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Sample records for entorhinal cortex aspiration

  1. Entorhinal cortex and consolidated memory.

    PubMed

    Takehara-Nishiuchi, Kaori

    2014-07-01

    The entorhinal cortex is thought to support rapid encoding of new associations by serving as an interface between the hippocampus and neocortical regions. Although the entorhinal-hippocampal interaction is undoubtedly essential for initial memory acquisition, the entorhinal cortex contributes to memory retrieval even after the hippocampus is no longer necessary. This suggests that during memory consolidation additional synaptic reinforcement may take place within the cortical network, which may change the connectivity of entorhinal cortex with cortical regions other than the hippocampus. Here, I outline behavioral and physiological findings which collectively suggest that memory consolidation involves the gradual strengthening of connection between the entorhinal cortex and the medial prefrontal/anterior cingulate cortex (mPFC/ACC), a region that may permanently store the learned association. This newly formed connection allows for close interaction between the entorhinal cortex and the mPFC/ACC, through which the mPFC/ACC gains access to neocortical regions that store the content of memory. Thus, the entorhinal cortex may serve as a gatekeeper of cortical memory network by selectively interacting either with the hippocampus or mPFC/ACC depending on the age of memory. This model provides a new framework for a modification of cortical memory network during systems consolidation, thereby adding a fresh dimension to future studies on its biological mechanism.

  2. Input-output relations in the entorhinal-hippocampal-entorhinal loop: entorhinal cortex and dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Bartesaghi, R; Gessi, T; Migliore, M

    1995-01-01

    The pattern of impulse transfer along the entorhinal-hippocampal-entorhinal loop has been analyzed in the guinea pig by field potential analysis. The loop was driven by impulse volleys conducted by presubicular commissural fibers, directly stimulated in the dorsal psalterium, which monosynaptically activated perforant path neurons in the medial entorhinal cortex. Perforant path volleys activated in sequence the dentate gyrus, field CA3, field CA1, subiculum, and entorhinal cortex. Input-output curves were reconstructed from responses simultaneously recorded from different stations along the loop. The entorhinal response to the presubicular volley was found to increase gradually with respect to its input. The population excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) of the dentate gyrus granule cells had a similar behavior. By contrast, the input-output relation between the granule cell population spike and population EPSP was described by a very sleep sigmoid curve. The population spike of CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons as well as the response evoked in the entorhinal cortex by the hippocampal output had slightly higher threshold than the granule cell population spike and, like the latter, abruptly reached maximum amplitude. These findings show that the entorhinal-hippocampal-entorhinal loop transforms a linear input in a non-linear, almost all-or-none output and that the dentate gyrus is the critical site where the transformation occurs. Beyond the dentate gyrus, the loop appears very permeant to impulse traffic.

  3. Speed cells in the medial entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Kropff, Emilio; Carmichael, James E; Moser, May-Britt; Moser, Edvard I

    2015-07-23

    Grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex have spatial firing fields that repeat periodically in a hexagonal pattern. When animals move, activity is translated between grid cells in accordance with the animal's displacement in the environment. For this translation to occur, grid cells must have continuous access to information about instantaneous running speed. However, a powerful entorhinal speed signal has not been identified. Here we show that running speed is represented in the firing rate of a ubiquitous but functionally dedicated population of entorhinal neurons distinct from other cell populations of the local circuit, such as grid, head-direction and border cells. These 'speed cells' are characterized by a context-invariant positive, linear response to running speed, and share with grid cells a prospective bias of ∼50-80 ms. Our observations point to speed cells as a key component of the dynamic representation of self-location in the medial entorhinal cortex. PMID:26176924

  4. Speed cells in the medial entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Kropff, Emilio; Carmichael, James E; Moser, May-Britt; Moser, Edvard I

    2015-07-23

    Grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex have spatial firing fields that repeat periodically in a hexagonal pattern. When animals move, activity is translated between grid cells in accordance with the animal's displacement in the environment. For this translation to occur, grid cells must have continuous access to information about instantaneous running speed. However, a powerful entorhinal speed signal has not been identified. Here we show that running speed is represented in the firing rate of a ubiquitous but functionally dedicated population of entorhinal neurons distinct from other cell populations of the local circuit, such as grid, head-direction and border cells. These 'speed cells' are characterized by a context-invariant positive, linear response to running speed, and share with grid cells a prospective bias of ∼50-80 ms. Our observations point to speed cells as a key component of the dynamic representation of self-location in the medial entorhinal cortex.

  5. Functional topography of the human entorhinal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Zaragoza Jimenez, Nestor I

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive research on the role of the rodent medial and lateral entorhinal cortex (MEC/LEC) in spatial navigation, memory and related disease, their human homologues remain elusive. Here, we combine high-field functional magnetic resonance imaging at 7 T with novel data-driven and model-based analyses to identify corresponding subregions in humans based on the well-known global connectivity fingerprints in rodents and sensitivity to spatial and non-spatial information. We provide evidence for a functional division primarily along the anteroposterior axis. Localising the human homologue of the rodent MEC and LEC has important implications for translating studies on the hippocampo-entorhinal memory system from rodents to humans. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06738.001 PMID:26052748

  6. Functional subregions of the human entorhinal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Maass, Anne; Berron, David; Libby, Laura A; Ranganath, Charan; Düzel, Emrah

    2015-01-01

    The entorhinal cortex (EC) is the primary site of interactions between the neocortex and hippocampus. Studies in rodents and nonhuman primates suggest that EC can be divided into subregions that connect differentially with perirhinal cortex (PRC) vs parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and with hippocampal subfields along the proximo-distal axis. Here, we used high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging at 7 Tesla to identify functional subdivisions of the human EC. In two independent datasets, PRC showed preferential intrinsic functional connectivity with anterior-lateral EC and PHC with posterior-medial EC. These EC subregions, in turn, exhibited differential connectivity with proximal and distal subiculum. In contrast, connectivity of PRC and PHC with subiculum followed not only a proximal-distal but also an anterior-posterior gradient. Our data provide the first evidence that the human EC can be divided into functional subdivisions whose functional connectivity closely parallels the known anatomical connectivity patterns of the rodent and nonhuman primate EC. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06426.001 PMID:26052749

  7. Repeating spatial activations in human entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jonathan F; Fried, Itzhak; Suthana, Nanthia; Jacobs, Joshua

    2015-04-20

    The ability to remember and navigate spatial environments is critical for everyday life. A primary mechanism by which the brain represents space is through hippocampal place cells, which indicate when an animal is at a particular location. An important issue is understanding how the hippocampal place-cell network represents specific properties of the environment, such as signifying that a particular position is near a doorway or that another position is near the end of a corridor. The entorhinal cortex (EC), as the main input to the hippocampus, may play a key role in coding these properties because it contains neurons that activate at multiple related positions per environment. We examined the diversity of spatial coding across the human medial temporal lobe by recording neuronal activity during virtual navigation of an environment containing four similar paths. Neurosurgical patients performed this task as we recorded from implanted microelectrodes, allowing us to compare the human neuronal representation of space with that of animals. EC neurons activated in a repeating manner across the environment, with individual cells spiking at the same relative location across multiple paths. This finding indicates that EC cells represent non-specific information about location relative to an environment's geometry, unlike hippocampal place cells, which activate at particular random locations. Given that spatial navigation is considered to be a model of how the brain supports non-spatial episodic memory, these findings suggest that EC neuronal activity is used by the hippocampus to represent the properties of different memory episodes.

  8. Cellular properties of principal neurons in the rat entorhinal cortex. II. The medial entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Canto, Cathrin B; Witter, Menno P

    2012-06-01

    Principal neurons in different medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) layers show variations in spatial modulation that stabilize between 15 and 30 days postnatally. These in vivo variations are likely due to differences in intrinsic membrane properties and integrative capacities of neurons. The latter depends on inputs and thus potentially on the morphology of principal neurons. In this comprehensive study, we systematically compared the morphological and physiological characteristics of principal neurons in all MEC layers of newborn rats before and after weaning. We recorded simultaneously from up to four post-hoc morphologically identified MEC principal neurons in vitro. Neurons in L(ayer) I-LIII have dendritic and axonal arbors mainly in superficial layers, and LVI neurons mainly in deep layers. The dendritic and axonal trees of part of LV neurons diverge throughout all layers. Physiological properties of principal neurons differ between layers. In LII, most neurons have a prominent sag potential, resonance and membrane oscillations. Neurons in LIII and LVI fire relatively regular, and lack sag potentials and membrane oscillations. LV neurons show the most prominent spike-frequency adaptation and highest input resistance. The data indicate that adult-like principal neuron types can be differentiated early on during postnatal development. The results of the accompanying paper, in which principal neurons in the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) were described (Canto and Witter,2011), revealed that significant differences between LEC and MEC exist mainly in LII neurons. We therefore systematically analyzed changes in LII biophysical properties along the mediolateral axis of MEC and LEC. There is a gradient in properties typical for MEC LII neurons. These properties are most pronounced in medially located neurons and become less apparent in more laterally positioned ones. This gradient continues into LEC, such that in LEC medially positioned neurons share some properties

  9. The entorhinal cortex plays a role in extinction.

    PubMed

    Bevilaqua, Lia R; Bonini, Juliana S; Rossato, Janine I; Izquierdo, Luciana A; Cammarota, Martín; Izquierdo, Iván

    2006-03-01

    In this study, we analyzed the participation of the entorhinal cortex in extinction of a learned aversive response. Rats with infusion cannulae aimed to the entorhinal cortex were trained in a one-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance task (IA) and submitted to four consecutive daily test sessions without the footshock, a procedure that induced extinction of the conditioned response in control animals. When infused into the entorhinal cortex immediately after the first extinction session at doses able to block consolidation of IA memory, the NMDA receptor antagonist, AP5 (25 nmol/side), the inhibitor of protein synthesis anisomycin (300 nmol/side) and the inhibitor of CaMKII, KN-93 (10 nmol/side), but not the MEK1/2 inhibitor PD-98059 (5 nmol/side) hindered extinction of the IA response. The same results were obtained when the interval between the first and second test session was 48 instead of 24h. The data indicate that normal functionality of the NMDA receptors, together with CaMKII activity and protein synthesis are necessary in the entorhinal cortex at the time of the first test session to generate extinction. Our results also suggest that the ERK1/2 pathway does not play a role in this process.

  10. Structural development and dorsoventral maturation of the medial entorhinal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Saikat; Brecht, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the structural development of superficial-layers of medial entorhinal cortex and parasubiculum in rats. The grid-layout and cholinergic-innervation of calbindin-positive pyramidal-cells in layer-2 emerged around birth while reelin-positive stellate-cells were scattered throughout development. Layer-3 and parasubiculum neurons had a transient calbindin-expression, which declined with age. Early postnatally, layer-2 pyramidal but not stellate-cells co-localized with doublecortin – a marker of immature neurons – suggesting delayed functional-maturation of pyramidal-cells. Three observations indicated a dorsal-to-ventral maturation of entorhinal cortex and parasubiculum: (i) calbindin-expression in layer-3 neurons decreased progressively from dorsal-to-ventral, (ii) doublecortin in layer-2 calbindin-positive-patches disappeared dorsally before ventrally, and (iii) wolframin-expression emerged earlier in dorsal than ventral parasubiculum. The early appearance of calbindin-pyramidal-grid-organization in layer-2 suggests that this pattern is instructed by genetic information rather than experience. Superficial-layer-microcircuits mature earlier in dorsal entorhinal cortex, where small spatial-scales are represented. Maturation of ventral-entorhinal-microcircuits – representing larger spatial-scales – follows later around the onset of exploratory behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13343.001 PMID:27036175

  11. Effects of acetylcholine on neuronal properties in entorhinal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Heys, James G.; Schultheiss, Nathan W.; Shay, Christopher F.; Tsuno, Yusuke; Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    The entorhinal cortex (EC) receives prominent cholinergic innervation from the medial septum and the vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca (MSDB). To understand how cholinergic neurotransmission can modulate behavior, research has been directed toward identification of the specific cellular mechanisms in EC that can be modulated through cholinergic activity. This review focuses on intrinsic cellular properties of neurons in EC that may underlie functions such as working memory, spatial processing, and episodic memory. In particular, the study of stellate cells (SCs) in medial entorhinal has resulted in discovery of correlations between physiological properties of these neurons and properties of the unique spatial representation that is demonstrated through unit recordings of neurons in medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) from awake-behaving animals. A separate line of investigation has demonstrated persistent firing behavior among neurons in EC that is enhanced by cholinergic activity and could underlie working memory. There is also evidence that acetylcholine plays a role in modulation of synaptic transmission that could also enhance mnemonic function in EC. Finally, the local circuits of EC demonstrate a variety of interneuron physiology, which is also subject to cholinergic modulation. Together these effects alter the dynamics of EC to underlie the functional role of acetylcholine in memory. PMID:22837741

  12. Complementary Roles of Hippocampus and Medial Entorhinal Cortex in Episodic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Lipton, P. A.; Eichenbaum, H.

    2008-01-01

    Spatial mapping and navigation are figured prominently in the extant literature that describes hippocampal function. The medial entorhinal cortex is likewise attracting increasing interest, insofar as evidence accumulates that this area also contributes to spatial information processing. Here, we discuss recent electrophysiological findings that offer an alternate view of hippocampal and medial entorhinal function. These findings suggest complementary contributions of the hippocampus and medial entorhinal cortex in support of episodic memory, wherein hippocampal networks encode sequences of events that compose temporally and spatially extended episodes, whereas medial entorhinal networks disambiguate overlapping episodes by binding sequential events into distinct memories. PMID:18615199

  13. Selective Vulnerability of Neurons in Layer II of the Entorhinal Cortex during Aging and Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stranahan, Alexis M.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    All neurons are not created equal. Certain cell populations in specific brain regions are more susceptible to age-related changes that initiate regional and system-level dysfunction. In this respect, neurons in layer II of the entorhinal cortex are selectively vulnerable in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). This paper will cover several hypotheses that attempt to account for age-related alterations among this cell population. We consider whether specific developmental, anatomical, or biochemical features of neurons in layer II of the entorhinal cortex contribute to their particular sensitivity to aging and AD. The entorhinal cortex is a functionally heterogeneous environment, and we will also review data suggesting that, within the entorhinal cortex, there is subregional specificity for molecular alterations that may initiate cognitive decline. Taken together, the existing data point to a regional cascade in which entorhinal cortical alterations directly contribute to downstream changes in its primary afferent region, the hippocampus. PMID:21331296

  14. The piriform, perirhinal, and entorhinal cortex in seizure generation

    PubMed Central

    Vismer, Marta S.; Forcelli, Patrick A.; Skopin, Mark D.; Gale, Karen; Koubeissi, Mohamad Z.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding neural network behavior is essential to shed light on epileptogenesis and seizure propagation. The interconnectivity and plasticity of mammalian limbic and neocortical brain regions provide the substrate for the hypersynchrony and hyperexcitability associated with seizure activity. Recurrent unprovoked seizures are the hallmark of epilepsy, and limbic epilepsy is the most common type of medically-intractable focal epilepsy in adolescents and adults that necessitates surgical evaluation. In this review, we describe the role and relationships among the piriform (PIRC), perirhinal (PRC), and entorhinal cortex (ERC) in seizure-generation and epilepsy. The inherent function, anatomy, and histological composition of these cortical regions are discussed. In addition, the neurotransmitters, intrinsic and extrinsic connections, and the interaction of these regions are described. Furthermore, we provide evidence based on clinical research and animal models that suggest that these cortical regions may act as key seizure-trigger zones and, even, epileptogenesis. PMID:26074779

  15. Multiple Running Speed Signals in Medial Entorhinal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Hinman, James R; Brandon, Mark P; Climer, Jason R; Chapman, G William; Hasselmo, Michael E

    2016-08-01

    Grid cells in medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) can be modeled using oscillatory interference or attractor dynamic mechanisms that perform path integration, a computation requiring information about running direction and speed. The two classes of computational models often use either an oscillatory frequency or a firing rate that increases as a function of running speed. Yet it is currently not known whether these are two manifestations of the same speed signal or dissociable signals with potentially different anatomical substrates. We examined coding of running speed in MEC and identified these two speed signals to be independent of each other within individual neurons. The medial septum (MS) is strongly linked to locomotor behavior, and removal of MS input resulted in strengthening of the firing rate speed signal, while decreasing the strength of the oscillatory speed signal. Thus, two speed signals are present in MEC that are differentially affected by disrupted MS input. PMID:27427460

  16. The Role of the Entorhinal Cortex in Extinction: Influences of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Bevilaqua, Lia R. M.; Rossato, Janine I.; Bonini, Juliana S.; Myskiw, Jociane C.; Clarke, Julia R.; Monteiro, Siomara; Lima, Ramón H.; Medina, Jorge H.; Cammarota, Martín; Izquierdo, Iván

    2008-01-01

    The entorhinal cortex is perhaps the area of the brain in which neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques are first detectable in old age with or without mild cognitive impairment, and very particularly in Alzheimer's disease. It plays a key role in memory formation, retrieval, and extinction, as part of circuits that include the hippocampus, the amygdaloid nucleus, and several regions of the neocortex, in particular of the prefrontal cortex. Lesions or biochemical impairments of the entorhinal cortex hinder extinction. Microinfusion experiments have shown that glutamate NMDA receptors, calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and protein synthesis in the entorhinal cortex are involved in and required for extinction. Aging also hinders extinction; it is possible that its effect may be in part mediated by the entorhinal cortex. PMID:18584042

  17. The role of the entorhinal cortex in extinction: influences of aging.

    PubMed

    Bevilaqua, Lia R M; Rossato, Janine I; Bonini, Juliana S; Myskiw, Jociane C; Clarke, Julia R; Monteiro, Siomara; Lima, Ramón H; Medina, Jorge H; Cammarota, Martín; Izquierdo, Iván

    2008-01-01

    The entorhinal cortex is perhaps the area of the brain in which neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques are first detectable in old age with or without mild cognitive impairment, and very particularly in Alzheimer's disease. It plays a key role in memory formation, retrieval, and extinction, as part of circuits that include the hippocampus, the amygdaloid nucleus, and several regions of the neocortex, in particular of the prefrontal cortex. Lesions or biochemical impairments of the entorhinal cortex hinder extinction. Microinfusion experiments have shown that glutamate NMDA receptors, calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and protein synthesis in the entorhinal cortex are involved in and required for extinction. Aging also hinders extinction; it is possible that its effect may be in part mediated by the entorhinal cortex.

  18. What Does the Anatomical Organization of the Entorhinal Cortex Tell Us?

    PubMed Central

    Canto, Cathrin B.; Wouterlood, Floris G.; Witter, Menno P.

    2008-01-01

    The entorhinal cortex is commonly perceived as a major input and output structure of the hippocampal formation, entertaining the role of the nodal point of cortico-hippocampal circuits. Superficial layers receive convergent cortical information, which is relayed to structures in the hippocampus, and hippocampal output reaches deep layers of entorhinal cortex, that project back to the cortex. The finding of the grid cells in all layers and reports on interactions between deep and superficial layers indicate that this rather simplistic perception may be at fault. Therefore, an integrative approach on the entorhinal cortex, that takes into account recent additions to our knowledge database on entorhinal connectivity, is timely. We argue that layers in entorhinal cortex show different functional characteristics most likely not on the basis of strikingly different inputs or outputs, but much more likely on the basis of differences in intrinsic organization, combined with very specific sets of inputs. Here, we aim to summarize recent anatomical data supporting the notion that the traditional description of the entorhinal cortex as a layered input-output structure for the hippocampal formation does not give the deserved credit to what this structure might be contributing to the overall functions of cortico-hippocampal networks. PMID:18769556

  19. Optical coherence tomography visualizes neurons in human entorhinal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Magnain, Caroline; Augustinack, Jean C.; Konukoglu, Ender; Frosch, Matthew P.; Sakadžić, Sava; Varjabedian, Ani; Garcia, Nathalie; Wedeen, Van J.; Boas, David A.; Fischl, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The cytoarchitecture of the human brain is of great interest in diverse fields: neuroanatomy, neurology, neuroscience, and neuropathology. Traditional histology is a method that has been historically used to assess cell and fiber content in the ex vivo human brain. However, this technique suffers from significant distortions. We used a previously demonstrated optical coherence microscopy technique to image individual neurons in several square millimeters of en-face tissue blocks from layer II of the human entorhinal cortex, over 50  μm in depth. The same slices were then sectioned and stained for Nissl substance. We registered the optical coherence tomography (OCT) images with the corresponding Nissl stained slices using a nonlinear transformation. The neurons were then segmented in both images and we quantified the overlap. We show that OCT images contain information about neurons that is comparable to what can be obtained from Nissl staining, and thus can be used to assess the cytoarchitecture of the ex vivo human brain with minimal distortion. With the future integration of a vibratome into the OCT imaging rig, this technique can be scaled up to obtain undistorted volumetric data of centimeter cube tissue blocks in the near term, and entire human hemispheres in the future. PMID:25741528

  20. GABAergic Somatostatin-immunoreactive Neurons in the Amygdala Project to the Entorhinal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Alexander J.; Zaric, Violeta

    2015-01-01

    The entorhinal cortex and other hippocampal and parahippocampal cortices are interconnected by a small number of GABAergic nonpyramidal neurons in addition to glutamatergic pyramidal cells. Since the cortical and basolateral amygdalar nuclei have cortex-like cell types and have robust projections to the entorhinal cortex, we hypothesized that a small number of amygdalar GABAergic nonpyramidal neurons might participate in amygdalo-entorhinal projections. To test this hypothesis we combined Fluorogold (FG) retrograde tract tracing with immunohistochemistry for the amygdalar nonpyramidal cell markers glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SOM), neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and the m2 muscarinic cholinergic receptor (M2R). Injections of FG into the rat entorhinal cortex labeled numerous neurons that were mainly located in the cortical and basolateral nuclei of the amygdala. Although most of these amygdalar FG+ neurons labeled by entorhinal injections were large pyramidal cells, 1–5% were smaller long-range nonpyramidal neurons (LRNP neurons) that expressed SOM, or both SOM and NPY. No amygdalar FG+ neurons in these cases were PV+ or VIP+. Cell counts revealed that LRNP neurons labeled by injections into the entorhinal cortex constituted about 10–20% of the total SOM+ population, and 20–40% of the total NPY population in portions of the lateral amygdalar nucleus that exhibited a high density of FG+ neurons. Sixty-two percent of amygdalar FG+/SOM+ neurons were GAD+, and 51% were M2R+. Since GABAergic projection neurons typically have low perikaryal levels of GABAergic markers, it is actually possible that most or all of the amygdalar LRNP neurons are GABAergic. Like GABAergic LRNP neurons in hippocampal/parahippocampal regions, amygdalar LRNP neurons that project to the entorhinal cortex are most likely involved in synchronizing oscillatory activity between the two regions. These oscillations could entrain

  1. Topographic organization of the basal forebrain projections to the perirhinal, postrhinal, and entorhinal cortex in rats.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Hideki; Zaborszky, Laszlo

    2016-08-15

    Previous studies have shown that the basal forebrain (BF) modulates cortical activation via its projections to the entire cortical mantle. However, the organization of these projections is only partially understood or, for certain areas, unknown. In this study, we examined the topographic organization of cholinergic and noncholinergic projections from the BF to the perirhinal, postrhinal, and entorhinal cortex by using retrograde tracing combined with choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunohistochemistry in rats. The perirhinal and postrhinal cortex receives major cholinergic and noncholinergic input from the caudal BF, including the caudal globus pallidus and substantia innominata and moderate input from the horizontal limb of the diagonal band, whereas the entorhinal cortex receives major input from the rostral BF, including the medial septum and the vertical and horizontal limbs of the diagonal band. In the perirhinal cases, cholinergic projection neurons are distributed more caudally in the caudal globus pallidus than noncholinergic projection neurons. Compared with the perirhinal cases, the distribution of cholinergic and noncholinergic neurons projecting to the postrhinal cortex shifts slightly caudally in the caudal globus pallidus. The distribution of cholinergic and noncholinergic neurons projecting to the lateral entorhinal cortex extends more caudally in the BF than to the medial entorhinal cortex. The ratio of ChAT-positive projection neurons to total projection neurons is higher in the perirhinal/postrhinal cases (26-48%) than in the entorhinal cases (13-30%). These results indicate that the organization of cholinergic and noncholinergic projections from the BF to the parahippocampal cortex is more complex than previously described. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2503-2515, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26780730

  2. Conserved size and periodicity of pyramidal patches in layer 2 of medial/caudal entorhinal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Naumann, Robert K.; Ray, Saikat; Prokop, Stefan; Las, Liora; Heppner, Frank L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To understand the structural basis of grid cell activity, we compare medial entorhinal cortex architecture in layer 2 across five mammalian species (Etruscan shrews, mice, rats, Egyptian fruit bats, and humans), bridging ∼100 million years of evolutionary diversity. Principal neurons in layer 2 are divided into two distinct cell types, pyramidal and stellate, based on morphology, immunoreactivity, and functional properties. We confirm the existence of patches of calbindin‐positive pyramidal cells across these species, arranged periodically according to analyses techniques like spatial autocorrelation, grid scores, and modifiable areal unit analysis. In rodents, which show sustained theta oscillations in entorhinal cortex, cholinergic innervation targeted calbindin patches. In bats and humans, which only show intermittent entorhinal theta activity, cholinergic innervation avoided calbindin patches. The organization of calbindin‐negative and calbindin‐positive cells showed marked differences in entorhinal subregions of the human brain. Layer 2 of the rodent medial and the human caudal entorhinal cortex were structurally similar in that in both species patches of calbindin‐positive pyramidal cells were superimposed on scattered stellate cells. The number of calbindin‐positive neurons in a patch increased from ∼80 in Etruscan shrews to ∼800 in humans, only an ∼10‐fold over a 20,000‐fold difference in brain size. The relatively constant size of calbindin patches differs from cortical modules such as barrels, which scale with brain size. Thus, selective pressure appears to conserve the distribution of stellate and pyramidal cells, periodic arrangement of calbindin patches, and relatively constant neuron number in calbindin patches in medial/caudal entorhinal cortex. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:783–806, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26223342

  3. Conserved size and periodicity of pyramidal patches in layer 2 of medial/caudal entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Robert K; Ray, Saikat; Prokop, Stefan; Las, Liora; Heppner, Frank L; Brecht, Michael

    2016-03-01

    To understand the structural basis of grid cell activity, we compare medial entorhinal cortex architecture in layer 2 across five mammalian species (Etruscan shrews, mice, rats, Egyptian fruit bats, and humans), bridging ∼100 million years of evolutionary diversity. Principal neurons in layer 2 are divided into two distinct cell types, pyramidal and stellate, based on morphology, immunoreactivity, and functional properties. We confirm the existence of patches of calbindin-positive pyramidal cells across these species, arranged periodically according to analyses techniques like spatial autocorrelation, grid scores, and modifiable areal unit analysis. In rodents, which show sustained theta oscillations in entorhinal cortex, cholinergic innervation targeted calbindin patches. In bats and humans, which only show intermittent entorhinal theta activity, cholinergic innervation avoided calbindin patches. The organization of calbindin-negative and calbindin-positive cells showed marked differences in entorhinal subregions of the human brain. Layer 2 of the rodent medial and the human caudal entorhinal cortex were structurally similar in that in both species patches of calbindin-positive pyramidal cells were superimposed on scattered stellate cells. The number of calbindin-positive neurons in a patch increased from ∼80 in Etruscan shrews to ∼800 in humans, only an ∼10-fold over a 20,000-fold difference in brain size. The relatively constant size of calbindin patches differs from cortical modules such as barrels, which scale with brain size. Thus, selective pressure appears to conserve the distribution of stellate and pyramidal cells, periodic arrangement of calbindin patches, and relatively constant neuron number in calbindin patches in medial/caudal entorhinal cortex.

  4. Reduced Spiking in Entorhinal Cortex during the Delay Period of a Cued Spatial Response Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Kishan; Keller, Lauren A.; Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsic persistent spiking mechanisms in medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) neurons may play a role in active maintenance of working memory. However, electrophysiological studies of rat mEC units have primarily focused on spatial modulation. We sought evidence of differential spike rates in the mEC in rats trained on a T-maze, cued spatial delayed…

  5. Sequential involvement of NMDA receptor-dependent processes in hippocampus, amygdala, entorhinal cortex and parietal cortex in memory processing.

    PubMed

    Zanatta, M.S.; Schaeffer, E.; Schmitz, P.K.; Medina, J.H.; Quevedo, J.; Quillfeldt, J.A.; Izquierdo, I.

    1996-08-01

    Rats bilaterally implanted with cannulae in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus and/or in the amygdaloid nucleus, in the entorhinal cortex, and in the posterior parietal cortex, were trained in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task. At various times after training (immediately, 30, 60 or 90min) they received, through the cannulae, 0.5µl microinfusions of saline or of 5.0µg of AP5 dissolved in saline. A retention test was carried out 24h after training. Retention test performance was hindered by AP5 given into hippocampus, amygdala, or both hippocampus and amygdala immediately but not 30min post-training. The drug was amnestic when given into the entorhinal cortex 30, 60 or 90min after training, or into the parietal cortex 60 or 90min after training, but not at earlier times. The findings suggest a sequential entry in operation, in the post-training period, of NMDA-receptor mediated mechanisms involved in memory processing; first in hippocampus and amygdala, 30min later in entorhinal cortex, and 30min later in posterior parietal cortex.

  6. Different time course for the memory facilitating effect of bicuculline in hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and posterior parietal cortex of rats.

    PubMed

    Luft, Tatiana; Pereira, Grace S; Cammarota, Martín; Izquierdo, Iván

    2004-07-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A (GABA(A)) receptors regulate memory consolidation. Here we studied the effect on consolidation of the selective antagonist of GABA(A) receptors, bicuculline, given into several regions of the cortex at different times after one-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance (0.5 mA, 2-s footshock). Rats were bilaterally implanted with cannulae aimed at the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus, entorhinal cortex or posterior parietal cortex, three areas known to be involved in the memory consolidation of this task. At different times after training, bicuculline (0.5 microg/side) was infused into the above mentioned structures. Bicuculline increased memory retention when administered either immediately or 1.5h after training into CA1, and both immediately and 3h after training in the entorhinal or parietal cortex. Thus, in agreement with previous findings using other drugs, the response was biphasic in these latter structures. This suggests that GABAergic mechanisms normally downregulate, memory processing by inhibiting on-going activities necessary for consolidation at the times in which bicuculline was effective in each structure. Based on previous findings, in the hippocampus, such activity involves a number of receptors and signaling pathways in the first 1.5h after training. In the entorhinal and parietal cortex memory-related activities include the participation of protein kinase A and extracellularly regulated kinase (ERK) twice, right after training and then again 3h later.

  7. The role of the entorhinal cortex in two forms of spatial learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Bannerman, D M; Yee, B K; Lemaire, M; Wilbrecht, L; Jarrard, L; Iversen, S D; Rawlins, J N; Good, M A

    2001-12-01

    It is generally acknowledged that the rodent hippocampus plays an important role in spatial learning and memory. The importance of the entorhinal cortex (ERC), an area that is closely interconnected anatomically with the hippocampus, in these forms of learning is less clear cut. Recent studies using selective, fibre-sparing cytotoxic lesions have generated conflicting results, with some studies showing that spatial learning can proceed normally without the ERC, suggesting that this area is not required for normal hippocampal function. The present study compared cytotoxic and aspiration ERC lesions with both fimbria fornix (FFX) lesions and sham-operated controls on two spatial learning tasks which have repeatedly been shown to depend on the hippocampus. Both groups of ERC lesions were impaired during non-matching-to-place testing (rewarded alternation) on the elevated T-maze. However, neither of these lesions subsequently had any effect on the acquisition of a standard spatial reference memory task in the water maze. FFX lesions produced a robust and reliable impairment on both of these tasks. A second experiment confirmed that cytotoxic ERC lesions spared water maze learning but disrupted rewarded alternation on the T-maze, when the order of behavioural testing was reversed. These results confirm previous reports that ERC-lesioned animals are capable of spatial navigation in the water maze, suggesting that the ERC is not a prerequisite for normal hippocampal function in this task. The present demonstration that ERC lesions disrupt non-matching-to-place performance may, however, be consistent with the possibility that ERC lesions affect attentional mechanisms, for example, by increasing the sensitivity to recent reward history.

  8. Development of epileptiform excitability in the deep entorhinal cortex after status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Bragin, Denis E.; Sanderson, Jennifer L.; Peterson, Steven; Connor, John A.; Müller, Wolfgang S.

    2009-01-01

    Epileptiform neuronal activity during seizures is observed in many brain areas, but its origins following status epilepticus (SE) are unclear. We have used the Li-low dose pilocarpine rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to examine early development of epileptiform activity in the deep entorhinal cortex (EC). We show that during the 3 week latent period that follows SE, an increasing percentage of neurons in EC layer 5 respond to a single synaptic stimulus with polysynaptic burst depolarizations. This change is paralleled by a progressive depolarizing shift of the IPSP reversal potential in layer 5 neurons, apparently caused by upregulation of the Cl- inward transporter NKCC1 and concurrent downregulation of the Cl- outward transporter KCC2, both changes favoring intracellular Cl- accumulation. Inhibiting Cl- uptake in the latent period restored more negative GABAergic reversal potentials and eliminated polysynaptic bursts. The changes in the Cl- transporters were highly specific to the deep entorhinal cortex. They did not occur in layers 1-3, perirhinal cortex, subiculum or dentate gyrus during this period. We propose that the changes in Cl- homeostasis facilitate hyperexcitability in the deep entorhinal cortex leading to epileptiform discharge there, which subsequently affects downstream cortical regions. PMID:19674083

  9. Running Induces Widespread Structural Alterations in the Hippocampus and Entorhinal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Stranahan, Alexis M.; Khalil, David; Gould, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity enhances hippocampal function but its effects on neuronal structure remain relatively unexplored outside of the dentate gyrus. Using Golgi impregnation and the lipophilic tracer DiI, we show that long-term voluntary running increases the density of dendritic spines in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus of adult rats. Exercise was associated with increased dendritic spine density not only in granule neurons of the dentate gyrus, but also in CA1 pyramidal neurons, and in layer III pyramidal neurons of the entorhinal cortex. In the CA1 region, changes in dendritic spine density are accompanied by changes in dendritic arborization and alterations in the morphology of individual spines. These findings suggest that physical activity exerts pervasive effects on neuronal morphology in the hippocampus and one of its afferent populations. These structural changes may contribute to running-induced changes in cognitive function. PMID:17636549

  10. Representation of Non-Spatial and Spatial Information in the Lateral Entorhinal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Sachin S.; Knierim, James J.

    2011-01-01

    Some theories of memory propose that the hippocampus integrates the individual items and events of experience within a contextual or spatial framework. The hippocampus receives cortical input from two major pathways: the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) and the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC). During exploration in an open field, the firing fields of MEC grid cells form a periodically repeating, triangular array. In contrast, LEC neurons show little spatial selectivity, and it has been proposed that the LEC may provide non-spatial input to the hippocampus. Here, we recorded MEC and LEC neurons while rats explored an open field that contained discrete objects. LEC cells fired selectively at locations relative to the objects, whereas MEC cells were weakly influenced by the objects. These results provide the first direct demonstration of a double dissociation between LEC and MEC inputs to the hippocampus under conditions of exploration typically used to study hippocampal place cells. PMID:22065409

  11. TRPC channels underlie cholinergic plateau potentials and persistent activity in entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zizhen; Reboreda, Antonio; Alonso, Angel; Barker, Philip A; Séguéla, Philippe

    2011-04-01

    Persistent neuronal activity lasting seconds to minutes has been proposed to allow for the transient storage of memory traces in entorhinal cortex and thus could play a major role in working memory. Nonsynaptic plateau potentials induced by acetylcholine account for persistent firing in many cortical and subcortical structures. The expression of these intrinsic properties in cortical neurons involves the recruitment of a non-selective cation conductance. Despite its functional importance, the identity of the cation channels remains unknown. Here we show that, in layer V of rat medial entorhinal cortex, muscarinic receptor-evoked plateau potentials and persistent firing induced by carbachol require phospholipase C activation, decrease of PIP(2) levels, and permissive intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. Plateau potentials and persistent activity were suppressed by the generic nonselective cation channel blockers FFA (100 μM) and 2-APB (100 μM), as well as by the TRPC channel blocker SKF-96365 (50 μM). However, plateau potentials were not affected by the TRPV channel blocker ruthenium red (40 μM). The TRPC3/6/7 activator OAG did not induce or enhance persistent firing evoked by carbachol. Voltage clamp recordings revealed a carbachol-activated, nonselective cationic current with a heteromeric TRPC-like phenotype. Moreover, plateau potentials and persistent firing were inhibited by intracellular application of the peptide EQVTTRL that disrupts interactions between the C-terminal domain of TRPC4/5 subunits and associated PDZ proteins. Altogether, our data suggest that TRPC cation channels mediating persistent muscarinic currents significantly contribute to the firing and mnemonic properties of projection neurons in the entorhinal cortex.

  12. Entorhinal cortex disruption causes memory deficit in early Alzheimer's disease as shown by PET.

    PubMed

    Eustache, F; Desgranges, B; Giffard, B; de la Sayette, V; Baron, J C

    2001-03-26

    Voxel-based mapping of the correlations between cognitive scores and resting-state brain glucose utilization measured by PET has recently emerged as a novel way to reveal in living patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) the neural systems whose disruption underlies particular neuropsychological, especially mnemonic, deficits. We have now applied this approach using a novel cognitive paradigm designed to selectively assess verbal episodic memory, and show that in early AD disruption of the left entorhinal cortex underlies this memory deficit, consistent with post mortem data showing that this brain area is affected earliest and most severely by tau pathology in AD.

  13. Infusion of protein synthesis inhibitors in the entorhinal cortex blocks consolidation but not reconsolidation of object recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Lima, Ramón H; Rossato, Janine I; Furini, Cristiane R; Bevilaqua, Lia R; Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín

    2009-05-01

    Memory consolidation and reconsolidation require the induction of protein synthesis in some areas of the brain. Here, we show that infusion of the protein synthesis inhibitors anisomycin, emetine and cycloheximide in the entorhinal cortex immediately but not 180 min or 360 min after training in an object recognition learning task hinders long-term memory retention without affecting short-term memory or behavioral performance. Inhibition of protein synthesis in the entorhinal cortex after memory reactivation involving either a combination of familiar and novel objects or two familiar objects does not affect retention. Our data suggest that protein synthesis in the entorhinal cortex is necessary early after training for consolidation of object recognition memory. However, inhibition of protein synthesis in this cortical region after memory retrieval does not seem to affect the stability of the recognition trace.

  14. Characterizing context-dependent differential firing activity in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Prerau, Michael J; Lipton, Paul A; Eichenbaum, Howard B; Eden, Uri T

    2014-04-01

    The rat hippocampus and entorhinal cortex have been shown to possess neurons with place fields that modulate their firing properties under different behavioral contexts. Such context-dependent changes in neural activity are commonly studied through electrophysiological experiments in which a rat performs a continuous spatial alternation task on a T-maze. Previous research has analyzed context-based differential firing during this task by describing differences in the mean firing activity between left-turn and right-turn experimental trials. In this article, we develop qualitative and quantitative methods to characterize and compare changes in trial-to-trial firing rate variability for sets of experimental contexts. We apply these methods to cells in the CA1 region of hippocampus and in the dorsocaudal medial entorhinal cortex (dcMEC), characterizing the context-dependent differences in spiking activity during spatial alternation. We identify a subset of cells with context-dependent changes in firing rate variability. Additionally, we show that dcMEC populations encode turn direction uniformly throughout the T-maze stem, whereas CA1 populations encode context at major waypoints in the spatial trajectory. Our results suggest scenarios in which individual cells that sparsely provide information on turn direction might combine in the aggregate to produce a robust population encoding. PMID:24436108

  15. Impaired spatial representation in CA1 after lesion of direct input from entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Brun, Vegard Heimly; Leutgeb, Stefan; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Schwarcz, Robert; Witter, Menno P; Moser, Edvard I; Moser, May-Britt

    2008-01-24

    Place-specific firing in the hippocampus is determined by path integration-based spatial representations in the grid-cell network of the medial entorhinal cortex. Output from this network is conveyed directly to CA1 of the hippocampus by projections from principal neurons in layer III, but also indirectly by axons from layer II to the dentate gyrus and CA3. The direct pathway is sufficient for spatial firing in CA1, but it is not known whether similar firing can also be supported by the input from CA3. To test this possibility, we made selective lesions in layer III of medial entorhinal cortex by local infusion of the neurotoxin gamma-acetylenic GABA. Firing fields in CA1 became larger and more dispersed after cell loss in layer III, whereas CA3 cells, which receive layer II input, still had sharp firing fields. Thus, the direct projection is necessary for precise spatial firing in the CA1 place cell population.

  16. Impaired spatial representation in CA1 after lesion of direct input from entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Brun, Vegard Heimly; Leutgeb, Stefan; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Schwarcz, Robert; Witter, Menno P; Moser, Edvard I; Moser, May-Britt

    2008-01-24

    Place-specific firing in the hippocampus is determined by path integration-based spatial representations in the grid-cell network of the medial entorhinal cortex. Output from this network is conveyed directly to CA1 of the hippocampus by projections from principal neurons in layer III, but also indirectly by axons from layer II to the dentate gyrus and CA3. The direct pathway is sufficient for spatial firing in CA1, but it is not known whether similar firing can also be supported by the input from CA3. To test this possibility, we made selective lesions in layer III of medial entorhinal cortex by local infusion of the neurotoxin gamma-acetylenic GABA. Firing fields in CA1 became larger and more dispersed after cell loss in layer III, whereas CA3 cells, which receive layer II input, still had sharp firing fields. Thus, the direct projection is necessary for precise spatial firing in the CA1 place cell population. PMID:18215625

  17. Optogenetic dissection of ictal propagation in the hippocampal–entorhinal cortex structures

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi; Zhong, Cheng; Wang, Lulu; Wei, Pengfei; He, Wei; Huang, Kang; Zhang, Yi; Zhan, Yang; Feng, Guoping; Wang, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is one of the most common drug-resistant forms of epilepsy in adults and usually originates in the hippocampal formations. However, both the network mechanisms that support the seizure spread and the exact directions of ictal propagation remain largely unknown. Here we report the dissection of ictal propagation in the hippocampal–entorhinal cortex (HP–EC) structures using optogenetic methods in multiple brain regions of a kainic acid-induced model of TLE in VGAT-ChR2 transgenic mice. We perform highly temporally precise cross-area analyses of epileptic neuronal networks and find a feed-forward propagation pathway of ictal discharges from the dentate gyrus/hilus (DGH) to the medial entorhinal cortex, instead of a re-entrant loop. We also demonstrate that activating DGH GABAergic interneurons can significantly inhibit the spread of ictal seizures and largely rescue behavioural deficits in kainate-exposed animals. These findings may shed light on future therapeutic treatments of TLE. PMID:26997093

  18. Sequential role of hippocampus and amygdala, entorhinal cortex and parietal cortex in formation and retrieval of memory for inhibitory avoidance in rats.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, I; Quillfeldt, J A; Zanatta, M S; Quevedo, J; Schaeffer, E; Schmitz, P K; Medina, J H

    1997-04-01

    The hippocampus and amygdala, the entorhinal cortex and the parietal cortex participate, in that sequence, both in the formation and in the expression of memory for a step-down inhibitory avoidance task in rats. Bilateral infusion of AP5 or muscimol caused retrograde amnesia when given 0 min after training into both hippocampus and amygdala, when given or 180 min after training into the entorhinal cortex, or when given 180 min after training into the parietal cortex. Therefore, memory formation requires the sequential and integrated activity of all these areas mediated by glutamate NMDA receptors in each case. Pre-test administration of CNQX 1 day after training into hippocampus and amygdala, 1 or 31 days after training in entorhinal cortex, or 1, 31 or 60 days after training in the parietal cortex temporarily blocked retention test performance. Therefore, 1 day after training, all these brain structures are necessary for retrieval; 1 month later, the hippocampus and amygdala are no longer necessary for retrieval but the entorhinal and parietal cortex still are; and 60 days after training only the parietal cortex is needed. In all cases the mechanisms of retrieval require intact glutamate AMPA receptors.

  19. NMDA-receptor-dependent, muscimol-sensitive role of the entorhinal cortex in post-training memory processing.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M.B.C.; Wolfman, C.; Walz, R.; Da Silva, R.C.; Zanatta, M.S.; Medina, J.H.; Izquierdo, I.

    1992-08-01

    The bilateral infusion into the entorhinal cortex of the NMDA receptor antagonist, AP5 (5.0µg) or of the GABA(A) agonist, muscimol (0.03µg) 90min after training but not 30min before training, 0min after training or 10min before testing, hindered retention test performance 24h after inhibitory avoidance in rats. Glutamate (5.0µg) or picrotoxin (0.08µg) infused 90min after training had no effect. In animals trained with a low level footshock a second training session, 120min after the first, was needed in order to obtain a good retention test performance. This was taken to reflect summation of the consecutive memory traces left by the two training sessions. In these animals, the infusion of AP5 or muscimol into the entorhinal cortex between the two training sessions impeded their summation. The present results suggest that the entorhinal cortex plays a late role in memory processing, that this role does not need a hyperactivation of the entorhinal cortex, and that it is important for the interaction between consecutive memory traces.

  20. Short- and long-term memory are differentially affected by metabolic inhibitors given into hippocampus and entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, L A; Vianna, M; Barros, D M; Mello e Souza, T; Ardenghi, P; Sant'Anna, M K; Rodrigues, C; Medinam, J H; Izquierdo, I

    2000-03-01

    Rats were implanted with cannulae in the CA1 area of the dorsal hippocampus or in the entorhinal cortex and trained in one-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance. Two retention tests were carried out in each animal, one at 1.5 h to measure short-term memory (STM) and another at 24 h to measure long-term memory (LTM). The purpose of the present study was to screen the effect on STM of various drugs previously shown to affect LTM of this task when given posttraining at the same doses that were used here. The drugs and doses were the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor LY83583 (LY, 2.5 microMg), the inhibitor of Tyr-protein kinase at low concentrations and of protein kinase G (PKG) at higher concentrations lavendustin A (LAV, 0.1 and 0.5 microMg), the PKG inhibitor KT5823 (2.0 microMg), the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor staurosporin (STAU, 2.5 microMg), the inhibitor of calcium/ calmodulin protein kinase II (CaMKII) KN62 (3.6 microMg), the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor KT5720 (0.5 microMg), and the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) inhibitor PD098059 (PD, 0.05 microMg). PD was dissolved in saline; all the other drugs were dissolved in 20% dimethyl sulfoxide. In all cases the drugs affected LTM as had been described in previous papers. The drugs affected STM and LTM differentially depending on the brain structure into which they were infused. STM was inhibited by KT5720, LY, and PD given into CA1 and by STAU and KT5720 given into the entorhinal cortex. PD given into the entorhinal cortex enhanced STM. LTM was inhibited by STAU, KN62, KT5720, KT5823, and LAV (0.5 microMg) given into CA1 and by STAU, KT5720, and PD given into the entorhinal cortex. The results suggest that STM and LTM involve different physiological mechanisms but are to an extent linked. STM appears to require PKA, guanylyl cyclase, and MAPKK activity in CA1 and PKA and PKC activity in the entorhinal cortex; MAPKK seems to play an inhibitory role in STM in the entorhinal cortex. In contrast

  1. The caudal medial entorhinal cortex: a selective role in recollection-based recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Sauvage, Magdalena M; Beer, Zachery; Ekovich, Muriel; Ho, Lucy; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2010-11-17

    Recent studies have suggested that the caudal medial entorhinal cortex (cMEC) is specialized for path integration and spatial navigation. However, cMEC is part of a brain system that supports episodic memory for both spatial and nonspatial events, and so may play a role in memory function that goes beyond navigation. Here, we used receiver operating characteristic analysis to investigate the role of the cMEC in familiarity and recollection processes that underlie nonspatial recognition memory in rats. The results indicate that cMEC plays a critical and selective role in recollection-based performance, supporting the view that cMEC supports memory for the spatial and temporal context in which events occur.

  2. Increased Persistent Sodium Current Causes Neuronal Hyperexcitability in the Entorhinal Cortex of Fmr1 Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Deng, Pan-Yue; Klyachko, Vitaly A

    2016-09-20

    Altered neuronal excitability is one of the hallmarks of fragile X syndrome (FXS), but the mechanisms underlying this critical neuronal dysfunction are poorly understood. Here, we find that pyramidal cells in the entorhinal cortex of Fmr1 KO mice, an established FXS mouse model, display a decreased AP threshold and increased neuronal excitability. The AP threshold changes in Fmr1 KO mice are caused by increased persistent sodium current (INaP). Our results indicate that this abnormal INaP in Fmr1 KO animals is mediated by increased mGluR5-PLC-PKC (metabotropic glutamate receptor 5/phospholipase C/protein kinase C) signaling. These findings identify Na(+) channel dysregulation as a major cause of neuronal hyperexcitability in cortical FXS neurons and uncover a mechanism by which abnormal mGluR5 signaling causes neuronal hyperexcitability in a FXS mouse model. PMID:27653682

  3. The caudal medial entorhinal cortex: a selective role in recollection-based recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Sauvage, Magdalena M.; Beer, Zachery; Ekovich, Muriel; Ho, Lucy; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the caudal medial entorhinal cortex (cMEC) is specialized for path integration and spatial navigation. However, cMEC is part of a brain system that supports episodic memory for both spatial and non-spatial events, and so may play a role in memory function that goes beyond navigation. Here we used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to investigate the role of the cMEC in familiarity and recollection processes that underlie non-spatial recognition memory in rats. The results indicate that cMEC plays a critical and selective role in recollection-based performance, supporting the view that cMEC supports memory for the spatial and temporal context in which events occur. PMID:21084625

  4. Saccade direction encoding in the primate entorhinal cortex during visual exploration

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Steve M.; Buffalo, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that position in visual space is represented by grid cells in the primate entorhinal cortex (EC), suggesting that visual exploration of complex scenes in primates may employ signaling mechanisms similar to those used during exploration of physical space via movement in rodents. Here, we describe a group of saccade direction (SD) cells that encode eye movement information in the monkey EC during free-viewing of complex images. Significant saccade direction encoding was found in 20% of the cells recorded in the posterior EC. SD cells were generally broadly tuned and two largely separate populations of SD cells encoded future and previous saccade direction. Some properties of these cells resemble those of head-direction cells in rodent EC, suggesting that the same neural circuitry may be capable of performing homologous spatial computations under different exploratory contexts. PMID:26644558

  5. Saccade direction encoding in the primate entorhinal cortex during visual exploration.

    PubMed

    Killian, Nathaniel J; Potter, Steve M; Buffalo, Elizabeth A

    2015-12-22

    We recently demonstrated that position in visual space is represented by grid cells in the primate entorhinal cortex (EC), suggesting that visual exploration of complex scenes in primates may employ signaling mechanisms similar to those used during exploration of physical space via movement in rodents. Here, we describe a group of saccade direction (SD) cells that encode eye movement information in the monkey EC during free-viewing of complex images. Significant saccade direction encoding was found in 20% of the cells recorded in the posterior EC. SD cells were generally broadly tuned and two largely separate populations of SD cells encoded future and previous saccade direction. Some properties of these cells resemble those of head-direction cells in rodent EC, suggesting that the same neural circuitry may be capable of performing homologous spatial computations under different exploratory contexts.

  6. Local and Distant Input Controlling Excitation in Layer II of the Medial Entorhinal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Elke C; Neitz, Angela; Pinna, Roberta; Melzer, Sarah; Caputi, Antonio; Monyer, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Layer II (LII) of the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) comprises grid cells that support spatial navigation. The firing pattern of grid cells might be explained by attractor dynamics in a network, which requires either direct excitatory connectivity between phase-specific grid cells or indirect coupling via interneurons. However, knowledge regarding local networks that support in vivo activity is incomplete. Here we identified essential components of LII networks in the MEC. We distinguished four types of excitatory neurons that exhibit cell-type-specific local excitatory and inhibitory connectivity. Furthermore, we found that LII neurons contribute to the excitation of contralateral neurons in the corresponding layer. Finally, we demonstrated that the medial septum controls excitation in the MEC via two subpopulations of long-range GABAergic neurons that target distinct interneurons in LII, thereby disinhibiting local circuits. We thus identified local connections that could support attractor dynamics and external inputs that likely govern excitation in LII. PMID:26711115

  7. Molecularly Defined Circuitry Reveals Input-Output Segregation in Deep Layers of the Medial Entorhinal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Sürmeli, Gülşen; Marcu, Daniel Cosmin; McClure, Christina; Garden, Derek L F; Pastoll, Hugh; Nolan, Matthew F

    2015-12-01

    Deep layers of the medial entorhinal cortex are considered to relay signals from the hippocampus to other brain structures, but pathways for routing of signals to and from the deep layers are not well established. Delineating these pathways is important for a circuit level understanding of spatial cognition and memory. We find that neurons in layers 5a and 5b have distinct molecular identities, defined by the transcription factors Etv1 and Ctip2, and divergent targets, with extensive intratelencephalic projections originating in layer 5a, but not 5b. This segregation of outputs is mirrored by the organization of glutamatergic input from stellate cells in layer 2 and from the hippocampus, with both preferentially targeting layer 5b over 5a. Our results suggest a molecular and anatomical organization of input-output computations in deep layers of the MEC, reveal precise translaminar microcircuitry, and identify molecularly defined pathways for spatial signals to influence computation in deep layers.

  8. Associative interactions within the superficial layers of the entorhinal cortex of the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Biella, Gerardo; Uva, Laura; Hofmann, Ulrich G; de Curtis, Marco

    2002-09-01

    Associative fiber systems in the entorhinal cortex (EC) have been extensively studied in different mammals with tracing techniques. The largest contingent of intra-EC cortico-cortical fibers runs in the superficial layers and is distributed predominantly within longitudinal cortical bands. We studied the patterns of intrinsic EC connectivity in the in vitro isolated guinea pig brain preparation by performing current-source density analysis of field potential laminar profiles recorded with multi-channel silicon probes. The response pattern evoked by stimulation of the lateral olfactory tract was utilized to identify the lateral (l-EC) and medial (m-EC) entorhinal cortex. Stimulation of the deep layers did not evoke consistent responses. Local stimulation of the superficial layers in different portions of the EC induced an early, possibly direct response restricted to layer II-III in the close proximity to the stimulating electrode, followed by a late potential in the superficial layer I, that propagated at distance with a progressively increasing latency. The monosynaptic nature of the delayed response was verified by applying a pairing test. The results demonstrated that stimulation in the rostral-medial part of the EC generated activity restricted to the rostral pole of the l-EC, stimulation of the m-EC induced an associative activation that propagated rostrocaudally within the m-EC, stimulation of the caudal pole of the m-EC induced an additional response directed laterally, and stimulation of the lateral band of the EC determined a prominent longitudinal propagation of neuronal activity, but also induced associative potentials that propagated medially. The results are in partial agreement with the general picture derived from the anatomical studies performed in different species. Even though the largest associative interactions between superficial layers are restricted within either the m-EC or the l-EC, both rostral and caudal stimuli in the EC region close to

  9. Entorhinal cortex structure and functional MRI response during an associative verbal memory task

    PubMed Central

    Braskie, Meredith N.; Small, Gary W.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.

    2009-01-01

    Entorhinal cortex (ERC) volume in adults with mild cognitive impairment has been shown to predict prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). Likewise, neuronal loss in ERC has been associated with AD, but not with normal aging. Because ERC is part of a major pathway modulating input to the hippocampus, structural changes there may result in changes to cognitive performance and functional brain activity during memory tasks. In 32 cognitively intact older adults, we examined the relationship between left ERC thickness and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity during an associative verbal memory task. This task has been shown previously to activate regions that are sensitive to aging and AD risk. ERC was manually defined on native space, high resolution, oblique coronal MRI scans. Subjects having thicker left ERC showed greater activation in anterior cingulate and medial frontal regions during memory retrieval, but not encoding. This result was independent of hippocampal volume. Anterior cingulate cortex is directly connected to ERC, and is, along with medial frontal cortex, implicated in error detection, which is impaired in AD. Our results suggest that in healthy older adults, processes that engage frontal regions during memory retrieval are related to ERC structure. PMID:19507155

  10. Superficially projecting principal neurons in layer V of medial entorhinal cortex in the rat receive excitatory retrosplenial input.

    PubMed

    Czajkowski, Rafał; Sugar, Jørgen; Zhang, Sheng-Jia; Couey, Jonathan J; Ye, Jing; Witter, Menno P

    2013-10-01

    Principal cells in layer V of the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) have a nodal position in the cortical-hippocampal network. They are the main recipients of hippocampal output and receive inputs from several cortical areas, including a prominent one from the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), likely targeting basal dendrites of layer V neurons. The latter project to extrahippocampal structures but also relay information to the superficial layers of MEC, closing the hippocampal-entorhinal loop. In the rat, we electrophysiologically and morphologically characterized RSC input into MEC and conclude that RSC provides an excitatory input to layer V pyramidal cells. Ultrastructural analyses of anterogradely labeled RSC projections showed that RSC axons in layer V of MEC form predominantly asymmetrical, likely excitatory, synapses on dendritic spines (90%) or shafts (8%), with 2% symmetrical, likely inhibitory, synapses on shafts and spines. The overall excitatory nature of the RSC input was confirmed by an optogenetic approach. Patterned laser stimulation of channelrhodopsin-expressing presynaptic RSC axons evoked exclusively EPSPs in recorded postsynaptic layer V cells. All responding layer V pyramidal cells had an axon extending toward the white matter. Half of these neurons also sent an axon to superficial layers. Confocal imaging of RSC synapses onto MEC layer V neurons shown to project superficially by way of retrogradely labeling from superficial layers confirmed that proximal dendrites of superficially projecting cells are among the targets of inputs from RSC. The excitatory RSC input thus interacts with both entorhinal-cortical and entorhinal-hippocampal circuits.

  11. Grid cells correlation structure suggests organized feedforward projections into superficial layers of the medial entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Tocker, Gilad; Barak, Omri; Derdikman, Dori

    2015-12-01

    Navigation requires integration of external and internal inputs to form a representation of location. Part of this integration is considered to be carried out by the grid cells network in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC). However, the structure of this neural network is unknown. To shed light on this structure, we measured noise correlations between 508 pairs of simultaneous previously recorded grid cells. We differentiated between pure grid and conjunctive cells (pure grid in Layers II, III, and VI vs. conjunctive in Layers III and V--only Layer III was bi-modal), and devised a new method to classify cell pairs as belonging/not-belonging to the same module. We found that pairs from the same module show significantly more correlations than pairs from different modules. The correlations between pure grid cells decreased in strength as their relative spatial phase increased. However, correlations were mostly at 0 time-lag, suggesting that the source of correlations was not only synaptic, but rather resulted mostly from common input. Given our measured correlations, the two functional groups of grid cells (pure vs. conjunctive), and the known disorganized recurrent connections within Layer II, we propose the following model: conjunctive cells in deep layers form an attractor network whose activity is governed by velocity-controlled signals. A second manifold in Layer II receives organized feedforward projections from the deep layers, giving rise to pure grid cells. Numerical simulations indicate that organized projections induce such correlations as we measure in superficial layers. Our results provide new evidence for the functional anatomy of the entorhinal circuit-suggesting that strong phase-organized feedforward projections support grid fields in the superficial layers.

  12. Rebound spiking in layer II medial entorhinal cortex stellate cells: Possible mechanism of grid cell function.

    PubMed

    Shay, Christopher F; Ferrante, Michele; Chapman, G William; Hasselmo, Michael E

    2016-03-01

    Rebound spiking properties of medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) stellate cells induced by inhibition may underlie their functional properties in awake behaving rats, including the temporal phase separation of distinct grid cells and differences in grid cell firing properties. We investigated rebound spiking properties using whole cell patch recording in entorhinal slices, holding cells near spiking threshold and delivering sinusoidal inputs, superimposed with realistic inhibitory synaptic inputs to test the capacity of cells to selectively respond to specific phases of inhibitory input. Stellate cells showed a specific phase range of hyperpolarizing inputs that elicited spiking, but non-stellate cells did not show phase specificity. In both cell types, the phase range of spiking output occurred between the peak and subsequent descending zero crossing of the sinusoid. The phases of inhibitory inputs that induced spikes shifted earlier as the baseline sinusoid frequency increased, while spiking output shifted to later phases. Increases in magnitude of the inhibitory inputs shifted the spiking output to earlier phases. Pharmacological blockade of h-current abolished the phase selectivity of hyperpolarizing inputs eliciting spikes. A network computational model using cells possessing similar rebound properties as found in vitro produces spatially periodic firing properties resembling grid cell firing when a simulated animal moves along a linear track. These results suggest that the ability of mEC stellate cells to fire rebound spikes in response to a specific range of phases of inhibition could support complex attractor dynamics that provide completion and separation to maintain spiking activity of specific grid cell populations. PMID:26385258

  13. Parallel processing of information about location in the amygdala, entorhinal cortex and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Gaskin, Stephane; White, Norman M

    2013-11-01

    The conditioned cue preference paradigm was used to study how rats use extra-maze cues to discriminate between 2 adjacent arms on an 8-arm radial maze, a situation in which most of the same cues can be seen from both arms but only one arm contains food. Since the food-restricted rats eat while passively confined on the food-paired arm no responses are reinforced, so the discrimination is due to Pavlovian stimulus-reward (or outcome) learning. Consistent with other evidence that rats must move around in an environment to acquire a spatial map, we found that learning the adjacent arms CCP (ACCP) required a minimum amount of active exploration of the maze with no reinforcers present prior to passive pairing of the extra-maze cues with the food reinforcer, an instance of latent learning. Temporary inactivation of the hippocampus during the pre-exposure sessions had no effect on ACCP learning, confirming other evidence that the hippocampus is not involved in latent learning. A series of experiments indentified a circuit involving fimbria-fornix and dorsal entorhinal cortex as the neural basis of latent learning in this situation. In contrast, temporary inactivation of the entorhinal cortex or hippocampus during passive training or during testing blocked ACCP learning and expression, respectively, suggesting that these two structures co-operate in using spatial information to learn the location of food on the maze during passive pairing and to express this combined information during testing. In parallel with these processes we found that the amygdala processes information leading to an equal tendency to enter both adjacent arms (even though only one was paired with food) suggesting that the stimulus information available to this structure is not sufficiently precise to discriminate between the ambiguous cues visible from the adjacent arms. Expression of the ACCP in normal rats depends on hippocampus-based learning to avoid the unpaired arm which competes with the

  14. Synaptic Conductances during Interictal Discharges in Pyramidal Neurons of Rat Entorhinal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Amakhin, Dmitry V.; Ergina, Julia L.; Chizhov, Anton V.; Zaitsev, Aleksey V.

    2016-01-01

    In epilepsy, the balance of excitation and inhibition underlying the basis of neural network activity shifts, resulting in neuronal network hyperexcitability and recurrent seizure-associated discharges. Mechanisms involved in ictal and interictal events are not fully understood, in particular, because of controversial data regarding the dynamics of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic conductances. In the present study, we estimated AMPAR-, NMDAR-, and GABAA R-mediated conductances during two distinct types of interictal discharge (IID) in pyramidal neurons of rat entorhinal cortex in cortico-hippocampal slices. Repetitively emerging seizure-like events and IIDs were recorded in high extracellular potassium, 4-aminopyridine, and reduced magnesium-containing solution. An original procedure for estimating synaptic conductance during IIDs was based on the differences among the current-voltage characteristics of the synaptic components. The synaptic conductance dynamics obtained revealed that the first type of IID is determined by activity of GABAA R channels with depolarized reversal potential. The second type of IID is determined by the interplay between excitation and inhibition, with early AMPAR and prolonged depolarized GABAA R and NMDAR-mediated components. The study then validated the contribution of these components to IIDs by intracellular pharmacological isolation. These data provide new insights into the mechanisms of seizures generation, development, and cessation. PMID:27790093

  15. Superficial Layer-Specific Histaminergic Modulation of Medial Entorhinal Cortex Required for Spatial Learning.

    PubMed

    He, Chao; Luo, Fenlan; Chen, Xingshu; Chen, Fang; Li, Chao; Ren, Shuancheng; Qiao, Qicheng; Zhang, Jun; de Lecea, Luis; Gao, Dong; Hu, Zhian

    2016-04-01

    The medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) plays a crucial role in spatial learning and memory. Whereas the MEC receives a dense histaminergic innervation from the tuberomamillary nucleus of the hypothalamus, the functions of histamine in this brain region remain unclear. Here, we show that histamine acts via H1Rs to directly depolarize the principal neurons in the superficial, but not deep, layers of the MEC when recording at somata. Moreover, histamine decreases the spontaneous GABA, but not glutamate, release onto principal neurons in the superficial layers by acting at presynaptic H3Rs without effect on synaptic release in the deep layers. Histamine-induced depolarization is mediated via inhibition of Kir channels and requires the activation of protein kinase C, whereas the inhibition of spontaneous GABA release by histamine depends on voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels and extracellular Ca(2+). Furthermore, microinjection of the H1R or H3R, but not H2R, antagonist respectively into the superficial, but not deep, layers of MEC impairs rat spatial learning as assessed by water maze tasks but does not affect the motor function and exploratory activity in an open field. Together, our study indicates that histamine plays an essential role in spatial learning by selectively regulating neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission in the superficial layers of the MEC.

  16. The Role of the Human Entorhinal Cortex in a Representational Account of Memory

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Heidrun; Sommer, Tobias; Peters, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Connectivity studies in animals form the basis for a representational view of medial temporal lobe (MTL) subregions. In this view, distinct subfields of the entorhinal cortex (EC) relay object-related and spatial information from the perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices (PRC, PHC) to the hippocampus (HC). Relatively recent advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methodology allow examining properties of human EC subregions directly. Antero-lateral and posterior-medial EC subfields show remarkable consistency to their putative rodent and nonhuman primate homologs with regard to intra- and extra-MTL functional connectivity. Accordingly, there is now evidence for a dissociation of object-related vs. spatial processing in human EC subfields. Here, variance in localization may be integrated in the antero-lateral vs. posterior-medial distinction, but may additionally reflect process differences. Functional results in rodents further suggest material-specific representations may be more integrated in EC compared to PRC/PHC. In humans, however, evidence for such a dissociation between EC and PRC/PHC is lacking. Future research may elucidate on the unique contributions of human EC to memory, especially in light of its high degree of intrinsic and extrinsic connectivity. A thorough characterization of EC subfield function may not only advance our understanding of human memory, but also have important clinical implications. PMID:26635581

  17. Transient optogenetic inactivation of the medial entorhinal cortex biases the active population of hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Rueckemann, Jon W; DiMauro, Audrey J; Rangel, Lara M; Han, Xue; Boyden, Edward S; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2016-02-01

    The mechanisms that enable the hippocampal network to express the appropriate spatial representation for a particular circumstance are not well understood. Previous studies suggest that the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) may have a role in reproducibly selecting the hippocampal representation of an environment. To examine how ongoing MEC activity is continually integrated by the hippocampus, we performed transient unilateral optogenetic inactivations of the MEC while simultaneously recording place cell activity in CA1. Inactivation of the MEC caused a partial remapping in the CA1 population without diminishing the degree of spatial tuning across the active cell assembly. These changes remained stable irrespective of intermittent disruption of MEC input, indicating that while MEC input is integrated over long time scales to bias the active population, there are mechanisms for stabilizing the population of active neurons independent of the MEC. We find that MEC inputs to the hippocampus shape its ongoing activity by biasing the participation of the neurons in the active network, thereby influencing how the hippocampus selectively represents information.

  18. The Role of NMDA Receptor Subtypes in Short-Term Plasticity in the Rat Entorhinal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Sophie E. L.; Yang, Jian; Jones, Roland S. G.

    2008-01-01

    We have previously shown that spontaneous release of glutamate in the entorhinal cortex (EC) is tonically facilitated via activation of presynaptic NMDA receptors (NMDAr) containing the NR2B subunit. Here we show that the same receptors mediate short-term plasticity manifested by frequency-dependent facilitation of evoked glutamate release at these synapses. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from layer V pyramidal neurones in rat EC slices. Evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents showed strong facilitation at relatively low frequencies (3 Hz) of activation. Facilitation was abolished by an NR2B-selective blocker (Ro 25-6981), but unaffected by NR2A-selective antagonists (Zn2+, NVP-AAM077). In contrast, postsynaptic NMDAr-mediated responses could be reduced by subunit-selective concentrations of all three antagonists. The data suggest that NMDAr involved in presynaptic plasticity in layer V are exclusively NR1/NR2B diheteromers, whilst postsynaptically they are probably a mixture of NR1/NR2A, NR1/NR2B diheteromers and NR1/NR2A/NR2B triheteromeric receptors. PMID:18989370

  19. Nonlinear properties of medial entorhinal cortex neurons reveal frequency selectivity during multi-sinusoidal stimulation.

    PubMed

    Magnani, Christophe; Economo, Michael N; White, John A; Moore, Lee E

    2014-01-01

    The neurons in layer II of the medial entorhinal cortex are part of the grid cell network involved in the representation of space. Many of these neurons are likely to be stellate cells with specific oscillatory and firing properties important for their function. A fundamental understanding of the nonlinear basis of these oscillatory properties is critical for the development of theories of grid cell firing. In order to evaluate the behavior of stellate neurons, measurements of their quadratic responses were used to estimate a second order Volterra kernel. This paper uses an operator theory, termed quadratic sinusoidal analysis (QSA), which quantitatively determines that the quadratic response accounts for a major part of the nonlinearity observed at membrane potential levels characteristic of normal synaptic events. Practically, neurons were probed with multi-sinusoidal stimulations to determine a Hermitian operator that captures the quadratic function in the frequency domain. We have shown that the frequency content of the stimulation plays an important role in the characteristics of the nonlinear response, which can distort the linear response as well. Stimulations with enhanced low frequency amplitudes evoked a different nonlinear response than broadband profiles. The nonlinear analysis was also applied to spike frequencies and it was shown that the nonlinear response of subthreshold membrane potential at resonance frequencies near the threshold is similar to the nonlinear response of spike trains. PMID:25191226

  20. Preserved number of entorhinal cortex layer II neurons in aged macaque monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazzaley, A. H.; Thakker, M. M.; Hof, P. R.; Morrison, J. H.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The perforant path, which consists of the projection from the layer II neurons of the entorhinal cortex to the outer molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, is a critical circuit involved in learning and memory formation. Accordingly, disturbances in this circuit may contribute to age-related cognitive deficits. In a previous study, we demonstrated a decrease in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1 immunofluorescence intensity in the outer molecular layer of aged macaque monkeys. In this study, we used the optical fractionator, a stereological method, to determine if a loss of layer II neurons occurred in the same animals in which the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1 alteration was observed. Our results revealed no significant differences in the number of layer II neurons between juvenile, young adult, and aged macaque monkeys. These results suggest that the circuit-specific decrease in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1 reported previously occurs in the absence of structural compromise of the perforant path, and thus may be linked to an age-related change in the physiological properties of this circuit.

  1. The Hippocampus and Entorhinal Cortex Encode the Path and Euclidean Distances to Goals during Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Lorelei R.; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Yu, Yichao; Mill, Ravi D.; Morrison, Laura C.; Knight, Rebecca; Loftus, Michelle M.; Staskute, Laura; Spiers, Hugo J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Despite decades of research on spatial memory, we know surprisingly little about how the brain guides navigation to goals. While some models argue that vectors are represented for navigational guidance, other models postulate that the future path is computed. Although the hippocampal formation has been implicated in processing spatial goal information, it remains unclear whether this region processes path- or vector-related information. Results We report neuroimaging data collected from subjects navigating London’s Soho district; these data reveal that both the path distance and the Euclidean distance to the goal are encoded by the medial temporal lobe during navigation. While activity in the posterior hippocampus was sensitive to the distance along the path, activity in the entorhinal cortex was correlated with the Euclidean distance component of a vector to the goal. During travel periods, posterior hippocampal activity increased as the path to the goal became longer, but at decision points, activity in this region increased as the path to the goal became closer and more direct. Importantly, sensitivity to the distance was abolished in these brain areas when travel was guided by external cues. Conclusions The results indicate that the hippocampal formation contains representations of both the Euclidean distance and the path distance to goals during navigation. These findings argue that the hippocampal formation houses a flexible guidance system that changes how it represents distance to the goal depending on the fluctuating demands of navigation. PMID:24909328

  2. The Role of the Human Entorhinal Cortex in a Representational Account of Memory.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Heidrun; Sommer, Tobias; Peters, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Connectivity studies in animals form the basis for a representational view of medial temporal lobe (MTL) subregions. In this view, distinct subfields of the entorhinal cortex (EC) relay object-related and spatial information from the perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices (PRC, PHC) to the hippocampus (HC). Relatively recent advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methodology allow examining properties of human EC subregions directly. Antero-lateral and posterior-medial EC subfields show remarkable consistency to their putative rodent and nonhuman primate homologs with regard to intra- and extra-MTL functional connectivity. Accordingly, there is now evidence for a dissociation of object-related vs. spatial processing in human EC subfields. Here, variance in localization may be integrated in the antero-lateral vs. posterior-medial distinction, but may additionally reflect process differences. Functional results in rodents further suggest material-specific representations may be more integrated in EC compared to PRC/PHC. In humans, however, evidence for such a dissociation between EC and PRC/PHC is lacking. Future research may elucidate on the unique contributions of human EC to memory, especially in light of its high degree of intrinsic and extrinsic connectivity. A thorough characterization of EC subfield function may not only advance our understanding of human memory, but also have important clinical implications. PMID:26635581

  3. Intrinsic circuit organization and theta-gamma oscillation dynamics in the entorhinal cortex of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Quilichini, Pascale; Sirota, Anton; Buzsáki, György

    2010-01-01

    A thorough knowledge of the intrinsic circuit properties of the entorhinal cortex (EC) and the temporal dynamics these circuits support is essential for understanding how information is exchanged between the hippocampus and neocortex. Using intracellular and extracellular recordings in the anesthetized rat and anatomical reconstruction of single cells, we found that EC5 and EC2 principal neurons form large axonal networks mainly within their layers, interconnected by the more vertically organized axon trees of EC3 pyramidal cells. Principal cells showed layer-specific unique membrane properties and contributed differentially to theta and gamma oscillations. EC2 principal cells were most strongly phase-modulated by EC theta. The multiple gamma oscillators, present in the various EC layers, were temporally coordinated by the phase of theta waves. Putative interneurons in all EC layers fired relatively synchronously within the theta cycle, coinciding with the maximum power of gamma oscillation. The special wiring architecture and unique membrane properties of EC neurons may underlie their behaviorally distinct firing patterns in the waking animal. PMID:20720120

  4. The entorhinal cortex is involved in conditioned odor and context aversions

    PubMed Central

    Ferry, Barbara; Herbeaux, Karine; Javelot, Hervé; Majchrzak, Monique

    2015-01-01

    In a natural environment, avoidance of a particular food source is mostly determined by a previous intake experience during which sensory stimuli such as food odor, become aversive through a simple associative conditioned learning. Conditioned odor aversion learning (COA) is a food conditioning paradigm that results from the association between a tasteless scented solution (conditioned stimulus, CS) and a gastric malaise (unconditioned stimulus, US) that followed its ingestion. In the present experimental conditions, acquisition of COA also led to acquisition of aversion toward the context in which the CS was presented (conditioned context aversion, CCA). Previous data have shown that the entorhinal cortex (EC) is involved in the memory processes underlying COA acquisition and context fear conditioning, but whether EC lesion modulates CCA acquisition has never be investigated. To this aim, male Long-Evans rats with bilateral EC lesion received CS-US pairings in a particular context with different interstimulus intervals (ISI). The results showed that the establishment of COA with long ISI obtained in EC-lesioned rats is associated with altered CCA learning. Since ISI has been suggested to be the determining factor in the odor- and context-US association, our results show that the EC is involved in the processes that control both associations relative to ISI duration. PMID:26483624

  5. Perirhinal cortex represents nonspatial, but not spatial, information in rats foraging in the presence of objects: Comparison with lateral entorhinal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Sachin S.; Johnson, Jeremy L.; Knierim, James J.

    2013-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe (MTL) is involved in mnemonic processing. The perirhinal cortex (PRC) plays a role in object recognition memory, while the hippocampus is required for certain forms of spatial memory and episodic memory. The lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) receives direct projections from PRC and is one of the two major cortical inputs to the hippocampus. The transformations that occur between PRC and LEC neural representations are not well understood. Here, we show that PRC and LEC had similarly high proportions of neurons with object-related activity (PRC 52/94; LEC 72/153), as expected from their locations in the “what” pathway into the hippocampus. However, LEC unit activity showed more spatial stability than PRC unit activity. A minority of LEC neurons showed stable spatial firing fields away from objects; these firing fields strongly resembled hippocampal place fields. None of the PRC neurons showed this place-like firing. None of the PRC or LEC neurons demonstrated the high firing rates associated with interneurons in hippocampus or medial entorhinal cortex, further dissociating this information processing stream from the path-integration based, movement-related processing of the medial entorhinal cortex and hippocampus. These results provide evidence for nonspatial information processing in the PRC-LEC pathway, as well as showing a functional dissociation between PRC and LEC, with more purely nonspatial representations in PRC and combined spatial-nonspatial representations in LEC. PMID:22987681

  6. Cellular resolution optical access to brain regions in fissures: Imaging medial prefrontal cortex and grid cells in entorhinal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Low, Ryan J.; Gu, Yi; Tank, David W.

    2014-01-01

    In vivo two-photon microscopy provides the foundation for an array of powerful techniques for optically measuring and perturbing neural circuits. However, challenging tissue properties and geometry have prevented high-resolution optical access to regions situated within deep fissures. These regions include the medial prefrontal and medial entorhinal cortex (mPFC and MEC), which are of broad scientific and clinical interest. Here, we present a method for in vivo, subcellular resolution optical access to the mPFC and MEC using microprisms inserted into the fissures. We chronically imaged the mPFC and MEC in mice running on a spherical treadmill, using two-photon laser-scanning microscopy and genetically encoded calcium indicators to measure network activity. In the MEC, we imaged grid cells, a widely studied cell type essential to memory and spatial information processing. These cells exhibited spatially modulated activity during navigation in a virtual reality environment. This method should be extendable to other brain regions situated within deep fissures, and opens up these regions for study at cellular resolution in behaving animals using a rapidly expanding palette of optical tools for perturbing and measuring network structure and function. PMID:25503366

  7. Influence of the entorhinal cortex on accumbal and striatal dopaminergic responses in a latent inhibition paradigm.

    PubMed

    Jeanblanc, J; Peterschmitt, Y; Hoeltzel, A; Louilot, A

    2004-01-01

    The use of latent inhibition paradigms is one means of investigating the involvement of mesencephalic dopaminergic (DA) neurons in cognitive processes. We have shown recently that DA neurons reaching the core and the dorsomedial shell parts of the nucleus accumbens and the anterior part of the striatum are differentially involved in latent inhibition. In other respects, theoretical, behavioral and anatomo-functional data suggest that the entorhinal cortex (ENT) may control latent inhibition expression. In this study, using in vivo voltammetry in freely moving rats, we investigated the influence of the ENT on the DA responses obtained in the core and dorsomedial shell parts of the nucleus accumbens and the anterior part of the striatum. For this purpose a reversible inactivation of the left ENT was achieved by the local microinjection of tetrodotoxin, 3 h before pre-exposure to the conditional stimulus (banana odour). During the second session, animals were aversively conditioned to banana odour. Results obtained during the third session (test session), in animals submitted to the reversible blockade of the ENT before the first session were as follows: (1) pre-exposed conditioned animals displayed behavioral aversive responses; (2) where core DA responses were concerned, responses were situated between those observed in pre-exposed and non-pre-exposed conditioned animals; (3) by contrast, where the dorsomedial shell part of the nucleus accumbens and the anterior striatum were concerned, DA variations were not statistically different in pre-exposed and non-pre-exposed conditioned rats. These data suggest that the left ENT exerts a crucial influence over the latent-inhibition-related DA responses in the left dorsomedial shell part of the nucleus accumbens and the left anterior part of the striatum, whereas one or more other brain regions control DA variations in the left core part of the nucleus accumbens. These data may help us to understand the pathophysiology of

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Du A, T; Schuff, N; Amend, D; Laakso, M; Hsu, Y; Jagust, W; Yaffe, K; Kramer, J; Reed, B; Norman, D; Chui, H; Weiner, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To explore volume changes of the entorhinal cortex (ERC) and hippocampus in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared with normal cognition (NC); to determine the powers of the ERC and the hippocampus for discrimination between these groups.
METHODS—This study included 40 subjects with NC, 36 patients with MCI, and 29 patients with AD. Volumes of the ERC and hippocampus were manually measured based on coronal T1 weighted MR images. Global cerebral changes were assessed using semiautomatic image segmentation.
RESULTS—Both ERC and hippocampal volumes were reduced in MCI (ERC 13%, hippocampus 11%, p<0.05) and AD (ERC 39%, hippocampus 27%, p<0.01) compared with NC. Furthermore, AD showed greater volume losses in the ERC than in the hippocampus (p<0.01). In addition, AD and MCI also had cortical grey matter loss (p< 0.01) and ventricular enlargement (p<0.01) when compared with NC. There was a significant correlation between ERC and hippocampal volumes in MCI and AD (both p<0.001), but not in NC. Using ERC and hippocampus together improved discrimination between AD and CN but did not improve discrimination between MCI and NC. The ERC was better than the hippocampus for distinguishing MCI from AD. In addition, loss of cortical grey matter significantly contributed to the hippocampus for discriminating MCI and AD from NC.
CONCLUSIONS—Volume reductions in the ERC and hippocampus may be early signs of AD pathology that can be measured using MRI.

 PMID:11561025

  9. Early astrocytic atrophy in the entorhinal cortex of a triple transgenic animal model of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chia-Yu; Vadhwana, Bhamini; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Rodríguez, José J

    2011-01-01

    The EC (entorhinal cortex) is fundamental for cognitive and mnesic functions. Thus damage to this area appears as a key element in the progression of AD (Alzheimer's disease), resulting in memory deficits arising from neuronal and synaptic alterations as well as glial malfunction. In this paper, we have performed an in-depth analysis of astroglial morphology in the EC by measuring the surface and volume of the GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein) profiles in a triple transgenic mouse model of AD [3xTg-AD (triple transgenic mice of AD)]. We found significant reduction in both the surface and volume of GFAP-labelled profiles in 3xTg-AD animals from very early ages (1 month) when compared with non-Tg (non-transgenic) controls (48 and 54%, reduction respectively), which was sustained for up to 12 months (33 and 45% reduction respectively). The appearance of Aβ (amyloid β-peptide) depositions at 12 months of age did not trigger astroglial hypertrophy; nor did it result in the close association of astrocytes with senile plaques. Our results suggest that the AD progressive cognitive deterioration can be associated with an early reduction of astrocytic arborization and shrinkage of the astroglial domain, which may affect synaptic connectivity within the EC and between the EC and other brain regions. In addition, the EC seems to be particularly vulnerable to AD pathology because of the absence of evident astrogliosis in response to Aβ accumulation. Thus we can consider that targeting astroglial atrophy may represent a therapeutic strategy which might slow down the progression of AD. PMID:22103264

  10. Time course of the dependence of associative memory retrieval on the entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Liao, Zhengli; Wong, Yin Ting; Guo, Yiping; He, Jufang

    2014-12-01

    As the gateway between the hippocampal system and the neocortex, the entorhinal cortex (EC) is hypothesized to be the hub in which the transformation of recent memory to remote memory is processed. We explored the role of the EC on the retrieval of recent and remote associative fear memory. A within-subject approach was adopted to compare the freezing rates of rats in EC intact and EC inactivated conditions following trace fear conditioning. The EC was inactivated by infusing an AMPA antagonist. The fear conditioning used a combined visual and auditory conditioned stimulus with a foot shock. On week 1 following the conditioning, the rats in the EC intact condition exhibited a freezing rate of 92.4±9.5% in response to the light stimulus compared with a 6.3±7.9% freezing rate in the EC inactivated condition. The freezing rates were 87.0±17.8% and 4.7±6.5% on week 2 in the EC intact and inactivated conditions, respectively. These results indicate that the EC participates in the retrieval of associative memory. Extinction of the fear memory was observed in the EC intact condition, as the mean freezing rate decreased to 62.7±23.0% on week 4 and 41.2±26.4% on week 5. However, the freezing rate increased to 26.8±14.2% on week 4 and 22.3±14.4% on week 5 in the EC inactivated condition. The normalized dependence of fear memory retrieval on the EC was 93.2±8.3% on week 1, and significantly decreased on weeks 4 and 5. In summary, the retrieval of associative memory depends on the EC, but this dependence decreases over time. PMID:25452085

  11. All layers of medial entorhinal cortex receive presubicular and parasubicular inputs.

    PubMed

    Canto, Cathrin B; Koganezawa, Noriko; Beed, Prateep; Moser, Edvard I; Witter, Menno P

    2012-12-01

    The medial entorhinal cortex (MEC), presubiculum (PrS), and parasubiculum (PaS) are interconnected components of the hippocampal-parahippocampal spatial-representation system. Principal cells in all layers of MEC show signs of directional tuning, overt in head direction cells present in all layers except for layer II, and covert in grid cells, which are the major spatially modulated cell type in layer II. Directional information likely originates in the head direction-vestibular system and PrS and PaS are thought to provide this information to MEC. Efferents from PaS and PrS show a selective laminar terminal distribution in MEC superficial layers II and III, respectively. We hypothesized that this anatomically determined laminar distribution does not preclude monosynaptic interaction with neurons located in deeper layers of MEC in view of the extensive apical dendrites from deeper cells reaching layers II and III. This hypothesis was tested in the rat using tilted in vitro slices in which origins and terminations of PrS and PaS fibers were maintained, as assessed using anterograde anatomical tracing. Based on voltage-sensitive dye imaging, multipatch single-cell recordings, and scanning photostimulation of caged glutamate, we report first that principal neurons in all layers of MEC receive convergent monosynaptic inputs from PrS and PaS and second, that elicited responses show layer-specific decay times and frequency-dependent facilitation. These results indicate that regardless of their selective laminar terminal distribution, PrS and PaS inputs may monosynaptically convey directional information to principal neurons in all layers of MEC through synapses on their extensive dendritic arbors.

  12. Morphology and kainate-receptor immunoreactivity of identified neurons within the entorhinal cortex projecting to superior temporal sulcus in the cynomolgus monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Good, P. F.; Morrison, J. H.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Projections of the entorhinal cortex to the hippocampus are well known from the classical studies of Cajal (Ramon y Cajal, 1904) and Lorente de No (1933). Projections from the entorhinal cortex to neocortical areas are less well understood. Such connectivity is likely to underlie the consolidation of long-term declarative memory in neocortical sites. In the present study, a projection arising in layer V of the entorhinal cortex and terminating in a polymodal association area of the superior temporal gyrus has been identified with the use of retrograde tracing. The dendritic arbors of neurons giving rise to this projection were further investigated by cell filling and confocal microscopy with computer reconstruction. This analysis demonstrated that the dendritic arbor of identified projection neurons was largely confined to layer V, with the exception of a solitary, simple apical dendrite occasionally ascending to superficial laminae but often confined to the lamina dissecans (layer IV). Finally, immunoreactivity for glutamate-receptor subunit proteins GluR 5/6/7 of the dendritic arbor of identified entorhinal projection neurons was examined. The solitary apical dendrite of identified entorhinal projection neurons was prominently immunolabeled for GluR 5/6/7, as was the dendritic arbor of basilar dendrites of these neurons. The restriction of the large bulk of the dendritic arbor of identified entorhinal projection neurons to layer V implies that these neurons are likely to be heavily influenced by hippocampal output arriving in the deep layers of the entorhinal cortex. Immunoreactivity for GluR 5/6/7 throughout the dendritic arbor of such neurons indicates that this class of glutamate receptor is in a position to play a prominent role in mediating excitatory neurotransmission within hippocampal-entorhinal circuits.

  13. Agonist interactions with 5-HT3 receptor recognition sites in the rat entorhinal cortex labelled by structurally diverse radioligands.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, J. M.; Barnes, N. M.; Costall, B.; Jagger, S. M.; Naylor, R. J.; Robertson, D. W.; Roe, S. Y.

    1992-01-01

    1. The pharmacological properties of 5-HT3 receptor recognition sites labelled with [3H]-(S)-zacopride, [3H]-LY278,584, [3H]-granisetron and [3H]-GR67330 in membranes prepared from the rat entorhinal cortex were investigated to assess the presence of cooperativity within the 5-HT3 receptor complex. 2. In rat entorhinal cortex homogenates, [3H]-(S)-zacopride, [3H]-LY278,584, [3H]-granisetron and [3H]-GR67330 labelled homogeneous densities of recognition sites (defined by granisetron, 10 microM) with high affinity (Bmax = 75 +/- 5, 53 +/- 5, 92 +/- 6 and 79 +/- 6 fmol mg-1 protein, respectively; pKd = 9.41 +/- 0.04, 8.69 +/- 0.14, 8.81 +/- 0.06 and 10.14 +/- 0.04 for [3H]-(S)-zacopride, [3H]-LY278,584, [3H]-granisetron and [3H]-GR67330, respectively, n = 3-8). 3. Quipazine and granisetron competed for the binding of each of the radioligands in the rat entorhinal cortex preparation at low nanomolar concentrations (pIC50; quipazine 9.38-8.51, granisetron 8.62-8.03), whilst the agonists, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), phenylbiguanide (PBG) and 2-methyl-5-HT competed at sub-micromolar concentrations (pIC50; 5-HT 7.16-6.42, PBG 7.52-6.40, 2-methyl-5-HT 7.38-6.09). 4. Competition curves generated with increasing concentrations of quipazine, PBG, 5-HT and 2-methyl-5-HT displayed Hill coefficients greater than unity when the 5-HT3 receptor recognition sites in the entorhinal cortex preparation were labelled with [3H]-LY278,584, [3H]-granisetron and [3H]-GR67330. These competing compounds displayed Hill coefficients of around unity when the sites were labelled with [3H]-(S)-zacopride. Competition for the binding of [3H]-(S)-zacopride, [3H]-LY278,584, [3H]-granisetron and [3H]-GR67330 by granisetron generated Hill coefficients around unity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1559139

  14. Imidacloprid toxicity impairs spatial memory of echolocation bats through neural apoptosis in hippocampal CA1 and medial entorhinal cortex areas.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chun-Jen; Lin, Ching-Lung; Lin, Tian-Yu; Wang, Sheue-Er; Wu, Chung-Hsin

    2016-04-13

    It has been reported that the decimation of honey bees was because of pesticides of imidacloprid. The imidacloprid is a wildly used neonicotinoid insecticide. However, whether imidacloprid toxicity interferes with the spatial memory of echolocation bats is still unclear. Thus, we compared the spatial memory of Formosan leaf-nosed bats, Hipposideros terasensis, before and after chronic treatment with a low dose of imidacloprid. We observed that stereotyped flight patterns of echolocation bats that received chronic imidacloprid treatment were quite different from their originally learned paths. We further found that neural apoptosis in hippocampal CA1 and medial entorhinal cortex areas of echolocation bats that received imidacloprid treatment was significantly enhanced in comparison with echolocation bats that received sham treatment. Thus, we suggest that imidacloprid toxicity may interfere with the spatial memory of echolocation bats through neural apoptosis in hippocampal CA1 and medial entorhinal cortex areas. The results provide direct evidence that pesticide toxicity causes a spatial memory disorder in echolocation bats. This implies that agricultural pesticides may pose severe threats to the survival of echolocation bats. PMID:26966783

  15. Functional correlates of the lateral and medial entorhinal cortex: objects, path integration and local–global reference frames

    PubMed Central

    Knierim, James J.; Neunuebel, Joshua P.; Deshmukh, Sachin S.

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampus receives its major cortical input from the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) and the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC). It is commonly believed that the MEC provides spatial input to the hippocampus, whereas the LEC provides non-spatial input. We review new data which suggest that this simple dichotomy between ‘where’ versus ‘what’ needs revision. We propose a refinement of this model, which is more complex than the simple spatial–non-spatial dichotomy. MEC is proposed to be involved in path integration computations based on a global frame of reference, primarily using internally generated, self-motion cues and external input about environmental boundaries and scenes; it provides the hippocampus with a coordinate system that underlies the spatial context of an experience. LEC is proposed to process information about individual items and locations based on a local frame of reference, primarily using external sensory input; it provides the hippocampus with information about the content of an experience. PMID:24366146

  16. Propofol postsynaptically suppresses stellate neuron excitability in the entorhinal cortex by influencing the HCN and TREK-2 channels.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojun; Pan, Ke; Zhu, Dan; Li, Yuping; Tao, Guocai

    2016-04-21

    The entorhinal cortex (EC) provides a majority of the excitatory inputs to the hippocampus and is part of the neural circuitry that is involved in memory formation. Although many studies have investigated the effects of propofol in the hippocampus, the function of propofol in the EC remains unclear. Here, using whole-cell patch clamp recordings, we found that propofol induced a postsynaptic outward current and dramatically suppressed the firing rates in the entorhinal stellate neurons, the axons of which form the perforant pathway and relay the main inputs to hippocampus. Propofol-induced inhibition in the EC was mediated by a dual ionic mechanism, including both HCN channel inhibition and TREK-2 channel activation, which form a subtype of two-pore-domain K(+) channels. The inhibitory action of propofol observed in the EC might provide a mechanism for the anesthetic effect of propofol. Considering the crucial role of the EC in learning and memory, our findings may provide insight into the acute amnesic effect induced by propofol.

  17. Cell Type-Specific Differences in Spike Timing and Spike Shape in the Rat Parasubiculum and Superficial Medial Entorhinal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Ebbesen, Christian Laut; Reifenstein, Eric Torsten; Tang, Qiusong; Burgalossi, Andrea; Ray, Saikat; Schreiber, Susanne; Kempter, Richard; Brecht, Michael

    2016-07-26

    The medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) and the adjacent parasubiculum are known for their elaborate spatial discharges (grid cells, border cells, etc.) and the precessing of spikes relative to the local field potential. We know little, however, about how spatio-temporal firing patterns map onto cell types. We find that cell type is a major determinant of spatio-temporal discharge properties. Parasubicular neurons and MEC layer 2 (L2) pyramids have shorter spikes, discharge spikes in bursts, and are theta-modulated (rhythmic, locking, skipping), but spikes phase-precess only weakly. MEC L2 stellates and layer 3 (L3) neurons have longer spikes, do not discharge in bursts, and are weakly theta-modulated (non-rhythmic, weakly locking, rarely skipping), but spikes steeply phase-precess. The similarities between MEC L3 neurons and MEC L2 stellates on one hand and parasubicular neurons and MEC L2 pyramids on the other hand suggest two distinct streams of temporal coding in the parahippocampal cortex. PMID:27425616

  18. Cholinergic receptor activation induces a relative facilitation of synaptic responses in the entorhinal cortex during theta- and gamma-frequency stimulation of parasubicular inputs.

    PubMed

    Sparks, D W; Chapman, C A

    2013-01-29

    The parasubiculum sends its single major output to layer II of the entorhinal cortex, and it may therefore interact with inputs to the entorhinal cortex from other cortical areas, and help to shape the activity of layer II entorhinal cells that project to the hippocampal formation. Cholinergic inputs are thought to contribute to the generation of theta- and gamma-frequency activities in the parasubiculum and entorhinal cortex, and the present study assessed how cholinergic receptor activation affects synaptic responses of the entorhinal cortex to theta- and gamma-frequency stimulation. Depth profiles of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) in acute brain slices showed a short-latency negative fEPSP in layer II, consistent with the activation of excitatory synaptic inputs to layer II. Application of the cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCh) suppressed synaptic responses and enhanced paired-pulse facilitation. CCh also resulted in a marked relative facilitation of synaptic responses evoked during short 5-pulse trains of stimulation at both theta- and gamma-frequencies. Application of the M(1) antagonist pirenzepine, but not the M(2) antagonist methoctramine, blocked the facilitation of responses. Inhibition of the M-current or block of GABA(B) receptors had no effect, but the facilitation effect was partially blocked by the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist APV, indicating that NMDA receptors play a role. Application of ZD7288, a selective inhibitor of the hyperpolarization-activated cationic current I(h), almost completely blocked the relative facilitation of responses, and the less potent I(h)-blocker Cs(+) also resulted in a partial block. The relative facilitation of synaptic responses induced by CCh is therefore likely mediated by multiple mechanisms including the cholinergic suppression of transmitter release that enhances transmitter availability during repetitive stimulation, NMDA receptor-mediated effects on pre- or postsynaptic function, and

  19. Synaptic remodeling in the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA1, subiculum, and entorhinal cortex of mice: effects of deprived rearing and voluntary running.

    PubMed

    Schaefers, Andrea T U; Grafen, Keren; Teuchert-Noodt, Gertraud; Winter, York

    2010-01-01

    Hippocampal cell proliferation is strongly increased and synaptic turnover decreased after rearing under social and physical deprivation in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). We examined if a similar epigenetic effect of rearing environment on adult neuroplastic responses can be found in mice (Mus musculus). We examined synaptic turnover rates in the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA1, subiculum, and entorhinal cortex. No direct effects of deprived rearing on rates of synaptic turnover were found in any of the studied regions. However, adult wheel running had the effect of leveling layer-specific differences in synaptic remodeling in the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1, but not in the entorhinal cortex and subiculum of animals of both rearing treatments. Epigenetic effects during juvenile development affected adult neural plasticity in mice, but seemed to be less pronounced than in gerbils.

  20. Gastrodin suppresses the amyloid β-induced increase of spontaneous discharge in the entorhinal cortex of rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng-zhi; Jiang, Hui-hui; Wen, Bo; Ren, Shuan-cheng; Chen, Yang; Ji, Wei-gang; Hu, Bo; Zhang, Jun; Xu, Fenglian; Zhu, Zhi-ru

    2014-01-01

    Accumulated soluble amyloid beta- (Aβ-) induced aberrant neuronal network activity may directly contribute to cognitive deficits, which are the most outstanding characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The entorhinal cortex (EC) is one of the earliest affected brain regions in AD. Impairments of EC neurons are responsible for the cognitive deficits in AD. However, little effort has been made to investigate the effects of soluble Aβ on the discharge properties of EC neurons in vivo. The present study was designed to examine the effects of soluble Aβ(1-42) on the discharge properties of EC neurons, using in vivo extracellular single unit recordings. The protective effects of gastrodin (GAS) were also investigated against Aβ(1-42)-induced alterations in EC neuronal activities. The results showed that the spontaneous discharge of EC neurons was increased by local application of soluble Aβ(1-42) and that GAS can effectively reverse Aβ(1-42)-induced facilitation of spontaneous discharge in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, whole-cell patch clamp results indicated that the protective function of GAS on abnormal hyperexcitability may be partially mediated by its inhibitory action on Aβ(1-42)-elicited inward currents in EC neurons. Our study suggested that GAS may provide neuroprotective effects on Aβ(1-42)-induced hyperactivity in EC neurons of rats. PMID:25485157

  1. The Preferred Directions of Conjunctive Grid X Head Direction Cells in the Medial Entorhinal Cortex Are Periodically Organized

    PubMed Central

    Keinath, Alexander Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of speed-modulated grid, head direction, and conjunctive grid x head direction cells in the medial entorhinal cortex has led to the hypothesis that path integration, the updating of one’s spatial representation based on movement, may be carried out within this region. This hypothesis has been formalized by many computational models, including a class known as attractor network models. While many of these models propose specific mechanisms by which path integration might occur, predictions of these specific mechanisms have not been tested. Here I derive and test a key prediction of one attractor network path integration mechanism. Specifically, I first demonstrate that this mechanism predicts a periodic distribution of conjunctive cell preferred directions in order to minimize drift. Next, I test whether conjunctive cell preferred directions are in fact periodically organized. Results indicate that conjunctive cells are preferentially tuned to increments of 36°, consistent with drift minimization in this path integration mechanism. By contrast, no periodicity was observed in the preferred directions of either pure grid or pure head direction cells. These results provide the first neural evidence of a nonuniform structure in the directional preferences of any head direction representation found in the brain. PMID:27003407

  2. Visual landmarks sharpen grid cell metric and confer context specificity to neurons of the medial entorhinal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Escobar, José Antonio; Kornienko, Olga; Latuske, Patrick; Kohler, Laura; Allen, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Neurons of the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) provide spatial representations critical for navigation. In this network, the periodic firing fields of grid cells act as a metric element for position. The location of the grid firing fields depends on interactions between self-motion information, geometrical properties of the environment and nonmetric contextual cues. Here, we test whether visual information, including nonmetric contextual cues, also regulates the firing rate of MEC neurons. Removal of visual landmarks caused a profound impairment in grid cell periodicity. Moreover, the speed code of MEC neurons changed in darkness and the activity of border cells became less confined to environmental boundaries. Half of the MEC neurons changed their firing rate in darkness. Manipulations of nonmetric visual cues that left the boundaries of a 1D environment in place caused rate changes in grid cells. These findings reveal context specificity in the rate code of MEC neurons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16937.001 PMID:27449281

  3. Activation of Phosphatidylinositol-Linked Dopamine Receptors Induces a Facilitation of Glutamate-Mediated Synaptic Transmission in the Lateral Entorhinal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Glovaci, Iulia; Chapman, C. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The lateral entorhinal cortex receives strong inputs from midbrain dopamine neurons that can modulate its sensory and mnemonic function. We have previously demonstrated that 1 µM dopamine facilitates synaptic transmission in layer II entorhinal cortex cells via activation of D1-like receptors, increased cAMP-PKA activity, and a resulting enhancement of AMPA-receptor mediated currents. The present study assessed the contribution of phosphatidylinositol (PI)-linked D1 receptors to the dopaminergic facilitation of transmission in layer II of the rat entorhinal cortex, and the involvement of phospholipase C activity and release of calcium from internal stores. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of glutamate-mediated evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents were obtained from pyramidal and fan cells. Activation of D1-like receptors using SKF38393, SKF83959, or 1 µM dopamine induced a reversible facilitation of EPSCs which was abolished by loading cells with either the phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122 or the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA. Neither the L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine, nor the L/N-type channel blocker cilnidipine, blocked the facilitation of synaptic currents. However, the facilitation was blocked by blocking Ca2+ release from internal stores via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptors or ryanodine receptors. Follow-up studies demonstrated that inhibiting CaMKII activity with KN-93 failed to block the facilitation, but that application of the protein kinase C inhibitor PKC(19-36) completely blocked the dopamine-induced facilitation. Overall, in addition to our previous report indicating a role for the cAMP-PKA pathway in dopamine-induced facilitation of synaptic transmission, we demonstrate here that the dopaminergic facilitation of synaptic responses in layer II entorhinal neurons also relies on a signaling cascade dependent on PI-linked D1 receptors, PLC, release of Ca2+ from internal stores, and PKC activation which is likely dependent

  4. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Induces Intrinsic Alterations in Na Channel Gating in Layer II Medial Entorhinal Cortex Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hargus, Nicholas J.; Merrick, Ellen C.; Nigam, Aradhya; Kalmar, Christopher L.; Baheti, Aparna R.; Bertram, Edward H.; Patel, Manoj K.

    2010-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of adult epilepsy involving the limbic structures of the temporal lobe. Layer II neurons of the entorhinal cortex (EC) form the major excitatory input into the hippocampus via the perforant path and consist of non-stellate and stellate neurons. These neurons are spared and hyper-excitable in TLE. The basis for the hyper-excitability is likely multifactorial and may include alterations in intrinsic properties. In a rat model of TLE, medial EC (mEC) non-stellate and stellate neurons had significantly higher action potential (AP) firing frequencies than in control. The increase remained in the presence of synaptic blockers, suggesting intrinsic mechanisms. Since sodium (Na) channels play a critical role in AP generation and conduction we sought to determine if Na channel gating parameters and expression levels were altered in TLE. Na channel currents recorded from isolated mEC TLE neurons revealed increased Na channel conductances, depolarizing shifts in inactivation parameters and larger persistent (INaP) and resurgent (INaR) Na currents. Immunofluorescence experiments revealed increased staining of Nav1.6 within the axon initial segment and Nav1.2 within the cell bodies of mEC TLE neurons. These studies provide support for additional intrinsic alterations within mEC layer II neurons in TLE and implicate alterations in Na channel activity and expression, in part, for establishing the profound increase in intrinsic membrane excitability of mEC layer II neurons in TLE. These intrinsic changes, together with changes in the synaptic network, could support seizure activity in TLE. PMID:20946956

  5. Differential Effects of D-Cycloserine and ACBC at NMDA Receptors in the Rat Entorhinal Cortex Are Related to Efficacy at the Co-Agonist Binding Site.

    PubMed

    Lench, Alex M; Robson, Emma; Jones, Roland S G

    2015-01-01

    Partial agonists at the NMDA receptor co-agonist binding site may have potential therapeutic efficacy in a number of cognitive and neurological conditions. The entorhinal cortex is a key brain area in spatial memory and cognitive processing. At synapses in the entorhinal cortex, NMDA receptors not only mediate postsynaptic excitation but are expressed in presynaptic terminals where they tonically facilitate glutamate release. In a previous study we showed that the co-agonist binding site of the presynaptic NMDA receptor is endogenously and tonically activated by D-serine released from astrocytes. In this study we determined the effects of two co-agonist site partial agonists on both presynaptic and postsynaptic NMDA receptors in layer II of the entorhinal cortex. The high efficacy partial agonist, D-cycloserine, decreased the decay time of postsynaptic NMDA receptor mediated currents evoked by electrical stimulation, but had no effect on amplitude or other kinetic parameters. In contrast, a lower efficacy partial agonist, 1-aminocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid, decreased decay time to a greater extent than D-cycloserine, and also reduced the peak amplitude of the evoked NMDA receptor mediated postsynaptic responses. Presynaptic NMDA receptors, (monitored indirectly by effects on the frequency of AMPA receptor mediated spontaneous excitatory currents) were unaffected by D-cycloserine, but were reduced in effectiveness by 1-aminocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid. We discuss these results in the context of the effect of endogenous regulation of the NMDA receptor co-agonist site on receptor gating and the potential therapeutic implications for cognitive disorders.

  6. Contribution of Ih to the relative facilitation of synaptic responses induced by carbachol in the entorhinal cortex during repetitive stimulation of the parasubiculum.

    PubMed

    Sparks, D W; Chapman, C A

    2014-10-10

    Neurons in the superficial layers of the entorhinal cortex provide the hippocampus with the majority of its cortical sensory input, and also receive the major output projection from the parasubiculum. This puts the parasubiculum in a position to modulate the activity of entorhinal neurons that project to the hippocampus. These brain areas receive cholinergic projections that are active during periods of theta- and gamma-frequency electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate how cholinergic receptor activation affects the strength of repetitive synaptic responses at these frequencies in the parasubiculo-entorhinal pathway and the cellular mechanisms involved. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of rat layer II medial entorhinal neurons were conducted using an acute slice preparation, and responses to 5-pulse trains of stimulation at theta- and gamma-frequency delivered to the parasubiculum were recorded. The cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCh) suppressed the amplitude of single synaptic responses, but also produced a relative facilitation of synaptic responses evoked during stimulation trains. The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor blocker APV did not significantly reduce the relative facilitation effect. However, the hyperpolarization-activated cationic current (Ih) channel blocker ZD7288 mimicked the relative facilitation induced by CCh, suggesting that CCh-induced inhibition of Ih could produce the effect by increasing dendritic input resistance (Rin). Inward-rectifying and leak K(+) currents are known to interact with Ih to affect synaptic excitability. Application of the K(+) channel antagonist Ba(2+) depolarized neurons and enhanced temporal summation, but did not block further facilitation of train-evoked responses by ZD7288. The Ih-dependent facilitation of synaptic responses can therefore occur during reductions in inward-rectifying potassium current (IKir) associated with dendritic depolarization. Thus, in

  7. Morphological and numerical analysis of synaptic interactions between neurons in deep and superficial layers of the entorhinal cortex of the rat.

    PubMed

    van Haeften, Theo; Baks-te-Bulte, Luciënne; Goede, Peter H; Wouterlood, Floris G; Witter, Menno P

    2003-01-01

    Neurons providing connections between the deep and superficial layers of the entorhinal cortex (EC) constitute a pivotal link in the network underlying reverberation and gating of neuronal activity in the entorhinal-hippocampal system. To learn more of these deep-to-superficial neurons and their targets, we applied the tracer Neurobiotin pericellularly in layer V of the medial EC of 12 rats. Labeled axons in the superficial layers were studied with light and electron microscopy, and their synaptic organization recorded. Neurobiotin-labeled layer V neurons displayed "Golgi-like" staining. Two major cell types were distinguished among these neurons: (1) pyramidal neurons with apical spiny dendrites traversing all layers and ramifying in layer I, and (2) horizontal neurons with dendrites confined to the deep layers. Labeled axons ramified profusely in layer III, superficially in layer II and deep in layer I. Analysis of labeled axon terminals in layers I-II and III showed that most synapses (95%) were asymmetrical. Of these synapses, 56% occurred with spines (presumably belonging to principal neurons) and 44% with dendritic shafts (presumably interneurons). A small fraction of the synapses (5%) was of the symmetrical type. Such synapses were mainly seen on dendritic shafts. We found in two sections a symmetrical synapse on a spine. These findings suggest that the deep to superficial projection is mainly excitatory in nature, and that these fibers subserve both excitation and feed-forward inhibition. There is an additional, much weaker, inhibitory component in this projection, which may have a disinhibitory effect on the entorhinal network in the superficial layers.

  8. Fleecy amyloid deposits in the internal layers of the human entorhinal cortex are comprised of N-terminal truncated fragments of Abeta.

    PubMed

    Thal, D R; Sassin, I; Schultz, C; Haass, C; Braak, E; Braak, H

    1999-02-01

    The deposition of amyloid in the brain is a hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). Amyloid deposits consist of accumulations of beta-amyloid (Abeta), which is a 39-43 amino-acid peptide cleaved from the Abeta-protein precursor (APP). Another cleavage product of APP is the P3-peptide, which consists of the amino acids 17-42 of the Abeta-peptide. In order to study the deposition of N-terminal truncated forms of Abeta in the human entorhinal cortex, serial sections from 16 autopsy cases with AD-related pathology were immunostained with antibodies against Abeta1-40, Abeta1-42, Abeta17-23, and Abeta8-17, as well as with the Campbell-Switzer silver impregnation for amyloid. In the external entorhinal layers (pre-beta and pre-gamma), sharply delineated diffuse plaques were seen. They were labeled by silver impregnation and by all Abeta-antibodies used. By comparison, in the internal layers (pri-alpha, pri-beta, and pri-gamma) blurred, ill-defined clouds of amyloid existed, in addition to sharply delineated diffuse plaques. These clouds of amyloid were termed "fleecy amyloid." Immunohistochemically, fleecy amyloid was stained by Abeta17-23 and Abeta1-42 antibodies, but not with antibodies against Abeta8-17 and Abeta1-40. Using the Campbell-Switzer technique, the fleecy amyloid deposits were found to be fine argyrophilic amyloid fibrils. Thus, the internal entorhinal layers are susceptible to a distinct type of amyloid, namely fleecy amyloid. This fleecy amyloid obviously corresponds to N-terminal truncated fragments of Abeta1-42, probably representing the P3-peptide. These N-terminal truncated fragments of Abeta are capable of creating fine fibrillar "amyloid."

  9. Fleecy amyloid deposits in the internal layers of the human entorhinal cortex are comprised of N-terminal truncated fragments of Abeta.

    PubMed

    Thal, D R; Sassin, I; Schultz, C; Haass, C; Braak, E; Braak, H

    1999-02-01

    The deposition of amyloid in the brain is a hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). Amyloid deposits consist of accumulations of beta-amyloid (Abeta), which is a 39-43 amino-acid peptide cleaved from the Abeta-protein precursor (APP). Another cleavage product of APP is the P3-peptide, which consists of the amino acids 17-42 of the Abeta-peptide. In order to study the deposition of N-terminal truncated forms of Abeta in the human entorhinal cortex, serial sections from 16 autopsy cases with AD-related pathology were immunostained with antibodies against Abeta1-40, Abeta1-42, Abeta17-23, and Abeta8-17, as well as with the Campbell-Switzer silver impregnation for amyloid. In the external entorhinal layers (pre-beta and pre-gamma), sharply delineated diffuse plaques were seen. They were labeled by silver impregnation and by all Abeta-antibodies used. By comparison, in the internal layers (pri-alpha, pri-beta, and pri-gamma) blurred, ill-defined clouds of amyloid existed, in addition to sharply delineated diffuse plaques. These clouds of amyloid were termed "fleecy amyloid." Immunohistochemically, fleecy amyloid was stained by Abeta17-23 and Abeta1-42 antibodies, but not with antibodies against Abeta8-17 and Abeta1-40. Using the Campbell-Switzer technique, the fleecy amyloid deposits were found to be fine argyrophilic amyloid fibrils. Thus, the internal entorhinal layers are susceptible to a distinct type of amyloid, namely fleecy amyloid. This fleecy amyloid obviously corresponds to N-terminal truncated fragments of Abeta1-42, probably representing the P3-peptide. These N-terminal truncated fragments of Abeta are capable of creating fine fibrillar "amyloid." PMID:10029103

  10. Training in the step-down inhibitory avoidance task time-dependently increases cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity in the entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Pereira, P; Ardenghi, P; Mello e Souza, T; Medina, J H; Izquierdo, I

    2001-06-01

    The cAMP/cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) signaling pathway has been implicated in synaptic plasticity changes and memory consolidation. Several cortical structures are involved in the consolidation of memory for inhibitory avoidance. The aim of the present work was to observe the effects of training in the inhibitory avoidance task on the levels of PKA activity in the entorhinal, parietal and posterior cingulate cortex (EC, PARIET and PC), and the medial precentral area (Fr2) of the rat, at different post-training times (0, 1.5, 3 and 6h). PKA activity, assayed using [gamma-32P]ATP and kemptide, a selective substrate, increased in the EC 3 h after training, but no changes were observed in PARIET, PC and Fr2. These results suggest that the late phase of memory consolidation of inhibitory avoidance requires a functional PKA signaling pathway in the EC in a way that a 'peak' of PKA activity is observed.

  11. Kainate receptors in the rat hippocampus: A distribution and time course of changes in response to unilateral lesions of the entorhinal cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Ulas, J.; Monaghan, D.T.; Cotman, C.W. )

    1990-07-01

    The response of kainate receptors to deafferentation and subsequent reinnervation following unilateral entorhinal cortex lesions was studied in the rat hippocampus using quantitative in vitro autoradiography. The binding levels of (3H)kainic acid (KA) and changes in the distribution of KA sites were investigated in the dentate gyrus molecular layer (ML) and in various terminal zones in the CA1 field at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 30, and 60 d postlesion. The data from both the ipsilateral and contralateral hippocampus were compared with those from unoperated controls. The first changes in KA receptor distribution were observed 21 d postlesion when the dense band of KA receptors occupying the inner one-third of the ML expanded into the denervated outer two-thirds of the ipsilateral ML. The spreading of the KA receptor field into previously unoccupied zones continued 30 and 60 d postlesion. At these time points, the zone enriched in (3H)KA binding sites became significantly (on average 50%) wider than in unoperated controls. No changes were observed in either the distribution or binding levels in other hippocampal areas or in the contralateral hippocampus at any studied time point. Saturation analysis of binding in the ipsilateral ML 60 d postlesion revealed changes in the maximum number of receptor sites (Bmax) without changes in KA receptor affinity (Kd). The data suggest that the elevation of the (3H)KA binding in the outer two-thirds of the ML reflects an increase in the number of both low and high affinity receptor binding sites. The pattern of KA receptor redistribution was similar to the well-characterized pattern of sprouting of commissural/associational systems from the inner one-third into the outer two-thirds of the ML after entorhinal lesions.

  12. Electrical and Network Neuronal Properties Are Preferentially Disrupted in Dorsal, But Not Ventral, Medial Entorhinal Cortex in a Mouse Model of Tauopathy

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Clair A.; Ridler, Thomas; Murray, Tracey K.; Ward, Mark A.; de Groot, Emily; Goodfellow, Marc; Phillips, Keith G.; Randall, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    The entorhinal cortex (EC) is one of the first areas to be disrupted in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia. The responsiveness of individual neurons to electrical and environmental stimuli varies along the dorsal–ventral axis of the medial EC (mEC) in a manner that suggests this topographical organization plays a key role in neural encoding of geometric space. We examined the cellular properties of layer II mEC stellate neurons (mEC-SCs) in rTg4510 mice, a rodent model of neurodegeneration. Dorsoventral gradients in certain intrinsic membrane properties, such as membrane capacitance and afterhyperpolarizations, were flattened in rTg4510 mEC-SCs, while other cellular gradients [e.g., input resistance (Ri), action potential properties] remained intact. Specifically, the intrinsic properties of rTg4510 mEC-SCs in dorsal aspects of the mEC were preferentially affected, such that action potential firing patterns in dorsal mEC-SCs were altered, while those in ventral mEC-SCs were unaffected. We also found that neuronal oscillations in the gamma frequency band (30–80 Hz) were preferentially disrupted in the dorsal mEC of rTg4510 slices, while those in ventral regions were comparatively preserved. These alterations corresponded to a flattened dorsoventral gradient in theta-gamma cross-frequency coupling of local field potentials recorded from the mEC of freely moving rTg4510 mice. These differences were not paralleled by changes to the dorsoventral gradient in parvalbumin staining or neurodegeneration. We propose that the selective disruption to dorsal mECs, and the resultant flattening of certain dorsoventral gradients, may contribute to disturbances in spatial information processing observed in this model of dementia. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) plays a key role in spatial memory and is one of the first areas to express the pathological features of dementia. Neurons of the mEC are

  13. Differences in Visual-Spatial Input May Underlie Different Compression Properties of Firing Fields for Grid Cell Modules in Medial Entorhinal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Raudies, Florian; Hasselmo, Michael E

    2015-11-01

    Firing fields of grid cells in medial entorhinal cortex show compression or expansion after manipulations of the location of environmental barriers. This compression or expansion could be selective for individual grid cell modules with particular properties of spatial scaling. We present a model for differences in the response of modules to barrier location that arise from different mechanisms for the influence of visual features on the computation of location that drives grid cell firing patterns. These differences could arise from differences in the position of visual features within the visual field. When location was computed from the movement of visual features on the ground plane (optic flow) in the ventral visual field, this resulted in grid cell spatial firing that was not sensitive to barrier location in modules modeled with small spacing between grid cell firing fields. In contrast, when location was computed from static visual features on walls of barriers, i.e. in the more dorsal visual field, this resulted in grid cell spatial firing that compressed or expanded based on the barrier locations in modules modeled with large spacing between grid cell firing fields. This indicates that different grid cell modules might have differential properties for computing location based on visual cues, or the spatial radius of sensitivity to visual cues might differ between modules. PMID:26584432

  14. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Transgenic Mice Exhibit Passive Avoidance Deficits, Increased Seizure Severity and In Vitro Hyperexcitability in the Hippocampus and Entorhinal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Croll, S. D.; Suri, C.; Compton, D. L.; Simmons, M. V.; Yancopoulos, G. D.; Lindsay, R. M.; Wiegand, S. J.; Rudge, J. S.; Scharfman, H. E.

    2008-01-01

    Transgenic mice overexpressing brain-derived neurotrophic factor from the β-actin promoter were tested for behavioral, gross anatomical and physiological abnormalities. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor messenger RNA overexpression was widespread throughout brain. Overexpression declined with age, such that levels of overexpression decreased sharply by nine months. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor transgenic mice had no gross deformities or behavioral abnormalities. However, they showed a significant passive avoidance deficit. This deficit was dependent on continued overexpression, and resolved with age as brain-derived neurotrophic factor transcripts decreased. In addition, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor transgenic mice showed increased seizure severity in response to kainic acid. Hippocampal slices from brain-derived neurotrophic factor transgenic mice showed hyperexcitability in area CA3 and entorhinal cortex, but not in dentate gyrus. Finally, area CA1 long-term potentiation was disrupted, indicating abnormal plasticity. Our data suggest that overexpression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the brain can interfere with normal brain function by causing learning impairments and increased excitability. The results also support the hypothesis that excess brain-derived neurotrophic factor could be pro-convulsant in the limbic system. PMID:10501474

  15. Removing entorhinal cortex input to the dentate gyrus does not impede low frequency oscillations, an EEG-biomarker of hippocampal epileptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Martin; Kienzler-Norwood, Friederike; Bauer, Sebastian; Rosenow, Felix; Norwood, Braxton A.

    2016-01-01

    Following prolonged perforant pathway stimulation (PPS) in rats, a seizure-free “latent period” is observed that lasts around 3 weeks. During this time, aberrant neuronal activity occurs, which has been hypothesized to contribute to the generation of an “epileptic” network. This study was designed to 1) examine the pathological network activity that occurs in the dentate gyrus during the latent period, and 2) determine whether suppressing this activity by removing the main input to the dentate gyrus could stop or prolong epileptogenesis. Immediately following PPS, continuous video-EEG monitoring was used to record spontaneous neuronal activity and detect seizures. During the latent period, low frequency oscillations (LFOs), occurring at a rate of approximately 1 Hz, were detected in the dentate gyrus of all rats that developed epilepsy. LFO incidence was apparently random, but often decreased in the hour preceding a spontaneous seizure. Bilateral transection of the perforant pathway did not impact the incidence of hippocampal LFOs, the latency to epilepsy, or hippocampal neuropathology. Our main findings are: 1) LFOs are a reliable biomarker of hippocampal epileptogenesis, and 2) removing entorhinal cortex input to the hippocampus neither reduces the occurrence of LFOs nor has a demonstrable antiepileptogenic effect. PMID:27160925

  16. Short-term sleep deprivation disrupts the molecular composition of ionotropic glutamate receptors in entorhinal cortex and impairs the rat spatial reference memory.

    PubMed

    Xie, Meilan; Li, Chao; He, Chao; Yang, Li; Tan, Gang; Yan, Jie; Wang, Jiali; Hu, Zhian

    2016-03-01

    Numerous studies reported that sleep deprivation (SD) causes impairment in spatial cognitive performance. However, the molecular mechanisms affected by SD underlying this behavioral phenomenon remain elusive. Here, we focused on the entorhinal cortex (EC), the gateway of the hippocampus, and investigated how SD affected the subunit expression of AMPARs and NMDARs, the main ionotropic glutamategic receptors serving a pivotal role in spatial cognition. In EC, we found 4h SD remarkably reduced surface expression of GluA1, while there was an increase in the surface expression of GluA2 and GluA3. As for NMDARs, SD with short duration significantly reduced the surface expression levels of GluN1 and GluN2B without effect on the GluN2A. In parallel with the alterations in AMPARs and NMDARs, we found the 4h SD impaired rat spatial reference memory as assessed by Morris water maze task. Overall, these data indicate that brief SD differently affects the AMPAR and NMDAR subunit expressions in EC and might consequently disrupt the composition and functional properties of these receptors. PMID:26455878

  17. Combined damage to entorhinal cortex and cholinergic basal forebrain neurons, two early neurodegenerative features accompanying Alzheimer's disease: effects on locomotor activity and memory functions in rats.

    PubMed

    Traissard, Natalia; Herbeaux, Karine; Cosquer, Brigitte; Jeltsch, Hélène; Ferry, Barbara; Galani, Rodrigue; Pernon, Anne; Majchrzak, Monique; Cassel, Jean-Christophe

    2007-04-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), cognitive decline is linked to cholinergic dysfunctions in the basal forebrain (BF), although the earliest neuronal damage is described in the entorhinal cortex (EC). In rats, selective cholinergic BF lesions or fiber-sparing EC lesions may induce memory deficits, but most often of weak magnitude. This study investigated, in adult rats, the effects on activity and memory of both lesions, alone or in combination, using 192 IgG-saporin (OX7-saporin as a control) and L-N-methyl-D-aspartate to destroy BF and EC neurons, respectively. Rats were tested for locomotor activity in their home cage and for working- and/or reference-memory in various tasks (water maze, Hebb-Williams maze, radial maze). Only rats with combined lesions showed diurnal and nocturnal hyperactivity. EC lesions impaired working memory and induced anterograde memory deficits in almost all tasks. Lesions of BF cholinergic neurons induced more limited deficits: reference memory was impaired in the probe trial of the water-maze task and in the radial maze. When both lesions were combined, performance never improved in the water maze and the number of errors in the Hebb-Williams and the radial mazes was always larger than in any other group. These results (i) indicate synergistic implications of BF and EC in memory function, (ii) suggest that combined BF cholinergic and fiber-sparing EC lesions may model aspects of anterograde memory deficits and restlessness as seen in AD, (iii) challenge the cholinergic hypothesis of cognitive dysfunctions in AD, and (iv) contribute to open theoretical views on AD-related memory dysfunctions going beyond the latter hypothesis.

  18. Alteration of imprinted Dlk1-Dio3 miRNA cluster expression in the entorhinal cortex induced by maternal immune activation and adolescent cannabinoid exposure

    PubMed Central

    Hollins, S L; Zavitsanou, K; Walker, F R; Cairns, M J

    2014-01-01

    A significant feature of the cortical neuropathology of schizophrenia is a disturbance in the biogenesis of short non-coding microRNA (miRNA) that regulate translation and stability of mRNA. While the biological origin of this phenomenon has not been defined, it is plausible that it relates to major environmental risk factors associated with the disorder such as exposure to maternal immune activation (MIA) and adolescent cannabis use. To explore this hypothesis, we administered the viral mimic poly I:C to pregnant rats and further exposed some of their maturing offsprings to daily injections of the synthetic cannabinoid HU210 for 14 days starting on postnatal day 35. Whole-genome miRNA expression analysis was then performed on the left and right hemispheres of the entorhinal cortex (EC), a region strongly associated with schizophrenia. Animals exposed to either treatment alone or in combination exhibited significant differences in the expression of miRNA in the left hemisphere, whereas the right hemisphere was less responsive. Hemisphere-associated differences in miRNA expression were greatest in the combined treatment and highly over-represented in a single imprinted locus on chromosome 6q32. This observation was significant as the syntenic 14q32 locus in humans encodes a large proportion of miRNAs differentially expressed in peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with schizophrenia, suggesting that interaction of early and late environmental insults may affect miRNA expression, in a manner that is relevant to schizophrenia. PMID:25268256

  19. Combined damage to entorhinal cortex and cholinergic basal forebrain neurons, two early neurodegenerative features accompanying Alzheimer's disease: effects on locomotor activity and memory functions in rats.

    PubMed

    Traissard, Natalia; Herbeaux, Karine; Cosquer, Brigitte; Jeltsch, Hélène; Ferry, Barbara; Galani, Rodrigue; Pernon, Anne; Majchrzak, Monique; Cassel, Jean-Christophe

    2007-04-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), cognitive decline is linked to cholinergic dysfunctions in the basal forebrain (BF), although the earliest neuronal damage is described in the entorhinal cortex (EC). In rats, selective cholinergic BF lesions or fiber-sparing EC lesions may induce memory deficits, but most often of weak magnitude. This study investigated, in adult rats, the effects on activity and memory of both lesions, alone or in combination, using 192 IgG-saporin (OX7-saporin as a control) and L-N-methyl-D-aspartate to destroy BF and EC neurons, respectively. Rats were tested for locomotor activity in their home cage and for working- and/or reference-memory in various tasks (water maze, Hebb-Williams maze, radial maze). Only rats with combined lesions showed diurnal and nocturnal hyperactivity. EC lesions impaired working memory and induced anterograde memory deficits in almost all tasks. Lesions of BF cholinergic neurons induced more limited deficits: reference memory was impaired in the probe trial of the water-maze task and in the radial maze. When both lesions were combined, performance never improved in the water maze and the number of errors in the Hebb-Williams and the radial mazes was always larger than in any other group. These results (i) indicate synergistic implications of BF and EC in memory function, (ii) suggest that combined BF cholinergic and fiber-sparing EC lesions may model aspects of anterograde memory deficits and restlessness as seen in AD, (iii) challenge the cholinergic hypothesis of cognitive dysfunctions in AD, and (iv) contribute to open theoretical views on AD-related memory dysfunctions going beyond the latter hypothesis. PMID:16760925

  20. Complementary Functional Organization of Neuronal Activity Patterns in the Perirhinal, Lateral Entorhinal, and Medial Entorhinal Cortices

    PubMed Central

    Keene, Christopher S.; Bladon, John; McKenzie, Sam; Liu, Cindy D.; O'Keefe, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly conceived that the cortical areas of the hippocampal region are functionally divided into the perirhinal cortex (PRC) and the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC), which selectively process object information; and the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC), which selectively processes spatial information. Contrary to this notion, in rats performing a task that demands both object and spatial information processing, single neurons in PRC, LEC, and MEC, including those in both superficial and deep cortical areas and in grid, border, and head direction cells of MEC, have a highly similar range of selectivity to object and spatial dimensions of the task. By contrast, representational similarity analysis of population activity reveals a key distinction in the organization of information in these areas, such that PRC and LEC populations prioritize object over location information, whereas MEC populations prioritize location over object information. These findings bring to the hippocampal system a growing emphasis on population analyses as a powerful tool for characterizing neural representations supporting cognition and memory. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Contrary to the common view that brain regions in the “what” and “where” streams distinctly process object and spatial cues, respectively, we found that both streams encode both object and spatial information but distinctly organize memories for objects and space. Specifically, perirhinal cortex and lateral entorhinal cortex represent objects and, within the object-specific representations, the locations where they occur. Conversely, medial entorhinal cortex represents relevant locations and, within those spatial representations, the objects that occupy them. Furthermore, these findings reach beyond simple notions of perirhinal cortex and lateral entorhinal cortex neurons as object detectors and MEC neurons as position detectors, and point to a more complex organization of memory representations within the medial

  1. Functional connectivity of the entorhinal-hippocampal space circuit.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng-Jia; Ye, Jing; Couey, Jonathan J; Witter, Menno; Moser, Edvard I; Moser, May-Britt

    2014-02-01

    The mammalian space circuit is known to contain several functionally specialized cell types, such as place cells in the hippocampus and grid cells, head-direction cells and border cells in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC). The interaction between the entorhinal and hippocampal spatial representations is poorly understood, however. We have developed an optogenetic strategy to identify functionally defined cell types in the MEC that project directly to the hippocampus. By expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) selectively in the hippocampus-projecting subset of entorhinal projection neurons, we were able to use light-evoked discharge as an instrument to determine whether specific entorhinal cell groups--such as grid cells, border cells and head-direction cells--have direct hippocampal projections. Photoinduced firing was observed at fixed minimal latencies in all functional cell categories, with grid cells as the most abundant hippocampus-projecting spatial cell type. We discuss how photoexcitation experiments can be used to distinguish the subset of hippocampus-projecting entorhinal neurons from neurons that are activated indirectly through the network. The functional breadth of entorhinal input implied by this analysis opens up the potential for rich dynamic interactions between place cells in the hippocampus and different functional cell types in the entorhinal cortex (EC). PMID:24366130

  2. Effects of post-training infusions of a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor into the hippocampus or entorhinal cortex on short- and long-term retention of inhibitory avoidance.

    PubMed

    Walz, R; Roesler, R; Barros, D M; de Souza, M M; Rodrigues, C; Sant'Anna, M K; Quevedo, J; Choi, H K; Neto, W P; DeDavid e Silva, T L; Medina, J H; Izquierdo, I

    1999-12-01

    We recently demonstrated the time-dependent impairment of long-term retention of a step-down inhibitory avoidance task in rats induced by post-training infusion of the specific MAPKK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase) inhibitor PD 098059 into the hippocampus (HIP), amygdala (AMY), entorhinal cortex (EC) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Here we investigate the role of the MAPK cascade in the HIP and the EC on both short- and long-term retention of inhibitory avoidance in rats, using three different doses of the MAPKK inhibitor PD 098059. Adult male Wistar rats were trained and tested in inhibitory avoidance and given an infusion of PD 098059 (0.5, 5.0 or 50.0 microM) at 0, 30, 90, 120, 180, 270 or 360 min after training. A retention test session was carried out at 90, 180 or 270 min after training (short-term memory, STM) and/ or 24 h after training (long-term memory, LTM). When infused into the HIP at 0 min, but not at 30, 90, 120 or 180 min after training, PD 098059 impaired STM. Intrahippocampal PD 098059 impaired LTM when infused at 180 min, but not at 0, 30, 90, 120 or 270 min after training. When infused into the EC, PD 098059 enhanced STM when given at 0 min after training and had no effect when given at 30, 90, 120 or 180 min after training. In this structure, PD 098059 impaired LTM when given at 180 or 270 min, but not at 30, 90, 120 or 360 min after training. All effects were dose-dependent. These findings indicate that the MAPK cascade in the HIP and EC is differentially involved in short- and long-term retention of inhibitory avoidance in rats.

  3. Entorhinal-Hippocampal Neuronal Circuits Bridge Temporally Discontiguous Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitamura, Takashi; Macdonald, Christopher J.; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    The entorhinal cortex (EC)-hippocampal (HPC) network plays an essential role for episodic memory, which preserves spatial and temporal information about the occurrence of past events. Although there has been significant progress toward understanding the neural circuits underlying the spatial dimension of episodic memory, the relevant circuits…

  4. Coordination of entorhinal-hippocampal ensemble activity during associative learning.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Kei M; Lu, Li; Colgin, Laura L; Moser, May-Britt; Moser, Edvard I

    2014-06-01

    Accumulating evidence points to cortical oscillations as a mechanism for mediating interactions among functionally specialized neurons in distributed brain circuits. A brain function that may use such interactions is declarative memory--that is, memory that can be consciously recalled, such as episodes and facts. Declarative memory is enabled by circuits in the entorhinal cortex that interface the hippocampus with the neocortex. During encoding and retrieval of declarative memories, entorhinal and hippocampal circuits are thought to interact via theta and gamma oscillations, which in awake rodents predominate frequency spectra in both regions. In favour of this idea, theta-gamma coupling has been observed between entorhinal cortex and hippocampus under steady-state conditions in well-trained rats; however, the relationship between interregional coupling and memory formation remains poorly understood. Here we show, by multisite recording at successive stages of associative learning, that the coherence of firing patterns in directly connected entorhinal-hippocampus circuits evolves as rats learn to use an odour cue to guide navigational behaviour, and that such coherence is invariably linked to the development of ensemble representations for unique trial outcomes in each area. Entorhinal-hippocampal coupling was observed specifically in the 20-40-hertz frequency band and specifically between the distal part of hippocampal area CA1 and the lateral part of entorhinal cortex, the subfields that receive the predominant olfactory input to the hippocampal region. Collectively, the results identify 20-40-hertz oscillations as a mechanism for synchronizing evolving representations in dispersed neural circuits during encoding and retrieval of olfactory-spatial associative memory. PMID:24739966

  5. Comparison of the effects of entorhinal and retrosplenial cortical lesions on habituation, reaction to spatial and non-spatial changes during object exploration in the rat.

    PubMed

    Parron, C; Save, E

    2004-07-01

    This study was aimed at comparing the effects of damage to the entorhinal cortex and retrosplenial cortex on exploration and reaction-to-change in rats. Following habituation to a configuration of objects, a familiar object was displaced therefore producing a spatial change. A non-spatial change was made by substituting a familiar object by a novel object. Both entorhinal cortex lesions and retrosplenial cortex lesions elicited a deficit in the rat's reaction to a spatial change. In addition, rats with entorhinal lesions showed hypoactive object exploration and exhibited a mild deficit in reaction to a non-spatial change. This may reflect the importance of temporal cortical input in object recognition. Overall, these results suggest that the entorhinal cortex and the retrosplenial cortex contribute to the processing of the geometric properties of the environment and have thus close functional links.

  6. Differential role of entorhinal and hippocampal nerve growth factor in short- and long-term memory modulation.

    PubMed

    Walz, R; Roesler, R; Reinke, A; Martins, M R; Quevedo, J; Izquierdo, I

    2005-01-01

    We studied the effects of infusion of nerve growth factor (NGF) into the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex of male Wistar rats (250-300 g, N = 11-13 per group) on inhibitory avoidance retention. In order to evaluate the modulation of entorhinal and hippocampal NGF in short- and long-term memory, animals were implanted with cannulae in the CA1 area of the dorsal hippocampus or entorhinal cortex and trained in one-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance (foot shock, 0.4 mA). Retention tests were carried out 1.5 h or 24 h after training to measure short- and long-term memory, respectively. Immediately after training, rats received 5 microl NGF (0.05, 0.5 or 5.0 ng) or saline per side into the CA1 area and entorhinal cortex. The correct position of the cannulae was confirmed by histological analysis. The highest dose of NGF (5.0 ng) into the hippocampus blocked short-term memory (P < 0.05), whereas the doses of 0.5 (P < 0.05) and 5.0 ng (P < 0.01) NGF enhanced long-term memory. NGF administration into the entorhinal cortex improved long-term memory at the dose of 5.0 ng (P < 0.05) and did not alter short-term memory. Taken as a whole, our results suggest a differential modulation by entorhinal and hippocampal NGF of short- and long-term memory.

  7. Entorhinal volume, aerobic fitness, and recognition memory in healthy young adults: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, Andrew S; Young, Daniel E; Budson, Andrew E; Stern, Chantal E; Schon, Karin

    2016-02-01

    Converging evidence supports the hypothesis effects of aerobic exercise and environmental enrichment are beneficial for cognition, in particular for hippocampus-supported learning and memory. Recent work in humans suggests that exercise training induces changes in hippocampal volume, but it is not known if aerobic exercise and fitness also impact the entorhinal cortex. In animal models, aerobic exercise increases expression of growth factors, including brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This exercise-enhanced expression of growth hormones may boost synaptic plasticity, and neuronal survival and differentiation, potentially supporting function and structure in brain areas including but not limited to the hippocampus. Here, using voxel based morphometry and a standard graded treadmill test to determine cardio-respiratory fitness (Bruce protocol; ·VO2 max), we examined if entorhinal and hippocampal volumes were associated with cardio-respiratory fitness in healthy young adults (N=33). In addition, we examined if volumes were modulated by recognition memory performance and by serum BDNF, a putative marker of synaptic plasticity. Our results show a positive association between volume in right entorhinal cortex and cardio-respiratory fitness. In addition, average gray matter volume in the entorhinal cortex, bilaterally, was positively associated with memory performance. These data extend prior work on the cerebral effects of aerobic exercise and fitness to the entorhinal cortex in healthy young adults thus providing compelling evidence for a relationship between aerobic fitness and structure of the medial temporal lobe memory system.

  8. Structural neuroplasticity induced by melatonin in entorhinal neurons of rats exposed to toluene inhalation.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Rodrigo; Bustamante, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Several clinical studies have shown that abusing volatile solvents, mainly toluene, produces neurological, neuropathological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Symptoms of these disorders include loss in impulse control, distractibility and memory deficits, which are associated with mild brain atrophy. The entorhinal cortex is critically involved in mnemonic processes, and memory disorders are the major symptom detected in chronic solvent abusers. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated (1) whether the entorhinal neuronal morphology was impaired by subchronic toluene exposure and (2) if melatonin protected the neuronal cytoarchitecture, as has been demonstrated in neocortical neurons. Consistent with our previous findings, the present study indicates that the entorhinal cell dendritic arborization was significantly reduced in toluene exposed animals, and melatonin administration significantly rescued the reduced dendritic branching induced by toluene neurotoxicity.

  9. APOE associated hemispheric asymmetry of entorhinal cortical thickness in aging and Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Donix, Markus; Burggren, Alison C.; Scharf, Maria; Marschner, Kira; Suthana, Nanthia A.; Siddarth, Prabha; Krupa, Allison K.; Jones, Michael; Martin-Harris, Laurel; Ercoli, Linda M.; Miller, Karen J.; Werner, Annett; von Kummer, Rüdiger; Sauer, Cathrin; Small, Gary W.; Holthoff, Vjera A.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.

    2013-01-01

    Across species structural and functional hemispheric asymmetry is a fundamental feature of the brain. Environmental and genetic factors determine this asymmetry during brain development and modulate its interaction with brain disorders. The e4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE-4) is a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease, associated with regionally specific effects on brain morphology and function during the life span. Furthermore, entorhinal and hippocampal hemispheric asymmetry could be modified by pathology during Alzheimer’s disease development. Using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and a cortical unfolding technique we investigated whether carrying the APOE-4 allele influences hemispheric asymmetry in the entorhinal cortex and the hippocampus among patients with Alzheimer’s disease as well as in middle-aged and older cognitively healthy individuals. APOE-4 carriers showed a thinner entorhinal cortex in the left hemisphere when compared with the right hemisphere across all participants. Non-carriers of the allele showed this asymmetry only in the patient group. Cortical thickness in the hippocampus did not vary between hemispheres among APOE-4 allele carriers and non-carriers. The APOE-4 allele modulates hemispheric asymmetry in entorhinal cortical thickness. Among Alzheimer’s disease patients, this asymmetry might be less dependent on the APOE genotype and a more general marker of incipient disease pathology. PMID:24080518

  10. Head direction is coded more strongly than movement direction in a population of entorhinal neurons.

    PubMed

    Raudies, Florian; Brandon, Mark P; Chapman, G William; Hasselmo, Michael E

    2015-09-24

    The spatial firing pattern of entorhinal grid cells may be important for navigation. Many different computational models of grid cell firing use path integration based on movement direction and the associated movement speed to drive grid cells. However, the response of neurons to movement direction has rarely been tested, in contrast to multiple studies showing responses of neurons to head direction. Here, we analyzed the difference between head direction and movement direction during rat movement and analyzed cells recorded from entorhinal cortex for their tuning to movement direction. During foraging behavior, movement direction differs significantly from head direction. The analysis of neuron responses shows that only 5 out of 758 medial entorhinal cells show significant coding for both movement direction and head direction when evaluating periods of rat behavior with speeds above 10 cm/s and ±30° angular difference between movement and head direction. None of the cells coded movement direction alone. In contrast, 21 cells in this population coded only head direction during behavioral epochs with these constraints, indicating much stronger coding of head direction in this population. This suggests that the movement direction signal required by most grid cell models may arise from other brain structures than the medial entorhinal cortex. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Brain and Memory.

  11. Navigating from hippocampus to parietal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, Jonathan R.; Sutherland, Robert J.; Witter, Menno P.; Moser, May-Britt; Moser, Edvard I.

    2008-01-01

    The navigational system of the mammalian cortex comprises a number of interacting brain regions. Grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex and place cells in the hippocampus are thought to participate in the formation of a dynamic representation of the animal's current location, and these cells are presumably critical for storing the representation in memory. To traverse the environment, animals must be able to translate coordinate information from spatial maps in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus into body-centered representations that can be used to direct locomotion. How this is done remains an enigma. We propose that the posterior parietal cortex is critical for this transformation. PMID:18812502

  12. Entorhinal projections terminate onto principal neurons and interneurons in the subiculum: a quantitative electron microscopical analysis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Baks-Te Bulte, L; Wouterlood, F G; Vinkenoog, M; Witter, M P

    2005-01-01

    The synaptic organization of projections to the subiculum from superficial layers of the lateral and medial entorhinal cortex was analyzed in the rat, using anterograde neuroanatomical tracing followed by electron microscopical quantification. Our aim was to assess the synaptic organization and whether the two projection components (lateral, medial) within the perforant pathway are qualitatively and quantitatively similar with respect to the types of synapses formed and with respect to the postsynaptic targets of these entorhinal projections. The tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was injected into the lateral and medial entorhinal cortex, respectively, and resulting anterograde labeling in the subiculum was studied. For each of the two projection components, we analyzed in four animals (2 x 2) a total of 100 synapses/animal with respect to features of the synapse type, i.e. asymmetrical or symmetrical, as well as regarding their postsynaptic target, i.e. dendritic shaft or spine. No clear differences were observed between the two pathways. The majority of the synapses were of the asymmetrical type, making contact with spines (78%) or with dendritic shafts (14%). A low percentage of symmetrical synapses targeted dendritic shafts (4.2%) or spines (1.3%). About 2.5% of the synapses remained undetermined. The findings indicate that the majority of entorhinal fibers reaching the subiculum exert an excitatory influence primarily onto principal neurons, with a much smaller feed forward inhibitory component. Only a small percentage of entorhinal fibers in the subiculum appears to be inhibitory, largely influencing interneurons.

  13. Aspiration pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    Anaerobic pneumonia; Aspiration of vomitus; Necrotizing pneumonia; Aspiration pneumonitis ... The type of bacteria that caused the pneumonia depends on: Your ... facility, for example) Whether you were recently hospitalized ...

  14. Amount of lifetime video gaming is positively associated with entorhinal, hippocampal and occipital volume.

    PubMed

    Kühn, S; Gallinat, J

    2014-07-01

    Playing video games is a popular leisure activity among children and adults, and may therefore potentially influence brain structure. We have previously shown a positive association between probability of gray matter (GM) volume in the ventral striatum and frequent video gaming in adolescence. Here we set out to investigate structural correlates of video gaming in adulthood, as the effects observed in adolescents may reflect only a fraction of the potential neural long-term effects seen in adults. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 62 male adults, we computed voxel-based morphometry to explore the correlation of GM with the lifetime amount of video gaming (termed joystick years). We found a significant positive association between GM in bilateral parahippocamal region (entorhinal cortex) and left occipital cortex/inferior parietal lobe and joystick years (P<0.001, corrected for multiple comparisons). An exploratory analysis showed that the entorhinal GM volume can be predicted by the video game genres played, such as logic/puzzle games and platform games contributing positively, and action-based role-playing games contributing negatively. Furthermore, joystick years were positively correlated with hippocampus volume. The association of lifetime amount of video game playing with bilateral entorhinal cortex, hippocampal and occipital GM volume could reflect adaptive neural plasticity related to navigation and visual attention.

  15. Dual Transneuronal Tracing in the Rat Entorhinal-Hippocampal Circuit by Intracerebral Injection of Recombinant Rabies Virus Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, Shinya; Inoue, Ken-ichi; Yamada, Masahiro; Yamawaki, Takuma; Koganezawa, Noriko; Tsutsui, Ken-Ichiro; Witter, Menno P.; Iijima, Toshio

    2008-01-01

    Dual transneuronal tracing is a novel viral tracing methodology which employs two recombinant viruses, each expressing a different reporter protein. Peripheral injection of recombinant pseudorabies viruses has been used as a powerful method to define neurons that coordinate outputs to various peripheral targets of motor and autonomic systems. Here, we assessed the feasibility of recombinants of rabies virus (RV) vector for dual transneuronal tracing in the central nervous system. First, we examined whether two different RV-vectors can double label cells in vitro, and showed that efficient double labeling can be realized by infecting targeted cells with the two RV-vectors within a short time interval. The potential of dual transneuronal tracing was then examined in vivo in the entorhinal-hippocampal circuit, using the chain of projections from CA3 pyramidal cells to CA1 pyramidal cells and subsequently to entorhinal cortex. Six days after the injection of two RV-vectors into the left and right entorhinal cortex respectively, double-labeled neurons were observed in CA3 bilaterally. Some double-labeled neurons showed a Golgi-like labeling. Dual transneuronal tracing potentially provides a powerful and sensitive method to study issues such as the amount of convergence and divergence within and between circuits in the central nervous system. Using this sensitive technique, we established that single neurons in CA3 are connected to the entorhinal cortex bilaterally with only one synaptic relay. PMID:19169410

  16. Loss of synapses in the entorhinal-dentate gyrus pathway following repeated induction of electroshock seizures in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Armando; Assunção, Marco; Andrade, José P; Pereira, Pedro A; Madeira, M Dulce; Paula-Barbosa, Manuel M; Lukoyanov, Nikolai V

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to answer the question of whether repeated administration of electroconvulsive shock (ECS) seizures causes structural changes in the entorhinal-dentate projection system, whose neurons are known to be particularly vulnerable to seizure activity. Adult rats were administered six ECS seizures, the first five of which were spaced by 24-hr intervals, whereas the last two were only 2 hr apart. Stereological approaches were employed to compare the total neuronal and synaptic numbers in sham- and ECS-treated rats. Golgi-stained material was used to analyze dendritic arborizations of the dentate gyrus granule cells. Treatment with ECS produced loss of neurons in the entorhinal layer III and in the hilus of the dentate gyrus. The number of neurons in the entorhinal layer II, which provides the major source of dentate afferents, and in the granular layer of the dentate gyrus, known to receive entorhinal projections, remained unchanged. Despite this, the number of synapses established between the entorhinal layer II neurons and their targets, dentate granule cells, was reduced in ECS-treated rats. In addition, administration of ECS seizures produced atrophic changes in the dendritic arbors of dentate granule cells. The total volumes of entorhinal layers II, III, and V-VI were also found to be reduced in ECS-treated rats. By showing that treatment with ECS leads to partial disconnection of the entorhinal cortex and dentate gyrus, these findings shed new light on cellular processes that may underlie structural and functional brain changes induced by brief, generalized seizures.

  17. Entorhinal Cortical Ocean Cells Encode Specific Contexts and Drive Context-Specific Fear Memory.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Takashi; Sun, Chen; Martin, Jared; Kitch, Lacey J; Schnitzer, Mark J; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2015-09-23

    Forming distinct representations and memories of multiple contexts and episodes is thought to be a crucial function of the hippocampal-entorhinal cortical network. The hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 are known to contribute to these functions, but the role of the entorhinal cortex (EC) is poorly understood. Here, we show that Ocean cells, excitatory stellate neurons in the medial EC layer II projecting into DG and CA3, rapidly form a distinct representation of a novel context and drive context-specific activation of downstream CA3 cells as well as context-specific fear memory. In contrast, Island cells, excitatory pyramidal neurons in the medial EC layer II projecting into CA1, are indifferent to context-specific encoding or memory. On the other hand, Ocean cells are dispensable for temporal association learning, for which Island cells are crucial. Together, the two excitatory medial EC layer II inputs to the hippocampus have complementary roles in episodic memory. PMID:26402611

  18. How does the modular organization of entorhinal grid cells develop?

    PubMed Central

    Pilly, Praveen K.; Grossberg, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The entorhinal-hippocampal system plays a crucial role in spatial cognition and navigation. Since the discovery of grid cells in layer II of medial entorhinal cortex (MEC), several types of models have been proposed to explain their development and operation; namely, continuous attractor network models, oscillatory interference models, and self-organizing map (SOM) models. Recent experiments revealing the in vivo intracellular signatures of grid cells (Domnisoru et al., 2013; Schmidt-Heiber and Hausser, 2013), the primarily inhibitory recurrent connectivity of grid cells (Couey et al., 2013; Pastoll et al., 2013), and the topographic organization of grid cells within anatomically overlapping modules of multiple spatial scales along the dorsoventral axis of MEC (Stensola et al., 2012) provide strong constraints and challenges to existing grid cell models. This article provides a computational explanation for how MEC cells can emerge through learning with grid cell properties in modular structures. Within this SOM model, grid cells with different rates of temporal integration learn modular properties with different spatial scales. Model grid cells learn in response to inputs from multiple scales of directionally-selective stripe cells (Krupic et al., 2012; Mhatre et al., 2012) that perform path integration of the linear velocities that are experienced during navigation. Slower rates of grid cell temporal integration support learned associations with stripe cells of larger scales. The explanatory and predictive capabilities of the three types of grid cell models are comparatively analyzed in light of recent data to illustrate how the SOM model overcomes problems that other types of models have not yet handled. PMID:24917799

  19. Theta phase segregation of input-specific gamma patterns in entorhinal-hippocampal networks

    PubMed Central

    Schomburg, Erik W.; Fernández-Ruiz, Antonio; Mizuseki, Kenji; Berényi, Antal; Anastassiou, Costas A.; Koch, Christof; Buzsáki, György

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Precisely how rhythms support neuronal communication remains obscure. We investigated interregional coordination of gamma oscillations using high-density electrophysiological recordings in the rat hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. We found that 30–80 Hz gamma dominated CA1 local field potentials (LFP) on the descending phase of CA1 theta waves during navigation, with 60–120 Hz gamma at the theta peak. These signals corresponded to CA3 and entorhinal input, respectively. Above 50 Hz, interregional phase-synchronization of principal cell spikes occurred mostly for LFPs in the axonal target domain. CA1 pyramidal cells were phase-locked mainly to fast gamma (>100 Hz) LFP patterns restricted to CA1, which were strongest at the theta trough. While theta-phase coordination of spiking across entorhinal-hippocampal regions depended on memory demands, LFP gamma patterns below 100 Hz in the hippocampus were consistently layer-specific and largely reflected afferent activity. Gamma synchronization as a mechanism for interregional communication thus rapidly loses efficacy at higher frequencies. PMID:25263753

  20. How do spatial learning and memory occur in the brain? Coordinated learning of entorhinal grid cells and hippocampal place cells.

    PubMed

    Pilly, Praveen K; Grossberg, Stephen

    2012-05-01

    Spatial learning and memory are important for navigation and formation of episodic memories. The hippocampus and medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) are key brain areas for spatial learning and memory. Place cells in hippocampus fire whenever an animal is located in a specific region in the environment. Grid cells in the superficial layers of MEC provide inputs to place cells and exhibit remarkable regular hexagonal spatial firing patterns. They also exhibit a gradient of spatial scales along the dorsoventral axis of the MEC, with neighboring cells at a given dorsoventral location having different spatial phases. A neural model shows how a hierarchy of self-organizing maps, each obeying the same laws, responds to realistic rat trajectories by learning grid cells with hexagonal grid firing fields of multiple spatial scales and place cells with unimodal firing fields that fit neurophysiological data about their development in juvenile rats. The hippocampal place fields represent much larger spaces than the grid cells to support navigational behaviors. Both the entorhinal and hippocampal self-organizing maps amplify and learn to categorize the most energetic and frequent co-occurrences of their inputs. Top-down attentional mechanisms from hippocampus to MEC help to dynamically stabilize these spatial memories in both the model and neurophysiological data. Spatial learning through MEC to hippocampus occurs in parallel with temporal learning through lateral entorhinal cortex to hippocampus. These homologous spatial and temporal representations illustrate a kind of "neural relativity" that may provide a substrate for episodic learning and memory.

  1. Entorhinal Cortical Ocean Cells Encode Specific Contexts and Drive Context-Specific Fear Memory

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Takashi; Sun, Chen; Martin, Jared; Kitch, Lacey J; Schnitzer, Mark J; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Summary Forming distinct representations and memories of multiple contexts and episodes is thought to be a crucial function of the hippocampal-entorhinal cortical network. The hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 are known to contribute to these functions but the role of the entorhinal cortex (EC) is poorly understood. Here, we show that Ocean cells, excitatory stellate neurons in the medial EC layer II projecting into DG and CA3, rapidly form a distinct representation of a novel context and drive context-specific activation of downstream CA3 cells as well as context-specific fear memory. In contrast, Island cells, excitatory pyramidal neurons in the medial EC layer II projecting into CA1, are indifferent to context-specific encoding or memory. On the other hand, Ocean cells are dispensable for temporal association learning, for which Island cells are crucial. Together, the two excitatory medial EC layer II inputs to the hippocampus have complementary roles in episodic memory. PMID:26402611

  2. Towards a functional organization of the medial temporal lobe memory system: role of the parahippocampal and medial entorhinal cortical areas.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Howard; Lipton, Paul A

    2008-01-01

    Whereas substantial recent evidence has suggested to some that the medial entorhinal cortexá (MEC) plays a specialized role in spatial navigation, here we present evidence consistent with a broader role of the MEC in memory. A consideration of evidence on the anatomy and functional roles of medial temporal cortical areas and the hippocampus, and evidence from recordings from MEC neurons in rats performing a spatial memory task, suggest that the MEC may process information about both spatial and temporal context in support of episodic memory.

  3. Distinct speed dependence of entorhinal island and ocean cells, including respective grid cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chen; Kitamura, Takashi; Yamamoto, Jun; Martin, Jared; Pignatelli, Michele; Kitch, Lacey J.; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Entorhinal–hippocampal circuits in the mammalian brain are crucial for an animal’s spatial and episodic experience, but the neural basis for different spatial computations remain unknown. Medial entorhinal cortex layer II contains pyramidal island and stellate ocean cells. Here, we performed cell type-specific Ca2+ imaging in freely exploring mice using cellular markers and a miniature head-mounted fluorescence microscope. We found that both oceans and islands contain grid cells in similar proportions, but island cell activity, including activity in a proportion of grid cells, is significantly more speed modulated than ocean cell activity. We speculate that this differential property reflects island cells’ and ocean cells’ contribution to different downstream functions: island cells may contribute more to spatial path integration, whereas ocean cells may facilitate contextual representation in downstream circuits. PMID:26170279

  4. Memory, navigation and theta rhythm in the hippocampal-entorhinal system

    PubMed Central

    Buzsáki, György; Moser, Edvard I

    2014-01-01

    Theories on the functions of the hippocampal system are based largely on two fundamental discoveries: the amnestic consequences of removing the hippocampus and associated structures in the famous patient H.M. and the observation that spiking activity of hippocampal neurons is associated with the spatial position of the rat. In the footsteps of these discoveries, many attempts were made to reconcile these seemingly disparate functions. Here we propose that mechanisms of memory and planning have evolved from mechanisms of navigation in the physical world and hypothesize that the neuronal algorithms underlying navigation in real and mental space are fundamentally the same. We review experimental data in support of this hypothesis and discuss how specific firing patterns and oscillatory dynamics in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus can support both navigation and memory. PMID:23354386

  5. Aspiration syndromes: aspiration pneumonia and pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Marik, Paul E

    2010-02-01

    Aspiration pneumonia and pneumonitis are common clinical syndromes that occur in hospitalized patients. Aspiration pneumonia occurs in patients with dysphagia and usually presents as a community-acquired pneumonia with a focal infiltrate in a dependent bronchopulmonary segment. Patients with aspiration pneumonia require treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics and management of the underlying dysphagia. Aspiration pneumonitis follows the aspiration of gastric contents, usually in patients with a marked decreased level of consciousness. Treatment of aspiration pneumonitis is essentially supportive; however, corticosteroids and other immunomodulating agents may have a role in these patients.

  6. Calcium channel blockade attenuates abnormal synaptic transmission in the dentate gyrus elicited by entorhinal amyloidopathy.

    PubMed

    Gholami Pourbadie, Hamid; Naderi, Nima; Janahmadi, Mahyar; Mehranfard, Nasrin; Motamedi, Fereshteh

    2016-10-01

    Entorhinal-hippocampal network is one of the earliest circuits which is affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are numerous data providing the evidence of synaptic deficit in the dentate gyrus (DG) of AD animal model. However, there is little known about how entorhinal cortex (EC) amyloidophaty affects each excitatory and/or inhibitory transmission in the early stage of AD. On the other hand, it is believed that calcium dyshomeostasis has a critical role in the etiology of AD. Here, the effect of the EC amyloid pathogenesis on excitatory or inhibitory post synaptic currents (EPSC and IPSC, respectively) in the DG granule cells and then the possible neuroprotective action of L-type calcium channel blockers (CCBs), nimodipine and isradipine, were examined. The amyloid beta (Aβ) 1-42 was injected bilaterally into the EC of male rats and one week later, synaptic currents in the DG granule cells were assessed by whole cell patch clamp. EPSCs were evoked by stimulating the perforant pathway. Voltage clamp recording showed profound decrease of evoked EPSC amplitude and paired pulse facilitation in the DG granule cells of Aβ treated rats. Furthermore, AMPA/NMDA ratio was significantly decreased in the Aβ treated animals. On the other hand, amplitude of IPSC currents was significantly increased in the DG granule cells of these animals. These modifications of synaptic currents were partially reversed by daily intracerebroventricular administration of isradipine or nimodipine. In conclusion, our results suggest that Aβ in the EC triggers decreased excitatory transmission in the DG with substantial decrement in AMPA currents, leading to a prominent activity of inhibitory circuits and increased inhibition of granule cells which may contribute to the development of AD-related neurological deficits in AD and treatment by CCBs could preserve normal synaptic transmission against Aβ toxicity. PMID:27240164

  7. Gateways of ventral and dorsal streams in mouse visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Quanxin; Gao, Enquan; Burkhalter, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    It is widely held that the spatial processing functions underlying rodent navigation are similar to those encoding human episodic memory (Doeller et al, 2010). Spatial and nonspatial information are provided by all senses including vision. It has been suggested that visual inputs are fed to the navigational network in cortex and hippocampus through dorsal and ventral intracortical streams (Whitlock et al, 2008), but this has not been shown directly in rodents. We have used cyto- and chemoarchitectonic markers, topographic mapping of receptive fields and pathway tracing to determine in mouse visual cortex whether the lateromedial (LM) and the anterolateral fields (AL), which are the principal targets of primary visual cortex (V1) (Wang and Burkhalter, 2007) specialized for processing nonspatial and spatial visual information (Gao et al, 2006), are distinct areas with diverse connections. We have found that the LM/AL border coincides with a change in type 2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (m2AChR) expression in layer 4 and with the representation of the lower visual field periphery. Our quantitative analyses further show that LM strongly projects to temporal cortex as well as the lateral entorhinal cortex, which has weak spatial selectivity (Hargreaves et al, 2005). In contrast, AL has stronger connections with posterior parietal cortex, motor cortex and the spatially selective medial entorhinal cortex (Haftig et al, 2005). These results support the notion that LM and AL are architecturally, topographically and connectionally distinct areas of extrastriate visual cortex and that they are gateways for ventral and dorsal streams. PMID:21289200

  8. Sprouting responsiveness in the dentate gyrus is reduced by ethanol administered following but not preceding an entorhinal lesion.

    PubMed

    Tjossem, H H; Goodlett, C R; West, J R

    1987-09-01

    We examined the effect of ethanol on lesion-induced sprouting in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. Adult rats were fed a liquid diet containing either ethanol or sucrose for 14 days before and 9 days following unilateral entorhinal cortex lesions. One group was provided the ethanol diet ad libitum during both the pre- and postlesion period. Three other groups were pair-fed to the latter group; one consumed ethanol prelesion, one postlesion, and one did not receive ethanol. Sections through the rostral hippocampus were stained for histochemical localization of acetylcholinesterase. Following the entorhinal lesion the pale-staining commissural/associational zone ipsilateral to the lesion typically expands and exhibits decreased acetylcholinesterase staining. When ethanol was administered after the lesion, expansion of the commissural/associational zone was significantly diminished compared with the two groups that received the control diet after the lesion. Ethanol administered for 2 weeks before the lesion had no measurable effect on commissural/associational zone expansion. These findings imply that, at least for short-term exposure, ethanol reduces the sprouting responsiveness of systems in the dentate gyrus only during the postlesion period when sprouting normally occurs.

  9. Role of the hippocampal-entorhinal loop in temporal lobe epilepsy: extra- and intracellular study in the isolated guinea pig brain in vitro.

    PubMed

    Paré, D; deCurtis, M; Llinás, R

    1992-05-01

    This article introduces a new experimental paradigm for the study of temporal lobe epilepsy. This approach utilizes the isolated guinea pig brain in vitro preparation, which generates a pattern of hypersynchronous neuronal activity similar to the peculiar 8-30 Hz rhythm characterizing stereoelectroencephalographic hippocampal recordings in human temporal lobe epilepsy. The present report describes an attempt to identify the functional events underlying the epileptiform activities observed in this preparation. Rhythmic epileptiform discharges (EDs), here defined as population spikes (PSs) recorded from somata or dendritic layers, were induced in the hippocampal formation of the isolated guinea pig brain maintained in vitro by tetanic stimulation of the entorhinal cortex (EC). Two patterns of EDs were distinguished by performing simultaneous field potential recordings along the dentate gyrus (DG), EC, CA1, and CA3. During stage 1, the first self-sustained EDs were isolated PSs occurring at a frequency of 2-3 Hz at all levels of the entorhinal-hippocampal loop, the only exception being the DG, where no signs of synchronized neuronal discharge could be found. Over the next 30-50 sec, the temporal organization of these EDs changed dramatically. During stage 2, at all levels of the entorhinal-hippocampal loop, EDs occurred in 0.3-0.5 sec trains of 16-25 Hz population spikes interrupted by 0.7-1.3 sec silent periods. The transition between stages 1 and 2 coincided with the occurrence of population spikes in the DG. Laminar analyses and multiple simultaneous field potential recordings revealed that the trains of EDs observed in stage 2 resulted from the repetitive, sequential activation of the hippocampal-entorhinal loop. In the transverse axis, the earliest event usually occurred in the CA3 region. Thereafter, population spikes occurred sequentially in the CA1 region, EC, DG, and back to the CA3 region. Intracellular recordings confirmed that the EDs recorded

  10. Insular cortex and neuropsychiatric disorders: a review of recent literature.

    PubMed

    Nagai, M; Kishi, K; Kato, S

    2007-09-01

    The insular cortex is located in the centre of the cerebral hemisphere, having connections with the primary and secondary somatosensory areas, anterior cingulate cortex, amygdaloid body, prefrontal cortex, superior temporal gyrus, temporal pole, orbitofrontal cortex, frontal and parietal opercula, primary and association auditory cortices, visual association cortex, olfactory bulb, hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and motor cortex. Accordingly, dense connections exist among insular cortex neurons. The insular cortex is involved in the processing of visceral sensory, visceral motor, vestibular, attention, pain, emotion, verbal, motor information, inputs related to music and eating, in addition to gustatory, olfactory, visual, auditory, and tactile data. In this article, the literature on the relationship between the insular cortex and neuropsychiatric disorders was summarized following a computer search of the Pub-Med database. Recent neuroimaging data, including voxel based morphometry, PET and fMRI, revealed that the insular cortex was involved in various neuropsychiatric diseases such as mood disorders, panic disorders, PTSD, obsessive-compulsive disorders, eating disorders, and schizophrenia. Investigations of functions and connections of the insular cortex suggest that sensory information including gustatory, olfactory, visual, auditory, and tactile inputs converge on the insular cortex, and that these multimodal sensory information may be integrated there.

  11. Extracellular amyloid-beta and cytotoxic glial activation induce significant entorhinal neuron loss in young PS1(M146L)/APP(751SL) mice.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Gonzalez, Ines; Baglietto-Vargas, David; Sanchez-Varo, Raquel; Jimenez, Sebastian; Trujillo-Estrada, Laura; Sanchez-Mejias, Elisabeth; Del Rio, Juan Carlos; Torres, Manuel; Romero-Acebal, Manuel; Ruano, Diego; Vizuete, Marisa; Vitorica, Javier; Gutierrez, Antonia

    2009-01-01

    Here we demonstrated that extracellular, not intracellular, amyloid-beta (Abeta) and the associated cytotoxic glial neuroinflammatory response are major contributors to early neuronal loss in a PS1xAPP model. A significant loss of principal (27%) and SOM/NPY (56-46%) neurons was found in the entorhinal cortex at 6 months of age. Loss of principal cells occurred selectively in deep layers (primarily layer V) whereas SOM/NPY cell loss was evenly distributed along the cortical column. Neither layer V pyramidal neurons nor SOM/NPY interneurons displayed intracellular Abeta immunoreactivity, even after formic acid retrieval; thus, extracellular factors should be preferentially implicated in this selective neurodegeneration. Amyloid deposits were mainly concentrated in deep layers at 4-6 months, and of relevance was the existence of a potentially cytotoxic inflammatory response (TNFalpha, TRAIL, and iNOS mRNAs were upregulated). Moreover, non-plaque associated activated microglial cells and reactive astrocytes expressed TNFalpha and iNOS, respectively. At this age, in the hippocampus of same animals, extracellular Abeta induced a non-cytotoxic glial activation. The opposite glial activation, at the same chronological age, in entorhinal cortex and hippocampus strongly support different mechanisms of disease progression in these two regions highly affected by Abeta pathology.

  12. Acute Intraoperative Pulmonary Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Nason, Katie S.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Acute intraoperative aspiration is a potentially fatal complication with significant associated morbidity. Patients undergoing thoracic surgery are at increased risk for anesthesia-related aspiration, largely due to the predisposing conditions associated with this complication. Awareness of the risk factors, predisposing conditions, maneuvers to decrease risk and immediate management options by both the thoracic surgeon and the anesthesia team is imperative to reducing risk and optimizing patient outcomes associated with acute intraoperative pulmonary aspiration. Based on the root-cause analyses that many of the aspiration events can be traced back to provider factors, having an experienced anesthesiologist present for high-risk cases is also critical. PMID:26210926

  13. Aspiration in Chinese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Huey-Ju.

    This dissertation studies aspiration in Chinese in these four areas: the temporal relationships between aspiration and the vowel of the syllable, the perception of aspiration, the correlation between pitch and aspiration, and the role of aspiration in a historical change in Chinese. Data based on 144 words with aspiration contrasts were derived from the experiments which involved production and perception by a total of 28 Chinese speakers. On the basis of the measurements of acoustical characteristics of the voice onset time and the lengths of the syllable, a constant ratio model has been proposed to describe the timing relationships among the elements within a syllable. The perceptual experiment tested the cues of aspiration by deleting the portion of the voice onset time from the syllable on the front, back, middle and both ends. The results are reported and discussed. The effects of aspiration on intrinsic tone heights in Mandarin were measured and the significance calculated. Finally some attempts are made to solve the development of aspiration from voiced obstruents under the condition of different tones from Middle Chinese to modern dialects.

  14. Medial perirhinal cortex disambiguates confusable objects.

    PubMed

    Kivisaari, Sasa L; Tyler, Lorraine K; Monsch, Andreas U; Taylor, Kirsten I

    2012-12-01

    Our brain disambiguates the objects in our cluttered visual world seemingly effortlessly, enabling us to understand their significance and to act appropriately. The role of anteromedial temporal structures in this process, particularly the perirhinal cortex, is highly controversial. In some accounts, the perirhinal cortex is necessary for differentiating between perceptually and semantically confusable objects. Other models claim that the perirhinal cortex neither disambiguates perceptually confusable objects nor plays a unique role in semantic processing. One major hurdle to resolving this central debate is the fact that brain damage in human patients typically encompasses large portions of the anteromedial temporal lobe, such that the identification of individual substructures and precise neuroanatomical locus of the functional impairments has been difficult. We tested these competing accounts in patients with Alzheimer's disease with varying degrees of atrophy in anteromedial structures, including the perirhinal cortex. To assess the functional contribution of each anteromedial temporal region separately, we used a detailed region of interest approach. From each participant, we obtained magnetic resonance imaging scans and behavioural data from a picture naming task that contrasted naming performance with living and non-living things as a way of manipulating perceptual and semantic confusability; living things are more similar to one another than non-living things, which have more distinctive features. We manually traced neuroanatomical regions of interest on native-space cortical surface reconstructions to obtain mean thickness estimates for the lateral and medial perirhinal cortex and entorhinal cortex. Mean cortical thickness in each region of interest, and hippocampal volume, were submitted to regression analyses predicting naming performance. Importantly, atrophy of the medial perirhinal cortex, but not lateral perirhinal cortex, entorhinal cortex or

  15. Medial perirhinal cortex disambiguates confusable objects

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Lorraine K.; Monsch, Andreas U.; Taylor, Kirsten I.

    2012-01-01

    Our brain disambiguates the objects in our cluttered visual world seemingly effortlessly, enabling us to understand their significance and to act appropriately. The role of anteromedial temporal structures in this process, particularly the perirhinal cortex, is highly controversial. In some accounts, the perirhinal cortex is necessary for differentiating between perceptually and semantically confusable objects. Other models claim that the perirhinal cortex neither disambiguates perceptually confusable objects nor plays a unique role in semantic processing. One major hurdle to resolving this central debate is the fact that brain damage in human patients typically encompasses large portions of the anteromedial temporal lobe, such that the identification of individual substructures and precise neuroanatomical locus of the functional impairments has been difficult. We tested these competing accounts in patients with Alzheimer’s disease with varying degrees of atrophy in anteromedial structures, including the perirhinal cortex. To assess the functional contribution of each anteromedial temporal region separately, we used a detailed region of interest approach. From each participant, we obtained magnetic resonance imaging scans and behavioural data from a picture naming task that contrasted naming performance with living and non-living things as a way of manipulating perceptual and semantic confusability; living things are more similar to one another than non-living things, which have more distinctive features. We manually traced neuroanatomical regions of interest on native-space cortical surface reconstructions to obtain mean thickness estimates for the lateral and medial perirhinal cortex and entorhinal cortex. Mean cortical thickness in each region of interest, and hippocampal volume, were submitted to regression analyses predicting naming performance. Importantly, atrophy of the medial perirhinal cortex, but not lateral perirhinal cortex, entorhinal cortex or

  16. Bone marrow aspiration

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003658.htm Bone marrow aspiration To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps ...

  17. Definition of the orbital cortex in relation to specific connections with limbic and visceral structures and other cortical regions.

    PubMed

    Price, Joseph L

    2007-12-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex is often defined topographically as the cortex on the ventral surface of the frontal lobe. Unfortunately, this definition is not consistently used, and it obscures distinct connectional and functional systems within the orbital cortex. It is difficult to interpret data on the orbital cortex that do not take these different systems into account. Analysis of cortico-cortical connections between areas in the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex indicate two distinct networks in this region. One system, called the orbital network, involves most of the areas in the central orbital cortex. The other system, has been called the medial prefrontal network, though it is actually more complex, since it includes areas on the medial wall, in the medial orbital cortex, and in the posterolateral orbital cortex. Some areas in the medial orbital cortex are involved in both networks. Connections to other brain areas support the distinction between the networks. The orbital network receives several sensory inputs, from olfactory cortex, taste cortex, somatic sensory association cortex, and visual association cortex, and is connected with multisensory areas in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and perirhinal cortex. The medial network has outputs to the hypothalamus and brain stem and connects to a cortical circuit that includes the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus and dorsal bank of the superior temporal sulcus, the cingulate and retrosplenial cortex, the entorhinal and posterior parahippocampal cortex, and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex.

  18. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  19. Rising Aspirations Dampen Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Andrew E.; Kamesaka, Akiko; Tamura, Teruyuki

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly believed that education is a good thing for individuals. Yet, its correlation with subjective well-being is most often only weakly positive, or even negative, despite the many associated better individual-level outcomes. We here square the circle using novel Japanese data on happiness aspirations. If reported happiness comes from a…

  20. Hydrodynamics of micropipette aspiration.

    PubMed Central

    Drury, J L; Dembo, M

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of human neutrophils during micropipette aspiration are frequently analyzed by approximating these cells as simple slippery droplets of viscous fluid. Here, we present computations that reveal the detailed predictions of the simplest and most idealized case of such a scheme; namely, the case where the fluid of the droplet is homogeneous and Newtonian, and the surface tension of the droplet is constant. We have investigated the behavior of this model as a function of surface tension, droplet radius, viscosity, aspiration pressure, and pipette radius. In addition, we have tabulated a dimensionless factor, M, which can be utilized to calculate the apparent viscosity of the slippery droplet. Computations were carried out using a low Reynolds number hydrodynamics transport code based on the finite-element method. Although idealized and simplistic, we find that the slippery droplet model predicts many observed features of neutrophil aspiration. However, there are certain features that are not observed in neutrophils. In particular, the model predicts dilation of the membrane past the point of being continuous, as well as a reentrant jet at high aspiration pressures. PMID:9876128

  1. Distinct Spatiotemporal Activation Patterns of the Perirhinal-Entorhinal Network in Response to Cortical and Amygdala Input

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Janske G. P.; Wadman, Wytse J.; Cappaert, Natalie L. M.

    2016-01-01

    The perirhinal (PER) and entorhinal cortex (EC) receive input from the agranular insular cortex (AiP) and the subcortical lateral amygdala (LA) and the main output area is the hippocampus. Information transfer through the PER/EC network however, is not always guaranteed. It is hypothesized that this network actively regulates the (sub)cortical activity transfer to the hippocampal network and that the inhibitory system is involved in this function. This study determined the recruitment by the AiP and LA afferents in PER/EC network with the use of voltage sensitive dye (VSD) imaging in horizontal mouse brain slices. Electrical stimulation (500 μA) of the AiP induced activity that gradually propagated predominantly in the rostro-caudal direction: from the PER to the lateral EC (LEC). In the presence of 1 μM of the competitive γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptor antagonist bicuculline, AiP stimulation recruited the medial EC (MEC) as well. In contrast, LA stimulation (500 μA) only induced activity in the deep layers of the PER. In the presence of bicuculline, the initial population activity in the PER propagated further towards the superficial layers and the EC after a delay. The latency of evoked responses decreased with increasing stimulus intensities (50–500 μA) for both the AiP and LA stimuli. The stimulation threshold for evoking responses in the PER/EC network was higher for the LA than for the AiP. This study showed that the extent of the PER/EC network activation depends on release of inhibition. When GABAA dependent inhibition is reduced, both the AiP and the LA activate spatially overlapping regions, although in a distinct spatiotemporal fashion. It is therefore hypothesized that the inhibitory network regulates excitatory activity from both cortical and subcortical areas that has to be transmitted through the PER/EC network. PMID:27378860

  2. Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow KidsHealth > For Teens > Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow Print A A A Text Size What's in ... Risks If You Have Questions What It Is Bone marrow aspirations and biopsies are performed to examine bone ...

  3. New aspirations: the debate on aspiration pneumonia treatment guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Jason C; Howden, Benjamin P; Charles, Patrick G P

    2011-10-01

    Aspiration pneumonia occurs most commonly in patients with a predisposition to aspiration (eg, those with neurological bulbar dysfunction). There is limited evidence regarding the involvement of anaerobes in most cases of aspiration pneumonia. Most patients respond to treatment for aspiration pneumonia without specific anti-anaerobic therapy such as metronidazole. Metronidazole has adverse side effects, and widespread use where not indicated can promote carriage of multiresistant intestinal flora such as vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Use of metronidazole may be appropriate in patients with aspiration pneumonia and evidence of a lung abscess, necrotising pneumonia, putrid sputum or severe periodontal disease.

  4. Perirhinal and Postrhinal, but Not Lateral Entorhinal, Cortices Are Essential for Acquisition of Trace Eyeblink Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Eugenie E.; Weiss, Craig; Disterhoft, John F.

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of temporal associative tasks such as trace eyeblink conditioning is hippocampus-dependent, while consolidated performance is not. The parahippocampal region mediates much of the input and output of the hippocampus, and perirhinal (PER) and entorhinal (EC) cortices support persistent spiking, a possible mediator of temporal…

  5. Lateralized Spatial and Object Memory Encoding in Entorhinal and Perirhinal Cortices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellgowan, Patrick S. F.; Buffalo, Elizabeth A.; Bodurka, Jerzy; Martin, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The perirhinal and entorhinal cortices are critical components of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) declarative memory system. Study of their specific functions using blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), however, has suffered from severe magnetic susceptibility signal dropout resulting in poor…

  6. Aspiration of Barium Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes Santos, Cristina; Steen, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    The aspiration of barium contrast is a rare complication that may occur during studies of the digestive tract. Barium is an inert material that can cause anywhere from an asymptomatic mechanical obstruction to serious symptoms of respiratory distress that can result in patient death. We present the case of a 79-year-old male patient in whom we observed the presence of contrast medium residue in the lung parenchyma as an incidental finding during hospitalization. When the patient's medical file was reviewed, images were found of a barium swallow study that the patient had undergone months earlier, and we were able to observe the exact moment of the aspiration of the contrast material. The patient had been asymptomatic since the test. PMID:25309769

  7. Fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed Central

    Lever, J V; Trott, P A; Webb, A J

    1985-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology is an inexpensive, atraumatic technique for the diagnosis of disease sites. This paper describes the technique and illustrates how it may be applied to the management of tumours throughout the body. The limitations of the method, the dangers of false positive reports, and the inevitability of false negative diagnoses are emphasised. In a clinical context the method has much to offer by saving patients from inappropriate operations and investigations and allowing surgeons to plan quickly and more rationally. It is an economically valuable technique and deserves greater recognition. Images PMID:2578481

  8. GEAR UP Aspirations Project Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Brad A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a formative evaluation of the first two years of the Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP) Aspirations Project (Aspirations) using a Context, Input, Process, and Product (CIPP) model so as to gain an in-depth understanding of the project during the middle school…

  9. The orbitofrontal cortex: novelty, deviation from expectation, and memory.

    PubMed

    Petrides, Michael

    2007-12-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex is strongly connected with limbic areas of the medial temporal lobe that are critically involved in the establishment of declarative memories (entorhinal and perirhinal cortex and the hippocampal region) as well as the amygdala and the hypothalamus that are involved in emotional and motivational states. The present article reviews evidence regarding the role of the orbitofrontal cortex in the processing of novel information, breaches of expectation, and memory. Functional neuroimaging evidence is provided that there is a difference between the anterior and posterior orbitofrontal cortex in such processing. Exposure to novel information gives rise to a selective increase of activity in the granular anterior part of the orbitofrontal cortex (area 11) and this activity increases when subjects attempt to encode this information in memory. If the stimuli violate expectations (e.g., inspection of graffiti-like stimuli in the context of other regular stimuli) or are unpleasant (i.e., exposure to the sounds of car crashes), there is increased response in the posteromedial agranular/dysgranular area 13 of the orbitofrontal region. The anatomic data provide a framework within which to understand these functional neuroimaging findings.

  10. Electrophysiological and morphological properties of neurons in layer 5 of the rat postrhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Sills, Joseph B; Connors, Barry W; Burwell, Rebecca D

    2012-09-01

    The postrhinal (POR) cortex of the rat is homologous to the parahippocampal cortex of the primate based on connections and other criteria. POR provides the major visual and visuospatial input to the hippocampal formation, both directly to CA1 and indirectly through connections with the medial entorhinal cortex. Although the cortical and hippocampal connections of the POR cortex are well described, the physiology of POR neurons has not been studied. Here, we examined the electrical and morphological characteristics of layer 5 neurons from POR cortex of 14- to 16-day-old rats using an in vitro slice preparation. Neurons were subjectively classified as regular-spiking (RS), fast-spiking (FS), or low-threshold spiking (LTS) based on their electrophysiological properties and similarities with neurons in other regions of neocortex. Cells stained with biocytin included pyramidal cells and interneurons with bitufted or multipolar dendritic patterns. Similarity analysis using only physiological data yielded three clusters that corresponded to FS, LTS, and RS classes. The cluster corresponding to the FS class was composed entirely of multipolar nonpyramidal cells, and the cluster corresponding to the RS class was composed entirely of pyramidal cells. The third cluster, corresponding to the LTS class, was heterogeneous and included both multipolar and bitufted dendritic arbors as well as one pyramidal cell. We did not observe any intrinsically bursting pyramidal cells, which is similar to entorhinal cortex but unlike perirhinal cortex. We conclude that POR includes at least two major classes of neocortical inhibitory interneurons, but has a functionally restricted cohort of pyramidal cells.

  11. Medial entorhinal grid cells and head direction cells rotate with a T-maze more often during less recently experienced rotations.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Kishan; Beer, Nathan J; Keller, Lauren A; Hasselmo, Michael E

    2014-06-01

    Prior studies of head direction (HD) cells indicate strong landmark control over the preferred firing direction of these cells, with few studies exhibiting shifts away from local reference frames over time. We recorded spiking activity of grid and HD cells in the medial entorhinal cortex of rats, testing correlations of local environmental cues with the spatial tuning curves of these cells' firing fields as animals performed continuous spatial alternation on a T-maze that shared the boundaries of an open-field arena. The environment was rotated into configurations the animal had either seen or not seen in the past recording week. Tuning curves of both cell types demonstrated commensurate shifts of tuning with T-maze rotations during less recent rotations, more so than recent rotations. This strongly suggests that animals are shifting their reference frame away from the local environmental cues over time, learning to use a different reference frame more likely reliant on distal or idiothetic cues. In addition, grid fields demonstrated varying levels of "fragmentation" on the T-maze. The propensity for fragmentation does not depend on grid spacing and grid score, nor animal trajectory, indicating the cognitive treatment of environmental subcompartments is likely driven by task demands. PMID:23382518

  12. Medial entorhinal grid cells and head direction cells rotate with a T-maze more often during less recently experienced rotations.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Kishan; Beer, Nathan J; Keller, Lauren A; Hasselmo, Michael E

    2014-06-01

    Prior studies of head direction (HD) cells indicate strong landmark control over the preferred firing direction of these cells, with few studies exhibiting shifts away from local reference frames over time. We recorded spiking activity of grid and HD cells in the medial entorhinal cortex of rats, testing correlations of local environmental cues with the spatial tuning curves of these cells' firing fields as animals performed continuous spatial alternation on a T-maze that shared the boundaries of an open-field arena. The environment was rotated into configurations the animal had either seen or not seen in the past recording week. Tuning curves of both cell types demonstrated commensurate shifts of tuning with T-maze rotations during less recent rotations, more so than recent rotations. This strongly suggests that animals are shifting their reference frame away from the local environmental cues over time, learning to use a different reference frame more likely reliant on distal or idiothetic cues. In addition, grid fields demonstrated varying levels of "fragmentation" on the T-maze. The propensity for fragmentation does not depend on grid spacing and grid score, nor animal trajectory, indicating the cognitive treatment of environmental subcompartments is likely driven by task demands.

  13. Medial Entorhinal Grid Cells and Head Direction Cells Rotate with a T-Maze More Often During Less Recently Experienced Rotations

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kishan; Beer, Nathan J.; Keller, Lauren A.; Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Prior studies of head direction (HD) cells indicate strong landmark control over the preferred firing direction of these cells, with few studies exhibiting shifts away from local reference frames over time. We recorded spiking activity of grid and HD cells in the medial entorhinal cortex of rats, testing correlations of local environmental cues with the spatial tuning curves of these cells' firing fields as animals performed continuous spatial alternation on a T-maze that shared the boundaries of an open-field arena. The environment was rotated into configurations the animal had either seen or not seen in the past recording week. Tuning curves of both cell types demonstrated commensurate shifts of tuning with T-maze rotations during less recent rotations, more so than recent rotations. This strongly suggests that animals are shifting their reference frame away from the local environmental cues over time, learning to use a different reference frame more likely reliant on distal or idiothetic cues. In addition, grid fields demonstrated varying levels of “fragmentation” on the T-maze. The propensity for fragmentation does not depend on grid spacing and grid score, nor animal trajectory, indicating the cognitive treatment of environmental subcompartments is likely driven by task demands. PMID:23382518

  14. Neither perirhinal/entorhinal nor hippocampal lesions impair short-term auditory recognition memory in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, D M; Kuśmierek, P; Kosmal, A; Mishkin, M

    2001-01-01

    Visual, tactile, and olfactory recognition memory in animals is mediated in part by the perirhinal/entorhinal (or rhinal) cortices and, possibly, the hippocampus. To examine the role of these structures in auditory memory, we performed rhinal, hippocampal, and combined lesions in groups of dogs trained in auditory delayed matching-to-sample with trial-unique sounds. The sample sound was presented through a central speaker and, after a delay, the sample sound and a different sound were played alternately through speakers placed on either side of the animal; the animal was rewarded for responding to the side emitting the sample sound. None of the lesion groups showed significant impairment in comparison either to their own preoperative performance or to the performance of intact control dogs. This was the case both for relearning the delayed matching rule at a delay of 1.5 s and for task performance at variable delays ranging from 10 to 90 s. From these findings we suggest that the tissue critical for auditory recognition memory is located outside both the perirhinal/entorhinal cortices and the hippocampus.

  15. A Goal Direction Signal in the Human Entorhinal/Subicular Region

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Martin J.; Jolly, Amy E.J.; Amos, Doran P.; Hassabis, Demis; Spiers, Hugo J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Navigating to a safe place, such as a home or nest, is a fundamental behavior for all complex animals. Determining the direction to such goals is a crucial first step in navigation. Surprisingly, little is known about how or where in the brain this “goal direction signal” is represented. In mammals, “head-direction cells” are thought to support this process, but despite 30 years of research, no evidence for a goal direction representation has been reported [1, 2]. Here, we used fMRI to record neural activity while participants made goal direction judgments based on a previously learned virtual environment. We applied multivoxel pattern analysis [3–5] to these data and found that the human entorhinal/subicular region contains a neural representation of intended goal direction. Furthermore, the neural pattern expressed for a given goal direction matched the pattern expressed when simply facing that same direction. This suggests the existence of a shared neural representation of both goal and facing direction. We argue that this reflects a mechanism based on head-direction populations that simulate future goal directions during route planning [6]. Our data further revealed that the strength of direction information predicts performance. Finally, we found a dissociation between this geocentric information in the entorhinal/subicular region and egocentric direction information in the precuneus. PMID:25532898

  16. [Prevention of Perioperative Aspiration Pneumonitis].

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    To prevent perioperative aspiration pneumonitis, it is necessary to reduce the volume and acidity of gastric content. The guideline for preoperative fasting published by Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists recommends fasting from intake of clear fluids, breast milk and nonhuman milk at least 2h, 4h and 6h, respectively, before elective procedures requiring general anesthesia, regional anesthesia or sedation/analgesia. Gastrointestinal stimulants, histamine-2 receptor antagonists, proton pump inhibitors, antacids, antiemetics, anticholinergics are effective for reduction of the volume or acidity of gastric content. However, the routine preoperative use of these drugs to reduce the risk of pulmonary aspiration in patients who have no apparent increased risk for pulmonary aspiration is not recommended. PMID:27004383

  17. Aspiration cytology of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Geisinger, K R; Weidner, N

    1986-08-01

    Although mass lesions of the salivary glands are readily accessible to examination by fine-needle aspiration, the use of this modality has been limited. In part, this may be related to the difficulty differentiating between benign and malignant neoplasms in some cytologic specimens. Marked atypia in reactive non-neoplastic epithelium also could result in a false-positive diagnosis. In addition, aspiration of hypocellular material from cystic neoplasms, eg, well-differentiated mucoepidermoid carcinoma, may lead to false-negative cytologic reports. However, the diagnostic specificities claimed by a number of authors for this method are excellent. Furthermore, aspirates of certain specific neoplasms may yield highly distinctive cellular samples, such as the uniform tumor cells and extracellular hyaline spheres in many adenoid cystic carcinomas. Another example is the characteristic transition between the epithelial and myoepithelial cells of pleomorphic adenomas, which may contain prominent myxoid matrical material. With the increasing recognition of such features, the reported levels of diagnostic accuracy are improving.

  18. OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE FOR FEMALES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JEFFS, GEORGE A.

    OCCUPATIONAL TITLES USABLE IN ASSESSING OCCUPATIONAL GOALS OFSENIOR HIGH SCHOOL FEMALES WERE SELECTED AS THE FIRST STEP IN ESTABLISHING AN OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE FOR FEMALES. A LIST OF 117 OCCUPATIONAL TITLES, COMPILED FROM THREE PREVIOUS STUDIES AND "THE DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES," WAS RATED ON A SIX-LEVEL SCALE AS TO ITS GENERAL…

  19. Aspirations of Latina Adolescent Suicide Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Gulbas, Lauren; Zayas, Luis H.

    2013-01-01

    Parents' aspirations and expectations are communicated to their offspring. Children internalize their parents' aspirations and accept some of the expectations while rejecting others, all part of the developmental process and identity-consolidation. When the aspirations and expectations of youth and parents are incongruent, the outcomes…

  20. Shaping the Aspirations of Female Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streitmatter, Janice

    1983-01-01

    This study examined specific variables in relation to the level of aspiration (LOA) of American female youth. Young women with high aspiration levels achieve their goals more often than those with lower aspirations. More awareness by parents, counselors, and teachers will help younger women shape their LOA. (MD)

  1. 21 CFR 884.1060 - Endometrial aspirator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endometrial aspirator. 884.1060 Section 884.1060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.1060 Endometrial aspirator. (a) Identification. An endometrial aspirator is a device designed...

  2. 21 CFR 884.1050 - Endocervical aspirator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endocervical aspirator. 884.1050 Section 884.1050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.1050 Endocervical aspirator. (a) Identification. An endocervical aspirator is a device designed...

  3. SUBCORTICAL CONNECTIONS OF THE PERIRHINAL, POSTRHINAL, AND ENTORHINAL CORTICES OF THE RAT. I. AFFERENTS

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Inês Tomás; Agster, Kara L.; Burwell, Rebecca D.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we characterized the subcortical afferents for the rat PER areas 35 and 36, POR, and the lateral and medial entorhinal areas (LEA and MEA). We analyzed 33 retrograde tract-tracing experiments distributed across the five regions. For each experiment, we estimated the total numbers, percentages, and densities of labeled cells in 36 subcortical structures and nuclei distributed across septum, basal ganglia, claustrum, amygdala, olfactory structures, thalamus, and hypothalamus. We found that the complement of subcortical inputs differs across the five regions, especially the PER and POR. The PER receives input from the reuniens, suprageniculate, and medial geniculate thalamic nuclei as well as the amygdala. Overall, the subcortical inputs to the PER are consistent with a role in perception, multimodal processing, and the formation of associations that include the motivational significance of individual items and objects. Subcortical inputs to the POR were dominated by the dorsal thalamus, particularly the lateral posterior nucleus, a region implicated in visuospatial attention. The complement of subcortical inputs to the POR is consistent with a role in representing and monitoring the local spatial context. We also report that, in addition to the PER, the LEA and the medial band of the MEA also receive strong amygdala input. In contrast, subcortical input to the POR and the MEA lateral band includes much less amygdala input and is dominated by dorsal thalamic nuclei, particularly nuclei involved in spatial information processing. Like the cortical inputs, the patterns of subcortical inputs to these regions are consistent both with the view that the dorsal hippocampus is important for spatial cognition and the ventral hippocampus is important for affective cognition, and the view that they provide considerable functional integration. We conclude that the patterns of subcortical inputs to the PER, POR, and the entorhinal LEA and MEA provide further evidence

  4. Subcortical connections of the perirhinal, postrhinal, and entorhinal cortices of the rat. I. afferents.

    PubMed

    Tomás Pereira, Inês; Agster, Kara L; Burwell, Rebecca D

    2016-09-01

    In this study the subcortical afferents for the rat PER areas 35 and 36, POR, and the lateral and medial entorhinal areas (LEA and MEA) were characterized. We analyzed 33 retrograde tract-tracing experiments distributed across the five regions. For each experiment, we estimated the total numbers, percentages, and densities of labeled cells in 36 subcortical structures and nuclei distributed across septum, basal ganglia, claustrum, amygdala, olfactory structures, thalamus, and hypothalamus. We found that the complement of subcortical inputs differs across the five regions, especially the PER and POR. The PER receives input from the reuniens, suprageniculate, and medial geniculate thalamic nuclei as well as the amygdala. Overall, the subcortical inputs to the PER were consistent with a role in perception, multimodal processing, and the formation of associations that include the motivational significance of individual items and objects. Subcortical inputs to the POR were dominated by the dorsal thalamus, particularly the lateral posterior nucleus, a region implicated in visuospatial attention. The complement of subcortical inputs to the POR is consistent with a role in representing and monitoring the local spatial context. We also report that, in addition to the PER, the LEA and the medial band of the MEA also receive strong amygdala input. In contrast, subcortical input to the POR and the MEA lateral band includes much less amygdala input and is dominated by dorsal thalamic nuclei, particularly nuclei involved in spatial information processing. Thus, some subcortical inputs are consistent with the view that there is functional differentiation along the septotemporal axis of the hippocampus, but others provide considerable integration. Overall, we conclude that the patterns of subcortical inputs to the PER, POR, and the entorhinal LEA and MEA provide further evidence for functional differentiation in the medial temporal lobe. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID

  5. SUBCORTICAL CONNECTIONS OF THE PERIRHINAL, POSTRHINAL, AND ENTORHINAL CORTICES OF THE RAT. II. EFFERENTS

    PubMed Central

    Agster, Kara L.; Pereira, Inês Tomás; Saddoris, Michael P.; Burwell, Rebecca D.

    2016-01-01

    This is the second of two studies detailing the subcortical connections of the perirhinal (PER), the postrhinal (POR) and entorhinal (EC) cortices of the rat. In the present study, we analyzed the subcortical efferents of the rat PER areas 35 and 36, POR, and the lateral and medial entorhinal areas (LEA and MEA). Anterograde tracers were injected into these five regions, and the resulting density of fiber labeling was quantified in an extensive set of subcortical structures. Density and topography of fiber labeling were quantitatively assessed in 36 subcortical areas, including olfactory structures, claustrum, amygdala nuclei, septal nuclei, basal ganglia, thalamic nuclei, and hypothalamic structures. In addition to reporting the density of labeled fibers, we incorporated a new method for quantifying the size of anterograde projections that takes into account the volume of the target subcortical structure as well as the density of fiber labeling. The PER, POR and EC displayed unique patterns of projections to subcortical areas. Interestingly, all regions examined provided strong input to the basal ganglia, although the projections arising in the PER and LEA were stronger and more widespread. PER areas 35 and 36 exhibited similar pattern of projections with some differences. PER area 36 projects more heavily to the lateral amygdala and much more heavily to thalamic nuclei including the lateral posterior nucleus, the posterior complex, and the nucleus reuniens. Area 35 projects more heavily to olfactory structures. The LEA provides the strongest and most widespread projections to subcortical structures including all those targeted by the PER as well as the medial and posterior septal nuclei. POR shows fewer subcortical projections overall, but contributes substantial input to the lateral posterior nucleus of the thalamus. The MEA projections are even weaker. Our results suggest that the PER and LEA have greater influence over olfactory, amygdala, and septal nuclei

  6. Aspiration pneumonia in dogs: treatment, monitoring, and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Heidi M; Rahilly, Louisa J

    2012-12-01

    Aspiration pneumonia and aspiration pneumonitis are associated with significant morbidity in both veterinary and human medicine. A variety of medical conditions and medications can predispose patients to aspiration. Ideally, aspiration should be prevented, but in dogs that develop aspiration pneumonia, close monitoring and supportive care are imperative. This article describes antimicrobial treatment, fluid therapy, ancillary medical therapy, oxygen therapy, and prognosis for aspiration pneumonia.

  7. Needle aspiration of peritonsillar abscess in children.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, E; Brodsky, L; Stanievich, J; Volk, M

    1993-02-01

    Needle aspiration for the treatment of peritonsillar abscess was assessed in 43 consecutive children aged 7 to 18 years (mean age, 13.9 +/- 2.5 years) during the 3-year period from 1988 through 1991. A positive aspirate was obtained in 31 (76%) of the 41 patients who cooperated for needle aspiration; a mean of 2.9 +/- 1.9 mL of pus was withdrawn. Of the 31 children with a positive aspirate, in 27 (87%) the abscess resolved, two (6%) required a second aspiration for resolution, and two (6%) underwent immediate tonsillectomy for persistent abscess. Of the 10 children (24%) with negative aspirations, in six (60%) the abscess resolved with antibiotic treatment alone, three (30%) underwent immediate (quinsy) tonsillectomy, and in one (10%) the abscess spontaneously drained. No bleeding, airway obstruction, or anesthetic complications occurred. Needle aspiration of peritonsillar abscess in children, with tonsillectomy reserved for nonresponders, appears to be an efficacious and safe method of treatment.

  8. Aspirations of Latina adolescent suicide attempters

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Gulbas, Lauren; Zayas, Luis H.

    2013-01-01

    Parents’ aspirations and expectations are communicated to their offspring. Children internalize their parents’ aspirations and accept some of the expectations while rejecting others, all part of the developmental process and identity-consolidation. When the aspirations and expectations of youth and parents are incongruent, the outcomes in youths’ behavior can be deleterious, such as when adolescents manifest suicidal behaviors. We examined aspirations expressed by 12 Latina adolescent suicide attempters and their parents and compared them to 12 non-suicidal Latinas and parents. Qualitative analyses revealed that incongruence of aspirations between girls and their parents were greater among suicidal teens. Suicidal and non-suicidal Latinas presented contrasting aspirations: the former on gaining independence and the latter on completing their education and pursuing careers. Findings may inform developmental research and ways in which clinicians and policymakers can help Latinas achieve their own and their parents’ aspirations. PMID:24013464

  9. ASPIRE - the first British student rocket programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Adam M.; Murray, J.; Osborne, R.; Macfarlane, J.

    ASPIRE is the first British programme aiming to create and develop a small scale, hybrid engine powered launch vehicle. The project is also unique because it is a wholly amateur effort, volunteer team members having little or no professional experience in launch vehicle design, manufacture and operations; and being a mix of students and young professionals. Participants have the opportunity to develop their experience in the engineering/scientific, operational and management areas which ASPIRE encompasses. This experience will then be validated through the launching of a series of test vehicles, culminating in a demonstration of the orbital insertion of a payload by the year 2000. ASPIRE aims to eventually return an independent orbital launch capability to Britain, for the first time since 1971. This paper outlines the technical details of the ASPIRE rockets, including: airframe design and manufacture, hybrid motor design and testing, avionics development, guidance and recovery techniques, range safety practise and marketing and fund-raising. It will also cover the organisation and ethos of the programme in general. A timeline for the ASPIRE programme will be detailed, from the original ASPIRE 1 construction and launch in 1991/1992, evolving through the current series of ASPIRE Development Vehicles (ADVs), to ASPIRE 2 and 3, where the hybrid motor and other engineering subsystems are to be integrated on an increasing scale. The proposed union of an ASPIRE 3 vehicle with an Australian AUSROC launcher to achieve the 2000 orbital goal will also be covered.

  10. Transbronchial aspiration of subcarinal lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Blainey, A D; Curling, M; Green, M

    1988-04-01

    Transbronchial needle aspiration of subcarinal lymph nodes has been undertaken in 60 consecutive patients with pulmonary malignancies undergoing routine fibreoptic bronchoscopy. Four aspirates from the subcarinal nodes contained malignant cells; three squamous cell carcinoma and one adenocarcinoma. Four of 40 (10%) of patients with non-small-cell carcinoma of the lung had a positive aspirate. We have not confirmed the high positive rate previously reported, but nevertheless transbronchial needle aspiration provided useful staging information in some patients. The technique is rapid, safe and simple, and can easily be applied in a routine bronchoscopy service for all patients with suspected cancer, or selected patients under active consideration for surgery. PMID:3166928

  11. Thrombus aspiration catheter is a Dottering balloon.

    PubMed

    Sheshagiri Rao, D; Barik, Ramachandra; Prasad, Akula Siva

    2016-01-01

    Coronary angiogram in a young man with history of STEMI with delayed presentation revealed subtotal occlusion of left anterior descending artery (LAD) with large thrombotic filling defect distal to the critical lesion. PCI was preferred without delay because of ongoing chest pain. Several runs of thrombus aspiration failed to detect any visible thrombus. However, the immediate angiogram after thrombus aspiration showed complete distal embolization of the thrombus which could have been achieved by Dottering or balloon dilatation. In contrary to the general perception, does thrombus aspiration push more thrombus than it can aspirate? PMID:27543477

  12. Neglected foreign body aspiration mimicking bronchial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Afghani, Reza; Khandashpour Ghomi, Mahmoud; Khandoozi, Seyed Reza; Yari, Behrouz

    2016-07-01

    Foreign body aspiration can occur in any age group, but it is more commonly seen in children. In adults, there is usually a predisposing condition that poses a risk of aspiration. If aspiration occurs, prompt diagnosis and extraction of the foreign body is needed to prevent early and late complications. We report a rare case of neglected foreign body aspiration in a 45-year-old schizophrenic opium addicted patient, which resulted in an occlusive lesion in the bronchus, mimicking bronchial carcinoma. PMID:27273232

  13. Aspiration

    MedlinePlus

    ... diagnosis of benign lesions. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... patient with liver disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  14. High Aspirations but Low Progression: The Science Aspirations-Careers Paradox amongst Minority Ethnic Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jennifer; Archer, Louise; Osborne, Jonathan; Dillon, Justin; Willis, Beatrice; Wong, Billy

    2011-01-01

    Students' interest in studying science and their aspirations to pursue science-related careers is a topic of global concern. In this paper, a set of data gathered for the initial phase of the 5-year study of Science Aspirations and Careers: Age 10-14 (the ASPIRES project) is presented. In the initial phase of this project, a questionnaire…

  15. Thermal taste and anti-aspiration drugs: a novel drug discovery against pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ebihara, Satoru; Ebihara, Takae; Gui, Peijun; Osaka, Ken; Sumi, Yasunori; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Despite the development of strong antibiotics, the pneumonia death is increasing all over the world in these decades. Among the people who died of pneumonia, the majority were 65 years old or over. Although pneumonia is recently categorized into several entities, aspiration pneumonia includes all entities. Therefore, targeting dysphagia and aspiration to treat pneumonia is a promising strategy and anti-aspiration drugs will be a part of pneumonia treatment. The swallowing reflex in elderly people was temperature-sensitive and the improvement of swallowing reflex by temperature stimuli could be mediated by the thermosensing TRP channels at pharynx. The administration of capsaicin as an agonist stimulus of TRPV1, a warm temperature receptor, decreased the delay in swallowing reflex. Red wine polyphenols improved swallowing reflex by enhancing TRPV1 response. Food with menthol, agonist of TRPM8 which is a cold temperature receptor, also decreased the delay in swallowing reflex. Olfactory stimulation such as black pepper was useful to improve the swallowing reflex for people with low ADL levels or with decreased consciousness. Thus, recent advancement of geriatrics found several anti-aspiration drugs such as thermosensing TRP channel agonists, black pepper odor, amantadine, cilostazol, theophylline and angiotensin- converting enzymes inhibitors. Thermosensing TRP channel agonists include capsaicin, capsiate, menthol, and red wine polyphenols. Controls of swallowing are mediated by various stages of neural system from peripheral sensory nerves to the entire cerebral cortex. Each anti-aspiration drug acts on various sites of neural axis of swallowing reflex. The combination of various anti-aspiration drugs may improve dysphagia and prevent aspiration pneumonia.

  16. Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid An ultrasound-guided thyroid biopsy ... Thyroid? What is Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? During a fine needle aspiration ...

  17. Assessment of an Aspiring Leaders Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alao, Solomon; Wright, Henrietta; Newton, Vera

    This paper describes a program designed to support aspiring educational leaders' leadership competence, autonomy, relatedness, and leadership motivation. It also discusses the New Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) standards. To assess the extent to which the program achieved its goals, 27 aspiring leaders, all of whom are…

  18. Undergraduate Women's Gender Awareness and Status Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Yukiko

    A study was conducted to determine women's realization toward the quality of life, identifying their status aspirations. The study's primary purpose was to achieve a better understanding of how undergraduate women of Guam and Japan would aspire to their academic and social goals and how they would become aware of their gender equality. The…

  19. Educational Aspirations in Inner City Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve; Winston, Joe

    2008-01-01

    This research aimed to assess the nature and level of pupils' educational aspirations and to elucidate the factors that influence these aspirations. A sample of five inner city comprehensive secondary schools were selected by their local authority because of poor pupil attendance, below-average examination results and low rates of continuing in…

  20. Gendered Trends in Student Teachers' Professional Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joan

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports on a small-scale, exploratory study investigating the professional aspirations of a cohort of student teachers at a UK university. Questionnaires and interviews sought insights into the students' perceptions of leadership, future aspirations and self-perceptions as potential leaders. Whilst there was commonality in male and…

  1. Aspiration pneumonia in dogs: pathophysiology, prevention, and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Heidi M; Rahilly, Louisa J

    2012-12-01

    Aspiration pneumonia and aspiration pneumonitis are associated with significant morbidity in veterinary and human medicine. A variety of medical conditions and medications can predispose patients to aspiration, and every precaution should be taken to prevent aspiration from occurring. For dogs that aspirate oral or gastric contents and subsequently develop pneumonia, monitoring and supportive care are imperative. This article discusses the pathophysiology, prevention, and diagnosis of aspiration pneumonia.

  2. Amygdala kindling and associated changes of entorhinal responses in suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Kawawaki, H; Matsuura, S; Murata, R

    1990-02-01

    Entorhinal field potential with amygdala stimulation in suckling (16-18 days old) and adult rats was recorded with a tungsten wire electrode (tip diameter 2-5 microns) to study the developmental changes in behavioral seizures and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the responses to amygdala kindling stimulations. Stimulating (twisted enamel-coated wires) and recording electrodes were implanted in anesthetized rats 2-3 days before kindling. The mean amplitude of the responses to test pulses (600 microA, 0.3 Hz) in the sucklings (0.58 mV) was smaller than in the adults (1.32 mV), and latency was about 3.3 ms longer. Kindling stimulations consisted of 0.5-ms monophasic rectangular pulses of 10 Hz with a 10-s train duration; the intensity was the afterdischarge (AD) threshold. Kindling stimulation in the sucklings usually increased the amplitude of the test responses evoked 10 min or 1 h after the kindling stimulation. The increased amplitude persisted for at least 24 h, showing LTP in the synaptic transmission. The LTP was especially prominent in the first kindling stimulation, and the LTP gradually increased with successive stimulations, with gradual progression of AD and the behavioral seizure stage as well. The mean number of kindling stimulations to cause generalized seizures in the suckling rats (10.5) was less than that for adults (12.5), and the continued evolution of LTP over the course of kindling was more or less easier in the sucklings than in the adults.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. [Prophylaxis of Pulmonary Aspiration during General Anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Mori, Yosuke; Sumikura, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary aspiration of gastric or esophageal contents is uncommon; however, it is one of the most severe complications in the perioperative period. The aspiration is associated with possible clinical outcomes, ranging from mild asymptomatic limited episodes of bronchial injury up to the development of a severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. To reduce the incidence of pulmonary aspiration, rapid sequence induction and intubation and awake tracheal intubation are commonly chosen anesthetic techniques for the management of patients at risk of aspiration of gastric or esophageal contents. Although there have been innumerable reports that describe prophylaxis of pulmonary aspiration, currently, there is insufficient evidence to prevent passive regurgitation in at-risk anesthetized patients. Some techniques to prevent pulmonary aspiration entered medical practice on a limited evidence base, but with common sense supporting its use. Properly applied techniques are probably effective at preventing regurgitation in the perioperative period although more randomized controlled trials are awaited to confirm this. Pulmonary aspiration should be prevented using multidisciplinary techniques and considerations that have been shown to improve effectiveness of prophylaxes. However, further research is necessary to support this strategy. PMID:27004384

  4. Navigational transbronchial needle aspiration, percutaneous needle aspiration and its future

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Sixto; Yarmus, Lonny

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral lung nodule evaluation represents a clinical challenge. Given that many nodules will be incidentally found with lung cancer screening following the publication of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), the goal is to find an accurate, safe and minimally-invasive diagnostic modality to biopsy the concerning lesions. Unfortunately, conventional bronchoscopic techniques provide a poor diagnostic yield of 18–62%. In recent years advances in technology have led to the introduction of electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy (ENB) as a tool to guide sampling of peripheral lung nodules. The same principle has also recently been expanded and applied to the transthoracic needle biopsy, referred to as electromagnetic transthoracic needle aspiration (E-TTNA). An improved diagnostic yield has afforded this technology a recommendation by the 2013 3rd Edition ACCP Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Lung Cancer which state that “in patients with peripheral lung lesions difficult to reach with conventional bronchoscopy, ENB is recommended if the equipment and the expertise are available (Grade 1C)”. In this review we will discuss the technology, devices that are available, techniques and protocols, diagnostic yield, safety, cost effectiveness and more. PMID:26807280

  5. A novel function for Wnt signaling modulating neuronal firing activity and the temporal structure of spontaneous oscillation in the entorhinal-hippocampal circuit.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Carolina A; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-07-01

    During early and late postnatal developments, the establishment of functional neuronal connectivity depends on molecules like Wnt that help the recently formed synapses to establish and consolidate their new cellular interactions. However, unlike other molecules, whether Wnt can modulate the firing properties of cells is unknown. Here, for the first time we explore the physiological effect of the canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways on a circuit that is currently generating oscillatory activity, the entorhinal cortex-hippocampal circuit. Our results indicate that Wnt pathways have strong influence in the circuital and cellular properties depending on the Wnt protein isoforms, concentration, and type of neuronal circuit. Antibodies against canonical and non-canonical ligands, as well as WASP-1 and sFRP-2, demonstrate that constitutive release of Wnts contributes to the maintenance of the network and intrinsic properties of the circuit. Furthermore, we found that the excess of Wnt3a or the permanent intracellular activation of the pathway with BIO-6 accelerates the period of the oscillation by disrupting the oscillatory units (Up states) in short units, presumably by affecting the synaptic mechanisms that couples neurons into the oscillatory cycle, but without affecting the spike generation. Instead, low doses of Wnt5a increase the period of the oscillation in EC by incorporating new cells into the network activity, probably modifying firing activity in other places of the circuit. Moreover, we found that Wnt signaling operates under different principles in the hippocampus. Using pyrvinium pamoate, a Wnt/β-catenin dependent pathway inhibitor, we demonstrated that this pathway is essential to keep the firing activity in the circuit CA3, and in less degree of CA1 circuit. However, CA1 circuit possesses homeostatic mechanisms to up-regulate the firing activity when it has been suppressed in CA3, and to down-modulate the cellular excitability when exacerbated

  6. A novel function for Wnt signaling modulating neuronal firing activity and the temporal structure of spontaneous oscillation in the entorhinal-hippocampal circuit.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Carolina A; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-07-01

    During early and late postnatal developments, the establishment of functional neuronal connectivity depends on molecules like Wnt that help the recently formed synapses to establish and consolidate their new cellular interactions. However, unlike other molecules, whether Wnt can modulate the firing properties of cells is unknown. Here, for the first time we explore the physiological effect of the canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways on a circuit that is currently generating oscillatory activity, the entorhinal cortex-hippocampal circuit. Our results indicate that Wnt pathways have strong influence in the circuital and cellular properties depending on the Wnt protein isoforms, concentration, and type of neuronal circuit. Antibodies against canonical and non-canonical ligands, as well as WASP-1 and sFRP-2, demonstrate that constitutive release of Wnts contributes to the maintenance of the network and intrinsic properties of the circuit. Furthermore, we found that the excess of Wnt3a or the permanent intracellular activation of the pathway with BIO-6 accelerates the period of the oscillation by disrupting the oscillatory units (Up states) in short units, presumably by affecting the synaptic mechanisms that couples neurons into the oscillatory cycle, but without affecting the spike generation. Instead, low doses of Wnt5a increase the period of the oscillation in EC by incorporating new cells into the network activity, probably modifying firing activity in other places of the circuit. Moreover, we found that Wnt signaling operates under different principles in the hippocampus. Using pyrvinium pamoate, a Wnt/β-catenin dependent pathway inhibitor, we demonstrated that this pathway is essential to keep the firing activity in the circuit CA3, and in less degree of CA1 circuit. However, CA1 circuit possesses homeostatic mechanisms to up-regulate the firing activity when it has been suppressed in CA3, and to down-modulate the cellular excitability when exacerbated

  7. Aspiration pneumonia in children: an iconographic essay.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Gabriel Antonio; Pessanha, Laís Bastos; Guerra, Luiz Felipe Alves; Martins, Diego Lima Nava; Rondina, Ronaldo Garcia; Silva, Jamine Ronacher Passos

    2015-01-01

    In most cases of aspiration pneumonia in children, the disease is specific to this age group. Clinical and radiological correlation is essential for the diagnosis. The present pictorial essay is aimed at showing typical images of the most common etiologies.

  8. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid nodule fine needle aspirate biopsy; Biopsy - thyroid - skinny-needle; Skinny-needle thyroid biopsy ... cleaned. A thin needle is inserted into the thyroid, and a sample of thyroid cells and fluid ...

  9. Healthcare-associated Pneumonia and Aspiration Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Komiya, Kosaku; Ishii, Hiroshi; Kadota, Jun-Ichi

    2015-02-01

    Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is a new concept of pneumonia proposed by the American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America in 2005. This category is located between community-acquired pneumonia and hospital-acquired pneumonia with respect to the characteristics of the causative pathogens and mortality, and primarily targets elderly patients in healthcare facilities. Aspiration among such patients is recognized to be a primary mechanism for the development of pneumonia, particularly since the HCAP guidelines were published. However, it is difficult to manage patients with aspiration pneumonia because the definition of the condition is unclear, and the treatment is associated with ethical aspects. This review focused on the definition, prevalence and role of aspiration pneumonia as a prognostic factor in published studies of HCAP and attempted to identify problems associated with the concept of aspiration pneumonia.

  10. The cortical structure of consolidated memory: a hypothesis on the role of the cingulate-entorhinal cortical connection.

    PubMed

    Insel, Nathan; Takehara-Nishiuchi, Kaori

    2013-11-01

    Daily experiences are represented by networks of neurons distributed across the neocortex, bound together for rapid storage and later retrieval by the hippocampus. While the hippocampus is necessary for retrieving recent episode-based memory associations, over time, consolidation processes take place that enable many of these associations to be expressed independent of the hippocampus. It is generally thought that mechanisms of consolidation involve synaptic weight changes between cortical regions; or, in other words, the formation of "horizontal" cortico-cortical connections. Here, we review anatomical, behavioral, and physiological data which suggest that the connections in and between the entorhinal and cingulate cortices may be uniquely important for the long-term storage of memories that initially depend on the hippocampus. We propose that current theories of consolidation that divide memory into dual systems of hippocampus and neocortex might be improved by introducing a third, middle layer of entorhinal and cingulate allocortex, the synaptic weights within which are necessary and potentially sufficient for maintaining initially hippocampus-dependent associations over long time periods. This hypothesis makes a number of still untested predictions, and future experiments designed to address these will help to fill gaps in the current understanding of the cortical structure of consolidated memory.

  11. Evaluating the Small-World-Ness of a Sampled Network: Functional Connectivity of Entorhinal-Hippocampal Circuitry

    PubMed Central

    She, Qi; Chen, Guanrong; Chan, Rosa H. M.

    2016-01-01

    The amount of publicly accessible experimental data has gradually increased in recent years, which makes it possible to reconsider many longstanding questions in neuroscience. In this paper, an efficient framework is presented for reconstructing functional connectivity using experimental spike-train data. A modified generalized linear model (GLM) with L1-norm penalty was used to investigate 10 datasets. These datasets contain spike-train data collected from the entorhinal-hippocampal region in the brains of rats performing different tasks. The analysis shows that entorhinal-hippocampal network of well-trained rats demonstrated significant small-world features. It is found that the connectivity structure generated by distance-dependent models is responsible for the observed small-world features of the reconstructed networks. The models are utilized to simulate a subset of units recorded from a large biological neural network using multiple electrodes. Two metrics for quantifying the small-world-ness both suggest that the reconstructed network from the sampled nodes estimates a more prominent small-world-ness feature than that of the original unknown network when the number of recorded neurons is small. Finally, this study shows that it is feasible to adjust the estimated small-world-ness results based on the number of neurons recorded to provide a more accurate reference of the network property. PMID:26902707

  12. Evaluating the Small-World-Ness of a Sampled Network: Functional Connectivity of Entorhinal-Hippocampal Circuitry.

    PubMed

    She, Qi; Chen, Guanrong; Chan, Rosa H M

    2016-01-01

    The amount of publicly accessible experimental data has gradually increased in recent years, which makes it possible to reconsider many longstanding questions in neuroscience. In this paper, an efficient framework is presented for reconstructing functional connectivity using experimental spike-train data. A modified generalized linear model (GLM) with L1-norm penalty was used to investigate 10 datasets. These datasets contain spike-train data collected from the entorhinal-hippocampal region in the brains of rats performing different tasks. The analysis shows that entorhinal-hippocampal network of well-trained rats demonstrated significant small-world features. It is found that the connectivity structure generated by distance-dependent models is responsible for the observed small-world features of the reconstructed networks. The models are utilized to simulate a subset of units recorded from a large biological neural network using multiple electrodes. Two metrics for quantifying the small-world-ness both suggest that the reconstructed network from the sampled nodes estimates a more prominent small-world-ness feature than that of the original unknown network when the number of recorded neurons is small. Finally, this study shows that it is feasible to adjust the estimated small-world-ness results based on the number of neurons recorded to provide a more accurate reference of the network property.

  13. Clear ovarian cyst aspiration guided by vaginal ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Ron-El, R; Herman, A; Weinraub, Z; Golan, A; Langer, R; Caspi, E; Bukovsky, I

    1991-11-01

    Thirty patients with clear ovarian cysts underwent aspiration guided by vaginal ultrasound. In 23 cases a complete aspiration was accomplished. In 4 only partial aspiration was possible, and in the remaining 3 failed aspiration led to surgery. Histological findings correspond to retroperitoneal lipoma and mucinous cystadenoma (2 cases). Malignant cells were not detected in the fluid of any of the 27 aspirates. Eight of the ten patients presenting with abdominal pain experienced a relief following aspiration. Recurrence of the cyst occurred in 12 cases (40%) with significantly smaller dimensions (P less than 0.01). Vaginal ultrasound aspiration of clear cyst is easy and safe and can be considered as an outpatient procedure.

  14. Direct thrombus aspiration using the Penumbra system for the treatment of pediatric intracranial dissection.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Motoaki; Tateshima, Satoshi; Ali, Latisha; Raychev, Radoslav; Vinuela, Fernando

    2013-11-01

    We describe a case of a 15-year-old girl who developed a spontaneous intracranial arterial dissection with distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusions. From the digital subtraction angiography provided, the dissection flap appeared to originate at the internal carotid artery terminus with extension into the right M1 segment and occluding the right anterior cerebral artery, A1 segment. CT perfusion study showed salvageable tissue in the posterior MCA territory, including the motor cortex. In order to avoid further injury to the dissection, clot retrieval systems were not a treatment option. We therefore performed selective thrombus aspiration with the Penumbra system for the occluded central and precentral arteries distal to the non-occlusive dissecting lesion. Sufficient recanalization was achieved and the patient made a marked recovery. Although mechanical thrombectomy with the use of retrieval intracranial stent systems has demonstrated satisfactory recanalization rates, the aspiration methodology remains useful for patients with an accompanying proximal vascular lesion. PMID:23188785

  15. Direct thrombus aspiration using the Penumbra system for the treatment of pediatric intracranial dissection.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Motoaki; Tateshima, Satoshi; Ali, Latisha; Raychev, Radoslav; Vinuela, Fernando

    2013-11-01

    We describe a case of a 15-year-old girl who developed a spontaneous intracranial arterial dissection with distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusions. From the digital subtraction angiography provided, the dissection flap appeared to originate at the internal carotid artery terminus with extension into the right M1 segment and occluding the right anterior cerebral artery, A1 segment. CT perfusion study showed salvageable tissue in the posterior MCA territory, including the motor cortex. In order to avoid further injury to the dissection, clot retrieval systems were not a treatment option. We therefore performed selective thrombus aspiration with the Penumbra system for the occluded central and precentral arteries distal to the non-occlusive dissecting lesion. Sufficient recanalization was achieved and the patient made a marked recovery. Although mechanical thrombectomy with the use of retrieval intracranial stent systems has demonstrated satisfactory recanalization rates, the aspiration methodology remains useful for patients with an accompanying proximal vascular lesion.

  16. Direct thrombus aspiration using the Penumbra system for the treatment of pediatric intracranial dissection.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Motoaki; Tateshima, Satoshi; Ali, Latisha; Raychev, Radoslav; Vinuela, Fernando

    2012-11-15

    We describe a case of a 15-year-old girl who developed a spontaneous intracranial arterial dissection with distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusions. From the digital subtraction angiography provided, the dissection flap appeared to originate at the internal carotid artery terminus with extension into the right M1 segment and occluding the right anterior cerebral artery, A1 segment. CT perfusion study showed salvageable tissue in the posterior MCA territory, including the motor cortex. In order to avoid further injury to the dissection, clot retrieval systems were not a treatment option. We therefore performed selective thrombus aspiration with the Penumbra system for the occluded central and precentral arteries distal to the non-occlusive dissecting lesion. Sufficient recanalization was achieved and the patient made a marked recovery. Although mechanical thrombectomy with the use of retrieval intracranial stent systems has demonstrated satisfactory recanalization rates, the aspiration methodology remains useful for patients with an accompanying proximal vascular lesion.

  17. Common aspirations of world women.

    PubMed

    Huang, B

    1996-02-01

    The comments of the Director of Foreign Affairs for the China State Family Planning Commission reflect satisfaction with the achievements at the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing. It is posited that the historic documents from the conference reflect the common aspirations of all women in the world for equality, development, and peace. The conference's focus on social development for women has been translated in China into a "vigorous" IEC campaign. China is developing integrated approaches to family planning in rural areas. The approach aims to help rural women to become economically independent before achieving equality within the family and society. A National Conference on Integrated Programs was held in Sichuan province. Examples of integrated programs in Sichuan, Jilin, and Jiangsu were described for conference participants. The example is given of how poor rural women in Deyang Prefecture, Sichuan province, have received credit for income generation and access to skill development and literacy classes. Continuous economic and social development are important for achieving "poverty eradication and the liberation of women." Sustainable development involves use of resources, environmental protection, the reasonable change in consumption patterns, and transitional changes in modes of production. The concept of reproductive health means Chinese family planning workers must meet higher standards. Future plans include intensifying the IEC program in meeting the comprehensive biological, psychological, and social reproductive health needs of women. Respect must be given to the fertility intentions and reproductive rights of wives and husbands. "In China, voluntary choice of childbearing should be guided by the fertility policy formulated by the government." Training of family planning workers should be intensified to include training in public health, reproductive theory, contraception, and the techniques of interpersonal communication. Some provinces

  18. Modified aspirated internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.E.

    1993-06-01

    An internal combustion engine is described, comprising: an engine block; at least one cylinder; at least one piston, each piston being reciprocally movable in the cylinder; a head connected with the engine block so as to form a combustion chamber above each piston; aspiration means for providing gas entry into and gas exit from the combustion chamber of each cylinder; valves for controlling gas entry and exit; ignition for initiating and timing combustion in each combustion chamber; a crankshaft rotatably mounted to the engine block, the crankshaft having at least one crank arm; connecting rod between each piston and the crank arm for translating reciprocation of each piston into rotation of each crankshaft; mounting means for rotatably mounting crankshaft to the engine block, the mounting means at each mounting location comprising: a crankshaft journal located on the crankshaft, the crankshaft journal having a crankshaft cross-section and an off-set portion, the off-set portion having a maximum which is equal to a predetermined off-set, the maximum off-set being located on a predetermined side of the crankshaft, the off-set portion smoothly decreasing from the maximum to a minimum from each side of the maximum, the minimum being equal to a zero off-set, the minimum off-set being located on the crankshaft opposite maximum off-set; and an engine block bearing connected with the engine block, wherein the crankshaft rotates in relation to the engine block about an eccentric centerline passing axially through the crankshaft journal cross-section, the eccentric centerline being displaced from a true centerline passing axially through said crankshaft cross-section by a distance equal to one-half the off-set, wherein the crank arm has a predetermined radial length centered on the eccentric centerline, and wherein the modified crankshaft has at least one output shaft portion axially aligned with the eccentric centerline.

  19. Astrobiology explorer mission concepts (ABE/ASPIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennico, K. A.; Sandford, S. A.; ABE/ASPIRE Science Teams

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) and the Astrobiology SPace InfraRed Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission Concepts are two missions designed to address the questions (1) "Where do we come from?" and (2) "Are we alone?" as outlined in NASA's Origins Program. Both concepts use infrared spectroscopy to explore the identity, abundance, and distribution of molecules of astrobiological importance throughout the Universe. The ABE mission's observational program is focused on investigating the evolution of ice and organics in all phases of the lifecycle of carbon in the universe, from stellar birth through stellar death and exogenous delivery of these compounds to planetary systems. The ASPIRE mission's observational program expands upon ABE's core mission and also addresses the role of silicates and gas-phase materials in interstellar organic chemistry. ABE (ASPIRE) achieves these goals using a highly sensitive, cryogenically-cooled telescope in an Earth drift-away heliocentric orbit, armed with a suite of infrared spectrometers that cover the 2.5-20 (40) micron spectral region at moderate spectral resolution ( R > 2000). ASPIRE's spectrometer complement also includes a high-resolution ( R > 25,000) module over the 4-8 micron spectral region. Both missions' target lists are chosen to observe a statistically significant sample of a large number of objects of varied types in support of the tasks outlined above. The ABE and ASPIRE mission lifetimes are designed to be 14 months and 3 years, respectively, both with significant cryogen and propellant lifetime margins to support an extended observing campaign. The ABE/ASPIRE Science Operations will be carried out at NASA's Ames Research Center, and the ABE/ASPIRE database will be archived at Caltech/IPAC.

  20. The vomeronasal cortex - afferent and efferent projections of the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala in mice.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Castellanos, Nicolás; Pardo-Bellver, Cecília; Martínez-García, Fernando; Lanuza, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Most mammals possess a vomeronasal system that detects predominantly chemical signals of biological relevance. Vomeronasal information is relayed to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), whose unique cortical target is the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala. This cortical structure should therefore be considered the primary vomeronasal cortex. In the present work, we describe the afferent and efferent connections of the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala in female mice, using anterograde (biotinylated dextranamines) and retrograde (Fluorogold) tracers, and zinc selenite as a tracer specific for zinc-enriched (putative glutamatergic) projections. The results show that the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala is strongly interconnected not only with the rest of the vomeronasal system (AOB and its target structures in the amygdala), but also with the olfactory system (piriform cortex, olfactory-recipient nuclei of the amygdala and entorhinal cortex). Therefore, the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala probably integrates olfactory and vomeronasal information. In addition, the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala shows moderate interconnections with the associative (basomedial) amygdala and with the ventral hippocampus, which may be involved in emotional and spatial learning (respectively) induced by chemical signals. Finally, the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala gives rise to zinc-enriched projections to the ventrolateral septum and the ventromedial striatum (including the medial islands of Calleja). This pattern of intracortical connections (with the olfactory cortex and hippocampus, mainly) and cortico-striatal excitatory projections (with the olfactory tubercle and septum) is consistent with its proposed nature as the primary vomeronasal cortex.

  1. Characterizing Cell Adhesion by Using Micropipette Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Brenna; Babataheri, Avin; Hwang, Yongyun; Barakat, Abdul I.; Husson, Julien

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a technique to directly quantify cell-substrate adhesion force using micropipette aspiration. The micropipette is positioned perpendicular to the surface of an adherent cell and a constant-rate aspiration pressure is applied. Since the micropipette diameter and the aspiration pressure are our control parameters, we have direct knowledge of the aspiration force, whereas the cell behavior is monitored either in brightfield or interference reflection microscopy. This setup thus allows us to explore a range of geometric parameters, such as projected cell area, adhesion area, or pipette size, as well as dynamical parameters such as the loading rate. We find that cell detachment is a well-defined event occurring at a critical aspiration pressure, and that the detachment force scales with the cell adhesion area (for a given micropipette diameter and loading rate), which defines a critical stress. Taking into account the cell adhesion area, intrinsic parameters of the adhesion bonds, and the loading rate, a minimal model provides an expression for the critical stress that helps rationalize our experimental results. PMID:26200857

  2. Automated micropipette aspiration of single cells.

    PubMed

    Shojaei-Baghini, Ehsan; Zheng, Yi; Sun, Yu

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a system for mechanically characterizing single cells using automated micropipette aspiration. Using vision-based control and position control, the system controls a micromanipulator, a motorized translation stage, and a custom-built pressure system to position a micropipette (4 μm opening) to approach a cell, form a seal, and aspirate the cell into the micropipette for quantifying the cell's elastic and viscoelastic parameters as well as viscosity. Image processing algorithms were developed to provide controllers with real-time visual feedback and to accurately measure cell deformation behavior on line. Experiments on both solid-like and liquid-like cells demonstrated that the system is capable of efficiently performing single-cell micropipette aspiration and has low operator skill requirements.

  3. Evaluation of ventilatory therapy for acid aspiration.

    PubMed

    Flint, L; Gosdin, G; Carrico, C J

    1975-10-01

    Aspiration of hydrochloric acid in experimental animals results in severe, progressive hypoxia which is due to intrapulmonary shunting and depressed cardiac output. This preparation is useful therefore in studying the therapy of hypoxia. Mongrel dogs were subjected to acid aspiration and the effects of several ventilatory patterns on intrapulmonary shunt fractions and lung water accumulation observed. The combination of large tidal volumes (30 c.c. per kilogram) with positive end-expiratory pressure was effective in preventing intrapulmonary shunting and other ventilatory patterns were ineffective. Pulmonary edema uniformly followed acid aspiration and was not affected by ventilatory therapy. When ventilatory therapy was delayed for 4 hours, the progression of shunting apparently was limited, but the existing shunt was not reduced.

  4. [Patient's Risk Factors for Perioperative Aspiration Pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Teruhiko; Isono, Shiroh

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews patient's own risk factors for perioperative aspiration pneumonia. Maintaining the function of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the airway protective reflex, and the oral hygiene are the most important to prevent the pneumonia. The LES is adversely affected by excessive stomach distention, some medication given in perioperative periods, and habitual smoking, as well as pathological status such as esophageal hiatus hernia and achalasia. Postapoplectic patients may have insufficient airway protective reflex including swallowing and laryngeal reflex. It is emphasized that the perioperative oral care is increasing in its importance for the prevention of aspiration pneumonia. PMID:27004381

  5. Aspiration and tetracycline sclerotherapy of hydroceles.

    PubMed

    Levine, L A; DeWolf, W C

    1988-05-01

    Aspiration and sclerotherapy of hydroceles have been considered an effective outpatient procedure. We report on our experience with modification of this procedure in the treatment of 28 hydroceles. A 10 per cent solution of tetracycline hydrochloride was used as the sclerosant. In this series the mean followup was 15 months and there was an over-all 93 per cent success rate. A single treatment was successful in 75 per cent of the hydroceles. Complications included a hematoma in 2 patients and epididymitis in 1. We consider aspiration and sclerotherapy of hydroceles to be a reasonable alternative to an operation.

  6. [Patient's Risk Factors for Perioperative Aspiration Pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Teruhiko; Isono, Shiroh

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews patient's own risk factors for perioperative aspiration pneumonia. Maintaining the function of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the airway protective reflex, and the oral hygiene are the most important to prevent the pneumonia. The LES is adversely affected by excessive stomach distention, some medication given in perioperative periods, and habitual smoking, as well as pathological status such as esophageal hiatus hernia and achalasia. Postapoplectic patients may have insufficient airway protective reflex including swallowing and laryngeal reflex. It is emphasized that the perioperative oral care is increasing in its importance for the prevention of aspiration pneumonia.

  7. Young APOE[subscript 4] Targeted Replacement Mice Exhibit Poor Spatial Learning and Memory, with Reduced Dendritic Spine Density in the Medial Entorhinal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Gustavo A.; Burns, Mark P.; Weeber, Edwin J.; Rebeck, G. William

    2013-01-01

    The apolipoprotein E4 ("APOE-[epsilon]4") allele is the strongest genetic risk factor for developing late-onset Alzheimer's disease, and may predispose individuals to Alzheimer's-related cognitive decline by affecting normal brain function early in life. To investigate the impact of human APOE alleles on cognitive performance in mice, we trained…

  8. Inhibition of the betaine-GABA transporter (mGAT2/BGT-1) modulates spontaneous electrographic bursting in the medial entorhinal cortex (mEC).

    PubMed

    Smith, Misty D; Saunders, Gerald W; Clausen, Rasmus P; Frølund, Bente; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Povl; Larsson, Orla M; Schousboe, Arne; Wilcox, Karen S; White, H Steve

    2008-03-01

    Disruptions in GABAergic neurotransmission have been implicated in numerous CNS disorders, including epilepsy and neuropathic pain. Selective inhibition of neuronal and glial GABA transporter subtypes may offer unique therapeutic options for regaining balance between inhibitory and excitatory systems. The ability of two GABA transport inhibitors to modulate inhibitory tone via inhibition of mGAT1 (tiagabine) or mGAT2/BGT-1 (N-[4,4-bis(3-methyl-2-thienyl)-3-butenyl]-4-(methylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[d]isoxazol-3-ol), also known as EF1502) was evaluated using an in vitro model of spontaneous interictal-like bursting (SB). SBs were recorded extracellularly in combined mEC-HC horizontal brain slices (400 microm; 31+/-1 degrees C) obtained from KA-treated rats. Slice recordings demonstrated that EF1502 exhibited a concentration-dependent reduction in SB frequency. EF1502 significantly reduced SB rate to 32% of control at the 30 microM concentration, while reducing the area and duration of SB activity to 60% and 46% of control, respectively, at the 10 microM concentration. In contrast, the GAT1 selective inhibitor tiagabine (3, 10, and 30 microM) was unable to significantly reduce the frequency of SB activity in the mEC, despite significantly reducing both the duration (51% of control) and area (58% of control) of the SB at concentrations as low as 3 microM. The ability of EF1502, but not tiagabine, to inhibit SBs in the mEC suggests that this in vitro model of pharmacoresistant SB activity is useful to differentiate between novel anticonvulsants with similar mechanisms of action and suggests a therapeutic potential for non-GAT1 transport inhibitors. PMID:18262393

  9. Perirhinal Cortex Hyperexcitability in Pilocarpine-Treated Epileptic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Benini, Ruba; Longo, Daniela; Biagini, Giuseppe; Avoli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The perirhinal cortex (PC), which is heavily connected with several epileptogenic regions of the limbic system such as the entorhinal cortex and amygdala, is involved in the generation and spread of seizures. However, the functional alterations occurring within an epileptic PC network are unknown. Here, we analyzed this issue by using in vitro electrophysiology and immunohistochemistry in brain tissue obtained from pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats and age-matched, nonepileptic controls (NECs). Neurons recorded intracellularly from the PC deep layers in the two experimental groups had similar intrinsic and firing properties and generated spontaneous depolarizing and hyperpolarizing postsynaptic potentials with comparable duration and amplitude. However, spontaneous and stimulus-induced epileptiform discharges were seen with field potential recordings in over one-fifth of pilocarpine-treated slices but never in NEC tissue. These network events were reduced in duration by antagonizing NMDA receptors and abolished by NMDA + non-NMDA glutamatergic receptor antagonists. Pharmacologically isolated isolated inhibitory postsynaptic potentials had reversal potentials for the early GABAA receptor-mediated component that were significantly more depolarized in pilocarpine-treated cells. Experiments with a potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 antibody identified, in pilocarpine-treated PC, a significant immunostaining decrease that could not be explained by neuronal loss. However, interneurons expressing parvalbumin and neuropeptide Y were found to be decreased throughout the PC, whereas cholecystokinin-positive cells were diminished in superficial layers. These findings demonstrate synaptic hyper-excitability that is contributed by attenuated inhibition in the PC of pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats and underscore the role of PC networks in temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:20865722

  10. The Astrobiology Space Infrared Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Sandford, S. A.; Roellig, T. L.; ASPIRE Team

    2009-01-01

    The Astrobiology Space Infrared Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission is one of the Origins Probe Mission Concepts that is currently being studied in preparation for inputs to the upcoming Decadal Survey. The mission is a cooled 1-m class telescope optimized to efficiently obtain high quality infrared spectra in the 2.5-36 micron wavelength region. The principal goal of the mission is to detect, identify, and determine the abundance of molecular species, particularly organics, throughout the universe. This will be done by obtaining spectra for a comprehensive range of Solar System, galactic, and extra-galactic environments and the interfaces between them. ASPIRE will be capable of obtaining continuous moderate resolution spectra from 2.5-36 microns at spectral resolutions of about 2500 (2.5-20 microns) and 900 (20-36 microns). ASPIRE will also be able to obtain high resolution spectra (resolutions of 25,000) over selected windows in the 3.1-18 micron region. The ASPIRE suite of instruments provides the ability to study both gas-phase and solid-state materials in space. The PI for the mission is Scott Sandford and major mission partners include NASA-Ames, JPL, and Ball Aerospace.

  11. Aspiring Girls: Great Expectations or Impossible Dreams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Gill; Posnett, Carol

    2012-01-01

    This study explores girls' aspirations for their future. The context was an ex-coalmining area where concerns had been raised by the local authority about the levels of girls' achievement. The focus of the research was the views of Year 6 girls as they prepared for their transition to secondary school and Year 11 girls as they prepared for their…

  12. Aspiration pneumonia in children: an iconographic essay*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Gabriel Antonio; Pessanha, Laís Bastos; Guerra, Luiz Felipe Alves; Martins, Diego Lima Nava; Rondina, Ronaldo Garcia; Silva, Jamine Ronacher Passos

    2015-01-01

    In most cases of aspiration pneumonia in children, the disease is specific to this age group. Clinical and radiological correlation is essential for the diagnosis. The present pictorial essay is aimed at showing typical images of the most common etiologies. PMID:26811557

  13. Another Opinion No Inspiration, No Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Donna W.

    2004-01-01

    School library media specialists are the first to witness the malaise that permeates American schools threatening the future of our society. Believing that personal lack of aspirations, our failure to encourage reading for pure enjoyment, and society's disrespect toward education has left a void in our children that is filled with apathy.

  14. SOME DEVELOPMENTAL ANTECEDENTS OF LEVEL OF ASPIRATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROWNE, DOUGLAS P.; AND OTHERS

    THIS STUDY REPORTS CHILDREARING PRACTICES AND CHILD BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED WITH A SUBSEQUENT LEVEL OF ASPIRATION (LOA). ANTECEDENT MEASURES WERE CHILDREARING ATTITUDES REPORTED BY 379 MOTHERS OF FIVE-YEAR OLDS IN AN EARLIER STUDY. AT THE TIME OF THIS STUDY, THE 83 SUBJECTS WERE 18 YEARS OLD. THEY WERE ADMINISTERED TWO PERSONALITY SCALES AND THE…

  15. Level of Occupational Aspiration: An Empirical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Archibald; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Data from 34,118 American high school students were used to determine patterns of responses to an indicator of level of occupational aspiration (LOA). LOA was found to be a general dimension composed of idealistic-realistic goal-region aspects and of short-and long-term temporal aspects. LOA response patterns were essentially the same for both…

  16. The Gap between Aspiration and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckett, Alan

    2013-01-01

    At the time of the fifth UNESCO international conference on adult education (CONFINTEA V) in Hamburg in 1997, it seemed that a resilient alliance of governments and civil society organizations had been created. This alliance would have the commitment and cooperation needed to pursue the ambitious aspirations captured in the 10 themes of the…

  17. Women's Aspirations for Graduate Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Meng-Jie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates female undergraduates' aspirations for master's and doctoral degree programs in Taiwan's universalized and stratified higher education system. It considers the potential effects of economic prospects, parental attitudes, and gender values. First, graduate education is perceived as a means to enhance one's comparative…

  18. Aspirations, Attributions, and Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, William; McNall, Sidne J.

    Self-evaluation is thought to play a major role in personality and motivation. Preliminary experience with success or failure, levels of aspiration, attributions for performance, and locus of control may all be interrelated factors in human motivation. After receiving success, failure, or no feedback on a concept formation task, subjects (N=90)…

  19. A Forlorn Aspiration? The Story of SUCSE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, John

    2003-01-01

    In 1971 the Scottish Universities Council for Studies in Education (SUCSE) was formally constituted as a representative voice of the Scottish university departments of education. One aspiration was to coordinate degree courses across the universities as a distinctive Scottish MEd degree with credit transfer to promote mobility. However, the…

  20. Tracking Student Aspirations: A Work in Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Doug; Nevard, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on a study that is concerned with surveying the aspirations of some students in an Australian Technical and Further Education (TAFE) College and developing strategies to address issues arising from the surveys. The study is essentially a series of surveys, thought it has an action learning aspect because of its developmental…

  1. Occupational Aspirations and Expectations of Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Wendy; Creed, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents across the five years of high school (169 females and 164 males) completed a survey that identified occupational status aspirations and expectations coded into six types-- realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, or conventional--according to the RIASEC model (Holland, 1997). As the focus of the study was to explore…

  2. Methods, Interpretations, and Different Views of Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Paul

    1986-01-01

    The author praises Ellen Brantlinger's article "What Low-Income Parents Want from Schools: A Different View of Aspirations" (v16 n4 1985) and her method. This article is followed by a criticism by Weir and a response to both articles by Brantlinger. (MT)

  3. A Conversation on Mobility, Aspiration and Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Critical Studies in Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    On 11 and 12 October 2010, the National Centre for Student Equity in Higher Education held its second annual "Student Equity in Higher Education National Conference" in Melbourne, Australia. The conference theme was "Aspiration, Mobility, Voice". During the conference the three keynote speakers--Gareth Parry (University of Sheffield, UK), Jane…

  4. Limitations and value of aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, M M; Hajdu, S I; Jordan, A G

    1984-03-01

    The successes of aspiration cytology have enhanced its popularity over the past few years. Now the limitations of the technique are becoming apparent. This article reviews the uses and contraindications for the detection of benign and malignant lesions in various body sites.

  5. Employment, Academic and Extracurricular Contributors to College Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGaha, Valerie; Fitzpatrick, Jacki

    2010-01-01

    Although there have been many studies on college entrance and aspirations, little attention has been paid to post-high school adults (who enter the workworld rather than college). it is possible that post-high school adults still have college aspirations, and it would be valuable to identify the factors that foster such aspirations. This study…

  6. The "Placetimemattering" of Aspiration in the Blacktown Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore aspiration in contemporary urban locations in the context of almost universal policy initiatives to raise aspirations of young people to participate in higher education. The article is based on a study of how children's career and further education aspirations are shaped over time in five schools in…

  7. Synchronized electrical stimulation of the rat medial forebrain bundle and perforant pathway generates an additive BOLD response in the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Krautwald, Karla; Min, Hoon-Ki; Lee, Kendall H; Angenstein, Frank

    2013-08-15

    To study how a synchronized activation of two independent pathways affects the fMRI response in a common targeted brain region, blood oxygen dependent (BOLD) signals were measured during electrical stimulation of the right medial forebrain bundle (MFB), the right perforant pathway (PP) and concurrent stimulation of the two fiber systems. Repetitive electrical stimulations of the MFB triggered significant positive BOLD responses in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), septum, anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex (ACC/mPFC), ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (VTA/SN), right entorhinal cortex (EC) and colliculus superior, which, in general, declined during later stimulation trains. At the same time, negative BOLD responses were observed in the striatum. Thus, the same stimulus caused region-specific hemodynamic responses. An identical electrical stimulation of the PP generated positive BOLD responses in the right dentate gyrus/hippocampus proper/subiculum (DG/HC), the right entorhinal cortex and the left entorhinal cortex, which remained almost stable during consecutive stimulation trains. Co-stimulation of the two fiber systems resulted in an additive activation pattern, i.e., the BOLD responses were stronger during the stimulation of the two pathways than during the stimulation of only one pathway. However, during the simultaneous stimulation of the two pathways, the development of the BOLD responses to consecutive trains changed. The BOLD responses in regions that were predominantly activated by MFB stimulation (i.e., NAcc, septum and ACC/mPFC) did not decline as fast as during pure MFB stimulation, thus an additive BOLD response was only observed during later trains. In contrast, in the brain regions that were predominantly activated by PP stimulation (i.e., right EC, DG/HC), co-stimulation of the MFB only resulted in an additive effect during early trains but not later trains. Consequently, the development of the BOLD responses during consecutive

  8. Consolidation of visual associative long-term memory in the temporal cortex of primates.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Y; Kameyama, M; Hasegawa, I; Fukushima, T

    1998-01-01

    Neuropsychological theories have proposed a critical role for the interaction between the medial temporal lobe and the neocortex in the formation of long-term memory for facts and events, which has often been tested by learning of a series of paired words or figures in humans. We have examined neural mechanisms underlying the memory "consolidation" process by single-unit recording and molecular biological methods in an animal model of a visual pair-association task in monkeys. In our previous studies, we found that long-term associative representations of visual objects are acquired through learning in the neural network of the anterior inferior temporal (IT) cortex. In this article, we propose the hypothesis that limbic neurons undergo rapid modification of synaptic connectivity and provide backward signals that guide the reorganization of neocortical neural circuits. Two experiments tested this hypothesis: (1) we examined the role of the backward connections from the medial temporal lobe to the IT cortex by injecting ibotenic acid into the entorhinal and perirhinal cortices, which provided massive backward projections ipsilaterally to the IT cortex. We found that the limbic lesion disrupted the associative code of the IT neurons between the paired associates, without impairing the visual response to each stimulus. (2) We then tested the first half of this hypothesis by detecting the expression of immediate-early genes in the monkey temporal cortex. We found specific expression of zif268 during the learning of a new set of paired associates in the pair-association task, most intensively in area 36 of the perirhinal cortex. All these results with the visual pair-association task support our hypothesis and demonstrate that the consolidation process, which was first proposed on the basis of clinico-psychological evidence, can now be examined in primates using neurophysiolocical and molecular biological approaches.

  9. Interneurons, tau and amyloid-β in the piriform cortex in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; De la Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Ubeda-Banon, Isabel; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2015-07-01

    Impaired olfaction has been described as an early symptom of Alzheimer's disease. Neuroanatomical changes underlying this deficit in the olfactory system are largely unknown. Interestingly, neuropathology begins in the transentorhinal cortex and extends to the neighboring limbic system and basal telencephalic structures that mediate olfactory processing, including the anterior olfactory nucleus and olfactory bulb. The human piriform cortex has been described as a crucial area in odor quality coding; disruption of this region mediates early olfactory deficits in Alzheimer's disease. Most neuropathological investigations have focused on the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus, whereas the piriform cortex has largely been neglected. This work aims to characterize the expression of the neuropathological amyloid-β peptide, tau protein and interneuron population markers (calretinin, parvalbumin and somatostatin) in the piriform cortex of ten Alzheimer-diagnosed (80.4 ± 8.3 years old) and five control (69.6 ± 11.1) cases. Here, we examined the distribution of different interneuronal markers as well as co-localization of interneurons and pathological markers. Results indicated preferential vulnerability of somatostatin- (p = 0.0001 < α = 0.05) and calretinin-positive (p = 0.013 < α = 0.05) cells that colocalized with amyloid-β peptide, while the prevalence of parvalbumin-positive cells was increased (p = 0.045 < α = 0.05) in the Alzheimer's cases. These data may help to reveal the neural basis of olfactory deficits linked to Alzheimer's disease as well as to characterize neuronal populations preferentially vulnerable to neuropathology in regions critically involved in early stages of the disease.

  10. Molecular signalling pathways in the cerebral cortex are required for retrieval of one-trial avoidance learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Barros, D M; Izquierdo, L A; Mello e Souza, T; Ardenghi, P G; Pereira, P; Medina, J H; Izquierdo, I

    2000-09-01

    Rats were implanted bilaterally with cannulae in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus, the entorhinal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, posterior parietal cortex, or the basolateral complex of the amygdala. The animals were trained in one-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance and tested 24 h later. Prior (10 min) to the retention test, through the cannulae, they received 0.5 microl infusions of a vehicle (2% dimethylsulfoxide in saline), or of the following drugs dissolved in the vehicle: the glutamate NMDA receptor blocker, aminophosphonopentanoic acid (AP5, 2.0 or 5.0 microg), the AMPA receptor blocker, 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3 (1H,4H)dione (DNQX, 0.4 or 1.0 microg), the metabotropic receptor antagonist, methylcarboxyphenylglycine (MCPG, 0.5 or 2.5 microg), the inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), Rp-cAMPs (0.1 or 0.5 microg), the PKA stimulant, Sp-cAMPs (0.5 microg), or the inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), PD098059 (10 or 50 microM). All these drugs, at the same doses, had been previously found to alter long-term memory formation of this task. Here, retrieval test performance was blocked by DNQX, MCPG, Rp-cAMPs and PD098059 and enhanced by Sp-cAMPs infused into CA1 or the entorhinal cortex. The drugs had similar effects when infused into the parietal or anterior cingulate cortex, except that in these two areas AP5 also blocked retrieval, and in the cingulate cortex DNQX had no effect. Infusions into the basolateral amygdala were ineffective except for DNQX, which hindered retrieval. None of the treatments that affected retrieval had any influence on performance in an open field or in a plus maze; therefore, their effect on retention testing can not be attributed to an influence on locomotion, exploration or anxiety. The results indicate that the four cortical regions studied participate actively in, and are necessary for, retrieval of the one-trial avoidance task. They require metabotropic and/or NMDA glutamate

  11. Routine audit of breast fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology specimens and aspirator inadequate rates.

    PubMed

    Snead, D R; Vryenhoef, P; Pinder, S E; Evans, A; Wilson, A R; Blamey, R W; Elston, C W; Ellis, I O

    1997-08-01

    In an attempt to improve the quality of the breast FNA specimens we instigated a continuing audit of this procedure in this hospital. All FNAs since 1990 have had the following recorded: mode of aspiration, e.g. freehand or image guided, patient presentation (screening or symptomatic), patient diagnostic category, cytological diagnosis and final histological diagnosis. Aspirator performance was assessed by means of the inadequate aspiration rate (IR) of FNAs performed on patients with a final diagnosis of cancer (FDC) and diagnostic category A patients (clinically or radiologically malignant lesions). An ongoing annual review of the performance of all the aspirators was undertaken, all of whom received individual feedback. Counselling and further training were offered where indicated by poor performance. Over the period 1990-1995 a total of 13537 FNAs were performed by 27 aspirators. The IR on category A and FDC cases over this period was 16.0% and 18.1%. The best performance achieved by an aspirator in a calendar year was an IR of 3.6% with no inadequate specimens in either FDC or category A lesions, and the best performance over the entire period was an average IR of 11.75% and 14.25% for FDC and category A groups, respectively. The overall IR on category A patients ranged from 15.9% to 23.8% and on FDC cases from 12.2% to 21.7%. There was a significant improvement in individual junior aspirator performance when their first year was compared with their last year on the unit. In some cases a deterioration in intra-aspirator performance was observed, from an IR of 6% to 33%. The overall IR rate of the unit remained stable for FDC patients, 15.5% in 1990 compared with 15.1% in 1995. This appeared to be largely due to a high proportion of the aspirations being performed by experienced personnel with consistent IRs. However, concealed within the overall rate there were some poor performers who benefited from counselling and/or further training. These results indicate

  12. Dysphagia, dystussia, and aspiration pneumonia in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Ebihara, Satoru; Sekiya, Hideki; Miyagi, Midori; Ebihara, Takae; Okazaki, Tatsuma

    2016-03-01

    Despite the development and wide distribution of guidelines for pneumonia, death from pneumonia is increasing due to population aging. Conventionally, aspiration pneumonia was mainly thought to be one of the infectious diseases. However, we have proven that chronic repeated aspiration of a small amount of sterile material can cause the usual type of aspiration pneumonia in mouse lung. Moreover, chronic repeated aspiration of small amounts induced chronic inflammation in both frail elderly people and mouse lung. These observations suggest the need for a paradigm shift of the treatment for pneumonia in the elderly. Since aspiration pneumonia is fundamentally based on dysphagia, we should shift the therapy for aspiration pneumonia from pathogen-oriented therapy to function-oriented therapy. Function-oriented therapy in aspiration pneumonia means therapy focusing on slowing or reversing the functional decline that occurs as part of the aging process, such as "dementia → dysphagia → dystussia → atussia → silent aspiration". Atussia is ultimate dysfunction of cough physiology, and aspiration with atussia is called silent aspiration, which leads to the development of life-threatening aspiration pneumonia. Research pursuing effective strategies to restore function in the elderly is warranted in order to decrease pneumonia deaths in elderly people.

  13. Spatially correlated heterogeneous aspirations to enhance network reciprocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Jun; Nakata, Makoto; Hagishima, Aya; Ikegaya, Naoki

    2012-02-01

    Perc & Wang demonstrated that aspiring to be the fittest under conditions of pairwise strategy updating enhances network reciprocity in structured populations playing 2×2 Prisoner's Dilemma games (Z. Wang, M. Perc, Aspiring to the fittest and promoted of cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma game, Physical Review E 82 (2010) 021115; M. Perc, Z. Wang, Heterogeneous aspiration promotes cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma game, PLOS one 5 (12) (2010) e15117). Through numerical simulations, this paper shows that network reciprocity is even greater if heterogeneous aspirations are imposed. We also suggest why heterogeneous aspiration fosters network reciprocity. It distributes strategy updating speed among agents in a manner that fortifies the initially allocated cooperators' clusters against invasion. This finding prompted us to further enhance the usual heterogeneous aspiration cases for heterogeneous network topologies. We find that a negative correlation between degree and aspiration level does extend cooperation among heterogeneously structured agents.

  14. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of fibromatoses.

    PubMed

    Raab, S S; Silverman, J F; McLeod, D L; Benning, T L; Geisinger, K R

    1993-01-01

    Fibromatoses form a spectrum of clinicopathologic entities characterized by the infiltrative proliferation of fibroblasts that lack malignant cytologic features. Fibromatoses present as nodular soft tissue masses almost anywhere in the body and thus are often amenable to fine needle aspiration (FNA). This report describes the FNA cytologic findings of fibromatosis in six patients ranging in age from 7 1/2 weeks to 36 years. Two of the lesions arose in the abdominal wall (musculoaponeurotic fibromatosis or extra-abdominal desmoid), and one each involved the plantar surface (Ledderhose's disease), the shoulder and the sternocleidomastoid muscle (Fibromatosis coli). The FNA of the shoulder was initially interpreted as nodular fasciitis due to the clinical presentation of a rapidly growing mass; an aspirate from the deep musculoaponeurotic region was believed to reveal a low grade sarcoma. The FNA diagnosis of musculoaponeurotic fibromatosis in a patient with familial polyposis coli suggested the diagnosis of Gardner's syndrome. Cytologically the aspirates consisted of groups of loosely cohesive, bland-appearing, spindle-shaped cells having oval to elongated nuclei and cytoplasmic tags. Individual spindle cells and rare inflammatory cells were also present. The aspirate of fibromatosis coli also contained degenerating skeletal muscle cells. Tissue confirmation was obtained in four cases. We believe that FNA is a useful procedure for the initial and recurrent diagnosis of fibromatoses and in the separation of fibromatoses from other benign and malignant soft tissue lesions. A discussion of other entities that enter into the cytologic differential diagnosis, such as mesenchymal repair, fasciitis and spindle cell types of sarcoma, is presented. From our experience we believe that the clinicopathologic features can suggest the diagnosis of fibromatosis, but histologic confirmation is recommended.

  15. Fine needle aspiration of salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Shintani, S; Matsuura, H; Hasegawa, Y

    1997-08-01

    The usefulness of fine needle aspiration (FNA) as a preoperative diagnostic procedure was studied in 43 patients with salivary gland tumors. Nine of the tumors were malignant and 34 benign. The diagnostic sensitivity of FNA was 88.9% (8/9), the specificity 94.1% (32/34) and the accuracy 93.0% (40/43). These results indicate that FNA is a highly sensitive and specific screening procedure.

  16. Needle aspiration biopsy in salivary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Shaha, A R; Webber, C; DiMaio, T; Jaffe, B M

    1990-10-01

    The value of needle aspiration biopsy in the evaluation and management of salivary gland pathology is controversial. The major reasons for this controversy are the difficulty in cytologic evaluation and the fact that the extent of surgery can be easily defined based on clinical judgement. However, a preoperative diagnosis is helpful in discussions with patients regarding the extent and type of surgery. Apart from the fact that needle biopsy can distinguish benign from malignant conditions, it is also very useful in distinguishing between salivary and other nonsalivary pathology. Over the past 7 1/2 years, we have performed 160 needle aspirations of parotid, submandibular, and submucosal lesions. Adequate specimens for cytologic evaluation were obtained in 155 patients (97%). A total of 84 parotid lesions, 70 submandibular lumps, and 6 submucosal abnormalities were detected. A cytologic diagnosis of benign pathology was made in 120 patients. Twelve patients had lymphoma and the diagnosis was suspected based on needle aspiration. There were 10 patients with tuberculosis and 30 patients with hyperplastic lymph nodes or benign lymphoepithelial disease of the parotid. There were three false-positive and two false-negative reports. No complications such as hematoma, nerve injury, or infection developed. The major difficulty was in distinguishing between malignancy and obstructive sialadenitis in the submandibular region. Needle aspiration was helpful in evaluating lesions in the tail of the parotid and submandibular area. The cytologic distinction between salivary and nonsalivary pathology was useful in planning the appropriate surgery and the extent of surgical resection. From a clinical standpoint, the distinction between benign and malignant salivary and nonsalivary pathology was very helpful. Preoperative diagnosis of Warthin's tumor, lymphoma, or benign lymphoepithelial disease was essential to the correct management of these patients.

  17. Skin resurfacing using an ultrasonic surgical aspirator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawes, Kate; Thomsen, Sharon L.; Nolan, Kathy; Carr, Jan; Kennedy, Jenifer S.

    1998-07-01

    The ultrasonic aspirator is essentially a vibrating tip whose ultrasonic frequencies fragment soft tissues, before aspirating it away from the surgical field. In the case of skin, the softer epidermis absorbs the vibrating tip's impact force so as to fragment it, whereas the more elastic and collagenous dermis reflects it. Understanding this, a chronic study to compare a skin resurfacing laser (Coherent, Palo Alto, CA) and an ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA) (Valleylab Inc., Boulder, CO) as a skin resurfacing tool was performed using an in-vivo pigmented porcine model. Gross and histopathologic evaluations were made of the lesions removed at 0, 1, 3, 6, 11, 21, and 56 days post procedure. The laser parameters utilized constant power (60 W) and spot size but the number of passes was varied from 1 to 4 passes. This simulated typical minimal to maximal clinical laser treatments. CUSA parameters were then chosen so as to imitate the various laser passes. On sacrifice gross evaluations showed similar levels of healing, using lesion color and scab formation as the method of evaluation. Histological analysis showed evidence of thermal effects with both devices and that some but not all CUSA settings were comparable to the laser. In short, ultrasonic technology may have the potential to provide a controlled method of selectively removing the epidermal skin layer during resurfacing.

  18. Percutaneous gallbladder aspiration for acute cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Rassameehiran, Supannee; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Early cholecystectomy for patients with acute cholecystitis may not be possible in some clinical settings. Percutaneous gallbladder aspiration (PGBA) offers an alternative approach, but the benefits and risks of this procedure are unclear. We synthesized data on the outcomes of PGBA in acute cholecystitis patients using data sources from online databases, including MEDLINE and EMBASE, and bibliographies of included studies from January 2000 through December 2015. Two reviewers independently reviewed and critiqued the quality of each study. Seven eligible studies met our criteria. The success rates in single PGBA and repetitive PGBA (2–4 times) were 50% to 93% and 76% to 96%, respectively. Complication rates were 0% to 8% and were unrelated to the size of needle gauge used for aspiration and the number of aspirations. Salvage percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) and urgent surgery were required in 0% to 43% of patients and 0% to 4% of patients, respectively. Two studies with antibiotic instillation had clinical success rates of 95% and 96%. In conclusion, repetitive PGBA combined with antibiotic instillation and salvage PC are useful alternatives to early cholecystectomy in patients with acute cholecystitis. PMID:27695167

  19. Percutaneous gallbladder aspiration for acute cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Rassameehiran, Supannee; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Early cholecystectomy for patients with acute cholecystitis may not be possible in some clinical settings. Percutaneous gallbladder aspiration (PGBA) offers an alternative approach, but the benefits and risks of this procedure are unclear. We synthesized data on the outcomes of PGBA in acute cholecystitis patients using data sources from online databases, including MEDLINE and EMBASE, and bibliographies of included studies from January 2000 through December 2015. Two reviewers independently reviewed and critiqued the quality of each study. Seven eligible studies met our criteria. The success rates in single PGBA and repetitive PGBA (2–4 times) were 50% to 93% and 76% to 96%, respectively. Complication rates were 0% to 8% and were unrelated to the size of needle gauge used for aspiration and the number of aspirations. Salvage percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) and urgent surgery were required in 0% to 43% of patients and 0% to 4% of patients, respectively. Two studies with antibiotic instillation had clinical success rates of 95% and 96%. In conclusion, repetitive PGBA combined with antibiotic instillation and salvage PC are useful alternatives to early cholecystectomy in patients with acute cholecystitis.

  20. Cognition without Cortex.

    PubMed

    Güntürkün, Onur; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Assumptions on the neural basis of cognition usually focus on cortical mechanisms. Birds have no cortex, but recent studies in parrots and corvids show that their cognitive skills are on par with primates. These cognitive findings are accompanied by neurobiological discoveries that reveal avian and mammalian forebrains are homologous, and show similarities in connectivity and function down to the cellular level. But because birds have a large pallium, but no cortex, a specific cortical architecture cannot be a requirement for advanced cognitive skills. During the long parallel evolution of mammals and birds, several neural mechanisms for cognition and complex behaviors may have converged despite an overall forebrain organization that is otherwise vastly different. PMID:26944218

  1. Non-linear Membrane Properties in Entorhinal Cortical Stellate Cells Reduce Modulation of Input-Output Responses by Voltage Fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Fernando R.; Malerba, Paola; White, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of voltage fluctuations arising from synaptic activity is a critical component in models of gain control, neuronal output gating, and spike rate coding. The degree to which individual neuronal input-output functions are modulated by voltage fluctuations, however, is not well established across different cortical areas. Additionally, the extent and mechanisms of input-output modulation through fluctuations have been explored largely in simplified models of spike generation, and with limited consideration for the role of non-linear and voltage-dependent membrane properties. To address these issues, we studied fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses in medial entorhinal cortical (MEC) stellate cells of rats, which express strong sub-threshold non-linear membrane properties. Using in vitro recordings, dynamic clamp and modeling, we show that the modulation of input-output responses by random voltage fluctuations in stellate cells is significantly limited. In stellate cells, a voltage-dependent increase in membrane resistance at sub-threshold voltages mediated by Na+ conductance activation limits the ability of fluctuations to elicit spikes. Similarly, in exponential leaky integrate-and-fire models using a shallow voltage-dependence for the exponential term that matches stellate cell membrane properties, a low degree of fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses can be attained. These results demonstrate that fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses is not a universal feature of neurons and can be significantly limited by subthreshold voltage-gated conductances. PMID:25909971

  2. Non-linear Membrane Properties in Entorhinal Cortical Stellate Cells Reduce Modulation of Input-Output Responses by Voltage Fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Fernando R; Malerba, Paola; White, John A

    2015-04-01

    The presence of voltage fluctuations arising from synaptic activity is a critical component in models of gain control, neuronal output gating, and spike rate coding. The degree to which individual neuronal input-output functions are modulated by voltage fluctuations, however, is not well established across different cortical areas. Additionally, the extent and mechanisms of input-output modulation through fluctuations have been explored largely in simplified models of spike generation, and with limited consideration for the role of non-linear and voltage-dependent membrane properties. To address these issues, we studied fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses in medial entorhinal cortical (MEC) stellate cells of rats, which express strong sub-threshold non-linear membrane properties. Using in vitro recordings, dynamic clamp and modeling, we show that the modulation of input-output responses by random voltage fluctuations in stellate cells is significantly limited. In stellate cells, a voltage-dependent increase in membrane resistance at sub-threshold voltages mediated by Na+ conductance activation limits the ability of fluctuations to elicit spikes. Similarly, in exponential leaky integrate-and-fire models using a shallow voltage-dependence for the exponential term that matches stellate cell membrane properties, a low degree of fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses can be attained. These results demonstrate that fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses is not a universal feature of neurons and can be significantly limited by subthreshold voltage-gated conductances.

  3. CX-516 Cortex pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Danysz, Wojciech

    2002-07-01

    CX-516 is one of a series of AMPA modulators under development by Cortex, in collaboration with Shire and Servier, for the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), schizophrenia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) [234221]. By June 2001, CX-516 was in phase II trials for both schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) [412513]. A phase II trial in fragile X syndrome and autism was expected to start in May 2002 [449861]. In October 2001, Cortex was awarded a Phase II SBIR grant of $769,818 from the National Institutes of Mental Health to investigate the therapeutic potential of AMPAkines in schizophrenia. This award was to support a phase IIb study of CX-516 as a combination therapy in schizophrenia patients concomitantly treated with olanzapine. The trial was to enroll 80 patients and employ a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design in which the placebo group was to receive olanzapine plus placebo and the active group was to receive olanzapine plus CX-516 [425982]. In April 2000, Shire and Cortex signed an option agreement in which Shire was to evaluate CX-516for the treatment of ADHD. Under the terms of the agreement, Shire would undertake a double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of CX-516 involving ADHD patients. If the study proved effective, Shire would have the right to convert its option into an exclusive worldwide license for the AMPAkines for ADHD under a development and licensing agreement. Should Shire elect to execute this agreement, Shire would bear all future developmental costs [363618]. By February 2002, Cortex and Servier had revealed their intention to begin enrolment for an international study of an AMPAkine compound as a potential treatment for MCI in the near future. Assuming enrollment proceeded as anticipated, results were expected during the second quarter of 2003 [439301]. By May 2002, phase II trials were underway [450134]. In March 2002, Cortex was awarded extended funding under the

  4. Neuropeptide S facilitates mice olfactory function through activation of cognate receptor-expressing neurons in the olfactory cortex.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yu-Feng; Zhao, Peng; Dong, Chao-Yu; Li, Jing; Kong, Xiang-Pan; Wang, Hai-Liang; Dai, Li-Rong; Hou, Yi-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a newly identified neuromodulator located in the brainstem and regulates various biological functions by selectively activating the NPS receptors (NPSR). High level expression of NPSR mRNA in the olfactory cortex suggests that NPS-NPSR system might be involved in the regulation of olfactory function. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of NPS or co-injection of NPSR antagonist on the olfactory behaviors, food intake, and c-Fos expression in olfactory cortex in mice. In addition, dual-immunofluorescence was employed to identify NPS-induced Fos immunereactive (-ir) neurons that also bear NPSR. NPS (0.1-1 nmol) i.c.v. injection significantly reduced the latency to find the buried food, and increased olfactory differentiation of different odors and the total sniffing time spent in olfactory habituation/dishabituation tasks. NPS facilitated olfactory ability most at the dose of 0.5 nmol, which could be blocked by co-injection of 40 nmol NPSR antagonist [D-Val(5)]NPS. NPS administration dose-dependently inhibited food intake in fasted mice. Ex-vivo c-Fos and NPSR immunohistochemistry in the olfactory cortex revealed that, as compared with vehicle-treated mice, NPS markedly enhanced c-Fos expression in the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON), piriform cortex (Pir), ventral tenia tecta (VTT), the anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus (ACo) and lateral entorhinal cortex (LEnt). The percentage of Fos-ir neurons that also express NPSR were 88.5% and 98.1% in the AON and Pir, respectively. The present findings demonstrated that NPS, via selective activation of the neurons bearing NPSR in the olfactory cortex, facilitates olfactory function in mice.

  5. A cytopathological approach to diagnosing intrathoracic lymphadenopathy using aspirates obtained by the transbronchial needle aspiration method.

    PubMed

    Özyalvaçlı, Gülzade; Yaşar, Zehra; Çetinkaya, Erdoğan

    2016-03-01

    Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is an effective, safe and cost-effective technique that allows for sampling of the mediastinal lymph node and peribronchial lesions. It is used in bronchogenic carcinoma staging, peribronchial and submucosal lesions, diagnosis of sarcoidosis and tuberculosis, differentiating submucosal invasion, and in diagnosing mediastinal masses. From our experience at the University of Abant Izzet Baysal and from a review of the literature, we discuss the adequacy and the differential diagnosis of aspiration material obtained by TBNA and cytopathological-histopathological evaluation in intrathoracic lymphadenopathies to increase the success rate of the TBNA method. PMID:27266286

  6. When Aspirations Exceed Expectations: Quixotic Hope Increases Depression among Students

    PubMed Central

    Cruwys, Tegan

    2015-01-01

    A paradox exists in modern schooling: students are simultaneously more positive about the future and more depressed than ever. We suggest that these two phenomena may be linked. Two studies demonstrated that students are more likely to be depressed when educational aspirations exceed expectations. In Study 1 (N = 85) aspiring to a thesis grade higher than one expected predicted greater depression at the beginning and end of the academic year. In Study 2 (N = 2820) aspiring to a level of education (e.g., attending college) higher than one expected to achieve predicted greater depression cross-sectionally and five years later. In both cases the negative effects of aspiring high while expecting low persisted even after controlling for whether or not students achieved their educational aspirations. These findings highlight the danger of teaching students to aspire higher without also investing time and money to ensure that students can reasonably expect to achieve their educational goals. PMID:26352151

  7. When Aspirations Exceed Expectations: Quixotic Hope Increases Depression among Students.

    PubMed

    Greenaway, Katharine H; Frye, Margaret; Cruwys, Tegan

    2015-01-01

    A paradox exists in modern schooling: students are simultaneously more positive about the future and more depressed than ever. We suggest that these two phenomena may be linked. Two studies demonstrated that students are more likely to be depressed when educational aspirations exceed expectations. In Study 1 (N = 85) aspiring to a thesis grade higher than one expected predicted greater depression at the beginning and end of the academic year. In Study 2 (N = 2820) aspiring to a level of education (e.g., attending college) higher than one expected to achieve predicted greater depression cross-sectionally and five years later. In both cases the negative effects of aspiring high while expecting low persisted even after controlling for whether or not students achieved their educational aspirations. These findings highlight the danger of teaching students to aspire higher without also investing time and money to ensure that students can reasonably expect to achieve their educational goals.

  8. Effects of aspiration on fundamental frequency in Taiwanese syllables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yuwen; Jongman, Allard

    2005-04-01

    The perturbation effect on vowel fundamental frequency (F0) by voiceless aspirated and unaspirated prevocalic obstruents is investigated in Taiwanese. It is well known that F0 is significantly higher after voiceless than voiced stops. However, the perturbation effect caused by aspiration has received much less attention. Twenty-eight minimal pairs contrasting in prevocalic aspiration across three different places of articulation from seven tonal categories in Taiwanese were recorded from two male and two female speakers. An acoustic study was conducted on a total of 1120 syllables. Onset, offset, and mean F0 as well as contours of the tones after the aspirated and unaspirated obstruents were compared. Results indicate that the onset and mean F0 are significantly higher when following aspirated obstruents but no difference was found in offset F0. Tonal contour comparison shows that the F0 raising effect triggered by aspirated obstruents disappears at 50-60% of the tone. Higher larynx and faster airflow rate are posited as the major factors for the higher F0 after voiceless aspirated obstruents. The present results warrant a reconsideration of the traditional theory of aspiration-induced tonal split according to which a tonal split resulted from the lowering of F0 due to aspiration.

  9. Role of aspiration-induced migration in cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2010-06-01

    Both cooperation and migration are ubiquitous in human society and animal world. In this Rapid Communication, we propose an aspiration-induced migration in which individuals will migrate to new sites provided that their payoffs are below some aspiration level. It is found that moderate aspiration level can best favor cooperative behavior. In particular, moderate aspiration level enables cooperator clusters to maintain and expand whereas induces defector clusters to disintegrate, thus promoting the diffusion of cooperation among population. Our results provide insights into understanding the role played by migration in the emergence of cooperative behavior.

  10. Chiari malformations: An important cause of pediatric aspiration.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Jennifer C; Sinha, Sumi; Caruso, Paul A; Hersh, Cheryl J; Butler, William E; Krishnamoorthy, Kalpathy S; Hartnick, Christopher J

    2016-09-01

    Chronic aspiration poses a major health risk to the pediatric population. We describe four cases in which work up for chronic aspiration with a brain MRI revealed a Chiari I malformation, a poorly described etiology of pediatric aspiration. All patients had at least one non-specific neurologic symptom but had swallow studies more characteristic of an anatomic than a neurologic etiology. Patients were referred to neurosurgery and underwent posterior fossa decompression with symptom improvement. A high index of suspicion for Chiari malformation should be maintained when the standard work up for aspiration is non-diagnostic, particularly when non-specific neurologic symptoms are present. PMID:27497399

  11. Evolution of transbronchial needle aspiration technique

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing-Hua; Ben, Su-Qin; Xia, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is an established technique to collect cell and tissue specimens from lesions outside the airway wall, generally guided by flexible bronchoscope under the direct visualization of the puncture site. TBNA has been utilized for 30 years, and now there is renewed interest in utilizing it in conjunction with endobronchial ultrasound. Although the basic operational principles have remained the same, conventional TBNA (cTBNA) and endobronchial ultrasound-guided TBNA (EBUS-TBNA) have been greatly improved over the years with the increased application in clinic and the advance of new technology. In this article we briefly discussed the evolution of TBNA technique and its future. PMID:26807269

  12. Foreign Body Aspiration in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Oliveira Matos, Cátia; Sousa, Manuel Mário

    2016-05-01

    Foreign body aspiration is common in children and in the elderly, who may present with subtle symptoms. Clinical suspicion is crucial and bronchoscopy is the main diagnostic and therapeutic procedure available. This is the case of a man, 78 years old, with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, who presented with respiratory distress following oral intake of tablets. History taking and physical examination raised suspicion. The diagnosis was confirmed with flexible bronchoscopy and rigid bronchoscopy was carried out for treatment. The patient's condition is stable and he is under investigations for dysphagia.

  13. Aspiration biopsy cytology of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Kline, T S; Merriam, J M; Shapshay, S M

    1981-09-01

    Aspiration biopsy by fine needle from the major salivary glands has been an under-utilized technic in the United States. To evaluate this form of biopsy, 69 patients with salivary gland enlargement were examined by this technic; 47 had confirmative histology. Characteristic ABC patterns were seen in the benign mixed tumor, the papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum, the mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and malignancy metastatic to the salivary gland. These findings are described. The method proved complication-free and accurate and is recommended for all tumors of the salivary gland.

  14. Associative-memory representations emerge as shared spatial patterns of theta activity spanning the primate temporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Kiyoshi; Adachi, Ken; Kawasaki, Keisuke; Matsuo, Takeshi; Sawahata, Hirohito; Majima, Kei; Takeda, Masaki; Sugiyama, Sayaka; Nakata, Ryota; Iijima, Atsuhiko; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Suzuki, Takafumi; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Hasegawa, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Highly localized neuronal spikes in primate temporal cortex can encode associative memory; however, whether memory formation involves area-wide reorganization of ensemble activity, which often accompanies rhythmicity, or just local microcircuit-level plasticity, remains elusive. Using high-density electrocorticography, we capture local-field potentials spanning the monkey temporal lobes, and show that the visual pair-association (PA) memory is encoded in spatial patterns of theta activity in areas TE, 36, and, partially, in the parahippocampal cortex, but not in the entorhinal cortex. The theta patterns elicited by learned paired associates are distinct between pairs, but similar within pairs. This pattern similarity, emerging through novel PA learning, allows a machine-learning decoder trained on theta patterns elicited by a particular visual item to correctly predict the identity of those elicited by its paired associate. Our results suggest that the formation and sharing of widespread cortical theta patterns via learning-induced reorganization are involved in the mechanisms of associative memory representation. PMID:27282247

  15. Associative-memory representations emerge as shared spatial patterns of theta activity spanning the primate temporal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Kiyoshi; Adachi, Ken; Kawasaki, Keisuke; Matsuo, Takeshi; Sawahata, Hirohito; Majima, Kei; Takeda, Masaki; Sugiyama, Sayaka; Nakata, Ryota; Iijima, Atsuhiko; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Suzuki, Takafumi; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Hasegawa, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Highly localized neuronal spikes in primate temporal cortex can encode associative memory; however, whether memory formation involves area-wide reorganization of ensemble activity, which often accompanies rhythmicity, or just local microcircuit-level plasticity, remains elusive. Using high-density electrocorticography, we capture local-field potentials spanning the monkey temporal lobes, and show that the visual pair-association (PA) memory is encoded in spatial patterns of theta activity in areas TE, 36, and, partially, in the parahippocampal cortex, but not in the entorhinal cortex. The theta patterns elicited by learned paired associates are distinct between pairs, but similar within pairs. This pattern similarity, emerging through novel PA learning, allows a machine-learning decoder trained on theta patterns elicited by a particular visual item to correctly predict the identity of those elicited by its paired associate. Our results suggest that the formation and sharing of widespread cortical theta patterns via learning-induced reorganization are involved in the mechanisms of associative memory representation. PMID:27282247

  16. Aspirations langagieres: Negociation et apprentissage du francais (Language Aspirations: Negotiation and Learning French).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepetit, Daniel; Cichocki, Wladyslaw

    1990-01-01

    A survey of 130 beginning French students at the University of Windsor (Canada) focused on their second language aspirations, expectations, and anticipated needs. Interpersonal relations appear to be the primary motivator, with travel and instrumental motivation secondary. (20 references) (Author/MSE)

  17. Neurocontrol in sensory cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritt, Jason; Nandi, Anirban; Schroeder, Joseph; Ching, Shinung

    Technology to control neural ensembles is rapidly advancing, but many important challenges remain in applications, such as design of controls (e.g. stimulation patterns) with specificity comparable to natural sensory encoding. We use the rodent whisker tactile system as a model for active touch, in which sensory information is acquired in a closed loop between feedforward encoding of sensory information and feedback guidance of sensing motions. Motivated by this system, we present optimal control strategies that are tailored for underactuation (a large ratio of neurons or degrees of freedom to stimulation channels) and limited observability (absence of direct measurement of the system state), common in available stimulation technologies for freely behaving animals. Using a control framework, we have begun to elucidate the feedback effect of sensory cortex activity on sensing in behaving animals. For example, by optogenetically perturbing primary sensory cortex (SI) activity at varied timing relative to individual whisker motions, we find that SI modulates future sensing behavior within 15 msec, on a whisk by whisk basis, changing the flow of incoming sensory information based on past experience. J.T.R. and S.C. hold Career Awards at the Scientific Interface from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund.

  18. The Distributed Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Winer, Jeffery A.; Lee, Charles C.

    2009-01-01

    A synthesis of cat auditory cortex (AC) organization is presented in which the extrinsic and intrinsic connections interact to derive a unified profile of the auditory stream and use it to direct and modify cortical and subcortical information flow. Thus, the thalamocortical input provides essential sensory information about peripheral stimulus events, which AC redirects locally for feature extraction, and then conveys to parallel auditory, multisensory, premotor, limbic, and cognitive centers for further analysis. The corticofugal output influences areas as remote as the pons and the cochlear nucleus, structures whose effects upon AC are entirely indirect, and has diverse roles in the transmission of information through the medial geniculate body and inferior colliculus. The distributed AC is thus construed as a functional network in which the auditory percept is assembled for subsequent redistribution in sensory, premotor, and cognitive streams contingent on the derived interpretation of the acoustic events. The confluence of auditory and multisensory streams likely precedes cognitive processing of sound. The distributed AC constitutes the largest and arguably the most complete representation of the auditory world. Many facets of this scheme may apply in rodent and primate AC as well. We propose that the distributed auditory cortex contributes to local processing regimes in regions as disparate as the frontal pole and the cochlear nucleus to construct the acoustic percept. PMID:17329049

  19. Fatal outcome of a sand aspiration.

    PubMed

    Kettner, M; Ramsthaler, F; Horlebein, B; Schmidt, P H

    2008-11-01

    Although extensive deep aspiration of sand, gravel, or dirt is a very rare incident, its consequences may be severe ranging from the necessity of immediate intensive care to death. Cases reported so far were due to external causes such as cave-ins, near drowning, or being buried under sand masses. We report a case of a 2 1/2-year-old boy who ingested sand while playing in a sandbox with his older brother. Despite early resuscitation and endotracheal intubation efforts, he died subsequently showing clinical signs of asphyxia due to airway obstruction. Autopsy revealed sand masses obstructing the trachea and lobar bronchi of both lungs as well as brain edema, while no signs of blunt trauma, forced sand ingestion, or preexisting medical conditions were found. This case demonstrates that fatal self-administered sand aspiration may occur in early childhood. The pathophysiology of the lethal outcome with regard to the physical properties of sand and implications for the clinical assessment of emergency situations are discussed.

  20. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  1. Sociological Theory and Youth Aspiration Research: A Critical Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picou, J. Steven; Wells, Richard H.

    Reviewing sociological theories relative to youth aspiration research, the following thesis was presented: "pre-path analysis aspiration research was characterized by a person-centered, middle-range functionalist approach which eventually shifted to a person-centered, functionalist-system approach with the introduction of the path model…

  2. Rural Aspirations, Rural Futures: From "Problem" to Possibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tieken, Mara Casey; San Antonio, Donna M.

    2016-01-01

    Young people aspire, make choices, and develop within a particular place and historical context. Recently, federal and state governments, policy and research institutes, and advocacy organizations have shown a growing interest in the aspirations and transitions of rural youth--and, in particular, the role that schools play in shaping and…

  3. Relationships of Teenage Smoking to Educational Aspirations and Parents' Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Ingrid; Lye, Diane

    Past research has shown that teenagers with less educated parents and teenagers with lower academic aspirations are more likely than their peers to smoke. This study was conducted to provide additional descriptive data concerning the relationships of smoking to parents' education and students' educational aspirations and to provide preliminary…

  4. THE OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE--THEORY, STRUCTURE AND CORRELATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HALLER, ARCHIBALD O.; MILLER, IRWIN W.

    A SCALE TO MEASURE THE LEVEL OF OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION (LOA) OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS AS A PREDICTIVE TOOL IN FUTURE OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE IS PRESENTED AND EXTENSIVELY EVALUATED IN THIS MONOGRAPH. THE OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE IS AN EASILY ADMINISTERED INSTRUMENT WHICH FOCUSES ON IDEALISTIC AND REALISTIC EXPRESSION LEVELS AS WELL AS ON…

  5. Career Aspirations of Women in the 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenico, Desirae M.; Jones, Karen H.

    2006-01-01

    Women have increasingly become more involved in the workforce following World War II. Paid employment of women has shifted from primarily traditional female-oriented jobs to more non-traditional, and previously male-oriented careers. Women's participation in the workforce has lead to the study of career aspirations of women. Career aspirations are…

  6. Study of Educational Aspirations of Preparatory School Students in Yemen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edington, Everett D.

    To identify causes for low enrollment in secondary agricultural schools in Yemen, the United States Agency for International Development and the Yemen Ministry of Education surveyed 990 preparatory (junior high) students, examining their educational aspirations, differences between rural and urban youth, major influences on student aspirations,…

  7. Cognitive Correlates of Adolescents' Aspirations to Leadership: A Developmental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Ming

    1990-01-01

    Examined age and gender differences in leadership aspirations among adolescents (N=130) by measuring overall leadership aspirations, valence-instrumentality expectancies for leadership outcomes, self-efficacy perceptions, and attributions of effective leadership. Found significant gender differences in valence scores and age differences in…

  8. Factors Related to Postgraduate Educational Aspirations of Women College Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wolf, Virginia A.

    This study compared 105 women university baccalaureates intending graduate study the year following graduation with women graduates matched by age and major who did not intend such study. Aspirers had significantly higher GPAs than non-aspirers, were more satisfied with their undergraduate major, had more often selected their major as preparation…

  9. Students' Aspirations, Expectations and School Achievement: What Really Matters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khattab, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    Using the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE), this study examines how different combinations of aspirations, expectations and school achievement can influence students' future educational behaviour (applying to university at the age of 17-18). The study shows that students with either high aspirations or high expectations have…

  10. Calculating Student Aspiration: Bourdieu, Spatiality and the Politics of Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Trevor; Parker, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a recent study of aspirations for higher education by secondary school students from disadvantaged backgrounds in regional Australia. At the same time, it goes in search of explanations that transcend a Bourdieuian account of aspirations as produced by and reproductive of cultural histories and dominance, given the apparent…

  11. A tale of three aspirations: foreign bodies in the airway.

    PubMed

    Pritt, B; Harmon, M; Schwartz, M; Cooper, K

    2003-10-01

    Tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration is a serious medical problem, with clinical manifestations ranging from acute asphyxiation to insidious lung damage, as demonstrated by the three presented cases. Patient 1 aspirated during dinner, emergency bronchoscopy retrieved pieces of food, and she fully recovered the following day. Patient 2 presented with recurrent pneumonia and a right lower lobe lung abscess. After right lower lobectomy, pathology revealed a foreign object in the right main stem bronchus, a peanut aspirated one year earlier. Patient 3 became unresponsive several days after spinal surgery. The differential diagnosis included myocardial infarction, stroke, and foreign body aspiration. The patient died and necropsy revealed a foreign body in the right main stem bronchus (cooked meat). Thus, foreign body aspiration is not always suspected clinically, and the pathologist may play an important role in making the diagnosis. Histological identification of the aspirated material may be necessary for definitive diagnosis. Therefore, sections of commonly aspirated foods are presented, together with a 10 year history of aspirated objects received by this institution's surgical pathology department.

  12. Occupational Aspirations of State FFA Contest and Award Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Blannie E.; Doerfert, David L.

    1989-01-01

    A study explored the occupational aspirations of 300 (of 503) students with high levels of participation in Future Farmers of America's (FFA) Computers in Agriculture (CIA), Proficiency Award (PA), and Prepared and Extemporaneous Speaking (PES) contests. CIA and PES winners aspired to professional occupations more than PA winners. PES winners…

  13. The Relationship between Gender and Aspirations to Senior Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litzky, Barrie; Greenhaus, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship of gender, work factors, and non-work factors with aspirations to positions in senior management. A process model of senior management aspirations was developed and tested. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected via an online survey that resulted in a sample of 368 working…

  14. Life Chances, Lifestyle and Everyday Aspirational Strategies and Tactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane; Hickey-Moody, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The notion of raising the aspirations of socially disadvantaged students is a key policy strategy in for enhancing such students' participation in higher education. However, this strategy runs the risk of being simplistic and ineffective unless it is informed by research on the links between aspirations and such students' changing life experiences…

  15. Characterization and distribution of (125I)epidepride binding to dopamine D2 receptors in basal ganglia and cortex of human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, J.N.; Janowsky, A.; Neve, K.A. )

    1991-06-01

    The distribution and pharmacology of the binding of {sup 125}I-epidepride, a substituted benzamide with high affinity and selectivity for dopamine (DA) D2 receptors in rat brain is described in human brain. Saturation analysis of the binding of {sup 125}I-epidepride to membranes derived from striatum and regions of cortex demonstrated similar Kd values (34 and 28-33 pM, respectively) but differing maximum density of binding site values (152 and 3-8 fmol/mg of protein, respectively). The pharmacological profile of binding in cortex was also similar to striatum (epidepride greater than spiperone greater than butaclamol = flupenthixol greater than clozapine) except that an additional low-affinity site, blocked by the alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist idazoxan, was present in cortex. Quantification by autoradiography also demonstrated the greatest binding in the basal ganglia, with the striatum exhibiting greater binding than the pallidal complex or midbrain regions. For the pallidum, binding in the external segment was higher than the internal segment. Within the midbrain the binding of {sup 125}I-epidepride correlated well with the known distribution of DA-containing cell bodies, with the substantia nigra (pars compacta and pars lateralis) and ventral tegmental area (A10) higher than area A8 and central gray. Binding in frontal and parietal cortex was highest in the internal layers (layers V and VI). Temporal cortex showed a 2-fold higher density of binding than other cortical regions and a trilaminar pattern; binding was greater in the external (layers I and II) and internal layers than in the middle layers (III and IV). This pattern changed in the parahippocampal complex. Within the lateral occipitotemporal cortex, binding was densest in layers I to III and very low in layers IV to VI, but binding was almost nonexistent in the adjacent entorhinal cortex.

  16. The Astrophysics Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, J.

    The Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE) is funded by the National Science Foundation as the public education and outreach (EPO) component the High Resolution Fly's Eye Cosmic Ray Research Group. Since 1997, ASPIRE has been creating some of the most engaging and interactive science lessons and lab activities on the World Wide Web. In this poster, we will present an overview of the ASPIRE project, and report on the the most recent usage statistics. In addition to creating and maintaining lessons and the website, ASPIRE provides direct outreach to local teachers and students. These contacts include, in particular, local groups that are under-represented in the scientific and technical fields. Continuing as the EPO arm of the new Telescope Array (TA/TALE) project, ASPIRE will also be conducting summer workshops for students and teachers in Millard County, where the new experiment is under construction.

  17. Aspiration pneumonia associated with a double fracture of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Seigo; Yoshimura, Hitoshi; Matsuda, Shinpei; Sano, Kazuo

    2014-11-01

    Aspiration pneumonia is one of the most life-threatening diseases in the elderly. A 73-year-old woman was diagnosed with aspiration pneumonia after a mandibular fracture. Because her persistent aspiration pneumonia was accompanied by a diminished swallowing function that was believed to be due to a double fracture of the mandible, the patient underwent an open reduction while having pneumonia. Her symptoms of aspiration pneumonia improved immediately after the surgery. The hyoid bone was repositioned to its original position, and the movements of the hyoid bone and mandible were recovered after the surgery. In cases in which the medial bone segment of the mandible moves inside because of a double fracture and the movement of the hyoid bone declines, we strongly suggest that an open reduction should be performed as soon as possible to prevent aspiration pneumonia caused by a swallowing dysfunction.

  18. Electroconvulsive therapy and structural neuroplasticity in neocortical, limbic and paralimbic cortex.

    PubMed

    Pirnia, T; Joshi, S H; Leaver, A M; Vasavada, M; Njau, S; Woods, R P; Espinoza, R; Narr, K L

    2016-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective and rapidly acting treatment for severe depression. To understand the biological bases of therapeutic response, we examined variations in cortical thickness from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data in 29 patients scanned at three time points during an ECT treatment index series and in 29 controls at two time points. Changes in thickness across time and with symptom improvement were evaluated at high spatial resolution across the cortex and within discrete cortical regions of interest. Patients showed increased thickness over the course of ECT in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), inferior and superior temporal, parahippocampal, entorhinal and fusiform cortex and in distributed prefrontal areas. No changes across time occurred in controls. In temporal and fusiform regions showing significant ECT effects, thickness differed between patients and controls at baseline and change in thickness related to therapeutic response in patients. In the ACC, these relationships occurred in treatment responders only, and thickness measured soon after treatment initiation predicted the overall ECT response. ECT leads to widespread neuroplasticity in neocortical, limbic and paralimbic regions and changes relate to the extent of antidepressant response. Variations in ACC thickness, which discriminate treatment responders and predict response early in the course of ECT, may represent a biomarker of overall clinical outcome. Because post-mortem studies show focal reductions in glial density and neuronal size in patients with severe depression, ECT-related increases in thickness may be attributable to neuroplastic processes affecting the size and/or density of neurons and glia and their connections. PMID:27271858

  19. Electroconvulsive therapy and structural neuroplasticity in neocortical, limbic and paralimbic cortex

    PubMed Central

    Pirnia, T; Joshi, S H; Leaver, A M; Vasavada, M; Njau, S; Woods, R P; Espinoza, R; Narr, K L

    2016-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective and rapidly acting treatment for severe depression. To understand the biological bases of therapeutic response, we examined variations in cortical thickness from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data in 29 patients scanned at three time points during an ECT treatment index series and in 29 controls at two time points. Changes in thickness across time and with symptom improvement were evaluated at high spatial resolution across the cortex and within discrete cortical regions of interest. Patients showed increased thickness over the course of ECT in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), inferior and superior temporal, parahippocampal, entorhinal and fusiform cortex and in distributed prefrontal areas. No changes across time occurred in controls. In temporal and fusiform regions showing significant ECT effects, thickness differed between patients and controls at baseline and change in thickness related to therapeutic response in patients. In the ACC, these relationships occurred in treatment responders only, and thickness measured soon after treatment initiation predicted the overall ECT response. ECT leads to widespread neuroplasticity in neocortical, limbic and paralimbic regions and changes relate to the extent of antidepressant response. Variations in ACC thickness, which discriminate treatment responders and predict response early in the course of ECT, may represent a biomarker of overall clinical outcome. Because post-mortem studies show focal reductions in glial density and neuronal size in patients with severe depression, ECT-related increases in thickness may be attributable to neuroplastic processes affecting the size and/or density of neurons and glia and their connections. PMID:27271858

  20. Acid aspiration-induced airways hyperresponsiveness in mice.

    PubMed

    Allen, Gilman B; Leclair, Timothy R; von Reyn, Jessica; Larrabee, Yuna C; Cloutier, Mary E; Irvin, Charles G; Bates, Jason H T

    2009-12-01

    The role of gastroesophageal reflux and micro-aspiration as a trigger of airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in patients with asthma is controversial. The role of acid reflux and aspiration as a direct cause of AHR in normal subjects is also unclear. We speculated that aspiration of a weak acid with a pH (1.8) equivalent to the upper range of typical gastric contents would lead to AHR in naive mice. We further speculated that modest reductions in aspirate acidity to a level expected during gastric acid suppression therapy (pH 4.0) would impede aspiration-induced AHR. BALB/c female mice were briefly anesthetized with isoflurane and allowed to aspirate 75 microl of saline with HCl (pH 1.8, 4.0, or 7.4) or underwent sham aspiration. Mice were re-anesthetized 2 or 24 h later, underwent tracheostomy, and were coupled to a mechanical ventilator. Forced oscillations were used to periodically measure respiratory impedance (Zrs) following aerosol delivery of saline and increasing doses of methacholine to measure for AHR. Values for elastance (H), airways resistance (R(N)), and tissue damping (G) were derived from Zrs. Aspirate pH of 1.8 led to a significant overall increase in peak R(N), G, and H compared with pH 4.0 and 7.4 at 2 and 24 h. Differences between pH 7.4 and 4.0 were not significant. In mice aspirating pH 1.8 compared with controls, airway lavage fluid contained more neutrophils, higher protein, and demonstrated higher permeability. We conclude that acid aspiration triggers an acute AHR, driven principally by breakdown of epithelial barrier integrity within the airways. PMID:19797689

  1. Pneumonia caused by diesel fuel aspiration.

    PubMed

    Haciomeroglu, Osman; Ekinci, Gulbanu Horzum; Ongel, Esra Akkutuk; Kavas, Murat; Burunsuzoglu, Bunyamin; Ozel, Yasemin; Yilmaz, Adnan

    2014-11-01

    An 18 years old Turkish boy was admitted to hospital due to cough, chest pain and shortness of breath for 4 days. Twentyfour hours before the onset of symptoms, the patient had accidentally aspirated diesel while siphoning from the fuel tank of a car. On admission, he was febrile and tachypnoeic. There were fine crackles on auscultation of the lungs. Chest X-ray revealed bilateral infiltration in the lower lung zones. Arterial blood gas analysis showed pH of 7.42, PaO2 of 45.6 mmHg, PaCO2 of 41.3 mmHg and oxygen saturation of 85.2%. He was treated with course of corticosteroid, antibiotic and oxygen supplementation. Chest X-ray showed near-complete resolution 2 weeks after discharge. PMID:25518800

  2. Religiosity and Migration Aspirations among Mexican Youth

    PubMed Central

    Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Ayers, Stephanie L.

    2014-01-01

    International migration has become an important topic of discussion from a policy and humanitarian perspective. Part of the debate includes a renewed interest in understanding the factors that influence decisions about migration to the US among Mexican youth still residing in their country of origin. The purpose of this study was to advance knowledge specifically about internal and external religiosity and their influence on youths' migration aspirations. The data for this study were collected in 2007 from students enrolled in an alternative high school program located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico. The findings indicated that as external religiosity increases, the desire to work or live in the USA decreases. Furthermore, as internal religiosity increases, the desire to work or live in the USA and plans to migrate increase. The results are interpreted and discussed in light of previous research on religious and cultural norm adherence. PMID:25663825

  3. Fine-needle aspiration cytology in fibromatoses.

    PubMed

    Zaharopoulos, P; Wong, J Y

    1992-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology was performed in seven cases of fibromatosis of variable types with tumorous clinical presentation. These included: four cases of musculoaponeurotic fibromatosis, two in posterior neck muscles, one in anterior neck muscles and one in intercostal muscles; one case of fibromatosis of the breast; and two cases of fibromatosis colli in neonates. In all cases the specimens contained connective tissue with many fibroblast-like cells, lacking features which could indicate a malignant lesion. The findings in these cases indicate that, although by FNA cytology in fibromatoses a specific diagnosis for each pathologic entity may not be easily reached, in the proper clinical setting the cytologic findings can be of sufficient relevance to offset the need for an open tissue biopsy, where there are valid reasons against a surgical intervention.

  4. [Our experiences with early vacuum aspiration (miniinterruption)].

    PubMed

    Poradovský, K; Ondás, P; Posluch, J

    1982-07-01

    The authors report their experiences with 80 early vacuum aspirations (mini-interruptions) performed at the 1st Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics of the University Hospital in Kosice during 1980-81. The procedure was performed between days 36-42 in 15% of the women, between days 43-49 in 52.7% of the women, between days 50-56 in 27.5%, and between days 57-60 in 5% of the women. Interruption of pregnancy did not require general anesthesia or hospitalization of the patients. Complications occurred in 10% of the women, 6.25% due to residua and 2.5% to inflammation. Further experience should reduce the occurrence of complications. The authors consider the method to be advantageous and prospective. (author's modified)

  5. Pneumonia caused by diesel fuel aspiration.

    PubMed

    Haciomeroglu, Osman; Ekinci, Gulbanu Horzum; Ongel, Esra Akkutuk; Kavas, Murat; Burunsuzoglu, Bunyamin; Ozel, Yasemin; Yilmaz, Adnan

    2014-11-01

    An 18 years old Turkish boy was admitted to hospital due to cough, chest pain and shortness of breath for 4 days. Twentyfour hours before the onset of symptoms, the patient had accidentally aspirated diesel while siphoning from the fuel tank of a car. On admission, he was febrile and tachypnoeic. There were fine crackles on auscultation of the lungs. Chest X-ray revealed bilateral infiltration in the lower lung zones. Arterial blood gas analysis showed pH of 7.42, PaO2 of 45.6 mmHg, PaCO2 of 41.3 mmHg and oxygen saturation of 85.2%. He was treated with course of corticosteroid, antibiotic and oxygen supplementation. Chest X-ray showed near-complete resolution 2 weeks after discharge.

  6. [Our experiences with early vacuum aspiration (miniinterruption)].

    PubMed

    Poradovský, K; Ondás, P; Posluch, J

    1982-07-01

    The authors report their experiences with 80 early vacuum aspirations (mini-interruptions) performed at the 1st Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics of the University Hospital in Kosice during 1980-81. The procedure was performed between days 36-42 in 15% of the women, between days 43-49 in 52.7% of the women, between days 50-56 in 27.5%, and between days 57-60 in 5% of the women. Interruption of pregnancy did not require general anesthesia or hospitalization of the patients. Complications occurred in 10% of the women, 6.25% due to residua and 2.5% to inflammation. Further experience should reduce the occurrence of complications. The authors consider the method to be advantageous and prospective. (author's modified) PMID:7127164

  7. Preventing aspiration in the nursing home: the role of biofilm and data from the ICU.

    PubMed

    Drinka, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Two aspiration syndromes have been identified: Aspiration pneumonia is infectious caused by micro-aspiration of oral bacteria secondary to neurogenic dysphagia or sedation. Infectious bacteria may also be aspirated from the stomach. Aspiration pneumonitis classically follows large bolus aspiration of food, acid, or digestive enzymes and is initially noninfectious. Large bolus gastric aspiration events may have an acute/dramatic onset. This article discusses (1) prevention of recurrent aspiration events caused by 2 common motility disorders: neurogenic dysphagia and gastro esophageal reflux; (2) mechanical source control (debridement/drainage) of sites that may harbor large collections of bacteria protected from antibiotics in biofilm including dental plaque, coated tongue, and chronic sinusitis.

  8. Maps of the Auditory Cortex.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Alyssa A; Barton, Brian

    2016-07-01

    One of the fundamental properties of the mammalian brain is that sensory regions of cortex are formed of multiple, functionally specialized cortical field maps (CFMs). Each CFM comprises two orthogonal topographical representations, reflecting two essential aspects of sensory space. In auditory cortex, auditory field maps (AFMs) are defined by the combination of tonotopic gradients, representing the spectral aspects of sound (i.e., tones), with orthogonal periodotopic gradients, representing the temporal aspects of sound (i.e., period or temporal envelope). Converging evidence from cytoarchitectural and neuroimaging measurements underlies the definition of 11 AFMs across core and belt regions of human auditory cortex, with likely homology to those of macaque. On a macrostructural level, AFMs are grouped into cloverleaf clusters, an organizational structure also seen in visual cortex. Future research can now use these AFMs to investigate specific stages of auditory processing, key for understanding behaviors such as speech perception and multimodal sensory integration. PMID:27145914

  9. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy with a vacuum test tube.

    PubMed

    Fornage, B D

    1988-11-01

    A simple, low-cost, automatic aspiration system that makes use of vacuum test tubes designed for the drawing of venous blood has been used for real-time ultrasound (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of 13 cysts (breast), an abscess (liver), and five solid (breast, liver, thyroid) masses. Because it allows the operator to perform aspiration with one hand while holding the real-time US transducer with the other, and because creation of the suction is associated with no significant displacement of the needle, this approach has allowed sampling of lesions less than 1 cm in diameter. No complications have occurred.

  10. Pediatric foreign body aspiration: A nidus for Aspergillus colonization.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Candace A; Kreiger, Portia; Goff, Christopher; Shah, Udayan K

    2015-06-01

    We describe an immunocompetent child with bronchial fungus following foreign body aspiration. A two-year-old male presented with cough. Workup revealed air trapping and bronchoscopy showed aspirated foreign material in the right mainstem bronchus. Histopathology revealed fungal organisms suggestive of Aspergillus within an ulcer of the adjacent bronchial mucosa. Foreign body aspiration has been posited as a nidus for aspergilloma formation but is not yet described in the available English-language pediatric literature. Here, the foreign body provided a site for fungal growth in the bronchus of an otherwise healthy child. This case suggests that bronchial foreign body may pose risk of fungal colonization even in immunocompetent children.

  11. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the breast. An overview.

    PubMed

    Naylor, B

    1988-01-01

    With the development of the Breast Care Center in the University of Michigan, we experienced over a 4-year period a 1,200% increase in the number of breast aspirates received annually in our cytopathology laboratory. During this period, as newcomers to breast aspiration cytology, we achieved an 81.4% positive diagnosis rate in 161 cases of breast cancer without any false positives. This article reviews our experience with fine-needle aspiration cytology of the breast with particular reference to (a) procurement of specimens, (b) cytopathology of benign lesions, (c) cytopathology of malignant lesions, and (d) advantages of the procedure.

  12. MRI volumetry of prefrontal cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheline, Yvette I.; Black, Kevin J.; Lin, Daniel Y.; Pimmel, Joseph; Wang, Po; Haller, John W.; Csernansky, John G.; Gado, Mokhtar; Walkup, Ronald K.; Brunsden, Barry S.; Vannier, Michael W.

    1995-05-01

    Prefrontal cortex volumetry by brain magnetic resonance (MR) is required to estimate changes postulated to occur in certain psychiatric and neurologic disorders. A semiautomated method with quantitative characterization of its performance is sought to reliably distinguish small prefrontal cortex volume changes within individuals and between groups. Stereological methods were tested by a blinded comparison of measurements applied to 3D MR scans obtained using an MPRAGE protocol. Fixed grid stereologic methods were used to estimate prefrontal cortex volumes on a graphic workstation, after the images are scaled from 16 to 8 bits using a histogram method. In addition images were resliced into coronal sections perpendicular to the bicommissural plane. Prefrontal cortex volumes were defined as all sections of the frontal lobe anterior to the anterior commissure. Ventricular volumes were excluded. Stereological measurement yielded high repeatability and precision, and was time efficient for the raters. The coefficient of error was cortex boundaries on 3D images was critical to obtaining accurate measurements. MR prefrontal cortex volumetry by stereology can yield accurate and repeatable measurements. Small frontal lobe volume reductions in patients with brain disorders such as depression and schizophrenia can be efficiently assessed using this method.

  13. Is the subcallosal medial prefrontal cortex a common site of atrophy in Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration?

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Olof; Westman, Eric; Karlsson, Sari; Ostberg, Per; Svensson, Leif A; Simmons, Andrew; Wahlund, Lars-Olof

    2012-01-01

    Regions affected late in neurodegenerative disease are thought to be anatomically connected to regions affected earlier. The subcallosal medial prefrontal cortex (SMPC) has connections with the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and hippocampus (HC), which are regions that may become atrophic in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We hypothesized that the SMPC is a common site of frontal atrophy in the FTLD subtypes and in AD. The volume of the SMPC, DLPFC, OFC, HC, and entorhinal cortex (EC) were manually delineated for 12 subjects with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), 13 with semantic dementia (SD), 9 with progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), 10 AD cases, and 13 controls. Results revealed significant volume loss in the left SMPC in FTD, SD, and PNFA, while the right SMPC was also atrophied in SD and FTD. In AD a non significant tendency of volume loss in the left SMPC was found (p = 0.08), with no volume loss on the right side. Results indicated that volume loss reflected the degree of brain connectivity. In SD and AD temporal regions displayed most atrophy. Among the frontal regions, the SMPC (which receives the strongest temporal projections) demonstrated most volume loss, the OFC (which receives less temporal projections) less volume loss, while the DLPFC (which is at multisynaptic distance from the temporal regions) demonstrated no volume loss. In PNFA, the left SMPC was atrophic, possibly reflecting progression from the left anterior insula, while FTD patients may have had SMPC atrophy at the initial stages of the disease. Atrophy of the SMPC may thus be affected by either initial temporal or initial frontal atrophy, making it a common site of frontal atrophy in the dementia subtypes investigated.

  14. Anatomical pathways for auditory memory II: information from rostral superior temporal gyrus to dorsolateral temporal pole and medial temporal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-López, M.; Insausti, R.; Mohedano-Moriano, A.; Mishkin, M.; Saunders, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    Auditory recognition memory in non-human primates differs from recognition memory in other sensory systems. Monkeys learn the rule for visual and tactile delayed matching-to-sample within a few sessions, and then show one-trial recognition memory lasting 10–20 min. In contrast, monkeys require hundreds of sessions to master the rule for auditory recognition, and then show retention lasting no longer than 30–40 s. Moreover, unlike the severe effects of rhinal lesions on visual memory, such lesions have no effect on the monkeys' auditory memory performance. The anatomical pathways for auditory memory may differ from those in vision. Long-term visual recognition memory requires anatomical connections from the visual association area TE with areas 35 and 36 of the perirhinal cortex (PRC). We examined whether there is a similar anatomical route for auditory processing, or that poor auditory recognition memory may reflect the lack of such a pathway. Our hypothesis is that an auditory pathway for recognition memory originates in the higher order processing areas of the rostral superior temporal gyrus (rSTG), and then connects via the dorsolateral temporal pole to access the rhinal cortex of the medial temporal lobe. To test this, we placed retrograde (3% FB and 2% DY) and anterograde (10% BDA 10,000 mW) tracer injections in rSTG and the dorsolateral area 38DL of the temporal pole. Results showed that area 38DL receives dense projections from auditory association areas Ts1, TAa, TPO of the rSTG, from the rostral parabelt and, to a lesser extent, from areas Ts2-3 and PGa. In turn, area 38DL projects densely to area 35 of PRC, entorhinal cortex (EC), and to areas TH/TF of the posterior parahippocampal cortex. Significantly, this projection avoids most of area 36r/c of PRC. This anatomical arrangement may contribute to our understanding of the poor auditory memory of rhesus monkeys. PMID:26041980

  15. Astrocytic cytoskeletal atrophy in the medial prefrontal cortex of a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Kulijewicz-Nawrot, Magdalena; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Chvátal, Alexander; Syková, Eva; Rodríguez, José J

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of cognitive functions, reflecting pathological damage to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) as well as to the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex. Astrocytes maintain the internal homeostasis of the CNS and are fundamentally involved in neuropathological processes, including AD. Here, we analysed the astrocytic cytoskeletal changes within the mPFC of a triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3 × Tg-AD) by measuring the surface area and volume of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive profiles in relation to the build-up and presence of amyloid-β (Aβ), and compared the results with those found in non-transgenic control animals at different ages. 3 × Tg-AD animals showed clear astroglial cytoskeletal atrophy, which appeared at an early age (3 months; 33% and 47% decrease in GFAP-positive surface area and volume, respectively) and remained throughout the disease progression at 9, 12 and 18 months old (29% and 36%; 37% and 35%; 43% and 37%, respectively). This atrophy was independent of Aβ accumulation, as only a few GFAP-positive cells were localized around Aβ aggregates, which suggests no direct relationship with Aβ toxicity. Thus, our results indicate that the progressive reduction in astrocytic branching and domain in the mPFC can account for the integrative dysfunction leading to the cognitive deficits and memory disturbances observed in AD. PMID:22738374

  16. Astrocytic cytoskeletal atrophy in the medial prefrontal cortex of a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kulijewicz-Nawrot, Magdalena; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Chvátal, Alexander; Syková, Eva; Rodríguez, José J

    2012-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of cognitive functions, reflecting pathological damage to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) as well as to the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex. Astrocytes maintain the internal homeostasis of the CNS and are fundamentally involved in neuropathological processes, including AD. Here, we analysed the astrocytic cytoskeletal changes within the mPFC of a triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3 × Tg-AD) by measuring the surface area and volume of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive profiles in relation to the build-up and presence of amyloid-β (Aβ), and compared the results with those found in non-transgenic control animals at different ages. 3 × Tg-AD animals showed clear astroglial cytoskeletal atrophy, which appeared at an early age (3 months; 33% and 47% decrease in GFAP-positive surface area and volume, respectively) and remained throughout the disease progression at 9, 12 and 18 months old (29% and 36%; 37% and 35%; 43% and 37%, respectively). This atrophy was independent of Aβ accumulation, as only a few GFAP-positive cells were localized around Aβ aggregates, which suggests no direct relationship with Aβ toxicity. Thus, our results indicate that the progressive reduction in astrocytic branching and domain in the mPFC can account for the integrative dysfunction leading to the cognitive deficits and memory disturbances observed in AD.

  17. Cross-Lagged Relationships between Career Aspirations and Goal Orientation in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Peter; Tilbury, Clare; Buys, Nick; Crawford, Meegan

    2011-01-01

    We surveyed 217 students (145 girls; average age = 14.6 years) on two occasions, twelve months apart, on measures of career aspirations (job aspirations, job expectations, educational aspirations) and goal orientation (learning, performance-prove, performance-avoid), and tested the causal relationship between goal orientation and aspirations. We…

  18. From Educational Aspirations to College Enrollment: A Road with Many Paths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lu

    2009-01-01

    Educational aspiration is one of the most important factors influencing an individual's educational attainment. Although students' aspirations are changeable and the stability of their aspirations is important for their goal reaching, previous studies are rather limited in their ability to capture aspiration changes due to their incomplete…

  19. Forced Aspiration of bubbles into a capillary tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durth, Melanie; Clanet, Christophe; Fernandez, Juan

    2009-11-01

    One way to remove lodged bubbles in small vena is to force the bubble to be completely aspirated into a fine needle. We study the aspiration of a bubble into a vertical capillary tube, for different bubble size relative to the capillary diameter (i.e. bubble confinement) and low Bond numbers (pipette diameter << capillary length). In this case, there is a critical condition of flow rate depending on the bubble confinement and the capillary number Ca beyond which the bubble is aspirated completely into the capillary. Below this value, the bubble breaks-up forming a liquid slug at the entrance of the tube. A simple model which takes into account the draining time of the annular liquid thin film and the characteristic time of the capillary instability, explains the observed experimental results and establish the characteristic time to aspirate completely the bubble.

  20. Ultrasound-guided needle aspiration of amoebic liver abscess.

    PubMed Central

    Ramani, A.; Ramani, R.; Kumar, M. S.; Lakhkar, B. N.; Kundaje, G. N.

    1993-01-01

    This prospective study was carried out on 200 patients with clinically, ultrasonographically and serologically confirmed amoebic liver abscess. The role of ultrasound-guided needle aspiration in addition to medications was evaluated compared to drug treatment alone. Both the groups were monitored clinically and sonographically for up to 6 months after diagnosis. The initial response (after 15 days) was better in the aspirated group (P < 0.05) but resolution of abscess after 6 months were similar. There was a more rapid clinical response in the aspirated group, particularly in those with larger (> 6 cm) abscesses and there were no complications. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided needle aspiration is a safe diagnostic and therapeutic approach which enhances clinical recovery, accelerates resolution, especially in large abscesses, and prevents complications. PMID:8346134

  1. Dermal mass aspirate from a Persian cat.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Feldman, Bernard; Robertson, John; Herring, Erin S; Manning, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    A 1-year-old spayed female Persian cat with alopecia and weight loss had numerous variably ulcerated dermal nodules. Cytologic examination of an aspirate of one of the nodules revealed pyogranulomatous inflammation along with septate hyphae and basophilic round bodies, 0.5-1.0 microm in diameter, surrounded by a thin clear halo (arthrospores). The cytologic diagnosis was dermatophytic pseudomycetoma. Histologically, there were dermal granulomas containing poorly staining, septate hyphae with bulbous spores embedded within abundant amorphous eosinophilic material (Splendore-Hoeppli reaction), and the histologic diagnosis was pseudomycetoma-associated chronic multifocal severe granulomatous dermatitis with lymphocytic perifolliculitis and furunculosis. Microsporum canis was cultured from the lesion. Pseudomycetomas are distinguished from fungal mycetomas, or eumycotic mycetomas, by the findings of multiple lesions, lack of a history of skin trauma, an association with dermatophytes, most commonly Microsporum canis, and, histologically, lack of true cement material and a more abundant Splendore-Hoeppli reaction in pseudomycetomas. Additionally, pseudomycetomas differ from dermatophytosis, in which lesions are restricted to epidermal structures. Persian cats have a high incidence of pseudomycetoma formation, suggesting a heritable predisposition. The prognosis is fair with systemic antifungal therapy. When examining cytologic specimens from Persian cats with single or multiple dermal nodules, especially if pyogranulomatous inflammation is present, a diagnosis of pseudomycetoma should be suspected and is warranted if arthrospores and refractile septate hyphae are present.

  2. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    Arda, I; Yildirim, S; Demirhan, B; Firat, S

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) is a routine diagnostic technique for evaluating thyroid nodules. Many reports in adults consider that FNA is superior to thyroid ultrasonography (USG) and radionuclide scanning (RS). Only five studies have been published on FNA of childhood thyroid nodules.
AIMS—To investigate the reliability of FNA in the evaluation and management of thyroid nodules, and compare the results of FNA, USG, and RS with regard to final histopathological diagnosis.
METHODS—FNA was performed in 46 children with thyroid nodules after USG and RS examination. We investigated the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of USG, RS, and FNA in their management.
RESULTS—Six patients who had malignant or suspicious cells on FNA examination underwent immediate surgery. The other 40 patients received medical treatment according to their hormonal status. Fifteen of these nodules either disappeared or decreased in number and/or size. Surgery was performed in 25 patients who did not respond to therapy. Statistical analysis revealed sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values respectively as follows: 60%, 59%, 59%, 15%, and 92% for USG; 30%, 42%, 39%, 12%, and 68% for SC; 100%, 95%, 95%, 67%, and 100% for FNAB.
CONCLUSION—FNAB is as reliable in children as in adults for definitive diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Using this technique avoids unnecessary thyroid surgery in children.

 PMID:11567941

  3. Hollow needle cataract aspiration in antiquity.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J; Ascaso, Francisco J; Diab, Fathi; Alzamora-Rodríguez, Antonio; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    The dislocation of the crystalline lens or couching technique was the predominant procedure to surgically remove cataracts until the 18th century A.D. However, in the Middle Ages, some Arab physicians tried to aspirate the opaque lens by means of a glass tube following a paracentesis. Some literary sources attributed the origins of this technique to Antyllus of Alexandria, a Greek surgeon who lived in the 2nd century A.D. in the Roman Empire. Nevertheless, this statement remains unclear and is probably the consequence of posterior interpretations or incorrect translations of the manuscripts. In recent years, the discovery of the hollow needles from Montbellet (France) and Viladamat (Spain), in archaeological settlements dated between the 1st century and 3rd century A.D., has reopened the possibility of cataract extraction as an option in the surgical management of soft cataracts in the antiquity. In any case, these findings are exceptional, and thus, probably this technique was not widely practised and very likely disparaged by the medical community. PMID:26385516

  4. Prevention of suicide: aspirations and evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Gunnell, D.; Frankel, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Health of the Nation white paper set a target for 15% reduction in overall suicide rates by the year 2000. If the targets are to be achieved interventions must be identified which are of proved effectiveness. This paper examines the evidence on the available interventions and points of access to the population at risk. No single intervention has been shown in a well conducted randomised controlled trial to reduce suicide. The greatest potential seems to arise from limiting the availability of methods. In particular it is likely that the introduction of the catalytic convertor will lead to reduced lethality of care exhausts and reductions in suicide using this method. General practitioner education programmes, the effectiveness of lithium and maintenance antidepressants, and limits on the quantity of medicines available over the counter or on prescription should all be evaluated. Particular high risk groups include people recently discharged from psychiatric hospitals and those with a history of parasuicide. Many social processes affect suicide rates and these rather than specific interventions may help or hinder the ability to realise the Health of the Nation targets. Well conducted trials are essential to distinguish complex social processes from the effects of specific interventions for suicide prevention. This review of the available evidence offers little support for the aspiration that the posited targets can be achieved on the basis of current knowledge and current policy. Images p1229-a p1233-a PMID:8080520

  5. Hollow needle cataract aspiration in antiquity.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J; Ascaso, Francisco J; Diab, Fathi; Alzamora-Rodríguez, Antonio; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    The dislocation of the crystalline lens or couching technique was the predominant procedure to surgically remove cataracts until the 18th century A.D. However, in the Middle Ages, some Arab physicians tried to aspirate the opaque lens by means of a glass tube following a paracentesis. Some literary sources attributed the origins of this technique to Antyllus of Alexandria, a Greek surgeon who lived in the 2nd century A.D. in the Roman Empire. Nevertheless, this statement remains unclear and is probably the consequence of posterior interpretations or incorrect translations of the manuscripts. In recent years, the discovery of the hollow needles from Montbellet (France) and Viladamat (Spain), in archaeological settlements dated between the 1st century and 3rd century A.D., has reopened the possibility of cataract extraction as an option in the surgical management of soft cataracts in the antiquity. In any case, these findings are exceptional, and thus, probably this technique was not widely practised and very likely disparaged by the medical community.

  6. The supramammillary nucleus and the claustrum activate the cortex during REM sleep

    PubMed Central

    Renouard, Leslie; Billwiller, Francesca; Ogawa, Keiko; Clément, Olivier; Camargo, Nutabi; Abdelkarim, Mouaadh; Gay, Nadine; Scoté-Blachon, Céline; Touré, Rouguy; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Ravassard, Pascal; Salvert, Denise; Peyron, Christelle; Claustrat, Bruno; Léger, Lucienne; Salin, Paul; Malleret, Gael; Fort, Patrice; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Evidence in humans suggests that limbic cortices are more active during rapid eye movement (REM or paradoxical) sleep than during waking, a phenomenon fitting with the presence of vivid dreaming during this state. In that context, it seemed essential to determine which populations of cortical neurons are activated during REM sleep. Our aim in the present study is to fill this gap by combining gene expression analysis, functional neuroanatomy, and neurochemical lesions in rats. We find in rats that, during REM sleep hypersomnia compared to control and REM sleep deprivation, the dentate gyrus, claustrum, cortical amygdaloid nucleus, and medial entorhinal and retrosplenial cortices are the only cortical structures containing neurons with an increased expression of Bdnf, FOS, and ARC, known markers of activation and/or synaptic plasticity. Further, the dentate gyrus is the only cortical structure containing more FOS-labeled neurons during REM sleep hypersomnia than during waking. Combining FOS staining, retrograde labeling, and neurochemical lesion, we then provide evidence that FOS overexpression occurring in the cortex during REM sleep hypersomnia is due to projections from the supramammillary nucleus and the claustrum. Our results strongly suggest that only a subset of cortical and hippocampal neurons are activated and display plasticity during REM sleep by means of ascending projections from the claustrum and the supramammillary nucleus. Our results pave the way for future studies to identify the function of REM sleep with regard to dreaming and emotional memory processing. PMID:26601158

  7. The supramammillary nucleus and the claustrum activate the cortex during REM sleep.

    PubMed

    Renouard, Leslie; Billwiller, Francesca; Ogawa, Keiko; Clément, Olivier; Camargo, Nutabi; Abdelkarim, Mouaadh; Gay, Nadine; Scoté-Blachon, Céline; Touré, Rouguy; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Ravassard, Pascal; Salvert, Denise; Peyron, Christelle; Claustrat, Bruno; Léger, Lucienne; Salin, Paul; Malleret, Gael; Fort, Patrice; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé

    2015-04-01

    Evidence in humans suggests that limbic cortices are more active during rapid eye movement (REM or paradoxical) sleep than during waking, a phenomenon fitting with the presence of vivid dreaming during this state. In that context, it seemed essential to determine which populations of cortical neurons are activated during REM sleep. Our aim in the present study is to fill this gap by combining gene expression analysis, functional neuroanatomy, and neurochemical lesions in rats. We find in rats that, during REM sleep hypersomnia compared to control and REM sleep deprivation, the dentate gyrus, claustrum, cortical amygdaloid nucleus, and medial entorhinal and retrosplenial cortices are the only cortical structures containing neurons with an increased expression of Bdnf, FOS, and ARC, known markers of activation and/or synaptic plasticity. Further, the dentate gyrus is the only cortical structure containing more FOS-labeled neurons during REM sleep hypersomnia than during waking. Combining FOS staining, retrograde labeling, and neurochemical lesion, we then provide evidence that FOS overexpression occurring in the cortex during REM sleep hypersomnia is due to projections from the supramammillary nucleus and the claustrum. Our results strongly suggest that only a subset of cortical and hippocampal neurons are activated and display plasticity during REM sleep by means of ascending projections from the claustrum and the supramammillary nucleus. Our results pave the way for future studies to identify the function of REM sleep with regard to dreaming and emotional memory processing. PMID:26601158

  8. The supramammillary nucleus and the claustrum activate the cortex during REM sleep.

    PubMed

    Renouard, Leslie; Billwiller, Francesca; Ogawa, Keiko; Clément, Olivier; Camargo, Nutabi; Abdelkarim, Mouaadh; Gay, Nadine; Scoté-Blachon, Céline; Touré, Rouguy; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Ravassard, Pascal; Salvert, Denise; Peyron, Christelle; Claustrat, Bruno; Léger, Lucienne; Salin, Paul; Malleret, Gael; Fort, Patrice; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé

    2015-04-01

    Evidence in humans suggests that limbic cortices are more active during rapid eye movement (REM or paradoxical) sleep than during waking, a phenomenon fitting with the presence of vivid dreaming during this state. In that context, it seemed essential to determine which populations of cortical neurons are activated during REM sleep. Our aim in the present study is to fill this gap by combining gene expression analysis, functional neuroanatomy, and neurochemical lesions in rats. We find in rats that, during REM sleep hypersomnia compared to control and REM sleep deprivation, the dentate gyrus, claustrum, cortical amygdaloid nucleus, and medial entorhinal and retrosplenial cortices are the only cortical structures containing neurons with an increased expression of Bdnf, FOS, and ARC, known markers of activation and/or synaptic plasticity. Further, the dentate gyrus is the only cortical structure containing more FOS-labeled neurons during REM sleep hypersomnia than during waking. Combining FOS staining, retrograde labeling, and neurochemical lesion, we then provide evidence that FOS overexpression occurring in the cortex during REM sleep hypersomnia is due to projections from the supramammillary nucleus and the claustrum. Our results strongly suggest that only a subset of cortical and hippocampal neurons are activated and display plasticity during REM sleep by means of ascending projections from the claustrum and the supramammillary nucleus. Our results pave the way for future studies to identify the function of REM sleep with regard to dreaming and emotional memory processing.

  9. Survey of Foreign Body Aspiration in Airways and Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Samarei, R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Foreign body aspiration is a very serious problem and the diversity of clinical protests in each geographic region has its own characteristics and common problems of childhood that is an important cause of mortality and morbidity. No area is separate from this problem and conducting this research is due to achieve basic information regarding foreign body aspiration. Materials and Methods: This was performed as descriptive - cross sectional study on 200 cases that has been hospitalized in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Urmia due to foreign body aspiration problem from 2009 to 2011. And all cases of foreign body aspiration records extracted and analyzed using SPSS 16 software. Results: Foreign body aspiration under 4 years was 57% and was more common in males than females; approximately 74% of patients were hospitalized in the first 10 days and 13% of patients did not remember the initial incident that led to the aspiration. Cough and shortness of breath and reduced lung sounds and wheezing were common symptoms. Chest radiographic findings are not specific and can be normal of a high percentage. The most common aspirated foreign body was food especially sunflower seeds. Right bronchus with 55% of cases was more common than the left bronchus and all patients were treated with rigid bronchoscopy, 24% of patients had complications, 15% had hospitalized with pneumonia. Totally, 75% of patients were urban residents. Discussion: We need to understand all the aspects related to foreign body aspiration and education to the community, to recognize symptoms and type of foreign body in terms of geographical area and to create a strong clinical suspicion in physicians and awareness of its prevalence that by reducing the incidence and early detecting and treatment can reduce the mortality and morbidity and prevent additional expenses. PMID:25363168

  10. [Aspiration in a specialised weaning unit--an underestimated problem].

    PubMed

    Zenner, M; Meurer, D; Baumann-Emmel, S; Brand, M; Berndt, U; Rheinbay, G; Kienast, K H

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective case series shows that 45 % of patients aspirated straight after removal of the tracheal cannula. The present case series includes 82 patients with long-term mechanical ventilation (LTMV) admitted to a specialised weaning unit. Aspiration was proven after patients sipped water coloured with patent blue V. Colour was detected with a bronchoscope after passing through the tracheostoma and directed toward the VC. The aspiration rate in this study is in good agreement with other reports in the literature.We could find no significant statistical differences concerning age (p = 0.97), gender (47 % vs. 49), number of bronchoscopies (p = 0.91) and comorbidities (p = 0.326) between patients with and without aspiration. The duration of the stay at the ward and the duration of ventilation as well as the parameter Hb at the time of admission (p = 0.566), CO2(p = 0.288/p = 0.716), HCO3 (p = 0.915/p = 0.612) and CRP (p = 0.402/p = 0.523) at the time of admission and discharge also showed no significant differences.The Kaplan Meier curves show a considerable divergence between patients with and without aspiration. However, the Log Rank Test (p = 0.348) and the univariate Cox Regression (HR 1.4, 95 % CI 0.689 - 2.849) were not significant. We believe that this can be attributed to the event rate, which was too low in our collective. This trend to a higher mortality of patients with aspiration might be due to weakness of the respiratory muscles when there is reduced coughing. Proof of aspiration in these patients is only one aspect of a multidimensional problem. Larger, prospective cohort studies are needed to show whether aspiration can serve as a prognostic marker. PMID:25599139

  11. Aspiration dynamics of multi-player games in finite populations

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jinming; Wu, Bin; Altrock, Philipp M.; Wang, Long

    2014-01-01

    On studying strategy update rules in the framework of evolutionary game theory, one can differentiate between imitation processes and aspiration-driven dynamics. In the former case, individuals imitate the strategy of a more successful peer. In the latter case, individuals adjust their strategies based on a comparison of their pay-offs from the evolutionary game to a value they aspire, called the level of aspiration. Unlike imitation processes of pairwise comparison, aspiration-driven updates do not require additional information about the strategic environment and can thus be interpreted as being more spontaneous. Recent work has mainly focused on understanding how aspiration dynamics alter the evolutionary outcome in structured populations. However, the baseline case for understanding strategy selection is the well-mixed population case, which is still lacking sufficient understanding. We explore how aspiration-driven strategy-update dynamics under imperfect rationality influence the average abundance of a strategy in multi-player evolutionary games with two strategies. We analytically derive a condition under which a strategy is more abundant than the other in the weak selection limiting case. This approach has a long-standing history in evolutionary games and is mostly applied for its mathematical approachability. Hence, we also explore strong selection numerically, which shows that our weak selection condition is a robust predictor of the average abundance of a strategy. The condition turns out to differ from that of a wide class of imitation dynamics, as long as the game is not dyadic. Therefore, a strategy favoured under imitation dynamics can be disfavoured under aspiration dynamics. This does not require any population structure, and thus highlights the intrinsic difference between imitation and aspiration dynamics. PMID:24598208

  12. Aspiration cytology of metastatic chordoma. A case report.

    PubMed

    Elliott, E C; McKinney, S; Banks, H; Fulks, R M

    1983-01-01

    A patient with previously diagnosed sacrococcygeal chordoma presented with multiple skin nodules. Cytologic examination of an aspirate from one of these nodules showed syncytial clusters of hyperchromatic cells surrounded by extracellular mucin. The characteristic physaliphorous cells, although present in a biopsy of the primary sacrococcygeal tumor, were not observed in the aspirate or on histopathologic examination of three excised skin metastases. That chordoma metastases may lack physaliphorous cells should be recognized.

  13. Relation of the enhancement of entorhinal tetanic responses by 50-Hz amygdala stimulation to the progression of kindling in the rat.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Hirayama, K; Murata, R; Matsuura, S

    1995-10-01

    We recorded entorhinal tetanic responses to 50-Hz kindling stimulations applied at the amygdala in conscious rats, which produced facilitation and depression during the train pulses, in order to analyze the relationship of the changes in the tetanic responses to the development of both after-discharges (ADs) and behavioral seizures. Facilitation was always produced in the earlier tetanic responses and was followed by depression which reached a quasi-steady level in the later tetanic responses during each kindling stimulation. To estimate the changes in magnitude of the excitatory synaptic activation in the tetanic responses, with reference to the development of seizure stages, tetanic responses which produced the same behavioral seizure stage in each rat were averaged and the area between the negative (excitatory) potentials and the baseline of the averaged tetanic response was measured in terms of mV x ms. Magnitudes of the averaged negative components were significantly enhanced with an increase in the order of seizure stages in eight rats (P < 0.01). In addition, the mean magnitude of the averaged negative components had a linear correlation (r = 0.95, P < 0.05) with the mean AD duration with reference to the order of seizure stages in the eight rats. The magnitude of the positive (inhibitory) component in the averaged tetanic responses was also measured and found to decrease with an increase in the seizure stages (P < 0.01). The magnitude of the negative component in the test responses to single (0.3 Hz) stimuli just before kindling stimulations also increased with an increase in the order of seizure stages, indicating long term potentiation of the responses by kindling stimulations. We concluded from the results that the enhancement of facilitation of the excitatory synaptic activation and the reduction of the inhibitory synaptic activation in entorhinal tetanic responses by 50-Hz amygdala kindling stimulation is involved in the electrophysiological source of

  14. Meconium aspiration syndrome: do we know?

    PubMed

    Yurdakök, Murat

    2011-01-01

    Meconium is a common finding in amniotic fluid and placental specimens, particularly in the term or post-term pregnancy. The most important consequence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) is meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), and at least 5% of infants born through MSAF develop MAS. MAS continues to be a threat to many newborns throughout the world, with a case fatality rate of 5% (as much as 40%), in addition to short- and long-term pulmonary and neurodevelopmental sequelae. The exact pathophysiology of meconium passage into the amniotic fluid and consequences of meconium aspiration are unknown. There are three prevailing and possibly compatible theories for mechanisms of meconium release. Firstly, meconium passage is probably related with the maturation of the gastrointestinal tract, because meconium passage in the preterm third trimester fetus has been reported to be a rare event, as typically it occurs near or post-term. Secondly, an alternate hypothesis for in utero meconium passage is that pathologic processes, such as stress via hypoxia or infection, can trigger meconium passage. However, the predictive values of MSAF for fetal distress and acidosis at birth are poor and controversial. Thirdly, an alternative route for the presence of MSAF in the presence of fetal hypoxia is reduced clearance of defecated meconium due to impaired fetal swallowing or unidentified placental dysfunction in addition to or instead of an increase in its passage. The pathophysiology of MAS is multifactorial and extremely complex. Meconium causes mechanical obstruction and pulmonary air leak, induces surfactant inactivation, causes pulmonary inflammation, and induces apoptosis. Preventing prolonged pregnancy by labor induction might reduce the risk of MSAF. Labor induction with prostaglandins appears to be associated with the occurrence of MSAF. Amnioinfusion for suspected umbilical cord compression has no clear effect on the occurrence of MSAF. Intrapartum suctioning of the

  15. Micro and macro factors affecting childbearing aspirations.

    PubMed

    He, Y

    1992-01-01

    The conclusion of the discussion of factors affecting childbearing aspirations is that both a micro and a macro perspective must be included in an empirical analysis which would be useful for policy decisions. Micro factors tend to the economic function of the family, the economic value of children, cost of labor training, women's occupation, social security, household consumption, and education level. Attention to micro factors is important in the link between individual interests and state family planning (FP) policy. Macro factors tend to be ignored, but also impact on childbearing decisions. Macro factors are economic conditions, social and political factors, culture, and environmental factors such as ecology, natural resources, employment, economic development, and education. Macro factors affect the population as a whole and indirectly impact on individuals and the family. China's achievements in FP policy have been identified as a reduction of 200 million people, a shift in the population reproduction cycle downwards, increased standard of living, reduction in the burden of working people, and stabilization of macro factors. Successful policy should not rely on forced implementation. The past and present policies were successful not because of forced implementation, but because of awareness of macro and micro factors and voluntary use of FP. The voluntary nature of acceptance of FP suggests support for the FP policies. The current focus is on rural areas, and farmers in particular who are only aware of their needs and may feel state policy may interfere with their own interests. Implementation of FP among the rural population would be enhanced with an emphasis on their concerns such as social security in old age, the practical issues of having only daughters, and educational status. Educational campaigns promoting awareness of population pressure are needed and will benefit all the people. Social democratic doctrines can be introduced only from the outside

  16. Micro and macro factors affecting childbearing aspirations.

    PubMed

    He, Y

    1992-01-01

    The conclusion of the discussion of factors affecting childbearing aspirations is that both a micro and a macro perspective must be included in an empirical analysis which would be useful for policy decisions. Micro factors tend to the economic function of the family, the economic value of children, cost of labor training, women's occupation, social security, household consumption, and education level. Attention to micro factors is important in the link between individual interests and state family planning (FP) policy. Macro factors tend to be ignored, but also impact on childbearing decisions. Macro factors are economic conditions, social and political factors, culture, and environmental factors such as ecology, natural resources, employment, economic development, and education. Macro factors affect the population as a whole and indirectly impact on individuals and the family. China's achievements in FP policy have been identified as a reduction of 200 million people, a shift in the population reproduction cycle downwards, increased standard of living, reduction in the burden of working people, and stabilization of macro factors. Successful policy should not rely on forced implementation. The past and present policies were successful not because of forced implementation, but because of awareness of macro and micro factors and voluntary use of FP. The voluntary nature of acceptance of FP suggests support for the FP policies. The current focus is on rural areas, and farmers in particular who are only aware of their needs and may feel state policy may interfere with their own interests. Implementation of FP among the rural population would be enhanced with an emphasis on their concerns such as social security in old age, the practical issues of having only daughters, and educational status. Educational campaigns promoting awareness of population pressure are needed and will benefit all the people. Social democratic doctrines can be introduced only from the outside

  17. Laryngeal Elevation Velocity and Aspiration in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Yun; Wei, Na; Yang, Bo; Wang, Anxin; Zhou, Hai; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Yongjun; Liu, Liping; Ouyoung, Melody; Villegas, Brenda; Groher, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Aspiration after stroke has been associated with aspiration pneumonia, which contributes to increased mortality of stroke. Laryngeal elevation is a core mechanism for protection from aspiration. Few studies have explored the predictive value of laryngeal elevation velocity for aspiration after stroke. This study aimed to explore the ability of laryngeal elevation velocity to predict aspiration in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods This was a prospective cohort study that included consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients treated at a teaching hospital during a 10-month period. Patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to confirm the diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke. Patients who were at risk of aspiration and could swallow 5 ml of diluted barium (40%, w/v) for a videofluoroscopic swallowing (VFS) study were included. The association between abnormal indices in the oral and pharyngeal phase of the VFS study and aspiration was examined using univariate analyses. These indices included the lip closure, tongue movement and control, laryngeal elevation velocity and range, the latency of pharyngeal swallowing, pharyngeal transit time (PTT), abnormal epiglottis tilt, residual barium in the pharynx, and the duration of upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening. The laryngeal elevation velocity (%/s) was calculated as the range of laryngeal elevation (%) from the resting position to the maximum superior position or to the position where the laryngeal vestibule is fully closed divided by the corresponding duration of laryngeal elevation. The range of laryngeal elevation (%) was the percentage calculated as the distance between the resting laryngeal position and the maximum superior excursion position or position where the laryngeal vestibule is fully closed divided by the distance between the resting laryngeal position and the lowest edge of the mandible. A logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictive value for aspiration

  18. Can nature make us more caring? Effects of immersion in nature on intrinsic aspirations and generosity.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Netta; Przybylski, Andrew K; Ryan, Richard M

    2009-10-01

    Four studies examined the effects of nature on valuing intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations. Intrinsic aspirations reflected prosocial and other-focused value orientations, and extrinsic aspirations predicted self-focused value orientations. Participants immersed in natural environments reported higher valuing of intrinsic aspirations and lower valuing of extrinsic aspirations, whereas those immersed in non-natural environments reported increased valuing of extrinsic aspirations and no change of intrinsic aspirations. Three studies explored experiences of nature relatedness and autonomy as underlying mechanisms of these effects, showing that nature immersion elicited these processes whereas non-nature immersion thwarted them and that they in turn predicted higher intrinsic and lower extrinsic aspirations. Studies 3 and 4 also extended the paradigm by testing these effects on generous decision making indicative of valuing intrinsic versus extrinsic aspirations.

  19. ACCURATE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS IN A NATURALLY-ASPIRATED RADIATION SHIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzeja, R.

    2009-09-09

    Experiments and calculations were conducted with a 0.13 mm fine wire thermocouple within a naturally-aspirated Gill radiation shield to assess and improve the accuracy of air temperature measurements without the use of mechanical aspiration, wind speed or radiation measurements. It was found that this thermocouple measured the air temperature with root-mean-square errors of 0.35 K within the Gill shield without correction. A linear temperature correction was evaluated based on the difference between the interior plate and thermocouple temperatures. This correction was found to be relatively insensitive to shield design and yielded an error of 0.16 K for combined day and night observations. The correction was reliable in the daytime when the wind speed usually exceeds 1 m s{sup -1} but occasionally performed poorly at night during very light winds. Inspection of the standard deviation in the thermocouple wire temperature identified these periods but did not unambiguously locate the most serious events. However, estimates of sensor accuracy during these periods is complicated by the much larger sampling volume of the mechanically-aspirated sensor compared with the naturally-aspirated sensor and the presence of significant near surface temperature gradients. The root-mean-square errors therefore are upper limits to the aspiration error since they include intrinsic sensor differences and intermittent volume sampling differences.

  20. Predictors of aspiration pneumonia: how important is dysphagia?

    PubMed

    Langmore, S E; Terpenning, M S; Schork, A; Chen, Y; Murray, J T; Lopatin, D; Loesche, W J

    1998-01-01

    Aspiration pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among the elderly who are hospitalized or in nursing homes. Multiple risk factors for pneumonia have been identified, but no study has effectively compared the relative risk of factors in several different categories, including dysphagia. In this prospective outcomes study, 189 elderly subjects were recruited from the outpatient clinics, inpatient acute care wards, and the nursing home care center at the VA Medical Center in Ann Arbor, Michigan. They were given a variety of assessments to determine oropharyngeal and esophageal swallowing and feeding status, functional status, medical status, and oral/dental status. The subjects were followed for up to 4 years for an outcome of verified aspiration pneumonia. Bivariate analyses identified several factors as significantly associated with pneumonia. Logistic regression analyses then identified the significant predictors of aspiration pneumonia. The best predictors, in one or more groups of subjects, were dependent for feeding, dependent for oral care, number of decayed teeth, tube feeding, more than one medical diagnosis, number of medications, and smoking. The role that each of the significant predictors might play was described in relation to the pathogenesis of aspiration pneumonia. Dysphagia was concluded to be an important risk for aspiration pneumonia, but generally not sufficient to cause pneumonia unless other risk factors are present as well. A dependency upon others for feeding emerged as the dominant risk factor, with an odds ratio of 19.98 in a logistic regression model that excluded tube-fed patients.

  1. Pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents during routine endoscopy

    SciTech Connect

    La France, N.D.; Cole, P.; Wolfe, E.; Giardello, F.; Wagner, H.N.

    1985-05-01

    Radioactive tracer studies are a sensitive means to detect occult pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. A complication of diagnostic endoscopy is aspiration of contents even in fasted patients. The authors have studied 21 hospitalized patients who underwent elective endoscopy (END) for suspected UGI pathology. Fifteen minutes before END, and prior to pharygeal anesthesia, 1 mCi Tc-99m-sulfur colloid, added to the usual 30cc of simethicone routinely administered before END, was given orally. END was performed as usual and 2 hours later anterior 100,000 count images of the chest were obtained. All the studies were interpreted without history or clinical information. Fever developed within 24 hours (and septic shock in 1) in both patients with positive studies while no fever occurred in the remaining patients with negative studies (rho<.001). The authors conclude that oral radionuclide pulmonary aspiration studies may; detect aspiration not recognized by the endoscopist, reveal evidence of aspiration that preceeds adverse clinical signs and symptoms, and be influenced by systemic pre-END drugs known to affect GI secretions and motility.

  2. Visual cortex: suppression by depression?

    PubMed

    Mrsic-Flogel, Thomas; Hübener, Mark

    2002-08-20

    The response of a neuron in the visual cortex to an oriented light bar is strongly reduced by concurrent presentation of a stimulus with a different orientation. New data suggest this 'cross-orientation suppression' is caused, not by intracortical inhibition, but by rapid depression of thalamocortical synapses.

  3. The insular cortex: a review.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuys, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    The human insular cortex forms a distinct, but entirely hidden lobe, situated in the depth of the Sylvian fissure. Here, we first review the recent literature on the connectivity and the functions of this structure. It appears that this small lobe, taking up less than 2% of the total cortical surface area, receives afferents from some sensory thalamic nuclei, is (mostly reciprocally) connected with the amygdala and with many limbic and association cortical areas, and is implicated in an astonishingly large number of widely different functions, ranging from pain perception and speech production to the processing of social emotions. Next, we embark on a long, adventurous journey through the voluminous literature on the structural organization of the insular cortex. This journey yielded the following take-home messages: (1) The meticulous, but mostly neglected publications of Rose (1928) and Brockhaus (1940) are still invaluable for our understanding of the architecture of the mammalian insular cortex. (2) The relation of the insular cortex to the adjacent claustrum is neither ontogenetical nor functional, but purely topographical. (3) The insular cortex has passed through a spectacular progressive differentiation during hominoid evolution, but the assumption of Craig (2009) that the human anterior insula has no homologue in the rhesus monkey is untenable. (4) The concept of Mesulam and Mufson (1985), that the primate insula is essentially composed of three concentrically arranged zones, agranular, dysgranular, and granular, is presumably correct, but there is at present much confusion concerning the more detailed architecture of the anterior insular cortex. (5) The large spindle-shaped cells in the fifth layer of the insular cortex, currently known as von Economo neurons (VENs), are not only confined to large-brained mammals, such as whales, elephants, apes, and humans, but also occur in monkeys and prosimians, as well as in the pygmy hippopotamus, the Atlantic

  4. Competitive (AP7) and non-competitive (MK-801) NMDA receptor antagonists differentially alter glucose utilization in rat cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Clow, D.W.; Lee, S.J.; Hammer, R.P. Jr. )

    1991-04-01

    The effects of D,L-2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid (AP7), a competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, and MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, on regional brain metabolism were studied in unanesthetized, freely moving rats by using the quantitative {sup 14}C2-deoxyglucose autoradiographic procedure. AP7 (338 or 901 mg/kg) produced a dose-dependent decrease of metabolic activity throughout most of the regions studied including sensory, motor, and limbic cortices. In contrast, MK-801 (0.1 or 1.0 mg/kg) resulted in a dose-dependent decrease of metabolic activity in sensory cortices, and an increase in limbic regions such as the hippocampal stratum lacunosum moleculare and entorhinal cortex. MK-801 also produced a biphasic response in agranular motor cortex, whereby the low dose increased while the high dose decreased labeling. In addition, MK-801 produced heterogeneous effects on regional cerebral metabolism in sensory cortices. Metabolic activity decreased in layer IV relative to layer Va following MK-801 treatment in primary somatosensory (SI) and visual (VI) cortices, suggesting a shift in activity from afferent fibers innervating layer IV to those innervating layer Va. MK-801 administration also decreased metabolic activity in granular SI relative to dysgranular SI, and in VI relative to secondary visual cortex (VII), thus providing a relative sparing of activity in dysgranular SI and VII. Thus, the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist suppressed activity from extrinsic neocortical sources, enhancing relative intracortical activity and stimulating limbic regions, while the competitive NMDA antagonist depressed metabolic activity in all cortical regions.

  5. PSA-NCAM is Expressed in Immature, but not Recently Generated, Neurons in the Adult Cat Cerebral Cortex Layer II

    PubMed Central

    Varea, Emilio; Belles, Maria; Vidueira, Sandra; Blasco-Ibáñez, José M.; Crespo, Carlos; Pastor, Ángel M.; Nacher, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal production persists during adulthood in the dentate gyrus and the olfactory bulb, where substantial numbers of immature neurons can be found. These cells can also be found in the paleocortex layer II of adult rodents, but in this case most of them have been generated during embryogenesis. Recent reports have described the presence of similar cells, with a wider distribution, in the cerebral cortex of adult cats and primates and have suggested that they may develop into interneurons. The objective of this study is to verify this hypothesis and to explore the origin of these immature neurons in adult cats. We have analyzed their distribution using immunohistochemical analysis of the polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) and their phenotype using markers of mature neurons and different interneuronal populations. Additionally, we have explored the origin of these cells administering 5′bromodeoxyuridine (5′BrdU) during adulthood. Immature neurons were widely dispersed in the cerebral cortex layers II and upper III, being specially abundant in the piriform and entorhinal cortices, in the ventral portions of the frontal and temporoparietal lobes, but relatively scarce in dorsal regions, such as the primary visual areas. Only a small fraction of PSA-NCAM expressing cells in layer II expressed the mature neuronal marker NeuN and virtually none of them expressed calcium binding proteins or neuropeptides. By contrast, most, if not all of these cells expressed the transcription factor Tbr-1, specifically expressed by pallium-derived principal neurons, but not CAMKII, a marker of mature excitatory neurons. Absence of PSA-NCAM/5′BrdU colocalization suggests that, as in rats, these cells were not generated during adulthood. Together, these results indicate that immature neurons in the adult cat cerebral cortex layer II are not recently generated and that they may differentiate into principal neurons. PMID:21415912

  6. Small magnet aspiration as a pediatric emergency: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiajian; Liu, Dabo; Huang, Zhenyun; Ke, Kengjian

    2015-01-01

    Tracheobronchial airway foreign body aspiration (FBA) in children is a common and serious pediatric medical emergency. With the increasing use of small magnets in home offices, in toys and the kitchen, inhalation of small magnets has become an increasing risk to children. We present a case of a 9-year-old boy who presented with cough and dyspnea three days following inhalation of an 3 cm-sized oval magnet. The history and the chest radiograph were important in planning for the removal of the aspirated foreign body. In this case, we removed the inhaled magnet using rigid bronchoscopy under general anesthetic. We herein reviewed the recent reports on the incidence and management of small foreign body aspiration as a pediatric emergency. PMID:26770610

  7. UNCERTAINTY IN EARLY OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATIONS: ROLE EXPLORATION OR AIMLESSNESS?

    PubMed Central

    Staff, Jeremy; Harris, Angel; Sabates, Ricardo; Briddell, Laine

    2014-01-01

    Many youth in the United States lack clear occupational aspirations. This uncertainty in achievement ambitions may benefit socioeconomic attainment if it signifies “role exploration,” characterized by career development, continued education, and enduring partnerships. By contrast, uncertainty may diminish attainment if it instead leads to “aimlessness,” involving prolonged education without the acquisition of a degree, residential dependence, and frequent job changes. We use nationally representative data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) to examine how uncertainty in occupational aspirations in adolescence (age 16) affects wage attainments in young adulthood (age 26). Results suggest that youth with uncertain career ambitions earn significantly lower hourly wages in young adulthood than youth with professional and non-professional aspirations, supporting the view that uncertainty heightens the risk of labor-market problems. PMID:25540465

  8. Thyroid aspiration cytology: a "cell pattern" approach to interpretation.

    PubMed

    Nayar, R; Frost, A R

    2001-05-01

    The key to the interpretation of thyroid fine needle aspiration is largely dependent on the recognition of various morphologic patterns of epithelial cells, usually follicular cells, and background elements, such as colloid. These morphologic patterns consist of 3 parts: 1) The arrangement of cells with respect to one another, 2) The cytologic features of individual cells, and 3) The presence of background elements. The cellular arrangements generally encountered in fine needle aspiration of the thyroid include the follicular patterns (macro-/normo-follicular and micro-follicular), the papillary pattern, the syncytial pattern, the dispersed cell pattern, and the cystic pattern. This article approaches some of the differential diagnostic challenges encountered while interpreting thyroid aspiration cytology by focusing first on the overall cellular arrangement to generate a differential diagnosis and then narrowing that differential by assessing cellular features of individual cells and the presence of background elements. PMID:11403258

  9. Thyroid aspiration cytology: a "cell pattern" approach to interpretation.

    PubMed

    Nayar, R; Frost, A R

    2001-05-01

    The key to the interpretation of thyroid fine needle aspiration is largely dependent on the recognition of various morphologic patterns of epithelial cells, usually follicular cells, and background elements, such as colloid. These morphologic patterns consist of 3 parts: 1) The arrangement of cells with respect to one another, 2) The cytologic features of individual cells, and 3) The presence of background elements. The cellular arrangements generally encountered in fine needle aspiration of the thyroid include the follicular patterns (macro-/normo-follicular and micro-follicular), the papillary pattern, the syncytial pattern, the dispersed cell pattern, and the cystic pattern. This article approaches some of the differential diagnostic challenges encountered while interpreting thyroid aspiration cytology by focusing first on the overall cellular arrangement to generate a differential diagnosis and then narrowing that differential by assessing cellular features of individual cells and the presence of background elements.

  10. Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination

    SciTech Connect

    Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective.

  11. Powder aspiration in children. Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Pfenninger, J; D'Apuzzo, V

    1977-02-01

    Two cases of powder aspiration are reported. A 7 1/2-month-old girl showed a classical course with an asymptomatic period of 3-4 hours, then severe respiratory distress developed. Acute respiratory insufficiency made tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation necessary for 10 days. Complications included insufficient alveolar ventilation, atelectasis, pneumothorax, and superinfection. But the baby recovered with some residual radiological changes in the lungs. A 13-month-old boy was treated immediately after massive powder aspiration by tracheal intubation and bronchial wash-out. The postoperative course was unevetful and no respiratory distress developed. Powder aspiration leads to severe bronchiolar obstruction with a delay of several hours and has a high mortality rate. The best results in treatment are obtained by immediate intubation and bronchial wash-out, even in the absence of respiratory symptoms. Artifical ventilation may be necessary with the special problem of overcoming very high airway resistance. Corticosteroids and bronchodilators may be helpful. PMID:836067

  12. Small magnet aspiration as a pediatric emergency: a case report.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiajian; Liu, Dabo; Huang, Zhenyun; Ke, Kengjian

    2015-01-01

    Tracheobronchial airway foreign body aspiration (FBA) in children is a common and serious pediatric medical emergency. With the increasing use of small magnets in home offices, in toys and the kitchen, inhalation of small magnets has become an increasing risk to children. We present a case of a 9-year-old boy who presented with cough and dyspnea three days following inhalation of an 3 cm-sized oval magnet. The history and the chest radiograph were important in planning for the removal of the aspirated foreign body. In this case, we removed the inhaled magnet using rigid bronchoscopy under general anesthetic. We herein reviewed the recent reports on the incidence and management of small foreign body aspiration as a pediatric emergency. PMID:26770610

  13. Bladder outlet obstruction treated with transurethral ultrasonic aspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, Terrence R.

    1991-07-01

    Fifty-nine males with bladder outlet obstruction were treated with transurethral ultrasonic aspiration of the prostate. Utilizing a 26.5 French urethral sheath, surgery was accomplished with a 10 French, 0-700 micron vibration level ultrasonic tip with an excursion rate of 39 kHz. Complete removal of the adenoma was accomplished, followed by transurethral electrocautery biopsies of both lateral lobes to compare pathologic specimens. One-year follow-up revealed satisfactory voiding patterns in 57 of 59 men (96%). Two men developed bladder neck contractures. Pathologic comparisons showed 100% correlation between aspirated and TUR specimens (56 BPH, 3 adeno-carcinoma). Forty-sevel men were active sexually preoperatively (6 with inflatable penile prostheses). Post ultrasonic aspiration, 46 men had erectile function similar to preoperative levels with one patient suffering erectile dysfunction. Forty men (85%) had antegrade ejaculation while 7 (15%) experienced retrograde or retarded ejaculation. No patients were incontinent.

  14. Needle aspiration biopsy of major salivary gland tumors. Its value.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, P; Farrar, W B; James, A G; Finkelmeier, W; McCabe, D P

    1986-02-01

    Three hundred forty-one needle aspiration biopsies (NAB) of major salivary gland tumors were performed over a 32-year period. Eighty percent of tumors were benign, and 20% were malignant. Preoperative NAB findings were compared with pathologic diagnosis of the surgically resected specimen in all cases. Forty-six of 63 aspirates from malignant tumors were correctly diagnosed by NAB, establishing a sensitivity at 73%. Two hundred forty-nine of 265 aspirates from benign tumors were correctly diagnosed by NAB, establishing a specificity at 94%. Overall accuracy was 90%. Diagnostic error or difficulty in clinically localizing the tumor to the salivary gland was encountered in 64 patients with parotid tumors and 12 patients with submandibular tumors. NAB correctly localized over 85% of these tumors to the salivary gland, thus enabling both immediate and correct decision-making concerning subsequent management to be undertaken.

  15. Fine needle aspiration biopsy in salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Lau, T; Balle, V H; Bretlau, P

    1986-04-01

    Of 105 tumours of the major salivary glands, 90 were benign and 15 malignant. In benign tumours a correct preoperative diagnosis was made by fine needle aspiration biopsy in 84%, and none were falsely classed as malignant. In the malignant tumours, only 8 out of 15 (53%) were correctly diagnosed as malignant while 7 were misdiagnosed as benign. It is concluded that in benign salivary gland tumours there is good accordance between fine needle aspiration biopsy and the final histological report, in contrast to the malignant tumours where this is less convincing. Fine needle aspiration biopsy is a valuable diagnostic tool, but the result should be carefully evaluated, regarded as only part of the clinical picture and not solely relied on.

  16. The Functions of the Orbitofrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolls, Edmund T.

    2004-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex contains the secondary taste cortex, in which the reward value of taste is represented. It also contains the secondary and tertiary olfactory cortical areas, in which information about the identity and also about the reward value of odours is represented. The orbitofrontal cortex also receives information about the sight…

  17. Frontal sinus osteoma removal with the ultrasonic bone aspirator.

    PubMed

    Ehieli, Eric; Chu, Jaemi; Gordin, Eli; Pribitkin, Edmund A

    2012-04-01

    Osteomas, the most common skull tumors, are typically excised through either an open or endoscopic ostectomy using a high-speed drill, a technically challenging procedure that can result in injury to adjacent soft tissue structures. Osteoma removal through ultrasonic bone emulsification and aspiration (UBA) offers the advantages of decreased blood loss, preservation of adjacent soft tissue structures, and precise bone removal. UBA was used to successfully remove a forehead osteoma without injury to adjacent nerves and with a satisfactory cosmetic outcome. We describe skull osteoma removal with an ultrasonic bone aspirator, which offers potential advantages over conventional bone removal techniques.

  18. Foreign body aspiration – Sometimes a tough nut to crack

    PubMed Central

    Sandhofer, Michael J.; Salzer, Hans; Kulnig, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a dangerous and potentially life-threatening event. We report the case of a 24-month old boy, who was initially presented with an episode of obstructive bronchitis to the family pediatrician. Then, while being treated with empiric antibiotics, he aspirated a peanut. Although resulting in a coughing episode, the mother did initially not ascribe any relevancy to it. Since the diagnosis of obstructive bronchitis had already been established, only an in-depth history taking session with the mother could help figure out, why the boy's symptoms got worse instead of better. This article underlines the importance of accurate history taking and clinical examination. PMID:26236592

  19. AstroBiology Explorer Mission Concepts (ABE/ASPIRE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott; Ennico, Kimberly A.

    2006-01-01

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) and the Astrobiology Space InfraRed Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission Concepts are two missions designed to address the questions (1) Where do we come from? and (2) Are we alone? as outlined in NASA s Origins Program using infrared spectroscopy to explore the identity, abundance, and distribution of molecules of astrobiological importance throughout the Universe. The ABE mission s observational program is focused on six tasks to: (1) Investigate the evolution of ice and organics in dense clouds and star formation regions, and the young stellar/planetary systems that form in them; (2) Measure the evolution of complex organic molecules in stellar outflows; (3) Study the organic composition of a wide variety of solar system objects including asteroids, comets, and the planets and their satellites; (4) Identify organic compounds in the diffuse interstellar medium and determine their distribution , abundance, and change with environment; (5) Detect and identify organic compounds in other galaxies and determine their dependence on galactic type; and (6) Measure deuterium enrichments in interstellar organics and use them as tracers of chemical processes. The ASPIRE mission s observational program expands upon ABE's core mission and adds tasks that (7) Address the role of silicates in interstellar organic chemistry; and (8) Use different resolution spectra to assess the relative roles and abundances of gas- and solid-state materials. ABE (ASPIRE) achieves these goals using a highly sensitive, cryogenically-cooled telescope in an Earth drift-away heliocentric orbit, armed with a suite of infrared spectrometers that cover the 2.5-20(40) micron spectral region at moderate spectral resolution (R>2000). ASPIRE's spectrometer complement also includes a high-resolution (R>25,000) module over the 4-8 micron spectral region. Both missions target lists are chosen to observe a statistically significant sample of a large number of objects of varied types in

  20. Aspiration pneumonia and challenges following the Samoa Tsunami in 2009.

    PubMed

    Leong-Nowell, Tamara Ah; Leavai, Foloto; Ah Ching, Lucilla; Fiu, Limbo; Wyber, Rosemary; Nisbet, Mitzi; Jones, David; Blackmore, Tim; Ioane-Cleverley, Tupu

    2012-01-20

    On 29 September 2009, a large tsunami struck the Samoan Islands in the South Pacific Ocean, causing 142 deaths and large numbers of casualties. 199 patients presented to the emergency department within the first 72 hours. Twenty-nine patients were admitted with respiratory symptoms and histories of aspirating contaminated seawater and were diagnosed with tsunami-associated aspiration pneumonia. These patients were initially treated with empiric antibiotics based on drug availability and published experience after the Asian Boxing Day Tsunami of 2006. Antibiotic treatment was subsequently modified with sputum culture information. The good outcomes of the Samoa Tsunami patients may be attributed to early initiation of appropriate antibiotics and timely coordinated management.

  1. Diagnosis of salivary gland tumors by fine needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Sismanis, A; Merriam, J M; Kline, T S; Davis, R K; Shapshay, S M; Strong, M S

    1981-01-01

    The cytologic findings of 51 smears obtained by fine needle aspiration biopsy from salivary gland masses were compared with the histologic findings of permanent sections. The overall concurrence rate between cytologic and histologic findings for being and malignant lesions was 91%. The diagnostic accuracy (exact histologic diagnosis) for the benign lesions was 87% and for the malignant tumors 60%. One case showed false-positive results and 1 case false-negative results. Fine needle aspiration biopsy has been found to be safe, free of complications, and helpful in the planning of treatment.

  2. Fine needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of neck masses.

    PubMed

    Sismanis, A; Strong, M S; Merriam, J

    1980-01-01

    The cytologic findings in 107 aspiration smears obtained with the fine needle technique from head and neck masses were compared with the histologic findings in permanent sections. The overall concurrence rate between cytologic and histologic findings in benign and malignant tumors was 82.2 per cent. There was a 5.6 per cent incidence of false negative findings. There were no false positive results. Fine needle aspiration was found to be safe, complication free, and most helpful in planning treatment. We recommend the technique to others who deal with head and neck masses.

  3. Differential effects of LifeAct-GFP and actin-GFP on cell mechanics assessed using micropipette aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Sliogeryte, Kristina; Thorpe, Stephen D.; Wang, Zhao; Thompson, Clare L.; Gavara, Nuria; Knight, Martin M.

    2016-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton forms a dynamic structure involved in many fundamental cellular processes including the control of cell morphology, migration and biomechanics. Recently LifeAct-GFP (green fluorescent protein) has been proposed for visualising actin structure and dynamics in live cells as an alternative to actin-GFP which has been shown to affect cell mechanics. Here we compare the two approaches in terms of their effect on cellular mechanical behaviour. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were analysed using micropipette aspiration and the effective cellular equilibrium and instantaneous moduli calculated using the standard linear solid model. We show that LifeAct-GFP provides clearer visualisation of F-actin organisation and dynamics. Furthermore, LifeAct-GFP does not alter effective cellular mechanical properties whereas actin-GFP expression causes an increase in the cell modulus. Interestingly, LifeAct-GFP expression did produce a small (~10%) increase in the percentage of cells exhibiting aspiration-induced membrane bleb formation, whilst actin-GFP expression reduced blebbing. Further studies examined the influence of LifeAct-GFP in other cell types, namely chondrogenically differentiated hMSCs and murine chondrocytes. LifeAct-GFP also had no effect on the moduli of these non-blebbing cells for which mechanical properties are largely dependent on the actin cortex. In conclusion we show that LifeAct-GFP enables clearer visualisation of actin organisation and dynamics without disruption of the biomechanical properties of either the whole cell or the actin cortex. Thus the study provides new evidence supporting the use of LifeAct-GFP rather than actin-GFP for live cell microscopy and the study of cellular mechanobiology. PMID:26792287

  4. Insular cortex epilepsy: an overview.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dang Khoa; Nguyen, Dong Bach; Malak, Ramez; Bouthillier, Alain

    2009-08-01

    In this review the authors discuss insular cortex epilepsy, an under-recognized localization-related syndrome that may explain some temporal (but also frontal and parietal lobe) epilepsy surgery failures. The insula may generate a variety of symptoms (including visceral, motor and somatosensory) that mimic temporal, frontal or parietal lobe onset seizures. Intracerebral electrodes directly implanted in the insula are currently the only way to confirm insular seizures. Consideration should be given to exploration of the insular cortex in MRI negative patients with seizure semiology consistent with insular onset seizures. Electroencephalographers should have a low threshold to sample this region, especially in the absence of a structural lesion. Microneurosurgical technical advances allow resective surgery of the insula with relatively low morbidity. PMID:19760905

  5. On the presence of dendrite bundles in the cerebral cortex of the Madagascan lesser hedgehog tenrec and the red-eared pond turtle.

    PubMed

    Schmolke, C; Künzle, H

    1997-09-01

    In mammals with a well-differentiated neocortex apical dendrites of pyramidal cells form vertical bundles. Little is known about the presence of dendrite bundles in animals with a poorly differentiated cortex. In this paper the presence of dendrite bundles has been investigated in the lesser hedgehog tenrec, Echinops telfairi, a basal insectivore with a very low degree of neocorticalization. In a further step the arrangement of dendrites has been analyzed in the cerebral cortex of the red-eared pond turtle, Pseudemys scripta elegans. Among non-mammalian vertebrates, reptiles have a cerebral cortex that is relatively most comparable with the mammalian one, and the cerebral cortex of turtles shows more structural and functional similarities with the cortex in mammals than those of other reptiles. In the hedgehog tenrec, bundles of apical dendrites are found in all neo-cortical areas, the cingulate and retrosplenial cortices. The shape and arrangement of dendrite bundles are primarily determined by apical dendrites of lamina V pyramids. Apical dendrites originating in laminae III/IV or VI join these bundles, and do not give rise to separate sets of bundles in the supra- and infragranular layers as in other mammals. Center to center distances between bundles determined in the neocortical areas A(2-4) range from 7 to 76 microm, with an average of 32 microm. Area-specific differences are found concerning the length of bundles as well as the number, caliber, branching pattern and packing density of dendrites sharing an individual bundle. In the three-layered entorhinal cortex and the hippocampus dendrite bundles are not observed. In the turtle, no vertical bundles of dendrites are seen either in the medial, dorsomedial or medial part of the dorsal cortex. Only in the lateral part of the dorsal cortex are isolated bundles of apical dendrites originating from groups of perikarya situated below the main level of lamina II detected. Our findings suggest that the presence of

  6. Traveling waves in visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tatsuo K; Nauhaus, Ian; Carandini, Matteo

    2012-07-26

    Electrode recordings and imaging studies have revealed that localized visual stimuli elicit waves of activity that travel across primary visual cortex. Traveling waves are present also during spontaneous activity, but they can be greatly reduced by widespread and intensive visual stimulation. In this Review, we summarize the evidence in favor of these traveling waves. We suggest that their substrate may lie in long-range horizontal connections and that their functional role may involve the integration of information over large regions of space.

  7. Structure of a micropipette-aspirated vesicle determined from the bending-energy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jeff Z. Y.

    2012-10-01

    The structure of the system consisting of an aspirating pipette and an aspirated vesicle is investigated with fixed total vesicle volume, total vesicle surface area, and aspirated volume fraction, based on the bending-energy model. Through an energetic consideration, the usage of an aspirated volume fraction can be converted to the aspirating pressure for the determination of a phase diagram; the procedure identifies a first-order transition, between a weakly aspirated state and the strongly aspirated state, as the pressure increases. The physical properties of the system are obtained from minimization of the bending energy by an implementation of the simulated annealing Monte Carlo procedure, which searches for a minimum in a multivariable space. An analysis of the hysteresis effects indicates that the experimentally observed aspirating and releasing critical pressures are related to the location of the spinodal points.

  8. Does aspiration of bones and joints affect results of later bone scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Canale, S.T.; Harkness, R.M.; Thomas, P.A.; Massie, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    To determine the effect, if any, of needle aspiration on /sup 99m/Tc bone scanning, three different areas of 15 dogs were first aspirated and then imaged with technetium bone scintigraphy. The hip joint was aspirated, the distal femoral metaphysis was drilled and aspirated, and the tibial periosteum was scraped with an 18- or 20-gauge needle. Varying amounts of trauma were inflicted to simulate varying difficulties at aspiration. /sup 99m/Tc bone scans were obtained from 5 h to 10 days later. There was no evidence of focal technetium uptake after any hip joint aspiration. This was consistent regardless of the amount of trauma inflicted or the time from aspiration to bone scanning. Metaphyseal cortical drilling and tibial periosteal scraping occasionally caused some focal uptake when scanning was delayed greater than 2 days. When osteomyelitis or pyarthrosis is clinically suspected, joint aspiration can be performed without fear of producing a false- positive bone scan.

  9. The Path Taken: Consequences of Attaining Intrinsic and Extrinsic Aspirations in Post-College Life

    PubMed Central

    Niemiec, Christopher P.; Ryan, Richard M.; Deci, Edward L.

    2009-01-01

    Life goals, or aspirations, organize and direct behavior over extended periods of time. The present study, guided by self-determination theory, examined the consequences of pursuing and attaining aspirations over a one-year period in a post-college sample. Results indicated that placing importance on either intrinsic or extrinsic aspirations related positively to attainment of those goals. Yet, whereas attainment of intrinsic aspirations related positively to psychological health, attainment of extrinsic aspirations did not; indeed, attainment of extrinsic aspirations related positively to indicators of ill-being. Also as predicted, the association between change in attainment of intrinsic aspirations and change in psychological health was mediated by change in the satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Discussion focuses on the idea that not all goal attainment is beneficial; rather, attainment of aspirations with different contents relates differentially to psychological health. PMID:20161160

  10. Use of the reamer-irrigator-aspirator technique to obtain autograft for ankle and hindfoot arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Herscovici, D; Scaduto, J M

    2012-01-01

    The use of autograft bone is the best option when undertaking a procedure that requires bone graft because it is osteogenic, osteoconductive and osseo-inductive. Pain, morbidity and complications associated with harvesting iliac or non-iliac sites occur in between 6% and 30% of cases. An alternative source of graft with possibly a lower morbidity is the intramedullary canal. In this study, 28 patients undergoing 30 arthrodesis procedures on the hindfoot had a mean of 48 cm(3) (43 to 50) of bone harvested locally from the hindfoot or the tibial shaft by antegrade or retrograde reaming. No patient sustained a fracture of the calcaneum, talus or tibia. There was no morbidity except for one complication when the reamer breached the medial tibial cortex. This healed uneventfully. This method of using the reamer-irrigator-aspirator system is an extension of the standard technique of intramedullary reaming of the lower limb: it produces good-quality bone graft with viable growth factors consistent with that of the iliac crest, and donor site morbidity is low. This is an efficient method of obtaining autologous bone for use in arthrodesis of the ankle or hindfoot. PMID:22219251

  11. Human GV oocytes generated by mitotically active germ cells obtained from follicular aspirates

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xinbao; Liu, Guishu; Xu, Bo; Wu, Changqing; Hui, Ning; Ni, Xin; Wang, Jian; Du, Meirong; Teng, Xiaoming; Wu, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Human female germline stem cells (FGSCs) have opened new opportunities for understanding human oogenesis, delaying menopause, treating infertility, and providing a new strategy for preserving fertility. However, the shortage of adult human ovaries tissues available impedes their future investigations and clinical applications. Here, we have established FGSC lines from scarce ovarian cortical tissues that exist in follicular aspirates (faFGSCs), which are produced and discarded in in vitro fertilization centers worldwide. The faFGSCs have characteristics of germline stem cells involved in the gene expression profile, growth characteristics, and a normal karyotype consistent with that of FGSCs obtained from ovarian cortexes surgically removed from patients (srFGSCs). Furthermore, faFGSCs have developmental potentials including spontaneous differentiation into oocytes under feeder-free conditions, communicating with granulosa cells by gap junctions and paracrine factors, entering meiosis after RA induction, as well as forming follicles after injection into human ovarian cortical tissues xenografted into adult immunodeficient female mice. Lastly, we developed a strategy guiding FGSCs differentiated into germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes in vitro and revealed their developmental mechanisms. Our study not only provides a new approach to obtain human FGSCs for medical treatment, but also opens several avenues to investigate human oogenesis in vitro. PMID:27357640

  12. Failing Young People? Education and Aspirations in a Deprived Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, S.; McKendrick, J. H.; Scott, G.

    2010-01-01

    Recent UK government statements and education policies have emphasized the need to instil a "culture of aspiration" among young people in deprived communities to address social exclusion. Specific proposals include raising the school leaving age to 18 and extending compulsory employment training. These statements and measures express the…

  13. Who Wants a Job in Biology? Student Aspirations and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Danielle; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a questionnaire survey of UK Year 3 biology undergraduates' career aspirations, and their perceptions of employment in teaching, research and conservation. Although most students sought material benefits in their potential careers, even more wished to gain job satisfaction. None of the careers in biology was…

  14. Parents' Roles in Shaping Early Adolescents' Occupational Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jodl, Kathleen M.; Michael, Alice; Malanchuk, Oksana; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Sameroff, Arnold

    2001-01-01

    Examined relations among parenting dimensions and adolescents' occupational aspirations related to academics and sports. Found that parents' values predicted youths' values directly in the academic domain. Fathers' behaviors mediated the relation between parents' and youths' sports values. Identification was directly related to adolescents'…

  15. Black Women: Their Commitment to Marriage and Career Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Narviar Cathcart

    For some black women, future careers are extremely important; for others, distinct alternatives take precedence. Relationships between the importance a black women places upon her career and her needs for personal and professional aspirations, marriage, and family were examined. All married (N=171) and single (N=92) black women enrolled in…

  16. Adolescents' Attainability and Aspiration Beliefs for Famous Musician Role Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivaldi, Antonia; O'Neill, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the role that adolescents' competence beliefs and subjective task values for music have in relation to their aspirations and expectations for becoming like their musician role models. A total of 381 adolescents (aged 13-14) completed a questionnaire about their competence beliefs and values for music, the musicians they admired…

  17. Aspiring Principal Development Programme Evaluation in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen; Youngs, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The New Zealand Ministry of Education has constructed a wide-ranging "Professional Development Plan" providing a four-stage national pathway for progression to principalship; the first stage has been the conduction of the National Aspiring Principals Pilot (NAPP) programme in five regional locations. The purpose of this paper is to…

  18. Infrared Thermal Imaging During Ultrasonic Aspiration of Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotter, D. J.; Woodworth, G.; Gupta, S. V.; Manandhar, P.; Schwartz, T. H.

    Ultrasonic surgical aspirator tips target removal of bone in approaches to tumors or aneurysms. Low profile angled tips provide increased visualization and safety in many high risk surgical situations that commonly were approached using a high speed rotary drill. Utilization of the ultrasonic aspirator for bone removal raised questions about relative amount of local and transmitted heat energy. In the sphenoid wing of a cadaver section, ultrasonic bone aspiration yielded lower thermal rise in precision bone removal than rotary mechanical drills, with maximum temperature of 31 °C versus 69 °C for fluted and 79 °C for diamond drill bits. Mean ultrasonic fragmentation power was about 8 Watts. Statistical studies using tenacious porcine cranium yielded mean power levels of about 4.5 Watts to 11 Watts and mean temperature of less than 41.1 °C. Excessively loading the tip yielded momentary higher power; however, mean thermal rise was less than 8 °C with bone removal starting at near body temperature of about 37 °C. Precision bone removal and thermal management were possible with conditions tested for ultrasonic bone aspiration.

  19. Uncertainty in Early Occupational Aspirations: Role Exploration or Aimlessness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staff, Jeremy; Harris, Angel; Sabates, Ricardo; Briddell, Laine

    2010-01-01

    Many youth in the United States lack clear occupational aspirations. This uncertainty in achievement ambitions may benefit socio-economic attainment if it signifies "role exploration," characterized by career development, continued education and enduring partnerships. By contrast, uncertainty may diminish attainment if it instead leads to…

  20. Career Aspirations of Undergraduate Mathematics Majors: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris; Hemasinha, Rohan

    2012-01-01

    There has been much research attention on ability level, motivation, and self-efficacy of students at schools of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). However, there is scant research on vocational choice, career development and aspirations of these students. The current study addresses this gap in the literature by asking…

  1. The Evolution of Roles and Aspirations: Burgeoning Choices for Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Robert A.

    Traditional female status, roles, and aspirations and changes that have occurred in American society are traced. While women were barred from colleges and universities in the 1800's, they now account for more than 50 percent of college students. It is projected that by the year 2000, women will represent an even larger percentage of the college…

  2. Parental Involvement, Children's Aspirations, and Achievement in New Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Eunjoo; Zhang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationships among multiple aspects of parental involvement (English proficiency, school involvement, control and monitoring of children), children's aspirations, and achievement in new immigrant families in the United States. They used data on immigrant parents and school-age children (N = 1,255) from the New…

  3. Understanding Graduate School Aspirations: The Effect of Good Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Jana M.; Paulsen, Michael B.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of good teaching practices on post-baccalaureate degree aspirations using logistic regression techniques on a multi-institutional, longitudinal sample of students at 4-year colleges and universities in the USA. We examined whether eight good teaching practices (non-classroom interactions with faculty, prompt…

  4. Women Teachers' Aspirations to School Leadership in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperandio, Jill; Kagoda, Alice Merab

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The under-representation of women in the leadership of secondary schooling is a problem common to many developing countries, raising issues of social justice and sustainable development. It has its roots in societal understandings about leadership, the schooling and career aspirations of girls, the organizational characteristics of the…

  5. Aspirations for a Master's-Level Teaching Profession in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates aspirations for a master's-level teaching profession in England, providing key stakeholder perceptions in one densely populated region within a multiple case study. Although this intended move to a master's-level profession represented a major shift in teachers' professional development in England, only limited…

  6. Level of Aspiration: A Behavioral Expression of Self-Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Richard S.; Felker, Donald W.

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of expectations in self-concept and level of aspiration (LOA) behavior. Specifically, the focus was to investigate self-concept and LOA as covariates and to describe the nature of the relationship if, in fact, one existed. A sample of 80 third and fourth grade students was selected from three…

  7. Educational and Career Aspirations: Views of Business School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris; Cox, John Lew

    2004-01-01

    A sizeable percentage of undergraduate students enroll in U.S. business schools; yet, there is sparse published research on the educational aspirations and career goals of this select student body. To address this gap in the literature, a survey of undergraduate business students at The University of West Florida was conducted in the Fall semester…

  8. ECONOMIC FACTORS INFLUENCING EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENTS AND ASPIRATIONS OF FARM YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOORE, E.J.; AND OTHERS

    IN 1962 A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED BY SURVEYING 756,000 FARM FAMILIES IN 30 STATES, WITH CHILDREN 15 THROUGH 21 YEARS OLD. THE OBJECTIVES WERE TO--(1) EXAMINE THE QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF ECONOMIC RESOURCES AVAILABLE TO FARM YOUTH FOR SECURING POST HIGH SCHOOL EDUCATION, (2) DETERMINE THE EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT AND ASPIRATIONS OF THESE FARM YOUTH FOR…

  9. Searching for Autonomy: Young Black Men, Schooling and Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Ian; Finney, Sarah; Swann, Sarah Jane

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relationships between being young and black, and educational and career aspirations, drawing on new research evidence from two recent studies carried out in two urban locations in Northern England. The first of these studies forms part of a wider research project concerned with analysing the connections between aspects of…

  10. Experimental Investigation of a High Pressure Ratio Aspirated Fan Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merchant, Ali; Kerrebrock, Jack L.; Adamczyk, John J.; Braunscheidel, Edward

    2004-01-01

    The experimental investigation of an aspirated fan stage designed to achieve a pressure ratio of 3.4:1 at 1500 ft/sec is presented in this paper. The low-energy viscous flow is aspirated from diffusion-limiting locations on the blades and flowpath surfaces of the stage, enabling a very high pressure ratio to be achieved in a single stage. The fan stage performance was mapped at various operating speeds from choke to stall in a compressor facility at fully simulated engine conditions. The experimentally determined stage performance, in terms of pressure ratio and corresponding inlet mass flow rate, was found to be in good agreement with the three-dimensional viscous computational prediction, and in turn close to the design intent. Stage pressure ratios exceeding 3:1 were achieved at design speed, with an aspiration flow fraction of 3.5 percent of the stage inlet mass flow. The experimental performance of the stage at various operating conditions, including detailed flowfield measurements, are presented and discussed in the context of the computational analyses. The sensitivity of the stage performance and operability to reduced aspiration flow rates at design and off design conditions are also discussed.

  11. Aspire Public Schools: Building the Organizational Capacity for Healthy Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxton, Amy; Perigo, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Two years into an aggressive expansion plan, Aspire Public Schools was on track in terms of school openings, but behind on its goals to add a layer of management. The schools were performing well, but the nonprofit's leaders were stretched paper thin and concerned about the organization's ability to perform in the face of more growth. Determined…

  12. College Aspirations and Preparation: How AVID Students Beat the Odds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Dana

    2013-01-01

    A study of "at risk" high school youth revealed how student participation in the Advancement Via Individual Determination (AVID) program positively affected student achievement and increased college aspirations and entrance rates. The experiences of the students, teachers, and administrators were examined using a case study approach…

  13. Equipping Aspiring Principals for the Principalship in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Shun Wing

    2013-01-01

    The quality of school principals is of paramount importance for quality education. This article examines the leadership capacities of a group of 228 aspiring principals who participated in a training programme for the principalship in four cohorts. A questionnaire consisting of 24 questions in six core areas of leadership was constructed and…

  14. Aspiration and injection of the knee joint: approach portal.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Robert J

    2014-03-01

    Aspiration and injection of the knee joint is a commonly performed medical procedure. Injection of corticosteroid for the treatment of osteoarthritis is the most common reason for knee joint injection, and is performed as an office procedure. Debate exists among practitioners as to the 'best' approach portal for knee injection. This paper examines the various approach portals for injection and/or aspiration of the knee joint, as well as the accuracy of each approach. Searches were made of electronic databases, and appropriate papers were identified and hand-searched. Although there is some evidence that particular approach portals may be more efficacious in the presence of specific knee joint pathologies, generally, in experienced hands, it is of no clinical consequence as to which approach portal is utilised for aspiration or injection of the knee joint. No approach portal is 100% accurate, and the accuracy of injection of the knee joint may be enhanced by the use of techniques such as ultrasound. Practitioners are reminded that they should continuously refine and practice their preferred technique. Knee joint aspiration and injection is a common, simple, and generally safe office procedure.

  15. Bacteriology of aspiration pneumonia in patients with acute coma.

    PubMed

    Lauterbach, Enise; Voss, Frederik; Gerigk, Roland; Lauterbach, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Loss of protective airway reflexes in patients with acute coma puts these patients at risk of aspiration pneumonia complicating the course of the primary disease. Available data vary considerably with regard to bacteriology, role of anaerobic bacteria, and antibiotic treatment. Our objective was to research the bacteriology of aspiration pneumonia in acute coma patients who were not pre-treated with antibiotics or hospitalized within 30 days prior to the event. We prospectively analyzed 127 patient records from adult patients admitted, intubated and ventilated to a tertiary medical intensive care unit with acute coma. Bacteriology and antibiotic resistance testing from tracheal aspirate sampled within 24 h after admission, blood cultures, ICU scores (APACHE II, SOFA), hematology, and clinical chemistry were assessed. Patients were followed up until death or hospital discharge. The majority of patients with acute coma suffered from acute cardiovascular disorders, predominantly myocardial infarction, followed by poisonings, and coma of unknown cause. In a majority of our patients, microaspiration resulted in overt infection. Most frequently S. aureus, H. influenzae, and S. pneumoniae were isolated. Anaerobic bacteria (Bacteroides spec., Fusobacteria, Prevotella spec.) were isolated from tracheal aspirate in a minority of patients, and predominantly as part of a mixed infection. Antibiotic monotherapy with a 2nd generation cephalosporin, or a 3rd generation gyrase inhibitor, was most effective in our patients regardless of the presence of anaerobic bacteria.

  16. The Hierarchical Personality Structure of Aspiring Creative Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslej, Marta M.; Rain, Marina; Fong, Katrina; Oatley, Keith; Mar, Raymond A.

    2014-01-01

    Empirical studies of personality traits in creative writers have demonstrated mixed findings, perhaps due to issues of sampling, measurement, and the reporting of statistical information. The goal of this study is to quantify the personality structure of aspiring creative writers according to a modern hierarchal model of trait personality. A…

  17. Work in Progress: Narratives of Aspiration from the New Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George

    2006-01-01

    Central to the discourses of the new economy is the model of the flexible, adaptive, ambitious and individualistic worker. This article considers the subjective purchase of that model by analysing interviews with three young women living and working in urban Australia. Their respective narratives of aspiration illustrate contrasting responses to…

  18. First-Year Student Aspirations: A Multinodal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grellier, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the aspirations of first-year university students in a particular socio-geographic context, by juxtaposing this context with those of Western universities in the 1970s. The rhizomatic analysis enables student voices and personal narratives to complement, extend and undercut the words of published researchers and of the…

  19. Aspiration Levels and Educational Choices: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Lionel; Garboua, Louis Levy; Montmarquette, Claude

    2007-01-01

    The explanation of social inequalities in education is still a debated issue in economics. Recent empirical studies tend to downplay the potential role of credit constraint. This article tests a different potential explanation of social inequalities in education, specifically that social differences in aspiration level result in different…

  20. Fine-needle aspiration of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Zarka, M A

    1996-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration is increasingly used in community practices for the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions, and it often renders an unequivocal diagnosis. This chapter discusses in detail the technical considerations of FNA, non-neoplastic and inflammatory conditions, benign neoplasms, common malignant neoplasms, and rare malignant neoplasms.

  1. Adolescent Boys' Science Aspirations: Masculinity, Capital, and Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Louise; DeWitt, Jennifer; Willis, Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    There is widespread international concern about post-16 participation rates in science, with women's under-representation constituting a particular issue. This paper contributes to these debates through a novel, critical examination of the role of masculinity within boys' negotiations of science aspirations. Drawing on a UK longitudinal…

  2. Latino Males Degree Aspirations in Community College: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorame, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Latino males are the least likely to attend, persist, and attain a baccalaureate degree compared to other male groups in higher education. Moreover, they tend to have the lowest degree aspirations of any major race or ethnic group (Saenz & Ponjuan, 2009; Driscoll, 2007; Swail, Cabrera, & Lee, 2004; Laanan, 2000; Kao & Tienda, 1998). To…

  3. Structural and Socio-Psychological Influences on Adolescents' Educational Aspirations and Subsequent Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothon, Catherine; Arephin, Muna; Klineberg, Emily; Cattell, Vicky; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Previous literature indicates that educational aspirations are an important predictor of achievement at school and beyond. This paper examines the factors that are associated with high educational aspirations. It also looks at the relationship between aspirations and achievement at the General Certificate of Secondary Education in a deprived area…

  4. Intrinsic Aspirations and Personal Meaning across Adulthood: Conceptual Interrelations and Age/Sex Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jessica; Robinson, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined adult age and sex differences in self-reported aspirations and personal meaning. Young, midlife, and older adults (N = 2,557) from the United Kingdom or United States completed an online survey of their aspiration striving, aspiration importance, and personal meaning (subscales of Purposeful Life, Exciting Life,…

  5. Mobility Channel Preference and Educational Aspirations in a Sponsored Mobility System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yogev, Abraham; Schrift, Ruth

    1983-01-01

    Used path analysis to study the educational aspirations of secondary school students in Costa Rica (N=346) and a second combined sample of students and dropouts (N=202). Results showed that preference for the Educational Mobility Channel mainly affects academic aspirations for males. Females' aspirations appear related to sex role socialization.…

  6. Swiss Adolescents' Career Aspirations: Influence of Context, Age, and Career Adaptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschi, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the content, realism, stability, and coherence of the career aspirations of 262 students in seventh grade in Switzerland (ages 13-15 years). The content analysis revealed that 82% of the participants named at least one realistic career aspiration, and aspirations showed clear resemblance to existing opportunities in the…

  7. The Role of Aspirations in Young Children's Emotional and Behavioural Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulton, Vanessa; Flouri, Eirini; Joshi, Heather; Sullivan, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Using data from a large UK cohort (n = 11,656), we investigated the determinants of 7-year-old children's aspirations, and the role of these aspirations in emotional and behavioural problems, as reported by both parents and teachers. Aspirations were classified to reflect their occupational status, masculinity/femininity and intrinsic/extrinsic…

  8. Parental Influence on Mainland Chinese Children's Career Aspirations: Child and Parental Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jianwei; McMahon, Mary; Watson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Career aspirations developed in childhood may impact on future career development in adolescence and adulthood. Family is an important context in which children develop their career aspirations. This study examined how parents influence children's career aspirations in mainland China from both the parents' and children's perspectives. Eight…

  9. Environmental novelty is associated with a selective increase in Fos expression in the output elements of the hippocampal formation and the perirhinal cortex

    PubMed Central

    VanElzakker, Michael; Fevurly, Rebecca D.; Breindel, Tressa; Spencer, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    If the hippocampus plays a role in the detection of novel environmental features, then novelty should be associated with altered hippocampal neural activity and perhaps also measures of neuroplasticity. We examined Fos protein expression within subregions of rat hippocampal formation as an indicator of recent increases in neuronal excitation and cellular processes that support neuroplasticity. Environmental novelty, but not environmental complexity, led to a selective increase of Fos induction in the final “output” subregion of the dorsal hippocampal trisynaptic circuit (CA1) and a primary projection site (layer five of the lateral entorhinal cortex, ERC), as well as in the perirhinal cortex. There was no selective effect of novelty on Fos expression within “input” elements of the trisynaptic circuit (ERC layer two, the dentate gyrus or CA3) or other comparison brain regions that may be responsive to overall motor-sensory activity or anxiety levels (primary somatosensory and motor cortex or hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus). Test session ambulatory behavior increased with both novelty and environmental complexity and was not significantly correlated with Fos expression patterns in any of the brain regions examined. In contrast, the extent of manipulated environmental novelty was strongly correlated with Fos expression in CA1. These results support the prospect that a novelty-associated signal is generated within hippocampal neurocircuitry, is relayed to cortical projection sites, and specifically up-regulates neuroplasticity-supporting processes with dorsal hippocampal CA1 and ERC layer five. Whether novelty-dependent Fos induction in perirhinal cortex depends on this hippocampal output or reflects an independent process remains to be determined. PMID:19050162

  10. Percutaneous aspiration of fluid for management of peritonitis in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, A. W.; Nicolaou, S.; Campbell, M. R.; Sargsyan, A. E.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Melton, S.; Beck, G.; Dawson, D. L.; Billica, R. D.; Johnston, S. L.; Hamilton, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a medical emergency that can affect even well-screened, healthy individuals, peritonitis developing during a long-duration space exploration mission may dictate deviation from traditional clinical practice due to the absence of otherwise indicated surgical capabilities. Medical management can treat many intra-abdominal processes, but treatment failures are inevitable. In these circumstances, percutaneous aspiration under sonographic guidance could provide a "rescue" strategy. Hypothesis: Sonographically guided percutaneous aspiration of intra-peritoneal fluid can be performed in microgravity. METHODS: Investigations were conducted in the microgravity environment of NASA's KC-135 research aircraft (0 G). The subjects were anesthetized female Yorkshire pigs weighing 50 kg. The procedures were rehearsed in a terrestrial animal lab (1 G). Colored saline (500 mL) was introduced through an intra-peritoneal catheter during flight. A high-definition ultrasound system (HDI-5000, ATL, Bothell, WA) was used to guide a 16-gauge needle into the peritoneal cavity to aspirate fluid. RESULTS: Intra-peritoneal fluid collections were easily identified, distinct from surrounding viscera, and on occasion became more obvious during weightless conditions. Subjectively, with adequate restraint of the subject and operators, the procedure was no more demanding than during the 1-G rehearsals. CONCLUSIONS: Sonographically guided percutaneous aspiration of intra-peritoneal fluid collections is feasible in weightlessness. Treatment of intra-abdominal inflammatory conditions in spaceflight might rely on pharmacological options, backed by sonographically guided percutaneous aspiration for the "rescue" of treatment failures. While this risk mitigation strategy cannot guarantee success, it may be the most practical option given severe resource limitations.

  11. The Values Adolescents Aspire to, Their Well-Being and the Values Parents Aspire to for Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casas, Ferran; Figuer, Cristina; Gonzalez, Monica; Malo, Sara

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the relationship between the psychological well-being of Spanish adolescents from 12 to 16 years old and the values they aspire to for the future (N = 1,618). Adolescents' well-being is explored through (a) their satisfaction with 19 specific life domains, (b) the Personal Well-Being Index (Cummins, "Social…

  12. Multimap formation in visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rishabh; Millin, Rachel; Mel, Bartlett W.

    2015-01-01

    An extrastriate visual area such as V2 or V4 contains neurons selective for a multitude of complex shapes, all sharing a common topographic organization. Simultaneously developing multiple interdigitated maps—hereafter a “multimap”—is challenging in that neurons must compete to generate a diversity of response types locally, while cooperating with their dispersed same-type neighbors to achieve uniform visual field coverage for their response type at all orientations, scales, etc. Previously proposed map development schemes have relied on smooth spatial interaction functions to establish both topography and columnar organization, but by locally homogenizing cells' response properties, local smoothing mechanisms effectively rule out multimap formation. We found in computer simulations that the key requirements for multimap development are that neurons are enabled for plasticity only within highly active regions of cortex designated “learning eligibility regions” (LERs), but within an LER, each cell's learning rate is determined only by its activity level with no dependence on location. We show that a hybrid developmental rule that combines spatial and activity-dependent learning criteria in this way successfully produces multimaps when the input stream contains multiple distinct feature types, or in the degenerate case of a single feature type, produces a V1-like map with “salt-and-pepper” structure. Our results support the hypothesis that cortical maps containing a fine mixture of different response types, whether in monkey extrastriate cortex, mouse V1 or elsewhere in the cortex, rather than signaling a breakdown of map formation mechanisms at the fine scale, are a product of a generic cortical developmental scheme designed to map cells with a diversity of response properties across a shared topographic space. PMID:26641946

  13. Frontal cortex, timing and memory.

    PubMed

    Olton, D S

    1989-01-01

    Two sets of experiments examine the psychological functions and neural organization of the frontal lobes. The first set investigates the effects of lesions of the frontal cortex (FC) on the ability to perform temporal discriminations, using the techniques and theoretical framework of scalar timing theory. FC lesions changed the reference memory for the expected time of reinforcement, so that rats expected reinforcement later than it actually occurred. These results demonstrate that the FC modulates temporal memory. The second set of experiments examined the behavioral effects of lesions in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM), an area in the basal forebrain that has a significant projection to the frontal cortex. NBM lesions produced impairments in many different tasks assessing both recent and long-term memory. A comparison of the behavioral and neurochemical effects of different types of lesions in the NBM examines the role of cholinergic and noncholinergic neurotransmitters in these behavioral deficits. These data demonstrate that a "frontal syndrome" can follow selective lesions in the NBM, and indicate that the NBM must have a strong role in frontal lobe function.

  14. Interindividual methylomic variation across blood, cortex, and cerebellum: implications for epigenetic studies of neurological and neuropsychiatric phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Eilis; Lunnon, Katie; Schalkwyk, Leonard; Mill, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Given the tissue-specific nature of epigenetic processes, the assessment of disease-relevant tissue is an important consideration for epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS). Little is known about whether easily accessible tissues, such as whole blood, can be used to address questions about interindividual epigenomic variation in inaccessible tissues, such as the brain. We quantified DNA methylation in matched DNA samples isolated from whole blood and 4 brain regions (prefrontal cortex, entorhinal cortex, superior temporal gyrus, and cerebellum) from 122 individuals. We explored co-variation between tissues and the extent to which methylomic variation in blood is predictive of interindividual variation identified in the brain. For the majority of DNA methylation sites, interindividual variation in whole blood is not a strong predictor of interindividual variation in the brain, although the relationship with cortical regions is stronger than with the cerebellum. Variation at a subset of probes is strongly correlated across tissues, even in instances when the actual level of DNA methylation is significantly different between them. A substantial proportion of this co-variation, however, is likely to result from genetic influences. Our data suggest that for the majority of the genome, a blood-based EWAS for disorders where brain is presumed to be the primary tissue of interest will give limited information relating to underlying pathological processes. These results do not, however, discount the utility of using a blood-based EWAS to identify biomarkers of disease phenotypes manifest in the brain. We have generated a searchable database for the interpretation of data from blood-based EWAS analyses ( http://epigenetics.essex.ac.uk/bloodbrain/).

  15. Relationships of teenage smoking to educational aspirations and parents' education.

    PubMed

    Waldron, I; Lye, D

    1990-01-01

    This study analyzes data for white high school seniors from the 1985 Monitoring the Future national survey. Students who had less educated parents or lower educational aspirations were more likely to have tried a cigarette, more likely to have adopted cigarette smoking, and less likely to have quit smoking. These students also had more favorable attitudes toward smoking, and reported greater acceptance of smoking by their friends. In addition, the students with less educated parents or lower educational aspirations appeared to be more rejecting of adult authority and more predisposed to adopt adult behaviors, and these characteristics, in turn, were associated with smoking more. The results of multivariate analyses support the hypothesis that these students have experienced less success in school and are more likely to adopt behaviors characteristic of adults as an alternative source of status and gratification, and this contributes to their higher rates of smoking.

  16. [Aspiration syndrome due to laryngeal cleft in an infant].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Giselle; Demarchi, Victoria; Zanetta, Adrián; Urquizo, Mauricio; Lobos, Pablo; Razetti, Juan

    2014-02-01

    Aspiration is the passage of food content and endogenous secretions into the airway. Anatomical, neuromuscular or functional anomalies are among the major causes. The laryngeal cleft is a rare congenital anomaly that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of aspiration syndrome in neonates and infants. The main symptoms are stridor, recurrent respiratory infections and cyanotic crisis, cough and choking during feeding. The diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopic examination. The therapeutic behaviour will depend on the extent of the cleft, among other factors. We describe the clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods and treatment of an infant with this disease, and we emphasize the need for recognition of swallowing disorders in children in order to establish an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment to prevent and avoid malnutrition as well as a severe and potentially irreversible lung compromise.

  17. Suicidal ideation and migration aspirations among youth in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Steven

    2013-10-16

    Over the past 100 years the state of Guanajuato has consistently been one of the highest migrant sending states in Mexico. Youth living in high migratory states such as Guanajuato are heavily influenced by the expectation that they will travel to the US, and research has shown that those who do not migrate may be looked down upon by members of their community. This secondary analysis looks at the connection between suicidal ideation and migration aspirations among a group of adolescents living in Guanajuato, Mexico. Data were originally collected in 2007 as part of a comprehensive health survey of youth attending an alternative high schooling program. Regression analyses show that suicidal ideation predicts intentions to migrate among both males and females, while other factors differentially influence the adolescents by gender. The results indicate that suicidal ideation may be associated with migration aspirations among Mexican youth living in high migratory communities. Study limitations and implications are discussed.

  18. Art in Science Promoting Interest in Research and Exploration (ASPIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, M.; Zevin, D.; Thrall, L.; Croft, S.; Raftery, C.; Shackelford, R.

    2015-11-01

    Led by U.C. Berkeley's Center for Science Education at the Space Sciences Laboratory in partnership with U.C. Berkeley Astronomy, the Lawrence Hall of Science, and the YMCA of the Central Bay Area, Art in Science Promoting Interest in Research and Exploration (ASPIRE) is a NASA EPOESS-funded program mainly for high school students that explores NASA science through art and highlights the need for and uses of art and visualizations in science. ASPIRE's aim is to motivate more diverse young people (especially African Americans) to learn about Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) topics and careers, via 1) Intensive summer workshops; 2) Drop-in after school workshops; 3) Astronomy visualization-focused outreach programming at public venues including a series of free star parties where the students help run the events; and 5) A website and a number of social networking strategies that highlight our youth's artwork.

  19. Suicidal Ideation and Migration Aspirations among Youth in Central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 100 years the state of Guanajuato has consistently been one of the highest migrant sending states in Mexico. Youth living in high migratory states such as Guanajuato are heavily influenced by the expectation that they will travel to the US, and research has shown that those who do not migrate may be looked down upon by members of their community. This secondary analysis looks at the connection between suicidal ideation and migration aspirations among a group of adolescents living in Guanajuato, Mexico. Data were originally collected in 2007 as part of a comprehensive health survey of youth attending an alternative high schooling program. Regression analyses show that suicidal ideation predicts intentions to migrate among both males and females, while other factors differentially influence the adolescents by gender. The results indicate that suicidal ideation may be associated with migration aspirations among Mexican youth living in high migratory communities. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:24373268

  20. [Aspiration syndrome due to laryngeal cleft in an infant].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Giselle; Demarchi, Victoria; Zanetta, Adrián; Urquizo, Mauricio; Lobos, Pablo; Razetti, Juan

    2014-02-01

    Aspiration is the passage of food content and endogenous secretions into the airway. Anatomical, neuromuscular or functional anomalies are among the major causes. The laryngeal cleft is a rare congenital anomaly that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of aspiration syndrome in neonates and infants. The main symptoms are stridor, recurrent respiratory infections and cyanotic crisis, cough and choking during feeding. The diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopic examination. The therapeutic behaviour will depend on the extent of the cleft, among other factors. We describe the clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods and treatment of an infant with this disease, and we emphasize the need for recognition of swallowing disorders in children in order to establish an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment to prevent and avoid malnutrition as well as a severe and potentially irreversible lung compromise. PMID:24566793

  1. Suicidal ideation and migration aspirations among youth in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 100 years the state of Guanajuato has consistently been one of the highest migrant sending states in Mexico. Youth living in high migratory states such as Guanajuato are heavily influenced by the expectation that they will travel to the US, and research has shown that those who do not migrate may be looked down upon by members of their community. This secondary analysis looks at the connection between suicidal ideation and migration aspirations among a group of adolescents living in Guanajuato, Mexico. Data were originally collected in 2007 as part of a comprehensive health survey of youth attending an alternative high schooling program. Regression analyses show that suicidal ideation predicts intentions to migrate among both males and females, while other factors differentially influence the adolescents by gender. The results indicate that suicidal ideation may be associated with migration aspirations among Mexican youth living in high migratory communities. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:24373268

  2. Massive reflux and aspiration after radiographically inserted gastrostomy tube placement.

    PubMed

    Chesoni, Sandra A; Bach, John R; Okamura, Erica Mia

    2015-01-01

    To the authors' knowledge, fatal postgastrostomy aspiration within 2 days of enteral nutrition has not been reported. The authors report consecutive cases of severe postgastrotomy aspiration with one being fatal for a 26-yr-old with Duchenne muscular dystrophy 2 days after initiation of gastrostomy feedings. Previous to these consecutive radiographically inserted gastrostomies, all gastrotomies at the institution were percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomies or open gastrostomies. Radiographically inserted gastrostomy tubes have an increased likelihood of being oriented toward the esophagus as opposed to the duodenum, which may increase the risk for reflux. Elimination of invasive airway tubes should be delayed until after gastrostomy feedings are documented to be well tolerated. Oximetry and repeated measurements of vital capacity can suggest changes in the status of airway clearance.

  3. Study of benign superficial cysts by fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Roy, M; Bhattacharyya, A; Sanyal, S; Dasgupta, S

    1995-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology of 213 cases of different cystic lesions from various regions of body and different superficial organs was analysed in an attempt to present the experience of the authors in the diagnosis of such lesions. The predominant lesion diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology was adnexal cyst/sebaceous cyst (41 cases) followed by vascular hamartoma (40 cases) and thyroglossal cyst (9 cases). One hundred fifty-eight (74.2%) out 213 cases were confirmed histopathologically. There was false negative diagnosis in 14 cases (6.6%). The remaining 41 (19.2%) cases did not turn up for further treatment. The fallacies that have been recorded in the diagnosis of thyroid cysts, salivary gland cysts and breast cysts in respect of papillary cystic thyroid carcinoma, muco-epidermoid carcinoma of salivary gland and intraductal carcinoma with fibrocystic disease of breast respectively have been highlighted in the present study.

  4. Fine needle aspiration and frozen section of salivary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Cross, D L; Gansler, T S; Morris, R C

    1990-03-01

    This report examines the role of fine needle aspiration (FNA) and frozen section (FS) examination in the management of salivary gland lesions, and is based on a review of 58 cases. FNA specimens were first classified as nonneoplastic, or as benign or malignant neoplasms. Identification of specific morphologic type of neoplastic lesions was attempted. Overall accuracy for assigning cases was 86%. Specific accuracy (histologic type of neoplasms predicted by FNA) was 72%. No inflammatory lesion was incorrectly diagnosed as neoplasm. Eight patients with histologically documented neoplasm had aspirates classified as nonneoplastic because the sample obtained was not representative. These data indicate that FNA is a highly specific method for identifying benign and malignant neoplasms. Applications of salivary gland FNA include (1) identification of nonneoplastic lesions that may respond to nonsurgical management, (2) identification of neoplasms that represent lymph node metastases rather than primary lesions of the salivary gland, (3) preliminary identification of lymphomas, and (4) preliminary separation of benign and malignant neoplasms.

  5. Fine needle aspiration cytology: utilization in pediatric pathology.

    PubMed

    Layfield, L J; Reichman, A

    1990-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration can serve as the initial diagnostic modality for a wide variety of lesions within the pediatric age group. The utility of the technique depends on the clinical setting and histologic type of tumor under study. FNA is most valuable for staging and conformation of metastatic spread in small round cell malignancies. The use of aspiration cytology as the initial diagnostic procedure for these neoplasms is more controversial since this technique may deprive the clinician of valuable information (histologic subtype, oncogene status) now available only by examination of large tissue biopsies. Similarly, FNA can serve as a triage technique for the separation of patients harboring thyroid nodules or enlarged lymph nodes into operative candidates and non-operative candidates. As cytopathologists become more familiar with the appearance of pediatric neoplasms, this diagnostic technique will become more widely used, reducing the need for operative intervention in the diagnosis of many benign and reactive lesions.

  6. Fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology of major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Qizilbash, A H; Sianos, J; Young, J E; Archibald, S D

    1985-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the major salivary glands was performed on 160 patients. In 146 patients with satisfactory samples, the cytologic diagnosis was correlated with clinical follow-up and histologic findings. There were 122 benign lesions, including 47 tumors. There were 24 malignant lesions, 10 of which were primary and 14 metastatic. The overall accuracy was 98%. The sensitivity of the technique was 87.5%. There was no false-positive diagnosis. There were three false-negative diagnoses due to sampling errors and inexperience during the initial period of the study. This study documents that needle aspiration biopsy cytology of the salivary glands is accurate, simple, rapid, inexpensive, well tolerated and harmless to the patient.

  7. Perfectionism and life aspirations in intrinsically and extrinsically religious individuals.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Patrick R

    2014-08-01

    Religiosity is related to positive health and life satisfaction but the pathways through which this occurs have not been clearly delineated. The purpose of this study was to examine potential mediators of the relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity and negative affect and life satisfaction. Perfectionism and life aspirations are two possible pathways through which religious orientation is related to outcome. It was hypothesized that adaptive perfectionism and intrinsic life aspirations would act as mediators between intrinsic religiosity and negative affect and life satisfaction, and that maladaptive perfectionism and extrinsic life aspirations would act as mediators between the extrinsic religiosity and negative affect and life satisfaction. Two consecutive samples of religious college students (N = 540 and N = 485) completed measures of the Age Universal Religious Orientation Index, the Frost Multi-Dimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Aspiration Index, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Intrinsic religiosity had a direct negative relationship with negative affect and positive relationship with life satisfaction. Contrary to the hypotheses, intrinsic religiosity had its strongest indirect effect via maladaptive perfectionism such that increased intrinsic religiosity was related to decreased maladaptive perfectionism which in turn lead to better negative affect and life satisfaction. Extrinsic religiosity was related to increased maladaptive perfectionism and thereby indirectly contributed to worse negative affect and life satisfaction. Interestingly, when the effects of maladaptive perfectionism were controlled, the direct effects of extrinsic religiosity were related to reduced negative affect and increased life satisfaction. Overall, the strongest mediator in this study of both intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity was maladaptive perfectionism, with intrinsic

  8. Joint aspiration and injection and synovial fluid analysis.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Philip; Doherty, Michael

    2009-04-01

    Joint aspiration/injection and synovial fluid (SF) analysis are both invaluable procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of joint disease. This chapter addresses: (1) the indications, the technical principles and the expected benefits and risks of aspiration and injection of intra-articular corticosteroid; and (2) practical aspects relating to SF analysis, especially in relation to crystal identification. Intra-articular injection of long-acting insoluble corticosteroids is a well-established procedure that produces rapid pain relief and resolution of inflammation in most injected joints. The knee is the most common site to require aspiration, although any non-axial joint is accessible for obtaining SF. The technique requires a knowledge of basic anatomy and should not be unduly painful for the patient. Provided sterile equipment and a sensible, aseptic approach are used, it is very safe. Analysis of aspirated SF is helpful in the differential diagnosis of arthritis and is the definitive method for diagnosis of septic arthritis and crystal arthritis. The gross appearance of SF can provide useful diagnostic information in terms of the degree of joint inflammation and presence of haemarthrosis. Microbiological studies of SF are the key to the confirmation of infectious conditions. Increasing joint inflammation is associated with increased SF volume, reduced viscosity, increasing turbidity and cell count, and increasing ratio of polymorphonuclear: mononuclear cells, but such changes are non-specific and must be interpreted in the clinical setting. However, detection of SF monosodium urate and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals, even from un-inflamed joints during intercritical periods, allow a precise diagnosis of gout and of calcium pyrophosphate crystal-related arthritis. PMID:19393565

  9. Aspiring and Residing IT Leaders: A Legacy for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Keith W.

    2012-01-01

    Many people think there is a quick road to leadership success. Those who want to become IT leaders--that is, "aspiring leaders"--often think: "If I just do my job well, I will rise to a leadership position." Those who are already IT leaders--that is, "residing leaders"--often think: "If I just do my job well, I will leave a lasting legacy." Doing…

  10. Fatal and near-fatal grape aspiration in children.

    PubMed

    Feltbower, Stephen; McCormack, Jon; Theilen, Ulf

    2015-06-01

    Choking remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in young children. Whole seedless grapes are a popular fruit snack to give to young children.We present 3 cases of grape aspiration, discussing the emergency care from basic life support to specialist treatment.The lessons learned will be applicable to a wide range of health professionals from frontline emergency medical service personnel to physicians and nurses working in a hospital.

  11. Low coherence interferometry approach for aiding fine needle aspiration biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ernest W.; Gardecki, Joseph; Pitman, Martha; Wilsterman, Eric J.; Patel, Ankit; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Iftimia, Nicusor

    2014-11-01

    We present portable preclinical low-coherence interference (LCI) instrumentation for aiding fine needle aspiration biopsies featuring the second-generation LCI-based biopsy probe and an improved scoring algorithm for tissue differentiation. Our instrument and algorithm were tested on 38 mice with cultured tumor mass and we show the specificity, sensitivity, and positive predictive value of tumor detection of over 0.89, 0.88, and 0.96, respectively.

  12. Aspiration tests in aqueous foam using a breathing simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-12-01

    Non-toxic aqueous foams are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) for use in crowd control, cell extractions, and group disturbances in the criminal justice prison systems. The potential for aspiration of aqueous foam during its use and the resulting adverse effects associated with complete immersion in aqueous foam is of major concern to the NIJ when examining the effectiveness and safety of using this technology as a Less-Than-Lethal weapon. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the maximum quantity of foam that might be aspirated by an individual following total immersion in an SNL-developed aqueous foam. A.T.W. Reed Breathing simulator equipped with a 622 Silverman cam was used to simulate the aspiration of an ammonium laureth sulfate aqueous foam developed by SNL and generated at expansion ratios in the range of 500:1 to 1000:1. Although the natural instinct of an individual immersed in foam is to cover their nose and mouth with a hand or cloth, thus breaking the bubbles and decreasing the potential for aspiration, this study was performed to examine a worst case scenario where mouth breathing only was examined, and no attempt was made to block foam entry into the breathing port. Two breathing rates were examined: one that simulated a sedentary individual with a mean breathing rate of 6.27 breaths/minute, and one that simulated an agitated or heavily breathing individual with a mean breathing rate of 23.7 breaths/minute. The results of this study indicate that, if breathing in aqueous foam without movement, an air pocket forms around the nose and mouth within one minute of immersion.

  13. Adult sudden death caused by aspiration of chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Njau, S N

    2004-01-28

    A case of a fatal foreign material aspiration is presented in the following text. A 24-year-old white male died suddenly. A piece of chewing gum lodged in a pool of frothy fluid was revealed at autopsy. Microscopic examinations revealed atelectasia emphysema, eosinophilic exudate and empty spaces. Blood and urine samples were analyzed, for alcohol and drug use by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) on an Abbott AXSYM system. No alcohol or other drugs were detected in blood or urine. PMID:15040903

  14. Mechanics and deformation of the nucleus in micropipette aspiration experiment.

    PubMed

    Vaziri, Ashkan; Mofrad, Mohammad R Kaazempur

    2007-01-01

    Robust biomechanical models are essential for the study of nuclear mechanics and deformation and can help shed light on the underlying mechanisms of stress transition in nuclear elements. Here, we develop a computational model for an isolated nucleus undergoing micropipette aspiration. Our model includes distinct components representing the nucleoplasm and nuclear envelope. The nuclear envelope itself comprises three layers: inner and outer nuclear membranes and one thicker layer representing the nuclear lamina. The nucleoplasm is modeled as a viscoelastic Maxwell material with a single time constant, while a modified Maxwell model, equivalent to a spring and a dashpot in series and both in parallel with a spring, is adopted for the inner and outer nuclear membranes. The nuclear envelope layer is taken as a linear elastic material. The proposed computational model, validated using experimental observations of Guilak et al. [2000. Viscoelastic properties of the cell nucleus. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 269, 781-786] and Deguchi et al. [2005, Flow-induced hardening of endothelial nucleus as an intracellular stress-bearing organelle. Journal of Biomechanics 38, 1751-1759], is employed to study nuclear mechanics and deformation in micropipette aspiration and to shed light on the contribution of individual nuclear components on the response. The results indicate that the overall response of an isolated nucleus in micropipette aspiration is highly sensitive to the apparent stiffness of the nuclear lamina. This observation suggests that micropipette aspiration is an effective technique for examining the influence of various kinds of alteration in the nuclear lamina, such as mutations in the gene encoding lamin A, and also structural remodeling due to mechanical perturbation.

  15. Mechanics and deformation of the nucleus in micropipette aspiration experiment.

    PubMed

    Vaziri, Ashkan; Mofrad, Mohammad R Kaazempur

    2007-01-01

    Robust biomechanical models are essential for the study of nuclear mechanics and deformation and can help shed light on the underlying mechanisms of stress transition in nuclear elements. Here, we develop a computational model for an isolated nucleus undergoing micropipette aspiration. Our model includes distinct components representing the nucleoplasm and nuclear envelope. The nuclear envelope itself comprises three layers: inner and outer nuclear membranes and one thicker layer representing the nuclear lamina. The nucleoplasm is modeled as a viscoelastic Maxwell material with a single time constant, while a modified Maxwell model, equivalent to a spring and a dashpot in series and both in parallel with a spring, is adopted for the inner and outer nuclear membranes. The nuclear envelope layer is taken as a linear elastic material. The proposed computational model, validated using experimental observations of Guilak et al. [2000. Viscoelastic properties of the cell nucleus. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 269, 781-786] and Deguchi et al. [2005, Flow-induced hardening of endothelial nucleus as an intracellular stress-bearing organelle. Journal of Biomechanics 38, 1751-1759], is employed to study nuclear mechanics and deformation in micropipette aspiration and to shed light on the contribution of individual nuclear components on the response. The results indicate that the overall response of an isolated nucleus in micropipette aspiration is highly sensitive to the apparent stiffness of the nuclear lamina. This observation suggests that micropipette aspiration is an effective technique for examining the influence of various kinds of alteration in the nuclear lamina, such as mutations in the gene encoding lamin A, and also structural remodeling due to mechanical perturbation. PMID:17112531

  16. Can renal infarction occur after renal cyst aspiration? Case report.

    PubMed

    Emre, Habib; Soyoral, Yasemin Usul; Tanik, Serhat; Gecit, Ilhan; Begenik, Huseyin; Pirincci, Necip; Erkoc, Reha

    2011-01-01

    Renal infarction (RI) is a rarely seen disorder, and the diagnosis is often missed. The two major causes of RI are thromboemboli originhating from a thrombus in the heart or aorta, and in-situ thrombosis of a renal artery. We report a case of RI that developed due to renal artery and vein thrombosis, as confirmed by pathological evaluation of the nephrectomy material, three weeks after renal cyst aspiration.

  17. Low coherence interferometry approach for aiding fine needle aspiration biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ernest W.; Gardecki, Joseph; Pitman, Martha; Wilsterman, Eric J.; Patel, Ankit; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Iftimia, Nicusor

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We present portable preclinical low-coherence interference (LCI) instrumentation for aiding fine needle aspiration biopsies featuring the second-generation LCI-based biopsy probe and an improved scoring algorithm for tissue differentiation. Our instrument and algorithm were tested on 38 mice with cultured tumor mass and we show the specificity, sensitivity, and positive predictive value of tumor detection of over 0.89, 0.88, and 0.96, respectively. PMID:25375634

  18. Fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Young, J A; Smallman, L A; Thompson, H; Proops, D W; Johnson, A P

    1990-01-01

    Eighty-eight fine needle aspirates from 79 salivary gland lesions in 77 patients were examined. The overall diagnostic sensitivity was 84% and the specificity 98.41%. When the 14 unsatisfactory specimens were excluded the sensitivity rose to 95.45%. Correct identification of the disease process was possible in nearly 80% of cases with a final benign diagnosis. The histological tumour type was correctly predicted in 75% of the malignancies. In the others the cytological diagnosis was anaplastic malignant neoplasm.

  19. AstroBiology Explorer Mission Concepts (ABE/ASPIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandford, S.; Ennico, K.; Abe/Aspire Science Team

    The AstroBiology Explorer ABE and the Astrobiology SPace InfraRed Explorer ASPIRE Mission Concepts are two missions designed to address the questions 1 Where do we come from and 2 Are we alone as outlined in NASA s Origins Program using infrared spectroscopy to explore the identity abundance and distribution of molecules of astrobiological importance throughout the Universe The ABE mission s observational program is focused on six tasks to 1 Investigate the evolution of ice and organics in dense clouds and star formation regions and the young stellar planetary systems that form in them 2 Measure the evolution of complex organic molecules in stellar outflows 3 Study the organic composition of a wide variety of solar system objects including asteroids comets and the planets and their satellites 4 Identify organic compounds in the diffuse interstellar medium and determine their distribution abundance and change with environment 5 Detect and identify organic compounds in other galaxies and determine their dependence on galactic type and 6 Measure deuterium enrichments in interstellar organics and use them as tracers of chemical processes The ASPIRE mission s observational program expands upon ABE s core mission and adds tasks that 7 Address the role of silicates in interstellar organic chemistry and 8 Use different resolution spectra to assess the relative roles and abundances of gas- and solid-state materials ABE ASPIRE achieves these goals using a highly sensitive cryogenically-cooled telescope in an

  20. Canine lymphoma: immunocytochemical analysis of fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Caniatti, M; Roccabianca, P; Scanziani, E; Paltrinieri, S; Moore, P F

    1996-03-01

    Cytospin preparations of fine-needle aspirates from 21 dogs with peripheral lymphadenopathy (18 with lymphoma and three with lymph node hyperplasia) were studied by combining morphologic and immunocytochemical analysis. Fine-needle aspirates were taken from at least two enlarged lymph nodes, and the diagnosis was based on air-dried smears stained with May-Grünwald Giemsa. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy always provided an adequate quality and quantity of cells to perform morphologic and immunologic studies. Immunophenotyping was performed on cytospin preparations with a panel of eight monoclonal antibodies specific for canine cell surface antigens and one rabbit polyclonal antibody (A452) against human CD3, which cross-reacts with dog antigen. The immunocytochemical study resulted in the diagnosis of 14 B-cell lymphomas (CD21+, CD3-) and three T-cell lymphomas (all CD3+, two CD8+). One lymphoma lacked surface antigens specific for the B- or T-cell lineage and was classified as non-B-non-T lymphoma (CD21-, CD3-, CD4-, CD8-). The monoclonal antibodies CA12.10C12, CA4.1D3, and CA1D6 and the polyclonal antibody A452, used as a group, appeared to be the most useful reagents to suggest lymphoid origin and to discriminate between T-and B-cell phenotype. Cytospin preparations in combination with immunocytochemistry provided a practical, economical, and accurate method for the diagnosis and phenotyping of canine lymphoma.

  1. Thrombus aspiration in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Meneguz-Moreno, R A; Costa, R A; A, A; Ribamar Costa, J; Abizaid, A

    2015-12-01

    Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become the treatment of choice in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) throughout the last years. A significant number of studies have demonstrated a morbidity and mortality benefit over thrombolysis, which has been attributed to better coronary perfusion in patients undergoing primary PCI. Even though it usually achieves normal flow in the affected epicardial vessel, myocardial reperfusion is not fully restored in a significant percentage of patients. This is commonly the result of distal thrombus embolization with subsequent impairment of myocardial microcirculation. Recognition of this has led to the development of a number of devices with different mechanisms, including thrombus aspiration catheters, in order to reduce distal embolization and therefore improve myocardial perfusion. Recent studies indeed demonstrate that the use of such devices offer additional clinical advantage in patients undergoing primary PCI in comparison to the standard PCI, whether in other trials it could not be proved. This paper focuses on general mechanisms of thrombus formation and discusses favorable and unfavorable studies towards thrombus aspiration in STEMI and its main aspects and it comes up with specific subjects that could benefit or not from the procedure of thrombus aspiration. PMID:26603617

  2. Powder aspiration in children. Report of two cases.

    PubMed Central

    Pfenninger, J; D'Apuzzo, V

    1977-01-01

    Two cases of powder aspiration are reported. A 7 1/2-month-old girl showed a classical course with an asymptomatic period of 3-4 hours, then severe respiratory distress developed. Acute respiratory insufficiency made tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation necessary for 10 days. Complications included insufficient alveolar ventilation, atelectasis, pneumothorax, and superinfection. But the baby recovered with some residual radiological changes in the lungs. A 13-month-old boy was treated immediately after massive powder aspiration by tracheal intubation and bronchial wash-out. The postoperative course was unevetful and no respiratory distress developed. Powder aspiration leads to severe bronchiolar obstruction with a delay of several hours and has a high mortality rate. The best results in treatment are obtained by immediate intubation and bronchial wash-out, even in the absence of respiratory symptoms. Artifical ventilation may be necessary with the special problem of overcoming very high airway resistance. Corticosteroids and bronchodilators may be helpful. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:836067

  3. [Recurrent breast haematoma after fine needle aspiration biopsy of angiosarcoma].

    PubMed

    Ortiz Mendoza, Carlos Manuel

    2007-03-01

    It is reported a rare complication after a fine needle aspiration biopsy of a breast angiosarcoma. A 30-years-old female presented with a right breast lump. An ovoid, hypoecoic lesion of 39 x 13 mm was detect by ultrasonography. A fine needle aspiration biopsy was carried out for diagnosis, but only blood was report. After the biopsy the skin showed a violaceous color, the lump was tender, reappeared in three instances and increased its size (15 cm). In spite of conservative management the pain and the mass did not disappear, then surgical management was decided. A soft, violaceous mass of 13 x 6 x 4 cm, with well demarcated boundaries was removed. A capillary and cavernous breast hemangioma was diagnosed. Four months later a recurrence presented, and a new excision was carried out with a resulting moderately differentiated angiosarcoma, then a simple mastectomy was performed for definitive treatment. On a literature search only one similar case was found. A recurrent haematoma after a fine needle aspiration biopsy of a breast tumor mandates to rule out an angiosarcoma.

  4. Management of ovarian cysts with percutaneous aspiration and methotrexate injection

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pratiksha; Huria, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate ultrasonographic-guided cyst aspiration and methotrexate injection in the management of simple and endometriotic ovarian cysts in selected patients. Subjects and Methods: This prospective study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh, from November 2007 to October 2009. It included 132 female patients (age range, 15–72 years; mean, 38.7 years) with simple or endometriotic ovarian cysts (3.0–10.6 cm) at ultrasonic examinations. We performed puncture and aspiration followed by methotrexate injection into the cyst. All patients were followed for 12 months. None was lost to follow-up. Results: At follow-up ultrasonography, cysts had disappeared in 120 patients (90.90%) and persisted in 12 patients (9%). No major complications were observed in our study population during or after the procedure. Only 10 patients reported mild pelvic pain, and four others reported dizziness or nausea during or after the procedure. Malignant cells were not found in any of the cases at cytologic examination. We did not observe any cases of infection after the procedure. Conclusion: Ultrasonography-guided transabdominal aspiration of cyst fluid and subsequent methotrexate injection appears to be an alternative treatment for both simple and endometriotic ovarian cysts in selected cases. PMID:27185974

  5. The Perceived Value of Education and Educational Aspirations in the Czech Republic: Changes in the Determination of Educational Aspirations between 1989 and 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mateju, Petr; Smith, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    This article compares the changes in the determination of educational aspirations from the end of the communist period in 1989 to 2003, focusing on a single postcommunist country, the Czech Republic. The Czech case is particularly relevant for comparative research on educational inequality and aspirations, as previous studies have shown…

  6. THE OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATIONAL SCALE--THEORY, STRUCTURE, AND CORRELATES OF AN INSTRUMENT DESIGNED TO MEASURE DIFFERENTIAL LEVELS OF OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION, FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HALLER, ARCHIBALD O.; AND OTHERS

    A STUDY WAS MADE TO DEVELOP A QUICK AND ACCURATE METHOD FOR MEASURING OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATIONS, ADDING TO KNOWN EXPLANATORY AND PREDICTIVE TECHNIQUES CONCERNING THE OCCUPATIONAL SELECTION PROCESS. "LEVEL OF OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION" (LOA) WAS THE CONCEPTUAL FOCAL POINT OF THIS PROJECT. SUBJECTS OF THE PROJECT, APPROXIMATELY 450 17-YEAR-OLD BOYS,…

  7. Mapping Prefrontal Cortex Functions in Human Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossmann, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    It has long been thought that the prefrontal cortex, as the seat of most higher brain functions, is functionally silent during most of infancy. This review highlights recent work concerned with the precise mapping (localization) of brain activation in human infants, providing evidence that prefrontal cortex exhibits functional activation much…

  8. Subspecialization in the human posterior medial cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bzdok, Danilo; Heeger, Adrian; Langner, Robert; Laird, Angela R.; Fox, Peter T.; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Vogt, Brent A.; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2014-01-01

    The posterior medial cortex (PMC) is particularly poorly understood. Its neural activity changes have been related to highly disparate mental processes. We therefore investigated PMC properties with a data-driven exploratory approach. First, we subdivided the PMC by whole-brain coactivation profiles. Second, functional connectivity of the ensuing PMC regions was compared by task-constrained meta-analytic coactivation mapping (MACM) and task-unconstrained resting-state correlations (RSFC). Third, PMC regions were functionally described by forward/reverse functional inference. A precuneal cluster was mostly connected to the intraparietal sulcus, frontal eye fields, and right temporo-parietal junction; associated with attention and motor tasks. A ventral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) cluster was mostly connected to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and middle left inferior parietal cortex (IPC); associated with facial appraisal and language tasks. A dorsal PCC cluster was mostly connected to the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, anterior/posterior IPC, posterior midcingulate cortex, and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; associated with delay discounting. A cluster in the retrosplenial cortex was mostly connected to the anterior thalamus and hippocampus. Furthermore, all PMC clusters were congruently coupled with the default mode network according to task-constrained but not task-unconstrained connectivity. We thus identified distinct regions in the PMC and characterized their neural networks and functional implications. PMID:25462801

  9. Aspiration Therapy Leads to Weight Loss in Obese Subjects: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Shelby; Stein, Richard; Jonnalagadda, Sreenivasa; Mullady, Daniel; Edmundowicz, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Obese patients rarely achieve long-term weight loss with only lifestyle interventions. We evaluated the use of endoscopic aspiration therapy for obesity. Aspiration therapy involves endoscopic placement of a gastrostomy tube (A-Tube) and the AspireAssist siphon assembly (Aspire Bariatrics, King of Prussia, PA) to aspirate gastric contents 20 minutes after meal consumption. Methods We performed a pilot study of 18 obese subjects who were randomly assigned (2:1) to groups that underwent aspiration therapy for 1 year plus lifestyle therapy (n = 11; mean body mass index, 42.6 ± 1.4 kg/m2) or lifestyle therapy only (n = 7; mean body mass index, 43.4 ± 2.0 kg/m). Lifestyle intervention comprised a 15-session diet and behavioral education program. Results Ten of the 11 subjects who underwent aspiration therapy and 4 of the 7 subjects who underwent lifestyle therapy completed the first year of the study. After 1 year, subjects in the aspiration therapy group lost 18.6% ± 2.3% of their body weight (49.0% ± 7.7% of excess weight loss [EWL]) and those in the lifestyle therapy group lost 5.9% ± 5.0% (14.9% ± 12.2% of EWL) (P < .04). Seven of the 10 subjects in the aspiration therapy group completed an additional year of therapy and maintained a 20.1% ± 3.5% body weight loss (54.6% ± 12.0% of EWL). There were no adverse effects of aspiration therapy on eating behavior and no evidence of compensation for aspirated calories with increased food intake. No episodes of binge eating in the aspiration therapy group or serious adverse were reported. Conclusions In a pilot study, aspiration therapy appears to be a safe and effective long-term weight loss therapy for obesity. ClinicalTrials.gov, Number: NCT00773903. PMID:24012983

  10. Diagnostic Yield of Fine-Needle Aspiration for Axillary Lymph Nodes During Screening Breast Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Youn, Inyoung; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Moon, Hee Jung; Kim, Min Jung

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to assess the positive predictive value (PPV) of ultrasound (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and the cancer detection rate for incidentally detected abnormal axillary lymph node (LN) in patients who underwent screening US. We retrospectively reviewed 72 LNs of 69 patients (mean age, 44.9 years) who underwent US-FNA for incidentally detected abnormal axillary LNs on 50,488 screening US from January 2005 to December 2011. The PPV of US-FNA and the cancer detection rate were calculated. We evaluated US images for lymph node size, abnormal findings (hilum loss, eccentric cortical thickening, round shape, extranodal extension, or marked hypoechoic cortex), and mammography for the identification of abnormal LNs. The PPV of each finding was also calculated. The PPV of US-FNA and the cancer detection rate were 2.8% (2/72) and 0.004% (2/50,488), respectively. The mean (SD) measurements for long-axis, short-axis, and cortical thickening of the LNs were 14.9 (5.9) mm, 8.5 (3.5) mm, and 5.8 (2.8) mm, respectively. Of the positive LNs, US findings of hilum loss, eccentric cortical thickening, and extranodal extension were found, and each corresponding PPV was 6.3% (1/16), 1.8% (1/56), and 14.3% (1/7), respectively. The PPV of mammography was 14.3% (1/7). Our results suggest that the PPVs of US-FNA and the cancer detection rate for incidentally detected abnormal axillary LNs during screening US are too low to recommend axillary US during breast US screening and that follow-up is acceptable for abnormal LNs detected during screening breast US that do not have extranodal extension or are negative on mammography. PMID:27054655

  11. The Role of Social Capital in Educational Aspirations of Rural Youth.

    PubMed

    Byun, Soo-Yong; Meece, Judith L; Irvin, Matthew J; Hutchins, Bryan C

    2012-09-01

    Drawing on a recent national survey of rural high school students, this study investigated the relationship between social capital and educational aspirations of rural youth. Results showed that various process features of family and school social capital were important to predict rural youth's educational aspirations beyond sociodemographic background. In particular, parents' and teachers' educational expectations for their child and student respectively were positively related to educational aspirations of rural youth. In addition, discussion with parents about college was positively related to educational aspirations of rural youth. On the other hand, there was little evidence to suggest that number of siblings and school proportions of students on free lunch and minority students are related to educational aspirations of rural youth, after controlling for the other variables. The authors highlight unique features of rural families, schools, and communities that may combine to explain the complexity of the role of social capital in shaping educational aspirations of rural youth.

  12. The Role of Social Capital in Educational Aspirations of Rural Youth.

    PubMed

    Byun, Soo-Yong; Meece, Judith L; Irvin, Matthew J; Hutchins, Bryan C

    2012-09-01

    Drawing on a recent national survey of rural high school students, this study investigated the relationship between social capital and educational aspirations of rural youth. Results showed that various process features of family and school social capital were important to predict rural youth's educational aspirations beyond sociodemographic background. In particular, parents' and teachers' educational expectations for their child and student respectively were positively related to educational aspirations of rural youth. In addition, discussion with parents about college was positively related to educational aspirations of rural youth. On the other hand, there was little evidence to suggest that number of siblings and school proportions of students on free lunch and minority students are related to educational aspirations of rural youth, after controlling for the other variables. The authors highlight unique features of rural families, schools, and communities that may combine to explain the complexity of the role of social capital in shaping educational aspirations of rural youth. PMID:24039302

  13. Aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of head and neck masses: the early Christchurch experience.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, D S; Allison, R S; Robertson, M S; Hamer, J W

    1989-12-13

    Fine needle aspiration cytology has been performed on patients presenting with head and neck masses in Christchurch since mid-1985. The results of an initial 120 aspirations were reviewed. Histology was available to compare with the cytology result in 58% of cases. Clinical review was used to assess the accuracy of the cytology result in the remaining cases. The majority of the masses aspirated were of benign origin (72%). The cytological diagnosis was accurate in 79% of cases. Of the remaining aspirates, 13% were inaccurate and 8% nondiagnostic. The sensitivity for malignant lesions was 100%, with 86% specificity (for benign lesions). Particular diagnostic difficulty was found in the differentiation between some salivary gland tumours, and the assessment of aspirates from neck masses after combined therapy (radiotherapy and surgery). Fine needle aspiration cytology is of considerable value in the management of head and neck masses.

  14. Aspiration and swallowing in Parkinson disease and rehabilitation with EMST

    PubMed Central

    Troche, M.S.; Okun, M.S.; Rosenbek, J.C.; Musson, N.; Fernandez, H.H.; Rodriguez, R.; Romrell, J.; Pitts, T.; Wheeler-Hegland, K.M.; Sapienza, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Dysphagia is the main cause of aspiration pneumonia and death in Parkinson disease (PD) with no established restorative behavioral treatment to date. Reduced swallow safety may be related to decreased elevation and excursion of the hyolaryngeal complex. Increased submental muscle force generation has been associated with expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) and subsequent increases in hyolaryngeal complex movement provide a strong rationale for its use as a dysphagia treatment. The current study's objective was to test the treatment outcome of a 4-week device-driven EMST program on swallow safety and define the physiologic mechanisms through measures of swallow timing and hyoid displacement. Methods: This was a randomized, blinded, sham-controlled EMST trial performed at an academic center. Sixty participants with PD completed EMST, 4 weeks, 5 days per week, for 20 minutes per day, using a calibrated or sham, handheld device. Measures of swallow function including judgments of swallow safety (penetration–aspiration [PA] scale scores), swallow timing, and hyoid movement were made from videofluoroscopic images. Results: No pretreatment group differences existed. The active treatment (EMST) group demonstrated improved swallow safety compared to the sham group as evidenced by improved PA scores. The EMST group demonstrated improvement of hyolaryngeal function during swallowing, findings not evident for the sham group. Conclusions: EMST may be a restorative treatment for dysphagia in those with PD. The mechanism may be explained by improved hyolaryngeal complex movement. Classification of evidence: This intervention study provides Class I evidence that swallow safety as defined by PA score improved post EMST. GLOSSARY CI = confidence interval; EMST = expiratory muscle strength training; MEP = maximum expiratory pressure; PA = penetration–aspiration; PD = Parkinson disease; SWAL-QOL = Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire; UES = upper esophageal

  15. An empirical model of human aspiration in low-velocity air using CFD investigations.

    PubMed

    Anthony, T Renée; Anderson, Kimberly R

    2015-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed to investigate the aspiration efficiency of the human head in low velocities to examine whether the current inhaled particulate mass (IPM) sampling criterion matches the aspiration efficiency of an inhaling human in airflows common to worker exposures. Data from both mouth and nose inhalation, averaged to assess omnidirectional aspiration efficiencies, were compiled and used to generate a unifying model to relate particle size to aspiration efficiency of the human head. Multiple linear regression was used to generate an empirical model to estimate human aspiration efficiency and included particle size as well as breathing and freestream velocities as dependent variables. A new set of simulated mouth and nose breathing aspiration efficiencies was generated and used to test the fit of empirical models. Further, empirical relationships between test conditions and CFD estimates of aspiration were compared to experimental data from mannequin studies, including both calm-air and ultra-low velocity experiments. While a linear relationship between particle size and aspiration is reported in calm air studies, the CFD simulations identified a more reasonable fit using the square of particle aerodynamic diameter, which better addressed the shape of the efficiency curve's decline toward zero for large particles. The ultimate goal of this work was to develop an empirical model that incorporates real-world variations in critical factors associated with particle aspiration to inform low-velocity modifications to the inhalable particle sampling criterion.

  16. Efficacy of Thickened Liquids for Eliminating Aspiration in Head and Neck Cancer: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Barbon, Carly E.A.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To appraise the current videofluoroscopic evidence on the reduction of aspiration using thickened liquids in the head and neck cancer population. Data Sources Search terms relating to deglutition or dysphagia or swallow and neoplasms and oncology or head and neck cancer and viscosity or texture and apira or residu* were combined with honey or nectar, xerostomia, respiratory aspiration using Boolean operators. Review Methods A multi-engine literature search identified 337 non-duplicate articles of which 6 were judged to be relevant. These underwent detailed review for study quality and qualitative synthesis. Results The articles reviewed in detail predominantly described heterogeneous study samples with small sample sizes, making for difficult interpretation and generalization of results. Rates of aspiration were typically not reported by bolus consistency, despite the fact that a variety of stimulus consistencies was used during VFSS. Studies confirmed that aspiration is a major concern in the head and neck cancer population and reported a trend towards more frequent aspiration post-(chemo)radiotherapy. Conclusion Overall, the literature on thickened liquids as an intervention to eliminate aspiration in the head and neck cancer population is limited. Because aspiration is known to be prevalent in the head and neck cancer population and thickened liquids are known to eliminate aspiration in other populations, it is important to determine the effectiveness of thickened liquids for reducing aspiration in the head and neck cancer population. PMID:25358345

  17. Metastatic Chordoma: A Diagnostic Challenge on Fine Needle Aspiration.

    PubMed

    Tranesh, Ghassan; Nassar, Aziza

    2016-01-01

    Chordomas are primary low grade malignant tumors of bone that usually arise within both ends of axial skeleton. The Notochord is a midline, ectoderm-derived structure that defines the phylum of chordates. Chordomas may pose difficult diagnostic challenges when encountered in secondary locations, such as lungs or other parenchymatous organs. We report the cytologic findings of a metastatic chordoma sampled through CT-scan guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) of lower lobe lung nodule in a 54-year-old man diagnosed with recurrent chordoma involving the lumber spine and paraspinal region.

  18. Flexible transbronchial needle aspiration for staging of bronchogenic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, K P; Brower, R; Haponik, E F; Siegelman, S

    1983-11-01

    Flexible transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) provides access to mediastinal lymph nodes, but its role in staging bronchogenic carcinoma is unknown. To determine the efficacy and safety of this procedure for staging the extent of mediastinal disease, the results of TBNA performed during fiberoptic bronchoscopy in 39 patients without known extrathoracic metastases were reviewed. Flexible TBNA was found to be a safe, effective method for determining the presence or absence of mediastinal metastases from bronchogenic carcinoma. Furthermore, TBNA results compare favorably with roentgenographic staging techniques, with the added advantage of providing cytopathologic information. PMID:6313305

  19. Sclerosing hemangioma: A diagnostic dilemma in fine needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jennifer; Zhou, Fang; Wei, Xiao-Jun; Kovacs, Sandor; Simsir, Aylin; Shi, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Sclerosing hemangioma of the lung is a benign neoplasm with a widely debated histogenesis. It has a polymorphic histomorphology characterized by a biphasic cell population of “surface cells” and “round cells” arranged in four general patterns: Papillary, solid, angiomatous, and sclerotic. This variability in histomorphology makes it difficult to diagnose sclerosing hemangioma by fine needle aspiration (FNA). We present a case of sclerosing hemangioma diagnosed on FNA with immunohistochemistry performed on an accompanied cell block. The clinical presentation, cytomorphology, immunohistochemistry, and differential diagnoses are discussed. PMID:27168758

  20. Metastatic Chordoma: A Diagnostic Challenge on Fine Needle Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Tranesh, Ghassan; Nassar, Aziza

    2016-01-01

    Chordomas are primary low grade malignant tumors of bone that usually arise within both ends of axial skeleton. The Notochord is a midline, ectoderm-derived structure that defines the phylum of chordates. Chordomas may pose difficult diagnostic challenges when encountered in secondary locations, such as lungs or other parenchymatous organs. We report the cytologic findings of a metastatic chordoma sampled through CT-scan guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) of lower lobe lung nodule in a 54-year-old man diagnosed with recurrent chordoma involving the lumber spine and paraspinal region. PMID:26881166

  1. Meconium aspiration syndrome and neonatal outcome in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Malik, A S; Hillman, D

    1994-01-01

    The outcome in 148 inborn meconium-stained neonates was studied prospectively over a 5-month period. Fifty-three infants (38.5%) developed meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). There was a significantly higher rate of MAS (p < 0.001), mechanical ventilation (p < 0.016) and hospital stay (p < 0.016) in neonates with meconium in the trachea than in neonates with no meconium in the oropharynx. The incidence of MAS was significantly higher and the duration of hospital stay longer in outborn than in inborn infants (p < 0.022).

  2. Transseptal fine needle aspiration of a large left atrial tumour.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi Wing; Ruygrok, Peter; Sutton, Timothy; Ding, Patricia; van Vliet, Chris; Occleshaw, Christopher; Smith, Warren

    2010-07-01

    The diagnosis of cardiac tumours is often based on images without tissue diagnosis or tissue obtained at surgery. Percutaneous myocardial biopsy via a transvenous approach has been described in literatures but this technique is not feasible with left atrial tumours. We report a patient presenting with heart failure and left atrial tumour. The diagnosis of spindle cell neoplasm was established pre-operatively via successful transseptal fine needle aspiration of cells from a left atrial tumour. We believe this technique worth consideration to aid pre-surgery diagnosis.

  3. Granulomatous lung disease in children by aspiration of medications.

    PubMed

    Hański, W; Figurski, R; Fermus, R

    1987-01-01

    Post mortem examinations of 8 infants, 11 d to 5 months old and one 12 year old girl, demonstrated foreign bodies in the lungs which could be identified as orally administered drugs: cholestyramine (Questran) and phenobarbital (Luminal, Gardenal) or phenydantin-components. The microscopic changes caused by such deposits and the histologic methods of identifying medicines are presented. The authors point to the role of aspiration in deposit formation and to the pseudomiliary granulomatous nature of subsequent changes. It is proposed to define the alterations as a separate form of aspiratory lesion in children. PMID:3296546

  4. Fine needle aspiration in head and neck surgery.

    PubMed

    Mixon, T; Gianoli, G

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to familiarize the reader with the use of fine needle aspiration (FNA) in head and neck surgery. The materials and method of performing FNA are described in detail. Three different areas are addressed: cervical lymph nodes, thyroid nodules, and salivary gland masses. The benefits and limitations of FNA are fully discussed. Early results were far from perfect, but increased exposure has greatly enhanced the accuracy of experienced pathologists. Current results show that FNA is a quick, inexpensive, and relatively painless procedure which in most cases shows excellent sensitivity and specificity. It often helps avoid surgery in benign disease and aids in surgical planning for malignant disease.

  5. Needle aspiration cytologic biopsy in head and neck masses.

    PubMed

    Young, J E; Archibald, S D; Shier, K J

    1981-10-01

    Over 500 fine (no. 22) needle aspiration biopsies were done on head and neck lesions. The total accuracy for the series was 94.5 percent. The accuracy rates for thyroid, salivary and metastatic or benign lymph node lesions were similar: approximately 95 percent. Only lymphomatous lesions gave a lower accuracy rate: 75 percent. This method of evaluating masses in the head and neck is simple, rapid, inexpensive, well-tolerated and harmless, and is very accurate when there is close cooperation between the clinician and the cytopathologist.

  6. [Cytologic diagnosis of salivary gland lesions by fine needle aspiration].

    PubMed

    Fu, X W

    1989-12-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology was used in diagnosis of 504 major and minor salivary gland lesions. In 180 cases with satisfactory specimens, cytologic diagnosis was contrasted with pathohistologic findings. There were 150 benign lesions (including 124 tumors and 26 cases of other lesions) and 30 malignant tumors. The total correspondence rate was 94.5%. The rate of misdiagnosis was 5.5%. Cytologic appearance of various salivary gland tumors is described and the significance of distribution of mucus is discussed. The misdiagnosed cases were mainly in the early stage.

  7. Fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, G; Verma, A K; Sood, N; Khurana, N

    1994-07-01

    247 salivary gland lesions were subjected to fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology; 179 were designated as neoplastic lesions and 68 as non-neoplastic. Based on cytomorphologic features, the neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions were subcategorised. All but 36 of the neoplastic lesions were subjected to histopathologic study. The overall diagnostic accuracy of FNA cytology for neoplastic lesions was 91%. The sensitivity rate for detecting malignant tumours was 87.8% and the specificity 98.0%. There was 100% sensitivity for cytodiagnosis of benign tumours. The high sensitivity and specificity of cytodiagnosis makes FNA cytology a valuable diagnostic modality in the evaluation of salivary gland lesions.

  8. Somatosensory responses in a human motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Shaikhouni, Ammar; Donoghue, John P; Hochberg, Leigh R

    2013-04-01

    Somatic sensory signals provide a major source of feedback to motor cortex. Changes in somatosensory systems after stroke or injury could profoundly influence brain computer interfaces (BCI) being developed to create new output signals from motor cortex activity patterns. We had the unique opportunity to study the responses of hand/arm area neurons in primary motor cortex to passive joint manipulation in a person with a long-standing brain stem stroke but intact sensory pathways. Neurons responded to passive manipulation of the contralateral shoulder, elbow, or wrist as predicted from prior studies of intact primates. Thus fundamental properties and organization were preserved despite arm/hand paralysis and damage to cortical outputs. The same neurons were engaged by attempted arm actions. These results indicate that intact sensory pathways retain the potential to influence primary motor cortex firing rates years after cortical outputs are interrupted and may contribute to online decoding of motor intentions for BCI applications.

  9. Somatosensory responses in a human motor cortex

    PubMed Central

    Donoghue, John P.; Hochberg, Leigh R.

    2013-01-01

    Somatic sensory signals provide a major source of feedback to motor cortex. Changes in somatosensory systems after stroke or injury could profoundly influence brain computer interfaces (BCI) being developed to create new output signals from motor cortex activity patterns. We had the unique opportunity to study the responses of hand/arm area neurons in primary motor cortex to passive joint manipulation in a person with a long-standing brain stem stroke but intact sensory pathways. Neurons responded to passive manipulation of the contralateral shoulder, elbow, or wrist as predicted from prior studies of intact primates. Thus fundamental properties and organization were preserved despite arm/hand paralysis and damage to cortical outputs. The same neurons were engaged by attempted arm actions. These results indicate that intact sensory pathways retain the potential to influence primary motor cortex firing rates years after cortical outputs are interrupted and may contribute to online decoding of motor intentions for BCI applications. PMID:23343902

  10. Guiding thyroid nodule management by fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Morayati, S J; Freitas, J E

    1991-12-01

    To determine the clinical value and cost effectiveness of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in thyroid nodule management, a retrospective analysis of 945 consecutive patients subjected to FNA of cold nodules detected by clinical exam and Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid scan between January 1, 1980, and December 31, 1987, was performed. After FNA, thyroid surgery was required in only 287 of 945 patients (30.4%). Of 87 cancers with satisfactory aspirates, 84 exhibited positive or suspicious cytology (sensitivity 96.6%). The predictive values for positive and negative cytology were 96.9% and 95.7%, respectively. Of 745 patients with known or presumed benign disease up to seven years of follow up, 642 showed benign cytologies (specificity 86.2%). The cancer removal rate (1980-1987) was higher with FNA and surgery than with surgery alone (P less than 0.001). The estimated cost saving of FNA in 1980-1987 approximates $564,000. FNA is of great value since it enables greater cancer detection in a cost-effective manner.

  11. Aspiring to leadership--identifying teacher-leaders.

    PubMed

    Rogers, John

    2005-11-01

    Educational institutions need effective leaders at many levels. This paper explores the applicability of the Porter/Mazlow need-priority and Herzberg maintenance-motivation models to the challenge of identifying individuals who aspire to leadership. The review includes literature from teaching, engineering, medicine, astronomy, business, and the military. Autonomy need and achievement motivation consistently distinguished leaders from non-leaders in several studies. Affiliation and esteem needs also characterized leaders in two studies. These empirical data support the use of these theoretical models, which are intuitively appealing and have potential for practical applications. One such application could be the identification and recruitment of education "champions" who would be teacher-leaders at dispersed sites. Through self-reflection faculty members could become aware of their needs and motivations and may realize their leadership aspirations and accept the teacher-leader role. For an education "champions" program to be successful, the department leadership would need to attend to the organizational culture and provide release time for the teacher-leaders. A blueprint for the development of teacher-leaders is outlined.

  12. Aspiring to leadership--identifying teacher-leaders.

    PubMed

    Rogers, John

    2005-11-01

    Educational institutions need effective leaders at many levels. This paper explores the applicability of the Porter/Mazlow need-priority and Herzberg maintenance-motivation models to the challenge of identifying individuals who aspire to leadership. The review includes literature from teaching, engineering, medicine, astronomy, business, and the military. Autonomy need and achievement motivation consistently distinguished leaders from non-leaders in several studies. Affiliation and esteem needs also characterized leaders in two studies. These empirical data support the use of these theoretical models, which are intuitively appealing and have potential for practical applications. One such application could be the identification and recruitment of education "champions" who would be teacher-leaders at dispersed sites. Through self-reflection faculty members could become aware of their needs and motivations and may realize their leadership aspirations and accept the teacher-leader role. For an education "champions" program to be successful, the department leadership would need to attend to the organizational culture and provide release time for the teacher-leaders. A blueprint for the development of teacher-leaders is outlined. PMID:16332556

  13. Functional morphology and evolution of aspiration breathing in tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Brainerd, Elizabeth L; Owerkowicz, Tomasz

    2006-11-01

    In the evolution of aspiration breathing, the responsibility for lung ventilation gradually shifted from the hyobranchial to the axial musculoskeletal system, with axial muscles taking over exhalation first, at the base of Tetrapoda, and then inhalation as well at the base of Amniota. This shift from hyobranchial to axial breathing freed the tongue and head to adapt to more diverse feeding styles, but generated a mechanical conflict between costal ventilation and high-speed locomotion. Some "lizards" (non-serpentine squamates) have been shown to circumvent this speed-dependent axial constraint with accessory gular pumping during locomotion, and here we present a new survey of gular pumping behavior in the tuatara and 40 lizard species. We observed gular pumping behavior in 32 of the 40 lizards and in the tuatara, indicating that the ability to inflate the lungs by gular pumping is a shared-derived character for Lepidosauria. Gular pump breathing in lepidosaurs may be homologous with buccal pumping in amphibians, but non-ventilatory buccal oscillation and gular flutter have persisted throughout amniote evolution and gular pumping may have evolved independently by modification of buccal oscillation. In addition to gular pumping in some lizards, three other innovations have evolved repeatedly in the major amniote clades to circumvent the speed-dependent axial constraint: accessory inspiratory muscles (mammals, crocodylians and turtles), changing locomotor posture (mammals and birds) and respiratory-locomotor phase coupling to reduce the mechanical conflict between aspiration breathing and locomotion (mammals and birds).

  14. [The immediate interpretation for fine-needle aspiration cytology].

    PubMed

    Chang, M C; Ho, W L

    1993-11-01

    From December 1990 to November 1992, 2005 cases of immediate interpretation for fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology were performed, of which 727 cases were confirmed by surgical pathology. A mobile cytologic laboratory (a cart loaded with a dual viewing microscope, Liu's staining solutions, hair dryer, and slides) can be moved to the Out-patient Department, wards and Computed Tomography room, where clinicians perform aspiration and pathologists read smears. Immediate verbal diagnoses are documented to patients' charts and listed in cytopathologic files. Immediate interpretation in this entire series yielded a sensitivity 92.5%; specificity, 98.1%; false-positive rate, 1.1%; false-negative rate, 3.2%; positive predictive value (PV), 97.3%; negative PV, 94.7% and efficiency, 95.7%. The cause of false-negative results in the 23 cases probably came from the hesitation in making an immediate diagnosis. Most of these cases were malignant lymphoma or breast carcinoma. The roles of immediate cytodiagnosis are (1) to decrease the inadequate rate of FNA specimens; (2) to render preliminary diagnosis for clinicians to make decisions; (3) to provide on-site teaching material for both clinicians and pathology residents to better understand clinicopathological correlations; (4) to act as the initial diagnostic procedure in the evaluation of a superficial palpable mass. This study shows that immediate interpretation for FNA cytology is a simple, rapid, accurate and noninvasive diagnostic procedure that can be routinely used for superficial palpable masses.

  15. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes with cryopreserved testicular sperm aspiration samples.

    PubMed

    Roque, M; Valle, M; Marques, F; Sampaio, M; Geber, S

    2016-04-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may be performed with testicular frozen-thawed spermatozoa in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). Sperm retrieval can be performed in advance of oocyte aspiration, as it may avoid the possibility of no recovery of spermatozoa on the day of oocyte pickup. There are few studies available in the literature concerning the use of frozen-thawed spermatozoa obtained from testicular sperm aspiration (TESA). To evaluate the effects and the outcomes of ICSI with frozen-thawed spermatozoa obtained by TESA, we performed a retrospective analysis of 43 ICSI cycles using frozen-thawed TESA. We obtained acceptable results with a fertilisation rate of 67.9%, an implantation rate (IR) of 17.1%, and clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates of 41.9% and 37.2% respectively. The results of this study suggest that performing ICSI using cryopreserved frozen-thawed testicular spermatozoa with TESA as a first option is a viable, safe, economic and effective method for patients with NOA.

  16. The hazards of vacuum aspiration in late first trimester abortions.

    PubMed

    Moberg, P; Sjöberg, B; Wiqvist, N

    1975-01-01

    The incidence of somatic complications in connection with legal termination of pregnancy by vacuum aspiration was analysed in 1,123 hospital patients. Special attention was paid to complication rates in relation to gestational age. It was found that the incidence of major uterine haemorrhage increased with gestational period, being unexpectedly high in the 12th week. When anaesthesia was supplemented with halothane there was a significantly higher incidence of uterine haemorrhage that when this anaesthetic was avoided. The results indicate that strict principles for the operation procedure are mandatory to reduce blood loss and other complications. It is suggested that the end of the 12th week should not be considered as a "magic" time limit for vaccum aspiration but that the policy should aim at early intervention, preferably before the end of the 10th week. In the event of late first trimester abortions or "border line" cases it is of advantage to administer prostaglandin extra-amniotically for pre-operative dilatation of the cervix.

  17. Endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration: a hybrid method

    PubMed Central

    Ben, Suqin

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (cTBNA) was first performed approximately 30 years ago; however TBNA was not widely adopted until the development of endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). Current EBUS-TBNA needle sizes are limited to 21- and 22-gauge. In order to determine whether a 19-gauge (19G) needle in EBUS-TBNA can further improve the diagnostic yield and simplify the methodology of EBUS-TBNA we developed a hybrid method. Here we report our initial experience in assessing the feasibility of performing EBUS-TBNA using a conventional 19G TBNA needle. Methods Ten patients with diagnosed or suspected lung cancer with or without lymphadenopathy (LAD) were sampled for diagnostic and/or staging purposes. Patients with suspected benign processes were sampled only for diagnosis. A 19G cTBNA needle was deployed through the working channel of the EBUS bronchoscope. Samples obtained were evaluated for cyto- and histopathologic adequacy. Results All 10 patients successfully underwent hybrid 19G EBUS-TBNA. All samples were considered adequate for cyto- and histopathologic evaluation. Conclusions Hybrid EBUS-TBNA utilizing a 19G cTBNA needle through an EBUS scope is feasible and may be able to reliably acquire histologic specimens. PMID:26807276

  18. Late recognized nail aspiration in a child: case report.

    PubMed

    Çobanoğlu, Ufuk; Can, Muhammed; Birincioğlu, Ismail; Edirne, Yeşim; Melek, Mehmet

    2011-09-01

    Foreign body (FB) aspiration is common in children aged 0-3 years. Our case, a 2.5-year-old girl, presented with sudden onset of cough, fever and sputum; she had been treated twice for acute bronchitis four months ago. Resisting complaints led to an esophagoscopic examination in our Chest Surgery Clinic after a chest X-ray suggested FB in the esophagus, but no FB could be detected. A lateral chest X-ray revealed a FB with its sharp end targeting the trachea and its round end to the right hemithorax. Removal of the FB with forceps was not possible during rigid bronchoscopy. The FB was removed by thoracotomy and bronchotomy under general anesthesia. The removed FB was a nail measuring 6 cm in length. This case report should serve to stress the diversity of FB aspirations in childhood, the role of parental neglect, and that physicians should be aware of the possibility of FB in children with persistent cough.

  19. Mechanosensitive shivering of model tissues under controlled aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Guevorkian, Karine; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David; Carlier, Camille; Dufour, Sylvie; Brochard-Wyart, Françoise

    2011-01-01

    During embryonic development and wound healing, the mechanical signals transmitted from cells to their neighbors induce tissue rearrangement and directional movements. It has been observed that forces exerted between cells in a developing tissue under stress are not always monotonically varying, but they can be pulsatile. Here we investigate the response of model tissues to controlled external stresses. Spherical cellular aggregates are subjected to one-dimensional stretching forces using micropipette aspiration. At large enough pressures, the aggregate flows smoothly inside the pipette. However, in a narrow range of moderate aspiration pressures, the aggregate responds by pulsed contractions or “shivering.” We explain the emergence of this shivering behavior by means of a simple analytical model where the uniaxially stretched cells are represented by a string of Kelvin–Voigt elements. Beyond a deformation threshold, cells contract and pull on neighboring cells after a time delay for cell response. Such an active behavior has previously been found to cause tissue pulsation during dorsal closure of Drosophila embryo. PMID:21771735

  20. Chondroid syringoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bipin

    2010-01-01

    Chondroid syringoma is a rare benign skin adnexal tumor of eccrine/apocrine origin affecting commonly the head and neck region. It used to be previously called as mixed tumor of skin because of the presence of both the epithelial and mesenchymal components. There are only few case reports describing the fine needle aspiration cytologic features of chondroid syringoma for diagnosis. We studied a 20-year-old male case from Taplejung district of Nepal came to Otorhinolaryngology out patient department with the complaints of painless, progressively enlarging swelling on the dorsum of nose. On examination, 2.0 x 2.0 cm, firm, non-tender swelling was seen on the right side of dorsum of nose. Overlying skin was normal, and the swelling was fixed to the skin but freely mobile over underlying structure. A clinical diagnosis of dermoid cyst was entertained, and the case was subjected to FNAC. FNA yielded mucoid material which on microscopy showed clusters of round cells with moderate to abundant cytoplasm embedded in chondromyxoid ground substance. The nuclei were monomorphic, centrally to eccentrically located and had fine chromatin. On the basis of these cytologic features, a diagnosis of chondroid syringoma was made. We concluded that Chondroid syringoma may be considered as a rare differential diagnosis in the swelling of head and neck region and the diagnosis can be easily confirmed or ruled out by means of fine needle aspiration cytology.

  1. A layered network model of sensory cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    An integrated computational approach to modeling sensory systems which couples realistic layered neural models of sensory cortex and midbrain nuclei to detailed models of the sense organs (e.g., retina or cochlea) is described. The approach is applied to the auditory system. Through an exercise of the model, it is shown that spatial location of sounds may be a natural consequence of the way cochlear response is mapped onto the cortex. 31 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction, Thrombus Aspiration, and Different Invasive Strategies. A TASTE Trial Substudy

    PubMed Central

    Fröbert, Ole; Calais, Fredrik; James, Stefan K; Lagerqvist, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Background The clinical effect of thrombus aspiration in ST-elevation myocardial infarction may depend on the type of aspiration catheter and stenting technique. Methods and Results The multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label trial Thrombus Aspiration in ST-Elevation myocardial infarction in Scandinavia (TASTE) did not demonstrate a clinical benefit of thrombus aspiration compared to percutaneous coronary intervention alone. We assessed the effect of type of aspiration device, stent type, direct stenting, and postdilatation on outcomes at 1 year. There was no difference in all-cause mortality, between the 3 most frequently used aspiration catheters (Eliminate [Terumo] 5.4%, Export [Medtronic] 5.0%, Pronto [Vascular Solutions] 4.5%) in patients randomized to thrombus aspiration. There was no difference in mortality between directly stented patients randomized to thrombus aspiration compared to patients randomized to percutaneous coronary intervention only (risk ratio 1.08, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.67, P=0.73). Similarly, there was no difference in mortality between the 2 randomized groups for patients receiving drug-eluting stents (risk ratio 0.89, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.26, P=0.50) or for those treated with postdilation (risk ratio 0.72, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.07, P=0.11). Furthermore, there was no difference in rehospitalization for myocardial infarction or stent thrombosis between the randomized arms in any of the subgroups. Conclusions In patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction randomized to thrombus aspiration, the type of aspiration catheter did not affect outcome. Stent type, direct stenting, or postdilation did not affect outcome irrespective of treatment with thrombus aspiration and percutaneous coronary intervention or percutaneous coronary intervention alone. Clinical Trial Registration URL: ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01093404, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01093404. PMID:26077585

  3. A theory of cerebellar cortex.

    PubMed

    Marr, D

    1969-06-01

    1. A detailed theory of cerebellar cortex is proposed whose consequence is that the cerebellum learns to perform motor skills. Two forms of input-output relation are described, both consistent with the cortical theory. One is suitable for learning movements (actions), and the other for learning to maintain posture and balance (maintenance reflexes).2. It is known that the cells of the inferior olive and the cerebellar Purkinje cells have a special one-to-one relationship induced by the climbing fibre input. For learning actions, it is assumed that:(a) each olivary cell responds to a cerebral instruction for an elemental movement. Any action has a defining representation in terms of elemental movements, and this representation has a neural expression as a sequence of firing patterns in the inferior olive; and(b) in the correct state of the nervous system, a Purkinje cell can initiate the elemental movement to which its corresponding olivary cell responds.3. Whenever an olivary cell fires, it sends an impulse (via the climbing fibre input) to its corresponding Purkinje cell. This Purkinje cell is also exposed (via the mossy fibre input) to information about the context in which its olivary cell fired; and it is shown how, during rehearsal of an action, each Purkinje cell can learn to recognize such contexts. Later, when the action has been learnt, occurrence of the context alone is enough to fire the Purkinje cell, which then causes the next elemental movement. The action thus progresses as it did during rehearsal.4. It is shown that an interpretation of cerebellar cortex as a structure which allows each Purkinje cell to learn a number of contexts is consistent both with the distributions of the various types of cell, and with their known excitatory or inhibitory natures. It is demonstrated that the mossy fibre-granule cell arrangement provides the required pattern discrimination capability.5. The following predictions are made.(a) The synapses from parallel fibres

  4. [Investigation on chemical constituents of processed products of Eucommiae Cortex].

    PubMed

    Tao, Yi; Sheng, Chen; Li, Wei-dong; Cai, Bao-chang; Lu, Tu-lin

    2014-11-01

    According to the 2010 Chinese pharmacopeia, salt processed and charcoal processed Eucommiae Cortex were pre- pared. HPLC-DAD analysis of the content of the bark and leaf of Eucommiae Cortex showed that the bark of Eucommiae Cortex mainly contained lignans such as pinoresinol glucose and iridoid including genipin, geniposide, geniposidic acid, while the leaf of Eucommiae Cortex consisted of flavonoids such as quercetin and phenolic compound such as chlorogenic acid. The content of pinoresinol diglucoside in the bark of Eucommiae Cortex was about 18 times more than that in the leaf of Eucommiae Cortex. The content of pinoresinol diglucoside in salted and charcoal processed Eucommiae Cortex decreased approximately by 30% and 85%, respectively. The content of genipin, geniposide and geniposidic acid in the bark of Eucommiae Cortex was about 3 times, 23 times, 28 times more than that in the leaf of Eucommiae Cortex. The content of genipin, geniposide and geniposidic acid in salted Eucommiae Cortex were reduced by 25%, 40% and 40%, respectively. The content of genipin, geniposide and geniposidic acid in charcoal processed Eucommiae Cortex were reduced by 98%, 70%, 70%, respectively. The content of caffeic acid in bark of Eucommiae Cortex was about 3 times more than that in the leaf of Eucommiae Cortex. The content of caffeic acid was decreased by about 50% in the salted Eucommiae Cortex. While the content of caffeic acid in charcoal processed Eucommiae Cortex was decreased approximately 75%; the content of chlorogenic acid in bark of Eucommiae Cortex was about 1/6 of that in the leaf of Eucommiae Cortex. The content of chlorogenic acid in salted and charcoal processed Eucommiae Cortex decreased by 40% and 75%, respectively; the content of quercetin in bark of Eucommiae Cortex was only 1/40 of that in the leaf of Eucommiae Cortex. The content of quercetin in salted and charcoal processed Eucommiae Cortex were reduced by 60% and 50%, respectively.

  5. The Effects on Motor Performance of Setting an Overt Level of Aspiration by Mentally Retarded Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozar, Bill

    This study investigates the effects of setting an overt level of aspiration on the standing long jump performance of mildly and moderately retarded institutionalized children. Thirty-three mildly retarded and seven moderately retarded students were randomly assigned to either an overt level of aspiration (OLA) group or a control group. Each…

  6. Giving It the Old College Try: Understanding Degree Commitment among Division I FBS NFL Aspirants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Guadalupe Federico.

    2012-01-01

    Building on sociological studies regarding college choice and persistence, this qualitative study investigates the college and post college experiences of 15 current students with NFL aspirations and 13 former students who held NFL aspirations, all from Division I Football Bowl Series (FBS) programs. A phenomenological design is implemented to…

  7. Cloning Their Own: Aspirant Principals and the School-Based Selection Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronn, Peter; Lacey, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we report data from two projects concerned with the aspirant principals' perspectives about school principal recruitment in three Australian states. In particular, we consider what our informants perceive as factors that inhibit the realisation of their aspirations. These factors include aspects of the operation of school-based…

  8. Developing Conceptual Understandings of the Capacity to Aspire for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prodonovich, Samuel; Perry, Laura B.; Taggart, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews research and theory relating to aspirations for higher education as a cultural capacity. Understanding the social and cultural dimensions of aspirations for higher education is important as they are increasingly becoming part of social commentary and more recently educational policy, research and practice. This paper synthesises…

  9. Career Aspirations of Youth: Untangling Race/Ethnicity, SES, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Carlstrom, Aaron H.; Katz, Andrew D.; Chew, Aaronson Y.; Ray, G. Christopher; Laine, Lia; Caulum, David

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the influence of gender, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity on the career aspirations of over 22,000 8th and 10th grade youth. The top five occupations identified by youth as aspirations included artist, lawyer, musician, FBI agent, and actor/actress. Top occupations were also reported for each gender x socioeconomic…

  10. Image Theory and Career Aspirations: Indirect and Interactive Effects of Status-Related Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mindi N.; Dahling, Jason J.

    2010-01-01

    The present study applied Image Theory (Beach, 1990) to test how different components of a person's value image (i.e., perceived social status identity and conformity to masculine and feminine gender role norms) interact to influence trajectories toward high career aspirations (i.e., high value for status in one's work and aspirations for…

  11. Aspiring Principals' Perception of the Challenges of Beginning Principals and the Support That They Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Pak Tee

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an exploratory research project about the perception of aspiring principals regarding the challenges of beginning principals and the support that they need. These aspiring principals are participants on the Leaders in Education Programme (LEP) in Singapore. According to the research findings, the LEP participants…

  12. Development of Occupational Aspirations in Early Korean Adolescents: A Multiple-Group Latent Curve Model Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, In Heok; Rojewski, Jay W.

    2012-01-01

    The complex phenomenon of intraindividual and interindividual differences in the development of occupational aspirations and factors influencing this development were examined in a longitudinal sample of 5,727 Korean adolescents over a 4-year period. A downward trajectory of occupational aspirations from junior high school to the first year of…

  13. Adolescent Occupational Aspirations: Test of Gottfredson's Theory of Circumscription and Compromise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Daria B.; Wang, Eugene W.; Stevenson, Sarah J.; Johnson, Leah E.; Crews, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between adolescent occupational aspirations and midlife career success. The model for adolescent occupational aspirations was derived from Gottfredson's (1981) theory of circumscription and compromise. The authors hypothesized that parental socioeconomic status (SES), ability, and gender predict adolescent…

  14. Motivation and Career Aspirations of Female Students Studying Science at Achimota School in Accra, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andoh, Paul K.; Bosiakoh, Thomas Antwi; Afranie, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines science education for girls in Achimota School, a second cycle institution in Accra, in terms of their motivations for pursuing science and future aspirations. It explores parental backgrounds and how they impacted on the motivations and aspirations of the girls. The survey method was adopted in this study, which involved a…

  15. Silver Bullet or Red Herring? New Evidence on the Place of Aspirations in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Clair, Ralf; Kintrea, Keith; Houston, Muir

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a longitudinal study of student aspirations at the ages of 13 and 15 in three schools in the United Kingdom, where there has been a great deal of emphasis placed on aspirations in recent policy making. The data, based on individual interviews with 490 students in areas with significant deprivation as well as interviews with…

  16. Constructing New Identities? The Role of Gender and Education in Rural Girls' Life Aspirations in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on rural and indigenous girls and their mothers in Peru, examining how they position schooling and education in their current life and future aspirations, in order to better understand girls' increasing participation in education. It is argued here that the high educational aspirations girls and their families have are not only…

  17. Exploring the Academic Achievement and Career Aspirations of College-Bound and Postsecondary Zulu Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Steven B.; Wallis, Amy Birtel; Dunston, Kwesi T.

    2003-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative approach used to identify developmental and contextual factors associated with academic success and career aspirations of 13 Black Zulu South African students transitioning into college or in their first year of college. Students were queried on their aspirations and values, definitions of success, and…

  18. Educational Aspirations in an Urban Community College: Differences between Immigrant and Native Student Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Katherine M.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the educational aspirations of immigrant and native students in an urban community college. Using Burton Clark's cooling-out theory as a framework, the study looked at choices students make when applying to college and the extent to which students later change their aspirations. Immigrant students who were educated in United…

  19. The Realism and Sex Type of Four- to Five-Year-Old Children's Occupational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Care, Esther; Deans, Jan; Brown, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Research on career development has focused primarily on adolescents and adults. However, in Gottfredson's theory of circumscription and compromise (2002) it is proposed that career aspirations originate in the preschool years and that the earliest work aspirations of children are sex typed in relation to the activities of same sex adults. This…

  20. Differences Between Men and Women in Their Aspirations for Careers in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Betty

    This study looked at three areas of women's aspirations for careers in educational administration: the relative distribution of aspiration levels; the relationships to achievement orientation; and the relationship of self-role congruence to educational administration. Significant inequalities were found in the distribution of subjects based on…

  1. Aspirations and Capabilities of Rural Youth in Relation to Present and Projected Labor Market Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Max F.; And Others

    A study was conducted to: determine the aspirations and capabilities of rural youth in selected low-income counties in Arkansas; relate aspirations, capabilities, and the discrepancy between the two to the experience background of the youths studied; and relate the youths' occupational plans to present and projected labor market requirements. The…

  2. Bounded Aspirations: Rural, African American High School Students and College Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Darris R.; Clayton, Ashley B.; Conzelmann, Johnathan G.; Baynes, Patti; Umbach, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative case study explores the career and educational aspirations, college choice process, and college barriers and opportunities of 26 rural, African American high school students. Data included interviews with 26 students and 11 school staff members. Findings suggest that the students' rural context shapes aspirations. In addition,…

  3. College Talk and the Rural Economy: Shaping the Educational Aspirations of Rural, First-Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tieken, Mara Casey

    2016-01-01

    The college-going rates of rural students lag behind those of more urban students, a gap likely due, in part, to rural students' lower educational aspirations. These lower aspirations appear to be tied to the dilemma that higher education presents for many rural students: whether to remain in their rural home, working in traditional trades and…

  4. Using Propensity Score Matching to Determine the Efficacy of Secondary Career Academies in Raising Educational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.; Lee, In Heok; Gemici, Sinan

    2010-01-01

    Data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 database was used to determine the effects of career academy participation in grades 9 or 10 on educational aspirations. Propensity score matching was used to obtain initially equivalent groups for analysis. No statistically significant differences in postsecondary educational aspirations were…

  5. ASPIRE (Awareness of Sexual Prejudice Is the Responsibility of Educators) Module 2: Sexism in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livonia Public Schools, MI.

    This second of four workshop modules in the Project ASPIRE (Awareness of Sexual Prejudice is the Responsibility of Educators) series deals with developing awareness of how sex-role stereotyping affects the vocational and life-style aspirations and decisions of students. (See Note about other modules.) The module helps workshop participants (1)…

  6. The Role of Social Capital in Educational Aspirations of Rural Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Hutchins, Bryan C.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on a recent national survey of rural high school students, this study investigated the relationship between social capital and educational aspirations of rural youth. Results showed that various process features of family and school social capital were important for predicting rural youths' educational aspirations beyond sociodemographic…

  7. Impoverished Students with Academic Promise in Rural Settings: 10 Lessons from Project Aspire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burney, Virginia H.; Cross, Tracy L.

    2006-01-01

    Project Aspire was created to identify poor rural students with academic potential and to provide them with academic and counseling support in advanced placement courses and prerequisites. This article describes Project Aspire and its foundations; the relevant lessons learned from the literature on poverty, small schools, rural schools, and gifted…

  8. Parents' Aspirations for Their Children's Educational and Occupational Prospects in Greece: The Role of Social Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vryonides, Marios; Gouvias, Dionysios

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on parents and the way they perceive and formulate expectations and aspirations about their children's educational and occupational outcomes. Drawing on evidence from a survey among more than 700 parents of primary school pupils this paper demonstrates that interesting patterns in parental aspirations can be observed. These…

  9. Creative Aspirations or Pipe Dreams? Toward Understanding Creative Mortification in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beghetto, Ronald A.; Dilley, Anna E.

    2016-01-01

    What experiences influence the development of creativity in children and adolescents? One experience is the mortification of creative aspirations. Creative mortification (CM) refers to the loss of one's willingness to pursue a particular creative aspiration following a negative performance outcome. The purpose of this article is to introduce an…

  10. Future Aspirations of Urban Adolescents: A Person-in-Context Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Selcuk; Diemer, Matthew; Jackson, Lisa; Gonsalves, Lisa; Howell, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Recognizing the importance future aspirations play in the developmental outcomes of adolescents, this study illuminates the role that individual and contextual factors play in the formation of future aspirations among urban youth. The data for this study were collected prior to the implementation of an intervention program at an urban high school.…

  11. Development of Predicted Paths for ACT Aspire Score Reports. WP-2014-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    This report focuses on the initial development of the predicted score paths for ACT Aspire reporting. The paths provide predicted score ranges for the next two years--as well as predicted ACT score ranges for tests administered at grades 9 and 10. Longitudinal ACT Aspire data for students tested in spring 2013 and spring 2014, as well as…

  12. The Relationship between Career Variables and Occupational Aspirations and Expectations for Australian High School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Wendy; Creed, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This study surveyed 925 Australian high school students enrolled in grades 8 through 12 on measures of occupational aspirations, occupational expectations, career status aspirations, and career status expectations; it tested the association between these variables and career maturity, career indecision, career decision-making self-efficacy, and…

  13. A Study of Professional Aspirations and Perceived Obstacles: A Case for Administrative Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Eileen L.; Easter, Linda M.

    This study surveyed 170 faculty members at a public, mid-sized eastern university, comparing men's and women's aspirations and perceived obstacles to attaining various levels of executive positions in higher education. The study used the Academic Goals and Aspirations Survey, which requested demographic information regarding rank, status,…

  14. The Influences of Career Support and Sexual Identity on Sexual Minority Women's Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Lauren D.; Gushue, George V.; Cerrone, Michelle T.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between sexual identity, family/friend career support, and career aspirations in a sample of 381 sexual minority women. The results indicated that family career support and friend career support were positively related to career aspirations of sexual minority women. The results also indicated that the…

  15. Young Children's Aspirations in Science: The unequivocal, the uncertain and the unthinkable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWitt, Jennifer; Osborne, Jonathan; Archer, Louise; Dillon, Justin; Willis, Beatrice; Wong, Billy

    2013-04-01

    Students' lack of interest in studying science and in science-related careers is a concern in the UK and worldwide. Yet there is limited data, particularly longitudinal, on the sources and development of science-related aspirations. In response, the ASPIRES (Science Aspirations and Career Choice: Age 10-14) longitudinal study is investigating the development of students' educational and occupational aspirations over time. In the first phase of the project, a questionnaire exploring science-related aspirations and interests was completed by over 9,000 primary school students across England. This survey allowed us to explore possible associations between attitudes and aspirations, links which have not been investigated in previous attitudinal studies of this scope. Overall, students expressed positive attitudes to science, reported positive parental attitudes to science and held very positive images of scientists. Multilevel modelling analyses revealed that aspirations in science were most strongly related to parental attitudes to science, attitudes to school science and self-concept in science, and are also associated with students' gender, ethnicity and cultural capital. However, the images students held of scientists were not as closely related to aspirations. These factors are discussed in more detail within the paper, alongside a consideration of possible school-related effects.

  16. Independent School Department Heads: The Influence of Role Ambiguity, Relationships, and Professional Development on Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsella, Shane

    2012-01-01

    Little research exists on the career aspirations of department heads in independent schools. What does exist focuses on public school teachers in the United States and the United Kingdom. This study sought to determine the career aspirations, job satisfaction, and job efficacy of department heads. Using data from an original survey instrument…

  17. Middle School Children's Career Aspirations: Relationship to Adult Occupations and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuette, Christine T.; Ponton, Michael K.; Charlton, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors explored the relationship between the career aspirations of 89 preadolescents from low socioeconomic backgrounds and the actual occupations of the working adults in their homes with regard to status, job gender identification, and interest (Holland, 1997). There was a significant relationship between boys' career aspirations and the…

  18. A Comparison Study of 12th Grade Hispanic Students' College Anticipations, Aspirations, and College Preparatory Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Aliber; Watt, Karen M.; Huerta, Jeffery

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the differences in educational aspirations and educational anticipations between four groups (AVID, GEAR UP, AVID/GEAR UP, and Control) of high school seniors who participated in a previous study as 10th graders (Watt, Huerta, & Lozano, 2007). It also measured whether any change in aspirations and anticipations occurred within…

  19. Aspiration, Identity and Self Belief: Snapshots of Social Structure at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Richard, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book presents the evidence gathered from original interviews to show how the aspirations of young people develop in light of their social circumstances. Those who attend independent schools will find that the relationship between what goes on at home and at school makes it socially almost impossible not to have achievable aspirations for a…

  20. Growing Up at the "Margins": Concerns, Aspirations, and Expectations of Young People Living in Nairobi's Slums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabiru, Caroline W.; Mojola, Sanyu A.; Beguy, Donatien; Okigbo, Chinelo

    2013-01-01

    We explore the concerns, challenges, aspirations, and expectations of sub-Saharan African youth, and investigate how these youth cope with neighborhood constraints to aspiration achievement. We draw on cross-sectional survey data from 4,033 12-22-year-olds (50.3% males) from two Kenyan urban slums and subsequent in-depth interviews conducted with…