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Sample records for enterocolitis syndrome fpies

  1. [Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) in 14 children].

    PubMed

    Delahaye, C; Chauveau, A; Kiefer, S; Dumond, P

    2017-04-01

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a particular non-IgE-mediated food allergy, manifested by profuse and repetitive vomiting with hypotonia and lethargy in its acute form. A retrospective descriptive single-center study was conducted. Subjects included in this study were children with acute FPIES who consulted the allergy outpatient clinic of the Nancy Regional University Hospital between November 2013 and June 2016. Among the 14 patients (eight boys and six girls), nine had a history of atopy: a family history for six (42.8%) and a personal history for five (35.7%). Three had chronic FPIES turning into acute FPIES. Cow milk was the most common triggering food (50%), followed by fish (21.4%), mussels (14.3%), wheat (7.1%), egg (7.1%), and poultry (7.1%). The average time from ingestion to symptom onset was 90minutes. The symptoms were typical and diarrhea was not systematic (42.8%). Six children were hospitalized, some of them several times, including once in intensive care for one patient. The treatments established were, in order of frequency: oral or intravenous rehydration, corticosteroids, antihistamines, and antiemetics. Diagnosis time was 7.6 months on average; it was significantly shorter for milk than for solid foods (1.4 vs. 12 months, P-value=0.02), on average after two episodes. Another diagnosis than FPIES was raised at first for five patients (acute gastroenteritis, gastroesophageal reflux, and bowel obstruction caused by bowel volvulus). Allergy tests were initially negative. Two chronic FPIES cases (one milk FPIES and one milk and wheat FPIES) developed an acute FPIES to another food (fish and mussels); one patient changed from an acute fish FPIES to an IgE-mediated phenotype over time. FPIES resolved for four patients: three milk FPIES, on average 15.7 months after the first reaction, and one wheat FPIES, 2.5 years after the first reaction. A child with a white fish FPIES was able to introduce salmon and tuna. FPIES is a

  2. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome: a review of the new guidelines.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Stephanie A; Pecora, Valentina; Fiocchi, Alessandro Giovanni; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergy that presents with delayed vomiting after ingestion primarily in infants. While the pathophysiology of FPIES is poorly understood, the clinical presentation of acute FPEIS reactions has been well characterized. The first International Consensus Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Food Protein-induced Enterocolitis Syndrome were published in 2017 and reviewed epidemiology, clinical presentation, and prognosis of acute and chronic FPIES. The workgroup outlined clinical phenotypes, proposed diagnostic criteria, and made recommendations on management. This article summarizes the guidelines and adds recent updates. FPIES is gaining recognition, however there continues to be delays in diagnosis and misdiagnosis due to overlap of symptoms with over conditions, lack of a diagnostic test, and because some of the common trigger foods are not thought of as allergenic. More research into disease mechanisms and factors influencing differences between populations is needed.

  3. Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bingemann, Theresa A; Sood, Puja; Järvinen, Kirsi M

    2018-02-01

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-mediated food allergy that usually presents in infancy. Cow's milk, soy, and grains are the most common food triggers. FPIES can present as a medical emergency with symptoms including delayed persistent emesis or diarrhea that can lead to severe dehydration and hemodynamic instability with abnormal laboratory markers. Diagnosis can often be made based on clinical history and noted improvement in symptoms once the suspected triggers have been removed from the diet, with oral food challenge as the gold standard for confirmation of diagnosis in unclear cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential diagnosis of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fiocchi, Alessandro; Claps, Alessia; Dahdah, Lamia; Brindisi, Giulia; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Martelli, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To assess all the possible differential diagnosis of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), both in acute and chronic presentation, reviewing the data reported in published studies. Recent findings There is an increase of reported cases of FPIES in recent years. As the disease presents with nonspecific symptoms, it can be misunderstood in many ways. The differential diagnosis includes, in acute presentations, the following: sepsis, other infectious diseases, acute gastrointestinal episodes, surgical emergencies, food allergies. In its chronic forms, FPIES may mimic malabsorption syndromes, metabolic disorders, primary immunodeficiencies, neurological conditions, coagulation defects, and other types of non-IgE-mediated food allergy. Summary A thorough clinical evaluation, including symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings, is necessary to lead the clinicians toward the diagnosis of FPIES. The major reason for delayed diagnosis appears to be the lack of knowledge of the disease. PMID:24739227

  5. Natural history of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Katz, Yitzhak; Goldberg, Michael R

    2014-06-01

    Because of the paucity of reports and variability in the diagnostic criteria utilized, little is known regarding the natural outcome of patients with food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES). Data extracted from referenced manuscripts, as well as allergists' unpublished observations from across the globe, were used to form a cohesive opinion regarding its natural outcome. All authors concur that there is a generally high rate of recovery for FPIES. The most common foods causing FPIES are milk and soy. Depending upon which study is analyzed, by the age of 3-5 years, approximately 90% of patients recover from their disease. Recovery from FPIES to solid foods, occurs at a later age, but may reflect a later stage of introduction of the food into the diet. An important clinical outcome, although not common, is a shift from FPIES food hypersensitivity to an IgE-mediated food allergy. This necessitates a change in the oral food challenge protocol, if IgE-mediated sensitization is detected. Over the past several years, there has been an increasing awareness of FPIES. This knowledge should lead to a more timely diagnosis and should reassure parents and practitioners alike regarding its favorable course.

  6. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome by fish: Not necessarily a restricted diet.

    PubMed

    Infante, S; Marco-Martín, G; Sánchez-Domínguez, M; Rodríguez-Fernández, A; Fuentes-Aparicio, V; Alvarez-Perea, A; Cabrera-Freitag, P; Morales-Cabeza, C; Zubeldia, J M; Zapatero, L

    2018-03-01

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food hypersensitivity usually due to cow's milk or soy. Recent researches show that fish is 1 of the most important triggers of FPIES in the Mediterranean countries. Due to the risk of multiple-food FPIES, avoiding foods in the same category or that often occur together may be reasonable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution and follow-up of FPIES related to fish over a period of 20 years. We describe the clinical features of our population, discuss different approaches to oral food challenges, and analyze the possibility of introducing the culprit fish or other nonrelated fish to avoid unnecessary restricted diets. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  7. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome: a challenging diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Andreia; Moreira, Diana; Costa, Cristina; Pinto Pais, Isabel

    2018-02-08

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food hypersensitivity triggered by food proteins. It may present acutely, with repetitive vomiting, diarrhoea and lethargy leading to dehydration and eventually shock or insidiously with intermittent emesis, chronic diarrhoea or failure to thrive. We describe a paediatric male patient with recurrent sepsis-like episodes of fever, lethargy, ashen-grey skin colouration and vomiting followed by diarrhoea. These episodes were triggered by cow's milk formula and grains. Laboratory tests revealed leucocytosis, thrombocytosis, metabolic acidosis and elevated C reactive protein. After exclusion of other differential diagnoses, the diagnosis of FPIES was established on clinical improvement with withdrawal of the offending food and positive oral food challenge. FPIES diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and is frequently delayed, which contributes to an increased morbidity. This is due to the wide spectrum of clinical presentations and due to the absence of specific diagnostic tests. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Clinical and immunological characteristics of a pediatric population with food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) to fish.

    PubMed

    González-Delgado, Purificación; Caparrós, Esther; Moreno, M Victoria; Clemente, Fernando; Flores, Emilio; Velásquez, Laura; Rubio, Gonzalo; Fernández, Javier

    2016-05-01

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis (FPIES) is an uncommon, non-IgE-mediated food allergy that usually debuts in infancy with profuse vomiting, lethargy, and pallor 2-4 h following ingestion of the offending food. Its immune mechanism is not known. We aimed to describe the clinical features and outcome of children with fish-FPIES as well as to investigate on cellular immune response implicated. Prospective and follow-up clinical study of children with FPIES by fish over a period between 2004 and 2013 was conducted. Measurement in vitro of both cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and expression of HLA-DR in monocyte-derived dendritic cells stimulated with fish extracts. Sixteen children (seven male and nine female) were included, with a mean age of onset at 10 months. Diagnosis was established after a median of 4 reactions. Twelve patients were treated in emergency room, and two were admitted in intensive care. Patch tests were positive in six patients. Skin prick tests (SPTs) and specific IgE to all fish tested were negative. Only three children reached tolerance at a mean age of 4.5 years. Eight children avoided fish because of positive oral food challenge (OFC) after 6 years of age. Other patients have not been challenged because of parent refusal to OFC or a recent diagnosis. TNF-α was increased in patients, and a significant elevation of the HLA-DR marker was also observed in these patients vs. control donors. FPIES caused by fish in many cases presents with severe clinical manifestations. Patch test has poor diagnostic value, and OFC is the gold standard to test tolerance. The cytokine TNF-α may be implicated in the clinical symptoms. Higher expression of HLA-DR in dendritic cells has also been detected in our patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Latest Insights on Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome: An Emerging Medical Condition.

    PubMed

    Vila Sexto, L

    2018-01-01

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a type of non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food hypersensitivity characterized by profuse vomiting that is frequently associated with pallor or/and lethargy and appears within 1 to 3 hours after ingestion of the offending food. A less frequent chronic form of FPIES is characterized by protracted vomiting, diarrhea, or both accompanied by poor growth. Although FPIES is considered a rare allergic disorder, increasing reports in recent years point to a real increase in incidence, or at least an increased awareness of this condition by pediatricians. The foods most frequently implicated are cow's milk, soy formula, grains, and fish, depending on the geographic area. Diagnosis is based on clinical manifestations and requires a high index of suspicion, since we still lack a diagnostic laboratory tool. Early recognition of FPIES and removal of the offending food are mandatory. International consensus guidelines on diagnosis and management have been published. Prognosis is usually good, with most children tolerating foods before 6 years of age.

  10. Increased CD69 Expression on Peripheral Eosinophils from Patients with Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wada, Taizo; Matsuda, Yusuke; Toma, Tomoko; Koizumi, Eiko; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Yachie, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an uncommon, non-IgE-mediated food allergy. We recently described a significant increase in fecal eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) after ingestion of the causative food. However, little is known about the activation status of circulating eosinophils in patients with an acute FPIES reaction. Surface CD69 expression was assessed by flow cytometry on peripheral eosinophils from 5 patients with FPIES before and after ingestion of the causative food. Fecal EDN was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No eosinophil activation was observed before ingestion; however, a significant increase in CD69 expression on eosinophils after an acute FIPES reaction was demonstrated in all of the patients. There was no significant change in absolute eosinophil counts in the peripheral blood. The levels of fecal EDN increased on the day after ingestion of the causative food in all patients. These results suggest that circulating eosinophils as well as eosinophils in the intestinal mucosal tissue are activated in acute FPIES reactions and might be associated with systemic immune events in FPIES. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Food protein induced enterocolitis syndrome caused by rice beverage.

    PubMed

    Caminiti, Lucia; Salzano, Giuseppina; Crisafulli, Giuseppe; Porcaro, Federica; Pajno, Giovanni Battista

    2013-05-14

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an uncommon and potentially severe non IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergy. It is usually caused by cow's milk or soy proteins, but may also be triggered by ingestion of solid foods. The diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical history and symptoms. Management of acute phase requires fluid resuscitation and intravenous steroids administration, but avoidance of offending foods is the only effective therapeutic option.Infant with FPIES presented to our emergency department with vomiting, watery stools, hypothension and metabolic acidosis after ingestion of rice beverage. Intravenous fluids and steroids were administered with good clinical response. Subsequently, a double blind placebo control food challenge (DBPCFC) was performed using rice beverage and hydrolyzed formula (eHF) as placebo. The "rice based formula" induced emesis, diarrhoea and lethargy. Laboratory investigations reveal an increase of absolute count of neutrophils and the presence of faecal eosinophils. The patient was treated with both intravenous hydration and steroids. According to Powell criteria, oral food challenge was considered positive and diagnosis of FPIES induced by rice beverage was made. Patient was discharged at home with the indication to avoid rice and any rice beverage as well as to reintroduce hydrolyzed formula. A case of FPIES induced by rice beverage has never been reported. The present case clearly shows that also beverage containing rice proteins can be responsible of FPIES. For this reason, the use of rice beverage as cow's milk substitute for the treatment of non IgE-mediated food allergy should be avoided.

  12. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome caused by fish and/or shellfish in Italy.

    PubMed

    Miceli Sopo, Stefano; Monaco, Serena; Badina, Laura; Barni, Simona; Longo, Giorgio; Novembre, Elio; Viola, Serena; Monti, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    The study describes the demographic features, culprit foods, clinical features and outcomes for children presenting with acute fish and/or shellfish food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) in four Italian paediatric allergy centres. A retrospective/prospective study was undertaken. All children diagnosed with fish or shellfish FPIES were enrolled. The diagnosis of FPIES was based on Sicherer's or Miceli Sopo clinical criteria. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed in all patients, at the time of diagnosis and prior to OFC. Seventy children were enrolled. Mean age at first episode was 14 months (range 6-46 months); mean age at diagnosis was 34 months (range 6-164 months). Sole and cod were the fish most commonly implicated. Fifty-seven of 70 (81%) children had FPIES exclusively to fish, 37 of 57 (65%) children had single-fish FPIES, 20 of 57 (35%) multiple-fish FPIES, nine of 70 (13%) presented adverse reactions exclusively to shellfish, and four of 70 (6%) presented adverse reactions to both fish and shellfish. Only four (5.7%) children presented episodes of acute FPIES with different foods (2 to cow's milk, 1 to egg, 1 to beef); in all cases, onset was prior to that of fish or shellfish FPIES. Fifteen of 70 (21%) children tolerated fish other than the offending fish. Twenty-four of 70 (34%) children achieved tolerance (age range 24-102 months). The chief peculiarities of acute fish and shellfish FPIES, compared to more frequent cow's milk or soy FPIES, are (i) later age of onset, (ii) longer persistence and (iii) possibility of tolerating fish other than the offending fish. Adverse reactions with shellfish are possible. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Clinical features and resolution of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome: 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Caubet, Jean Christoph; Ford, Lara Simone; Sickles, Laura; Järvinen, Kirsi M; Sicherer, Scott H; Sampson, Hugh A; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2014-08-01

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-mediated food allergy. FPIES diagnosis is frequently delayed because of the absence of classic allergic symptoms and lack of biomarkers. We sought to characterize the clinical features and resolution of FPIES in patients evaluated in our practice. Subjects 6 months to 45 years of age with FPIES were prospectively recruited for oral food challenges (OFCs). Medical records were searched to identify the subjects who did not participate in OFCs. Among 160 subjects, 54% were male; median age at diagnosis was 15 months. We performed 180 OFCs to 15 foods in 82 subjects; 30% of the study population had FPIES confirmed based on OFC results. The most common foods were cow's milk (44%), soy (41%), rice (22.5%), and oat (16%). The majority (65%) reacted to 1 food, 26% reacted to 2 foods, and 9% reacted to 3 or more foods. The majority were atopic, and 39% had IgE sensitization to another food. Thirty-nine (24%) subjects had positive specific IgE levels to the food inducing FPIES. Among children with specific IgE to cow's milk, 41% changed from a milk FPIES to an IgE-mediated phenotype over time. The median age when tolerance was established was 4.7 years for rice, 4 years for oat, and 6.7 years for soy. Median age when milk tolerance was established for subjects with undetectable milk-specific IgE levels was 5.1 years, whereas none of the subjects with detectable milk-specific IgE became tolerant to milk during the study (P = .003). FPIES typically resolves by age 5 years. Milk FPIES, especially with detectable food-specific IgE, can have a protracted course and eventually transition to acute reactions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  14. Chronic food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome caused by cow's milk proteins passed through breast milk.

    PubMed

    Miceli Sopo, Stefano; Monaco, Serena; Greco, Monica; Scala, Guglielmo

    2014-01-01

    We describe 2 cases of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) caused by cow's milk (CM) passed through breast milk. The onset in both cases was characterized by chronic symptoms (regurgitation, colic, diarrhea, failure to thrive); in one patient, two acute episodes due to the direct consumption of CM formula by the infant were also reported. The diagnosis of FPIES through breast milk can be easily overlooked, especially in milder cases. We also discuss some important issues concerning the general management of the disease. In conclusion, (1) the diagnosis of chronic FPIES should be taken into account even in exclusively breast-fed infants who present suggestive symptoms such as persistent regurgitation, small amounts of vomiting, lethargy, failure to thrive, dehydration, diarrhea (sometimes bloody) and abdominal distention. A 2-week maternal elimination diet should be considered even in apparently mild cases. (2) CM seems to be the most frequently reported culprit food. (3) In those cases in which acute FPIES is elicited by the direct consumption of the culprit food in breast-fed infants, maternal diet may be unrestricted. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Inflammatory events during food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome reactions.

    PubMed

    Pecora, Valentina; Prencipe, Giusi; Valluzzi, Rocco; Dahdah, Lamia; Insalaco, Antonella; Cianferoni, Antonella; De Benedetti, Fabrizio; Fiocchi, Alessandro

    2017-08-01

    An increasing number of infants are diagnosed with food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), a non-IgE-mediated food allergy. Until now, T-cell, food-specific mechanisms have been hypothesized. Sixteen children (11M, 5F), affected by FPIES from cow's milk, wheat, fruit, rice, and others, experienced 25 acute episodes managed at our emergency department (ED) and eight FPIES reactions during oral food challenges (OFC). We compared the laboratory data in resting conditions, in the absence of infectious diseases, with data collected during the 25 acute ED episodes (blood samples drawn at 2-12 hours) and the eight positive OFCs (three samples at 2, 6, and 12 hours). The onset of symptoms was used as a reference time point. In basal conditions, total IgE, WBC, neutrophil and eosinophil count, CRP, and SGPT were found normal. LDH and SGOT values were high (627.81±97.88 and 45.75±10.26 UI/L, respectively). During ED reactions, LDH and SGOT increased to 794.21±247.28 (P=.028) and 51.08±16.99 UI/L (P=.14) and neutrophils count and CRP to 8.44±3.82×10 3 /μL (P=.0009) and 3.27±5.73 mg/dL (P=.0014), respectively. During positive OFC, LDH and SGOT did not vary significantly; CRP increased from 0.14±0.18 to 2.49±3.65 mg/dL (P=.00189) and neutrophil count from 2.79±1.42 to 7.10±3.98×10 3 /μL (P=.00096). FPIES reactions are characterized by neutrophilia and by a time-dependent, significant increase in CRP, indicating that inflammatory mechanisms are in place. This suggests new directions for research on FPIES pathogenesis. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  16. Ondansetron in acute food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, a retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Miceli Sopo, S; Bersani, G; Monaco, S; Cerchiara, G; Lee, E; Campbell, D; Mehr, S

    2017-04-01

    Therapy for moderate to severe acute food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) typically consists of intravenous fluids and corticosteroids (traditional therapy). Ondansetron has been suggested as an adjunctive treatment. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the parenteral (intravenous or intramuscular) ondansetron vs traditional therapy to resolve the symptoms of acute FPIES. Cases of FPIES who had a positive oral food challenge (OFC) were retrospectively examined at two major hospitals over a two-year period (Rome, Italy; and Sydney, Australia). The efficacy of therapy, based on the percentage of cases who stopped vomiting, was compared in cases who received parenteral ondansetron and in cases who received traditional therapy or no pharmacological therapy. A total of 66 patients were included: 37 had parenteral ondansetron, 14 were treated with traditional therapy, and 15 did not receive any pharmacological therapy. Nineteen percentage of children treated with ondansetron continued vomiting after the administration of the therapy vs 93% of children who received traditional therapy (P < 0.05, relative risk = 0.2). Children who received ondansetron or no therapy were less likely to require an admission overnight compared with those who received traditional therapy (P < 0.05). Parenteral ondansetron is significantly more effective than traditional therapy in resolving acute symptoms of FPIES. The relative risk = 0.2 greatly reduces the bias linked to the lack of randomization. These findings suggest an effective treatment for vomiting in positive FPIES OFCs and allow for more confidence in performing OFCs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Serum C-reactive protein in food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome versus food protein-induced proctocolitis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Mitsuaki; Shimomura, Masaki; Morishita, Hideaki; Meguro, Takaaki; Seto, Shiro

    2016-09-01

    Some infants with food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) have increased serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and fever in Japan. The aim of this study was therefore to clarify and compare the incidence of this in patients with FPIES versus patients with food protein-induced proctocolitis (FPIP). One hundred and sixteen infants with non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergies were enrolled in this study and classified into three phenotypes: FPIES presenting with vomiting and/or diarrhea (n = 47); FPIP with bloody stool alone (n =19); and the mixed phenotype (MP), bloody stool with vomiting and/or diarrhea (n = 50). Serum CRP was increased in 55.3% of the FPIES group, similar to that in the MP group (54.0%), and significantly higher than in the FPIP group (15.8%; P < 0.01). Fever was observed in 29.8% of the FPIES group, significantly higher than in the MP group (8.0%; P < 0.01) and in the FPIP group (0%; P < 0.05). Patients with fever had significantly higher serum CRP than patients without fever (median, 12.8 vs <0.2 mg/dL, P < 0.00001). Serum CRP was significantly higher in the FPIES group than in the FPIP group. This suggests that serum CRP is a useful marker for differentiating the pathogenesis of FPIES from FPIP. From the perspective of serum CRP, the pathology of the intestinal inflammation in MP subjects is suggested to be similar to that of FPIES. © 2016 The Authors. Pediatrics International published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Pediatric Society.

  18. The role of casein-specific IgA and TGF-β in children with Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome to milk

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinou, George N.; Bencharitiwong, Ramon; Grishin, Alexander; Caubet, Jean-Christoph; Bardina, Luda; Sicherer, Scott H.; Sampson, Hugh A.; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a gastrointestinal hypersensitivity disorder with a poorly understood pathophysiology and no biomarkers to aid in diagnosis. Objective To investigate humoral and cellular responses to casein in children with milk-FPIES, including the role of casein-specific (cs) IgA and T-cell mediated TGF-β responses. Patients and methods Thirty-one children previously diagnosed with milk-FPIES were challenged with milk. Twelve age-matched children with FPIES to other foods and 6 milk-tolerant children without a history of FPIES were used as controls. Casein-specific IgE, IgG, IgG4 and IgA were measured in serum and TGF-β levels in supernatants of casein-stimulated PBMCs. Result Twenty-six children with milk-FPIES reacted (active milk-FPIES) and five tolerated milk (milk-FPIES-resolved) during food challenge. All of them had significantly lower levels of csIgG, csIgG4 and csIgA than control children (p-value<0.001). There were no TGF-β responses in supernatants of active milk-FPIES children. Conclusion Children with milk-FPIES have low levels of csIgG, csIgG4 and csIgA. In particular, children with active FPIES to cow’s milk have deficient T-cell mediated TGF-β responses to casein, rendering TGF-β a promising biomarker in identifying children who are likely to experience FPIES reactions to this allergen. Prospective studies are needed to validate these findings, elucidate their role in FPIES pathophysiology and establish the diagnostic utility of TGF-β in milk-induced FPIES. PMID:25283440

  19. Awareness of allergic enterocolitis among primary-care paediatricians: A web-based pilot survey.

    PubMed

    Comberiati, P; Landi, M; Martelli, A; Piacentini, G L; Capristo, C; Paiola, G; Peroni, D G

    2016-01-01

    Allergic enterocolitis, also known as food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), is an increasingly reported and potentially severe non-IgE mediated food allergy of the first years of life, which is often misdiagnosed due to its non-specific presenting symptoms and lack of diagnostic guidelines. We sought to determine the knowledge of clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic features of FPIES among Italian primary-care paediatricians. A 16-question anonymous web-based survey was sent via email to randomly selected primary care paediatricians working in the north of Italy. There were 194 completed surveys (48.5% response rate). Among respondents, 12.4% declared full understanding of FPIES, 49% limited knowledge, 31.4% had simply heard about FPIES and 7.2% had never heard about it. When presented with clinical anecdotes, 54.1% recognised acute FPIES and 12.9% recognised all chronic FPIES, whereas 10.3% misdiagnosed FPIES as allergic proctocolitis or infantile colic. To diagnose FPIES 55.7% declared to need negative skin prick test or specific-IgE to the trigger food, whereas 56.7% considered necessary a confirmatory oral challenge. Epinephrine was considered the mainstay in treating acute FPIES by 25.8% of respondents. Only 59.8% referred out to an allergist for the long-term reintroduction of the culprit food. Overall, 20.1% reported to care children with FPIES in their practice, with cow's milk formula and fish being the most common triggers; the diagnosis was self-made by the participant in 38.5% of these cases and by an allergist in 48.7%. There is a need for promoting awareness of FPIES to minimise delay in diagnosis and unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Cytokine profile after oral food challenge in infants with food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Mitsuaki; Ito, Yasunori; Shimomura, Masaki; Morishita, Hideaki; Meguro, Takaaki; Adachi, Yuichi; Seto, Shiro

    2017-07-01

    Although food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is supposed to be caused by inflammation, the role of cytokines has not yet been clarified. To elucidate the role of cytokines in the development of symptoms and abnormal laboratory findings at an oral food challenge (OFC), changes in serum cytokine levels were analyzed for 6 OFCs in 4 patients with FPIES. The result of OFC was judged positive if any gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (vomiting, diarrhea, or bloody stool) were induced. Among 11 cytokines profiled, serum levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-5, and IL-8 were clearly increased in all 4 positive OFCs in which elevations of the serum level of C-reactive protein (CRP) and peripheral blood neutrophilia were also seen. The level of serum IL-10 also rose in 2 positive OFCs. Remarkable increases in the serum level of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IL-6, and IL-12 were observed in a positive OFC where the serum level of CRP rose markedly (6.75 mg/dL). The serum levels of IL-5 were also elevated in 2 negative OFCs. No apparent specific correlations were found between cytokines and GI symptoms. These results suggest that IL-2 and IL-8 are involved in the antigen-specific immune responses in most patients with FPIES. Further studies are needed to elucidate the significance of these cytokine in the pathogenesis of FPIES. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased C-reactive protein and fever in Japanese infants with food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Mitsuaki; Ito, Yasunori; Tokunaga, Fumika; Meguro, Takaaki; Shimomura, Masaki; Morishita, Hideaki; Seto, Shiro

    2016-09-01

    Increased C-reactive protein (CRP) and fever are observed in some infants with food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) in Japan, but the reproducibility of these findings has not yet been confirmed on oral food challenge (OFC). Fourteen infants with FPIES induced by cow's milk (CM) formula were enrolled. OFC using CM formula was performed on each infant once or repeatedly (total 18 tests), with a stepwise incremental protocol in an infection-controlled setting. CRP was measured 24 h after the last ingestion of the CM formula. Increased CRP was observed in 11 of the 18 OFC conducted (median, 2.60 mg/dL; range, 0.22-4.84 mg/dL). Fever was induced in six occasions during OFC. Serum CRP in the patients with fever increased to median 3.76 mg/dL (range, <0.7-4.84 mg/dL), which was significantly higher than that of the patients without fever (median <0.1 mg/dL; range, <0.1-2.6 mg/dL; P < 0.001). CRP during OFC significantly correlated with that at disease onset (rs = 0.62, P < 0.02). Three of the four patients with fever at disease onset also had fever during OFC. Increased CRP and fever are reproducible during OFC in some infants with FPIES, suggesting that these are not accidental phenomena, but instead are associated with FPIES itself in Japanese patients. © 2016 The Authors. Pediatrics International published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Pediatric Society.

  2. Characteristics of children with food protein-induced enterocolitis and allergic proctocolitis.

    PubMed

    Arik Yilmaz, Ebru; Soyer, Ozge; Cavkaytar, Ozlem; Karaatmaca, Betul; Buyuktiryaki, Betul; Sahiner, Umit M; Sekerel, Bulent E; Sackesen, Cansin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare the clinical and laboratory features of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) and food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis (FPIAP), and to provide information about the short-term prognoses. Children diagnosed with FPIES or FPIAP between 2010 and 2015 were enrolled in this study. Overall, 64 infants (37 FPIAP, 27 FPIES) were evaluated, with the average age at the onset of symptoms being significantly lower in the patients with FPIAP than in the patients with FPIES (2 months [1-3 months] versus 4 months [1.5-6 months]; p = 0.043). Fifteen of the patients with FPIAP (40.5%) and six of the patients with FPIES (22.2%) were exclusively breast-fed at the time of the onset of symptoms. Cow's milk was the most frequent trigger (100% FPIAP, 74% FPIES); solid foods caused FPIES more frequently. Forty-eight of the 64 patients were followed up until at least 2 years of age, with the resolution rates being 91.3% for FPIAP and 60% for FPIES. The solid food-induced cases of FPIES (27.3%) had a significantly lower rate of resolution than the liquid food-induced FPIES (83.3%) (p = 0.003). Cow's milk is the most common trigger of both FPIAP and FPIES. The symptom onset age seemed to be earlier in FPIAP. The resolution age was similar, however, the recovery in FPIES may be later if the trigger food is solid. To our knowledge, this was the first clinical study to compare the clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with FPIAP and FPIES.

  3. Increased serum cortisol on oral food challenge in infants with food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Masaki; Ito, Yasunori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Meguro, Takaaki; Kimura, Mitsuaki

    2018-01-01

    An increase in absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is seen after oral food challenge test (OFC) in patients with food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES). Although it has been suggested that interleukin (IL)-8 is involved in this phenomenon, a possible role for cortisol has not yet been studied. Six positive OFC in five patients with FPIES due to cows' milk (CM) proteins, and two negative OFC in two patients with suspected FPIES were analyzed. Absolute neutrophil count, serum IL-8, and serum cortisol were measured before OFC, 6 and 24 h after the ingestion of CM formula. For the positive OFC, ANC measured 6 h after the ingestion of CM formula was significantly higher than that measured before the OFC (median, 8,761 versus 2,297/μL; P < 0.05). Significant increases in serum cortisol and IL-8 were observed 6 h after OFC (cortisol, median 1,119 pg/mL before versus 2,141 pg/mL after, P < 0.05; IL-8, median 15.5 pg/mL before versus 165.3 pg/mL after, P < 0.05). The change ratio (i.e. ratio of that after OFC to that before OFC) of ANC was significantly correlated not only with that of serum IL-8 (r = 0.90, P < 0.01) but also with that of serum cortisol (r = 0.76, P < 0.05). Moreover, the serum cortisol change ratio was significantly higher in subjects with vomiting than in those without (median, 2.5 versus 1.0, P < 0.05). Serum cortisol, in combination with IL-8, affects the increase in ANC after OFC. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  4. Humoral and cellular responses to casein in patients with food protein-induced enterocolitis to cow's milk.

    PubMed

    Caubet, Jean Christoph; Bencharitiwong, Ramon; Ross, Andrew; Sampson, Hugh A; Berin, M Cecilia; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2017-02-01

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-mediated food allergy manifesting within 1 to 4 hours of food ingestion with repetitive emesis and lethargy. We sought to characterize immune responses to casein in children with FPIES caused by cow's milk (CM). Total IgE and IgM, CM-specific IgG, and casein-specific IgE, IgG, IgG 4 , and IgM levels, as well as immunoglobulin free light chains, were measured in both patients with active and those with resolved CM-FPIES. Proliferating casein/T-effector cell counts were measured in children with CM-FPIES, children with IgE-mediated CM allergy, and those tolerating CM. Cytokine concentrations in the supernatants were quantified. Serum cytokine and tryptase levels were measured before and after a positive oral food challenge (OFC) result and compared with levels in those with a negative OFC result. We found low levels of CM and casein-specific IgG and casein-specific IgG 4 in patients with CM-FPIES versus those tolerating CM (P < .05). Although we found both a high CD4 + T cell-proliferative response and T H 2 cytokines production after casein stimulation in children with CM-FPIES, results were similar to those in control subjects. Significantly lower secretion of IL-10 and higher secretion of IL-9 by casein-stimulated T cells were found in patients with CM-FPIES versus those with IgE-mediated CM allergy. Lower baseline serum levels of IL-10 and higher tryptase levels were found in active CM-FPIES versus resolved CM-FPIES. We found a significant increase in serum IL-10 and IL-8 levels after a positive OFC result. We confirm the paucity of humoral response in patients with CM-FPIES. IL-10 might play a key role in acquisition of tolerance in patients with CM-FPIES. Increased serum IL-8 levels in patients with active FPIES suggest neutrophil involvement. Elevated baseline serum tryptase levels in patients with active FPIES suggest low-grade intestinal mast cell activation or increased mast cell load

  5. International consensus guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome: Executive summary-Workgroup Report of the Adverse Reactions to Foods Committee, American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

    PubMed

    Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Chehade, Mirna; Groetch, Marion E; Spergel, Jonathan M; Wood, Robert A; Allen, Katrina; Atkins, Dan; Bahna, Sami; Barad, Ashis V; Berin, Cecilia; Brown Whitehorn, Terri; Burks, A Wesley; Caubet, Jean-Christoph; Cianferoni, Antonella; Conte, Marisa; Davis, Carla; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Grimshaw, Kate; Gupta, Ruchi; Hofmeister, Brittany; Hwang, J B; Katz, Yitzhak; Konstantinou, George N; Leonard, Stephanie A; Lightdale, Jennifer; McGhee, Sean; Mehr, Sami; Sopo, Stefano Miceli; Monti, Giovanno; Muraro, Antonella; Noel, Stacey Katherine; Nomura, Ichiro; Noone, Sally; Sampson, Hugh A; Schultz, Fallon; Sicherer, Scott H; Thompson, Cecilia C; Turner, Paul J; Venter, Carina; Westcott-Chavez, A Amity; Greenhawt, Matthew

    2017-04-01

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis (FPIES) is a non-IgE cell- mediated food allergy that can be severe and lead to shock. Despite the potential seriousness of reactions, awareness of FPIES is low; high-quality studies providing insight into the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management are lacking; and clinical outcomes are poorly established. This consensus document is the result of work done by an international workgroup convened through the Adverse Reactions to Foods Committee of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology and the International FPIES Association advocacy group. These are the first international evidence-based guidelines to improve the diagnosis and management of patients with FPIES. Research on prevalence, pathophysiology, diagnostic markers, and future treatments is necessary to improve the care of patients with FPIES. These guidelines will be updated periodically as more evidence becomes available. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fruit-induced FPIES masquerading as hereditary fructose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Fiocchi, Alessandro; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Cotugno, Giovanna; Koch, Pierluigi; Dahdah, Lamia

    2014-08-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) symptoms develop at first introduction of fruit during weaning. We report on an infant with suspected HFI who presented with repeated episodes of vomiting and hypotension after ingestion of fruit-containing meals. The first episode occurred at age 4 months. Despite negative genetic testing for HFI, strict avoidance of fruit ingestion resulted in lack of recurrence of symptoms. Oral-fructose-tolerance testing conducted with an apple mousse did not determine hypoglycemia or fructosuria but caused severe hypotension. Allergy evaluations were negative, and the history was diagnostic for fruit-induced food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. Because this non-immunoglobulin E-mediated gastrointestinal food hypersensitivity manifests as profuse, repetitive vomiting, often with diarrhea, leading to acute dehydration and lethargy, it may be misinterpreted as HFI. We advise pediatricians to consider food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome in the differential diagnosis when there is a suspicion of HFI. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Soy Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... most allergic responses, including a runny nose, itchy eyes, dry throat, rashes and hives, nausea, diarrhea, difficulty breathing, and anaphylactic shock. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) A food allergen can also cause what's ...

  8. Non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergies.

    PubMed

    Biermé, Priscille; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna; Caubet, Jean-Christoph

    2017-12-01

    We focus on recent advances regarding the epidemiology, physiopathology, diagnosis and managements of non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergies (non-IgE-GI-FAs), particularly food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES). The first international FPIES diagnostic and management guidelines have been recently published. Although FPIES largely remains a diagnosis of exclusion, it may be more prevalent than previously thought. Ondansetron has emerged as a major tool for the treatment of FPIES acute reactions. Recent data also suggest an important role for innate immune cells in FPIES pathogenesis. Despite major advances in the diagnosis and management of non-IgE-GI-FAs, particularly FPIES, the lack of specific diagnostic tests and biomarkers to guide clinical management remains challenging.

  9. Four infants presenting with severe vomiting in solid food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome: a case series.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Amolak S; Bhaskaran, Sree; Bansal, Rhea A

    2012-06-26

    Several different foods have been implicated in inducing the delayed and very significant vomiting and sometimes diarrhea that occurs in food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. While immunoglobulin E is not involved, the mechanism(s) that result in the food-induced gastrointestinal symptoms are unclear, although T cell activation has been considered. We report four cases of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome caused by different solid foods and without concomitant immunoglobulin E sensitization to milk and soya. Clinical and laboratory evidence of type I immunoglobulin E mediated food reactivity and food-induced T cell activation was absent in each case. Case 1 concerned a 20-month-old South Asian boy who had experienced four episodes of severe vomiting with flaccidity since four months of age and two hours after consuming rice.Case 2 involved a nine-month-old Caucasian boy who had suffered three episodes of severe vomiting with flaccidity since six months of age and three hours after consuming wheat.The child in Case 3 was a 16-month-old Caucasian boy who had suffered three episodes of severe vomiting with flaccidity since nine months of age and two hours after consuming cod.Case 4 involved a 15-month-old South Asian boy who had suffered three episodes of severe vomiting since eight months of age and two hours after consuming chicken. In children with recurrent marked delayed vomiting after the ingestion of specific foods and in whom bronchospasm, skin rash and angioedema are absent, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome should be considered. Skin prick testing and specific immunoglobulin E antibodies are negative and the mechanism of the vomiting is unclear. We speculate whether food protein-induced oligoclonal T cell activation may be present. This has similarities to various animal models and improvement may involve deletion of these T cells.

  10. 48 CFR 8.606 - Evaluating FPI performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... 8.606 Evaluating FPI performance. Agencies shall evaluate FPI contract performance in accordance with subpart 42.15. Performance evaluations do not negate the requirements of 8.602 and 8.604, but they... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluating FPI performance...

  11. Arecibo Optical Laboratory Upgrade: imaging FPI first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noto, J.; Kerr, R. B.; Migliozzi, M. A.; Tepley, C. A.; Friedman, J.; Garcia, R.; Robles, E.; Waldrop, L. S.

    2006-05-01

    The Optical Laboratory at the Arecibo Observatory is being upgraded to permit remote operation, to improve Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) sensitivity, and to permit FPI response in the near infrared. Integration of a 2048 x 2048 Andor CCD array into the existing low-resolution Fabry Perot Interferometer is complete. Remote operation and data acquisition for this FPI is accomplished by transition from the obsolete PDP-11 data acquisition system to PC-based, internet aware control. Another upgrade stage, adding a near-infrared focal plane array to a second FPI is scheduled for the fall of this year. Configured with a spectral resolution of 0.0086 nm at 656.3 nm, the low resolution FPI sampled the geocoronal Balmer-alpha emission during three new moon periods in November and December, 2005, and January, 2006. The latter two observation campaigns were conducted using the new remote control capability. The single etalon FPI produces three orders at the CCD plane corresponding to a full field-of-view of 0.92 degrees. The FPI Hadinger ring pattern is summed annularly, and the three orders are subsequently summed, producing an instrument sensitivity that is 43 times better than the previous single channel photomultiplier detection system. Raw detector response is corrected using both linear (chip bias) and non-linear techniques (flat-field) prior to ring-summing. A frequency stabilized HeNe laser at 632.8 nm is remotely operated to establish the FPI response function. Effective exospheric temperature and line profile asymmetries are determined after decomposition of the instrument response function from the measured airglow emission. Identification and climatological characterization of non-Maxwellian H distributions, with simultaneous quantification of H+ abundance and flow in the topside ionosphere by the Arecibo incoherent scatter radar, are measurements central to our goal of improved understanding of H on H+ charge exchange escape of H.

  12. Loss of tolerance for fishes previously tolerated in children with fish food protein induced enterocolitis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Miceli Sopo, S; Fantacci, C; Bersani, G; Romano, A; Monaco, S

    We describe two case reports presenting some novel information on fish FPIES. Fish FPIES to one fish does not always start at the same time to other fish. Additionally, development of tolerance to the index fish do not necessarily imply tolerance to other reactive fish. This reflects on the best management of children with FPIES fish. Copyright © 2017 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Instead of Necrotizing Enterocolitis? A Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Case Series.

    PubMed

    Lenfestey, Mary W; de la Cruz, Diomel; Neu, Josef

    2018-05-23

    Necrotizing enterocolitis is an important disease in infants born premature. However, other disease entities present with similar signs and symptoms. This series reviews 5 atypical cases initially diagnosed as necrotizing enterocolitis that may be more consistent with food protein-induced enterocolitis. Food protein-induced enterocolitis may be underdiagnosed in this population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. MEMS FPI-based smartphone hyperspectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rissanen, Anna; Saari, Heikki; Rainio, Kari; Stuns, Ingmar; Viherkanto, Kai; Holmlund, Christer; Näkki, Ismo; Ojanen, Harri

    2016-05-01

    This paper demonstrates a mobile phone- compatible hyperspectral imager based on a tunable MEMS Fabry-Perot interferometer. The realized iPhone 5s hyperspectral imager (HSI) demonstrator utilizes MEMS FPI tunable filter for visible-range, which consist of atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3/TiO2-thin film Bragg reflectors. Characterization results for the mobile phone hyperspectral imager utilizing MEMS FPI chip optimized for 500 nm is presented; the operation range is λ = 450 - 550 nm with FWHM between 8 - 15 nm. Also a configuration of two cascaded FPIs (λ = 500 nm and λ = 650 nm) combined with an RGB colour camera is presented. With this tandem configuration, the overall wavelength tuning range of MEMS hyperspectral imagers can be extended to cover a larger range than with a single FPI chip. The potential applications of mobile hyperspectral imagers in the vis-NIR range include authentication, counterfeit detection and potential health/wellness and food sensing applications.

  15. 48 CFR 18.106 - Acquisitions from Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (FPI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acquisitions from Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (FPI). 18.106 Section 18.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Flexibilities 18.106 Acquisitions from Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (FPI). Purchase from FPI is not mandatory...

  16. 48 CFR 18.106 - Acquisitions from Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (FPI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acquisitions from Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (FPI). 18.106 Section 18.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Flexibilities 18.106 Acquisitions from Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (FPI). Purchase from FPI is not mandatory...

  17. 48 CFR 18.106 - Acquisitions from Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (FPI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acquisitions from Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (FPI). 18.106 Section 18.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Flexibilities 18.106 Acquisitions from Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (FPI). Purchase from FPI is not mandatory...

  18. 48 CFR 18.106 - Acquisitions from Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (FPI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquisitions from Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (FPI). 18.106 Section 18.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Flexibilities 18.106 Acquisitions from Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (FPI). Purchase from FPI is not mandatory...

  19. 48 CFR 18.106 - Acquisitions from Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (FPI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisitions from Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (FPI). 18.106 Section 18.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Flexibilities 18.106 Acquisitions from Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (FPI). Purchase from FPI is not mandatory...

  20. Mutation of NLRC4 causes a syndrome of enterocolitis and autoinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Nelson-Williams, Carol; Stiegler, Amy L; Loring, Erin; Choi, Murim; Overton, John; Meffre, Eric; Khokha, Mustafa K; Huttner, Anita J; West, Brian; Podoltsev, Nikolai A; Boggon, Titus J; Kazmierczak, Barbara I; Lifton, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    Upon detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, innate immune receptors initiate inflammatory responses. These receptors include cytoplasmic NOD-like receptors (NLRs), whose stimulation recruits and proteolytically activates caspase-1 within the inflammasome, a multi-protein complex. Caspase-1 mediates the production of interleukin-1 family cytokines (IL1FCs), leading to fever, and inflammatory cell death (pyroptosis)1,2. Mutations that constitutively activate these pathways underlie several autoinflammatory diseases with diverse clinical features3. We describe a family with a previously unreported syndrome featuring neonatal-onset enterocolitis, periodic fever, and fatal/near-fatal episodes of autoinflammation caused by a de novo gain-of-function mutation (p.V341A) in the HD1 domain of NLRC4 that co-segregates with disease. Mutant NLRC4 causes constitutive Interleukin-1 family cytokine production and macrophage cell death. Infected patient macrophages are polarized toward pyroptosis and exhibit abnormal staining for inflammasome components. These findings describe and reveal the cause of a life-threatening but treatable autoinflammatory disease that underscores the divergent roles of the NLRC4 inflammasome. PMID:25217960

  1. FPI: FM Success through Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickling, Duane

    2013-01-01

    The APPA Facilities Performance Indicators (FPI) is perhaps one of the most powerful analytical tools that institutional facilities professionals have at their disposal. It is a diagnostic facilities performance management tool that addresses the essential questions that facilities executives must answer to effectively perform their roles. It…

  2. Necrotizing Enterocolitis Risk

    PubMed Central

    Gephart, Sheila M.; McGrath, Jacqueline M.; Effken, Judith A.; Halpern, Melissa D.

    2012-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common cause of gastrointestinal-related morbidity and mortality in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Its onset is sudden and the smallest, most premature infants are the most vulnerable. Necrotizing enterocolitis is a costly disease, accounting for nearly 20% of NICU costs annually. Necrotizing enterocolitis survivors requiring surgery often stay in the NICU more than 90 days and are among those most likely to stay more than 6 months. Significant variations exist in the incidence across regions and units. Although the only consistent independent predictors for NEC remain prematurity and formula feeding, others exist that could increase risk when combined. Awareness of NEC risk factors and adopting practices to reduce NEC risk, including human milk feeding, the use of feeding guidelines, and probiotics, have been shown to reduce the incidence of NEC. The purpose of this review is to examine the state of the science on NEC risk factors and make recommendations for practice and research. PMID:22469959

  3. Non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergies in children.

    PubMed

    Caubet, Jean-Christoph; Szajewska, Hania; Shamir, Raanan; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2017-02-01

    Non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergic disorders (non-IgE-GI-FA) including food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), food protein-induced enteropathy (FPE), and food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis (FPIAP) are relatively uncommon in infants and young children, but are likely under-diagnosed. Non-IgE-GI-FA have a favorable prognosis, with majority resolving by age 3-5 years. Diagnosis relies on the recognition of symptoms pattern in FPIAP and FPIES and biopsy in FPE. Further studies are needed for a better understanding of the pathomechanism, which will lead eventually to the development of diagnostic tests and treatments. Limited evidence supports the role of food allergens in subsets of constipation, gastroesophageal reflux disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and colic. The immunologic pathomechanism is not fully understood and empiric prolonged avoidance of food allergens should be limited to minimize nutrient deficiency and feeding disorders/food aversions in infants. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Necrotizing enterocolitis and preterm infant gut bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Barbara B.; Tarr, Phillip I.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Necrotizing enterocolitis remains an intractable consequence of preterm birth. Gut microbial communities, especially bacterial communities, have long been suspected to play a role in the development of necrotizing enterocolitis. Direct-from-stool nucleic acid sequencing technology now offers insights into the make-up of these communities. Data are now converging on the roles of Gram-negative bacteria as causative agents, despite the dynamic nature of bacterial populations, the varying technologies and sampling strategies, and the overall small sample sizes in these case–control studies. Bacteria that confer protection from necrotizing enterocolitis have not been identified across studies. The beneficial effect of probiotics is not apparent in infants with birth weights <1000 g (these infants are at highest risk of, and have the highest case fatality rate from, necrotizing enterocolitis). Further work should be directed to the modulating gut microbes, or the products they produce, to prevent this devastating complication of preterm birth. PMID:27343151

  5. Left ventricular outflow obstruction and necrotizing enterocolitis

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, H.A.; Haney, P.J.

    1984-02-01

    Two neonates had unusually rapid development of necrotizing enterocolitis within 24 hours of birth. Both patients had decreased systemic perfusion secondary to aortic atresia. Onset of either clinical or radiographic manifestations of necrotizing enterocolitis in the first day of life should alert one to the possible presence of severe left ventricular outflow obstruction.

  6. Infectious causes of necrotizing enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Coggins, Sarah A.; Wynn, James L.; Weitkamp, Jörn-Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal emergency among premature infants. Although a large body of research has focused on understanding its pathogenesis, the exact mechanism has not been elucidated. Of particular interest is the potential causative role of infectious culprits in the development of NEC. A variety of reports describe bacterial, viral, and fungal infections occurring in association with NEC; however, no organism has emerged as being definitively involved in NEC pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the body of research on infectious causes of necrotizing enterocolitis. PMID:25678001

  7. CIV VUV FPI Interferometer for Transition Region Magnetography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. A.

    2005-01-01

    Much in the same way photonics harnesses light for engineering and technology applications, solar physics harnesses light for the remote sensing of the sun. In photonics the vacuum ultraviolet region offers shorter wavelength and higher energies per photon, while in solar physics the VUV allows the remote sensing of the upper levels of the solar atmosphere where magnetic fields dominate the physics. Understanding solar magnetism is a major aim for astrophysics and for understanding solar-terrestrial interaction. The poster is on our instrument development program for a high-spectral-resolution, high-finesse, Vacuum Ultraviolet Fabry-Perot Interferometer (VUV FPI) for obtaining narrow-passband images, magnetograms, and Dopplergrams of the transition region emission line of CIV (155nm). The poster will cover how the V W interferometer will allow us to understand solar magnetism, what is special about the MSFC VUV FPI, and why the University of Toronto F2 eximer has been of particular value to this program.

  8. Characterization of 18F-FPyKYNE-Losartan for Imaging AT1 Receptors.

    PubMed

    Hachem, Maryam; Tiberi, Mario; Ismail, Basma; Hunter, Chad R; Arksey, Natasha; Hadizad, Tayebeh; Beanlands, Rob S; deKemp, Robert A; DaSilva, Jean N

    2016-10-01

    Most physiologic effects of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) are mediated via the angiotensin (Ang) type 1 receptor (AT 1 R). The 18 F-FPyKYNE derivative of the clinically used AT 1 R blocker losartan exhibits high binding selectivity for kidney AT 1 R and rapid metabolism in rats. The aim of this study was to further assess the binding profile of this novel PET agent for imaging AT 1 R in rats and pigs. In vitro binding assays were performed with 18 F-FPyKYNE-losartan in rat kidneys. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to assess dosimetry, antagonistic efficacy via blood pressure measurements, and presence of labeled metabolites in kidneys. Test-retest PET imaging, blocking with AT 1 R antagonist candesartan (10 mg/kg), and plasma metabolism analysis were performed in female Yorkshire pigs. 18 F-FPyKYNE-losartan bound with high affinity (dissociation constant of 49.4 ± 18.0 nM and maximal binding of 348 ± 112 fmol/mm 2 ) to rat kidney AT 1 R. It bound strongly to plasma proteins in rats (97%), and its labeled metabolites displayed minimal interference on renal AT 1 R binding. FPyKYNE-losartan fully antagonized the Ang II pressor effect, albeit with 4-fold potency reduction (the effective dose inhibiting 50% of the Ang II-induced maximal pressor response of 25.5 mg/kg) relative to losartan. PET imaging exhibited high kidney-to-blood contrast and slow renal clearance, with an SUV of 14.1 ± 6.2. Excellent reproducibility was observed in the calculated test-retest variability (7.2% ± 0.75%). Only hydrophilic-labeled metabolites were present in plasma samples, and renal retention was reduced (-60%) at 10-15 min after blockade with candesartan. 18 F-FPyKYNE-losartan has a favorable binding profile and displays high potential for translational work in humans as an AT 1 R PET imaging agent. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  9. MOEMS FPI sensors for NIR-MIR microspectrometer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akujärvi, A.; Guo, B.; Mannila, R.; Rissanen, A.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents near- and mid- infrared (NIR-MIR) wavelength range optical MEMS Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) developed for automotive and multi-gas sensing applications. MEMS FPI platform for NIR-range consist of LPCVD (low-pressure chemical vapour) deposited polySi-SiN λ/4-thin film Bragg reflectors, with the air gap formed by sacrificial SiO2 etching in HF vapour. Characterization results for the NIR MFPI devices for λ = 1.5 - 2.0 μm show resolution of 15 nm at the optimization wavelength of 1750 nm. We also present a MIR-range MEMS FPI for λ = 2.5 - 3.5 μm, which utilizes silicon and air in within the Bragg reflector structure to provide a high contrast for improved resolution. Characterization results show a FWHM (Full Width Half Maximum) of 20 nm in comparison to the 50 nm resolution provided by earlier MEMS FPIs realized for hydrocarbon sensing with conventional CVD-thin film materials. The improved resolution and the extended operation region shows potential to enable simultaneous sensing of CO2 and multiple hydrocarbons.

  10. Bacterial translocation and intestinal injury in experimental necrotizing enterocolitis model.

    PubMed

    Ciftci, I; Ozdemir, M; Aktan, M; Aslan, K

    2012-01-01

    To study the occurrence of bacterial translocation and to assess the impact of breastfeeding on bacterial translocation in the animal model of necrotizing enterocolitis. A total of 20 neonate Sprague-Dawley rats were enrolled in the study. Rats were randomly allocated into either control or study group just after birth. Ten newborn rats in the control group were left with their mother to be breast-fed. In contrary, necrotizing enterocolitis group consisted of neonates that were separated from their mothers, housed in an incubator and were gavaged with a special rodent formula three times daily. Survival rates, weight changes, and morphologic scoring obtained after microscopic evaluation were determined as microbiologic evaluation criteria. All the rats in the control group survived, while 1 (10 %) rat died in the necrotizing enterocolitis group. Mortality rates of the two groups were similar. All the formula-fed animals in the necrotizing enterocolitis group had significant weight loss compared to the breast milk-fed rats in the control group (p<0.05). A total of 7 (70 %) and 2 (20 %) E. coli growths were identified in the bowel lumen, liver, and spleen of necrotizing enterocolitis and control groups, respectively. This difference was statistically significant. In peritoneal smear cultures, a total of 3 (30 %) growths were detected in the necrotizing enterocolitis group and 1 (10 %) growth in the control group. As the result of a disturbance in the intestinal flora and impairment of the intestinal barrier in necrotizing enterocolitis, microrganisms in the bowel pass through the intestinal barrier and reach the liver and the spleen via the hematogenous route. This condition is closely related to the impairment of physiological and functional features of the intestinal barrier and is independent from the degree of intestinal injury. Bacterial translocation should be remembered in cases suspected of necrotizing enterocolitis, and a rapid and effective treatment

  11. Enteric nervous system abnormalities are present in human necrotizing enterocolitis: potential neurotransplantation therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal dysmotility following human necrotizing enterocolitis suggests that the enteric nervous system is injured during the disease. We examined human intestinal specimens to characterize the enteric nervous system injury that occurs in necrotizing enterocolitis, and then used an animal model of experimental necrotizing enterocolitis to determine whether transplantation of neural stem cells can protect the enteric nervous system from injury. Methods Human intestinal specimens resected from patients with necrotizing enterocolitis (n = 18), from control patients with bowel atresia (n = 8), and from necrotizing enterocolitis and control patients undergoing stoma closure several months later (n = 14 and n = 6 respectively) were subjected to histologic examination, immunohistochemistry, and real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction to examine the myenteric plexus structure and neurotransmitter expression. In addition, experimental necrotizing enterocolitis was induced in newborn rat pups and neurotransplantation was performed by administration of fluorescently labeled neural stem cells, with subsequent visualization of transplanted cells and determination of intestinal integrity and intestinal motility. Results There was significant enteric nervous system damage with increased enteric nervous system apoptosis, and decreased neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in myenteric ganglia from human intestine resected for necrotizing enterocolitis compared with control intestine. Structural and functional abnormalities persisted months later at the time of stoma closure. Similar abnormalities were identified in rat pups exposed to experimental necrotizing enterocolitis. Pups receiving neural stem cell transplantation had improved enteric nervous system and intestinal integrity, differentiation of transplanted neural stem cells into functional neurons, significantly improved intestinal transit, and significantly decreased

  12. Radiosynthesis of a new PSMA targeting ligand ([18F]FPy-DUPA-Pep).

    PubMed

    Malik, Noeen; Machulla, Hans-Jürgen; Solbach, Christoph; Winter, Gordon; Reske, Sven N; Zlatopolskiy, Boris

    2011-07-01

    Due to the specificity of expression of PSMA (prostate specific membrane antigen) particularly in prostate cancer cells (e.g. LNCaP), numerous PSMA ligands have been synthesized until now. In the current study, we synthesized DUPA-Pep having 2-[3-(1,3-dicarboxypropyl)ureido]pentanedioic acid (DUPA) linked via 8-aminooctanoic acid to two phenylalanine residues and chose 6-[(18)F]fluoronicotinic acid 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl ester [(18)F]FPy-TFP as a prosthetic group for coupling. [(18)F]FPy-DUPA-Pep was obtained in a radiochemical yield of 48±0.9% (decay uncorrected) within 50 min with a chemical purity of >98%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Vedolizumab treatment for immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Bergqvist, Viktoria; Hertervig, Erik; Gedeon, Peter; Kopljar, Marija; Griph, Håkan; Kinhult, Sara; Carneiro, Ana; Marsal, Jan

    2017-05-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPI), such as ipilimumab [anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) antibody] and nivolumab or pembrolizumab [anti-programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) antibodies], improve survival in several cancer types. Since inhibition of CTLA-4 or PD-1 leads to non-selective activation of the immune system, immune-related adverse events (irAEs) are frequent. Enterocolitis is a common irAE, currently managed with corticosteroids and, if necessary, anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy. Such a regimen carries a risk of serious side-effects including infections, and may potentially imply impaired antitumor effects. Vedolizumab is an anti-integrin α4β7 antibody with gut-specific immunosuppressive effects, approved for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. We report a case series of seven patients with metastatic melanoma or lung cancer, treated with vedolizumab off-label for ipilimumab- or nivolumab-induced enterocolitis, from June 2014 through October 2016. Clinical, laboratory, endoscopic, and histologic data were analyzed. Patients initially received corticosteroids but were steroid-dependent and/or partially refractory. One patient was administered infliximab but was refractory. The median time from onset of enterocolitis to start of vedolizumab therapy was 79 days. Following vedolizumab therapy, all patients but one experienced steroid-free enterocolitis remission, with normalized fecal calprotectin. This was achieved after a median of 56 days from vedolizumab start, without any vedolizumab-related side-effects noted. The patient in whom vedolizumab was not successful, due to active ulcerative colitis, received vedolizumab prophylactically. This is the first case series to suggest that vedolizumab is an effective and well-tolerated therapeutic for steroid-dependent or partially refractory ICPI-induced enterocolitis. A larger prospective study to evaluate vedolizumab in this indication is warranted.

  14. [Prognostic factors related to mortality in newborns with necrotising enterocolitis].

    PubMed

    Bracho-Blanchet, Eduardo; Torrecilla-Navarrete, María Esther; Zalles-Vidal, Cristian; Ibarra-Ríos, Daniel; Fernández-Portilla, Emilio; Dávila-Pérez, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis is the most frequent and severe acquired gastrointestinal disease in newborns and still has high mortality. There are few published papers about prognostic factors of death in our country. To know the factors associated with death in patients with necrotizing enterocolitis. Retrospective, descriptive, comparative study with a case-control design was conducted on patients with necrotizing enterocolitis during a 5-year period. Deceased patients had significantly lower platelet counts compared to survivors (P=0.022) and the prognostic factors associated with mortality were anaemia (P=0.006, OR = 15.62), stage III of necrotizing enterocolitis (P<0.001, OR = 47.5), to require surgical treatment (P<0.001, OR = 47.5), to have intestinal necrosis (P=0.001, OR = 48.5) or perforation (P=0.016, OR =24.25), to have medical complications, specifically intravascular disseminated coagulation (P<.001, RR = 98), and multi-organ failure (P<0.001, RR = 2). It was also found that patients with gastrointestinal symptoms and diagnosis of necrotising enterocolitis when they were hospitalized were more likely to have surgical treatment. We must be aware of the factors associated with mortality, as well as those associated with surgical treatment to reduce overall mortality for this condition. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of Gastrointestinal Function: Risk Factors for Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Clark, David A.; Mitchell, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    The intestinal tract of the fetus matures rapidly in the third trimester of the pregnancy. The premature infant has decreased intestinal motility, limited digestion, absorption and excretion, and poor intestinal barrier defense. These limitations place the infant at high risk for acute intestinal injury, necrotizing enterocolitis. This article reviews the development of the gastrointestinal tract in the fetus, the barriers to feeding the high risk, premature infant, and the most serious intestinal disease, necrotizing enterocolitis. PMID:23118695

  16. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants with Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation or Surgical Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Wadhawan, Rajan; Oh, William; Hintz, Susan R; Blakely, Martin L; Das, Abhik; Bell, Edward F.; Saha, Shampa; Laptook, Abbot R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Stoll, Barbara J.; Walsh, Michele C.; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine if extremely low birth weight infants with surgical necrotizing enterocolitis have a higher risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment and neurodevelopmental impairment among survivors (secondary outcome) at 18–22 months corrected age compared to infants with spontaneous intestinal perforation and infants without necrotizing enterocolitis or spontaneous intestinal perforation. Study Design Retrospective analysis of the Neonatal Research Network very low birth weight registry, evaluating extremely low birth weight infants born between 2000–2005. The study infants were designated into 3 groups: 1) Spontaneous intestinal perforation without necrotizing enterocolitis; 2) Surgical necrotizing enterocolitis (Bell's stage III); and 3) Neither spontaneous intestinal perforation nor necrotizing enterocolitis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between the clinical group and death or neurodevelopmental impairment, controlling for multiple confounding factors including center. Results Infants with surgical necrotizing enterocolitis had the highest rate of death prior to hospital discharge (53.5%) and death or neurodevelopmental impairment (82.3%) compared to infants in the spontaneous intestinal perforation group (39.1% and 79.3%) and no necrotizing enterocolitis/no spontaneous intestinal perforation group (22.1% and 53.3%; p<0.001). Similar results were observed for neurodevelopmental impairment among survivors. On logistic regression analysis, both spontaneous intestinal perforation and surgical necrotizing enterocolitis were associated with increased risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (adjusted OR 2.21, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.2 and adjusted OR 2.11, 95% CI: 1.5, 2.9 respectively) and neurodevelopmental impairment among survivors (adjusted OR 2.17, 95% CI: 1.4, 3.2 and adjusted OR 1.70, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.4 respectively). Conclusions Spontaneous intestinal perforation and surgical necrotizing

  17. Enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis: statistical analysis of histology features in viable and ischemic bowel.

    PubMed

    Medlicott, Shaun A C; Guggisberg, Kelly A; DesCôteaux, Jean-Gaston; Beck, Paul

    2006-07-01

    Enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis is a rare cause of segmental ischemic enterocolitis. This artery-sparing transmural vasculitis is classically a circumferential phlebitis with perivenular lymphocyte cuffing and thrombi in the absence of systemic manifestations. Myointimal hyperplasia may represent a chronic phase of enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis. Subclinical or early stage enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis is not well delineated. We analyzed 600 submucosal and subserosal veins from both ischemic and intact bowel segments to discern if vascular morphology varied between sites. Crescentic and circumferential lymphocytic phlebitis is more common in viable bowel than in the ischemic segment. A nonsignificant trend was found for increased crescentic morphology between intact bowel remote from the ischemic focus compared with that adjacent to the ischemic focus. Hallmarks of ischemic bowel are necrotizing phlebitis and thrombi formation. Thrombophlebitis morphology is distinctly different in viable and ischemic bowel, changing from the classic lymphocytic to necrotizing lesions respectively.

  18. Relationship between Packed Red Blood Cell Transfusion and Severe Form of Necrotizing Enterocolitis: A Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Garg, Parvesh M; Ravisankar, Srikanth; Bian, Hui; Macgilvray, Scott; Shekhawat, Prem S

    2015-12-01

    To determine if packed red blood cell transfusion is associated with onset of necrotizing enterocolitis, and whether withholding feed has any association with it. Case records of 100 preterm neonates, (<34 weeks gestation) who developed necrotizing enterocolitis and 99 random age-and gestation-matched controls were evaluated for any blood transfusion 48 h before onset of necrotizing enterocolitis. During the study period 26% infants received packed red blood cell transfusion within 48-hours prior to onset of disease and 84% of these infants were not fed around the time of transfusion. Infants who developed necrotizing enterocolitis after transfusion were older, of lower gestational age, birth weight and more likely to develop stage 3 disease. They had a lower hematocrit at birth and before onset of disease and withholding feeds around transfusion did not prevent necrotizing enterocolitis. Odds of mortality in these infants was 2.83 (95% CI 0.97-8.9) and survivors had no significant difference in incidence of periventricular leukomalacia and length of hospital stay. Blood Transfusion associated necrotizing enterocolitis is a severe, mainly surgical form of disease.

  19. Radiation Enterocolitis Requiring Surgery in Patients With Gynecological Malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Iraha, Shiro; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Moromizato, Hidehiko

    Purpose: To identify the characteristics, risk factors, and clinical outcomes of radiation enterocolitis requiring surgery in patients with gynecologic malignancies. Methods and Materials: The records of 1,349 patients treated with pelvic radiotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. The majority of the patients (88%) were treated with 50 Gy or 50.4 Gy pelvic irradiation in conventional fractionations with anteroposterior fields. Results: Forty-eight patients (3.6%) developed radiation enterocolitis requiring surgery. Terminal ileum was the most frequent site (50%) and most of the lesions had stenosis or perforation. On univariate analysis, previous abdominopelvic surgery, diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking and primary site had an impact onmore » the complications, and on multivariate analysis, abdominopelvic surgery, DM, and smoking were independent predictors of the complications requiring surgery. After the surgical intervention, the frequency of Grade 2 or more bleeding was significantly lower in patients treated with intestinal resection in addition to decompression than those treated with intestinal decompression alone. Conclusions: Severe radiation enterocolitis requiring surgery usually occurred at the terminal ileum and was strongly correlated with previous abdominopelvic surgery, DM, and smoking. Concerning the management, liberal resection of the affected bowel appears to be the preferable therapy.« less

  20. Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants With Surgical Short Bowel Syndrome: Incidence, Morbidity and Mortality, and Growth Outcomes at 18 to 22 Months

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Conrad R.; Hansen, Nellie I.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Stoll, Barbara J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to determine the (1) incidence of short bowel syndrome in very low birth weight (<1500 g) infants, (2) associated morbidity and mortality during initial hospitalization, and (3) impact on short-term growth and nutrition in extremely low birth weight (<1000 g) infants. METHODS Infants who were born from January 1, 2002, through June 30, 2005, and enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network were studied. Risk factors for developing short bowel syndrome as a result of partial bowel resection (surgical short bowel syndrome) and outcomes were evaluated for all neonates until hospital discharge, death, or 120 days. Extremely low birth weight survivors were further evaluated at 18 to 22 months’ corrected age for feeding methods and growth. RESULTS The incidence of surgical short bowel syndrome in this cohort of 12 316 very low birth weight infants was 0.7%. Necrotizing enterocolitis was the most common diagnosis associated with surgical short bowel syndrome. More very low birth weight infants with short bowel syndrome (20%) died during initial hospitalization than those without necrotizing enterocolitis or short bowel syndrome (12%) but fewer than the infants with surgical necrotizing enterocolitis without short bowel syndrome (53%). Among 5657 extremely low birth weight infants, the incidence of surgical short bowel syndrome was 1.1%. At 18 to 22 months, extremely low birth weight infants with short bowel syndrome were more likely to still require tube feeding (33%) and to have been rehospitalized (79%). Moreover, these infants had growth delay with shorter lengths and smaller head circumferences than infants without necrotizing enterocolitis or short bowel syndrome. CONCLUSIONS Short bowel syndrome is rare in neonates but has a high mortality rate. At 18 to 22 months’ corrected age, extremely low birth weight infants with short bowel syndrome were more likely to have

  1. Fatal neutropenic enterocolitis due to clostridium septicum.

    PubMed

    Shah, B K; KC, R

    2011-10-01

    We describe a case of Clostridium septicum enterocolitis in a patient with pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukaemia undergoing autologous stem cell transplant. In the setting of neutropenia, Clostridium septicum should be suspected in patients who develop signs and symptoms of acute abdomen.

  2. The pathogenesis of Hirschsprung's disease-associated enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Austin, Kelly Miller

    2012-11-01

    Hirschsprung's disease-associated enterocolitis (HAEC) remains the most life-threatening complication in Hirschsprung disease (HD) patients. The pathogenesis of HAEC has not been determined and many hypotheses regarding the etiology of HAEC have been proposed. These include a possible causal relationship between the abnormal enteric nervous system development in HD and the development of enterocolitis. Based on the complex genetic causes of HD that have been discovered and the resultant heterogeneous group of patients that exists, the causes of HAEC are likely multiple. New insights regarding the relationship of the role of the enteric nervous system and its interaction between intestinal barrier function, innate host immunity, and commensal microflora have been discovered, which may shed light on this perplexing problem. This review presents current known risk factors of HAEC and the proposed theories and supporting evidence for the potential etiologies of HAEC. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Lactoferrin and necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Michael P

    2013-03-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional protein and a member of the transferrin family. LF and lysozyme in breast milk kill bacteria. In the stomach, pepsin digests and releases a potent peptide antibiotic called lactoferricin from native LF. The antimicrobial characteristics of LF may facilitate a healthy intestinal microbiome. LF is the major whey in human milk; its highest concentration is in colostrum. This fact highlights early feeding of colostrum and also fresh mature milk as a way to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Risk factors of necrotizing enterocolitis].

    PubMed

    Tapia-Rombo, C A; Velasco-Lavín, M R; Nieto-Caldelas, A

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the present study is to compare risk factors of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) between two group: group A, newborns with the disease and group B, newborns with other diseases different from NEC, in order to know if these risk factors are more frequent or not in the first group. We assessed the clinical records of all the patients hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and Neonatology Service of the La Raza General Hospital between 1987 and 1991 with the diagnosis of NEC. They were compared with 65 clinical records chosen at random of patients hospitalized in the same Unit with other diagnosis at the same time, and who were discharged by improvement or deceased. In all of them were look for known risk factors for NEC generally accepted such as: prematurity, neonatal asphyxia, poliglobulia, cyanotic congenital heart disease, patent ductus arteriosus, respiratory distress syndrome, catheterization of umbilical vessels, early feeding of elevated formula increases, exchange exchange transfusion, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, infection, etc. Just 25 records of the possible 50 with the diagnosis of NEC full filled inclusion criteria. There were no statistically significant difference in weight, sex, mortality and known risk factors of NEC between both groups. Were concluded that NEC is a disease of unknown etiology that should be studied more thoroughly. The known risk factors must be avoided because the patient susceptibility probably play an important role.

  5. Development of the FPI+ as facility science instrument for SOFIA cycle four observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfüller, Enrico; Wiedemann, Manuel; Wolf, Jürgen; Krabbe, Alfred

    2016-08-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a heavily modified Boeing 747SP aircraft, accommodating a 2.5m infrared telescope. This airborne observation platform takes astronomers to flight altitudes of up to 13.7 km (45,000ft) and therefore allows an unobstructed view of the infrared universe at wavelengths between 0.3 m and 1600 m. SOFIA is currently completing its fourth cycle of observations and utilizes eight different imaging and spectroscopic science instruments. New instruments for SOFIAs cycle 4 observations are the High-resolution Airborne Wideband Camera-plus (HAWC+) and the Focal Plane Imager (FPI+). The latter is an integral part of the telescope assembly and is used on every SOFIA flight to ensure precise tracking on the desired targets. The FPI+ is used as a visual-light photometer in its role as facility science instrument. Since the upgrade of the FPI camera and electronics in 2013, it uses a thermo-electrically cooled science grade EM-CCD sensor inside a commercial-off-the-shelf Andor camera. The back-illuminated sensor has a peak quantum efficiency of 95% and the dark current is as low as 0.01 e-/pix/sec. With this new hardware the telescope has successfully tracked on 16th magnitude stars and thus the sky coverage, e.g. the area of sky that has suitable tracking stars, has increased to 99%. Before its use as an integrated tracking imager, the same type of camera has been used as a standalone diagnostic tool to analyze the telescope pointing stability at frequencies up to 200 Hz (imaging with 400 fps). These measurements help to improve the telescope pointing control algorithms and therefore reduce the image jitter in the focal plane. Science instruments benefit from this improvement with smaller image sizes for longer exposure times. The FPI has also been used to support astronomical observations like stellar occultations by the dwarf planet Pluto and a number of exoplanet transits. Especially the observation of the

  6. Carbohydrate maldigestion induces necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains the most severe gastrointestinal disorder in preterm infants. It is associated with the initiation of enteral nutrition and may be related to immature carbohydrate digestive capacity. We tested the hypothesis that a formula containing maltodextrin vs. lactose ...

  7. Carbohydrate maldigestion induces necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major gastrointestinal disorder in preterm infants. Key risk factors for NEC are enteral feeding and microbial colonization. Maldigestion of carbohydrate secondary to immature digestive function has been suspected to cause bacterial overgrowth and NEC. We investi...

  8. Assessing patient report of function: content validity of the Functional Performance Inventory-Short Form (FPI-SF) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    PubMed

    Leidy, Nancy Kline; Hamilton, Alan; Becker, Karin

    2012-01-01

    The performance of daily activities is a major challenge for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The Functional Performance Inventory (FPI) was developed based on an analytical framework of functional status and qualitative interviews with COPD patients describing these difficulties. The 65-item FPI was reduced to a 32-item short form (SF) through a systematic process of qualitative and quantitative item reduction and formatted for greater clarity and ease of use. This study examined the content validity of the reduced, reformatted form of the instrument, the FPI-SF. Qualitative cognitive interviews were conducted with COPD patients recruited from three geographically diverse pulmonary clinics in the United States. Interviews were designed to assess respondent interpretation of the instrument, evaluate clarity and ease of completion, and identify any new activities participants found important and difficult to perform that were not represented by the existing items. Twenty subjects comprised the sample; 12 (60%) were male, 14 (70%) were Caucasian, the mean age was 63.0 ± 11.3 years, 12 (60%) were retired, the mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) was 1.5 ± 0.5 L, and the mean percent predicted FEV(1) was 48.4% ± 13.1%. Participants understood the FPI-SF as intended, including instructions, items, and response options. Two minor formatting changes were suggested to improve clarity of presentation. Participants found the content of the FPI-SF to be comprehensive, with items covering activities they felt were important and often difficult to perform. These results, together with its development history and previously tested quantitative properties, suggest that the FPI-SF is content valid for use in clinical studies of COPD.

  9. Assessing patient report of function: content validity of the Functional Performance Inventory-Short Form (FPI-SF) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    PubMed Central

    Leidy, Nancy Kline; Hamilton, Alan; Becker, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The performance of daily activities is a major challenge for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The Functional Performance Inventory (FPI) was developed based on an analytical framework of functional status and qualitative interviews with COPD patients describing these difficulties. The 65-item FPI was reduced to a 32-item short form (SF) through a systematic process of qualitative and quantitative item reduction and formatted for greater clarity and ease of use. This study examined the content validity of the reduced, reformatted form of the instrument, the FPI-SF. Patients and methods Qualitative cognitive interviews were conducted with COPD patients recruited from three geographically diverse pulmonary clinics in the United States. Interviews were designed to assess respondent interpretation of the instrument, evaluate clarity and ease of completion, and identify any new activities participants found important and difficult to perform that were not represented by the existing items. Results Twenty subjects comprised the sample; 12 (60%) were male, 14 (70%) were Caucasian, the mean age was 63.0 ± 11.3 years, 12 (60%) were retired, the mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was 1.5 ± 0.5 L, and the mean percent predicted FEV1 was 48.4% ± 13.1%. Participants understood the FPI-SF as intended, including instructions, items, and response options. Two minor formatting changes were suggested to improve clarity of presentation. Participants found the content of the FPI-SF to be comprehensive, with items covering activities they felt were important and often difficult to perform. Conclusion These results, together with its development history and previously tested quantitative properties, suggest that the FPI-SF is content valid for use in clinical studies of COPD. PMID:22969295

  10. Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) associated with infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Siğirci, Ahmet; Akinci, Ayşehan; Ozgen, Unsal; Ozen, Metehan

    2006-02-01

    Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) is an unusual acute complication of neutropenia, most often associated with leukaemia and lymphoma and characterized by segmental caecal and ascending colonic ulceration that may progress to necrosis, perforation, and septicaemia. We present a unique case of an 8-year-old girl with recently diagnosed infectious mononucleosis having findings consistent with typhlitis on abdominal CT.

  11. Association of Shah-Waardenburgh syndrome: a review of 6 cases.

    PubMed

    Jan, Iftikhar A; Stroedter, Lutz; Haq, Anwaar-ul; Din, Zaheer-ud

    2008-04-01

    Shah-Waardenburg syndrome (SWS) is a neurocristopathy and is characterized by Hirschsprung's disease (HD), deafness, and depigmentation of hairs, skin, and iris. The aim of the article is to study the relative frequency of associations in 6 consecutive cases of SWS. A review of 6 consecutive patients with SWS was performed to study the frequency of various components of the syndrome. Six patients had features of SWS. All patients had HD; of these, 3 had rectosigmoid HD, whereas 3 had extended HD. All patients had white forelock of hairs with skin depigmentation. One patient had sensorineural deafness, whereas other babies were less than 1 year, and thus, full evaluation of hearing deficiency was not assessed. Three patients had blue eyes, whereas other babies had normal iris pigmentation. Skin depigmentation was noted in 5 of the 6 patients. Three babies were seriously malnourished and showed higher association of enterocolitis. Shah-Waardenburg syndrome is an uncommon association of HD. Depigmentation with a white forelock and skin manifestations are common, whereas blue iris, long segment disease, and enterocolitis are present in nearly half of the patients.

  12. Necrotizing enterocolitis is associated with earlier achievement of enteral autonomy in children with short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Eric A; Khan, Faraz A; Fisher, Jeremy G; Fullerton, Brenna S; Hall, Amber; Raphael, Bram P; Duggan, Christopher; Modi, Biren P; Jaksic, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains one of the most common underlying diagnoses of short bowel syndrome (SBS) in children. The relationship between the etiology of SBS and ultimate enteral autonomy has not been well studied. This investigation sought to evaluate the rate of achievement of enteral autonomy in SBS patients with and without NEC. Following IRB approval, 109 patients (2002-2014) at a multidisciplinary intestinal rehabilitation program were reviewed. The primary outcome evaluated was achievement of enteral autonomy (i.e. fully weaning from parenteral nutrition). Patient demographics, primary diagnosis, residual small bowel length, percent expected small bowel length, median serum citrulline level, number of abdominal operations, status of the ileocecal valve (ICV), presence of ileostomy, liver function tests, and treatment for bacterial overgrowth were recorded for each patient. Median age at PN onset was 0 weeks [IQR 0-0]. Median residual small bowel length was 33.5 cm [IQR 20-70]. NEC was present in 37 of 109 (33.9%) of patients. 45 patients (41%) achieved enteral autonomy after a median PN duration of 15.3 [IQR 7.2-38.4]months. Overall, 64.9% of patients with NEC achieved enteral autonomy compared to 29.2% of patients with a different primary diagnosis (p=0.001, Fig. 1). Patients with NEC remained more likely than those without NEC to achieve enteral autonomy after two (45.5% vs. 12.0%) and four (35.7% vs. 6.3%) years on PN (Fig. 1). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following parameters as independent predictors of enteral autonomy: diagnosis of NEC (p<0.002), median serum citrulline level (p<0.02), absence of a jejunostomy or ileostomy (p=0.013), and percent expected small bowel length (p=0.005). Children with SBS because of NEC have a significantly higher likelihood of fully weaning from parenteral nutrition compared to children with other causes of SBS. Additionally, patients with NEC may attain enteral autonomy even after long

  13. Gut bacteria are rarely shared by co-hospitalized premature infants, regardless of necrotizing enterocolitis development

    SciTech Connect

    Raveh-Sadka, Tali; Thomas, Brian C.; Singh, Andrea

    Premature infants are highly vulnerable to aberrant gastrointestinal tract colonization, a process that may lead to diseases like necrotizing enterocolitis. Thus, spread of potential pathogens among hospitalized infants is of great concern. Here, we reconstructed hundreds of high-quality genomes of microorganisms that colonized co-hospitalized premature infants, assessed their metabolic potential, and tracked them over time to evaluate bacterial strain dispersal among infants. We compared microbial communities in infants who did and did not develop necrotizing enterocolitis. Surprisingly, while potentially pathogenic bacteria of the same species colonized many infants, our genome-resolved analysis revealed that strains colonizing each baby were typically distinct.more » In particular, no strain was common to all infants who developed necrotizing enterocolitis. The paucity of shared gut colonizers suggests the existence of significant barriers to the spread of bacteria among infants. Furthermore, we demonstrate that strain-resolved comprehensive community analysis can be accomplished on potentially medically relevant time scales.« less

  14. Gut bacteria are rarely shared by co-hospitalized premature infants, regardless of necrotizing enterocolitis development

    DOE PAGES

    Raveh-Sadka, Tali; Thomas, Brian C.; Singh, Andrea; ...

    2015-03-03

    Premature infants are highly vulnerable to aberrant gastrointestinal tract colonization, a process that may lead to diseases like necrotizing enterocolitis. Thus, spread of potential pathogens among hospitalized infants is of great concern. Here, we reconstructed hundreds of high-quality genomes of microorganisms that colonized co-hospitalized premature infants, assessed their metabolic potential, and tracked them over time to evaluate bacterial strain dispersal among infants. We compared microbial communities in infants who did and did not develop necrotizing enterocolitis. Surprisingly, while potentially pathogenic bacteria of the same species colonized many infants, our genome-resolved analysis revealed that strains colonizing each baby were typically distinct.more » In particular, no strain was common to all infants who developed necrotizing enterocolitis. The paucity of shared gut colonizers suggests the existence of significant barriers to the spread of bacteria among infants. Furthermore, we demonstrate that strain-resolved comprehensive community analysis can be accomplished on potentially medically relevant time scales.« less

  15. Gut bacteria are rarely shared by co-hospitalized premature infants, regardless of necrotizing enterocolitis development

    PubMed Central

    Raveh-Sadka, Tali; Thomas, Brian C; Singh, Andrea; Firek, Brian; Brooks, Brandon; Castelle, Cindy J; Sharon, Itai; Baker, Robyn; Good, Misty; Morowitz, Michael J; Banfield, Jillian F

    2015-01-01

    Premature infants are highly vulnerable to aberrant gastrointestinal tract colonization, a process that may lead to diseases like necrotizing enterocolitis. Thus, spread of potential pathogens among hospitalized infants is of great concern. Here, we reconstructed hundreds of high-quality genomes of microorganisms that colonized co-hospitalized premature infants, assessed their metabolic potential, and tracked them over time to evaluate bacterial strain dispersal among infants. We compared microbial communities in infants who did and did not develop necrotizing enterocolitis. Surprisingly, while potentially pathogenic bacteria of the same species colonized many infants, our genome-resolved analysis revealed that strains colonizing each baby were typically distinct. In particular, no strain was common to all infants who developed necrotizing enterocolitis. The paucity of shared gut colonizers suggests the existence of significant barriers to the spread of bacteria among infants. Importantly, we demonstrate that strain-resolved comprehensive community analysis can be accomplished on potentially medically relevant time scales. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05477.001 PMID:25735037

  16. Streptococcus bovis septicemia and meningitis associated with chronic radiation enterocolitis

    SciTech Connect

    Jadeja, L.; Kantarjian, H.; Bolivar, R.

    1983-12-01

    We describe the first patient with simultaneous S bovis septicemia and meningitis associated with chronic radiation enterocolitis. This case underlines the value of a thorough gastrointestinal evaluation of all patients with S bovis infection, and the need for a neurologic investigation even with minor neurologic manifestations.

  17. Enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis as a newly recognized manifestation of IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Laco, Jan; Örhalmi, Július; Bártová, Jolana; Zimandlová, Dana

    2015-04-01

    Herein we present a case of a 65-year-old woman with enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis (ELP) who presented with anemic syndrome and in whom severe stenosis of the right flexure of large bowel was detected. The microscopic examination revealed fibrosis of the submucosa and lymphoplasmacytic phlebitis of small veins and venules, whereas arteries were spared. There were 110 IgG4-positive and 160 IgG-positive plasma cells in 1 high-power field, respectively, with corresponding IgG4/IgG ratio of 0.69. The IgG4 serum level was 2.42 g/L. According to the currently proposed criteria, this ELP case is the first that may be diagnosed as definite IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). Although based on the sole case description, taken together with a recent review and a case report, we presume that a subset of ELPs is a manifestation of IgG4-RD. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Joseph's Story: A Case Study of Late-Onset Necrotizing Enterocolitis From Early Birth to Recovery.

    PubMed

    Gephart, Sheila M; Martin, Laura B; Kijewski, Amy; Johnson, Scott R

    2015-01-01

    Although necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is often catastrophic among premature infants, most cases occur in the first month after birth. This case study presents Joseph's story about a 24-week surviving twin who developed severe NEC at 5 months of age just days before he was to go home. The purpose of this case study report is to place Joseph and his parents' experience in the context of what is known about NEC risk factors, clinical presentation, and treatment, and then to offer recommendations to healthcare professionals to support families from NEC diagnosis to recovery. Now 5 years old, Joseph continues to manage consequences of NEC including deafness, developmental delay, multiple food allergies, and recurrent gastrointestinal challenges from short gut syndrome. Although NEC struck late and kept Joseph in the neonatal intensive care unit for 228 days, its consequences remain with this resilient child and his family.

  19. FPI observations of nighttime mesospheric and thermospheric winds in China and their comparisons with HWM07

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wei

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed the nighttime horizontal neutral winds in the middle atmosphere (˜87 and ˜98 km) and thermosphere (˜250 km) derived from a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI), which was installed at Xinglong station (40.2◦ N, 117.4◦ E) in central China. The wind data covered the period from April 2010 to July 2012. We studied the annual, semiannual and terannual variations of the midnight winds at ˜87 km, ˜98 km and ˜250 km for the first time and compared them with Horizontal Wind Model 2007 (HWM07). Our results show the following: (1) at ˜ 87 km, both the observed and model zonal winds have similar phases in the annual and semiannual variations. However, the HWM07 amplitudes are much larger. (2) At ˜98 km, the model shows strong eastward wind in the summer solstice, resulting in a large annual variation, while the observed strongest component is semiannual. The observation and model midnight meridional winds agree well. Both are equatorward throughout the year and have small amplitudes in the annual and semiannual variations. (3) There are large discrepancies between the observed and HWM07 winds at ˜250 km. This discrepancy is largely due to the strong semiannual zonal wind in the model and the phase difference in the annual variation of the meridional wind. The FPI annual variation coincides with the results from Arecibo, which has similar geomagnetic latitude as Xinglong station. In General, the consistency of FPI winds with model winds is better at ˜87 and ˜98 km than that at ˜250 km. We also studied the seasonally and monthly averaged nighttime winds. The most salient features include the following: (1) the seasonally averaged zonal winds at ˜87 and ˜98 km typically have small variations throughout the night. (2) The model zonal and meridional nighttime wind variations are typically much larger than those of observations at ˜87 km and ˜98 km. (3) At ˜250 km, model zonal wind compares well with the observation in the winter. For spring and autumn

  20. Microbial and metabolic signatures of necrotizing enterocolitis in formula-fed piglets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Major risk factors for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) include premature birth, formula feeding, and microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. We previously showed that feeding formula composed of lactose vs corn syrup solids protects against NEC in preterm pigs, however the microbial an...

  1. Abdominal ultrasonographic findings in typhoid fever: a comparison between typhoid patients and those with non-typhoidal Salmonella and Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Akira; Adachi, Yasuo; Iwata, Yoshinori; Sakai, Yoshiyuki; Shigemitu, Kazuaki; Todoroki, Miwako; Ide, Mituru

    2012-03-01

    Typhoid fever is a major health problem in many developing countries and its clinical features are similar to other types of bacterial enterocolitis. Definitive diagnosis by blood culture requires several days and is often unfeasible to perform in developing countries. More efficient and rapid diagnostic methods for typhoid are needed. We compared the pathological changes in the bowel and adjacent tissues of patients having typhoid fever with those having bacterial enterocolitis using ultrasonography. A characteristic of patients with non-typhoidal Salmonella and Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis was mural thickening of the terminal ileum; only mild mural swelling or no swelling was observed in patients with typhoid fever. Mesenteric lymph nodes in patients with typhoid fever were significantly more enlarged compared to patients with other types of bacterial enterocolitis. Our findings suggest typhoid fever is not fundamentally an enteric disease but rather resembles mesenteric lymphadenopathy and ultrasound is a promising modality for diagnosing typhoid fever in developing countries.

  2. Antibiotics modulate intestinal immunity and prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonatal piglets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Preterm birth, bacterial colonization, and formula feeding predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Antibiotics are commonly administered to prevent sepsis in preterm infants, but it is not known whether this affects intestinal immunity and NEC resistance. We hypothesized that broad-spectrum a...

  3. Oral lactoferrin for the treatment of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Neonatal sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) cause significant neonatal mortality and morbidity in spite of appropriate antibiotic therapy. Enhancing host defense and modulating inflammation by using lactoferrin as an adjunct to antibiotics in the treatment of sepsis and/or NEC may improve cl...

  4. Oral lactoferrin for the treatment of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Neonatal sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) cause significant neonatal mortality and morbidity in spite of appropriate antibiotic therapy. Enhancing host defence and modulating inflammation by using lactoferrin as an adjunct to antibiotics in the treatment of sepsis and/or NEC may improve cl...

  5. Necrotizing enterocolitis: Pathophysiology from a historical context.

    PubMed

    Hackam, David; Caplan, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) continues to afflict approximately 7% of preterm infants born weighing less than 1500g, though recent investigations have provided novel insights into the pathogenesis of this complex disease. The disease has been a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units worldwide for many years, and our current understanding reflects exceptional observations made decades ago. In this review, we will describe NEC from a historical context and summarize seminal findings that underscore the importance of enteral feeding, the gut microbiota, and intestinal inflammation in this complex pathophysiology. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. The biochemical properties of the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI)-encoded proteins IglA, IglB, IglC, PdpB and DotU suggest roles in type VI secretion

    PubMed Central

    de Bruin, Olle M.; Duplantis, Barry N.; Ludu, Jagjit S.; Hare, Rebekah F.; Nix, Eli B.; Schmerk, Crystal L.; Robb, Craig S.; Boraston, Alisdair B.; Hueffer, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    The Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI) encodes proteins thought to compose a type VI secretion system (T6SS) that is required for the intracellular growth of Francisella novicida. In this work we used deletion mutagenesis and genetic complementation to determine that the intracellular growth of F. novicida was dependent on 14 of the 18 genes in the FPI. The products of the iglABCD operon were localized by the biochemical fractionation of F. novicida, and Francisella tularensis LVS. Sucrose gradient separation of water-insoluble material showed that the FPI-encoded proteins IglA, IglB and IglC were found in multiple fractions, especially in a fraction that did not correspond to a known membrane fraction. We interpreted these data to suggest that IglA, IglB and IglC are part of a macromolecular structure. Analysis of published structural data suggested that IglC is an analogue of Hcp, which is thought to form long nano-tubes. Thus the fractionation properties of IglA, IglB and IglC are consistent with the current model of the T6SS apparatus, which supposes that IglA and IglB homologues form an outer tube structure that surrounds an inner tube composed of Hcp (IglC) subunits. Fractionation of F. novicida expressing FLAG-tagged DotU (IcmH homologue) and PdpB (IcmF homologue) showed that these proteins localize to the inner membrane. Deletion of dotU led to the cleavage of PdpB, suggesting an interaction of these two proteins that is consistent with results obtained with other T6SSs. Our results may provide a mechanistic basis for many of the studies that have examined the virulence properties of Francisella mutants in FPI genes, namely that the observed phenotypes of the mutants are the result of the disruption of the FPI-encoded T6SS structure. PMID:21980115

  7. Oral lactoferrin for the prevention of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lactoferrin, a normal component of human colostrum, milk, tears, and saliva can enhance host defence and may be effective in the prevention of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm neonates. To assess the safety and effectiveness of oral lactoferrin in the prevention of sepsis and NE...

  8. [Analysis of population characteristics of infants affected by necrotizing enterocolitis in a tertiary centre in the last 12 years].

    PubMed

    García-González, Miriam; Pita-Fernández, Salvador; Caramés-Bouzán, Jesús

    Necrotizing enterocolitis is the most lethal gastrointestinal emergency in the neonatal period. Incidence and mortality have remained stable in recent years despite advances in neonatal intensive care. The aim of this study is to show the general characteristics of patients diagnosed with necrotizing enterocolitis at Teresa Herrera's Hospital (La Coruna, Spain) in the last 12years. This study makes a retrospective and prospective descriptive analysis, evaluating the medical records and collecting radiological demographic variables, gestational data, perinatal history, clinical, analytical and perinatal therapeutic management and events in patients diagnosed with and treated for necrotizing enterocolitis between 2003 and 2015. A total of 124 patients met the criteria for inclusion in the study. The mean gestational age of our patients was 33 weeks and remained stable compared with other studies. The average weight of our patients was 1,873g. In our series of cases there was a progressive and significant increase in maternal age and the rate of artificial pregnancies and multiple births. In our series 38.7% of our patients required surgical treatment and the fatality rate was 11.4%. Despite advances in pre- and perinatal care necrotizing enterocolitis represents the leading cause of premature mortality. Incidence has remained unchanged in recent decades. More studies are required to identify both, risk and protective factors to reduce the morbidity and mortality of this entity. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  9. [The correlation between personality characteristics and burnout syndrome in emergency ambulance workers].

    PubMed

    Bergmueller, A; Zavgorodnii, I; Zavgorodnia, N; Kapustnik, W; Boeckelmann, I

    The work in Emergency Medical Ambulance Service is one of the professions, which is accompanied by high psychological and emotional stress. The aim was to determine the risk of professional burnout syndrome of Emergency Medical Ambulance Service staff and the relationship between burnout syndrome and personality. Ninety-seven doctors (57 women and 40 men, aged 37.0±12.21) of Emergency Medical Ambulance Service were interviewed using the MBI-GS questionnaire and the Freiburg personality questionnaire (FPI). Correlation and regression analysis were used. Nine (11.5%) of respondents had a risk of burnout syndrome and 28 (35.9%) had some symptoms. In the group, aged 45 years and older, the risk of burnout syndrome was not identified. The staff of Emergency Medical Ambulance Service is characterized by stable personality features. It is necessary to identify the prevalence of burnout syndrome and also to identity the causes for its prevention and development of measures on the increase of personal stress resilience.

  10. Detection of cytomegalovirus DNA in fecal samples as a method for CMV enterocolitis diagnosis after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zavrelova, Alzbeta; Radocha, Jakub; Pliskova, Lenka; Paterova, Pavla; Vejrazkova, Eva; Cyrany, Jiri; Gabalec, Filip; Podhola, Miroslav; Zak, Pavel

    2018-05-16

    Cytomegalovirus enterocolitis is a rare but potentially life threatening complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Its early diagnosis and treatment are essential for a successful outcome. To determine the potential benefit of fecal CMV DNA detection in the diagnosis of CMV colitis among stem cell transplant recipients. Biopsies from the lower gastrointestinal tract, taken during 69 episodes of diarrhea, were compared with fecal samples previously examined for CMV DNA in 45 patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Six confirmed cases of CMV colitis were observed, with 16 out of 69 (23%) fecal samples proving positive for CMV DNA. Only one positive sample correlated with histologically confirmed CMV colitis, and 15 samples were evaluated as false positive. These results provide a 16.7% sensitivity and 76.2% specificity in the diagnosis of CMV enterocolitis. The examination of fecal samples for the presence of CMV DNA has very low potential in the diagnosis of CMV enterocolitis after allogeneic stem cell transplantation; therefore, a biopsy of the gastrointestinal mucosa is still warranted for correct diagnosis.

  11. Necrotizing Enterocolitis in the Premature Infant

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Katherine E.; DeForge, Christine E.; Natale, Kristan M.; Phillips, Michele; Van Marter, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains one of the most catastrophic comorbidities associated with prematurity. In spite of extensive research, the disease remains unsolved. The aims of this paper are to present the current state of the science on the pathogenesis of NEC, summarize the clinical presentation and severity staging of the disease, and highlight the nursing assessments required for early identification of NEC and ongoing care for infants diagnosed with this gastrointestinal disease. The distributions of systemic and intestinal clinical signs that are most sensitive to nursing assessment and associated with Bell Staging Criteria are presented. This descriptive data is representative of 117 cases of NEC diagnosed in low gestational age infants (<29 weeks gestation). The data highlights the clinical signs most commonly observed in infants with NEC, and thus, provides NICU nurses an evidence-based guide for assessment and care of infants with NEC. PMID:21730907

  12. Impact of Probiotics on Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    A large number of randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials and cohort studies have demonstrated a decrease in the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis with administration of probiotic microbes. These studies have prompted many neonatologists to adopt routine prophylactic administration of probiotics while others await more definitive studies and/or probiotic products with demonstrated purity and stable numbers of live organisms. Cross-contamination and inadequate sample size limit the value of further traditional placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials. Key areas for future research include mechanisms of protection, optimum probiotic species or strains (or combinations thereof) and duration of treatment, interactions between diet and the administered probiotic, and the influence of genetic polymorphisms in the mother and infant on probiotic response. Next generation probiotics selected based on bacterial genetics rather than ease of production and large cluster-randomized clinical trials hold great promise for NEC prevention. PMID:27836423

  13. Probiotics and necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Paul; Hall, Nigel J; Eaton, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Probiotics for the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis have attracted a huge interest. Combined data from heterogeneous randomised controlled trials suggest that probiotics may decrease the incidence of NEC. However, the individual studies use a variety of probiotic products, and the group at greatest risk of NEC, i.e., those with a birth weight of less than 1000 g, is relatively under-represented in these trials so we do not have adequate evidence of either efficacy or safety to recommend universal prophylactic administration of probiotics to premature infants. These problems have polarized neonatologists, with some taking the view that it is unethical not to universally administer probiotics to premature infants, whereas others regard the meta-analyses as flawed and that there is insufficient evidence to recommend routine probiotic administration. Another problem is that the mechanism by which probiotics might act is not clear, although some experimental evidence is starting to accumulate. This may allow development of surrogate endpoints of effectiveness, refinement of probiotic regimes, or even development of pharmacological agents that may act through the same mechanism. Hence, although routine probiotic administration is controversial, studies of probiotic effects may ultimately lead us to effective means to prevent this devastating disease.

  14. Abdominal near-infrared spectroscopy measurements are lower in preterm infants at risk for necrotizing enterocolitis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Near-infrared spectroscopy is a noninvasive method of measuring local tissue oxygenation (StO[2]). Abdominal StO[2] measurements in preterm piglets are directly correlated with changes in intestinal blood flow and markedly reduced by necrotizing enterocolitis. The objectives of this study were to us...

  15. Necrotizing Enterocolitis and Human Milk Feeding: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Cacho, Nicole Theresa; Parker, Leslie A; Neu, Josef

    2017-03-01

    This article summarizes evidence regarding whether a donor human milk (DHM) and/or an exclusively human milk (EHM) diet decreases the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and the dose of human milk (HM) necessary to reduce the risk of NEC in premature infants. Additional research regarding protection afforded by DHM and EHM is necessary as well as research elucidating the exact dose of HM necessary for NEC risk reduction. Research is also needed to determine whether there is a dose-dependent effect of DHM, a combination of mother's own milk and DHM, and an EHM diet on NEC incidence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fatal necrotising enterocolitis due to mydriatic eye drops.

    PubMed

    Ozgun, Uygur; Demet, Terek; Ozge, Koroglu A; Zafer, Dokumcu; Murat, Sezak; Mehmet, Yalaz; Nilgun, Kultursay

    2014-05-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a serious problem of preterm infants which may lead to impairment of vision and even to blindness if untreated. Routine eye examination is necessary for early diagnosis and treatment of ROP in preterm infants. Mydriatic eye drops (cyclopentolate, tropicamide and phenylephrine) are applied before the ophthalmic examination. These agents are rarely absorbed to systemic circulation and in some cases result with serious side effects like skin rash, tachycardia, feeding intolerance, discomfort, apnea, gastric dilatation and ileus, despite different treatment models and dosage reducing strategies. We report here a preterm patient who died because of severe diffuse necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) after topical application of 0.5% cyclopentolate and 1.25% phenylephrine during ROP screening to emphasise the serious side effects of these agents.

  17. Incidence and timing of presentation of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wendy H; Soraisham, Amuchou Singh; Shah, Vibhuti S; Aziz, Khalid; Yoon, Woojin; Lee, Shoo K

    2012-02-01

    To examine the variation in the incidence and to identify the timing of the presentation of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in a cohort of preterm infants within the Canadian Neonatal Network (CNN). This was a population-based cohort of 16 669 infants with gestational age (GA) <33 weeks, admitted to 25 NICUs participating in the CNN between January 1, 2003, and December 31(,) 2008. Variations in NEC incidence among the participating NICUs for the study period were examined. We categorized early-onset NEC as occurring at <14 days of age and late-onset NEC occurring at ≥14 days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for early-onset NEC. The overall incidence of NEC was 5.1%, with significant variation in the risk adjusted incidence among the participating NICUs in the CNN. Early-onset NEC occurred at a mean of 7 days compared with 32 days for late-onset NEC. Early-onset NEC infants had lower incidence of respiratory distress syndrome, patent ductus treated with indomethacin, less use of postnatal steroids, and shorter duration of ventilation days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that greater GA and vaginal delivery were associated with increased risk of early-onset NEC. Among infants <33 weeks' gestation, NEC appears to present at mean age of 7 days in more mature infants, whereas onset of NEC is delayed to 32 days of age in smaller, lower GA infants. Further studies are required to understand the etiology of this disease process.

  18. Update in Pathogenesis and Prospective in Treatment of Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Terrin, Gianluca; Scipione, Antonella; De Curtis, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is among the most common and devastating diseases in neonates and, despite the significant advances in neonatal clinical and basic science investigations, its etiology is largely understood, specific treatment strategies are lacking, and morbidity and mortality remain high. Improvements in the understanding of pathogenesis of NEC may have therapeutic consequences. Pharmacologic inhibition of toll-like receptor signaling, the use of novel nutritional strategies, and microflora modulation may represent novel promising approaches to the prevention and treatment of NEC. This review, starting from the recent acquisitions in the pathogenic mechanisms of NEC, focuses on current and possible therapeutic perspectives. PMID:25147804

  19. Diminished citrulline-arginine-nitric oxide production rates are associated with necrotizing enterocolitis incidence in premature pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major gastrointestinal disease in premature infants that is associated with formula feeding and intestinal hypoxia. Low arginine availability in these infants has been linked to NEC since arginine is the sole precursor of nitric oxide (NO), a critical mediator of...

  20. Clostridial Strain-Specific Characteristics Associated with Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Schönherr-Hellec, Sophia; Klein, Geraldine L; Delannoy, Johanne; Ferraris, Laurent; Rozé, Jean Christophe; Butel, Marie José; Aires, Julio

    2018-04-01

    We aimed at identifying potential bacterial factors linking clostridia with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We compared the phenotypic traits, stress responses, cellular cytotoxicity, and inflammatory capabilities of the largest collection of Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium neonatale strains isolated from fecal samples of NEC preterm neonates (PN) and control PNs. When strain characteristics were used as explanatory variables, a statistical discriminant analysis allowed the separation of NEC and control strains into separate groups. Strains isolated from NEC PN were characterized by a higher viability at 30°C ( P = 0.03) and higher aerotolerance ( P = 0.01), suggesting that NEC strains may have a competitive and/or survival advantage in the environmental gastrointestinal tract conditions of NEC PN. Heat-treated NEC bacteria induced higher production of interleukin-8 in Caco-2 cells ( P = 0.03), suggesting proinflammatory activity. In vitro , bacteria, bacterial components, and fecal filtrates showed variable cytotoxic effects affecting the cellular network and/or cell viability, without specific association with NEC or control samples. Altogether, our data support the existence of a specific clostridial strain signature associated with NEC. IMPORTANCE Clostridia are part of the commensal microbiota in preterm neonates (PN). However, microbiota analyses by culture and metagenomics have linked necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and intestinal colonization with clostridial species. Nevertheless, little is known about the specific characteristics that may be shared by clostridia associated with NEC compared to commensal clostridia. Therefore, our goal was to identify specific bacterial factors linking clostridial strains with NEC. We report the existence of a specific bacterial signature associated with NEC and propose that activation of the innate immune response may be a unifying causative mechanism for the development of NEC independent of a specific pathogenic

  1. Enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis: an unusual cause of abdominal complaints.

    PubMed

    Gałązka, Krystyna; Tokarek, Tomasz; Gach, Tomasz; Szpor, Joanna

    2012-03-01

    Enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis (ELP) is a rare disease of unknown etiology involving most often the intramural and mesenteric small and medium-sized veins of the gastrointestinal tract. The diagnosis of the disorder is based on the histopathological examination of a surgical specimen as endoscopically obtained diagnostic material is usually too superficial. Clinical manifestation of ELP most frequently is characterized by acute symptoms, such as acute abdomen, signs suggesting acute appendicitis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, sometimes it manifests as chronic gastrointestinal complaints. We report, to our knowledge for the first time in Poland, a case of ELP with clinical symptoms pointing to acute appendicitis, on laparoscopy manifesting as a tumorous mass in the colonic wall with an unchanged appendix.

  2. Anemia, red blood cell transfusions, and necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Akhil; Patel, Ravi M; Christensen, Robert D

    2018-02-01

    In the past 15 years, multiple clinical studies have identified a temporal association between red blood cell (RBC) transfusions and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). With some variability, most of these studies indicate that up to one-third of all cases of NEC involving very low-birth weight infants may occur within 24-48h after receiving a RBC transfusion. There is also evidence that the risk of such transfusion-associated NEC may be higher in infants transfused with the greatest severity of anemia. In this article, we summarize the clinical evidence pertaining to these issues; specifically, the contribution of RBC transfusions, and the contribution of severity of underlying anemia, to the pathogenesis of a type of NEC potentially termed, "transfusion/anemia-associated NEC." Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Beneficial effects of mucous fistula refeeding in necrotizing enterocolitis neonates with enterostomies.

    PubMed

    Lau, Eugene C T; Fung, Adrian C H; Wong, Kenneth K Y; Tam, Paul K H

    2016-12-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis in premature neonates often results in bowel resection and stoma formation. One way to promote bowel adaptation before stoma closure is to introduce proximal loop effluents into the mucous fistula. In this study, we reviewed our experience with distal loop refeeding with respect to control group. All patients with necrotizing enterocolitis between 2000 and 2014 necessitating initial diverting enterostomies and subsequent stoma closure in a tertiary referral center were included. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic data, surgical procedures, and postoperative outcomes were analyzed. 92 patients were identified, with 77 patients receiving mucous fistula refeeding. The refeeding group showed less bowel ends size discrepancy (25 vs 53%, p=0.034) and less postoperative anastomotic leakage (3 vs 20%, p=0.029). Fewer refeeding group patients developed parenteral nutrition related cholestasis (42 vs 73%, p=0.045) and required shorter parenteral nutrition support (47 vs 135days, p=0.002). The mean peak bilirubin level was higher in the non-refeeding group (155 vs 275μmol/L, p<0.001). No major complication was associated with refeeding. Mucous fistula refeeding is safe and can decrease risk of anastomotic complication and parental nutrition related cholestasis. It provides both diagnostic and therapeutic value preoperatively and its use should be advocated. Level III Treatment Study in a Case Control Manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Proliferative Enterocolitis Associated with Dual Infection with Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Lawsonia intracellularis in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Schauer, David B.; McCathey, Sonya N.; Daft, Barbara M.; Jha, Sharda S.; Tatterson, Lisa E.; Taylor, Nancy S.; Fox, James G.

    1998-01-01

    Both enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and an obligate intracellular bacterium, previously referred to as an intracellular Campylobacter-like organism and now designated Lawsonia intracellularis, have been reported as causes of enterocolitis in rabbits. An outbreak of enterocolitis in a group of rabbits, characterized by an unusually high rate of mortality, was found to be associated with dual infection with EPEC and L. intracellularis. The EPEC strain was found to have eaeA gene homology but was negative for afrA homology. The absence of the afrA gene, which encodes the structural subunit for the AF/R1 pilus, indicates that this rabbit EPEC strain is distinct from the prototypic RDEC-1 strain. This finding suggests that rabbit EPEC strains widely reported in Western Europe, which lack AF/R1 pili, are also present in rabbits in the United States. Dual infection with these two pathogens in rabbits has not been previously reported and may have contributed to the unusually high mortality observed in this outbreak. PMID:9620403

  5. Antibiotic-Associated Apoptotic Enterocolitis in the Absence of a Defined Pathogen: The Role of Intestinal Microbiota Depletion*

    PubMed Central

    Wurm, Philipp; Spindelboeck, Walter; Krause, Robert; Plank, Johannes; Fuchs, Gottfried; Bashir, Mina; Petritsch, Wolfgang; Halwachs, Bettina; Langner, Cord; Högenauer, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Antibiotic therapy is a major risk factor for the development of diarrhea and colitis with varying severity. Often the origin of antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal deterioration remains elusive and no specific infectious agents could be discerned. Patients: We represent three cases of intractable high-volume diarrhea associated with combined antibiotic and steroid therapy in critically ill patients not fitting into established disease entities. Cases presented with severe apoptotic enterocolitis resembling acute intestinal graft-versus-host-disease. Microbiologic workup precluded known enteropathogens, but microbiota analysis revealed a severely depleted gut microbiota with concomitant opportunistic pathogen overgrowth. Interventions: Fecal microbiota transplantation, performed in one patient, was associated with correction of dysbiosis, rapid clinical improvement, and healing of enterocolitis. Conclusions: Our series represents a severe form of antibiotic-associated colitis in critically ill patients signified by microbiota depletion, and reestablishment of a physiologic gastrointestinal microbiota might be beneficial for this condition. PMID:28333760

  6. Two Dual Ion Spectrometer Flight Units of the Fast Plasma Instrument Suite (FPI) for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Mitzi

    2014-01-01

    Two Dual Ion Spectrometer flight units of the Fast Plasma Instrument Suite (FPI) for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) have returned to MSFC for flight testing. Anticipated to begin on June 30, tests will ensue in the Low Energy Electron and Ion Facility of the Heliophysics and Planetary Science Office (ZP13), managed by Dr. Victoria Coffey of the Natural Environments Branch of the Engineering Directorate (EV44). The MMS mission consists of four identical spacecraft, whose purpose is to study magnetic reconnection in the boundary regions of Earth's magnetosphere.

  7. Intestinal Microbiota and Its Relationship with Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ravi Mangal; Denning, Patricia W.

    2015-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants born prematurely. After birth, the neonatal gut must acquire a healthy complement of commensal bacteria. Disruption or delay of this critical process, leading to deficient or abnormal microbial colonization of the gut, has been implicated as key risk factor in the pathogenesis of NEC. Conversely, a beneficial complement of commensal intestinal microbiota may protect the immature gut from inflammation and injury. Interventions aimed at providing or restoring a healthy complement of commensal bacteria, such as probiotic therapy, are currently the most promising treatment to prevent NEC. Shifting the balance of intestinal microbiota from a pathogenic to protective complement of bacteria can protect the gut from inflammation and subsequent injury that leads to NEC. Herein, we review the relationship of intestinal microbiota and NEC in preterm infants. PMID:25992911

  8. Necrotizing fasciitis: a case report of a premature infant with necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Casey, Denise M; Stebbins, Karen; Howland, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a severe infection involving the superficial fascia, subcutaneous tissue, and, occasionally, deeper tissue layers. Usual treatment is with surgical debridement in combination with antibiotics. In review of the literature there is one neonatal report of NF associated with necrotizing enterocolitis. We present a case report of a 25 week gestation infant with necrotizing fasciitis and the complexity of wound and pain management presented for the nursing staff in the neonatal intensive care unit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Is Xanthine oxidase activity in polycystic ovary syndrome associated with inflammatory and cardiovascular risk factors?

    PubMed

    Isık, Hatice; Aynıoglu, Oner; Tımur, Hakan; Sahbaz, Ahmet; Harma, Muge; Can, Murat; Guven, Berrak; Alptekin, Husnu; Kokturk, Furuzan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to examine women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) to determine the relationship between xanthine oxidase (XO) and oxidative stress, inflammatory status, and various clinical and biochemical parameters. In this cross-sectional study a total of 83 women including 45 PCOS patients and 38 healthy women were enrolled. We collected blood samples for XO and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, hormone levels, cholesterol values, and inflammatory markers. Body mass index (BMI) , waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and blood pressure were assessed. Blood samples were taken for hormonal levels, cholesterol levels, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell and neutrophil counts, XO and SOD activities. The basal hormone levels, triglyceride (TG) levels, TG/HDL-C (high density lipoprotein-cholesterol) ratios FPG, FPI and HOMA-IR levels were higher in PCOS patients compared to controls (p<0.05). Platelet and plateletcrit (PCT) values, CRP, and XO activity were significantly increased, however SOD activity was decreased in PCOS patients (p<0.001). XO activity was positively correlated with LH/FSH and TG/HDL ratios, CRP, PCT, FPG, FPI, and HOMA-IR, and negatively correlated with QUICKI levels. In conclusion, XO is a useful marker to assess oxidative stress in PCOS patients. Positive correlations between XO and inflammatory markers and cardiovascular disease risk factors suggest that XO plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PCOS and its metabolic complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Older age at diagnosis of Hirschsprung disease decreases risk of postoperative enterocolitis, but resection of additional ganglionated bowel does not.

    PubMed

    Haricharan, Ramanath N; Seo, Jeong-Meen; Kelly, David R; Mroczek-Musulman, Elizabeth C; Aprahamian, Charles J; Morgan, Traci L; Georgeson, Keith E; Harmon, Carroll M; Saito, Jacqueline M; Barnhart, Douglas C

    2008-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of age at diagnosis and length of ganglionated bowel resected on postoperative Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis (HAEC). Children who underwent endorectal pull-through (ERPT) between January 1993 and December 2004 were retrospectively reviewed. t Test, analysis of variance, Kaplan-Meier, and Cox's proportional hazards analyses were performed. Fifty-two children with Hirschsprung disease (median age, 25 days; range, 2 days-16 years) were included. Nineteen (37%) had admissions for HAEC. Proportional hazards regression showed that HAEC admissions decreased by 30% with each doubling of age at diagnosis (P = .03) and increased 9-fold when postoperative stricture was present (P < .01), after controlling for type of ERPT, trisomy 21, transition zone level, and preoperative enterocolitis. Thirty-six children, with age at initial operation less than 6 months, were grouped based on length of ganglionated bowel excised (A [5 cm] and B [>5 cm]). No significant difference in the number of HAEC admissions during initial 2 years post-ERPT was seen between groups A (n = 18) and B (n = 18). The study had a power of 0.8 to detect a difference of 1 admission over 2 years. Children diagnosed with Hirschsprung disease at younger ages are at a greater risk for postoperative enterocolitis. Excising a longer margin of ganglionated bowel (>5 cm) does not seem to be beneficial in decreasing HAEC admissions.

  11. Probiotics for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    AlFaleh, Khalid; Anabrees, Jasim

    2014-09-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and nosocomial sepsis are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Through prevention of bacterial migration across the mucosa, competitive exclusion of pathogenic bacteria, and enhancing the immune responses of the host, prophylactic enteral probiotics (live microbial supplements) may play a role in reducing NEC and the associated morbidity. To compare the efficacy and safety of prophylactic enteral probiotics administration versus placebo or no treatment in the prevention of severe NEC or sepsis, or both, in preterm infants. For this update, searches were made of MEDLINE (1966 to October 2013), EMBASE (1980 to October 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library (2013, Issue 10), and abstracts of annual meetings of the Society for Pediatric Research (1995 to 2013). Only randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials that enrolled preterm infants < 37 weeks gestational age or < 2500 g birth weight, or both, were considered. Trials were included if they involved enteral administration of any live microbial supplement (probiotics) and measured at least one prespecified clinical outcome. Standard methods of The Cochrane Collaboration and its Neonatal Group were used to assess the methodologic quality of the trials and for data collection and analysis. Twenty-four eligible trials were included. Included trials were highly variable with regard to enrolment criteria (that is birth weight and gestational age), baseline risk of NEC in the control groups, timing, dose, formulation of the probiotics, and feeding regimens. In a meta-analysis of trial data, enteral probiotics supplementation significantly reduced the incidence of severe NEC (stage II or more) (typical relative risk (RR) 0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 0.56; 20 studies, 5529 infants) and mortality (typical RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.81; 17 studies, 5112 infants). There was no evidence of

  12. Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis Through Manipulation of the Intestinal Microbiota of the Premature Infant

    PubMed Central

    Vongbhavit, Kannikar; Underwood, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    In spite of four decades of research, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains the most common gastrointestinal complication in premature infants with high mortality and long-term morbidity. The composition of the intestinal microbiota of the premature infant differs dramatically from that of the healthy term infant and appears to be an important risk factor for NEC. Promising NEC prevention strategies that alter the intestinal microbiota include probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, lacteroferrin, and human milk feeding. PMID:26872618

  13. Two-years of In-flight Spectrometer Calibration Results for the Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI) on the Magmetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiff, C.; Gershman, D. J.; Avanov, L. A.; Giles, B. L.; Paterson, W. R.; Kriesler, S.; Barrie, A. C.; Rand, D. K.; Gliese, U.; Burch, J.

    2017-12-01

    Scientifically accurate measurements depend on careful calibration of in-flight instrumentation. We review two years of calibration results for the Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI) electron and ion spectrometers over the MMS fleet. We focus on the operating point calibration by which the operating voltage on each of the 64 spectrometers is set to best balance between gain, signal loss, and anode-to-anode cross talk. In addition, we map the calibration and housekeeping telemetry to infer charge extracted evolution from the microchannel plates and, subsequently, the project lifetime of the instrumentation.

  14. Diagnosis of Amyloidosis and Differentiation from Chronic, Idiopathic Enterocolitis in Rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and Pig-Tailed (M. nemestrina) Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Kelly A; Chen, Edward S; Pate, Kelly A Metcalf; Hutchinson, Eric K; Adams, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Amyloidosis is a progressive and ultimately fatal disease in which amyloid, an insoluble fibrillar protein, is deposited inappropriately in multiple organs, eventually leading to organ dysfunction. Although this condition commonly affects macaques, there is currently no reliable method of early diagnosis. Changes in clinical pathology parameters have been associated with amyloidosis but occur in late stages of disease, are nonspecific, and resemble those seen in chronic, idiopathic enterocolitis. A review of animal records revealed that amyloidosis was almost always diagnosed postmortem, with prevalences of 15% and 25% in our rhesus and pig-tailed macaque colonies, respectively. As a noninvasive, high-throughput diagnostic approach to improve antemortem diagnosis of amyloidosis in macaques, we evaluated serum amyloid A (SAA), an acute-phase protein and the precursor to amyloid. Using necropsy records and ELISA analysis of banked serum, we found that SAA is significantly elevated in both rhesus and pig-tailed macaques with amyloid compared with those with chronic enterocolitis and healthy controls. At necropsy, 92% of rhesus and 83% of pig-tailed had amyloid deposition in either the intestines or liver. Minimally invasive biopsy techniques including endoscopy of the small intestine, mucosal biopsy of the colon, and ultrasound-guided trucut biopsy of the liver were used to differentiate macaques in our colonies with similar clinical presentations as either having amyloidosis or chronic, idiopathic enterocolitis. Our data suggest that SAA can serve as an effective noninvasive screening tool for amyloidosis and that minimally invasive biopsies can be used to confirm this diagnosis. PMID:23759529

  15. Probiotics and Necrotizing Enterocolitis: Finding the Missing Pieces of the Probiotic Puzzle

    PubMed Central

    Luedtke, Sherry A.; Yang, Jacob T.; Wild, Heather E.

    2012-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the leading causes of death in the neonatal intensive care unit. Morbidity and mortality rates significantly increase with decreases in gestational age and birth weight. Strong evidence suggests probiotic prophylaxis may significantly decrease the incidence of NEC and should therefore be incorporated into the standard of care for preterm infants. However, debate still remains because of limitations of completed studies. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the controversies regarding probiotic use in preterm infants and to shed light on the practical considerations for implementation of probiotic supplementation. PMID:23412969

  16. Pasteurization of breastmilk decreases the rate of postnatally acquired cytomegalovirus infections, but shows a nonsignificant trend to an increased rate of necrotizing enterocolitis in very preterm infants--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Stock, Katharina; Griesmaier, Elke; Brunner, Barbara; Neubauer, Vera; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula; Trawöger, Rudolf

    2015-03-01

    This study assessed whether feeding preterm infants unpasteurized breastmilk (1) decreases the rate of late-onset sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis and (2) increases the rate of postnatally acquired cytomegalovirus infections. Between January 2008 and July 2013, preterm infants below 32 completed weeks of gestational age admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Innsbruck Medical University (Innsbruck, Austria) (n=344) were eligible for the study. Of those, 323 fed breastmilk were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Two groups were formed, with 164 infants being fed unpasteurized and 159 infants being fed pasteurized breastmilk. There was no significant difference in the rate of late-onset sepsis or necrotizing enterocolitis between the unpasteurized and pasteurized breastmilk groups (late-onset sepsis, 15.9% versus 15.1% [p=0.486]; necrotizing enterocolitis, 2.4% versus 4.4% [p=0.254]). The number of infants diagnosed with postnatally acquired cytomegalovirus infection was significantly higher in the unpasteurized group (39.3%) compared with the pasteurized group (4.2%) (p=0.008). Feeding preterm infants unpasteurized breastmilk increases the rate of postnatally acquired cytomegalovirus infections. However, we also demonstrate a nonsignificant trend to a decreased rate of necrotizing enterocolitis in the unpasteurized group, which needs to be confirmed in larger studies.

  17. Improved gut barrier function via increased threonine utilization may explain enhanced resistance to necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs fed colostrum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Threonine is an essential amino acid necessary for synthesis of gut mucins that form the protective intestinal mucous layer. In premature infants, this function might be compromised leading to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We hypothesized that enteral feeding with colostrum, relative to infant fo...

  18. Low abdominal NIRS values and elevated plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein in a premature piglet model of necrotizing enterocolitis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To identify early markers of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), we hypothesized that continuous abdominal near-infrared spectroscopy (A-NIRS) measurement of splanchnic tissue oxygen saturation and intermittent plasma intestinal fatty-acid binding protein (pI-FABP) measured every 6 hours can detect NEC...

  19. Enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis: clinicopathologic features and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Nyethane; Chang, Fuju

    2007-07-01

    Enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis (ELP) is a recently described entity and is of unknown etiology and pathogenesis. It is characterized by phlebitis of the bowel wall and mesentery, without arterial involvement or evidence of systemic vasculitis. The clinical presentation of ELP is varied, but it most commonly manifests with signs of an acute abdomen. Clinical, radiologic, and endoscopic findings are often conflicting and misdiagnosis is common as venous thrombosis is not suspected. The diagnosis of ELP is obtained histologically. There is a spectrum of histologic features associated with ELP, which includes lymphocytic phlebitis, necrotizing phlebitis, granulomatous phlebitis, and myointimal hyperplasia. Other features include venous thrombi and acute ischemic changes of the intestine. Surgical resection of the affected bowel is usually curative and recurrences are rare. The clinical and histopathologic features of ELP are reviewed.

  20. From birth to ‘immuno-health’, allergies and enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Houghteling, Pearl D.; Walker, W. Allan

    2015-01-01

    Microbial signals stimulate development and maintenance of the neonatal immune system. The process begins in utero, with limited exposure to microbes in the intrauterine environment, as well as maternal immune signals priming the developing immune system. After birth and initial colonization, the immune system must be able to activate against pathogens, but also achieve oral tolerance of food and resident gut microbes. Through microbial signals and appropriate nutrition, the immune system is able to achieve homeostasis. Major challenges to successful colonization and immune system regulation include abnormal microbial inoculi (cesarean section, hygiene) and antibiotics. When normal colonization is interrupted, dysbiosis occurs. This imbalance of microbes and subsequently of the immune system can result in allergic diseases, asthma or necrotizing enterocolitis. Probiotics and probiotic-derived therapies represent an exciting avenue to replete the population of commensal microbes and to prevent the immune-mediated sequelae of dysbiosis. PMID:26447970

  1. Educational clinical case series for pediatric allergy and immunology: allergic proctocolitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis with protein-losing gastroenteropathy as manifestations of non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Jennifer; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna

    2007-06-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy is the most common food allergy in infants and young children. It is estimated that up to 50% of pediatric cow's milk allergy is non-IgE-mediated. Allergic proctocolitis is a benign disorder manifesting with blood-streaked stools in otherwise healthy-appearing infants who are breast- or formula-fed. Symptoms resolve within 48-72 h following elimination of dietary cow's milk protein. Most infants tolerate cow's milk by their first birthday. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome presents in young formula-fed infants with chronic emesis, diarrhea, and failure to thrive. Reintroduction of cow's milk protein following a period of avoidance results in profuse, repetitive emesis within 2-3 h following ingestion; 20% of acute exposures may be associated with hypovolemic shock. Treatment of acute reactions is with vigorous hydration. Most children become tolerant with age; attempts of re-introduction of milk must be done under physician supervision and with secure i.v. access. Allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis affects infants as well as older children and adolescents. Abdominal pain, emesis, diarrhea, failure to thrive, or weight loss are the most common symptoms. A subset of patients may develop protein-losing enteropathy. Fifty percent of affected children are atopic and have evidence of food-specific IgE antibody but skin prick tests and serum food-IgE levels correlate with response to elimination diet poorly. Elemental diet based on the amino-acid formula leads to resolutions of gastrointestinal eosinophilic inflammation typically within 6 wk.

  2. Delayed initiation but not gradual advancement of enteral formula feeding reduces the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enteral formula feeding is a risk factor for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in premature infants, yet studies are conflicting regarding the safest timing for introduction and advancement of feeds. Our aim was to test the effects of early vs. late initiation and abrupt vs. gradual advancement of ent...

  3. Maternal Risk Factors for Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    March, Melissa I.; Gupta, Munish; Modest, Anna M.; Wu, Lily; Hacker, Michele R.; Martin, Camilia R.; Rana, Sarosh

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the relationship between maternal hypertensive disease and other risk factors and the neonatal development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Methods This was a retrospective case control study of infants with NEC from 2008 to 2012. The primary exposure of interest was maternal hypertensive disease, which has been hypothesized to put infants at risk for NEC. Other variables collected included demographics, pregnancy complications, medications, and neonatal hospital course. Data was abstracted from medical records. Results 28 cases of singleton neonates with NEC and 81 matched controls were identified and analyzed. There was no significant difference in the primary outcome. Fetuses with an antenatal diagnosis of growth restriction were more likely to develop NEC (p=0.008). Infants with NEC had lower median birth weight than infants without NEC (p=0.009). Infants with NEC had more late-onset sepsis (p=0.01) and mortality before discharge (p=0.001). Conclusions The factors identified by this case-control study that increased the risk of neonatal NEC included intrauterine growth restriction and lower neonatal birth weight. The primary exposure, hypertensive disease, did not show a significantly increased risk of neonatal NEC, however there was a nearly two-fold difference observed. Our study was underpowered to detect the observed difference. PMID:25162307

  4. Near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of abdominal tissue oxygenation is a useful indicator of intestinal blood flow and necrotizing enterocolitis in premature piglets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A major objective of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)research is to devise a noninvasive method of early detection. We hypothesized that abdominal near-infrared spectroscopy (A-NIRS) readings will identify impending NEC in a large animal model. Piglets were prematurely delivered and received parenter...

  5. Effects of canrenone in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Bonaventura, Aldo; Bianchi, Lucio; Romano, Davide; D'Angelo, Angela; Fogari, Elena; Maffioli, Pamela

    2013-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome is becoming a common disease due to a rise in obesity rates among adults. The aim was to evaluate the effects of canrenone compared to placebo on metabolic and inflammatory parameters in patients affected by metabolic syndrome. A total of 145 patients were treated with placebo or canrenone, 50 mg/day, for 3 months and then 50 mg b.i.d. till the end of the study. Blood pressure, body weight, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting plasma insulin, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, plasma aldosterone, brain natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and M value were evaluated. A decrease of blood pressure was observed in canrenone group compared to baseline; moreover, systolic blood pressure value recorded after 6 months of canrenone therapy was lower than the one recorded with placebo. Canrenone gave a significant decrease of FPI and HOMA index, and an increase of M value both compared to baseline and to placebo. Canrenone also decreased triglycerides and FPG was not observed with placebo. Canrenone also decreased plasma aldosterone, Hs-CRP and TNF-α compared to baseline and to placebo. Canrenone seems to be effective in reducing some factors involved in metabolic syndrome and in improving insulin-resistance and the inflammatory state observed in these patients.

  6. Early hybrid approach and enteral feeding algorithm could reduce the incidence of necrotising enterocolitis in neonates with ductus-dependent systemic circulation.

    PubMed

    Manuri, Lucia; Morelli, Stefano; Agati, Salvatore; Saitta, Michele B; Oreto, Lilia; Mandraffino, Giuseppe; Iannace, Enrico; Iorio, Fiore S; Guccione, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    The reported incidence of necrotising enterocolitis in neonates with complex CHD with ductus-dependent systemic circulation ranges from 6.8 to 13% despite surgical treatment; the overall mortality is between 25 and 97%. The incidence of gastrointestinal complications after hybrid palliation for neonates with ductus-dependent systemic circulation still has to be defined, but seems comparable with that following the Norwood procedure. We reviewed the incidence of gastrointestinal complications in a series of 42 consecutive neonates with ductus-dependent systemic circulation, who received early hybrid palliation associated with a standardised feeding protocol. The median age and birth weight at the time of surgery were 3 days (with a range from 1 to 10 days) and 3.07 kg (with a range from 1.5 to 4.5 kg), respectively. The median ICU length of stay was 7 days (1-70 days), and the median hospital length of stay was 16 days (6-70 days). The median duration of mechanical ventilation was 3 days. Hospital mortality was 16% (7/42). In the postoperative period, 26% of patients were subjected to early extubation, and all of them received treatment with systemic vasodilatory agents. Feeding was started 6 hours after extubation according to a dedicated feeding protocol. After treatment, none of our patients experienced any grade of necrotising enterocolitis or major gastrointestinal adverse events. Our experience indicates that the combination of an "early hybrid approach", systemic vasodilator therapy, and dedicated feeding protocol adherence could reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal complications in this group of neonates. Fast weaning from ventilatory support, which represents a part of our treatment strategy, could be associated with low incidence of necrotising enterocolitis.

  7. Hydrophilic Polymer-associated Ischemic Enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Chavez, Jesus A; Chen, Wei; Frankel, Wendy L; Arnold, Christina A

    2017-02-01

    Hydrophilic polymer coating of medical devices serves to lubricate the device and prevent device-related complications. The coating can be mechanically disrupted and result in downstream injury via presumed thromboembolism. This process has been reported in the brain, heart, lung, and skin, and has been replicated through animal studies and in vitro histologic processing of the polymer coating. We report the first description of hydrophilic polymer-associated ischemic enterocolitis in a series of 7 specimens (small bowel=2, colon=4, aortic thrombus=1) from 3 patients. We report a 4% incidence among all patients with an ischemic bowel resection between April 29, 2014 and August 8, 2016. All patients developed bowel ischemia within 1 day of aortic repair, and all bowel resection specimens showed polymers, mainly in the submucosal vessels in areas of extensive ischemia. The polymers appeared as basophilic, intravascular, serpiginous structures. In a patient who developed acute paralysis after the aortic repair, identical polymers were identified in the aortic thrombus and the ischemic bowel segment. We demonstrate that the polymers display an altered morphology over time and with various graft types, and that the degrading polymers are associated with a foreign body giant cell reaction. Special stains can aid in diagnosis, with the polymers turquoise on a colloidal iron stain, pink on von Kossa and mucicarmine stains, and pale blue on trichrome. Clinical follow-up was available up to 115 weeks: 1 patient died, and 2 are alive and well. In summary, we report a new diagnostic entity to be considered in the differential diagnosis of iatrogenic ischemic injuries in the gastrointestinal tract. Awareness of this entity is important to elucidate the cause of ischemia and to prevent misdiagnosis of the polymers and their associated giant cell reaction as a parasitic infection, granulomatous vasculitis, sarcoidosis, and idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease.

  8. Primary anastomosis or ostomy in necrotizing enterocolitis?

    PubMed

    Haricharan, Ramanathapura N; Gallimore, Jade Palazzola; Nasr, Ahmed

    2017-11-01

    In neonates requiring operation for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), the complications due to enterostomy (ES) and the need for another operation to restore continuity have prompted several surgeons to employ primary anastomosis (PA) after resection as the operative strategy of choice. Our objective was to compare primary anastomosis to stoma formation in this population using systematic review and meta-analysis. Publications describing both interventions were identified by searching multiple databases. Appropriate studies that reported outcomes after PA and ES for NEC were included for analysis that was performed using the MedCalc3000 software. Results are reported as odds ratios (OR, 95% CI). No randomized trials were identified. Twelve studies were included for the final analysis. Neonates who underwent PA were associated with significantly less risk of mortality when compared to those who underwent ES (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.17-0.68, p 0.002), possibly due to differences in severity of NEC. Although the types of complications in these groups were different, there was no significant difference in risk of complication (OR 0.86, 0.55-1.33, p 0.50). In neonates undergoing an operation for severe NEC, there is no significant difference in the risk of complications between primary anastomosis and enterostomy. A definitive suggestion cannot be made regarding the choice of one operative strategy over another.

  9. Variation of Equatorial F-region Vertical Neutral Wind and Neutral Temperature during Geomagnetic Storms: Brazil FPI Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, C.; De La Garza, J. L.; Deng, Y.; Makela, J. J.; Fisher, D. J.; Meriwether, J. W.; Mesquita, R.

    2015-12-01

    An accurate description of vertical neutral winds in the thermosphere is essential to understand how the upper atmosphere responds to the geomagnetic storms. However, vertical wind measurements are difficult to obtain and there are still limited data. Recent observation deployments now permit substantial progress on this issue. In this paper, neutral vertical wind data from Brazil FPI observations at around 240 km altitude during 2009 to 2015 are used for the study of the equatorial vertical wind and neutral temperature variation during geomagnetic activity times. First, the observations during several particular storm periods will be analyzed. Secondly, Epoch analysis will be used to bin all the observed events together to investigate the climatological features of vertical wind and temperature during storms. The results will give us an unprecedented view of the nighttime vertical wind and neutral temperature variations at low latitudes, which is critical to specify the dynamics of the upper atmosphere.

  10. Evaluation of fasting plasma insulin concentration as an estimate of insulin action in nondiabetic individuals: comparison with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR).

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Fahim; Okeke, QueenDenise; Reaven, Gerald M

    2014-04-01

    Insulin-mediated glucose disposal varies severalfold in apparently healthy individuals, and approximately one-third of the most insulin resistant of these individuals is at increased risk to develop various adverse clinical syndromes. Since direct measurements of insulin sensitivity are not practical in a clinical setting, several surrogate estimates of insulin action have been proposed, including fasting plasma insulin (FPI) concentration and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) calculated by a formula employing fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and FPI concentrations. The objective of this study was to compare FPI as an estimate of insulin-mediated glucose disposal with values generated by HOMA-IR in 758 apparently healthy nondiabetic individuals. Measurements were made of FPG, FPI, triglyceride (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations, and insulin-mediated glucose uptake was quantified by determining steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during the insulin suppression test. FPI and HOMA-IR were highly correlated (r = 0.98, P < 0.001). The SSPG concentration also correlated to a similar degree (P < 0.001) with FPI (r = 0.60) and HOMA-IR (r = 0.64). Furthermore, the relationship between FPI and TG (r = 0.35) and HDL-C (r = -0.40) was comparable to that between HOMA-IR and TG (r = 0.39) and HDL-C (r = -0.41). In conclusion, FPI and HOMA-IR are highly correlated in nondiabetic individuals, with each estimate accounting for ~40% of the variability (variance) in a direct measure of insulin-mediated glucose disposal. Calculation of HOMA-IR does not provide a better surrogate estimate of insulin action, or of its associated dyslipidemia, than measurement of FPI.

  11. Severe neurodevelopmental disability and healthcare needs among survivors of medical and surgical necrotizing enterocolitis: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Brenna S; Hong, Charles R; Velazco, Cristine S; Mercier, Charles E; Morrow, Kate A; Edwards, Erika M; Ferrelli, Karla R; Soll, Roger F; Modi, Biren P; Horbar, Jeffrey D; Jaksic, Tom

    2017-10-12

    This study characterizes neurodevelopmental outcomes and healthcare needs of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) survivors of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) compared to ELBW infants without NEC. Data were collected prospectively on neonates born 22-27weeks' gestation or 401-1000g at 47 Vermont Oxford Network member centers from 1999 to 2012. Detailed neurodevelopmental evaluations were conducted at 18-24months corrected age. Information regarding rehospitalizations, postdischarge surgeries, and feeding was also collected. "Severe neurodevelopmental disability" was defined as: bilateral blindness, hearing impairment requiring amplification, inability to walk 10 steps with support, cerebral palsy, and/or Bayley Mental or Psychomotor Developmental Index <70. Diagnosis of NEC required both clinical and radiographic findings. There were 9063 children without NEC, 417 with medical NEC, and 449 with surgical NEC evaluated. Significantly higher rates of morbidity were observed among infants with a history of NEC. Those with surgical NEC were more frequently affected across all outcome measures at 18-24months corrected age: 38% demonstrated severe neurodevelopmental disability, nearly half underwent postdischarge operations, and a quarter required tube feeding at home. At 18-24months, extremely low birth weight survivors of necrotizing enterocolitis were at markedly increased risk (p<0.001) for severe neurodevelopmental disability, postdischarge surgery, and tube feeding. II (prospective cohort study with <80% follow-up rate). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Can Monitoring Fetal Intestinal Inflammation Using Heart Rate Variability Analysis Signal Incipient Necrotizing Enterocolitis of the Neonate?

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai Lun; Garzoni, Luca; Herry, Christophe; Durosier, Lucien Daniel; Cao, Mingju; Burns, Patrick; Fecteau, Gilles; Desrochers, André; Patey, Natalie; Seely, Andrew J E; Faure, Christophe; Frasch, Martin G

    2016-04-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis of the neonate is an acute inflammatory intestinal disease that can cause necrosis and sepsis. Chorioamnionitis is a risk factor of necrotizing enterocolitis. The gut represents the biggest vagus-innervated organ. Vagal activity can be measured via fetal heart rate variability. We hypothesized that fetal heart rate variability can detect fetuses with incipient gut inflammation. Prospective animal study. University research laboratory. Chronically instrumented near-term fetal sheep (n = 21). Animals were surgically instrumented with vascular catheters and electrocardiogram to allow manipulation and recording from nonanesthetized animals. In 14 fetal sheep, inflammation was induced with lipopolysaccharide (IV) to mimic chorioamnionitis. Fetal arterial blood samples were drawn at selected time points over 54 hours post lipopolysaccharide for blood gas and cytokines (interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α enzymelinked immunosorbent assay). Fetal heart rateV was quantified throughout the experiment. The time-matched fetal heart rate variability measures were correlated to the levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. Upon necropsy, ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1+ (Iba1+), CD11c+ (M1), CD206+ (M2 macrophages), and occludin (leakiness marker) immunofluorescence in the terminal ileum was quantified along with regional Iba1+ signal in the brain (microglia). Interleukin-6 peaked at 3 hours post lipopolysaccharide accompanied by mild cardiovascular signs of sepsis. At 54 hours, we identified an increase in Iba1+ and, specifically, M1 macrophages in the ileum accompanied by increased leakiness, with no change in Iba1 signal in the brain. Preceding this change on tissue level, at 24 hours, a subset of nine fetal heart rate variability measures correlated exclusively to the Iba+ markers of ileal, but not brain, inflammation. An additional fetal heart rate variability measure, mean of the differences of R-R intervals

  13. Human milk is the feeding strategy to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis!

    PubMed

    Maffei, Diana; Schanler, Richard J

    2017-02-01

    Human milk is the preferred diet for preterm infants as it protects against a multitude of NICU challenges, specifically necrotizing enterocolitis. Infants who receive greater than 50% of mother's own milk (MOM) in the 2 weeks after birth have a significantly decreased risk of NEC. An additional factor in the recent declining rates of NEC is the increased utilization of donor human milk (DHM). This creates a bridge until MOM is readily available, thus decreasing the exposure to cow milk protein. Preterm infants are susceptible to NEC due to the immaturity of their gastrointestinal and immune systems. An exclusive human milk diet compensates for these immature systems in many ways such as lowering gastric pH, enhancing intestinal motility, decreasing epithelial permeability, and altering the composition of bacterial flora. Ideally, preterm infants should be fed human milk and avoid bovine protein. A diet consisting of human milk-based human milk fortifier is one way to provide the additional nutritional supplements necessary for adequate growth while receiving the protective benefits of a human milk diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. PPAR-{gamma} agonist protects against intestinal injury during necrotizing enterocolitis

    SciTech Connect

    Baregamian, Naira; Mourot, Joshua M.; Ballard, Amie R.

    2009-02-06

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains a lethal condition for many premature infants. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR-{gamma}), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, has been shown to play a protective role in cellular inflammatory responses; however, its role in NEC is not clearly defined. We sought to examine the expression of PPAR-{gamma} in the intestine using an ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) model of NEC, and to assess whether PPAR-{gamma} agonist treatment would ameliorate I/R-induced gut injury. Swiss-Webster mice were randomized to receive sham (control) or I/R injury to the gut induced by transient occlusion of superior mesenteric artery for 45 min withmore » variable periods of reperfusion. I/R injury resulted in early induction of PPAR-{gamma} expression and activation of NF-{kappa}B in small intestine. Pretreatment with PPAR-{gamma} agonist, 15d-PGJ{sub 2}, attenuated intestinal NF-{kappa}B response and I/R-induced gut injury. Activation of PPAR-{gamma} demonstrated a protective effect on small bowel during I/R-induced gut injury.« less

  15. A quality improvement initiative to reduce necrotizing enterocolitis across hospital systems.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Amy T; Ward, Laura; Schibler, Kurt; Moyer, Laurel; South, Andrew; Kaplan, Heather C

    2018-04-20

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating intestinal disease in premature infants. Local rates of NEC were unacceptably high. We hypothesized that utilizing quality improvement methodology to standardize care and apply evidence-based practices would reduce our rate of NEC. A multidisciplinary team used the model for improvement to prioritize interventions. Three neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) developed a standardized feeding protocol for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, and employed strategies to increase the use of human milk, maximize intestinal perfusion, and promote a healthy microbiome. The primary outcome measure, NEC in VLBW infants, decreased from 0.17 cases/100 VLBW patient days to 0.029, an 83% reduction, while the compliance with a standardized feeding protocol improved. Through reliable implementation of evidence-based practices, this project reduced the regional rate of NEC by 83%. A key outcome and primary driver of success was standardization across multiple NICUs, resulting in consistent application of best practices and reduction in variation.

  16. Chemotherapy-induced neutropenic necrotizing enterocolitis: a review.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Itrat; Al Bahrani, Bassim

    2012-07-01

    Neutropenia is a common toxicity of systemic cytotoxic therapy. Neutropenic enterocolitis (NE) is a rare occurrence but can be fatal, subsequent to neutropenia. The exact incidence and frequency is difficult to establish, but is usually underestimated. It is often missed but has recently been appreciated with increasing frequency in solid tumours. NE was initially reported with taxenes but now an increasing number of chemotherapeutic drugs are implicated. NE incidence is expected to increase with the use of dose dense regimens, myeloablative cytotoxic protocols, tissue transplants, and emerging newer molecules. The usual presentation is often non-specific and often over shadowed by the symptomatology of primary malignant disease and toxicity symptoms of chemotherapy. The basis of diagnosis is clinical, radiological (ultra sound/CT scan), per operative findings, and eventually post mortem. Treatment options of this highly fatal phenomenon varies from conservative to early surgical intervention. NE is expected to be diagnosed with increasing frequency. The factors leading to it are mucosal injury, caecal distension with resultant ischaemia, cytotoxic drugs, and microbiological agents. A high index of clinical suspicion and an early diagnosis is paramount for better outcome. Irrespective of management employed, conservative or upfront surgical intervention, it has a poor out come with high mortality. A clinical suspicion, early diagnosis, and prompt management are the key to a better result. There is need to identify people at high risk by prognostic factors, large scale studies, and formulating consensus management guidelines. At present individualized risk assessment based strategy is advocated.

  17. Eosinophilic enterocolitis diagnosed by means of technetium-99m albumin scintigraphy and treated with budesonide (CIR).

    PubMed Central

    Russel, M G; Zeijen, R N; Brummer, R J; de Bruine, A P; van Kroonenburgh, M J; Stockbrügger, R W

    1994-01-01

    A patient with a 15 year history of diarrhoea of unknown origin is described. Scintigraphy with technetium-99m labelled albumin suggested albumin loss at the terminal ileum and caecum; subsequent colonoscopic biopsies of these macroscopically normal looking areas showed abundant infiltration with eosinophils. A diagnosis of eosinophilic enterocolitis was made. Treatment with prednisolone had good results, but had to be stopped because of severe side effects. Oral cromoglycate and mesalazine were not effective. Budesonide (CIR), a new topically active corticosteroid with very little systemic effects, was at least as effective as prednisolone without producing side effects. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7959211

  18. [Risk factors associated with the development of enterocolitis in Hirschsprung's disease].

    PubMed

    Romo Muñoz, M I; Martínez de Aragón, A; Núñez Cerezo, V; Udaondo, C; Sellers, M; Barrena, S; De Ceano, M; López Santamaría, M; Martínez Martínez, L

    2018-02-01

    Hirschsprung's-associated enterocolitis (HAEC) is a live-threatening complication that remains badly understood. Our objective is to identify the risk factors related to the development of HAEC in the cohort of patients with Hirschsprung's disease (HD) treated in our center. We reviewed the patients treated for HD between 2000 and 2016. Ninety four patients were included, and the clinical details related to the disease were evaluated. Our primary outcome measure was the development of HAEC. Relative risks are presented with 95% confidence intervals. Twenty seven patients out of the ninety four (28.7%) suffered HAEC. None of them died from this complication. The extended aganglionosis, the need of a preoperative stoma, a transabdominal surgery and the diagnosis before the age of 7.2 months were related to a higher risk of suffering HAEC. HAEC remains a common complication in patients suffering from HD, especially those with complex forms. The identification of the risk factors could result in a better control of the HAEC, which lead to a faster diagnosis and treatment, reducing the morbi-mortality related to HAEC.

  19. An exclusively human milk diet reduces necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Kenneth; Carroll, Katherine

    2014-05-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that feeding an exclusively human milk (EHM) diet to premature infants reduces the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) associated with enteral feeding. An observational study for infants born at less than 33 weeks of gestational age was performed in a single neonatal intensive care unit. An EHM diet prospectively eliminated bovine-based artificial milk, including bovine-based fortifier, through 33 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). The clinical data from a 2.5-year interval of the EHM diet were compared with data from the previous 6.5 years for similar infants who received bovine-based milk products before 33 weeks PMA. In the EHM diet cohort, 148 of 162 infants (91%) received EHM through 33 weeks PMA. In order to achieve an EHM diet, 140 of 162 infants (86%) received their own mother's milk, and 98 of 162 infants (60%) received donor human milk. The EHM cohort was also fed a human milk-based fortifier to truly eliminate bovine products. The distribution of NEC onset in the EHM cohort was significantly different from that in the control cohort for the day of onset (p=0.042) and the PMA at onset (p=0.011). In the control cohort, NEC onset after Day 7 of life occurred in 15 of 443 infants (3.4%), significantly more than in the EHM cohort where NEC occurred in two of 199 infants (1%) (p=0.009). Changing to an EHM milk diet through 33 weeks PMA reduced the incidence of NEC associated with enteral feeding.

  20. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase to treat necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Biesterveld, Ben E; Koehler, Shannon M; Heinzerling, Nathan P; Rentea, Rebecca M; Fredrich, Katherine; Welak, Scott R; Gourlay, David M

    2015-06-15

    Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) activity is decreased in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and IAP supplementation prevents NEC development. It is not known if IAP given after NEC onset can reverse the course of the disease. We hypothesized that enteral IAP given after NEC induction would not reverse intestinal injury. NEC was induced in Sprague-Dawley pups by delivery preterm followed by formula feedings with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and hypoxia exposure and continued up to 4 d. IAP was added to feeds on day 2 until being sacrificed on day 4. NEC severity was scored based on hematoxylin and eosin-stained terminal ileum sections, and AP activity was measured using a colorimetric assay. IAP and interleukin-6 expression were measured using real time polymerase chain reaction. NEC pups' alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity was decreased to 0.18 U/mg compared with controls of 0.57 U/mg (P < 0.01). Discontinuation of LPS and hypoxia after 2 d increased AP activity to 0.36 U/mg (P < 0.01). IAP supplementation in matched groups did not impact total AP activity or expression. Discontinuing LPS and hypoxia after NEC onset improved intestinal injury scores to 1.14 compared with continued stressors, score 2.25 (P < 0.01). IAP supplementation decreased interleukin-6 expression two-fold (P < 0.05), though did not reverse NEC intestinal damage (P = 0.5). This is the first work to demonstrate that removing the source of NEC improves intestinal damage and increases AP activity. When used as a rescue treatment, IAP decreased intestinal inflammation though did not impact injury making it likely that IAP is best used preventatively to those neonates at risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Characteristics and incidence of transfusion-associated necrotizing enterocolitis in the UKCharacteristics and incidence of transfusion-associated necrotizing enterocolitis in the UK.

    PubMed

    Faraday, Christopher; Hamad, Sheima; Jones, Kelsey; Sim, Kathleen; Cherian, Shobha; James, Anitha; Godambe, Sunit; New, Helen; Kroll; Clarke, Paul

    2018-06-26

    The etiology of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is unclear and postulated as being multifactorial. It has been suggested that one causative factor is the transfusion of packed red bloods cells (PRBCs) leading to the disease entity commonly referred to as transfusion-associated NEC (TANEC). TANEC has been reported in North America but its incidence has not been formally investigated in the United Kingdom (UK). Our aims were to identify the incidence of NEC and TANEC in tertiary-level UK neonatal units and to describe characteristics of TANEC cases. Using strict case definitions for NEC and TANEC, we undertook a retrospective review to estimate the incidence of TANEC cases occurring in four UK tertiary-level centers during a 38-month period. Of 8007 consecutive neonatal admissions of all gestations to the four centers, 68 babies went on to develop NEC and all affected infants were of very low birth weight (VLBW); 34 of these had previously received a transfusion of PRBCs but did not fit the diagnostic criteria for TANEC, while 15 (22%) of the 68 babies with NEC qualified as TANEC cases. UK cases occurred at an earlier postnatal age than cases reported in multiple large North American series and were of a lower birth weight. We have confirmed the presence of TANEC in the UK VLBW neonatal population. Its incidence lies within the wide range described in previous reports of this phenomenon globally, though with some local variation in characteristics. Further work is needed to clarify causation, pathophysiology, and possible mechanisms of prevention of TANEC.

  2. A study of pre-antibiotic bacteriology in 125 patients with necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Chan, K L; Saing, H; Yung, R W; Yeung, Y P; Tsoi, N S

    1994-01-01

    Over a five-year period, 125 newborns with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) were managed by us. Their mean birthweight was 1700 g and mean maturity was 32 weeks. Before commencement of antibiotics, routine septic work-up was done in order to define the bacterial spectrum and antibiotic sensitivity. The study includes aerobic and anaerobic cultures of gastric and pharyngeal aspirates, blood cultures, umbilical swabs and culture of umbilical catheter tips in relevant cases. Peritoneal swab results were also analyzed if laparatomy was performed. Positive cultures were present in 45 patients (36%) with 55 positive specimens. Fifteen types of organism were isolated: the commonest was Enterobacter (29%), followed by E. coli (14.5%) and Klebsiella (13%). They were resistant to ampicillin and first-generation cephalosporin. These organisms were usually opportunistic pathogens. Overgrowth of them may be the cause of NEC. Regular review of the antibiotic sensitivity of these organisms allows prompt and appropriate choice of antibiotics. At the same time, antibiotic sensitivity for these organisms was analyzed to guide us in the choice of antibiotic therapy.

  3. Efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii on necrotizing enterocolitis or sepsis in very low birth weight infants: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Serce, Ozge; Benzer, Derya; Gursoy, Tugba; Karatekin, Guner; Ovali, Fahri

    2013-12-01

    Probiotics have strain specific effects and the effects of fungi in preventing diseases in preterm infants have been investigated poorly. Saccharomyces boulardii is a yeast which acts both as a probiotic and a polyamine producer. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of S. boulardii in preventing necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) or sepsis in very low birth weight infants. A prospective, double blind, placebo controlled trial was conducted in preterm infants (≤ 32 GWs, ≤ 1500 g birth weight). They were randomized either to receive feeding supplementation with S. boulardii 50 mg/kg every 12 h or placebo, starting with the first feed until discharged. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) or sepsis and NEC or death. Birth weight and gestational age of the study (n = 104) and the control (n = 104) groups were 1126 ± 232 vs 1162 ± 216 g and 28.8 ± 2.2 vs 28.7 ± 2.1 weeks, respectively. Neither the incidence of stage ≥ 2 NEC or death nor stage ≥ 2 NEC or late onset culture proven sepsis was significantly lower in the study group when compared with the control group (9.6% vs 7.7%, p = 0.62; 28.8% vs 23%, p = 0.34). Time to reach 100 mL/kg/day of enteral feeding (11.9 ± 7 vs 12.6 ± 7 days, p = 0.37) was not different between the groups. Saccharomyces boulardii did not decrease the incidence of NEC or sepsis. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural studies of O-polysaccharide isolated from Cronobacter sakazakii Sequence Type 12 from a case of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Marszewska, Kinga; Czerwicka, Małgorzata; Forsythe, Stephen J; Ossowska, Karolina; Dziadziuszko, Halina; Kaczyński, Zbigniew

    2015-04-30

    The O-polysaccharide (OPS) of Cronobacter sakazakii NTU 696 (Sequence Type 12) from a case of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis was isolated from the polysaccharide fraction obtained after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) hydrolysis. Purified OPS was analyzed by NMR spectroscopy ((1)H, COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY and HMBC experiments) and chemical methods. Obtained monosaccharide derivatives analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed the identification of six sugar components. Performed experiments enabled to establish a structure of the OPS repeating unit of C. sakazakii NTU 696, as: [structure: see text]. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Abdominal and hepatic uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis

    SciTech Connect

    Caride, V.J.; Touloukian, R.J.; Ablow, R.C.

    1981-04-01

    Abdominal /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/Tc-PYP) scans were obtained in 15 neonates: 12 with neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), two with osteomyelitis, and one with myocarditis. Ten of the babies with NEC had at least one positive scan; of these 10 studies, seven (Group A) showed both diffuse abdominal uptake and localized hepatic activity, two (Group B) showed abdominal uptake and questionable hepatic uptake, and one (Group C) demonstrated diffuse abdominal uptake only. The other two babies with NEC had normal scans (Group D). All NEC patients had normal scans. A patient with myocarditis had hepatic uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-PYP while themore » abdominal scan in the two infants with osteomyelitis was normal. These preliminary observations suggest that further study of a relationship between abdominal scan findings and the course of NEC is warranted.« less

  6. Preterm infants with necrotising enterocolitis demonstrate an unbalanced gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Itani, Tarek; Ayoub Moubareck, Carole; Melki, Imad; Rousseau, Clotilde; Mangin, Irène; Butel, Marie-José; Karam-Sarkis, Dolla

    2018-01-01

    This Lebanese study tested the hypothesis that differences would exist in the gut microbiota of preterm infants with and without necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), as reported in Western countries. This study compared 11 infants with NEC and 11 controls, all born at 27-35 weeks, in three neonatal intensive care units between January 2013 and March 2015. Faecal samples were collected at key time points, and microbiota was analysed by culture, quantitative PCR (qPCR) and temperature temporal gel electrophoresis (TTGE). The cultures revealed that all preterm infants were poorly colonised and harboured no more than seven species. Prior to NEC diagnosis, significant differences were observed by qPCR with a higher colonisation by staphylococci (p = 0.034) and lower colonisations by enterococci (p = 0.039) and lactobacilli (p = 0.048) in the NEC group compared to the healthy controls. Throughout the study, virtually all of the infants were colonised by Enterobacteriaceae at high levels. TTGE analysis revealed no particular clusterisation, showing high interindividual variability. The NEC infants were poorly colonised with no more than seven species, and the controls had a more diversified and balanced gut microbiota. Understanding NEC aetiology better could lead to more effective prophylactic interventions and a reduced incidence. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Probiotics Reduce Necrotizing Enterocolitis Severity in HIV-exposed Premature Infants.

    PubMed

    Van Niekerk, Evette; Nel, Daniel G; Blaauw, Reneé; Kirsten, Gert F

    2015-06-01

    To assess the effect of probiotics on the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in premature infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative women. HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed premature infants were randomized to either the probiotic or the placebo group. The probiotic consisted of 1 × 10(9) colony-forming units, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium infantis per day. In total, 74 HIV-exposed and 110 HIV-unexposed infants were enrolled and randomized. The incidence of death [4 (5.4%) vs. 7 (6%); p = 0.79] and NEC [4 (5%) vs. 5 (5%); p = 0.76] did not differ significantly between the HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed groups. A significant difference was found for total NEC incidence between the study and control groups [3 (3%) vs. 6 (6%); p = 0.029]. The incidence of NEC in the HIV-exposed group differed significantly [Bells I 2 (5%) vs. Bells III 2 (5%); p = 0.045). Probiotic supplementation reduced the incidence of NEC in the premature very low birth weight infants; however, results failed to show a lower incidence of NEC in HIV-exposed premature infants. A reduction in the severity of disease was found in the HIV-exposed study group. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Therapeutic Use of Prebiotics, Probiotics, and Postbiotics to Prevent Necrotizing Enterocolitis: What is the Current Evidence?

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ravi Mangal; Denning, Patricia Wei

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality and preventative therapies that are both effective and safe are urgently needed. Current evidence from therapeutic trials suggests that probiotics are effective in decreasing NEC in preterm infants and probiotics are currently the most promising therapy on the horizon for this devastating disease. However, concerns regarding safety and optimal dosing have limited the widespread adoption of routine clinical use of probiotics in preterm infants. In addition, prebiotics and postbiotics may be potential alternatives or adjunctive therapies to the administration of live microorganisms, although studies demonstrating their clinical efficacy in preventing NEC are lacking. This review summarizes the current evidence regarding the use of probiotics, prebiotics and postbiotics in the preterm infant, including its therapeutic role in preventing NEC. PMID:23415261

  9. Enteric serotonin and oxytocin: endogenous regulation of severity in a murine model of necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Gross Margolis, Kara; Vittorio, Jennifer; Talavera, Maria; Gluck, Karen; Li, Zhishan; Iuga, Alina; Stevanovic, Korey; Saurman, Virginia; Israelyan, Narek; Welch, Martha G; Gershon, Michael D

    2017-11-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a gastrointestinal inflammatory disease of unknown etiology that may also affect the liver, causes a great deal of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. We tested the hypothesis that signaling molecules, which are endogenous to the bowel, regulate the severity of intestinal and hepatic damage in an established murine NEC model. Specifically, we postulated that mucosal serotonin (5-HT), which is proinflammatory, would exacerbate experimental NEC and that oxytocin (OT), which is present in enteric neurons and is anti-inflammatory, would oppose it. Genetic deletion of the 5-HT transporter (SERT), which increases and prolongs effects of 5-HT, was found to increase the severity of systemic manifestations, intestinal inflammation, and associated hepatotoxicity of experimental NEC. In contrast, genetic deletion of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1), which is responsible for 5-HT biosynthesis in enterochromaffin (EC) cells of the intestinal mucosa, and TPH inhibition with LP-920540 both decrease the severity of experimental NEC in the small intestine and liver. These observations suggest that 5-HT from EC cells helps to drive the inflammatory damage to the gut and liver that occurs in the murine NEC model. Administration of OT decreased, while the OT receptor antagonist atosiban exacerbated, the intestinal inflammation of experimental NEC. Data from the current investigation are consistent with the tested hypotheses-that the enteric signaling molecules, 5-HT (positively) and OT (negatively) regulate severity of inflammation in a mouse model of NEC. Moreover, we suggest that mucosally restricted inhibition of 5-HT biosynthesis and/or administration of OT may be useful in the treatment of NEC. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Serotonin (5-HT) and oxytocin reciprocally regulate the severity of intestinal inflammation and hepatotoxicity in a murine model of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Selective depletion of mucosal 5-HT through genetic deletion or

  10. Carbohydrate maldigestion induces necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs

    PubMed Central

    Thymann, Thomas; Møller, Hanne K.; Stoll, Barbara; Støy, Ann Cathrine F.; Buddington, Randal K.; Bering, Stine B.; Jensen, Bent B.; Olutoye, Oluyinka O.; Siggers, Richard H.; Mølbak, Lars; Sangild, Per T.

    2009-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains the most severe gastrointestinal disorder in preterm infants. It is associated with the initiation of enteral nutrition and may be related to immature carbohydrate digestive capacity. We tested the hypothesis that a formula containing maltodextrin vs. a formula containing lactose as the principal source of carbohydrate would predispose preterm pigs to a higher NEC incidence. Cesarean-derived preterm pigs were given total parenteral nutrition for 48 h followed by total enteral nutrition with a lactose-based (n = 11) or maltodextrin-based (n = 11) formula for 36 h. A higher incidence (91% vs. 27%) and severity (score of 3.3 vs. 1.8) of NEC were observed in the maltodextrin than in the lactose group. This higher incidence of NEC in the maltodextrin group was associated with significantly lower activities of lactase, maltase, and aminopeptidase; reduced villus height; transiently reduced in vivo aldohexose uptake; and reduced ex vivo aldohexose uptake capacity in the middle region of the small intestine. Bacterial diversity was low for both diets, but alterations in bacterial composition and luminal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids were observed in the maltodextrin group. In a second study, we quantified net portal absorption of aldohexoses (glucose and galactose) during acute jejunal infusion of a maltodextrin- or a lactose-based formula (n = 8) into preterm pigs. We found lower net portal aldohexose absorption (4% vs. 42%) and greater intestinal recovery of undigested carbohydrate (68% vs. 27%) in pigs acutely perfused with the maltodextrin-based formula than those perfused with the lactose-based formula. The higher digestibility of the lactose than the maltodextrin in the formulas can be attributed to a 5- to 20-fold higher hydrolytic activity of tissue-specific lactase than maltases. We conclude that carbohydrate maldigestion is sufficient to increase the incidence and severity of NEC in preterm pigs. PMID:19808655

  11. Severe forms of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Sarinho, Emanuel; Lins, Maria das Graças Moura

    To guide the diagnostic and therapeutic management of severe forms of food allergy. Search in the Medline database using the terms "severe food allergy," "anaphylaxis and food allergy," "generalized urticaria and food allergy," and "food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome" in the last ten years, searching in the title, abstract, or keyword fields. Food allergy can be serious and life-threatening. Milk, eggs, peanuts, nuts, walnuts, wheat, sesame seeds, shrimp, fish, and fruit can precipitate allergic emergencies. The severity of reactions will depend on associated cofactors such as age, drug use at the onset of the reaction, history and persistence of asthma and/or severe allergic rhinitis, history of previous anaphylaxis, exercise, and associated diseases. For generalized urticaria and anaphylaxis, intramuscular epinephrine is the first and fundamental treatment line. For the treatment in acute phase of food-induced enterocolitis syndrome in the emergency setting, prompt hydroelectrolytic replacement, administration of methylprednisolone and ondansetron IV are necessary. It is important to recommend to the patient with food allergy to maintain the exclusion diet, seek specialized follow-up and, in those who have anaphylaxis, to emphasize the need to carry epinephrine. Severe food allergy may occur in the form of anaphylaxis and food-protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, which are increasingly observed in the pediatric emergency room; hence, pediatricians must be alert so they can provide the immediate diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-term outcome in patients with short bowel syndrome after longitudinal intestinal lengthening and tailoring.

    PubMed

    Reinshagen, K; Kabs, C; Wirth, H; Hable, N; Brade, J; Zahn, K; Hagl, C; Jester, I; Waag, K L

    2008-11-01

    Longitudinal intestinal lengthening and tailoring (LILT) is a well-established surgical treatment for short bowel syndrome. It has been shown to enhance peristalsis, decrease bacterial overgrowth, and extend mucosal contact time for nutrients. We present the results of a long-term follow-up of patients who underwent LILT and define prognostic parameters for the survival of these patients. Between 1987 and 2006, 53 patients underwent LILT in our institution. The main diagnoses were gastroschisis, intestinal volvulus, intestinal atresias, and necrotizing enterocolitis. LILT was performed at a mean age of 24 months (range 4144 months). The follow-up time was 79.76 months (range 6234 months). After LILT, 41 of 53 patients survived, and 36 of 41 surviving patients were successfully weaned from parenteral nutrition (PN). In long-term follow-up 79% stayed free of PN. The overall survival rate was 77.36%. Weight gain occurred in 58% of the patients after LILT. The quality of life after LILT is on a high level, with most patients having normal physical strength and participating in normal social life and education. Prognostic factors for survival after LILT in short bowel syndrome are length of small intestine (0.06582 + 0.0131 x bowel cm), length of large bowel (P = 0.039), preoperative liver function, and successful weaning from PN within 18 months postoperatively (P = 0.0032). Patients undergoing LILT in short bowel syndrome have a high survival rate, weight gain, and a high quality of life. Autologous gastrointestinal reconstruction remains therefore the first choice in the treatment of patients with short bowel syndrome.

  13. Necrotizing Enterocolitis is associated with Ureaplasma Colonization in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Okogbule-Wonodi, Adora C.; Gross, George W.; Sun, Chen-Chih J.; Agthe, Alexander G.; Xiao, Li; Waites, Ken B.; Viscardi, Rose Marie

    2014-01-01

    The study objective was to determine whether Ureaplasma respiratory tract colonization of preterm infants <33 weeks gestation is associated with an increased risk for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). One or more tracheal or nasopharyngeal aspirates for Ureaplasma culture and PCR were obtained during the first week of life from 368 infants <33 weeks gestation enrolled from 1999-2003 or from 2007-2009. NEC Bell stage ≥2 was confirmed by radiological criteria, and pathology, if available. Cord serum samples were analyzed for IL-6 and IL-1β concentrations and placentas were reviewed for histological chorioamnionitis in the first cohort. NEC was confirmed in 29/368 (7.9%) of the combined cohorts. The incidence of NEC was 2.2-fold higher in Ureaplasma-positive (12.3%) than Ureaplasma-negative infants (5.5%) <33 wk (OR 2.43, 95%CI 1.13-5.22, P=0.023) and 3.3-fold higher in Ureaplasma-positive (14.6%) than Ureaplasma-negative (4.4%) infants ≤28 wks (OR 3.67, 95%CI 1.36-9.93, P=0.01). Age of onset, hematologic parameters at onset, and NEC severity were similar between Ureaplasma-positive and negative infants. Cord serum IL-6 and IL-1β concentrations were significantly higher in Ureaplasma-positive than in Ureaplasma-negative NEC-affected infants. Ureaplasma may be a factor in NEC pathogenesis in preterm infants by contributing to intestinal mucosal injury and/or altering systemic or local immune responses. PMID:21258263

  14. Comparison of the abilities of the plasma triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and the metabolic syndrome to identify insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Martin R; Carbajal, Horacio A; Espeche, Walter G; Leiva Sisnieguez, Carlos E; March, Carlos E; Balbín, Eduardo; Dulbecco, Carlos A; Aizpurúa, Marcelo; Marillet, Alberto G; Reaven, Gerald M

    2013-07-01

    This study compares the ability of an elevated triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio, using sex-specific cut-points, to identify insulin-resistant individuals within a population without known cardiac disease or diabetes with that obtained using the diagnostic criteria of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Measurements were made of waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, fasting plasma insulin (FPI), plasma TG and plasma HDL-C concentrations in 1102 women and 464 men. These data were used to classify subjects as being insulin resistant (FPI concentration in the upper quartile) and having the MetS or an elevated TG/HDL-C ratio (>2.5 and >3.5 for women and men, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity with which the two indices identified insulin-resistant subjects were similar (43% and 81% for TG/HDL-C ratio and 45% and 82% for MetS), as the number of individuals was found with either an elevated TG/HDL-C ratio (n = 386) or the MetS (n = 384). Eighty-one per cent of the individuals were identified concordantly. Cardio-metabolic risk profiles in 'low-risk' individuals identified by a low TG/HDL-C ratio were comparable to those who did not have the MetS, and this was also the case when comparing 'high-risk' groups identified by having the MetS or an elevated TG/HDL-C ratio. These findings suggest that TG/HDL-C concentration ratio is as adequate as MetS diagnosis to identify insulin-resistant subjects.

  15. The Microbiome and Metabolome of Preterm Infant Stool Are Personalized and Not Driven by Health Outcomes, Including Necrotizing Enterocolitis and Late-Onset Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Wandro, Stephen; Osborne, Stephanie; Enriquez, Claudia; Bixby, Christine; Arrieta, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The assembly and development of the gut microbiome in infants have important consequences for immediate and long-term health. Preterm infants represent an abnormal case for bacterial colonization because of early exposure to bacteria and frequent use of antibiotics. To better understand the assembly of the gut microbiota in preterm infants, fecal samples were collected from 32 very low birth weight preterm infants over the first 6 weeks of life. Infant health outcomes included health, late-onset sepsis, and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We characterized bacterial compositions by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolomes by untargeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Preterm infant fecal samples lacked beneficial Bifidobacterium spp. and were dominated by Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, and Staphylococcus organisms due to nearly uniform antibiotic administration. Most of the variance between the microbial community compositions could be attributed to the baby from which the sample derived (permutational multivariate analysis of variance [PERMANOVA] R2 = 0.48, P < 0.001), while clinical status (health, NEC, or late-onset sepsis) and overlapping times in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) did not explain a significant amount of variation in bacterial composition. Fecal metabolomes were also found to be unique to the individual (PERMANOVA R2 = 0.43, P < 0.001) and weakly associated with bacterial composition (Mantel statistic r = 0.23 ± 0.05, P < 0.05). No measured metabolites were found to be associated with necrotizing enterocolitis, late-onset sepsis, or a healthy outcome. Overall, preterm infant gut microbial communities were personalized and reflected antibiotic usage. IMPORTANCE Preterm infants face health problems likely related to microbial exposures, including sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. However, the role of the gut microbiome in preterm infant health is poorly understood. Microbial colonization differs from that of healthy

  16. The Microbiome and Metabolome of Preterm Infant Stool Are Personalized and Not Driven by Health Outcomes, Including Necrotizing Enterocolitis and Late-Onset Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Wandro, Stephen; Osborne, Stephanie; Enriquez, Claudia; Bixby, Christine; Arrieta, Antonio; Whiteson, Katrine

    2018-06-27

    The assembly and development of the gut microbiome in infants have important consequences for immediate and long-term health. Preterm infants represent an abnormal case for bacterial colonization because of early exposure to bacteria and frequent use of antibiotics. To better understand the assembly of the gut microbiota in preterm infants, fecal samples were collected from 32 very low birth weight preterm infants over the first 6 weeks of life. Infant health outcomes included health, late-onset sepsis, and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We characterized bacterial compositions by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolomes by untargeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Preterm infant fecal samples lacked beneficial Bifidobacterium spp. and were dominated by Enterobacteriaceae , Enterococcus , and Staphylococcus organisms due to nearly uniform antibiotic administration. Most of the variance between the microbial community compositions could be attributed to the baby from which the sample derived (permutational multivariate analysis of variance [PERMANOVA] R 2 = 0.48, P < 0.001), while clinical status (health, NEC, or late-onset sepsis) and overlapping times in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) did not explain a significant amount of variation in bacterial composition. Fecal metabolomes were also found to be unique to the individual (PERMANOVA R 2 = 0.43, P < 0.001) and weakly associated with bacterial composition (Mantel statistic r = 0.23 ± 0.05, P < 0.05). No measured metabolites were found to be associated with necrotizing enterocolitis, late-onset sepsis, or a healthy outcome. Overall, preterm infant gut microbial communities were personalized and reflected antibiotic usage. IMPORTANCE Preterm infants face health problems likely related to microbial exposures, including sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. However, the role of the gut microbiome in preterm infant health is poorly understood. Microbial colonization differs from that of healthy term

  17. Prognostic features and clinical presentation of acute idiopathic enterocolitis in horses

    PubMed Central

    Staempfli, Henry R.; Townsend, Hugh G.G.; Prescott, John F.

    1991-01-01

    Clinical and hematological changes observed on presentation of 47 horses referred to the Ontario Veterinary College with acute idiopathic colitis were analyzed for their prognostic features. Cases of acute enterocolitis were characterized by fever, dehydration, abnormalities of serum electrolyte concentrations, azotemia, hypoalbuminemia, and increased serum concentrations of muscle enzymes. Severely dehydrated horses were seven times more likely to die or be euthanized than those that were not dehydrated. Other factors associated with failure to survive included the following: increased hematocrit, increased number of band neutrophils, increased serum creatinine and urea concentrations, and decreased blood pH and increasingly negative base excess. The results of multivariate variable analysis (stepwise logistic regression) suggested that, among the variables tested, base excess was the best predictor of death or survival. Twenty of 47 horses died or were euthanized. Reasons for death or euthanasia included: severe disseminated intravascular coagulation, unresponsiveness of severe metabolic acidosis and hypoproteinemia to treatments, and severity of colonic lesions on exploratory laparotomy. Of the surviving horses, three developed chronic laminitis (two were destroyed) and five developed jugular vein thrombosis. Fourteen of 16 horses for which subsequent histories were available returned to normal function. Early recognition of the disease, combined with early and aggressive correction of dehydration and of acid-base imbalance, may be important determinants of survival in horses with acute idiopathic colitis. PMID:17423769

  18. Liver damage, proliferation, and progenitor cell markers in experimental necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Hiromu; Li, Bo; Lee, Carol; Koike, Yuhki; Chen, Yong; Seo, Shogo; Pierro, Agostino

    2018-05-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a disease known to cause injury to multiple organs including the liver. Liver regeneration is essential for the recovery after NEC-induced liver injury. Our aim was to investigate hepatic proliferation and progenitor cell marker expression in experimental NEC. Following ethical approval (#32238), NEC was induced in mice by hypoxia, gavage feeding of hyperosmolar formula, and lipopolysaccharide. Breastfed pups were used as control. We analyzed serum ALT level, liver inflammatory cytokines, liver proliferation markers, and progenitor cell marker expression. Comparison was made between NEC and controls. Serum ALT level was higher in NEC (p<0.05). The mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the liver was also higher in NEC (IL6: p<0.05, TNF-α: p<0.01). Conversely, mRNA expression of proliferation markers in the liver was lower in NEC (Ki67; p<0.01, PCNA: p<0.01). LGR5 expression was also significantly decreased in NEC as demonstrated by mRNA (p<0.05) and protein (p<0.01) levels. Inflammatory injury was present in the liver during experimental NEC. Proliferation and LGR5 expression were impaired in the NEC liver. Modulation of progenitor cell expressing LGR5 may result in stimulation of liver regeneration in NEC-induced liver injury and improved clinical outcome. Level IV. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, D. C. Annual Progress Report FY-89. Volume 2. Part 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-02

    Patterns of Cerebral Blood Flow Determined by Iodoamphetamine SPECT in Sjogren’s Syndrome and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Pilot Study KEYWORDS: SPECT...scanning in patients with Sjogren’s Syndrome and SLE. To identify possible regional defects in cerebral blood flow and correlate these defects with the...in animals reveals myelosuppression, lymphoid atrophy, * hemorrhagic enterocolitis, renal tubular necrosis, and cochlear damage, as well as some

  20. The application of peritoneal drainage in the surgical treatment for neonates with necrotizing enterocolitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jixue; Fu, Xin

    2017-08-01

    Object To explore the feasibility and effects of peritoneal drainage in the surgical treatment for the neonates with necrotizing enterocolitis. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conduct on 32 cases of newborns with extensive and multiple intestinal necrosis found intraoperatively, all of which could not accept first-stage resected, treated by traditional operation or by peritoneal drainage between January, 2013 to January 2017. Duration of operation, amount of bleeding, and the survival rate after operation were compared between the two groups, which were divided by surgical methods. Results: No significant difference was observed in age, and gender (P>0.05) between the two groups. However, duration of operation was significantly shorter, the amount of bleeding was significantly lessen, the survival rate was significantly higher in the patients by peritoneal drainage than the patients by traditional operation (P<0.05). Conclusion: To compare traditional operation or peritoneal drainage in neonates, a retrospective analysis conducted by us showed the feasibility and effects of peritoneal drainage in neonates, and a significant advantage in duration of operation and the survival rate after operation.

  1. Prospective evaluation of radionuclide scanning in detection of intestinal necrosis in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, G.M.; Sfakianakis, G.N.; Lobe, T.E.

    1981-06-01

    The ability of external imaging to demonstrate intestinal infarction in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) was prospectively evaluated. The radiopharmaceutical technetium--99m diphosphonate was injected intravenously and the patients subsequently underwent abdominal scanning. Clinical patient care and interpretation of the images were entirely independent throughout the study. Of 33 studies, 7 were positive, 4 were suspicious, and 22 were negative. One false positive study detected ischemia without transmural infarction. The second false positive scan occurred postoperatively and was due to misinterpretation of the hyperactivity along the surgical incision. None of the suspicious cases had damaged bowel. The two false negative studies clearlymore » failed to demonstrate frank intestinal necrosis. The presence of very small areas of infarction, errors in technical settings, subjective interpretation of scans and delayed clearance of the radionuclide in a critically ill neonate may all limit the accuracy of external abdominal scanning. However, in spite of an error rate of 12%, it is likely that this technique will enhance the present clinical, laboratory, and radiologic parameters of patient management in NEC.« less

  2. Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics for the Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Henry, Kathene C; Abrahamsson, Thomas R; Wu, Richard You; Sherman, Philip M

    2016-09-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating intestinal disease in preterm infants characterized by barrier disruption, intestinal microbial dysbiosis, and persistent inflammation of the colon, which results in high mortality rates. Current strategies used to manage this disease are not sufficient, although the use of human breast milk reduces the risk of NEC. Mother's milk is regarded as a fundamental nutritional source for neonates, but pasteurization of donor breast milk affects the composition of bioactive compounds. Current research is evaluating the benefits and potential pitfalls of adding probiotics and prebiotics to pasteurized milk so as to improve the functionality of the milk and thereby reduce the burden of illness caused by NEC. Probiotics (live micro-organisms that confer health to the host) and prebiotics (nondigestible oligosaccharides that stimulate the growth of healthy bacteria) are functional foods known to mediate immune responses and modulate microbial populations in the gut. Clinical research shows strain- and compound-specific responses when probiotics or prebiotics are administered in conjunction with donor breast milk for the prevention of NEC. Despite ongoing controversy surrounding optimal treatment strategies, randomized controlled studies are now investigating the use of synbiotics to reduce the incidence and severity of NEC. Synbiotics, a combination of probiotics and prebiotics, have been proposed to enhance beneficial health effects in the intestinal tract more than either agent administered alone. This review considers the implications of using probiotic-, prebiotic-, and synbiotic-supplemented breast milk as a strategy to prevent NEC and issues that could be encountered with the preparations. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Hemodynamic and permeability characteristics of acute experimental necrotizing enterocolitis

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.J.; Adams, J.; Gu, X.A.

    1990-10-01

    We examined the local hemodynamic response of intestinal loops during acute necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in anesthetized rabbits. NEC was induced in ileal loops by transmural injection of a solution containing casein (10 mg/ml) and calcium gluconate (50 mg/ml) acidified to pH 4.0 with propionic or acetic acid. Control loops received casein only (pH 5.0). Mucosal damage was quantified by the blood-to-lumen movement of (51Cr)EDTA, fluid shifts into the lumen, and histology. Mean arterial pressure and loop blood flow were steady over the 3-hr period, loop fluid volume decreased, and there was no evidence of necrosis or epithelial damage. In loopsmore » receiving acidified casein and calcium gluconate, there was an immediate dramatic increase in loop blood flow that returned to baseline by 50 min. In addition, loop fluid volume was dramatically increased, necrosis was noted in the form of blunting and loss of villi, and sevenfold increase in (51Cr)EDTA permeability was evident. Administration of CV 1808 (30 mg/kg/hr), a selective adenosine2 agonist, which maintained and elevated loop blood flow throughout the 3 hr protocol, failed to alter the changes in loop fluid volume or prevent necrosis. Histamine levels in loop fluid levels were significantly elevated 20-30 min after NEC induction when compared to saline controls, indicating an early activation of mucosal defenses with this luminal insult. Thus, this model of NEC is characterized by a transient, acute hyperemia, increased intestinal permeability, and histamine release. As mucosal damage was independent of ischemia and could not be prevented by vasodilatory therapy, this model supports the clinical findings that NEC is correlated with luminal factors related to feeding and independent of cardiovascular stress.« less

  4. Infection-associated hemophagocytic syndrome complicated by infectious lymphoproliferation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Syrůcková, Z; Starý, J; Sedlácek, P; Smísek, P; Vavrinec, J; Komrska, V; Roubalová, K; Vandasová, J; Sintáková, B; Housková, J; Hassan, M

    1996-01-01

    The case of a 7-year-old boy with virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS) and serologically proven parvovirus B-19 infection is described. The patient with VAHS presented with fever, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, and hyperlipidemia type IV. After induction therapy with VP-16 and prednisone, partial remission was achieved. Despite maintenance therapy, reinductions, and the addition of cyclosporine A for 3 months, several relapses occurred. The therapy was stopped because of life-threatening complications (Klebsiella sepsis, neutropenic enterocolitis, and stercoral peritonitis). The complications were treated successfully. The patient status was stabilized after splenectomy. However, hepatomegaly progressed slowly and the hyperlipidemia endured. Ten months after the diagnosis leukocytosis with absolute T lymphocytosis appeared. Reactivation of VAHS was suspected and intravenous immunoglobin and then antilymphocyte immunoglobulin ALG therapy were started. The resultant decrease in leukocytosis was prompt, but lymphopenia did not occur. Virostatic treatment with foscarnet was introduced based on human herpesvirus-6 seroconversion. Twenty-six months after the diagnosis, the patient is well, without any sign of VAHS or lymphoproliferation.

  5. Dynamics Explorer 2: Continued FPI and NACS instrument data analysis and associated scientific activity at the University of Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Alan; Killeen, T. L.

    1993-01-01

    The grant entitled 'Dynamics Explorer 2 - continued FPI and NACS instrument data analysis and associated scientific activity at the University of Michigan' is a continuation of a grant that began with instrument development for the Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) satellite. Over the years, many publications and presentations at scientific meetings have occurred under the aegis of this grant. This present report details the progress that has been made in the final three years of the grant. In these last 4 years of the grant 26 papers have been published or are in press and about 10 more are in preparation or have been submitted. A large number of presentations have been made in the same time span: 36 are listed in Appendix 2. Evidence of the high educational utility of this research is indicated by the list of Ph. D. and M. S. theses that have been completed in the last 3 years that have involved work connected with NAG5-465. The structure of this report is as follows: a brief synopsis of the aims of the grant NAG5-465 is given in the next section; then there is a summary of the scientific accomplishments that have occurred over the grant period; last, we make some brief concluding remarks. Reprints of articles that have recently appeared in refereed journals are appended to the end of this document.

  6. Necrotizing enterocolitis as a prognostic factor for the neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm infants - match control study after 2years.

    PubMed

    Allendorf, Antje; Dewitz, Ruth; Weber, Joy; Bakthiar, Shahrzad; Schloesser, Rolf; Rolle, Udo

    2018-01-31

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in very low birth weight infants is a risk factor for developmental delay. To our knowledge, there are no studies published investigating the neurodevelopmental outcome of patients with NEC comparing surgically treated and conservatively treated patients versus match paired controls. The aim of this retrospective case control study was to measure the neurodevelopmental outcome of patients with NEC who were treated surgically or conservatively METHODS: All patients were identified, who have been diagnosed with NEC (ICD-10 code, P77) born between 2006 and 2013. Patients with NEC received antibiotic therapy, nasogastric decompression and fasting. Surgical treatment was indicated for patients with Bell stages IIIb. We excluded patients suffering from other relevant diseases with a possible impact on their neurodevelopmental outcome (e.g., intraventricular hemorrhage, associated malformations, asphyxia, focal intestinal perforation, short bowel syndrome). Patients were tested at the corrected gestational age of 24months according to the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II. Each participant was compared to a child of the same sex, gestational age at birth (+/-two days), birth weight (+/-10%), and age at neurodevelopmental testing (IRB approval, No. 14/2014). The outcome measures were the psychomotor index (PDI) and the mental developmental index (MDI). We included 13 conservatively and 24 surgically treated patients. The patients in group A (without surgery) achieved a mean PDI of 106, and those in group B (with surgery) a mean PDI of 90. These values were significantly higher in the conservative group A. The mean MDIs were 99 in the patient group A and 85 in patient group B. This difference was also significant. We found significantly lower MDIs and PDIs in children with surgical treatment of NEC. Further systematic prospective research on the prevention of NEC and systematic follow-ups at later stages in the patients' development are

  7. Ranitidine is associated with infections, necrotizing enterocolitis, and fatal outcome in newborns.

    PubMed

    Terrin, Gianluca; Passariello, Annalisa; De Curtis, Mario; Manguso, Francesco; Salvia, Gennaro; Lega, Laura; Messina, Francesco; Paludetto, Roberto; Canani, Roberto Berni

    2012-01-01

    Gastric acidity is a major nonimmune defense mechanism against infections. The objective of this study was to investigate whether ranitidine treatment in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants is associated with an increased risk of infections, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and fatal outcome. Newborns with birth weight between 401 and 1500 g or gestational age between 24 and 32 weeks, consecutively observed in neonatal intensive care units, were enrolled in a multicenter prospective observational study. The rates of infectious diseases, NEC, and death in enrolled subjects exposed or not to ranitidine were recorded. We evaluated 274 VLBW infants: 91 had taken ranitidine and 183 had not. The main clinical and demographic characteristics did not differ between the 2 groups. Thirty-four (37.4%) of the 91 children exposed to ranitidine and 18 (9.8%) of the 183 not exposed to ranitidine had contracted infections (odds ratio 5.5, 95% confidence interval 2.9-10.4, P < .001). The risk of NEC was 6.6-fold higher in ranitidine-treated VLBW infants (95% confidence interval 1.7-25.0, P = .003) than in control subjects. Mortality rate was significantly higher in newborns receiving ranitidine (9.9% vs 1.6%, P = .003). Ranitidine therapy is associated with an increased risk of infections, NEC, and fatal outcome in VLBW infants. Caution is advocated in the use of this drug in neonatal age.

  8. Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1: A Novel Therapeutic Target in Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Giannone, Peter J.; Alcamo, Alicia A.; Schanbacher, Brandon L.; Nankervis, Craig A.; Besner, Gail E.; Bauer, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal disease of infancy, afflicting 11% of infants born 22–28 weeks gestational age. Both inflammation and oxidation may be involved in NEC pathogenesis through reactive nitrogen species production, protein oxidation and DNA damage. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a critical enzyme activated to facilitate DNA repair using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) as a substrate. However, in the presence of severe oxidative stress and DNA damage, PARP-1 over-activation may ensue, depleting cells of NAD+ and ATP, killing them by metabolic catastrophe. Here we tested the hypothesis that NO dysregulation in intestinal epithelial cells during NEC leads to marked PARP-1 expression and that administration of a PARP-1 inhibitor (nicotinamide) attenuates intestinal injury in a newborn rat model of NEC. In this model, 56% of control pups developed NEC (any stage), versus 14% of pups receiving nicotinamide. Forty-four percent of control pups developed high-grade NEC (grades 3–4), whereas only 7% of pups receiving nicotinamide developed high-grade NEC. Nicotinamide treatment protects pups against intestinal injury incurred in the newborn rat NEC model. We speculate that PARP-1 over-activation in NEC may drive mucosal cell death in this disease and that PARP-1 may be a novel therapeutic target in NEC. PMID:21399558

  9. Bifidobacterium breve prevents necrotising enterocolitis by suppressing inflammatory responses in a preterm rat model.

    PubMed

    Satoh, T; Izumi, H; Iwabuchi, N; Odamaki, T; Namba, K; Abe, F; Xiao, J Z

    2016-02-01

    Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is associated with inflammatory responses and barrier dysfunction in the gut. In this study, we investigated the effect of Bifidobacterium breve M-16V on factors related to NEC development using an experimental rat model. Caesarean-sectioned rats were given formula milk with or without B. breve M-16V by oral gavage thrice daily, and experimental NEC was induced by exposing the rats to hypoxic conditions. Naturally delivered rats that were reared by their mother were used as healthy controls. The pathological score of NEC and the expression of molecules related to inflammatory responses and the barrier function were assessed in the ileum. B. breve M-16V reduced the pathological scores of NEC and resulted in some improvement in survivability. B. breve M-16V suppressed the increased expression of molecules related to inflammation and barrier function that resulted from NEC induction. B. breve M-16V normalised Toll-like receptor (TRL)4 expression and enhanced TLR2 expression. Our data suggest that B. breve M-16V prevents NEC development by modulating TLR expressions and suppressing inflammatory responses in a rat model.

  10. Association of Red Blood Cell Transfusion, Anemia, and Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ravi M; Knezevic, Andrea; Shenvi, Neeta; Hinkes, Michael; Keene, Sarah; Roback, John D; Easley, Kirk A; Josephson, Cassandra D

    2016-03-01

    Data regarding the contribution of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and anemia to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are conflicting. These associations have not been prospectively evaluated, accounting for repeated, time-varying exposures. To determine the relationship between RBC transfusion, severe anemia, and NEC. In a secondary, prospective, multicenter observational cohort study from January 2010 to February 2014, very low-birth-weight (VLBW, ≤1500 g) infants, within 5 days of birth, were enrolled at 3 level III neonatal intensive care units in Atlanta, Georgia. Two hospitals were academically affiliated and 1 was a community hospital. Infants received follow-up until 90 days, hospital discharge, transfer to a non-study-affiliated hospital, or death (whichever came first). Multivariable competing-risks Cox regression was used, including adjustment for birth weight, center, breastfeeding, illness severity, and duration of initial antibiotic treatment, to evaluate the association between RBC transfusion, severe anemia, and NEC. The primary exposure was RBC transfusion. The secondary exposure was severe anemia, defined a priori as a hemoglobin level of 8 g/dL or less. Both exposures were evaluated as time-varying covariates at weekly intervals. Necrotizing enterocolitis, defined as Bell stage 2 or greater by preplanned adjudication. Mortality was evaluated as a competing risk. Of 600 VLBW infants enrolled, 598 were evaluated. Forty-four (7.4%) infants developed NEC. Thirty-two (5.4%) infants died (all cause). Fifty-three percent of infants (319) received a total of 1430 RBC transfusion exposures. The unadjusted cumulative incidence of NEC at week 8 among RBC transfusion-exposed infants was 9.9% (95% CI, 6.9%-14.2%) vs 4.6% (95% CI, 2.6%-8.0%) among those who were unexposed. In multivariable analysis, RBC transfusion in a given week was not significantly related to the rate of NEC (adjusted cause-specific hazard ratio, 0.44 [95% CI, 0.17-1.12]; P = .09). Based

  11. Autistic enterocolitis: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Galiatsatos, Polymnia; Gologan, Adrian; Lamoureux, Esther

    2009-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorder refers to syndromes of varying severity, typified by impaired social interactions, communicative delays and restricted, repetitive behaviours and interests. The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders has been on the rise, while the etiology remains unclear and most likely multifactorial. There have been several reports of a link between autism and chronic gastrointestinal symptoms. Endoscopy trials have demonstrated a higher prevalence of nonspecific colitis, lymphoid hyperplasia and focally enhanced gastritis compared with controls. Postulated mechanisms include aberrant immune responses to some dietary proteins, abnormal intestinal permeability and unfavourable gut microflora. Two autism spectrum disorder patients with chronic intestinal symptoms and abnormal endoscopic findings are described, followed by a review of this controversial topic.

  12. Life-threatening NLRC4-associated hyperinflammation successfully treated with Interleukin-18 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Canna, Scott W.; Girard, Charlotte; Malle, Louise; de Jesus, Adriana; Romberg, Neil; Kelsen, Judith; Surrey, Lea F.; Russo, Pierre; Sleight, Andrew; Schiffrin, Eduardo; Gabay, Cem; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Behrens, Edward M.

    2017-01-01

    Capsule Summary NLRC4-inflammasome hyperactivity causes infantile-onset Macrophage Activation Syndrome and enterocolitis with extraordinary serum IL-18 elevation (NLRC4-MAS). Herein, we report a critically ill infant with severe, refractory NLRC4-MAS who showed sustained response to treatment with experimental IL-18 inhibition. PMID:27876626

  13. Mode of Action of Shigella Toxin: Effects on Ribosome Structure and Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    1974. Sindrome hemolitico uremico: reporte de 60 casos asociados a una epidemia de enterocolitis hemorragica. Revista Colombiana de Ped. Puericult. 28...1518-1521. 34. Fong, J.S.C., J-P de Chadarevian and B.S. Kaplan. 1982. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome: current concepts and management. Ped. Clin. North Am

  14. Protective effects of dexpanthenol in an experimental model of necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Karadag, Ahmet; Ozdemir, Ramazan; Kurt, Ahmet; Parlakpinar, Hakan; Polat, Alaadin; Vardi, Nigar; Taslidere, Elif; Karaman, Abdurrahman

    2015-07-01

    In pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), both oxidative stress and inflammation are considerable risk factors. The study was designed to evaluate whether administration of dexpanthenol (Dxp) is able to attenuate intestinal injury through the antioxidant and antiinflammatory mechanisms in a neonatal rat model of NEC. Forty newborn pups divided into four groups were included in the study: control, control+Dxp, NEC, and NEC+Dxp. NEC was induced by hyperosmolar formula and additionally the pups were exposed to hypoxia/hyperoxia and cold stress. They were sacrificed on postnatal day four, and their intestinal tissues were analyzed biochemically and histopathologically. Dxp caused a significant decrease in intestinal damage as determined by the histological score, villus height and number of goblet cells in NEC groups (p<0.0001). Tissue malondialdehyde, total oxidant status, and oxidative stress indexes levels were higher in the NEC group than in the control and control+Dxp groups (p<0.001). These values were reduced in the pups treated with Dxp (p≤0.004). Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and reduced glutathione activities were significantly reduced in the NEC group compared to the others (p<0.005). Treatment with Dxp significantly reduced elevations in tissue homogenate levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in the NEC+Dxp group (p=0.002 and p=0.01, respectively). Dexpanthenol seems to have antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties. Prophylaxis with Dxp has a potential to reduce the severity of intestinal damage in NEC in the animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics for the Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis12

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Richard You

    2016-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating intestinal disease in preterm infants characterized by barrier disruption, intestinal microbial dysbiosis, and persistent inflammation of the colon, which results in high mortality rates. Current strategies used to manage this disease are not sufficient, although the use of human breast milk reduces the risk of NEC. Mother’s milk is regarded as a fundamental nutritional source for neonates, but pasteurization of donor breast milk affects the composition of bioactive compounds. Current research is evaluating the benefits and potential pitfalls of adding probiotics and prebiotics to pasteurized milk so as to improve the functionality of the milk and thereby reduce the burden of illness caused by NEC. Probiotics (live micro-organisms that confer health to the host) and prebiotics (nondigestible oligosaccharides that stimulate the growth of healthy bacteria) are functional foods known to mediate immune responses and modulate microbial populations in the gut. Clinical research shows strain- and compound-specific responses when probiotics or prebiotics are administered in conjunction with donor breast milk for the prevention of NEC. Despite ongoing controversy surrounding optimal treatment strategies, randomized controlled studies are now investigating the use of synbiotics to reduce the incidence and severity of NEC. Synbiotics, a combination of probiotics and prebiotics, have been proposed to enhance beneficial health effects in the intestinal tract more than either agent administered alone. This review considers the implications of using probiotic-, prebiotic-, and synbiotic-supplemented breast milk as a strategy to prevent NEC and issues that could be encountered with the preparations. PMID:27633108

  16. Contaminated milk is a common cause of necrotising enterocolitis: A hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Boo, N Y

    2016-12-01

    Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is the most commonly acquired gastrointestinal disease of neonates, particularly the very preterm (gestation <32 weeks) and/or very low birth weight (<1500g). It is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Despite improvement in neonatal care and increased use of expressed breast milk (EBM), the incidence remains high in many neonatal intensive care units (NICU), and even shows increasing trend in some countries. Numerous studies have pointed to the infective nature of NEC. Some investigators have reported an increase in the incidence of NEC in their NICU when the percentage of infants with pathogens isolated from their gut increased, and decreased when gut colonisation rate was low. Both bacteria and viruses have been reported to be associated with outbreaks of NEC. The majority (>90%) of the NEC cases occurred in neonates on enteral feeding. Studies have shown that milk (whether EBM or formula) fed to neonates was not sterile and were further contaminated during collection, transport, storage and/or feeding. Other investigators have reported a reduction in the incidence of NEC when they improved infection control measures and hygienic procedures in handling milk. It is, therefore, hypothesised that the most common cause of NEC is due to the feeding of neonates, particularly the vulnerable very preterm small neonates, with milk heavily contaminated during collection at source, transport, storage and/or feeding. Because of the immaturity of the immune system of the neonates, excessive inflammatory response to the pathogen load in the gut leads to the pathogenesis of NEC.

  17. Effects of boric acid and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate on necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Yazıcı, Selçuk; Akşit, Hasan; Korkut, Oğuzhan; Sunay, Bahar; Çelik, Tanju

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to study the effects of boric acid (BA) and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) on oxidative stress and inflammation in an experimental necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) rat model. Experimental NEC was induced in 40 newborn Sprague-Dawley rats by asphyxia and hypothermia applied in 3 consecutive days. Rats were subdivided into 4 subgroups as NEC, NEC+BA, NEC+2-APB, and controls. BA and 2-APB were applied daily before the procedure. Serum total antioxidant status, superoxide dismutase (SOD), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) levels were measured. Pathological changes for NEC in intestinal architecture were evaluated by a grading system. Pretreatment with BA and 2-APB resulted in a decrease in NEC incidence. In all of the NEC groups, decreased serum levels of GSH and SOD were measured. Boron limited GSH consumption but had no effect on SOD levels. Total antioxidant status levels were not statistically different among groups. In our experimental NEC model, BA, but not 2-APB, prevented the increase of TNF-α. Pretreatment with BA and 2-APB downregulated the activity levels of IL-6 in NEC. In the experimental NEC model, BA and 2-APB partly prevent NEC formation, modulate the oxidative stress parameters, bring a significant decrease in GSH consumption, and enhance the antioxidant defense mechanism, but have no effect on total antioxidant status. BA inhibits the hypoxia and hypothermia-induced increase in both IL-6 and TNF-a, but 2-APB only in IL-6. Boron may be beneficial in preventing NEC.

  18. Urinary Outcomes in Patients with Down's Syndrome and Hirschsprung's Disease.

    PubMed

    Dingemans, Alexander Johannes Martinus; Reck-Burneo, Carlos Albert; Fuchs, Molly; Sanchez, Alejandra Vilanova; Lane, Victoria Alison; Hoover, Erin; Maloof, Tassiana; Weaver, Laura; Levitt, Marc A; Wood, Richard J

    2018-06-17

     Previous research in children with Hirschsprung's disease (HD) and Down's syndrome (DS) has focused on colorectal outcomes. We set out to review urinary outcomes in this patient group.  The medical records of all patients aged five years and older with HD were reviewed, and patients and caregivers filled out the Vancouver Symptom Score at intake, which is designed and validated to diagnose dysfunctional elimination syndrome.  A total of 104 patients with HD were included in this study. Of these, 16 (15%) patients had DS. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of enterocolitis or colorectal symptoms between patients with or without DS. Five of 88 (6%) patients without DS and 7 of 16 (44%) ( p  = 0.00001) with DS reported having urinary accidents. Patients with HD and DS scored higher on the Vancouver score (9 vs. 17.5; p  = 0.007), indicating more severe urinary symptoms. Patients who also reported fecal accidents scored significantly higher on the Vancouver (12 vs. 9; n  = 61; p  = 0.016), indicating more problems.  Patients with DS appear to be a unique subset of HD patients who have a higher prevalence of urinary symptoms after surgery. In the postoperative care of patients with HD and DS, a strong focus should be placed on postoperative urinary care in addition to their bowel care. This could significantly ease care and contribute to the quality of life of the parents and the patient. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Distinct Salmonella Enteritidis lineages associated with enterocolitis in high-income settings and invasive disease in low-income settings

    PubMed Central

    Feasey, Nicholas A.; Hadfield, James; Keddy, Karen H.; Dallman, Timothy J; Jacobs, Jan; Deng, Xiangyu; Wigley, Paul; Barquist, Lars; Langridge, Gemma C.; Feltwell, Theresa; Harris, Simon R.; Mather, Alison E.; Fookes, Maria; Aslett, Martin; Msefula, Chisomo; Kariuki, Samuel; Maclennan, Calman A.; Onsare, Robert S.; Weill, François-Xavier; Le Hello, Simon; Smith, Anthony M.; McClelland, Michael; Desai, Prerak; Parry, Christopher M.; Cheesbrough, John; French, Neil; Campos, Josefina; Chabalgoity, Jose A.; Betancor, Laura; Hopkins, Katie L.; Nair, Satheesh; Humphrey, Tom J.; Lunguya, Octavie; Cogan, Tristan A.; Tapia, Milagritos D.; Sow, Samba O.; Tennant, Sharon M.; Bornstein, Kristin; Levine, Myron M.; Lacharme-Lora, Lizeth; Everett, Dean B.; Kingsley, Robert A.; Parkhill, Julian; Heyderman, Robert S.; Dougan, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    An epidemiological paradox surrounds Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. In high-income settings, it has been responsible for an epidemic of poultry-associated, self-limiting enterocolitis, whilst in sub-Saharan Africa it is a major cause of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease, associated with high case-fatality. Whole-genome sequence analysis of 675 isolates of S. Enteritidis from 45 countries reveals the existence of a global epidemic clade and two novel clades of S. Enteritidis that are each geographically restricted to distinct regions of Africa. The African isolates display genomic degradation, a novel prophage repertoire and have an expanded, multidrug resistance plasmid. S. Enteritidis is a further example of a Salmonella serotype that displays niche plasticity, with distinct clades that enable it to become a prominent cause of gastroenteritis in association with the industrial production of eggs, and of multidrug resistant, bloodstream invasive infection in Africa. PMID:27548315

  20. Distinct Salmonella Enteritidis lineages associated with enterocolitis in high-income settings and invasive disease in low-income settings.

    PubMed

    Feasey, Nicholas A; Hadfield, James; Keddy, Karen H; Dallman, Timothy J; Jacobs, Jan; Deng, Xiangyu; Wigley, Paul; Barquist, Lars; Langridge, Gemma C; Feltwell, Theresa; Harris, Simon R; Mather, Alison E; Fookes, Maria; Aslett, Martin; Msefula, Chisomo; Kariuki, Samuel; Maclennan, Calman A; Onsare, Robert S; Weill, François-Xavier; Le Hello, Simon; Smith, Anthony M; McClelland, Michael; Desai, Prerak; Parry, Christopher M; Cheesbrough, John; French, Neil; Campos, Josefina; Chabalgoity, Jose A; Betancor, Laura; Hopkins, Katie L; Nair, Satheesh; Humphrey, Tom J; Lunguya, Octavie; Cogan, Tristan A; Tapia, Milagritos D; Sow, Samba O; Tennant, Sharon M; Bornstein, Kristin; Levine, Myron M; Lacharme-Lora, Lizeth; Everett, Dean B; Kingsley, Robert A; Parkhill, Julian; Heyderman, Robert S; Dougan, Gordon; Gordon, Melita A; Thomson, Nicholas R

    2016-10-01

    An epidemiological paradox surrounds Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. In high-income settings, it has been responsible for an epidemic of poultry-associated, self-limiting enterocolitis, whereas in sub-Saharan Africa it is a major cause of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease, associated with high case fatality. By whole-genome sequence analysis of 675 isolates of S. Enteritidis from 45 countries, we show the existence of a global epidemic clade and two new clades of S. Enteritidis that are geographically restricted to distinct regions of Africa. The African isolates display genomic degradation, a novel prophage repertoire, and an expanded multidrug resistance plasmid. S. Enteritidis is a further example of a Salmonella serotype that displays niche plasticity, with distinct clades that enable it to become a prominent cause of gastroenteritis in association with the industrial production of eggs and of multidrug-resistant, bloodstream-invasive infection in Africa.

  1. Enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis of the cecal pole and appendix vermiformis with increase of IgG4-positive plasma cells.

    PubMed

    Comtesse, Sarah; Friemel, Juliane; Fankhauser, René; Weber, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe the clinicopathological course of a 20-year-old female patient with enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis (ELP) of the appendix vermiformis and cecal pole with increase of IgG4-positive plasma cells. The patient presented with acute abdomen, suspicious of acute appendicitis. Diagnostic laparoscopy showed tumefaction of the cecal pole and appendix vermiformis. Histologic examination revealed mural thickening and a dense lymphoplasmocytic, partly obliterative infiltrate of the veins with sparing of the arteries, diagnostic of ELP. In addition, we found an elevated number of IgG4-positive plasma cells blended in with the lymphocytes. The IgG4-to-IgG ratio accounted for >40 %. This case meets the histopathological criteria requested for IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) and thus opens the possibility that ELP might be part of the IgG4-RD spectrum.

  2. Case of antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by Staphylococcus aureus enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Avery, Lisa M; Zempel, Matt; Weiss, Erich

    2015-06-01

    A case of Staphylococcus aureus enterocolitis (SEC) misdiagnosed as toxin-negative Clostridium difficile is reported. An 82-year-old white man weighing 50 kg (body mass index, 16.8 kg/m(2)) was transported from an assisted living facility to the emergency department with the chief complaints of weakness, nausea, and diarrhea for one week and one bright-red stool on the morning of admission. Before hospital admission, he was treated for a urinary tract infection with ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice daily for 10 days. Stool cultures were negative for C. difficile but positive for S. aureus. The antimicrobial stewardship pharmacist recommended treatment with vancomycin 125 mg orally every 6 hours for staphylococcal colitis. Oral vancomycin was discontinued after three doses on the morning of hospital day 8 after a gastroenterology consultation. Within 48 hours of the discontinuation of oral vancomycin, the patient had eight stools per day. Vancomycin was reinitiated and the patient's symptoms began to again improve. On hospital day 19, the patient was discharged with a prescription for 7 more days of therapy with vancomycin (to complete a 15-day course) and a diagnosis of toxin-negative C. difficile, despite having symptoms consistent with SEC and an enteric culture positive for S. aureus. An 82-year-old man was transferred from an assisted living facility to the hospital with profuse diarrhea and dehydration. Enteric cultures were positive for methicillin-resistant S. aureus with multiple negative C. difficile toxin B assays. Appropriate therapy was delayed and the patient potentially misdiagnosed with toxin-negative C. difficile when the clinical symptoms and diagnostic testing were consistent with SEC. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Beyond Necrotizing Enterocolitis: Other Clinical Advantages of an Exclusive Human Milk Diet.

    PubMed

    Hair, Amy B; Rechtman, David J; Lee, Martin L; Niklas, Victoria

    2018-06-07

    Articles previously published by Sullivan et al. and Cristofalo et al. were reanalyzed using the proportion of cow milk-based nutrition received to determine whether that affected clinical outcomes during hospitalization for infants birth weight 500-1250 g. Abrams et al. showed in the same cohort incidences of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), NEC requiring surgery and sepsis increased proportionally to the amount of dietary cow milk. The data from the two studies conducted under essentially the same protocol were combined yielding a cohort of 260 infants receiving a diet ranging from 0% to 100% cow milk. Data analysis utilized negative binomial regression which mitigates differences between subjects in terms of their time on study by incorporating that number into the statistical model. The percent of cow milk-based nutrition was the only predictor investigated. For all outcomes the larger the amount of cow's milk in the diet the greater the number of days of that intervention required. A trend toward statistical significance was seen for ventilator days; however, only parenteral nutrition (PN) days and days to full feeds achieved statistical significance. Incorporation of any cow milk-based nutrition into the diet of extremely premature infants correlates with more days on PN and a longer time to achieve full feeds. There was a nonstatistically significant trend toward increased ventilator days. These represent additional clinical consequences of the use of any cow milk-based protein in feeding EP infants.

  4. The timing of ostomy closure in infants with necrotizing enterocolitis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Struijs, Marie-Chantal; Sloots, Cornelius E J; Hop, Wim C J; Tibboel, Dick; Wijnen, Rene M H

    2012-07-01

    The optimal timing of ostomy closure is a matter of debate. We performed a systematic review of outcomes of early ostomy closure (EC, within 8 weeks) and late ostomy closure (LC, after 8 weeks) in infants with necrotizing enterocolitis. PubMed, EMbase, Web-of-Science, and Cinahl were searched for studies that detailed time to ostomy closure, and time to full enteral nutrition (FEN) or complications after ostomy closure. Patients with Hirschsprung's disease or anorectal malformations were excluded. Analysis was performed using SPSS 17 and RevMan 5. Of 778 retrieved articles, 5 met the inclusion criteria. The median score for study quality was 9 [range 8-14 on a scale of 0 to 32 points (Downs and Black, J Epidemiol Community Health 52:377-384, 1998)]. One study described mean time to FEN: 19.1 days after EC (n = 13) versus 7.2 days after LC (n = 24; P = 0.027). Four studies reported complication rates after ostomy closure, complications occurred in 27% of the EC group versus 23% of the LC group. The combined odds ratio (LC vs. EC) was 1.1 [95% CI 0.5, 2.5]. Evidence that supports early or late closure is scarce and the published articles are of poor quality. There is no significant difference between EC versus LC in the complication rate. This systematic review supports neither early nor late ostomy closure.

  5. Capsular profiling of the Cronobacter genus and the association of specific Cronobacter sakazakii and C. malonaticus capsule types with neonatal meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Ogrodzki, P; Forsythe, S

    2015-10-08

    Cronobacter sakazakii and C. malonaticus can cause serious diseases especially in infants where they are associated with rare but fatal neonatal infections such as meningitis and necrotising enterocolitis. This study used 104 whole genome sequenced strains, covering all seven species in the genus, to analyse capsule associated clusters of genes involved in the biosynthesis of the O-antigen, colanic acid, bacterial cellulose, enterobacterial common antigen (ECA), and a previously uncharacterised K-antigen. Phylogeny of the gnd and galF genes flanking the O-antigen region enabled the defining of 38 subgroups which are potential serotypes. Two variants of the colanic acid synthesis gene cluster (CA1 and CA2) were found which differed with the absence of galE in CA2. Cellulose (bcs genes) were present in all species, but were absent in C. sakazakii sequence type (ST) 13 and clonal complex (CC) 100 strains. The ECA locus was found in all strains. The K-antigen capsular polysaccharide Region 1 (kpsEDCS) and Region 3 (kpsMT) genes were found in all Cronobacter strains. The highly variable Region 2 genes were assigned to 2 homology groups (K1 and K2). C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus isolates with capsular type [K2:CA2:Cell(+)] were associated with neonatal meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis. Other capsular types were less associated with clinical infections. This study proposes a new capsular typing scheme which identifies a possible important virulence trait associated with severe neonatal infections. The various capsular polysaccharide structures warrant further investigation as they could be relevant to macrophage survival, desiccation resistance, environmental survival, and biofilm formation in the hospital environment, including neonatal enteral feeding tubes.

  6. Bifidobacterium bifidum in a Rat Model of Necrotizing Enterocolitis: Antimicrobial Peptide and Protein Responses

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Mark A.; Kananurak, Anchasa; Coursodon, Christine F.; Adkins-Reick, Camille K.; Chu, Hiutung; Bennett, Stephen H.; Wehkamp, Jan; Castillo, Patricia A.; Leonard, Brian C.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Sherman, Michael P.; Dvorak, Bohuslav; Bevins, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating disease of premature infants. Probiotics decrease the risk of NEC in clinical and experimental studies. Antimicrobial peptides protect the gut against noxious microbes and shape the commensal microbiota, but their role in NEC remains unclear. We report that like in human ontogeny, the rat pup has low expression of Paneth cell antimicrobials, which increases rapidly during normal development. To investigate the expression of antimicrobial peptides in experimental NEC and the impact of probiotics on their expression, premature rats were divided into three groups: dam fed (DF), hand fed with formula (FF), or hand fed with formula containing Bifidobacterium bifidum (FF+BIF). All groups were exposed to asphyxia and cold stress. The expression of lysozyme, secretory phospholipase A2, pancreatic-associated proteins 1 and 3 mRNA was elevated in the FF (NEC) group, compared to the DF and FF+BIF groups where disease was attenuated. We conclude that induction of antimicrobial peptides occurs in experimental NEC similar to that reported in human disease and is attenuated when disease is averted by probiotic B. bifidum. The induction of antimicrobial peptides is likely an adaptive mucosal response that is often not sufficient to prevent disease in the premature gut. PMID:22322385

  7. The science and necessity of using animal models in the study of necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Ares, Guillermo J; McElroy, Steven J; Hunter, Catherine J

    2018-02-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains one of the highest causes of mortality and of acute and long-term morbidity in premature infants. Multiple factors are involved in the pathophysiology of NEC including the immaturity of the immune system and the complex changing composition of the intestinal microbiome. This is compounded by the fact that the premature infant should ideally still be a developing fetus and has an immature intestinal tract. Because these complexities are beyond the scope of studies in single-cell cultures, animal models are absolutely essential to understand the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of NEC and the effects of inflammation on the immature intestinal tract. To this end, investigators have utilized many different species (e.g., rats, mice, rabbits, quails, piglets, and non-human primates) and conditions to develop models of NEC. Each animal has distinct advantages and drawbacks related to its preterm viability, body size, genetic variability, and cost. The choice of animal model is strongly influenced by the scientific question being addressed. While no model perfectly mimics human NEC, each has greatly improved our understanding of disease. Examples of recent discoveries in NEC pathogenesis and prevention underscore the importance of continued animal research in NEC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A novel pore-forming toxin in type A Clostridium perfringens is associated with both fatal canine hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and fatal foal necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh Gohari, Iman; Parreira, Valeria R; Nowell, Victoria J; Nicholson, Vivian M; Oliphant, Kaitlyn; Prescott, John F

    2015-01-01

    A role for type A Clostridium perfringens in acute hemorrhagic and necrotizing gastroenteritis in dogs and in necrotizing enterocolitis of neonatal foals has long been suspected but incompletely characterized. The supernatants of an isolate made from a dog and from a foal that died from these diseases were both found to be highly cytotoxic for an equine ovarian (EO) cell line. Partial genome sequencing of the canine isolate revealed three novel putative toxin genes encoding proteins related to the pore-forming Leukocidin/Hemolysin Superfamily; these were designated netE, netF, and netG. netE and netF were located on one large conjugative plasmid, and netG was located with a cpe enterotoxin gene on a second large conjugative plasmid. Mutation and complementation showed that only netF was associated with the cytotoxicity. Although netE and netG were not associated with cytotoxicity, immunoblotting with specific antisera showed these proteins to be expressed in vitro. There was a highly significant association between the presence of netF with type A strains isolated from cases of canine acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and foal necrotizing enterocolitis. netE and netF were found in all cytotoxic isolates, as was cpe, but netG was less consistently present. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that netF-positive isolates belonged to a clonal population; some canine and equine netF-positive isolates were genetically indistinguishable. Equine antisera to recombinant Net proteins showed that only antiserum to rNetF had high supernatant cytotoxin neutralizing activity. The identifica-tion of this novel necrotizing toxin is an important advance in understanding the virulence of type A C. perfringens in specific enteric disease of animals.

  9. A Novel Pore-Forming Toxin in Type A Clostridium perfringens Is Associated with Both Fatal Canine Hemorrhagic Gastroenteritis and Fatal Foal Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Nowell, Victoria J.; Nicholson, Vivian M.; Oliphant, Kaitlyn; Prescott, John F.

    2015-01-01

    A role for type A Clostridium perfringens in acute hemorrhagic and necrotizing gastroenteritis in dogs and in necrotizing enterocolitis of neonatal foals has long been suspected but incompletely characterized. The supernatants of an isolate made from a dog and from a foal that died from these diseases were both found to be highly cytotoxic for an equine ovarian (EO) cell line. Partial genome sequencing of the canine isolate revealed three novel putative toxin genes encoding proteins related to the pore-forming Leukocidin/Hemolysin Superfamily; these were designated netE, netF, and netG. netE and netF were located on one large conjugative plasmid, and netG was located with a cpe enterotoxin gene on a second large conjugative plasmid. Mutation and complementation showed that only netF was associated with the cytotoxicity. Although netE and netG were not associated with cytotoxicity, immunoblotting with specific antisera showed these proteins to be expressed in vitro. There was a highly significant association between the presence of netF with type A strains isolated from cases of canine acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and foal necrotizing enterocolitis. netE and netF were found in all cytotoxic isolates, as was cpe, but netG was less consistently present. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that netF-positive isolates belonged to a clonal population; some canine and equine netF-positive isolates were genetically indistinguishable. Equine antisera to recombinant Net proteins showed that only antiserum to rNetF had high supernatant cytotoxin neutralizing activity. The identifica-tion of this novel necrotizing toxin is an important advance in understanding the virulence of type A C. perfringens in specific enteric disease of animals. PMID:25853427

  10. Can a national dataset generate a nomogram for necrotizing enterocolitis onset?

    PubMed

    Gordon, P V; Clark, R; Swanson, J R; Spitzer, A

    2014-10-01

    Mother's own milk and donor human milk use is increasing as a means of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) prevention. Early onset of enteral feeding has been associated with improvement of many outcomes but has not been shown to reduce the incidence of NEC. Better definition of the window of risk for NEC by gestational strata should improve resource management with respect to donor human milk and enhance our understanding of NEC timing and pathogenesis. Our objective was to establish a NEC dataset of sufficient size and quality, then build a generalizable model of NEC onset from the dataset across gestational strata. We used de-identified data from the Pediatrix national dataset and filtered out all diagnostic confounders that could be identified by either specific diagnoses or logical exclusions (example dual diagnoses), with a specific focus on NEC and spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) as the outcomes of interest. The median day of onset was plotted against the gestational age for each of these diagnoses and analyzed for similarities and differences in the day of diagnosis. Onset time of medical NEC was inversely proportional to gestation in a linear relationship across all gestational ages. We found the medical NEC dataset displayed characteristics most consistent with a homogeneous disease entity, whereas there was a skew towards early presentation in the youngest gestation groups of surgical NEC (suggesting probable SIP contamination). Our national dataset demonstrates that NEC onset occurs in an inverse stereotypic, linear relationship with gestational age at birth. Medical NEC is the most reliable sub-cohort for the purpose of determining the temporal window of NEC risk.

  11. Impact of Donor Milk Availability on Breast Milk Use and Necrotizing Enterocolitis Rates.

    PubMed

    Kantorowska, Agata; Wei, Julia C; Cohen, Ronald S; Lawrence, Ruth A; Gould, Jeffrey B; Lee, Henry C

    2016-03-01

    To examine the availability of donor human milk (DHM) in a population-based cohort and assess whether the availability of DHM was associated with rates of breast milk feeding at NICU discharge and rates of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Individual patient clinical data for very low birth weight infants from the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative were linked to hospital-level data on DHM availability from the Mothers' Milk Bank of San José for 2007 to 2013. Trends of DHM availability were examined by level of NICU care. Hospitals that transitioned from not having DHM to having DHM availability during the study period were examined to assess changes in rates of breast milk feeding at NICU discharge and NEC. The availability of DHM increased from 27 to 55 hospitals during the study period. The availability increased for all levels of care including regional, community, and intermediate NICUs, with the highest increase occurring in regional NICUs. By 2013, 81.3% of premature infants cared for in regional NICUs had access to DHM. Of the 22 hospitals that had a clear transition to having availability of DHM, there was a 10% increase in breast milk feeding at NICU discharge and a concomitant 2.6% decrease in NEC rates. The availability of DHM has increased over time and has been associated with positive changes including increased breast milk feeding at NICU discharge and decrease in NEC rates. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Changes in plasma and urinary nitrite after birth in premature infants at risk for necrotizing enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Pun, Priti; Jones, Jesica; Wolfe, Craig; Deming, Douglas D.; Power, Gordon G.; Blood, Arlin B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Plasma nitrite serves as a reservoir of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity. Because nitrite ingestion is markedly lower in newborns than adults, we hypothesized plasma nitrite levels would be lower in newborns than in adults, and that infants diagnosed with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a disease characterized by ischemia and bacterial invasion of intestinal walls, would have lower levels of circulating nitrite in the days prior to diagnosis. Methods Single blood and urine samples were collected from 9 term infants and 12 adults, 72 preterm infants every 5 d for 3 wk, and from 13 lambs before and after cord occlusion. Results Nitrite fell 50% relative to cord levels in the first day after birth; and within 15 min after cord occlusion in lambs. Urinary nitrite was higher in infants than adults. Plasma and urinary nitrite levels in infants who developed NEC were similar to those of preterm control infants on days 1 and 5, but significantly elevated at 15 and 20 d after birth. Conclusion Plasma nitrite falls dramatically at birth while newborn urinary nitrite levels are significantly greater than adults. Acute NEC is associated with elevated plasma and urinary nitrite levels. PMID:26539663

  13. Saccharomyces boulardii for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants: a randomized, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Demirel, Gamze; Erdeve, Omer; Celik, Istemi Han; Dilmen, Ugur

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of orally administered Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) for reducing the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. A prospective, randomised controlled trial was conducted in infants with gestational age ≤32 weeks and birth weight ≤1500 g. The study group received S. boulardii supplementation, and the control group did not. The primary outcomes were death or NEC (Bell's stage ≥2), and secondary outcomes were feeding intolerance and clinical or culture-proven sepsis. A total of 271 infants were enrolled in the study, 135 in the study group and 136 in the control group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of death (3.7% vs. 3.6%, 95% CI of the difference, -5.20-5.25; p = 1.0) or NEC (4.4% vs. 5.1%, 95% CI, -0.65-5.12; p = 1.0) between the groups. However, feeding intolerance and clinical sepsis were significantly lower in the probiotic group compared with control. Although Saccharomyces boulardii supplementation at a dose of 250 mg/day was not effective at reducing the incidence of death or NEC in VLBW infants, it improved feeding tolerance and reduced the risk of clinical sepsis. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Dual Roles of Endogenous Platelet-activating Factor Acetylhydrolase in a Murine Model of Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jing; Pierce, Marissa; Franklin, Andrew; Jilling, Tamas; Stafforini, Diana M.; Caplan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Human preterm infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) have increased circulating and luminal levels of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and decreased serum PAF-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), the enzyme that inactivates PAF. Formula supplemented with recombinant PAF-AH decreases NEC in a neonatal rat model. We hypothesized that endogenous PAF-AH contributes to neonatal intestinal homeostasis, and therefore developed PAF-AH−/− mice using standard approaches to study the role of this enzyme in the neonatal NEC model. Following exposure to a well-established NEC model, intestinal tissues were evaluated for histology, pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA synthesis, and death using standard techniques. We found that mortality rates were significantly lower in PAF-AH−/− pups compared to wild-type controls before 24 hours of life but surviving PAF-AH−/− animals were more susceptible to NEC development compared to wild-type controls. Increased NEC incidence was associated with prominent inflammation characterized by elevated intestinal mRNA expression of sPLA2, iNOS and CXCL1. In conclusion, the data support a protective role for endogenous PAF-AH in the development of NEC, and since preterm neonates have endogenous PAF-AH deficiency, this may place them at increased risk for disease. PMID:20531249

  15. New Medical and Surgical Insights Into Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Frost, Brandy L; Modi, Biren P; Jaksic, Tom; Caplan, Michael S

    2017-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) has long remained a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units. While the mainstay of treatment for this devastating condition remains largely supportive, research efforts continue to be directed toward understanding pathophysiology as well as how best to approach surgical management when indicated. In this review, we first examine recent medical observations, including overviews on the microbiome and a brief review of the use of probiotics. Next, we discuss the use of biomarkers and how clinicians may be able to use them in the future to predict the course of disease and, perhaps, the need for surgical intervention. We then provide an overview on the use of exclusive human milk feeding and the utility of this approach in preventing NEC. Finally, we discuss recent developments in the surgical management of NEC, beginning with indications for surgery and following with a section on technical surgical considerations, including peritoneal drain vs laparotomy. The review concludes with outcomes from infants with surgically treated NEC. Although medical treatment options for NEC are largely unchanged, understanding of the disease continues to evolve. As new research methods are developed, NEC pathophysiology can be more completely understood. In time, it is hoped that data from ongoing and planned clinical trials will allow us to routinely add targeted preventive measures in addition to human milk, such as prebiotics and probiotics, to the management of high-risk infants. In addition, the discovery of novel biomarkers may not only prove useful in predicting severity of illness but also will hopefully allow for identification of the disease prior to onset of clinical signs. Finally, continued investigation into optimizing surgical outcomes is essential in this population of infants, many of whom require long-term parenteral therapy and intestinal rehabilitation.

  16. Necrotizing enterocolitis, a rare but severe condition with insidious postoperative complications.

    PubMed

    Bălălău, C; Motofei, I; Voiculescu, S; Popa, F; Scăunaşu, R V

    2013-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most frequent causes of gastrointestinal perforation in premature neonates, only few case series and reports being described in adult patients. Early in the course of the disease, superficial mucosal ulceration, sub mucosal edema and hemorrhage occur. Further progression leads to transmural necrosis leading sometimes to bowel perforation. Six cases encountered in our clinic in recent years led us to resume discussions on necrotizing enteritis, not because it is a rare disease, but due to the severe postoperative complications. Our lot consisted of four stage 1 patients and two with Bell stage III NEC and severe intestinal injury, necrosis, and perforation. All of the patients were diagnosed preoperatory with other surgical conditions, like appendicitis with peritonitis, perforated duodenal ulcer or acute cholecystitis. We present to review two cases. For patients undergoing laparotomy, resection of the involved intestine mandates either enterostomy formation or primary anastomosis. An intermediate option is laparotomy with intestinal resection and delayed anastomosis 48 to 72 hours later. Because of the small number of patients in our lot, we cannot advise a certain surgical treatment, but a strategy involving bienterostomyper primam should be further analyzed. The choice of operative intervention reflects multiple variables, including age, physiologic status, institutional resources and surgeon preference based on experience. Primary peritoneal drainage for perforated NEC may help to resuscitate and treat a critically ill patient initially, and in some instances, may be definitive operative intervention. Relatively rare disease, of unknown etiology and elusive pathogenesis, NEC has initial non-specific symptoms and clinical features that mimic more common surgical diseases. There is considerable controversy regarding which procedure is preferable. Currently, in the absence of rigorous evidence supporting the

  17. Endemic Esherichia coil O157:H7 infections and hemolytic-uremic syndrome in Oklahoma, 2002-2005.

    PubMed

    Karpac, Charity A; Lee, Anthony; Kunnel, Binitha S; Bamgbola, Oluwatoyin F; Vesely, Sara K; George, James N

    2007-11-01

    Hemorrhagic enterocolitis caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and its complication of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) are well known from large outbreaks caused by contaminated meats and vegetables. However most cases may be endemic, not related to an outbreak. We identified cases of HUS in Oklahoma, 2002-2005, from the Inpatient Hospital Discharge Database of the Oklahoma State Department of Health (OSDH) and also the cases of HUS and E. coli O157:H7 reported to the OSDH. 110 cases of HUS were identified from the hospital discharge database; only 14 (12.7%) were reported to the OSDH; 122 cases of E. coli O157:H7 infections were reported to the OSDH. Of the 110 cases of HUS, only six (5.5%) patients in two separate clusters may have had a common source of infection. Although interpretation is limited by the few reports to OSDH, our data suggest that E. coli O157:H7 infections and HUS, presumably related to contaminated food, are endemic throughout Oklahoma.

  18. An animal model of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bozeman, Andrew P; Dassinger, Melvin S; Birusingh, Rhea J; Burford, Jeffrey M; Smith, Samuel D

    2013-04-01

    Creation of an animal model of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) allowing adjustment of severity and potential recoverability is needed to study effectiveness of prevention and treatment strategies. This study describes a novel model in preterm rabbits capable of adjusting severity of NEC-like histologic changes. Rabbit pups (n = 151) were delivered by cesarean section 2 days preterm. In the treatment groups, tissue adhesive was applied to anal openings to simulate the poor intestinal function and dysmotility of preterm neonates. Pups were placed into five groups: 3INT (3 day intermittent block), 4INT (4 day intermittent block), 3COM (3 day complete block), 4COM (4 day complete block), based on differences in type of anal blockage and day of life sacrificed. The fifth group, 4CON, was comprised of a control arm (n = 28) without anal block, with sacrifice of subjects on day 4. All pups were gavage fed with formula contaminated with Enterobacter cloacae, ranitidine, and indomethacin. Following sacrifice, the intestines were harvested for pathologic evidence of NEC. A blinded pathologist graded histologic changes consistent with NEC using a grading scale 0-4 with 4 being most severe. Fifty-seven pups (57/123) (46%) in the research arm survived to sacrifice, compared to 26/28 (93%) in the control arm of the investigation, p < 0.0001. The incidence and severity of NEC-like damage increased with the duration and completeness of the anal blockage. 44/57 (77%) of survivors revealed various degrees of NEC-like damage to large and small bowel, and 3/26 (12%) exhibited early NEC-like mucosal injury in the research and control arms, respectively. This animal model produces NEC-like pathologic changes in both small and large intestine in preterm rabbits. Because incidence and severity of damage increases with duration and completeness of intestinal dysmotility, this allows future effectiveness studies for nonsurgical treatment and prevention of NEC.

  19. A patient with peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, central dysmyelinating leukodystrophy, Waardenburg syndrome, and severe hypoganglionosis associated with a novel SOX10 mutation.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, Yuko; Shirai, Kentaro; Takei, Akira; Goto, Yudai; Aoyama, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Akimitu; Imamura, Masatoshi; Enokizono, Takashi; Ohto, Tatsuyuki; Hori, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Keiko; Hayashi, Masaharu; Masumoto, Kouji; Inoue, Ken

    2018-05-01

    In this report, we present the case of a female infant with peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, central dysmyelinating leukodystrophy, Waardenburg syndrome, and Hirschsprung disease (PCWH) associated with a novel frameshift mutation (c.842dupT) in exon 5, the last exon of SOX10. She had severe hypoganglionosis in the small intestine and entire colon, and suffered from frequent enterocolitis. The persistence of ganglion cells made both the diagnosis and treatment difficult in the neonatal period. She also showed hypopigmentation of the irises, hair and skin, bilateral sensorineural deafness with hypoplastic inner year, severe demyelinating neuropathy with hypotonia, and diffuse brain hypomyelination. The p.Ser282GlnfsTer12 mutation presumably escapes from nonsense-mediated decay and may generate a dominant-negative effect. We suggest that hypoganglionosis can be a variant intestinal manifestation associated with PCWH and that hypoganglionosis and aganglionosis may share the same pathoetiological mechanism mediated by SOX10 mutations. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Antibiotics modulate intestinal immunity and prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonatal piglets

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Michael L.; Thymann, Thomas; Cilieborg, Malene S.; Lykke, Mikkel; Mølbak, Lars; Jensen, Bent B.; Schmidt, Mette; Kelly, Denise; Mulder, Imke; Burrin, Douglas G.

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth, bacterial colonization, and formula feeding predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Antibiotics are commonly administered to prevent sepsis in preterm infants, but it is not known whether this affects intestinal immunity and NEC resistance. We hypothesized that broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment improves NEC resistance and intestinal structure, function, and immunity in neonates. Caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were fed 3 days of parenteral nutrition followed by 2 days of enteral formula. Immediately after birth, they were assigned to receive either antibiotics (oral and parenteral doses of gentamycin, ampicillin, and metronidazole, ANTI, n = 11) or saline in the control group (CON, n = 13), given twice daily. NEC lesions and intestinal structure, function, microbiology, and immunity markers were recorded. None of the ANTI but 85% of the CON pigs developed NEC lesions by day 5 (0/11 vs. 11/13, P < 0.05). ANTI pigs had higher intestinal villi (+60%), digestive enzyme activities (+53–73%), and goblet cell densities (+110%) and lower myeloperoxidase (−51%) and colonic microbial density (105 vs. 1010 colony-forming units, all P < 0.05). Microarray transcriptomics showed strong downregulation of genes related to inflammation and innate immune response to microbiota and marked upregulation of genes related to amino acid metabolism, in particular threonine, glucose transport systems, and cell cycle in 5-day-old ANTI pigs. In a follow-up experiment, 5 days of antibiotics prevented NEC at least until day 10. Neonatal prophylactic antibiotics effectively reduced gut bacterial load, prevented NEC, intestinal atrophy, dysfunction, and inflammation and enhanced expression of genes related to gut metabolism and immunity in preterm pigs. PMID:24157972

  1. Modeling the interactions of bacteria and Toll-like receptor-mediated inflammation in necrotizing enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Arciero, Julia; Ermentrout, G. Bard; Siggers, Richard; Afrazi, Amin; Hackam, David; Vodovotz, Yoram; Rubin, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe disease of the gastrointestinal tract in premature infants, characterized by a disrupted intestinal epithelium and an exaggerated pro-inflammatory response. Since the activation of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) blocks cell migration and proliferation and contributes to an uncontrolled inflammatory response within the intestine, this receptor has been identified as a key contributor to the development of NEC. Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9) has been shown to sense bacterial genome components (CpG DNA) and to play an anti-inflammatory role in NEC. We present in vitro results demonstrating direct inhibition of TLR4 activation by CpG DNA, and we develop a mathematical model of bacteria–immune interactions within the intestine to investigate how such inhibition of TLR4 signaling might alter inflammation, associated bacterial invasion of tissue, and resulting outcomes. The model predicts that TLR9 can inhibit both the beneficial and detrimental effects of TLR4, and thus a proper balance of action by these two receptors is needed to promote intestinal health. The model results are also used to explore three interventions that could potentially prevent the development of NEC: reducing bacteria in the mucus layer, administering probiotic treatment, and blocking TLR4 activation. While the model shows that these interventions would be successful in most cases, the model is also used to identify situations in which the proposed treatments might be harmful. PMID:23238281

  2. The initial experience of antithrombin III in the management of neonates with necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    St Peter, Shawn D; Little, Danny C; Calkins, Casey M; Holcomb, George W; Snyder, Charles L; Ostlie, Daniel J

    2007-04-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), the devastating enteric process of premature neonates, is marked by severe intravascular abnormalities and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Treatment to date remains historical and continues to be merely supportive without attempts to ameliorate progress within the inflammatory or coagulation cascades. Antithrombin III (ATIII) supplementation has been shown to favorably alter the process of disseminated intravascular coagulation and sepsis in adults. However, no reported use of this treatment exists in neonates. Therefore, we analyze the efficacy of our recent experience with ATIII replacement therapy in neonates with NEC. Age and diseased-matched controls with NEC were identified before the introduction of ATIII in our institution and compared against neonates with NEC undergoing ATIII replacement for diminished ATIII levels. Data collected included demographics, course of treatment parameters, and outcomes. Course of treatment parameters included hemoglobin, platelet count, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time over the first 10 consecutive days of treatment. Outcome variables included packed red blood cell, platelet, fresh frozen plasma, and cryoprecipitate transfusions, as well as transfusion cost, length of stay, and survival. Over a 5-year period, 19 neonates with NEC received ATIII and were compared to 17 historical controls. Treatment hematologic profiles were not worsened in the ATIII-treated patients. The control patients received less overall transfusions and had a shorter length of stay. Antithrombin III appears to be safe in neonates with NEC, and its impact on reversing intravascular pathology in these patients warrants more thorough investigation.

  3. [Prevention and treatment of necrotizing enterocolitis in the newborn infant from the pediatric point of view].

    PubMed

    Pohlandt, F

    1990-10-01

    1. Enteral feeding and factors promoting hypoxia and ischaemia of the gut are thought to cause necrotising enterocolitis of the newborn but have not been proven as factors in the pathogenesis of NEC. Enteral feeding may be started in principle on the first day of life at a rate of 10-20 ml/kg/day. Controlled results to the contrary have not been published. 2. Drugs which have a high osmolarity should be diluted with milk as far as possible to avoid mucosal damage. 3. In cases of epidemic NEC, infants with proven disease should be isolated. The use of a bactericidal and virucidal disinfectant is imperative for hand disinfection. 4. Early diagnosis and early treatment are necessary to prevent progression to advanced stages. 5. Antibiotic treatment should be selected to cover the entire bacterial spectrum of the ward. 6. Frequent physical, radiological and ultrasound examinations should be done to monitor the course of the disease. Laboratory analyses should include: acid-basis status, leukocytes, differential blood picture, thrombocytes, C-reactive protein, haematocrit, serum electrolytes. 7. Large amounts of fluid may be necessary to prevent and treat hypovolaemic shock. 8. Abdominal paracentesis helps to recognise peritonitis and intestinal gangrene and allows surgical treatment as early as possible.

  4. Sialylated galacto-oligosaccharides and 2'-fucosyllactose reduce necrotising enterocolitis in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Autran, Chloe A; Schoterman, Margriet H C; Jantscher-Krenn, Evelyn; Kamerling, Johannis P; Bode, Lars

    2016-07-01

    Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most frequent and fatal intestinal disorders in preterm infants and has very limited treatment options. Breast-fed infants are at a 6-10-fold lower NEC risk than formula-fed infants, and we have previously shown that human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) improved survival and reduced pathology in a rat NEC model. The HMO disialyllacto-N-tetraose (DSLNT) was most effective, and sialylation was shown to be essential for its protective effect. Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), currently added to some infant formula, but not containing sialic acid, had no effect. In addition to DSLNT, our previous work also showed that the neutral HMO fraction, which contains high concentrations of 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL), slightly improved pathology scores. Here, we assessed the in vivo efficacy of 2'FL, as well as of GOS that we enzymatically sialylated (Sia-GOS). Neonatal rats were randomised into the following study groups - dam-fed (DF), formula-fed (FF), FF containing pooled HMO (10 mg/ml), GOS (8 mg/ml), Sia-GOS (500 µm) or 2'FL (2 mg/ml) - and subjected to the established NEC protocol. The DF and HMO groups had the lowest pathology scores with mean values of 0·67 (sd 0·34) and 0·90 (sd 0·47), respectively. The FF group had significantly elevated pathology scores of 2·02 (sd 0·63). Although the addition of GOS to the formula had no protective effect and generated scores of 2·00 (sd 0·63), the addition of Sia-GOS or 2'FL significantly lowered pathology scores to 1·32 (sd 0·56) (P<0·0034) and 1·43 (sd 0·51) (P<0·0040), respectively. The results warrant further studies to investigate the underlying mechanisms and to assess safety and efficacy in human neonates.

  5. Incidence of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis in high-income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Battersby, Cheryl; Santhalingam, Tharsika; Costeloe, Kate; Modi, Neena

    2018-03-01

    To conduct a systematic review of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) rates in high-income countries published in peer-reviewed journals. We searched MEDLINE, Embase and PubMed databases for observational studies published in peer-reviewed journals. We selected studies reporting national, regional or multicentre rates of NEC in 34 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Two investigators independently screened studies against predetermined criteria. For included studies, we extracted country, year of publication in peer-reviewed journal, study time period, study population inclusion and exclusion criteria, case definition, gestation or birth weight-specific NEC and mortality rates. Of the 1888 references identified, 120 full manuscripts were reviewed, 33 studies met inclusion criteria, 14 studies with the most recent data from 12 countries were included in the final analysis. We identified an almost fourfold difference, from 2% to 7%, in the rate of NEC among babies born <32 weeks' gestation and an almost fivefold difference, from 5% to 22%, among those with a birth weight <1000 g but few studies covered the entire at-risk population. The most commonly applied definition was Bell's stage ≥2, which was used in seven studies. Other definitions included Bell's stage 1-3, definitions from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, International Classification for Diseases and combinations of clinical and radiological signs as specified by study authors. The reasons for international variation in NEC incidence are an important area for future research. Reliable inferences require clarity in defining population coverage and consistency in the case definition applied. PROSPERO INTERNATIONAL PROSPECTIVE REGISTER OF SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42015030046. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

  6. A Fabry-Pérot interferometer with wire-grid polarizers as beamsplitters at terahertz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, H.; Lancaster, A. J.; Konoplev, I. V.; Doucas, G.; Aryshev, A.; Shevelev, M.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Huggard, P. G.

    2018-03-01

    The design of a compact Fabry-Pérot interferometer (FPi) and results of the experimental studies carried out using the device are presented. Our FPi uses freestanding wire-grid polarizers (WGPs) as beamsplitters and is suitable for use at terahertz (THz) frequencies. The FPi was studied at the LUCX facility, KEK, Japan, and an 8 MeV linear electron accelerator was used to generate coherent Smith-Purcell radiation. The FPi was designed to be easy to align and reposition for experiments at linear accelerator facilities. All of the components used were required to have a flat or well understood frequency response in the THz range. The performance of the FPi with WGPs was compared to that of a Michelson interferometer and the FPi is seen to perform well. The effectiveness of the beamsplitters used in the FPi is also investigated. Measurements made with the FPi using WGPs, the preferred beamsplitters, are compared to measurements made with the FPi using silicon wafers as alternative beamsplitters. The FPi performs well with both types of beamsplitter in the frequency range used (0.3-0.5 THz). The successful measurements taken with the FPi demonstrate a compact and adaptable interferometer that is capable of analyzing THz radiation over a broad frequency range. The scheme is particularly well suited for polarization studies of THz radiation produced in an accelerator environment.

  7. Intestinal lesions in dogs with acute hemorrhagic diarrhea syndrome associated with netF-positive Clostridium perfringens type A.

    PubMed

    Leipig-Rudolph, Miriam; Busch, Kathrin; Prescott, John F; Mehdizadeh Gohari, Iman; Leutenegger, Christian M; Hermanns, Walter; Wolf, Georg; Hartmann, Katrin; Verspohl, Jutta; Unterer, Stefan

    2018-04-01

    Acute hemorrhagic diarrhea syndrome (AHDS), formerly named canine hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, is one of the most common causes of acute hemorrhagic diarrhea in dogs, and is characterized by acute onset of diarrhea, vomiting, and hemoconcentration. To date, histologic examinations have been limited to postmortem specimens of only a few dogs with AHDS. Thus, the aim of our study was to describe in detail the distribution, character, and grade of microscopic lesions, and to investigate the etiology of AHDS. Our study comprised 10 dogs with AHDS and 9 control dogs of various breeds, age, and sex. Endoscopic biopsies of the gastrointestinal tract were taken and examined histologically (H&E, Giemsa), immunohistochemically ( Clostridium spp., parvovirus), and bacteriologically. The main findings were acute necrotizing and neutrophilic enterocolitis (9 of 10) with histologic detection of clostridia-like, gram-positive bacteria on the necrotic mucosal surface (9 of 10). Clostridium perfringens isolated from the duodenum was identified as type A (5 of 5) by multiplex PCR (5 of 5). In addition, each of the 5 genotyped isolates encoded the pore-forming toxin netF. Clostridium spp. (not C. perfringens) were cultured from duodenal biopsies in 2 of 9 control dogs. These findings suggest that the pore-forming netF toxin is responsible for the necrotizing lesions in the intestines of a significant proportion of dogs with AHDS. Given that the stomach was not involved in the process, the term "acute hemorrhagic diarrhea syndrome" seems more appropriate than the frequently used term "hemorrhagic gastroenteritis."

  8. Beyond Necrotizing Enterocolitis Prevention: Improving Outcomes with an Exclusive Human Milk-Based Diet.

    PubMed

    Hair, Amy B; Peluso, Allison M; Hawthorne, Keli M; Perez, Jose; Smith, Denise P; Khan, Janine Y; O'Donnell, Andrea; Powers, Richard J; Lee, Martin L; Abrams, Steven A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare outcomes of infants pre and post initiation of a feeding protocol providing an exclusive human milk-based diet (HUM). In a multicenter retrospective cohort study, infants with a birth weight <1,250 g who received a bovine-based diet (BOV) of mother's own milk fortified with bovine fortifier and/or preterm formula were compared to infants who received a newly introduced HUM feeding protocol. Infants were excluded if they had major congenital anomalies or died in the first 12 hours of life. Data were collected 2-3 years prior to and after introduction of an exclusive HUM diet. Primary outcomes were necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and mortality. Secondary outcomes included late-onset sepsis, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). A total of 1,587 infants were included from four centers in Texas, Illinois, Florida, and California. There were no differences in baseline demographics or growth of infants. The HUM group had significantly lower incidence of proven NEC (16.7% versus 6.9%, p < 0.00001), mortality (17.2% versus 13.6%, p = 0.04), late-onset sepsis (30.3% versus 19.0%, p < 0.00001), ROP (9% versus 5.2%, p = 0.003), and BPD (56.3% versus 47.7%, p = 0.0015) compared with the BOV group. Extremely premature infants who received an exclusive HUM diet had a significantly lower incidence of NEC and mortality. The HUM group also had a reduction in late-onset sepsis, BPD, and ROP. This multicenter study further emphasizes the many benefits of an exclusive HUM diet, and demonstrates multiple improved outcomes after implementation of such a feeding protocol.

  9. Isoelectric solubilization/precipitation as a means to recover protein isolate from striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and its physicochemical properties in a nutraceutical seafood product.

    PubMed

    Tahergorabi, Reza; Beamer, Sarah K; Matak, Kristen E; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2012-06-13

    Excessive dietary intake of Na (i.e., NaCl) contributes to hypertension, which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Normally, NaOH and HCl are used to dissolve and precipitate, respectively, fish muscle proteins in isoelectric solubilization/precipitation (ISP), therefore contributing to increased Na content in the recovered fish protein isolates (FPI). Substitution of NaOH with KOH may decrease the Na content in FPI and, thus, allow development of reduced-Na seafood products. In this study, FPI was recovered with ISP using NaOH or KOH. In order to develop a nutraceutical seafood product, the FPI was extracted with NaCl or KCl-based salt substitute and subjected to cold- or heat-gelation. In addition, standard nutraceutical additives (ω-3 fatty acids-rich oil and dietary fiber) along with titanium dioxide (TiO2) were added to FPI. Color, texture, dynamic rheology, Na and K content, and lipid oxidation of the FPI gels were compared to commercial Alaska pollock surimi gels. FPI gels had greater (p < 0.05) whiteness, good color properties (L*a*b*), and generally better textural properties when compared to surimi gels. Although the ISP-recovered FPI and surimi developed similar final gel elasticity, the proteins in FPI and surimi had different gelation pattern. A reduction (p < 0.05) of Na content and simultaneous increase (p < 0.05) in K content of FPI gels was achieved by the substitution of NaOH with KOH during ISP and NaCl with the KCl-based salt substitute during formulation of the FPI paste. Although cooking and addition of NaCl during formulation of the FPI paste increased (p < 0.05) lipid oxidation in FPI gels, TBARS values were much below rancidity levels. These results indicate that KOH can replace NaOH to recover FPI from whole gutted fish for subsequent development of nutraceutical seafood products tailored for reduction of diet-driven cardiovascular disease.

  10. Cost and Cost-Effectiveness of Donor Human Milk to Prevent Necrotizing Enterocolitis: Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Buckle, Abigail; Taylor, Celia

    2017-11-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a costly gastrointestinal disorder that mainly affects preterm and low-birth-weight infants and can lead to considerable morbidity and mortality. Mother's own milk is protective against NEC but is not always available. In such cases, donor human milk has also been shown to be protective (although to a lesser extent) compared with formula milk, but it is more expensive. This systematic review aimed at evaluating the cost of donor milk, the cost of treating NEC, and the cost-effectiveness of exclusive donor milk versus formula milk feeding to reduce the short-term health and treatment costs of NEC. We systematically searched five relevant databases to find studies with verifiable costs or charges of donor milk and/or treatment of NEC and any economic evaluations comparing exclusive donor milk with exclusive formula milk feeding. All search results were double screened. Seven studies with verifiable donor milk costs and 17 with verifiable NEC treatment costs were included. The types of cost or charge included varied considerably across studies, so quantitative synthesis was not attempted. Estimates of the incremental length of stay associated with NEC were ∼18 days for medical NEC and 50 days for surgical NEC. Two studies claimed to report economic evaluations but did not do so in practice. It is likely that donor milk provides short-term cost savings by reducing the incidence of NEC. Future studies should provide more details on cost components included and a full economic evaluation, including long-term outcomes, should be undertaken.

  11. [Probiotic associations in the prevention of necrotising enterocolitis and the reduction of late-onset sepsis and neonatal mortality in preterm infants under 1,500g: A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Baucells, Benjamin James; Mercadal Hally, Maria; Álvarez Sánchez, Airam Tenesor; Figueras Aloy, Josep

    2016-11-01

    Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most common and serious acquired bowel diseases a premature newborn can face. This meta-analysis was performed comparing different probiotic mixtures to ascertain their benefits as a routine tool for preventing necrotising enterocolitis and reducing late-onset sepsis and mortality in premature neonates of less than 1500g. A systematic review of randomised controlled trials, between January 1980 and March 2014, on MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, together with EMBASE, was carried out. Studies with infants <1500g or <34 weeks were selected, discarding those with Jadad scores lower than 4. 9 studies were selected for further investigation, pooling a total of 3521 newborns. Probiotics were found to reduce the NEC incidence (RR 0.39; 95%CI: 0.26-0.57) and mortality (RR 0.70; 95%CI: 0.52-0.93), with no difference to placebo regarding late-onset sepsis (RR 0.91; 95%CI: 0.78-1.06). Finally, when analysing the different strands, the use of a 2-probiotic combination (Lactobacillus acidophilus with Bifidobacterium bifidum) proved to be statistically significant in reducing all-cause mortality when compared to other probiotic combinations (RR 0.32; 95%CI: 0.15-0.66, NNT 20; 95%CI: 12-50). Probiotics are a beneficial tool in the prevention of NEC and mortality in preterm neonates. Moreover, the combination of 2 probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus with Bifidobacterium bifidum) seems to produce the greatest benefits. However, due to the differences in probiotic components and administration, it would be wise to perform a randomised controlled trial comparing different probiotic mixtures. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of routine probiotic, Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938, use on rates of necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates with birthweight < 1000 grams: a sequential analysis.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Chelsea; Dimaguila, Mary Ann V T; Gal, Peter; Wimmer, John E; Ransom, James Laurence; Carlos, Rita Q; Smith, McCrae; Davanzo, Christie C

    2012-09-04

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a disease in neonates, often resulting in death or serious medical or neurodevelopmental complications. The rate of NEC is highest in the smallest babies and many efforts have been tried to reduce the rate of NEC. In neonates born below 1500 grams, the rate of NEC has been significantly reduced with the use of various probiotics. This study examines the impact of routine use of a probiotic, Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 (BioGaia®), on the rate of NEC in neonates at highest risk for developing NEC, those with birth weight ≤1000 grams. This is a retrospective cohort study comparing the rates of NEC in neonates with birth weight ≤ 1000 grams. The groups are separated into those neonates born from January 2004 to June 30, 2009, before introduction of L. reuteri , and neonates born July 2009 through April 2011 who received routine L. reuteri prophylaxis. The chart review study was approved by our institutional review board and exempted from informed consent.Neonates were excluded if they died or were transferred within the first week of life. The remainder were categorized as having no NEC, medical NEC, surgical NEC, or NEC associated death. Since no major changes occurred in our NICU practice in recent years, and the introduction of L. reuteri as routine prophylaxis was abrupt, we attributed the post-probiotic changes to the introduction of this new therapy. Rates of NEC were compared using Chi square analysis with Fisher exact t-test. Medical records for 311 neonates were reviewed, 232 before- and 79 after-introduction of L. reuteri prophylaxis. The incidence of NEC was significantly lower in the neonates who received L. reuteri (2 of 79 neonates [2.5%] versus 35 of 232 untreated neonates [15.1%]). Rates of late-onset gram-negative or fungal infections (22.8 versus 31%) were not statistically different between treated and untreated groups. No adverse events related to use of L reuteri were noted. Prophylactic initiation of

  13. Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) after infection with Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O104:H4: A cohort study with prospective follow-up.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Viola; Löwe, Bernd; Broicher, Wiebke; Riegel, Björn; Fraedrich, Katharina; von Wulffen, Moritz; Gappmayer, Kerrin; Wegscheider, Karl; Treszl, András; Rose, Matthias; Layer, Peter; Lohse, Ansgar W

    2016-02-01

    In May/June 2011, the new Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strain O104:H4 caused the severest outbreak ever recorded of hemorrhagic enterocolitis in 3842 patients in Germany. As bacterial enterocolitis is an established risk factor of subsequent irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), we aimed to estimate prevalence and incidence of post-infectious (PI)-IBS after six and 12 months in a cohort of STEC O104:H4 patients and to prospectively identify associated somatic and psychometric risk factors. A total of 389 patients were studied prospectively at baseline and at six and 12 months after STEC infection using STEC disease-related questionnaires and validated instruments for IBS (Rome III) and psychological factors. Frequencies and logistic regression models using multiple imputations were applied to assess predictor variables. Prevalence of IBS increased from 9.8% prior to STEC infection to 23.6% at six and 25.3% at 12 months after STEC infection. In patients without IBS symptoms prior to STEC infection, incidence of new IBS was 16.9%. Logistic regression models indicated higher somatization and anxiety scores as risk factors for, and mesalazine treatment during, STEC infection as the only significant protective factor against IBS. No other factor analyzed, including disease severity, showed an association. PI-IBS rates following this unusually severe STEC outbreak were similar to what has been observed after other infectious gastroenteritis outbreaks. Our findings suggest that mesalazine may have reduced the risk of subsequent PI-IBS. As altered mucosal immune activity is a pivotal pathogenic factor in PI-IBS, our observation of a potential protective effect of mesalazine might be explained by its known modulatory action on mucosal immunity, and may warrant further investigation.

  14. Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) after infection with Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O104:H4: A cohort study with prospective follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Löwe, Bernd; Broicher, Wiebke; Riegel, Björn; Fraedrich, Katharina; von Wulffen, Moritz; Gappmayer, Kerrin; Wegscheider, Karl; Treszl, András; Rose, Matthias; Layer, Peter; Lohse, Ansgar W

    2015-01-01

    Background In May/June 2011, the new Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strain O104:H4 caused the severest outbreak ever recorded of hemorrhagic enterocolitis in 3842 patients in Germany. Objectives As bacterial enterocolitis is an established risk factor of subsequent irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), we aimed to estimate prevalence and incidence of post-infectious (PI)-IBS after six and 12 months in a cohort of STEC O104:H4 patients and to prospectively identify associated somatic and psychometric risk factors. Methods A total of 389 patients were studied prospectively at baseline and at six and 12 months after STEC infection using STEC disease-related questionnaires and validated instruments for IBS (Rome III) and psychological factors. Frequencies and logistic regression models using multiple imputations were applied to assess predictor variables. Results Prevalence of IBS increased from 9.8% prior to STEC infection to 23.6% at six and 25.3% at 12 months after STEC infection. In patients without IBS symptoms prior to STEC infection, incidence of new IBS was 16.9%. Logistic regression models indicated higher somatization and anxiety scores as risk factors for, and mesalazine treatment during, STEC infection as the only significant protective factor against IBS. No other factor analyzed, including disease severity, showed an association. Conclusions PI-IBS rates following this unusually severe STEC outbreak were similar to what has been observed after other infectious gastroenteritis outbreaks. Our findings suggest that mesalazine may have reduced the risk of subsequent PI-IBS. As altered mucosal immune activity is a pivotal pathogenic factor in PI-IBS, our observation of a potential protective effect of mesalazine might be explained by its known modulatory action on mucosal immunity, and may warrant further investigation. PMID:26966532

  15. Evaluation of a therapy for Idiopathic Chronic Enterocolitis in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and linked microbial community correlates

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Kate; Lauder, Abigail; Kim, Dorothy; Bailey, Aubrey; Wu, Gary D.; Collman, Ronald G.; Doyle-Meyers, Lara; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi; Blanchard, James; Bushman, Frederic D.; Bohm, Rudolf

    2018-01-01

    Idiopathic chronic enterocolitis (ICE) is one of the most commonly encountered and difficult to manage diseases of captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). The etiology is not well understood, but perturbations in gut microbial communities have been implicated. Here we evaluated the effects of a 14-day course of vancomycin, neomycin, and fluconazole on animals affected with ICE, comparing treated, untreated, and healthy animals. We performed microbiome analysis on duodenal and colonic mucosal samples and feces in order to probe bacterial and/or fungal taxa potentially associated with ICE. All treated animals showed a significant and long-lasting improvement in stool consistency over time when compared to untreated and healthy controls. Microbiome analysis revealed trends associating bacterial community composition with ICE, particularly lineages of the Lactobacillaceae family. Sequencing of DNA from macaque food biscuits revealed that fungal sequences recovered from stool were dominated by yeast-derived food additives; in contrast, bacteria in stool appeared to be authentic gut residents. In conclusion, while validation in larger cohorts is needed, the treatment described here was associated with significantly improved clinical signs; results suggested possible correlates of microbiome structure with disease, though no strong associations were detected between single microbes and ICE. PMID:29666764

  16. High-resolution, large dynamic range fiber-optic thermometer with cascaded Fabry-Perot cavities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guigen; Sheng, Qiwen; Hou, Weilin; Han, Ming

    2016-11-01

    The paradox between a large dynamic range and a high resolution commonly exists in nearly all kinds of sensors. Here, we propose a fiber-optic thermometer based on dual Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) made from the same material (silicon), but with different cavity lengths, which enables unambiguous recognition of the dense fringes associated with the thick FPI over the free-spectral range determined by the thin FPI. Therefore, the sensor combines the large dynamic range of the thin FPI and the high resolution of the thick FPI. To verify this new concept, a sensor with one 200 μm thick silicon FPI cascaded by another 10 μm thick silicon FPI was fabricated. A temperature range of -50°C to 130°C and a resolution of 6.8×10-3°C were demonstrated using a simple average wavelength tracking demodulation. Compared to a sensor with only the thick silicon FPI, the dynamic range of the hybrid sensor was more than 10 times larger. Compared to a sensor with only the thin silicon FPI, the resolution of the hybrid sensor was more than 18 times higher.

  17. The hepatic bile acid transporters Ntcp and Mrp2 are downregulated in experimental necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Cherrington, Nathan J; Estrada, Teresa E; Frisk, Harrison A; Canet, Mark J; Hardwick, Rhiannon N; Dvorak, Bohuslav; Lux, Katie; Halpern, Melissa D

    2013-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal emergency of premature infants and is characterized by an extensive hemorrhagic inflammatory necrosis of the distal ileum and proximal colon. We have previously shown that, during the development of experimental NEC, the liver plays an important role in regulating inflammation in the ileum, and accumulation of ileal bile acids (BA) along with dysregulation of ileal BA transporters contributes to ileal damage. Given these findings, we speculated that hepatic BA transporters would also be altered in experimental NEC. Using both rat and mouse models of NEC, levels of Cyp7a1, Cyp27a1, and the hepatic BA transporters Bsep, Ntcp, Oatp2, Oatp4, Mrp2, and Mrp3 were investigated. In addition, levels of hepatic BA transporters were also determined when the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-18, which are both elevated in NEC, are neutralized during disease development. Ntcp and Mrp2 were decreased in NEC, but elevated ileal BA levels were not responsible for these reductions. However, neutralization of TNF-α normalized Ntcp, whereas removal of IL-18 normalized Mrp2 levels. These data show that the hepatic transporters Ntcp and Mrp2 are downregulated, whereas Cyp27a1 is increased in rodent models of NEC. Furthermore, increased levels of TNF-α and IL-18 in experimental NEC may play a role in the regulation of Ntcp and Mrp2, respectively. These data suggest the gut-liver axis should be considered when therapeutic modalities for NEC are developed.

  18. Packed red blood cell transfusion is not associated with increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, R; Kraemer, DF; Torrazza, RM; Mai, V; Neu, J; Shuster, JJ; Hudak, ML

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Recent reports have posited a temporal association between blood transfusion with packed red blood cells (BT) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We evaluated the relationship between BT and NEC among infants at three hospitals who were consented at birth into a prospective observational study of NEC. STUDY DESIGN We used a case–control design to match each case of NEC in our study population of infants born at <33 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) to one control infant using hospital of birth, PMA, birth weight and date of birth. RESULT The number of transfusions per infant did not differ between 42 NEC cases and their controls (4.0 ± 4.6 vs 5.4 ± 4.1, mean ± s.d., P = 0.063). A matched-pair analysis did not identify an association of transfusion with NEC in either the 48-h or 7-day time periods before the onset of NEC. Stratifying on matched-sets, the Cox proportional hazard model did not identify any difference in the total number of BTs between the two groups (hazard ratio 0.78, 95% confidence interval 0.57 to 1.07, P = 0.11). CONCLUSION In contrast to previous studies, our case–control study did not identify a significant temporal association between BT and NEC. Additional large prospective randomized studies are needed to clarify the relationship between BT and NEC. PMID:25144159

  19. Does abdominal sonography provide additional information over abdominal plain radiography for diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates?

    PubMed

    Dilli, Dilek; Suna Oğuz, S; Erol, Reyhan; Ozkan-Ulu, Hülya; Dumanlı, Hüseyin; Dilmen, Uğur

    2011-03-01

    To explore whether addition of abdominal sonography (AUS) to plain radiography is helpful in the management of premature newborns with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). This study is a prospective analysis of 93 premature neonates with NEC who were followed-up in our neonatal intensive care unit between October 2007 and April 2009. Patients were classified into two groups; group I with suspected NEC (stage I) (n = 54) and group II with definite NEC (stage ≥II) (n = 39). Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) (n = 29), free air (n = 9), and portal venous gas (PVG) (n = 1) were observed in group II on plain radiography. In the same group, echoic free fluid (EFF) (n = 9), PVG (n = 6), PI (n = 5), and focal fluid collection (n = 3) were the most prominent sonographic findings. In patients with intestinal perforation, whereas EFF and bowel wall thinning were observed on AUS, free air was not detected on plain radiography as a sign of intestinal perforation. Our results suggest AUS to be superior to plain radiography on early detection of intestinal perforation by demonstrating PVG and EFF collection. Therefore, it may be life-saving by directing the surgeon to perform surgical intervention in the case of clinical deterioration in the course of NEC.

  20. A data-driven algorithm integrating clinical and laboratory features for the diagnosis and prognosis of necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jun; Ling, Xuefeng B; Zhao, Yingzhen; Hu, Zhongkai; Zheng, Xiaolin; Xu, Zhening; Wen, Qiaojun; Kastenberg, Zachary J; Li, Ping; Abdullah, Fizan; Brandt, Mary L; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Harris, Mary Catherine; Lee, Timothy C; Simpson, B Joyce; Bowers, Corinna; Moss, R Lawrence; Sylvester, Karl G

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major source of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Since there is no specific diagnostic test or risk of progression model available for NEC, the diagnosis and outcome prediction of NEC is made on clinical grounds. The objective in this study was to develop and validate new NEC scoring systems for automated staging and prognostic forecasting. A six-center consortium of university based pediatric teaching hospitals prospectively collected data on infants under suspicion of having NEC over a 7-year period. A database comprised of 520 infants was utilized to develop the NEC diagnostic and prognostic models by dividing the entire dataset into training and testing cohorts of demographically matched subjects. Developed on the training cohort and validated on the blind testing cohort, our multivariate analyses led to NEC scoring metrics integrating clinical data. Machine learning using clinical and laboratory results at the time of clinical presentation led to two nec models: (1) an automated diagnostic classification scheme; (2) a dynamic prognostic method for risk-stratifying patients into low, intermediate and high NEC scores to determine the risk for disease progression. We submit that dynamic risk stratification of infants with NEC will assist clinicians in determining the need for additional diagnostic testing and guide potential therapies in a dynamic manner. http://translationalmedicine.stanford.edu/cgi-bin/NEC/index.pl and smartphone application upon request.

  1. A Meta-Analysis of Probiotic Efficacy for Gastrointestinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, Marina L.; Romanuk, Tamara N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Meta-analyses on the effects of probiotics on specific gastrointestinal diseases have generally shown positive effects on disease prevention and treatment; however, the relative efficacy of probiotic use for treatment and prevention across different gastrointestinal diseases, with differing etiology and mechanisms of action, has not been addressed. Methods/Principal Findings We included randomized controlled trials in humans that used a specified probiotic in the treatment or prevention of Pouchitis, Infectious diarrhea, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Helicobacter pylori, Clostridium difficile Disease, Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea, Traveler's Diarrhea, or Necrotizing Enterocolitis. Random effects models were used to evaluate efficacy as pooled relative risks across the eight diseases as well as across probiotic species, single vs. multiple species, patient ages, dosages, and length of treatment. Probiotics had a positive significant effect across all eight gastrointestinal diseases with a relative risk of 0.58 (95% (CI) 0.51–0.65). Six of the eight diseases: Pouchitis, Infectious diarrhea, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Helicobacter pylori, Clostridium difficile Disease, and Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea, showed positive significant effects. Traveler's Diarrhea and Necrotizing Enterocolitis did not show significant effects of probiotcs. Of the 11 species and species mixtures, all showed positive significant effects except for Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Bifidobacterium infantis. Across all diseases and probiotic species, positive significant effects of probiotics were observed for all age groups, single vs. multiple species, and treatment lengths. Conclusions/Significance Probiotics are generally beneficial in treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal diseases. Efficacy was not observed for Traveler's Diarrhea or Necrotizing Enterocolitis or for the probiotic species L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, and B. infantis. When choosing

  2. Evaluation of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease in infants with necrotizing enterocolitis before and after the implementation of feeding guidelines.

    PubMed

    Tillman, Emma M; Norman, Johanna L; Huang, Eunice Y; Lazar, Linda F; Crill, Catherine M

    2014-04-01

    In 2009, an intestinal rehabilitation team implemented feeding guidelines for infants following gastrointestinal surgery at our institution. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of enteral feeding guidelines on the incidence of parenteral nutrition (PN)-associated liver disease (PNALD) in infants with surgically managed necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). This retrospective study included infants treated during 18-month time periods before and after the implementation of feeding guidelines. PNALD diagnosis was based on serum direct bilirubin >2 mg/dL after ≥14 days of PN exposure. Of the 140 infants identified, 64 were surgically managed and included in the analysis. The duration of PN and the time nil per os (NPO) were significantly reduced after guideline implementation from a median of 106 days to 65 days (P = .03) and from 29 days to 16 days (P = .02), respectively. The incidence of PNALD decreased from 73% before guideline implementation to 42% after guideline implementation (P = .01). Implementation of feeding guidelines resulted in decreased time NPO and duration of PN support. Significantly fewer infants developed PNALD after guideline implementation. These data suggest that feeding guidelines may expedite the transition from PN to enteral nutrition and may improve outcomes.

  3. Toll-like Receptor 4-mediated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Intestinal Crypts Induces Necrotizing Enterocolitis*

    PubMed Central

    Afrazi, Amin; Branca, Maria F.; Sodhi, Chhinder P.; Good, Misty; Yamaguchi, Yukihiro; Egan, Charlotte E.; Lu, Peng; Jia, Hongpeng; Shaffiey, Shahab; Lin, Joyce; Ma, Congrong; Vincent, Garrett; Prindle, Thomas; Weyandt, Samantha; Neal, Matthew D.; Ozolek, John A.; Wiersch, John; Tschurtschenthaler, Markus; Shiota, Chiyo; Gittes, George K.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Mollen, Kevin; Kaser, Arthur; Blumberg, Richard; Hackam, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The cellular cues that regulate the apoptosis of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) remain incompletely understood, yet may play a role in diseases characterized by ISC loss including necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) was recently found to be expressed on ISCs, where its activation leads to ISC apoptosis through mechanisms that remain incompletely explained. We now hypothesize that TLR4 induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress within ISCs, leading to their apoptosis in NEC pathogenesis, and that high ER stress within the premature intestine predisposes to NEC development. Using transgenic mice and cultured enteroids, we now demonstrate that TLR4 induces ER stress within Lgr5 (leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5)-positive ISCs, resulting in crypt apoptosis. TLR4 signaling within crypts was required, because crypt ER stress and apoptosis occurred in TLR4ΔIEC-OVER mice expressing TLR4 only within intestinal crypts and epithelium, but not TLR4ΔIEC mice lacking intestinal TLR4. TLR4-mediated ER stress and apoptosis of ISCs required PERK (protein kinase-related PKR-like ER kinase), CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein), and MyD88 (myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88), but not ATF6 (activating transcription factor 6) or XBP1 (X-box-binding protein 1). Human and mouse NEC showed high crypt ER stress and apoptosis, whereas genetic inhibition of PERK or CHOP attenuated ER stress, crypt apoptosis, and NEC severity. Strikingly, using intragastric delivery into fetal mouse intestine, prevention of ER stress reduced TLR4-mediated ISC apoptosis and mucosal disruption. These findings identify a novel link between TLR4-induced ER stress and ISC apoptosis in NEC pathogenesis and suggest that increased ER stress within the premature bowel predisposes to NEC development. PMID:24519940

  4. Toll-like receptor 4-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress in intestinal crypts induces necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Afrazi, Amin; Branca, Maria F; Sodhi, Chhinder P; Good, Misty; Yamaguchi, Yukihiro; Egan, Charlotte E; Lu, Peng; Jia, Hongpeng; Shaffiey, Shahab; Lin, Joyce; Ma, Congrong; Vincent, Garrett; Prindle, Thomas; Weyandt, Samantha; Neal, Matthew D; Ozolek, John A; Wiersch, John; Tschurtschenthaler, Markus; Shiota, Chiyo; Gittes, George K; Billiar, Timothy R; Mollen, Kevin; Kaser, Arthur; Blumberg, Richard; Hackam, David J

    2014-04-04

    The cellular cues that regulate the apoptosis of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) remain incompletely understood, yet may play a role in diseases characterized by ISC loss including necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) was recently found to be expressed on ISCs, where its activation leads to ISC apoptosis through mechanisms that remain incompletely explained. We now hypothesize that TLR4 induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress within ISCs, leading to their apoptosis in NEC pathogenesis, and that high ER stress within the premature intestine predisposes to NEC development. Using transgenic mice and cultured enteroids, we now demonstrate that TLR4 induces ER stress within Lgr5 (leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5)-positive ISCs, resulting in crypt apoptosis. TLR4 signaling within crypts was required, because crypt ER stress and apoptosis occurred in TLR4(ΔIEC-OVER) mice expressing TLR4 only within intestinal crypts and epithelium, but not TLR4(ΔIEC) mice lacking intestinal TLR4. TLR4-mediated ER stress and apoptosis of ISCs required PERK (protein kinase-related PKR-like ER kinase), CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein), and MyD88 (myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88), but not ATF6 (activating transcription factor 6) or XBP1 (X-box-binding protein 1). Human and mouse NEC showed high crypt ER stress and apoptosis, whereas genetic inhibition of PERK or CHOP attenuated ER stress, crypt apoptosis, and NEC severity. Strikingly, using intragastric delivery into fetal mouse intestine, prevention of ER stress reduced TLR4-mediated ISC apoptosis and mucosal disruption. These findings identify a novel link between TLR4-induced ER stress and ISC apoptosis in NEC pathogenesis and suggest that increased ER stress within the premature bowel predisposes to NEC development.

  5. [Clinical profile of cytomegalovirus (CMV) enterocolitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    De Lima, D B; Fernandes, O; Gomes, V R; Da Silva, E J; De Pinho, P R; De Paiva, D D

    2000-01-01

    To determine the clinical profile of CMV colitis in AIDS patients, comparing clinical, endoscopic parameters and survival time between 2 groups of AIDS patients having chronic diarrhea. Group A being CMV colitis and group B without CMV colitis. 48 patients with diarrhea that lasted more than 30 days, being 27 in Group A and 21 in Group B, were studied. Age, risk factors, interval time between the diagnosis of HIV infection and the beginning of diarrhea, hematochesia, the endoscopic findings and life table in both groups, were analysed. All of them were diagnosed by stool culture and stools for ovum and parasites, along colonoscopy with biopsies. The unpaired t test was used to assess statistical significance of differences observed in the means of continuous and the chi-square with Yates correction for non-parametric variables. The survival curves were assessed by the Kaplan-Meier and the Mantel-Haenszel's tests. A P value of less than 0,05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. The mucosal lesions associated with the CMV infection are typically ulcerative on a background of hemorrhagic erythema 14 (51,8%) p < 0,01. The life table analysis disclosed shorter survival time in the CMV colitis group 0,005> P>0,001. The others studied data did not achieve statistical significance. AIDS patients with CMV colitis have a poorer long-term survival. Among the colonoscopic findings, ulcerations with hemorrhagic background were the most common lesions.

  6. Outcomes at 7 years for babies who developed neonatal necrotising enterocolitis: the ORACLE Children Study.

    PubMed

    Pike, Katie; Brocklehurst, Peter; Jones, David; Kenyon, Sarah; Salt, Alison; Taylor, David; Marlow, Neil

    2012-09-01

    Within the ORACLE Children Study Cohort, the authors have evaluated long-term consequences of the diagnosis of confirmed or suspected neonatal necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) at age of 7 years. Outcomes were assessed using a parental questionnaire, including the Health Utilities Index (HUI-3) to assess functional impairment, and specific medical and behavioural outcomes. Educational outcomes for children in England were explored using national standardised tests. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore independent associates of NEC within the cohort. The authors obtained data for 119 (77%) of 157 children following proven or suspected NEC and compared their outcomes with those of the remaining 6496 children. NEC was associated with an increase in risk of neonatal death (OR 14.6 (95% CI 10.4 to 20.6)). At 7 years, NEC conferred an increased risk of all grades of impairment. Adjusting for confounders, risks persisted for any HUI-3 defined functional impairment (adjusted OR 1.55 (1.05, 2.29)), particularly mild impairment (adjusted OR 1.61 (1.03, 2.53)) both in all NEC children and in those with proven NEC, which appeared to be independent. No behavioural or educational associations were confirmed. Following NEC, children were more likely to suffer bowel problems than non-NEC children (adjusted OR 3.96 (2.06, 7.61)). The ORACLE Children Study provided opportunity for the largest evaluation of school age outcome following neonatal NEC and demonstrates significant long-term consequences of both gut function (presence of stoma, admission for bowel problems and continuing medical care for gut-related problems) and motor, sensory and cognitive outcomes as measured using HUI-3.

  7. Modeling spatial patterns of wildfire susceptibility in southern California: Applications of MODIS remote sensing data and mesoscale numerical weather models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Philipp

    This dissertation investigates the potential of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery and mesoscale numerical weather models for mapping wildfire susceptibility in general and for improving the Fire Potential Index (FPI) in southern California in particular. The dissertation explores the use of the Visible Atmospherically Resistant Index (VARI) from MODIS data for mapping relative greenness (RG) of vegetation and subsequently for computing the FPI. VARI-based RG was validated against in situ observations of live fuel moisture. The results indicate that VARI is superior to the previously used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for computing RG. FPI computed using VARI-based RG was found to outperform the traditional FPI when validated against historical fire detections using logistic regression. The study further investigates the potential of using Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) on MODIS data for estimating live and dead fractions of vegetation. MESMA fractions were compared against in situ measurements and fractions derived from data of a high-resolution, hyperspectral sensor. The results show that live and dead fractions obtained from MODIS using MESMA are well correlated with the reference data. Further, FPI computed using MESMA-based green vegetation fraction in lieu of RG was validated against historical fire occurrence data. MESMA-based FPI performs at a comparable level to the traditional NDVI-based FPI, but can do so using a single MODIS image rather than an extensive remote sensing time series as required for the RG approach. Finally this dissertation explores the potential of integrating gridded wind speed data obtained from the MM5 mesoscale numerical weather model in the FPI. A new fire susceptibility index, the Wind-Adjusted Fire Potential Index (WAFPI), was introduced. It modifies the FPI algorithm by integrating normalized wind speed. Validating WAFPI against historical wildfire events using

  8. Immunoregulatory Protein Profiles of Necrotizing Enterocolitis versus Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Fiona Wan Lun; Lam, Hugh Simon; Tam, Yuk Him; To, Ka Fai; Cheung, Hon Ming; Leung, Kam Tong; Poon, Terence Chuen Wai; Lee, Kim Hung; Li, Karen; Fok, Tai Fai

    2012-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) are the most common acute surgical emergencies associated with high morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. We aimed to compare the profiles of immunoregulatory proteins and identify novel mediators in plasma of NEC and SIP infants. We also investigated the expression of target genes in resected intestinal tissues and an enterocyte cell line. Using Cytokine Antibody Array assay, we reported the first comparative profiles of immunoregulatory proteins in plasma of NEC and SIP infants, and showed that dysregulated proteins belonged to functionally diversified categories, including pro- and anti-inflammation, angiogenesis, cell growth, wound healing, anti-apoptosis, cell adhesion and extracellular matrix reorganization. Validation by ELISA confirmed significantly higher concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, angiopoietin (Ang)-2, soluble type II interleukin-1 receptor (sIL-1RII), and soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in NEC infants compared with gestational age-matched control, and a lower level of an epidermal growth factor receptor, secreted form of receptor tyrosine-protein kinase ErbB3 (sErbB3), compared with SIP infants. mRNA expressions of IL1-RII and uPAR were up-regulated in resected bowel tissues from NEC infants, indicating that immunoregulation also occurred at the cellular level. In FHs-74 Int cells, Ang-2, IL1-RII and uPAR mRNA expressions were significantly induced by the combined treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and platelet activating factor (PAF). Our study provided plasmatic signatures of immunoregulatory proteins in NEC and SIP infants, and demonstrated involvement of multiple functional pathways. The magnitude of changes in these proteins was significantly more extensive in NEC infants, reflecting the different nature of injury and/or severity of inflammation. We speculate that dysregulation of IL-6, Ang-2, IL-1RII and uPAR occurred at

  9. Psychometric properties and factor structure of the Fertility Problem Inventory in a sample of infertile women undergoing fertility treatment.

    PubMed

    Gourounti, K; Anagnostopoulos, F; Vaslamatzis, G

    2011-10-01

    to examine the psychometric properties of the Fertility Problem Inventory (FPI) originally developed by Newton et al. (1999); as there are no data concerning the factorial structure of the FPI, a special focus is placed on construct validity through factor analysis. public hospital in Athens, Greece. a cross-sectional study. 108 women undergoing fertility treatment with in-vitro fertilisation. the FPI was 'forward-backward' translated from English to Greek. The translated instrument was then administered to a set of infertile women for pilot testing. Principal axis factoring with promax rotation was used to test the factor structure of the FPI. Measures of anxiety State Trait Anxiety Inventory, depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies--Depression Scale) and mood states Profile of Mood States were used to assess the convergent validity of the FPI. Cronbach's α was used to measure internal consistency of the FPI scales. exploratory factor analysis suggested four factors. The majority of relationship and sexual concern items grouped into one solid factor, named 'spousal concern'. The original scales of social concern, need for parenthood and rejection of childfree lifestyle were reproduced after rearranging nine cross-loading items. Construct validity was confirmed by computing correlations between the derived FPI scales and conceptually similar constructions of anxiety, depression and mood states. Internal consistency reliability was satisfactory. the FPI was found to have a relatively stable factor structure and satisfactory reliability, and convergent and discriminant validity. The FPI may enable researchers and clinicians to apply a reliable measure that focuses on various/many dimensions of infertility-related stress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 28 CFR 345.82 - Apprenticeship training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Apprenticeship training. 345.82 Section... INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS FPI Inmate Training and Scholarship Programs § 345.82 Apprenticeship training. FPI provides inmate workers with an opportunity to participate in apprenticeship training...

  11. 28 CFR 345.82 - Apprenticeship training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apprenticeship training. 345.82 Section... INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS FPI Inmate Training and Scholarship Programs § 345.82 Apprenticeship training. FPI provides inmate workers with an opportunity to participate in apprenticeship training...

  12. 28 CFR 345.83 - Job safety training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Job safety training. 345.83 Section 345... INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS FPI Inmate Training and Scholarship Programs § 345.83 Job safety training. FPI provides inmates with regular job safety training which is developed and scheduled in...

  13. 28 CFR 345.83 - Job safety training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Job safety training. 345.83 Section 345... INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS FPI Inmate Training and Scholarship Programs § 345.83 Job safety training. FPI provides inmates with regular job safety training which is developed and scheduled in...

  14. 28 CFR 345.83 - Job safety training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Job safety training. 345.83 Section 345... INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS FPI Inmate Training and Scholarship Programs § 345.83 Job safety training. FPI provides inmates with regular job safety training which is developed and scheduled in...

  15. 28 CFR 345.83 - Job safety training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Job safety training. 345.83 Section 345... INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS FPI Inmate Training and Scholarship Programs § 345.83 Job safety training. FPI provides inmates with regular job safety training which is developed and scheduled in...

  16. 28 CFR 345.83 - Job safety training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Job safety training. 345.83 Section 345... INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS FPI Inmate Training and Scholarship Programs § 345.83 Job safety training. FPI provides inmates with regular job safety training which is developed and scheduled in...

  17. 48 CFR 8.602 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition From Federal Prison Industries, Inc. 8.602 Policy. (a... market research to determine whether the FPI item is comparable to supplies available from the private... comparing the FPI item to supplies available from the private sector; (3) If the FPI item is comparable...

  18. Course-Level Implementation of First Principles, Goal Orientations, and Cognitive Engagement: A Multilevel Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sunghye; Koszalka, Tiffany A.

    2016-01-01

    The First Principles of Instruction (FPI) represent ideologies found in most instructional design theories and models. Few attempts, however, have been made to empirically test the relationship of these FPI to instructional outcomes. This study addresses whether the degree to which FPI are implemented in courses makes a difference to student…

  19. Using a Mathematical Model to Analyze the Role of Probiotics and Inflammation in Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Arciero, Julia C.; Ermentrout, G. Bard; Upperman, Jeffrey S.; Vodovotz, Yoram; Rubin, Jonathan E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe disease of the gastrointestinal tract of pre-term babies and is thought to be related to the physiological immaturity of the intestine and altered levels of normal flora in the gut. Understanding the factors that contribute to the pathology of NEC may lead to the development of treatment strategies aimed at re-establishing the integrity of the epithelial wall and preventing the propagation of inflammation in NEC. Several studies have shown a reduced incidence and severity of NEC in neonates treated with probiotics (beneficial bacteria species). Methodology/Principal Findings The objective of this study is to use a mathematical model to predict the conditions under which probiotics may be successful in promoting the health of infants suffering from NEC. An ordinary differential equation model is developed that tracks the populations of pathogenic and probiotic bacteria in the intestinal lumen and in the blood/tissue region. The permeability of the intestinal epithelial layer is treated as a variable, and the role of the inflammatory response is included. The model predicts that in the presence of probiotics health is restored in many cases that would have been otherwise pathogenic. The timing of probiotic administration is also shown to determine whether or not health is restored. Finally, the model predicts that probiotics may be harmful to the NEC patient under very specific conditions, perhaps explaining the detrimental effects of probiotics observed in some clinical studies. Conclusions/Significance The reduced, experimentally motivated mathematical model that we have developed suggests how a certain general set of characteristics of probiotics can lead to beneficial or detrimental outcomes for infants suffering from NEC, depending on the influences of probiotics on defined features of the inflammatory response. PMID:20419099

  20. Impact of Optimized Breastfeeding on the Costs of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Extremely Low Birthweight Infants.

    PubMed

    Colaizy, Tarah T; Bartick, Melissa C; Jegier, Briana J; Green, Brittany D; Reinhold, Arnold G; Schaefer, Andrew J; Bogen, Debra L; Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Stuebe, Alison M

    2016-08-01

    To estimate risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants as a function of preterm formula (PF) and maternal milk intake and calculate the impact of suboptimal feeding on the incidence and costs of NEC. We used aORs derived from the Glutamine Trial to perform Monte Carlo simulation of a cohort of ELBW infants under current suboptimal feeding practices, compared with a theoretical cohort in which 90% of infants received at least 98% human milk. NEC incidence among infants receiving ≥98% human milk was 1.3%; 11.1% among infants fed only PF; and 8.2% among infants fed a mixed diet (P = .002). In adjusted models, compared with infants fed predominantly human milk, we found an increased risk of NEC associated with exclusive PF (aOR = 12.1, 95% CI 1.5, 94.2), or a mixed diet (aOR 8.7, 95% CI 1.2-65.2). In Monte Carlo simulation, current feeding of ELBW infants was associated with 928 excess NEC cases and 121 excess deaths annually, compared with a model in which 90% of infants received ≥98% human milk. These models estimated an annual cost of suboptimal feeding of ELBW infants of $27.1 million (CI $24 million, $30.4 million) in direct medical costs, $563 655 (CI $476 191, $599 069) in indirect nonmedical costs, and $1.5 billion (CI $1.3 billion, $1.6 billion) in cost attributable to premature death. Among ELBW infants, not being fed predominantly human milk is associated with an increased risk of NEC. Efforts to support milk production by mothers of ELBW infants may prevent infant deaths and reduce costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Shelf-life extension of refrigerated sea bass slices wrapped with fish protein isolate/fish skin gelatin-ZnO nanocomposite film incorporated with basil leaf essential oil.

    PubMed

    Arfat, Yasir Ali; Benjakul, Soottawat; Vongkamjan, Kitiya; Sumpavapol, Punnanee; Yarnpakdee, Suthasinee

    2015-10-01

    Microbiological, chemical and sensory changes of sea bass slices wrapped with fish protein isolate (FPI)/fish skin gelatin (FSG) films incorporated with 3 % ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONP) (w/w, based on protein content) and 100 % basil leaf essential oil (BEO) (w/w, based on protein content) during storage of 12 days at 4 °C were investigated. Sea bass slices wrapped with FPI/FSG-ZnONP-BEO film had the lowest growth of psychrophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and spoilage microorganisms including Pseudomonas , H2S-producing bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae throughout storage of 12 days in comparison with those wrapped with FPI/FSG-BEO, FPI/FSG-ZnONP, FPI/FSG film, polypropylene film (PP film) and the control (without wrapping), respectively (P < 0.05). Lowered increases in pH, total volatile base, peroxide value and TBARS value were found in FPI/FSG-ZnO-BEO film wrapped samples, compared with others (P < 0.05). Sensory evaluation revealed that shelf-life of sea bass slices was longest for samples wrapped with FPI/FSG-ZnONP-BEO film (12 days), as compared to the control (6 days) (P < 0.05).

  2. 28 CFR 345.33 - Waiting list hiring exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... position classification files. (b) Prior FPI work assignment. An inmate with prior FPI work experience during the inmate's current commitment and with no break in custody will ordinarily be placed within the... waiting lists, so there is no break in active duty with FPI. Such actions are also in order where the work...

  3. 28 CFR 345.33 - Waiting list hiring exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... position classification files. (b) Prior FPI work assignment. An inmate with prior FPI work experience during the inmate's current commitment and with no break in custody will ordinarily be placed within the... waiting lists, so there is no break in active duty with FPI. Such actions are also in order where the work...

  4. 28 CFR 345.33 - Waiting list hiring exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... position classification files. (b) Prior FPI work assignment. An inmate with prior FPI work experience during the inmate's current commitment and with no break in custody will ordinarily be placed within the... waiting lists, so there is no break in active duty with FPI. Such actions are also in order where the work...

  5. A Functional ATG16L1 (T300A) Variant is Associated with Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Sampath, Venkatesh; Bhandari, Vineet; Berger, Jessica; Merchant, Daniel; Zhang, Liyun; Ladd, Mihoko; Menden, Heather; Garland, Jeffery; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Mulrooney, Neil; Quasney, Michael; Dagle, John; Lavoie, Pascal M; Simpson, Pippa; Dahmer, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Background The genetic basis of dysfunctional immune responses in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains unknown. We hypothesized that variants in Nucleotide binding and Oligomerization Domain (NOD)-Like Receptors (NLRs) and Autophagy (ATG) genes modulate vulnerability to NEC. Methods We genotyped a multi-center cohort of premature infants with and without NEC for NOD1, NOD2, ATG16L1, CARD8 and NLRP3 variants. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. Results In our primary cohort (n=1015), 86 (8.5%) infants developed NEC. The A allele of the ATG16L1 (Thr300Ala) variant was associated with increased NEC (AA vs. AG vs. GG; 11.3% vs. 8.4% vs. 4.8%, p=0.009). In regression models for NEC that adjusted for epidemiological confounders, GA (p=0.033) and the AA genotype (p=0.038) of ATG16L1 variant were associated with NEC. The association between the A allele of the ATG16L1 variant and NEC remained significant among Caucasian infants (p=0.02). In a replication cohort (n=259), NEC rates were highest among infants with the AA genotype but did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion We report a novel association between a hypomorphic variant in an autophagy gene (ATG16L1) and NEC in premature infants. Our data suggest that decreased autophagy arising from genetic variants may confer protection against NEC. PMID:27893720

  6. Survival and morbidity outcomes for very low birth weight infants with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boghossian, Nansi S; Hansen, Nellie I; Bell, Edward F; Stoll, Barbara J; Murray, Jeffrey C; Laptook, Abbot R; Shankaran, Seetha; Walsh, Michele C; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D

    2010-12-01

    Our objective was to compare survival and neonatal morbidity rates between very low birth weight (VLBW) infants with Down syndrome (DS) and VLBW infants with non-DS chromosomal anomalies, nonchromosomal birth defects (BDs), and no chromosomal anomaly or major BD. Data were collected prospectively for infants weighing 401 to 1500 g who were born and/or cared for at one of the study centers participating in the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network in 1994-2008. Risk of death and morbidities, including patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), late-onset sepsis (LOS), retinopathy of prematurity, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), were compared between VLBW infants with DS and infants in the other groups. Infants with DS were at increased risk of death (adjusted relative risk: 2.47 [95% confidence interval: 2.00-3.07]), PDA, NEC, LOS, and BPD, relative to infants with no BDs. Decreased risk of death (relative risk: 0.40 [95% confidence interval: 0.31-0.52]) and increased risks of NEC and LOS were observed when infants with DS were compared with infants with other non-DS chromosomal anomalies. Relative to infants with nonchromosomal BDs, infants with DS were at increased risk of PDA and NEC. The increased risk of morbidities among VLBW infants with DS provides useful information for counseling parents and for anticipating the need for enhanced surveillance for prevention of these morbidities.

  7. Loss of Acid Sensing Ion Channel-1a and Bicarbonate Administration Attenuate the Severity of Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Terry; Lindley, Timothy E.; Albert, Gregory W.; Ahmed, Raheel; Schmeiser, Peter B.; Grady, M. Sean; Howard, Matthew A.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in people of all ages. Following the acute mechanical insult, TBI evolves over the ensuing minutes and days. Understanding the secondary factors that contribute to TBI might suggest therapeutic strategies to reduce the long-term consequences of brain trauma. To assess secondary factors that contribute to TBI, we studied a lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI) model in mice. Following FPI, the brain cortex became acidic, consistent with data from humans following brain trauma. Administering HCO3 − after FPI prevented the acidosis and reduced the extent of neurodegeneration. Because acidosis can activate acid sensing ion channels (ASICs), we also studied ASIC1a−/− mice and found reduced neurodegeneration after FPI. Both HCO3 − administration and loss of ASIC1a also reduced functional deficits caused by FPI. These results suggest that FPI induces cerebral acidosis that activates ASIC channels and contributes to secondary injury in TBI. They also suggest a therapeutic strategy to attenuate the adverse consequences of TBI. PMID:23991103

  8. Variability in Antibiotic Regimens for Surgical Necrotizing Enterocolitis Highlights the Need for New Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Blackwood, Brian P; Hunter, Catherine J; Grabowski, Julia

    Necrotizing enterocolitis or NEC is the most common gastrointestinal emergency in the newborn. The etiology of NEC remains unknown, and treatment consists of antibiotic therapy and supportive care with the addition of surgical intervention as necessary. Unlike most surgical diseases, clear guidelines for the type and duration of peri-operative antibiotic therapy have not been established. Our aim was to review the antibiotic regimen(s) applied to surgical patients with NEC within a single neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and to evaluate outcomes and help develop guidelines for antibiotic administration in this patient population. A single-center retrospective review was performed of all patients who underwent surgical intervention for NEC from August 1, 2005 through August 1, 2015. Relevant data were extracted including gestational age, age at diagnosis, gender, pre-operative antibiotic treatment, post-operative antibiotic treatment, development of stricture, and mortality. Patients were excluded if there was incomplete data documentation. A total of 90 patients were identified who met inclusion criteria. There were 56 male patients and 34 female patients. The average gestational age was 30 5/7 wks and average age of diagnosis 16.7 d. A total of 22 different pre-operative antibiotic regimens were identified with an average duration of 10.6 d. The most common pre-operative regimen was ampicillin, gentamicin, and metronidazole for 14 d. A total of 15 different post-operative antibiotic regimens were identified with an average duration of 6.6 d. The most common post-operative regimen was ampicillin, gentamicin, and metronidazole for two days. There were 26 strictures and 15 deaths. No regimen or duration proved superior. We found that there is a high degree of variability in the antibiotic regimen for the treatment of NEC, even within a single NICU, with no regimen appearing superior over another. As data emerge that demonstrate the adverse effects of

  9. Brain Barrier Disruption and Region-Specific Neuronal Degeneration during Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Pigs.

    PubMed

    Brunse, Anders; Abbaspour, Afrouz; Sangild, Per Torp

    2018-06-06

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) increases the risk of brain injury and impaired neurodevelopment. Rapid brain maturation prior to birth may explain why preterm brains are particularly vulnerable to serious infections. Using pigs as models, we hypothesized that preterm birth was associated with altered blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCSFB) function and cerebral structural deficits, and that NEC was associated with systemic inflammation, BCSFB disruption, and neuroinflammation. First, cesarean-delivered preterm and term pigs (n = 43-44) were euthanized at birth to investigate BCSFB function and markers of brain structural maturation, or on day 5 to measure markers of blood-brain barrier maturation in the hippocampus and striatum (experiment 1). Next, preterm pigs (n = 162) were fed increasing volumes of infant formula to assess NEC lesions, systemic inflammation, BCSFB permeability, cerebral histopathology, hippocampal micro-glial density, and cytokine levels on day 5 (experiments 2 and 3). In experiment 1, preterm newborns had increased CSF-plasma ratios of albumin and raffinose, reduced CSF glucose levels, as well as increased cerebral hydration and reduced white matter myelination compared with term animals. We observed lower hippocampal (but not striatal) perivascular astrocyte coverage for the first 5 days after preterm birth, accompanied by altered cell junction protein levels. In experiments 2 and- 3, piglets with severe NEC lesions showed reduced blood thrombocytes and increased plasma C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels. NEC was associated with increased CSF-plasma albumin and raffinose ratios, reduced CSF leukocyte numbers, and increased cerebral hydration. In the hippocampus, NEC was associated with pyramidal neuron loss and increased interleukin-6 levels. In the short term, NEC did not affect cerebral myelination or microglia density. In conclusion, altered BCSFB properties and brain structural deficits were observed in pigs after

  10. Understanding Bartter syndrome and Gitelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fremont, Oliver T; Chan, James C M

    2012-02-01

    We aim to review the clinical features of two renal tubular disorders characterized by sodium and potassium wasting: Bartter syndrome and Gitelman syndrome. Selected key references concerning these syndromes were analyzed, together with a PubMed search of the literature from 2000 to 2011. The clinical features common to both conditions and those which are distinct to each syndrome were presented. The new findings on the genetics of the five types of Bartter syndrome and the discrete mutations in Gitelman syndrome were reviewed, together with the diagnostic workup and treatment for each condition. Patients with Bartter syndrome types 1, 2 and 4 present at a younger age than classic Bartter syndrome type 3. They present with symptoms, often quite severe in the neonatal period. Patients with classic Bartter syndrome type 3 present later in life and may be sporadically asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic. The severe, steady-state hypokalemia in Bartter syndrome and Gitelman syndrome may abruptly become life-threatening under certain aggravating conditions. Clinicians need to be cognizant of such renal tubular disorders, and promptly treat at-risk patients.

  11. 28 CFR 345.60 - Training pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Training pay. 345.60 Section 345.60... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.60 Training pay. Inmates directed by the SOI to take a particular type of training in connection with a FPI job are to receive FPI pay if the...

  12. 28 CFR 345.60 - Training pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training pay. 345.60 Section 345.60... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.60 Training pay. Inmates directed by the SOI to take a particular type of training in connection with a FPI job are to receive FPI pay if the...

  13. A meta-analysis of probiotics for preventing necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Y.; Guo, Y.; Kan, Q.; Zhou, X.G.; Zhou, X.Y.; Li, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most common acquired diseases of the gastrointestinal tract in preterm infants. Some randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) have indicated that probiotics may potentially lower the incidence of NEC and mortality. However, debate still remains about the safety of probiotics and their influence on normal infant growth. We performed this meta-analysis to assess the safety and benefits of probiotic supplementation in preterm infants. We searched in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases for English references, and in Wanfang, VIP, and CNKI databases for Chinese references. Ultimately, 27 RCTs (including 9 Chinese articles) were incorporated into this meta-analysis. Relative risk (RR) and weighted mean difference (WMD) were calculated using a random-effects or fixed-effects model, depending on the data type and heterogeneity. A total of 6655 preterm infants, including the probiotic group (n=3298) and the placebo group (n=3357), were eligible for inclusion in this meta-analysis. For Bell stage ≥I and gestational age <37 weeks, risk of NEC incidence was significantly lower in the probiotic group [RR=0.35, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.27-0.44, P<0.00001]. For Bell stage ≥II or gestational age <34 weeks, there were likewise significant differences between the probiotic and placebo groups concerning NEC incidence (RR=0.34, 95%CI=0.25-0.48, P<0.00001; and RR=0.39, 95%CI=0.27-0.56, P<0.00001). Risk of death was significantly reduced in the probiotic group (RR=0.58, 95%CI=0.46-0.75, P<0.0001). In contrast, there was no significant difference concerning the risk of sepsis (RR=0.94, 95%CI=0.83-1.06, P=0.31). With respect to weight gain and the age at which infants reached full feeds, no significant differences were found between the probiotic and placebo groups (WMD=1.07, 95%CI=−0.21-2.34, P=0.10; and WMD=−1.66, 95%CI=−3.6-0.27, P=0.09). This meta-analysis has shown that, regardless of gestational age and NEC stage

  14. Investigation of Ionospheric Disturbances Using Radio and Optical Observations in South-East Asia -- The Initial Results of the ASI and FPI Observations in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, M.; Nagatsuma, T.; Otsuka, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Komonjinda, S.; Komolmis, T.; Somboon, E.; Tsugawa, T.; Maruyama, T.; Murata, K. T.

    2010-12-01

    For the purpose of monitoring and forecasting equatorial ionospheric disturbances, SEALION (SouthEast Asia Low-latitude IOnospheric Network) has been developed since 2003 as a cooperation project by National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL) in Thailand, Chiang Mai University (CMU) in Thailand, National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN) in Indonesia, Hanoi Institute of Geophysics (HIG), Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology in Vietnam, Center for Space Science and Applied Research (CSSAR), Chinese Academy of Sciences in China, Kyoto University in Japan, and Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory (STEL), Nagoya University in Japan. SEALION consists of five ionosondes, four GPS receivers, two GPS scintillation monitors, and a magnetometer. As a part of this project, we newly installed an all-sky imager (ASI) and a Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) at Sirindhorn observatory in Chiang Mai (18.8N, 98.9E, Dip lat. 13.1), Thailand. This site is located near conjugate to EAR site in Kototabang, Indonesia. One of main targets of the ASI observation is the large-scale wave structure (LSWS) with wavelengths of 100-1000 km. The LSWS is thought to be connected to the generation mechanism of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPB). The optical observations in Chiang Mai started in February 2010, and we have detected several ionospheric disturbance events with these instruments In this paper, we will show the initial results of the optical observations from Sirindhorn observatory, and discuss the features of ionospheric disturbances in Southeast Asia.

  15. The Roles of Bacteria and TLR4 in Rat and Murine Models of Necrotizing Enterocolitis1

    PubMed Central

    Jilling, Tamas; Simon, Dyan; Lu, Jing; Meng, Fan Jing; Li, Dan; Schy, Robert; Thomson, Richard B.; Soliman, Antoine; Arditi, Moshe; Caplan, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but it is unknown whether their interaction with the epithelium can participate in the initiation of mucosal injury or they can act only following translocation across a damaged intestinal barrier. Our aims were to determine whether bacteria and intestinal epithelial TLR4 play roles in a well-established neonatal rat model and a novel neonatal murine model of NEC. Neonatal rats, C57BL/6J, C3HeB/FeJ (TLR4 wild type), and C3H/HeJ (TLR4 mutant) mice were delivered by Cesarean section and were subjected to formula feeding and cold asphyxia stress or were delivered naturally and were mother-fed. NEC incidence was evaluated by histological scoring, and gene expression was quantified using quantitative real-time PCR from cDNA generated from intestinal total RNA or from RNA obtained by laser capture microdissection. Spontaneous feeding catheter colonization or supplementation of cultured bacterial isolates to formula increased the incidence of experimental NEC. During the first 72 h of life, i.e., the time frame of NEC development in this model, intestinal TLR4 mRNA gradually decreases in mother-fed but increases in formula feeding and cold asphyxia stress, correlating with induced inducible NO synthase. TLR4, inducible NO synthase, and inflammatory cytokine induction occurred in the intestinal epithelium but not in the submucosa. NEC incidence was diminished in C3H/HeJ mice, compared with C3HeB/FeJ mice. In summary, bacteria and TLR4 play significant roles in experimental NEC, likely via an interaction of intraluminal bacteria and aberrantly overexpressed TLR4 in enterocytes. PMID:16920968

  16. Longitudinal Analysis of the Premature Infant Intestinal Microbiome Prior to Necrotizing Enterocolitis: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yanjiao; Shan, Gururaj; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George; Walker, W. Allan; Gregory, Katherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an inflammatory disease of the newborn bowel, primarily affecting premature infants. Early intestinal colonization has been implicated in the pathogenesis of NEC. The objective of this prospective case-control study was to evaluate differences in the intestinal microbiota between infants who developed NEC and unaffected controls prior to disease onset. We conducted longitudinal analysis of the 16S rRNA genes of 312 samples obtained from 12 NEC cases and 26 age-matched controls with a median frequency of 7 samples per subject and median sampling interval of 3 days. We found that the microbiome undergoes dynamic development during the first two months of life with day of life being the major factor contributing to the colonization process. Depending on when the infant was diagnosed with NEC (i.e. early vs. late onset), the pattern of microbial progression was different for cases and controls. The difference in the microbiota was most overt in early onset NEC cases and controls. In proximity to NEC onset, the abundances of Clostridium sensu stricto from Clostridia class were significantly higher in early onset NEC subjects comparing to controls. In late onset NEC, Escherichia/Shigella among Gammaproteobacteria, showed an increasing pattern prior to disease onset, and was significantly higher in cases than controls six days before NEC onset. Cronobacter from Gammaproteobacteria was also significantly higher in late onset NEC cases than controls 1-3 days prior to NEC onset. Thus, the specific infectious agent associated with NEC may vary by the age of infant at disease onset. We found that intravenously administered antibiotics may have an impact on the microbial diversity present in fecal material. Longitudinal analysis at multiple time points was an important strategy utilized in this study, allowing us to appreciate the dynamics of the premature infant intestinal microbiome while approaching NEC at various points. PMID:25741698

  17. Impact of umbilical cord milking and pasteurized donor human milk on necrotizing enterocolitis: a retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Sekhon, Mehtab K; Yoder, Bradley A

    2018-05-08

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious complication of prematurity. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of an umbilical cord milking protocol (UCM) and pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM) on NEC rates in infants less than 30 weeks gestational age from January 1, 2010 to September 30, 2016. We hypothesized an incremental decrease in NEC after each intervention. We performed a retrospective review of 638 infants born less than 30 weeks gestational age. Infants were grouped into three epochs: pre-UCM/pre-PDHM (Epoch 1, n = 159), post-UCM/pre-PDHM (Epoch 2, n = 133), and post-UCM/post-PDHM (Epoch 3, n = 252). The incidence of NEC, surgical NEC, and NEC/death were compared. Logistic regression was used to determine independent significance of time epoch, gestational age, birth weight, and patent ductus arteriosus for NEC, surgical NEC, and death/NEC. At birth, infants in Epoch 1 were younger than Epoch 2 and 3 (26.8 weeks versus 27.3 and 27.2, respectively, P = 0.036) and smaller (910 g versus 1012 and 983, respectively, P = 0.012). Across epochs, there was a significant correlation between patent ductus arteriosus treatment and NEC rate (P < 0.001, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel). There was a significant decrease in rates of NEC, surgical NEC, and NEC/death between groups. Logistic regression showed this as significant for rates of NEC and surgical NEC between Epoch 1 and 3. Patent ductus arteriosus was a significant variable affecting the incidence of NEC, but not surgical NEC or death/NEC. An umbilical cord milking protocol and pasteurized donor human milk availability was associated with decreased rates of NEC and surgical NEC. This suggests an additive effect of these interventions in preventing NEC.

  18. Bacterial community structure and functional contributions to emergence of health or necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Preterm infants represent a unique patient population that is born functionally immature and must accomplish development under the influence of a hospital environment. Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an inflammatory intestinal disorder affecting preterm infants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the progression of intestinal microbiota community development between preterm infants who remained healthy compared to preterm infants who developed NEC. Results Weekly fecal samples from ten preterm infants, five with NEC and five matched healthy controls were obtained. Bacterial DNA from individual fecal samples was subjected to sequencing of 16S rRNA-based inventories using the 454 GS-FLX platform. Fecal samples from control infants demonstrated a temporal pattern in their microbiota, which converged toward that of a healthy full term breast-fed infant. Microbiota development in NEC patients diverged from controls beginning three weeks prior to diagnosis. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing was performed to identify functional differences in the respective microbiota of fecal samples from a set of twins in which one twin developed NEC and one did not. The majority of the differentially abundant genes in the NEC patient were associated with carbohydrate metabolism and mapped to members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. This may indicate an adaptation of the community to an altered profile of substrate availability for specific members as a first step towards the development of NEC. We propose that the microbial communities as a whole may metabolize milk differently, resulting in differential substrate availability for specific microbial groups. Additional differentially represented gene sets of interest were related to antibiotic resistance and vitamin biosynthesis. Conclusions Our results suggest that there is a temporal component to microbiome development in healthy preterm infants. Thus, bacteriotherapy for the treatment or prevention of NEC

  19. Dietary curcumin supplementation counteracts reduction in levels of molecules involved in energy homeostasis after brain trauma.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Zhuang, Y; Ying, Z; Wu, A; Gomez-Pinilla, F

    2009-07-21

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is followed by an energy crisis that compromises the capacity of the brain to cope with challenges, and often reduces cognitive ability. New research indicates that events that regulate energy homeostasis crucially impact synaptic function and this can compromise the capacity of the brain to respond to challenges during the acute and chronic phases of TBI. The goal of the present study is to determine the influence of the phenolic yellow curry pigment curcumin on molecular systems involved with the monitoring, balance, and transduction of cellular energy, in the hippocampus of animals exposed to mild fluid percussion injury (FPI). Young adult rats were exposed to a regular diet (RD) without or with 500 ppm curcumin (Cur) for four weeks, before an FPI was performed. The rats were assigned to four groups: RD/Sham, Cur/Sham, RD/FPI, and Cur/FPI. We found that FPI decreased the levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase (uMtCK) and cytochrome c oxidase II (COX-II) in RD/FPI rats as compared to the RD/sham rats. The curcumin diet counteracted the effects of FPI and elevated the levels of AMPK, uMtCK, COX-II in Cur/FPI rats as compared to RD/sham rats. In addition, in the Cur/sham rats, AMPK and uMtCK increased compared to the RD/sham. Results show the potential of curcumin to regulate molecules involved in energy homeostasis following TBI. These studies may foster a new line of therapeutic treatments for TBI patients by endogenous upregulation of molecules important for functional recovery.

  20. The fate of glucose during the period of decreased metabolism after fluid percussion injury: a 13C NMR study.

    PubMed

    Bartnik, Brenda L; Lee, Stefan M; Hovda, David A; Sutton, Richard L

    2007-07-01

    The present study determined the metabolic fate of [1, 2 13C2] glucose in male control rats and in rats with moderate lateral fluid percussion injured (FPI) at 3.5 h and 24 h post-surgery. After a 3-h infusion, the amount of 13C-labeled glucose increased bilaterally (26% in left/injured cerebral cortex and 45% in right cerebral cortex) at 3.5 h after FPI and in injured cortex (45%) at 24 h after injury, indicating an accumulation of unmetabolised glucose not seen in controls. No evidence of an increase in anaerobic glycolysis above control levels was found after FPI, as 13C-labeled lactate tended to decrease at both time points and was significantly reduced (33%) in the injured cortex at 24 h post-FPI. A bilateral decrease in the 13C-labeling of both glutamate and glutamine was observed in the FPI rats at 3.5 h and the glutamine pool remained significantly decreased in the injured cortex at 24 h, suggesting reduced oxidative metabolism in both neuronal and astrocyte compartments after injury. The percentage of glucose metabolism through the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) increased in the injured (13%) and contralateral (11%) cortex at 3.5 h post-FPI and in the injured cortex (9%) at 24 h post-injury. Based upon the changes in metabolite pools, our results show an injury-induced decrease in glucose utilization and oxidation within the first 24 h after FPI. Increased metabolism through the PPP would result in increased NADPH synthesis, suggesting a need for reducing equivalents after FPI to help restore the intracellular redox state and/or in response to free radical stress.

  1. Personality, depression, and premorbid lifestyle in twin pairs discordant for Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Heberlein, I.; Ludin, H.; Scholz, J.; Vieregge, P.

    1998-01-01

    Present personality traits (Freiburg personality inventory, FPI-R), depression (von Zerssen's depression scale), and self assessed state of health were evaluated in 15 twin pairs (six monozygotic and nine dizygotic; mean age 62.5 years) discordant for idiopathic Parkinson's disease and in 17 unrelated healthy control subjects. The twins had additional questionnaire based interviews on premorbid lifestyle.
For disability, twins with Parkinson's disease scored lower on FPI-R than controls in "achievement orientation" and "extraversion", higher in "inhibitedness", "somatic complaints", and "emotionality". They scored higher for depression and for state of health than unaffected twins and controls. For zygosity, monozygotic twins scored lower than dizygotic twins in "achievement orientation", "aggressiveness", and "strain". Monozygotic twins had less "achievement orientation" and "extraversion" and more "somatic complaints" than controls. Monozygotic twins had a lower within pair difference than dizygotic twins in "social orientation". During premorbid times the affected twin with later Parkinson's disease was estimated to have been "less often the leader" in the twin pair.
Although small in sample size, this twin study indicates a genetic impact for some personality features beyond the Parkinson's disease motor syndrome.

 PMID:9489545

  2. Roles and Experiences of Parents in Necrotizing Enterocolitis: An International Survey of Parental Perspectives of Communication in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Gadepalli, Samir K; Canvasser, Jennifer; Eskenazi, Yael; Quinn, Megan; Kim, Jae H; Gephart, Sheila M

    2017-12-01

    Although partnering with parents is important to improving neonatal outcomes, no studies have investigated what parents are taught, remember, or experience when their child is afflicted with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). To characterize parental perceptions of communication and support they were given about NEC. An online survey was developed, reviewed for face validity, and then administered to parents whose child had experienced NEC. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and qualitative data were analyzed using a qualitative descriptive approach. Parents (N = 110) wanted to know the risk factors and warning signs for NEC and wanted to be told as soon as their child was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Information provided before diagnosis was felt to be poor by the majority of families, with only 32% feeling satisfied or very satisfied. No parent wrote that they were "scared" by information provided to them about NEC; in fact, parents were dissatisfied when they received "sugar-coated" information. Engaged parents were significantly more satisfied than those who were not informed, had their concerns and suggestions dismissed, or who had to advocate for their baby against clinician opposition (eg, activating the chain of command). Areas for quality improvement include better communication and collaboration with parents through early engagement in NEC prevention using modalities beyond verbal instruction. More research is needed on how best to engage parents, especially to engage in prevention, and how doing so affects satisfaction and outcomes.

  3. Preventing necrotizing enterocolitis by food additives in neonates: A network meta-analysis revealing the efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wentao; Sui, Wu; Mu, Linsong; Yi, Wenying; Li, Haijuan; Wei, Liqin; Yin, Weihong

    2017-05-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious multifactorial gastrointestinal disease which is often discovered in premature infants. Various additives have been used to prevent NEC; yet, their relative efficacy and safety remain disputed. This study aims to compare the efficacy and safety of 5 food additives, namely, probiotics, probiotics + fructo-oligosaccharides, pentoxifylline, arginine, and lactoferrin in preventing NEC in neonates. Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Library had been searched for all eligible randomized control trials. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated for dichotomous data and mean differences with 95% credible intervals (CrIs) were estimated for continuous data. Surface under the cumulative ranking curve was used to rank efficacy and safety of the prevention methods on each endpoint. A total of 27 eligible studies with 4649 preterm infants were included in this network meta-analysis (NMA), and the efficacy and safety of 5 food additives were evaluated. Probiotic and arginine exhibited better preventive efficacy compared with placebo (OR = 0.50, 95% CrIs: 0.32-0.73; OR = 0.30, 95% CrIs: 0.12-0.73, respectively). Only probiotic achieved a considerable decrease in the risk of mortality compared to placebo (OR = 0.68, 95% CrIs: 0.46-0.98). NEC patients with lactoferrin appeared to have lower incidence of sepsis than those of placebo (OR = 0.13, 95% CrIs: 0.03-0.61) or probiotic (OR = 0.18, 95% CrIs: 0.03-0.83). Based on this NMA, probiotics had the potential to be the most preferable additive, since it exhibited a significant superiority for NEC and mortality as well as a relatively balanced performance in safety.

  4. Current Knowledge of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Infants and the Impact of Different Types of Enteral Nutrition Products.

    PubMed

    Shulhan, Jocelyn; Dicken, Bryan; Hartling, Lisa; Larsen, Bodil Mk

    2017-01-01

    Preterm infants are extremely vulnerable to a range of morbidities and mortality. Underdeveloped cardiac, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and immune systems in the preterm period increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a serious disease of the gut. NEC affects 5-12% of very-low birth-weight infants, leads to surgery in 20-40% of cases, and is fatal in 25-50% of cases. There are multiple factors that may contribute to NEC, but the exact cause is not yet fully understood. Severe cases can result in intestinal resection or death, and the health care costs average >$300,000/infant when surgical management is required. Different types of nutrition may affect the onset or progression of NEC. Several studies have indicated that bovine milk-based infant formulas lead to a higher incidence of NEC in preterm infants than does human milk (HM). However, it is not clear why HM is linked to a lower incidence of NEC or why some infants fed an exclusively HM diet still develop NEC. An area that has not been thoroughly explored is the use of semielemental or elemental formulas. These specialty formulas are easy to digest and absorb in the gut and may be an effective nutritional intervention for reducing the risk of NEC. This review summarizes what is known about the factors that contribute to the onset and progression of NEC, discusses its health care cost implications, and explores the impact that different formulas and HM have on this disease. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. The developmental trajectory of disruptive behavior in Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome and Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rice, Lauren J; Gray, Kylie M; Howlin, Patricia; Taffe, John; Tonge, Bruce J; Einfeld, Stewart L

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the developmental trajectories of verbal aggression, physical aggression, and temper tantrums in four genetic syndrome groups. Participants were part of the Australian Child to Adult Development Study (ACAD), which collected information from a cohort of individuals with an intellectual disability at five time points over 18 years. Data were examined from a total of 248 people with one of the four following syndromes: Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, or Williams syndrome. Changes in behaviors were measured using validated items from the Developmental Behavior Checklist (DBC). The results indicate that, while verbal aggression shows no evidence of diminishing with age, physical aggression, and temper tantrums decline with age before 19 years for people with Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, and William syndrome; and after 19 years for people with Prader-Willi syndrome. These findings offer a somewhat more optimistic outlook for people with an intellectual disability than has previously been suggested. Research is needed to investigate the mechanisms predisposing people with PWS to persistence of temper tantrums and physical aggression into adulthood. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Intestinal microbiota and blue baby syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Collin L; Rutledge, John C

    2010-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common intestinal emergency among premature infants. Risk factors in premature infants include immature intestinal immunity and an intestinal microbiota dominated by hospital-acquired bacteria. Some probiotics have been shown to decrease the incidence of NEC in premature infants. Among term infants, NEC is rare. However, among term infants with cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD), the incidence of NEC is similar to that of premature infants but with even greater mortality rates. Mechanisms by which NEC occurs in term infants with CCHD are unknown. Of central interest is the potential role of changes in the intestinal microbiota and whether these can be modified with probiotic bacteria; accordingly, we review the literature, propose hypotheses and present the rationale for future studies involving preliminary probiotic clinical trials. PMID:21468216

  7. The metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Essah, P A; Nestler, J E

    2006-03-01

    Much overlap is present between the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the metabolic syndrome. This article reviews the existing data regarding the prevalence, characteristics, and treatment of the metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in PCOS is approximately 43-47%, a rate 2-fold higher than that for women in the general population. High body mass index and low serum HDL cholesterol are the most frequently occurring components of the metabolic syndrome in PCOS. The pathogenic link between the metabolic syndrome and PCOS is most likely insulin resistance. Therefore, the presence of the metabolic syndrome in PCOS suggests a greater degree of insulin resistance compared to PCOS without the metabolic syndrome. Obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hypertension, impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance, and vascular abnormalities are all common metabolic abnormalities present in PCOS. Lifestyle modification has proven benefit and pharmacological therapy with insulin-sensitizing agents has potential benefit in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS.

  8. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Neonatal Bowel: Novel, Bedside, Noninvasive, and Radiation-Free Imaging for Early Detection of Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Al-Hamad, Suzanne; Hackam, David J; Goldstein, Seth D; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Darge, Kassa; Hwang, Misun

    2018-05-31

    Despite extensive research and improvements in the field of neonatal care, the morbidity and mortality associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) have remained unchanged over the past three decades. Early detection of ischemia and necrotic bowel is vital in improving morbidity and mortality associated with NEC; however, strategies for predicting and preventing NEC are lacking. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are novel techniques in pediatrics that have been proven as safe modalities. CEUS has benefits over conventional ultrasound (US) by its improved real-time evaluation of the micro- and macrovascularities of normally and abnormally perfused tissue. US has been implemented as a useful adjunct to X-ray for earlier evaluation of NEC. NIRS is another noninvasive technique that has shown promise in improving early detection of NEC. The purpose of this article is to review the current understanding of changes in bowel perfusion in NEC, discuss the accuracy of abdominal US in detecting NEC, and explain how the use of CEUS and NIRS will enhance the precise and early detection of altered/pathological bowel wall perfusion in the initial development and course of NEC. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor and enteric neural stem cell transplantation in the prevention of experimental necrotizing enterocolitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jia; Zhou, Yu; Besner, Gail E

    2015-07-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is associated with loss of neurons and glial cells in the enteric nervous system (ENS). Our goal was to determine whether enteric neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation, in conjunction with heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF), could protect against experimental NEC. In vitro, HB-EGF on NSC proliferation and migration, and the effects of receptors utilized by HB-EGF to exert these effects, were determined. In vivo, mouse pups were exposed to experimental NEC and treated with NSC alone, HB-EGF alone, NSC+HB-EGF, or HB-EGF overexpressing NSC. NSC engraftment and differentiation into neurons in the ENS, intestinal injury, intestinal permeability, and intestinal motility were determined. HB-EGF promoted NSC proliferation via ErbB-1 receptors and enhanced NSC migration via ErbB-1, ErbB-4, and Nardilysin receptors. HB-EGF significantly enhanced the engraftment of transplanted NSC into the ENS during NEC. NSC transplantation significantly reduced NEC incidence and improved gut barrier function and intestinal motility, and these effects were augmented by simultaneous administration of HB-EGF or by transplantation of HB-EGF overexpressing NSC. HB-EGF promotes NSC proliferation and migration. HB-EGF and NSC reduce intestinal injury and improve gut barrier function and intestinal motility in experimental NEC. Combined HB-EGF and NSC transplantation may represent a potential future therapy to prevent NEC.

  10. Effects of kinesiotaping on foot posture in participants with pronated foot: a quasi-randomised, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Luque-Suarez, Alejandro; Gijon-Nogueron, Gabriel; Baron-Lopez, Francisco Javier; Labajos-Manzanares, Maria Teresa; Hush, Julia; Hancock, Mark Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    To investigate whether kinesiotaping improves excessive foot pronation compared with sham kinesiotaping. Quasi-randomised, double-blind study. One primary care centre. One hundred and thirty participants were screened for inclusion. Sixty-eight participants with pronated feet [Foot Posture Index (FPI)≥ 6] were enrolled, and the follow-up rate was 100%. Participants were allocated into one of two groups: an experimental kinesiotaping group (KT1) and a sham taping group (KT2). Measures were collected by a blinded assessor at baseline, and 1 minute, 10 minutes, 60 minutes and 24 hours after taping. The primary outcome was total FPI score, and the secondary outcome was rear-foot FPI score. There were no significant differences in total FPI score between kinesiotaping and sham taping at any time point. Similarly, there were no significant differences in rear-foot FPI score, apart from at 60-minute follow-up when the difference between groups was significant (P=0.04) but the effect size was very small (0.85 points on the rear-foot FPI score between -6 and +6). Kinesiotaping does not correct foot pronation compared with sham kinesiotaping in people with pronated feet. Copyright © 2013 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. All rights reserved.

  11. Cost-effective optical fiber pressure sensor based on intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric micro-cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingues, M. Fátima; Rodriguez, Camilo A.; Martins, Joana; Tavares, Cátia; Marques, Carlos; Alberto, Nélia; André, Paulo; Antunes, Paulo

    2018-05-01

    In this work, a cost-effective procedure to manufacture optical fiber pressure sensors is presented. This has a high relevance for integration in robotic exoskeletons or for gait plantar pressure monitoring within the physical rehabilitation scenarios, among other applications. The sensing elements are based on Fabry-Perot interferometric (FPI) micro-cavities, created from the recycling of optical fibers previously destroyed by the catastrophic fuse effect. To produce the pressure sensors, the fiber containing the FPI micro-cavities was embedded in an epoxy resin cylinder used as pressure transducer and responsible to transfer the pressure applied on its surface to the optical fiber containing the FPI micro-cavity. Before the embedding process, some FPI sensors were also characterized to strain variations. After that, the effect of the encapsulation of the FPI structure into the resin was assessed, from which a slight decrease on the FPI interferogram fringes visibility was verified, indicating a small increase in the micro-cavity length. Up on the sensors characterization, a linear dependence of the wavelength shift with the induced pressure was obtained, which leads to a maximum sensitivity of 59.39 ± 1.7 pm/kPa. Moreover, direct dependence of the pressure sensitivity with the micro-cavity volume and length was found.

  12. Fabry-Perot interferometer development for rocket engine plume spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, R. L.; Madzsar, G.

    1990-07-01

    This paper describes a new rugged high-resolution Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) designed for rocket engine plume spectroscopy, which is capable of detecting spectral signatures of eroding engine components during rocket engine tests and/or flight operations. The FPI system will make it possible to predict and to respond to the incipient rocket engine failures and to indicate the presence of rocket components degradation. The design diagram of the FPI spectrometer is presented.

  13. Fabry-Perot interferometer development for rocket engine plume spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, R. L.; Madzsar, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a new rugged high-resolution Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) designed for rocket engine plume spectroscopy, which is capable of detecting spectral signatures of eroding engine components during rocket engine tests and/or flight operations. The FPI system will make it possible to predict and to respond to the incipient rocket engine failures and to indicate the presence of rocket components degradation. The design diagram of the FPI spectrometer is presented.

  14. Necrotizing Enterocolitis and Growth in Preterm Infants Fed Predominantly Maternal Milk, Pasteurized Donor Milk, or Preterm Formula: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Sisk, Paula M; Lambeth, Tinisha M; Rojas, Mario A; Lightbourne, Teisha; Barahona, Maria; Anthony, Evelyn; Auringer, Sam T

    2017-06-01

    Objective  To evaluate the association between necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), growth, and feeding. Methods  This is a retrospective study of 551 infants (birth weight ≤ 1,500 g, ≤32 weeks' gestation). NEC, Bell's stage ≥ 2, was confirmed by independent review of sentinel radiographs. Feeding type was defined as ≥ 50% maternal milk (MM), pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM), or preterm formula (PF). Demographic and clinical characteristics including growth were compared between the three groups. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to control variables that differed in bivariate analysis. Results  PDHM and PF mothers were more likely to be African-American, be enrolled in Medicaid, and have chorioamnionitis. PF mothers received antenatal steroids less frequently. NEC rates were different by feeding group (MM: 5.3%; PHDM: 4.3%; PF: 11.4%; p  = 0.04). Adjusting for group differences, lower gestational age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.74-0.97; p  = 0.02], and PF (aOR: 2.53; 95% CI: 1.15-5.53; p  = 0.02] were associated with NEC. There were no differences in other health outcomes or growth at hospital discharge. Conclusion  MM and PDHM feedings, given until 34 weeks postmenstrual age, were associated with lower rates of NEC in very low birth weight infants without interfering with growth. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. Effects of acute restraint-induced stress on glucocorticoid receptors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor after mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Griesbach, G S; Vincelli, J; Tio, D L; Hovda, D A

    2012-05-17

    We have previously reported that experimental mild traumatic brain injury results in increased sensitivity to stressful events during the first post-injury weeks, as determined by analyzing the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation following restraint-induced stress. This is the same time period when rehabilitative exercise has proven to be ineffective after a mild fluid-percussion injury (FPI). Here we evaluated effects of stress on neuroplasticity. Adult male rats underwent either an FPI or sham injury. Additional rats were only exposed to anesthesia. Rats were exposed to 30 min of restraint stress, followed by tail vein blood collection at post-injury days (PID) 1, 7, and 14. The response to dexamethasone (DEX) was also evaluated. Hippocampal tissue was collected 120 min after stress onset. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) along with glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors was determined by Western blot analysis. Results indicated injury-dependent changes in glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors that were influenced by the presence of dexamethasone. Control and FPI rats responded differentially to DEX in that GR increases after receiving the lower dose of DEX were longer lasting in the FPI group. A suppression of MR was found at PID 1 in vehicle-treated FPI and Sham groups. Decreases in the precursor form of BDNF were observed in different FPI groups at PIDs 7 and 14. These findings suggest that the increased sensitivity to stressful events during the first post-injury weeks, after a mild FPI, has an impact on hippocampal neuroplasticity. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Large-vessel thrombosis in intestinal Behçet's disease complicated with myelodysplastic syndrome and trisomy 8.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huang-Chi; Chiu, Ying-Ming

    2012-03-14

    Behçet's disease is characterized by recurrent oral ulcers, genital ulcers, uveitis and skin lesions. Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is characterized by problems due to ineffective hematopoiesis. Several studies have identified a relationship between MDS and Behçet's disease, especially intestinal Behçet's disease. Trisomy 8 seems to play an important role in these disorders as well. The present case was a 24-year-old woman who had a huge tonsil ulcer with initial symptoms of odynophagia and intermittent fever. We also noted folliculitis on her upper back. Five days later, she began to experience diarrhea and abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography and subsequent surgery revealed ileum perforation and enterocolitis with multiple ulcers. Later, she was admitted again for a vulvar suppurative ulcer and suspicious Bartholin's cyst infection. The patient's clinical presentations met the criteria for Behçet's disease. Six months after the bowel perforation event, we noted the development of pancytopenia in a routine laboratory examination. All the examinations led to the diagnosis of MDS with trisomy 8. The most unusual finding was that multiple large vessel thrombi developed during follow-up. Previous studies have suggested that trisomy 8 in MDS leads to concurrent intestinal Behçet's disease. Moreover, the inflammatory and immune genes related to thrombus formation are overexpressed in cases of MDS with trisomy 8. Trisomy 8 must play a role in thrombosis. Further studies are needed to help clarify the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of these disorders.

  17. A Rare Variant of Wallenberg’s Syndrome: Opalski syndrome

    PubMed Central

    KK, Parathan; P, Chitrambalam; Aiyappan, Senthil Kumar; N, Deepthi

    2014-01-01

    Lateral Medullary Syndrome (LMS) is a well-documented vascular syndrome of the posterior circulation territory. This syndrome is easily localised because of characteristic presentation, unique territory of blood supply and very small area of involvement. We present a case of Wallenberg’s syndrome which did not have all the classical components of the syndrome, like Horner’s syndrome. Opalski syndrome is a rare variant of Wallenberg syndrome, where lateral medullary syndrome is associated with ipsilateral hemiparesis. This case report highlights how differential involvement of the lateral part of medulla can result in varied presentation. PMID:25177595

  18. Current Knowledge of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Infants and the Impact of Different Types of Enteral Nutrition Products12

    PubMed Central

    Dicken, Bryan; Hartling, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Preterm infants are extremely vulnerable to a range of morbidities and mortality. Underdeveloped cardiac, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and immune systems in the preterm period increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a serious disease of the gut. NEC affects 5–12% of very–low birth-weight infants, leads to surgery in 20–40% of cases, and is fatal in 25–50% of cases. There are multiple factors that may contribute to NEC, but the exact cause is not yet fully understood. Severe cases can result in intestinal resection or death, and the health care costs average >$300,000/infant when surgical management is required. Different types of nutrition may affect the onset or progression of NEC. Several studies have indicated that bovine milk–based infant formulas lead to a higher incidence of NEC in preterm infants than does human milk (HM). However, it is not clear why HM is linked to a lower incidence of NEC or why some infants fed an exclusively HM diet still develop NEC. An area that has not been thoroughly explored is the use of semielemental or elemental formulas. These specialty formulas are easy to digest and absorb in the gut and may be an effective nutritional intervention for reducing the risk of NEC. This review summarizes what is known about the factors that contribute to the onset and progression of NEC, discusses its health care cost implications, and explores the impact that different formulas and HM have on this disease. PMID:28096129

  19. Enteral but not parenteral antibiotics enhance gut function and prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in formula-fed newborn preterm pigs.

    PubMed

    Birck, Malene M; Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Cilieborg, Malene S; Kamal, Shamrulazhar S; Nielsen, Dennis S; Damborg, Peter; Olsen, John E; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Sangild, Per T; Thymann, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Preterm infants are susceptible to infection and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and are often treated with antibiotics. Simultaneous administration of enteral and parenteral antibiotics during the first days after preterm birth prevents formula-induced NEC lesions in pigs, but it is unknown which administration route is most effective. We hypothesized that only enteral antibiotics suppress gut bacterial colonization and NEC progression in formula-fed preterm pigs. Caesarean-delivered preterm pigs (90-92% of gestation) were fed increasing amounts of infant formula from birth to day 5 and given saline (CON) or antibiotics (ampicillin, gentamicin, and metronidazole) via the enteral (ENT) or parenteral (PAR) route (n = 16-17). NEC lesions, intestinal morphology, function, microbiology, and inflammatory mediators were evaluated. NEC lesions were completely prevented in ENT pigs, whereas there were high incidences of mild NEC lesions (59-63%) in CON and PAR pigs (P < 0.001). ENT pigs had elevated intestinal weight, villus height/crypt depth ratio, and goblet cell density and reduced gut permeability, mucosal adherence of bacteria, IL-8 levels, colonic lactic acid levels, and density of Gram-positive bacteria, relative to CON pigs (P < 0.05). Values in PAR pigs were intermediate with few affected parameters (reduced lactic acid levels and density and adherence of Gram-positive bacteria, relative to CON pigs, P < 0.05). There was no evidence of increased antimicrobial resistance following the treatments. We conclude that enteral, but not parenteral, administration of antibiotics reduces gut bacterial colonization, inflammation, and NEC lesions in newborn, formula-fed preterm pigs. Delayed colonization may support intestinal structure, function, and immunity in the immediate postnatal period of formula-fed preterm neonates. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Risk factors associated with necrotising enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants in Malaysian neonatal intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Boo, Nem-Yun; Cheah, Irene Guat Sim

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to identify the risk factors associated with necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in very low birth weight (VLBW; weight < 1,501 g) infants in Malaysian neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). This was a retrospective study based on data collected in a standardised format for all VLBW infants born in 2007 (n = 3,601) and admitted to 31 NICUs in Malaysian public hospitals. A diagnosis of NEC was made based on clinical, radiological and/or histopathological evidence of stage II or III, according to Bell's criteria. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the significant risk factors associated with NEC. 222 (6.2%) infants developed NEC (stage II, n = 197; stage III, n = 25). 69 (31.3%) infants died (stage II, n = 58; stage III, n = 11). The significant risk factors associated with NEC were: maternal age (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.024, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.003-1.046; p = 0.027), intrapartum antibiotics (OR 0.639, 95% CI 0.421-0.971; p = 0.036), birth weight (OR 0.999, 95% CI 0.998-0.999; p < 0.001), surfactant therapy (OR 1.590, 95% CI 1.170-2.161; p = 0.003), congenital pneumonia (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.405-2.848; p < 0.001) and indomethacin therapy for the closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) (OR 1.821, 95% CI 1.349-2.431; p = 0.001). Increasing maternal age, decreasing birth weight, surfactant therapy, congenital pneumonia and indomethacin therapy for the closure of PDA were associated with an increased risk of NEC in Malaysian VLBW infants. Infants that received intrapartum antibiotics were associated with a reduced risk of developing NEC.

  1. Duane Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Duane Syndrome? Duane syndrome, also called Duane retraction syndrome (DRS), is a congenital and non-progressive ... Is Duane syndrome congenital (present from birth)? Duane retraction syndrome is present from birth, even if it ...

  2. The potential of gut microbiota and fecal volatile organic compounds analysis as early diagnostic biomarker for necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Berkhout, Daniel Johannes Cornelis; Niemarkt, Hendrik Johannes; de Boer, Nanne Klaas Hendrik; Benninga, Marc Alexander; de Meij, Timotheüs Gualtherus Jacob

    2018-05-01

    Although the exact pathophysiological mechanisms of both necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants are yet to be elucidated, evidence is emerging that the gut microbiota plays a key role in their pathophysiology. Areas covered: In this review, initial microbial colonization and factors influencing microbiota composition are discussed. For both NEC and LOS, an overview of studies investigating preclinical alterations in gut microbiota composition and fecal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is provided. Fecal VOCs are considered to reflect not only gut microbiota composition, but also their metabolic activity and concurrent interaction with the host. Expert review: Heterogeneity in study protocols and applied analytical techniques hampers reliable comparison between outcomes of different microbiota studies, limiting the ability to draw firm conclusions. This dilemma is illustrated by the finding that study results often cannot be reproduced, or even contradict each other. A NEC- and sepsis specific microbial or metabolic signature has not yet been discovered. Identification of 'disease-specific' VOCs and microbiota composition may increase understanding on pathophysiological mechanisms and may allow for development of an accurate screening tool, opening avenues towards timely identification and initiation of targeted treatment for preterm infants at increased risk for NEC and sepsis.

  3. Seckel syndrome: an overdiagnosed syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, E; Pembrey, M

    1985-01-01

    Five children in whom a diagnosis of Seckel syndrome had previously been made were re-examined in the genetic unit. One child had classical Seckel syndrome, a sib pair had the features of the syndrome with less severe short stature, and in two children the diagnosis was not confirmed. Seckel syndrome is only one of a group of low birth weight microcephalic dwarfism and careful attention should be paid to fulfillment of the major criteria defined by Seckel before the diagnosis is made. There remains a heterogeneous group of low birth weight microcephalic dwarfism yet to be defined. Images PMID:4040172

  4. Brief Report: Repetitive Behaviour Profiles in Williams syndrome: Cross Syndrome Comparisons with Prader-Willi and Down syndromes.

    PubMed

    Royston, R; Oliver, C; Moss, J; Adams, D; Berg, K; Burbidge, C; Howlin, P; Nelson, L; Stinton, C; Waite, J

    2018-01-01

    This study describes the profile of repetitive behaviour in individuals with Williams syndrome, utilising cross-syndrome comparisons with people with Prader-Willi and Down syndromes. The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire was administered to caregivers of adults with Williams (n = 96), Prader-Willi (n = 103) and Down (n = 78) syndromes. There were few group differences, although participants with Williams syndrome were more likely to show body stereotypies. Individuals with Williams syndrome also showed more hoarding and less tidying behaviours than those with Down syndrome. IQ and adaptive ability were negatively associated with repetitive questioning in people with Williams syndrome. The profile of repetitive behaviour amongst individuals with Williams syndrome was similar to the comparison syndromes. The cognitive mechanisms underlying these behaviours in genetic syndromes warrant further investigation.

  5. Association of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis with myeloid differentiation-2 and GM2 activator protein genetic polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Yuan, Weiming; Huang, Longguang; Wang, Ping; Rong, Xiao; Tang, Juan

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) with myeloid differentiation-(MD-2) and GM2 activator protein (GM2A) genetic polymorphisms. Gene resequencing of the MD-2 and GM2A gene exons was performed on 42 neonates, diagnosed with NEC (NEC group), as well as in the rs11465996 locus, located in the MD-2 gene promoter region. The aim was to detect the genetic polymorphisms present in the neonates with NEC and compare the functional polymorphic loci with 83 neonates without NEC (control group), who had been born during the same period. A polymorphic locus with abnormal frequency was detected in the exon region of the MD-2 gene. In the NEC group, the frequency of genotypes carrying the low frequency allele (G) in the rs11465996 locus (MD-2 promoter region) was significantly higher compared with the control group (χ(2)=4.388, P=0.036). Furthermore, the frequencies of genotypes carrying the low frequency A and C alleles in the rs1048719 (GM2A gene exon 1) and rs2075783 loci (GM2A intron), respectively, were significantly higher in the NEC group compared with the control group (χ(2)=4.316, P=0.038; and χ(2)=13.717, P=0.000, respectively). In addition, the rs11465996 polymorphism in the MD-2 gene promoter region was found to be associated with the severity of NEC. Furthermore, the rs2075783 polymorphism in the GM2A gene exon 1 and the rs1048719 polymorphism in the intron region of this gene, were associated with the occurrence of NEC. The present study demonstrated that gene polymorphisms of MD-2 and GM2A were associated with the occurrence or severity of NEC; however, further in-depth exploration is required to clarify the associations between genetic predispositions to polymorphisms, and NEC.

  6. Laser Cooling With Ultrafast Pulse Trains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-30

    MHz] FIG. 5: Transmission spectrum of the FPI for (a) correct FPI length with p = 1, q = 2; ( b ) FPI length mismatched by - 700 ym. The transmission...signal for (a) is a factor of - 50 higher and narrower than for ( b ), and the signal-to-noise ratio is increased by a factor of - 2500. lasers. An...the positions of the laser beams with respect to the ion cloud, ( b ) adjusted the mode-locked beam waist radius to optimize total two-photon transition

  7. A VARI-Based Relative Greenness from MODIS Data for Computing the Fire Potential Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, P.; Roberts, D. A.; Kyriakidis, P. C.

    2008-01-01

    The Fire Potential Index (FPI) relies on relative greenness (RG) estimates from remote sensing data. The Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI), derived from NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) imagery is currently used to calculate RG operationally. Here we evaluated an alternate measure of RG using the Visible Atmospheric Resistant Index (VARI) derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data. VARI was chosen because it has previously been shown to have the strongest relationship with Live Fuel Moisture (LFM) out of a wide selection of MODIS-derived indices in southern California shrublands. To compare MODIS-based NDVI-FPI and VARI-FPI, RG was calculated from a 6-year time series of MODIS composites and validated against in-situ observations of LFM as a surrogate for vegetation greenness. RG from both indices was then compared in terms of its performance for computing the FPI using historical wildfire data. Computed RG values were regressed against ground-sampled LFM at 14 sites within Los Angeles County. The results indicate the VARI-based RG consistently shows a stronger relationship with observed LFM than NDVI-based RG. With an average R2 of 0.727 compared to a value of only 0.622 for NDVI-RG, VARI-RG showed stronger relationships at 13 out of 14 sites. Based on these results, daily FPI maps were computed for the years 2001 through 2005 using both NDVI-RG and VARI-RG. These were then validated against 12,490 fire detections from the MODIS active fire product using logistic regression. Deviance of the logistic regression model was 408.8 for NDVI-FPI and 176.2 for VARI-FPI. The c-index was found to be 0.69 and 0.78, respectively. The results show that VARI-FP outperforms NDVI-FPI in distinguishing between fire and no-fire events for historical wildfire data in southern California for the given time period.

  8. [Association Budd Chiari syndrome, antiphospholipid syndrome and Grave's disease].

    PubMed

    Mouelhi, Leila; Chaieb, Mouna; Debbeche, Radhouane; Salem, Mohamed; Sfar, Imene; Trabelsi, Sinda; Gorgi, Yosr; Najjar, Taoufik

    2009-02-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome is revealed by Budd Chiari syndrome in 5% of the cases. Antiphospholipid syndrome is characterized by venous or arterial thrombosis, foetal loss and positivity of antiphospholipid antibodies, namely lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies and anti-beta2-glycoprotein I. Anticardiolipin antibodies was reported in auto-immune thyroid disorders, particularly in Grave's disease. Antiphospholipid syndrome associated to Grave's disease was reported in only three cases. To describe a case report of association of Grave's disease and antiphospholipid syndrome. We report the first case of Grave's disease associated with antiphospholipid syndrome, revealed by Budd Chiari syndrome. Our observation is particular by the fact that it is about a patient presenting a Grave's disease associated with antiphospholipid syndrome revealed by Budd Chiari syndrome. This triple association has never been reported in literature. Although association between antiphospholipid syndrome and Grave's disease was previously described, further studies evaluating the coexistence of these two affections in the same patient would be useful.

  9. Superfluid and Insulating Phases of Fermion Mixtures in Optical Lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Iskin, M.; Sa de Melo, C. A. R.

    2007-08-24

    The ground state phase diagram of fermion mixtures in optical lattices is analyzed as a function of interaction strength, fermion filling factor, and tunneling parameters. In addition to standard superfluid, phase-separated or coexisting superfluid-excess-fermion phases found in homogeneous or harmonically trapped systems, fermions in optical lattices have several insulating phases, including a molecular Bose-Mott insulator (BMI), a Fermi-Pauli (band) insulator (FPI), a phase-separated BMI-FPI mixture or a Bose-Fermi checkerboard (BFC). The molecular BMI phase is the fermion mixture counterpart of the atomic BMI found in atomic Bose systems, the BFC or BMI-FPI phases exist in Bose-Fermi mixtures, and lastly themore » FPI phase is particular to the Fermi nature of the constituent atoms of the mixture.« less

  10. Fluorescent Penetrant INSPECTION—CLEANING Study Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenmann, D.; Brasche, L.

    2009-03-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) is widely used in the aviation industry and other industries for surface-breaking crack detection. As with all inspection methods, adherence to the process parameters is critical to the successful detection of defects. There is variety of lubricants and surface coatings used in the aviation industry which must be removed prior to FPI. Before the FPI process begins, components are cleaned using a variety of cleaning methods which are selected based on the alloy and the soil types which must be removed. It is also important that the cleaning process not adversely affect the FPI process. From the first three phases of this project it has been found that a hot water rinse can aid in the detection process when using this nondestructive method.

  11. Wells syndrome and its relationship to Churg-Strauss syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ratzinger, Gudrun; Zankl, Julia; Zelger, Bernhard

    2013-08-01

      Wells syndrome has been described as an inflammatory disorder based on typical clinical appearance combined with the histopathological presence of eosinophilic infiltrates and flame figures in the absence of vasculitis. Churg-Strauss syndrome, on the other hand, is primarily a diffuse, necrotizing vasculitis but is also typically displaying eosinophils and flame figures. Despite several parallels, the present understanding of these two diseases excludes any pathogenetic relationship.   We describe the clinical course and histopathological appearance of three patients who had initially been diagnosed with Wells syndrome that developed into Churg-Strauss syndrome during the course of their disease.   The clinical presentation of all three patients led to the diagnosis of Wells syndrome by independent specialists. Histopathology showed an eosinophilic infiltrate and flame figures next to features of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Detailed examination revealed asthma bronchiale and additional symptoms indicating Churg-Strauss syndrome. The initial diagnosis of Wells syndrome had to be revised to Churg-Strauss syndrome.   We conclude that Wells syndrome could be the starting point of a pathogenetic process that might reach its maximum in Churg-Strauss syndrome. As a clinical consequence, patients with Wells syndrome should be evaluated and followed for Churg-Strauss syndrome. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  12. The human milk oligosaccharide 2'-fucosyllactose attenuates the severity of experimental necrotising enterocolitis by enhancing mesenteric perfusion in the neonatal intestine.

    PubMed

    Good, Misty; Sodhi, Chhinder P; Yamaguchi, Yukihiro; Jia, Hongpeng; Lu, Peng; Fulton, William B; Martin, Laura Y; Prindle, Thomas; Nino, Diego F; Zhou, Qinjie; Ma, Congrong; Ozolek, John A; Buck, Rachael H; Goehring, Karen C; Hackam, David J

    2016-10-01

    Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is a common disease in premature infants characterised by intestinal ischaemia and necrosis. The only effective preventative strategy against NEC is the administration of breast milk, although the protective mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesise that an abundant human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) in breast milk, 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL), protects against NEC by enhancing intestinal mucosal blood flow, and we sought to determine the mechanisms underlying this protection. Administration of HMO-2'FL protected against NEC in neonatal wild-type mice, resulted in a decrease in pro-inflammatory markers and preserved the small intestinal mucosal architecture. These protective effects occurred via restoration of intestinal perfusion through up-regulation of the vasodilatory molecule endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), as administration of HMO-2'FL to eNOS-deficient mice or to mice that received eNOS inhibitors did not protect against NEC, and by 16S analysis HMO-2'FL affected the microbiota of the neonatal mouse gut, although these changes do not seem to be the primary mechanism of protection. Induction of eNOS by HMO-2'FL was also observed in cultured endothelial cells, providing a link between eNOS and HMO in the endothelium. These data demonstrate that HMO-2'FL protects against NEC in part through maintaining mesenteric perfusion via increased eNOS expression, and suggest that the 2'FL found in human milk may be mediating some of the protective benefits of breast milk in the clinical setting against NEC.

  13. FPI Cohort Reports: Canada/CAUBO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dew, George

    2013-01-01

    CAUBO--the Canadian Association of University Business Officers--is a volunteer-driven organization that represents the administrative function of virtually all Canadian universities (CAUBO is the Canadian counterpart to NACUBO in the United States). Member committees provide direction and subject matter expertise, with each committee typically…

  14. 48 CFR 8.602 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...— (1) Before purchasing an item of supply listed in the FPI Schedule, conduct market research to... assessment of price, quality, and time of delivery, based on the results of market research comparing the FPI...

  15. Kindler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kaviarasan, P K; Prasad, P V S; Shradda; Viswanathan, P

    2005-01-01

    Kindler syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder associated with skin fragility. It is characterized by blistering in infancy, photosensitivity and progressive poikiloderma. The syndrome involves the skin and mucous membrane with radiological changes. The genetic defect has been identified on the short arm of chromosome 20. This report describes an 18-year-old patient with classical features like blistering and photosensitivity in childhood and the subsequent development of poikiloderma. The differential diagnosis of Kindler syndrome includes diseases like Bloom syndrome, Cockayne syndrome, dyskeratosis congenita, epidermolysis bullosa, Rothmund-Thomson syndrome and xeroderma pigmentosum. Our patient had classical cutaneous features of Kindler syndrome with phimosis as a complication.

  16. "Syndrome in syndrome": Wernicke syndrome due to afferent loop syndrome. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    D'Abbicco, D; Praino, S; Amoruso, M; Notarnicola, A; Margari, A

    2011-01-01

    Wernicke syndrome is a rare neurological pathology due to a deficit in vitamin B1. The syndrome is common among alcohol abusers, patients with malignant tumor or gastrointestinal diseases, those who undergo hemodialysis or long-term peritoneal dialysis, pregnant women with hyperemesis, women who breast-feed, patients with hyperthyroidism or anorexia nervosa or gastric or jejunal-ileal bypass surgery for obesity, patients submitted to gastric surgery or prolonged total parenteral nutrition or prolonged intravenous therapy. We report a case of Wernicke syndrome due to afferent loop syndrome characterized by incoercible vomiting.

  17. Predictors of outcome at 2 years of age after early intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Torrance, H L; Bloemen, M C T; Mulder, E J H; Nikkels, P G J; Derks, J B; de Vries, L S; Visser, G H A

    2010-08-01

    To examine the relative importance of antenatal and perinatal variables on short- and long-term outcome of preterm growth restricted fetuses with umbilical artery (UA) Doppler abnormalities. This was a cohort study of 180 neonates with birth weight < 10(th) percentile, gestational age at delivery < 34 weeks and abnormal Doppler ultrasound examination of the UA. Various antenatal and perinatal variables were studied in relation to short- and long-term outcome. Neonatal and overall mortality (up to 2 years of age) were predicted by low gestational age at delivery. Neonatal mortality was additionally predicted by absent or reversed UA end-diastolic flow, while the presence of severe neonatal complications and placental villitis were additional predictors of both infant (between 28 days and 1 year of postnatal life) and overall mortality. Placental villitis was found to be the only predictor of necrotizing enterocolitis. Low gestational age at delivery, male sex, abnormal cardiotocography, absent or reversed UA end-diastolic flow and the HELLP syndrome predicted respiratory distress syndrome. Abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years was predicted by low birth weight (< 2.3(rd) percentile), fetal acidosis (UA pH < 7.00), and placental villitis. Less advanced gestation at delivery remains an important predictor of short-term outcome in growth-restricted fetuses. In addition, the presence of placental villitis may aid neonatologists in the early identification of infants at increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, death and abnormal neurodevelopment at 2 years of age. Abnormal neurodevelopment was related to low weight and acidosis at birth, indicating that the severity of malnutrition and fetal acidosis affect long-term outcome.

  18. Probiotics for the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates: an 8-year retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Li, D; Rosito, G; Slagle, T

    2013-12-01

    Probiotic therapy has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in premature infants in several international studies using various probiotic agents. The purpose of this study(*) is to describe our experience of using probiotic therapy in preventing NEC in infants with very low birth weight (VLBW) in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and to evaluate whether our records provide evidence of effectiveness for probiotic therapy. In a retrospective cohort study, the efficacy of probiotic therapy in preventing NEC in VLBW infants was investigated via chart review. A probiotic administration protocol using a three-strain (Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium infantis and Bifidobacterium bifidum) supplement was implemented in August 2007. Patients admitted to the NICU from August 2003 through July 2011 were screened. Primary outcomes are the morbidity and mortality of NEC. The secondary outcomes were severity of NEC and incidence of where infant feeds were stopped but NEC was not diagnosed (NEC scare). There was a significant increased baseline risk of NEC development in the probiotics group, including younger gestational age, higher incidence of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and use of indomethacin. The incidence of NEC is similar between the control group (2·8%) and probiotics group (2·4%) (hazard ratio, 1·15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0·42, 3·12). Mortality of NEC is also not statistically different. Incidence of NEC scare was decreased from 2·8% in control group to 1·4% in probiotics group, although the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0·38). Our findings suggest that probiotics are safe in NEC prevention in VLBW infants. We had no cases of infection related to the strains of bacteria used in our product. With the low incidence of NEC (2·8%) and NEC scare (2·8%) in our cohort, we do not have enough power to detect any change in outcome, particularly as our study was observational

  19. Postoperative Outcomes of Extremely Low Birth-Weight Infants With Necrotizing Enterocolitis or Isolated Intestinal Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Blakely, Martin L.; Lally, Kevin P.; McDonald, Scott; Brown, Rebeccah L.; Barnhart, Douglas C.; Ricketts, Richard R.; Thompson, W Raleigh; Scherer, L R.; Klein, Michael D.; Letton, Robert W.; Chwals, Walter J.; Touloukian, Robert J.; Kurkchubasche, Arlett G.; Skinner, Michael A.; Moss, R Lawrence; Hilfiker, Mary L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Purposes of this study were: 1) to compare mortality and postoperative morbidities (intra-abdominal abscess, wound dehiscence, and intestinal stricture) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants who underwent initial laparotomy or drainage for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) or isolated intestinal perforation (IP); 2) to determine the ability to distinguish NEC from IP preoperatively and the importance of this distinction on outcome measures; and 3) to evaluate the association between extent of intestinal disease determined at operation and outcome measures. Background: ELBW infants who undergo operation for NEC or IP have a postoperative, in-hospital mortality rate of approximately 50%. Whether to perform laparotomy or drainage initially is controversial. Also unknown is the importance of distinguishing NEC from IP and the current ability to make this distinction based on objective data available prior to operation. Methods: A prospective, multicenter cohort study of 156 ELBW infants at 16 neonatal intensive care units (NICU) within the NICHD Neonatal Research Network. Results: Among the 156 enrolled infants, 80 underwent initial peritoneal drainage and 76 initial laparotomy. Mortality rate was 49% (76 of 156). Ninety-six patients had a preoperative diagnosis of NEC and 60 had presumed IP. There was a high level of agreement between the presumed preoperative diagnosis and intraoperative diagnosis in patients undergoing initial laparotomy (kappa = 0.85). The relative risk for death with a preoperative diagnosis of NEC (versus IP) was 1.4 (95% confidence interval, 0.99–2.1, P = 0.052). The overall incidence of postoperative intestinal stricture was 10.3%, wound dehiscence 4.4%, and intra-abdominal abscess 5.8%, and did not significantly differ between groups undergoing initial laparotomy versus initial drainage. Conclusions: Survival to hospital discharge after operation for NEC or IP in ELBW neonates remains poor (51%). Patients with a preoperative

  20. Severe hemolysis after plasma transfusion in a neonate with necrotizing enterocolitis, Clostridium perfringens infection, and red blood cell T-polyagglutination.

    PubMed

    Moh-Klaren, Julia; Bodivit, Gwellaouen; Jugie, Myriam; Chadebech, Philippe; Chevret, Laurent; Mokhtari, Mostafa; Chamillard, Xavier; Gallon, Philippe; Tissières, Pierre; Bierling, Philippe; Djoudi, Rachid; Pirenne, France; Burin-des-Roziers, Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen exposure (T activation) in infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) has occasionally been associated with posttransfusional intravascular hemolysis thought to be due to anti-T antibodies in the donor plasma. We describe an infant with NEC and Clostridium perfringens infection complicated by severe hemolysis after plasma transfusion. After this case, infants with confirmed NEC were prospectively evaluated for T activation. We checked for hemolysis in patients with T activation receiving plasma-containing blood products. The infant had received 80 mL of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP). His RBCs displayed strong T activation, and agglutination was observed with four of six ABO-compatible FFP units. A direct antiglobulin test was negative. IgM-class anti-T antibodies were present in small amounts (titer of 8) in the transfused FFP. Anti-T antibodies from the blood donor were not hemolytic in vitro. In the prospective study, T activation was observed in three of 28 infants with NEC (11%). One infant presented moderate T activation and two infants presented very strong T activation but only moderate decreases in sialic acid expression on the RBC membrane. These three infants presented no signs of hemolysis after transfusion with unwashed blood products or FFP. Anti-T antibodies are unlikely to be the etiologic factor for the hemolytic reactions observed in infants with NEC and T activation. Massive RBC desialylation and the direct action of bacterial toxins are more probable causes. Strict avoidance of plasma-containing blood products does not seem justified in these infants. © 2017 AABB.

  1. Fanconi syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    De Toni-Fanconi syndrome ... Fanconi syndrome can be caused by faulty genes, or it may result later in life due to kidney damage. Sometimes the cause of Fanconi syndrome is unknown. Common causes of Fanconi syndrome in ...

  2. Survival and Morbidity Outcomes of Very Low Birth Weight Infants with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Boghossian, Nansi S.; Hansen, Nellie I.; Bell, Edward F.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Walsh, Michele C.; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) are at increased risk of several morbidities with lifelong health consequences. Little is known about mortality or morbidity risks in early infancy among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants with DS. Our objective was to compare survival and neonatal morbidities between VLBW infants with DS and VLBW infants with other non-DS chromosomal anomalies, other non-chromosomal birth defects, and VLBW infants without major birth defects. METHODS Data were collected prospectively for infants weighing 401-1500 grams born and/or cared for at one of the study centers participating in the NICHD Neonatal Research Network from 1994 through 2008. Risk of death and morbidities including patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), late onset sepsis (LOS), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), were compared between VLBW infants with DS and infants in the other groups. RESULTS Infants with DS were at increased risk of death (adjusted relative risk [RR] 2.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.00-3.07), PDA, NEC, LOS, and BPD relative to infants with no birth defects. Decreased risk of death (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.31-0.52) and increased risks of NEC and LOS were observed when comparing infants with DS to infants with other non-DS chromosomal anomalies. Relative to infants with non-chromosomal birth defects, infants with DS were at increased risk of PDA and NEC. CONCLUSION The increased risk of morbidities among VLBW infants with DS provides useful information for counseling parents and for caretakers in anticipating the need for enhanced surveillance for prevention of these morbidities. PMID:21098157

  3. [Kenny-Caffey syndrome and its related syndromes].

    PubMed

    Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Kitanaka, Sachiko

    2015-11-01

    Kenny-Caffey syndrome (KCS) is a very rare dysmorphologic syndrome characterized by proportionate short stature, cortical thickening and medullary stenosis of tubular bones, delayed closure of anterior fontanelle, eye abnormalities, and hypoparathyroidism. Two types of KCS were known: the autosomal recessive form (KCS type 1), which is caused by mutations of the TBCE gene, and the autosomal dominant form (KCS type 2), which is caused by mutations of the FAM111A gene. TBCE mutation also causes hypoparathyroidism-retardation-dysmorphism syndrome, and FAM111A mutation also causes gracile bone dysplasia. These two diseases can be called as KCS-related syndromes. In this article, we review the clinical manifestations of KCS and discuss its related syndromes.

  4. A quality of life quandary: a framework for navigating parental refusal of treatment for co-morbidities in infants with underlying medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Sarah N; McAdams, Ryan M; Diekema, Douglas S; Opel, Douglas J

    2015-01-01

    Parental refusal of a recommended treatment is not an uncommon scenario in the neonatal intensive care unit. These refusals may be based upon the parents' perceptions of their child's projected quality of life. The inherent subjectivity of quality of life assessments, however, can exacerbate disagreement between parents and healthcare providers. We present a case of parental refusal of surgical intervention for necrotizing enterocolitis in an infant with Bartter syndrome and develop an ethical framework in which to consider the appropriateness of parental refusal based upon an infant's projected quality of life. Copyright 2015 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  5. [Food allergy or food intolerance?].

    PubMed

    Maître, S; Maniu, C-M; Buss, G; Maillard, M H; Spertini, F; Ribi, C

    2014-04-16

    Adverse food reactions can be classified into two main categories depending on wether an immune mechanism is involved or not. The first category includes immune mediated reactions like IgE mediated food allergy, eosinophilic oesophagitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and celiac disease. The second category implies non-immune mediated adverse food reactions, also called food intolerances. Intoxications, pharmacologic reactions, metabolic reactions, physiologic, psychologic or reactions with an unknown mechanism belong to this category. We present a classification of adverse food reactions based on the pathophysiologic mechanism that can be useful for both diagnostic approach and management.

  6. Room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Jong H.; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Williams, Spencer T.; ...

    2015-09-24

    Here in this work, we describe a room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer (EEL) for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PHJ PVSCs). This EEL is composed of a bilayered fulleropyrrolidinium iodide (FPI)-polyethyleneimine (PEIE) and PC 61BM, which yields a promising power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.7% with insignificant hysteresis. We reveal that PC 61BM can serve as a surface modifier of FPI-PEIE to simultaneously facilitate the crystallization of perovskite and the charge extraction at FPI-PEIE/CH 3NH 3PbI 3 interface. Furthermore, the FPI-PEIE can also tune the work function of ITO and dope PC 61BM to promote the efficient electronmore » transport between ITO and PC 61BM. Based on the advantages of room-temperature processability and decent electrical property of FPI-PEIE/PC 61BM EEL, a high-performance flexible PVSC with a PCE ~10% is eventually demonstrated. Lastly, this study shows the potential of low-temperature processed organic EEL to replace transition metal oxide-based interlayers for highly printing compatible PVSCs with high-performance.« less

  7. Preliminary Results of Cleaning Process for Lubricant Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenmann, D.; Brasche, L.; Lopez, R.

    2006-03-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) is widely used for aviation and other components for surface-breaking crack detection. As with all inspection methods, adherence to the process parameters is critical to the successful detection of defects. Prior to FPI, components are cleaned using a variety of cleaning methods which are selected based on the alloy and the soil types which must be removed. It is also important that the cleaning process not adversely affect the FPI process. There are a variety of lubricants and surface coatings used in the aviation industry which must be removed prior to FPI. To assess the effectiveness of typical cleaning processes on removal of these contaminants, a study was initiated at an airline overhaul facility. Initial results of the cleaning study for lubricant contamination in nickel, titanium and aluminum alloys will be presented.

  8. Metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome: an intriguing overlapping.

    PubMed

    Caserta, Donatella; Adducchio, Gloria; Picchia, Simona; Ralli, Eleonora; Matteucci, Eleonora; Moscarini, Massimo

    2014-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome is an increasing pathology in adults and in children, due to a parallel rise of obesity. Sedentary lifestyle, food habits, cultural influences and also a genetic predisposition can cause dyslipidemia, hypertension, abdominal obesity and insulin resistance which are the two main features of metabolic syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition directly associated with obesity, insulin resistance (HOMA index) and metabolic syndrome, and it is very interesting for its relationship and overlap with the metabolic syndrome. The relationship between the two syndromes is mutual: PCOS women have a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome and also women with metabolic syndrome commonly present the reproductive/endocrine trait of PCOS. Prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome and PCOS are similar for various aspects. It is necessary to treat excess adiposity and insulin resistance, with the overall goals of preventing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes and improving reproductive failure in young women with PCOS. First of all, lifestyle changes, then pharmacological therapy, bariatric surgery and laparoscopic ovarian surgery represent the pillars for PCOS treatment.

  9. West syndrome in a patient with Schinzel-Giedion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Fuyu; Kuroda, Yukiko; Naruto, Takuya; Ohashi, Ikuko; Takano, Kyoko; Kurosawa, Kenji

    2015-06-01

    Schinzel-Giedion syndrome is a rare recognizable malformation syndrome defined by characteristic facial features, profound developmental delay, severe growth failure, and multiple congenital anomalies. The causative gene of Schinzel-Giedion syndrome, SETBP1, has been identified, but limited cases have been confirmed by molecular analysis. We present a 9-month-old girl affected by West syndrome with Schinzel-Giedion syndrome. Congenital severe hydronephrosis, typical facial features, and multiple anomalies suggested a clinical diagnosis of Schinzel-Giedion syndrome. Hypsarrhythmia occurred at 7 months of age and was temporarily controlled by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy during 5 weeks. SETBP1 mutational analysis showed the presence of a recurrent mutation, p.Ile871Thr. The implications in management of Schinzel-Giedion syndrome are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Kindler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lai-Cheong, Joey E; McGrath, John A

    2010-01-01

    Kindler syndrome (MIM173650) is an autosomal recessive genodermatosis characterized by poikiloderma, trauma-induced skin blistering, mucosal inflammation, and photosensitivity. Loss-of-function mutations in the FERMT1 gene are the cause of Kindler syndrome. Kindler syndrome is categorized as a subtype of epidermolysis bullosa (EB). During infancy and childhood, there is clinical overlap between Kindler syndrome and dystrophic EB. Unlike other forms of EB, Kindler syndrome is characterized by impaired actin cytoskeleton-extracellular matrix interactions and a variable plane of blister formation at or close to the dermal-epidermal junction. This article reviews clinicopathologic and molecular features of Kindler syndrome and discusses patient management.

  11. Obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome in adults with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Key points Adults with Down syndrome are predisposed to obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) due to overlap between the Down syndrome phenotype and OSAHS risk factors. The prevalence of OSAHS in adults with Down syndrome is estimated at 35–42%. This is up to ten-times higher than in the general adult population. Symptoms of OSAHS, including behavioural and emotional disturbances as well as standard symptoms such as sleepiness, should be monitored as part of regular health surveillance in adults with Down syndrome. There is evidence that the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in adults with Down syndrome and comorbid OSAHS can lead to significant improvements in subjective sleepiness, behaviour and cognitive function, though further large-scale trials are required. Educational aims To discuss the relationship between the phenotypic features of Down syndrome and the risk factors for obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS). To examine the prevalence of OSAHS in adults with Down syndrome. To review recent research into the effectiveness of treatment of OSAHS in adults with Down syndrome using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) is characterised by repeated cycles of upper airway obstruction during sleep, leading to diurnal symptoms. Individuals with Down syndrome are predisposed to OSAHS due to overlap between the Down syndrome phenotype and OSAHS risk factors. Recent large studies using subjective and objective measures estimate that OSAHS affects around 40% of adults with Down syndrome, in contrast to 2–4% of the general adult population. The “double-hit” of comorbid Down syndrome and OSAHS may accelerate cognitive decline in adults with Down syndrome. However, with the appropriate care and support, OSAHS can be treated effectively in this group using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, improving daytime function and behaviour

  12. Obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome in adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hill, Elizabeth A

    2016-12-01

    Adults with Down syndrome are predisposed to obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) due to overlap between the Down syndrome phenotype and OSAHS risk factors.The prevalence of OSAHS in adults with Down syndrome is estimated at 35-42%. This is up to ten-times higher than in the general adult population.Symptoms of OSAHS, including behavioural and emotional disturbances as well as standard symptoms such as sleepiness, should be monitored as part of regular health surveillance in adults with Down syndrome.There is evidence that the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in adults with Down syndrome and comorbid OSAHS can lead to significant improvements in subjective sleepiness, behaviour and cognitive function, though further large-scale trials are required. To discuss the relationship between the phenotypic features of Down syndrome and the risk factors for obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS).To examine the prevalence of OSAHS in adults with Down syndrome.To review recent research into the effectiveness of treatment of OSAHS in adults with Down syndrome using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) is characterised by repeated cycles of upper airway obstruction during sleep, leading to diurnal symptoms. Individuals with Down syndrome are predisposed to OSAHS due to overlap between the Down syndrome phenotype and OSAHS risk factors. Recent large studies using subjective and objective measures estimate that OSAHS affects around 40% of adults with Down syndrome, in contrast to 2-4% of the general adult population. The "double-hit" of comorbid Down syndrome and OSAHS may accelerate cognitive decline in adults with Down syndrome. However, with the appropriate care and support, OSAHS can be treated effectively in this group using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, improving daytime function and behaviour. Symptoms of OSAHS should be routinely

  13. Cushing syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Hypercortisolism; Cortisol excess; Glucocorticoid excess - Cushing syndrome ... The most common cause of Cushing syndrome is taking too much ... Cushing syndrome . Prednisone, dexamethasone, and prednisolone ...

  14. [Cockett's syndrome, May-Thurner syndrome, or iliac vein compression syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gil Martín, A R; Carreras Aja, M; Arrieta Ardieta, I; Labayen Azparren, I

    2014-01-01

    Iliac vein compression syndrome (also known as May-Thurner syndrome or Cockett's syndrome) is a rare clinical entity in which the left common iliac vein is compressed when it passes between the right common iliac artery and the spine. The sustained compression and trauma caused by the pulsatile force of the artery on the vein damage the intima and lead to the formation of membranes or bands in the vascular lumen that hinder or obstruct the flow of blood in the vein, favoring thrombus formation. The current treatment strategy of choice is endovascular vein patch angioplasty and stenting with the aim of improving the caliber of the lumen and enabling normal venous drainage. We present two cases of May-Thurner syndrome and review the clinical and CT findings. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. LEOPARD syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple lentigines syndrome; Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines ... Genetics Home Reference -- ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/noonan-syndrome-with-multiple-lentigines National Organization for Rare Disorders -- ...

  16. Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Irritable Bowel Syndrome KidsHealth / For Teens / Irritable Bowel Syndrome What's in ... intestinal disorder called irritable bowel syndrome. What Is Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common intestinal ...

  17. Reliability and validity of the Microsoft Kinect for evaluating static foot posture

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The evaluation of foot posture in a clinical setting is useful to screen for potential injury, however disagreement remains as to which method has the greatest clinical utility. An inexpensive and widely available imaging system, the Microsoft Kinect™, may possess the characteristics to objectively evaluate static foot posture in a clinical setting with high accuracy. The aim of this study was to assess the intra-rater reliability and validity of this system for assessing static foot posture. Methods Three measures were used to assess static foot posture; traditional visual observation using the Foot Posture Index (FPI), a 3D motion analysis (3DMA) system and software designed to collect and analyse image and depth data from the Kinect. Spearman’s rho was used to assess intra-rater reliability and concurrent validity of the Kinect to evaluate foot posture, and a linear regression was used to examine the ability of the Kinect to predict total visual FPI score. Results The Kinect demonstrated moderate to good intra-rater reliability for four FPI items of foot posture (ρ = 0.62 to 0.78) and moderate to good correlations with the 3DMA system for four items of foot posture (ρ = 0.51 to 0.85). In contrast, intra-rater reliability of visual FPI items was poor to moderate (ρ = 0.17 to 0.63), and correlations with the Kinect and 3DMA systems were poor (absolute ρ = 0.01 to 0.44). Kinect FPI items with moderate to good reliability predicted 61% of the variance in total visual FPI score. Conclusions The majority of the foot posture items derived using the Kinect were more reliable than the traditional visual assessment of FPI, and were valid when compared to a 3DMA system. Individual foot posture items recorded using the Kinect were also shown to predict a moderate degree of variance in the total visual FPI score. Combined, these results support the future potential of the Kinect to accurately evaluate static foot posture in a clinical

  18. Fast Plasma Instrument for MMS: Data Compression Simulation Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrie, A. C.; Adrian, M. L.; Yeh, P.; Winkert, G. E.; Lobell, J. V.; Viňas, A. F.; Simpson, D. G.; Moore, T. E.

    2008-12-01

    Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission will study small-scale reconnection structures and their rapid motions from closely spaced platforms using instruments capable of high angular, energy, and time resolution measurements. To meet these requirements, the Fast Plasma Instrument (FPI) consists of eight (8) identical half top-hat electron sensors and eight (8) identical ion sensors and an Instrument Data Processing Unit (IDPU). The sensors (electron or ion) are grouped into pairs whose 6° × 180° fields-of-view (FOV) are set 90° apart. Each sensor is equipped with electrostatic aperture steering to allow the sensor to scan a 45° × 180° fan about the its nominal viewing (0° deflection) direction. Each pair of sensors, known as the Dual Electron Spectrometer (DES) and the Dual Ion Spectrometer (DIS), occupies a quadrant on the MMS spacecraft and the combination of the eight electron/ion sensors, employing aperture steering, image the full-sky every 30-ms (electrons) and 150-ms (ions), respectively. To probe the diffusion regions of reconnection, the highest temporal/spatial resolution mode of FPI results in the DES complement of a given spacecraft generating 6.5-Mb s-1 of electron data while the DIS generates 1.1-Mb s-1 of ion data yielding an FPI total data rate of 7.6-Mb s-1. The FPI electron/ion data is collected by the IDPU then transmitted to the Central Data Instrument Processor (CIDP) on the spacecraft for science interest ranking. Only data sequences that contain the greatest amount of temporal/spatial structure will be intelligently down-linked by the spacecraft. Currently, the FPI data rate allocation to the CIDP is 1.5-Mb s-1. Consequently, the FPI-IDPU must employ data/image compression to meet this CIDP telemetry allocation. Here, we present simulations of the CCSDS 122.0-B-1 algorithm- based compression of the FPI-DES electron data. Compression analysis is based upon a seed of re- processed Cluster/PEACE electron measurements. Topics to be

  19. A Chinese patient with pusher syndrome and unilateral spatial neglect syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Wei; Lin, Cheng-He; Zheng, Hua; Lin, Zhen-Lan

    2014-07-01

    To observe clinical manifestations, behavioral characteristics, and effects of rehabilitation on a patient with pusher syndrome and unilateral spatial neglect caused by right thalamic hemorrhage. Assessment of pusher syndrome was made by the Scale for Contraversive pushing (SCP), and unilateral spatial neglect syndrome was diagnosed using line cancellation, letter and star cancellation, line bisection tests and copy and continuation of graphic sequence test. Behavioral therapy, occupational therapy, reading training and traditional Chinese medicine methods were adopted for treatment of pusher syndrome and unilateral spatial neglect. The patient showed typical pusher syndrome and unilateral spatial neglect symptoms. The pusher syndrome and unilateral spatial neglect symptoms were significantly improved following rehabilitation treatments. Pusher syndrome and unilateral spatial neglect syndrome occurred simultaneously after right thalamic hemorrhage. Early rehabilitation therapy can reduce the symptoms of pusher syndrome and unilateral spatial neglect syndrome and improve motor function.

  20. Aarskog syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Aarskog disease; Aarskog-Scott syndrome; AAS; Faciodigitogenital syndrome; Gaciogenital dysplasia ... Aarskog syndrome is a genetic disorder that is linked to the X chromosome. It affects mainly males, but females ...

  1. Malabsorption Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods you eat. If you have a malabsorption syndrome, your small intestine cannot absorb nutrients from foods. Causes of malabsorption syndromes include Celiac disease Lactose intolerance Short bowel syndrome. ...

  2. [XYY syndrome (diplo-Y syndrome)].

    PubMed

    Braun-Scharm, H; Schroeder-Kurth, T M

    1986-01-01

    A case is reported of a 12-year-old boy with the XYY syndrome and unusual clinical symptoms. In addition, past research on the XYY syndrome and the current state of knowledge is reviewed, with special emphasis on psychopathology, psychiatry and genetic counseling.

  3. Family partnership and education interventions to reduce dietary sodium by patients with heart failure differ by family functioning.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Sandra B; Clark, Patricia C; Stamp, Kelly D; Reilly, Carolyn M; Gary, Rebecca A; Higgins, Melinda; Kaslow, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Determine if family functioning influences response to family-focused interventions aimed at reducing dietary sodium by heart failure (HF) patients. Lowering dietary sodium by HF patients often occurs within the home and family context. Secondary analysis of 117 dyads randomized to patient and family education (PFE), family partnership intervention (FPI) or usual care (UC). Dietary sodium measures were obtained from 3-day food record and 24-h urine samples. In the poor family functioning groups, FPI and PFE had lower mean urine sodium than UC (p < .05) at 4 months, and FPI remained lower than UC at 8 months (p < .05). For good family functioning groups, FPI and PFE had lower mean sodium levels by 3-day food record at 4 and 8 months compared to the UC group. Optimizing family-focused interventions into HF clinical care maybe indicated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. High-temperature measurement by using a PCF-based Fabry-Perot interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lai-Cai; Deng, Ming; Duan, De-Wen; Wen, Wei-Ping; Han, Meng

    2012-10-01

    A new method for fabricating a fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) for high-temperature sensing is presented. The sensor is fabricated by fusion splicing a short section of endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber (ESM-PCF) to the cleaved end facet of a single-mode fiber (SMF) with an intentional complete collapse at the splice joint. This procedure not only provides easier, faster and cheaper technology for FPI sensors but also yields the FPI exhibiting an accurate and stable sinusoidal interference fringe with relatively high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The high-temperature response of the FPI sensors were experimentally studied and the results show that the sensor allows linear and stable measurement of temperatures up to 1100 °C with a sensitivity of ˜39.1 nm/°C for a cavity length of 1377 um, which makes it attractive for aeronautics and metallurgy areas.

  5. Polycystic ovary syndrome and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ali, Aus Tariq

    2015-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder, where the main clinical features include menstrual irregularities, sub-fertility, hyperandrogenism, and hirsutism. The prevalence of PCOS depends on ethnicity, environmental and genetic factors, as well as the criteria used to define it. On the other hand, metabolic syndrome is a constellation of metabolic disorders which include mainly abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose metabolism, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. These associated disorders directly increase the risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2), coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and endometrial cancer. Many patients with PCOS have features of metabolic syndrome such as visceral obesity, hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance. These place patients with PCOS under high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), Type 2 diabetes (DMT2) and gynecological cancer, in particular, endometrial cancer. Metabolic syndrome is also increased in infertile women with PCOS. The aim of this review is to provide clear and up to date information about PCOS and its relationship with metabolic syndrome, and the possible interaction between different metabolic disorders.

  6. Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia clefting syndrome (EEC syndrome).

    PubMed

    Koul, Monika; Dwivedi, Rahul; Upadhyay, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia- clefting syndrome (also k/a. split hand- split foot malformation /split hand-split foot ectodermal dysplasia- cleft syndrome/ectodermal dysplasia cleft lip/cleft palate syndrome) a rare form of ectodermal dysplasia, is an autosomal dominant disorder inherited as a genetic trait and characterized by a triad of (i) ectrodactyly, (ii) ectodermal dysplasia and, (iii) & facial clefts.

  7. Williams syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Williams syndrome may show: A flattened nasal bridge with small upturned nose Long ridges in the ... Alternative Names Williams-Beuren syndrome Images Low nasal bridge Chromosomes and DNA References Morris CA. Williams syndrome. ...

  8. Exogenous Cushing syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Cushing syndrome - corticosteroid induced; Corticosteroid-induced Cushing syndrome; Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome ... Cushing syndrome is a disorder that occurs when your body has a higher than normal level of the hormone ...

  9. 28 CFR 345.11 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... work simulation programs and training opportunities for inmates confined in Federal correctional... inmate of work safety standards. (2) Full-time work status. A work schedule for an inmate consisting of... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Definitions § 345.11 Definitions. (a) Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (FPI...

  10. Downstream Fabry-Perot interferometer for acoustic wave monitoring in photoacoustic tomography.

    PubMed

    Nuster, Robert; Gruen, Hubert; Reitinger, Bernhard; Burgholzer, Peter; Gratt, Sibylle; Passler, Klaus; Paltauf, Guenther

    2011-03-15

    An optical detection setup consisting of a focused laser beam fed into a downstream Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) for demodulation of acoustically generated optical phase variations is investigated for its applicability in photoacoustic tomography. The device measures the time derivative of acoustic signals integrated along the beam. Compared to a setup where the detection beam is part of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the signal-to-noise ratio of the FPI is lower, but the image quality of the two devices is similar. Using the FPI in a photoacoustic tomograph allows scanning the probe beam around the imaging object without moving the latter.

  11. PCF-based Fabry-Perot interferometric sensor for strain measurement under high-temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Ming; Tang, Chang-Ping; Zhu, Tao; Rao, Yun-Jiang

    2011-05-01

    We report a simple and robust all-fiber in-line Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) with bubble cavity, which is fabricated by directly splicing a mutimode photonic crystal fiber to a conventional single mode fiber by using a commercial splicer. The fabrication process only involves fusion splicing and cleaving. The high-temperature strain characteristic of such a device is evaluated and experimental results shows that this FPI can be used as an ideal sensor for precise strain measurement under high temperatures of up to 750°C. Therefore, such a FPI sensor may find important applications in aeronautics or metallurgy areas.

  12. Targets to treat metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingaiah, Shruthi; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome is comprised of a combination of the following states: increased insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, and increased abdominal obesity. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome over the course of their lives. Metabolic syndrome increases risk of major cardiovascular events, morbidity, quality of life, and overall health care costs. Though metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS is an area of great concern, there is no effective individual medical therapeutic to adequately treat this issue. Areas Covered This article will review key aspects of metabolic syndrome in PCOS. We will discuss classic and novel therapeutics to address metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS. We will conclude with the importance of developing strategic interventions to increase the compliance to lifestyle and dietary modification, in addition to appreciation of the emerging pharmaceutical therapeutics available. Expert Opinion Innovation in lifestyle modification, including diet, exercise, with and without dedicated stress reduction techniques is the future in treatment of metabolic syndrome in PCOS. Application of novel interventions, such as group medical care, may improve future adherence to lifestyle modification recommendations, in addition to or in combination with pharmaceutical therapeutics. PMID:26488852

  13. Concurrent Van der Woude syndrome and Turner syndrome: A case report.

    PubMed

    Los, Evan; Baines, Hayley; Guttmann-Bauman, Ines

    2017-01-01

    Most cases of Van der Woude syndrome are caused by a mutation to interferon regulatory factor 6 on chromosome 1. Turner syndrome is caused by complete or partial absence of the second sex chromosome in girls. We describe a unique case of the two syndromes occurring concurrently though apparently independently in a girl with Van der Woude syndrome diagnosed at birth and Turner syndrome at 14 years 9 months. Short stature was initially misattributed to Van der Woude syndrome and pituitary insufficiency associated with clefts before correctly diagnosing Turner syndrome. We discuss the prevalence of delayed diagnosis of Turner syndrome, the rarity of reports of concurrent autosomal chromosome mutation and sex chromosome deletion, as well as the need to consider the diagnosis of Turner syndrome in all girls with short stature regardless of prior medical history.

  14. Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Marfan syndrome is a disorder that affects connective tissue. Connective tissues are proteins that support skin, bones, blood vessels, ... A problem with the fibrillin gene causes Marfan syndrome. Marfan syndrome can be mild to severe, and ...

  15. Fast Plasma Instrument for MMS: Data Compression Simulation Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrie, A.; Adrian, M. L.; Yeh, P.; Winkert, G.; Lobell, J.; Vinas, A. F.; Simpson, D. G.

    2009-12-01

    Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission will study small-scale reconnection structures and their rapid motions from closely spaced platforms using instruments capable of high angular, energy, and time resolution measurements. To meet these requirements, the Fast Plasma Instrument (FPI) consists of eight (8) identical half top-hat electron sensors and eight (8) identical ion sensors and an Instrument Data Processing Unit (IDPU). The sensors (electron or ion) are grouped into pairs whose 6° x 180° fields-of-view (FOV) are set 90° apart. Each sensor is equipped with electrostatic aperture steering to allow the sensor to scan a 45° x 180° fan about the its nominal viewing (0° deflection) direction. Each pair of sensors, known as the Dual Electron Spectrometer (DES) and the Dual Ion Spectrometer (DIS), occupies a quadrant on the MMS spacecraft and the combination of the eight electron/ion sensors, employing aperture steering, image the full-sky every 30-ms (electrons) and 150-ms (ions), respectively. To probe the diffusion regions of reconnection, the highest temporal/spatial resolution mode of FPI results in the DES complement of a given spacecraft generating 6.5-Mb s-1 of electron data while the DIS generates 1.1-Mb s-1 of ion data yielding an FPI total data rate of 6.6-Mb s-1. The FPI electron/ion data is collected by the IDPU then transmitted to the Central Data Instrument Processor (CIDP) on the spacecraft for science interest ranking. Only data sequences that contain the greatest amount of temporal/spatial structure will be intelligently down-linked by the spacecraft. Currently, the FPI data rate allocation to the CIDP is 1.5-Mb s-1. Consequently, the FPI-IDPU must employ data/image compression to meet this CIDP telemetry allocation. Here, we present updated simulations of the CCSDS 122.0-B-1 algorithm-based compression of the FPI-DES electron data as well as the FPI-DIS ion data. Compression analysis is based upon a seed of re-processed Cluster

  16. Brief Report: Repetitive Behaviour Profiles in Williams Syndrome: Cross Syndrome Comparisons with Prader-Willi and Down Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royston, R.; Oliver, C.; Moss, J.; Adams, D.; Berg, K.; Burbidge, C.; Howlin, P.; Nelson, L.; Stinton, C.; Waite, J.

    2018-01-01

    This study describes the profile of repetitive behaviour in individuals with Williams syndrome, utilising cross-syndrome comparisons with people with Prader-Willi and Down syndromes. The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire was administered to caregivers of adults with Williams (n = 96), Prader-Willi (n = 103) and Down (n = 78) syndromes. There were…

  17. Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome Also known as Pickwickian Syndrome What ... your neck is larger than normal. Complications of Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome When left untreated, OHS can cause ...

  18. Loeys-Dietz Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the signs and symptoms of Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Marfan syndrome is different from Loeys-Dietz syndrome in that the gene mutation which causes Marfan syndrome is in fibrillin-1 (FBN-1), a protein ...

  19. Refeeding syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fernández López, M T; López Otero, M J; Alvarez Vázquez, P; Arias Delgado, J; Varela Correa, J J

    2009-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is a complex syndrome that occurs as a result of reintroducing nutrition (oral, enteral or parenteral) to patients who are starved or malnourished. Patients can develop fluid-balance abnormalities, electrolyte disorders (hypophosphataemia, hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia), abnormal glucose metabolism and certain vitamin deficiencies. Refeeding syndrome encompasses abnormalities affecting multiple organ systems, including neurological, pulmonary, cardiac, neuromuscular and haematological functions. Pathogenic mechanisms involved in the refeeding syndrome and clinical manifestations have been reviewed. We provide suggestions for the prevention and treatment of refeeding syndrome. The most important steps are to identify patients at risk, reintroduce nutrition cautiously and correct electrolyte and vitamin deficiencies properly.

  20. Pre-Menstrual Syndrome in Women with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Linda; Cunningham, Cliff

    2009-01-01

    Background: Prevalence of pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS) may be higher in women with Down syndrome due to syndrome specific characteristics in biochemistry, psychopathology and lifestyle. Recognition of PMS may be difficult for women with intellectual disabilities and their carers. Method: A daily diary, used to diagnose PMS with typical women, was…

  1. Protective Role of Angiogenin Against Hematopoietic Syndrome of the Acute Radiation Syndrome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    Syndrome of the Acute Radiation Syndrome PRINCIPAL...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Protective Role of Angiogenin Against Hematopoietic Syndrome of the Acute Radiation Syndrome 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15...protective role against hematopoietic syndrome of the acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS) and is able to attenuate the effect of residual bone marrow

  2. 48 CFR 8.601 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition From Federal Prison Industries, Inc. 8.601 General. (a) Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (FPI), also referred to as UNICOR, is a self-supporting, wholly... minimize adverse impact on private industry. (d) Supplies manufactured and services performed by FPI are...

  3. 48 CFR 8.601 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition From Federal Prison Industries, Inc. 8.601 General. (a) Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (FPI), also referred to as UNICOR, is a self-supporting, wholly... minimize adverse impact on private industry. (d) Supplies manufactured and services performed by FPI are...

  4. 48 CFR 8.601 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition From Federal Prison Industries, Inc. 8.601 General. (a) Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (FPI), also referred to as UNICOR, is a self-supporting, wholly... minimize adverse impact on private industry. (d) Supplies manufactured and services performed by FPI are...

  5. 48 CFR 8.601 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition From Federal Prison Industries, Inc. 8.601 General. (a) Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (FPI), also referred to as UNICOR, is a self-supporting, wholly... minimize adverse impact on private industry. (d) Supplies manufactured and services performed by FPI are...

  6. 48 CFR 8.601 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition From Federal Prison Industries, Inc. 8.601 General. (a) Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (FPI), also referred to as UNICOR, is a self-supporting, wholly... minimize adverse impact on private industry. (d) Supplies manufactured and services performed by FPI are...

  7. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section... INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a) Inmate... the objectives and principles of pay classification as a part of the routine orientation of new FPI...

  8. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section... INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a) Inmate... the objectives and principles of pay classification as a part of the routine orientation of new FPI...

  9. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section... INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a) Inmate... the objectives and principles of pay classification as a part of the routine orientation of new FPI...

  10. 28 CFR 345.11 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definitions. 345.11 Section 345.11... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Definitions § 345.11 Definitions. (a) Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (FPI... Superintendent of Industries, also referred to as Associate Warden/Industries and Education, is responsible for...

  11. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section... INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a) Inmate... the objectives and principles of pay classification as a part of the routine orientation of new FPI...

  12. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section... INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a) Inmate... the objectives and principles of pay classification as a part of the routine orientation of new FPI...

  13. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy.

  14. Gas detection with microelectromechanical Fabry-Perot interferometer technology in cell phone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannila, Rami; Hyypiö, Risto; Korkalainen, Marko; Blomberg, Martti; Kattelus, Hannu; Rissanen, Anna

    2015-06-01

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed a miniaturized optical sensor for gas detection in a cell phone. The sensor is based on a microelectromechanical (MEMS) Fabry-Perot interferometer, which is a structure with two highly reflective surfaces separated by a tunable air gap. The MEMS FPI is a monolithic device, i.e. it is made entirely on one substrate in a batch process, without assembling separate pieces together. The gap is adjusted by moving the upper mirror with electrostatic force, so there are no actual moving parts. VTT has designed and manufactured a MEMS FPI based carbon dioxide sensor demonstrator which is integrated to a cell phone shield cover. The demonstrator contains light source, gas cell, MEMS FPI, detector, control electronics and two coin cell batteries as a power source. It is connected to the cell phone by Bluetooth. By adjusting the wavelength range and customizing the MEMS FPI structure, it is possible to selectively sense multiple gases.

  15. Classification of Porcine Cranial Fracture Patterns Using a Fracture Printing Interface,.

    PubMed

    Wei, Feng; Bucak, Serhat Selçuk; Vollner, Jennifer M; Fenton, Todd W; Jain, Anil K; Haut, Roger C

    2017-01-01

    Distinguishing between accidental and abusive head trauma in children can be difficult, as there is a lack of baseline data for pediatric cranial fracture patterns. A porcine head model has recently been developed and utilized in a series of studies to investigate the effects of impact energy level, surface type, and constraint condition on cranial fracture patterns. In the current study, an automated pattern recognition method, or a fracture printing interface (FPI), was developed to classify cranial fracture patterns that were associated with different impact scenarios documented in previous experiments. The FPI accurately predicted the energy level when the impact surface type was rigid. Additionally, the FPI was exceedingly successful in determining fractures caused by skulls being dropped with a high-level energy (97% accuracy). The FPI, currently developed on the porcine data, may in the future be transformed to the task of cranial fracture pattern classification for human infant skulls. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Danlos syndrome care at Mayo Clinic Symptoms Classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Signs and symptoms of the most common form ... but few or none of the skin symptoms. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, vascular type People who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, ...

  17. Allergic Colitis With Pneumatosis Intestinalis in an Infant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Helena; Turner, Troy W S

    2018-01-01

    Inflammatory causes of bloody diarrhea during infancy include necrotizing enterocolitis and allergic colitis, often due to cow's milk protein. We report this case of cow's milk protein allergy, managed successfully with elimination of dietary antigen, to highlight the unusual finding of pneumatosis intestinalis on abdominal x-ray, a radiographic hallmark associated with necrotizing enterocolitis. Detailed patient's history, clinical presentation, and physical examinations are discussed for cow's milk protein allergy and necrotizing enterocolitis.

  18. The short arm deletion syndrome of chromosome 4 (4p- syndrome).

    PubMed

    Zellweger, H; Bardach, J; Bordwell, J; Williams, K

    1975-01-01

    Partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4 (4p-) represents another (rare) cause of cleft lip and cleft palate. Further characteristic manifestations of the syndrome (also called Wolf or Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome) are growth failure, microcephaly, prominent glabella, hypertelorism, beaked nose, poorly differentiated and low set ears, cardiac and renal malformation and hypospadias. Life expectancy is often shortened. The 4p- syndrome has many features in common with another deletion syndrome, the cri-du-chat syndrome, and also with the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. The latter is a hereditary condition with normal karyotype. The cri-du-chat syndrome is characterized by a peculiar high-pitched, mewing cry and can be differentiated from the Wolf syndrome by the different staining characteristics (banding) of chromosomes 4 and 5.

  19. Fournier gangrene associated with hyper IgE syndrome (Job syndrome).

    PubMed

    Hori, Junichi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Masaki; Osanai, Hiroaki; Hori, Masako

    2008-04-01

    We report a case of a 32-year-old man with hyper IgE syndrome (Job syndrome) who developed Fournier gangrene due to infectious multiple atheromas of the scrotal skin that progressed to the right groin and thigh. The patient required surgical debridement and subsequent skin grafting. This is a rare case of Fournier gangrene associated with hyper IgE syndrome (Job syndrome). When a patient without diabetes mellitus has repeated infections and atopic-like dermatitis, Job syndrome should be considered.

  20. Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Down syndrome increases as a woman gets older. Down syndrome cannot be cured. Early treatment programs can help improve skills. They may include ... occupational, and/or educational therapy. With support and treatment, many ... Down syndrome live happy, productive lives. NIH: National Institute of ...

  1. TAFRO Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Igawa, Takuro; Sato, Yasuharu

    2018-02-01

    TAFRO syndrome is a newly recognized variant of idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease (iMCD) that involves a constellation of syndromes: thrombocytopenia (T), anasarca (A), fever (F), reticulin fibrosis (R), and organomegaly (O). Thrombocytopenia and severe anasarca accompanied by relatively low serum immunoglobulin levels are characteristic clinical findings of TAFRO syndrome that are not present in iMCD-not otherwise specified (iMCD-NOS). Lymph node biopsy is recommended to exclude other diseases and to diagnose TAFRO syndrome, which reveals characteristic histopathological findings similar to hyaline vascular-type CD. TAFRO syndrome follows a more aggressive course, compared with iMCD-NOS, and there is no standard treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Development and characteristics of children with Usher syndrome and CHARGE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2012-09-01

    Individuals with Usher syndrome or CHARGE syndrome are faced with a number of difficulties concerning hearing, vision, balance, and language development. The aim of the study is to describe the developmental characteristics of children with Usher syndrome and CHARGE syndrome, respectively. Data about the developmental characteristics of 26 children with Usher syndrome and 17 children with CHARGE syndrome was obtained. Associations between deafblindness (dual sensory loss), motor development (age of walking), language abilities, and intellectual outcome of these children were explored for each group independently. Both groups of children face a number of difficulties associated with vision, hearing, language, balance and intellectual outcome. Intellectual disability and/or language delay was found among 42% of the children with Usher syndrome and among 82% of the children with CHARGE syndrome. Intellectual disability was associated with language delay and age of walking for both groups. Even though Usher and CHARGE are two different genetic syndromes, both groups are challenged with a number of similar developmental delays. Clinicians need to be aware of several developmental issues in order to offer adequate support to children with Usher or CHARGE syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pregnancy outcome in joint hypermobility syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sundelin, Heléne E K; Stephansson, Olof; Johansson, Kari; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2017-01-01

    An increased risk of preterm birth in women with joint hypermobility syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is suspected. In this nationwide cohort study from 1997 through 2011, women with either joint hypermobility syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome or both disorders were identified through the Swedish Patient Register, and linked to the Medical Birth Register. Thereby, 314 singleton births to women with joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome before delivery were identified. These births were compared with 1 247 864 singleton births to women without a diagnosis of joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. We used logistic regression, adjusted for maternal age, smoking, parity, and year of birth, to calculate adjusted odds ratios for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Maternal joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome was not associated with any of our outcomes: preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio = 0.6, 95% confidence interval 0.3-1.2), preterm premature rupture of membranes (adjusted odds ratio = 0.8; 95% confidence interval 0.3-2.2), cesarean section (adjusted odds ratio = 0.9, 95% confidence interval 0.7-1.2), stillbirth (adjusted odds ratio = 1.1, 95% confidence interval 0.2-7.9), low Apgar score (adjusted odds ratio = 1.6, 95% confidence interval 0.7-3.6), small for gestational age (adjusted odds ratio = 0.9, 95% confidence interval 0.4-1.8) or large for gestational age (adjusted odds ratio = 1.2, 95% confidence interval 0.6-2.1). Examining only women with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (n = 62), we found a higher risk of induction of labor (adjusted odds ratio = 2.6; 95% confidence interval 1.4-4.6) and amniotomy (adjusted odds ratio = 3.8; 95% confidence interval 2.0-7.1). No excess risks for adverse pregnancy outcome were seen in joint hypermobility syndrome. Women with joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome do not seem to be at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. © 2016 Nordic Federation of

  4. 48 CFR 8.602 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...— (1) Before purchasing an item of supply listed in the FPI Schedule, conduct market research to... item to supplies available from the private sector; (3) If the FPI item is comparable, purchase the... for award in accordance with the item description or specifications, and evaluation factors in the...

  5. 28 CFR 345.70 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General. 345.70 Section 345.70 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK... industry processes or safety or which conserve energy or materials consumed in FPI operations, and for...

  6. [Poland's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Slezak, R; Sasiadek, M

    2000-08-01

    Poland's syndrome consists of the variable clinical features, but always includes unilateral aplasia of the chest wall muscles and ipsilateral anomalies of upper extremity. The incidence of Poland's syndrome, reported by different authors ranges from 1:10,000 to 1:100,000 and is observed more frequently in males than in females with the right side of the body affected more often than the left. The etiology of this syndrome is still discussed. However most of described cases were sporadic, rare familial incidence of Poland's syndrome were also presented. Therefore different etiologic factors of the Poland's syndrome are taken into account: genetic, vascular compromise during early stages of embriogenesis but also teratogenic effect of environmental xenobiotics (e.g. cigarette smoking by pregnant women). The authors present also the case of 20-years old man with inherited bilateral syndactyly with the right side aplasia of major pectoralis muscle and face asymmetry. The familial history was negative in respect to the features, associated with Poland's syndrome.

  7. The human milk oligosaccharide 2′-fucosyllactose attenuates the severity of experimental necrotising enterocolitis by enhancing mesenteric perfusion in the neonatal intestine

    PubMed Central

    Good, Misty; Sodhi, Chhinder P.; Yamaguchi, Yukihiro; Jia, Hongpeng; Lu, Peng; Fulton, William B.; Martin, Laura Y.; Prindle, Thomas; Nino, Diego F.; Zhou, Qinjie; Ma, Congrong; Ozolek, John A.; Buck, Rachael H.; Goehring, Karen C.; Hackam, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is a common disease in premature infants characterised by intestinal ischaemia and necrosis. The only effective preventative strategy against NEC is the administration of breast milk, although the protective mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesise that an abundant human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) in breast milk, 2′-fucosyllactose (2′FL), protects against NEC by enhancing intestinal mucosal blood flow, and we sought to determine the mechanisms underlying this protection. Administration of HMO-2′FL protected against NEC in neonatal wild-type mice, resulted in a decrease in pro-inflammatory markers and preserved the small intestinal mucosal architecture. These protective effects occurred via restoration of intestinal perfusion through up-regulation of the vasodilatory molecule endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), as administration of HMO-2′FL to eNOS-deficient mice or to mice that received eNOS inhibitors did not protect against NEC, and by 16S analysis HMO-2′FL affected the microbiota of the neonatal mouse gut, although these changes do not seem to be the primary mechanism of protection. Induction of eNOS by HMO-2′FL was also observed in cultured endothelial cells, providing a link between eNOS and HMO in the endothelium. These data demonstrate that HMO-2′FL protects against NEC in part through maintaining mesenteric perfusion via increased eNOS expression, and suggest that the 2′FL found in human milk may be mediating some of the protective benefits of breast milk in the clinical setting against NEC. PMID:27609061

  8. [Gardner syndrome--parent alienation syndrome (PAS). Diagnosis or family reality?].

    PubMed

    Namysłowska, Irena; Heitzman, Janusz; Siewierska, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The authors present characteristics of Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS) proposed by Gardner as well as data, which may help to differentiate that syndrome with real psychological, physical and sexual abuse. The consequences of Gardner Syndrome for legal decisions in the court cases of child custody and the critique of this syndrome in forensic and psychiatric literature are also discussed, and several questions posed. Authors propose to treat Gardner Syndrome not as as a child disorder but as a specific, dynamic family situation, which occurs sometimes, during divorce and fight about child custody.

  9. Protective Role of Angiogenin Against Hematopoietic Syndrome of the Acute Radiation Syndrome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0207 TITLE: “Protective Role of Angiogenin Against Hematopoietic Syndrome of the Acute Radiation Syndrome ...SUBTITLE Protective Role of Angiogenin Against Hematopoietic Syndrome 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER of the Acute Radiation Syndrome 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...hematopoietic syndrome of the acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS) and is able to attenuate the effect of residual bone marrow damage (RBMD) after

  10. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    PubMed

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome.

  11. Lethal pallister-killian syndrome: Phenotypic similarity with fryns syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Ignacio Rodriquez, J.; Garcia, I.; Alvarez, J.

    1994-11-01

    The Pallister-Killian syndrome is a sporadic multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by {open_quotes}coarse{close_quotes} face, profound mental retardation, and epilepsy. Chromosomes of peripheral lymphocytes are usually normal, but tissue cultures show varying degrees of mosaicism for isochromosome 12p. In babies who die neonatally of severe malformations, including diaphragmatic hernia, and who also have a {open_quotes}coarse{close_quotes} face, acral hypoplasia, and other internal anomalies, Fryns syndrome is more likely to be suspected than Pallister-Killian syndrome, especially if karyotyping is unavailable or if peripheral lumphocytes have a normal chromosome constitution. An initial diagnosis of Fryns syndrome had to be modified in 3 successive newbornmore » infants since chromosome analysis or in situ hybridization with a chromosome 12 probe on kidney tissue demonstrated the mosaic aneuploidy characteristic of Pallister-Killian syndrome. These 3 patients confirm that a similar pattern of malformations can be present in both conditions at birth. It consists of {open_quotes}coarse{close_quotes} face, acral hypoplasia, diaphragmatic hernia, and other defects. Newborn infants who present this phenotype, but lack a conclusively normal chromosome test, may not have Fryns syndrome. A diagnosis of Fryns syndrome should be made carefully to avoid the risk of inappropriate genetic counseling. 31 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.« less

  12. Mast Cells in Gastrointestinal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, David B.; Stephen, Sindu; Borum, Marie; Voltaggio, Lysandra

    2010-01-01

    The function of mast cells in allergic inflammatory reactions is well documented in the literature. Mast cells also play an important role in the regulation of gastrointestinal visceral sensitivity and vascular permeability. Several studies have noted an increased number of mast cells in the mucosa of patients with gastrointestinal diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome, mastocytic enterocolitis, and systemic mastocytosis. The role of mast cells in the symptomatology of these and other diseases has only recently been fully appreciated and could provide avenues for new therapeutic opportunities. This paper examines studies that have evaluated the role of mast cells in various gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:21301631

  13. The vaccine-autism connection: a public health crisis caused by unethical medical practices and fraudulent science.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Dennis K

    2011-10-01

    In 1998, Dr. Andrew Wakefield, a British gastroenterologist, described a new autism phenotype called the regressive autism-enterocolitis syndrome triggered by environmental factors such as measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination. The speculative vaccination-autism connection decreased parental confidence in public health vaccination programs and created a public health crisis in England and questions about vaccine safety in North America. After 10 years of controversy and investigation, Dr. Wakefield was found guilty of ethical, medical, and scientific misconduct in the publication of the autism paper. Additional studies showed that the data presented were fraudulent. The alleged autism-vaccine connection is, perhaps, the most damaging medical hoax of the last 100 years.

  14. Marfan Syndrome (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... genetic disorder called Marfan syndrome. What Is Marfan Syndrome? Marfan syndrome is named after Antoine Marfan, the French ... immediately. What's Life Like for Teens With Marfan Syndrome? Marfan syndrome affects people differently, so life is not ...

  15. Swyer-James syndrome associated with Noonan syndrome: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y M; Huang, W L; Hwang, J J; Ko, Y L; Lien, W P

    1995-12-01

    A 28-year-old man with Noonan syndrome associated with unilateral hyperlucent lung is reported. He had the typical craniofacial appearance and short stature of Noonan syndrome; he had mild mental retardation, atrophic testis, mild funnel chest and kyphosis. cardiovascular abnormalities included asymmetric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and a significantly different caliber of the left and right pulmonary arteries. The unilateral hyperlucent lung was shown to result from acquired nondestructive emphysema caused by nonvalvular obstruction of the bronchi (Swyer-James syndrome or Macleod's syndrome). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of Noonan syndrome associated with Swyer-James syndrome.

  16. Divorce in families of children with Down Syndrome or Rett Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lederman, Vivian Renne Gerber; Alves, Bianca dos Santos; Negrão, Juliana; Maria, Juliana Negrão; Schwartzman, José Salomão; D'Antino, Maria Eloisa Famá; Brunoni, Decio

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluates the impact in the stability and management of the marriage of parents of a child with Down or Rett Syndrome. Morbidity of the syndromes and the marital status of the couples before and after the birth of the affected children were considered variables. The divorce rate in families with Down syndrome was 10%, similar to the Brazilian rate population. In Rett Syndrome, the divorce rate was significantly higher, 23.5%. The higher morbidity of Rett Syndrome, and the moment of diagnosis could be relevant factors for the increased divorce rate related to this syndrome.

  17. Optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer with pH sensitive hydrogel film for hazardous gases sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yangzi; Chen, Li Han; Chan, Chi Chiu; Dong, Xinyong; Yang, Jingyi; Tou, Zhi Qiang; So, Ping Lam

    2015-09-01

    An optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) coated with polyvinyl alcohol/poly-acrylic acid (PVA/PAA) hydrogel film for toxic gases measurement has been developed. Splicing a short section of hollow core fiber between two single mode fibers forms the FPI. Dip-coated pH-sensitive PVA/PAA hydrogel film on the fiber end performs as a receptor for binding of volatile acids or ammonia, which makes the sensing film swelling or shrinking and results in the dip wavelength shift of the FPI. By demodulating the evolution of reflection spectrum for various concentrations of volatile acids, a sensitivity of 20.8 nm/ppm is achieved with uniform linearity.

  18. Probiotics feeding in prevention of urinary tract infection, bacterial sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. A prospective double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Dani, Carlo; Biadaioli, Roberto; Bertini, Giovanna; Martelli, Elena; Rubaltelli, Firmino F

    2002-08-01

    It has been suggested that probiotics can reduce the overgrowth of pathogens in the bowels of preterm infants and contribute to the reduction of the incidence of nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Lactobacillus GG supplementation in reducing the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs), bacterial sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants. A double-blind study was conducted in 12 Italian NICUs. Newborn infants with a gestational age <33 weeks or birthweight <1,500 g were randomized to receive standard milk feed supplemented with Lactobacillus GG (Dicoflor), Dicofarm, Rome, Italy) in a dose of 6 x 10(9) colony-forming units (cfu) once a day until discharge, starting with the first feed or placebo. Five hundred eighty-five patients were studied. The probiotics group (n = 295) and the placebo group (n = 290) exhibited similar clinical characteristics. The duration of Lactobacillus GG and placebo supplementation was 47.3 +/- 26.0 and 48.2 +/- 24.3 days, respectively. Although UTIs (3.4 vs. 5.8%) and NEC (1.4 vs. 2.7%) were found less frequently in the probiotic group compared to the control group, these differences were not significant. Bacterial sepsis was more frequent in the probiotics group (4.4%, n = 11) than in the placebo group (3.8%, n = 9), but the difference was not significant. Seven days of Lactobacillus GG supplementation starting with the first feed is not effective in reducing the incidence of UTIs, NEC and sepsis in preterm infants. Further studies are required to confirm our results in lower birthweight populations. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Cost savings of human milk as a strategy to reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Tricia J; Patel, Aloka L; Bigger, Harold R; Engstrom, Janet L; Meier, Paula P

    2015-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a costly morbidity in very low birth weight (VLBW; <1,500 g birth weight) infants that increases hospital length of stay and requires expensive treatments. To evaluate the cost of NEC as a function of dose and exposure period of human milk (HM) feedings received by VLBW infants during the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization and determine the drivers of differences in NICU hospitalization costs for infants with and without NEC. This study included 291 VLBW infants enrolled in an NIH-funded prospective observational cohort study between February 2008 and July 2012. We examined the incidence of NEC, NICU hospitalization cost, and cost of individual resources used during the NICU hospitalization. Twenty-nine (10.0%) infants developed NEC. The average total NICU hospitalization cost (in 2012 USD) was USD 180,163 for infants with NEC and USD 134,494 for infants without NEC (p = 0.024). NEC was associated with a marginal increase in costs of USD 43,818, after controlling for demographic characteristics, risk of NEC, and average daily dose of HM during days 1-14 (p < 0.001). Each additional ml/kg/day of HM during days 1-14 decreased non-NEC-related NICU costs by USD 534 (p < 0.001). Avoidance of formula and use of exclusive HM feedings during the first 14 days of life is an effective strategy to reduce the risk of NEC and resulting NICU costs in VLBW infants. Hospitals investing in initiatives to feed exclusive HM during the first 14 days of life could substantially reduce NEC-related NICU hospitalization costs. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Cost Savings of Human Milk as a Strategy to Reduce the Incidence of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Tricia J.; Patel, Aloka L.; Bigger, Harold R.; Engstrom, Janet L.; Meier, Paula P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a costly morbidity in very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500g birth weight) infants that increases hospital length of stay and requires expensive treatments. Objectives To evaluate the cost of NEC as a function of dose and exposure period of human milk (HM) feedings received by VLBW infants during the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization and determine the drivers of differences in NICU hospitalization costs for infants with and without NEC. Methods This study included 291 VLBW infants enrolled in an NIH-funded prospective observational cohort study between February 2008 and July 2012. We examined the incidence of NEC, NICU hospitalization cost, and cost of individual resources used during the NICU hospitalization. Results Twenty-nine (10.0%) infants developed NEC. The average total NICU hospitalization cost (in 2012 dollars) was $180,163 for infants with NEC and $134,494 for infants without NEC (p=0.024). NEC was associated with a marginal increase in costs of $43,818, after controlling for demographic characteristics, risk of NEC and average daily dose of HM during Days 1–14 (p<0.001). Each additional mL/kg/day of HM during Days 1–14 decreased non-NEC-related NICU costs by $534 (p<0.001). Conclusions Avoidance of formula and use of exclusive HM feedings during the first 14 days of life is an effective strategy to reduce the risk of NEC and resulting NICU costs in VLBW infants. Hospitals investing in initiatives to feed exclusive HM during the first 14 days of life could substantially reduce NEC-related NICU hospitalization costs. PMID:25765818

  1. Basal cell nevus syndrome or Gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thalakoti, Srikanth; Geller, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) or Gorlin syndrome is a rare neurocutaneous syndrome sometimes known as the fifth phacomatosis, inherited in autosomal dominant fashion with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Gorlin syndrome is characterized by development of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), jaw cysts, palmar or plantar pits, calcification of falx cerebri, various developmental skeletal abnormalities such as bifid rib, hemi- or bifid vertebra and predisposition to the development of various tumors. BCNS is caused by a mutation in the PTCH1 gene localized to 9q22.3. Its estimated prevalence varies between 1/55600 and 1/256000 with an equal male to female ratio. The medulloblastoma variant seen in Gorlin syndrome patients is of the desmoplastic type, characteristically presenting during the first 3 years of life. Therefore, children with desmoplastic medulloblastoma should be carefully screened for other features of BCNS. Radiation therapy for desmoplastic medulloblastoma should be avoided in BCNS patients as it may induce development of invasive BCCs and other tumors in the skin area exposed to radiation. This syndrome is a multisystem disorder so involvement of multiple specialists with a multimodal approach to detect and treat various manifestations at early stages will reduce the long-term sequelae and severity of the condition. Life expectancy is not significantly altered but morbidity from complications and cosmetic scarring can be substantial. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Gorlin-goltz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pandeshwar, Padma; Jayanthi, K; Mahesh, D

    2012-01-01

    The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome (GGS) (the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome-NBCCS) is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome caused due to mutations in the PTCH (patched) gene found on chromosome arm 9q. The syndrome, characterized by increased predisposition to develop basal cell carcinoma and associated multiorgan anomalies, has a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. GGS is a multidisciplinary problem, early diagnosis of which allows introduction of secondary prophylaxis and following an appropriate treatment to delay the progress of the syndrome. The following report emphasizes the need for awareness of the diagnostic criteria of this syndrome in cases with no typical skin lesions.

  3. 48 CFR 8.602 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition From Federal Prison Industries, Inc. 8.602 Policy. (a... determine whether the FPI item is comparable to supplies available from the private sector that best meet... item to supplies available from the private sector; (3) If the FPI item is comparable, purchase the...

  4. 28 CFR 345.65 - Inmate medical work limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate medical work limitation. 345.65... PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.65 Inmate medical work... injury sustained by an inmate which necessitates removing the ill worker from an FPI work assignment. If...

  5. 28 CFR 345.59 - Inmate performance pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate performance pay. 345.59 Section... INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.59 Inmate performance pay. Inmate workers for FPI may also receive Inmate Performance Pay for participation in programs where this award is made...

  6. Syndromes with supernumerary teeth.

    PubMed

    Lubinsky, Mark; Kantaputra, Piranit Nik

    2016-10-01

    While most supernumerary teeth are idiopathic, they can be associated with a number of Mendelian syndromes. However, this can also be a coincidental finding, since supernumerary teeth occur in 6% or more of the normal population. To better define this relationship, we analyzed the evidence for specific associations. We excluded conditions with a single affected patient reported, supernumerary teeth adjacent to clefts or other forms of alveolar disruption (as secondary rather than primary findings), and natal teeth, which can involve premature eruption of a normal tooth. Since, the cause of supernumerary teeth shows considerable heterogeneity, certain findings are less likely to be coincidental, such as five or more supernumerary teeth in a single patient, or locations outside of the premaxilla. We found only eight genetic syndromes with strong evidence for an association: cleidocranial dysplasia; familial adenomatous polyposis; trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, type I; Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome; Nance-Horan syndrome; Opitz BBB/G syndrome; oculofaciocardiodental syndrome; and autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome. There is also suggestive evidence of an association with two uncommon disorders, Kreiborg-Pakistani syndrome (craniosynostosis and dental anomalies), and insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus with acanthosisnigricans. An association of a Mendelian disorder with a low frequency manifestation of supernumerary teeth is difficult to exclude without large numbers, but several commonly cited syndromes lacked evidence for clear association, including Hallermann-Streiff syndrome, Fabry disease, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Apert and Crouzon syndromes, Zimmermann-Laband syndrome, and Ellis-van Creveld syndrome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Velocardiofacial Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothelf, Doron; Frisch, Amos; Michaelovsky, Elena; Weizman, Abraham; Shprintzen, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), also known as DiGeorge, conotruncal anomaly face, and Cayler syndromes, is caused by a microdeletion in the long arm of Chromosome 22. We review the history of the syndrome from the first clinical reports almost half a century ago to the current intriguing molecular findings associating genes from the…

  8. Fluency Disorders in Genetic Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Borsel, John; Tetnowski, John A.

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of various genetic syndromes have included "stuttering" as a primary symptom associated with that syndrome. Specifically, Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Tourette syndrome, Neurofibromatosis type I, and Turner syndrome all list "stuttering" as a characteristic of that syndrome. An extensive review of…

  9. The foot posture index in men practicing three sports different in their biomechanical gestures.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Nova, Alfonso; Gómez-Blázquez, Eduardo; Escamilla-Martínez, Elena; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Gijon-Nogueron, Gabriel; Fernández-Seguín, Lourdes María

    2014-03-01

    The technical gestures characteristic of certain sports may lead to one type of foot being more prevalent than the others. The Foot Posture Index (FPI) has been used as a diagnostic tool for support postures in various sports, but the differences in these postures between sports of distinct gestures in their actions are far from completely understood. The overall FPI, obtained as the sum of the scores of its six individual criteria, was determined in 90 male athletes (30 runners, 30 basketball players, and 30 handball players) in static bipedal stance and relaxed position. Analysis of variance was used to find significant differences among the three sports in the total FPI and its six criteria. The mean ± SD FPI was 2.9 ± 2.8 in runners, 3.9 ± 4.1 in basketball players, and -0.4 ± 6.9 in handball players, with significant differences among these groups (P = .008). Significant differences were also found in the talar head position and talonavicular prominence values between handball players and runners (P = .001 and P = .004, respectively) and between handball and basketball players (P = .002 and P = .006, respectively). Runners and basketball players had neutral feet, whereas handball players had supinated feet. The differences in foot posture seem to be mainly determined by two of the FPI criteria: talar head position and talonavicular prominence.

  10. [Münchhausen syndrome].

    PubMed

    Robert, J C; Cremniter, D; Lejonc, J L

    1991-04-20

    Münchhausen's syndrome is characterized by fictitious illnesses associated with hospital peregrination, pseudologia fantastica with a mythomanic discourse that includes strongly structured medical elements, passivity and dependance at examinations, and aggressiveness. The whole picture is so typical that the syndrome can easily be recognized. Cases of Münchhausen's syndrome by proxy (Meadow's syndrome) have been reported during the last few years; the condition concerns children suffering from diseases which are entirely due to their parents and can be compared with the battered child syndrome. In terms of nosology, among pathomimias Münchhausen's syndrome figures as a borderline state. Since it is impossible to establish positive relations with these patients, treatment fails in almost every case.

  11. The Source for Syndromes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Gail J.; Hoge, Debra Reichert

    Designed for practicing speech-language pathologists, this book discusses different syndrome disabilities, pertinent speech-language characteristics, and goals and strategies to begin intervention efforts at a preschool level. Chapters address: (1) Angelman syndrome; (2) Asperger syndrome; (3) Down syndrome; (4) fetal alcohol syndrome; (5) fetal…

  12. Facilities Performance Indicators Report, 2006-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazner, Steve, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The "Facilities Performance Indicators Survey" ("FPI") supersedes and builds upon the two major surveys APPA conducted in the past: the Comparative Costs and Staffing (CCAS) survey and the Strategic Assessment Model (SAM). The "FPI" covers all the materials collected in CCAS and SAM, along with some select new data points and improved survey…

  13. 28 CFR 345.56 - Vacation pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vacation pay. 345.56 Section 345.56... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.56 Vacation pay. Inmate workers are granted FPI vacation pay by the SOI when their continued good work performance justifies such pay, based on...

  14. 28 CFR 345.58 - Holiday pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holiday pay. 345.58 Section 345.58... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.58 Holiday pay. An inmate worker in FPI work status shall receive pay at the standard hourly rate, plus longevity where applicable, for all Federal...

  15. The 22q13.3 Deletion Syndrome (Phelan-McDermid Syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, K.; McDermid, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    The 22q13.3 deletion syndrome, also known as Phelan-McDermid syndrome, is a contiguous gene disorder resulting from deletion of the distal long arm of chromosome 22. In addition to normal growth and a constellation of minor dysmorphic features, this syndrome is characterized by neurological deficits which include global developmental delay, moderate to severe intellectual impairment, absent or severely delayed speech, and neonatal hypotonia. In addition, more than 50% of patients show autism or autistic-like behavior, and therefore it can be classified as a syndromic form of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The differential diagnosis includes Angelman syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome, fragile X syndrome, and FG syndrome. Over 600 cases of 22q13.3 deletion syndrome have been documented. Most are terminal deletions of ∼100 kb to >9 Mb, resulting from simple deletions, ring chromosomes, and unbalanced translocations. Almost all of these deletions include the gene SHANK3 which encodes a scaffold protein in the postsynaptic densities of excitatory synapses, connecting membrane-bound receptors to the actin cytoskeleton. Two mouse knockout models and cell culture experiments show that SHANK3 is involved in the structure and function of synapses and support the hypothesis that the majority of 22q13.3 deletion syndrome neurological defects are due to haploinsufficiency of SHANK3, although other genes in the region may also play a role in the syndrome. The molecular connection to ASD suggests that potential future treatments may involve modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptors. PMID:22670140

  16. Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (Shoenfeld's syndrome) - An update.

    PubMed

    Watad, A; Quaresma, M; Brown, S; Cohen Tervaert, J W; Rodríguez-Pint, I; Cervera, R; Perricone, C; Shoenfeld, Y

    2017-06-01

    Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) has been widely described in many studies conducted thus far. The syndrome incorporates five immune-mediated conditions, all associated with previous exposure to various agents such as vaccines, silicone implants and several others. The emergence of ASIA syndrome is associated with individual genetic predisposition, for instance those carrying HLA-DRB1*01 or HLA-DRB4 and results from exposure to external or endogenous factors triggering autoimmunity. Such factors have been demonstrated as able to induce autoimmunity in both animal models and humans via a variety of proposed mechanisms. In recent years, physicians have become more aware of the existence of ASIA syndrome and the relationship between adjuvants exposure and autoimmunity and more cases are being reported. Accordingly, we have created a registry that includes at present more than 300 ASIA syndrome cases that have been reported by different physicians worldwide, describing various autoimmune conditions induced by diverse adjuvants. In this review, we have summarized the updated literature on ASIA syndrome and the knowledge accumulated since 2013 in order to elucidate the association between the exposure to various adjuvant agents and its possible clinical manifestations. Furthermore, we especially referred to the relationship between ASIA syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS).

  17. Neuroligins Provide Molecular Links Between Syndromic and Non-Syndromic Autism

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sandeep K.; Eroglu, Cagla

    2014-01-01

    Autism is a common and heritable neuropsychiatric disorder that can be categorized into two types: syndromic and non-syndromic, the former of which are associated with other neurological disorders or syndromes. Molecular and functional links between syndromic and non-syndromic autism genes were lacking until studies aimed at understanding role of trans-synaptic adhesion molecule neuroligin, which is associated with non-syndromic autism, provided important connections. Here, we integrate data from these studies into a model of how neuroligin functions to control synaptic connectivity in the central nervous system and how neuroligin dysfunction may participate in the pathophysiology of autism. Understanding the complex functional interactions between neuroligins and other autism-associated proteins at the synapse is crucial to understand the pathology of autism. This understanding might bring us closer to development of therapeutic approaches for autism. PMID:23838185

  18. [Prevalence of metabolic syndrome components in patients with acute coronary syndromes].

    PubMed

    Zaliūnas, Remigijus; Slapikas, Rimvydas; Luksiene, Dalia; Slapikiene, Birute; Statkeviciene, Audrone; Milvidaite, Irena; Gustiene, Olivija

    2008-01-01

    Many studies report that the components of the metabolic syndrome--arterial hypertension, abdominal obesity, diabetes mellitus, and atherogenic dyslipidemia--are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the prevalence of different components of the metabolic syndrome and frequency of their combinations and acute hyperglycemia among patients with acute coronary syndromes. The study population consisted of 2756 patients (1670 men and 1086 women with a mean age of 63.3+/-11.3 years) with acute coronary syndromes: Q-wave myocardial infarction was present in 41.8% of patients; non-Q-wave MI, in 30.7%; and unstable angina pectoris, in 27.5%. The metabolic syndrome was found in 59.6% of the patients according to modified NCEP III guidelines. One component of the metabolic syndrome was found in 13.5% of patients; two, in 23.0%; and none, in 3.9%. Less than one-third (29.2%) of the patients had three components of the metabolic syndrome, and 30.4% of the patients had four or five components. Arterial hypertension and abdominal obesity were the most common components of the metabolic syndrome (82.2% and 65.8%, respectively). Nearly half of the patients had hypertriglyceridemia and decreased level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (55.0% and 51.1%, respectively), and 23.9% of patients had diabetes mellitus. Acute hyperglycemia (> or =6.1 mmol/L) without known diabetes mellitus was found in 38.1% of cases. The combination of arterial hypertension and abdominal obesity was reported in 57.8% of patients in the case of combinations of two-five metabolic syndrome components. More than half of patients with acute coronary syndromes had three or more components of the metabolic syndrome, and arterial hypertension and abdominal obesity were the most prevalent components of the metabolic syndrome.

  19. Are Numerical Impairments Syndrome Specific? Evidence from Williams Syndrome and Down's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Sarah J.; Girelli, Luisa; Butterworth, Brian; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2006-01-01

    Background: Several theorists maintain that exact number abilities rely on language-relevant processes whereas approximate number calls on visuo-spatial skills. We chose two genetic disorders, Williams syndrome and Down's syndrome, which differ in their relative abilities in verbal versus spatial skills, to examine this hypothesis. Five…

  20. Reye syndrome - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - Reye syndrome ... The following organizations are good resources for information on Reye Syndrome : National Reye's Syndrome Foundation, Inc. -- www.reyessyndrome.org National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke -- www. ...

  1. Toxic shock syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; Toxic shock-like syndrome; TSLS ... Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock- ...

  2. Eosinophilic leukocytoclastic vasculitis - a spectrum ranging from Wells' syndrome to Churg-Strauss syndrome?

    PubMed

    Ratzinger, Gudrun; Zankl, Julia; Eisendle, Klaus; Zelger, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Wells' syndrome is defined as an inflammatory disorder with the histopathological presence of eosinophilic infiltrates and flame figures in the absence of vasculitis. Eosinophilic leukocytoclastic vasculitis shows eosinophilic infiltrates in combination with vasculitic changes. And Churg Strauss Syndrome comprises all three characteristics - eosinophilic infiltrates, vasculitis and flame figures. To determine whether these three diseases are distinct entities or different manifestations of a similar clinicopathologic process. Histopathological samples and clinical courses of 17 patients with eosinophilic infiltrates, flame figures and clinical features of Wells' syndrome were re-evaluated. Histopathologically, we focused on the presence or absence of vasculitic features. Clinically, we included only patients who were diagnosed with Wells' syndrome at least once in the course of their disease. 4 patients were finally diagnosed with Wells' syndrome, 5 with eosinophilic leukocytoclastic vasculitis and 6 with Churg Strauss syndrome. Further, we had one case of an overlap between Wells' syndrome and eosinophilic vasculitis and one case of Wegener granulomatosis. Vasculitic features were found in the samples of all patients. Histologically, we find vasculitic features in typical presentations of Wells' syndrome. Clinically, we find typical features of Wells' syndrome in patients finally diagnosed with eosinophilic leukocytoclastic vasculitis or Churg Strauss syndrome. Furthermore, we have observed and formerly reported 3 patients with progression from Wells' syndrome to Churg Strauss syndrome. Thus, we assume that eosinophilic leukocytoclastic vasculitis might form a bridge between Wells' syndrome and Churg Strauss syndrome.

  3. Management of moyamoya syndrome in patients with Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mihir; Choudhri, Omar A; Feroze, Abdullah H; Do, Huy M; Grant, Gerald A; Steinberg, Gary K

    2016-06-01

    A few isolated reports have described an association between Noonan syndrome and cerebrovascular abnormalities, including moyamoya syndrome. These reports have been limited to pediatric patients presenting with recurrent transient ischemic attacks (TIA) or headaches. Management has primarily been pharmacologic, with only one prior report of surgical revascularization to our knowledge. We report four cases of Noonan syndrome patients presenting with headaches and/or sensorimotor strokes in childhood that caused unilateral sensorimotor impairment. Cerebral angiography and MRI revealed bilateral moyamoya syndrome. All patients underwent successful bilateral extracranial-to-intracranial revascularization. The first patient was a 10-year-old girl who presented following a hemorrhagic stroke and recovered well after indirect bypass. The second patient was an adult with a history of childhood stroke whose symptoms progressed in adulthood. She underwent a direct bypass and improved, but continued to experience TIA at her 4 year follow-up. The third patient was a 7-year-old girl with headaches and a new onset TIA who failed pharmacological therapy and subsequently underwent bilateral indirect bypass. The fourth patient was a 24-year-old woman with worsening headaches and an occluded left middle cerebral artery from unilateral moyamoya syndrome. A left sided direct bypass was completed given delayed MRI perfusion with poor augmentation. To our knowledge these are the first reported surgical cases of combined Noonan and moyamoya syndrome. These cases highlight the need to recognize moyamoya syndrome in patients with Noonan syndrome. Early surgical revascularization should be pursued in order to prevent symptom progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Polycystic ovary syndrome and metabolic syndrome: the worrisome twosome?

    PubMed

    Shah, D; Rasool, S

    2016-01-01

    By virtue of insulin resistance being the common etiology for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and metabolic syndrome, the cardiometabolic risks of these two syndromes are shared. The usual concerns of a PCOS patient are cosmetic or reproductive. However, there are more serious concerns past the reproductive age. Early treatment of insulin resistance, hypertension and hyperlipidemia reduces the long-term risk. This review highlights the unhealthy association of metabolic syndrome with PCOS and emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis, patient education and long-term follow-up beyond the reproductive age into menopause to prevent the long-term serious co-morbidities.

  5. Peak height of OH airglow derived from simultaneous observations a Fabry-Perot interferometer and a meteor radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Tao; Zuo, Xiaomin; Xia, Chunliang; Li, Mingyuan; Huang, Cong; Mao, Tian; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Zhao, Biqiang; Liu, Libo

    2017-04-01

    A new method for estimating daily averaged peak height of the OH airglow layer from a ground-based meteor radar (MR) and a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) is presented. The first results are derived from 4 year simultaneous measurements of winds by a MR and a FPI at two adjacent stations over center China and are compared with observations from the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics/Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument. The OH airglow peak heights, which are derived by using correlation analysis between winds of the FPI and MR, are found to generally peak at an altitude of 87 km and frequently varied between 80 km and 90 km day to day. In comparison with SABER OH 1.6 μm observations, reasonable similarity of airglow peak heights is found, and rapid day-to-day variations are also pronounced. Lomb-Scargle analysis is used to determine cycles of temporal variations of airglow peak heights, and there are obvious periodic variations both in our airglow peak heights and in the satellite observations. In addition to the annual, semiannual, monthly, and three monthly variations, the shorter time variations, e.g., day-to-day and several days' variations, are also conspicuous. The day-to-day variations of airglow height obviously could reduce observation accuracy and lead to some deviations in FPI measurements. These FPI wind deviations arising from airglow height variations are also estimated to be about 3-5 m/s from 2011 to 2015, with strong positive correlation with airglow peak height variation. More attention should be paid to the wind deviations associated with airglow height variation when using and interpreting winds measured by FPI.

  6. Contributions of foot muscles and plantar fascia morphology to foot posture.

    PubMed

    Angin, Salih; Mickle, Karen J; Nester, Christopher J

    2018-03-01

    The plantar foot muscles and plantar fascia differ between different foot postures. However, how each individual plantar structure contribute to foot posture has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between static foot posture and morphology of plantar foot muscles and plantar fascia and thus the contributions of these structures to static foot posture. A total of 111 participants were recruited, 43 were classified as having pes planus and 68 as having normal foot posture using Foot Posture Index assessment tool. Images from the flexor digitorum longus (FDL), flexor hallucis longus (FHL), peroneus longus and brevis (PER), flexor hallucis brevis (FHB), flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) and abductor hallucis (AbH) muscles, and the calcaneal (PF1), middle (PF2) and metatarsal (PF3) regions of the plantar fascia were obtained using a Venue 40 ultrasound system with a 5-13 MHz transducer. In order of decreasing contribution, PF3 > FHB > FHL > PER > FDB were all associated with FPI and able to explain 69% of the change in FPI scores. PF3 was the highest contributor explaining 52% of increases in FPI score. Decreased thickness was associated with increased FPI score. Smaller cross sectional area (CSA) in FHB and PER muscles explained 20% and 8% of increase in FPI score. Larger CSA of FDB and FHL muscles explained 4% and 14% increase in FPI score respectively. The medial plantar structures and the plantar fascia appear to be the major contributors to static foot posture. Elucidating the individual contribution of multiple muscles of the foot could provide insight about their role in the foot posture. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Fat embolism syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stein, Paul D; Yaekoub, Abdo Y; Matta, Fadi; Kleerekoper, Michael

    2008-12-01

    To assess the incidence and risk factors for fat embolism syndrome. Data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) were analyzed using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. From 1979 through 2005 among 928,324,000 patients discharged from short-stay hospitals in the United States, 41,000 (0.004%) had fat embolism syndrome. Among 21,538,000 patients with an isolated fracture of the femur (any site), tibia, fibula, pelvis, ribs, humerus, radius, or ulna, 25,000 (0.12%) developed fat embolism syndrome. Patients with multiple fractures of the femur (excluding neck) more often had fat embolism syndrome than those with isolated fractures (1.29% versus 0.54%). The incidence of fat embolism syndrome was lower with isolated fractures of the tibia or fibula (0.30%) and even lower with isolated fractures of the neck of the femur (0.06%). The incidence of fat embolism was too low to calculate with isolated fractures of the pelvis, ribs, humerus, radius, or ulna. Nonorthopedic conditions rarely, if ever, were accompanied by fat embolism syndrome. The fat embolism syndrome was more frequent in men (relative risk 5.71). Children, aged 0 to 9 years rarely had fat embolism syndrome. The fat embolism syndrome most commonly affected patients aged 10 to 39 years. The incidence of the fat embolism syndrome depends on the bone involved, whether fractures are isolated or multiple, the age of the patient and the gender. It rarely occurs as a result of medical conditions.

  8. Recurrent Fever Syndromes in Patients After Recovery From Kawasaki Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tremoulet, Adriana H.; Burns, Jane C.; Bastian, John F.; Hoffman, Hal M.

    2011-01-01

    The recurrence of fever in a child with a history of Kawasaki syndrome (KS) poses a dilemma for clinicians who must consider the possibility of recurrent KS. In this report we present the cases of 4 patients who presented with classical symptoms of KS, were successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulin, and later experienced a reappearance of inflammatory symptoms in a pattern consistent with a recurrent fever syndrome. The association of these syndromes within the same patient suggests that some patients may have a genetic propensity toward altered immune responses and autoinflammatory syndromes. We propose that these 2 syndromes exist within a family of febrile disorders related to innate immune dysregulation. PMID:21220401

  9. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Steven Q; Spikes, Leslie; Patel, Saurin; Faruqi, Ibrahim

    2010-03-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, also known as hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome, is a recently described infectious syndrome found throughout the Americas. Although infection is sporadic and uncommon compared with other atypical pneumonia syndromes, its high mortality rate warrants the maintenance of a high index of suspicion in rural settings. Because no specific therapies are available for the disease, prevention and early recognition play an important role in reducing mortality from the disease. This article reviews the nature of the viruses that cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, the epidemiology and ecology of disease transmission, and disease recognition, treatment, and prevention. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fat embolism syndrome

    PubMed Central

    George, Jacob; George, Reeba; Dixit, R.; Gupta, R. C.; Gupta, N.

    2013-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome is an often overlooked cause of breathlessness in trauma wards. Presenting in a wide range of clinical signs of varying severity, fat embolism is usually diagnosed by a physician who keeps a high degree of suspicion. The clinical background, chronology of symptoms and corroborative laboratory findings are instrumental in a diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. There are a few diagnostic criteria which are helpful in making a diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. Management is mainly prevention of fat embolism syndrome, and organ supportive care. Except in fulminant fat embolism syndrome, the prognosis is usually good. PMID:23661916

  11. Hypersonic force measurements using internal balance based on optical micromachined Fabry-Perot interferometry.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Huacheng; Min, Fu; Zhong, Shaolong; Song, Xin; Yang, Yanguang

    2018-03-01

    Force measurements using wind tunnel balance are necessary for determining a variety of aerodynamic performance parameters, while the harsh environment in hypersonic flows requires that the measurement instrument should be reliable and robust, in against strong electromagnetic interference, high vacuum, or metal (oxide) dusts. In this paper, we demonstrated a three-component internal balance for hypersonic aerodynamic force measurements, using novel optical micromachined Fabry-Perot interferometric (FPI) strain gauges as sensing elements. The FPI gauges were fabricated using Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MOEMS) surface and bulk fabrication techniques. High-reflectivity coatings are used to form a high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity, which benefits a high resolution. Antireflective and passivation coatings are used to reduce unwanted interferences. The FPI strain gauge based balance has been calibrated and evaluated in a Mach 5 hypersonic flow. The results are compared with the traditional technique using the foil resistive strain gauge balance, indicating that the proposed balance based on the MOEMS FPI strain gauge is reliable and robust and is potentially suitable for the hypersonic wind tunnel harsh environment.

  12. High-sensitivity and large-dynamic-range refractive index sensors employing weak composite Fabry-Perot cavities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pengcheng; Shu, Xuewen; Cao, Haoran; Sugden, Kate

    2017-08-15

    Most sensors face a common trade-off between high sensitivity and a large dynamic range. We demonstrate here an all-fiber refractometer based on a dual-cavity Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) that possesses the advantage of both high sensitivity and a large dynamic range. Since the two composite cavities have a large cavity length difference, one can observe both fine and coarse fringes, which correspond to the long cavity and the short cavity, respectively. The short-cavity FPI and the use of an intensity demodulation method mean that the individual fine fringe dips correspond to a series of quasi-continuous highly sensitive zones for refractive index measurement. By calculating the parameters of the composite FPI, we find that the range of the ultra-sensitive zones can be considerably adjusted to suit the end requirements. The experimental trends are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. The co-existence of high sensitivity and a large dynamic range in a composite FPI is of great significance to practical RI measurements.

  13. Hypersonic force measurements using internal balance based on optical micromachined Fabry-Perot interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Huacheng; Min, Fu; Zhong, Shaolong; Song, Xin; Yang, Yanguang

    2018-03-01

    Force measurements using wind tunnel balance are necessary for determining a variety of aerodynamic performance parameters, while the harsh environment in hypersonic flows requires that the measurement instrument should be reliable and robust, in against strong electromagnetic interference, high vacuum, or metal (oxide) dusts. In this paper, we demonstrated a three-component internal balance for hypersonic aerodynamic force measurements, using novel optical micromachined Fabry-Perot interferometric (FPI) strain gauges as sensing elements. The FPI gauges were fabricated using Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MOEMS) surface and bulk fabrication techniques. High-reflectivity coatings are used to form a high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity, which benefits a high resolution. Antireflective and passivation coatings are used to reduce unwanted interferences. The FPI strain gauge based balance has been calibrated and evaluated in a Mach 5 hypersonic flow. The results are compared with the traditional technique using the foil resistive strain gauge balance, indicating that the proposed balance based on the MOEMS FPI strain gauge is reliable and robust and is potentially suitable for the hypersonic wind tunnel harsh environment.

  14. What Is Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... or rheumatic (ru-MAT-ik) disorders, such as lupus . ("Rheumatic" refers to disorders that affect the joints, ... aCL syndrome Antiphospholipid syndrome aPL syndrome Hughes syndrome Lupus anticoagulant syndrome Causes Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) occurs ...

  15. Proteus syndrome*

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Ritha de Cássia Capelato; Estrella, Mariani Paulino Soriano; do Amaral, Danielle Mechereffe; Barbosa, Angela Marques; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado

    2017-01-01

    Proteus syndrome is a rare syndrome characterized by disproportionate overgrowth of limbs, multiple hamartomas, and vascular malformations. The cerebriform connective tissue nevi, also called cerebriform plantar hyperplasia, are present in most patients, and is the main characteristic of the syndrome. If present, even alone, they can be considered as a pathognomonic sign. This article reports a classic case of Proteus syndrome in a 2-year-old male patient who began to show a discrete asymmetry of the right hemibody in relation to the left one after birth, which increased over the months. He also showed cerebriform plantar hyperplasia and Port-wine stains, among other alterations. PMID:29166516

  16. An incidental enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis pattern is seen commonly in the rectal stump of patients with diversion colitis superimposed on inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Chetty, R; Hafezi, S; Montgomery, E

    2009-05-01

    Enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis (ELP) is an uncommon cause of bowel pathology and most frequently results in ischaemia. It is characterised by an artery-sparing, venulocentric lymphoid infiltrate that causes a phlebitis and vascular compromise. Rare cases of ELP have been encountered with lymphocytic colitis in the absence of ischaemic bowel change. The present study examined the occurrence of ELP in the setting of diversion colitis and inflammatory bowel disease, as well as in random colectomy specimens. The study cohort comprised the following: 26 completion proctectomy specimens for ulcerative colitis with superimposed diversion colitis in the rectal stump; 3 colectomy specimens for Crohn disease with diversion colitis; 6 colectomy specimens for adenocarcinoma and/or diverticular disease with diversion colitis; 34 resection specimens with ulcerative colitis only; 19 with Crohn disease only; and 100 random colon resection specimens for adenocarcinoma, adenoma, diverticular disease and ischaemia. ELP was present in 18 of the 26 ulcerative colitis cases with diversion colitis, 3/3 Crohn disease cases with diversion colitis, 1/6 cases of diverticular disease with diversion colitis, 6/34 cases of ulcerative colitis without diversion, 2/19 Crohn disease cases without diversion colitis, and only 1 of 100 colectomy cases without inflammatory bowel disease or diversion colitis. ELP occurs most frequently in cases that have been diverted for inflammatory bowel disease. Fewer cases of ELP were noted in cases of inflammatory bowel disease in the absence of diversion colitis. It is postulated that altered bowel flora and immune dysregulation may be pivotal in the causation of this association.

  17. Gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Devi, Basanti; Behera, Binodini; Patro, Sibasish; Pattnaik, Subhransu S; Puhan, Manas R

    2013-05-01

    Gorlin Syndrome, a rare genodermatosis, otherwise known as Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is a multisystem disease affecting skin, nervous system, eyes, endocrine glands, and bones. It is characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, palmoplantar pits, jaw cysts, and bony deformities like kyphoscoliosis and frontal bossing. We would like to report a case of Gorlin syndrome with classical features, as this is a rare genodermatosis.

  18. Fluency disorders in genetic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Van Borsel, John; Tetnowski, John A

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of various genetic syndromes have included "stuttering" as a primary symptom associated with that syndrome. Specifically, Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Tourette syndrome, Neurofibromatosis type I, and Turner syndrome all list "stuttering" as a characteristic of that syndrome. An extensive review of these syndromes indicated clients diagnosed with these syndromes do show evidence of nonfluency patterns, but not all would be considered stuttering. Many of the syndromes are marked by degrees of mental retardation that probably contribute to a higher than average prevalence of stuttering, as well as a higher than average prevalence of other fluency disorders (when compared to the population at large). An in-depth analysis of the available data indicates that some of these genetic syndromes show patterns of stuttering that may be indicative of only that syndrome (or similar syndromes) that can be differentially diagnosed from developmental stuttering. Among these patterns are the word-final nonfluencies noted in Prader-Willi syndrome; the presence of stuttering in the absence of secondary behaviors noted in Prader-Willi syndrome and; the presence of palilalia, word-final and word-medial nonfluencies, and word-medial and word-final nonfluencies in Tourette syndrome. Implications for future research are discussed in light of these findings. The reader will be able to: (1) describe the various different genetic syndromes that are associated with fluency disorders; (2) describe the types of nonfluencies that are associated with the major types of genetic syndromes that have fluency disorders; (3) describe the behaviors that may assist in differentially diagnosing different types of speech characteristics associated with various genetic syndromes.

  19. Learning about WAGR Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... children who have WAGR syndrome may have normal intelligence. Other symptoms of WAGR syndrome may also include: ... mild. Some individuals with WAGR syndrome have normal intelligence. Children with WAGR syndrome should be referred for ...

  20. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    NBCC syndrome; Gorlin-Goltz syndrome; Basal cell nevus syndrome; BCNS; Basal cell cancer - nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome ... Nevoid basal cell carcinoma nevus syndrome is a rare genetic condition. The gene linked to the syndrome is known as PTCH (" ...

  1. Toxic Shock Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... toxic shock syndrome results from toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus (staph) bacteria, but the condition may also be ... a skin or wound infection. Causes Most commonly, Staphylococcus aureus (staph) bacteria cause toxic shock syndrome. The syndrome ...

  2. Turner Syndrome: Other FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other FAQs Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Turner Syndrome: Other FAQs Basic information for topics, such as " ... been diagnosed with Turner syndrome. Now what? Is Turner syndrome inherited? Turner syndrome is usually not inherited, but ...

  3. Bardet-Biedl syndrome and Usher syndrome.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Rainer

    2003-01-01

    Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) and Usher syndrome (USH) are the most prevalent syndromic forms of retinitis pigmentosa (RP), together they make up almost a quarter of the patients with RP. BBS is defined by the association of retinopathy, obesity, hypogonadism, renal dysfunction, postaxial polydactyly and mental retardation. This clinically complex syndrome is genetically heterogeneous with linkage to more than 6 loci, and 4 genes have been cloned so far. Recent molecular data present evidence that, in some instances, the clinical manifestation of BBS requires recessive mutations in 1 of the 6 BBS loci plus one or two additional mutations in a second BBS locus (tri- or tetra-allelic inheritance). USH is characterized by the combination of congenital or early-onset sensorineural deafness, RP, and variable degrees of vestibular dysfunction. Each of the three clinical types is genetically heterogeneous: 7 loci have been mapped for type 1, three loci for type 2, and two loci for type 3. Currently, 6 USH genes (MYO7A, USH1C, CDH23, PCDH15, USH2A, USH3) have been identified. Pathogenetically, mutations of the USH1 genes seem to result in defects of auditory and retinal sensory cells, the USH 2 phenotype is caused by defects of extracellular matrix or cell surface receptor proteins, and USH3 may be due to synaptic disturbances. The considerable contribution of syndromic forms of RP requires interdisciplinary approaches to the clinical and diagnostic management of RP patients.

  4. Munchausen syndrome and Munchausen syndrome by proxy in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Alan S; Ritchie, Coleman; Likhari, Sunaina

    2014-08-01

    Patients with Munchausen syndrome purposefully injure themselves, often with the injection of foreign materials, to gain hospital admission and the attention associated with having a difficult-to-identify condition. Munchausen syndrome by proxy occurs when a child's caregiver, typically the mother, injures the child for the same reasons. Cases of Munchausen syndrome and Munchausen syndrome by proxy with primary cutaneous involvement appear to be rarely described in the literature suggesting either that diagnosis is not made readily or that it is, in fact, an uncommon disorder. At the center of both conditions is significant psychological pathology and treatment is difficult as many patients with Munchausen syndrome when confronted with these diagnostic possibilities simply leave the hospital. Little is known about the long-term outcome or prognosis of these patients. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of a Gestational Age-Specific Case Definition for Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Battersby, Cheryl; Longford, Nick; Costeloe, Kate; Modi, Neena

    2017-03-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Preventive and therapeutic research, surveillance, and quality improvement initiatives are hindered by variations in case definitions. To develop a gestational age (GA)-specific case definition for NEC. We conducted a prospective 34-month population study using clinician-recorded findings from the UK National Neonatal Research Database between December 2011 and September 2014 across all 163 neonatal units in England. We split study data into model development and validation data sets and categorized GA into groups (group 1, less than 26 weeks' GA; group 2, 26 to less than 30 weeks' GA; group 3, 30 to less than 37 weeks' GA; group 4, 37 or more weeks' GA). We entered GA, birth weight z score, and clinical and abdominal radiography findings as candidate variables in a logistic regression model, performed model fitting 1000 times, averaged the predictions, and used estimates from the fitted model to develop an ordinal NEC score and cut points to develop a dichotomous case definition based on the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curves [AUCs] and positive predictive values [PPVs]. Abdominal radiography performed to investigate clinical concerns. Ordinal NEC likelihood score, dichotomous case definition, and GA-specific probability plots. Of the 3866 infants, the mean (SD) birth weight was 2049.1 (1941.7) g and mean (SD) GA was 32 (5) weeks; 2032 of 3663 (55.5%) were male. The total included 2978 infants (77.0%) without NEC and 888 (23.0%) with NEC. Infants with NEC in group 1 were less likely to present with pneumatosis (31.1% vs 47.2%; P = .01), blood in stool (11.8% vs 29.6%; P < .001), or mucus in stool (2.1% vs 5.6%; P = .048) but more likely to present with gasless abdominal radiography findings (6.3% vs 0.9%; P = .009) compared with infants with NEC in group 3. In the ordinal NEC score analysis, we allocated 3 points to pneumatosis, 2

  6. National Down Syndrome Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... individuals with Down syndrome. Help us fix the law and end #LawSyndrome. Law Syndrome affects 100% of people with Down syndrome. It’s a series of antiquated laws that impede the pursuit of a career or ...

  7. Angelman Syndrome: Genetic Mechanisms and Relationship to Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Arabella

    1994-01-01

    Research points to two distinct regions within the Prader-Willi chromosome region: one for Prader Willi syndrome and one for Angelman syndrome. Genetic mechanisms in Angelman syndrome are complex, and at present, three mechanisms are recognized: maternal deletion, paternal uniparental disomy, and a nondeleted nondisomic form. (Author/JDD)

  8. Dangerous triplet: Polycystic ovary syndrome, oral contraceptives and Kounis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Erol, Nurdan; Karaagac, Aysu Turkmen; Kounis, Nicholas G

    2014-12-26

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, androgen excess and polycystic ovaries and is associated with hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular events. Oral contraceptives constitute first-line treatment, particularly when symptomatic hyperandrogenism is present. However, these drugs are associated with cardiovascular events and hypersensitivity reactions that pose problem in differential diagnosis and therapy. We present a 14 year-old female with polycystic ovary syndrome taking oral contraceptive and suffering from recurrent coronary ischemic attacks with increased eosinophils, and troponin levels suggesting Kounis syndrome.

  9. 28 CFR 345.51 - Inmate pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate pay. 345.51 Section 345.51... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.51 Inmate pay. (a) Grade levels. Inmate workers in FPI locations receive pay at five levels ranging from 5th grade pay (lowest) to 1st grade pay...

  10. Fast Plasma Instrument for MMS: Data Compression Simulation Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrie, A.; Adrian, Mark L.; Yeh, P.-S.; Winkert, G. E.; Lobell, J. V.; Vinas, A.F.; Simpson, D. J.; Moore, T. E.

    2008-01-01

    Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission will study small-scale reconnection structures and their rapid motions from closely spaced platforms using instruments capable of high angular, energy, and time resolution measurements. To meet these requirements, the Fast Plasma Instrument (FPI) consists of eight (8) identical half top-hat electron sensors and eights (8) identical ion sensors and an Instrument Data Processing Unit (IDPU). The sensors (electron or ion) are grouped into pairs whose 6 deg x 180 deg fields-of-view (FOV) are set 90 deg apart. Each sensor is equipped with electrostatic aperture steering to allow the sensor to scan a 45 deg x 180 deg fan about its nominal viewing (0 deg deflection) direction. Each pair of sensors, known as the Dual Electron Spectrometer (DES) and the Dual Ion Spectrometer (DIS), occupies a quadrant on the MMS spacecraft and the combination of the eight electron/ion sensors, employing aperture steering, image the full-sky every 30-ms (electrons) and 150-ms (ions), respectively. To probe the results in the DES complement of a given spacecraft generating 6.5-Mbs(exp -1) of electron data while the DIS generates 1.1-Mbs(exp -1) of ion data yielding an FPI total data rate of 6.6-MBs(exp -1). The FPI electron/ion data is collected by the IDPU then transmitted to the Central Data Instrument Processor (CIDP) on the spacecraft for science interest ranking. Only data sequences that contain the greatest amount of temporal/spatial structure will be intelligently down-linked by the spacecraft. Currently, the FPI data rate allocation to the CIDP is 1.5-Mbs(exp -1). Consequently, the FPI-IDPU must employ data/image compression to meet this CIDP telemetry allocation. Here, we present simulations of the CCSDS 122.0-B-1 algorithm-based compression of the FPI-DES electron data. Compression analysis is based upon a seed of re-processed Cluster/PEACE electron measurements. Topics to be discussed include: review of compression algorithm; data quality

  11. ["Refuse hoarding syndrome"].

    PubMed

    Jürgens, A

    2000-01-01

    The "litter hoarding syndrome" is described only occasionally during the past decades. It seems to be rather unknown in the psychiatric literature. In the course of the syndrome the patients gather more and more litter in their homes until it becomes unhabitable. Physicians and social psychiatric services are often confronted with this manifestation of a psychiatric illness. Because of the dramatic development, the extent and the specific circumstances this paper reports case of a young female patient with the litter hoarding syndrome. The term "litter hoarding syndrome" was first coined by Dettmering [3] during a lecture on 25.1.1984 in the Psychiatric Clinic of the Eppendorf University Hospital in Hamburg. In 1985 Klosterkötter et al. [7] described the "diogenes syndrome" which offered some nosological similarities. With the exception of this publications an the PhD thesis by Pastenaci [11] only a few reports have been published during the last 28 years throughout the world and no epidemiological data about the syndrome can be found. Based on this case some ideas about differential diagnosis and syndrome classification shall be presented.

  12. Psychological Well-Being of Mothers of Youth with Fragile X Syndrome: Syndrome Specificity and within-Syndrome Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, P.; Abbeduto, L.; Murphy, M.; Richmond, E.; Giles, N.; Bruno, L.; Schroeder, S.; Anderson, J.; Orsmond, G.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Research on parental well-being has focused largely on Down syndrome and autism; however, fragile X syndrome is likely to pose different challenges for parents compared with these other diagnostic conditions. Moreover, there is considerable variability among youth with fragile X syndrome; for example, 25% to 33% of affected youth meet…

  13. Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pandeshwar, Padma; Jayanthi, K.; Mahesh, D.

    2012-01-01

    The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome (GGS) (the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome—NBCCS) is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome caused due to mutations in the PTCH (patched) gene found on chromosome arm 9q. The syndrome, characterized by increased predisposition to develop basal cell carcinoma and associated multiorgan anomalies, has a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. GGS is a multidisciplinary problem, early diagnosis of which allows introduction of secondary prophylaxis and following an appropriate treatment to delay the progress of the syndrome. The following report emphasizes the need for awareness of the diagnostic criteria of this syndrome in cases with no typical skin lesions. PMID:23082255

  14. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crow, Heidi C; Gonzalez, Yoly

    2013-02-01

    Pain in the tongue or oral tissues described as "burning" has been referred to by many terms including burning mouth syndrome. When a burning sensation in the mouth is caused by local or systemic factors, it is called secondary burning mouth syndrome and when these factors are treated the pain will resolve. When burning mouth syndrome occurs in the absence of identified risk indicators, the term primary burning mouth syndrome is utilized. This article focuses on descriptions, etiologic theories, and management of primary burning mouth syndrome, a condition for which underlying causative agents have been ruled out. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin-Goltz syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, N. K.; Tilak Raj, T. N.; Mukunda, K. S.; Rajashekar Reddy, V.

    2012-01-01

    The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), is an infrequent multisystemic disease inherited in a dominant autosomal way, which shows a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. It is characterized by odontogenic keratocysts in the jaw, multiple basal cell nevi carcinomas and skeletal abnormalities. This syndrome may be diagnosed early by a dentist by routine radiographic exams in the first decade of life, since the odontogenic keratocysts are usually one of the first manifestations of the syndrome. This case report presents a patient diagnosed as NBCCS by clinical, radiographic and histological findings in a 13-year-old boy. This paper highlights the importance of early diagnosis of NBCCS which can help in preventive multidisciplinary approach to provide a better prognosis for the patient. PMID:23633824

  16. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin-Goltz syndrome).

    PubMed

    Kiran, N K; Tilak Raj, T N; Mukunda, K S; Rajashekar Reddy, V

    2012-10-01

    The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), is an infrequent multisystemic disease inherited in a dominant autosomal way, which shows a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. It is characterized by odontogenic keratocysts in the jaw, multiple basal cell nevi carcinomas and skeletal abnormalities. This syndrome may be diagnosed early by a dentist by routine radiographic exams in the first decade of life, since the odontogenic keratocysts are usually one of the first manifestations of the syndrome. This case report presents a patient diagnosed as NBCCS by clinical, radiographic and histological findings in a 13-year-old boy. This paper highlights the importance of early diagnosis of NBCCS which can help in preventive multidisciplinary approach to provide a better prognosis for the patient.

  17. [Klinefelter's syndrome associated with mixed connective tissue disease (Sharp's syndrome) and thrombophilia with postthrombotic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kasten, Robert; Pfirrmann, Gudrun; Voigtländer, Volker

    2005-08-01

    A 43-year-old male with eunuchoid body proportions and a history of deep venous thromboses in the right leg presented with recurrent ulcers in the right perimalleolar region for 6 years. Karyotyping revealed a 47 XXY Klinefelter's syndrome, while serologic testing showed protein S deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia and positive lupus anticoagulant. He also had mixed connective tissue disease (Sharp's syndrome) with acrosclerosis, proximal finger edema, Raynaud's phenomenon, and high titers of ANA and U1-RNP-antibodies, as well as osteoporosis. There is evidence that patients with Klinefelter's syndrome are prone to develop connective tissue diseases and thrombophilia as a result of low androgen levels. Substitution of testosterone in Klinefelter's syndrome can have a favorable therapeutic effect on the associated connective tissue disease, thrombophilia and osteoporosis.

  18. The effects of prolonged running on foot posture: a repeated measures study of half marathon runners using the foot posture index and navicular height

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Different foot postures are associated with alterations in foot function, kinetics and the subsequent occurrence of injury. Little is known about changes in foot posture following prolonged weightbearing exercise. This study aimed to identify changes in foot posture after running a half marathon. Methods Foot posture was measured using the Foot Posture Index (FPI-6) and navicular height in thirty volunteer participants before and after running a half marathon. FPI-6 scores were converted to Rasch logit values and means compared for these and navicular height using an ANOVA. Results There was a 5 mm drop in navicular height in both feet when measured after the half marathon (P < 0.05). The FPI-6 showed a side x time interaction with an increase in score indicating a more ‘pronated’ position in the left foot of + 2 [Rasch value + 1.7] but no change in the right foot (+ 0.4 [+ 0.76]) following the half marathon. Conclusion The apparent differences between the FPI-6 and navicular height on the right foot may be because the FPI-6 takes soft tissue contour changes into consideration whilst the navicular height focuses on skeletal changes. The changes in foot posture towards a more pronated position may have implications for foot function, and therefore risk of injury; shoe fit and comfort and also the effect of therapeutic orthoses worn during prolonged running. PMID:23705863

  19. Turner Syndrome (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Turner Syndrome KidsHealth / For Teens / Turner Syndrome What's in this ... en español El síndrome de Turner What Is Turner Syndrome? Turner syndrome (TS) is a genetic condition found ...

  20. Fragile X syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Martin-Bell syndrome; Marker X syndrome ... Fragile X syndrome is caused by a change in a gene called FMR1 . A small part of the gene ... repeated several times in one area of the X chromosome. The more repeats, the more likely the ...

  1. [PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF THE CARDIORENAL SYNDROME].

    PubMed

    Balint, I; Vučak, J; Bašić-Marković, N; Klarić, D; Šakić, V Amerl

    2016-12-01

    Cardiorenal syndrome, a complex pathophysiological disorder of both the heart and kidneys, is a condition in which acute or chronic damage to one organ can lead to acute or chronic dysfunction of the other organ. Depending on primary organ dysfunction and disease duration, there are five different types of cardiorenal syndrome. Type 1 cardiorenal syndrome (acute cardiorenal syndrome) is defined as acute kidney injury caused by sudden decrease in heart function. Type 2 cardiorenal syndrome (chronic cardiorenal syndrome) refers to chronic kidney disease linked to chronic heart failure. Type 3 cardiorenal syndrome (acute renocardial syndrome) is caused by acute kidney injury that leads to heart failure. Type 4 cardiorenal syndrome (chronic renocardial syndrome) includes chronic heart failure due to chronic kidney disease. Type 5 cardiorenal syndrome (secondary cardiorenal syndrome) is reversible or irreversible condition marked by simultaneous heart and kidney insufficiency, as a result of multiorgan disease such as sepsis, diabetes mellitus, sarcoidosis, amyloidosis, etc. The pathophysiological patterns of cardiorenal syndrome are extremely complicated. Despite numerous publications, perplexed physiological, biochemical and hormonal disturbances as parts of the main pathogenic mechanisms of cardiorenal syndrome remain obscure. Even though there are guidelines for the treatment of patients with heart failure and chronic kidney disease, similar guidelines for the treatment of cardiorenal syndrome are lacking. In everyday practice, it is crucial to diagnose cardiorenal syndrome and use all diagnostic and therapeutic procedures available to prevent or alleviate kidney and heart failure.

  2. Necrotizing enterocolitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the intestines or inflammation of the abdominal wall (peritonitis). In this surgery, the doctor will: Remove dead ... Complications may include: Peritonitis Sepsis Intestinal ... inability to tolerate enteral feeds and need for parenteral (IV) ...

  3. Salmonella enterocolitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... you: Eat foods such as turkey, turkey dressing, chicken, or eggs that have not been cooked well or stored properly Are around family members with a recent salmonella infection Have been in or worked in a ...

  4. Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... large section of the intestine was removed, an ostomy is done. During an ostomy, surgeons bring an area of the intestine to ... to re-examine the intestines or close the ostomy. What Can I Expect? Most babies who develop ...

  5. The Mediterranean diet adherence by pregnant women delivering prematurely: association with size at birth and complications of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Parlapani, Elisavet; Agakidis, Charalampos; Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomais; Sarafidis, Kosmas; Agakidou, Eleni; Athanasiadis, Apostolos; Diamanti, Elisavet

    2017-11-13

    The Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with decreased risk of metabolic syndrome and gestational diabetes due to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties of its components. The aim was to investigate the potential association of MD adherence (MDA) during pregnancy by mothers delivering prematurely, with intrauterine growth as expressed by neonates' anthropometry at birth and complications of prematurity. This is a single-center, prospective, observational cohort study of 82 women who delivered preterm singletons at post conceptional age (PCA) ≤ 34 weeks and their live-born neonates. Maternal and neonatal demographic and clinical data were recorded. All mothers filled in a food frequency questionnaire, and the MDA score was calculated. Based on 50th centile of MD score, participants were classified into high-MDA and low-MDA groups. The low-MDA mothers had significantly higher pregestational BMI and rates of overweight/obesity (odd ratios (OR) 3.5) and gestational hypertension/preeclampsia (OR 3.8). Neonates in the low-MDA group had significantly higher incidence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) (OR 3.3) and lower z-scores of birth weight and BMI. Regarding prematurity-related complications, the low MDA-group was more likely to develop necrotizing enterocolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and retinopathy of prematurity (OR 3.2, 1.3, and 1.6, respectively), while they were less likely to develop respiratory distress syndrome (OR 0.49), although the differences were not statistically significant. However, adjustment for confounders revealed MDA as a significant independent predictor of hypertension/preeclampsia, IUGR, birth weight z-score, necrotizing enterocolitis, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. High MDA during pregnancy may favorably affect intrauterine growth and certain acute and chronic complications of prematurity as well as maternal hypertension/preeclampsia.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Alagille syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... my area? Other Names for This Condition Alagille-Watson Syndrome Alagille's syndrome arteriohepatic dysplasia (AHD) cardiovertebral syndrome ... hypoplasia hepatofacioneurocardiovertebral syndrome paucity of interlobular bile ducts Watson-Miller syndrome Related Information How are genetic conditions ...

  7. Klinefelter's syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome: a rare combination.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, W M A; de Vries, B B A; Duffels, S J H; Egger, J I M; Noordam, C; Tuinier, S

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a review is presented of the rare combination of Klinefelter's syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and a second case of this combination with a uniparental disomy (UPD) etiology of PWS is described. Patients outlined in all other 8 reports and the present case have a PWS phenotype. Virtually no information is available on the behavioral and psychopathological phenotype in this combination. The latter may be explained by the observation that psychiatric syndromes are especially prevalent in PWS patients with a UPD. It is concluded that instability in mood and behavior in this and other syndromes should be preferentially treated with mood stabilizing agents. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Could metabolic syndrome, lipodystrophy, and aging be mesenchymal stem cell exhaustion syndromes?

    PubMed

    Mansilla, Eduardo; Díaz Aquino, Vanina; Zambón, Daniel; Marin, Gustavo Horacio; Mártire, Karina; Roque, Gustavo; Ichim, Thomas; Riordan, Neil H; Patel, Amit; Sturla, Flavio; Larsen, Gustavo; Spretz, Rubén; Núñez, Luis; Soratti, Carlos; Ibar, Ricardo; van Leeuwen, Michiel; Tau, José María; Drago, Hugo; Maceira, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important and complex diseases of modern society is metabolic syndrome. This syndrome has not been completely understood, and therefore an effective treatment is not available yet. We propose a possible stem cell mechanism involved in the development of metabolic syndrome. This way of thinking lets us consider also other significant pathologies that could have similar etiopathogenic pathways, like lipodystrophic syndromes, progeria, and aging. All these clinical situations could be the consequence of a progressive and persistent stem cell exhaustion syndrome (SCES). The main outcome of this SCES would be an irreversible loss of the effective regenerative mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) pools. In this way, the normal repairing capacities of the organism could become inefficient. Our point of view could open the possibility for a new strategy of treatment in metabolic syndrome, lipodystrophic syndromes, progeria, and even aging: stem cell therapies.

  9. Could Metabolic Syndrome, Lipodystrophy, and Aging Be Mesenchymal Stem Cell Exhaustion Syndromes?

    PubMed Central

    Mansilla, Eduardo; Díaz Aquino, Vanina; Zambón, Daniel; Marin, Gustavo Horacio; Mártire, Karina; Roque, Gustavo; Ichim, Thomas; Riordan, Neil H.; Patel, Amit; Sturla, Flavio; Larsen, Gustavo; Spretz, Rubén; Núñez, Luis; Soratti, Carlos; Ibar, Ricardo; van Leeuwen, Michiel; Tau, José María; Drago, Hugo; Maceira, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important and complex diseases of modern society is metabolic syndrome. This syndrome has not been completely understood, and therefore an effective treatment is not available yet. We propose a possible stem cell mechanism involved in the development of metabolic syndrome. This way of thinking lets us consider also other significant pathologies that could have similar etiopathogenic pathways, like lipodystrophic syndromes, progeria, and aging. All these clinical situations could be the consequence of a progressive and persistent stem cell exhaustion syndrome (SCES). The main outcome of this SCES would be an irreversible loss of the effective regenerative mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) pools. In this way, the normal repairing capacities of the organism could become inefficient. Our point of view could open the possibility for a new strategy of treatment in metabolic syndrome, lipodystrophic syndromes, progeria, and even aging: stem cell therapies. PMID:21716667

  10. A randomized controlled trial of group Stepping Stones Triple P: a mixed-disability trial.

    PubMed

    Roux, Gemma; Sofronoff, Kate; Sanders, Matthew

    2013-09-01

    Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP) is a parenting program designed for families of a child with a disability. The current study involved a randomized controlled trial of Group Stepping Stones Triple P (GSSTP) for a mixed-disability group. Participants were 52 families of children diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder, Down syndrome, Cerebral Palsy, or an intellectual disability. The results demonstrated significant improvements in parent-reported child behavior, parenting styles, parental satisfaction, and conflict about parenting. Results among participants were similar despite children's differing impairments. The intervention effect was maintained at 6-month follow-up. The results indicate that GSSTP is a promising intervention for a mixed-disability group. Limitations of the study, along with areas for future research, are also discussed. © FPI, Inc.

  11. Piriformis syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Pseudosciatica; Wallet sciatica; Hip socket neuropathy; Pelvic outlet syndrome; Low back pain - piriformis ... Sciatica is the main symptom of piriformis syndrome. Other symptoms include: Tenderness or a dull ache in ...

  12. Is the metabolic syndrome a "small baby" syndrome?: the bogalusa heart study.

    PubMed

    Harville, Emily W; Srinivasan, Sathanur; Chen, Wei; Berenson, Gerald S

    2012-12-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been called a "small baby syndrome," but other analyses suggest that postnatal growth is more important than birthweight, or that large babies are also at risk. The aim of this analysis was to examine whether there was a relationship between both low and high birthweight and metabolic syndrome, using multiple definitions of metabolic syndrome, and to determine whether this relationship varied by body size across the life course. Data from the Bogalusa Heart Study, a study of cardiovascular disease in children and young adults, were linked to birth certificate data. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program, the International Diabetes Foundation, and the World Health Organization (WHO) definition. Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) was defined as birthweight <10(th) percentile by sex for gestational age and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) as birthweight >90(th) percentile. Birthweight-for-gestational-age was also examined as a continuous predictor. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were used to examine the relationship between birth size and metabolic syndrome. Higher birthweight-for-gestational-age was associated with a reduced risk of metabolic syndrome, especially by the WHO definition. After adjustment for body mass index (BMI), categorized birthweight was associated with metabolic syndrome, with the protective associations with LGA being stronger than the positive associations with SGA. Among the individual components of metabolic syndrome, higher waist circumference was associated with both SGA and LGA after BMI was controlled for. Effects of SGA and BMI at any age were largely independent rather than interactive. SGA is associated with some, but not all, components of metabolic syndrome. The relationship between SGA and metabolic syndrome is partially confounded by later BMI.

  13. Felty syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA); Felty's syndrome ... The cause of Felty syndrome is unknown. It is more common in people who have had rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for a long time. People with ...

  14. Unusual headache syndromes.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Luiz P

    2013-01-01

    Some headache syndromes have few cases reported in the literature. Their clinical characteristics, pathogenesis, and treatment may have not been completely defined. They may not actually be uncommon but rather under-recognized and/or underreported. A literature review of unusual headache syndromes, searching PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge, was performed. After deciding which disorders to study, relevant publications in scientific journals, including original articles, reviews, meeting abstracts, and letters or correspondences to the editors were searched. This paper reviewed the clinical characteristics, the pathogenesis, the diagnosis, and the treatment of five interesting and unusual headache syndromes: exploding head syndrome, red ear syndrome, neck-tongue syndrome, nummular headache, and cardiac cephalgia. Recognizing some unusual headaches, either primary or secondary, may be a challenge for many non-headache specialist physicians. It is important to study them because the correct diagnosis may result in specific treatments that may improve the quality of life of these patients, and this can even be life saving. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  15. Prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Prosdócimo, Ana Cláudia Giaxa; Lucina, Luciane Boreki; Marcia, Olandoski; Jobs, Priscila Megda João; Schio, Nicolle Amboni; Baldanzi, Fernanda Fachin; Costantini, Costantino Ortiz; Benevides-Pereira, Ana Maria Teresa; Guarita-Souza, Luiz Cesar; Faria-Neto, José Rocha

    2015-03-01

    Burnout Syndrome is the extreme emotional response to chronic occupational stress, manifesting as physical and mental exhaustion. Although associated with higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, no study so far has evaluated whether the Burnout Syndrome could be a prevalent factor in non-elderly individuals active in the labor market, admitted for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). To evaluate the prevalence of the Burnout Syndrome in non-elderly, economically active patients, hospitalized with ACS. Cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary and private cardiology center, with economically active patients aged <65 years, hospitalized with diagnosis of ACS. The Burnout Syndrome was evaluated with the Burnout Syndrome Inventory (BSI), which assesses workplace conditions and four dimensions that characterize the syndrome: emotional exhaustion (EE), emotional distancing (EmD), dehumanization (De) and professional fulfillment (PF). The Lipp's Stress Symptoms Inventory for Adults (LSSI) was applied to evaluate global stress. Of 830 patients evaluated with suspected ACS, 170 met the study criteria, 90% of which were men, overall average age was 52 years, and 40.5% had an average income above 11 minimum wages. The prevalence of the Burnout Syndrome was 4.1%. When we evaluated each dimension individually, we found high EE in 34.7%, high De in 52.4%, high EDi in 30.6%, and low PF in 5.9%. The overall prevalence of stress was 87.5%. We found a low prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in an economically active, non-elderly population among patients admitted for ACS in a tertiary and private hospital.

  16. Prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in Patients Admitted with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Prosdócimo, Ana Cláudia Giaxa; Lucina, Luciane Boreki; Marcia, Olandoski; Jobs, Priscila Megda João; Schio, Nicolle Amboni; Baldanzi, Fernanda Fachin; Costantini, Costantino Ortiz; Benevides-Pereira, Ana Maria Teresa; Guarita-Souza, Luiz Cesar; Faria-Neto, José Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Background Burnout Syndrome is the extreme emotional response to chronic occupational stress, manifesting as physical and mental exhaustion. Although associated with higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, no study so far has evaluated whether the Burnout Syndrome could be a prevalent factor in non-elderly individuals active in the labor market, admitted for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Objective To evaluate the prevalence of the Burnout Syndrome in non-elderly, economically active patients, hospitalized with ACS. Methods Cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary and private cardiology center, with economically active patients aged <65 years, hospitalized with diagnosis of ACS. The Burnout Syndrome was evaluated with the Burnout Syndrome Inventory (BSI), which assesses workplace conditions and four dimensions that characterize the syndrome: emotional exhaustion (EE), emotional distancing (EmD), dehumanization (De) and professional fulfillment (PF). The Lipp’s Stress Symptoms Inventory for Adults (LSSI) was applied to evaluate global stress. Results Of 830 patients evaluated with suspected ACS, 170 met the study criteria, 90% of which were men, overall average age was 52 years, and 40.5% had an average income above 11 minimum wages. The prevalence of the Burnout Syndrome was 4.1%. When we evaluated each dimension individually, we found high EE in 34.7%, high De in 52.4%, high EDi in 30.6%, and low PF in 5.9%. The overall prevalence of stress was 87.5%. Conclusion We found a low prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in an economically active, non-elderly population among patients admitted for ACS in a tertiary and private hospital. PMID:25517388

  17. Gorlin-goltz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Dn; Raval, N; Patadiya, H; Tarsariya, V

    2014-03-01

    The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome (GGS) (the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome) is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome caused due to mutations in the patched gene found on chromosome arm 9 q. It shows high penetrance and variable expressivity; is characterized by basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts, palmar and/or plantar pits and ectopic calcifications of the falx cerebri. Until date, very few cases of GGS have been reported in India. Early diagnosis and treatment as well as genetic counseling are essential for this syndrome. A rare case report of a patient with characteristic features of GGS diagnosed at a rural dental college of Gujarat, India is presented here. This case report draws attention of the valuable role of dentist in diagnosis and early management of this syndrome.

  18. 77 FR 4648 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-535 Series Turbofan Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... inspections (FPI) of the low-pressure (LP) turbine stage 1, 2, and 3 discs to detect cracks in the discs. This... turbine stage 1, 2, and 3 discs, which could result in an uncontained release of LP turbine blades and... require performing an initial FPI on the LP turbine stage 1, 2, and 3 discs at the next engine shop...

  19. Does wastewater discharge have relations with increase of Turner syndrome and Down syndrome?

    PubMed

    Choi, Intae

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether water and air pollutants have a relationship with an increase in the genetic disorders Turner syndrome and Down syndrome, which are caused by congenital chromosomal abnormalities, and to generate a hypothesis about the genetic health effects of environmental pollutants. A panel regression based on random effect was conducted on Korea's metropolitan councils from 2012 to 2014. The dependent variable was the number of Turner syndrome and Down syndrome cases, and the main independent variables were those regarding the water and air pollution. Air pollutants did not have a significant impact on the number of Turner syndrome and Down syndrome cases; however, the increase in number of wastewater discharge companies did have a significant relationship with the number of cases. The more the number of wastewater discharge companies, the more the number Turner syndrome and Down syndrome cases were observed. Therefore, scientific investigation on water and air pollutants in relation with genetic health effects needs to be performed.

  20. Costs of necrotizing enterocolitis and cost-effectiveness of exclusively human milk-based products in feeding extremely premature infants.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Vaidyanathan; Hay, Joel W; Kim, Jae H

    2012-02-01

    This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a 100% human milk-based diet composed of mother's milk fortified with a donor human milk-based human milk fortifier (HMF) versus mother's milk fortified with bovine milk-based HMF to initiate enteral nutrition among extremely premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A net expected costs calculator was developed to compare the total NICU costs among extremely premature infants who were fed either a bovine milk-based HMF-fortified diet or a 100% human milk-based diet, based on the previously observed risks of overall necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and surgical NEC in a randomized controlled study that compared outcomes of these two feeding strategies among 207 very low birth weight infants. The average NICU costs for an extremely premature infant without NEC and the incremental costs due to medical and surgical NEC were derived from a separate analysis of hospital discharges in the state of California in 2007. The sensitivity of cost-effectiveness results to the risks and costs of NEC and to prices of milk supplements was studied. The adjusted incremental costs of medical NEC and surgical NEC over and above the average costs incurred for extremely premature infants without NEC, in 2011 US$, were $74,004 (95% confidence interval, $47,051-$100,957) and $198,040 (95% confidence interval, $159,261-$236,819) per infant, respectively. Extremely premature infants fed with 100% human-milk based products had lower expected NICU length of stay and total expected costs of hospitalization, resulting in net direct savings of 3.9 NICU days and $8,167.17 (95% confidence interval, $4,405-$11,930) per extremely premature infant (p < 0.0001). Costs savings from the donor HMF strategy were sensitive to price and quantity of donor HMF, percentage reduction in risk of overall NEC and surgical NEC achieved, and incremental costs of surgical NEC. Compared with feeding extremely premature infants with mother's milk

  1. Angelman Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... heads, jerky movements, protruding tongues, and bouts of laughter." Infants with Angelman syndrome appear normal at birth, ... heads, jerky movements, protruding tongues, and bouts of laughter." Infants with Angelman syndrome appear normal at birth, ...

  2. Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... with blood clotting. If you have a myelodysplastic syndrome, the stem cells do not mature into healthy ... lead to infection, anemia, or easy bleeding. Myelodysplastic syndromes often do not cause early symptoms and are ...

  3. Reye syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome has occurred in children who were given aspirin when they had chickenpox or the flu. Reye syndrome has become very rare. This is because aspirin is no longer recommended for routine use in ...

  4. The Disuse Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bortz II, Walter M.

    1984-01-01

    Our cultural sedentariness, recently acquired, lies at the base of much human ill-being. Physical inactivity predictably leads to deterioration of many body functions. A number of these effects coexist so frequently in our society that they merit inclusion in a specific syndrome, the disuse syndrome. The identifying characteristics of the syndrome are cardiovascular vulnerability, obesity, musculoskeletal fragility, depression and premature aging. The syndrome is experimentally reproducible and, significantly, the clinical features are subject to both preventive and restitutive efforts that happily are cheap, safe, accessible and effective. PMID:6516349

  5. Rett Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Rett syndrome is a rare genetic disease that causes developmental and nervous system problems, mostly in girls. It's related to autism spectrum disorder. Babies with Rett syndrome seem to grow and develop normally at first. ...

  6. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome with medial tibial stress syndrome in twins.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Purnajyoti; McLean, Christopher

    2011-06-14

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome and medial tibial stress syndrome are uncommon conditions that affect long-distance runners or players involved in team sports that require extensive running. We report 2 cases of bilateral chronic exertional compartment syndrome, with medial tibial stress syndrome in identical twins diagnosed with the use of a Kodiag monitor (B. Braun Medical, Sheffield, United Kingdom) fulfilling the modified diagnostic criteria for chronic exertional compartment syndrome as described by Pedowitz et al, which includes: (1) pre-exercise compartment pressure level >15 mm Hg; (2) 1 minute post-exercise pressure >30 mm Hg; and (3) 5 minutes post-exercise pressure >20 mm Hg in the presence of clinical features. Both patients were treated with bilateral anterior fasciotomies through minimal incision and deep posterior fasciotomies with tibial periosteal stripping performed through longer anteromedial incisions under direct vision followed by intensive physiotherapy resulting in complete symptomatic recovery. The etiology of chronic exertional compartment syndrome is not fully understood, but it is postulated abnormal increases in intramuscular pressure during exercise impair local perfusion, causing ischemic muscle pain. No familial predisposition has been reported to date. However, some authors have found that no significant difference exists in the relative perfusion, in patients, diagnosed with chronic exertional compartment syndrome. Magnetic resonance images of affected compartments have indicated that the pain is not due to ischemia, but rather from a disproportionate oxygen supply versus demand. We believe this is the first report of chronic exertional compartment syndrome with medial tibial stress syndrome in twins, raising the question of whether there is a genetic predisposition to the causation of these conditions. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Moyamoya syndrome in a patient with Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin-Ho; Oh, Moon-Yeon; Yum, Mi-Sun; Lee, Beom Hee; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Yoo, Han-Wook

    2015-03-01

    Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair is one of the RASopathies characterized by Noonan syndrome-like features with unique ectodermal abnormalities. This syndrome is caused by mutations in the SHOC2 gene. We encountered a patient with moyamoya syndrome associated with Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair presenting with transient ischemic attacks. A 6-year-old girl was diagnosed with Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair because of profound short stature and ectodermal anomalies such as sparse and easily pluckable hair. A heterozygous mutation of c.4A>G (p.S2G) in the SHOC2 gene was identified, and recombinant human growth hormone therapy was initiated at 8 years of age. At age 10, she manifested recurrent left hemiplegia. Moreover, cerebrovascular imaging revealed occlusion or narrowing of both internal carotid arteries and both middle cerebral arteries with distal moyamoya-like vessels. She is treated with aspirin and calcium channel blocker. We describe the first case of Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair associated with moyamoya syndrome, although it has been reported to be associated with a few cases of other RASopathies, including Noonan, cardiofaciocutaneous, and Costello syndromes. This report emphasizes the associations between cerebrovascular anomalies and Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as tobacco, benzene and pesticides, or to heavy metals, such as lead. Types of myelodysplastic syndromes The ... and industrial chemicals, such as benzene. Exposure to heavy metals. Heavy metals linked to myelodysplastic syndromes include lead ...

  9. Turner Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects a girl's development. The cause is a missing or incomplete ... t work properly. Other physical features typical of Turner syndrome are Short, "webbed" neck with folds of skin ...

  10. Cushing's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Cushing's syndrome is a hormonal disorder. The cause is long-term exposure to too much cortisol, a hormone that ... your body to make too much cortisol. Cushing's syndrome is rare. Some symptoms are Upper body obesity ...

  11. Usher Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Usher syndrome is an inherited disease that causes serious hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa, an eye disorder that causes ... and vision. There are three types of Usher syndrome: People with type I are deaf from birth ...

  12. Reye Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Reye syndrome is a rare illness that can affect the blood, liver, and brain of someone who has recently ... a viral illness, seek medical attention immediately. Reye syndrome can lead to a coma and brain death, ...

  13. Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, DN; Raval, N; Patadiya, H; Tarsariya, V

    2014-01-01

    The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome (GGS) (the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome) is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome caused due to mutations in the patched gene found on chromosome arm 9 q. It shows high penetrance and variable expressivity; is characterized by basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts, palmar and/or plantar pits and ectopic calcifications of the falx cerebri. Until date, very few cases of GGS have been reported in India. Early diagnosis and treatment as well as genetic counseling are essential for this syndrome. A rare case report of a patient with characteristic features of GGS diagnosed at a rural dental college of Gujarat, India is presented here. This case report draws attention of the valuable role of dentist in diagnosis and early management of this syndrome. PMID:24761254

  14. Aicardi Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aicardi Syndrome Foundation P.O. Box 3202 St. Charles IL St. Charles, IL 60174 web@aicardisyndrome.org http://www.aicardisyndrome. ... Aicardi Syndrome Foundation P.O. Box 3202 St. Charles IL St. Charles, IL 60174 web@aicardisyndrome.org ...

  15. A new familial intrauterine growth retardation syndrome the "3-M syndrome".

    PubMed

    Spranger, J; Opitz, J M; Nourmand, A

    1976-09-01

    Two pairs of siblings are described with proportionate dwarfism due to skeletal hypoplasia of prenatal onset. The head size was normal for age and disproportionately large for height. The patients had a characteristic face different from that seen in the Silver-Russell syndrome. The family data are in accordance with autosomal recessive inheritance. In spite of some similarities, the bulk of clinical and genetic evidence suggests that the described intrauterine growth retardation syndrome is different from the Silver-Russell syndrome and presents an apparently "new" entity which has been designated 3-M syndrome.

  16. Are ECG abnormalities in Noonan syndrome characteristic for the syndrome?

    PubMed

    Raaijmakers, R; Noordam, C; Noonan, J A; Croonen, E A; van der Burgt, C J A M; Draaisma, J M T

    2008-12-01

    Of all patients with Noonan syndrome, 50-90% have one or more congenital heart defects. The most frequent occurring are pulmonary stenosis (PS) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The electrocardiogram (ECG) of a patient with Noonan syndrome often shows a characteristic pattern, with a left axis deviation, abnormal R/S ratio over the left precordium, and an abnormal Q wave. The objective of this study was to determine if these ECG characteristics are an independent feature of the Noonan syndrome or if they are related to the congenital heart defect. A cohort study was performed with 118 patients from two university hospitals in the United States and in The Netherlands. All patients were diagnosed with definite Noonan syndrome and had had an ECG and echocardiography. Sixty-nine patients (58%) had characteristic abnormalities of the ECG. In the patient group without a cardiac defect (n = 21), ten patients had a characteristic ECG abnormality. There was no statistical relationship between the presence of a characteristic ECG abnormality and the presence of a cardiac defect (p = 0.33). Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy had more ECG abnormalities in total (p = 0.05), without correlation with a specific ECG abnormality. We conclude that the ECG features in patients with Noonan syndrome are characteristic for the syndrome and are not related to a specific cardiac defect. An ECG is very useful in the diagnosis of Noonan syndrome; every child with a Noonan phenotype should have an ECG and echocardiogram for evaluation.

  17. In-line open-cavity Fabry-Pérot interferometer formed by C-shaped fiber fortemperature-insensitive refractive index sensing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chuang; Liu, Zhengyong; Zhang, A Ping; Guan, Bai-Ou; Tam, Hwa-Yaw

    2014-09-08

    We report an open-cavity optical fiber Fabry-Pérot interferometer (FPI) capable of measuring refractive index with very low temperature cross-sensitivity. The FPI was constructed by splicing a thin piece of C-shaped fiber between two standard single-mode fibers. The refractive index (RI) response of the FPI was characterized using water-ethanol mixtures with RI in the range of 1.33 to 1.36. The RI sensitivity was measured to be 1368 nm/RIU at the wavelength of 1600 nm with good linearity. Thanks to its all-glass structure, the FPI exhibits very low temperature cross-sensitivity of 3.04 × 10⁻⁷ RIU/°C. The effects of cavity length on the performance of the sensor were also studied. A shorter cavity gives rise to broader measurement range while offering larger detection limit, and vice versa. What's more, the effect of material dispersion of analyte on the sensitivity of open-cavity FPIs was identified for the first time. The sensor is compact in size and easy to fabricate. It is potentially useful for label-free optical sensing of chemical and biological samples.

  18. Zellweger Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Institutes of Health (NIH), conduct research exploring the molecular and genetic basis of Zellweger syndrome and the other PBDs, ... Institutes of Health (NIH), conduct research exploring the molecular and genetic basis of Zellweger syndrome and the other PBDs, ...

  19. Skin symptoms in four ectodermal dysplasia syndromes including two case reports of Rapp-Hodgkin-Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Knaudt, Björn; Volz, Thomas; Krug, Markus; Burgdorf, Walter; Röcken, Martin; Berneburg, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The skin, hair and nail changes in four distinct ectodermal dysplasia syndromes are compared and reviewed. These syndromes comprise Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome; ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip/palate syndrome; ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate syndrome and Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome. A comprehensive overview of the dermatological signs and symptoms in these syndromes was generated from the database of the Ectodermal Dysplasia Network Germany, the clinical findings in the patients seen in our department and an extensive review of the literature. The findings included abnormalities of skin, sweating, hair and nails. These clinical findings are discussed in relation to the underlying molecular defects known to play a role in these four ectodermal dysplasia syndromes.

  20. Postural tachycardia syndrome and other forms of orthostatic intolerance in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Roma, Maria; Marden, Colleen L; De Wandele, Inge; Francomano, Clair A; Rowe, Peter C

    2018-03-05

    To review the association between orthostatic intolerance syndromes and both joint hypermobility and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and to propose reasons for identifying hereditary connective tissue disorders in those with orthostatic intolerance in the context of both clinical care and research. We searched the published peer-reviewed medical literature for papers reporting an association between joint hypermobility or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and orthostatic intolerance. We identified 10 relevant papers. Although methodological variability between studies introduces some limitations, the published literature consistently identifies a significantly higher prevalence of orthostatic intolerance symptoms in patients with joint hypermobility or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome than in healthy controls, and a significantly higher prevalence of cardiovascular and autonomic abnormalities both at rest and during orthostatic challenge. Postural tachycardia syndrome is the most commonly recognized circulatory disorder. The severity of orthostatic symptoms in those with EDS correlates with impairments in quality of life. There is a strong association between several forms of cardiovascular dysfunction, most notably postural tachycardia syndrome, and joint hypermobility or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. We propose that recognition of joint hypermobility and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome among those with orthostatic intolerance syndromes has the potential to improve clinical care and the validity of research findings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Immature oxidative stress management as a unifying principle in the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis: insights from an agent-based model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moses; Christley, Scott; Alverdy, John C; Liu, Donald; An, Gary

    2012-02-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a complex disease involving prematurity, enteral feeding, and bacterial effects. We propose that the underlying initial condition in its pathogenesis is reduced ability of the neonatal gut epithelial cells (NGECs) to clear oxidative stress (OS), and that when such a NGEC population is exposed to enteral feeding, the increased metabolic OS tips the population toward apoptosis, inflammation, bacterial activation, and eventual necrosis. The multi-factorial complexity of NEC requires characterization with computational modeling, and herein, we used an agent-based model (ABM) to instantiate and examine our unifying hypothesis of the pathogenesis of NEC. An ABM of the neonatal gut was created with NGEC computational agents incorporating rules for pathways for OS, p53, tight junctions, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, nitric oxide, and nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-κB). The modeled bacteria activated TLR-4 on contact with NGECs. Simulations included parameter sweeps of OS response, response to feeding, addition of bacteria, and alterations in gut mucus production. The ABM reproduced baseline cellular respiration and clearance of OS. Reduction in OS clearance consistent with clinical NEC led to senescence, apoptosis, or inflammation, with disruption of tight junctions, but rarely to NGEC necrosis. An additional "hit" of bacteria activating TLR-4 potentiated a shift to NGEC necrosis across the entire population. The mucus layer was modeled to limit bacterial-NGEC interactions and reduce this effect, but concomitant apoptosis in the goblet cell population reduced the efficacy of the mucus layer and limited its protective effect in simulated experiments. This finding suggests a means by which increased apoptosis at the cellular population level can lead to a transition to the necrosis outcome. Our ABM incorporates known components of NEC and demonstrates that impaired OS management can lead to apoptosis and inflammation of NGECs, rendering the

  2. Confirmation that RIPK4 mutations cause not only Bartsocas-Papas syndrome but also CHAND syndrome.

    PubMed

    Busa, Tiffany; Jeraiby, Mohammed; Clémenson, Alix; Manouvrier, Sylvie; Granados, Viviana; Philip, Nicole; Touraine, Renaud

    2017-11-01

    CHAND syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by curly hair, ankyloblepharon, and nail dysplasia. Only few patients were reported to date. A homozygous RIPK4 mutation was recently identified by homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing in three patients from an expanded consanguineous kindred with a clinical diagnosis of CHAND syndrome. RIPK4 was previously known to be implicated in Bartsocas-Papas syndrome, the autosomal recessive form of popliteal pterygium syndrome. We report here two cases of RIPK4 homozygous mutations in a fetus with severe Bartsocas-Papas syndrome and a patient with CHAND syndrome. The patient with CHAND syndrome harbored the same mutation as the one identified in the family previously reported. We thus confirm the implication of RIPK4 gene in CHAND syndrome in addition to Bartsocas-Papas syndrome and discuss genotype/phenotype correlations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Multiple strains probiotics appear to be the most effective probiotics in the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis and mortality: An updated meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hung-Yang; Chen, Jin-Hua; Chang, Jui-Hsing; Lin, Hung-Chih; Lin, Chien-Yu; Peng, Chun-Chih

    2017-01-01

    Some oral probiotics have been shown to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and decrease mortality effectively in preterm very low birth weight (PVLBW) infants. However, it is unclear whether a single probiotic or a mixture of probiotics is most effective for the prevention of NEC. A meta-analysis was conducted by reviewing the most up to date literature to investigate whether multiple strains probiotics are more effective than a single strain in reducing NEC and death in PVLBW infants. Relevant studies were identified by searches of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases, from 2001 to 2016. The inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials of any enteral probiotic supplementation that was initiated within the first 7 days and continued for at least 14 days in preterm infants (≤ 34 weeks' gestation) and/or those of a birth weight ≤1500 g. A total of 25 trials (n = 7345 infants) were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis using a fixed-effects model. Multiple strains probiotics were associated with a marked reduction in the incidence of NEC, with a pooled OR of 0.36 (95% CI, 0.24-0.53; P < .00001). Single strain probiotic using Lactobacillus species had a borderline effect in reducing NEC (OR of 0.60; 95% CI 0.36-1.0; P = .05), but not mortality. Multiple strains probiotics had a greater effectiveness in reducing mortality and were associated with a pooled OR of 0.58 (95% CI, 0.43-0.79; P = .0006). Trials using single strain of Bifidobacterium species and Saccharomyces boulardii did not reveal any beneficial effects in terms of reducing NEC or mortality. This updated report found that multiple strains probiotics appear to be the most feasible and effective strategy for the prevention of NEC and reduction of mortality in PVLBW neonates. Further clinical trials should focus on which probiotic combinations are most effective.

  4. Myelodysplastic Syndrome Occurring in a Patient with Gorlin Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mull, Jamie L; Madden, Lisa M; Bayliss, Susan J

    2016-07-01

    We report a case of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) occurring in an African American boy with Gorlin syndrome with a novel PTCH1 mutation. Before developing MDS, the patient had been treated with chemotherapy and radiation for a medulloblastoma. He received a bone marrow transplant for the MDS and eventually died of treatment complications. Secondary hematologic malignancies are a known complication of certain chemotherapeutics, although whether a patient with Gorlin syndrome has a greater propensity for the development of such malignancies is unclear. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Mirror Syndrome assocciated with Patau Syndrome: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Pais, Ana Sofia; Areia, Ana Luísa Fialho Amaral de; Franco, Sofia Margarida Perienes; Fonseca, Etelvina Morais Ferreira; Moura, José Paulo Achando Silva

    2018-05-16

    Mirror syndrome is an unusual pathological condition in which maternal edema in pregnancy is seen in association with severe fetal and/or placental hydrops. The disease can be life-threatening for both the mother and the fetus. The pathogenesis is poorly understood, and may be confused with preeclampsia, even though distinguishing features can be identified. We report a rare case of mirror syndrome with maternal pulmonary edema associated with fetal hydrops due to Patau syndrome. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  6. Basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome): genetic insights, diagnostic challenges, and unmet milestones.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Maryam; Chen, Harold; Guo, Grace; Legan, Zachary; Ghali, Ghali

    2018-01-31

    In this article, we present three clinical case reports on Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome). Gorlin syndrome is an inherited medical condition with challenges that manifest in multiple body systems and complicate early diagnosis. We examine the epidemiology of the disease and benefits of genetic testing, molecular pathophysiology, and advancement in the molecular-based therapy of Basal Cell Nevus syndrome. The goal of this paper is to shed light on both unmet challenges and advancements in the management of Gorlin syndrome and to provide a new clinical perspective and guidance for future research. Furthermore, the FDA approved Hedgehog pathway inhibitors Vismodegib and Sonidegib designed for advanced basal cell carcinoma have opened a new door for treatment that may ultimately decrease the number of surgeries for a patient with Gorlin syndrome. The role of these agents in syndromic odontogenic keratocyst has not been studied extensively, but one study found that hedgehog pathway inhibitors decrease the size of syndromic odontogenic keratocyst. Ideal surgical treatment that balances low recurrence rates with low impact on one's quality of life for syndromic odontogenic keratocyst is another unanswered question for oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Per survey studies, treatment options practiced for syndromic odontogenic keratocyst range from marsupialization to segmental osteotomy. Future studies performed should take a comprehensive long-term approach with at least three years of follow-up in order to determine the most appropriate treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Drug-Induced Hematologic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Mintzer, David M.; Billet, Shira N.; Chmielewski, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Drugs can induce almost the entire spectrum of hematologic disorders, affecting white cells, red cells, platelets, and the coagulation system. This paper aims to emphasize the broad range of drug-induced hematological syndromes and to highlight some of the newer drugs and syndromes. Methods. Medline literature on drug-induced hematologic syndromes was reviewed. Most reports and reviews focus on individual drugs or cytopenias. Results. Drug-induced syndromes include hemolytic anemias, methemoglobinemia, red cell aplasia, sideroblastic anemia, megaloblastic anemia, polycythemia, aplastic anemia, leukocytosis, neutropenia, eosinophilia, immune thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic syndromes, hypercoagulability, hypoprothrombinemia, circulating anticoagulants, myelodysplasia, and acute leukemia. Some of the classic drugs known to cause hematologic abnormalities have been replaced by newer drugs, including biologics, accompanied by their own syndromes and unintended side effects. Conclusions. Drugs can induce toxicities spanning many hematologic syndromes, mediated by a variety of mechanisms. Physicians need to be alert to the potential for iatrogenic drug-induced hematologic complications. PMID:19960059

  8. Numerical Magnitude Processing Impairments in Genetic Syndromes: A Cross-Syndrome Comparison of Turner and 22Q11.2 Deletion Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brankaer, Carmen; Ghesquière, Pol; De Wel, Anke; Swillen, Ann; De Smedt, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Cross-syndrome comparisons offer an important window onto understanding heterogeneity in mathematical learning disabilities or dyscalculia. The present study therefore investigated symbolic numerical magnitude processing in two genetic syndromes that are both characterized by mathematical learning disabilities: Turner syndrome and 22q11.2 deletion…

  9. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD); Infant respiratory distress syndrome; Respiratory distress syndrome in infants; RDS - infants ... improves slowly after that. Some infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome will die. This most often occurs ...

  10. Common input to motor units of intrinsic and extrinsic hand muscles during two-digit object hold.

    PubMed

    Winges, Sara A; Kornatz, Kurt W; Santello, Marco

    2008-03-01

    Anatomical and physiological evidence suggests that common input to motor neurons of hand muscles is an important neural mechanism for hand control. To gain insight into the synaptic input underlying the coordination of hand muscles, significant effort has been devoted to describing the distribution of common input across motor units of extrinsic muscles. Much less is known, however, about the distribution of common input to motor units belonging to different intrinsic muscles and to intrinsic-extrinsic muscle pairs. To address this void in the literature, we quantified the incidence and strength of near-simultaneous discharges of motor units residing in either the same or different intrinsic hand muscles (m. first dorsal, FDI, and m. first palmar interosseus, FPI) during two-digit object hold. To extend the characterization of common input to pairs of extrinsic muscles (previous work) and pairs of intrinsic muscles (present work), we also recorded electromyographic (EMG) activity from an extrinsic thumb muscle (m. flexor pollicis longus, FPL). Motor-unit synchrony across FDI and FPI was weak (common input strength, CIS, mean +/- SE: 0.17 +/- 0.02). Similarly, motor units from extrinsic-intrinsic muscle pairs were characterized by weak synchrony (FPL-FDI: 0.25 +/- 0.02; FPL-FPI: 0.29 +/- 0.03) although stronger than FDI-FPI. Last, CIS from within FDI and FPI was more than three times stronger (0.70 +/- 0.06 and 0.66 +/- 0.06, respectively) than across these muscles. We discuss present and previous findings within the framework of muscle-pair specific distribution of common input to hand muscles based on their functional role in grasping.

  11. Assimilation of thermospheric measurements for ionosphere-thermosphere state estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miladinovich, Daniel S.; Datta-Barua, Seebany; Bust, Gary S.; Makela, Jonathan J.

    2016-12-01

    We develop a method that uses data assimilation to estimate ionospheric-thermospheric (IT) states during midlatitude nighttime storm conditions. The algorithm Estimating Model Parameters from Ionospheric Reverse Engineering (EMPIRE) uses time-varying electron densities in the F region, derived primarily from total electron content data, to estimate two drivers of the IT: neutral winds and electric potential. A Kalman filter is used to update background models based on ingested plasma densities and neutral wind measurements. This is the first time a Kalman filtering technique is used with the EMPIRE algorithm and the first time neutral wind measurements from 630.0 nm Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) are ingested to improve estimates of storm time ion drifts and neutral winds. The effects of assimilating remotely sensed neutral winds from FPI observations are studied by comparing results of ingesting: electron densities (N) only, N plus half the measurements from a single FPI, and then N plus all of the FPI data. While estimates of ion drifts and neutral winds based on N give estimates similar to the background models, this study's results show that ingestion of the FPI data can significantly change neutral wind and ion drift estimation away from background models. In particular, once neutral winds are ingested, estimated neutral winds agree more with validation wind data, and estimated ion drifts in the magnetic field-parallel direction are more sensitive to ingestion than the field-perpendicular zonal and meridional directions. Also, data assimilation with FPI measurements helps provide insight into the effects of contamination on 630.0 nm emissions experienced during geomagnetic storms.

  12. Distinct Effect of Impact Rise Times on Immediate and Early Neuropathology After Brain Injury in Juvenile Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumar, Archana; Pfister, Bryan J.; Santhakumar, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can occur from physical trauma from a wide spectrum of insults ranging from explosions to falls. The biomechanics of the trauma can vary in key features, including the rate and magnitude of the insult. Although the effect of peak injury pressure on neurological outcome has been examined in the fluid percussion injury (FPI) model, it is unknown whether differences in rate of rise of the injury waveform modify cellular and physiological changes after TBI. Using a programmable FPI device, we examined juvenile rats subjected to a constant peak pressure at two rates of injury: a standard FPI rate of rise and a faster rate of rise to the same peak pressure. Immediate postinjury assessment identified fewer seizures and relatively brief loss of consciousness after fast-rise injuries than after standard-rise injuries at similar peak pressures. Compared with rats injured at standard rise, fewer silver-stained injured neuronal profiles and degenerating hilar neurons were observed 4-6 hr after fast-rise FPI. However, 1 week postinjury, both fast- and standard-rise FPI resulted in hilar cell loss and enhanced perforant path-evoked granule cell field excitability compared with sham controls. Notably, the extent of neuronal loss and increase in dentate excitability were not different between rats injured at fast and standard rates of rise to peak pressure. Our data indicate that reduced cellular damage and improved immediate neurological outcome after fast rising primary concussive injuries mask the severity of the subsequent cellular and neurophysiological pathology and may be unreliable as a predictor of prognosis. PMID:24799156

  13. Postthrombotic Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rondina MT. Contemporary issues in the prevention and management of postthrombotic syndrome. Ann Pharmacother . 2009 ; 43 : 1824 –1835. OpenUrl CrossRef PubMed ↵ Kahn SR, Ginsberg JS. Relationship between deep venous thrombosis and the postthrombotic syndrome. ...

  14. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the superficial posterior compartment: Soleus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gross, Christopher E; Parekh, Bela J; Adams, Samuel B; Parekh, Selene G

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) represents the second most-common cause of exertional leg pain with incidence of 27-33%. CECS of the superficial posterior compartment, or soleus syndrome, is rare and has only been discussed briefly in the literature. We discuss the management of two patients with bilateral soleus syndrome or CECS of the superficial posterior compartment.

  15. Duane retraction syndrome type 1 with Usher syndrome type 2: an unreported association.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Bhawna Piplani; Khurana, Aruj Kumar; Grover, Sumit

    2015-05-07

    Duane retraction syndrome is characterized by globe retraction and palpebral fissure narrowing on adduction, with restriction of abduction, adduction, or both. Usher syndrome type 2 consists of congenital bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa. The authors present a case with a yet unreported association between Duane retraction syndrome type 1 and Usher syndrome type 2. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Rare case of nephrotic syndrome: Schimke syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Anna Kelly Krislane de Vasconcelos; Torres, Luiz Fernando Oliveira; Silva, Ana Corina Brainer Amorim da; Dantas, Adrianna Barros Leal; Zuntini, Káthia Liliane da Cunha Ribeiro; Aguiar, Lia Cordeiro Bastos

    2016-01-01

    Schimke syndrome corresponds to dysplasia of bone and immunity, associated with progressive renal disease secondary to nephrotic syndrome cortico-resistant, with possible other abnormalities such as hypothyroidism and blond marrow aplasia. It is a rare genetic disorder, with few reports in the literature. The most frequent renal involvement is nephrotic syndrome with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and progressive renal failure. The objective of this study was to report a case of Schimke syndrome, diagnostic investigation and management of the case. Resumo A síndrome Schimke corresponde à displasia imuno-óssea, associada à doença renal progressiva secundária à síndrome nefrótica córtico-resistente, podendo haver outras anormalidades como hipotireoidismo e aplasia de medula óssea. Trata-se de uma patologia genética rara, com poucos relatos na literatura. O acometimento renal mais frequente é uma síndrome nefrótica por glomeruloesclerose segmentar e focal e falência renal progressiva. O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar um caso de síndrome de Schimke, investigação diagnóstica e condução do caso.

  17. Syndromic Disorders with Short Stature

    PubMed Central

    Şıklar, Zeynep; Berberoğlu, Merih

    2014-01-01

    Short stature is one of the major components of many dysmorphic syndromes. Growth failure may be due to a wide variety of mechanisms, either related to the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor axis or to underlying unknown pathologies. In this review, the relatively more frequently seen syndromes with short stature (Noonan syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Silver-Russell syndrome and Aarskog-Scott syndrome) were discussed. These disorders are associated with a number of endocrinopathies, as well as with developmental, systemic and behavioral issues. At present, GH therapy is used in most syndromic disorders, although long-term studies evaluating this treatment are insufficient and some controversies exist with regard to GH dose, optimal age to begin therapy and adverse effects. Before starting GH treatment, patients with syndromic disorders should be evaluated extensively. PMID:24637303

  18. Learning about Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the mothers of infants with Down syndrome. Intelligence in individuals with Down syndrome ranges from low ... is not possible to tell the level of intelligence a baby with Down syndrome will have. All ...

  19. Determining the 630nm emission altitude using modelling and observations from a tristatic configuration of Fabry-Perot Interferometers and EISCAT radars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aruliah, Anasuya; Kosch, Michael

    Anasuya Aruliah, a.aruliah@ucl.ac.uk University College London, London, United Kingdom Michael Kosch, m.kosch@lancaster.ac.uk Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom Tristatic team Anasuya Aruliah,Ho-Ching Iris Yiu,Ian McWhirter, Michael Kosch,Kazuo Shiokawa,Shin-ichiro Oyama,Satonori Nozawa,Vikki Howells,Ian McCrea During early February 2010 a tristatic FPI-EISCAT experiment was run in order to investigate the peak emission altitude of the 630nm airglow and auroral emission in the region of the auroral oval. Two UCL Fabry-Perot Interferometers and a new STEL FPI have been located close to the three EISCAT radars at Tromsø, Kiruna and Sodankylü. The radars were pointed a at a common volume seen by all three FPIs, on assuming a peak emission height of 235km. This altitude is generally assumed to be fairly steady for FPI studies probing the behaviour of the upper atmosphere, though the height is a little different at other latitudes. The smoothing effect of the large viscosity of the upper thermosphere is invoked as a reason why the actual altitude is not too important, and there has been little investigation of the appropriateness of this assumption. However, mesoscale variability in the ionosphere has now been identified as producing a similar quantity of heating as does steady state convection; and FPIs and the CHAMP satellite have shown mesoscale structure in the high-latitude thermosphere. This indicates a need to revisit old assumptions that were based on the premise of thermospheric variability being large-scale. The STEL FPI at Ramfjord has a fully variable pointing direction mechanism and was programmed to point rapidly at successive volumes that would overlap the UCL KEOPS/Kiruna FPI look direction if the emission volume was 195km, 215km, 235km and 255km. Cross-correlation of the temperatures and intensity measurements would then identify the peak emission height. The EISCAT radar provided ionospheric parameters to model the 630nm emission profile

  20. Tourette Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    If you have Tourette syndrome, you make unusual movements or sounds, called tics. You have little or no control over them. Common tics are throat- ... spin, or, rarely, blurt out swear words. Tourette syndrome is a disorder of the nervous system. It ...