (E. faecalis V583 ΔTDC) [2] compared to the wild-type strain, both grown in M17 medium supplemented with tyrosine. The transcriptional profile data of TDC cluster-regulated genes were deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under accession no. GSE77864.

  4. Efflux Pump Inhibitor Potentiates Antimicrobial Photodynamic Inactivation of Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Kishen, Anil; Upadya, Megha; Tegos, George P.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Microbial biofilm architecture contains numerous protective features including extracellular polymeric material that render biofilms impermeable to conventional antimicrobial agents. This study evaluated the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI) of Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. The ability of a cationic, phenothiazinium photosensitizer, methylene blue (MB) and an anionic, xanthene photosensitizer, rose bengal (RB) to inactivate biofilms of E. faecalis (OGIRF and FA 2-2) and disrupt the biofilm structure was evaluated. Bacterial cells were tested as planktonic suspensions, intact biofilms and biofilm-derived suspensions obtained by the mechanical disruption of biofilms. The role of a specific microbial efflux pump inhibitor (EPI), verapamil hydrochloride in the MB-mediated aPDI of E. faecalis biofilms was also investigated. The results showed that E. faecalis biofilms exhibited significantly higher resistance to aPDI when compared to E. faecalis in suspension (P < 0.001). aPDI with cationic MB produced superior inactivation of E. faecalis strains in a biofilm along with significant destruction of biofilm structure when compared to anionic RB (P < 0.05). The ability to inactivate biofilm bacteria was further enhanced when the EPI was used with M B (P < 0.001). These experiments demonstrated the advantage of a cationic phenothiazinium photosensitizer combined with an EPI to inactivate biofilm bacteria and disrupt biofilm structure. PMID:20860692

  5. Antibiotic susceptibility, antibacterial activity and characterisation of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from breast milk

    PubMed Central

    Kıvanç, Sertaç Argun; Kıvanç, Merih; Yiğit, Tülay

    2016-01-01

    Enterococci, which have useful biotechnological applications, produce bacteriocins, including those that exert anti-Listerial activity. The present study aimed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility patterns and antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from human breast milk. The strains were identified using carbohydrate fermentation tests and ribotyping. Subsequently, the antibacterial activity of the isolates was investigated, and the quantities of lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide produced, and the proteolytic activity of E. faecium, were determined. In addition, biofilm formation by E. faecium strains was assessed. E. faecium strains exhibited antimicrobial activity against food-borne and clinical bacterial isolates. Furthermore, following 24 h incubation, the tested strains exhibited resistance to a pH range of 2.0–9.5 and tolerance of bile acid, lysozyme activity and phenol. Supernatants of the E. faecium TM13, TM15, TM17 and TM18 strains were shown to be effective against Listeria monocytogenes, and were also resistant to heat. Further studies are required in order to determine whether certain strains of E. faecium may be used for the development of novel antibacterial agents.

  6. Identification and Characterization of a Bacitracin Resistance Network in Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Chong; Shaaly, Aishath; Leslie, David J.; Weimar, Marion R.; Kalamorz, Falk; Carne, Alan; Cook, Gregory M.

    2014-01-01

    Resistance of Enterococcus faecalis against antimicrobial peptides, both of host origin and produced by other bacteria of the gut microflora, is likely to be an important factor in the bacterium's success as an intestinal commensal. The aim of this study was to identify proteins with a role in resistance against the model antimicrobial peptide bacitracin. Proteome analysis of bacitracin-treated and untreated cells showed that bacitracin stress induced the expression of cell wall-biosynthetic proteins and caused metabolic rearrangements. Among the proteins with increased production, an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter with similarity to known peptide antibiotic resistance systems was identified and shown to mediate resistance against bacitracin. Expression of the transporter was dependent on a two-component regulatory system and a second ABC transporter, which were identified by genome analysis. Both resistance and the regulatory pathway could be functionally transferred to Bacillus subtilis, proving the function and sufficiency of these components for bacitracin resistance. Our data therefore show that the two ABC transporters and the two-component system form a resistance network against antimicrobial peptides in E. faecalis, where one transporter acts as the sensor that activates the TCS to induce production of the second transporter, which mediates the actual resistance. PMID:24342648

  7. Production of lactic acid using a new homofermentative Enterococcus faecalis isolate.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Mohan Raj; Talluri, Suvarna; Christopher, Lew P

    2015-03-01

    Lactic acid is an intermediate-volume specialty chemical for a wide range of food and industrial applications such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and chemical syntheses. Although lactic acid production has been well documented, improved production parameters that lead to reduced production costs are always of interest in industrial developments. In this study, we describe the production of lactic acid at high concentration, yield and volumetric productivity utilizing a novel homofermentative, facultative anaerobe Enterococcus faecalis CBRD01. The highest concentration of 182 g lactic acid l(-1) was achieved after 38 h of fed-batch fermentation on glucose. The bacterial isolate utilized only 2-13% of carbon for its growth and energy metabolism, while 87-98% of carbon was converted to lactic acid at an overall volumetric productivity of 5 g l(-1)  h(-1). At 13 h of fermentation, the volumetric productivity of lactate production reached 10.3 g l(-1)  h(-1), which is the highest ever reported for microbial production of lactic acid. The lactic acid produced was of high purity as formation of other metabolites was less than 0.1%. The present investigation demonstrates a new opportunity for enhanced production of lactic acid with potential for reduced purification costs.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of tetraacetylethylenediamine-sodium perborate versus sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Shakouie, Sahar; Salem Milani, Amin; Eskandarnejad, Mahsa; Rahimi, Saeed; Froughreyhani, Mohammad; Galedar, Saeede; Ranjbar, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Tetraacetylethylenediamine-sodium perborate (TAED-SP) in comparison to 2.5% and 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against Enterococcus faecalis. Methods. A standard suspension of E. faecalis was inoculated on 60 plates containing Mueller-Hinton agar culture medium. Four sterile disks of Beckman filtration paper were placed on each plate. TAED-SP, 5% and 2.5% NaOCl were placed on three disks. Sterile physiologic saline was placed on the fourth disk as negative control. After 24-hour incubation, the diameter of the inhibition zone around the disks was measured using a transparent ruler. One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the mean zone of microbial growth in the groups. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. There was a significant difference in the diameter of the inhibition zones between groups (P < 0.05). The Tukey post hoc test showed a higher diameter of the inhibitory zone with TAED-SP than that of 2.5% NaOCl. However, there were no significant differences between the inhibitory zones of TAED-SP and 5% NaOCl. Conclusion. TAED-SP and 5% NaOCl have similar antibacterial activity against E. faecalis; however, TAED-SP has a greater antibacterial effect compared to 2.5% NaOCl. PMID:27092214

  9. Aerobic degradation of BDE-209 by Enterococcus casseliflavus: Isolation, identification and cell changes during degradation process.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shaoyu; Yin, Hua; Chen, Shuona; Peng, Hui; Chang, Jingjing; Liu, Zehua; Dang, Zhi

    2016-05-01

    Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) is one of the most commonly used brominated flame retardants that have contaminated the environment worldwide. Microbial bioremediation has been considered as an effective technique to remove these sorts of persistent organic pollutants. Enterococcus casseliflavus, a gram-positive bacterium capable of aerobically transforming BDE-209, was isolated by our team from sediments in Guiyu, an e-waste dismantling area in Guangdong Province, China. To promote microbial bioremediation of BDE-209 and elucidate the mechanism behind its aerobic degradation, the effects of BDE-209 on the cell changes of E. casseliflavus were examined in this study. The experimental results demonstrated that the high cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of E. casseliflavus made the bacteria absorb hydrophobic BDE-209 more easily. E. casseliflavus responded to BDE-209 stress, resulting in an increase in cell membrane permeability and accumulation of BDE-209 inside the cell. The differential expression of intracellular protein was analyzed through two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). More than 50 differentially expressed protein spots were reproducibly detected, including 25 up, and 25 down regulated after a 4 days exposure. Moreover, the apoptotic-like cell changes were observed during E. casseliflavus mediated degradation of BDE-209 by means of flow cytometry. PMID:26852209

  10. Molecular epidemiology of Enterococcus cecorum isolates recovered from enterococcal spondylitis outbreaks in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Borst, Luke B; Suyemoto, M Mitsu; Robbins, Kabel M; Lyman, Roberta L; Martin, Michael P; Barnes, H John

    2012-10-01

    Enterococcus cecorum, a normal intestinal inhabitant, is increasingly responsible for outbreaks of arthritis and osteomyelitis in chickens worldwide. Enterococcal spondylitis (ES) is a specific manifestation of E. cecorum-associated disease in which increased flock morbidity and mortality result from chronic infection involving the free thoracic vertebra. In this study the genetic relatedness and antimicrobial resistance of isolates recovered from ES-affected flocks in the southeastern United States were determined. ES outbreaks from 2007 to 2011 were investigated in North Carolina (15 flocks, 13 farms, four integrators), South Carolina (one flock, one farm, one integrator) and Alabama (six flocks, six farms, one integrator). From these 22 epidemiologically distinct outbreaks, 326 isolates of E. cecorum were recovered. Isolates from spinal lesions and caeca of affected birds (cases) and caeca of unaffected birds (controls) were genotyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; phenotyped using both GenIII MicroPlate™ (Biolog; Hayward, CA, USA) microbial identification plates and antimicrobial sensitivity testing; and compared with each other. Isolates from spinal lesions were incapable of mannitol metabolism and the majority of these isolates were genetically clonal. In contrast, caecal isolates from control birds varied in their ability to metabolize mannitol and were genetically diverse. Isolates from both case and control birds had high levels of antimicrobial resistance. These findings indicate that the increase in E. cecorum-associated disease in the southeast United States is due to the emergence of new clones with increased pathogenicity and multidrug resistance. PMID:22978557

  11. Biochemical and genetic characterization of the Enterococcus faecalis oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex.

    PubMed

    Repizo, Guillermo D; Blancato, Víctor S; Mortera, Pablo; Lolkema, Juke S; Magni, Christian

    2013-05-01

    Enterococcus faecalis encodes a biotin-dependent oxaloacetate decarboxylase (OAD), which is constituted by four subunits: E. faecalis carboxyltransferase subunit OadA (termed Ef-A), membrane pump Ef-B, biotin acceptor protein Ef-D, and the novel subunit Ef-H. Our results show that in E. faecalis, subunits Ef-A, Ef-D, and Ef-H form a cytoplasmic soluble complex (termed Ef-AHD) which is also associated with the membrane. In order to characterize the role of the novel Ef-H subunit, coexpression of oad genes was performed in Escherichia coli, showing that this subunit is vital for Ef-A and Ef-D interaction. Diminished growth of the oadA and oadD single deletion mutants in citrate-supplemented medium indicated that the activity of the complex is essential for citrate utilization. Remarkably, the oadB-deficient strain was still capable of growing to wild-type levels but with a delay during the citrate-consuming phase, suggesting that the soluble Ef-AHD complex is functional in E. faecalis. These results suggest that the Ef-AHD complex is active in its soluble form, and that it is capable of interacting in a dynamic way with the membrane-bound Ef-B subunit to achieve its maximal alkalinization capacity during citrate fermentation.

  12. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of chitosan and other endodontic irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Shenoi, Pratima R; Morey, Elakshi S; Makade, Chetana S; Gunwal, Mohit K; Khode, Rajiv T; Wanmali, Sunay S

    2016-01-01

    The success of endodontic treatment is directly enhanced by elimination of microorganisms in infected root canals. Recently, chitosan, a natural, nontoxic biopolymer, has been introduced as an irrigant that has the capacity to remove the smear layer. The antimicrobial properties of chitosan as an endodontic irrigant have not yet been explored. The purpose of this study was to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of BioPure MTAD, 0.2% chitosan, 1% chitosan, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate, and 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against Enterococcus faecalis, which is frequently isolated from persistent root canal infections. The agar well diffusion method was used to measure the antimicrobial activities of these irrigants. Saline was used as a negative control. The order of effectiveness was determined by the measurement of inhibition zones. Data were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and the Duncan multiple range test. BioPure MTAD had a significantly larger mean inhibition zone against E faecalis than the other irrigants (P < 0.001). Although 0.2% chitosan did not show any inhibition zones, 1% chitosan was as effective as 3% NaOCl (P = 0.352), and both irrigants showed significantly greater effectivity than 2% chlorhexidine (P < 0.001). Thus, 1% chitosan can be an effective natural antimicrobial substitute for synthetic irrigants. PMID:27599284

  13. Involvement of Enterococcus faecalis Small RNAs in Stress Response and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Michaux, Charlotte; Hartke, Axel; Martini, Cecilia; Reiss, Swantje; Albrecht, Dirk; Budin-Verneuil, Aurélie; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Engelmann, Susanne; Hain, Torsten; Verneuil, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Candidate small RNAs (sRNAs) have recently been identified in Enterococcus faecalis, a Gram-positive opportunistic pathogen, and six of these candidate sRNAs with unknown functions were selected for a functional study. Deletion mutants and complemented strains were constructed, and their virulence was tested. We were unable to obtain the ef0869-0870 mutant, likely due to an essential role, and the ef0820-0821 sRNA seemed not to be involved in virulence. In contrast, the mutant lacking ef0408-0409 sRNA, homologous to the RNAII component of the toxin-antitoxin system, appeared more virulent and more able to colonize mouse organs. The three other mutants showed reduced virulence. In addition, we checked the responses of these mutant strains to several stresses encountered in the gastrointestinal tract or during the infection process. In parallel, the activities of the sRNA promoters were measured using transcriptional fusion constructions. To attempt to identify the regulons of these candidate sRNAs, proteomics profiles of the mutant strains were compared with that of the wild type. This showed that the selected sRNAs controlled the expression of proteins involved in diverse cellular processes and the stress response. The combined data highlight the roles of certain candidate sRNAs in the adaptation of E. faecalis to environmental changes and in the complex transition process from a commensal to a pathogen. PMID:24914223

  14. Feeding the probiotic Enterococcus faecium strain NCIMB 10415 to piglets specifically reduces the number of Escherichia coli pathotypes that adhere to the gut mucosa.

    PubMed

    Bednorz, Carmen; Guenther, Sebastian; Oelgeschläger, Kathrin; Kinnemann, Bianca; Pieper, Robert; Hartmann, Susanne; Tedin, Karsten; Semmler, Torsten; Neumann, Konrad; Schierack, Peter; Bethe, Astrid; Wieler, Lothar H

    2013-12-01

    Feed supplementation with the probiotic Enterococcus faecium for piglets has been found to reduce pathogenic gut microorganisms. Since Escherichia coli is among the most important pathogens in pig production, we performed comprehensive analyses to gain further insight into the influence of E. faecium NCIMB 10415 on porcine intestinal E. coli. A total of 1,436 E. coli strains were isolated from three intestinal habitats (mucosa, digesta, and feces) of probiotic-supplemented and nonsupplemented (control) piglets. E. coli bacteria were characterized via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for clonal analysis. The high diversity of E. coli was reflected by 168 clones. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to determine the phylogenetic backgrounds, revealing 79 sequence types (STs). Pathotypes of E. coli were further defined using multiplex PCR for virulence-associated genes. While these analyses discerned only a few significant differences in the E. coli population between the feeding groups, analyses distinguishing clones that were uniquely isolated in either the probiotic group only, the control group only, or both groups (shared group) revealed clear effects at the habitat level. Interestingly, extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC)-typical clones adhering to the mucosa were significantly reduced in the probiotic group. Our data show a minor influence of E. faecium on the overall population of E. coli in healthy piglets. In contrast, this probiotic has a profound effect on mucosa-adherent E. coli. This finding further substantiates a specific effect of E. faecium strain NCIMB 10415 in piglets against pathogenic E. coli in the intestine. In addition, these data question the relevance of data based on sampling fecal E. coli only.

  15. Bio-preservation of ground beef meat by Enterococcus faecalis CECT7121

    PubMed Central

    Sparo, M.D.; Confalonieri, A.; Urbizu, L.; Ceci, M.; Bruni, S.F. Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    Meat and particularly ground beef is frequently associated with Food Poisoning episodes and breeches in Food Safety. The main goal of this research was to evaluate the bactericide effect of the probiotic Enterococcus faecalis CECT7121, against different pathogens as: Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens and Listeria monocytogenes, inoculated in ground beef meat. Three studies were performed to evaluate the inhibition of E. faecalis CECT7121 on ground beef meat samples inoculated with pathogens: Study I: Samples (100 g meat) were inoculated with pathogens (103 CFU/g)) and E. faecalis CECT7121 (104 CFU/g) simultaneously. Study II: Samples were inoculated with E. faecalis CECT7121 24 h before the pathogens. Study III: E. faecalis CECT7121were inoculated 24 h after pathogens. The viable counts were performed at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h post-inoculation. The simultaneous inoculation of E. faecalis CECT7121 with E. coli O157:H7 strains resulted in the absence of viable counts of bacteria at 72 h post-treatment. However, when the probiotic was added 24 h before and 24 h after the pathogen E. coli O157:H7, viable cells were not detected at 24 h and 48 h post-treatment, respectively. Consistently, neither S. aureus nor Cl. perfringens viable bacteria were detected at 48 h in whole assays when inoculated with E. faecalis CECT7121. The same trend than described before was obtained after applying the 3 models assayed for L. monocytogenes. The current assays demonstrated the bactericide activity of E. faecalis CECT7121 strain on bacterial pathogens in ground beef meat. PMID:24159282

  16. Cell Wall Chemical Composition of Enterococcus faecalis in the Viable but Nonculturable State

    PubMed Central

    Signoretto, Caterina; del Mar Lleò, Maria; Tafi, Maria Carla; Canepari, Pietro

    2000-01-01

    The viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state is a survival mechanism adopted by many bacteria (including those of medical interest) when exposed to adverse environmental conditions. In this state bacteria lose the ability to grow in bacteriological media but maintain viability and pathogenicity and sometimes are able to revert to regular division upon restoration of normal growth conditions. The aim of this work was to analyze the biochemical composition of the cell wall of Enterococcus faecalis in the VBNC state in comparison with exponentially growing and stationary cells. VBNC enterococcal cells appeared as slightly elongated and were endowed with a wall more resistant to mechanical disruption than dividing cells. Analysis of the peptidoglycan chemical composition showed an increase in total cross-linking, which rose from 39% in growing cells to 48% in VBNC cells. This increase was detected in oligomers of a higher order than dimers, such as trimers (24% increase), tetramers (37% increase), pentamers (65% increase), and higher oligomers (95% increase). Changes were also observed in penicillin binding proteins (PBPs), the enzymes involved in the terminal stages of peptidoglycan assembly, with PBPs 5 and 1 being prevalent, and in autolytic enzymes, with a threefold increase in the activity of latent muramidase-1 in E. faecalis in the VBNC state. Accessory wall polymers such as teichoic acid and lipoteichoic acid proved unchanged and doubled in quantity, respectively, in VBNC cells in comparison to dividing cells. It is suggested that all these changes in the cell wall of VBNC enterococci are specific to this particular physiological state. This may provide indirect confirmation of the viability of these cells. PMID:10788366

  17. Discovery of the first inhibitors of bacterial enzyme D-aspartate ligase from Enterococcus faecium (Aslfm).

    PubMed

    Škedelj, Veronika; Perdih, Andrej; Brvar, Matjaž; Kroflič, Ana; Dubbée, Vincent; Savage, Victoria; O'Neill, Alex J; Solmajer, Tom; Bešter-Rogač, Marija; Blanot, Didier; Hugonnet, Jean-Emmanuel; Magnet, Sophie; Arthur, Michel; Mainardi, Jean-Luc; Stojan, Jure; Zega, Anamarija

    2013-09-01

    The D-aspartate ligase of Enterococcus faecium (Aslfm) is an attractive target for the development of narrow-spectrum antibacterial agents that are active against multidrug-resistant E. faecium. Although there is currently little available information regarding the structural characteristics of Aslfm, we exploited the knowledge that this enzyme belongs to the ATP-grasp superfamily to target its ATP binding site. In the first design stage, we synthesized and screened a small library of known ATP-competitive inhibitors of ATP-grasp enzymes. A series of amino-oxazoles derived from bacterial biotin carboxylase inhibitors showed low micromolar activity. The most potent inhibitor compound 12, inhibits Aslfm with a Ki value of 2.9 μM. In the second design stage, a validated ligand-based pharmacophore modeling approach was used, taking the newly available inhibition data of an initial series of compounds into account. Experimental evaluation of the virtual screening hits identified two novel structural types of Aslfm inhibitors with 7-amino-9H-purine (18) and 7-amino-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (30 and 34) scaffolds, and also with Ki values in the low micromolar range. Investigation the inhibitors modes of action confirmed that these compounds are competitive with respect to the ATP molecule. The binding of inhibitors to the target enzyme was also studied using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Compounds 6, 12, 18, 30 and 34 represent the first inhibitors of Aslfm reported to date, and are an important step forward in combating infections due to E. faecium.

  18. Dichotomous Metabolism of Enterococcus faecalis Induced by Hematin Starvation Modulates Colonic Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Toby D.; Moore, Danny R.; Wang, Xingmin; Casu, Viviana; May, Randal; Lerner, Megan R.; Houchen, Courtney; Brackett, Daniel J.; Huycke, Mark M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Enterococcus faecalis is an intestinal commensal that cannot synthesize porphyrins and only expresses a functional respiratory chain when provided exogenous hematin. In the absence of hematin, E. faecalis reverts to fermentative metabolism and produces extracellular superoxide that can damage epithelial cell DNA. The acute response of the colonic mucosa to hematin-starved E. faecalis was identified by gene array. E. faecalis was inoculated into murine colons using a surgical ligation model that preserved tissue architecture and homeostasis. The mucosa was exposed to hematin-starved E. faecalis and compared to a control consisting of the same strain grown with hematin. At 1 hour post-inoculation six mucosal genes were differentially regulated and this increased to 42 genes at 6 hours. At 6 hours a highly significant biological interaction network was identified with functions that included NF-κB signaling, apoptosis, and cell cycle regulation. Colon biopsies showed no histological abnormalities by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Immunohistochemical staining, however, detected NF-κB activation in tissue macrophages using antibodies to the nuclear localization sequence for p65 and the F4/80 marker for murine macrophages. Similarly, hematin-starved E. faecalis strongly activated NF-κB in murine macrophages in vitro. Furthermore, primary and transformed colonic epithelial cells activated the G2/M checkpoint in vitro following exposure to hematin-starved E. faecalis. Modulation of this cell cycle checkpoint was due to extracellular superoxide produced as a result of the respiratory block in hematin-starved E. faecalis. These results demonstrate that the uniquely dichotomous metabolism of E. faecalis can significantly modulate gene expression in the colonic mucosa for pathways associated with inflammation, apoptosis, and cell cycle regulation. PMID:18809545

  19. Enterococcus Species in the Oral Cavity: Prevalence, Virulence Factors and Antimicrobial Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Komiyama, Edson Yukio; Lepesqueur, Laura Soares Souto; Yassuda, Cinthia Gomes; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; Parahitiyawa, Nipuna B; Balducci, Ivan; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi

    2016-01-01

    Enterococci are considered as transient constituent components of the oral microbiome that may cause a variety of oral and systemic infections. As there is sparse data on the oral enterococcal prevalence, we evaluated the Enterococcus spp. and their virulence attributes including antimicrobial resistance in a healthy Brazilian cohort. A total of 240 individuals in different age groups were studied (children 4-11 yrs, adolescents 12-17 yrs, young adults 18-29 yrs, adults 30-59 yrs, elderly over 60 yrs). Oral rinses were collected and isolates were identified by API 20 Strep and confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing. E. faecalis isolates, in particular, were evaluated for virulence attributes such as their biofilm formation potential, and susceptibility to antimicrobials and an antiseptic, chlorhexidine gluconate. A total of 40 individuals (16.6%) and 10% children, 4% adolescents, 14% young adults, 30% adults, and 25% elderly carried oral enterococci. The oral enterococcal burden in adolescents was significantly lower than in the adults (p = 0.000) and elderly (p = 0.004). The proportion of carriers was higher among females (p = 0.001). E. faecalis was the most frequent isolate in all the age groups (p = 0.000), followed by E. durans and E. faecium. Whilst all the clinical isolates were able to form biofilms, only a proportion of them were able to produce lipase (92%), hemolysin (38%), and gelatinase (39%). Of all the isolates 53.8% were resistant to tetracycline, 12.3% to amoxicillin, 16.0% to ampicillin, 20.8% to chloramphenicol and 43.4% to erythromycin. None of the isolates were resistant to vancomycin. Our data suggest that in this Brazilian cohort the oral cavity may act as a significant reservoir of rather virulent and antibiotic resistant enterococci, with an increasing degree of carriage in the adults and elderly. Hence clinicians should be cognizant of this silent reservoir of virulent enterococci that may pose a particular threat of nosocomial infection.

  20. The effect of different root canal medicaments on the elimination of Enterococcus faecalis ex vivo

    PubMed Central

    Dammaschke, Till; Jung, Nina; Harks, Inga; Schafer, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of chlorhexidine gel (CHX-G) 2%, chlorhexidine powder (CHX-P) 1%, povidone-iodine (PVP-I), polyhexanide and camphorated-and-mentholated chlorophenol (ChKM) ex vivo. Materials and Methods: For every medicament group 10 root segments (15 mm long) of extracted human teeth were prepared to ISO-size 45 and sterilized (n = 50). The root segments were then inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis and aerobically incubated at 37°C. After 1 week, ten root canals were filled with one of the medicaments, respectively and aerobically incubated at 37°C for another week. Ten teeth served as positive controls and were filled with sterile saline solution. After 7 days, the medicaments were inactivated and all root canals were instrumented to ISO-size 50. The obtained dentin samples were dispersed in Ringer solution followed by the preparation of serial dilutions. 10 μl per sample were applied to an agar plate and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. The colony forming units were counted and the reduction factors (RFs) were calculated and statistically analyzed. Results: Compared with the positive controls all medicaments exhibited an antibacterial effect against E. faecalis. The RFs for CHX-G, CHX-P and ChKM were significantly higher compared to PVP-I and polyhexanide (P < 0.05). In contrast to PVP-I and polyhexanide, CHX-G, CHX-P and ChKM were able to eliminate E. faecalis from all dentin samples. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this ex vivo investigation, 2% CHX-G and CHX-P were as effective as ChKM against E. faecalis. Thus, when choosing a root canal medicament the better biocompatibility of CHX compared with ChKM should be taken in consideration. PMID:24932119