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Sample records for enteroscopy effectively enables

  1. Enteroscopy

    MedlinePlus

    Small bowel biopsy; Push enteroscopy; Double-balloon enteroscopy; Capsule enteroscopy; Sonde enteroscopy ... into the upper gastrointestinal tract. During a double-balloon enteroscopy, balloons attached to the endoscope can be ...

  2. Effects of carbon dioxide insufflation in balloon-assisted enteroscopy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Fujimoto, Ai; Ochiai, Yasutoshi; Kanai, Takanori; Naohisa, Yahagi

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim The efficacy of CO2 insufflation during balloon-assisted enteroscopy remains controversial. This study aimed to perform a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which CO2 insufflation was compared with air insufflation in balloon-assisted enteroscopy. Methods PubMed, the Cochrane library, and the Igaku-Chuo-Zasshi database were searched to identify RCTs eligible for inclusion in the systematic review. Data from the eligible studies were combined to calculate the pooled odds ratios (ORs) or weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Four RCTs (461 patients) were identified. Compared with air insufflation, CO2 insufflation significantly increased intubation depth of oral enteroscopy (WMD: 55.2, 95% CI: 10.77–99.65, p = 0.015). However, there was significant heterogeneity. The intubation depth of anal enteroscopy showed no significant difference between the CO2 group and the air group. CO2 insufflation significantly reduced abdominal pain compared with air insufflation (WMD: −2.463, 95% CI: −4.452 to −0.474, p = 0.015), without significant heterogeneity. The PaCO2 or end-tidal CO2 level showed no significant difference between the CO2 group and air group. Conclusions Compared with air insufflation, CO2 insufflation during balloon-assisted enteroscopy caused less post-procedural pain without CO2 retention. PMID:26966518

  3. Interventional balloon-enteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Albert, Jörg G

    2012-01-01

    Balloon assisted enteroscopy (BE) expands greatly the therapeutic options in interventional endoscopy; bleeding sites, strictures, polyps, and other small bowel lesions are increasingly been treated by use of BE in the last 10 years. Treatment options for small bowel bleeding include Argon plasma coagulation (APC), injection therapy, and application of TTS metal clips, and thereby bleeding is stopped in most cases. Dilating symptomatic strictures, resecting polyps as seen in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), and removing foreign bodies, BE carries most endoscopic treatment techniques to the small bowel. Another new indication field for BE are interventions at the biliary system in patients with surgically modified anatomy such as Roux-Y anastomosis. This review offers a full overview on indications of BE and refers to the practical use of the method for all endoscopic interventions.

  4. Multicenter survey on the use of device-assisted enteroscopy in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Mascarenhas-Saraiva, Miguel; Mão-de-Ferro, Susana; Ferreira, Sara; Almeida, Nuno; Figueiredo, Pedro; Rodrigues, Adélia; Cardoso, Hélder; Marques, Margarida; Rosa, Bruno; Cotter, José; Vilas-Boas, Germano; Cardoso, Carla; Salgado, Marta; Marcos-Pinto, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Background Device-assisted enteroscopies (DAEs) are recent endoscopic techniques that enable direct endoscopic small-bowel evaluation. Objective The objective of this article is to evaluate the implementation of DAEs in Portugal and assess the main indications, diagnoses, diagnostic yield, therapeutic yield and complication rate. Methods We conducted a multicenter retrospective series using a national Web-based survey on behalf of the Portuguese Small-Bowel Study Group. Participants were asked to fill out two online databases regarding procedural data, indications, diagnoses, endoscopic therapy and complications using prospectively collected institutional data records. Results A total of eight centers were enrolled in the survey, corresponding to 1411 DAEs. The most frequent indications were obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB), inflammatory bowel disease and small-bowel tumors. The pooled diagnostic yield was 63%. A relation between the diagnostic yield and the indications was clear, with a diagnostic yield for OGIB of 69% (p = 0.02) with a 52% therapeutic yield. Complications occurred in 1.2%, with a major complication rate of 0.57%. Perforations occurred in four patients (0.28%). Conclusion DAEs are safe and effective procedures, with complication rates of 1.2%, the most serious of which is perforation. Most procedures are performed in the setting of OGIB. Diagnostic and therapeutic yields are dependent on the indication, hence appropriate patient selection is crucial. PMID:27087956

  5. From Capsule Endoscopy to Balloon-Assisted Deep Enteroscopy: Exploring Small-Bowel Endoscopic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, D. Matthew; Walker, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    In the past 15 years, the use of endoscopic evaluations in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding has become more common. Indications for further endoscopic interventions include iron deficiency anemia, suspicion of Crohn’s disease or small-bowel tumors, assessment of celiac disease or of ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and screening for familial adenomatous polyposis. Often, capsule endoscopy is performed in concert with other endoscopic studies and can guide decisions regarding whether enteroscopy should be carried out in an anterograde or a retrograde approach. Retrograde endoscopy is beneficial in dealing with disease of the more distal small bowel. Multiple studies have examined the diagnostic yield of balloon-assisted deep enteroscopy and have estimated a diagnostic yield of 40% to 80%. Some of the studies have found that diagnostic yields are higher when capsule endoscopy is performed before balloon-assisted deep enteroscopy in a search for small-bowel bleeds. Each of these procedures has a role when performed alone; however, research suggests that they are especially effective as complementary techniques and together can provide better-directed therapy. Both procedures are relatively safe, with high diagnostic and therapeutic yields that allow evaluation of the small bowel. Because both interventions are relatively new to the world of gastroenterology, much research remains to be done regarding their overall efficacy, cost, and safety, as well as further indications for their use in the detection and treatment of diseases of the small bowel. PMID:27099585

  6. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Capability of Double-Balloon Enteroscopy in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Akyuz, Umit; Akyuz, Filiz

    2016-01-01

    Advances in technology have facilitated the common use of small-bowel imaging. Intraoperative enteroscopy was the gold standard method for small-bowel imaging. However, noninvasive capsule endoscopy and invasive balloon enteroscopy are currently the main endoscopic procedures that are routinely used for small-bowel pathologies, and the indications for both techniques are similar. Although obstruction is a contraindication for capsule endoscopy, it is not considered to be problematic for double-balloon enteroscopy. The most important advantage of double-balloon enteroscopy is the applicability of therapeutic interventions during the procedure; however, double-balloon enteroscopy has certain advantages as well as disadvantages. PMID:26950010

  7. First report of splenic rupture following deep enteroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Girelli, Carlo Maria; Pometta, Roberta; Facciotto, Corinna; Mella, Roberto; Bernasconi, Giordano

    2016-01-01

    Splenic rupture is a rare complication of diagnostic and therapeutic gastrointestinal endoscopy procedures. Herein, we report for the first time a case of splenic rupture following therapeutic retrograde double-balloon enteroscopy, which occurred in an 85-year-old man who was treated for recurrent mid-intestinal bleeding that resulted from ileal angioectasia. This patient promptly underwent an operation and eventually recovered. PMID:27170840

  8. Enteroscopy in the diagnosis and management of celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Rondonotti, Emanuele; Villa, Federica; Saladino, Valeria; de Franchis, Roberto

    2009-07-01

    Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with 3 to 6 biopsies in the descending duodenum is the gold standard for the diagnosis of celiac disease. At the time of the first diagnosis of celiac disease, an extensive evaluation of the small bowel is not recommended. However, video capsule endoscopy, because of its good sensitivity and specificity in recognizing the Endoscopic features of celiac disease, can be considered a valid alternative to EGD in patients unable or unwilling to undergo EGD with biopsies. Capsule endoscopy is also a possible option in selected cases with strong suspicion of celiac disease but negative first-line tests. In evaluating patients with refractory or complicated celiac disease, in whom a complete evaluation of the small bowel is mandatory (at least in refractory celiac disease type II patients) because of the possible presence of complications beyond the reach of conventional endoscopes, both capsule endoscopy and balloon-assisted enteroscopy have been found to be helpful. In these patients, capsule endoscopy offers several advantages: it is well tolerated, it allows inspection of the entire small bowel, and it is able to recognize subtle mucosal changes. However, in this setting, capsule endoscopy should ideally be coupled with imaging techniques that provide important information about the thickness of the wall of the intestine and about extraluminal abnormalities. Although deep enteroscopy (such as balloon enteroscopy) is expensive, time-consuming, and potentially risky in these frail patients, they may have a key role, because they make it possible to take tissue samples from deep in the small intestine.

  9. Characteristics of Small Intestinal Diseases on Single-Balloon Enteroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Zhang; Liu, G.X.; Cai, L.; Yu, H.; Min, X.J.; Gan, H.T.; Yang, K.; SQ, Li; Yan, J.; Chen, L.; Tan, Q.H.; Wu, J.C.; Huang, X.L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The small intestine has been considered inaccessible for a long term. The development of single-balloon endoscopy has greatly improved the diagnosis and treatment possibilities for small intestinal diseases. In this study, we aimed to explore the demographic characteristics and small intestinal diseases of patients who underwent single-balloon enteroscopy between 2009 and 2014 at our endoscopy center. We determined the enteroscopic findings for each small intestinal disease and the most susceptible age groups. In total, 186 patients were included in the study. Their mean age was 45.87 ± 15.77 years. Patients who underwent single-balloon enteroscopy were found to have neoplasms (most common age group: 14–45 years, most common lesion location: jejunum), lymphoma (46–59 and 60–74 years, ileum), protuberant lesions (45–59 years, jejunum), inflammation (14–45 and 46–59 years, ileum), benign ulcers (14–45 years, jejunum), diverticulum (14–45 years, ileum), vascular malformations (60–74 years, jejunum), polyps (14–45 years, jejunum), Crohn's disease (14–45 years, jejunum), hookworm infection (14–45 years, jejunum), lipid pigmentation (14–45 and 46–59 years, jejunum), undetermined bleeding (46–59 years, ileum), or undetermined stenosis (31 years, duodenum). Each small intestinal disease had distinct enteroscopic findings. PMID:26496270

  10. Transumbilical approach to intraoperative enteroscopy in a child with intussusception and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chui, Chan Hon; Jacobsen, Anette Sundfor

    2006-10-01

    Intraoperative enteroscopy has been known to reduce reoperation rates in complicated Peutz- Jeghers polyposis. It is usually performed during a laparotomy. This case report illustrates the feasibility of performing intraoperative transenterotomy enteroscopy together with extracorporeal ileal resection using the transumbilical approach after successfully reducing an intussusception laparoscopically in a 10-year-old child with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. This technique obviates the need for a laparotomy.

  11. Single-balloon enteroscopy efficacy and degree of concordance with noninvasive evaluation of small bowel

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Margarida; Antunes, João; Coelho, Rosa; Cardoso, Hélder; Vilas Boas, Filipe; Ribeiro, Armando; Macedo, Guilherme

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims Clinical impact of single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE) is fairly known, as well as its diagnostic yield comparing with other small bowel gastrointestinal investigations. This study represents a contribution to better understand it and is designed to evaluate SBE efficacy and degree of concordance with previous evaluation of small bowel. Patients and methods This is a single-center retrospective study of patients that underwent SBE with suspected small bowel disease based on non-invasive imaging. Demographic, clinical, procedural and outcome data were collected for analysis. Agreement beyond positive findings was evaluated using κ-coefficient. Results A total of 197 SBEs were performed in 168 patients; mainly men (64.3 %) with mean age 53.3±17.6 years. Most SBEs (86.3 %) performed were preceded by a noninvasive evaluation: in 61.4 % (n = 119) of cases, capsule enteroscopy (CE) was performed, in 18.8 % (n = 37), computed tomography was performed, and in 6.1 % (n = 12) magnetic resonance enterography was performed. Fourty-three patients (25.6 %) underwent endoscopic treatments, mainly: argon plasma coagulation in angioectasias (53.4 %) and polypectomy (34.9 %). The most common diagnoses made with SBE were findings consistent with inflammatory small bowel disease (21.8 %) and vascular lesions (14.2 %). The diagnostic yield of SBE was of 69 %, confirming the suspicion of small bowel disease. The degree of concordance between CE and SBE for positive findings was substantial, κ-coefficient = 0.635 (P < 0.001). However, the degree of concordance between imaging examinations (CT or MR) and SBE was only moderate, κ-coefficient = 0.410 (P < 0.001). SBE had an immediate effect in 20 % of patients, changing diagnostic approaches, medical and surgical treatments. Conclusions Our study supports the idea that for suspected small bowel disease, CE and SBE have an overall good degree of

  12. Current status of device-assisted enteroscopy: Technical matters, indication, limits and complications.

    PubMed

    Elena, Riccioni Maria; Riccardo, Urgesi; Rossella, Cianci; Bizzotto, Alessandra; Domenico, Galasso; Guido, Costamagna

    2012-10-16

    Enteroscopy, defined as direct visualization of the small bowel with the use of a fiberoptic or capsule endoscopy, has progressed considerably over the past several years. The need for endoscopic access to improve diagnosis and treatment of small bowel disease has led to the development of novel technologies one of which is non-invasive, the video capsule, and a type of invasive technique, the device-assisted enteroscopy. In particular, the device-assisted enteroscopy consists then of three different types of instruments all able to allow, in skilled hands, to display partially or throughout its extension (if necessary) the small intestine. Newer devices, double balloon, single balloon and spiral endoscopy, are just entering clinical use. The aim of this article is to review recent advances in small bowel enteroscopy, focusing on indications, modifications to improve imaging and techniques, pitfalls, and clinical applications of the new instruments. With new technologies, the trials and tribulations of learning new endoscopic skills and determining their role in the diagnosis and treatment of small bowel disease come. Identification of small bowel lesions has dramatically improved. Studies are underway to determine the best strategy to apply new enteroscopy technologies for the diagnosis and management of small bowel disease, particularly obscure bleeding. Vascular malformations such as angiectasis and small bowel neoplasms as adenocarcinoma or gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Complete enteroscopy of the small bowel is now possible. However, because of the length of the small bowel, endoscopic examination and therapeutic maneuvers require significant skill, radiological assistance, the use of deep sedation with the assistance of the anesthetist. Prospective randomized studies are needed to guide diagnostic testing and therapy with these new endoscopic techniques.

  13. Double-balloon Enteroscopy: The results of a new experience in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Roushan, Nader; Froutan, Hossein; Taslimi, Reza; Kalani, Mohammad; Ganji, Azita; Darvish Moghaddam, Sodaif; Farahvash, Mohammad Jafar; Khazaeipour, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Approach to the small intestine has been difficult even with newer methods. Double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) has been created for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in diseases of the small intestine. Small intestinal diseases have different etiologies in each country. The DBE has been introduced in recent years in Iran. Our aim was to study the indications and results of DBE in some academic centers in Iran. Methods: Fifty-five patients with symptoms and signs related to small intestine without definitive diagnosis but with previous workup were enrolled in the study. The DBE was performed in three different medical universities in Iran. Results: The mean age of the patients that underwent the DBE was 47.2 ± 17.3 years. Abdominal pain (54.5%) and occult gastrointestinal bleeding (23.6%) were the most common presentations. Small bowel lesions were detected in 26 patients (47.3%); the most common lesions were ulcer (46.2%) and polyps (19.2%). Crohn’s disease (12.7%) was the commonest diagnosis found in DBE procedure. Patients presenting with abdominal pain orl ower hemoglobin level were more likely to be diagnosed (both p≤ 0.05). Small intestinal diseases were ultimately diagnosed in 47.3% of the patients. Twenty percent of the patients had another disease outside the small bowel. Conclusions: DBE is an effective and relatively safe diagnostic and therapeutic option for small bowel evaluations. Accurate selection of patients and more experience technicians and physicians will improve the efficacy of this procedure in Iran. PMID:25250264

  14. Safety and efficacy of single-balloon enteroscopy in management of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with a left ventricular assist device

    PubMed Central

    Koul, Abhinav; Pham, Donald M.; Nanda, Arjun; Woods, Kevin E.; Keilin, Steven D.

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are currently the standard of care in treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure waiting for heart transplant as well as destination therapy for non-transplant candidates. However, patients with LVADs are at increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding due to the device’s unique effects on hemodynamics. A major source of gastrointestinal bleeding in these patients are gastrointestinal angioectasias located within the small bowel that can only be reached with deep enteroscopy. The goal of our study was to determine the safety and efficacy of single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE) in treating gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with LVADs. Patients and methods We present a retrospective case series performed on patients with LVADs who underwent SBE to treat episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding. All procedures were performed at Emory University Hospital by a single endoscopist. Patient demographics, diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding, episodes of re-bleeding, and procedure-related complications were examined. Results A total of 27 SBE procedures performed in 14 patients were reviewed. SBE was performed in an antegrade approach in 89 % (24/27) of cases. Deep intubation was achieved in all antegrade procedures, with the distal jejunum reached in 79 % (19/24) of cases. The diagnostic yield was 78 %. There were no reported complications associated with the procedures. Conclusions SBE is a safe and effective modality to manage gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with LVADs. PMID:28299353

  15. Safety and efficacy of single-balloon enteroscopy in management of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with a left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Koul, Abhinav; Pham, Donald M; Nanda, Arjun; Woods, Kevin E; Keilin, Steven D

    2017-03-01

    Background and study aims Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are currently the standard of care in treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure waiting for heart transplant as well as destination therapy for non-transplant candidates. However, patients with LVADs are at increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding due to the device's unique effects on hemodynamics. A major source of gastrointestinal bleeding in these patients are gastrointestinal angioectasias located within the small bowel that can only be reached with deep enteroscopy. The goal of our study was to determine the safety and efficacy of single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE) in treating gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with LVADs. Patients and methods We present a retrospective case series performed on patients with LVADs who underwent SBE to treat episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding. All procedures were performed at Emory University Hospital by a single endoscopist. Patient demographics, diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding, episodes of re-bleeding, and procedure-related complications were examined. Results A total of 27 SBE procedures performed in 14 patients were reviewed. SBE was performed in an antegrade approach in 89 % (24/27) of cases. Deep intubation was achieved in all antegrade procedures, with the distal jejunum reached in 79 % (19/24) of cases. The diagnostic yield was 78 %. There were no reported complications associated with the procedures. Conclusions SBE is a safe and effective modality to manage gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with LVADs.

  16. Current status of single-balloon enteroscopy: Insertability and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Takuji; Uno, Koji; Tanaka, Kiyohito; Yasuda, Kenjiro

    2015-01-01

    The single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE) system was launched in 2007, proposed as a simpler method than double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE). Controversy surrounds whether the SBE system has the same insertability as DBE. However, many methods have been proposed to improve the depth of insertion with the SBE system, involving several techniques and endoscopic accessories. SBE is used for investigating not only small bowel diseases, but also diseases of the pancreatobiliary and colonic structures. SBE is a necessary advancement for many endoscopic procedures and applications in modern clinical practice. In our review, we summarized the current literature concerning the insertability of SBE and described the technical aspects of improving the rate of deep insertion in SBE procedures. In addition, the recent applications of SBE to diseases besides those of the small bowel are described. PMID:25610535

  17. Safety of Deep Enteroscopy and Capsule Endoscopy in LVAD Patients: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Wilson Tak-Yu; Pearlman, Michelle; Kalmaz, Denise

    2015-12-01

    Patients with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) have increased risk of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. They are prone to develop angiodysplasia of the small intestine, and have a higher risk of bleeding as these patients are all required to be on permanent therapeutic anticoagulation. Here we report a case of a critically ill 55-year-old male on pressors and inotropes with an LVAD, who successfully underwent an antegrade double balloon enteroscopy (DBE).

  18. Therapeutic enteroscopy using a new single-balloon enteroscope: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Moreels, Tom G.; Kouinche Madenko, Nathalie; Taha, Alaa; Piessevaux, Hubert; Deprez, Pierre H.

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Balloon-assisted enteroscopy allows therapeutic intervention in the small bowel, and even of the biliopancreatic system in patients with altered anatomy. However, the conventional single-balloon enteroscope (SBE) has limited therapeutic use because of its small-caliber working channel and the lack of an additional water jet channel. The new single-balloon enteroscope prototype XSIF-180JY has been developed to overcome these problems. We present experience with use of the new SBE prototype during 14 therapeutic endoscopy procedures, which illustrates its advantages. Patients and methods: During a 2-month period, 16 SBE procedures were performed (2 antegrade, 2 retrograde and 12 ERCP procedures) using the XSIF-180JY prototype, 14 of which were done with therapeutic intent. Results: The XSIF-180JY SBE allowed deep enteroscopy with balloon dilation and multiple intestinal polypectomies. Moreover, 14 ERCP procedures were successfully performed in 12 patients with Roux-en-Y altered anatomy. Sphincterotomy, balloon dilation, stone extraction and 7 Fr plastic stent placement were performed through the 3.2-mm working channel. The additional water jet was useful for flushing away stone fragments from the intrahepatic bile ducts and the retrieval basket and for flushing away blood from a bleeding sphincterotomy. No complications related to the enteroscope were encountered. Conclusions: The new therapeutic XSIF-180JY SBE permitted therapeutic enteroscopy and ERCP through its 3.2-mm working channel and the additional water jet channel proved useful in flushing away biliary stones and blood without the need to clear the working channel. This newly developed SBE has the advantage of a larger working channel and an additional water jet, improving therapeutic enteroscopy. PMID:27540583

  19. [The enteroscopy capsule--a swallowable instrument for video examination of the small bowel].

    PubMed

    Fork, Frans-Thomas; Tóth, Ervin; Benoni, Cecilia

    2002-11-28

    Since 1.5 years wireless enteroscopy with the GivenM2A-capsule has been tested clinically. Wireless capsule-enteroscopy (WCE) has already contributed significantly to the understanding of patients with obscure intestinal symptoms. Series of occult bleeders show that WCE detects lesions in 60%, whereas enterography only in 15%, and push-enteroscopy in 25%. Lesions detected are angiodysplasia in 55%, ulcerations in 14%, apthoid lesions and erosions in 11%, tumours in 8%. Active bleeding was seen in 43%. In patients with Crohn's disease further information on extent of disease and type of lesions is gained, mainly seen as erosions in 64%. WCE in hereditary polyposis disclosed more and bigger lesions, and in celiac enteropathy villous atrophy and scalloping of the mucous membrane is readily identified. Software to locate the capsule in the gastrointestinal tract is recently launched together with a graphic display of capsule track and transit times. Soon displays for motility and pressure will follow. Capsule adaptation for screening for Barrett's esophagus and colon cancer might come true.

  20. Global Strike 2035: Considerations for Enabling Effective Command and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-16

    Enabling Theater Time-Sensitive Targeting Much has been learned over the past decade about the command and control attributes required to conduct...future. However, for Global Strike missions in 2035, the lessons learned through theater level operations must be extrapolated to a global scale and...established norms.44 For any organization that must learn to operate in new ways in support of innovative capabilities, leadership must ensure the

  1. Using balloon-overtube-assisted enteroscopy for postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Matthew; Velázquez-Aviña, Jacobo

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is technically more challenging in patients with postsurgical anatomy such as Roux-en-Y anastomosis, frequently mandating an operative intervention. Although limited, there is growing evidence that ERCP can be performed using the balloon-overtube-assisted enteroscopy (BOAE) in patients with complex postoperative anatomy. We present the technical aspects of performing ERCP with the BOAE in patients presenting with complex postsurgical anatomy having biliary problems. ERCP using the BOAE is feasible in patients with complex postsurgical anatomy, permitting diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in 80% of patients. PMID:25364385

  2. Fecal microbiota transplant by push enteroscopy to treat diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Ganc, Arnaldo José; Ganc, Ricardo Leite; Reimão, Sílvia Mansur; Frisoli Junior, Alberto; Pasternak, Jacyr

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the major etiological agent of pseudomembranous colitis and is found in up to 20% of adult inpatients. The recommended treatment is antibiotic therapy with metronidazole and/or vancomycin. However, the recurrence rate may reach up to 25% and it increases in each episode. The newest alternative to treat diarrhea due to recurrent Clostridium difficile is fecal microbiota transplantation. The procedure was performed in 12 patients, with a 6-month follow-up on 10 of them. Of the ten cases, bacterial recurrence was diagnosed in only one patient, after a course of antibiotic to treat urinary tract infection, without presenting with diarrhea. The particularity of our study, besides being an unprecedented event in South America, is the way to perform the infusion of fecal microbiota by enteroscopy.

  3. Retained wireless video enteroscopy capsule: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Scott R; Lohr, Joann M

    2009-01-01

    Capsule enteroscopy, which is a wireless noninvasive approach to evaluation of the small intestine, consists of an 11 x 26-mm capsule containing a miniature video camera, batteries, illuminating light-emitting diodes, a transmitter, and an antenna. The components inside the capsule are encased by a slippery, nonbiodegradable, plastic housing, which weighs less than 4 g. Information obtained from the imager, approximately 2 frames per second, is transmitted by way of radiotelemetry to an array of sensors taped to the abdomen, which connect to a data recorder worn on a belt around the waist. The batteries are designed to last roughly 7-8 hours, providing enough energy to generate approximately 50,000 to 60,000 detailed images. The clinical review of the imagery is made available after completion of the study when images are downloaded from the data recorder to a computer with dedicated software.

  4. Fecal microbiota transplant by push enteroscopy to treat diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Ganc, Arnaldo José; Ganc, Ricardo Leite; Reimão, Sílvia Mansur; Frisoli, Alberto; Pasternak, Jacyr

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium difficile is the major etiological agent of pseudomembranous colitis and is found in up to 20% of adult inpatients. The recommended treatment is antibiotic therapy with metronidazole and/or vancomycin. However, the recurrence rate may reach up to 25% and it increases in each episode. The newest alternative to treat diarrhea due to recurrent Clostridium difficile is fecal microbiota transplantation. The procedure was performed in 12 patients, with a 6-month follow-up on 10 of them. Of the ten cases, bacterial recurrence was diagnosed in only one patient, after a course of antibiotic to treat urinary tract infection, without presenting with diarrhea. The particularity of our study, besides being an unprecedented event in South America, is the way to perform the infusion of fecal microbiota by enteroscopy. PMID:26154556

  5. Role of double-balloon enteroscopy in malignant small bowel tumors

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Enrique Pérez-Cuadrado; Delgado, Pilar Esteban; Conesa, Paloma Bebia; Andrés, Blanca Martínez; Guggiana, Milivoj Franulic; Mateos, Eduardo Alcaraz; Caballero, Mariana Fernández; Agudo, José Luis Rodrigo; Martínez, Silvia Chacón; Latorre, Rafael; Soria, Federico; Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel Herrerías; Martínez, Enrique Pérez-Cuadrado

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) role in malignant small bowel tumors (MSBT). METHODS: This is a retrospective descriptive study performed in a single center. All consecutive patients who underwent a DBE with final diagnosis of a malignant neoplasm from 2004 to 2014 in our referral center were included. Patient demographic and clinical pathological characteristics were recorded and reviewed. MSBT diagnosis was achieved either by DBE directed biopsy with multiple tissue sampling, endoscopic findings or histological analysis of surgical specimen. We have analyzed double-balloon enteroscopy impact in outcome and clinical course of these patients. RESULTS: Of 627 patients, 28 (4.5%) (mean age = 60 ± 17.3 years) underwent 30 procedures (25 anterograde, 5 retrograde) and were diagnosed of a malignant tumor. Patients presented with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 19, 67.9%), occlusion syndrome (n = 7, 25%) and diarrhea (n = 1, 3.6%). They were diagnosed by DBE biopsy (n = 18, 64.3%), histological analysis of surgical specimen (n = 7, 25%) and unequivocal endoscopic findings (n = 2, 7.1%). Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (n = 8, 28.6%), adenocarcinoma (n = 7, 25%), lymphoma (n = 4, 14.3%), neuroendocrine tumor (n = 4, 14.3%), metastatic (n = 3, 10.7%) and Kaposi sarcoma (n = 1, 3.6%) were identified. DBE modified outcome in 7 cases (25%), delaying or avoiding emergency surgery (n = 3), modifying surgery approach (n = 2) and indicating emergency SB partial resection instead of elective approach (n = 2). CONCLUSION: DBE may be critical in the management of MSBT providing additional information that may be decisive in the clinical course of these patients. PMID:26078833

  6. Systematic review: Safety of balloon assisted enteroscopy in Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Arulanandan, Ahilan; Dulai, Parambir S; Singh, Siddharth; Sandborn, William J; Kalmaz, Denise

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the overall and comparative risk of procedure related perforation of balloon assisted enteroscopy (BAE) in Crohn’s disease (CD). METHODS Systematic review (PROSPERO #CRD42015016381) of studies reporting on CD patients undergoing BAE. Seventy-three studies reporting on 1812 patients undergoing 2340 BAEs were included. Primary outcome of interest was the overall and comparative risk of procedure related perforation of diagnostic BAE in CD. Secondary outcomes of interest were risk of procedure related perforation of diagnostic double balloon enteroscopy (DBE), risk of procedure related perforation of therapeutic BAE, efficacy of stricture dilation, and clinical utility of endoscopically assessing small bowel disease activity. RESULTS Per procedure perforation rate of diagnostic BAE in CD was 0.15% (95%CI: 0.05-0.45), which was similar to diagnostic BAE for all indications (0.11%; IRR = 1.41, 95%CI: 0.28-4.50). Per procedure perforation rate of diagnostic DBE in CD was 0.12% (95%CI: 0.03-0.44), which was similar to diagnostic DBE for all indications (0.22%; IRR = 0.54, 95%CI: 0.06-0.24). Per procedure perforation rate of therapeutic BAE in CD was 1.74% (95%CI: 0.85-3.55). Eighty-six percent of therapeutic perforations were secondary to stricture dilation. Dilation was attempted in 207 patients and 30% required surgery during median follow-up of 18 months. When diagnostic BAE assessed small bowel disease activity, changes in medical therapy resulted in endoscopic improvement in 77% of patients. CONCLUSION Diagnostic BAE in CD has a similar rate of perforation as diagnostic BAE for all indications and can be safely performed in assessment of mucosal healing. PMID:27833391

  7. Investigating the Role of Collective Trust, Collective Efficacy, and Enabling School Structures on Overall School Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the role of collective trust, collective efficacy, and enabling school structures on overall school effectiveness. While the concept of organizational effectiveness can be complex and difficult to measure, the results of this research demonstrated a connection of these variables to school effectiveness. Collective trust had…

  8. Comparison of Capsule Endoscopy Findings to Subsequent Double Balloon Enteroscopy: A Dual Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Amandeep S.; Walker, Andrew J.; Benson, Mark E.; Soni, Anurag; Guda, Nalini M.; Misha, Mehak; Gopal, Deepak V.

    2015-01-01

    Background. There has been a growing use of both capsule endoscopy (CE) and double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) to diagnose and treat patients with obscure gastrointestinal blood loss and suspected small bowel pathology. Aim. To compare and correlate sequential CE and DBE findings in a large series of patients at two tertiary level hospitals in Wisconsin. Methods. An IRB approved retrospective study of patients who underwent sequential CE and DBE, at two separate tertiary care academic centers from May 2007 to December 2011, was performed. Results. 116 patients were included in the study. The mean age ± SD was 66.6 ± 13.2 years. There were 56% males and 43.9% females. Measure of agreement between prior capsule and DBE findings was performed using kappa statistics, which gave kappa value of 0.396 with P < 0.001. Also contingency coefficient was calculated and was found to be 0.732 (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Our study showed good overall agreement between DBE and CE. Findings of angioectasia had maximum agreement of 69%. PMID:26420979

  9. Ileal polypoid lymphangiectasia bleeding diagnosed and treated by double balloon enteroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min Seon; Lee, Beom Jae; Gu, Dae Hoe; Pyo, Jeung-Hui; Kim, Kyeong Jin; Lee, Yun Ho; Joo, Moon Kyung; Park, Jong-Jae; Kim, Jae Seon; Bak, Young-Tae

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare disease characterized by focal or diffuse dilated enteric lymphatics with impaired lymph drainage. It causes protein-losing enteropathy and may lead to gastrointestinal bleeding. Commonly, lymphangiectasia presents as whitish spots or specks. To our knowledge, small bowel bleeding resulting from polypoid intestinal lymphangiectasia has not been reported. Here, we report a rare case of active bleeding from the small bowel caused by polypoid lymphangiectasia with a review of the relevant literature. An 80-year-old woman was hospitalized for melena. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy could not identify the source of bleeding. Subsequent colonoscopy showed fresh bloody material gushing from the small bowel. An abdominal-pelvic contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan did not reveal any abnormal findings. Video capsule endoscopy showed evidence of active and recent bleeding in the ileum. To localize the bleeding site, we performed double balloon enteroscopy by the anal approach. A small, bleeding, polypoid lesion was found in the distal ileum and was successfully removed using endoscopic snare electrocautery. PMID:24363538

  10. Ileal polypoid lymphangiectasia bleeding diagnosed and treated by double balloon enteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Seon; Lee, Beom Jae; Gu, Dae Hoe; Pyo, Jeung-Hui; Kim, Kyeong Jin; Lee, Yun Ho; Joo, Moon Kyung; Park, Jong-Jae; Kim, Jae Seon; Bak, Young-Tae

    2013-12-07

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare disease characterized by focal or diffuse dilated enteric lymphatics with impaired lymph drainage. It causes protein-losing enteropathy and may lead to gastrointestinal bleeding. Commonly, lymphangiectasia presents as whitish spots or specks. To our knowledge, small bowel bleeding resulting from polypoid intestinal lymphangiectasia has not been reported. Here, we report a rare case of active bleeding from the small bowel caused by polypoid lymphangiectasia with a review of the relevant literature. An 80-year-old woman was hospitalized for melena. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy could not identify the source of bleeding. Subsequent colonoscopy showed fresh bloody material gushing from the small bowel. An abdominal-pelvic contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan did not reveal any abnormal findings. Video capsule endoscopy showed evidence of active and recent bleeding in the ileum. To localize the bleeding site, we performed double balloon enteroscopy by the anal approach. A small, bleeding, polypoid lesion was found in the distal ileum and was successfully removed using endoscopic snare electrocautery.

  11. Effects of Energy Chirp on Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation Free-Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Z.; Ratner, D.; Stupakov, G.; Xiang, D.; /SLAC

    2009-02-23

    We study effects of energy chirp on echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG). Analytical expressions are compared with numerical simulations for both harmonic and bunching factors. We also discuss the EEHG free-electron laser bandwidth increase due to an energy-modulated beam and its pulse length dependence on the electron energy chirp.

  12. Microfluidic multiplexed partitioning enables flexible and effective utilization of magnetic sensor arrays.

    PubMed

    Bechstein, Daniel J B; Ng, Elaine; Lee, Jung-Rok; Cone, Stephanie G; Gaster, Richard S; Osterfeld, Sebastian J; Hall, Drew A; Weaver, James A; Wilson, Robert J; Wang, Shan X

    2015-11-21

    We demonstrate microfluidic partitioning of a giant magnetoresistive sensor array into individually addressable compartments that enhances its effective use. Using different samples and reagents in each compartment enables measuring of cross-reactive species and wide dynamic ranges on a single chip. This compartmentalization technique motivates the employment of high density sensor arrays for highly parallelized measurements in lab-on-a-chip devices.

  13. Carbon dioxide versus room air insufflation during balloon-assisted enteroscopy: A systematic review with meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shiani, Ashok; Lipka, Seth; Lai, Andrew; Rodriguez, Andrea C.; Andrade, Christian M.; Kumar, Ambuj; Brady, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims Carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation has been suggested to be an ideal alternative to room air insufflation to reduce trapped air within the bowel lumen after balloon assisted enteroscopy (BAE). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the safety and efficacy of utilizing CO2 insufflation as compared to room air during BAE. Patients and methods The primary outcome is mean change in visual analog scale (VAS; 10 cm) at 1, 3, and 6 hours to assess pain. Secondary outcomes include insertion depth (anterograde or retrograde), adverse events, total enteroscopy rate, diagnostic yield, mean anesthetic dosage, and PaCO2 at procedure completion. We searched MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) from inception until May 2015. Multiple independent extractions were performed, the process was executed as per the standards of the Cochrane collaboration. Results Four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in the meta-analysis. VAS at 6 hours favored CO2 over room air (MD 0.13; 95 % CI 0.01, 0.25; p = 0.03). Anterograde insertion depth (cm) was improved in the CO2 group (MD, 58.2; 95 % CI 17.17, 99.23; p = 0.005), with an improvement in total enteroscopy rate in the CO2 group (RR 1.91; 95 % CI 1.20, 3.06; p = 0.007). Mean dose of propofol (mg) favored CO2 compared to air (MD, – 70.53; 95 % CI – 115.07, – 25.98; P = 0.002). There were no differences in adverse events in either group. Conclusions Despite the ability of CO2 to improve insertion depth and decrease amount of anesthesia required, further randomized control trials are needed to determine the agent of choice for insufflation in balloon assisted enteroscopy. PMID:28191497

  14. Emergency single-balloon enteroscopy in overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding: Efficacy and safety

    PubMed Central

    Pinho, Rolando; Rodrigues, Adélia; Fernandes, Carlos; Ribeiro, Iolanda; Fraga, José; Carvalho, João

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the impact of emergency single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE) on the diagnosis and treatment for active overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). Methods SBE procedures for OGIB were retrospectively reviewed and sub-divided according to the bleeding types: active-overt and inactive-overt bleeding. The patient’s history, laboratory results, endoscopic findings and therapeutic interventions were registered. Emergency SBE was defined as an endoscopy that was performed for active-overt OGIB, within 24 hours of clinical presentation. Results Between January 2010 and February 2013, 53 SBEs were performed in 43 patients with overt OGIB. Seventeen emergency SBEs were performed in 15 patients with active overt-OGIB procedures (group A), which diagnosed the bleeding source in 14: angiodysplasia (n = 5), ulcers/erosions (n = 3), bleeding tumors (gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), n = 3; neuroendocrine tumor, n = 1), and erosioned polyps (n = 2). Endoscopic treatment was performed in nine patients, with one or multiple hemostatic therapies: argon plasma coagulation (n = 5), epinephrine submucosal injection (n = 5), hemostatic clips (n = 3), and polypectomy (n = 2). Twenty-eight patients with inactive bleeding (group B) were submitted to 36 elective SBEs, which successfully diagnosed 18 cases. The diagnostic yield in group A (93.3%) was significantly higher than in group B (64.3%)—Fisher’s exact test, p = 0.038. Conclusion This study revealed an important role of emergency SBE in the diagnosis of bleeding etiology in active overt OGIB. PMID:25452844

  15. A case of a ruptured submucosal aneurysm of the small intestine identified using double-balloon enteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Hirofumi; Endo, Katsuya; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Ohtsuka, Hideo; Naitoh, Takeshi; Kuroha, Masatake; Kimura, Tomoya; Shiga, Hisashi; Kakuta, Yoichi; Kinouchi, Yoshitaka; Unno, Michiaki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2016-04-01

    A 47-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital urgently with sudden-onset hematochezia. She was temporarily in a state of hemorrhagic shock. As we strongly suspected bleeding from the small intestine, peroral double-balloon enteroscopy was performed, and indicated a 2.0-cm diameter hemispheric elevated lesion in the jejunum. Moreover, a blood clot was observed at the top of the protrusion. The site was marked by injecting India ink, without taking a biopsy specimen, to avoid further hemorrhaging. Subsequently, laparoscopic partial small bowel resection was performed. On histopathological examination, the lesion was found to be a sac-like submucosal arterial aneurysm, with a diameter of 3.5 mm, comprising several small abnormal arteries. The final diagnosis was a ruptured submucosal aneurysm of the small intestine. Ruptured submucosal aneurysms are very rarely observed in the small intestine. Only a few reports have described their endoscopic findings. Our experience indicates that small bowel enteroscopy may be useful for managing ruptured submucosal aneurysms of the small intestine.

  16. Acoustic effects during photosynthesis of aquatic plants enable new research opportunities.

    PubMed

    Kratochvil, Helmut G; Pollirer, Michael

    2017-03-14

    Measurements of photosynthetic processes in hydrophytes mostly involve photosynthometers, which capture the escaping gas for subsequent analysis The most common method to detect changes in the rate of photosynthetic processes is to count the series of escaping gas bubbles. The emerging bubbles are either simply counted or they are recorded using light barriers, which is very difficult because of their small size and often varying ascent rate. The gas bubbles generated during photosynthesis by aquatic plants produce distinctive sound pulses when leaving the plants. These acoustic side effects enable completely new and highly accurate measurements. The frequency and reaction time changes of the pulses caused by external influences are therefore accurately detectable. The precise time measurements enable registering and evaluating the curves as reactions to changes in physical or chemical environmental conditions. We show that such acoustic analyses open completely new research opportunities for plant physiology.

  17. Acoustic effects during photosynthesis of aquatic plants enable new research opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Kratochvil, Helmut G.; Pollirer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of photosynthetic processes in hydrophytes mostly involve photosynthometers, which capture the escaping gas for subsequent analysis The most common method to detect changes in the rate of photosynthetic processes is to count the series of escaping gas bubbles. The emerging bubbles are either simply counted or they are recorded using light barriers, which is very difficult because of their small size and often varying ascent rate. The gas bubbles generated during photosynthesis by aquatic plants produce distinctive sound pulses when leaving the plants. These acoustic side effects enable completely new and highly accurate measurements. The frequency and reaction time changes of the pulses caused by external influences are therefore accurately detectable. The precise time measurements enable registering and evaluating the curves as reactions to changes in physical or chemical environmental conditions. We show that such acoustic analyses open completely new research opportunities for plant physiology. PMID:28291222

  18. Integrated radiologist's workstation enabling the radiologist as an effective clinical consultant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnery, Kevin W.; Suitor, Charles T.; Hildebrand, Stan; Downs, Rebecca; Thompson, Stephen K.; Shepard, S. Jeff

    2002-05-01

    Since February 2000, radiologists at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center have accessed clinical information through an internally developed radiologist's clinical interpretation workstation called RadStation. This project provides a fully integrated digital dictation workstation with clinical data review. RadStation enables the radiologist as an effective clinical consultant with access to pertinent sources of clinical information at the time of dictation. Data sources not only include prior radiology reports from the radiology information system (RIS) but access to pathology data, laboratory data, history and physicals, clinic notes, and operative reports. With integrated clinical information access, a radiologists's interpretation not only comments on morphologic findings but also can enable evaluation of study findings in the context of pertinent clinical presentation and history. Image access is enabled through the integration of an enterprise image archive (Stentor, San Francisco). Database integration is achieved by a combination of real time HL7 messaging and queries to SQL-based legacy databases. A three-tier system architecture accommodates expanding access to additional databases including real-time patient schedule as well as patient medications and allergies.

  19. Outcome and Safety of Anterograde and Retrograde Single-Balloon Enteroscopy: Clinical Experience at a Tertiary Medical Center in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Meng-Chiung; Chen, Peng-Jen; Shih, Yu-Lueng; Huang, Hsin-Hung; Chang, Wei-Kuo; Hsieh, Tsai-Yuan; Huang, Tien-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE) is designed for identifying possible small bowel lesions with balloon-assisted enteroscopy that allows deep intubation of the intestine. However, data regarding the outcome and safety of SBE remain limited. We conducted this study to evaluate the outcome and safety of anterograde and retrograde SBE approaches. This retrospective review from a tertiary medical center in Taiwan included endoscopic reports and chart data from 128 patients with 200 anterograde and retrograde procedures from September 2009 to November 2014. In this study, the most common indication for both anterograde and retrograde SBE was obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (64.4% vs. 60.6%). There were no significant differences between anterograde and retrograde approaches in terms of the diagnostic yield (69.3% vs. 52.5%) and intervention rate (23.8% vs. 17.2%). The procedure time was shorter for anterograde SBE than for retrograde SBE (68.1 ± 23.9 vs. 76.8 ± 27.7 min, P = 0.018). In addition, among the subgroup of patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, the most common etiologies for those in different age-groups were angiodysplasia (≥ 65 years), non-specific ulcers (30–64 years), and Meckel’s diverticulum (< 30 years). The major complication rate during the study was 1.5%; the rate of asymptomatic hyperamylasemia was higher for patients who underwent anterograde SBE than for those who underwent retrograde SBE (13.9% vs. 2%, P = 0.005). The outcome and safety of anterograde and retrograde SBE are similar. However, anterograde SBE has a shorter procedural time and a higher rate of asymptomatic hyperamylasemia. PMID:27548619

  20. Networking between community health programs: a case study outlining the effectiveness, barriers and enablers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In India, since the 1990s, there has been a burgeoning of NGOs involved in providing primary health care. This has resulted in a complex NGO-Government interface which is difficult for lone NGOs to navigate. The Uttarakhand Cluster, India, links such small community health programs together to build NGO capacity, increase visibility and better link to the government schemes and the formal healthcare system. This research, undertaken between 1998 and 2011, aims to examine barriers and facilitators to such linking, or clustering, and the effectiveness of this clustering approach. Methods Interviews, indicator surveys and participant observation were used to document the process and explore the enablers, the barriers and the effectiveness of networks improving community health. Results The analysis revealed that when activating, framing, mobilising and synthesizing the Uttarakhand Cluster, key brokers and network players were important in bridging between organisations. The ties (or relationships) that held the cluster together included homophily around common faith, common friendships and geographical location and common mission. Self interest whereby members sought funds, visibility, credibility, increased capacity and access to trainings was also a commonly identified motivating factor for networking. Barriers to network synthesizing included lack of funding, poor communication, limited time and lack of human resources. Risk aversion and mistrust remained significant barriers to overcome for such a network. Conclusions In conclusion, specific enabling factors allowed the clustering approach to be effective at increasing access to resources, creating collaborative opportunities and increasing visibility, credibility and confidence of the cluster members. These findings add to knowledge regarding social network formation and collaboration, and such knowledge will assist in the conceptualisation, formation and success of potential health networks in India

  1. Low temperature plasma-enhanced ALD enables cost-effective spacer defined double patterning (SDDP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beynet, Julien; Wong, Patrick; Miller, Andy; Locorotondo, Sabrina; Vangoidsenhoven, Diziana; Yoon, Tae-Ho; Demand, Marc; Park, Hyung-Sang; Vandeweyer, Tom; Sprey, Hessel; Yoo, Yong-Min; Maenhoudt, Mireille

    2009-12-01

    The inherent advantages of the Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition (PEALD) technology--excellent conformality and within wafer uniformity, no loading effect--overcome the limitations in this domain of the standard PECVD technique for spacer deposition. The low temperature process capability of PEALD silicon oxide enables direct spacer deposition on photoresist, thus suppressing the need of a patterned template hardmask to design the spacers. By decreasing the number of deposition and patterning steps, this so-called Direct Spacer Defined Double Patterning (DSDDP) integration reduces cost and complexity of the conventional SDDP approach. A successful integration is reported for 32 nm half-pitch polysilicon lines. The performances are promising, especially from the lines, which result from the PEALD spacers: Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) of 1.3 nm and Line Width Roughness (LWR) of 2.0 nm.

  2. Effect of Knowledge Management on Organizational Performance: Enabling Thought Leadership and Social Capital through Technology Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalhoub, Michel S.

    The present paper studies the relationship between social networks enabled by technological advances in social software, and overall business performance. With the booming popularity of online communication and the rise of knowledge communities, businesses are faced with a challenge as well as an opportunity - should they monitor the use of social software or encourage it and learn from it? We introduce the concept of user-autonomy and user-fun, which go beyond the traditional user-friendly requirement of existing information technologies. We identified 120 entities out of a sample of 164 from Mediterranean countries and the Gulf region, to focus on the effect of social exchange information systems in thought leadership.

  3. Enabling cost-effective high-current burst-mode operation in superconducting accelerators

    DOE PAGES

    Sheffield, Richard L.

    2015-06-01

    Superconducting (SC) accelerators are very efficient for CW or long-pulse operation, and normal conducting (NC) accelerators are cost effective for short-pulse operation. The addition of a short NC linac section to a SC linac can correct for the energy droop that occurs when pulsed high-current operation is required that exceeds the capability of the klystrons to replenish the cavity RF fields due to the long field fill-times of SC structures, or a requirement to support a broad range of beam currents results in variable beam loading. This paper describes the implementation of this technique to enable microseconds of high beam-current,more » 90 mA or more, in a 12 GeV SC long-pulse accelerator designed for the MaRIE 42-keV XFEL proposed for Los Alamos National Laboratory.« less

  4. Enabling cost-effective high-current burst-mode operation in superconducting accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, Richard L.

    2015-06-01

    Superconducting (SC) accelerators are very efficient for CW or long-pulse operation, and normal conducting (NC) accelerators are cost effective for short-pulse operation. The addition of a short NC linac section to a SC linac can correct for the energy droop that occurs when pulsed high-current operation is required that exceeds the capability of the klystrons to replenish the cavity RF fields due to the long field fill-times of SC structures, or a requirement to support a broad range of beam currents results in variable beam loading. This paper describes the implementation of this technique to enable microseconds of high beam-current, 90 mA or more, in a 12 GeV SC long-pulse accelerator designed for the MaRIE 42-keV XFEL proposed for Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  5. Direct and indirect effects of enablers on HIV testing, initiation and retention in antiretroviral treatment and AIDS related mortality

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background An enabling environment is believed to have significant and critical effects on HIV and AIDS program implementation and desired outcomes. This paper estimates the paths, directionality, and direct and indirect associations between critical enablers with antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage and to AIDS-related mortality. Methods Frameworks that consider the role of enablers in HIV and AIDS programs were systematically reviewed to develop a conceptual model of interaction. Measurements for constructs of the model were pooled from the latest publicly available data. A hypothetical model, including latent/unobserved factors and interaction of enablers, program activities and outcomes, was analyzed cross-sectionally with structural equation modeling. Coefficients of the model were used to estimate the indirect associations of enablers to treatment coverage and the subsequent associated impact on AIDS related mortality. Findings The model’s fit was adequate (RMSEA = 0·084, 90% CI [0·062, 0·104]) and the indirect effects of enablers on outcomes were measured. Enablers having significant associations with increased ART coverage were social/financial protection, governance, anti-discrimination, gender equality, domestic AIDS spending, testing service delivery, and logistics. Interpretation Critical enablers are significantly correlated to outcomes like ART coverage and AIDS related mortality. Even while this model does not allow inference on causality, it provides directionality and magnitude of the significant associations. PMID:28225790

  6. Underwater microwave ignition of hydrophobic thermite powder enabled by the bubble-marble effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meir, Yehuda; Jerby, Eli

    2015-08-01

    Highly energetic thermite reactions could be useful for a variety of combustion and material-processing applications, but their usability is yet limited by their hard ignition conditions. Furthermore, in virtue of their zero-oxygen balance, exothermic thermite reactions may also occur underwater. However, this feature is also hard to utilize because of the hydrophobic properties of the thermite powder, and its tendency to agglomerate on the water surface rather than to sink into the water. The recently discovered bubble-marble (BM) effect enables the insertion and confinement of a thermite-powder batch into water by a magnetic field. Here, we present a phenomenon of underwater ignition of a thermite-BM by localized microwaves. The thermite combustion underwater is observed in-situ, and its microwave absorption and optical spectral emission are detected. The vapour pressure generated by the thermite reaction is measured and compared to theory. The combustion products are examined ex-situ by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy which verifies the thermite reaction. Potential applications of this underwater combustion effect are considered, e.g., for detonation, wet welding, thermal drilling, material processing, thrust generation, and composite-material production, also for other oxygen-free environments.

  7. Underwater microwave ignition of hydrophobic thermite powder enabled by the bubble-marble effect

    SciTech Connect

    Meir, Yehuda; Jerby, Eli

    2015-08-03

    Highly energetic thermite reactions could be useful for a variety of combustion and material-processing applications, but their usability is yet limited by their hard ignition conditions. Furthermore, in virtue of their zero-oxygen balance, exothermic thermite reactions may also occur underwater. However, this feature is also hard to utilize because of the hydrophobic properties of the thermite powder, and its tendency to agglomerate on the water surface rather than to sink into the water. The recently discovered bubble-marble (BM) effect enables the insertion and confinement of a thermite-powder batch into water by a magnetic field. Here, we present a phenomenon of underwater ignition of a thermite-BM by localized microwaves. The thermite combustion underwater is observed in-situ, and its microwave absorption and optical spectral emission are detected. The vapour pressure generated by the thermite reaction is measured and compared to theory. The combustion products are examined ex-situ by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy which verifies the thermite reaction. Potential applications of this underwater combustion effect are considered, e.g., for detonation, wet welding, thermal drilling, material processing, thrust generation, and composite-material production, also for other oxygen-free environments.

  8. Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief

    PubMed Central

    Harshman, Dustin K.; Rao, Brianna M.; McLain, Jean E.; Watts, George S.; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics offers quick access to information but fails to operate at a speed required for clinical decision-making. Our novel methodology, droplet-on-thermocouple silhouette real-time polymerase chain reaction (DOTS qPCR), uses interfacial effects for droplet actuation, inhibition relief, and amplification sensing. DOTS qPCR has sample-to-answer times as short as 3 min 30 s. In infective endocarditis diagnosis, DOTS qPCR demonstrates reproducibility, differentiation of antibiotic susceptibility, subpicogram limit of detection, and thermocycling speeds of up to 28 s/cycle in the presence of tissue contaminants. Langmuir and Gibbs adsorption isotherms are used to describe the decreasing interfacial tension upon amplification. Moreover, a log-linear relationship with low threshold cycles is presented for real-time quantification by imaging the droplet-on-thermocouple silhouette with a smartphone. DOTS qPCR resolves several limitations of commercially available real-time PCR systems, which rely on fluorescence detection, have substantially higher threshold cycles, and require expensive optical components and extensive sample preparation. Due to the advantages of low threshold cycle detection, we anticipate extending this technology to biological research applications such as single cell, single nucleus, and single DNA molecule analyses. Our work is the first demonstrated use of interfacial effects for sensing reaction progress, and it will enable point-of-care molecular diagnosis of infections. PMID:26601245

  9. The Effectiveness of a Vocational Enablement Protocol for Employees With Hearing Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Gussenhoven, Arjenne H. M.; Anema, Johannes R.; Witte, Birgit I.; Goverts, S. Theo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a vocational enablement protocol (VEP) on need for recovery (NFR) after work as compared with usual care for employees with hearing difficulties. In a randomized controlled trial design, 136 employees with hearing impairment were randomly assigned to either the VEP or the control group. VEP is a multidisciplinary program integrating audiological and occupational care for individuals experiencing difficulties in the workplace due to hearing loss. The primary outcome measure was NFR. Secondary outcome measures were communication strategy subscales (e.g., self-acceptance and maladaptive behavior), distress, and self-efficacy. Data were collected using questionnaires at baseline and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months follow-up. No significant difference over the complete follow-up period was found between the intervention and control group for NFR. However, we observed a significant difference for one of the secondary outcomes after 12 months. “Self-acceptance” increased significantly in the VEP group, compared with the controls. The mean difference between the two groups was small, being only 0.24 (95% CI [0.04, 0.44]) on a scale of 1 to 5. The results do not support the use of VEP if the aim is to reduce NFR after work at 12 months follow-up. It may be that NFR does not adequately capture what is covered in the VEP. Although marginal, the effect on self-acceptance was significant. This is encouraging given that positive effects on self-acceptance have rarely been shown for audiological rehabilitation programs. Suggestions for further improvement of the VEP are discussed.

  10. Chemical and engineering approaches to enable organic field-effect transistors for electronic skin applications.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Anatoliy N; Tee, Benjamin C-K; Bettinger, Christopher J; Tok, Jeffrey B-H; Bao, Zhenan

    2012-03-20

    Skin is the body's largest organ and is responsible for the transduction of a vast amount of information. This conformable material simultaneously collects signals from external stimuli that translate into information such as pressure, pain, and temperature. The development of an electronic material, inspired by the complexity of this organ is a tremendous, unrealized engineering challenge. However, the advent of carbon-based electronics may offer a potential solution to this long-standing problem. In this Account, we describe the use of an organic field-effect transistor (OFET) architecture to transduce mechanical and chemical stimuli into electrical signals. In developing this mimic of human skin, we thought of the sensory elements of the OFET as analogous to the various layers and constituents of skin. In this fashion, each layer of the OFET can be optimized to carry out a specific recognition function. The separation of multimodal sensing among the components of the OFET may be considered a "divide and conquer" approach, where the electronic skin (e-skin) can take advantage of the optimized chemistry and materials properties of each layer. This design of a novel microstructured gate dielectric has led to unprecedented sensitivity for tactile pressure events. Typically, pressure-sensitive components within electronic configurations have suffered from a lack of sensitivity or long mechanical relaxation times often associated with elastomeric materials. Within our method, these components are directly compatible with OFETs and have achieved the highest reported sensitivity to date. Moreover, the tactile sensors operate on a time scale comparable with human skin, making them ideal candidates for integration as synthetic skin devices. The methodology is compatible with large-scale fabrication and employs simple, commercially available elastomers. The design of materials within the semiconductor layer has led to the incorporation of selectivity and sensitivity within

  11. Demonstration of high current carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic field effect transistors at industrially relevant voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Mitchell

    The display market is presently dominated by the active matrix liquid crystal display (LCD). However, the active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) display is argued to become the successor to the LCD, and is already beginning its way into the market, mainly in small size displays. But, for AMOLED technology to become comparable in market share to LCD, larger size displays must become available at a competitive price with their LCD counterparts. A major issue preventing low-cost large AMOLED displays is the thin-film transistor (TFT) technology. Unlike the voltage driven LCD, the OLEDs in the AMOLED display are current driven. Because of this, the mature amorphous silicon TFT backplane technology used in the LCD must be upgraded to a material possessing a higher mobility. Polycrystalline silicon and transparent oxide TFT technologies are being considered to fill this need. But these technologies bring with them significant manufacturing complexity and cost concerns. Carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic field effect transistors (CN-VFETs) offer a unique solution to this problem (now known as the AMOLED backplane problem). The CN-VFET allows the use of organic semiconductors to be used for the semiconductor layer. Organics are known for their low-cost large area processing compatibility. Although the mobility of the best organics is only comparable to that of amorphous silicon, the CN-VFET makes up for this by orienting the channel vertically, as opposed to horizontally (like in conventional TFTs). This allows the CN-VFET to achieve sub-micron channel lengths without expensive high resolution patterning. Additionally, because the CN-VFET can be easily converted into a light emitting transistor (called the carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic light emitting transistor---CN-VOLET) by essentially stacking an OLED on top of the CN-VFET, more potential benefits can be realized. These potential benefits include, increased aperture ratio, increased OLED

  12. Double-balloon enteroscopy for ERCP in patients with Billroth II anatomy: results of a large series of papillary large-balloon dilation for biliary stone removal

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chi-Liang; Liu, Nai-Jen; Tang, Jui-Hsiang; Yu, Ming-Chin; Tsui, Yi-Ning; Hsu, Fang-Yu; Lee, Ching-Song; Lin, Cheng-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: Data on double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE)-assisted endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogrphy (ERCP) in patients with Billroth II gastrectomy and the use of endoscopic papillary large-balloon dilation (EPLBD) for the removal of common bile duct stones in Billroth II anatomy are limited. The aims of the study were to evaluate the success of DBE-assisted ERCP in patients with Billroth II gastrectomy and examine the efficacy of EPLBD ( ≥ 10 mm) for the removal of common bile duct stones. Patients and methods: A total of 77 patients with Billroth II gastrectomy in whom standard ERCP had failed underwent DBE-assisted ERCP. DBE success was defined as visualizing the papilla and ERCP success as completing the intended intervention. The clinical results of EPLBD for the removal of common bile duct stones were analyzed. Results: DBE was successful in 73 of 77 patients (95 %), and ERCP success was achieved in 67 of these 73 (92 %). Therefore, the rate of successful DBE-assisted ERCP was 87 % (67 of a total of 77 patients). The reasons for ERCP failure (n = 10) included tumor obstruction (n = 2), adhesion obstruction (n = 2), failed cannulation (n = 3), failed stone removal (n = 2), and bowel perforation (n = 1). Overall DBE-assisted ERCP complications occurred in 5 of 77 patients (6.5 %). A total of 48 patients (34 male, mean age 75.5 years) with common bile duct stones underwent EPLBD. Complete stone removal in the first session was accomplished in 36 patients (75 %); mechanical lithotripsy was required in 1 patient. EPLBD-related mild perforation occurred in 2 patients (4 %). No acute pancreatitis occurred. Conclusions: DBE permits therapeutic ERCP in patients who have a difficult Billroth II gastrectomy with a high success rate and acceptable complication rates. EPLBD is effective and safe for the removal of common bile duct stones in patients with Billroth II anatomy. PMID:26171434

  13. A case of enteropathy-type T-cell lymphoma diagnosed by small bowel enteroscopy: a perspective on imaging-enhanced endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jun Yong; Ko, Bong Min; Min, Seul Ki; Lee, Jong Chan; Lee, Gun Wha; Yoon, La Young; Hong, Su Jin; Lee, Moon Sung; Kim, Hee Kyung

    2012-10-01

    Enteropathy-type T-cell lymphoma (ETL) or enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma is a very rare malignant intestinal tumor. ETL is usually diagnosed by surgery. Endoscopic findings of ETL are not well known, and there are few reports of findings from endoscopy that has been performed only using white light. Additionally, there are no definite treatment guidelines for ETL. Therefore, we report a case of ETL diagnosed by enteroscopy with imaging-enhanced endoscopy and also review recently developed treatment options.

  14. Effect of centrifugation on water recycling and algal growth to enable algae biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Igou, Thomas; Van Ginkel, Steven W; Penalver-Argueso, Patricia; Fu, Hao; Doi, Shusuke; Narode, Asmita; Cheruvu, Sarasija; Zhang, Qian; Hassan, Fariha; Woodruff, Frazier; Chen, Yongsheng

    2014-12-01

    The latest research shows that algal biofuels, at the production levels mandated in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, will place significant demands on water and compete with agriculture meant for food production. Thus, there is a great need to recycle water while producing algal biofuels. This study shows that when using a synthetic medium, soluble algal products, bacteria, and other inhibitors can be removed by centrifugation and enable water recycling. Average water recovery reached 84% and water could be recycled at least 10 times without reducing algal growth.

  15. Capturing Safety Requirements to Enable Effective Task Allocation Between Humans and Automaton in Increasingly Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neogi, Natasha A.

    2016-01-01

    There is a current drive towards enabling the deployment of increasingly autonomous systems in the National Airspace System (NAS). However, shifting the traditional roles and responsibilities between humans and automation for safety critical tasks must be managed carefully, otherwise the current emergent safety properties of the NAS may be disrupted. In this paper, a verification activity to assess the emergent safety properties of a clearly defined, safety critical, operational scenario that possesses tasks that can be fluidly allocated between human and automated agents is conducted. Task allocation role sets were proposed for a human-automation team performing a contingency maneuver in a reduced crew context. A safety critical contingency procedure (engine out on takeoff) was modeled in the Soar cognitive architecture, then translated into the Hybrid Input Output formalism. Verification activities were then performed to determine whether or not the safety properties held over the increasingly autonomous system. The verification activities lead to the development of several key insights regarding the implicit assumptions on agent capability. It subsequently illustrated the usefulness of task annotations associated with specialized requirements (e.g., communication, timing etc.), and demonstrated the feasibility of this approach.

  16. Note: electrical detection and quantification of Spin Rectification Effect enabled by shorted microstrip transmission line technique.

    PubMed

    Soh, Wee Tee; Peng, Bin; Chai, Guozhi; Ong, C K

    2014-02-01

    We describe a shorted microstrip method for the sensitive quantification of Spin Rectification Effect (SRE). SRE for a Permalloy (Ni80Fe20) thin film strip sputtered onto SiO2 substrate is demonstrated. Our method obviates the need for simultaneous lithographic patterning of the sample and transmission line, therefore greatly simplifying the SRE measurement process. Such a shorted microstrip method can allow different contributions to SRE (anisotropic magnetoresistance, Hall effect, and anomalous Hall effect) to be simultaneously determined. Furthermore, SRE signals from unpatterned 50 nm thick Permalloy films of area dimensions 5 mm × 10 mm can even be detected.

  17. Note: Electrical detection and quantification of spin rectification effect enabled by shorted microstrip transmission line technique

    SciTech Connect

    Soh, Wee Tee; Ong, C. K.; Peng, Bin; Chai, Guozhi

    2014-02-15

    We describe a shorted microstrip method for the sensitive quantification of Spin Rectification Effect (SRE). SRE for a Permalloy (Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}) thin film strip sputtered onto SiO{sub 2} substrate is demonstrated. Our method obviates the need for simultaneous lithographic patterning of the sample and transmission line, therefore greatly simplifying the SRE measurement process. Such a shorted microstrip method can allow different contributions to SRE (anisotropic magnetoresistance, Hall effect, and anomalous Hall effect) to be simultaneously determined. Furthermore, SRE signals from unpatterned 50 nm thick Permalloy films of area dimensions 5 mm × 10 mm can even be detected.

  18. Nanoparticle-mediated photothermal effect enables a new method for quantitative biochemical analysis using a thermometer.

    PubMed

    Fu, Guanglei; Sanjay, Sharma T; Dou, Maowei; Li, XiuJun

    2016-03-14

    A new biomolecular quantitation method, nanoparticle-mediated photothermal bioassay, using a common thermometer as the signal reader was developed. Using an immunoassay as a proof of concept, iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) captured in the sandwich-type assay system were transformed into a near-infrared (NIR) laser-driven photothermal agent, Prussian blue (PB) NPs, which acted as a photothermal probe to convert the assay signal into heat through the photothermal effect, thus allowing sensitive biomolecular quantitation using a thermometer. This is the first report of biomolecular quantitation using a thermometer and also serves as the first attempt to introduce the nanoparticle-mediated photothermal effect for bioassays.

  19. Great Principals at Scale: Creating District Conditions That Enable All Principals to Be Effective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikemoto, Gina; Taliaferro, Lori; Fenton, Benjamin; Davis, Jacquelyn

    2014-01-01

    School leaders are critical in the lives of students and to the development of their teachers. Unfortunately, in too many instances, principals are effective in spite of--rather than because of--district conditions. To truly improve student achievement for all students across the country, well-prepared principals need the tools, support, and…

  20. Great Principals at Scale: Creating District Conditions That Enable All Principals to Be Effective. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikemoto, Gina; Taliaferro, Lori; Fenton, Benjamin; Davis, Jacquelyn

    2014-01-01

    School leaders are critical in the lives of students and to the development of their teachers. Unfortunately, in too many instances, principals are effective in spite of--rather than because of--district conditions. To truly improve student achievement for all students across the country, well-prepared principals need the tools, support, and…

  1. The Relationship between School Climate, Trust, Enabling Structures, and Perceived School Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayerson, Deborah R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of Deborah R. Mayerson was to assess the relative impact of climate, trust, and bureaucratic structure upon teachers' perceptions of organizational effectiveness. An existing data set compiled by Nancy Casella (2006) for her dissertation was analyzed. The data consisted of questionnaire responses of a random sample of 220 public school…

  2. Local-field effects and nanostructuring for controlling optical properties and enabling novel optical phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgaleva, Ksenia

    My Ph. D. thesis is devoted to the investigation of the methods of controlling and improving the linear and nonlinear optical properties of materials. Within my studies, two approaches are considered: nanostructuring and invoking local-field effects. These broad topics involve various projects that I have undertaken during my Ph. D. research. The first project is on composite laser gain media. It involves both nanostructuring and using local-field effects to control the basic laser parameters, such as the radiative lifetime, small-signal gain and absorption, and the saturation intensity. While being involved in this project, I have performed both theoretical and experimental studies of laser characteristics of composite materials. In particular, I have developed simple theoretical models for calculating the effective linear susceptibilities of layered and Maxwell Garnett composite materials with a gain resonance in one of their components. The analysis of the results given by the models suggests that local-field effects provide considerable freedom in controlling the optical properties of composite laser gain media. I have also experimentally measured the radiative lifetime of Nd:YAG nanopowder suspended in different liquids to extract information regarding local-field effects. The second project is devoted to the investigation of a not-well-known phenomenon that local-field effects can induce, which is microscopic cascading in nonlinear optics. This project involves the theoretical prediction of local-field-induced microscopic cascading effect in the fifth-order nonlinear response and its first experimental observation. This effect has been mostly overlooked or underestimated, but could prove useful in quantum optics. I have shown that, under certain conditions, the microscopic cascaded contribution can be a dominant effect in high-order nonlinearities. The third project is about characterization of laser performance of a new dye, oligofluorene, embedded into

  3. Enabling the use of climate model data in the Dutch climate effect community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som de Cerff, Wim; Plieger, Maarten

    2010-05-01

    Within the climate effect community the usage of climate model data is emerging. Where mostly climate time series and weather generators were used, there is a shift to incorporate climate model data into climate effect models. The use of climate model data within the climate effect models is difficult, due to missing metadata, resolution and projection issues, data formats and availability of the parameters of interest. Often the climate effect modelers are not aware of available climate model data or are not aware of how they can use it. Together with seven other partners (CERFACS, CNR-IPSL, SMHI, INHGA, CMCC, WUR, MF-CNRM), KNMI is involved in the FP7 IS ENES (http://www.enes.org) project work package 10/JRA5 ‘Bridging Climate Research Data and the Needs of the Impact Community. The aims of this work package are to enhance the use of Climate Research Data and to enhance the interaction with climate effect/impact communities. Phase one is to define use cases together with the Dutch climate effect community, which describe the intended use of climate model data in climate effect models. We defined four use cases: 1) FEWS hydrological Framework (Deltares) 2) METAPHOR, a plants and species dispersion model (Wageningen University) 3) Natuurplanner, an Ecological model suite (Wageningen University) 4) Land use models (Free University/JRC). Also the other partners in JRA5 have defined use cases, which are representative for the climate effect and impact communities in their country. Goal is to find commonalities between all defined use cases. The common functionality will be implemented as e-tools and incorporated in the IS-ENES data portal. Common issues relate to e.g., need for high resolution: downscaling from GCM to local scale (also involves interpolation); parameter selection; finding extremes; averaging methods. At the conference we will describe the FEWS case in more detail: Delft FEWS is an open shell system (in development since 1995) for performing

  4. Dopamine D2 receptors in striatal output neurons enable the psychomotor effects of cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Kharkwal, Geetika; Radl, Daniela; Lewis, Robert; Borrelli, Emiliana

    2016-01-01

    The psychomotor effects of cocaine are mediated by dopamine (DA) through stimulation of striatal circuits. Gabaergic striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are the only output of this pivotal structure in the control of movements. The majority of MSNs express either the DA D1 or D2 receptors (D1R, D2R). Studies have shown that the motor effect of cocaine depends on the DA-mediated stimulation of D1R-expressing MSNs (dMSNs), which is mirrored at the cellular level by stimulation of signaling pathways leading to phosphorylation of ERKs and induction of c-fos. Nevertheless, activation of dMSNs by cocaine is necessary but not sufficient, and D2R signaling is required for the behavioral and cellular effects of cocaine. Indeed, cocaine motor effects and activation of signaling in dMSNs are blunted in mice with the constitutive knockout of D2R (D2RKO). Using mouse lines with a cell-specific knockout of D2R either in MSNs (MSN-D2RKO) or in dopaminergic neurons (DA-D2RKO), we show that D2R signaling in MSNs is required and permissive for the motor stimulant effects of cocaine and the activation of signaling in dMSNs. MSN-D2RKO mice show the same phenotype as constitutive D2RKO mice both at the behavioral and cellular levels. Importantly, activation of signaling in dMSNs by cocaine is rescued by intrastriatal injection of the GABA antagonist, bicuculline. These results are in support of intrastriatal connections of D2R+-MSNs (iMSNs) with dMSNs and indicate that D2R signaling in MSNs is critical for the function of intrastriatal circuits. PMID:27671625

  5. High performance MoS2-based field-effect transistor enabled by hydrazine doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Dongsuk; Kannan, E. S.; Lee, Inyeal; Rathi, Servin; Li, Lijun; Lee, Yoontae; Atif Khan, Muhammad; Kang, Moonshik; Park, Jinwoo; Kim, Gil-Ho

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the n-type doping effect of hydrazine on the electrical characteristics of a molybdenum disulphide (MoS2)-based field-effect transistor (FET). The threshold voltage of the MoS2 FET shifted towards more negative values (from -20 to -70 V) on treating with 100% hydrazine solution with the channel current increasing from 0.5 to 25 μA at zero gate bias. The inverse subthreshold slope decreased sharply on doping, while the ON/OFF ratio increased by a factor of 100. Gate-channel coupling improved with doping, which facilitates the reduction of channel length between the source and drain electrodes without compromising on the transistor performance, making the MoS2-based FET easily scalable.

  6. Performance enhancement of organic photovoltaic devices enabled by Au nanoarrows inducing surface plasmonic resonance effect.

    PubMed

    Li, Shujun; Li, Zhiqi; Zhang, Xinyuan; Zhang, Zhihui; Liu, Chunyu; Shen, Liang; Guo, Wenbin; Ruan, Shengping

    2016-09-21

    The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of metal nanoparticles is widely employed in organic solar cells to enhance device performance. However, the light-harvesting improvement is highly dependent on the shape of the metal nanoparticles. In this study, the significantly enhanced performance upon incorporation of Au nanoarrows in solution-processed organic photovoltaic devices is demonstrated. Incorporating Au nanoarrows into the ZnO cathode buffer layer results in superior broadband optical absorption improvement and a power conversion efficiency of 7.82% is realized with a 27.3% enhancement compared with the control device. The experimental and theoretical results indicate that the introduction of Au nanoarrows not only increases optical trapping by the SPR effect but also facilitates exciton generation, dissociation, and charge transport inside the thin film device.

  7. Develop an Architecture to Enable Effective Information Process in Mitigating Asteroid's Threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, M.; Piccione, M.; Sun, M.; Yang, C. P.; Bambacus, M.; Seery, B.

    2015-12-01

    Research on asteroid impacts on Earth is crucial and challenging nationally and globally. Existing efforts for Near Earth Object (NEO) survey such as Catalina Sky Survey and SAO-minor planets center (MPC) have been established. However, our understanding of asteroids still needs to be advanced through physical characterization, modeling of atmospheric entry/breakup, and risk assessments of impacts (land and water), with emphases on small impactors. To achieve the goal of knowledge advancement, activities such as orbit determination, threat analysis, and impact simulation are fundamental, and all require accurate information and effective processing capability. Here we propose a planetary framework including the workflow, information flow, organization dependencies, and most importantly the cyberinfrastructure configuration required to achieve effective information processing. This framework will serve as a foundation for understanding the NEO hazard and building a long-term capability to counter a potential NEO impact threat.

  8. Toward responsible development and effective risk management of nano-enabled products in the U.S. construction industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Gavin H.; Lippy, Bruce E.; Cooper, Michael R.; Marsick, Daniel; Burrelli, Leonard G.; Griffin, Kelsey N.; Segrave, Alan M.

    2016-02-01

    The global construction sector is experiencing major improvements to building materials used in large quantities through commercial applications of nanotechnology. Nano-enabled construction products hold great promise for energy efficiency and resource conservation, but risk assessments lag as new products emerge. This paper presents results from an inventory, survey, and exposure assessment conducted by the authors and explores these findings in the broader context of evolving research trends and responsible development of nanotechnology. An inventory of 458 reportedly nano-enabled construction products provided insight into product availability, potential exposures, and deficiencies in risk communication that are barriers to adoption of proactive safety measures. Seasoned construction trainers surveyed were largely unaware of the availability of nano-enabled construction products. Exposure assessment demonstrated the effectiveness of ventilation to reduce exposures during mechanical abrasion of photocatalytic tiles containing titanium dioxide (TiO2). Dissociated particles of TiO2 just above the nanoscale (138 nm) were detected in the debris collected during cutting of the tiles, but measurements were below recommended exposure limits for TiO2. Exposure assessments remain scarce, and toxicological understanding primarily pertains to unincorporated nanomaterials; less is known about the occupational risks of nano-enabled construction products across their life cycle. Further research is needed to characterize and quantify exposure to debris released from nanocomposite materials for realistic risk assessment, and to ascertain how nanocomposite matrices, fillers, and degradation forces interact to affect release dynamics. Improving risk communication strategies and implementing safe work practices will cultivate responsible development of nanotechnology in construction, as will multidisciplinary research efforts.

  9. Nanoparticle-mediated photothermal effect enables a new method for quantitative biochemical analysis using a thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guanglei; Sanjay, Sharma T.; Dou, Maowei; Li, Xiujun

    2016-03-01

    A new biomolecular quantitation method, nanoparticle-mediated photothermal bioassay, using a common thermometer as the signal reader was developed. Using an immunoassay as a proof of concept, iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) captured in the sandwich-type assay system were transformed into a near-infrared (NIR) laser-driven photothermal agent, Prussian blue (PB) NPs, which acted as a photothermal probe to convert the assay signal into heat through the photothermal effect, thus allowing sensitive biomolecular quantitation using a thermometer. This is the first report of biomolecular quantitation using a thermometer and also serves as the first attempt to introduce the nanoparticle-mediated photothermal effect for bioassays.A new biomolecular quantitation method, nanoparticle-mediated photothermal bioassay, using a common thermometer as the signal reader was developed. Using an immunoassay as a proof of concept, iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) captured in the sandwich-type assay system were transformed into a near-infrared (NIR) laser-driven photothermal agent, Prussian blue (PB) NPs, which acted as a photothermal probe to convert the assay signal into heat through the photothermal effect, thus allowing sensitive biomolecular quantitation using a thermometer. This is the first report of biomolecular quantitation using a thermometer and also serves as the first attempt to introduce the nanoparticle-mediated photothermal effect for bioassays. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional information on FTIR characterization (Fig. S1), photothermal immunoassay of PSA in human serum samples (Table S1), and the Experimental section, including preparation of antibody-conjugated iron oxide NPs, sandwich-type immunoassay, characterization, and photothermal detection protocol. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09051b

  10. Nanoscale triboelectric-effect-enabled energy conversion for sustainably powering portable electronics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sihong; Lin, Long; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-12-12

    Harvesting energy from our living environment is an effective approach for sustainable, maintenance-free, and green power source for wireless, portable, or implanted electronics. Mechanical energy scavenging based on triboelectric effect has been proven to be simple, cost-effective, and robust. However, its output is still insufficient for sustainably driving electronic devices/systems. Here, we demonstrated a rationally designed arch-shaped triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) by utilizing the contact electrification between a polymer thin film and a metal thin foil. The working mechanism of the TENG was studied by finite element simulation. The output voltage, current density, and energy volume density reached 230 V, 15.5 μA/cm(2), and 128 mW/cm(3), respectively, and an energy conversion efficiency as high as 10-39% has been demonstrated. The TENG was systematically studied and demonstrated as a sustainable power source that can not only drive instantaneous operation of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) but also charge a lithium ion battery as a regulated power module for powering a wireless sensor system and a commercial cell phone, which is the first demonstration of the nanogenerator for driving personal mobile electronics, opening the chapter of impacting general people's life by nanogenerators.

  11. Contraceptive Counseling: Best Practices to Ensure Quality Communication and Enable Effective Contraceptive Use

    PubMed Central

    Dehlendorf, Christine; Krajewski, Colleen; Borrero, Sonya

    2014-01-01

    Improving the quality of contraceptive counseling is one strategy to prevent unintended pregnancy. We identify aspects of relational and task-oriented communication in family planning care that can assist providers in meeting their patients’ needs. Approaches to optimizing women's experiences of contraceptive counseling include working to develop a close, trusting relationship with patients and using a shared decision-making approach that focuses on eliciting and responding to patient preferences. Providing counseling about side effects and using strategies to promote contraceptive continuation and adherence can also help optimize women's use of contraception. PMID:25264697

  12. Intrinsic properties of cupric oxide nanoparticles enable effective filtration of arsenic from water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Kyle J.; Reynolds, Brandon; Reddy, K. J.

    2015-06-01

    The contamination of arsenic in human drinking water supplies is a serious global health concern. Despite multiple years of research, sustainable arsenic treatment technologies have yet to be developed. This study demonstrates the intrinsic abilities of cupric oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NP) towards arsenic adsorption and the development of a point-of-use filter for field application. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments were used to examine adsorption, desorption, and readsorption of aqueous arsenite and arsenate by CuO-NP. Field experiments were conducted with a point-of-use filter, coupled with real-time arsenic monitoring, to remove arsenic from domestic groundwater samples. The CuO-NP were regenerated by desorbing arsenate via increasing pH above the zero point of charge. Results suggest an effective oxidation of arsenite to arsenate on the surface of CuO-NP. Naturally occurring arsenic was effectively removed by both as-prepared and regenerated CuO-NP in a field demonstration of the point-of-use filter. A sustainable arsenic mitigation model for contaminated water is proposed.

  13. Intrinsic properties of cupric oxide nanoparticles enable effective filtration of arsenic from water

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Kyle J.; Reynolds, Brandon; Reddy, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of arsenic in human drinking water supplies is a serious global health concern. Despite multiple years of research, sustainable arsenic treatment technologies have yet to be developed. This study demonstrates the intrinsic abilities of cupric oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NP) towards arsenic adsorption and the development of a point-of-use filter for field application. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments were used to examine adsorption, desorption, and readsorption of aqueous arsenite and arsenate by CuO-NP. Field experiments were conducted with a point-of-use filter, coupled with real-time arsenic monitoring, to remove arsenic from domestic groundwater samples. The CuO-NP were regenerated by desorbing arsenate via increasing pH above the zero point of charge. Results suggest an effective oxidation of arsenite to arsenate on the surface of CuO-NP. Naturally occurring arsenic was effectively removed by both as-prepared and regenerated CuO-NP in a field demonstration of the point-of-use filter. A sustainable arsenic mitigation model for contaminated water is proposed. PMID:26047164

  14. Five task clusters that enable efficient and effective digitization of biological collections

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Gil; Paul, Deborah; Riccardi, Gregory; Mast, Austin R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes and illustrates five major clusters of related tasks (herein referred to as task clusters) that are common to efficient and effective practices in the digitization of biological specimen data and media. Examples of these clusters come from the observation of diverse digitization processes. The staff of iDigBio (The U.S. National Science Foundation’s National Resource for Advancing Digitization of Biological Collections) visited active biological and paleontological collections digitization programs for the purpose of documenting and assessing current digitization practices and tools. These observations identified five task clusters that comprise the digitization process leading up to data publication: (1) pre-digitization curation and staging, (2) specimen image capture, (3) specimen image processing, (4) electronic data capture, and (5) georeferencing locality descriptions. While not all institutions are completing each of these task clusters for each specimen, these clusters describe a composite picture of digitization of biological and paleontological specimens across the programs that were observed. We describe these clusters, three workflow patterns that dominate the implemention of these clusters, and offer a set of workflow recommendations for digitization programs. PMID:22859876

  15. The effect of nanoparticle uptake on cellular behavior: disrupting or enabling functions?

    PubMed Central

    Panariti, Alice; Miserocchi, Giuseppe; Rivolta, Ilaria

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are materials with overall dimensions in the nanoscale range. They have unique physicochemical properties, and have emerged as important players in current research in modern medicine. In the last few decades, several types of NPs and microparticles have been synthesized and proposed for use as contrast agents for diagnostics and imaging and for drug delivery; for example, in cancer therapy. Yet specific targeting that will improve their delivery still represents an unsolved challenge. The mechanism by which NPs enter the cell has important implications not only for their fate but also for their impact on biological systems. Several papers in the literature discuss the potential risks related to NP exposure, and more recently the concept that even sublethal doses of NPs may elicit a cell response has been proposed. In this review, we intend to present an overall view of cell mechanisms that may be perturbed by cell–NP interaction. Published data, in fact, emphasize that NPs should no longer be viewed only as simple carriers for biomedical applications, but that they can also play an active role in mediating biological effects. PMID:24198499

  16. Enteral metallic stenting by balloon enteroscopy for obstruction of surgically reconstructed intestine.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Kazunari; Okuse, Chiaki; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Suetani, Keigo; Morita, Ryo; Michikawa, Yosuke; Ozawa, Shun-ichiro; Hosoya, Kosuke; Kobayashi, Shinjiro; Otsubo, Takehito; Itoh, Fumio

    2015-06-28

    We present three cases of self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) placement using a balloon enteroscope (BE) and its overtube (OT) for malignant obstruction of surgically reconstructed intestine. A BE is effective for the insertion of an endoscope into the deep bowel. However, SEMS placement is impossible through the working channel, because the working channel of BE is too small and too long for the stent device. Therefore, we used a technique in which the BE is inserted as far as the stenotic area; thereafter, the BE is removed, leaving only the OT, and then the stent is placed by inserting the stent device through the OT. In the present three cases, a modification of this technique resulted in the successful placement of the SEMS for obstruction of surgically reconstructed intestine, and the procedures were performed without serious complications. We consider that the present procedure is extremely effective as a palliative treatment for distal bowel stenosis, such as in the surgically reconstructed intestine.

  17. The AMERE project: Enabling real-time detection of radiation effects in individual cells in deep space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vos, Winnok H.; Meesen, Geert; Szpirer, Cedric; Scohy, Sophie; Cherukuri, Chaitanya; Evrard, Olivier; Hutsebaut, Xavier; Beghuin, Didier

    2012-12-01

    A major concern for long-term deep space missions is the detrimental impact of cosmic radiation on human health. Especially the presence of high-energy particles of high atomic mass (HZE) represents a serious threat. To contribute to a fundamental understanding of space radiation effects and to help improving risk assessment for humans on the Moon, the ESA Lunar Lander mission model payload includes a package dedicated to cell-based radiobiology experiments in the form of an Autonomous Microscope for Examination of Radiation Effects (AMERE). The purpose of this setup is to enable real-time visualization of DNA damage repair in living cells after traversal of HZE particles on the Moon. To assess the feasibility of this challenging experiment, we have analysed the biological and technological demands. In this article, we discuss the experimental concept, the biological considerations and describe the implications for system design.

  18. Sustainability and scale-up of household water treatment and safe storage practices: Enablers and barriers to effective implementation.

    PubMed

    Ojomo, Edema; Elliott, Mark; Goodyear, Lorelei; Forson, Michael; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-11-01

    Household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) provides a solution, when employed correctly and consistently, for managing water safety at home. However, despite years of promotion by non-governmental organizations (NGOs), governments and others, boiling is the only method to achieve scale. Many HWTS programs have reported strong initial uptake and use that then decreases over time. This study maps out enablers and barriers to sustaining and scaling up HWTS practices. Interviews were carried out with 79 practitioners who had experience with HWTS programs in over 25 countries. A total of 47 enablers and barriers important to sustaining and scaling up HWTS practices were identified. These were grouped into six domains: user guidance on HWTS products; resource availability; standards, certification and regulations; integration and collaboration; user preferences; and market strategies. Collectively, the six domains cover the major aspects of moving products from development to the consumers. It is important that each domain is considered in all programs that aim to sustain and scale-up HWTS practices. Our findings can assist governments, NGOs, and other organizations involved in HWTS to approach programs more effectively and efficiently.

  19. The effect of educational intervention on girl's behavior regarding nutrition: Applying the beliefs, attitudes, subjective norms, and enabling factors

    PubMed Central

    Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Hazavei, Mohammad Mehdi; Entezari, Mohammad Hassan; Hasanzadeh, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an educational program based on the Belief, Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Enabling Factors (BASNEF) Model on the nutritional behavior among second-grade, middle school, female students in Isfahan city. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 72 students. The samples were randomly divided in two groups (36 in the intervention group and 36 in the control group). The data collection tools were validated and had reliable questionnaires. For the intervention group, a 75-minute educational session was held thrice. The control group had no education. The BASNEF model constructs guided the development of the questionnaires and content of the educational sessions. The independent t-test and paired t-test were used to analyze the data. A two-tailed P value lower than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Result: According to the results, the mean scores of knowledge and model variables (Belief, Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Enabling Factors) had a significant difference in the two groups after intervention (P < 0.001). On the basis of the findings, after educational intervention, 36.1% of the students had unfavorable nutritional behavior. In the control group, 88.9% of the students had unfavorable nutritional behavior, before and one month after intervention. Conclusion: The present study showed that nutrition education intervention based on the BASNEF model could promote the nutritional behavior in girl students. PMID:25250345

  20. Effective visualization of integrated knowledge and data to enable informed decisions in drug development and translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Brynne, Lena; Bresell, Anders; Sjögren, Niclas

    2013-10-08

    Integrative understanding of preclinical and clinical data is imperative to enable informed decisions and reduce the attrition rate during drug development. The volume and variety of data generated during drug development have increased tremendously. A new information model and visualization tool was developed to effectively utilize all available data and current knowledge. The Knowledge Plot integrates preclinical, clinical, efficacy and safety data by adding two concepts: knowledge from the different disciplines and protein binding.Internal and public available data were gathered and processed to allow flexible and interactive visualizations. The exposure was expressed as the unbound concentration of the compound and the treatment effect was normalized and scaled by including expert opinion on what a biologically meaningful treatment effect would be.The Knowledge Plot has been applied both retrospectively and prospectively in project teams in a number of different therapeutic areas, resulting in closer collaboration between multiple disciplines discussing both preclinical and clinical data. The Plot allows head to head comparisons of compounds and was used to support Candidate Drug selections and differentiation from comparators and competitors, back translation of clinical data, understanding the predictability of preclinical models and assays, reviewing drift in primary endpoints over the years, and evaluate or benchmark compounds in due diligence comparing multiple attributes.The Knowledge Plot concept allows flexible integration and visualization of relevant data for interpretation in order to enable scientific and informed decision-making in various stages of drug development. The concept can be used for communication, decision-making, knowledge management, and as a forward and back translational tool, that will result in an improved understanding of the competitive edge for a particular project or disease area portfolio. In addition, it also builds up a

  1. Maximizing Power Output in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines and Enabling Effective Control of Combustion Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Samveg

    Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines are one of the most promising engine technologies for the future of energy conversion from clean, efficient combustion. HCCI engines allow high efficiency and lower CO2 emission through the use of high compression ratios and the removal of intake throttle valves (like Diesel), and allow very low levels of urban pollutants like nitric oxide and soot (like Otto). These engines, however, are not without their challenges, such as low power density compared with other engine technologies, and a difficulty in controlling combustion timing. This dissertation first addresses the power output limits. The particular strategies for enabling high power output investigated in this dissertation focus on avoiding five critical limits that either damage an engine, drastically reduce efficiency, or drastically increase emissions: (1) ringing limits, (2) peak in-cylinder pressure limits, (3) misfire limits, (4) low intake temperature limits, and (5) excessive emissions limits. The research shows that the key factors that enable high power output, sufficient for passenger vehicles, while simultaneously avoiding the five limits defined above are the use of: (1) high intake air pressures allowing improved power output, (2) highly delayed combustion timing to avoid ringing limits, and (3) using the highest possible equivalence ratio before encountering ringing limits. These results are revealed by conducting extensive experiments spanning a wide range of operating conditions on a multi-cylinder HCCI engine. Second, this dissertation discusses strategies for effectively sensing combustion characteristics on a HCCI engine. For effective feedback control of HCCI combustion timing, a sensor is required to quantify when combustion occurs. Many laboratory engines use in-cylinder pressure sensors but these sensors are currently prohibitively expensive for wide-scale commercialization. Instead, ion sensors made from inexpensive sparkplugs

  2. Effectiveness, usability, and acceptability of haptic-enabled virtual reality and mannequin modality simulators for surgical cricothyroidotomy.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Michael D; Campbell-Wynn, Lillian

    2014-03-01

    This research assesses the effectiveness, usability, and acceptability of mannequin and haptic-enabled virtual reality (VR) modality simulators by Army medics in a surgical cricothyroidotomy procedure. Research methods investigate through experimentation surgical task performance, technology acceptance, user recommendation, comparative analysis, and select cognitive task load results. Results indicate that the HapMed mannequin and CricSim VR simulators proved effective by meeting training task performance evaluation requirements. Both systems meet 95% user technology acceptance and 85% user recommendation levels. In conclusion, at those levels, either system may complement, reduce, or replace the use of some alternative training methods such as animals or cadavers. To raise recommendation rates, future research needs to reduce barriers to blending visualization with mannequin modalities and make further refinements within the modalities. One research pathway identified blends a mannequin with stereoscopic visualization and motion parallax, providing correlated, partially transparent visual layers of anatomy and of various medical procedures in virtual overlay with the mannequin. Future research also needs to clarify acceptable degrees of freedom levels by task for haptics VR in light of real-world degrees of freedom requirements. Finally, artificial skin may need research to achieve better replication of human skin on mannequins.

  3. Light-Driven Overall Water Splitting Enabled by a Photo-Dember Effect Realized on 3D Plasmonic Structures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Gu, Jiajun; Sun, Cheng; Zhao, Yixin; Zhang, Ruoxi; You, Xinyuan; Liu, Qinglei; Zhang, Wang; Su, Yishi; Su, Huilan; Zhang, Di

    2016-07-26

    Photoelectric conversion driven by sunlight has a broad range of energy/environmental applications (e.g., in solar cells and water splitting). However, difficulties are encountered in the separation of photoexcited charges. Here, we realize a long-range (∼1.5 μm period) electric polarization via asymmetric localization of surface plasmons on a three-dimensional silver structure (3D-Ag). This visible-light-responsive effect-the photo-Dember effect, can be analogous to the thermoelectric effect, in which hot carriers are thermally generated instead of being photogenerated. The induced electric field can efficiently separate photogenerated charges, enabling sunlight-driven overall water splitting on a series of dopant-free commercial semiconductor particles (i.e., ZnO, CeO2, TiO2, and WO3) once they are combined with the 3D-Ag substrate. These photocatalytic processes can last over 30 h on 3D-Ag+ZnO, 3D-Ag+CeO2, and 3D-Ag+TiO2, thus demonstrating good catalytic stability for these systems. Using commercial WO3 powder as a reference, the amount of O2 generated with 3D-Ag+CeO2 surpasses even its recently reported counterpart in which sacrificial reagents had to be involved to run half-reactions. This plasmon-mediated charge separation strategy provides an effective way to improve the efficiency of photoelectric energy conversion, which can be useful in photovoltaics and photocatalysis.

  4. Overtube-assisted enteroscopy and capsule endoscopy for the diagnosis of small-bowel polyps and tumors: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sulbaran, Marianny; de Moura, Eduardo; Bernardo, Wanderley; Morais, Cintia; Oliveira, Joel; Bustamante-Lopez, Leonardo; Sakai, Paulo; Mönkemüller, Klaus; Safatle-Ribeiro, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Several studies have evaluated the utility of double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) and capsule endoscopy (CE) for patients with small-bowel disease showing inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of overtube-assisted enteroscopy (OAE) as well as the diagnostic concordance between OAE and CE for small-bowel polyps and tumors. Patients and methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies in which the results of OAE were compared with the results of CE for the evaluation of small-bowel polyps and tumors. When data for surgically resected lesions were available, the histopathological results of OAE and surgical specimens were compared. The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio for the diagnosis of small-bowel polyps and tumors were analyzed. Secondarily, the rates of diagnostic concordance and discordance between OAE and CE were calculated. Results: There were 15 full-length studies with a total of 821 patients that met the inclusion criteria. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were as follows: 0.89 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.84 – 0.93), with heterogeneity χ2 = 41.23 (P = 0.0002) and inconsistency (I 2) = 66.0 %; 0.97 (95 %CI 0.95 – 0.98), with heterogeneity χ2 = 45.27 (P = 0.07) and inconsistency (I 2) = 69.1 %; 16.61 (95 %CI 3.74 – 73.82), with heterogeneity Cochrane’s Q = 225.19 (P < 0.01) and inconsistency (I 2) = 93.8 %; and 0.14 (95 %CI 0.05 – 0.35), with heterogeneity Cochrane’s Q = 81.01 (P < .01) and inconsistency (I 2) = 82.7 %, respectively. A summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC) curve was constructed, and the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.97. Conclusion: OAE is an accurate test for the detection of small-bowel polyps and tumors. OAE and CE

  5. Combined Changes in Chloride Regulation and Neuronal Excitability Enable Primary Afferent Depolarization to Elicit Spiking without Compromising its Inhibitory Effects

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The central terminals of primary afferent fibers experience depolarization upon activation of GABAA receptors (GABAAR) because their intracellular chloride concentration is maintained above electrochemical equilibrium. Primary afferent depolarization (PAD) normally mediates inhibition via sodium channel inactivation and shunting but can evoke spikes under certain conditions. Antidromic (centrifugal) conduction of these spikes may contribute to neurogenic inflammation while orthodromic (centripetal) conduction could contribute to pain in the case of nociceptive fibers. PAD-induced spiking is assumed to override presynaptic inhibition. Using computer simulations and dynamic clamp experiments, we sought to identify which biophysical changes are required to enable PAD-induced spiking and whether those changes necessarily compromise PAD-mediated inhibition. According to computational modeling, a depolarizing shift in GABA reversal potential (EGABA) and increased intrinsic excitability (manifest as altered spike initiation properties) were necessary for PAD-induced spiking, whereas increased GABAAR conductance density (ḡGABA) had mixed effects. We tested our predictions experimentally by using dynamic clamp to insert virtual GABAAR conductances with different EGABA and kinetics into acutely dissociated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron somata. Comparable experiments in central axon terminals are prohibitively difficult but the biophysical requirements for PAD-induced spiking are arguably similar in soma and axon. Neurons from naïve (i.e. uninjured) rats were compared before and after pharmacological manipulation of intrinsic excitability, and against neurons from nerve-injured rats. Experimental data confirmed that, in most neurons, both predicted changes were necessary to yield PAD-induced spiking. Importantly, such changes did not prevent PAD from inhibiting other spiking or from blocking spike propagation. In fact, since the high value of ḡGABA required for PAD

  6. Liquid metal enabled pump

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shi-Yang; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Sivan, Vijay; Petersen, Phred; O’Mullane, Anthony P.; Abbott, Derek; Mitchell, Arnan; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale pumps will be the heartbeat of many future micro/nanoscale platforms. However, the integration of small-scale pumps is presently hampered by limited flow rate with respect to the input power, and their rather complicated fabrication processes. These issues arise as many conventional pumping effects require intricate moving elements. Here, we demonstrate a system that we call the liquid metal enabled pump, for driving a range of liquids without mechanical moving parts, upon the application of modest electric field. This pump incorporates a droplet of liquid metal, which induces liquid flow at high flow rates, yet with exceptionally low power consumption by electrowetting/deelectrowetting at the metal surface. We present theory explaining this pumping mechanism and show that the operation is fundamentally different from other existing pumps. The presented liquid metal enabled pump is both efficient and simple, and thus has the potential to fundamentally advance the field of microfluidics. PMID:24550485

  7. A single-center United States experience with bleeding Dieulafoy lesions of the small bowel: diagnosis and treatment with single-balloon enteroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lipka, Seth; Rabbanifard, Roshanak; Kumar, Ambuj; Brady, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: A Dieulafoy lesion (DL) of the small bowel can cause severe gastrointestinal bleeding, and presents a difficult clinical setting for endoscopists. Limited data exists on the therapeutic yield of treating DLs of the small bowel using single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE). Methods: Data were collected from Tampa General Hospital a 1 018-bed teaching hospital affiliated with University of South Florida in Tampa, Florida. Patients were selected from a database of patients that underwent SBE from January 2010 – August 2013. Results: Eight patients were found to have DL an incidence of 2.6 % of 309 SBE performed for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. 7/8 were identified in the jejunum, with one found in the duodenum. The mean age of patients with DL was 71.5 years old. 6/8 patients were on some form of anticoagulant/antiplatelet agent. The primary modality of therapy employed was electrocautery, multipolar electrocoagulation in seven patients and APC (argon plasma coagulation) in one patient. In three patients, electrocoagulation was unsuccessful and hemostasis was achieved with clip placement. Three patients required repeat SBE with one found to have rebleeding from a failed clip with hemostasis achieved upon reapplication of one clip. Conclusion: In our United States’ experience, SBE offers a reasonable therapeutic approach to treat DL of the small bowel with low rates of rebleeding, no adverse events, and no patient requiring surgery. PMID:26356602

  8. Small-bowel capsule endoscopy and device-assisted enteroscopy for diagnosis and treatment of small-bowel disorders: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Clinical Guideline.

    PubMed

    Pennazio, Marco; Spada, Cristiano; Eliakim, Rami; Keuchel, Martin; May, Andrea; Mulder, Chris J; Rondonotti, Emanuele; Adler, Samuel N; Albert, Joerg; Baltes, Peter; Barbaro, Federico; Cellier, Christophe; Charton, Jean Pierre; Delvaux, Michel; Despott, Edward J; Domagk, Dirk; Klein, Amir; McAlindon, Mark; Rosa, Bruno; Rowse, Georgina; Sanders, David S; Saurin, Jean Christophe; Sidhu, Reena; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Hassan, Cesare; Gralnek, Ian M

    2015-04-01

    This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). The Guideline was also reviewed and endorsed by the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG). It addresses the roles of small-bowel capsule endoscopy and device-assisted enteroscopy for diagnosis and treatment of small-bowel disorders. Main recommendations 1 ESGE recommends small-bowel video capsule endoscopy as the first-line investigation in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). 2 In patients with overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, ESGE recommends performing small-bowel capsule endoscopy as soon as possible after the bleeding episode, optimally within 14 days, in order to maximize the diagnostic yield (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). 3 ESGE does not recommend the routine performance of second-look endoscopy prior to small-bowel capsule endoscopy; however whether to perform second-look endoscopy before capsule endoscopy in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding or iron-deficiency anaemia should be decided on a case-by-case basis (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 4 In patients with positive findings at small-bowel capsule endoscopy, ESGE recommends device-assisted enteroscopy to confirm and possibly treat lesions identified by capsule endoscopy (strong recommendation, high quality evidence). 5 ESGE recommends ileocolonoscopy as the first endoscopic examination for investigating patients with suspected Crohn's disease (strong recommendation, high quality evidence). In patients with suspected Crohn's disease and negative ileocolonoscopy findings, ESGE recommends small-bowel capsule endoscopy as the initial diagnostic modality for investigating the small bowel, in the absence of obstructive symptoms or known stenosis (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence).ESGE does not recommend routine small-bowel imaging or the use of the PillCam patency capsule

  9. Enable, mediate, advocate.

    PubMed

    Saan, Hans; Wise, Marilyn

    2011-12-01

    The authors of the Ottawa Charter selected the words enable, mediate and advocate to describe the core activities in what was, in 1986, the new Public Health. This article considers these concepts and the values and ideas upon which they were based. We discuss their relevance in the current context within which health promotion is being conducted, and discuss the implications of changes in the health agenda, media and globalization for practice. We consider developments within health promotion since 1986: its central role in policy rhetoric, the increasing understanding of complexities and the interlinkage with many other societal processes. So the three core activities are reviewed: they still fit well with the main health promotion challenges, but should be refreshed by new ideas and values. As the role of health promotion in the political arena has grown we have become part of the policy establishment and that is a mixed blessing. Making way for community advocates is now our challenge. Enabling requires greater sensitivity to power relations involved and an understanding of the role of health literacy. Mediating keeps its central role as it bridges vital interests of parties. We conclude that these core concepts in the Ottawa Charter need no serious revision. There are, however, lessons from the last 25 years that point to ways to address present and future challenges with greater sensitivity and effectiveness. We invite the next generation to avoid canonizing this text: as is true of every heritage, the heirs must decide on its use.

  10. Depletion of tRNA-halves enables effective small RNA sequencing of low-input murine serum samples

    PubMed Central

    Van Goethem, Alan; Yigit, Nurten; Everaert, Celine; Moreno-Smith, Myrthala; Mus, Liselot M.; Barbieri, Eveline; Speleman, Frank; Mestdagh, Pieter; Shohet, Jason; Van Maerken, Tom; Vandesompele, Jo

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing ascent of sequencing technologies has enabled researchers to gain unprecedented insights into the RNA content of biological samples. MiRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNAs, play a pivotal role in regulating gene expression. The discovery that miRNAs are stably present in circulation has spiked interest in their potential use as minimally-invasive biomarkers. However, sequencing of blood-derived samples (serum, plasma) is challenging due to the often low RNA concentration, poor RNA quality and the presence of highly abundant RNAs that dominate sequencing libraries. In murine serum for example, the high abundance of tRNA-derived small RNAs called 5′ tRNA halves hampers the detection of other small RNAs, like miRNAs. We therefore evaluated two complementary approaches for targeted depletion of 5′ tRNA halves in murine serum samples. Using a protocol based on biotinylated DNA probes and streptavidin coated magnetic beads we were able to selectively deplete 95% of the targeted 5′ tRNA half molecules. This allowed an unbiased enrichment of the miRNA fraction resulting in a 6-fold increase of mapped miRNA reads and 60% more unique miRNAs detected. Moreover, when comparing miRNA levels in tumor-carrying versus tumor-free mice, we observed a three-fold increase in differentially expressed miRNAs. PMID:27901112

  11. The Joint Effects-Based Contracting Execution System: A Proposed Enabling Concept for Future Joint Expeditionary Contracting Execution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    kinetic requirements definitions thereby exposing the fertile ground for both warfigher and CCO to deliver effects: time-definite contracting of supplies...be developed before deploying and should be tested to ensure it can be used effectively in contingency environments (SIGIR, 2006). The DoD needs to...before mobilizing for post-conflict efforts and test that they can effectively be implemented in contingency situations. After reconstruction

  12. Outcomes from Enabling Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Oanh; Ball, Katrina

    The outcomes of enabling courses offered in Australia's vocational education and training (VET) sector were examined. "Enabling course" was defined as lower-level preparatory and prevocational courses covering a wide range of areas, including remedial education, bridging courses, precertificate courses, and general employment preparation…

  13. Technology Enabled Learning. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers on technology-enabled learning and human resource development. Among results found in "Current State of Technology-enabled Learning Programs in Select Federal Government Organizations: a Case Study of Ten Organizations" (Letitia A. Combs) are the following: the dominant delivery method is traditional…

  14. EUS-guided biliary drainage or enteroscopy-assisted ERCP in patients with surgical anatomy and biliary obstruction: an international comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Khashab, Mouen A.; El Zein, Mohamad H.; Sharzehi, Kaveh; Marson, Fernando P.; Haluszka, Oleh; Small, Aaron J.; Nakai, Yousuke; Park, Do Hyun; Kunda, Rastislav; Teoh, Anthony Y.; Peñas, Irene; Perez-Miranda, Manuel; Kumbhari, Vivek; Van der Merwe, Schalk; Artifon, Everson L.; Ross, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: How enteroscopy-assisted ERCP (e-ERCP) and endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) compare in patients with surgically altered upper gastrointestinal anatomy is currently unknown. The aims of this study were to compare efficacy and safety of both techniques and study predictors of these outcomes. Patients and methods: This was an international, multicenter comparative cohort study at 10 tertiary centers. Outcomes data included technical success (biliary access with cholangiography and stent placement [when indicated]), clinical success (resolution of biliary obstruction) and adverse events (AEs) (graded according to the ASGE lexicon). Results: A total of 98 patients underwent EUS-BD (n = 49) or e-ERCP (n = 49). Technical success was achieved in 48 (98 %) patients in the EUS-BD group as compared to 32 (65.3 %) patients in the e-ERCP group (OR 12.48, P = 0.001). Clinical success was attained in 88 % of patients in EUS-BD group as compared to 59.1 % in the e-ERCP group (OR 2.83, P = 0.03). Procedural time was significantly shorter in the EUS-BD group (55 min vs 95 min, P < 0.0001). AEs occurred more commonly in the EUS-BD group (20 % vs. 4 %, P = 0.01). However, the majority (90 %) of AEs were mild/moderate. Length of stay was significantly longer in the EUS-BD group (6.6 d vs. 2.4 d, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: EUS-BD can be performed with a higher degree of clinical efficacy and shorter procedure time than e-ERCP in patients with surgically-altered upper gastrointestinal anatomy. Whether or not this approach should be first-line therapy in this patient population is highly dependent on the indication for the procedure, the patient’s anatomy, and local practice and expertise. PMID:27995197

  15. Effect of hyperfine-induced spin mixing on the defect-enabled spin blockade and spin filtering in GaNAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puttisong, Y.; Wang, X. J.; Buyanova, I. A.; Chen, W. M.

    2013-03-01

    The effect of hyperfine interaction (HFI) on the recently discovered room-temperature defect-enabled spin-filtering effect in GaNAs alloys is investigated both experimentally and theoretically based on a spin Hamiltonian analysis. We provide direct experimental evidence that the HFI between the electron and nuclear spin of the central Ga atom of the spin-filtering defect, namely, the Gai interstitials, causes strong mixing of the electron spin states of the defect, thereby degrading the efficiency of the spin-filtering effect. We also show that the HFI-induced spin mixing can be suppressed by an application of a longitudinal magnetic field such that the electronic Zeeman interaction overcomes the HFI, leading to well-defined electron spin states beneficial to the spin-filtering effect. The results provide a guideline for further optimization of the defect-engineered spin-filtering effect.

  16. Adenosine A2A receptors enable the synaptic effects of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the rodent striatum.

    PubMed

    Tebano, Maria Teresa; Martire, Alberto; Chiodi, Valentina; Pepponi, Rita; Ferrante, Antonella; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Frank, Claudio; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Ledent, Catherine; Popoli, Patrizia

    2009-09-01

    Adenosine A(2A), cannabinoid CB(1) and metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu(5)) receptors are all highly expressed in the striatum. The aim of the present work was to investigate whether, and by which mechanisms, the above receptors interact in the regulation of striatal synaptic transmission. By extracellular field potentials (FPs) recordings in corticostriatal slices, we demonstrated that the ability of the selective type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB(1)R) agonist WIN55,212-2 to depress synaptic transmission was prevented by the pharmacological blockade or the genetic inactivation of A(2A)Rs. Such a permissive effect of A(2A)Rs towards CB(1)Rs does not seem to occur pre-synaptically as the ability of WIN55,212-2 to increase the R2/R1 ratio under a protocol of paired-pulse stimulation was not modified by ZM241385. Furthermore, the effects of WIN55,212-2 were reduced in slices from mice lacking post-synaptic striatal A(2A)Rs. The selective mGlu(5)R agonist (RS)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (CHPG) potentiated the synaptic effects of WIN55,212-2, and such a potentiation was abolished by A(2A)R blockade. Unlike the synaptic effects, the ability of WIN55,212-2 to prevent NMDA-induced toxicity was not influenced by ZM241385. Altogether, these results show that the state of activation of A(2A)Rs regulates the synaptic effects of CB(1)Rs and that A(2A)Rs may control CB(1) effects also indirectly, namely through mGlu(5)Rs.

  17. Enabling Remote Access to Fieldwork: Gaining Insight into the Pedagogic Effectiveness of "Direct" and "Remote" Field Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Alison; Collins, Trevor; Maskall, John; Lea, John; Lunt, Paul; Davies, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This study considers the pedagogical effectiveness of remote access to fieldwork locations. Forty-one students from across the GEES disciplines (geography, earth and environmental sciences) undertook a fieldwork exercise, supported by two lecturers. Twenty students accessed the field site directly and the remainder accessed the site remotely using…

  18. Additive effects due to biochar and endophyte application enable soybean to enhance nutrient uptake and modulate nutritional parameters* #

    PubMed Central

    Waqas, Muhammad; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Khan, Abdul Latif; Shahzad, Raheem; Asaf, Sajjad; Hamayun, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Khan, Muhammad Aaqil; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-01-01

    We studied the effects of hardwood-derived biochar (BC) and the phytohormone-producing endophyte Galactomyces geotrichum WLL1 in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) with respect to basic, macro-and micronutrient uptakes and assimilations, and their subsequent effects on the regulation of functional amino acids, isoflavones, fatty acid composition, total sugar contents, total phenolic contents, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging activity. The assimilation of basic nutrients such as nitrogen was up-regulated, leaving carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen unaffected in BC+G. geotrichum-treated soybean plants. In comparison, the uptakes of macro-and micronutrients fluctuated in the individual or co-application of BC and G. geotrichum in soybean plant organs and rhizospheric substrate. Moreover, the same attribute was recorded for the regulation of functional amino acids, isoflavones, fatty acid composition, total sugar contents, total phenolic contents, and DPPH-scavenging activity. Collectively, these results showed that BC+G. geotrichum-treated soybean yielded better results than did the plants treated with individual applications. It was concluded that BC is an additional nutriment source and that the G. geotrichum acts as a plant biostimulating source and the effects of both are additive towards plant growth promotion. Strategies involving the incorporation of BC and endophytic symbiosis may help achieve eco-friendly agricultural production, thus reducing the excessive use of chemical agents. PMID:28124840

  19. Overview of the American College of Rheumatology's Electronic Health Record-Enabled Registry: The Rheumatology Informatics System for Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Melissa; Johansson, Tracy; Kazi, Salahuddin

    2016-01-01

    The Rheumatology Informatics System for Effectiveness (RISE) Registry was developed by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) to serve US rheumatologists for the significant challenges of a rapidly changing healthcare environment. More than 400 rheumatologists have sent data from more than 3 million encounters of more than 650,000 patients as of August 11, 2016, through their electronic medical records (EMRs), with no additional work or interference with workflow on the part of the rheumatologists. RISE includes patients with all diagnoses seen by participating rheumatologists, at no cost to the rheumatologist.

  20. A survey of informatics platforms that enable distributed comparative effectiveness research using multi-institutional heterogeneous clinical data

    PubMed Central

    Sittig, Dean F.; Hazlehurst, Brian L.; Brown, Jeffrey; Murphy, Shawn; Rosenman, Marc; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Wilcox, Adam B.

    2012-01-01

    Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) has the potential to transform the current healthcare delivery system by identifying the most effective medical and surgical treatments, diagnostic tests, disease prevention methods and ways to deliver care for specific clinical conditions. To be successful, such research requires the identification, capture, aggregation, integration, and analysis of disparate data sources held by different institutions with diverse representations of the relevant clinical events. In an effort to address these diverse demands, there have been multiple new designs and implementations of informatics platforms that provide access to electronic clinical data and the governance infrastructure required for inter-institutional CER. The goal of this manuscript is to help investigators understand why these informatics platforms are required and to compare and contrast six, large-scale, recently funded, CER-focused informatics platform development efforts. We utilized an 8-dimension, socio-technical model of health information technology use to help guide our work. We identified six generic steps that are necessary in any distributed, multi-institutional CER project: data identification, extraction, modeling, aggregation, analysis, and dissemination. We expect that over the next several years these projects will provide answers to many important, and heretofore unanswerable, clinical research questions. PMID:22692259

  1. "Water-in-salt" electrolytes enable the use of cost-effective aluminum current collectors for aqueous high-voltage batteries.

    PubMed

    Kühnel, R-S; Reber, D; Remhof, A; Figi, R; Bleiner, D; Battaglia, C

    2016-08-16

    The extended electrochemical stability window offered by highly concentrated electrolytes allows the operation of aqueous batteries at voltages significantly above the thermodynamic stability limit of water, at which the stability of the current collector potentially limits the cell voltage. Here we report the observation of suppressed anodic dissolution of aluminum in "water-in-salt" electrolytes enabling roll-to-roll electrode fabrication for high-voltage aqueous lithium-ion batteries on cost-effective light-weight aluminum current collectors using established lithium-ion battery technology.

  2. Van der Waals metal-semiconductor junction: Weak Fermi level pinning enables effective tuning of Schottky barrier.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanyue; Stradins, Paul; Wei, Su-Huai

    2016-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors have shown great potential for electronic and optoelectronic applications. However, their development is limited by a large Schottky barrier (SB) at the metal-semiconductor junction (MSJ), which is difficult to tune by using conventional metals because of the effect of strong Fermi level pinning (FLP). We show that this problem can be overcome by using 2D metals, which are bounded with 2D semiconductors through van der Waals (vdW) interactions. This success relies on a weak FLP at the vdW MSJ, which is attributed to the suppression of metal-induced gap states. Consequently, the SB becomes tunable and can vanish with proper 2D metals (for example, H-NbS2). This work not only offers new insights into the fundamental properties of heterojunctions but also uncovers the great potential of 2D metals for device applications.

  3. Van der Waals metal-semiconductor junction: Weak Fermi level pinning enables effective tuning of Schottky barrier

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuanyue; Stradins, Paul; Wei, Su-Huai

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors have shown great potential for electronic and optoelectronic applications. However, their development is limited by a large Schottky barrier (SB) at the metal-semiconductor junction (MSJ), which is difficult to tune by using conventional metals because of the effect of strong Fermi level pinning (FLP). We show that this problem can be overcome by using 2D metals, which are bounded with 2D semiconductors through van der Waals (vdW) interactions. This success relies on a weak FLP at the vdW MSJ, which is attributed to the suppression of metal-induced gap states. Consequently, the SB becomes tunable and can vanish with proper 2D metals (for example, H-NbS2). This work not only offers new insights into the fundamental properties of heterojunctions but also uncovers the great potential of 2D metals for device applications. PMID:27152360

  4. Van der Waals metal-semiconductor junction: Weak Fermi level pinning enables effective tuning of Schottky barrier

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yuanyue; Stradins, Paul; Wei, Su -Huai

    2016-04-22

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors have shown great potential for electronic and optoelectronic applications. However, their development is limited by a large Schottky barrier (SB) at the metal-semiconductor junction (MSJ), which is difficult to tune by using conventional metals because of the effect of strong Fermi level pinning (FLP). We show that this problem can be overcome by using 2D metals, which are bounded with 2D semiconductors through van der Waals (vdW) interactions. This success relies on a weak FLP at the vdW MSJ, which is attributed to the suppression of metal-induced gap states. Consequently, the SB becomes tunable and can vanishmore » with proper 2D metals (for example, H-NbS2). This work not only offers new insights into the fundamental properties of heterojunctions but also uncovers the great potential of 2D metals for device applications.« less

  5. Van der Waals metal-semiconductor junction: Weak Fermi level pinning enables effective tuning of Schottky barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yuanyue; Stradins, Paul; Wei, Su -Huai

    2016-04-22

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors have shown great potential for electronic and optoelectronic applications. However, their development is limited by a large Schottky barrier (SB) at the metal-semiconductor junction (MSJ), which is difficult to tune by using conventional metals because of the effect of strong Fermi level pinning (FLP). We show that this problem can be overcome by using 2D metals, which are bounded with 2D semiconductors through van der Waals (vdW) interactions. This success relies on a weak FLP at the vdW MSJ, which is attributed to the suppression of metal-induced gap states. Consequently, the SB becomes tunable and can vanish with proper 2D metals (for example, H-NbS2). This work not only offers new insights into the fundamental properties of heterojunctions but also uncovers the great potential of 2D metals for device applications.

  6. Nano-porous architecture of N-doped carbon nanorods grown on graphene to enable synergetic effects of supercapacitance

    PubMed Central

    Fan, H. S.; Wang, H.; Zhao, N.; Xu, J.; Pan, F.

    2014-01-01

    A novel nano-porous 3D architecture of N-doped carbon nanorods arrays grown on the surface of graphene has been prepared by carbonizing polyaniline/graphene oxide (PANI-GO) composite with PANI nanorod arrays on both sides of GO nanosheets. The obtained carbon materials are entirely composed of regularly grown carbon nanorods on graphene with height of about 100 nm and width about 30 nm, showing porous property due to the decomposition of PANI chains. The morphology of PANI grown on GO at the different growth stages was investigated to demonstrate the mechanism of the finally hierarchical architecture formation. Due to its large specific surface area and incorporation of the nitrogen groups into the carbon matrix, the obtained 3D carbon material enhances the ionic transport and the super-capacitance by synergetic effect of both double-layer and faradaic capacitances. This study provides a controllable approach to fabricate hierarchical carbon material based on conducting polymers and graphene oxide with promising applications in the high-rate electrode material of supercapacitors. PMID:25519206

  7. Nonplanar Nanoscale Fin Field Effect Transistors on Textile, Paper, Wood, Stone, and Vinyl via Soft Material-Enabled Double-Transfer Printing.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Jhonathan P; Torres Sevilla, Galo A; Alfaraj, Nasir; Ghoneim, Mohamed T; Kutbee, Arwa T; Sridharan, Ashvitha; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-05-26

    The ability to incorporate rigid but high-performance nanoscale nonplanar complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics with curvilinear, irregular, or asymmetric shapes and surfaces is an arduous but timely challenge in enabling the production of wearable electronics with an in situ information-processing ability in the digital world. Therefore, we are demonstrating a soft-material enabled double-transfer-based process to integrate flexible, silicon-based, nanoscale, nonplanar, fin-shaped field effect transistors (FinFETs) and planar metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) on various asymmetric surfaces to study their compatibility and enhanced applicability in various emerging fields. FinFET devices feature sub-20 nm dimensions and state-of-the-art, high-κ/metal gate stacks, showing no performance alteration after the transfer process. A further analysis of the transferred MOSFET devices, featuring 1 μm gate length, exhibits an ION value of nearly 70 μA/μm (VDS = 2 V, VGS = 2 V) and a low subthreshold swing of around 90 mV/dec, proving that a soft interfacial material can act both as a strong adhesion/interposing layer between devices and final substrate as well as a means to reduce strain, which ultimately helps maintain the device's performance with insignificant deterioration even at a high bending state.

  8. Physician Enabling Skills Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Hudon, Catherine; Lambert, Mireille; Almirall, José

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the reliability and validity of the newly developed Physician Enabling Skills Questionnaire (PESQ) by assessing its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, concurrent validity with patient-centred care, and predictive validity with patient activation and patient enablement. Design Validation study. Setting Saguenay, Que. Participants One hundred patients with at least 1 chronic disease who presented in a waiting room of a regional health centre family medicine unit. Main outcome measures Family physicians’ enabling skills, measured with the PESQ at 2 points in time (ie, while in the waiting room at the family medicine unit and 2 weeks later through a mail survey); patient-centred care, assessed with the Patient Perception of Patient-Centredness instrument; patient activation, assessed with the Patient Activation Measure; and patient enablement, assessed with the Patient Enablement Instrument. Results The internal consistency of the 6 subscales of the PESQ was adequate (Cronbach α = .69 to .92). The test-retest reliability was very good (r = 0.90; 95% CI 0.84 to 0.93). Concurrent validity with the Patient Perception of Patient-Centredness instrument was good (r = −0.67; 95% CI −0.78 to −0.53; P < .001). The PESQ accounts for 11% of the total variance with the Patient Activation Measure (r2 = 0.11; P = .002) and 19% of the variance with the Patient Enablement Instrument (r2 = 0.19; P < .001). Conclusion The newly developed PESQ presents good psychometric properties, allowing for its use in practice and research. PMID:26889507

  9. Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema

    Gupta, Vipin; Nielson, Greg; Okandan, Murat, Granata, Jennifer; Nelson, Jeff; Haney, Mike; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luiz

    2016-07-12

    Sandia's microsystems enabled photovoltaic advances combine mature technology and tools currently used in microsystem production with groundbreaking advances in photovoltaics cell design, decreasing production and system costs while improving energy conversion efficiency. The technology has potential applications in buildings, houses, clothing, portable electronics, vehicles, and other contoured structures.

  10. Nanotechnology - Enabled Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-07

    via subwavelength confinement of optical fields near metallic nanostructures, as shown in Figure 2.3. When a single cadmium selenide quantum dot is...optical modulator uses a coating of cadmium selenide quantum dots to convert two light beams into surface plasmon polaritons. (Reprinted by permission...helpful. Two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals can enable new sensing systems based on fluorescent molecules and/or quantum dots and

  11. Enabling Wind Power Nationwide

    SciTech Connect

    Jose, Zayas; Michael, Derby; Patrick, Gilman; Ananthan, Shreyas; Lantz, Eric; Cotrell, Jason; Beck, Fredic; Tusing, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Leveraging this experience, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office has evaluated the potential for wind power to generate electricity in all 50 states. This report analyzes and quantifies the geographic expansion that could be enabled by accessing higher above ground heights for wind turbines and considers the means by which this new potential could be responsibly developed.

  12. Exogenous Attention Enables Perceptual Learning.

    PubMed

    Szpiro, Sarit F A; Carrasco, Marisa

    2015-12-01

    Practice can improve visual perception, and these improvements are considered to be a form of brain plasticity. Training-induced learning is time-consuming and requires hundreds of trials across multiple days. The process of learning acquisition is understudied. Can learning acquisition be potentiated by manipulating visual attentional cues? We developed a protocol in which we used task-irrelevant cues for between-groups manipulation of attention during training. We found that training with exogenous attention can enable the acquisition of learning. Remarkably, this learning was maintained even when observers were subsequently tested under neutral conditions, which indicates that a change in perception was involved. Our study is the first to isolate the effects of exogenous attention and to demonstrate its efficacy to enable learning. We propose that exogenous attention boosts perceptual learning by enhancing stimulus encoding.

  13. Smart Grid Enabled EVSE

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-01-12

    The combined team of GE Global Research, Federal Express, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Consolidated Edison has successfully achieved the established goals contained within the Department of Energy’s Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment funding opportunity. The final program product, shown charging two vehicles in Figure 1, reduces by nearly 50% the total installed system cost of the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) as well as enabling a host of new Smart Grid enabled features. These include bi-directional communications, load control, utility message exchange and transaction management information. Using the new charging system, Utilities or energy service providers will now be able to monitor transportation related electrical loads on their distribution networks, send load control commands or preferences to individual systems, and then see measured responses. Installation owners will be able to authorize usage of the stations, monitor operations, and optimally control their electricity consumption. These features and cost reductions have been developed through a total system design solution.

  14. Impaired drug absorption due to high stomach pH: a review of strategies for mitigation of such effect to enable pharmaceutical product development.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Amitava; Kesisoglou, Filippos

    2013-11-04

    Published reports have clearly shown that weakly basic drugs which have low solubility at high pH could have impaired absorption in patients with high gastric pH thus leading to reduced and variable bioavailability. Since such reduction in exposure can lead to significant loss of efficacy, it is imperative to (1) understand the behavior of the compound as a function of stomach pH to inform of any risk of bioavailability loss in clinical studies and (2) develop a robust formulation which can provide adequate exposure in achlorhydric patients. In this review paper, we provide an overview of the factors that can cause high gastric pH in human, discuss clinical and preclinical pharmacokinetic data for weak bases under conditions of normal and high gastric pH, and give examples of formulation strategies to minimize or mitigate the reduced absorption of weakly basic drugs under high gastric pH conditions. It should be noted that the ability to overcome pH sensitivity issues is highly compound dependent and there are no obvious and general solutions to overcome such effect. Further, we discuss, along with several examples, the use of biopharmaceutical tools such as in vitro dissolution, absorption modeling, and gastric pH modified animal models to assess absorption risk of weak bases in high gastric pH and also the use of these tools to enable development of formulations to mitigate such effects.

  15. What Are the Key Ingredients for an Effective and Successful Tertiary Enabling Program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Students? An Evaluation of the Evolution of One Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Tertiary enabling programs have become an increasingly important part of the post-secondary schooling landscape. In recognition of the need for increased access for certain under-represented groups within the university population, enabling, bridging or foundational programs are offered by a large number of universities in Australia as alternative…

  16. Enabling graphene nanoelectronics.

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wei; Ohta, Taisuke; Biedermann, Laura Butler; Gutierrez, Carlos; Nolen, C. M.; Howell, Stephen Wayne; Beechem Iii, Thomas Edwin; McCarty, Kevin F.; Ross, Anthony Joseph, III

    2011-09-01

    Recent work has shown that graphene, a 2D electronic material amenable to the planar semiconductor fabrication processing, possesses tunable electronic material properties potentially far superior to metals and other standard semiconductors. Despite its phenomenal electronic properties, focused research is still required to develop techniques for depositing and synthesizing graphene over large areas, thereby enabling the reproducible mass-fabrication of graphene-based devices. To address these issues, we combined an array of growth approaches and characterization resources to investigate several innovative and synergistic approaches for the synthesis of high quality graphene films on technologically relevant substrate (SiC and metals). Our work focused on developing the fundamental scientific understanding necessary to generate large-area graphene films that exhibit highly uniform electronic properties and record carrier mobility, as well as developing techniques to transfer graphene onto other substrates.

  17. Enabling immersive simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Josh; Mateas, Michael; Hart, Derek H.; Whetzel, Jonathan; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Glickman, Matthew R.; Abbott, Robert G.

    2009-02-01

    The object of the 'Enabling Immersive Simulation for Complex Systems Analysis and Training' LDRD has been to research, design, and engineer a capability to develop simulations which (1) provide a rich, immersive interface for participation by real humans (exploiting existing high-performance game-engine technology wherever possible), and (2) can leverage Sandia's substantial investment in high-fidelity physical and cognitive models implemented in the Umbra simulation framework. We report here on these efforts. First, we describe the integration of Sandia's Umbra modular simulation framework with the open-source Delta3D game engine. Next, we report on Umbra's integration with Sandia's Cognitive Foundry, specifically to provide for learning behaviors for 'virtual teammates' directly from observed human behavior. Finally, we describe the integration of Delta3D with the ABL behavior engine, and report on research into establishing the theoretical framework that will be required to make use of tools like ABL to scale up to increasingly rich and realistic virtual characters.

  18. Liquid metal enabled microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Tang, Shi-Yang; Zhu, Jiu Yang; Schaefer, Samira; Mitchell, Arnan; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Dickey, Michael D

    2017-03-14

    Several gallium-based liquid metal alloys are liquid at room temperature. As 'liquid', such alloys have a low viscosity and a high surface tension while as 'metal', they have high thermal and electrical conductivities, similar to mercury. However, unlike mercury, these liquid metal alloys have low toxicity and a negligible vapor pressure, rendering them much safer. In comparison to mercury, the distinguishing feature of these alloys is the rapid formation of a self-limiting atomically thin layer of gallium oxide over their surface when exposed to oxygen. This oxide layer changes many physical and chemical properties of gallium alloys, including their interfacial and rheological properties, which can be employed and modulated for various applications in microfluidics. Injecting liquid metal into microfluidic structures has been extensively used to pattern and encapsulate highly deformable and reconfigurable electronic devices including electrodes, sensors, antennas, and interconnects. Likewise, the unique features of liquid metals have been employed for fabricating miniaturized microfluidic components including pumps, valves, heaters, and electrodes. In this review, we discuss liquid metal enabled microfluidic components, and highlight their desirable attributes including simple fabrication, facile integration, stretchability, reconfigurability, and low power consumption, with promising applications for highly integrated microfluidic systems.

  19. Enabling responsible public genomics.

    PubMed

    Conley, John M; Doerr, Adam K; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2010-01-01

    As scientific understandings of genetics advance, researchers require increasingly rich datasets that combine genomic data from large numbers of individuals with medical and other personal information. Linking individuals' genetic data and personal information precludes anonymity and produces medically significant information--a result not contemplated by the established legal and ethical conventions governing human genomic research. To pursue the next generation of human genomic research and commerce in a responsible fashion, scientists, lawyers, and regulators must address substantial new issues, including researchers' duties with respect to clinically significant data, the challenges to privacy presented by genomic data, the boundary between genomic research and commerce, and the practice of medicine. This Article presents a new model for understanding and addressing these new challenges--a "public genomics" premised on the idea that ethically, legally, and socially responsible genomics research requires openness, not privacy, as its organizing principle. Responsible public genomics combines the data contributed by informed and fully consenting information altruists and the research potential of rich datasets in a genomic commons that is freely and globally available. This Article examines the risks and benefits of this public genomics model in the context of an ambitious genetic research project currently under way--the Personal Genome Project. This Article also (i) demonstrates that large-scale genomic projects are desirable, (ii) evaluates the risks and challenges presented by public genomics research, and (iii) determines that the current legal and regulatory regimes restrict beneficial and responsible scientific inquiry while failing to adequately protect participants. The Article concludes by proposing a modified normative and legal framework that embraces and enables a future of responsible public genomics.

  20. Enabling interstellar probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Ralph L.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; International Interstellar Probe Team

    2011-04-01

    The scientific community has advocated a scientific probe to the interstellar medium for over 30 years. While the Voyager spacecraft have passed through the termination shock of the solar wind, they have limited lifetimes as their radioisotope power supplies decay. It remains unclear whether they can reach the heliopause, the boundary between shocked solar wind and interstellar plasmas, and, in any case, they will not reach the undisturbed interstellar medium. As with most exploratory space missions, their ongoing observations continue to raise even more questions about the nature of the interaction of our heliosphere and the interstellar medium. Scientific questions including: What is the nature of the nearby interstellar medium? How do the Sun and galaxy affect the dynamics of the heliosphere? What is the structure of the heliosphere? How did matter in the solar system and interstellar medium originate and evolve? can only be answered by an "interstellar precursor" probe. Such a mission is required to make in situ measurements in the interaction region and interstellar medium itself at distances far from the Sun, but in a finite mission lifetime. By launching a probe toward the incoming "interstellar wind," whose direction is known, the distance to be traveled can be minimized but is still large. The current consensus is that a scientifically compelling mission must function to at least a distance of 200 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun and return a reasonable stream of data during the voyage. The central problem is that of providing a means of propulsion to accelerate a probe from the Solar System. Even with a low-mass payload and spacecraft, achieving the high speeds needed, even with gravity assists, have remained problematic. Voyager 1, the fastest object ever to leave the system is now traveling ˜3.6 AU/yr, and a credible probe must reach at least 2-3 times this speed. The use of an Ares V is an approach for enabling a fast interstellar precursor

  1. FOILFEST :community enabled security.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Johnson, Curtis Martin; Whitley, John B.; Drayer, Darryl Donald; Cummings, John C., Jr.

    2005-09-01

    The Advanced Concepts Group of Sandia National Laboratories hosted a workshop, ''FOILFest: Community Enabled Security'', on July 18-21, 2005, in Albuquerque, NM. This was a far-reaching look into the future of physical protection consisting of a series of structured brainstorming sessions focused on preventing and foiling attacks on public places and soft targets such as airports, shopping malls, hotels, and public events. These facilities are difficult to protect using traditional security devices since they could easily be pushed out of business through the addition of arduous and expensive security measures. The idea behind this Fest was to explore how the public, which is vital to the function of these institutions, can be leveraged as part of a physical protection system. The workshop considered procedures, space design, and approaches for building community through technology. The workshop explored ways to make the ''good guys'' in public places feel safe and be vigilant while making potential perpetrators of harm feel exposed and convinced that they will not succeed. Participants in the Fest included operators of public places, social scientists, technology experts, representatives of government agencies including DHS and the intelligence community, writers and media experts. Many innovative ideas were explored during the fest with most of the time spent on airports, including consideration of the local airport, the Albuquerque Sunport. Some provocative ideas included: (1) sniffers installed in passage areas like revolving door, escalators, (2) a ''jumbotron'' showing current camera shots in the public space, (3) transparent portal screeners allowing viewing of the screening, (4) a layered open/funnel/open/funnel design where open spaces are used to encourage a sense of ''communitas'' and take advantage of citizen ''sensing'' and funnels are technological tunnels of sensors (the tunnels of truth), (5) curved benches with blast proof walls or backs, (6

  2. Autonomy enables new science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Richard J.; Gor, Victoria; Man, Guy K.; Stolorz, Paul E.; Chapman, Clark; Merline, William J.; Stern, Alan

    1997-01-01

    The challenge of space flight in NASA's future is to enable smaller, more frequent and intensive space exploration at much lower total cost without substantially decreasing mission reliability, capability, or the scientific return on investment. The most effective way to achieve this goal is to build intelligent capabilities into the spacecraft themselves. Our technological vision for meeting the challenge of returning quality science through limited communication bandwidth will actually put scientists in a more direct link with the spacecraft than they have enjoyed to date. Technologies such as pattern recognition and machine learning can place a part of the scientist's awareness onboard the spacecraft to prioritize downlink or to autonomously trigger time-critical follow-up observations-particularly important in flyby missions-without ground interaction. Onboard knowledge discovery methods can be used to include candidate discoveries in each downlink for scientists' scrutiny. Such capabilities will allow scientists to quickly reprioritize missions in a much more intimate and efficient manner than is possible today. Ultimately, new classes of exploration missions will be enabled.

  3. Enabling Europe to innovate.

    PubMed

    Dearing, Andrew

    2007-01-19

    As activities that relate to innovation become increasingly global and open and so draw the private and public sectors into complex networks of partnerships, these activities also tend to concentrate where the ecosystem is most supportive. European public policy, which in recent years has emphasized the importance of research and development (R&D) in achieving competitive knowledge-based societies, is shifting toward approaches that address the broader qualities required of favorable ecosystems for innovation in a global economy, thereby incorporating the roles of market demand, public procurement, and regulation, as well as science, education, and industrial R&D, as part of determining effective innovation policies.

  4. Enabling scientific teamwork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hereld, Mark; Hudson, Randy; Norris, John; Papka, Michael E.; Uram, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    The Computer Supported Collaborative Work research community has identified that the technology used to support distributed teams of researchers, such as email, instant messaging, and conferencing environments, are not enough. Building from a list of areas where it is believed technology can help support distributed teams, we have divided our efforts into support of asynchronous and synchronous activities. This paper will describe two of our recent efforts to improve the productivity of distributed science teams. One effort focused on supporting the management and tracking of milestones and results, with the hope of helping manage information overload. The second effort focused on providing an environment that supports real-time analysis of data. Both of these efforts are seen as add-ons to the existing collaborative infrastructure, developed to enhance the experience of teams working at a distance by removing barriers to effective communication.

  5. Computer-Based Approach to the Navy’s Academic Remedial Training, Project PREST (Performance-Related Enabling Skills Training): A Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    multiplying deviation scores by the test -form reliability ( Kuder - Richardson 20), and then converting back to raw scores. 7 _______ . . .. -o o•. . o... Education and Training (N-5) &contracted for the development and test of a computer-based approach, hereafter referred to as the Performance-related Enabling...RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS-1963-A .. . . . .. - . . . . . . NPROC SR 81-18 MAY 1981 COMPUTER-BASED APPROACH TO THE NAVY’S ACADEMIC

  6. Enabling technology for human collaboration.

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Tim Andrew; Jones, Wendell Bruce; Warner, David Jay; Doser, Adele Beatrice; Johnson, Curtis Martin; Merkle, Peter Benedict

    2003-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a five-month LDRD late start project which explored the potential of enabling technology to improve the performance of small groups. The purpose was to investigate and develop new methods to assist groups working in high consequence, high stress, ambiguous and time critical situations, especially those for which it is impractical to adequately train or prepare. A testbed was constructed for exploratory analysis of a small group engaged in tasks with high cognitive and communication performance requirements. The system consisted of five computer stations, four with special devices equipped to collect physiologic, somatic, audio and video data. Test subjects were recruited and engaged in a cooperative video game. Each team member was provided with a sensor array for physiologic and somatic data collection while playing the video game. We explored the potential for real-time signal analysis to provide information that enables emergent and desirable group behavior and improved task performance. The data collected in this study included audio, video, game scores, physiological, somatic, keystroke, and mouse movement data. The use of self-organizing maps (SOMs) was explored to search for emergent trends in the physiological data as it correlated with the video, audio and game scores. This exploration resulted in the development of two approaches for analysis, to be used concurrently, an individual SOM and a group SOM. The individual SOM was trained using the unique data of each person, and was used to monitor the effectiveness and stress level of each member of the group. The group SOM was trained using the data of the entire group, and was used to monitor the group effectiveness and dynamics. Results suggested that both types of SOMs were required to adequately track evolutions and shifts in group effectiveness. Four subjects were used in the data collection and development of these tools. This report documents a proof of concept

  7. Enabling a Comprehensive Teaching Strategy: Video Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brecht, H. David; Ogilby, Suzanne M.

    2008-01-01

    This study empirically tests the feasibility and effectiveness of video lectures as a form of video instruction that enables a comprehensive teaching strategy used throughout a traditional classroom course. It examines student use patterns and the videos' effects on student learning, using qualitative and nonparametric statistical analyses of…

  8. Solar Glitter -- Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielson, Gregory N.

    2012-02-01

    Many products have significantly benefitted from, or been enabled by, the ability to manufacture structures at an ever decreasing length scale. Obvious examples of this include integrated circuits, flat panel displays, micro-scale sensors, and LED lighting. These industries have benefited from length scale effects in terms of improved performance, reduced cost, or new functionality (or a combination of these). In a similar manner, we are working to take advantage of length scale effects that exist within solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. While this is a significant step away from traditional approaches to solar power systems, the benefits in terms of new functionality, improved performance, and reduced cost for solar power are compelling. We are exploring scale effects that result from the size of the solar cells within the system. We have developed unique cells of both crystalline silicon and III-V materials that are very thin (5-20 microns thick) and have very small lateral dimensions (on the order of hundreds of microns across). These cells minimize the amount of expensive semiconductor material required for the system, allow improved cell performance, and provide an expanded design space for both module and system concepts allowing optimized power output and reduced module and balance of system costs. Furthermore, the small size of the cells allows for unique high-efficiency, high-flexibility PV panels and new building-integrated PV options that are currently unavailable. These benefits provide a pathway for PV power to become cost competitive with grid power and allow unique power solutions independent of grid power.

  9. Enabling Space Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, William J.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation on enabling space science and exploration covers the following topics: 1) Today s Deep Space Network; 2) Next Generation Deep Space Network; 3) Needed technologies; 4) Mission IT and networking; and 5) Multi-mission operations.

  10. Empowering versus Enabling in Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espeland, Karen; Shanta, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Enabling behaviors that encourage dependence should be avoided by nursing faculty. An empowerment model that includes collegiality, communication, accountability, and autonomy is more suited to the professional preparation of nurses. (Contains 30 references.) (SK)

  11. Network Enabled Operations: A Canadian Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-13

    Decisive: US Naval Institute Proceedings. ** VERDON , J. (2004) Transformation in the CF - People Implications of Effects-Based and Network-Enabled...Operations: A Canadian Perspective (U) 4. AUTHORS (First name, middle initial and last name. If military, show rank, e.g. Maj. John E. Doe.) Michael H

  12. Enabling individualized therapy through nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Jason H.; van de Ven, Anne L.; Godin, Biana; Blanco, Elvin; Serda, Rita E.; Grattoni, Alessandro; Ziemys, Arturas; Bouamrani, Ali; Hu, Tony; Ranganathan, Shivakumar I.; De Rosa, Enrica; Martinez, Jonathan O.; Smid, Christine A.; Buchanan, Rachel M.; Lee, Sei-Young; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Landry, Matthew; Meyn, Anne; Tasciotti, Ennio; Liu, Xuewu; Decuzzi, Paolo; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Individualized medicine is the healthcare strategy that rebukes the idiomatic dogma of ‘losing sight of the forest for the trees’. We are entering a new era of healthcare where it is no longer acceptable to develop and market a drug that is effective for only 80% of the patient population. The emergence of “-omic” technologies (e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) and advances in systems biology are magnifying the deficiencies of standardized therapy, which often provide little treatment latitude for accommodating patient physiologic idiosyncrasies. A personalized approach to medicine is not a novel concept. Ever since the scientific community began unraveling the mysteries of the genome, the promise of discarding generic treatment regimens in favor of patient-specific therapies became more feasible and realistic. One of the major scientific impediments of this movement towards personalized medicine has been the need for technological enablement. Nanotechnology is projected to play a critical role in patient-specific therapy; however, this transition will depend heavily upon the evolutionary development of a systems biology approach to clinical medicine based upon “-omic” technology analysis and integration. This manuscript provides a forward looking assessment of the promise of nanomedicine as it pertains to individualized medicine and establishes a technology “snapshot” of the current state of nano-based products over a vast array of clinical indications and range of patient specificity. Other issues such as market driven hurdles and regulatory compliance reform are anticipated to “self-correct” in accordance to scientific advancement and healthcare demand. These peripheral, non-scientific concerns are not addressed at length in this manuscript; however they do exist, and their impact to the paradigm shifting healthcare transformation towards individualized medicine will be critical for its success. PMID:20045055

  13. Acyclic Cucurbit[n]uril-Type Molecular Container Enables Systemic Delivery of Effective Doses of Albendazole for Treatment of SK-OV-3 Xenograft Tumors.

    PubMed

    Hettiarachchi, Gaya; Samanta, Soumen K; Falcinelli, Shane; Zhang, Ben; Moncelet, Damien; Isaacs, Lyle; Briken, Volker

    2016-03-07

    Approximately, 40-70% of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) are severely limited by their extremely poor aqueous solubility, and consequently, there is a high demand for excipients that can be used to formulate clinically relevant doses of these drug candidates. Here, proof-of-concept studies demonstrate the potential of our recently discovered acyclic cucurbit[n]uril-type molecular container Motor1 (M1) as a solubilizing agent for insoluble drugs. M1 did not induce significant rates of mutations in various Salmonella typhimurium test strains during the Ames test, suggesting low genotoxicity. M1 also has low risk of causing cardiac toxicity in humans since it did not inhibit the human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene channel as tested on transfected CHO cell lines via patch clamp analysis. Albendazole (ABZ) is a widely used antihelminthic agent but that has also shown promising efficacy against cancerous cells in vitro. However, due to its low aqueous solubility (2.7 μM) and poor pharmacokinetics, ABZ is clinically limited as an anticancer agent. Here we investigated the potential of M1 as a solubilizing excipient for ABZ formulation. A pharmacokinetic study indicated that ABZ escapes the peritoneal cavity resulting in 78% absolute bioavailability, while its active intermediate metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide, achieved 43% absolute bioavailability. The daily dosing of 681 mg/kg M1 complexed with 3.2 mg/kg of ABZ for 14 days did not result in significant weight loss or pathology in Swiss Webster mice. In vivo efficacy studies using this M1·ABZ inclusion complex showed significant decreases in tumor growth rates and increases in survival of mice bearing SK-OV-3 xenograft tumors. In conclusion, we provide substantial new evidence demonstrating that M1 is a safe and efficient excipient that enables in vivo parenteral delivery of poorly water-soluble APIs.

  14. Secure Enclaves-Enabled Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-25

    solution. Recommendations There is the potential to exploit extremely lucrative opportunities utilizing our first- mover advantage in this...emerging market segment. However, there is still significant work to be completed. The SE Enabled browser extension application is still in the early

  15. Do Frameworks Enable Educational Psychologists to Work Effectively and Efficiently in Practice? A Critical Discussion of the Development of Executive Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicks, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores whether adopting an "executive framework" makes educational psychologists' (EPs) practice more efficient and effective. Whilst many EPs understand and value executive frameworks in theory, explicit use of such tools may not be fully integrated into their day-to-day practice. Why this might be is considered.…

  16. III-V-on-nothing metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors enabled by top-down nanowire release process: Experiment and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, J. J.; Koybasi, O.; Wu, Y. Q.; Ye, P. D.

    2011-09-01

    III-V-on-nothing (III-VON) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) are experimentally demonstrated with In0.53Ga0.47As as channel and atomic layer deposited Al2O3 as gate dielectric. A hydrochloric acid based release process has been developed to create an air gap beneath the InGaAs channel layer, forming the nanowire channel with width down to 40 nm. III-VON MOSFETs with channel lengths down to 50 nm are fabricated and show promising improvement in drain-induced barrier lowering, due to suppressed short-channel effects. The top-down processing technique provides a viable pathway towards fully gate-all-around III-V MOSFETs.

  17. Assessment of a novel device for onsite integrative large-volume solid phase extraction of water samples to enable a comprehensive chemical and effect-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Tobias; Ahel, Marijan; Ahlheim, Jörg; Aït-Aïssa, Selim; Brion, François; Di Paolo, Carolina; Froment, Jean; Hidasi, Anita O; Hollender, Juliane; Hollert, Henner; Hu, Meng; Kloß, Anett; Koprivica, Sanja; Krauss, Martin; Muz, Melis; Oswald, Peter; Petre, Margit; Schollée, Jennifer E; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Shao, Ying; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Sonavane, Manoj; Suter, Marc J-F; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Tousova, Zuzana; Walz, Karl-Heinz; Brack, Werner

    2017-03-01

    The implementation of targeted and nontargeted chemical screening analysis in combination with in vitro and organism-level bioassays is a prerequisite for a more holistic monitoring of water quality in the future. For chemical analysis, little or no sample enrichment is often sufficient, while bioanalysis often requires larger sample volumes at a certain enrichment factor for conducting comprehensive bioassays on different endpoints or further effect-directed analysis (EDA). To avoid logistic and technical issues related to the storage and transport of large volumes of water, sampling would benefit greatly from onsite extraction. This study presents a novel onsite large volume solid phase extraction (LVSPE) device tailored to fulfill the requirements for the successful effect-based and chemical screening of water resources and complies with available international standards for automated sampling devices. Laboratory recovery experiments using 251 organic compounds in the log D range from -3.6 to 9.4 (at pH7.0) spiked into pristine water resulted in acceptable recoveries and from 60 to 123% for 159 out of 251 substances. Within a European-wide demonstration program, the LVSPE was able to enrich compounds in concentration ranges over three orders of magnitude (1ngL(-1) to 2400ngL(-1)). It was possible to discriminate responsive samples from samples with no or only low effects in a set of six different bioassays (i.e. acetylcholinesterase and algal growth inhibition, androgenicity, estrogenicity, fish embryo toxicity, glucocorticoid activity). The LVSPE thus proved applicable for onsite extraction of sufficient amounts of water to investigate water quality thoroughly by means of chemical analysis and effect-based tools without the common limitations due to small sample volumes.

  18. Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, Gennady; /SLAC

    2012-06-28

    A recently proposed concept of the Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) FEL uses two laser modulators in combination with two dispersion sections to generate a high-harmonic density modulation in a relativistic beam. This seeding technique holds promise of a one-stage soft x-ray FEL that radiates not only transversely but also longitudinally coherent pulses. Currently, an experimental verification of the concept is being conducted at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory aimed at the demonstration of the EEHG.

  19. Technologies for Networked Enabled Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, B.; Levine, J.

    2005-01-01

    Current point-to-point data links will not scale to support future integration of surveillance, security, and globally-distributed air traffic data, and already hinders efficiency and capacity. While the FAA and industry focus on a transition to initial system-wide information management (SWIM) capabilities, this paper describes a set of initial studies of NAS network-enabled operations technology gaps targeted for maturity in later SWIM spirals (201 5-2020 timeframe).

  20. Nanofluidics: enabling processes for biotech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmanella, Umberto; Ho, Chih-Ming

    2001-10-01

    The advance of micro and nanodevice manufacturing technology enables us to carry out biological and chemical processes in a more efficient manner. In fact, fluidic processes connect the macro and the micro/nano worlds. For devices approaching the size of the fluid molecules, many physical phenomena occur that are not observed in macro flows. In this brief review, we discuss a few selected topics which of are interest for basic research and are important for applications in biotechnology.

  1. Copolymer Networks From Oligo(ε-caprolactone) and n-Butyl Acrylate Enable a Reversible Bidirectional Shape-Memory Effect at Human Body Temperature.

    PubMed

    Saatchi, Mersa; Behl, Marc; Nöchel, Ulrich; Lendlein, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Exploiting the tremendous potential of the recently discovered reversible bidirectional shape-memory effect (rbSME) for biomedical applications requires switching temperatures in the physiological range. The recent strategy is based on the reduction of the melting temperature range (ΔT m ) of the actuating oligo(ε-caprolactone) (OCL) domains in copolymer networks from OCL and n-butyl acrylate (BA), where the reversible effect can be adjusted to the human body temperature. In addition, it is investigated whether an rbSME in the temperature range close or even above Tm,offset (end of the melting transition) can be obtained. Two series of networks having mixtures of OCLs reveal broad ΔTm s from 2 °C to 50 °C and from -10 °C to 37 °C, respectively. In cyclic, thermomechanical experiments the rbSME can be tailored to display pronounced actuation in a temperature interval between 20 °C and 37 °C. In this way, the application spectrum of the rbSME can be extended to biomedical applications.

  2. To 'enable our legal product to compete effectively with the transit market': British American Tobacco's strategies in Thailand following the 1990 GATT dispute.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Ross; Lee, Kelley; LeGresley, Eric

    2015-08-21

    The opening of the Thai tobacco market, following action brought by the US Trade Representative under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, is seen as a key case study of the tensions between trade and health policy. Interpretations of the dispute cast it, either as an example of how trade agreements undermine national policy-making, or how governments can adopt effective public health protections compliant with international trade rules. As a UK-based company, British American Tobacco has been regarded as peripheral to this dispute. This paper argues that its close monitoring of the illegal trade during this period, the role of smuggling in the company's global business strategy, and its management of the relative supply and pricing of legal and illegal products after market opening provide a fuller understanding of the interests and roles of transnational tobacco companies and the government in this dispute. The findings have important policy implications, notably the role of effective governance in countries facing pressure to open their tobacco sectors, need to better understand corporate-level activities within an increasingly globalised tobacco industry, and need to address the intertwined legal and illegal trade in implementing the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products.

  3. To ‘enable our legal product to compete effectively with the transit market’: British American Tobacco’s strategies in Thailand following the 1990 GATT dispute

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie, Ross; Lee, Kelley; LeGresley, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The opening of the Thai tobacco market, following action brought by the US Trade Representative under the GATT, is seen as a key case study of the tensions between trade and health policy. Interpretations of the dispute cast it, either as an example of how trade agreements undermine national policy making, or how governments can adopt effective public health protections compliant with international trade rules. As a UK-based company, British American Tobacco has been regarded as peripheral to this dispute. This paper argues that its close monitoring of the illegal trade during this period, the role of smuggling in the company’s global business strategy, and its management of the relative supply and pricing of legal and illegal products after market opening provide a fuller understanding of the interests and roles of transnational tobacco companies and the government in this dispute. The findings have important policy implications, notably the role of effective governance in countries facing pressure to open their tobacco sectors, need to better understand corporate-level activities within an increasingly globalized tobacco industry, and need to address the intertwined legal and illegal trade in implementing the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products. PMID:26295971

  4. New Generation Sensor Web Enablement

    PubMed Central

    Bröring, Arne; Echterhoff, Johannes; Jirka, Simon; Simonis, Ingo; Everding, Thomas; Stasch, Christoph; Liang, Steve; Lemmens, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Many sensor networks have been deployed to monitor Earth’s environment, and more will follow in the future. Environmental sensors have improved continuously by becoming smaller, cheaper, and more intelligent. Due to the large number of sensor manufacturers and differing accompanying protocols, integrating diverse sensors into observation systems is not straightforward. A coherent infrastructure is needed to treat sensors in an interoperable, platform-independent and uniform way. The concept of the Sensor Web reflects such a kind of infrastructure for sharing, finding, and accessing sensors and their data across different applications. It hides the heterogeneous sensor hardware and communication protocols from the applications built on top of it. The Sensor Web Enablement initiative of the Open Geospatial Consortium standardizes web service interfaces and data encodings which can be used as building blocks for a Sensor Web. This article illustrates and analyzes the recent developments of the new generation of the Sensor Web Enablement specification framework. Further, we relate the Sensor Web to other emerging concepts such as the Web of Things and point out challenges and resulting future work topics for research on Sensor Web Enablement. PMID:22163760

  5. 'Ethos' Enabling Organisational Knowledge Creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsudaira, Yoshito

    This paper examines knowledge creation in relation to improvements on the production line in the manufacturing department of Nissan Motor Company and aims to clarify embodied knowledge observed in the actions of organisational members who enable knowledge creation will be clarified. For that purpose, this study adopts an approach that adds a first, second, and third-person's viewpoint to the theory of knowledge creation. Embodied knowledge, observed in the actions of organisational members who enable knowledge creation, is the continued practice of 'ethos' (in Greek) founded in Nissan Production Way as an ethical basis. Ethos is knowledge (intangible) assets for knowledge creating companies. Substantiated analysis classifies ethos into three categories: the individual, team and organisation. This indicates the precise actions of the organisational members in each category during the knowledge creation process. This research will be successful in its role of showing the indispensability of ethos - the new concept of knowledge assets, which enables knowledge creation -for future knowledge-based management in the knowledge society.

  6. Convection-enhanced delivery of Ls-TPT enables an effective, continuous, low-dose chemotherapy against malignant glioma xenograft model1

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Ryuta; Krauze, Michal T.; Noble, Charles O.; Drummond, Daryl C.; Kirpotin, Dmitri B.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Park, John W.; Bankiewicz, Krystof S.

    2006-01-01

    Treatment of malignant gliomas represents one of the most formidable challenges in oncology. The combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy yields median survivals of less than one year. Here we demonstrate the use of a minimally invasive surgical technique, convection-enhanced delivery (CED), for local administration of a novel nanoparticle liposome containing topotecan. CED of this liposomal topotecan (Ls-TPT) resulted in extended brain tissue retention (t½ = 1.5 days), whereas free topotecan was rapidly cleared (t½ = 0.1 days) after CED. The favorable pharmacokinetic profile of extended topotecan release for about seven days, along with biodistribution featuring perivascular accumulation of the nanoparticles, provided, in addition to the known topoisomerase I inhibition, an effective antiangiogenic therapy. In the rat intracranial U87MG tumor model, vascular targeting of Ls-TPT with CED was associated with reductions in laminin expression and vascular density compared to free topotecan or control treatments. A single CED treatment on day 7 showed that free topotecan conferred no survival benefit versus control. However, Ls-TPT produced a significant (P = 0.0002) survival benefit, with six of seven complete cures. Larger U87MG tumors, where CED of Ls-TPT on day 12 resulted in one of six cures, indicated the necessity to cover the entire tumor with the infused therapeutic agent. CED of Ls-TPT was also efficacious in the intracranial U251MG tumor model (P = 0.0005 versus control). We conclude that the combination of a novel nanoparticle Ls-TPT and CED administration was very effective in treating experimental brain tumors. PMID:16723630

  7. Enablement as a Positive Force in Counselling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamler, Lynnette Leeseberg

    1996-01-01

    Explores the concept of enablement and provides a framework for the counselor and counselor educator to use in facilitating client- or student-directed goals. Examines use of enablement, enablement versus co-dependency, the use of the enablement framework in the counseling role, and clinical examples of the enablement framework. (RJM)

  8. Focused helium-ion beam irradiation effects on electrical transport properties of few-layer WSe2: Enabling nanoscale direct write homo-junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford, Michael; Noh, Joo Hyon; Koehler, Michael R.; Mandrus, David G.; Duscher, Gerd; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Ward, Thomas Zac; Rack, Philip D.; Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Belianinov, Alex; Cross, Nicholas

    2016-06-06

    Atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are currently receiving significant attention due to their promising opto-electronic properties. Tuning optical and electrical properties of mono and few-layer TMDs, such as tungsten diselenide (WSe2), by controlling the defects, is an intriguing opportunity to synthesize next generation two dimensional material opto-electronic devices. Here, we report the effects of focused helium ion beam irradiation on the structural, optical and electrical properties of few-layer WSe2, via high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and electrical transport measurements. By controlling the ion irradiation dose, we selectively introduce precise defects in few-layer WSe2 thereby locally tuning the resistivity and transport properties of the material. Hole transport in the few layer WSe2 is degraded more severely relative to electron transport after helium ion irradiation. Moreover, by selectively exposing material with the ion beam, we demonstrate a simple yet highly tunable method to create lateral homo-junctions in few layer WSe2 flakes, which constitutes an important advance towards two dimensional opto-electronic devices.

  9. An accelerator mass spectrometry-enabled microtracer study to evaluate the first-pass effect on the absorption of YH4808.

    PubMed

    Kim, Anhye; Yu, Byung-Yong; Dueker, Stephen R; Shin, Kwang-Hee; Kim, Hwa Suk; Ahn, Hyungmi; Cho, Joo-Youn; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Jang, In-Jin; Lee, Howard

    2017-02-18

    (14) C-labeled YH4808, a novel potassium-competitive acid blocker, was intravenously administered as a microtracer at 80 μg (11.8 kBq or 320 nCi) concomitantly with the non-radiolabeled oral drug at 200 mg to determine the absolute bioavailability and to assess the effect of pharmacogenomics on the oral absorption of YH4808. The absolute bioavailability was low and highly variable (mean, 10.1%; range, 2.3-19.3%), and M3 and M8, active metabolites of YH4808, were formed 22.6- and 38.5-fold higher after oral administration than intravenous administration, respectively. The product of the fraction of an oral YH4808 dose entering the gut wall and the fraction of YH4808 passing on to the portal circulation was larger in subjects carrying the variants of the CHST3, SLC15A1, and SULT1B1 genes. A combined LC+AMS is a useful tool to construct a rich and highly informative PK knowledge core in early clinical drug development at a reasonable cost. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Difluoroboron β-Diketonate Materials with Long-Lived Phosphorescence Enable Lifetime Based Oxygen Imaging with a Portable Cost Effective Camera.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Alexander S; DeRosa, Christopher A; Demas, James N; Fraser, Cassandra L

    2016-04-21

    Lifetime-based oxygen imaging is useful in many biological applications but instrumentation can be stationary, expensive, and complex. Herein, we present a portable, cost effective, simple alternative with high spatiotemporal resolution that uses a complementary metal oxide silicon (CMOS) camera to measure oxygen sensitive lifetimes on the millisecond scale. We demonstrate its compatibility with difluoroboron β-diketonate poly(lactic acid) (BF2bdkPLA) polymers which are nontoxic and exhibit long-lived oxygen sensitive phosphorescence. Spatially resolved lifetimes of four BF2bdkPLA variants are measured using nonlinear least squares (NLS) and rapid lifetime determination (RLD) both of which are shown to be accurate and precise. Real-time imaging in a dynamic environment is demonstrated by determining lifetime pixel-wise. The setup costs less than $5000, easily fits into a backpack, and can operate on battery power alone. This versatility combined with the inherent utility of lifetime measurements make this system a useful tool for a wide variety of oxygen sensing applications. This study serves as an important foundation for the development of dual mode real time lifetime plus ratiometric imaging with bright, long lifetime difluoroboron β-diketonate probes.

  11. Focused helium-ion beam irradiation effects on electrical transport properties of few-layer WSe2: enabling nanoscale direct write homo-junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanford, Michael G.; Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Belianinov, Alex; Cross, Nicholas; Noh, Joo Hyon; Koehler, Michael R.; Mandrus, David G.; Duscher, Gerd; Rondinone, Adam J.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Ward, T. Zac; Rack, Philip D.

    2016-06-01

    Atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are currently receiving significant attention due to their promising opto-electronic properties. Tuning optical and electrical properties of mono and few-layer TMDs, such as tungsten diselenide (WSe2), by controlling the defects, is an intriguing opportunity to synthesize next generation two dimensional material opto-electronic devices. Here, we report the effects of focused helium ion beam irradiation on the structural, optical and electrical properties of few-layer WSe2, via high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and electrical transport measurements. By controlling the ion irradiation dose, we selectively introduce precise defects in few-layer WSe2 thereby locally tuning the resistivity and transport properties of the material. Hole transport in the few layer WSe2 is degraded more severely relative to electron transport after helium ion irradiation. Furthermore, by selectively exposing material with the ion beam, we demonstrate a simple yet highly tunable method to create lateral homo-junctions in few layer WSe2 flakes, which constitutes an important advance towards two dimensional opto-electronic devices.

  12. Focused helium-ion beam irradiation effects on electrical transport properties of few-layer WSe2: Enabling nanoscale direct write homo-junctions

    DOE PAGES

    Stanford, Michael; Noh, Joo Hyon; Koehler, Michael R.; ...

    2016-06-06

    Atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are currently receiving significant attention due to their promising opto-electronic properties. Tuning optical and electrical properties of mono and few-layer TMDs, such as tungsten diselenide (WSe2), by controlling the defects, is an intriguing opportunity to synthesize next generation two dimensional material opto-electronic devices. Here, we report the effects of focused helium ion beam irradiation on the structural, optical and electrical properties of few-layer WSe2, via high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and electrical transport measurements. By controlling the ion irradiation dose, we selectively introduce precise defects in few-layer WSe2 thereby locally tuningmore » the resistivity and transport properties of the material. Hole transport in the few layer WSe2 is degraded more severely relative to electron transport after helium ion irradiation. Moreover, by selectively exposing material with the ion beam, we demonstrate a simple yet highly tunable method to create lateral homo-junctions in few layer WSe2 flakes, which constitutes an important advance towards two dimensional opto-electronic devices.« less

  13. Convection-enhanced delivery of SN-38-loaded polymeric micelles (NK012) enables consistent distribution of SN-38 and is effective against rodent intracranial brain tumor models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong; Saito, Ryuta; Mano, Yui; Sumiyoshi, Akira; Kanamori, Masayuki; Sonoda, Yukihiko; Kawashima, Ryuta; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-10-01

    Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of therapeutic agents is a promising local delivery technique that has been extensively studied as a treatment for CNS diseases over the last two decades. One continuing challenge of CED is accurate and consistent delivery of the agents to the target. The present study focused on a new type of therapeutic agent, NK012, a novel SN-38-loaded polymeric micelle. Local delivery profiles of NK012 and SN-38 were studied using rodent brain and intracranial rodent brain tumor models. First, the cytotoxicity of NK012 against glioma cell lines was determined in vitro. Proliferations of glioma cells were significantly reduced after exposure to NK012. Then, the distribution and local toxicity after CED delivery of NK012 and SN-38 were evaluated in vivo. Volume of distribution of NK012 after CED was much larger than that of SN-38. Histological examination revealed minimum brain tissue damage in rat brains after delivery of 40 µg NK012 but severe damage with SN-38 at the same dose. Subsequently, the efficacy of NK012 delivered via CED was tested in 9L and U87MG rodent orthotopic brain tumor models. CED of NK012 displayed excellent efficacy in the 9L and U87MG orthotopic brain tumor models. Furthermore, NK012 and gadolinium diamide were co-delivered via CED to monitor the NK012 distribution using MRI. Volume of NK012 distribution evaluated by histology and MRI showed excellent agreement. CED of NK012 represents an effective treatment option for malignant gliomas. MRI-guided CED of NK012 has potential for clinical application.

  14. Integrating metabolic performance, thermal tolerance, and plasticity enables for more accurate predictions on species vulnerability to acute and chronic effects of global warming.

    PubMed

    Magozzi, Sarah; Calosi, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Predicting species vulnerability to global warming requires a comprehensive, mechanistic understanding of sublethal and lethal thermal tolerances. To date, however, most studies investigating species physiological responses to increasing temperature have focused on the underlying physiological traits of either acute or chronic tolerance in isolation. Here we propose an integrative, synthetic approach including the investigation of multiple physiological traits (metabolic performance and thermal tolerance), and their plasticity, to provide more accurate and balanced predictions on species and assemblage vulnerability to both acute and chronic effects of global warming. We applied this approach to more accurately elucidate relative species vulnerability to warming within an assemblage of six caridean prawns occurring in the same geographic, hence macroclimatic, region, but living in different thermal habitats. Prawns were exposed to four incubation temperatures (10, 15, 20 and 25 °C) for 7 days, their metabolic rates and upper thermal limits were measured, and plasticity was calculated according to the concept of Reaction Norms, as well as Q10 for metabolism. Compared to species occupying narrower/more stable thermal niches, species inhabiting broader/more variable thermal environments (including the invasive Palaemon macrodactylus) are likely to be less vulnerable to extreme acute thermal events as a result of their higher upper thermal limits. Nevertheless, they may be at greater risk from chronic exposure to warming due to the greater metabolic costs they incur. Indeed, a trade-off between acute and chronic tolerance was apparent in the assemblage investigated. However, the invasive species P. macrodactylus represents an exception to this pattern, showing elevated thermal limits and plasticity of these limits, as well as a high metabolic control. In general, integrating multiple proxies for species physiological acute and chronic responses to increasing

  15. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Rehabilitation Enablement in Chronic Heart Failure (REACH-HF) facilitated self-care rehabilitation intervention in heart failure patients and caregivers: rationale and protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, R S; Hayward, C; Eyre, V; Austin, J; Davies, R; Doherty, P; Jolly, K; Wingham, J; Van Lingen, R; Abraham, C; Green, C; Warren, FC; Britten, N; Greaves, C J; Singh, S; Buckingham, S; Paul, K; Dalal, H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Rehabilitation EnAblement in CHronic Heart Failure (REACH-HF) trial is part of a research programme designed to develop and evaluate a health professional facilitated, home-based, self-help rehabilitation intervention to improve self-care and health-related quality of life in people with heart failure and their caregivers. The trial will assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the REACH-HF intervention in patients with systolic heart failure and impact on the outcomes of their caregivers. Methods and analysis A parallel two group randomised controlled trial with 1:1 individual allocation to the REACH-HF intervention plus usual care (intervention group) or usual care alone (control group) in 216 patients with systolic heart failure (ejection fraction <45%) and their caregivers. The intervention comprises a self-help manual delivered by specially trained facilitators over a 12-week period. The primary outcome measure is patients’ disease-specific health-related quality of life measured using the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire at 12 months’ follow-up. Secondary outcomes include survival and heart failure related hospitalisation, blood biomarkers, psychological well-being, exercise capacity, physical activity, other measures of quality of life, patient safety and the quality of life, psychological well-being and perceived burden of caregivers at 4, 6 and 12 months’ follow-up. A process evaluation will assess fidelity of intervention delivery and explore potential mediators and moderators of changes in health-related quality of life in intervention and control group patients. Qualitative studies will describe patient and caregiver experiences of the intervention. An economic evaluation will estimate the cost-effectiveness of the REACH-HF intervention plus usual care versus usual care alone in patients with systolic heart failure. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the North West

  16. Noise-enabled optical ratchets

    PubMed Central

    León-Montiel, Roberto de J.; Quinto-Su, Pedro A.

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution, we report on the implementation of a novel noise-enabled optical ratchet system. We demonstrate that, unlike commonly-used ratchet schemes—where complex asymmetric optical potentials are needed—efficient transport of microparticles across a one-dimensional optical lattice can be produced by introducing controllable noise in the system. This work might open interesting routes towards the development of new technologies aimed at enhancing the efficiency of transport occurring at the micro- and nanoscale, from novel particle-sorting tools to efficient molecular motors. PMID:28287152

  17. Optimized microsystems-enabled photovoltaics

    DOEpatents

    Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Nielson, Gregory N.; Young, Ralph W.; Resnick, Paul J.; Okandan, Murat; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-22

    Technologies pertaining to designing microsystems-enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) cells are described herein. A first restriction for a first parameter of an MEPV cell is received. Subsequently, a selection of a second parameter of the MEPV cell is received. Values for a plurality of parameters of the MEPV cell are computed such that the MEPV cell is optimized with respect to the second parameter, wherein the values for the plurality of parameters are computed based at least in part upon the restriction for the first parameter.

  18. Noise-enabled optical ratchets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León-Montiel, Roberto De J.; Quinto-Su, Pedro A.

    2017-03-01

    In this contribution, we report on the implementation of a novel noise-enabled optical ratchet system. We demonstrate that, unlike commonly-used ratchet schemes—where complex asymmetric optical potentials are needed—efficient transport of microparticles across a one-dimensional optical lattice can be produced by introducing controllable noise in the system. This work might open interesting routes towards the development of new technologies aimed at enhancing the efficiency of transport occurring at the micro- and nanoscale, from novel particle-sorting tools to efficient molecular motors.

  19. DISK FORMATION ENABLED BY ENHANCED RESISTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Shang Hsien; Li Zhiyun

    2010-06-20

    Disk formation in magnetized cloud cores is hindered by magnetic braking. Previous work has shown that for realistic levels of core magnetization, the magnetic field suppresses the formation of rotationally supported disks during the protostellar mass accretion phase of low-mass star formation both in the ideal MHD limit and in the presence of ambipolar diffusion for typical rates of cosmic-ray ionization. Additional effects, such as ohmic dissipation, the Hall effect, and protostellar outflow, are needed to weaken the magnetic braking and enable the formation of persistent, rotationally supported, protostellar disks. In this paper, we first demonstrate that the classic microscopic resistivity is not large enough to enable disk formation by itself. We then experiment with a set of enhanced values for the resistivity in the range {eta} = 10{sup 17}-10{sup 22} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}. We find that a value of order 10{sup 19} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} is needed to enable the formation of a 10{sup 2} AU scale Keplerian disk; the value depends somewhat on the degree of core magnetization. The required resistivity is a few orders of magnitude larger than the classic microscopic values. Whether it can be achieved naturally during protostellar collapse remains to be determined.

  20. Nanomaterial-Enabled Neural Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongchen; Guo, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Neural stimulation is a critical technique in treating neurological diseases and investigating brain functions. Traditional electrical stimulation uses electrodes to directly create intervening electric fields in the immediate vicinity of neural tissues. Second-generation stimulation techniques directly use light, magnetic fields or ultrasound in a non-contact manner. An emerging generation of non- or minimally invasive neural stimulation techniques is enabled by nanotechnology to achieve a high spatial resolution and cell-type specificity. In these techniques, a nanomaterial converts a remotely transmitted primary stimulus such as a light, magnetic or ultrasonic signal to a localized secondary stimulus such as an electric field or heat to stimulate neurons. The ease of surface modification and bio-conjugation of nanomaterials facilitates cell-type-specific targeting, designated placement and highly localized membrane activation. This review focuses on nanomaterial-enabled neural stimulation techniques primarily involving opto-electric, opto-thermal, magneto-electric, magneto-thermal and acousto-electric transduction mechanisms. Stimulation techniques based on other possible transduction schemes and general consideration for these emerging neurotechnologies are also discussed. PMID:27013938

  1. Enabling Exploration Through Docking Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Caris A.

    2012-01-01

    Human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit will likely require international cooperation in order to leverage limited resources. International standards can help enable cooperative missions by providing well understood, predefined interfaces allowing compatibility between unique spacecraft and systems. The International Space Station (ISS) partnership has developed a publicly available International Docking System Standard (IDSS) that provides a solution to one of these key interfaces by defining a common docking interface. The docking interface provides a way for even dissimilar spacecraft to dock for exchange of crew and cargo, as well as enabling the assembly of large space systems. This paper provides an overview of the key attributes of the IDSS, an overview of the NASA Docking System (NDS), and the plans for updating the ISS with IDSS compatible interfaces. The NDS provides a state of the art, low impact docking system that will initially be made available to commercial crew and cargo providers. The ISS will be used to demonstrate the operational utility of the IDSS interface as a foundational technology for cooperative exploration.

  2. Directory Enabled Policy Based Networking

    SciTech Connect

    KELIIAA, CURTIS M.

    2001-10-01

    This report presents a discussion of directory-enabled policy-based networking with an emphasis on its role as the foundation for securely scalable enterprise networks. A directory service provides the object-oriented logical environment for interactive cyber-policy implementation. Cyber-policy implementation includes security, network management, operational process and quality of service policies. The leading network-technology vendors have invested in these technologies for secure universal connectivity that transverses Internet, extranet and intranet boundaries. Industry standards are established that provide the fundamental guidelines for directory deployment scalable to global networks. The integration of policy-based networking with directory-service technologies provides for intelligent management of the enterprise network environment as an end-to-end system of related clients, services and resources. This architecture allows logical policies to protect data, manage security and provision critical network services permitting a proactive defense-in-depth cyber-security posture. Enterprise networking imposes the consideration of supporting multiple computing platforms, sites and business-operation models. An industry-standards based approach combined with principled systems engineering in the deployment of these technologies allows these issues to be successfully addressed. This discussion is focused on a directory-based policy architecture for the heterogeneous enterprise network-computing environment and does not propose specific vendor solutions. This document is written to present practical design methodology and provide an understanding of the risks, complexities and most important, the benefits of directory-enabled policy-based networking.

  3. Agile SE Enablers and Quantification Project: Identification, Characterization, and Evaluation Criteria for Systems Engineering Agile Enablers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-16

    Development of the evaluation white paper .......................................................................................... 7 3 References...enablers as they are identified. The ultimate result of the process is an evaluation white paper supporting one of three decisions: 1. not likely to...be effective, 2. possibly suitable but more research is needed, or 3. definitely suitable and expedited transition is recommended. This paper

  4. Spatially Enabling the Health Sector

    PubMed Central

    Weeramanthri, Tarun Stephen; Woodgate, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Spatial information describes the physical location of either people or objects, and the measured relationships between them. In this article, we offer the view that greater utilization of spatial information and its related technology, as part of a broader redesign of the architecture of health information at local and national levels, could assist and speed up the process of health reform, which is taking place across the globe in richer and poorer countries alike. In making this point, we describe the impetus for health sector reform, recent developments in spatial information and analytics, and current Australasian spatial health research. We highlight examples of uptake of spatial information by the health sector, as well as missed opportunities. Our recommendations to spatially enable the health sector are applicable to high- and low-resource settings. PMID:27867933

  5. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Bean; Trond Bjornard; Thomas Larson

    2007-09-01

    It is expected that nuclear energy will be a significant component of future supplies. New facilities, operating under a strengthened international nonproliferation regime will be needed. There is good reason to believe virtual engineering applied to the facility design, as well as to the safeguards system design will reduce total project cost and improve efficiency in the design cycle. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment MEthodology (SESAME) has been developed as a software package to provide this capability for nuclear reprocessing facilities. The software architecture is specifically designed for distributed computing, collaborative design efforts, and modular construction to allow step improvements in functionality. Drag and drop wireframe construction allows the user to select the desired components from a component warehouse, render the system for 3D visualization, and, linked to a set of physics libraries and/or computational codes, conduct process evaluations of the system they have designed.

  6. Context-Enabled Business Intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2012-04-01

    To truly understand context and apply it in business intelligence, it is vital to understand what context is and how it can be applied in addressing organizational needs. Context describes the facets of the environment that impact the way that end users interact with the system. Context includes aspects of location, chronology, access method, demographics, social influence/ relationships, end-user attitude/ emotional state, behavior/ past behavior, and presence. To be successful in making Business Intelligence content enabled, it is important to be able to capture the context of use user. With advances in technology, there are a number of ways in which this user based information can be gathered and exposed to enhance the overall end user experience.

  7. Enabling the Kepler Exoplanet Census

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The Kepler mission, with its unrivaled photometric precision and nearly continuous monitoring, provides an unprecedented opportunity for an exoplanet census. However, while it has identified thousands of transiting planet candidates, only relatively few have yet been dynamically confirmed as bona fide planets, with only a handful more even conceivably amenable to future dynamical confirmation. As a result, the ability to draw detailed conclusions about the diversity of exoplanet systems from Kepler detections relies critically on assigning false positive probabilities to thousands of unconfirmed candidates. I have developed a procedure to calculate these probabilities using only the Kepler photometry, optionally including available follow-up observations. Using this, I can often statistically validate a candidate signal using two single-epoch observations: a stellar spectrum and a high-resolution image. Accordingly, I have applied this procedure to the publicly released Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) using results from several large follow-up campaigns: spectroscopic surveys of >100 KOIs with TripleSpec at the Palomar 200-in and >700 KOIs with Keck/HIRES, and imaging surveys of >60 KOIs with Keck/NIRC2 and nearly 1000 KOIs with the Palomar Robo-AO system. This has enabled me to identify hundreds of Kepler candidates as newly secure planets, identify some as likely false positives, and prescribe the most useful follow-up observations for the rest of the KOIs. These results will enable Kepler to fulfill its promise as a mission to study the statistics of exoplanet systems. In addition, this new approach to transit survey follow-up---detailed probabilistic assessment of large numbers of candidates in order to inform the application of relatively scarce follow-up resources---will remain fruitful as transit surveys continue to produce many more candidates than can be followed up with traditional strategies.

  8. Enabling Participation In Exoplanet Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Stuart F.

    2015-08-01

    Determining the distribution of exoplanets has required the contributions of a community of astronomers, who all require the support of colleagues to finish their projects in a manner to enable them to enter new collaborations to continue to contribute to understanding exoplanet science.The contributions of each member of the astronomy community are to be encouraged and must never be intentionally obstructed.We present a member’s long pursuit to be a contributing part of the exoplanet community through doing transit photometry as a means of commissioning the telescopes for a new observatory, followed by pursuit of interpreting the distributions in exoplanet parameter data.We present how the photometry projects have been presented as successful by the others who have claimed to have completed them, but how by requiring its employees to present results while omitting one member has been obstructive against members working together and has prevented the results from being published in what can genuinely be called a peer-reviewed fashion.We present how by tolerating one group to obstruct one member from finishing participation and then falsely denying credit is counterproductive to doing science.We show how expecting one member to attempt to go around an ostracizing group by starting something different is destructive to the entire profession. We repeat previously published appeals to help ostracized members to “go around the observatory” by calling for discussion on how the community must act to reverse cases of shunning, bullying, and other abuses. Without better recourse and support from the community, actions that do not meet standard good collegial behavior end up forcing good members from the community. The most important actions are to enable an ostracized member to have recourse to participating in group papers by either working through other authors or through the journal. All journals and authors must expect that no co-author is keeping out a major

  9. CUDA Enabled Graph Subset Examiner

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Jeremy T.

    2016-12-22

    Finding Godsil-McKay switching sets in graphs is one way to demonstrate that a specific graph is not determined by its spectrum--the eigenvalues of its adjacency matrix. An important area of active research in pure mathematics is determining which graphs are determined by their spectra, i.e. when the spectrum of the adjacency matrix uniquely determines the underlying graph. We are interested in exploring the spectra of graphs in the Johnson scheme and specifically seek to determine which of these graphs are determined by their spectra. Given a graph G, a Godsil-McKay switching set is an induced subgraph H on 2k vertices with the following properties: I) H is regular, ii) every vertex in G/H is adjacent to either 0, k, or 2k vertices of H, and iii) at least one vertex in G/H is adjacent to k vertices in H. The software package examines each subset of a user specified size to determine whether or not it satisfies those 3 conditions. The software makes use of the massive parallel processing power of CUDA enabled GPUs. It also exploits the vertex transitivity of graphs in the Johnson scheme by reasoning that if G has a Godsil-McKay switching set, then it has a switching set which includes vertex 1. While the code (in its current state) is tuned to this specific problem, the method of examining each induced subgraph of G can be easily re-written to check for any user specified conditions on the subgraphs and can therefore be used much more broadly.

  10. A wireless sensor enabled by wireless power.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-11-22

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network.

  11. A Wireless Sensor Enabled by Wireless Power

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-01-01

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

  12. Enabling Communication in Emergency Response Environments

    PubMed Central

    Aldunate, Roberto G.; Schmidt, Klaus Nicholas; Herrera, Oriel

    2012-01-01

    Effective communication among first responders during response to natural and human-made large-scale catastrophes has increased tremendously during the last decade. However, most efforts to achieve a higher degree of effectiveness in communication lack synergy between the environment and the technology involved to support first responders operations. This article presents a natural and intuitive interface to support Stigmergy; or communication through the environment, based on intuitively marking and retrieving information from the environment with a pointer. A prototype of the system was built and tested in the field, however the pointing activity revealed challenges regarding accuracy due to limitations of the sensors used. The results obtained from these field tests were the basis for this research effort and will have the potential to enable communication through the environment for first responders operating in highly dynamical and inhospitable disaster relief environments. PMID:22778647

  13. Nano-enabled SERS reporting photosensitizers.

    PubMed

    Farhadi, Arash; Roxin, Áron; Wilson, Brian C; Zheng, Gang

    2015-01-01

    To impart effective cellular damage via photodynamic therapy (PDT), it is vital to deliver the appropriate light dose and photosensitizer concentration, and to monitor the PDT dose delivered at the site of interest. In vivo monitoring of photosensitizers has in large part relied on their fluorescence emission. Palladium-containing photosensitizers have shown promising clinical results by demonstrating near full conversion of light to PDT activity at the cost of having undetectable fluorescence. We demonstrate that, through the coupling of plasmonic nanoparticles with palladium-photosensitizers, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) provides both reporting and monitoring capability to otherwise quiescent molecules. Nano-enabled SERS reporting of photosensitizers allows for the decoupling of the therapeutic and imaging mechanisms so that both phenomena can be optimized independently. Most importantly, the design enables the use of the same laser wavelength to stimulate both the PDT and imaging features, opening the potential for real-time dosimetry of photosensitizer concentration and PDT dose delivery by SERS monitoring.

  14. The Master Enabler: In Orbit Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Benjamin B.; Kienlen, Michael; Naasz, Bo; Roberts, Brian; Deweese, Keith; Cassidy, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Some of the most noteworthy missions in space exploration have occurred in the last two decades and owe their success to on-orbit servicing. The tremendously successful Hubble Space Telescope repair and upgrade missions, as well as the completed assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and its full utilization, lead us to the next chapter and set of challenges. These include fully exploiting the many space systems already launched, assembling large structures in situ thereby enabling new scientific discoveries, and providing systems that reliably and cost-effectively support the next steps in space exploration. In-orbit servicing is a tool--a tool that can serve as the master enabler to create space architectures that would otherwise be unattainable. This paper will survey how NASA's satellite-servicing technology development efforts are being applied to the planning and execution of two such ambitious missions, specifically asteroid capture and the in-space assembly of a very large life-finding telescope.

  15. In-Orbit Servicing: The Master Enabler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Benjamin B.; Kienlen, Michael; Naasz, Bo; Roberts, Brian; Deweese, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Some of the most noteworthy missions in space exploration have occurred in the last two decades and owe their success to on-orbit servicing. The tremendously successful Hubble Space Telescope repair and upgrade missions, as well as the completed assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and its full utilization, lead us to the next chapter and set of challenges. These include fully exploiting the many space systems already launched, assembling large structures in situ thereby enabling new scientific discoveries, and providing systems that reliably and cost-effectively support the next steps in space exploration. In-orbit servicing is a tool--a tool that can serve as the master enabler to create space architectures that would otherwise be unattainable. This paper will survey how NASA's satellite-servicing technology development efforts are being applied to the planning and execution of two such ambitious missions, specifically asteroid capture and the in-space assembly of a very large life-finding telescope.

  16. The "Master Enabler" - In-Orbit Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Benjamin; Kienlen, Michael; Naasz, Bo; Roberts, Brian; Deweese, Keith; Cassidy, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Some of the most noteworthy missions in space exploration have occurred in the last two decades and owe their success to on-orbit servicing. The tremendously successful Hubble Space Telescope repair and upgrade missions, as well as the completed assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and its full utilization, lead us to the next chapter and set of challenges. These include fully exploiting the many space systems already launched, assembling large structures in situ thereby enabling new scientific discoveries, and providing systems that reliably and cost-effectively support the next steps in space exploration. In-orbit servicing is a tool-a tool that can serve as the master enabler to create space architectures that would otherwise be unattainable. This paper will survey how NASA's satellite-servicing technology development efforts are being applied to the planning and execution of two such ambitious missions, specifically asteroid capture and the in-space assembly of a very large life-finding telescope.

  17. Asymmetric catalysis: An enabling science

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Barry M.

    2004-01-01

    Chirality of organic molecules plays an enormous role in areas ranging from medicine to material science, yet the synthesis of such entities in one enantiomeric form is one of the most difficult challenges. The advances being made stem from the convergence of a broader understanding of theory and how structure begets function, the developments in the interface between organic and inorganic chemistry and, most notably, the organic chemistry of the transition metals, and the continuing advancements in the tools to help define structure, especially in solution. General themes for designing catalysts to effect asymmetric induction are helping to make this strategy more useful, in general, with the resultant effect of a marked enhancement of synthetic efficiency. PMID:14990801

  18. Plasmonic Metallurgy Enabled by DNA

    DOE PAGES

    Ross, Michael B.; Ku, Jessie C.; Lee, Byeongdu; ...

    2016-02-05

    In this study, mixed silver and gold plasmonic nanoparticle architectures are synthesized using DNA-programmable assembly, unveiling exquisitely tunable optical properties that are predicted and explained both by effective thin-film models and explicit electrodynamic simulations. These data demonstrate that the manner and ratio with which multiple metallic components are arranged can greatly alter optical properties, including tunable color and asymmetric reflectivity behavior of relevance for thin-film applications.

  19. Plasmonic Metallurgy Enabled by DNA.

    PubMed

    Ross, Michael B; Ku, Jessie C; Lee, Byeongdu; Mirkin, Chad A; Schatz, George C

    2016-04-13

    Mixed silver and gold plasmonic nanoparticle architectures are synthesized using DNA-programmable assembly, unveiling exquisitely tunable optical properties that are predicted and explained both by effective thin-film models and explicit electrodynamic simulations. These data demonstrate that the manner and ratio with which multiple metallic components are arranged can greatly alter optical properties, including tunable color and asymmetric reflectivity behavior of relevance for thin-film applications.

  20. Civilian Fitness: A Readiness Enabler

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-24

    obese and sedentary life-style developed as a child will likely manifest itself into an adult problem since early health behaviors are generally...campaign plan to achieve desired effects to increase civilian readiness and deter the predicted pandemic of obesity and sedentary lifestyles . The...improvement for the next generation is bleak. Children are well on their way to becoming heavier and more sedentary than today’s adult population. An

  1. Enabling Computational Technologies for Terascale Scientific Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, S.F.

    2000-08-24

    We develop scalable algorithms and object-oriented code frameworks for terascale scientific simulations on massively parallel processors (MPPs). Our research in multigrid-based linear solvers and adaptive mesh refinement enables Laboratory programs to use MPPs to explore important physical phenomena. For example, our research aids stockpile stewardship by making practical detailed 3D simulations of radiation transport. The need to solve large linear systems arises in many applications, including radiation transport, structural dynamics, combustion, and flow in porous media. These systems result from discretizations of partial differential equations on computational meshes. Our first research objective is to develop multigrid preconditioned iterative methods for such problems and to demonstrate their scalability on MPPs. Scalability describes how total computational work grows with problem size; it measures how effectively additional resources can help solve increasingly larger problems. Many factors contribute to scalability: computer architecture, parallel implementation, and choice of algorithm. Scalable algorithms have been shown to decrease simulation times by several orders of magnitude.

  2. Enabling MEMS technologies for communications systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubecke, Victor M.; Barber, Bradley P.; Arney, Susanne

    2001-11-01

    Modern communications demands have been steadily growing not only in size, but sophistication. Phone calls over copper wires have evolved into high definition video conferencing over optical fibers, and wireless internet browsing. The technology used to meet these demands is under constant pressure to provide increased capacity, speed, and efficiency, all with reduced size and cost. Various MEMS technologies have shown great promise for meeting these challenges by extending the performance of conventional circuitry and introducing radical new systems approaches. A variety of strategic MEMS structures including various cost-effective free-space optics and high-Q RF components are described, along with related practical implementation issues. These components are rapidly becoming essential for enabling the development of progressive new communications systems technologies including all-optical networks, and low cost multi-system wireless terminals and basestations.

  3. Provision of enabling technology in professional sports.

    PubMed

    McBride, D K

    2000-06-01

    Multiple-round golf tournaments are designed intentionally to separate individuals' scores as play proceeds. Variance analyses and consideration of individual differences (vs group mean effects) for a sample of professional events confirm that 3-, 4-, and 5-round tournaments show significantly increased variability (though stable means) from first to last rounds. It is argued here that the dispersion of scores increases as play proceeds because the more physically or mentally fit players emerge and continue to perform best. Furthermore, a marginal income analysis indicates that the average gain in earnings from a one-shot improvement in score is approximately $8,000. An interpretation based on fatigue, competition, and stress supports the Professional Golf Association's claim that provision of enabling devices, like a golf cart for disabled players, is also an enhancement and is thus unfair.

  4. Enabling communication concurrency through flexible MPI endpoints

    DOE PAGES

    Dinan, James; Grant, Ryan E.; Balaji, Pavan; ...

    2014-09-23

    MPI defines a one-to-one relationship between MPI processes and ranks. This model captures many use cases effectively; however, it also limits communication concurrency and interoperability between MPI and programming models that utilize threads. Our paper describes the MPI endpoints extension, which relaxes the longstanding one-to-one relationship between MPI processes and ranks. Using endpoints, an MPI implementation can map separate communication contexts to threads, allowing them to drive communication independently. Also, endpoints enable threads to be addressable in MPI operations, enhancing interoperability between MPI and other programming models. Furthermore, these characteristics are illustrated through several examples and an empirical study thatmore » contrasts current multithreaded communication performance with the need for high degrees of communication concurrency to achieve peak communication performance.« less

  5. Enabling communication concurrency through flexible MPI endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Dinan, James; Grant, Ryan E.; Balaji, Pavan; Goodell, David; Miller, Douglas; Snir, Marc; Thakur, Rajeev

    2014-09-23

    MPI defines a one-to-one relationship between MPI processes and ranks. This model captures many use cases effectively; however, it also limits communication concurrency and interoperability between MPI and programming models that utilize threads. Our paper describes the MPI endpoints extension, which relaxes the longstanding one-to-one relationship between MPI processes and ranks. Using endpoints, an MPI implementation can map separate communication contexts to threads, allowing them to drive communication independently. Also, endpoints enable threads to be addressable in MPI operations, enhancing interoperability between MPI and other programming models. Furthermore, these characteristics are illustrated through several examples and an empirical study that contrasts current multithreaded communication performance with the need for high degrees of communication concurrency to achieve peak communication performance.

  6. Metamaterial-enabled transformation optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landy, Nathan

    Transformation Optics is a design methodology that uses the form invariance of Maxwell's equations to distort electromagnetic fields. This distortion is imposed on a region of space by mimicking a curvilinear coordinate system with prescribed magnetoelectric material parameters. By simply specifying the correct coordinate transformation, researchers have created such exotic devices as invisibility cloaks, ``perfect'' lenses, and illusion devices. Unfortunately, these devices typically require correspondingly exotic material parameters that do not occur in Nature. Researchers have therefore turned to complex artificial media known as metamaterials to approximate the desired responses. However, the metamaterial design process is complex, and there are limitations on the responses that they achieve. In this dissertation, we explore both the applicability and limitations of metamaterials in Transformation Optics design. We begin in Chapter 2 by investigating the freedoms available to use in the transformation optics design process itself. We show that quasi-conformal mappings may be used to alleviate some of the complexity of material design in both two- and three-dimensional design. We then go on in Chapter 3 to apply this method to the design of a transformation-optics modified optic. We show that even a highly-approximate implementation of such a lens would retain many of the key performance feautures that we would expect from a full material prescription. However, the approximations made in the design of our lens may not be valid in other areas of transformation optical design. For instance, the high-frequency approximations of our lens design ignore the effects of impedance mismatch, and the approximation is not valid when the material parameters vary on the order of a wavelength. Therefore, in Chapter 4 we use other freedoms available to us to design a full-parameter cloak of invisibility. By tailoring the electromagnetic environment of our cloak, we are able to

  7. Fundamental enabling issues in nanotechnology :

    SciTech Connect

    Floro, Jerrold Anthony; Foiles, Stephen Martin; Hearne, Sean Joseph; Hoyt, Jeffrey John; Seel, Steven Craig; Webb III, Edmund Blackburn; Morales, Alfredo Martin; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.

    2007-10-01

    To effectively integrate nanotechnology into functional devices, fundamental aspects of material behavior at the nanometer scale must be understood. Stresses generated during thin film growth strongly influence component lifetime and performance; stress has also been proposed as a mechanism for stabilizing supported nanoscale structures. Yet the intrinsic connections between the evolving morphology of supported nanostructures and stress generation are still a matter of debate. This report presents results from a combined experiment and modeling approach to study stress evolution during thin film growth. Fully atomistic simulations are presented predicting stress generation mechanisms and magnitudes during all growth stages, from island nucleation to coalescence and film thickening. Simulations are validated by electrodeposition growth experiments, which establish the dependence of microstructure and growth stresses on process conditions and deposition geometry. Sandia is one of the few facilities with the resources to combine experiments and modeling/theory in this close a fashion. Experiments predicted an ongoing coalescence process that generates signficant tensile stress. Data from deposition experiments also supports the existence of a kinetically limited compressive stress generation mechanism. Atomistic simulations explored island coalescence and deposition onto surfaces intersected by grain boundary structures to permit investigation of stress evolution during later growth stages, e.g. continual island coalescence and adatom incorporation into grain boundaries. The predictive capabilities of simulation permit direct determination of fundamental processes active in stress generation at the nanometer scale while connecting those processes, via new theory, to continuum models for much larger island and film structures. Our combined experiment and simulation results reveal the necessary materials science to tailor stress, and therefore performance, in

  8. An Internet enabled impact limiter material database

    SciTech Connect

    Wix, S.; Kanipe, F.; McMurtry, W.

    1998-09-01

    This paper presents a detailed explanation of the construction of an interest enabled database, also known as a database driven web site. The data contained in the internet enabled database are impact limiter material and seal properties. The technique used in constructing the internet enabled database presented in this paper are applicable when information that is changing in content needs to be disseminated to a wide audience.

  9. 'Enabling' of male problem drinkers in work groups.

    PubMed

    Roman, P M; Blum, T C; Martin, J K

    1992-02-01

    Theoretical understanding of the effects of groups on the development and the maintenance of adult problem drinking is sparse. Sociological theories predict that adult problem drinkers find support for their behavior among those with similar drinking patterns. By contrast, a widely diffused clinical conceptualization posits that 'significant others' who are not problem drinkers facilitate the maintenance of problem drinking. Several previous lines of research lead to the hypothesis that observed delays in identification and referral of problem drinkers in the workplace may be due to supportive relationships between problem drinkers and their coworkers and supervisors. Data from the 1973-77 Quality of Employment Panel Survey are utilized to provide a longitudinal test of this hypothesis among employed men. Results support the existence of enabling in the workplace. Data comparing 'enabled' and 'non-enabled' problem drinking workers fail to support four possible explanations of enabling.

  10. Commentary: Academic Enablers and School Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.

    2002-01-01

    This commentary presents academic enablers within the broader, overlapping context of school learning theory, including the theories of Carroll, Harnishfeger and Wiley, Walberg, and others. Multivariate models are needed to understand the influences of academic enabler and school learning variables on learning, as well as the influences of these…

  11. Enabling Wireless Avionics Intra-Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Omar; Nguyen, Truong; Mackenzie, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The Electromagnetics and Sensors Branch of NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is investigating the potential of an all-wireless aircraft as part of the ECON (Efficient Reconfigurable Cockpit Design and Fleet Operations using Software Intensive, Networked and Wireless Enabled Architecture) seedling proposal, which is funded by the Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) project, Transformative Aeronautics Concepts (TAC) program, and NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI). The project consists of a brief effort carried out by a small team in the Electromagnetic Environment Effects (E3) laboratory with the intention of exposing some of the challenges faced by a wireless communication system inside the reflective cavity of an aircraft and to explore potential solutions that take advantage of that environment for constructive gain. The research effort was named EWAIC for "Enabling Wireless Aircraft Intra-communications." The E3 laboratory is a research facility that includes three electromagnetic reverberation chambers and equipment that allow testing and generation of test data for the investigation of wireless systems in reflective environments. Using these chambers, the EWAIC team developed a set of tests and setups that allow the intentional variation of intensity of a multipath field to reproduce the environment of the various bays and cabins of large transport aircraft. This setup, in essence, simulates an aircraft environment that allows the investigation and testing of wireless communication protocols that can effectively be used as a tool to mitigate some of the risks inherent to an aircraft wireless system for critical functions. In addition, the EWAIC team initiated the development of a computational modeling tool to illustrate the propagation of EM waves inside the reflective cabins and bays of aircraft and to obtain quantifiable information regarding the degradation of signals in aircraft subassemblies. The nose landing gear of a UAV CAD model was used

  12. Ion Implant Enabled 2x Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Patrick M.; Godet, Ludovic; Cheung, Andrew; de Cock, Gael; Hatem, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Ion implantation has many applications in microelectronics beyond doping. The broad range of species available combined with the ability to precisely control dose, angle, and energy offers compelling advantages for use in precision material modification. The application to lithography has been reported elsewhere. Integrating ion implantation into the lithography process enables scaling the feature size requirements beyond the 15 nm node with a simplified double patterning sequence. In addition, ion implant may be used to remove line edge roughness, providing tremendous advantages to meet extreme lithography imaging requirements and provide additional device stability. We examine several species (e.g. Si, Ar, etc.) and the effect of energy and impact angle on several commercially available 193 nm immersion photoresists using a Varian VIISta® single wafer high current ion implanter. The treated photoresist will be evaluated for stability in an integrated double patterning application with ion implant used to freeze the primary image. We report on critical dimension impact, pattern integrity, optical property modification, and adhesion. We analyze the impact of line edge roughness improvement beyond the work of C. Struck including the power spectral distribution. TGA and FTIR Spectroscopy results for the implanted photoresist materials will also be included.

  13. Nanocrystal-enabled solid state bonding.

    SciTech Connect

    San Diego State University, San Diego, CA; Puskar, Joseph David; Tikare, Veena; Garcia Cardona, Cristina; Reece, Mark; Brewer, Luke N.; Holm, Elizabeth Ann

    2010-10-01

    In this project, we performed a preliminary set of sintering experiments to examine nanocrystal-enabled diffusion bonding (NEDB) in Ag-on-Ag and Cu-on-Cu using Ag nanoparticles. The experimental test matrix included the effects of material system, temperature, pressure, and particle size. The nanoparticle compacts were bonded between plates using a customized hot press, tested in shear, and examined post mortem using microscopy techniques. NEDB was found to be a feasible mechanism for low-temperature, low-pressure, solid-state bonding of like materials, creating bonded interfaces that were able to support substantial loads. The maximum supported shear strength varied substantially within sample cohorts due to variation in bonded area; however, systematic variation with fabrication conditions was also observed. Mesoscale sintering simulations were performed in order to understand whether sintering models can aid in understanding the NEDB process. A pressure-assisted sintering model was incorporated into the SPPARKS kinetic Monte Carlo sintering code. Results reproduce most of the qualitative behavior observed in experiments, indicating that simulation can augment experiments during the development of the NEDB process. Because NEDB offers a promising route to low-temperature, low-pressure, solid-state bonding, we recommend further research and development with a goal of devising new NEDB bonding processes to support Sandia's customers.

  14. Water: A Critical Material Enabling Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Karen D.

    2014-01-01

    Water is one of the most critical materials in human spaceflight. The availability of water defines the duration of a space mission; the volume of water required for a long-duration space mission becomes too large, heavy, and expensive for launch vehicles to carry. Since the mission duration is limited by the amount of water a space vehicle can carry, the capability to recycle water enables space exploration. In addition, water management in microgravity impacts spaceflight in other respects, such as the recent emergency termination of a spacewalk caused by free water in an astronaut's spacesuit helmet. A variety of separation technologies are used onboard spacecraft to ensure that water is always available for use, and meets the stringent water quality required for human space exploration. These separation technologies are often adapted for use in a microgravity environment, where water behaves in unique ways. The use of distillation, membrane processes, ion exchange and granular activated carbon will be reviewed. Examples of microgravity effects on operations will also be presented. A roadmap for future technologies, needed to supply water resources for the exploration of Mars, will also be reviewed.

  15. Barriers and enablers to academic health leadership.

    PubMed

    Bharwani, Aleem; Kline, Theresa; Patterson, Margaret; Craighead, Peter

    2017-02-06

    Purpose This study sought to identify the barriers and enablers to leadership enactment in academic health-care settings. Design/methodology/approach Semi-structured interviews ( n = 77) with programme stakeholders (medical school trainees, university leaders, clinical leaders, medical scientists and directors external to the medical school) were conducted, and the responses content-analysed. Findings Both contextual and individual factors were identified as playing a role in affecting academic health leadership enactment that has an impact on programme development, success and maintenance. Contextual factors included sufficient resources allocated to the programme, opportunities for learners to practise leadership skills, a competent team around the leader once that person is in place, clear expectations for the leader and a culture that fosters open communication. Contextual barriers included highly bureaucratic structures, fear-of-failure and non-trusting cultures and inappropriate performance systems. Programmes were advised to select participants based on self-awareness, strong communication skills and an innovative thinking style. Filling specific knowledge and skill gaps, particularly for those not trained in medical school, was viewed as essential. Ineffective decision-making styles and tendencies to get involved in day-to-day activities were barriers to the development of academic health leaders. Originality/value Programmes designed to develop academic health-care leaders will be most effective if they develop leadership at all levels; ensure that the organisation's culture, structure and processes reinforce positive leadership practices; and recognise the critical role of teams in supporting its leaders.

  16. 'Slings' enable neutrophil rolling at high shear.

    PubMed

    Sundd, Prithu; Gutierrez, Edgar; Koltsova, Ekaterina K; Kuwano, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Satoru; Pospieszalska, Maria K; Groisman, Alex; Ley, Klaus

    2012-08-16

    Most leukocytes can roll along the walls of venules at low shear stress (1 dyn cm−2), but neutrophils have the ability to roll at tenfold higher shear stress in microvessels in vivo. The mechanisms involved in this shear-resistant rolling are known to involve cell flattening and pulling of long membrane tethers at the rear. Here we show that these long tethers do not retract as postulated, but instead persist and appear as 'slings' at the front of rolling cells. We demonstrate slings in a model of acute inflammation in vivo and on P-selectin in vitro, where P-selectin-glycoprotein-ligand-1 (PSGL-1) is found in discrete sticky patches whereas LFA-1 is expressed over the entire length on slings. As neutrophils roll forward, slings wrap around the rolling cells and undergo a step-wise peeling from the P-selectin substrate enabled by the failure of PSGL-1 patches under hydrodynamic forces. The 'step-wise peeling of slings' is distinct from the 'pulling of tethers' reported previously. Each sling effectively lays out a cell-autonomous adhesive substrate in front of neutrophils rolling at high shear stress during inflammation.

  17. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Karen; Vasquez, Deb

    2017-01-01

    The Federal Energy Management Program's 'Utility Energy Service Contracts: Enabling Documents' provide legislative information and materials that clarify the authority for federal agencies to enter into utility energy service contracts, or UESCs.

  18. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-01

    Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents provides materials that clarify the authority for Federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs), as well as sample documents and resources to ease utility partnership contracting.

  19. ISS - Enabling Exploration Through Docking Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Caris A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA and the ISS partnership are jointly developing a key standard to enable future collaborative exploration. The IDSS is based on flight proven design while incorporating new low impact technology. Low impact technology accommodates a wide range of vehicle contact and capture conditions. This standard will get early demonstration on the ISS. Experience gained here will enable operational experience and the opportunity to refine the standard.

  20. GIS Enabled Modeling and Simulation (GEMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    polygons, visual databases include texture information to provide a visualization of ground and material types. These databases include 3D models ...US Army TEC GIS-Enabled Modeling and Simulation project, and was the lead developer on the building interior semantic information portion of the...GIS Enabled Modeling and Simulation (GEMS) Thomas Stanzione Kevin Johnson MAK Technologies 68 Moulton Street Cambridge, MA 02138 (617) 876

  1. Biotechniques Laboratory: An Enabling Course in the Biological Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Trapani, Giovanna; Clarke, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Practical skills and competencies are critical to student engagement and effective learning in laboratory courses. This article describes the design of a yearlong, stand-alone laboratory course--the Biotechniques Laboratory--a common core course in the second year of all our degree programs in the biological sciences. It is an enabling,…

  2. "Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced Industrial Heat Transfer Fluids"

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Ganesh Skandan; Dr. Amit Singhal; Mr. Kenneth Eberts; Mr. Damian Sobrevilla; Prof. Jerry Shan; Stephen Tse; Toby Rossmann

    2008-06-12

    ABSTRACT Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced industrial Heat Transfer Fluids” Improving the efficiency of Industrial Heat Exchangers offers a great opportunity to improve overall process efficiencies in diverse industries such as pharmaceutical, materials manufacturing and food processing. The higher efficiencies can come in part from improved heat transfer during both cooling and heating of the material being processed. Additionally, there is great interest in enhancing the performance and reducing the weight of heat exchangers used in automotives in order to increase fuel efficiency. The goal of the Phase I program was to develop nanoparticle containing heat transfer fluids (e.g., antifreeze, water, silicone and hydrocarbon-based oils) that are used in transportation and in the chemical industry for heating, cooling and recovering waste heat. Much work has been done to date at investigating the potential use of nanoparticle-enhanced thermal fluids to improve heat transfer in heat exchangers. In most cases the effect in a commercial heat transfer fluid has been marginal at best. In the Phase I work, we demonstrated that the thermal conductivity, and hence heat transfer, of a fluid containing nanoparticles can be dramatically increased when subjected to an external influence. The increase in thermal conductivity was significantly larger than what is predicted by commonly used thermal models for two-phase materials. Additionally, the surface of the nanoparticles was engineered so as to have a minimal influence on the viscosity of the fluid. As a result, a nanoparticle-laden fluid was successfully developed that can lead to enhanced heat transfer in both industrial and automotive heat exchangers

  3. Vulnerabilities in First-Generation RFID-enabled Credit Cards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heydt-Benjamin, Thomas S.; Bailey, Daniel V.; Fu, Kevin; Juels, Ari; O'Hare, Tom

    RFID-enabled credit cards are widely deployed in the United States and other countries, but no public study has thoroughly analyzed the mechanisms that provide both security and privacy. Using samples from a variety of RFID-enabled credit cards, our study observes that (1) the cardholder's name and often credit card number and expiration are leaked in plaintext to unauthenticated readers, (2) our homemade device costing around 150 effectively clones one type of skimmed cards thus providing a proof-of-concept implementation for the RF replay attack, (3) information revealed by the RFID transmission cross contaminates the security of RFID and non-RFID payment contexts, and (4) RFID-enabled credit cards are susceptible in various degrees to a range of other traditional RFID attacks such as skimming and relaying.

  4. New Labour and the enabling state.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ian

    2000-11-01

    The notion of the 'enabling state' gained currency in the UK during the 1990s as an alternative to the 'providing' or the welfare state. It reflected the process of contracting out in the NHS and compulsory competitive tendering (CCT) in local government during the 1980s, but was also associated with developments during the 1990s in health, social care and education in particular. The creation of an internal market in the NHS and the associated purchaser-provider split appeared to transfer 'ownership' of services increasingly to the providers - hospitals, General Practitioners (GPs) and schools. The mixed economy of care that was stimulated by the 1990 NHS and Community Care Act appeared to offer local authorities the opportunity to enable non state providers to offer care services in the community. The new service charters were part of the enablement process because they offered users more opportunity to influence provision. This article examines how far service providers were enabled and assesses the extent to which new Labour's policies enhance or reject the 'enabling state' in favour of more direct provision.

  5. Enabling the Discovery of Gravitational Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of gravitational radiation was announced with the publication of the results of a physics experiment involving over a thousand participants. This was preceded by a century of theoretical work, involving a similarly large group of physicists, mathematicians, and computer scientists. This huge effort was enabled by a substantial commitment of resources, both public and private, to develop the different strands of this complex research enterprise, and to build a community of scientists to carry it out. In the excitement following the discovery, the role of key enablers of this success has not always been adequately recognized in popular accounts. In this talk, I will try to call attention to a few of the key ingredients that proved crucial to enabling the successful discovery of gravitational waves, and the opening of a new field of science.

  6. Hydrologic Prediction Through Earthcube Enabled Hydrogeophysical Cyberinfrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versteeg, R. J.; Johnson, D.

    2012-12-01

    to "develop a framework to understand and predict responses of the Earth as a system— from the space-atmosphere boundary to the core, including the influences of humans and ecosystems." Effective development of hydrologic prediction tools will require the hydrogeophysical community to engage in and become conversant with the cyberinfrastructure community. In my presentation I will provide several examples of how such tools could look like, and what some of the opportunities are for getting this engagement going and develop cyberinfrastructure enabled hydrologic prediction tools.

  7. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing; Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong; Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing; Yu, Hongyu

    2014-02-24

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics.

  8. Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) ENABLE Program

    SciTech Connect

    2012-06-01

    The Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) ENABLE program, a new project funding approach, allows small Federal facilities to realize energy and water savings in six months or less. ESPC ENABLE provides a standardized and streamlined process to install targeted energy conservation measures (ECMs) such as lighting, water, and controls with measurement and verification (M&V) appropriate for the size and scope of the project. This allows Federal facilities smaller than 200,000 square feet to make progress towards important energy efficiency and water conservation requirements.

  9. Enabling human HUMS with data modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.; Jaenisch, Kristina K.; Hicklen, Michael L.

    2006-05-01

    We simulate a notional Navy SEAL rebreather diver on an extended mission using Model Predictive Control (MPC) theory. A mathematical framework for enabling physiological HUMS (Health Usage Management Systems) is shown. A rebreather simulation is used to derive MPC baseline Data Models of diver status by converting the simulation first into differential equations and then into lookup tables (LUT). When abnormal readings are indicated, sensor data from the diver is published to the ad hoc network, enabling intermittent upload. Mission success confidence is updated and determined during the mission. A novel method of converting MPC Data Models into lookup tables worn by the diver is given.

  10. Upgraded NERVA systems: Enabler nuclear system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farbman, Gerry

    1991-01-01

    The NERVA/Rover Enabler technology enables to go on a low risk, short-term program to meet the requirements of the Mars mission and maybe some lunar missions. The following subject areas are covered: NERVA technology - the foundation for tomorrow's space missions; NERVA/Rover reactor system test sequence; NERVA engine development program; nuclear thermal reactor capability based on many related Westinghouse technology programs; investment in Rover/Nerva technology; synergistic applications of NERVA technology; flow schematic of the NDR engine; the NERVA nuclear subsystem; and technology evolution.

  11. Networking Technologies Enable Advances in Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory; Freeman, Kenneth; Gilstrap, Raymond; Beck, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment to prototype a new way of conducting science by applying networking and distributed computing technologies to an Earth Science application. A combination of satellite, wireless, and terrestrial networking provided geologists at a remote field site with interactive access to supercomputer facilities at two NASA centers, thus enabling them to validate and calibrate remotely sensed geological data in near-real time. This represents a fundamental shift in the way that Earth scientists analyze remotely sensed data. In this paper we describe the experiment and the network infrastructure that enabled it, analyze the data flow during the experiment, and discuss the scientific impact of the results.

  12. Nanotechnologv Enabled Biological and Chemical Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehne, Jessica; Meyyappan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an enabling technology that will impact almost all economic sectors: one of the most important and with great potential is the health/medical sector. - Nanomaterials for drug delivery - Early warning sensors - Implantable devices - Artificial parts with improved characteristics Carbon nanotubes and nanofibers show promise for use in sensor development, electrodes and other biomedical applications.

  13. School Bureaucracies That Work: Enabling, Not Coercive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoy, Wayne K.; Sweetland, Scott R.

    2000-01-01

    Attempts to reconcile two theoretically opposing perspectives of bureaucracy (as either alienating or facilitative) by creating and testing a new construct called "enabling bureaucracy." Empirical results are encouraging. Schools can be designed with formalized procedures and hierarchical structures that help rather than hinder teaching and…

  14. ICT-Enabled Learning: The Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Geoff; Grebennikov, Leonid; Gozzard, Terry

    2009-01-01

    This research seeks to contribute to current discussions in Australian higher education on how best to deploy ICT-enabled learning. Its particular focus is on examining the qualitative data from students on their experience of using Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) at one college in an Australian university. In total, about 71,240…

  15. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  16. Safely Enabling Low-Altitude Airspace Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Near-term Goal: Enable initial low-altitude airspace and UAS operations with demonstrated safety as early as possible, within 5 years. Long-term Goal: Accommodate increased UAS operations with highest safety, efficiency, and capacity as much autonomously as possible (10-15 years).

  17. Technology-Enabled Crime, Policing and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuade, Sam

    2006-01-01

    Crime, policing and security are enabled by and co-evolve with technologies that make them possible. As criminals compete with security and policing officials for technological advantage perpetually complex crime, policing and security results in relatively confusing and therefore unmanageable threats to society. New, adaptive and ordinary crimes…

  18. Bioblendstocks that Enable High Efficiency Engine Designs

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, Robert L.; Fioroni, Gina M.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Zigler, Bradley T.; Farrell, John

    2016-11-03

    The past decade has seen a high level of innovation in production of biofuels from sugar, lipid, and lignocellulose feedstocks. As discussed in several talks at this workshop, ethanol blends in the E25 to E50 range could enable more highly efficient spark-ignited (SI) engines. This is because of their knock resistance properties that include not only high research octane number (RON), but also charge cooling from high heat of vaporization, and high flame speed. Emerging alcohol fuels such as isobutanol or mixed alcohols have desirable properties such as reduced gasoline blend vapor pressure, but also have lower RON than ethanol. These fuels may be able to achieve the same knock resistance benefits, but likely will require higher blend levels or higher RON hydrocarbon blendstocks. A group of very high RON (>150) oxygenates such as dimethyl furan, methyl anisole, and related compounds are also produced from biomass. While providing no increase in charge cooling, their very high octane numbers may provide adequate knock resistance for future highly efficient SI engines. Given this range of options for highly knock resistant fuels there appears to be a critical need for a fuel knock resistance metric that includes effects of octane number, heat of vaporization, and potentially flame speed. Emerging diesel fuels include highly branched long-chain alkanes from hydroprocessing of fats and oils, as well as sugar-derived terpenoids. These have relatively high cetane number (CN), which may have some benefits in designing more efficient CI engines. Fast pyrolysis of biomass can produce diesel boiling range streams that are high in aromatic, oxygen and acid contents. Hydroprocessing can be applied to remove oxygen and consequently reduce acidity, however there are strong economic incentives to leave up to 2 wt% oxygen in the product. This oxygen will primarily be present as low CN alkyl phenols and aryl ethers. While these have high heating value, their presence in diesel fuel

  19. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Alan J.; Adair, Brooke; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E.

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving. PMID:23304507

  20. Enabling room temperature sodium metal batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Ruiguo; Mishra, Kuber; Li, Xiaolin; Qian, Jiangfeng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bowden, Mark E.; Han, Kee Sung; Mueller, Karl T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2016-12-01

    Rechargeable batteries based upon sodium (Na+) cations are at the core of many new battery chemistries beyond Li-ion batteries. Rather than using carbon or alloy-based anodes, the direct utilization of solid sodium metal as an anode would be highly advantageous, but its use has been highly problematic due to its high reactivity. In this work, however, it is demonstrated that, by tailoring the electrolyte formulation, solid Na metal can be electrochemically plated/stripped at ambient temperature with high efficiency (> 99%) on both copper and inexpensive aluminum current collectors thereby enabling a shift in focus to new battery chemical couples based upon Na metal operating at ambient temperature. These highly concentrated electrolytes has enabled stable cycling of Na metal batteries based on a Na metal anode and Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode at high rates with very high efficiency.

  1. Enabling international adoption of LOINC through translation.

    PubMed

    Vreeman, Daniel J; Chiaravalloti, Maria Teresa; Hook, John; McDonald, Clement J

    2012-08-01

    Interoperable health information exchange depends on adoption of terminology standards, but international use of such standards can be challenging because of language differences between local concept names and the standard terminology. To address this important barrier, we describe the evolution of an efficient process for constructing translations of LOINC terms names, the foreign language functions in RELMA, and the current state of translations in LOINC. We also present the development of the Italian translation to illustrate how translation is enabling adoption in international contexts. We built a tool that finds the unique list of LOINC Parts that make up a given set of LOINC terms. This list enables translation of smaller pieces like the core component "hepatitis c virus" separately from all the suffixes that could appear with it, such "Ab.IgG", "DNA", and "RNA". We built another tool that generates a translation of a full LOINC name from all of these atomic pieces. As of version 2.36 (June 2011), LOINC terms have been translated into nine languages from 15 linguistic variants other than its native English. The five largest linguistic variants have all used the Part-based translation mechanism. However, even with efficient tools and processes, translation of standard terminology is a complex undertaking. Two of the prominent linguistic challenges that translators have faced include: the approach to handling acronyms and abbreviations, and the differences in linguistic syntax (e.g. word order) between languages. LOINC's open and customizable approach has enabled many different groups to create translations that met their needs and matched their resources. Distributing the standard and its many language translations at no cost worldwide accelerates LOINC adoption globally, and is an important enabler of interoperable health information exchange.

  2. Enabling Tactical Edge Mashups with Live Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    and visual Situation Reports (SITREPs) while airborne, via his Live Objects-enabled IP radio, to better vector the bird to the site of the downed...including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources , gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and...Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a

  3. NASA Missions Enabled by Space Nuclear Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John H.; Schmidt, George R.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA Space Missions that are enabled by Space Nuclear Systems. The topics include: 1) Space Nuclear System Applications; 2) Trade Space for Electric Power Systems; 3) Power Generation Specific Energy Trade Space; 4) Radioisotope Power Generation; 5) Radioisotope Missions; 6) Fission Power Generation; 7) Solar Powered Lunar Outpost; 8) Fission Powered Lunar Outpost; 9) Fission Electric Power Generation; and 10) Fission Nuclear Thermal Propulsion.

  4. Enabling technologies for petascale electromagnetic accelerator simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Lie-Quan; Akcelik, Volkan; Chen, Sheng; Ge, Lixin; Prudencio, Ernesto; Schussman, Greg; Uplenchwar, Ravi; Ng, Cho; Ko, Kwok; Luo, Xiaojun; Shephard, Mark

    2007-07-01

    The SciDAC2 accelerator project at SLAC aims to simulate an entire three-cryomodule radio frequency (RF) unit of the International Linear Collider (ILC) main Linac. Petascale computing resources supported by advances in Applied Mathematics (AM) and Computer Science (CS) and INCITE Program are essential to enable such very large-scale electromagnetic accelerator simulations required by the ILC Global Design Effort. This poster presents the recent advances and achievements in the areas of CS/AM through collaborations.

  5. Open Architecture as an Enabler for FORCEnet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Functional Area Manager FCP Fire Control Picture FCS Fire Control Solution FCQ Fire Control Quality FFBD Functional Flow Block Diagram Fn/OA FORCEnet...a) Firing Unit (FRU) receive Fire Control Quality ( FCQ ) data on threat from Remote Unit(s) (RUs). b) Validate FCQ data, enable FRU to act. c...Maintain Common Operational Picture (COP) of local tracks. d) Develop Fire Control Solution (FCS) based on FCQ data. e) Correlate FRU FCS with RU

  6. Enabling technologies: fermentation and downstream processing.

    PubMed

    Weuster-Botz, Dirk; Hekmat, Dariusch; Puskeiler, Robert; Franco-Lara, Ezequiel

    2007-01-01

    Efficient parallel tools for bioprocess design, consequent application of the concepts for metabolic process analysis as well as innovative downstream processing techniques are enabling technologies for new industrial bioprocesses from an engineering point of view. Basic principles, state-of-the-art techniques and cutting-edge technologies are briefly reviewed. Emphasis is on parallel bioreactors for bioprocess design, biochemical systems characterization and metabolic control analysis, as well as on preparative chromatography, affinity filtration and protein crystallization on a process scale.

  7. Enabling international adoption of LOINC through translation

    PubMed Central

    Vreeman, Daniel J.; Chiaravalloti, Maria Teresa; Hook, John; McDonald, Clement J.

    2012-01-01

    Interoperable health information exchange depends on adoption of terminology standards, but international use of such standards can be challenging because of language differences between local concept names and the standard terminology. To address this important barrier, we describe the evolution of an efficient process for constructing translations of LOINC terms names, the foreign language functions in RELMA, and the current state of translations in LOINC. We also present the development of the Italian translation to illustrate how translation is enabling adoption in international contexts. We built a tool that finds the unique list of LOINC Parts that make up a given set of LOINC terms. This list enables translation of smaller pieces like the core component “hepatitis c virus” separately from all the suffixes that could appear with it, such “Ab.IgG”, “DNA”, and “RNA”. We built another tool that generates a translation of a full LOINC name from all of these atomic pieces. As of version 2.36 (June 2011), LOINC terms have been translated into 9 languages from 15 linguistic variants other than its native English. The five largest linguistic variants have all used the Part-based translation mechanism. However, even with efficient tools and processes, translation of standard terminology is a complex undertaking. Two of the prominent linguistic challenges that translators have faced include: the approach to handling acronyms and abbreviations, and the differences in linguistic syntax (e.g. word order) between languages. LOINC’s open and customizable approach has enabled many different groups to create translations that met their needs and matched their resources. Distributing the standard and its many language translations at no cost worldwide accelerates LOINC adoption globally, and is an important enabler of interoperable health information exchange PMID:22285984

  8. Enabling Technologies for Petascale Electromagnetic Accelerator Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Lie-Quan; Akcelik, Volkan; Chen, Sheng; Ge, Li-Xin; Prudencio, Ernesto; Schussman, Greg; Uplenchwar, Ravi; Ng, Cho; Ko, Kwok; Luo, Xiaojun; Shephard, Mark; /Rensselaer Poly.

    2007-11-09

    The SciDAC2 accelerator project at SLAC aims to simulate an entire three-cryomodule radio frequency (RF) unit of the International Linear Collider (ILC) main Linac. Petascale computing resources supported by advances in Applied Mathematics (AM) and Computer Science (CS) and INCITE Program are essential to enable such very large-scale electromagnetic accelerator simulations required by the ILC Global Design Effort. This poster presents the recent advances and achievements in the areas of CS/AM through collaborations.

  9. Enabling Research Tools for Sustained Climate Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leidner, Allison K.; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Jasinski, Michael F.; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Waliser, Duane Edward; Lee, Tsengdar J.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Global Change Research Program Sustained Assessment process benefits from long-term investments in Earth science research that enable the scientific community to conduct assessment-relevant science. To this end, NASA initiated several research programs over the past five years to support the Earth observation community in developing indicators, datasets, research products, and tools to support ongoing and future National Climate Assessments. These activities complement NASA's ongoing Earth science research programs. One aspect of the assessment portfolio funds four "enabling tools" projects at NASA research centers. Each tool leverages existing capacity within the center, but has developed tailored applications and products for National Climate Assessments. The four projects build on the capabilities of a global atmospheric reanalysis (MERRA-2), a continental U.S. land surface reanalysis (NCA-LDAS), the NASA Earth Exchange (NEX), and a Regional Climate Model Evaluation System (RCMES). Here, we provide a brief overview of each enabling tool, highlighting the ways in which it has advanced assessment science to date. We also discuss how the assessment community can access and utilize these tools for National Climate Assessments and other sustained assessment activities.

  10. Enabling conditions and children's understanding of pretense.

    PubMed

    Sobel, David M

    2009-11-01

    Two experiments examined whether preschoolers' difficulties on tasks that required relating pretending and knowledge (e.g., Lillard, A. S. (1993a). Young children's conceptualization of pretense: Action or mental representational state? Child Development, 64, 372-386) were due to children's inability to appreciate the causal mechanism behind enabling conditions. In Experiment 1, 4-year-olds were told about a character who knew about one kind of animal and did not know about another. The character acted in a manner consistent with both animals. Children were asked whether the character was pretending to be the animal of which he was ignorant. The character's knowledge was either represented in a generic manner (as a picture) or in a manner that suggested a particular enabling condition relation that children found accessible (as a battery, which most 4-year-olds recognize is critical for making toys work). Children were more successful at relating knowledge and pretending in the battery condition. This improvement in performance extended to another task in which children had to identify the enabling condition relation between knowledge and identification, in which there were reduced demands on the inhibitory mechanisms necessary for success. Experiment 2 found that the results in Experiment 1 were not due to demands of the procedure used in Experiment 1. These results are discussed in the context of recent theories of theory of mind that focus on the importance of causal relations among mental states.

  11. Content Management Serves as a Vital Cyberspace Operations Enabler

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    cyberspace operations. (Continued from page 23) CCP - Concept Capability Plan CM - Content Management DoD - Department of Defense IIA - Inform Infl uence...22 Summer - 2011 Content management serves as a vital cyberspace operations enabler By Russell Fenton The importance of cyberspace, as part...kinetic effects in and through cyberspace. So the question must be asked, “Are content management capabilities (with the goal of getting the right

  12. Leadership Training Module on Enable Others to Act (Kouzes & Posner)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Ananya

    2013-01-01

    Everyone has either come in contact with a leader or played the role of a leader. Everyone has also worked with effective leaders and ineffective leaders. And all of us want to work with leaders who can share a vision with us and empower and enable us to meet our goals. One can say that leaders play a crucial role in the success or failure of a…

  13. Web-enabling technologies for the factory floor: a web-enabling strategy for emanufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velez, Ricardo; Lastra, Jose L. M.; Tuokko, Reijo O.

    2001-10-01

    This paper is intended to address the different technologies available for Web-enabling of the factory floor. It will give an overview of the importance of Web-enabling of the factory floor, in the application of the concepts of flexible and intelligent manufacturing, in conjunction with e-commerce. As a last section, it will try to define a Web-enabling strategy for the application in eManufacturing. This is made under the scope of the electronics manufacturing industry, so every application, technology or related matter is presented under such scope.

  14. Small-RPS Enabled Mars Rover Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Tibor S.

    2005-02-01

    Both the MER and the Mars Pathfinder rovers operated on Mars in an energy-limited mode, since the solar panels generated power during daylight hours only. At other times the rovers relied on power stored in batteries. In comparison, Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) offer a power-enabled paradigm, where power can be generated for long mission durations (measured in years), independently from the Sun, and on a continuous basis. A study was performed at JPL to assess the feasibility of a small-RPS enabled MER-class rover concept and any associated advantages of its mission on Mars, The rover concept relied on design heritage from MER with two significant changes. First, the solar panels were replaced with two single GPHS module based small-RPSs. Second, the Mossbauer spectroscope was substituted with a laser Raman spectroscope, in order to move towards MEPAG defined astrobiology driven science goals. The highest power requirements were contributed to mobility and telecommunication type operating modes, hence influencing power system sizing. The resulting hybrid power system included two small-RPSs and two batteries. Each small-RPS was assumed to generate 50 We of power or 620 Wh/sol of energy (BOL), comparable to that of MER. The two 8 Ah batteries were considered available during peak power usage. Mission architecture, power trades, science instruments, data, communication, thermal and radiation environments, mobility, and mass issues were also addressed. The study demonstrated that a new set of RPS-enabled rover missions could be envisioned for Mars exploration within the next decade, targeting astrobiology oriented science objectives, while powered by 2 to 4 GPHS modules.

  15. Astronomy Enabled by Ares V -- A Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, Daniel F.; Langhoff, S.; Worden, S. P.; Thronson, H.; Correll, R.

    2009-01-01

    On April 26th and 27th, 2008, NASA Ames Research Center hosted a two-day weekend workshop entitled "Astronomy Enabled by Ares V.” The primary goal of the workshop was to begin the process of bringing the Ares V designers together with senior representatives of the astronomical community to discuss the feasibility of using the Ares V heavy-lift launch vehicle to enable both new astronomical telescope architectures and new science. When developed in the latter part of the upcoming decade Ares V will be by far the most capable launch vehicle, with mass and volume launch capability many times that now available. The vehicle is understood to be the main workhorse in carrying humans and cargo to the Moon and beyond and, as such, is a key lynchpin for NASA's new space transportation architecture. Participants included experts from academia, industry, and NASA, including representatives of the Constellation architecture. Participants considered, in the context of identified astronomy needs: (1) Are there telescope concepts or missions capable of breakthrough science that are either enabled or significantly enhanced by the capabilities of an Ares V? (2) What demands do large telescopes place on the payload environment of the Ares V, such as mass, volume, fairing shape, cleanliness, acoustics, etc.? (3) What technology and environmental issues need to be addressed to facilitate launching observatories on an Ares V? (4) Is there a trade-off between mass and complexity that could reduce launch risk and, thereby, the cost of building large telescopes? We report on the results of this workshop, which included discussion on the operations model for such large-investment astronomical facilities. Such an operations model might well involve human and or robotic maintenance and servicing, in order to fully capitalize on the science potential of such facilities.

  16. ENABLER Nuclear Propulsion System Conceptual Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauley, Keith A.; Woodham, Kurt; Ohi, Don; Haga, Heath; Henderson, Bo

    2004-02-01

    The Titan Corporation conducted a systems engineering study to develop an overall architecture that meets both the articulated and unarticulated requirements on the Prometheus Program with the least development effort. Key elements of the Titan-designed ENABLER system include a thermal fission reactor, thermionic power converters, sodium heat pipes, ion thruster engines, and a radiation shield and deployable truss to protect the payload. The overall design is scaleable over a wide range of power requirements from 10s of kilowatts to 10s of megawatts.

  17. Enabling Strain Hardening Simulations with Dislocation Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Arsenlis, A; Cai, W

    2006-12-20

    Numerical algorithms for discrete dislocation dynamics simulations are investigated for the purpose of enabling strain hardening simulations of single crystals on massively parallel computers. The algorithms investigated include the /(N) calculation of forces, the equations of motion, time integration, adaptive mesh refinement, the treatment of dislocation core reactions, and the dynamic distribution of work on parallel computers. A simulation integrating all of these algorithmic elements using the Parallel Dislocation Simulator (ParaDiS) code is performed to understand their behavior in concert, and evaluate the overall numerical performance of dislocation dynamics simulations and their ability to accumulate percents of plastic strain.

  18. Enabling Rapid Naval Architecture Design Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Michael A.; Dufresne, Stephane; Balestrini-Robinson, Santiago; Mavris, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    Well accepted conceptual ship design tools can be used to explore a design space, but more precise results can be found using detailed models in full-feature computer aided design programs. However, defining a detailed model can be a time intensive task and hence there is an incentive for time sensitive projects to use conceptual design tools to explore the design space. In this project, the combination of advanced aerospace systems design methods and an accepted conceptual design tool facilitates the creation of a tool that enables the user to not only visualize ship geometry but also determine design feasibility and estimate the performance of a design.

  19. Camera-enabled techniques for organic synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ingham, Richard J; O’Brien, Matthew; Browne, Duncan L

    2013-01-01

    Summary A great deal of time is spent within synthetic chemistry laboratories on non-value-adding activities such as sample preparation and work-up operations, and labour intensive activities such as extended periods of continued data collection. Using digital cameras connected to computer vision algorithms, camera-enabled apparatus can perform some of these processes in an automated fashion, allowing skilled chemists to spend their time more productively. In this review we describe recent advances in this field of chemical synthesis and discuss how they will lead to advanced synthesis laboratories of the future. PMID:23766820

  20. Enabling plant synthetic biology through genome engineering.

    PubMed

    Baltes, Nicholas J; Voytas, Daniel F

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic biology seeks to create new biological systems, including user-designed plants and plant cells. These systems can be employed for a variety of purposes, ranging from producing compounds of industrial or therapeutic value, to reducing crop losses by altering cellular responses to pathogens or climate change. To realize the full potential of plant synthetic biology, techniques are required that provide control over the genetic code - enabling targeted modifications to DNA sequences within living plant cells. Such control is now within reach owing to recent advances in the use of sequence-specific nucleases to precisely engineer genomes. We discuss here the enormous potential provided by genome engineering for plant synthetic biology.

  1. PHM Enabled Autonomous Propellant Loading Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Mark; Figueroa, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The utility of Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) software capability applied to Autonomous Operations (AO) remains an active research area within aerospace applications. The ability to gain insight into which assets and subsystems are functioning properly, along with the derivation of confident predictions concerning future ability, reliability, and availability, are important enablers for making sound mission planning decisions. When coupled with software that fully supports mission planning and execution, an integrated solution can be developed that leverages state assessment and estimation for the purposes of delivering autonomous operations. The authors have been applying this integrated, model-based approach to the autonomous loading of cryogenic spacecraft propellants at Kennedy Space Center.

  2. Increasing the Capacity of Primary Care Through Enabling Technology.

    PubMed

    Young, Heather M; Nesbitt, Thomas S

    2017-02-27

    Primary care is the foundation of effective and high-quality health care. The role of primary care clinicians has expanded to encompass coordination of care across multiple providers and management of more patients with complex conditions. Enabling technology has the potential to expand the capacity for primary care clinicians to provide integrated, accessible care that channels expertise to the patient and brings specialty consultations into the primary care clinic. Furthermore, technology offers opportunities to engage patients in advancing their health through improved communication and enhanced self-management of chronic conditions. This paper describes enabling technologies in four domains (the body, the home, the community, and the primary care clinic) that can support the critical role primary care clinicians play in the health care system. It also identifies challenges to incorporating these technologies into primary care clinics, care processes, and workflow.

  3. Enabling Meaningful Affiliation Searches in the ADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D. M.; Chyla, R.; Holachek, A.; Accomazzi, A.; Henneken, E. A.; Kurtz, M. J.; Luker, J.; Murray, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    For many years, users have wanted to search affiliations in the ADS in order to build institutional databases and to help with author disambiguation. Although we currently provide this capability upon request, we have yet to incorporate it as part of the operational Abstract Service. This is because it cannot be used reliably, primarily because of the lack of uniform representation of the affiliation data. In an effort to make affiliation searches more meaningful, we have designed a two-tiered hierarchy of standard institutional names based on Ringgold identifiers, with the expectation that this will enable us to implement a search by institution, which will work for the vast majority of institutions. It is our intention to provide the capability of searching the ADS both by standard affiliation name and original affiliation string, as well as to enable autosuggest of affiliations as a means of helping to disambiguate author identification. Some institutions are likely to require manual work, and we encourage interested librarians to assist us in standardizing the representation of their institutions in the affiliation field.

  4. MENTOR: an enabler for interoperable intelligent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarraipa, João; Jardim-Goncalves, Ricardo; Steiger-Garcao, Adolfo

    2010-07-01

    A community with knowledge organisation based on ontologies will enable an increase in the computational intelligence of its information systems. However, due to the worldwide diversity of communities, a high number of knowledge representation elements, which are not semantically coincident, have appeared representing the same segment of reality, becoming a barrier to business communications. Even if a domain community uses the same kind of technologies in its information systems, such as ontologies, it doesn't solve its semantics differences. In order to solve this interoperability problem, a solution is to use a reference ontology as an intermediary in the communications between the community enterprises and the outside, while allowing the enterprises to keep their own ontology and semantics unchanged internally. This work proposes MENTOR, a methodology to support the development of a common reference ontology for a group of organisations sharing the same business domain. This methodology is based on the mediator ontology (MO) concept, which assists the semantic transformations among each enterprise's ontology and the referential one. The MO enables each organisation to keep its own terminology, glossary and ontological structures, while providing seamless communication and interaction with the others.

  5. Petascale Computing Enabling Technologies Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    de Supinski, B R

    2010-02-14

    The Petascale Computing Enabling Technologies (PCET) project addressed challenges arising from current trends in computer architecture that will lead to large-scale systems with many more nodes, each of which uses multicore chips. These factors will soon lead to systems that have over one million processors. Also, the use of multicore chips will lead to less memory and less memory bandwidth per core. We need fundamentally new algorithmic approaches to cope with these memory constraints and the huge number of processors. Further, correct, efficient code development is difficult even with the number of processors in current systems; more processors will only make it harder. The goal of PCET was to overcome these challenges by developing the computer science and mathematical underpinnings needed to realize the full potential of our future large-scale systems. Our research results will significantly increase the scientific output obtained from LLNL large-scale computing resources by improving application scientist productivity and system utilization. Our successes include scalable mathematical algorithms that adapt to these emerging architecture trends and through code correctness and performance methodologies that automate critical aspects of application development as well as the foundations for application-level fault tolerance techniques. PCET's scope encompassed several research thrusts in computer science and mathematics: code correctness and performance methodologies, scalable mathematics algorithms appropriate for multicore systems, and application-level fault tolerance techniques. Due to funding limitations, we focused primarily on the first three thrusts although our work also lays the foundation for the needed advances in fault tolerance. In the area of scalable mathematics algorithms, our preliminary work established that OpenMP performance of the AMG linear solver benchmark and important individual kernels on Atlas did not match the predictions of our

  6. Nanoplasmon-enabled macroscopic thermal management

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Gustav Edman; Miljkovic, Vladimir; Dmitriev, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    In numerous applications of energy harvesting via transformation of light into heat the focus recently shifted towards highly absorptive nanoplasmonic materials. It is currently established that noble metals-based absorptive plasmonic platforms deliver significant light-capturing capability and can be viewed as super-absorbers of optical radiation. Naturally, approaches to the direct experimental probing of macroscopic temperature increase resulting from these absorbers are welcomed. Here we derive a general quantitative method of characterizing heat-generating properties of optically absorptive layers via macroscopic thermal imaging. We further monitor macroscopic areas that are homogeneously heated by several degrees with nanostructures that occupy a mere 8% of the surface, leaving it essentially transparent and evidencing significant heat generation capability of nanoplasmon-enabled light capture. This has a direct bearing to a large number of applications where thermal management is crucial. PMID:24870613

  7. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hufnagel, Dick

    2015-11-19

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize “opportunistic” resources — resources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS — to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enable access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Here we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.

  8. Enabling a New Planning and Scheduling Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Davis, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    The Flight Projects Directorate at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is developing a new planning and scheduling environment and a new scheduling algorithm to enable a paradigm shift in planning and scheduling concepts. Over the past 33 years Marshall has developed and evolved a paradigm for generating payload timelines for Skylab, Spacelab, various other Shuttle payloads, and the International Space Station. The current paradigm starts by collecting the requirements, called "tasks models," from the scientists and technologists for the tasks that they want to be done. Because of shortcomings in the current modeling schema, some requirements are entered as notes. Next a cadre with knowledge of vehicle and hardware modifies these models to encompass and be compatible with the hardware model; again, notes are added when the modeling schema does not provide a better way to represent the requirements. Finally, another cadre further modifies the models to be compatible with the scheduling engine. This last cadre also submits the models to the scheduling engine or builds the timeline manually to accommodate requirements that are expressed in notes. A future paradigm would provide a scheduling engine that accepts separate science models and hardware models. The modeling schema would have the capability to represent all the requirements without resorting to notes. Furthermore, the scheduling engine would not require that the models be modified to account for the capabilities (limitations) of the scheduling engine. The enabling technology under development at Marshall has three major components. (1) A new modeling schema allows expressing all the requirements of the tasks without resorting to notes or awkward contrivances. The chosen modeling schema is both maximally expressive and easy to use. It utilizes graphics methods to show hierarchies of task constraints and networks of temporal relationships. (2) A new scheduling algorithm automatically schedules the models

  9. Focus on atomtronics-enabled quantum technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amico, Luigi; Birkl, Gerhard; Boshier, Malcolm; Kwek, Leong-Chuan

    2017-02-01

    Atomtronics is an emerging field in quantum technology that promises to realize ‘atomic circuit’ architectures exploiting ultra-cold atoms manipulated in versatile micro-optical circuits generated by laser fields of different shapes and intensities or micro-magnetic circuits known as atom chips. Although devising new applications for computation and information transfer is a defining goal of the field, atomtronics wants to enlarge the scope of quantum simulators and to access new physical regimes with novel fundamental science. With this focus issue we want to survey the state of the art of atomtronics-enabled quantum technology. We collect articles on both conceptual and applicative aspects of the field for diverse exploitations, both to extend the scope of the existing atom-based quantum devices and to devise platforms for new routes to quantum technology.

  10. Health-Enabled Smart Sensor Fusion Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ray

    2012-01-01

    A process was designed to fuse data from multiple sensors in order to make a more accurate estimation of the environment and overall health in an intelligent rocket test facility (IRTF), to provide reliable, high-confidence measurements for a variety of propulsion test articles. The object of the technology is to provide sensor fusion based on a distributed architecture. Specifically, the fusion technology is intended to succeed in providing health condition monitoring capability at the intelligent transceiver, such as RF signal strength, battery reading, computing resource monitoring, and sensor data reading. The technology also provides analytic and diagnostic intelligence at the intelligent transceiver, enhancing the IEEE 1451.x-based standard for sensor data management and distributions, as well as providing appropriate communications protocols to enable complex interactions to support timely and high-quality flow of information among the system elements.

  11. Enabling patients to manage altered body image.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2016-12-14

    The author presented a model in the 1990s to explain altered body image, which has been used to characterise the difficulties encountered by patients who experience body change as a result of illness, injury or disability. However, it remains a challenge for nurses to establish care plans that can assist patients to manage the psychological adjustments associated with disfigurement. This article presents some simple questions to help patients narrate their psychological experiences and needs, and proposes a model of psychological change, based on the work of Kübler-Ross, to enable nurses to anticipate patient requirements that might arise at different stages of the individual's recovery and rehabilitation. Body-image rehabilitation may be protracted. Therefore, it is essential for nurses to understand what the patient is thinking and feeling throughout the rehabilitation process and which stage of psychological change the patient is working through.

  12. Science Missions Enabled by the Ares V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worden, Simon Peter; Weiler, Edward J.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's planned heavy-lift Ares V rocket is a centerpiece of U.S. Space Exploration Policy. With approximately 30% more capacity to Trans-Lunar Injection (TLI) than the Saturn V, Ares V could also enable additional science and exploration missions currently unachievable or extremely unworkable under current launch vehicle architectures. During the spring and summer of 2008, NASA held two workshops dedicated to the discussion of these new mission concepts for the Ares V rocket. The first workshop dealt with astronomy and astrophysics, and the second dealt primarily with planetary science and exploration, but did touch on Earth science and heliophysics. We present here the summary results and outcomes of these meetings, including a discussion of specific mission concepts and ideas, as well as suggestions on design for the Ares V fairing and flight configurations that improve science return.

  13. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufnagel, D.; CMS Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize opportunistic resources resources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enable access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Here we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.

  14. Microdevices enabled by rarefied flow phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeenko, Alina A.; Strongrich, A. D.; Cofer, A. G.; Pikus, A.; Sebastiao, I. B.; Tholeti, S. S.; Shivkumar, G.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we review emerging applications of rarefied gas dynamics for microscale sensing, actuation, power generation and thermal management. The performance of conventional fluidic devices such as pumps, combustors and heat engines drops with the decrease of characteristic length scale due to greater viscous and heat transfer losses. However, the close coupling between non-equilibrium gas, liquid and solid-state transport and electromagnetic phenomena enables unconventional micro/nanodevices. We specifically consider three distinct examples of devices with non-equilibrium gas-phase transport based on i) very large thermal gradients; ii) increased capillary forces; iii) high electric fields - all of which are generated by scaling down device size by using nano/micromanufacturing techniques.

  15. Microsystem enabled photovoltaic modules and systems

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N; Sweatt, William C; Okandan, Murat

    2015-05-12

    A microsystem enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) module including: an absorber layer; a fixed optic layer coupled to the absorber layer; a translatable optic layer; a translation stage coupled between the fixed and translatable optic layers; and a motion processor electrically coupled to the translation stage to controls motion of the translatable optic layer relative to the fixed optic layer. The absorber layer includes an array of photovoltaic (PV) elements. The fixed optic layer includes an array of quasi-collimating (QC) micro-optical elements designed and arranged to couple incident radiation from an intermediate image formed by the translatable optic layer into one of the PV elements such that it is quasi-collimated. The translatable optic layer includes an array of focusing micro-optical elements corresponding to the QC micro-optical element array. Each focusing micro-optical element is designed to produce a quasi-telecentric intermediate image from substantially collimated radiation incident within a predetermined field of view.

  16. Laboratory Astrophysics: Enabling Scientific Discovery and Understanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, K.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Science Strategic Roadmap for Universe Exploration lays out a series of science objectives on a grand scale and discusses the various missions, over a wide range of wavelengths, which will enable discovery. Astronomical spectroscopy is arguably the most powerful tool we have for exploring the Universe. Experimental and theoretical studies in Laboratory Astrophysics convert "hard-won data into scientific understanding". However, the development of instruments with increasingly high spectroscopic resolution demands atomic and molecular data of unprecedented accuracy and completeness. How to meet these needs, in a time of severe budgetary constraints, poses a significant challenge both to NASA, the astronomical observers and model-builders, and the laboratory astrophysics community. I will discuss these issues, together with some recent examples of productive astronomy/lab astro collaborations.

  17. Bluetooth-enabled teleradiology: applications and complications.

    PubMed

    Hura, Angela M

    2002-01-01

    Wireless personal area networks and local area networks are becoming increasingly more prevalent in the teleradiology and telemedicine industry. Although there has been much debate about the role that Bluetooth will play in the future of wireless technology, both promoters and doubters acknowledge that Bluetooth will have an impact on networking, even if only as a "niche" product. This article provides an overview of the Bluetooth standard and highlights current and future areas of inclusion for use in a teleradiology environment. The possibilities for Bluetooth in a teleradiology environment without wires are nearly boundless and an overview of current and proposed Bluetooth-enabled radiology equipment and vendors is provided. A comparison of Bluetooth and other wireless technologies is provided, including areas of similarity and potential conflict. Bluetooth and other wireless technologies can not only peacefully coexist but also complement each other and provide enhanced teleradiology services.

  18. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hufnagel, Dirk

    2015-12-23

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize opportunistic resources resources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enable access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Finally, we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.

  19. Grid Enabled Geospatial Catalogue Web Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Ai-Jun; Di, Li-Ping; Wei, Ya-Xing; Liu, Yang; Bui, Yu-Qi; Hu, Chau-Min; Mehrotra, Piyush

    2004-01-01

    Geospatial Catalogue Web Service is a vital service for sharing and interoperating volumes of distributed heterogeneous geospatial resources, such as data, services, applications, and their replicas over the web. Based on the Grid technology and the Open Geospatial Consortium (0GC) s Catalogue Service - Web Information Model, this paper proposes a new information model for Geospatial Catalogue Web Service, named as GCWS which can securely provides Grid-based publishing, managing and querying geospatial data and services, and the transparent access to the replica data and related services under the Grid environment. This information model integrates the information model of the Grid Replica Location Service (RLS)/Monitoring & Discovery Service (MDS) with the information model of OGC Catalogue Service (CSW), and refers to the geospatial data metadata standards from IS0 19115, FGDC and NASA EOS Core System and service metadata standards from IS0 191 19 to extend itself for expressing geospatial resources. Using GCWS, any valid geospatial user, who belongs to an authorized Virtual Organization (VO), can securely publish and manage geospatial resources, especially query on-demand data in the virtual community and get back it through the data-related services which provide functions such as subsetting, reformatting, reprojection etc. This work facilitates the geospatial resources sharing and interoperating under the Grid environment, and implements geospatial resources Grid enabled and Grid technologies geospatial enabled. It 2!so makes researcher to focus on science, 2nd not cn issues with computing ability, data locztic, processir,g and management. GCWS also is a key component for workflow-based virtual geospatial data producing.

  20. Liquid crystal-enabled electrophoresis and electro-osmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrentovich, Oleg D.

    This work presents a comparative review of electrokinetic effects in isotropic and anisotropic (liquid crystalline) electrolytes. A special emphasis is placed on nonlinear electrokinetics with ow velocities growing as the square of the applied electric field. This phenomenon allows one to drive steady motion of particles and uids with an alternating-current electric field. In isotropic electrolytes, spatial separation of charges that leads to nonlinear electrokinetics is achieved through the properties of the solid component (typically a metal). If the electrolyte is a liquid crystal (LC), its anisotropic properties enable separation of charges in the presence of orientational distortions and under the action of an electric field. LC anisotropy leads to electrically-driven motion of colloidal particles (liquid crystal-enabled electrophoresis, LCEP) and of the LC itself (liquid crystal-enabled electro-osmosis, LCEO). The induced charge is proportional to the applied field, director gradients, anisotropy of conductivity, and anisotropy of permittivity. The electric field acts on the space separated charges to drive the electro-osmotic ows. If the director deformations lack mirror symmetry, the LC enables electrophoresis of free particles and electro-osmotic pumping. The advantage of LCenabled electrokinetics (LCEK) is that its mechanism lifts many restrictions imposed on the properties of the solid counterpart. For example, LCEP can transport particles even if these particles are deprived of any surface charges; the particles can even be a uid immiscible with a LC or a gas bubble. In a similar fashion, LCEO can drive ows even if there are no oating electrodes. Ionic currents in LCs which have been traditionally considered an undesirable feature in displays offer a broad platform for versatile applications in electrokinetics of particles and uids, micropumping and mixing, and lab-on-a-chip analysis...

  1. Enabling Technologies for Ceramic Hot Section Components

    SciTech Connect

    Venkat Vedula; Tania Bhatia

    2009-04-30

    Silicon-based ceramics are attractive materials for use in gas turbine engine hot sections due to their high temperature mechanical and physical properties as well as lower density than metals. The advantages of utilizing ceramic hot section components include weight reduction, and improved efficiency as well as enhanced power output and lower emissions as a result of reducing or eliminating cooling. Potential gas turbine ceramic components for industrial, commercial and/or military high temperature turbine applications include combustor liners, vanes, rotors, and shrouds. These components require materials that can withstand high temperatures and pressures for long duration under steam-rich environments. For Navy applications, ceramic hot section components have the potential to increase the operation range. The amount of weight reduced by utilizing a lighter gas turbine can be used to increase fuel storage capacity while a more efficient gas turbine consumes less fuel. Both improvements enable a longer operation range for Navy ships and aircraft. Ceramic hot section components will also be beneficial to the Navy's Growth Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) and VAATE (Versatile Affordable Advanced Turbine Engines) initiatives in terms of reduced weight, cooling air savings, and capability/cost index (CCI). For DOE applications, ceramic hot section components provide an avenue to achieve low emissions while improving efficiency. Combustors made of ceramic material can withstand higher wall temperatures and require less cooling air. Ability of the ceramics to withstand high temperatures enables novel combustor designs that have reduced NO{sub x}, smoke and CO levels. In the turbine section, ceramic vanes and blades do not require sophisticated cooling schemes currently used for metal components. The saved cooling air could be used to further improve efficiency and power output. The objectives of this contract were to develop technologies critical for ceramic hot section

  2. A Voice Enabled Procedure Browser for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rayner, Manny; Chatzichrisafis, Nikos; Hockey, Beth Ann; Farrell, Kim; Renders, Jean-Michel

    2005-01-01

    Clarissa, an experimental voice enabled procedure browser that has recently been deployed on the International Space Station (ISS), is to the best of our knowledge the first spoken dialog system in space. This paper gives background on the system and the ISS procedures, then discusses the research developed to address three key problems: grammar-based speech recognition using the Regulus toolkit; SVM based methods for open microphone speech recognition; and robust side-effect free dialogue management for handling undos, corrections and confirmations.

  3. Nursing home quality of life: study of an enabling garden.

    PubMed

    Raske, Martha

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an in-depth evaluation of the impact of the construction and use of an enabling garden on resident quality of life in a rural nursing home. This qualitative study used interviews with residents, family members, staff members, and community volunteers who built the garden. Findings suggest the garden had positive effects on resident quality of life, particularly in terms of meaningful daily activities, enjoyment of daily life, resident relationships, and functional competency. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  4. Technology-enabled Airborne Spacing and Merging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, James; Barmore, Bryan; Abbott, Tetence

    2005-01-01

    Over the last several decades, advances in airborne and groundside technologies have allowed the Air Traffic Service Provider (ATSP) to give safer and more efficient service, reduce workload and frequency congestion, and help accommodate a critically escalating traffic volume. These new technologies have included advanced radar displays, and data and communication automation to name a few. In step with such advances, NASA Langley is developing a precision spacing concept designed to increase runway throughput by enabling the flight crews to manage their inter-arrival spacing from TRACON entry to the runway threshold. This concept is being developed as part of NASA s Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) project under the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Program. Precision spacing is enabled by Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), which provides air-to-air data exchange including position and velocity reports; real-time wind information and other necessary data. On the flight deck, a research prototype system called Airborne Merging and Spacing for Terminal Arrivals (AMSTAR) processes this information and provides speed guidance to the flight crew to achieve the desired inter-arrival spacing. AMSTAR is designed to support current ATC operations, provide operationally acceptable system-wide increases in approach spacing performance and increase runway throughput through system stability, predictability and precision spacing. This paper describes problems and costs associated with an imprecise arrival flow. It also discusses methods by which Air Traffic Controllers achieve and maintain an optimum interarrival interval, and explores means by which AMSTAR can assist in this pursuit. AMSTAR is an extension of NASA s previous work on in-trail spacing that was successfully demonstrated in a flight evaluation at Chicago O Hare International Airport in September 2002. In addition to providing for precision inter-arrival spacing, AMSTAR

  5. Willing and Enabled: The Academic Outcomes of a Tertiary Enabling Program in Regional Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrewartha, Lisa; Harvey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the achievement levels of students undertaking the Tertiary Enabling Program (TEP) at La Trobe University. The TEP is an alternative pathway program that traverses multiple institutions, campuses, and disciplinary areas, and is designed to prepare a diverse student cohort for tertiary study. The Program integrates several…

  6. Multimodal Supervision Programme to Reduce Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infections and Its Analysis to Enable Focus on Labour and Cost Effective Infection Control Measures in a Tertiary Care Hospital in India

    PubMed Central

    Jaggi, Namita; Sissodia, Pushpa

    2012-01-01

    Background Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infections (CAUTI) contribute 30%-40% of all the nosocomial infections and they are associated with substantially increased institutional death rates. A multimodal supervision program which incorporates training of the staff with respect to infection control measures can be effective in reducing the CAUTIs in hospitals. Aim To assess the impact of a multimodal UTI supervision program on the CAUTI rates over a year, from January 2009 to December 2009, in a tertiary care hospital in India. Setting A 215 bedded tertiary care private hospital. Materials and Methods The CAUTI rates were analyzed for the first 6 months (January 2009-June 2009). A UTI supervision program was instituted in the month of July 2009, which included training with respect to the standard protocols for the sample collection and diagnosis, the bundle components of the urinary catheter checklist and hand hygiene practices. The impact was assessed as per the CAUTI rates in the subsequent months. Results The average CAUTI rate was reduced by 47.1% (from 10.6 to 5.6) after the introduction of the supervision program. This study presented the mean age of the patients with CAUTIs as 54.5 years and it showed an approximately equal contribution of both the sexes (52.94% in males and 47.05% in females). The impact analysis of the supervision program showed a reduction of 8.7% (from 23 days to 21 days) during the average duration of the catheterization. The adherence to the components of the urinary catheter check list was increased by 44.4% (p=0.069) and the hand hygiene compliance was increased by 56.4% (p=0.004) respectively after the interventions. Components like bladder irrigation and practising perineal cleaning were found to show no effect on the CAUTI rates. Conclusion The most common labour and cost effective infection control measures as revealed by the supervision programme were adherence to the urinary catheter checklist components (indication for

  7. HOPE--a new fixing technique enables preservation and extraction of high molecular weight DNA and RNA of > 20 kb from paraffin-embedded tissues. Hepes-Glutamic acid buffer mediated Organic solvent Protection Effect.

    PubMed

    Wiedorn, Klaus Hermann; Olert, Jürgen; Stacy, Robin A P; Goldmann, Torsten; Kühl, Heike; Matthus, Jutta; Vollmer, Ekkehard; Bosse, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    The growing number of molecular pathologic tools that are currently available require material with good long term preservation of morphology, nucleic acids, and antigenic structures. However, pathologic investigations of tissues done at a molecular level are often hampered by the fixatives in use. We thus endeavored to design a new fixing system, including subsequent paraffin-embedding and sectioning, that makes complete pathologic analyses possible, with special consideration of immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridization (ISH), and molecular pathology. The optimized HOPE (Hepes-Glutamic acid buffer mediated Organic solvent Protection Effect) fixing technique allows us to preserve and extract high molecular weight DNA and RNA of > 20 kbp suitable for downstream applications, such as PCR and RT-PCR from HOPE-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues that are up to 5 years old. This technique will most probably lead to new impacts on molecular pathology.

  8. Nanomaterials Enabled Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Pei

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs), as the third generation of solar cells, have attracted tremendous attention for their unique properties. The semi-transparent nature, low-cost, environmental friendliness, and convenient manufacturing conditions of this generation of solar cells are promising aspects of DSCs that make them competitive in their future applications. However, much improvement in many aspects of DSCs' is required for the realization of its full potential. In this thesis, various nanomaterials, such as graphene, multi wall carbon nanotubes, vertically aligned single wall carbon nanotubes, hybrid structures and etc, have been used to improve the performance of DSCs. First, the application of graphene covered metal grids as transparent conductive electrodes in DSCs is explored. It is demonstrated that the mechanical properties of these flexible hybrid transparent electrodes, in both bending and stretching tests, are better than their oxide-based counter parts. Moreover, different kinds of carbon nanotubes, for instance vertically aligned single wall carbon nanotubes, have been used as a replacement for traditional platinum counter electrodes, in both iodine electrolyte, and sulfide-electrolyte. Further, a flexible, seamlessly connected, 3-dimensional vertically-aligned few wall carbon nanotubes graphene hybrid structures on Ni foil as DSCs' counter electrodes improve their efficiency significantly. All these nanomaterials enabled DSCs architectures achieve a comparable or better performance than standard brittle platinum/fluorine doped tin oxide combination. The large surface area of such nanomaterials in addition to the high electrical conductivity and their mechanical robustness provides a platform for significant enhancements in DSCs' performance.

  9. Imaging enabled platforms for development of therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, Jonathan; Rizvi, Imran; Blanden, Adam R.; Evans, Conor L.; Abu-Yousif, Adnan O.; Spring, Bryan Q.; Muzikansky, Alona; Pogue, Brian W.; Finkelstein, Dianne M.; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2011-03-01

    Advances in imaging and spectroscopic technologies have enabled the optimization of many therapeutic modalities in cancer and noncancer pathologies either by earlier disease detection or by allowing therapy monitoring. Amongst the therapeutic options benefiting from developments in imaging technologies, photodynamic therapy (PDT) is exceptional. PDT is a photochemistry-based therapeutic approach where a light-sensitive molecule (photosensitizer) is activated with light of appropriate energy (wavelength) to produce reactive molecular species such as free radicals and singlet oxygen. These molecular entities then react with biological targets such as DNA, membranes and other cellular components to impair their function and lead to eventual cell and tissue death. Development of PDT-based imaging also provides a platform for rapid screening of new therapeutics in novel in vitro models prior to expensive and labor-intensive animal studies. In this study we demonstrate how an imaging platform can be used for strategizing a novel combination treatment strategy for multifocal ovarian cancer. Using an in vitro 3D model for micrometastatic ovarian cancer in conjunction with quantitative imaging we examine dose and scheduling strategies for PDT in combination with carboplatin, a chemotherapeutic agent presently in clinical use for management of this deadly form of cancer.

  10. Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection. PMID:24961213

  11. Enabling electroweak baryogenesis through dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewicki, Marek; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Wells, James D.

    2016-06-01

    We study the impact on electroweak baryogenesis from a swifter cosmological expansion induced by dark matter. We detail the experimental bounds that one can place on models that realize it, and we investigate the modifications of these bounds that result from a non-standard cosmological history. The modifications can be sizeable if the expansion rate of the Universe increases by several orders of magnitude. We illustrate the impact through the example of scalar field dark matter, which can alter the cosmological history enough to enable a strong-enough first-order phase transition in the Standard Model when it is supplemented by a dimension six operator directly modifying the Higgs boson potential. We show that due to the modified cosmological history, electroweak baryogenesis can be realized, while keeping deviations of the triple Higgs coupling below HL-LHC sensitivies. The required scale of new physics to effectuate a strong-enough first order phase transition can change by as much as twenty percent as the expansion rate increases by six orders of magnitude.

  12. Bandwidth Enabled Flight Operations: Examining the Possibilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisanich, Greg; Renema, Fritz; Clancy, Dan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Bandwidth Enabled Flight Operations project is a research effort at the NASA Ames Research Center to investigate the use of satellite communications to improve aviation safety and capacity. This project is a follow on to the AeroSAPIENT Project, which demonstrated methods for transmitting high bandwidth data in various configurations. For this research, we set a goal to nominally use only 10 percent of the available bandwidth demonstrated by AeroSAPIENT or projected by near-term technology advances. This paper describes the results of our research, including available satellite bandwidth, commercial and research efforts to provide these services, and some of the limiting factors inherent with this communications medium. It also describes our investigation into the needs of the stakeholders (Airlines, Pilots, Cabin Crews, ATC, Maintenance, etc). The paper also describes our development of low-cost networked flight deck and airline operations center simulations that were used to demonstrate two application areas: Providing real time weather information to the commercial flight deck, and enhanced crew monitoring and control for airline operations centers.

  13. Smart sensors enable smart air conditioning control.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-06-24

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection.

  14. Glass ceramic ZERODUR enabling nanometer precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Kunisch, Clemens; Nieder, Johannes; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The IC Lithography roadmap foresees manufacturing of devices with critical dimension of < 20 nm. Overlay specification of single digit nanometer asking for nanometer positioning accuracy requiring sub nanometer position measurement accuracy. The glass ceramic ZERODUR® is a well-established material in critical components of microlithography wafer stepper and offered with an extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), the tightest tolerance available on market. SCHOTT is continuously improving manufacturing processes and it's method to measure and characterize the CTE behavior of ZERODUR® to full fill the ever tighter CTE specification for wafer stepper components. In this paper we present the ZERODUR® Lithography Roadmap on the CTE metrology and tolerance. Additionally, simulation calculations based on a physical model are presented predicting the long term CTE behavior of ZERODUR® components to optimize dimensional stability of precision positioning devices. CTE data of several low thermal expansion materials are compared regarding their temperature dependence between - 50°C and + 100°C. ZERODUR® TAILORED 22°C is full filling the tight CTE tolerance of +/- 10 ppb / K within the broadest temperature interval compared to all other materials of this investigation. The data presented in this paper explicitly demonstrates the capability of ZERODUR® to enable the nanometer precision required for future generation of lithography equipment and processes.

  15. Enabler for the agile virtual enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuerst, Karl; Schmidt, Thomas; Wippel, Gerald

    2001-10-01

    In this presentation, a new approach for a flexible low-cost Internet extended enterprise (project FLoCI-EE) will be presented. FLoCI-EE is a project in the fifth framework program of the European commission with 8 partners from 4 countries, which started in January 2001 and will be finished in December 2003. The main objective of FLoCI-EE is the development of a software prototype, which enables flexible enterprise cooperation with the aim to design, manufacture and sell products commonly, independent of enterprise borderlines. The needed IT-support includes functions of product data management (PDM), enterprise resource planning (ERP), supply chain management (SCM) and customer relationship management (CRM). Especially for small and medium sized enterprises, existing solutions are too expensive and inflexible to be of use under current turbulent market conditions. The second part of this paper covers the item Web Services, because in the role-specific support approach of FLoCI-EE, there are user- interface-components, which are tailored for specific roles in an enterprise. These components integrate automatically the services of the so-called basic-components, and the externally offered Web Services like UDDI.

  16. Enabling scientific workflows in virtual reality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreylos, O.; Bawden, G.; Bernardin, T.; Billen, M.I.; Cowgill, E.S.; Gold, R.D.; Hamann, B.; Jadamec, M.; Kellogg, L.H.; Staadt, O.G.; Sumner, D.Y.

    2006-01-01

    To advance research and improve the scientific return on data collection and interpretation efforts in the geosciences, we have developed methods of interactive visualization, with a special focus on immersive virtual reality (VR) environments. Earth sciences employ a strongly visual approach to the measurement and analysis of geologic data due to the spatial and temporal scales over which such data ranges, As observations and simulations increase in size and complexity, the Earth sciences are challenged to manage and interpret increasing amounts of data. Reaping the full intellectual benefits of immersive VR requires us to tailor exploratory approaches to scientific problems. These applications build on the visualization method's strengths, using both 3D perception and interaction with data and models, to take advantage of the skills and training of the geological scientists exploring their data in the VR environment. This interactive approach has enabled us to develop a suite of tools that are adaptable to a range of problems in the geosciences and beyond. Copyright ?? 2008 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.

  17. Survey of Enabling Technologies for CAPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antol, Jeffrey; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Koons, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    The enabling technologies required for the development of a viable Comet/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS) can be divided into two principal areas: detection and deflection/orbit modification. With the proper funding levels, many of the technologies needed to support a CAPS architecture could be achievable within the next 15 to 20 years. In fact, many advanced detection technologies are currently in development for future in-space telescope systems such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), formerly known as the Next Generation Space Telescope. It is anticipated that many of the JWST technologies would be available for application for CAPS detection concepts. Deflection/orbit modification technologies are also currently being studied as part of advanced power and propulsion research. However, many of these technologies, such as extremely high-output power systems, advanced propulsion, heat rejection, and directed energy systems, would likely be farther term in availability than many of the detection technologies. Discussed subsequently is a preliminary examination of the main technologies that have been identified as being essential to providing the element functionality defined during the CAPS conceptual study. The detailed requirements for many of the technology areas are still unknown, and many additional technologies will be identified as future in-depth studies are conducted in this area.

  18. Graphene-Enabled Electrodes for Electrocardiogram Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Numan; Manivannan, Nadarajah; Strudwick, Andrew; Balachandran, Wamadeva

    2016-01-01

    The unique parameters of graphene (GN)—notably its considerable electron mobility, high surface area, and electrical conductivity—are bringing extensive attention into the wearable technologies. This work presents a novel graphene-based electrode for acquisition of electrocardiogram (ECG). The proposed electrode was fabricated by coating GN on top of a metallic layer of a Ag/AgCl electrode using a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. To investigate the performance of the fabricated GN-based electrode, two types of electrodes were fabricated with different sizes to conduct the signal qualities and the skin-electrode contact impedance measurements. Performances of the GN-enabled electrodes were compared to the conventional Ag/AgCl electrodes in terms of ECG signal quality, skin–electrode contact impedance, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and response time. Experimental results showed the proposed GN-based electrodes produced better ECG signals, higher SNR (improved by 8%), and lower contact impedance (improved by 78%) values than conventional ECG electrodes. PMID:28335284

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics enable detection of the effects of a whole grain rye and rye bran diet on the metabolic profile of plasma in prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Moazzami, Ali A; Zhang, Jie-Xian; Kamal-Eldin, Afaf; Aman, Per; Hallmans, Göran; Johansson, Jan-Erik; Andersson, Sven-Olof

    2011-12-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common cancer in the Western world and the second most important cancer causing male deaths, after lung cancer, in the United States and Britain. Lifestyle and dietary changes are recommended for men diagnosed with early-stage PC. It has been shown that a diet rich in whole grain (WG) rye reduces the progression of early-stage PC, but the underlying mechanism is not clear. This study sought to identify changes in the metabolic signature of plasma in patients with early-stage PC following intervention with a diet rich in WG rye and rye bran product (RP) compared with refined white wheat product (WP) as a tool for mechanistic investigation of the beneficial health effects of RP on PC progression. Seventeen PC patients received 485 g RP or WP in a randomized, controlled, crossover design during a period of 6 wk with a 2-wk washout period. At the end of each intervention period, plasma was collected after fasting and used for (1)H NMR-based metabolomics. Multilevel partial least squares discriminant analysis was used for paired comparisons of multivariate data. A metabolomics analysis of plasma showed an increase in 5 metabolites, including 3-hydroxybutyric acid, acetone, betaine, N,N-dimethylglycine, and dimethyl sulfone, after RP. To understand these metabolic changes, fasting plasma homocysteine, leptin, adiponectin, and glucagon were measured separately. The plasma homocysteine concentration was lower (P = 0.017) and that of leptin tended to be lower (P = 0.07) after RP intake compared to WP intake. The increase in plasma 3-hydroxybutyric acid and acetone after RP suggests a shift in energy metabolism from anabolic to catabolic status, which could explain some of the beneficial health effects of WG rye, i.e., reduction in prostate-specific antigen and reduced 24-h insulin secretion. In addition, the increase in betaine and N,N-dimethylglycine and the decrease in homocysteine show a favorable shift in homocysteine metabolism after RP

  20. Enabling a Scientific Cloud Marketplace: VGL (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, R.; Woodcock, R.; Wyborn, L. A.; Vote, J.; Rankine, T.; Cox, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Virtual Geophysics Laboratory (VGL) provides a flexible, web based environment where researchers can browse data and use a variety of scientific software packaged into tool kits that run in the Cloud. Both data and tool kits are published by multiple researchers and registered with the VGL infrastructure forming a data and application marketplace. The VGL provides the basic work flow of Discovery and Access to the disparate data sources and a Library for tool kits and scripting to drive the scientific codes. Computation is then performed on the Research or Commercial Clouds. Provenance information is collected throughout the work flow and can be published alongside the results allowing for experiment comparison and sharing with other researchers. VGL's "mix and match" approach to data, computational resources and scientific codes, enables a dynamic approach to scientific collaboration. VGL allows scientists to publish their specific contribution, be it data, code, compute or work flow, knowing the VGL framework will provide other components needed for a complete application. Other scientists can choose the pieces that suit them best to assemble an experiment. The coarse grain workflow of the VGL framework combined with the flexibility of the scripting library and computational toolkits allows for significant customisation and sharing amongst the community. The VGL utilises the cloud computational and storage resources from the Australian academic research cloud provided by the NeCTAR initiative and a large variety of data accessible from national and state agencies via the Spatial Information Services Stack (SISS - http://siss.auscope.org). VGL v1.2 screenshot - http://vgl.auscope.org

  1. New Catalog of Resources Enables Paleogeosciences Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingo, R. C.; Horlick, K. A.; Anderson, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The 21st century promises a new era for scientists of all disciplines, the age where cyber infrastructure enables research and education and fuels discovery. EarthCube is a working community of over 2,500 scientists and students of many Earth Science disciplines who are looking to build bridges between disciplines. The EarthCube initiative will create a digital infrastructure that connects databases, software, and repositories. A catalog of resources (databases, software, repositories) has been produced by the Research Coordination Network for Paleogeosciences to improve the discoverability of resources. The Catalog is currently made available within the larger-scope CINERGI geosciences portal (http://hydro10.sdsc.edu/geoportal/catalog/main/home.page). Other distribution points and web services are planned, using linked data, content services for the web, and XML descriptions that can be harvested using metadata protocols. The databases provide searchable interfaces to find data sets that would otherwise remain dark data, hidden in drawers and on personal computers. The software will be described in catalog entries so just one click will lead users to methods and analytical tools that many geoscientists were unaware of. The repositories listed in the Paleogeosciences Catalog contain physical samples found all across the globe, from natural history museums to the basements of university buildings. EarthCube has over 250 databases, 300 software systems, and 200 repositories which will grow in the coming year. When completed, geoscientists across the world will be connected into a productive workflow for managing, sharing, and exploring geoscience data and information that expedites collaboration and innovation within the paleogeosciences, potentially bringing about new interdisciplinary discoveries.

  2. Web enabled data management with DPM & LFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez Ayllon, Alejandro; Beche, Alexandre; Furano, Fabrizio; Hellmich, Martin; Keeble and, Oliver; Brito Da Rocha, Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    The Disk Pool Manager (DPM) and LCG File Catalog (LFC) are two grid data management components currently used in production with more than 240 endpoints. Together with a set of grid client tools they give the users a unified view of their data, hiding most details concerning data location and access. Recently we've put a lot of effort in developing a reliable and high performance HTTP/WebDAV frontend to both our grid catalog and storage components, exposing the existing functionality to users accessing the services via standard clients - e.g. web browsers, curl - present in all operating systems, giving users a simple and straight-forward way of interaction. In addition, as other relevant grid storage components (like dCache) expose their data using the same protocol, for the first time we had the opportunity of attempting a unified view of all grid storage using HTTP. We describe the HTTP redirection mechanism used to integrate the grid catalog(s) with the multiple storage components, including details on some assumptions made to allow integration with other implementations. We describe the way we hide the details regarding site availability or catalog inconsistencies by switching the standard HTTP client automatically between multiple replicas. We also present measurements of access performance, and the relevant factors regarding replica selection - current throughput and load, geographic proximity, etc. Finally, we report on some additional work done to have this system as a viable alternative to GridFTP, providing multi-stream transfers and exploiting some additional features of WebDAV to enable third party copies - essential for managing data movements between storage systems - with equivalent performance.

  3. A Successful Infusion Process for Enabling Lunar Exploration Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Over, Ann P.; Klem, Mark K.; Motil, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Vision for Space Exploration begins with a more reliable flight capability to the International Space Station and ends with sending humans to Mars. An important stepping stone on the path to Mars encompasses human missions to the Moon. There is little doubt throughout the stakeholder community that new technologies will be required to enable this Vision. However, there are many factors that influence the ability to successfully infuse any technology including the technical risk, requirement and development schedule maturity, and, funds available. This paper focuses on effective infusion processes that have been used recently for the technologies in development for the lunar exploration flight program, Constellation. Recent successes with Constellation customers are highlighted for the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Projects managed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). Following an overview of the technical context of both the flight program and the technology capability mapping, the process is described for how to effectively build an integrated technology infusion plan. The process starts with a sound risk development plan and is completed with an integrated project plan, including content, schedule and cost. In reality, the available resources for this development are going to change over time, necessitating some level of iteration in the planning. However, the driving process is based on the initial risk assessment, which changes only when the overall architecture changes, enabling some level of stability in the process.

  4. The OGC Sensor Web Enablement framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, S. J.; Botts, M.

    2006-12-01

    Sensor observations are at the core of natural sciences. Improvements in data-sharing technologies offer the promise of much greater utilisation of observational data. A key to this is interoperable data standards. The Open Geospatial Consortium's (OGC) Sensor Web Enablement initiative (SWE) is developing open standards for web interfaces for the discovery, exchange and processing of sensor observations, and tasking of sensor systems. The goal is to support the construction of complex sensor applications through real-time composition of service chains from standard components. The framework is based around a suite of standard interfaces, and standard encodings for the message transferred between services. The SWE interfaces include: Sensor Observation Service (SOS)-parameterized observation requests (by observation time, feature of interest, property, sensor); Sensor Planning Service (SPS)-tasking a sensor- system to undertake future observations; Sensor Alert Service (SAS)-subscription to an alert, usually triggered by a sensor result exceeding some value. The interface design generally follows the pattern established in the OGC Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Feature Service (WFS) interfaces, where the interaction between a client and service follows a standard sequence of requests and responses. The first obtains a general description of the service capabilities, followed by obtaining detail required to formulate a data request, and finally a request for a data instance or stream. These may be implemented in a stateless "REST" idiom, or using conventional "web-services" (SOAP) messaging. In a deployed system, the SWE interfaces are supplemented by Catalogue, data (WFS) and portrayal (WMS) services, as well as authentication and rights management. The standard SWE data formats are Observations and Measurements (O&M) which encodes observation metadata and results, Sensor Model Language (SensorML) which describes sensor-systems, Transducer Model Language (TML) which

  5. Towards Grid-Enabling the Global Geodynamics Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumb, I.; Aldridge, K. D.

    2004-05-01

    The Global Geodynamics Project (GGP) allows Earth scientists to access a network of globally distributed superconducting gravimeters (SGs). By establishing standards around SG instrumentation and data, in concert with various bilateral agreements, the GGP ensures scientific and organizational integrity. Now in its second phase, the GGP is proactively engaging non-traditional disciplines - i.e., those outside the tidal gravimetry community. Although GGP has generated interest with geodynamicists, seismologists, and others, there are practicalities which inhibit engangement by these `non-specialists'. For example, to geodynamicists and seismologists, tidal, atmospheric, hydrologic and oceanic signals are all unwanted. This means that the processed GGP Data must undergo further, non-trivial reductions before it is useful for geodynamic and seismic purposes. The requirement to correlate data in time and space presents another example. Currently this is a manually intensive process that requires geodynamicists and seismologists to specify temporal (e.g., a period of time, an event in time) and/or spatial (e.g., global, regional, specific instruments) specifics to allow for further analysis. These and other examples suggest infrastructural opportunities for further enabling GGP scientists. With decided emphasis on Virtual Organizations, open standards and qualities of experience, Grid Computing has the potential to facilitate deeper degrees of collaboration within the context of the GGP. Through use cases which seek to identify core resonance effects at semi-diurnal periods (e.g., Lumb et al., AGU Monograph 72, 51-68, 1993) and earthquake activity, various opportunities for Grid-enabling the GGP are identified and prioritized. Because the High Energy Physics community has figured so significantly in the development of the World Wide Web and The Grid, a Grid-enabled GGP also has the potential to play a role in shaping the ongoing evolution of Grid Computing.

  6. Technical Assessment: Data-Enabled Technology Watch and Horizon Scanning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    current and can manage technology-enabled opportunities and challenges. All of these decisions can benefit substantially from a keen understanding of...1 Potential Benefits from Data-Enabled TW/HS...6 Leveraging Knowledge Management

  7. Fuel properties to enable lifted-flame combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Eric

    2015-03-15

    The Fuel Properties to Enable Lifted-Flame Combustion project responded directly to solicitation DE-FOA-0000239 AOI 1A, Fuels and Lubricants for Advanced Combustion Regimes. This subtopic was intended to encompass clean and highly-efficient, liquid-fueled combustion engines to achieve extremely low engine-out nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) as a target and similar efficiency as state-of-the-art direct injection diesel engines. The intent of this project was to identify how fuel properties can be used to achieve controllable Leaner Lifted Flame Combustion (LLFC) with low NOx and PM emissions. Specifically, this project was expected to identify and test key fuel properties to enable LLFC and their compatibility with current fuel systems and to enhance combustion models to capture the effect of fuel properties on advanced combustion. Successful demonstration of LLFC may reduce the need for after treatment devices, thereby reducing costs and improving thermal efficiency. The project team consisted of key technical personnel from Ford Motor Company (FMC), the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL). Each partner had key roles in achieving project objectives. FMC investigated fuel properties relating to LLFC and sooting tendency. Together, FMC and UW developed and integrated 3D combustion models to capture fuel property combustion effects. FMC used these modeling results to develop a combustion system and define fuel properties to support a single-cylinder demonstration of fuel-enabled LLFC. UW investigated modeling the flame characteristics and emissions behavior of different fuels, including those with different cetane number and oxygen content. SNL led spray combustion experiments to quantify the effect of key fuel properties on combustion characteristics critical for LLFC, as well as single cylinder optical engine experiments to improve fundamental

  8. An Investigation of Relations among Academic Enablers and Reading Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Lyndsay N.; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the link between academic enablers and different types of reading achievement measures. Academic enablers are skills and behaviors that support, or enable, students to perform well academically, such as engagement, interpersonal skills, motivation, and study skills. The sample in this study consisted of 61 third-,…

  9. 78 FR 76603 - Enable Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Enable Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on November 26, 2013, Enable Gas Transmission, LLC (Enable) 1111 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, filed... Gas Transmission, LLC, P.O. Box 21734 Shreveport, LA 71151 at (318) 429- 3708. Specifically,...

  10. Engaged Learning: Enabling Self-Authorship and Effective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David C.; Baxter Magolda, Marcia B.; Haynes, Carolyn A.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence abounds that, in recent decades, students have typically entered college relying on perspectives they have uncritically accepted from others and are not sufficiently challenged and supported to transition to internal authority during college. Students who have experienced significant challenge, particularly as a result of marginalization,…

  11. Enabling non-specialists to teach school physics effectively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Peter

    2011-03-01

    This article describes the genesis and nature of a 40-day course intended to improve the teaching of physics in England by teachers not originally trained in the subject. It also describes early experiences and discusses course evaluation. An accompanying article by James de Winter reviews experiences as described by participating teachers.

  12. Silicon Cell Technology Enabling Cost Effective CPV System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finot, Marc; Mayo, Aster; MacDonald, Bob

    2011-12-01

    Recent manufacturing technology developments in monocrystalline Silicon cells simultaneously improve efficiency in conventional flat-plate applications and provide a path for high efficiency low cost cells to be optimized for low and medium concentration applications. High volume cell suppliers are utilizing multiple approaches to improve efficiencies, including selective emitter doping, back passivation technology, n-type wafers, low resistance and high minority lifetime wafers, and high quality screen printing. Skyline Solar has developed a CPV system that leverages 1-sun standard Silicon cells and minimizes the total cost of energy that fully takes advantage of these technologies. Cell budget, size and geometries for optimized CPV systems will be discussed. The Skyline High Gain Solar architecture will be used as case study.

  13. VisTrails : enabling interactive multiple-view visualizations.

    SciTech Connect

    Scheidegger, Carlos E.; Vo, Huy T.; Crossno, Patricia Joyce; Callahan, Steven P.; Bavoil, Louis; Freire, Juliana.; Silva, Claudio

    2005-04-01

    VisTrails is a new system that enables interactive multiple-view visualizations by simplifying the creation and maintenance of visualization pipelines, and by optimizing their execution. It provides a general infrastructure that can be combined with existing visualization systems and libraries. A key component of VisTrails is the visualization trail (vistrail), a formal specification of a pipeline. Unlike existing dataflow-based systems, in VisTrails there is a clear separation between the specification of a pipeline and its execution instances. This separation enables powerful scripting capabilities and provides a scalable mechanism for generating a large number of visualizations. VisTrails also leverages the vistrail specification to identify and avoid redundant operations. This optimization is especially useful while exploring multiple visualizations. When variations of the same pipeline need to be executed, substantial speedups can be obtained by caching the results of overlapping subsequences of the pipelines. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of VisTrails, and show its effectiveness in different application scenarios.

  14. Automated NFC enabled rural healthcare for reliable patient record maintainance.

    PubMed

    Sethia, Divyashikha; Jain, Shantanu; Kakkar, Himadri

    2012-01-01

    Body sensor networks can be used for health monitoring of patients by expert medical doctors, in remote locations like rural areas in developing countries, and can also be used to provide medical aid to areas affected by natural disasters in any part of the world. An important issue to be addressed, when the number of patients is large, is to reliably maintain the patient records and have simple automated mobile applications for healthcare helpers to use. We propose an automated healthcare architecture using NFC-enabled mobile phones and patients having their patient ID on RFID tags. It utilizes NFC-enabled mobile phones to read the patient ID, followed by automated gathering of healthcare vital parameters from body sensors using Bluetooth, analyses the information and transmits it to a medical server for expert feedback. With limited hospital resources and less training requirement for healthcare helpers through simpler applications, this automation of healthcare processing can provide time effective and reliable mass health consultation from medical experts in remote locations.

  15. Wearable sensors and systems. From enabling technology to clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Bonato, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    It is now more than 50 years since the time when clinical monitoring of individuals in the home and community settings was first envisioned. Until recently, technologies to enable such vision were lacking. However, wearable sensors and systems developed over the past decade have provided the tools to finally implement and deploy technology with the capabilities required by researchers in the field of patients' home monitoring. As discussed, potential applications of these technologies include the early diagnosis of diseases such as congestive heart failure, the prevention of chronic conditions such as diabetes, improved clinical management of neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson's disease, and the ability to promptly respond to emergency situations such as seizures in patients with epilepsy and cardiac arrest in subjects undergoing cardiovascular monitoring. Current research efforts are now focused on the development of more complex systems for home monitoring of individuals with a variety of preclinical and clinical conditions. Recent research on the clinical assessment of wearable technology promises to deliver methodologies that are expected to lead to clinical adoption within the next five to ten years. In particular, combining home robots and wearable technology is likely to be a key step toward achieving the goal of effectively monitoring patients in the home. These efforts to merge home robots and wearable technology are expected to enable a new generation of complex systems with the ability to monitor subjects' status, facilitate the administration of interventions, and provide an invaluable tool to respond to emergency situations.

  16. Mammalian enabled (Mena) is a critical regulator of cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Frédérick; Belmonte, Stephen L; Ram, Rashmi; Noujaim, Sami F; Dunaevsky, Olga; Protack, Tricia L; Jalife, Jose; Todd Massey, H; Gertler, Frank B; Blaxall, Burns C

    2011-05-01

    Mammalian enabled (Mena) of the Drosophila enabled/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein gene family is a cytoskeletal protein implicated in actin regulation and cell motility. Cardiac Mena expression is enriched in intercalated discs (ICD), the critical intercellular communication nexus between adjacent muscle cells. We previously identified Mena gene expression to be a key predictor of human and murine heart failure (HF). To determine the in vivo function of Mena in the heart, we assessed Mena protein expression in multiple HF models and characterized the effects of genetic Mena deletion on cardiac structure and function. Immunoblot analysis revealed significant upregulation of Mena protein expression in left ventricle tissue from patients with end-stage HF, calsequestrin-overexpressing mice, and isoproterenol-infused mice. Characterization of the baseline cardiac function of adult Mena knockout mice (Mena(-/-)) via echocardiography demonstrated persistent cardiac dysfunction, including a significant reduction in percent fractional shortening compared with wild-type littermates. Electrocardiogram PR and QRS intervals were significantly prolonged in Mena(-/-) mice, manifested by slowed conduction on optical mapping studies. Ultrastructural analysis of Mena(-/-) hearts revealed disrupted organization and widening of ICD structures, mislocalization of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) to the lateral borders of cardiomyoycytes, and increased Cx43 expression. Furthermore, the expression of vinculin (an adherens junction protein) was significantly reduced in Mena(-/-) mice. We report for the first time that genetic ablation of Mena results in cardiac dysfunction, highlighted by diminished contractile performance, disrupted ICD structure, and slowed electrical conduction.

  17. Naval Science & Technology: Enabling the Future Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    0 F F ICE 0 F Background: Hearing loss and tinnitus (ringing in the ears) are the two largest VA benefits. Compromised hearing for active duty...and reduce noise  Develop effective PPE for operational environments  Understand the etiology of NIHL and tinnitus ; develop pharmaceutical

  18. Campus Cyberinfrastructure: A Crucial Enabler for Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Peter A.; Almes, Guy T.

    2005-01-01

    Driven by the needs of college/university researchers and guided by a blue-ribbon advisory panel chaired by Daniel E. Atkins, the National Science Foundation (NSF) has initiated a broad, multi-directorate activity to create modern cyberinfrastructure and to apply it to transforming the effectiveness of the scientific research enterprise in higher…

  19. Refined AFC-Enabled High-Lift System Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwich, Peter M.; Shmilovich, Arvin; Lacy, Douglas S.; Dickey, Eric D.; Scalafani, Anthony J.; Sundaram, P.; Yadlin, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    A prior trade study established the effectiveness of using Active Flow Control (AFC) for reducing the mechanical complexities associated with a modern high-lift system without sacrificing aerodynamic performance at low-speed flight conditions representative of takeoff and landing. The current technical report expands on this prior work in two ways: (1) a refined conventional high-lift system based on the NASA Common Research Model (CRM) is presented that is more representative of modern commercial transport aircraft in terms of stall characteristics and maximum Lift/Drag (L/D) ratios at takeoff and landing-approach flight conditions; and (2) the design trade space for AFC-enabled high-lift systems is expanded to explore a wider range of options for improving their efficiency. The refined conventional high-lift CRM (HL-CRM) concept features leading edge slats and slotted trailing edge flaps with Fowler motion. For the current AFC-enhanced high lift system trade study, the refined conventional high-lift system is simplified by substituting simply-hinged trailing edge flaps for the slotted single-element flaps with Fowler motion. The high-lift performance of these two high-lift CRM variants is established using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions to the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. These CFD assessments identify the high-lift performance that needs to be recovered through AFC to have the CRM variant with the lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift system match the performance of the conventional high-lift system. In parallel to the conventional high-lift concept development, parametric studies using CFD guided the development of an effective and efficient AFC-enabled simplified high-lift system. This included parametric trailing edge flap geometry studies addressing the effects of flap chord length and flap deflection. As for the AFC implementation, scaling effects (i.e., wind-tunnel versus full-scale flight conditions) are addressed

  20. Enabling technologies for fiber optic sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Selwan K.; Farnan, Martin; Karabacak, Devrez M.; Singer, Johannes M.

    2016-04-01

    In order for fiber optic sensors to compete with electrical sensors, several critical parameters need to be addressed such as performance, cost, size, reliability, etc. Relying on technologies developed in different industrial sectors helps to achieve this goal in a more efficient and cost effective way. FAZ Technology has developed a tunable laser based optical interrogator based on technologies developed in the telecommunication sector and optical transducer/sensors based on components sourced from the automotive market. Combining Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensing technology with the above, high speed, high precision, reliable quasi distributed optical sensing systems for temperature, pressure, acoustics, acceleration, etc. has been developed. Careful design needs to be considered to filter out any sources of measurement drifts/errors due to different effects e.g. polarization and birefringence, coating imperfections, sensor packaging etc. Also to achieve high speed and high performance optical sensing systems, combining and synchronizing multiple optical interrogators similar to what has been used with computer/processors to deliver super computing power is an attractive solution. This path can be achieved by using photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology which opens the doors to scaling up and delivering powerful optical sensing systems in an efficient and cost effective way.

  1. Expanding the therapeutic potential of statins by means of nanotechnology enabled drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Romana, Bilquis; Batger, Mellissa; Prestidge, Clive A; Colombo, Gaia; Sonvico, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Statins are effective lipid lowering agents traditionally used for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Statins also exert a range of pleiotropic effects that make them attractive candidates for use in a wide range of disorders, in particular inflammatory and immune mediated conditions. However, the exploitation of such pleiotropic effects has been greatly hindered by poor bioavailability and adverse effects on muscles and the liver at higher doses. Nanotechnology is often suggested as the solution to this problem, as it enables an increased bioavailability of statins. Moreover, colloidal carriers can offer targeted drug delivery approaches that enable localised biological effects of statins, further reducing their potential for unwanted toxicity and adverse effects. This article reviews the available evidences for the increased potential of statin therapy when administered in nano-formulations such as nanocrystals, nanoparticles, liposomes, micelles and various nano-enabled devices.

  2. Enabling performance skills: Assessment in engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrone, Jenny Kristina

    Current reform in engineering education is part of a national trend emphasizing student learning as well as accountability in instruction. Assessing student performance to demonstrate accountability has become a necessity in academia. In newly adopted criterion proposed by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), undergraduates are expected to demonstrate proficiency in outcomes considered essential for graduating engineers. The case study was designed as a formative evaluation of freshman engineering students to assess the perceived effectiveness of performance skills in a design laboratory environment. The mixed methodology used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to assess students' performance skills and congruency among the respondents, based on individual, team, and faculty perceptions of team effectiveness in three ABET areas: Communications Skills. Design Skills, and Teamwork. The findings of the research were used to address future use of the assessment tool and process. The results of the study found statistically significant differences in perceptions of Teamwork Skills (p < .05). When groups composed of students and professors were compared, professors were less likely to perceive student's teaming skills as effective. The study indicated the need to: (1) improve non-technical performance skills, such as teamwork, among freshman engineering students; (2) incorporate feedback into the learning process; (3) strengthen the assessment process with a follow-up plan that specifically targets performance skill deficiencies, and (4) integrate the assessment instrument and practice with ongoing curriculum development. The findings generated by this study provides engineering departments engaged in assessment activity, opportunity to reflect, refine, and develop their programs as it continues. It also extends research on ABET competencies of engineering students in an under-investigated topic of factors correlated with team

  3. Automatic Mode Transition Enabled Robust Triboelectric Nanogenerators.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Yang, Jin; Guo, Hengyu; Li, Zhaoling; Zheng, Li; Su, Yuanjie; Wen, Zhen; Fan, Xing; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-12-22

    Although the triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has been proven to be a renewable and effective route for ambient energy harvesting, its robustness remains a great challenge due to the requirement of surface friction for a decent output, especially for the in-plane sliding mode TENG. Here, we present a rationally designed TENG for achieving a high output performance without compromising the device robustness by, first, converting the in-plane sliding electrification into a contact separation working mode and, second, creating an automatic transition between a contact working state and a noncontact working state. The magnet-assisted automatic transition triboelectric nanogenerator (AT-TENG) was demonstrated to effectively harness various ambient rotational motions to generate electricity with greatly improved device robustness. At a wind speed of 6.5 m/s or a water flow rate of 5.5 L/min, the harvested energy was capable of lighting up 24 spot lights (0.6 W each) simultaneously and charging a capacitor to greater than 120 V in 60 s. Furthermore, due to the rational structural design and unique output characteristics, the AT-TENG was not only capable of harvesting energy from natural bicycling and car motion but also acting as a self-powered speedometer with ultrahigh accuracy. Given such features as structural simplicity, easy fabrication, low cost, wide applicability even in a harsh environment, and high output performance with superior device robustness, the AT-TENG renders an effective and practical approach for ambient mechanical energy harvesting as well as self-powered active sensing.

  4. Enabling Pinpoint Landing (PPL) on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hattis, Phil; George, Sean; Wolf, Aron

    2005-01-01

    Pinpoint landing (PPL) missions will deliver about 1000 kg of useful payload to the surface of Mars. Mid-to-high latitude landing site compatibility is sought which should provide the means to land at sites up to 2.5 km above Mars mean surface altitude. A dispersion and control analysis process is presented which helps to identify the effects of PPL error drivers, quantify the effect of dispersions on landing error and quantify the landing position control capability/authority along the entry path. An entry/descent/landing (EDL) profile is provided. Guided aeroshell is the baseline for all candidate Mars atmospheric entry architectures. A two-stage architecture is considered for the aerodynamic decelerator descent phase: supersonic parachute plus guided subsonic parachute or high-Mach inflatable decelerator plus guided subsonic parachute. The powered descent phase uses propulsive descent stage for soft landing and final error reduction maneuvers. Studies have found that the aeroshell entry face dispersions can be large, but closed-loop guidance can null out resulting errors to within about 2 km. Additionally, projected parachute control is inadequate to correct worst case dispersions without wind forecast data. To mitigate the problems dispersions due to atmospheric uncertainty can be reduced by providing on-board external means to measure density and winds ahead of the vehicle, higher L/D control authority options for the subsonic parachute phase can be investigated, and decelerators with control authority options for the supersonic descent phase can be examined. A navigation error analysis and wind effects summary are included.

  5. Electrolyte-Sensing Transistor Decals Enabled by Ultrathin Microbial Nanocellulose.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Jonathan D; Walper, Scott A; Melde, Brian J; Daniele, Michael A; Stenger, David A

    2017-01-19

    We report an ultra-thin electronic decal that can simultaneously collect, transmit and interrogate a bio-fluid. The described technology effectively integrates a thin-film organic electrochemical transistor (sensing component) with an ultrathin microbial nanocellulose wicking membrane (sample handling component). As far as we are aware, OECTs have not been integrated in thin, permeable membrane substrates for epidermal electronics. The design of the biocompatible decal allows for the physical isolation of the electronics from the human body while enabling efficient bio-fluid delivery to the transistor via vertical wicking. High currents and ON-OFF ratios were achieved, with sensitivity as low as 1 mg·L(-1).

  6. Electrolyte-Sensing Transistor Decals Enabled by Ultrathin Microbial Nanocellulose

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Jonathan D.; Walper, Scott A.; Melde, Brian J.; Daniele, Michael A.; Stenger, David A.

    2017-01-01

    We report an ultra-thin electronic decal that can simultaneously collect, transmit and interrogate a bio-fluid. The described technology effectively integrates a thin-film organic electrochemical transistor (sensing component) with an ultrathin microbial nanocellulose wicking membrane (sample handling component). As far as we are aware, OECTs have not been integrated in thin, permeable membrane substrates for epidermal electronics. The design of the biocompatible decal allows for the physical isolation of the electronics from the human body while enabling efficient bio-fluid delivery to the transistor via vertical wicking. High currents and ON-OFF ratios were achieved, with sensitivity as low as 1 mg·L−1. PMID:28102316

  7. Early precursors and enabling skills of reading acquisition.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Ingvar

    2009-12-01

    Research on early linguistic precursors and enabling skills of reading acquisition among young children is reviewed. Language development starts early in infancy when the child learns to categorize the speech sounds according to the pattern typical of the mother tongue. Equipped with these sound categories the child is ready to learn to segment words from the sound stream and to understand and to use words. The precise phonological representation of words will facilitate the important development of phonological awareness, a basic prerequisite for reading acquisition. This paper reviews some of my longitudinal research and training studies indicating the causal direction of the relation between phonological awareness and reading and includes some ongoing studies, where gender differences, socio-economic factors, dose-response-effects and motivational factors are explored. Preventive and remedial implications of the findings are pointed out. Finally, the complexity of the causal relationships between different aspects of early language development, including genetic influences and later reading is pointed out.

  8. Protective jacket enabling decision support for workers in cold climate.

    PubMed

    Seeberg, Trine M; Vardoy, Astrid-Sofie B; Austad, Hanne O; Wiggen, Oystein; Stenersen, Henning S; Liverud, Anders E; Storholmen, Tore Christian B; Faerevik, Hilde

    2013-01-01

    The cold and harsh climate in the High North represents a threat to safety and work performance. The aim of this study was to show that sensors integrated in clothing can provide information that can improve decision support for workers in cold climate without disturbing the user. Here, a wireless demonstrator consisting of a working jacket with integrated temperature, humidity and activity sensors has been developed. Preliminary results indicate that the demonstrator can provide easy accessible information about the thermal conditions at the site of the worker and local cooling effects of extremities. The demonstrator has the ability to distinguish between activity and rest, and enables implementation of more sophisticated sensor fusion algorithms to assess work load and pre-defined activities. This information can be used in an enhanced safety perspective as an improved tool to advice outdoor work control for workers in cold climate.

  9. Spatial propagation of excitonic coherence enables ratcheted energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Stephan; Ishizaki, Akihito; Whaley, K Birgitta

    2012-10-01

    Experimental evidence shows that a variety of photosynthetic systems can preserve quantum beats in the process of electronic energy transfer, even at room temperature. However, whether this quantum coherence arises in vivo and whether it has any biological function have remained unclear. Here we present a theoretical model that suggests that the creation and recreation of coherence under natural conditions is ubiquitous. Our model allows us to theoretically demonstrate a mechanism for a ratchet effect enabled by quantum coherence, in a design inspired by an energy transfer pathway in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex of the green sulfur bacteria. This suggests a possible biological role for coherent oscillations in spatially directing energy transfer. Our results emphasize the importance of analyzing long-range energy transfer in terms of transfer between intercomplex coupling states rather than between site or exciton states.

  10. Sequestration of ubiquitous dietary derived pigments enables mitochondrial light sensing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan; Robinson, Kiera; Mihai, Doina M.; Washington, Ilyas

    2016-01-01

    Animals alter their physiological states in response to their environment. We show that the introduction of a chlorophyll metabolite, a light-absorbing pigment widely consumed in human diets, to Caenorhabditis elegans results in animals whose fat mass can be modulated by exposure to light, despite the worm consuming the same amount of food. In the presence of the chlorophyll metabolite, exposing the worms to light increased adenosine triphosphate, reduced oxidative damage, and increased median life spans, without an effect on animal reproduction. Mice fed a dietary metabolite of chlorophyll and exposed to light, over several months, showed reductions in systemic inflammation as measured by plasma α-macroglobulin. We propose that dietary chlorophyll metabolites can enable mitochondria to use light as an environmental cue, by absorbing light and transferring the energy to mitochondrial coenzyme Q. PMID:27731322

  11. Electrolyte-Sensing Transistor Decals Enabled by Ultrathin Microbial Nanocellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, Jonathan D.; Walper, Scott A.; Melde, Brian J.; Daniele, Michael A.; Stenger, David A.

    2017-01-01

    We report an ultra-thin electronic decal that can simultaneously collect, transmit and interrogate a bio-fluid. The described technology effectively integrates a thin-film organic electrochemical transistor (sensing component) with an ultrathin microbial nanocellulose wicking membrane (sample handling component). As far as we are aware, OECTs have not been integrated in thin, permeable membrane substrates for epidermal electronics. The design of the biocompatible decal allows for the physical isolation of the electronics from the human body while enabling efficient bio-fluid delivery to the transistor via vertical wicking. High currents and ON-OFF ratios were achieved, with sensitivity as low as 1 mg·L‑1.

  12. Double-balloon enteroscopy in small bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Guo; Shan, Guo-Dong; Zhang, Hong; Yang, Ming; L, Lin; Yue, Min; Chen, Guang-Wu; Gu, Qing; Zhu, Hua-Tuo; Xu, Guo-Qiang; Chen, Li-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic and therapeutic value of double-balloon entoroscopy (DBE) in small bowel diseases (SBDs) in China. A retrospective review of 674 consecutive patients who underwent DBE between January 2007 and November 2015 was conducted. Patients were divided into 3 groups by age, young group (<45 years), middle-aged group (45–65 years), and elderly group (>65 years). Data were collected with regard to demographics, clinical, endoscopic findings, complications, diagnostic yield, and management. A total of 729 DBE procedures were performed successfully in our series. More than 20 types of SBDs were found with the detection rate of 70.9%(517/729). The majority of patients were Crohn's disease (33.4%,225/674), followed by tumor (18.8%,127/674) and angioectasia (7.9%, 53/674). Endoscopic treatment was performed in 60 patients in which hemostasis (17,28.3%) and polypectomy (15,25%) were the predominant form of intervention used. Adverse events occurred in 6 patients (0.96%,6/729) including perforation, hemorrhage, aspiration pneumonia. No acute pancreatitis or other major complications occurred. Adenocarcinoma, GIST, and lymphoma were the most common tumor detected, the majority of tumors located in the jejunum (56.7%), The detection rate of angioectasia was also higher in the jejunum (54.7%),77.8% of Crohn's disease was located in the ileum. The positive rate of DBE in small bowel tumor and Crohn's disease were significantly higher than that of angioectasia (P<0.05). In young cohort, Crohn's disease (48.1%) was the most commonly diseases followed by tumor (10.4%) and nonspecific enteritis (7.1%). Yet in the elderly group, the majority of patients were tumor (27.6%); angioectasia (21.3%) was also detected frequently. The positive rate of capsule endoscopy was 75.44 %(202/268) which was a little high than DBE (67.9%, 182/268) (P > 0.05). The obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) was the most common indication, and the diagnostic yield was 71.8%. DBE is a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool with high clinical practice value for the investigation of SBDs. With growing experience of endoscopist, we believe that DBE must be kept in mind as the first-line modality for suspected SBDs. PMID:27759639

  13. Double patterning from design enablement to verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abercrombie, David; Lacour, Pat; El-Sewefy, Omar; Volkov, Alex; Levine, Evgueni; Arb, Kellen; Reid, Chris; Li, Qiao; Ghosh, Pradiptya

    2011-11-01

    Litho-etch-litho-etch (LELE) is the double patterning (DP) technology of choice for 20 nm contact, via, and lower metal layers. We discuss the unique design and process characteristics of LELE DP, the challenges they present, and various solutions. ∘ We examine DP design methodologies, current DP conflict feedback mechanisms, and how they can help designers identify and resolve conflicts. ∘ In place and route (P&R), the placement engine must now be aware of the assumptions made during IP cell design, and use placement directives provide by the library designer. We examine the new effects DP introduces in detail routing, discuss how multiple choices of LELE and the cut allowances can lead to different solutions, and describe new capabilities required by detail routers and P&R engines. ∘ We discuss why LELE DP cuts and overlaps are critical to optical process correction (OPC), and how a hybrid mechanism of rule and model-based overlap generation can provide a fast and effective solution. ∘ With two litho-etch steps, mask misalignment and image rounding are now verification considerations. We present enhancements to the OPCVerify engine that check for pinching and bridging in the presence of DP overlay errors and acute angles.

  14. Procedural apprenticeship in school science: Constructivist enabling of connoisseurship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencze, J. Lawrence

    2000-11-01

    In many parts of the world, school science, especially at the secondary school level, is a sort of selection and training camp for future scientists and engineers. For most students, their general lack of cultural capital (Apple, 1990) minimizes their opportunities to survive the rapid coverage of large volumes of abstract, decontextualized laws, theories, and inventions so typical of school science. Most graduates and drop-outs become relatively scientifically and technologically illiterate. They either have forgotten or have confused conceptions of scientific and technological knowledge; often view science and technology as relatively certain, unbiased, and benign with respect to effects on society and the environment; and lack resources necessary to effectively judge products and processes of science and technology or, crucially, to create their own explanations for and changes to phenomena. Citizens with illiteracy to this extent may have little control over their own thoughts and actions and be prey to whims of those who control knowledge, its production and dissemination. Curriculum frameworks are required that enable all students to achieve their maximum potential literacy and, as well, to create their own knowledge, to develop in directions unique to their needs, interests, abilities, and perspectives; that is, to become self-actualized. This latter goal can, in part, be achieved through apprenticeship education in schools, such that students acquire a measure of scientific and technological connoisseurship - expertise enabling them to conduct open-ended scientific investigations and invention projects of their design. In collaboration with five teachers of secondary school science, such a framework was, indeed, developed, and field-tested. Through a spiraling, cyclical process involving synchronous reconstruction of conceptual and procedural understandings, evidence suggests students were able to carry out experiments, studies, and tests of their

  15. Ocean Research Enabled by Underwater Gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnick, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Underwater gliders are autonomous underwater vehicles that profile vertically by changing their buoyancy and use wings to move horizontally. Gliders are useful for sustained observation at relatively fine horizontal scales, especially to connect the coastal and open ocean. In this review, research topics are grouped by time and length scales. Large-scale topics addressed include the eastern and western boundary currents and the regional effects of climate variability. The accessibility of horizontal length scales of order 1 km allows investigation of mesoscale and submesoscale features such as fronts and eddies. Because the submesoscales dominate vertical fluxes in the ocean, gliders have found application in studies of biogeochemical processes. At the finest scales, gliders have been used to measure internal waves and turbulent dissipation. The review summarizes gliders' achievements to date and assesses their future in ocean observation.

  16. Ocean Research Enabled by Underwater Gliders.

    PubMed

    Rudnick, Daniel L

    2016-01-01

    Underwater gliders are autonomous underwater vehicles that profile vertically by changing their buoyancy and use wings to move horizontally. Gliders are useful for sustained observation at relatively fine horizontal scales, especially to connect the coastal and open ocean. In this review, research topics are grouped by time and length scales. Large-scale topics addressed include the eastern and western boundary currents and the regional effects of climate variability. The accessibility of horizontal length scales of order 1 km allows investigation of mesoscale and submesoscale features such as fronts and eddies. Because the submesoscales dominate vertical fluxes in the ocean, gliders have found application in studies of biogeochemical processes. At the finest scales, gliders have been used to measure internal waves and turbulent dissipation. The review summarizes gliders' achievements to date and assesses their future in ocean observation.

  17. Tunable beam steering enabled by graphene metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Orazbayev, B; Beruete, M; Khromova, I

    2016-04-18

    We demonstrate tunable mid-infrared (MIR) beam steering devices based on multilayer graphene-dielectric metamaterials. The effective refractive index of such metamaterials can be manipulated by changing the chemical potential of each graphene layer. This can arbitrarily tailor the spatial distribution of the phase of the transmitted beam, providing mechanisms for active beam steering. Three different beam steerer (BS) designs are discussed: a graded-index (GRIN) graphene-based metamaterial block, an array of metallic waveguides filled with graphene-dielectric metamaterial and an array of planar waveguides created in a graphene-dielectric metamaterial block with a specific spatial profile of graphene sheets doping. The performances of the BSs are numerically analyzed, showing the tunability of the proposed designs for a wide range of output angles (up to approximately 70°). The proposed graphene-based tunable beam steering can be used in tunable transmitter/receiver modules for infrared imaging and sensing.

  18. Subcortical amygdala pathways enable rapid face processing.

    PubMed

    Garvert, Mona M; Friston, Karl J; Dolan, Raymond J; Garrido, Marta I

    2014-11-15

    Human faces may signal relevant information and are therefore analysed rapidly and effectively by the brain. However, the precise mechanisms and pathways involved in rapid face processing are unclear. One view posits a role for a subcortical connection between early visual sensory regions and the amygdala, while an alternative account emphasises cortical mediation. To adjudicate between these functional architectures, we recorded magnetoencephalographic (MEG) evoked fields in human subjects to presentation of faces with varying emotional valence. Early brain activity was better explained by dynamic causal models containing a direct subcortical connection to the amygdala irrespective of emotional modulation. At longer latencies, models without a subcortical connection had comparable evidence. Hence, our results support the hypothesis that a subcortical pathway to the amygdala plays a role in rapid sensory processing of faces, in particular during early stimulus processing. This finding contributes to an understanding of the amygdala as a behavioural relevance detector.

  19. Superconductors Enable Lower Cost MRI Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    The future looks bright, light, and green, especially where aircraft are concerned. The division of NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program called the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project is aiming to reach new heights by 2025-2035, improving the efficiency and environmental impact of air travel by developing new capabilities for cleaner, quieter, and more fuel efficient aircraft. One of the many ways NASA plans to reach its aviation goals is by combining new aircraft configurations with an advanced turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) system. Jeff Trudell, an engineer at Glenn Research Center, says, "The TeDP system consists of gas turbines generating electricity to power a large number of distributed motor-driven fans embedded into the airframe." The combined effect increases the effective bypass ratio and reduces drag to meet future goals. "While room temperature components may help reduce emissions and noise in a TeDP system, cryogenic superconducting electric motors and generators are essential to reduce fuel burn," says Trudell. Superconductors provide significantly higher current densities and smaller and lighter designs than room temperature equivalents. Superconductors are also able to conduct direct current without resistance (loss of energy) below a critical temperature and applied field. Unfortunately, alternating current (AC) losses represent the major part of the heat load and depend on the frequency of the current and applied field. A refrigeration system is necessary to remove the losses and its weight increases with decreasing temperature. In 2001, a material called magnesium diboride (MgB2) was discovered to be superconducting. The challenge, however, has been learning to manufacture MgB2 inexpensively and in long lengths to wind into large coils while meeting the application requirements.

  20. Enabling Nanoparticle Networking in Semicrystalline Polymer Matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Jasmeet; Lee, Ji Hoon; Bucknall, David G.; Shofner, Meisha L.

    2012-10-23

    Among the physical and chemical attributes of the nanocomposite components and their interactions that contribute to the ultimate material properties, nanoparticle arrangement in the matrix is a key contributing factor that has been targeted through materials choices and processing strategies in numerous previous studies. Often, the desired nanocomposite morphology contains individually dispersed and distributed nanoparticles. In this research, a phase-segregated morphology containing nanoparticle networks was studied. A model nanocomposite system composed of calcium phosphate nanoparticles and a poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) matrix was produced to understand how polymer crystallization and crystal structure can facilitate the formation of a phase-segregated morphology containing nanoparticle networks. Two chemically similar calcium phosphate nanoparticle systems with different shapes, near-spherical and nanofiber, were synthesized for use in the nanocomposites. The different shapes were used independently in nanocomposites in an attempt to understand the effect of the nanoparticle shapes on crystallization-mediated nanoparticle network formation. The resulting nanocomposites were characterized to establish the effects of component interactions on the polymer structure. Additionally from the viscoelastic properties, structure-property relationships in these materials can be defined as a function of nanoparticle shape and concentration. The results of this research suggest that when the nanocomposite components are not strongly interacting, polymer crystallization may be used as a forced assembly method for nanoparticle networks. Such a methodology has applications to the design of functional polymer nanocomposites such as biomedical implant materials and organic photovoltaic materials where judicious choice of nanoparticle-polymer pairs and control of polymer crystal nucleation and growth processes could be used to control the length scale of phase segregation.

  1. Scientific Data Management Center for Enabling Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Vouk, Mladen A.

    2013-01-15

    Managing scientific data has been identified by the scientific community as one of the most important emerging needs because of the sheer volume and increasing complexity of data being collected. Effectively generating, managing, and analyzing this information requires a comprehensive, end-to-end approach to data management that encompasses all of the stages from the initial data acquisition to the final analysis of the data. Fortunately, the data management problems encountered by most scientific domains are common enough to be addressed through shared technology solutions. Based on community input, we have identified three significant requirements. First, more efficient access to storage systems is needed. In particular, parallel file system and I/O system improvements are needed to write and read large volumes of data without slowing a simulation, analysis, or visualization engine. These processes are complicated by the fact that scientific data are structured differently for specific application domains, and are stored in specialized file formats. Second, scientists require technologies to facilitate better understanding of their data, in particular the ability to effectively perform complex data analysis and searches over extremely large data sets. Specialized feature discovery and statistical analysis techniques are needed before the data can be understood or visualized. Furthermore, interactive analysis requires techniques for efficiently selecting subsets of the data. Finally, generating the data, collecting and storing the results, keeping track of data provenance, data post-processing, and analysis of results is a tedious, fragmented process. Tools for automation of this process in a robust, tractable, and recoverable fashion are required to enhance scientific exploration. The SDM center was established under the SciDAC program to address these issues. The SciDAC-1 Scientific Data Management (SDM) Center succeeded in bringing an initial set of advanced

  2. Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, Ravi

    2013-01-22

    The application of microchannel technology for distributive distillation was studied to achieve the Grand Challenge goals of 25% energy savings and 10% return on investment. In Task 1, a detailed study was conducted and two distillation systems were identified that would meet the Grand Challenge goals if the microchannel distillation technology was used. Material and heat balance calculations were performed to develop process flow sheet designs for the two distillation systems in Task 2. The process designs were focused on two methods of integrating the microchannel technology 1) Integrating microchannel distillation to an existing conventional column, 2) Microchannel distillation for new plants. A design concept for a modular microchannel distillation unit was developed in Task 3. In Task 4, Ultrasonic Additive Machining (UAM) was evaluated as a manufacturing method for microchannel distillation units. However, it was found that a significant development work would be required to develop process parameters to use UAM for commercial distillation manufacturing. Two alternate manufacturing methods were explored. Both manufacturing approaches were experimentally tested to confirm their validity. The conceptual design of the microchannel distillation unit (Task 3) was combined with the manufacturing methods developed in Task 4 and flowsheet designs in Task 2 to estimate the cost of the microchannel distillation unit and this was compared to a conventional distillation column. The best results were for a methanol-water separation unit for the use in a biodiesel facility. For this application microchannel distillation was found to be more cost effective than conventional system and capable of meeting the DOE Grand Challenge performance requirements.

  3. ITK: enabling reproducible research and open science

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Matthew; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Jomier, Julien; Marion, Charles; Ibanez, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Reproducibility verification is essential to the practice of the scientific method. Researchers report their findings, which are strengthened as other independent groups in the scientific community share similar outcomes. In the many scientific fields where software has become a fundamental tool for capturing and analyzing data, this requirement of reproducibility implies that reliable and comprehensive software platforms and tools should be made available to the scientific community. The tools will empower them and the public to verify, through practice, the reproducibility of observations that are reported in the scientific literature. Medical image analysis is one of the fields in which the use of computational resources, both software and hardware, are an essential platform for performing experimental work. In this arena, the introduction of the Insight Toolkit (ITK) in 1999 has transformed the field and facilitates its progress by accelerating the rate at which algorithmic implementations are developed, tested, disseminated and improved. By building on the efficiency and quality of open source methodologies, ITK has provided the medical image community with an effective platform on which to build a daily workflow that incorporates the true scientific practices of reproducibility verification. This article describes the multiple tools, methodologies, and practices that the ITK community has adopted, refined, and followed during the past decade, in order to become one of the research communities with the most modern reproducibility verification infrastructure. For example, 207 contributors have created over 2400 unit tests that provide over 84% code line test coverage. The Insight Journal, an open publication journal associated with the toolkit, has seen over 360,000 publication downloads. The median normalized closeness centrality, a measure of knowledge flow, resulting from the distributed peer code review system was high, 0.46. PMID:24600387

  4. Data Identifiers and Citations Enable Reproducible Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmes, C.

    2011-12-01

    Modern science often involves data processing with tremendous volumes of data. Keeping track of that data has been a growing challenge for data center. Researchers who access and use that data don't always reference and cite their data sources adequately for consumers of their research to follow their methodology or reproduce their analyses or experiments. Recent research has led to recommendations for good identifiers and citations that can help address this problem. This paper will describe some of the best practices in data identifiers, reference and citation. Using a simplified example scenario based on a long term remote sensing satellite mission, it will explore issues in identifying dynamic data sets and the importance of good data citations for reproducibility. It will describe the difference between granule and collection level identifiers, using UUIDs and DOIs to illustrate some recommendations for developing identifiers and assigning them during data processing. As data processors create data products, the provenance of the input products and precise steps that led to their creation are recorded and published for users of the data to see. As researchers access the data from an archive, they can use the provenance to help understand the genesis of the data, which could have effects on their usage of the data. By citing the data on publishing their research, others can retrieve the precise data used in their research and reproduce the analyses and experiments to confirm the results. Describing the experiment to a sufficient extent to reproduce the research enforces a formal approach that lends credibility to the results, and ultimately, to the policies of decision makers depending on that research.

  5. NUCLEAR INCIDENT CAPABILITIES, KNOWLEDGE & ENABLER LEVERAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, J.; Newman, J.; Goodwyn, A.; Dewes, J.

    2011-04-18

    action. Much work needs to be accomplished to enhance nuclear preparedness and to substantially bolster and clarify the capacity to deploy competent resources. Until detailed plans are scripted, and personnel and other resources are postured, and exercised, IND specific planning remains an urgent need requiring attention and action. Although strategic guidance, policies, concepts of operations, roles, responsibilities, and plans governing the response and consequence management for the IND scenario exist, an ongoing integration challenge prevails regarding how best to get capable and competent surge capacity personnel (disaster reservists) and other resources engaged and readied in an up-front manner with pre-scripted assignments to augment the magnitude of anticipated demands of expertise. With the above in mind, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) puts science to work to create and deploy practical, high-value, cost-effective nuclear solutions. As the Department of Energy's (DOE) applied research and development laboratory, SRNL supports Savannah River Site (SRS) operations, DOE, national initiatives, and other federal agencies, across the country and around the world. SRNL's parent at SRS also employs more than 8,000 personnel. The team is a great asset that seeks to continue their service in the interest of national security and stands ready to accomplish new missions. Overall, an integral part of the vision for SRNL's National and Homeland Security Directorate is the establishment of a National Security Center at SRNL, and development of state of the science capabilities (technologies and trained technical personnel) for responding to emergency events on local, regional, or national scales. This entails leveraging and posturing the skills, knowledge and experience base of SRS personnel to deliver an integrated capability to support local, state, and federal authorities through the development of pre-scripted requests for assistance, agreements, and plans. It

  6. Science enabled by ATHENA: Solar system targets and exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella

    2016-07-01

    ATHENA studies of the solar system will offer some of the deepest insights in the complex workings of planetary magnetospheres and exospheres; ATHENA will answer many of the questions that have only started to be tackled by Chandra and XMM-Newton and will add in a major way to our understanding of the interactions of space plasmas with magnetised and un-magnetised bodies in the solar system. The non-dispersive character of X-IFU spectroscopy will enable Jupiter's auroral and disk X-ray emissions, and that from the Io Plasma Torus, to be mapped spatially and spectrally at high resolution; it will also enable surface composition analysis through fluorescence spectra of the Galilean satellites. ATHENA will establish how planetary exospheres, such as that of Mars, and comets respond to the interaction with the solar wind, in a detailed and global way that other observatories or in situ measurements cannot provide. With its remarkably improved sensitivity over current X-ray telescopes, ATHENA will push the search for auroral X-ray emission on Saturn to much fainter limits, and set very sensitive constraints on Uranus X-ray emission. ATHENA will explore the magnetic interplay between stars and planets in X-rays by searching for X-ray spectral variability over the planet's orbital phases and for systems of different orbital eccentricity, and will investigate ingress/eclipse/egress effects for transiting hot-Jupiter exoplanets; again instrumental to this will be the vastly improved signal-to-noise ratio provided by ATHENA over that achievable by XMM-Newton or Chandra.

  7. FINESSE: Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldmann, Jennifer; Lim, Darlene; Colaprete, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program aimed at generating strategic knowledge in preparation for the human and robotic exploration of the Moon, near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and Phobos and Deimos. We follow the philosophy that "science enables exploration and exploration enables science." 1) FINESSE Science: Understand the effects of volcanism and impacts as dominant planetary processes on the Moon, NEAs, and Phobos & Deimos. 2) FINESSE Exploration: Understand which exploration concepts of operations (ConOps) and capabilities enable and enhance scientific return. To accomplish these objectives, we are conducting an integrated research program focused on scientifically-driven field exploration at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve in Idaho and at the West Clearwater Lake Impact Structure in northern Canada. Field deployments aimed at reconnaissance geology and data acquisition were conducted in 2014 at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve. Targets for data acquisition included selected sites at Kings Bowl eruptive fissure, lava field and blowout crater, Inferno Chasm vent and outflow channel, North Crater lava flow and Highway lava flow. Field investigation included (1) differential GPS (dGPS) measurements of lava flows, channels (and ejecta block at Kings Bowl); (2) LiDAR imaging of lava flow margins, surfaces and other selected features; (3) digital photographic documentation; (4) sampling for geochemical and petrographic analysis; (5) UAV aerial imagery of Kings Bowl and Inferno Chasm features; and (6) geologic assessment of targets and potential new targets. Over the course of the 5-week field FINESSE campaign to the West Clearwater Impact Structure (WCIS) in 2014, the team focused on several WCIS research topics, including impactites, central uplift formation, the impact-generated hydrothermal system, multichronometer

  8. Space Weathering Investigations Enabled by NASA's Virtual Heliophysical Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.; King, Joseph H.; Papitashvili, Natalia E.; Lal, Nand; Sittler, Edward C.; Sturner, Steven J.; Hills, Howard K.; Lipatov, Alexander S.; Kovalick, Tamara J.; Johnson, Rita C.; McGuire, Robert E.; Narock, Thomas W.; Szabo, Adam; Armstrong, Thomas P.; Manweiler, Jerry W.; Patterson, J. Douglas; McKibben, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    Structural and chemical impact of the heliospheric space environment on exposed planetary surfaces and interplanetary dust grains may be generally defined as space weathering . In the inner solar system, from the asteroid belt inwards towards the Sun, the surface regolith structures of airless bodies are primarily determined by cumulative meteoritic impacts over billions of years, but the molecular composition to meters in depth can be substantially modified by irradiation effects. Plasma ions at eV to keV energies may both erode uppermost surfaces by sputtering, and implant or locally produce exogenic material, e.g. He-3 and H2O, while more energetic ions drive molecular change through electronic ionization. Galactic cosmic ray ions and more energetic solar ions can impact chemistry to meters in depth. High energy cosmic ray interactions produce showers of secondary particles and energetic photons that present hazards for robotic and human exploration missions but also enable detection of potentially useable resources such as water ice, oxygen, and many other elements. Surface sputtering also makes ejected elemental and molecular species accessible for in-situ compositional analysis by spacecraft with ion and neutral mass spectrometers. Modeling of relative impacts for these various space weathering processes requires knowledge of the incident species-resolved ion flux spectra at plasma to cosmic ray energies and as integrated over varying time scales. Although the main drivers for investigations of these processes come from NASA's planetary science and human exploration programs, the NASA heliophysics program provides the requisite data measurement and modeling resources to enable specification of the field & plasma and energetic particle irradiation environments for application to space weather and surface weathering investigations. The Virtual Heliospheric Observatory (VHO), Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO), Lunar Solar Origins Exploration (Luna

  9. Battlefield Renewable Energy: A Key Joint Force Enabler

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Environment, Energy Security & Sustainability Symposium Jun 2010 Battlefield Renewable Energy A Key Joint Force Enabler Roy H. Adams III, LTC, USA...COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Battlefield Renewable Energy : A Key Joint Force Enabler 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  10. AFC-Enabled Vertical Tail System Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooney, Helen P.; Brandt, John B.; Lacy, Douglas S.; Whalen, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    This document serves as the final report for the SMAAART AFC-Enabled Vertical Tail System Integration Study. Included are the ground rule assumptions which have gone into the study, layouts of the baseline and AFC-enabled configurations, critical sizing information, system requirements and architectures, and assumed system properties that result in an NPV assessment of the two candidate AFC technologies.

  11. Complexity Science Framework for Big Data: Data-enabled Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surjalal Sharma, A.

    2016-07-01

    The ubiquity of Big Data has stimulated the development of analytic tools to harness the potential for timely and improved modeling and prediction. While much of the data is available near-real time and can be compiled to specify the current state of the system, the capability to make predictions is lacking. The main reason is the basic nature of Big Data - the traditional techniques are challenged in their ability to cope with its velocity, volume and variability to make optimum use of the available information. Another aspect is the absence of an effective description of the time evolution or dynamics of the specific system, derived from the data. Once such dynamical models are developed predictions can be made readily. This approach of " letting the data speak for itself " is distinct from the first-principles models based on the understanding of the fundamentals of the system. The predictive capability comes from the data-derived dynamical model, with no modeling assumptions, and can address many issues such as causality and correlation. This approach provides a framework for addressing the challenges in Big Data, especially in the case of spatio-temporal time series data. The reconstruction of dynamics from time series data is based on recognition that in most systems the different variables or degrees of freedom are coupled nonlinearly and in the presence of dissipation the state space contracts, effectively reducing the number of variables, thus enabling a description of its dynamical evolution and consequently prediction of future states. The predictability is analysed from the intrinsic characteristics of the distribution functions, such as Hurst exponents and Hill estimators. In most systems the distributions have heavy tails, which imply higher likelihood for extreme events. The characterization of the probabilities of extreme events are critical in many cases e. g., natural hazards, for proper assessment of risk and mitigation strategies. Big Data with

  12. Enabling Advanced Modeling and Simulations for Fuel-Flexible Combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Pitsch, Heinz

    2010-05-31

    The overall goal of the present project is to enable advanced modeling and simulations for the design and optimization of fuel-flexible turbine combustors. For this purpose we use a high fidelity, extensively-tested large-eddy simulation (LES) code and state-of-the-art models for premixed/partially-premixed turbulent combustion developed in the PI's group. In the frame of the present project, these techniques are applied, assessed, and improved for hydrogen enriched premixed and partially premixed gas-turbine combustion. Our innovative approaches include a completely consistent description of flame propagation; a coupled progress variable/level set method to resolve the detailed flame structure, and incorporation of thermal-diffusion (non-unity Lewis number) effects. In addition, we have developed a general flamelet-type transformation holding in the limits of both non-premixed and premixed burning. As a result, a model for partially premixed combustion has been derived. The coupled progress variable/level method and the general flamelet transformation were validated by LES of a lean-premixed low-swirl burner that has been studied experimentally at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The model is extended to include the non-unity Lewis number effects, which play a critical role in fuel-flexible combustor with high hydrogen content fuel. More specifically, a two-scalar model for lean hydrogen and hydrogen-enriched combustion is developed and validated against experimental and direct numerical simulation (DNS) data. Results are presented to emphasize the importance of non-unity Lewis number effects in the lean-premixed low-swirl burner of interest in this project. The proposed model gives improved results, which shows that the inclusion of the non-unity Lewis number effects is essential for accurate prediction of the lean-premixed low-swirl flame.

  13. Enabling Advanced Modeling and Simulations for Fuel-Flexible Combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Heinz Pitsch

    2010-05-31

    The overall goal of the present project is to enable advanced modeling and simulations for the design and optimization of fuel-flexible turbine combustors. For this purpose we use a high-fidelity, extensively-tested large-eddy simulation (LES) code and state-of-the-art models for premixed/partially-premixed turbulent combustion developed in the PI's group. In the frame of the present project, these techniques are applied, assessed, and improved for hydrogen enriched premixed and partially premixed gas-turbine combustion. Our innovative approaches include a completely consistent description of flame propagation, a coupled progress variable/level set method to resolve the detailed flame structure, and incorporation of thermal-diffusion (non-unity Lewis number) effects. In addition, we have developed a general flamelet-type transformation holding in the limits of both non-premixed and premixed burning. As a result, a model for partially premixed combustion has been derived. The coupled progress variable/level method and the general flamelet tranformation were validated by LES of a lean-premixed low-swirl burner that has been studied experimentally at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The model is extended to include the non-unity Lewis number effects, which play a critical role in fuel-flexible combustor with high hydrogen content fuel. More specifically, a two-scalar model for lean hydrogen and hydrogen-enriched combustion is developed and validated against experimental and direct numerical simulation (DNS) data. Results are presented to emphasize the importance of non-unity Lewis number effects in the lean-premixed low-swirl burner of interest in this project. The proposed model gives improved results, which shows that the inclusion of the non-unity Lewis number effects is essential for accurate prediction of the lean-premixed low-swirl flame.

  14. Incentives and enablers to improve adherence in tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lutge, Elizabeth E; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Knight, Stephen E; Sinclair, David; Volmink, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient adherence to medications, particularly for conditions requiring prolonged treatment such as tuberculosis (TB), is frequently less than ideal and can result in poor treatment outcomes. Material incentives to reward good behaviour and enablers to remove economic barriers to accessing care are sometimes given in the form of cash, vouchers, or food to improve adherence. Objectives To evaluate the effects of material incentives and enablers in patients undergoing diagnostic testing, or receiving prophylactic or curative therapy, for TB. Search methods We undertook a comprehensive search of the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; Science Citation Index; and reference lists of relevant publications up to 5 June 2015. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials of material incentives in patients being investigated for TB, or on treatment for latent or active TB. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors independently screened and selected studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. We compared the effects of interventions using risk ratios (RR), and presented RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. Main results We identified 12 eligible trials. Ten were conducted in the USA: in adolescents (one trial), in injection drug or cocaine users (four trials), in homeless adults (three trials), and in prisoners (two trials). The remaining two trials, in general adult populations, were conducted in Timor-Leste and South Africa. Sustained incentive programmes Only two trials have assessed whether material incentives and enablers can improve long-term adherence and completion of treatment for active TB, and neither demonstrated a clear benefit (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.14; two trials, 4356 participants; low quality evidence). In one trial, the incentive

  15. Bayesian Genomic-Enabled Prediction as an Inverse Problem

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Jaime; Pérez-Elizalde, Sergio; Soberanis, Victor; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paulino; Gianola, Daniel; Crossa, José

    2014-01-01

    Genomic-enabled prediction in plant and animal breeding has become an active area of research. Many prediction models address the collinearity that arises when the number (p) of molecular markers (e.g. single-nucleotide polymorphisms) is larger than the sample size (n). Here we propose four Bayesian approaches to the problem based on commonly used data reduction methods. Specifically, we use a Gaussian linear model for an orthogonal transformation of both the observed data and the matrix of molecular markers. Because shrinkage of estimates is affected by the prior variance of transformed effects, we propose four structures of the prior variance as a way of potentially increasing the prediction accuracy of the models fitted. To evaluate our methods, maize and wheat data previously used with standard Bayesian regression models were employed for measuring prediction accuracy using the proposed models. Results indicate that, for the maize and wheat data sets, our Bayesian models yielded, on average, a prediction accuracy that is 3% greater than that of standard Bayesian regression models, with less computational effort. PMID:25155273

  16. Bayesian genomic-enabled prediction as an inverse problem.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Jaime; Pérez-Elizalde, Sergio; Soberanis, Victor; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paulino; Gianola, Daniel; Crossa, José

    2014-08-25

    Genomic-enabled prediction in plant and animal breeding has become an active area of research. Many prediction models address the collinearity that arises when the number (p) of molecular markers (e.g. single-nucleotide polymorphisms) is larger than the sample size (n). Here we propose four Bayesian approaches to the problem based on commonly used data reduction methods. Specifically, we use a Gaussian linear model for an orthogonal transformation of both the observed data and the matrix of molecular markers. Because shrinkage of estimates is affected by the prior variance of transformed effects, we propose four structures of the prior variance as a way of potentially increasing the prediction accuracy of the models fitted. To evaluate our methods, maize and wheat data previously used with standard Bayesian regression models were employed for measuring prediction accuracy using the proposed models. Results indicate that, for the maize and wheat data sets, our Bayesian models yielded, on average, a prediction accuracy that is 3% greater than that of standard Bayesian regression models, with less computational effort.

  17. Enabling pulsar and fast transient searches using coherent dedispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassa, C. G.; Pleunis, Z.; Hessels, J. W. T.

    2017-01-01

    We present an implementation of the coherent dedispersion algorithm capable of dedispersing high-time-resolution radio observations to many different dispersion measures (DMs). This approach allows the removal of the dispersive effects of the interstellar medium and enables searches for pulsed emission from pulsars and other millisecond-duration transients at low observing frequencies and/or high DMs where time broadening of the signal due to dispersive smearing would otherwise severely reduce the sensitivity. The implementation, called cdmt, for coherent dispersion measure trials, exploits the parallel processing capability of general-purpose graphics processing units to accelerate the computations. We describe the coherent dedispersion algorithm and detail how cdmt implements the algorithm to efficiently compute many coherent DM trials. We apply the concept of a semi-coherent dedispersion search, where coherently dedispersed trials at coarsely separated DMs are subsequently incoherently dedispersed at finer steps in DM. The software is used in an ongoing LOFAR pilot survey to test the feasibility of performing semi-coherent dedispersion searches for millisecond pulsars at 135 MHz. This pilot survey has led to the discovery of a radio millisecond pulsar-the first at these low frequencies. This is the first time that such a broad and comprehensive search in DM-space has been done using coherent dedispersion, and we argue that future low-frequency pulsar searches using this approach are both scientifically compelling and feasible. Finally, we compare the performance of cdmt with other available alternatives.

  18. Enabling Technologies for Scalable Trapped Ion Quantum Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crain, Stephen; Gaultney, Daniel; Mount, Emily; Knoernschild, Caleb; Baek, Soyoung; Maunz, Peter; Kim, Jungsang

    2013-05-01

    Scalability is one of the main challenges of trapped ion based quantum computation, mainly limited by the lack of enabling technologies needed to trap, manipulate and process the increasing number of qubits. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology allows one to design movable micromirrors to focus laser beams on individual ions in a chain and steer the focal point in two dimensions. Our current MEMS system is designed to steer 355 nm pulsed laser beams to carry out logic gates on a chain of Yb ions with a waist of 1.5 μm across a 20 μm range. In order to read the state of the qubit chain we developed a 32-channel PMT with a custom read-out circuit operating near the thermal noise limit of the readout amplifier which increases state detection fidelity. We also developed a set of digital to analog converters (DACs) used to supply analog DC voltages to the electrodes of an ion trap. We designed asynchronous DACs to avoid added noise injection at the update rate commonly found in synchronous DACs. Effective noise filtering is expected to reduce the heating rate of a surface trap, thus improving multi-qubit logic gate fidelities. Our DAC system features 96 channels and an integrated FPGA that allows the system to be controlled in real time. This work was supported by IARPA/ARO.

  19. Force measurement enabling precise analysis by dynamic force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Taninaka, Atsushi; Hirano, Yuuichi; Takeuchi, Osamu; Shigekawa, Hidemi

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) makes it possible to investigate specific interactions between two molecules such as ligand-receptor pairs at the single-molecule level. In the DFS method based on the Bell-Evans model, the unbinding force applied to a molecular bond is increased at a constant rate, and the force required to rupture the molecular bond is measured. By analyzing the relationship between the modal rupture force and the logarithm of the loading rate, microscopic potential barrier landscapes and the lifetimes of bonds can be obtained. However, the results obtained, for example, in the case of streptavidin/biotin complexes, have differed among previous studies and some results have been inconsistent with theoretical predictions. In this study, using an atomic force microscopy technique that enables the precise analysis of molecular interactions on the basis of DFS, we investigated the effect of the sampling rate on DFS analysis. The shape of rupture force histograms, for example, was significantly deformed at a sampling rate of 1 kHz in comparison with that of histograms obtained at 100 kHz, indicating the fundamental importance of ensuring suitable experimental conditions for further advances in the DFS method.

  20. Fabrication Infrastructure to Enable Efficient Exploration and Utilization of Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe T.; Fikes, John C.; McLemore, Carole A.; Manning, Curtis W.; Good, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Unlike past one-at-a-time mission approaches, system-of-systems infrastructures will be needed to enable ambitious scenarios for sustainable future space exploration and utilization. Fabrication infrastructure will be needed to support habitat structure development, tools and mechanical part fabrication, as well as repair and replacement of ground support and space mission hardware such as life support items, vehicle components and crew systems. The fabrication infrastructure will need the In Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) element, which is working in conjunction with the In Situ Resources Utilization (ISRU) element, to live off the land. The ISFR Element supports the entire life cycle of Exploration by: reducing downtime due to failed components; decreasing risk to crew by recovering quickly from degraded operation of equipment; improving system functionality with advanced geometry capabilities; and enhancing mission safety by reducing assembly part counts of original designs where possible. This paper addresses the fabrication infrastructures that support efficient, affordable, reliable infrastructures for both space exploration systems and logistics; these infrastructures allow sustained, affordable and highly effective operations on the Moon, Mars and beyond.

  1. How youth-serving organizations enable acquaintance molesters.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, some of the country's most prominent institutions have been ensnared in child sex abuse scandals. While each abuse incident features its own particular circumstances, institutions that have been the subject of these scandals have displayed similar patterns of organizational behavior that allowed molesting to occur and molesters to escape accountability. We can learn from those patterns to better understand and combat acquaintance molestation in youth-serving organizations. Although sex abuse is an inherent risk in youth work, American youth-serving organizations have responded to this risk largely on a case-by-case basis after abuse incidents have been revealed, rather than through proactive strategies to reduce the risk of abuse and to respond effectively to allegations. An examination of abuse scandals reveals common patterns of behavior among paid and volunteer staff in organizations that did not enact comprehensive, proactive strategies: Faith in the organiation blinded staff to the liklihood of abuse; organizations kept workers ignorant about the extent of the abuse problem; when abuse accusations arose, staff gave the benefit of the doubt to the adult; when abuse accusations were confirmed, staffers did not know how to respond; and not knowing how to resopnd, staff prioritized the protection of the organization. As a result, child molesters have been falsely exonerated or not held accountable, abused children have been disbelieved, and abuse has continued. These organizations inadvertently achieved the opposite of their missions: They enabled child molesters at the expense of children.

  2. Enabling information management systems in tactical network environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Marco; Uszok, Andrzej; Suri, Niranjan; Bradshaw, Jeffrey M.; Ceccio, Philip J.; Hanna, James P.; Sinclair, Asher

    2009-05-01

    Net-Centric Information Management (IM) and sharing in tactical environments promises to revolutionize forward command and control capabilities by providing ubiquitous shared situational awareness to the warfighter. This vision can be realized by leveraging the tactical and Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET) which provide the underlying communications infrastructure, but, significant technical challenges remain. Enabling information management in these highly dynamic environments will require multiple support services and protocols which are affected by, and highly dependent on, the underlying capabilities and dynamics of the tactical network infrastructure. In this paper we investigate, discuss, and evaluate the effects of realistic tactical and mobile communications network environments on mission-critical information management systems. We motivate our discussion by introducing the Advanced Information Management System (AIMS) which is targeted for deployment in tactical sensor systems. We present some operational requirements for AIMS and highlight how critical IM support services such as discovery, transport, federation, and Quality of Service (QoS) management are necessary to meet these requirements. Our goal is to provide a qualitative analysis of the impact of underlying assumptions of availability and performance of some of the critical services supporting tactical information management. We will also propose and describe a number of technologies and capabilities that have been developed to address these challenges, providing alternative approaches for transport, service discovery, and federation services for tactical networks.

  3. Anatomy drawing screencasts: enabling flexible learning for medical students.

    PubMed

    Pickering, James D

    2015-01-01

    The traditional lecture remains an essential method of disseminating information to medical students. However, due to the constant development of the modern medical curriculum many institutions are embracing novel means for delivering the core anatomy syllabus. Using mobile media devices is one such way, enabling students to access core material at a time and place that suits their specific learning style. This study has examined the effect of five anatomy drawing screencasts that replicate the popular anatomy drawing element of a lecture. These resources were uploaded to the University's Virtual Learning Environment for student access. Usage data and an end of module questionnaire were used to assess the impact of the screencasts on student education. The data revealed a high level of usage that varied in both the time of day and day of the week, with the number of downloads dramatically increasing towards the end of the module when the assessment was approaching. The student group found the additional resources extremely useful in consolidating information and revision, with many commenting on their preference to the screencasts compared to the more traditional approaches to learning. Scrutinizing the screencasts in relation to cognitive load theory and the cognitive theory of multimedia learning indicates a high correlation with an evidence-based approach to designing learning resources. Overall the screencasts have been a well-received enhancement that supports the student learning and has been shown to promote flexible learning.

  4. Multispectral tissue analysis and classification towards enabling automated robotic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triana, Brian; Cha, Jaepyeong; Shademan, Azad; Krieger, Axel; Kang, Jin U.; Kim, Peter C. W.

    2014-02-01

    Accurate optical characterization of different tissue types is an important tool for potentially guiding surgeons and enabling automated robotic surgery. Multispectral imaging and analysis have been used in the literature to detect spectral variations in tissue reflectance that may be visible to the naked eye. Using this technique, hidden structures can be visualized and analyzed for effective tissue classification. Here, we investigated the feasibility of automated tissue classification using multispectral tissue analysis. Broadband reflectance spectra (200-1050 nm) were collected from nine different ex vivo porcine tissues types using an optical fiber-probe based spectrometer system. We created a mathematical model to train and distinguish different tissue types based upon analysis of the observed spectra using total principal component regression (TPCR). Compared to other reported methods, our technique is computationally inexpensive and suitable for real-time implementation. Each of the 92 spectra was cross-referenced against the nine tissue types. Preliminary results show a mean detection rate of 91.3%, with detection rates of 100% and 70.0% (inner and outer kidney), 100% and 100% (inner and outer liver), 100% (outer stomach), and 90.9%, 100%, 70.0%, 85.7% (four different inner stomach areas, respectively). We conclude that automated tissue differentiation using our multispectral tissue analysis method is feasible in multiple ex vivo tissue specimens. Although measurements were performed using ex vivo tissues, these results suggest that real-time, in vivo tissue identification during surgery may be possible.

  5. Ecological assessment of nano-enabled supercapacitors for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, M.; Dura, H.; Shimon, B.; Baumann, M.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziemann, S.; Lei, C.; Markoulidis, F.; Lekakou, T.; Decker, M.

    2012-09-01

    New materials on nano scale have the potential to overcome existing technical barriers and are one of the most promising key technologies to enable the decoupling of economic growth and resource consumption. Developing these innovative materials for industrial applications means facing a complex quality profile, which includes among others technical, economic, and ecological aspects. So far the two latter aspects are not sufficiently included in technology development, especially from a life cycle point of view. Supercapacitors are considered a promising option for electric energy storage in hybrid and full electric cars. In comparison with presently used lithium based electro chemical storage systems supercapacitors possess a high specific power, but a relatively low specific energy. Therefore, the goal of ongoing research is to develop a new generation of supercapacitors with high specific power and high specific energy. To reach this goal particularly nano materials are developed and tested on cell level. In the presented study the ecological implications (regarding known environmental effects) of carbon based nano materials are analysed using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Major attention is paid to efficiency gains of nano particle production due to scaling up of such processes from laboratory to industrial production scales. Furthermore, a developed approach will be displayed, how to assess the environmental impact of nano materials on an automotive system level over the whole life cycle.

  6. Resistive random access memory enabled by carbon nanotube crossbar electrodes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Cheng-Lin; Xiong, Feng; Pop, Eric; Shim, Moonsub

    2013-06-25

    We use single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) crossbar electrodes to probe sub-5 nm memory domains of thin AlOx films. Both metallic and semiconducting CNTs effectively switch AlOx bits between memory states with high and low resistance. The low-resistance state scales linearly with CNT series resistance down to ∼10 MΩ, at which point the ON-state resistance of the AlOx filament becomes the limiting factor. Dependence of switching behavior on the number of cross-points suggests a single channel to dominate the overall characteristics in multi-crossbar devices. We demonstrate ON/OFF ratios up to 5 × 10(5) and programming currents of 1 to 100 nA with few-volt set/reset voltages. Remarkably low reset currents enable a switching power of 10-100 nW and estimated switching energy as low as 0.1-10 fJ per bit. These results are essential for understanding the ultimate scaling limits of resistive random access memory at single-nanometer bit dimensions.

  7. ALD Enabled Wafer Level Polymer Packaging for MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yadong

    Wafer level polymer packaging for MEMS is a cost-effective approach that is also compatible with microelectronic packaging technologies. However, polymer packages are not hermetic and cannot be used for MEMS devices, which usually demand vacuum or low moisture environment inside the packages. This problem can be solved by applying atomic layer deposition (ALD) of nano-scaled Al 2O3 or other inorganic materials over the polymer packages. Defects and mechanical cracks in ALD coatings are major concerns for hermetic/vacuum sealing. Several techniques have been developed to inspect such defects and cracks. Assisted by the electroplating copper technique, we have reduced the defect density by 1000 times for an ultra-thin, 2-nm ALD Al2O 3 film. Such an ultra-thin coating is essential to enhance coating's mechanical toughness. The toughness is usually determined by monitoring coating's crack initiation and growth in a bending test. A real-time, non-destructive inspection technique has been developed for in-situ characterization of an ALD film coated on a surface or buried in a multilayer structure. With the knowledge and technology established, we have successfully demonstrated a wafer-level polymer packaging process for MEMS using a Pirani gauge as the vacuum sensor. The leak rate through the polymer package has been reduced by 100 times by the ALD Al2O3 coating. More importantly, we have developed models and identified issues that are critical to ALD-enabled wafer level polymer packaging for MEMS.

  8. Self discovery enables robot social cognition: are you my teacher?

    PubMed

    Kaipa, Krishnanand N; Bongard, Josh C; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2010-01-01

    Infants exploit the perception that others are 'like me' to bootstrap social cognition (Meltzoff, 2007a). This paper demonstrates how the above theory can be instantiated in a social robot that uses itself as a model to recognize structural similarities with other robots; this thereby enables the student to distinguish between appropriate and inappropriate teachers. This is accomplished by the student robot first performing self-discovery, a phase in which it uses actuation-perception relationships to infer its own structure. Second, the student models a candidate teacher using a vision-based active learning approach to create an approximate physical simulation of the teacher. Third, the student determines that the teacher is structurally similar (but not necessarily visually similar) to itself if it can find a neural controller that allows its self model (created in the first phase) to reproduce the perceived motion of the teacher model (created in the second phase). Fourth, the student uses the neural controller (created in the third phase) to move, resulting in imitation of the teacher. Results with a physical student robot and two physical robot teachers demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. The generalizability of the proposed model allows it to be used over variations in the demonstrator: The student robot would still be able to imitate teachers of different sizes and at different distances from itself, as well as different positions in its field of view, because change in the interrelations of the teacher's body parts are used for imitation, rather than absolute geometric properties.

  9. Enabling Stakeholder Involvement in Coastal Disaster Resilience Planning.

    PubMed

    Bostick, Thomas P; Holzer, Thomas H; Sarkani, Shahryar

    2016-11-28

    Coastal hazards including storm surge, sea-level rise, and cyclone winds continue to have devastating effects on infrastructure systems and communities despite costly investments in risk management. Risk management has generally not been sufficiently focused on coastal resilience, with community stakeholders involved in the process of making their coastline, as a system, more resilient to coastal storms. Thus, without stakeholder earlier involvement in coastal resilience planning for their community, they are frustrated after disasters occur. The U.S. National Academies has defined resilience as "the ability to prepare and plan for, absorb, recover from, and more successfully adapt to adverse events"(National Research Council). This article introduces a methodology for enabling stakeholder-involved resilience discussions across physical, information, cognitive, and social domains. The methodology addresses the stages of resilience-prepare, absorb, recover, and adapt-and integrates performance assessment with scenario analysis to characterize disruptions of risk-management priorities. The methodology is illustrated through a case study at Mobile Bay, Alabama, USA.

  10. Datalist: A Value Added Service to Enable Easy Data Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Angela; Hegde, Mahabaleshwa; Bryant, Keith; Seiler, Edward; Shie, Chung-Lin; Teng, William; Liu, Zhong; Hearty, Thomas; Shen, Suhung; Kempler, Steven; Petrenko, Maksym

    2016-01-01

    Imagine a user wanting to study hurricane events. This could involve searching and downloading multiple data variables from multiple data sets. The currently available services from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) only allow the user to select one data set at a time. The GES DISC started a Data List initiative, in order to enable users to easily select multiple data variables. A Data List is a collection of predefined or user-defined data variables from one or more archived data sets. Target users of Data Lists include science teams, individual science researchers, application users, and educational users. Data Lists are more than just data. Data Lists effectively provide users with a sophisticated integrated data and services package, including metadata, citation, documentation, visualization, and data-specific services, all available from one-stop shopping. Data Lists are created based on the software architecture of the GES DISC Unified User Interface (UUI). The Data List service is completely data-driven, and a Data List is treated just as any other data set. The predefined Data Lists, created by the experienced GES DISC science support team, should save a significant amount of time that users would otherwise have to spend.

  11. Online Monitoring to Enable Improved Diagnostics, Prognostics and Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.

    2011-02-01

    For both existing and new plant designs there are increasing opportunities and needs for the application of advanced online surveillance, diagnostic and prognostic techniques. These methods can continuously monitor and assess the health of nuclear power plant systems and components. The added effectiveness of such programs has the potential to enable holistic plant management, and minimize exposure to future and unknown risks. The 'NDE & On-line Monitoring' activities within the Advanced Instrumentation, Information and Control Systems (II&CS) Pathway are developing R&D to establish advanced condition monitoring and prognostics technologies to understand and predict future phenomena, derived from plant aging in systems, structures, and components (SSC). This research includes utilization of the enhanced functionality and system condition awareness that becomes available through the application of digital technologies at existing nuclear power plants for online monitoring and prognostics. The current state-of-the-art for on-line monitoring applied to active components (eg pumps, valves, motors) and passive structure (eg core internals, primary piping, pressure vessel, concrete, cables, buried pipes) is being reviewed. This includes looking at the current deployment of systems that monitor reactor noise, acoustic signals and vibration in various forms, leak monitoring, and now increasingly condition-based maintenance (CBM) for active components. The NDE and on-line monitoring projects are designed to look beyond locally monitored CBM. Current trends include centralized plant monitoring of SSC, potential fleet-based CBM and technology that will enable operation and maintenance to be performed with limited on-site staff. Attention is also moving to systems that use online monitoring to permit longer term operation (LTO), including a prognostic or predictive element that estimates a remaining useful life (RUL). Many, if not all, active components (pumps, valves, motors

  12. A data management system to enable urgent natural disaster computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Siew Hoon; Kranzlmüller, Dieter; Frank, Anton

    2014-05-01

    Civil protection, in particular natural disaster management, is very important to most nations and civilians in the world. When disasters like flash floods, earthquakes and tsunamis are expected or have taken place, it is of utmost importance to make timely decisions for managing the affected areas and reduce casualties. Computer simulations can generate information and provide predictions to facilitate this decision making process. Getting the data to the required resources is a critical requirement to enable the timely computation of the predictions. An urgent data management system to support natural disaster computing is thus necessary to effectively carry out data activities within a stipulated deadline. Since the trigger of a natural disaster is usually unpredictable, it is not always possible to prepare required resources well in advance. As such, an urgent data management system for natural disaster computing has to be able to work with any type of resources. Additional requirements include the need to manage deadlines and huge volume of data, fault tolerance, reliable, flexibility to changes, ease of usage, etc. The proposed data management platform includes a service manager to provide a uniform and extensible interface for the supported data protocols, a configuration manager to check and retrieve configurations of available resources, a scheduler manager to ensure that the deadlines can be met, a fault tolerance manager to increase the reliability of the platform and a data manager to initiate and perform the data activities. These managers will enable the selection of the most appropriate resource, transfer protocol, etc. such that the hard deadline of an urgent computation can be met for a particular urgent activity, e.g. data staging or computation. We associated 2 types of deadlines [2] with an urgent computing system. Soft-hard deadline: Missing a soft-firm deadline will render the computation less useful resulting in a cost that can have severe

  13. Micro-concentrators for a microsystems-enabled photovoltaic system.

    PubMed

    Jared, Bradley H; Saavedra, Michael P; Anderson, Ben J; Goeke, Ron S; Sweatt, William C; Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Elisberg, Brenton; Snively, Dave; Duncan, John; Gu, Tian; Agrawal, Gautam; Haney, Michael W

    2014-03-10

    A 100X magnification, ± 2.5° field of view micro-concentrating optical system has been developed for a microsystems-enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) prototype module using 250 µm diameter multi-junction "stacked" PV cells.

  14. An IT-enabled supply chain model: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannella, Salvatore; Framinan, Jose M.; Barbosa-Póvoa, Ana

    2014-11-01

    During the last decades, supply chain collaboration practices and the underlying enabling technologies have evolved from the classical electronic data interchange (EDI) approach to a web-based and radio frequency identification (RFID)-enabled collaboration. In this field, most of the literature has focused on the study of optimal parameters for reducing the total cost of suppliers, by adopting operational research (OR) techniques. Herein we are interested in showing that the considered information technology (IT)-enabled structure is resilient, that is, it works well across a reasonably broad range of parameter settings. By adopting a methodological approach based on system dynamics, we study a multi-tier collaborative supply chain. Results show that the IT-enabled supply chain improves operational performance and customer service level. Nonetheless, benefits for geographically dispersed networks are of minor entity.

  15. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents, May 2009 (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-05-01

    Enabling Documents, delivered by the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to provide materials that clarify the authority for federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs).

  16. 78 FR 69405 - Enable Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... to abandon in place the Leedey Purification Facility, also located in the state of Oklahoma, all as... . Specifically, Enable proposes to abandon in place the Leedey Purification Facility and to abandon by sale...

  17. Grid-enabled mammographic auditing and training system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yap, M. H.; Gale, A. G.

    2008-03-01

    Effective use of new technologies to support healthcare initiatives is important and current research is moving towards implementing secure grid-enabled healthcare provision. In the UK, a large-scale collaborative research project (GIMI: Generic Infrastructures for Medical Informatics), which is concerned with the development of a secure IT infrastructure to support very widespread medical research across the country, is underway. In the UK, there are some 109 breast screening centers and a growing number of individuals (circa 650) nationally performing approximately 1.5 million screening examinations per year. At the same, there is a serious, and ongoing, national workforce issue in screening which has seen a loss of consultant mammographers and a growth in specially trained technologists and other non-radiologists. Thus there is a need to offer effective and efficient mammographic training so as to maintain high levels of screening skills. Consequently, a grid based system has been proposed which has the benefit of offering very large volumes of training cases that the mammographers can access anytime and anywhere. A database, spread geographically across three university systems, of screening cases is used as a test set of known cases. The GIMI mammography training system first audits these cases to ensure that they are appropriately described and annotated. Subsequently, the cases are utilized for training in a grid-based system which has been developed. This paper briefly reviews the background to the project and then details the ongoing research. In conclusion, we discuss the contributions, limitations, and future plans of such a grid based approach.

  18. Mechanical Engineering Design Project report: Enabler control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullen, Christian; Delvecchio, Dave; Scarborough, Alan; Havics, Andrew A.

    1992-01-01

    The Controls Group was assigned the responsibility for designing the Enabler's control system. The requirement for the design was that the control system must provide a simple user interface to control the boom articulation joints, chassis articulation joints, and the wheel drive. The system required controlling hydraulic motors on the Enabler by implementing 8-bit microprocessor boards. In addition, feedback to evaluate positions and velocities must be interfaced to provide the operator with confirmation as well as control.

  19. Ceramic Electrolyte Membrane Technology: Enabling Revolutionary Electrochemical Energy Storage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-05

    Electrochemical Energy Storage The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued as an official...Revolutionary Electrochemical Energy Storage Report Title The goal of this work is to enable the development of safe, high energy density batteries by...Reporting Period: January 1, 2014 – December 31, 2014) CERAMIC ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY: ENABLING REVOLUTIONARY ELECTROCHEMICAL ENERGY STORAGE

  20. Chiral gold phosphate catalyzed tandem hydroamination/asymmetric transfer hydrogenation enables access to chiral tetrahydroquinolines.

    PubMed

    Du, Yu-Liu; Hu, Yue; Zhu, Yi-Fan; Tu, Xi-Feng; Han, Zhi-Yong; Gong, Liu-Zhu

    2015-05-01

    A highly efficient chiral gold phosphate-catalyzed tandem hydroamination/asymmetric transfer hydrogenation reaction is described. A series of chiral tetrahydroquinolines were obtained in excellent yields and enantioselectivities. In this reaction, the gold catalyst enables both the hydroamination step as a π-Lewis acid and the asymmetric hydrogen-transfer process as an effective chiral Lewis acid.

  1. Supporting Pre-Service Teachers' Technology-Enabled Learning Design Thinking through Whole of Programme Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Matt; Highfield, Kate; Furney, Pam; Mowbray, Lee

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains a development and evaluation project aimed at transforming two pre-service teacher education programmes at Macquarie University to more effectively cultivate students' technology-enabled learning design thinking. The process of transformation was based upon an explicit and sustained focus on developing university academics'…

  2. Utilizing Fission Technology to Enable Rapid and Affordable Access to any Point in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; Bonometti, Joe; Morton, Jeff; Hrbud, Ivana; Bitteker, Leo; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, T.; Pedersen, K.; Dobson, C.; Patton, B.; Martin, J.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2000-01-01

    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. Potential fission-based transportation options include bimodal nuclear thermal rockets, high specific energy propulsion systems, and pulsed fission propulsion systems. In-space propellant re-supply enhances the effective performance of all systems, but requires significant infrastructure development. Safe, timely, affordable utilization of first-generation space fission propulsion systems will enable the development of more advanced systems. First generation systems can build on over 45 years of US and international space fission system technology development to minimize cost.

  3. What enables size-selective trophy hunting of wildlife?

    PubMed

    Darimont, Chris T; Child, K Rosie

    2014-01-01

    Although rarely considered predators, wildlife hunters can function as important ecological and evolutionary agents. In part, their influence relates to targeting of large reproductive adults within prey populations. Despite known impacts of size-selective harvests, however, we know little about what enables hunters to kill these older, rarer, and presumably more wary individuals. In other mammalian predators, predatory performance varies with knowledge and physical condition, which accumulates and declines, respectively, with age. Moreover, some species evolved camouflage as a physical trait to aid in predatory performance. In this work, we tested whether knowledge-based faculty (use of a hunting guide with accumulated experience in specific areas), physical traits (relative body mass [RBM] and camouflage clothing), and age can predict predatory performance. We measured performance as do many hunters: size of killed cervid prey, using the number of antler tines as a proxy. Examining ∼ 4300 online photographs of hunters posing with carcasses, we found that only the presence of guides increased the odds of killing larger prey. Accounting for this effect, modest evidence suggested that unguided hunters presumably handicapped with the highest RBM actually had greater odds of killing large prey. There was no association with hunter age, perhaps because of our coarse measure (presence of grey hair) and the performance trade-offs between knowledge accumulation and physical deterioration with age. Despite its prevalence among sampled hunters (80%), camouflage had no influence on size of killed prey. Should these patterns be representative of other areas and prey, and our interpretations correct, evolutionarily-enlightened harvest management might benefit from regulatory scrutiny on guided hunting. More broadly, we suggest that by being nutritionally and demographically de-coupled from prey and aided by efficient killing technology and road access, wildlife hunters in

  4. Health IT-enabled Care for Underserved Rural Populations: The Role of Nursing

    PubMed Central

    Effken, Judith A.; Abbott, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    This white paper explains the strong roles that nursing can play in using information technology (IT) to improve healthcare delivery in rural areas. The authors describe current challenges to providing care in rural areas, and how technology innovations can help rural communities to improve their health and health care. To maximize benefits, rural stakeholders (as individuals and groups) must collaborate to effect change. Because nonphysician providers deliver much of the health care in rural communities, this paper focuses on the critical roles of nurses on IT-enabled caremanagement teams. The authors propose changes in nursing practice, policy, and education to better prepare, encourage, and enable nurses to assume leadership roles in IT-enabled health care management in rural communities. PMID:19261937

  5. A federated semantic metadata registry framework for enabling interoperability across clinical research and care domains.

    PubMed

    Sinaci, A Anil; Laleci Erturkmen, Gokce B

    2013-10-01

    In order to enable secondary use of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) by bridging the interoperability gap between clinical care and research domains, in this paper, a unified methodology and the supporting framework is introduced which brings together the power of metadata registries (MDR) and semantic web technologies. We introduce a federated semantic metadata registry framework by extending the ISO/IEC 11179 standard, and enable integration of data element registries through Linked Open Data (LOD) principles where each Common Data Element (CDE) can be uniquely referenced, queried and processed to enable the syntactic and semantic interoperability. Each CDE and their components are maintained as LOD resources enabling semantic links with other CDEs, terminology systems and with implementation dependent content models; hence facilitating semantic search, much effective reuse and semantic interoperability across different application domains. There are several important efforts addressing the semantic interoperability in healthcare domain such as IHE DEX profile proposal, CDISC SHARE and CDISC2RDF. Our architecture complements these by providing a framework to interlink existing data element registries and repositories for multiplying their potential for semantic interoperability to a greater extent. Open source implementation of the federated semantic MDR framework presented in this paper is the core of the semantic interoperability layer of the SALUS project which enables the execution of the post marketing safety analysis studies on top of existing EHR systems.

  6. Barriers and enablers that influence sustainable interprofessional education: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Lawlis, Tanya Rechael; Anson, Judith; Greenfield, David

    2014-07-01

    The effective incorporation of interprofessional education (IPE) within health professional curricula requires the synchronised and systematic collaboration between and within the various stakeholders. Higher education institutions, as primary health education providers, have the capacity to advocate and facilitate this collaboration. However, due to the diversity of stakeholders, facilitating the pedagogical change can be challenging and complex, and brings a degree of uncertainty and resistance. This review, through an analysis of the barriers and enablers investigates the involvement of stakeholders in higher education IPE through three primary stakeholder levels: Government and Professional, Institutional and Individual. A review of eight primary databases using 21 search terms resulted in 40 papers for review. While the barriers to IPE are widely reported within the higher education IPE literature, little is documented about the enablers of IPE. Similarly, the specific identification and importance of enablers for IPE sustainability and the dual nature of some barriers and enablers have not been previously reported. An analysis of the barriers and enablers of IPE across the different stakeholder levels reveals five key "fundamental elements" critical to achieving sustainable IPE in higher education curricula.

  7. Detailed Modeling and Response of Demand Response Enabled Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Vyakaranam, Bharat; Fuller, Jason C.

    2014-04-14

    Proper modeling of end use loads is very important in order to predict their behavior, and how they interact with the power system, including voltage and temperature dependencies, power system and load control functions, and the complex interactions that occur between devices in such an interconnected system. This paper develops multi-state time variant residential appliance models with demand response enabled capabilities in the GridLAB-DTM simulation environment. These models represent not only the baseline instantaneous power demand and energy consumption, but the control systems developed by GE Appliances to enable response to demand response signals and the change in behavior of the appliance in response to the signal. These DR enabled appliances are simulated to estimate their capability to reduce peak demand and energy consumption.

  8. How language enables abstraction: a study in computational cultural psychology.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Yair; Turney, Peter; Cohen, Yohai

    2012-06-01

    The idea that language mediates our thoughts and enables abstract cognition has been a key idea in socio-cultural psychology. However, it is not clear what mechanisms support this process of abstraction. Peirce argued that one mechanism by which language enables abstract thought is hypostatic abstraction, the process through which a predicate (e.g., dark) turns into an object (e.g., darkness). By using novel computational tools we tested Peirce's idea. Analysis of the data provides empirical support for Peirce's mechanism and evidence of the way the use of signs enables abstraction. These conclusions are supported by the in-depth analysis of two case studies concerning the abstraction of sweet and dark. The paper concludes by discussing the findings from a broad and integrative theoretical perspective and by pointing to computational cultural psychology as a promising perspective for addressing long-lasting questions of the field.

  9. Solar Sail Propulsion: Enabling New Capabilities for Heliophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L.; Young, R.; Alhorn, D.; Heaton, A.; Vansant, T.; Campbell, B.; Pappa, R.; Keats, W.; Liewer, P. C.; Alexander, D.; Wawrzyniak, G.; Ayon, J.; Burton, R.; Carroll, D.; Matloff, G.; Kezerashvili, R. Ya.

    2010-01-01

    Solar sails can play a critical role in enabling solar and heliophysics missions. Solar sail technology within NASA is currently at 80% of TRL-6, suitable for an in-flight technology demonstration. It is conceivable that an initial demonstration could carry scientific payloads that, depending on the type of mission, are commensurate with the goals of the three study panels of the 2010 Heliophysics Survey. Follow-on solar sail missions, leveraging advances in solar sail technology to support Heliophysics Survey goals, would then be feasible. This white paper reports on a sampling of missions enabled by solar sails, the current state of the technology, and what funding is required to advance the current state of technology such that solar sails can enable these missions

  10. Enabling personal genomics with an explicit test of epistasis.

    PubMed

    Greene, Casey S; Himmelstein, Daniel S; Nelson, Heather H; Kelsey, Karl T; Williams, Scott M; Andrew, Angeline S; Karagas, Margaret R; Moore, Jason H

    2010-01-01

    test. We also show that the test has the appropriate size or type I error rate of approximately 0.05. We then apply MDR with the new explicit test of epistasis to a large genetic study of bladder cancer and show that a previously reported nonlinear interaction between is indeed significant, even after considering the strong additive effect of smoking in the model. Finally, we evaluated the power of the explicit test of epistasis to detect the nonlinear interaction between two XPD gene polymorphisms by simulating data from the MDR model of bladder cancer susceptibility. The results of this study provide for the first time a simple method for explicitly testing epistasis or gene-gene interaction effects in genetic association studies. Although we demonstrated the method with MDR, an important advantage is that it can be combined with any modeling approach. The explicit test of epistasis brings us a step closer to the type of routine gene-gene interaction analysis that is needed if we are to enable personal genomics.

  11. Adaptive Voltage Management Enabling Energy Efficiency in Nanoscale Integrated Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Alexander E.

    Battery powered devices emphasize energy efficiency in modern sub-22 nm CMOS microprocessors rendering classic power reduction solutions not sufficient. Classical solutions that reduce power consumption in high performance integrated circuits are superseded with novel and enhanced power reduction techniques to enable the greater energy efficiency desired in modern microprocessors and emerging mobile platforms. Dynamic power consumption is reduced by operating over a wide range of supply voltages. This region of operation is enabled by a high speed and power efficient level shifter which translates low voltage digital signals to higher voltages (and vice versa), a key component that enables communication among circuits operating at different voltage levels. Additionally, optimizing the wide supply voltage range of signals propagating across long interconnect enables greater energy savings. A closed-form delay model supporting wide voltage range is developed to enable this capability. The model supports an ultra-wide voltage range from nominal voltages to subthreshold voltages, and a wide range of repeater sizes. To mitigate the drawback of lower operating speed at reduced supply voltages, the high performance exhibited by MOS current mode logic technology is exploited. High performance and energy efficient circuits are enabled by combining this logic style with power efficient near threshold circuits. Many-core systems that operate at high frequencies and process highly parallel workloads benefit from this combination of MCML with NTC. Due to aggressive scaling, static power consumption can in some cases overshadow dynamic power. Techniques to lower leakage power have therefore become an important objective in modern microprocessors. To address this issue, an adaptive power gating technique is proposed. This technique utilizes high levels of granularity to save additional leakage power when a circuit is active as opposed to standard power gating that saves static

  12. Grid computing : enabling a vision for collaborative research.

    SciTech Connect

    von Laszewski, G.

    2002-04-09

    In this paper the authors provide a motivation for Grid computing based on a vision to enable a collaborative research environment. The authors vision goes beyond the connection of hardware resources. They argue that with an infrastructure such as the Grid, new modalities for collaborative research are enabled. They provide an overview showing why Grid research is difficult, and they present a number of management-related issues that must be addressed to make Grids a reality. They list projects that provide solutions to subsets of these issues.

  13. Surgical Materials: Current Challenges and Nano-enabled Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Annabi, Nasim; Tamayol, Ali; Shin, Su Ryon; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M.; Peppas, Nicholas A.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Surgical adhesive biomaterials have emerged as substitutes to sutures and staples in many clinical applications. Nano-enabled materials containing nanoparticles or having a distinct nanotopography have been utilized for generation of a new class of surgical materials with enhanced functionality. In this review, the state of the art in the development of conventional surgical adhesive biomaterials is critically reviewed and their shortcomings are outlined. Recent advancements in generation of nano-enabled surgical materials with their potential future applications are discussed. This review will open new avenues for the innovative development of the next generation of tissue adhesives, hemostats, and sealants with enhanced functionality for various surgical applications. PMID:25530795

  14. Fabric opto-electronics enabling healthcare applications; a case study.

    PubMed

    van Pieterson, L; van Abeelen, F A; van Os, K; Hornix, E; Zhou, G; Oversluizen, G

    2011-01-01

    Textiles are a ubiquitous part of human life. By combining them with electronics to create electronic textile systems, new application fields emerge. In this paper, technology and applications of light-emitting textile systems are presented, with emphasis on the healthcare domain: A fabric substrate is described for electronic textile with robust interwoven connections between the conductive yarns in it. This fabric enables the creation of different forms of comfortable light therapy systems. Specific challenges to enable this use in medical applications are discussed.

  15. Preliminary evaluations of a spoken web enabled care management platform.

    PubMed

    Padman, Rema; Beam, Erika; Szewczyk, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Telephones are a ubiquitous and widely accepted technology worldwide. The low ownership cost, simple user interface, intuitive voice-based access and long history contribute to the wide-spread use and success of telephones, and more recently, that of mobile phones. This study reports on our preliminary efforts to leverage this technology to bridge disparities in the access to and delivery of personalized health and wellness care by developing and evaluating a Spoken Web enabled Care Management solution. Early results with two proxy evaluations and a few visually impaired users highlight both the potential and challenges associated with this novel, voice-enabled healthcare delivery solution.

  16. A survey of enabling technologies in synthetic biology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Realizing constructive applications of synthetic biology requires continued development of enabling technologies as well as policies and practices to ensure these technologies remain accessible for research. Broadly defined, enabling technologies for synthetic biology include any reagent or method that, alone or in combination with associated technologies, provides the means to generate any new research tool or application. Because applications of synthetic biology likely will embody multiple patented inventions, it will be important to create structures for managing intellectual property rights that best promote continued innovation. Monitoring the enabling technologies of synthetic biology will facilitate the systematic investigation of property rights coupled to these technologies and help shape policies and practices that impact the use, regulation, patenting, and licensing of these technologies. Results We conducted a survey among a self-identifying community of practitioners engaged in synthetic biology research to obtain their opinions and experiences with technologies that support the engineering of biological systems. Technologies widely used and considered enabling by survey participants included public and private registries of biological parts, standard methods for physical assembly of DNA constructs, genomic databases, software tools for search, alignment, analysis, and editing of DNA sequences, and commercial services for DNA synthesis and sequencing. Standards and methods supporting measurement, functional composition, and data exchange were less widely used though still considered enabling by a subset of survey participants. Conclusions The set of enabling technologies compiled from this survey provide insight into the many and varied technologies that support innovation in synthetic biology. Many of these technologies are widely accessible for use, either by virtue of being in the public domain or through legal tools such as non

  17. Integrated Control with Structural Feedback to Enable Lightweight Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation for the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Technical Conference covers the benefits of active structural control, related research areas, and focuses on the use of optimal control allocation for the prevention of critical loads. Active control of lightweight structures has the potential to reduce aircraft weight and fuel burn. Sensor, control law, materials, control effector, and system level research will be necessary to enable active control of lightweight structures. Optimal control allocation with structural feedback has been shown in simulation to be feasible in preventing critical loads and is one example of a control law to enable future lightweight aircraft.

  18. The Enabler: A concept for a lunar work vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brazell, James W.; Campbell, Craig; Kaser, Ken; Austin, James A.; Beard, Clark; Ceniza, Glenn; Hamby, Thomas; Robinson, Anne; Wooters, Dana

    1992-01-01

    The Enabler is an earthbound prototype designed to model an actual lunar work vehicle and is able to perform many of the tasks that might be expected of a lunar work vehicle. The vehicle will be constructed entirely from parts made by students and from standard stock parts. The design utilizes only four distinct chassis pieces and sixteen moving parts. The Enabler has non-orthogonal articulating joints that give the vehicle a wide range of mobility and reduce the total number of parts. Composite wheels provide the primary suspension system for the vehicle.

  19. Surgical Materials: Current Challenges and Nano-enabled Solutions.

    PubMed

    Annabi, Nasim; Tamayol, Ali; Shin, Su Ryon; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M; Peppas, Nicholas A; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-10-01

    Surgical adhesive biomaterials have emerged as substitutes to sutures and staples in many clinical applications. Nano-enabled materials containing nanoparticles or having a distinct nanotopography have been utilized for generation of a new class of surgical materials with enhanced functionality. In this review, the state of the art in the development of conventional surgical adhesive biomaterials is critically reviewed and their shortcomings are outlined. Recent advancements in generation of nano-enabled surgical materials with their potential future applications are discussed. This review will open new avenues for the innovative development of the next generation of tissue adhesives, hemostats, and sealants with enhanced functionality for various surgical applications.

  20. Explorations of Psyche and Callisto Enabled by Ion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenkert, Daniel D.; Landau, Damon F.; Bills, Bruce G.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in ion propulsion (specifically solar electric propulsion - SEP) have the potential for dramatically reducing the transportation cost of planetary missions. We examine two representative cases, where these new developments enable missions which, until recently, would have required resouces well beyond those allocated to the Discovery program. The two cases of interest address differentiation of asteroids and large icy satellites

  1. Measuring Noncommissioned Officer Knowledge and Experience to Enable Tailored Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Research Report 1952 Measuring Noncommissioned Officer...Knowledge and Experience to Enable Tailored Training Peter S. Schaefer U.S. Army Research Institute Paul N. Blankenbeckler Northrop...Grumman Corporation Christopher J. Brogdon Mercer University Consortium Research Fellows Program November 2011 Approved for

  2. Transactional network: Improving efficiency and enabling grid services for buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Lutes, Robert; Hernandez, George; Haack, Jereme; Akyol, Bora

    2016-04-08

    This paper describes the transactional network concept, the platform and two example agents/applications within VOLTTRON™ that improve operational efficiency and enable grid services for packaged air conditioners and heat pumps (RTUs). It also describes the results from testing the concept on some demonstration sites.

  3. Microfluidics-Enabled Diagnostic Systems: Markets, Challenges, and Examples.

    PubMed

    Becker, Holger; Gärtner, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Microfluidics has become an important tool for the commercial product development in diagnostics. This article will focus on current technical demands during the development process such as material and integration challenges. Furthermore, we present data on the diagnostics market as well as examples of microfluidics-enabled systems currently under commercial development or already on the market.

  4. Enabled Masses: Challenge and Trust within Modern Social Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Networks by Colonel Daniel J. W. King United States Army Dr. Richard M. Meinhart Department of Command...Enabled Masses: Challenge and Trust within Modern Social Networks by Colonel Daniel J. W. King United States Army ...United States Army War College Class of 2013 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: A Approved for Public Release Distribution is

  5. Anatomy Drawing Screencasts: Enabling Flexible Learning for Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, James D.

    2015-01-01

    The traditional lecture remains an essential method of disseminating information to medical students. However, due to the constant development of the modern medical curriculum many institutions are embracing novel means for delivering the core anatomy syllabus. Using mobile media devices is one such way, enabling students to access core material…

  6. Barriers and Enablers to Evidence-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    The importance of educational practices based on evidence is well-supported in the literature, however barriers to their implementation in classrooms still exist. This paper examines the phenomenon of evidence-based practice in education highlighting enablers and barriers to their implementation with particular reference to RTLB practice.

  7. Enabling Science and Technology Research Teams: A Breadmaking Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Deana

    2010-01-01

    Anyone who has been involved with a cross-disciplinary team that combines scientists and information technology specialists knows just how tough it can be to move these efforts forward. Decades of experience point to the transformative potential of technology-enabled science efforts, and the success stories offer hope for future efforts. But for…

  8. Neuronix enables continuous, simultaneous neural recording and electrical microstimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhi Yang; Jian Xu; Anh Tuan Nguyen; Tong Wu; Wenfeng Zhao; Wing-Kin Tam

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports a novel neurotechnology (Neuronix) and its validation through experiments. It is a miniature system-on-chip (SoC) that allows recording with simultaneous electrical microstimulation. This function has not been demonstrated before and enables precise, closed-loop neuromodulation. Neuronix represents recent advancement in brain technology and applies to both animal research and clinical applications.

  9. Fraternity as "Enabling Environment:" Does Membership Lead to Gambling Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddix, J. Patrick; Hardy, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that fraternity membership is the most reliable predictor of gambling and gambling problems on campus. The purpose of this study was to determine if problematic gambling could be linked to specific aspects of fraternity membership. Though the null hypothesis (no enabling environment) failed to be rejected, descriptive…

  10. The Xenopus ORFeome: A resource that enables functional genomics

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Ian M.; Balcha, Dawit; Hao, Tong; Shen, Yun; Trivedi, Prasad; Patrushev, Ilya; Fortriede, Joshua D.; Karpinka, John B.; Liu, Limin; Zorn, Aaron M.; Stukenberg, P. Todd; Hill, David E.; Gilchrist, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Functional characterisation of proteins and large-scale, systems-level studies are enabled by extensive sets of cloned open reading frames (ORFs) in an easily-accessible format that enables many different applications. Here we report the release of the first stage of the Xenopus ORFeome, which contains 8673 ORFs from the Xenopus Gene Collection (XGC) for Xenopus laevis, cloned into a Gateway® donor vector enabling rapid in-frame transfer of the ORFs to expression vectors. This resource represents an estimated 7871 unique genes, approximately 40% of the non-redundant X. laevis gene complement, and includes 2724 genes where the human ortholog has an association with disease. Transfer into the Gateway system was validated by 5′ and 3′ end sequencing of the entire collection and protein expression of a set of test clones. In a parallel process, the underlying ORF predictions from the original XGC collection were re-analysed to verify quality and full-length status, identifying those proteins likely to exhibit truncations when translated. These data are integrated into Xenbase, the Xenopus community database, which associates genomic, expression, function and human disease model metadata to each ORF, enabling end-users to search for ORFeome clones with links to commercial distributors of the collection. When coupled with the experimental advantages of Xenopus eggs and embryos, the ORFeome collection represents a valuable resource for functional genomics and disease modelling. PMID:26391338

  11. Large Scale PEM Electrolysis to Enable Renewable Hydrogen Fuel Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-10

    applications are enabled by PEM electrolyzer technology: Unmanned underwater and aerial vehicles Remote camp energy storage Space based systems – lunar ... colonies and satellites Submarine life support Fueling of specialty vehicles 15UNCLASSIFIED: Dist A. Approved for public release 65 kg/day Fueling

  12. Thrice Disabling Disability: Enabling Inclusive, Socially Just Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, S. Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this inquiry was to create a social justice-oriented inclusive and enabling pedagogy by situating traditional individualised views of disability alongside three alternative understandings: a disability studies in education perspective, a First Nations view of disability and one based upon the autism pride/autism-as-culture movement.…

  13. Integrated Children's Services: Enablers, Challenges and Impact. Research Briefing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Mark; Atkinson, Mary; Downing, Dick

    2008-01-01

    This summary provides background information about the enablers, challenges and impact of integration, based on a thorough literature review of thirty-five sources. The review findings are presented under thematic headings that reflect the: (1) extent of integration: the "stage" or depth of the collaborative activity in integrated services; (2)…

  14. Interactive BIM-Enabled Safety Training Piloted in Construction Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clevenger, Caroline; Lopez del Puerto, Carla; Glick, Scott

    2015-01-01

    This paper documents and assesses the development of a construction safety training module featuring interactive, BIM-enabled, 3D visualizations to test if such a tool can enhance safety training related to scaffolds. This research documents the technical challenges and the lessons learned through the development and administration of a prototype…

  15. Mechanical Design Engineering Enabler Project wheel and wheel drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nutt, Richard E.; Couch, Britt K.; Holley, John L., Jr.; Garris, Eric S.; Staut, Paul V.

    1992-01-01

    Our group was assigned the responsibility of designing the wheel and wheel drive system for a proof-of-concept model of the lunar-based ENABLER. ENABLER is a multi-purpose, six wheeled vehicle designed to lift and transport heavy objects associated with the construction of a lunar base. The resulting design was based on the performance criteria of the ENABLER. The drive system was designed to enable the vehicle to achieve a speed of 7 mph on a level surface, climb a 30 percent grade, and surpass a one meter high object and one meter wide crevice. The wheel assemblies were designed to support the entire weight of the vehicle on two wheels. The wheels were designed to serve as the main component of the vehicle's suspension and will provide suitable traction for lunar-type surfaces. The expected performance of the drive system for the ENABLER was influenced by many mechanical factors. The expected top speed on a level sandy surface is 4 mph instead of the desired 7 mph. This is due to a lack of necessary power at the wheels. The lack of power resulted from dimension considerations that allowed only an eight horsepower engine and also from mechanical inefficiencies of the hydraulic system. However, the vehicle will be able to climb a 30 percent grade, surpass a one meter high object and one meter wide crevice. The wheel assemblies will be able to support the entire weight of the vehicle on two wheels. The wheels will also provide adequate suspension for the vehicle and sufficient traction for lunar-type surfaces.

  16. NASA's Space Launch System: An Enabling Capability for Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human spaceflight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. Making its first uncrewed test flight in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, capable of supporting human missions into deep space and to Mars. This paper will summarize the planned capabilities of the vehicle, the progress the SLS Program has made in the years since the Agency formally announced its architecture in September 2011, and the path the program is following to reach the launch pad in 2017 and then to evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130 t lift capability. The paper will outline the milestones the program has already reached, from developmental milestones such as the manufacture of the first flight hardware and recordbreaking engine testing, to life-cycle milestones such as the vehicle's Preliminary Design Review in the summer of 2013. The paper will also discuss the remaining challenges in both delivering the 70 t vehicle and in evolving its capabilities to the 130 t vehicle, and how the program plans to accomplish these goals. In addition, this paper will demonstrate how the Space Launch System is being designed to enable or enhance not only human exploration missions, but robotic scientific missions as well. Because of its unique launch capabilities, SLS will support simplifying spacecraft complexity, provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduce mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious science missions by reducing

  17. Enabling Technologies for Direct Detection Optical Phase Modulation Formats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xian

    Phase modulation formats are believed to be one of the key enabling techniques for next generation high speed long haul fiber-optic communication systems due to the following main advantages: (1) with a balanced detection, a better receiver sensitivity over conventional intensity modulation formats, e.g., a ˜3-dB sensitivity improvement using differential phase shift keying (DPSK) and a ˜1.3-dB sensitivity improvement using differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK); (2) excellent robustness against fiber nonlinearities; (3) high spectrum efficiency when using multilevel phase modulation formats, such as DQPSK. As the information is encoded in the phase of the optical field, the phase modulation formats are sensitive to the phase-related impairments and the deterioration induced in the phase-intensity conversion. This consequently creates new challenging issues. The research objective of this thesis is to depict some of the challenging issues and provide possible solutions. The first challenge is the cross-phase modulation (XPM) penalty for the phase modulated channels co-propagating with the intensity modulated channels. The penalty comes from the pattern dependent intensity fluctuations of the neighboring intensity modulated channels being converted into phase noise in the phase modulation channels. We propose a model to theoretically analyze the XPM penalty dependence on the walk off effect. From this model, we suggest that using fibers with large local dispersion or intentionally introducing some residual dispersion per span would help mitigate the XPM penalty. The second challenge is the polarization dependent frequency shift (PDf) induced penalty during the phase-intensity conversion. The direct detection DPSK is usually demodulated in a Mach-Zehnder delay interferometer (DI). The polarization dependence of DI introduces a PDf causing a frequency offset between the laser's frequency and the transmissivity peak of DI, degrading the demodulated DPSK

  18. Enabling conformity to international standards within SeaDataNet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Boldrini, Enrico; de Korte, Arjen; Santoro, Mattia; Manzella, Giuseppe; Nativi, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    SeaDataNet objective is to construct a standardized system for managing the large and diverse data sets collected by the oceanographic fleets and the new automatic observation systems. The aim is to network and enhance the currently existing infrastructures, which are the national oceanographic data centres and satellite data centres of 36 countries, active in data collection. The networking of these professional data centres, in a unique virtual data management system will provide integrated data sets of standardized quality on-line. The Common Data Index (CDI) is the middleware service adopted by SeaDataNet for discovery and access of the available data. In order to develop an interoperable and effective system, the use of international de facto and de jure standards is required. In particular the new goal object of this presentation is to introduce and discuss the solutions for making SeaDataNet compliant with the European Union (EU) INSPIRE directive and in particular with its Implementing Rules (IR). The European INSPIRE directive aims to rule the creation of an European Spatial Data Infrastructure (ESDI). This will enable the sharing of environmental spatial information among public sector organisations and better facilitate public access to spatial information across Europe. To ensure that the spatial data infrastructures of the European Member States are compatible and usable in a community and transboundary context, the directive requires that common IRs are adopted in a number of specific areas (Metadata, Data Specifications, Network Services, Data and Service Sharing and Monitoring and Reporting). Often the use of already approved digital geographic information standards is mandated, drawing from international organizations like the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the latter by means of its Technical Committee 211 (ISO/TC 211). In the context of geographic data discovery a set of mandatory

  19. Revolutionary Deep Space Science Missions Enabled by Onboard Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Debban, Theresa; Yen, Chen wan; Sherwood, Robert; Castano, Rebecca; Cichy, Benjamin; Davies, Ashley; Brul, Michael; Fukunaga, Alex; Fukunaga, Alex; Doggett, Thomas; Williams, Kevin; Dohm, James

    2003-01-01

    Breakthrough autonomy technologies enable a new range of spire missions that acquire vast amounts of data and return only the most scientifically important data to Earth. These missions would monitor science phenomena in great detail (either with frequent observations or at extremely high spatial resolution) and onboard analyze the data to detect specific science events of interest. These missions would monitor volcanic eruptions, formation and movement of aeolian features. and atmospheric phenomena. The autonomous spacecraft would respond to science events by planning its future operations to revisit or perform complementary observations. In this paradigm, the spacecraft represents the scientists agent enabling optimization of the downlink data volume resource. This paper describes preliminary efforts to define and design such missions.

  20. Federated and Cloud Enabled Resources for Data Management and Utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, R.; Gordon, M.; Potter, R. G.; Satchwill, B.

    2011-12-01

    The emergence of cloud computing over the past three years has led to a paradigm shift in how data can be managed, processed and made accessible. Building on the federated data management system offered through the Canadian Space Science Data Portal (www.cssdp.ca), we demonstrate how heterogeneous and geographically distributed data sets and modeling tools have been integrated to form a virtual data center and computational modeling platform that has services for data processing and visualization embedded within it. We also discuss positive and negative experiences in utilizing Eucalyptus and OpenStack cloud applications, and job scheduling facilitated by Condor and Star Cluster. We summarize our findings by demonstrating use of these technologies in the Cloud Enabled Space Weather Data Assimilation and Modeling Platform CESWP (www.ceswp.ca), which is funded through Canarie's (canarie.ca) Network Enabled Platforms program in Canada.

  1. Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing a system to safely enable low altitude unmanned aerial system (UAS) operations. The system is referred to as UAS Traffic Management (UTM). The UTM will safely enable a variety of business models and multiple operations in the same airspace. The UTM will provide services such as airspace configuration and geo-fencing, weather and wind integration, demand-capacity imbalance management, and separation management, and contingency management. The UTM research and development has been conducted in collaboration with many in industry, academia, and government. The UTM system will evolve through four builds. Each build will be collaboratively tested with partners. The final prototype will be available for persistent daily use of UAS operations beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS).

  2. Polysulfide flow batteries enabled by percolating nanoscale conductor networks.

    PubMed

    Fan, Frank Y; Woodford, William H; Li, Zheng; Baram, Nir; Smith, Kyle C; Helal, Ahmed; McKinley, Gareth H; Carter, W Craig; Chiang, Yet-Ming

    2014-01-01

    A new approach to flow battery design is demonstrated wherein diffusion-limited aggregation of nanoscale conductor particles at ∼1 vol % concentration is used to impart mixed electronic-ionic conductivity to redox solutions, forming flow electrodes with embedded current collector networks that self-heal after shear. Lithium polysulfide flow cathodes of this architecture exhibit electrochemical activity that is distributed throughout the volume of flow electrodes rather than being confined to surfaces of stationary current collectors. The nanoscale network architecture enables cycling of polysulfide solutions deep into precipitation regimes that historically have shown poor capacity utilization and reversibility and may thereby enable new flow battery designs of higher energy density and lower system cost. Lithium polysulfide half-flow cells operating in both continuous and intermittent flow mode are demonstrated for the first time.

  3. NASA Space Launch System: An Enabling Capability for Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    SLS provides capability for human exploration missions. 70 t configuration enables EM-1 and EM-2 flight tests. Evolved configurations enable missions including humans to Mars. u? SLS offers unrivaled benefits for a variety of missions. 70 t provides greater mass lift than any contemporary launch vehicle; 130 t offers greater lift than any launch vehicle ever. With 8.4m and 10m fairings, SLS will over greater volume lift capability than any other vehicle. center dot Initial ICPS configuration and future evolution will offer high C3 for beyond- Earth missions. SLS is currently on schedule for first launch in December 2017. Preliminary design completed in July 2013; SLS is now in implementation. Manufacture and testing are currently underway. Hardware now exists representing all SLS elements.

  4. Differentially photo-crosslinked polymers enable self-assembling microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Mustapha; Zarafshar, Aasiyeh M.; Gracias, David H.

    2012-01-01

    An important feature of naturally self-assembled systems such as leaves and tissues is that they are curved and have embedded fluidic channels that enable the transport of nutrients to, or removal of waste from, specific three-dimensional (3D) regions. Here, we report the self-assembly of photopatterned polymers, and consequently microfluidic devices, into curved geometries. We discovered that differentially photo-crosslinked SU-8 films spontaneously and reversibly curved upon film de-solvation and re-solvation. Photolithographic patterning of the SU-8 films enabled the self-assembly of cylinders, cubes, and bidirectionally folded sheets. We integrated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels with these SU-8 films to self-assemble curved microfluidic networks. PMID:22068594

  5. A simple physical mechanism enables homeostasis in primitive cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhart, Aaron E.; Adamala, Katarzyna P.; Szostak, Jack W.

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of homeostatic mechanisms that enable maintenance of an intracellular steady state during growth was critical to the advent of cellular life. Here, we show that concentration-dependent reversible binding of short oligonucleotides, of both specific and random sequence, can modulate ribozyme activity. In both cases, catalysis is inhibited at high concentrations, and dilution activates the ribozyme via inhibitor dissociation, thus maintaining near-constant ribozyme specific activity throughout protocell growth. To mimic the result of RNA synthesis within non-growing protocells, we co-encapsulated high concentrations of ribozyme and oligonucleotides within fatty acid vesicles, and ribozyme activity was inhibited. Following vesicle growth, the resulting internal dilution produced ribozyme activation. This simple physical system enables a primitive homeostatic behaviour: the maintenance of constant ribozyme activity per unit volume during protocell volume changes. We suggest that such systems, wherein short oligonucleotides reversibly inhibit functional RNAs, could have preceded sophisticated modern RNA regulatory mechanisms, such as those involving miRNAs.

  6. Enabling technologies for Chinese Mars lander guidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiuqiang; Li, Shuang

    2017-04-01

    Chinese first Mars exploration activity, orbiting landing and roaming collaborative mission, has been programmed and started. As a key technology, Mars lander guidance system is intended to serve atmospheric entry, descent and landing (EDL) phases. This paper is to report the formation process of enabling technology road map for Chinese Mars lander guidance system. First, two scenarios of the first-stage of the Chinese Mars exploration project are disclosed in detail. Second, mission challenges and engineering needs of EDL guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) are presented systematically for Chinese Mars exploration program. Third, some useful related technologies developed in China's current aerospace projects are pertinently summarized, especially on entry guidance, parachute descent, autonomous hazard avoidance and safe landing. Finally, an enabling technology road map of Chinese Mars lander guidance is given through technological inheriting and improving.

  7. A Revolution in Plant Metabolism: Genome-Enabled Pathway Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongwoon; Buell, C. Robin

    2015-01-01

    Genome-enabled discoveries are the hallmark of 21st century biology, including major discoveries in the biosynthesis and regulation of plant metabolic pathways. Access to next generation sequencing technologies has enabled research on the biosynthesis of diverse plant metabolites, especially secondary metabolites, resulting in a broader understanding of not only the structural and regulatory genes involved in metabolite biosynthesis but also in the evolution of chemical diversity in the plant kingdom. Several paradigms that govern secondary metabolism have emerged, including that (1) gene family expansion and diversification contribute to the chemical diversity found in the plant kingdom, (2) genes encoding biochemical pathway components are frequently transcriptionally coregulated, and (3) physical clustering of nonhomologous genes that encode components of secondary metabolic pathways can occur. With an increasing knowledge base that is coupled with user-friendly and inexpensive technologies, biochemists are poised to accelerate the annotation of biochemical pathways relevant to human health, agriculture, and the environment. PMID:26224805

  8. Discussion of the enabling environments for decentralised water systems.

    PubMed

    Moglia, M; Alexander, K S; Sharma, A

    2011-01-01

    Decentralised water supply systems are becoming increasingly affordable and commonplace in Australia and have the potential to alleviate urban water shortages and reduce pollution into natural receiving marine and freshwater streams. Learning processes are necessary to support the efficient implementation of decentralised systems. These processes reveal the complex socio-technical and institutional factors to be considered when developing an enabling environment supporting decentralised water and wastewater servicing solutions. Critical to the technological transition towards established decentralised systems is the ability to create strategic and adaptive capacity to promote learning and dialogue. Learning processes require institutional mechanisms to ensure the lessons are incorporated into the formulation of policy and regulation, through constructive involvement of key government institutions. Engagement of stakeholders is essential to the enabling environment. Collaborative learning environments using systems analysis with communities (social learning) and adaptive management techniques are useful in refining and applying scientists' and managers' knowledge (knowledge management).

  9. Devices to enable persons with amputation to participate in sports.

    PubMed

    Rubin, G; Fleiss, D

    1983-01-01

    Participation in physically challenging competitive sports is as important to some persons with amputations as are work and leisure, both of which are ordinarily of a sedentary character. Sports participation contributes not only to physical but also to psychologic well-being. The manner in which a prosthetic clinic team can aid in this aspect of rehabilitation is discussed. Some of the more sophisticated prostheses prescribed to enable participation in sports include above-knee and below-knee water-resistant prostheses for swimmers, an adjustable foot-ankle unit for the proficient swimmer and scuba diver, prostheses and special equipment for skiers, special devices for golfers with upper extremity or lower extremity amputations, and various commercially available terminal devices to enable persons with an upper extremity amputation to bowl, to hold a fishing pole and reel, to play baseball, to hold tools, to fire a pistol, and to swim.

  10. SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, Kenneth I.

    2014-09-14

    This project focuses on leveraging scientific visualization and analytics software technology as an enabling technology for increasing scientific productivity and insight. Advances in computational technology have resulted in an "information big bang," which in turn has created a significant data understanding challenge. This challenge is widely acknowledged to be one of the primary bottlenecks in contemporary science. The vision for our Center is to respond directly to that challenge by adapting, extending, creating when necessary and deploying visualization and data understanding technologies for our science stakeholders. Using an organizational model as a Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET), we are well positioned to be responsive to the needs of a diverse set of scientific stakeholders in a coordinated fashion using a range of visualization, mathematics, statistics, computer and computational science and data management technologies.

  11. Global tree network for computing structures enabling global processing operations

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich; Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Hoenicke, Dirk; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2010-01-19

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global tree network communications among processing nodes interconnected according to a tree network structure. The global tree network enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices are included that interconnect the nodes of the tree via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual tree and sub-tree structures. The global operations performed include one or more of: broadcast operations downstream from a root node to leaf nodes of a virtual tree, reduction operations upstream from leaf nodes to the root node in the virtual tree, and point-to-point message passing from any node to the root node. The global tree network is configurable to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner, and, is physically and logically partitionable.

  12. Jamming as an enabling technology for soft robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steltz, E.; Mozeika, A.; Rembisz, J.; Corson, N.; Jaeger, H. M.

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a new architecture in soft robotics that utilizes particulate jamming technology. A novel concept of actuation is described that utilizes jamming technology to modulate the direction and magnitude of the work performed by a single central actuator. Jamming "activators" modulate work by jamming and unjamming (solidifying and liquifying) a granular medium coupled to a core actuator. These ideas are demonstrated in the Jamming Skin Enabled Locomotion (JSEL) prototype which can morph its shape and achieve locomotion. Next, a new actuator, denoted a Jamming Modulated Unimorph (JMU), is presented in addition to the JSEL topology. The JMU uses a single linear actuator and a discrete number of jamming cells to turn the 1 degree of freedom (DOF) linear actuator into a multi DOF bending actuator. Full characterization of the JMU actuator is presented, followed by a concluding argument for jamming as an enabling mechanism for soft robots in general, regardless of actuation technology.

  13. Split rheometer Couette attachment to enable sample extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guthrie, Sarah E.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2005-02-01

    We report on the development of a Couette attachment insert for a rheometer, which is designed to split in half, enabling intact sample extraction of cocoa butter crystallized from the melt under known dynamic stress conditions. This cell is capable of producing a sample 1mm thick. At shear rates of 90-720s-1 and final temperatures of 18-20°C it was shown that the sample will completely separate from the cell surface intact.

  14. Progress Towards a NASA Earth Science Reuse Enablement System (RES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, James J.; Downs, Robert R.; Mattmann, Chris A.

    2010-01-01

    A Reuse Enablement System (RES) allows developers of Earth science software to contribute software for reuse by others and.for users to find, select, and obtain software for reuse in their own systems. This paper describes work that the X4S,4 Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Software Reuse Working Group has completed to date in the development of an RES for NASA.

  15. Web-Enabled Design Review and Lessons Learned

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    Additional information regarding cookie variables may be found through any WWW search engine . Computer Hardware Resource Utilization The extent to...i:. US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratories USACERL Technical Report 98/31 April 1998 Web-Enabled Design...Information source, design data or procedure, management procedure, source of ideas, etc.) 3. Has the information in this report led to any quantitative

  16. Improving Air Force Enterprise Resource Planning-Enabled Business Transformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    5. Business logistics—United States. 6. Reengineering (Management)—United States. I. Title. II. Title: Improving Air Force ERP -enabled business...transformation. UG633.2.R57 2013 358.4�—dc23 2013030449 - iii - Preface Enterprise Resource Planning ( ERP ) systems are configurable...of internal business activities, including procurement, accounting, finance, and human resources. ERP programs tend to be very large, involve a

  17. Fly-by-Wire Systems Enable Safer, More Efficient Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Using the ultra-reliable Apollo Guidance Computer that enabled the Apollo Moon missions, Dryden Flight Research Center engineers, in partnership with industry leaders such as Cambridge, Massachusetts-based Draper Laboratory, demonstrated that digital computers could be used to fly aircraft. Digital fly-by-wire systems have since been incorporated into large airliners, military jets, revolutionary new aircraft, and even cars and submarines.

  18. Ames Coronagraph Experiment: Enabling Missions to Directly Image Exoplanets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belikov, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    Technology to find biomarkers and life on other worlds is rapidly maturing. If there is a habitable planet around the nearest star, we may be able to detect it this decade with a small satellite mission. In the 2030 decade, we will likely know if there is life in our Galactic neighborhood (1000 nearest stars). The Ames Coronagraph Experiment is developing coronagraphic technologies to enable such missions.

  19. Identification, Characterization, and Evaluation Criteria for Systems Engineering Agile Enablers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-16

    monitoring communications in social media groups and websites (such as LinkedIn or Facebook groups associated with the Scaled Agile Framework, Lean... Identification , Characterization, and Evaluation Criteria for Systems Engineering Agile Enablers Technical Report SERC-2015-TR-049-1...currently valid OMB control number 1. REPORT DATE 16 JAN 2015 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Identification

  20. Potential Astrophysics Science Missions Enabled by NASA's Planned Ares V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Thronson, Harley; Langhoff, Stepheni; Postman, Marc; Lester, Daniel; Lillie, Chuck

    2009-01-01

    NASA s planned Ares V cargo vehicle with its 10 meter diameter fairing and 60,000 kg payload mass to L2 offers the potential to launch entirely new classes of space science missions such as 8-meter monolithic aperture telescopes, 12- meter aperture x-ray telescopes, 16 to 24 meter segmented telescopes and highly capable outer planet missions. The paper will summarize the current Ares V baseline performance capabilities and review potential mission concepts enabled by these capabilities.

  1. Informatics Methods to Enable Sharing of Quantitative Imaging Research Data

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Mia A.; Freymann, John B.; Kirby, Justin S.; Fedorov, Andriy; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Eschrich, Steven A.; Berglund, Anders E.; Fenstermacher, David A.; Tan, Yongqiang; Guo, Xiaotao; Casavant, Thomas L.; Brown, Bartley J.; Braun, Terry A.; Dekker, Andre; Roelofs, Erik; Mountz, James M.; Boada, Fernando; Laymon, Charles; Oborski, Matt; Rubin, Daniel L

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Quantitative Research Network (QIN) is a collaborative research network whose goal is to share data, algorithms and research tools to accelerate quantitative imaging research. A challenge is the variability in tools and analysis platforms used in quantitative imaging. Our goal was to understand the extent of this variation and to develop an approach to enable sharing data and to promote reuse of quantitative imaging data in the community. Methods We performed a survey of the current tools in use by the QIN member sites for representation and storage of their QIN research data including images, image meta-data and clinical data. We identified existing systems and standards for data sharing and their gaps for the QIN use case. We then proposed a system architecture to enable data sharing and collaborative experimentation within the QIN. Results There area variety of tools currently used by each QIN institution. We developed a general information system architecture to support the QIN goals. We also describe the remaining architecture gaps we are developing to enable members to share research images and image meta-data across the network. Conclusions As a research network, the QIN will stimulate quantitative imaging research by pooling data, algorithms and research tools. However, there are gaps in current functional requirements that will need to be met by future informatics development. Special attention must be given to the technical requirements needed to translate these methods into the clinical research workflow to enable validation and qualification of these novel imaging biomarkers. PMID:22770688

  2. Useful Sensor Web Capabilities to Enable Progressive Mission Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Dan

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews using the Sensor Web capabilities as an enabling technology to allow for progressive autonomy of NASA space missions. The presentation reviews technical challenges for future missions, and some of the capabilities that exist to meet those challenges. To establish the ability of the technology to meet the challenges, experiments were conducted on three missions: Earth Observing 1 (EO-1), Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer (CHIPS) and Space Technology 5 (ST-5). These experiments are reviewed.

  3. LENS(Registered) and SFF: Enabling Technologies for Optimized Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    LENS® and SFF: Enabling Technologies for Optimized Structures D.D. Gill, C.J. Atwood , T.E. Voth, J. Robbins Sandia National Laboratories...manufacturing development required for LENS to make these complex structures has included the addition of rotational axes to Sandia’s LENS machine ...conventional machining process. Advances in computing power and research into better design methods for optimizing structures, and developments toward fully

  4. Optical Thermal Characterization Enables High-Performance Electronics Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2016-02-01

    NREL developed a modeling and experimental strategy to characterize thermal performance of materials. The technique provides critical data on thermal properties with relevance for electronics packaging applications. Thermal contact resistance and bulk thermal conductivity were characterized for new high-performance materials such as thermoplastics, boron-nitride nanosheets, copper nanowires, and atomically bonded layers. The technique is an important tool for developing designs and materials that enable power electronics packaging with small footprint, high power density, and low cost for numerous applications.

  5. Enabling students to develop confidence in basic clinical skills.

    PubMed

    Mayne, Wendy; Jootun, Dev; Young, Beverley; Marland, Glenn; Harris, Margaret; Lyttle, C Paul

    An increase in the number of nursing students is making it difficult to guarantee those on the common foundation programme the opportunity to practise basic nursing skills. In order to address this problem a nursing college developed a skills week that enabled students to practise their skills and develop confidence. Simulated clinical situations gave students the opportunity to relate these skills to practice while learning about teamwork and holistic patient care.

  6. Terahertz Characterization of DNA: Enabling a Novel Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    nucleic acid sequence, requirement of a thick DNA testing layer, and conductor structure complexity. This project enables a novel method to identify...researchers. These nucleic acid fragments are used to locate and analyze identical base pair sequences in full strands. Compilation of their...nucleic acid sequences within a genetic library would pave the way for improved forensic analysis, genetic testing, and DNA production processes.1 Other

  7. Expanding the MEU(SOC) Joint Task Force Enabler Concept

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-28

    concept. 2 The influential twentieth-century linguistic philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein argued that real understanding rests on the precise use...of language and universally agreed upon meanings. Without clarity and common understanding, Wittgenstein observed, we can never really communicate... Wittgenstein anticipated when we don’t share a common understanding of what a term means. The Joint Task Force Enabler is potentially a critical concept, both

  8. Ammonia recycling enables sustainable operation of bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ka Yu; Kaksonen, Anna H; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2013-09-01

    Ammonium (NH4(+)) migration across a cation exchange membrane is commonly observed during the operation of bioelectrochemical systems (BES). This often leads to anolyte acidification (pH <5.5) and complete inactivation of biofilm electroactivity. Without using conventional pH controls (dosage of alkali or pH buffers), the present study revealed that anodic biofilm activity (current) could be sustained if recycling of ammonia (NH3) was implemented. A simple gas-exchange apparatus was designed to enable continuous recycling of NH3 (released from the catholyte at pH >10) from the cathodic headspace to the acidified anolyte. Results indicated that current (110 mA or 688 Am(-3) net anodic chamber volume) was sustained as long as the NH3 recycling path was enabled, facilitating continuous anolyte neutralization with the recycled NH3. Since the microbial current enabled NH4(+) migration against a strong concentration gradient (~10-fold), a novel way of ammonia recovery from wastewaters could be envisaged.

  9. Enabling Disabled Persons to Gain Access to Digital Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Glenn; OGrady, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    A report describes the first phase in an effort to enhance the NaviGaze software to enable profoundly disabled persons to operate computers. (Running on a Windows-based computer equipped with a video camera aimed at the user s head, the original NaviGaze software processes the user's head movements and eye blinks into cursor movements and mouse clicks to enable hands-free control of the computer.) To accommodate large variations in movement capabilities among disabled individuals, one of the enhancements was the addition of a graphical user interface for selection of parameters that affect the way the software interacts with the computer and tracks the user s movements. Tracking algorithms were improved to reduce sensitivity to rotations and reduce the likelihood of tracking the wrong features. Visual feedback to the user was improved to provide an indication of the state of the computer system. It was found that users can quickly learn to use the enhanced software, performing single clicks, double clicks, and drags within minutes of first use. Available programs that could increase the usability of NaviGaze were identified. One of these enables entry of text by using NaviGaze as a mouse to select keys on a virtual keyboard.

  10. Multi-target electrochemical biosensing enabled by integrated CMOS electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothe, J.; Lewandowska, M. K.; Heer, F.; Frey, O.; Hierlemann, A.

    2011-05-01

    An integrated electrochemical measurement system, based on CMOS technology, is presented, which allows the detection of several analytes in parallel (multi-analyte) and enables simultaneous monitoring at different locations (multi-site). The system comprises a 576-electrode CMOS sensor chip, an FPGA module for chip control and data processing, and the measurement laptop. The advantages of the highly versatile system are demonstrated by two applications. First, a label-free, hybridization-based DNA sensor is enabled by the possibility of large-scale integration in CMOS technology. Second, the detection of the neurotransmitter choline is presented by assembling the chip with biosensor microprobe arrays. The low noise level enables a limit of detection of, e.g., 0.3 µM choline. The fully integrated system is self-contained: it features cleaning, functionalization and measurement functions without the need for additional electrical equipment. With the power supplied by the laptop, the system is very suitable for on-site measurements.

  11. Fundamental plant biology enabled by the space shuttle.

    PubMed

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Wheeler, Ray M; Levine, Howard G; Ferl, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between fundamental plant biology and space biology was especially synergistic in the era of the Space Shuttle. While all terrestrial organisms are influenced by gravity, the impact of gravity as a tropic stimulus in plants has been a topic of formal study for more than a century. And while plants were parts of early space biology payloads, it was not until the advent of the Space Shuttle that the science of plant space biology enjoyed expansion that truly enabled controlled, fundamental experiments that removed gravity from the equation. The Space Shuttle presented a science platform that provided regular science flights with dedicated plant growth hardware and crew trained in inflight plant manipulations. Part of the impetus for plant biology experiments in space was the realization that plants could be important parts of bioregenerative life support on long missions, recycling water, air, and nutrients for the human crew. However, a large part of the impetus was that the Space Shuttle enabled fundamental plant science essentially in a microgravity environment. Experiments during the Space Shuttle era produced key science insights on biological adaptation to spaceflight and especially plant growth and tropisms. In this review, we present an overview of plant science in the Space Shuttle era with an emphasis on experiments dealing with fundamental plant growth in microgravity. This review discusses general conclusions from the study of plant spaceflight biology enabled by the Space Shuttle by providing historical context and reviews of select experiments that exemplify plant space biology science.

  12. Enabling a Science Support Structure for NASAs Global Hawk UASs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Donald V.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the information technologies developed by NASA for the Winter/Spring 2013/2014, and Fall 2014, NASA Earth Venture Campaigns, Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) and Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX). These campaigns utilized Global Hawk UAS vehicles equipped at the NASA Armstrong (previously Dryden) Flight Research Facility (AFRC), Edwards Air Force Base, California, and operated from there, the NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF), Virginia, and Anderson Air Force Base (AAFB), Guam. Part of this enabling infrastructure utilized a layer 2 encrypted terrestrial Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) that, at times, spanned greater than ten thousand miles (AAFB <-> AFRC <-> WFF) and was routed over geosynchronous Ku band communication Satellites directly to the aircraft sensor network. This infrastructure enabled seamless hand off between Satellites, and Satellite ground stations in Guam, California and Virginia, so allowing simultaneous Aircraft Command and Control and Science operations from remote locations. Additionally, we will describe the other elements of this infrastructure, from on-board geo-enabled databases, to real time communications directly from the instruments (in some cases, more than twelve were carried, and simultaneously operated, on one aircraft) to the researchers and other interested parties, world wide.

  13. Quantum dots enabled LCD displays and solid-state lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Wengang; Xu, Shu; Geng, Chong; Zhao, Fei; Jiang, Xiaofang

    2016-09-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) with unique properties have evolved to be a key player in the next generation display and lighting applications. Followed by studies on the optimization of QD nanomaterials with low self-absorption properties, we analyze and identify the key parameters of the QDs that impact the color gamut and energy efficiency features of LCD displays using QD-enabled LED backlights, which consist of red and green QDs as well as blue LEDs that act as pumping sources. It is found that both the full width at half maximum (FWHM) and the emission peak positions of the green and the red QDs affect the color gamut. A narrower FWHM for both color QDs is preferred to achieve a wider color gamut while a combination of green QDs with shorter wavelength and red QDs with longer wavelength within the studied wavelength range (520 nm to 540 nm for the green and 610 nm to 635 nm for the red) is also desired. Nevertheless, QD-enabled LED backlight with a combination of longer-wavelength green QDs and shorter-wavelength red QDs is more energy efficient than the reverse case. Therefore, one needs balance these two key factors based on the targeted display performance requirements. On the solid-state lighting application side with QDs, we propose and show a QD-enabled LED light engine architecture that is more energy efficient with high light quality.

  14. Strategic Research to Enable NASA's Exploration Missions Conference and Workshop: Poster Session. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry (Compiler)

    2004-01-01

    Reports are presented from volume 2 of the conference titled Strategic Research to Enable NASA's Exploration Missions, poster session. Topics included spacecraft fire suppression and fire extinguishing agents,materials flammability, various topics on the effects of microgravity including crystal growth, fluid mechanics, electric particulate suspension, melting and solidification, bubble formation, the sloshing of liquid fuels, biological studies, separation of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide for Mars ISRU.

  15. Owning the Technical Baseline - a Key Enabler: Agility as the Counterweight to Uncertainty and Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    future. This fundamentally means we must embrace adaptability as a basic precept for how we develop, procure and sustain our weapons systems to be...effective for the warfighter over their life cycles. The underlying metric for such agility and adaptability is speed. When we can develop and field...capabilities fast, we must do so. Furthermore, agility and adaptability can be enabled by designing systems with modularity, well-designed standards and

  16. Landpower 2020: Enabling Regionally Aligned US Army Forces with Threat-Based Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    situation, EUCOM has prioritized BPC as a tenet of its theater strategy, and it is the only command to have submitted the requirement for additional...Army forces to enable BPC as part of the annual GCC’s submission of integrated priorities to the joint staff.27 In fact, EUCOM has requested...perform BPC tasks in the AOR. However, United States Central Command (CENTCOM) indicated a vulnerability to effectively respond to emerging

  17. Contributions of treatment theory and enablement theory to rehabilitation research and practice.

    PubMed

    Whyte, John

    2014-01-01

    Scientific theory is crucial to the advancement of clinical research. The breadth of rehabilitation treatment requires that many different theoretical perspectives be incorporated into the design and testing of treatment interventions. In this article, the 2 broad classes of theory relevant to rehabilitation research and practice are defined, and their distinct but complementary contributions to research and clinical practice are explored. These theory classes are referred to as treatment theories (theories about how to effect change in clinical targets) and enablement theories (theories about how changes in a proximal clinical target will influence distal clinical aims). Treatment theories provide the tools for inducing clinical change but do not specify how far reaching the ultimate impact of the change will be. Enablement theories model the impact of changes on other areas of function but provide no insight as to how treatment can create functional change. Treatment theories are more critical in the early stages of treatment development, whereas enablement theories become increasingly relevant in specifying the clinical significance and practical effectiveness of more mature treatments. Understanding the differences in the questions these theory classes address and how to combine their insights is crucial for effective research development and clinical practice.

  18. RIC-3 phosphorylation enables dual regulation of excitation and inhibition of Caenorhabditis elegans muscle

    PubMed Central

    Safdie, Gracia; Liewald, Jana F.; Kagan, Sarah; Battat, Emil; Gottschalk, Alexander; Treinin, Millet

    2016-01-01

    Brain function depends on a delicate balance between excitation and inhibition. Similarly, Caenorhabditis elegans motor system function depends on a precise balance between excitation and inhibition, as C. elegans muscles receive both inhibitory, GABAergic and excitatory, cholinergic inputs from motor neurons. Here we show that phosphorylation of the ER-resident chaperone of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, RIC-3, leads to increased muscle excitability. RIC-3 phosphorylation at Ser-164 depends on opposing functions of the phosphatase calcineurin (TAX-6), and of the casein kinase II homologue KIN-10. Effects of calcineurin down-regulation and of phosphorylated RIC-3 on muscle excitability are mediated by GABAA receptor inhibition. Thus RIC-3 phosphorylation enables effects of this chaperone on GABAA receptors in addition to nAChRs. This dual effect provides coordinated regulation of excitation and inhibition and enables fine-tuning of the excitation–inhibition balance. Moreover, regulation of inhibitory GABAA signaling by calcineurin, a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent phosphatase, enables homeostatic balancing of excitation and inhibition. PMID:27489343

  19. Advanced Coatings Enabling High Performance Instruments for Astrophysics Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikzad, Shouleh

    We propose a three-year effort to develop techniques for far-ultraviolet (FUV) and ultraviolet coatings both as reflective optics coatings and as out-of-band-rejection (solar-blind) filters that will have a dramatic effect on the throughput and efficiency of instruments. This is an ideal time to address this problem. On the one hand, exciting new science questions posed in UV and optical realm place exacting demands on instrument capabilities far beyond HST-COS, FUSE, and GALEX with large focal plane arrays and high efficiency requirements. And on the other hand, the development of techniques and process such as atomic layer deposition with its atomically precise capability and nano-engineered materials approach enables us to address the challenging materials issues in the UV where interaction of photons and matter happen in the first few nanometers of the material surface. Aluminum substrates with protective overlayers (typically XFy, where X = Li, Mg, or Ca) have been the workhorse of reflective coatings for ultraviolet and visible instruments; however, they have demonstrated severe limitations. The formation of oxide at the Al-XFy interface and thick protective layers both affect the overall optical performance, leading to diminished reflection at shorter wavelengths. To address these long-standing shortcomings of coatings, we will use our newly developed processes and equipment to produce high-quality single- and multi-layer films of a variety of dielectrics and metals deposited with nano-scale control. JPL s new ALD system affords high uniformity, low oxygen background, good plasma processes, and precise temperature control, which are vital to achieving the large scale, uniform, and ultrathin films that are free of oxygen at interfaces. For example, ALD-grown aluminum can be protected using our newly developed chemistry for ALD magnesium fluoride. Our work will verify that the ALD technique reliably prevents the oxidation of aluminum, and will subsequently be

  20. Recce and UAV: mass memory an enabling technology for merger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Walter J., Jr.

    1996-11-01

    In the era of Declining Defense Dollars, the cost of sophisticated aircraft and highly trained personnel has heightened interest in Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs). The obvious lure is the lower vehicle cost (no crew station and crew support systems) and reduced needs for highly skilled air crews. Reconnaissance (commonly called recce) aircraft and their missions are among the commonly sighted applications for UAVs. Today's UAV recce aircraft (such as the Predator) are the genesis of much more sophisticated UAVs of the future. The evolution of the UAV will not be constrained to recce aircraft, but the recce mission will be significant for UAVs. The recce hole has historically been that of a battlefield data collector for post mission review and planning. In the electronic battlefield of the future, that role will be expanded. Envisioned mission for future recce aircraft include real-time scout, target location and fire coordination, battle damage assessment, and large area surveillance. Associated with many of these new roles is the need to store or assess much higher volumes of data. The higher volume data requirements are the result of higher resolution sensors (the Advanced Helicopter Pilotage infrared sensor has a data rate of near 1.2 Gigabits per second) and multi-sensor applications (the Multi-Sensor Aided Targeting program considered infrared, TV, and radar). The evolution of the UAV recce role, and associated increased data storage needs (from higher data rates and increased coverage requirements), requires the development of new data storage equipment. One solution to the increased storage needs is solid-state memory. As solid-state memories become faster, smaller, and cheaper they will enable the UAV recce mission capability to expand. Because of the speed of the memory, it will be possible to buffer and assess (identify the existence of targets or other points of interest) data before committing to consumption of limited storage assets. Faster memory

  1. Automatic Offloading C++ Expression Templates to CUDA Enabled GPUs

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jie; Joo, Balint; Watson, William A.; Edwards, Robert G.

    2012-05-01

    In the last few years, many scientific applications have been developed for powerful graphics processing units (GPUs) and have achieved remarkable speedups. This success can be partially attributed to high performance host callable GPU library routines that are offloaded to GPUs at runtime. These library routines are based on C/C++-like programming toolkits such as CUDA from NVIDIA and have the same calling signatures as their CPU counterparts. Recently, with the sufficient support of C++ templates from CUDA, the emergence of template libraries have enabled further advancement in code reusability and rapid software development for GPUs. However, Expression Templates (ET), which have been very popular for implementing data parallel scientific software for host CPUs because of their intuitive and mathematics-like syntax, have been underutilized by GPU development libraries. The lack of ET usage is caused by the difficulty of offloading expression templates from hosts to GPUs due to the inability to pass instantiated expressions to GPU kernels as well as the absence of the exact form of the expressions for the templates at the time of coding. This paper presents a general approach that enables automatic offloading of C++ expression templates to CUDA enabled GPUs by using the C++ metaprogramming technique and Just-In-Time (JIT) compilation methodology to generate and compile CUDA kernels for corresponding expression templates followed by executing the kernels with appropriate arguments. This approach allows developers to port applications to run on GPUs with virtually no code modifications. More specifically, this paper uses a large ET based data parallel physics library called QDP++ as an example to illustrate many aspects of the approach to offload expression templates automatically and to demonstrate very good speedups for typical QDP++ applications running on GPUs against running on CPUs using this method of offloading. In addition, this approach of automatic offlo

  2. Solar Sail Propulsion: An Enabling Technology for Fundamental Physics Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachwald, Bernd; Seboldt, Wolfgang; Lämmerzahl, Claus

    Solar sails enable a wide range of high-energy missions, many of which are difficult or even impossible to accomplish with any other type of conventional propulsion system. They are also an enabling propulsion technology for two types of deep-space missions that are very favorable for testing current gravitational theories and the large-scale gravitational field of the solar system: the first type comprises missions that go very close to the Sun (<8 solar radii) and the second one comprises missions that go fast very far away from the Sun ( 200AU). Being propelled solely by the freely available solar radiation pressure, solar sails do not consume any propellant. Therefore, their capability to gain (or reduce) orbital energy is theoretically unlimited and practically only limited by their lifetime in the space environment and their distance from the Sun (because the solar radiation pressure decreases with the square of solar distance). Nevertheless, solar sails make also missions that go far away from the Sun feasible because they can gain a large amount of orbital energy by first making one or more close solar approaches that turn the trajectory hyperbolic. For both mission types, the temperature limit of the sail film is a critical issue. In this chapter, we briefly review the physics and the current technological status of solar sails, and then present mission outlines and trade-offs for both mission types. Thereby, we will show that even near- or medium-term solar sails with a relatively moderate performance enable these kinds of missions.

  3. High power laser for peening of metals enabling production technology

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, J; Dane, C B; Hackel, L A; Harrison, J

    1998-06-11

    Laser shot peening, a surface treatment for metals, is known to induce compressive residual stresses of over 0.040 inch depth providing improved component resistance to various forms of failure. Additionally recent information suggests that thermal relaxation of the laser induced stress is significantly less than that experienced by other forms of surface stressing that involve significantly higher levels of cold work. We have developed a unique solid state laser technology employing Nd:glass slabs and phase conjugation that enables this process to move into high throughput production processing.

  4. Enabling New Operations Concepts for Lunar and Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Maxwell, Theresa

    2005-01-01

    The planning and scheduling of human space activities is an expensive and time-consuming task that seldom provides the crew with the control, flexibility, or insight that they need. During the past thirty years, scheduling software has seen only incremental improvements; however, software limitations continue to prevent even evolutionary improvements in the operations concept that is used for human space missions. Space missions are planned on the ground long before they are executed in space, and the crew has little input or influence on the schedule. In recent years the crew has been presented with a job jar of activities that they can do whenever they have time, but the contents of the jar is limited to tasks that do not use scarce shared resources and do not have external timing constraints. Consequently, the crew has no control over the schedule of the majority of their own tasks. As humans venture farther from earth for longer durations, it will become imperative that they have the ability to plan and schedule not only their own activities, but also the unattended activities of the systems, equipment, and robots on the journey with them. Significant software breakthroughs are required to enable the change in the operations concept. The crew does not have the time to build or modify the schedule by hand. They only need to issue a request to schedule a task and the system should automatically do the rest. Of course, the crew should not be required to build the complete schedule. Controllers on the ground should contribute the models and schedules where they have the better knowledge. The system must allow multiple simultaneous users, some on earth and some in space. The Mission Operations Laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space flight Center has been researching and prototyping a modeling schema, scheduling engine, and system architecture that can enable the needed paradigm shift - it can make the crew autonomous. This schema and engine can be the core of a

  5. Smart phones: platform enabling modular, chemical, biological, and explosives sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, Amethist S.; Coppock, Matthew; Bickford, Justin R.; Conn, Marvin A.; Proctor, Thomas J.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.

    2013-05-01

    Reliable, robust, and portable technologies are needed for the rapid identification and detection of chemical, biological, and explosive (CBE) materials. A key to addressing the persistent threat to U.S. troops in the current war on terror is the rapid detection and identification of the precursor materials used in development of improvised explosive devices, homemade explosives, and bio-warfare agents. However, a universal methodology for detection and prevention of CBE materials in the use of these devices has proven difficult. Herein, we discuss our efforts towards the development of a modular, robust, inexpensive, pervasive, archival, and compact platform (android based smart phone) enabling the rapid detection of these materials.

  6. Intelligent security and privacy solutions for enabling personalized telepathology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Starting with the paradigm change of health systems towards personalized health services, the paper introduces the technical paradigms to be met for enabling ubiquitous pHealth including ePathology. The system-theoretical, architecture-centric approach to mobile, pervasive and autonomous solutions has to be based on an open component system framework such as the Generic Component Model. The crucial challenge to be met for comprehensive interoperability is multi-disciplinary knowledge representation, which must be integrated into the aforementioned framework. The approach is demonstrated for security and privacy services fundamental for any eHealth or ePathology environment. PMID:21489199

  7. Enabling Large-Scale Biomedical Analysis in the Cloud

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ying-Chih; Yu, Chin-Sheng; Lin, Yen-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in high-throughput instrumentations has led to an astonishing growth in both volume and complexity of biomedical data collected from various sources. The planet-size data brings serious challenges to the storage and computing technologies. Cloud computing is an alternative to crack the nut because it gives concurrent consideration to enable storage and high-performance computing on large-scale data. This work briefly introduces the data intensive computing system and summarizes existing cloud-based resources in bioinformatics. These developments and applications would facilitate biomedical research to make the vast amount of diversification data meaningful and usable. PMID:24288665

  8. Web-enabled medical databases: a threat to security?

    PubMed

    Herrin, J; Dempsey, B J

    2000-12-01

    An increasing number of clinical databases are being adapted to allow access through Internet protocols, particularly Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). The World Wide Web (WWW) provides a user-friendly, standardized, broadly distributed database interface; at the same time, it may also present a threat to the security and confidentiality of patient data. However, there is little empirical evidence concerning such threats. Using publicly available records we estimate the additional risk of security violations due to web-enabling a database. The evidence, though limited, suggests that the additional risk may be small relative to more traditional security threats.

  9. Enabling a systems biology knowledgebase with gaggle and firegoose

    SciTech Connect

    Baliga, Nitin S.

    2014-12-12

    The overall goal of this project was to extend the existing Gaggle and Firegoose systems to develop an open-source technology that runs over the web and links desktop applications with many databases and software applications. This technology would enable researchers to incorporate workflows for data analysis that can be executed from this interface to other online applications. The four specific aims were to (1) provide one-click mapping of genes, proteins, and complexes across databases and species; (2) enable multiple simultaneous workflows; (3) expand sophisticated data analysis for online resources; and enhance open-source development of the Gaggle-Firegoose infrastructure. Gaggle is an open-source Java software system that integrates existing bioinformatics programs and data sources into a user-friendly, extensible environment to allow interactive exploration, visualization, and analysis of systems biology data. Firegoose is an extension to the Mozilla Firefox web browser that enables data transfer between websites and desktop tools including Gaggle. In the last phase of this funding period, we have made substantial progress on development and application of the Gaggle integration framework. We implemented the workspace to the Network Portal. Users can capture data from Firegoose and save them to the workspace. Users can create workflows to start multiple software components programmatically and pass data between them. Results of analysis can be saved to the cloud so that they can be easily restored on any machine. We also developed the Gaggle Chrome Goose, a plugin for the Google Chrome browser in tandem with an opencpu server in the Amazon EC2 cloud. This allows users to interactively perform data analysis on a single web page using the R packages deployed on the opencpu server. The cloud-based framework facilitates collaboration between researchers from multiple organizations. We have made a number of enhancements to the cmonkey2 application to enable and

  10. Technical innovation: Multidimensional computerized software enabled subtraction computed tomographic angiography.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Mona; Rosset, Antoine; Platon, Alexandra; Didier, Dominique; Becker, Christoph D; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is a frequent noninvasive alternative to digital subtraction angiography. We previously reported the development of a new subtraction software to overcome limitations of adjacent bone and calcification in CT angiographic subtraction. Our aim was to further develop and improve this fast and automated computerized software, universally available for free use and compatible with most CT scanners, thus enabling better delineation of vascular structures, artifact reduction, and shorter reading times with potential clinical benefits. This computer-based free software will be available as an open source in the next release of OsiriX at the Web site http://www.osirix-viewer.com.

  11. SixDOF position sensor: enabling manufacturing flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    Vann, C.S.

    1998-03-24

    A small, non-contact optical sensor invented by the author attaches to a robot (or other machines), enabling the robot to detect objects, adjust its alignment in all six degrees of freedom (SixDOF), and read a task from a code on the part. Thus, the SixDOF sensor provides robots more intelligence to operate autonomously and adapt to changes without human intervention. A description of the sensor is provided. Also, an operating arrangement of a robot using the SixDOF sensor is presented with performance results described.

  12. Enabling aspects of fiber optic acoustic sensing in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Indu F.

    2013-05-01

    The advantages of optical fiber sensing in harsh electromagnetic as well as physical stress environments make them uniquely suited for structural health monitoring and non-destructive testing. In addition to aerospace applications they are making a strong footprint in geophysical monitoring and exploration applications for higher temperature and pressure environments, due to the high temperature resilience of fused silica glass sensors. Deeper oil searches and geothermal exploration and harvesting are possible with these novel capabilities. Progress in components and technologies that are enabling these systems to be fieldworthy are reviewed and emerging techniques summarized that could leapfrog the system performance and reliability.

  13. Semantically Enabling Knowledge Representation of Metamorphic Petrology Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, P.; Fox, P. A.; Spear, F. S.; Adali, S.; Nguyen, C.; Hallett, B. W.; Horkley, L. K.

    2012-12-01

    More and more metamorphic petrology data is being collected around the world, and is now being organized together into different virtual data portals by means of virtual organizations. For example, there is the virtual data portal Petrological Database (PetDB, http://www.petdb.org) of the Ocean Floor that is organizing scientific information about geochemical data of ocean floor igneous and metamorphic rocks; and also The Metamorphic Petrology Database (MetPetDB, http://metpetdb.rpi.edu) that is being created by a global community of metamorphic petrologists in collaboration with software engineers and data managers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The current focus is to provide the ability for scientists and researchers to register their data and search the databases for information regarding sample collections. What we present here is the next step in evolution of the MetPetDB portal, utilizing semantically enabled features such as discovery, data casting, faceted search, knowledge representation, and linked data as well as organizing information about the community and collaboration within the virtual community itself. We take the information that is currently represented in a relational database and make it available through web services, SPARQL endpoints, semantic and triple-stores where inferencing is enabled. We will be leveraging research that has taken place in virtual observatories, such as the Virtual Solar Terrestrial Observatory (VSTO) and the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO); vocabulary work done in various communities such as Observations and Measurements (ISO 19156), FOAF (Friend of a Friend), Bibo (Bibliography Ontology), and domain specific ontologies; enabling provenance traces of samples and subsamples using the different provenance ontologies; and providing the much needed linking of data from the various research organizations into a common, collaborative virtual observatory. In addition to better

  14. CMS@home: Enabling Volunteer Computing Usage for CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, L.; Borras, H.; Spiga, D.; Riahi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Volunteer computing remains a largely untapped opportunistic resource for the LHC experiments. The use of virtualization in this domain was pioneered by the Test4Theory project and enabled the running of high energy particle physics simulations on home computers. This paper describes the model for CMS to run workloads using a similar volunteer computing platform. It is shown how the original approach is exploited to map onto the existing CMS workflow and identifies missing functionality along with the components and changes that are required. The final implementation of the prototype is detailed along with the identification of areas that would benefit from further development.

  15. Chandra enables study of x-ray jets

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The exquisite angular resolution of the Chandra x-ray telescope has enabled the detection and study of resolved x-ray jets in a wide variety of astronomical systems. Chandra has detected extended jets in our galaxy from protostars, symbiotic binaries, neutron star pulsars, black hole binaries, extragalactic jets in radio sources, and quasars. The x-ray data play an essential role in deducing the emission mechanism of the jets, in revealing the interaction of jets with the intergalactic or intracluster media, and in studying the energy generation budget of black holes. PMID:20378839

  16. Working Towards New Transformative Geoscience Analytics Enabled by Petascale Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodcock, R.; Wyborn, L.

    2012-04-01

    Currently the top 10 supercomputers in the world are petascale and already exascale computers are being planned. Cloud computing facilities are becoming mainstream either as private or commercial investments. These computational developments will provide abundant opportunities for the earth science community to tackle the data deluge which has resulted from new instrumentation enabling data to be gathered at a greater rate and at higher resolution. Combined, the new computational environments should enable the earth sciences to be transformed. However, experience in Australia and elsewhere has shown that it is not easy to scale existing earth science methods, software and analytics to take advantage of the increased computational capacity that is now available. It is not simply a matter of 'transferring' current work practices to the new facilities: they have to be extensively 'transformed'. In particular new Geoscientific methods will need to be developed using advanced data mining, assimilation, machine learning and integration algorithms. Software will have to be capable of operating in highly parallelised environments, and will also need to be able to scale as the compute systems grow. Data access will have to improve and the earth science community needs to move from the file discovery, display and then locally download paradigm to self describing data cubes and data arrays that are available as online resources from either major data repositories or in the cloud. In the new transformed world, rather than analysing satellite data scene by scene, sensor agnostic data cubes of calibrated earth observation data will enable researchers to move across data from multiple sensors at varying spatial data resolutions. In using geophysics to characterise basement and cover, rather than analysing individual gridded airborne geophysical data sets, and then combining the results, petascale computing will enable analysis of multiple data types, collected at varying

  17. Intelligent security and privacy solutions for enabling personalized telepathology.

    PubMed

    Blobel, Bernd

    2011-03-30

    Starting with the paradigm change of health systems towards personalized health services, the paper introduces the technical paradigms to be met for enabling ubiquitous pHealth including ePathology. The system-theoretical, architecture-centric approach to mobile, pervasive and autonomous solutions has to be based on an open component system framework such as the Generic Component Model. The crucial challenge to be met for comprehensive interoperability is multi-disciplinary knowledge representation, which must be integrated into the aforementioned framework. The approach is demonstrated for security and privacy services fundamental for any eHealth or ePathology environment.

  18. Enabling Technologies for the Future of Chemical Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Technology is evolving at breakneck pace, changing the way we communicate, travel, find out information, and live our lives. Yet chemistry as a science has been slower to adapt to this rapidly shifting world. In this Outlook we use highlights from recent literature reports to describe how progresses in enabling technologies are altering this trend, permitting chemists to incorporate new advances into their work at all levels of the chemistry development cycle. We discuss the benefits and challenges that have arisen, impacts on academic–industry relationships, and future trends in the area of chemical synthesis. PMID:27163040

  19. Private loan enables co-op to mitigate 'rate shock'

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    An unsecured bank loan from the Irving Trust Company will enable the Sunflower Electric Cooperative to moderate the rate increase it would have needed to recover the costs of the new 296 MW Holcomb coal-fired plant. Simultaneous agreements with the Kansas Corporation Commission, the state commission, other state cooperatives, the Rural Electrification Administration, and with Sunflower's distribution systems will provide the cooperative with a $60 million revolving line of credit for five years. Other utilities are watching the Sunflower scheme to see if it has the potential for broader application in mitigating the rate increases caused by new plant construction.

  20. UTM Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2016-01-01

    Conduct research, development and testing to identify airspace operations requirements to enable large-scale visual and beyond visual line of sight UAS operations in the low-altitude airspace. Use build-a-little-test-a-little strategy remote areas to urban areas Low density: No traffic management required but understanding of airspace constraints. Cooperative traffic management: Understanding of airspace constraints and other operations. Manned and unmanned traffic management: Scalable and heterogeneous operations. UTM construct consistent with FAAs risk-based strategy. UTM research platform is used for simulations and tests. UTM offers path towards scalability.

  1. PACFEST 2004 : enabling technologies for maritime security in the Pacific region.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Whitley, John B.; Chellis, Craig

    2005-06-01

    In October of 2003 experts involved in various aspects of homeland security from the Pacific region met to engage in a free-wheeling discussion and brainstorming (a 'fest') on the role that technology could play in winning the war on terrorism in the Pacific region. The result was a concise and relatively thorough definition of the terrorism problem in the Pacific region, emphasizing the issues unique to Island nations in the Pacific setting, along with an action plan for developing working demonstrations of advanced technological solutions to these issues. Since PacFest 2003, the maritime dimensions of the international security environment have garnered increased attention and interest. To this end, PacFest 2004 sought to identify gaps and enabling technologies for maritime domain awareness and responsive decision-making in the Asia-Pacific region. The PacFest 2004 participants concluded that the technologies and basic information building blocks exist to create a system that would enable the Pacific region government and private organizations to effectively collaborate and share their capabilities and information concerning maritime security. The proposed solution summarized in this report integrates national environments in real time, thereby enabling effective prevention and first response to natural and terrorist induced disasters through better use of national and regional investments in people, infrastructure, systems, processes and standards.

  2. Towards a comprehensive framework for reuse: A reuse-enabling software evolution environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, V. R.; Rombach, H. D.

    1988-01-01

    Reuse of products, processes and knowledge will be the key to enable the software industry to achieve the dramatic improvement in productivity and quality required to satisfy the anticipated growing demand. Although experience shows that certain kinds of reuse can be successful, general success has been elusive. A software life-cycle technology which allows broad and extensive reuse could provide the means to achieving the desired order-of-magnitude improvements. The scope of a comprehensive framework for understanding, planning, evaluating and motivating reuse practices and the necessary research activities is outlined. As a first step towards such a framework, a reuse-enabling software evolution environment model is introduced which provides a basis for the effective recording of experience, the generalization and tailoring of experience, the formalization of experience, and the (re-)use of experience.

  3. A Single-use Strategy to Enable Manufacturing of Affordable Biologics.

    PubMed

    Jacquemart, Renaud; Vandersluis, Melissa; Zhao, Mochao; Sukhija, Karan; Sidhu, Navneet; Stout, Jim

    2016-01-01

    The current processing paradigm of large manufacturing facilities dedicated to single product production is no longer an effective approach for best manufacturing practices. Increasing competition for new indications and the launch of biosimilars for the monoclonal antibody market have put pressure on manufacturers to produce at lower cost. Single-use technologies and continuous upstream processes have proven to be cost-efficient options to increase biomass production but as of today the adoption has been only minimal for the purification operations, partly due to concerns related to cost and scale-up. This review summarizes how a single-use holistic process and facility strategy can overcome scale limitations and enable cost-efficient manufacturing to support the growing demand for affordable biologics. Technologies enabling high productivity, right-sized, small footprint, continuous, and automated upstream and downstream operations are evaluated in order to propose a concept for the flexible facility of the future.

  4. Adaptability of protein structures to enable functional interactions and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Haliloglu, Turkan; Bahar, Ivet

    2015-12-01

    Several studies in recent years have drawn attention to the ability of proteins to adapt to intermolecular interactions by conformational changes along structure-encoded collective modes of motions. These so-called soft modes, primarily driven by entropic effects, facilitate, if not enable, functional interactions. They represent excursions on the conformational space along principal low-ascent directions/paths away from the original free energy minimum, and they are accessible to the protein even before protein-protein/ligand interactions. An emerging concept from these studies is the evolution of structures or modular domains to favor such modes of motion that will be recruited or integrated for enabling functional interactions. Structural dynamics, including the allosteric switches in conformation that are often stabilized upon formation of complexes and multimeric assemblies, emerge as key properties that are evolutionarily maintained to accomplish biological activities, consistent with the paradigm sequence→structure→dynamics→function where 'dynamics' bridges structure and function.

  5. A delicate web: household changes in health behaviour enabled by microcredit in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Hennink, Monique; McFarland, Deborah A

    2013-01-01

    Providing microcredit to women in developing countries has long been highlighted as a simple and effective strategy for poverty reduction and health improvement. However, little is known about how microcredit enables changes in health behaviour. This knowledge is critical to further strengthen microcredit initiatives. This qualitative study, conducted in Burkina Faso, shows how microcredit can not only facilitate savings and investment strategies, but also lead to changes in household decision-making, enabling women to initiate health prevention, seek health treatment and manage health emergencies. Some changes led to increased household burdens for women that impeded health gains, such as administrative loan delays by the microcredit institution and reduced household contributions by the husband. Furthermore, the study highlighted the fragile nature of health gains, which may be eroded due to economic shocks on a household, such as crop failure, drought or illness.

  6. Enabling Large Focal Plane Arrays Through Mosaic Hybridization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Leong, Edward; Costen, Nicholas P.; Sharp, Elmer; Adachi, Tomoko; Benford, Dominic J.

    2012-01-01

    We have demonstrated advances in mosaic hybridization that will enable very large format far-infrared detectors. Specifically we have produced electrical detector models via mosaic hybridization yielding superconducting circuit paths by hybridizing separately fabricated sub-units onto a single detector unit. The detector model was made on a 100mm diameter wafer while four model readout quadrant chips were made from a separate 100mm wafer. The individually fabricated parts were hybridized using a flip-chip bonder to assemble the detector-readout stack. Once all of the hybridized readouts were in place, a single, large and thick silicon substrate was placed on the stack and attached with permanent epoxy to provide strength and a Coefficient of Thermal Expansion match to the silicon components underneath. Wirebond pads on the readout chips connect circuits to warm readout electronics; and were used to validate the successful superconducting electrical interconnection of the model mosaic-hybrid detector. This demonstration is directly scalable to 150 mm diameter wafers, enabling pixel areas over ten times the area currently available.

  7. Enabling SDN in VANETs: What is the Impact on Security?

    PubMed

    Di Maio, Antonio; Palattella, Maria Rita; Soua, Ridha; Lamorte, Luca; Vilajosana, Xavier; Alonso-Zarate, Jesus; Engel, Thomas

    2016-12-06

    The demand for safe and secure journeys over roads and highways has been growing at a tremendous pace over recent decades. At the same time, the smart city paradigm has emerged to improve citizens' quality of life by developing the smart mobility concept. Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANETs) are widely recognized to be instrumental in realizing such concept, by enabling appealing safety and infotainment services. Such networks come with their own set of challenges, which range from managing high node mobility to securing data and user privacy. The Software Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm has been identified as a suitable solution for dealing with the dynamic network environment, the increased number of connected devices, and the heterogeneity of applications. While some preliminary investigations have been already conducted to check the applicability of the SDN paradigm to VANETs, and its presumed benefits for managing resources and mobility, it is still unclear what impact SDN will have on security and privacy. Security is a relevant issue in VANETs, because of the impact that threats can have on drivers' behavior and quality of life. This paper opens a discussion on the security threats that future SDN-enabled VANETs will have to face, and investigates how SDN could be beneficial in building new countermeasures. The analysis is conducted in real use cases (smart parking, smart grid of electric vehicles, platooning, and emergency services), which are expected to be among the vehicular applications that will most benefit from introducing an SDN architecture.

  8. Space Partitioning for Privacy Enabled 3D City Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippovska, Y.; Wichmann, A.; Kada, M.

    2016-10-01

    Due to recent technological progress, data capturing and processing of highly detailed (3D) data has become extensive. And despite all prospects of potential uses, data that includes personal living spaces and public buildings can also be considered as a serious intrusion into people's privacy and a threat to security. It becomes especially critical if data is visible by the general public. Thus, a compromise is needed between open access to data and privacy requirements which can be very different for each application. As privacy is a complex and versatile topic, the focus of this work particularly lies on the visualization of 3D urban data sets. For the purpose of privacy enabled visualizations of 3D city models, we propose to partition the (living) spaces into privacy regions, each featuring its own level of anonymity. Within each region, the depicted 2D and 3D geometry and imagery is anonymized with cartographic generalization techniques. The underlying spatial partitioning is realized as a 2D map generated as a straight skeleton of the open space between buildings. The resulting privacy cells are then merged according to the privacy requirements associated with each building to form larger regions, their borderlines smoothed, and transition zones established between privacy regions to have a harmonious visual appearance. It is exemplarily demonstrated how the proposed method generates privacy enabled 3D city models.

  9. Fluorescent biosensors enabled by graphene and graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Honglu; Aldalbahi, Ali; Zuo, Xiaolei; Fan, Chunhai; Mi, Xianqiang

    2017-03-15

    During the past few years, graphene and graphene oxide (GO) have attracted numerous attentions for the potential applications in various fields from energy technology, biosensing to biomedical diagnosis and therapy due to their various functionalization, high volume surface ratio, unique physical and electrical properties. Among which, graphene and graphene oxide based fluorescent biosensors enabled by their fluorescence-quenching properties have attracted great interests. The fluorescence of fluorophore or dye labeled on probes (such as molecular beacon, aptamer, DNAzymes and so on) was quenched after adsorbed on to the surface of graphene. While in the present of the targets, due to the strong interactions between probes and targets, the probes were detached from the surface of graphene, generating dramatic fluorescence, which could be used as signals for detection of the targets. This strategy was simple and economy, together with great programmable abilities of probes; we could realize detection of different kinds of species. In this review, we first briefly introduced the history of graphene and graphene oxide, and then summarized the fluorescent biosensors enabled by graphene and GO, with a detailed account of the design mechanism and comparison with other nanomaterials (e.g. carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles). Following that, different sensing platforms for detection of DNAs, ions, biomolecules and pathogens or cells as well as the cytotoxicity issue of graphene and GO based in vivo biosensing were further discussed. We hope that this review would do some help to researchers who are interested in graphene related biosening research work.

  10. Wavelet-enabled progressive data Access and Storage Protocol (WASP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clyne, J.; Frank, L.; Lesperance, T.; Norton, A.

    2015-12-01

    Current practices for storing numerical simulation outputs hail from an era when the disparity between compute and I/O performance was not as great as it is today. The memory contents for every sample, computed at every grid point location, are simply saved at some prescribed temporal frequency. Though straightforward, this approach fails to take advantage of the coherency in neighboring grid points that invariably exists in numerical solutions to mathematical models. Exploiting such coherence is essential to digital multimedia; DVD-Video, digital cameras, streaming movies and audio are all possible today because of transform-based compression schemes that make substantial reductions in data possible by taking advantage of the strong correlation between adjacent samples in both space and time. Such methods can also be exploited to enable progressive data refinement in a manner akin to that used in ubiquitous digital mapping applications: views from far away are shown in coarsened detail to provide context, and can be progressively refined as the user zooms in on a localized region of interest. The NSF funded WASP project aims to provide a common, NetCDF-compatible software framework for supporting wavelet-based, multi-scale, progressive data, enabling interactive exploration of large data sets for the geoscience communities. This presentation will provide an overview of this work in progress to develop community cyber-infrastructure for the efficient analysis of very large data sets.

  11. BIM: enabling sustainability and asset management through knowledge management.

    PubMed

    Kivits, Robbert Anton; Furneaux, Craig

    2013-11-10

    Building Information Modeling (BIM) is the use of virtual building information models to develop building design solutions and design documentation and to analyse construction processes. Recent advances in IT have enabled advanced knowledge management, which in turn facilitates sustainability and improves asset management in the civil construction industry. There are several important qualifiers and some disadvantages of the current suite of technologies. This paper outlines the benefits, enablers, and barriers associated with BIM and makes suggestions about how these issues may be addressed. The paper highlights the advantages of BIM, particularly the increased utility and speed, enhanced fault finding in all construction phases, and enhanced collaborations and visualisation of data. The paper additionally identifies a range of issues concerning the implementation of BIM as follows: IP, liability, risks, and contracts and the authenticity of users. Implementing BIM requires investment in new technology, skills training, and development of new ways of collaboration and Trade Practices concerns. However, when these challenges are overcome, BIM as a new information technology promises a new level of collaborative engineering knowledge management, designed to facilitate sustainability and asset management issues in design, construction, asset management practices, and eventually decommissioning for the civil engineering industry.

  12. Radio frequency identification enabled wireless sensing for intelligent food logistics.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhuo; Chen, Qiang; Chen, Qing; Uysal, Ismail; Zheng, Lirong

    2014-06-13

    Future technologies and applications for the Internet of Things (IoT) will evolve the process of the food supply chain and create added value of business. Radio frequency identifications (RFIDs) and wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been considered as the key technological enablers. Intelligent tags, powered by autonomous energy, are attached on objects, networked by short-range wireless links, allowing the physical parameters such as temperatures and humidities as well as the location information to seamlessly integrate with the enterprise information system over the Internet. In this paper, challenges, considerations and design examples are reviewed from system, implementation and application perspectives, particularly with focus on intelligent packaging and logistics for the fresh food tracking and monitoring service. An IoT platform with a two-layer network architecture is introduced consisting of an asymmetric tag-reader link (RFID layer) and an ad-hoc link between readers (WSN layer), which are further connected to the Internet via cellular or Wi-Fi. Then, we provide insights into the enabling technology of RFID with sensing capabilities. Passive, semi-passive and active RFID solutions are discussed. In particular, we describe ultra-wideband radio RFID which has been considered as one of the most promising techniques for ultra-low-power and low-cost wireless sensing. Finally, an example is provided in the form of an application in fresh food tracking services and corresponding field testing results.

  13. Surface acoustic wave enabled pipette on a chip.

    PubMed

    Sesen, Muhsincan; Devendran, Citsabehsan; Malikides, Sean; Alan, Tuncay; Neild, Adrian

    2017-01-31

    Mono-disperse droplet formation in microfluidic devices allows the rapid production of thousands of identical droplets and has enabled a wide range of chemical and biological studies through repeat tests performed at pico-to-nanoliter volume samples. However, it is exactly this efficiency of production which has hindered the ability to carefully control the location and quantity of the distribution of various samples on a chip - the key requirement for replicating micro well plate based high throughput screening in vastly reduced volumetric scales. To address this need, here, we present a programmable microfluidic chip capable of pipetting samples from mobile droplets with high accuracy using a non-contact approach. Pipette on a chip (PoaCH) system selectively ejects (pipettes) part of a droplet into a customizable reaction chamber using surface acoustic waves (SAWs). Droplet pipetting is shown to range from as low as 150 pL up to 850 pL with precision down to tens of picoliters. PoaCH offers ease of integration with existing lab on a chip systems as well as a robust and contamination-free droplet manipulation technique in closed microchannels enabling potential implementation in screening and other studies.

  14. Smart Grid Enabled L2 EVSE for the Commercial Market

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, John; Pugh, Jerry

    2015-03-31

    In 2011, the DOE issued Funding Opportunity DE-FOA-0000554 as a means of addressing two major task areas identified by the Grid Integration Tech Team (GITT) that would help transition Electric vehicles from a market driven by early adopters and environmental supporters to a market with mainstream volumes. Per DE-FOA-0000554, these tasks were: To reduce the cost of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE), thereby increasing the likelihood of the build out of EV charging infrastructure. The goal of increasing the number of EVSE available was to ease concerns over range anxiety, and promote the adoption of electric vehicles: To allow EV loads to be managed via the smart grid, thereby maintaining power quality, reliability and affordability, while protecting installed distribution equipment. In December of that year, the DOE awarded one of the two contracts targeted toward commercial EVSE to Eaton, and in early 2012, we began in earnest the process of developing a Smart Grid Enable L2 EVSE for the Commercial Market (hereafter known as the DOE Charger). The design of the Smart Grid Enabled L2 EVSE was based primarily on the FOA requirements along with input from the Electric Transportation Infrastructure product line (hereafter ETI) marketing team who aided in development of the customer requirements.

  15. Laser enabled Auger decay in argon atoms and dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranitovic, Predrag; Tong, Xiao-Min; Hogle, Craig W.; Toshima, N.; Murnane, M. M.; Kapteyn, H. C.

    2011-05-01

    In rare-gas atoms, Auger decay in which an inner-valence shell ns hole is filled is normally not energetically allowed. However, in the presence of a strong laser field, a new laser-enabled Auger decay channel can open up to increase the double-ionization yield. This process is efficient at high laser intensities, and an ns hole can be filled within a few femtoseconds of its creation. This novel laser-enabled Auger decay (LEAD) process is of fundamental importance for controlling electron dynamics in atoms, molecules, and materials. We then use LEAD to investigate charge transfer in a Coulomb exploding Ar dimer. We can selectively double-ionize either the Ar dimer (threshold ~ 36 eV) or Ar atoms (threshold ~ 43.5 eV) using combined laser (1.5 eV) and XUV photons (36 eV) in a time-resolved fashion, and then comparing the kinetic energy releases. The Ar dimer can be double ionized when the 3s hole is filled by a 3p electron from either one of the two Ar atoms through LEAD. Theoretical calculation will support data taken using COLTRIMS and HHG.

  16. Resource optimization scheme for multimedia-enabled wireless mesh networks.

    PubMed

    Ali, Amjad; Ahmed, Muhammad Ejaz; Piran, Md Jalil; Suh, Doug Young

    2014-08-08

    Wireless mesh networking is a promising technology that can support numerous multimedia applications. Multimedia applications have stringent quality of service (QoS) requirements, i.e., bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss ratio. Enabling such QoS-demanding applications over wireless mesh networks (WMNs) require QoS provisioning routing protocols that lead to the network resource underutilization problem. Moreover, random topology deployment leads to have some unused network resources. Therefore, resource optimization is one of the most critical design issues in multi-hop, multi-radio WMNs enabled with multimedia applications. Resource optimization has been studied extensively in the literature for wireless Ad Hoc and sensor networks, but existing studies have not considered resource underutilization issues caused by QoS provisioning routing and random topology deployment. Finding a QoS-provisioned path in wireless mesh networks is an NP complete problem. In this paper, we propose a novel Integer Linear Programming (ILP) optimization model to reconstruct the optimal connected mesh backbone topology with a minimum number of links and relay nodes which satisfies the given end-to-end QoS demands for multimedia traffic and identification of extra resources, while maintaining redundancy. We further propose a polynomial time heuristic algorithm called Link and Node Removal Considering Residual Capacity and Traffic Demands (LNR-RCTD). Simulation studies prove that our heuristic algorithm provides near-optimal results and saves about 20% of resources from being wasted by QoS provisioning routing and random topology deployment.

  17. Nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings: global patent scenario.

    PubMed

    Sivudu, Kurva S; Mahajan, Yashwant R; Joshi, Shrikant V

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present current status and future prospects of nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings based on worldwide patent landscape analysis. The study also presents an overview of technological trends by carrying out state-of-the-art literature analysis, including survey of corporate websites. Nanostructured tribological coatings encompass a wide spectrum of nanoscale microstructures, including nanocrystalline, nanolayered, nano-multilayered, nanocomposite, nanogradient structures or their unique combinations, which are composed of single or multi-component phases. The distinct microstructural features of the coatings impart outstanding tribological properties combined with multifunctional attributes to the coated components. Their unique combination of remarkable properties make them ideal candidates for a wide range of applications in diverse fields such as cutting and metalworking tools, biomedical devices, automotive engine components, wear parts, hard disc drives etc. The patent landscape analysis has revealed that nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings have significant potential for commercial applications in view of the lion's share of corporate industry in patenting activity. The largest patent portfolio is held by Japan followed by USA, Germany, Sweden and China. The prominent players involved in this field are Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Sandvik Aktiebolag, Hitachi Ltd., Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd., OC Oerlikon Corp., and so on. The outstanding potential of nanostructured thin film tribological coatings is yet to be fully unravelled and, therefore, immense opportunities are available in future for microstructurally engineered novel coatings to enhance their performance and functionality by many folds.

  18. Enabling SDN in VANETs: What is the Impact on Security?

    PubMed Central

    Di Maio, Antonio; Palattella, Maria Rita; Soua, Ridha; Lamorte, Luca; Vilajosana, Xavier; Alonso-Zarate, Jesus; Engel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The demand for safe and secure journeys over roads and highways has been growing at a tremendous pace over recent decades. At the same time, the smart city paradigm has emerged to improve citizens’ quality of life by developing the smart mobility concept. Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANETs) are widely recognized to be instrumental in realizing such concept, by enabling appealing safety and infotainment services. Such networks come with their own set of challenges, which range from managing high node mobility to securing data and user privacy. The Software Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm has been identified as a suitable solution for dealing with the dynamic network environment, the increased number of connected devices, and the heterogeneity of applications. While some preliminary investigations have been already conducted to check the applicability of the SDN paradigm to VANETs, and its presumed benefits for managing resources and mobility, it is still unclear what impact SDN will have on security and privacy. Security is a relevant issue in VANETs, because of the impact that threats can have on drivers’ behavior and quality of life. This paper opens a discussion on the security threats that future SDN-enabled VANETs will have to face, and investigates how SDN could be beneficial in building new countermeasures. The analysis is conducted in real use cases (smart parking, smart grid of electric vehicles, platooning, and emergency services), which are expected to be among the vehicular applications that will most benefit from introducing an SDN architecture. PMID:27929443

  19. Nano-imaging enabled via self-assembly

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Euan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Imaging object details with length scales below approximately 200 nm has been historically difficult for conventional microscope objective lenses because of their inability to resolve features smaller than one-half the optical wavelength. Here we review some of the recent approaches to surpass this limit by harnessing self-assembly as a fabrication mechanism. Self-assembly can be used to form individual nano- and micro-lenses, as well as to form extended arrays of such lenses. These lenses have been shown to enable imaging with resolutions as small as 50 nm half-pitch using visible light, which is well below the Abbe diffraction limit. Furthermore, self-assembled nano-lenses can be used to boost contrast and signal levels from small nano-particles, enabling them to be detected relative to background noise. Finally, alternative nano-imaging applications of self-assembly are discussed, including three-dimensional imaging, enhanced coupling from light-emitting diodes, and the fabrication of contrast agents such as quantum dots and nanoparticles. PMID:25506387

  20. Synaptic Plasticity Enables Adaptive Self-Tuning Critical Networks

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, Nigel; Plenz, Dietmar; Srinivasa, Narayan

    2015-01-01

    During rest, the mammalian cortex displays spontaneous neural activity. Spiking of single neurons during rest has been described as irregular and asynchronous. In contrast, recent in vivo and in vitro population measures of spontaneous activity, using the LFP, EEG, MEG or fMRI suggest that the default state of the cortex is critical, manifested by spontaneous, scale-invariant, cascades of activity known as neuronal avalanches. Criticality keeps a network poised for optimal information processing, but this view seems to be difficult to reconcile with apparently irregular single neuron spiking. Here, we simulate a 10,000 neuron, deterministic, plastic network of spiking neurons. We show that a combination of short- and long-term synaptic plasticity enables these networks to exhibit criticality in the face of intrinsic, i.e. self-sustained, asynchronous spiking. Brief external perturbations lead to adaptive, long-term modification of intrinsic network connectivity through long-term excitatory plasticity, whereas long-term inhibitory plasticity enables rapid self-tuning of the network back to a critical state. The critical state is characterized by a branching parameter oscillating around unity, a critical exponent close to -3/2 and a long tail distribution of a self-similarity parameter between 0.5 and 1. PMID:25590427

  1. Germanium on silicon to enable integrated photonic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, F. Kenneth; Walsh, Kevin M.; Benken, Alexander; Jones, John; Averett, Kent; Diggs, Darnell E.; Tan, Loon-Seng; Mou, Shin; Grote, James G.

    2013-09-01

    Electronic circuits alone cannot fully meet future requirements for speed, size, and weight of many sensor systems, such as digital radar technology and as a result, interest in integrated photonic circuits (IPCs) and the hybridization of electronics with photonics is growing. However, many IPC components such as photodetectors are not presently ideal, but germanium has many advantages to enable higher performance designs that can be better incorporated into an IPC. For example, Ge photodetectors offer an enormous responsivity to laser wavelengths near 1.55μm at high frequencies to 40GHz, and they can be easily fabricated as part of a planar silicon processing schedule. At the same time, germanium has enormous potential for enabling 1.55 micron lasers on silicon and for enhancing the performance of silicon modulators. Our new effort has begun by studying the deposition of germanium on silicon and beginning to develop methods for processing these films. In initial experiments comparing several common chemical solutions for selective etching under patterned positive photoresist, it was found that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at or below room temperature (20 C) produced the sharpest patterns in the Ge films; H2O2 at a higher temperature (50 C) resulted in the greatest lateral etching.

  2. Enabling Interoperable and Selective Data Sharing among Social Networking Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dongwan; Lopes, Rodrigo

    With the widespread use of social networking (SN) sites and even introduction of a social component in non-social oriented services, there is a growing concern over user privacy in general, how to handle and share user profiles across SN sites in particular. Although there have been several proprietary or open source-based approaches to unifying the creation of third party applications, the availability and retrieval of user profile information are still limited to the site where the third party application is run, mostly devoid of the support for data interoperability. In this paper we propose an approach to enabling interopearable and selective data sharing among SN sites. To support selective data sharing, we discuss an authenticated dictionary (ADT)-based credential which enables a user to share only a subset of her information certified by external SN sites with applications running on an SN site. For interoperable data sharing, we propose an extension to the OpenSocial API so that it can provide an open source-based framework for allowing the ADT-based credential to be used seamlessly among different SN sites.

  3. ACES: An Enabling Technology for Next Generation Space Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocker, Andrew M.; Wuerl, Adam M.; Andrews, Jason E.; Andrews, Dana G.

    2004-02-01

    Andrews Space has developed the ``Alchemist'' Air Collection and Enrichment System (ACES), a dual-mode propulsion system that enables safe, economical launch systems that take off and land horizontally. Alchemist generates liquid oxygen through separation of atmospheric air using the refrigeration capacity of liquid hydrogen. The key benefit of Alchemist is that it minimizes vehicle takeoff weight. All internal and NASA-funded activities have shown that ACES, previously proposed for hypersonic combined cycle RLVs, is a higher payoff, lower-risk technology if LOX generation is performed while the vehicle cruises subsonically. Andrews Space has developed the Alchemist concept from a small system study to viable Next Generation launch system technology, conducting not only feasibility studies but also related hardware tests, and it has planned a detailed risk reduction program which employs an experienced, proven contractor team. Andrews also has participated in preliminary studies of an evolvable Next Generation vehicle architecture-enabled by Alchemist ACES-which could meet civil, military, and commercial space requirements within two decades.

  4. A Registry Framework Enabling Patient-Centred Care.

    PubMed

    Bellgard, Matthew I; Napier, Kathryn; Render, Lee; Radochonski, Maciej; Lamont, Leanne; Graham, Caroline; Wilton, Steve D; Fletcher, Sue; Goldblatt, Jack; Hunter, Adam A; Weeramanthri, Tarun

    2015-01-01

    Clinical decisions rely on expert knowledge that draws on quality patient phenotypic and physiological data. In this regard, systems that can support patient-centric care are essential. Patient registries are a key component of patient-centre care and can come in many forms such as disease-specific, recruitment, clinical, contact, post market and surveillance. There are, however, a number of significant challenges to overcome in order to maximise the utility of these information management systems to facilitate improved patient-centred care. Registries need to be harmonised regionally, nationally and internationally. However, the majority are implemented as standalone systems without consideration for data standards or system interoperability. Hence the task of harmonisation can become daunting. Fortunately, there are strategies to address this. In this paper, a disease registry framework is outlined that enables efficient deployment of national and international registries that can be modified dynamically as registry requirements evolve. This framework provides a basis for the development and implementation of data standards and enables patients to seamlessly belong to multiple registries. Other significant advances include the ability for registry curators to create and manage registries themselves without the need to contract software developers, and the concept of a registry description language for ease of registry template sharing.

  5. Enabling Large Focal Plane Arrays Through Mosaic Hybridization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Leong, Edward; Costen, Nick P.; Sharp, Elmer; Adachi, Tomoko; Benford, Dominic J.

    2012-01-01

    We have demonstrated advances in mosaic hybridization that will enable very large format far-infrared detectors. Specifically we have produced electrical detector models via mosaic hybridization yielding superconducting circuit patbs by hybridizing separately fabricated sub-units onto a single detector unit. The detector model was made on a 100mm diameter wafer while four model readout quadrant chips were made from a separate 100mm wafer. The individually fabric.ted parts were hybridized using a Suss FCI50 flip chip bonder to assemble the detector-readout stack. Once all of the hybridized readouts were in place, a single, large and thick silicon substrate was placed on the stack and attached with permanent epoxy to provide strength and a Coefficient of Thermal Expansion match to the silicon components underneath. Wirebond pads on the readout chips connect circuits to warm readout electronics; and were used to validate the successful superconducting electrical interconnection of the model mosaic-hybrid detector. This demonstration is directly scalable to 150 mm diameter wafers, enabling pixel areas over ten times the area currently available.

  6. Enabling NVM for Data-Intensive Scientific Services

    SciTech Connect

    Carns, Philip; Jenkins, John; Seo, Sangmin; Snyder, Shane; Ross, Rob; Cranor, Chuck; Atchley, Scott; Hoefler, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Specialized, transient data services are playing an increasingly prominent role in data-intensive scientific computing. These services offer flexible, on-demand pairing of applications with storage hardware using semantics that are optimized for the problem domain. Concurrent with this trend, upcoming scientific computing and big data systems will be deployed with emerging NVM technology to achieve the highest possible price/productivity ratio. Clearly, therefore, we must develop techniques to facilitate the confluence of specialized data services and NVM technology. In this work we explore how to enable the composition of NVM resources within transient distributed services while still retaining their essential performance characteristics. Our approach involves eschewing the conventional distributed file system model and instead projecting NVM devices as remote microservices that leverage user-level threads, RPC services, RMA-enabled network transports, and persistent memory libraries in order to maximize performance. We describe a prototype system that incorporates these concepts, evaluate its performance for key workloads on an exemplar system, and discuss how the system can be leveraged as a component of future data-intensive architectures.

  7. Enabling Scalable Data Analytics for LSST and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becla, Jacek; Wang, D. L.

    2014-04-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST; http://lsst.org) is a large-aperture, wide-field, ground-based survey expected to start construction this summer. It will survey half the sky every few nights in six optical bands from 320 to 1050 nm, enabling exploration of a wide range of astrophysical questions, ranging from discovering "killer" asteroids, to examining the nature of dark energy. The LSST will produce on average 15 terabytes of data per night, yielding an (uncompressed) data set of over 100 petabytes at the end of its 10-year mission. Dedicated HPC facilities will process the image data in near real time, with full-dataset reprocessings on annual scale. A sophisticated data management system will enable a wide range of spatial and temporal analyses, including computationally intensive scientific investigations in multi-dimensional space over the entire data set. The talk will describe the driving requirements, assumptions made, and design trade offs that were considered in developing the baseline architecture for the LSST database. Details of its prototype implementation, Qserv, will be given, highlighting its features, status, and potential for usage outside LSST and even outside astronomy.

  8. Plasma Modeling Enabled Technology Development Empowered by Fundamental Scattering Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushner, Mark J.

    2016-05-01

    Technology development increasingly relies on modeling to speed the innovation cycle. This is particularly true for systems using low temperature plasmas (LTPs) and their role in enabling energy efficient processes with minimal environmental impact. In the innovation cycle, LTP modeling supports investigation of fundamental processes that seed the cycle, optimization of newly developed technologies, and prediction of performance of unbuilt systems for new applications. Although proof-of-principle modeling may be performed for idealized systems in simple gases, technology development must address physically complex systems that use complex gas mixtures that now may be multi-phase (e.g., in contact with liquids). The variety of fundamental electron and ion scattering, and radiation transport data (FSRD) required for this modeling increases as the innovation cycle progresses, while the accuracy required of that data depends on the intended outcome. In all cases, the fidelity, depth and impact of the modeling depends on the availability of FSRD. Modeling and technology development are, in fact, empowered by the availability and robustness of FSRD. In this talk, examples of the impact of and requirements for FSRD in the innovation cycle enabled by plasma modeling will be discussed using results from multidimensional and global models. Examples of fundamental studies and technology optimization will focus on microelectronics fabrication and on optically pumped lasers. Modeling of systems as yet unbuilt will address the interaction of atmospheric pressure plasmas with liquids. Work supported by DOE Office of Fusion Energy Science and the National Science Foundation.

  9. Enabling Enrichment Analysis with the Human Disease Ontology

    PubMed Central

    LePendu, Paea; Musen, Mark A.; Shah, Nigam H.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced statistical methods used to analyze high-throughput data such as gene-expression assays result in long lists of “significant genes.” One way to gain insight into the significance of altered expression levels is to determine whether Gene Ontology (GO) terms associated with a particular biological process, molecular function, or cellular component are over- or under-represented in the set of genes deemed significant. This process, referred to as enrichment analysis, profiles a gene-set, and is widely used to make sense of the results of high-throughput experiments. Our goal is to develop and apply general enrichment analysis methods to profile other sets of interest, such as patient cohorts from the electronic medical record, using a variety of ontologies including SNOMED CT, MedDRA, RxNorm, and others. Although it is possible to perform enrichment analysis using ontologies other than the GO, a key pre-requisite is the availability of a background set of annotations to enable the enrichment calculation. In the case of the GO, this background set is provided by the Gene Ontology Annotations. In the current work, we describe: (i) a general method that uses hand-curated GO annotations as a starting point for creating background datasets for enrichment analysis using other ontologies; and (ii) a gene–disease background annotation set—that enables disease-based enrichment—to demonstrate feasibility of our method. PMID:21550421

  10. Oxytonergic circuitry sustains and enables creative cognition in humans.

    PubMed

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Baas, Matthijs; Roskes, Marieke; Sligte, Daniel J; Ebstein, Richard P; Chew, Soo Hong; Tong, Terry; Jiang, Yushi; Mayseless, Naama; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2014-08-01

    Creativity enables humans to adapt flexibly to changing circumstances, to manage complex social relations and to survive and prosper through social, technological and medical innovations. In humans, chronic, trait-based as well as temporary, state-based approach orientation has been linked to increased capacity for divergent rather than convergent thinking, to more global and holistic processing styles and to more original ideation and creative problem solving. Here, we link creative cognition to oxytocin, a hypothalamic neuropeptide known to up-regulate approach orientation in both animals and humans. Study 1 (N = 492) showed that plasma oxytocin predicts novelty-seeking temperament. Study 2 (N = 110) revealed that genotype differences in a polymorphism in the oxytocin receptor gene rs1042778 predicted creative ideation, with GG/GT-carriers being more original than TT-carriers. Using double-blind placebo-controlled between-subjects designs, Studies 3-6 (N = 191) finally showed that intranasal oxytocin (vs matching placebo) reduced analytical reasoning, and increased holistic processing, divergent thinking and creative performance. We conclude that the oxytonergic circuitry sustains and enables the day-to-day creativity humans need for survival and prosperity and discuss implications.

  11. BIM: Enabling Sustainability and Asset Management through Knowledge Management

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Building Information Modeling (BIM) is the use of virtual building information models to develop building design solutions and design documentation and to analyse construction processes. Recent advances in IT have enabled advanced knowledge management, which in turn facilitates sustainability and improves asset management in the civil construction industry. There are several important qualifiers and some disadvantages of the current suite of technologies. This paper outlines the benefits, enablers, and barriers associated with BIM and makes suggestions about how these issues may be addressed. The paper highlights the advantages of BIM, particularly the increased utility and speed, enhanced fault finding in all construction phases, and enhanced collaborations and visualisation of data. The paper additionally identifies a range of issues concerning the implementation of BIM as follows: IP, liability, risks, and contracts and the authenticity of users. Implementing BIM requires investment in new technology, skills training, and development of new ways of collaboration and Trade Practices concerns. However, when these challenges are overcome, BIM as a new information technology promises a new level of collaborative engineering knowledge management, designed to facilitate sustainability and asset management issues in design, construction, asset management practices, and eventually decommissioning for the civil engineering industry. PMID:24324392

  12. Sustainable Ecosystems: Enabled by Supply and Demand Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Chandrakant D.

    Continued population growth, coupled with increased per capita consumption of resources, poses a challenge to the quality of life of current and future generations. We cannot expect to meet the future needs of society simply by extending existing infrastructures. The necessary transformation can be enabled by a sustainable IT ecosystem made up of billions of service-oriented client devices and thousands of data centers. The IT ecosystem, with data centers at its core and pervasive measurement at the edges, will need to be seamlessly integrated into future communities to enable need-based provisioning of critical resources. Such a transformation requires a systemic approach based on supply and demand of resources. A supply side perspective necessitates using local resources of available energy, alongside design and management that minimizes the energy required to extract, manufacture, mitigate waste, transport, operate and reclaim components. The demand side perspective requires provisioning resources based on the needs of the user by using flexible building blocks, pervasive sensing, communications, knowledge discovery and policy-based control. This paper presents a systemic framework for supply-demand management in IT - in particular, on building sustainable data centers - and suggests how the approach can be extended to manage resources at the scale of urban infrastructures.

  13. A simple physical mechanism enables homeostasis in primitive cells

    PubMed Central

    Engelhart, Aaron E.; Adamala, Katarzyna; Szostak, Jack W.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of homeostatic mechanisms that enabled maintenance of an intracellular steady-state during growth was critical to the advent of cellular life. Here, we show that concentration-dependent reversible binding of short oligonucleotides, of both specific and random sequence, can modulate ribozyme activity. In both cases, catalysis is inhibited at high concentrations, and dilution activates the ribozyme via inhibitor dissociation, thus maintaining near-constant ribozyme specific activity throughout protocell growth. To mimic the result of RNA synthesis within non-growing protocells, we co-encapsulated high concentrations of ribozyme and oligonucleotides within fatty acid vesicles; ribozyme activity was inhibited. Following vesicle growth, the resulting internal dilution produced ribozyme activation. This simple physical system enables a primitive homeostatic behavior: the maintenance of constant ribozyme activity per unit volume during protocell volume changes. We suggest such systems, wherein short oligonucleotides reversibly inhibit functional RNAs, could have preceded sophisticated modern RNA regulatory mechanisms, such as those involving miRNAs. PMID:27102678

  14. MOPED enables discoveries through consistently processed proteomics data.

    PubMed

    Higdon, Roger; Stewart, Elizabeth; Stanberry, Larissa; Haynes, Winston; Choiniere, John; Montague, Elizabeth; Anderson, Nathaniel; Yandl, Gregory; Janko, Imre; Broomall, William; Fishilevich, Simon; Lancet, Doron; Kolker, Natali; Kolker, Eugene

    2014-01-03

    The Model Organism Protein Expression Database (MOPED, http://moped.proteinspire.org) is an expanding proteomics resource to enable biological and biomedical discoveries. MOPED aggregates simple, standardized and consistently processed summaries of protein expression and metadata from proteomics (mass spectrometry) experiments from human and model organisms (mouse, worm, and yeast). The latest version of MOPED adds new estimates of protein abundance and concentration as well as relative (differential) expression data. MOPED provides a new updated query interface that allows users to explore information by organism, tissue, localization, condition, experiment, or keyword. MOPED supports the Human Proteome Project's efforts to generate chromosome- and diseases-specific proteomes by providing links from proteins to chromosome and disease information as well as many complementary resources. MOPED supports a new omics metadata checklist to harmonize data integration, analysis, and use. MOPED's development is driven by the user community, which spans 90 countries and guides future development that will transform MOPED into a multiomics resource. MOPED encourages users to submit data in a simple format. They can use the metadata checklist to generate a data publication for this submission. As a result, MOPED will provide even greater insights into complex biological processes and systems and enable deeper and more comprehensive biological and biomedical discoveries.

  15. Gaze-enabled Egocentric Video Summarization via Constrained Submodular Maximization

    PubMed Central

    Xut, Jia; Mukherjee, Lopamudra; Li, Yin; Warner, Jamieson; Rehg, James M.; Singht, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    With the proliferation of wearable cameras, the number of videos of users documenting their personal lives using such devices is rapidly increasing. Since such videos may span hours, there is an important need for mechanisms that represent the information content in a compact form (i.e., shorter videos which are more easily browsable/sharable). Motivated by these applications, this paper focuses on the problem of egocentric video summarization. Such videos are usually continuous with significant camera shake and other quality issues. Because of these reasons, there is growing consensus that direct application of standard video summarization tools to such data yields unsatisfactory performance. In this paper, we demonstrate that using gaze tracking information (such as fixation and saccade) significantly helps the summarization task. It allows meaningful comparison of different image frames and enables deriving personalized summaries (gaze provides a sense of the camera wearer's intent). We formulate a summarization model which captures common-sense properties of a good summary, and show that it can be solved as a submodular function maximization with partition matroid constraints, opening the door to a rich body of work from combinatorial optimization. We evaluate our approach on a new gaze-enabled egocentric video dataset (over 15 hours), which will be a valuable standalone resource. PMID:26973428

  16. Resource Optimization Scheme for Multimedia-Enabled Wireless Mesh Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Amjad; Ahmed, Muhammad Ejaz; Piran, Md. Jalil; Suh, Doug Young

    2014-01-01

    Wireless mesh networking is a promising technology that can support numerous multimedia applications. Multimedia applications have stringent quality of service (QoS) requirements, i.e., bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss ratio. Enabling such QoS-demanding applications over wireless mesh networks (WMNs) require QoS provisioning routing protocols that lead to the network resource underutilization problem. Moreover, random topology deployment leads to have some unused network resources. Therefore, resource optimization is one of the most critical design issues in multi-hop, multi-radio WMNs enabled with multimedia applications. Resource optimization has been studied extensively in the literature for wireless Ad Hoc and sensor networks, but existing studies have not considered resource underutilization issues caused by QoS provisioning routing and random topology deployment. Finding a QoS-provisioned path in wireless mesh networks is an NP complete problem. In this paper, we propose a novel Integer Linear Programming (ILP) optimization model to reconstruct the optimal connected mesh backbone topology with a minimum number of links and relay nodes which satisfies the given end-to-end QoS demands for multimedia traffic and identification of extra resources, while maintaining redundancy. We further propose a polynomial time heuristic algorithm called Link and Node Removal Considering Residual Capacity and Traffic Demands (LNR-RCTD). Simulation studies prove that our heuristic algorithm provides near-optimal results and saves about 20% of resources from being wasted by QoS provisioning routing and random topology deployment. PMID:25111241

  17. Semantically-Enabled Sensor Plug & Play for the Sensor Web

    PubMed Central

    Bröring, Arne; Maúe, Patrick; Janowicz, Krzysztof; Nüst, Daniel; Malewski, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Environmental sensors have continuously improved by becoming smaller, cheaper, and more intelligent over the past years. As consequence of these technological advancements, sensors are increasingly deployed to monitor our environment. The large variety of available sensor types with often incompatible protocols complicates the integration of sensors into observing systems. The standardized Web service interfaces and data encodings defined within OGC’s Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) framework make sensors available over the Web and hide the heterogeneous sensor protocols from applications. So far, the SWE framework does not describe how to integrate sensors on-the-fly with minimal human intervention. The driver software which enables access to sensors has to be implemented and the measured sensor data has to be manually mapped to the SWE models. In this article we introduce a Sensor Plug & Play infrastructure for the Sensor Web by combining (1) semantic matchmaking functionality, (2) a publish/subscribe mechanism underlying the SensorWeb, as well as (3) a model for the declarative description of sensor interfaces which serves as a generic driver mechanism. We implement and evaluate our approach by applying it to an oil spill scenario. The matchmaking is realized using existing ontologies and reasoning engines and provides a strong case for the semantic integration capabilities provided by Semantic Web research. PMID:22164033

  18. Passive Cooling Enabled by Polymer Composite Coating: Dependence on Filler, Filler Size and Coating Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yue; Shi, Frank G.

    2017-02-01

    The effective passive radiation cooling that is enabled by silicone-based composites is investigated for its dependence on coating thickness and filler size in the range of nanometers to micrometers. It is established, contrary to prior reports, that the effective passive radiation cooling does not exhibit a filler size dependence, i.e., there is no optimal size at which a maximum cooling would be reached. However, the apparent cooling effect is filler type dependent and among the fillers investigated, Al2O3 exhibits the best apparent cooling effect. In addition, the apparent cooling effect is dependent on coating thickness: the thickness dependence is non-monotonic, and the maximum cooling occurs at an optimal thickness of 70 μm, regardless of filler type. Potential significant implications of the findings are also discussed.

  19. A Security Architecture for Grid-enabling OGC Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelini, Valerio; Petronzio, Luca

    2010-05-01

    In the proposed presentation we describe an architectural solution for enabling a secure access to Grids and possibly other large scale on-demand processing infrastructures through OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) Web Services (OWS). This work has been carried out in the context of the security thread of the G-OWS Working Group. G-OWS (gLite enablement of OGC Web Services) is an international open initiative started in 2008 by the European CYCLOPS , GENESI-DR, and DORII Project Consortia in order to collect/coordinate experiences in the enablement of OWS's on top of the gLite Grid middleware. G-OWS investigates the problem of the development of Spatial Data and Information Infrastructures (SDI and SII) based on the Grid/Cloud capacity in order to enable Earth Science applications and tools. Concerning security issues, the integration of OWS compliant infrastructures and gLite Grids needs to address relevant challenges, due to their respective design principles. In fact OWS's are part of a Web based architecture that demands security aspects to other specifications, whereas the gLite middleware implements the Grid paradigm with a strong security model (the gLite Grid Security Infrastructure: GSI). In our work we propose a Security Architectural Framework allowing the seamless use of Grid-enabled OGC Web Services through the federation of existing security systems (mostly web based) with the gLite GSI. This is made possible mediating between different security realms, whose mutual trust is established in advance during the deployment of the system itself. Our architecture is composed of three different security tiers: the user's security system, a specific G-OWS security system, and the gLite Grid Security Infrastructure. Applying the separation-of-concerns principle, each of these tiers is responsible for controlling the access to a well-defined resource set, respectively: the user's organization resources, the geospatial resources and services, and the Grid

  20. A Toolkit to Enable Hydrocarbon Conversion in Aqueous Environments

    PubMed Central

    Brinkman, Eva K.; Schipper, Kira; Bongaerts, Nadine; Voges, Mathias J.; Abate, Alessandro; Wahl, S. Aljoscha

    2012-01-01

    This work puts forward a toolkit that enables the conversion of alkanes by Escherichia coli and presents a proof of principle of its applicability. The toolkit consists of multiple standard interchangeable parts (BioBricks)9 addressing the conversion of alkanes, regulation of gene expression and survival in toxic hydrocarbon-rich environments. A three-step pathway for alkane degradation was implemented in E. coli to enable the conversion of medium- and long-chain alkanes to their respective alkanols, alkanals and ultimately alkanoic-acids. The latter were metabolized via the native β-oxidation pathway. To facilitate the oxidation of medium-chain alkanes (C5-C13) and cycloalkanes (C5-C8), four genes (alkB2, rubA3, rubA4and rubB) of the alkane hydroxylase system from Gordonia sp. TF68,21 were transformed into E. coli. For the conversion of long-chain alkanes (C15-C36), theladA gene from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans was implemented. For the required further steps of the degradation process, ADH and ALDH (originating from G. thermodenitrificans) were introduced10,11. The activity was measured by resting cell assays. For each oxidative step, enzyme activity was observed. To optimize the process efficiency, the expression was only induced under low glucose conditions: a substrate-regulated promoter, pCaiF, was used. pCaiF is present in E. coli K12 and regulates the expression of the genes involved in the degradation of non-glucose carbon sources. The last part of the toolkit - targeting survival - was implemented using solvent tolerance genes, PhPFDα and β, both from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3. Organic solvents can induce cell stress and decreased survivability by negatively affecting protein folding. As chaperones, PhPFDα and β improve the protein folding process e.g. under the presence of alkanes. The expression of these genes led to an improved hydrocarbon tolerance shown by an increased growth rate (up to 50%) in the presences of 10% n-hexane in the culture