Science.gov

Sample records for entre dois tipos

  1. The DOI Is Coming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Davida

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of improving accessibility to copyrighted electronic content focuses on the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) and the Open URL standard and linking software. Highlights include work of the World Wide Web consortium; URI (Uniform Resource Identifier); URL (Uniform Resource Locator); URN (Uniform Resource Name); OCLC's (Online Computer…

  2. Estudo comparativo entre estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias deficientes em hidrogênio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolino, W. L. F.; de Araújo, F. X.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos neste trabalho o resultado de um estudo das principais características espectrais das estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias (ECNP) deficientes em hidrogênio. A origem e a evolução dessas estrelas ainda constitui um problema em aberto na evolução estelar. Geralmente esses objetos são divididos em [WCE], [WCL] e [WELS]. Os tipos [WCE] e [WCL] apresentam um espectro típico de uma estrela Wolf-Rayet carbonada de população I e as [WELS] apresentam linhas fracas de carbono e oxigênio em emissão. Existem evidências que apontam a seguinte sequência evolutiva : [WCL] = > [WCE] = > [WELS] = > PG 1159 (pré anã-branca). No entanto, tal cenário apresenta falhas como por exemplo a falta de ECNP entre os tipos [WCL] e [WCE]. Baseados em uma amostra de 24 objetos obtida no telescópio de 1.52m em La Silla, Chile (acordo ESO/ON), ao longo do ano 2000, apresentamos os resultados da comparação das larguras equivalentes de diversas linhas relevantes entre os tipos [WCL], [WCE] e [WELS]. Verificamos que nossos dados estão de acordo com a sequência evolutiva. Baseado nas linhas de C IV, conseguimos dividir pela primeira vez as [WELS] em dois grupos principais. Além disso, os dados reforçam a afirmação de que as [WCE] são as estrelas que possuem a maior temperatura entre as ECNP deficientes em hidrogênio. Discutimos ainda, a escassez de dados disponíveis na literatura e a necessidade da obtenção de parametros físicos para estes objetos.

  3. DOI: A New Identifier for Digital Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berinstein, Paula

    1998-01-01

    Previews Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs), a potential unifying classification system for the Web and the Internet developed by the Association of American Publishers and the Corporation for National Research Initiatives. Discusses issues and problems surrounding DOI implementation and usage and how DOI would affect publishers, users,…

  4. ESDIS DOI System, Approach, and Future Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanchoo, L.; James, N.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project began investigating the use of Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) in 2010 with the goal of assigning DOIs to various data products. These data products are archived and distributed by various Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) located across the United States. Each data center has a unique approach and process for generating and archiving a variety of data products that are used for global change research. These varied approaches present a challenge for developing a DOI solution that fits all the possible variations. To address this challenge, ESDIS developed processes, guidelines, and several models for creating and assigning DOIs. Initially the system was started as a prototype approach and now it is fully operational. In February 2012, ESDIS joined the California Digital Library (CDL) EZID for registering the EOSDIS-related DOIs. ESDIS's DOI operational process allows for reserving DOIs while data providers are finalizing the DOIs and its associated elements. This flexibility allows data providers to embed and test the DOI in the data product metadata before formally registering with EZID. Data providers can change any DOI metadata, including the DOI name as long as it has not been registered or reserved by another data provider. ESDIS assures the uniqueness of the DOI names before it is registered. Currently, ESDIS has 146 data product DOIs registered with EZID and data providers have reserved an additional 93 DOIs with ESDIS. A semi-automated approach is being developed for processing and validating the DOI information provided by the data providers and will cover all the steps from the collection to the registration of DOIs. ESDIS's DOI concept utilizes a few mandatory metadata elements that effectively identify the data products and the source of availability. Of these elements, the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) attribute has the very important function of identifying the landing page

  5. Tipos de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Lista alfabética de todos los tipos de cáncer con enlaces a enfermedades específicas e información general sobre tratamiento, cuidados de apoyo, exámenes de detección, prevención, estudios clínicos y otros temas.

  6. Phoswich solutions for the PET DOI problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, L.; Melcher, C. L.; Zhuravleva, M.; Eriksson, M.; Rothfuss, H.; Conti, M.

    2011-08-01

    A high spatial resolution in PET can be achieved by using small detector elements. To maintain good sensitivity these elements have to be quite long, thus introducing parallax error and making the spatial resolution non-uniform over the image volume. Uniformity of spatial resolution can be improved by utilizing depth-of-interaction (DOI) information to reduce the parallax error. In the present study we have focused on phoswich approaches based on interacting scintillators, that is, a phoswich combination in which one scintillator emits light in the excitation band of the other. We have looked at LaBr3:Ce and LaCl3:Ce and the interactions of those two scintillators with LSO:Ce, GSO:Ce and YSO:Ce. The reasons to use the two Lanthanum scintillators are twofold: light output is high and the two different emission wavelengths, 350 nm (LaCl3:Ce) and 380 nm (LaBr3:Ce) may produce different interactions with the three oxyorthosilicate scintillators. In addition a possible DOI detector comprising LuAG:Pr pixels with a thin LSO:Ce layer at one end has been evaluated.A Bollinger-Thomas set-up was used to measure luminescence rise and luminescence decay time characteristics in all cases. When using LaCl3:Ce, the phoswich combinations with YSO:Ce and GSO:Ce showed phoswich decay time characteristics as expected for a simple convolution of the decay times of the two phoswich components. A correction was needed, however, for the LaCl3:Ce-LSO:Ce phoswich due to the LSO:Ce intrinsic activity. For the LaBr3:Ce-LSO:Ce phoswich, corrections were needed for non-interacting LaBr3:Ce light in addition to the expected phoswich interaction.

  7. DOIs Should Not Link to Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hourcle, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    In August of 2011, the National Academy of Science's Board of Research Data and Information (BRDI) had a meeting on the topic of "Developing Data Attribution and Citation Practices and Standards". As part of that meeting were various breakout groups to discuss issues that still remained regarding technical, scientific, and socio-cultural issues, the roles and actors that needed to be involved, and how to get additional feedback from the community. The technical breakout group decided that the majority of the technical problems with citing data revolved around establishing the identity of what it was that we were attempting to cite. As such, our recommendations were to push some of the work back onto the data publishers to tell us how scientists should cite their data (to avoid different disciplines applying different rules), establish 'data landing pages' to describe, document and link to the data, and to provide those pages with persistent identifiers such as a DOI. We present here some of the reasons that were discussed about why not to link directly to data, including: * recalibration, reaccessioning and other data impermanence, * setting context and providing for links to documentation, and * allowing selection of different packaging formats

  8. 30 CFR 250.1005 - Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. 250... Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1005 Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) Pipeline... indication of pipeline leakage. The results of these inspections shall be retained for at least 2 years...

  9. 30 CFR 250.1005 - Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1005 Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) Pipeline routes shall...

  10. 30 CFR 250.1005 - Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. 250... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1005 Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) Pipeline routes shall be inspected...

  11. 30 CFR 250.1005 - Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1005 Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) Pipeline routes shall...

  12. 30 CFR 250.1005 - Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1005 Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) Pipeline routes shall...

  13. STS-87 Mission Specialist Doi in white room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, is assisted with his ascent and re- entry flight suit by Dave Law, USA mechanical technician, in the white room at Launch Pad 39B as Dr. Doi prepares to enter the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia on launch day. At right wearing glasses is Danny Wyatt, NASA quality assurance specialist. STS-87 is the fourth flight of the United States Microgravity Payload and Spartan-201. The 16-day mission will include a spacewalk by Dr. Doi and Mission Specialist Winston Scott.

  14. Perfiles de luminosidad en galaxias con núcleo tipo Seyfert 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boris, N.; Rodriguez-Ardilla, A. A.; Pastoriza, M. G.

    Presentamos imágenes CCD en los filtros BVI y Hα de una muestra de 10 galaxias Seyfert 1 y Narrow Line Seyfert 1. Recientes observaciones muestran que hay una diferencia significante en el índice espectral óptico entre NLS1s y Sy1 normales, siendo para las primeras del orden de 2. Otra característica importante es que la mayor parte de las NLS1s muestran tasas de FeII/Hβ mayores que las observadas en otras Sy1s. Desde el punto de vista fotométrico, estas galaxias no tienenningún tipo de estudio previo. Presentamos magnitudes totales, perfiles de luminosidad y mapas de color junto con un detallado análisis de la formación estelar en estos objetos. Encontramos que la descomposición en bulbo + disco representa adecuadamente los perfiles de luminosidad de las galaxias de la muestra. Sin embargo, en todos los casos es necesario que el disco tenga un agujero en su centro. El radio de este agujero va desde los 3 a los 9 kpc. Si bien no tenemos aún una explicación para este hecho, los agujeros parecen estar asociados a anillos circumnucleares de alto oscurecimiento E(B-V) ~1. Los perfiles presentan también un fuerte gradiente de color, siendo notablemente más azules hacia la región nuclear. Los objetos de la muestra cubren todo el rango de tipos morfológicos, no obstante, no encontramos regiones de formación estelar en las regiones exteriores de las galaxias. La formación estelar está confinada a la región nuclear y se data en alrededor de 5 x 107 años.

  15. Mathematical Existence Results for the Doi-Edwards Polymer Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupin, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present some mathematical results on the Doi-Edwards model describing the dynamics of flexible polymers in melts and concentrated solutions. This model, developed in the late 1970s, has been used and extensively tested in modeling and simulation of polymer flows. From a mathematical point of view, the Doi-Edwards model consists in a strong coupling between the Navier-Stokes equations and a highly nonlinear constitutive law. The aim of this article is to provide a rigorous proof of the well-posedness of the Doi-Edwards model, namely that it has a unique regular solution. We also prove, which is generally much more difficult for flows of viscoelastic type, that the solution is global in time in the two dimensional case, without any restriction on the smallness of the data.

  16. STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi during CEIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi , Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, participates in the Crew Equipment Integration Test (CEIT) in Kennedy Space Centers (KSC's) Vertical Processing Facility. Glenda Laws, the extravehicular activity (EVA) coordinator, Johnson Space Center, stands behind Dr. Doi. The CEIT gives astronauts an opportunity to get a hands-on look at the payloads with which they will be working on-orbit. STS-87 will be the fourth United States Microgravity Payload and flight of the Spartan-201 deployable satellite. During the mission, Dr. Doi will be the first Japanese astronaut to perform a spacewalk. STS-87 is scheduled for a Nov. 19 liftoff from KSC.

  17. STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, gives a thumbs up in his launch and entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. He and the five other crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits liftoff on a 16-day mission to perform microgravity and solar research. Dr. Doi is scheduled to perform an extravehicular activity spacewalk with Mission Specialist Winston Scott during STS-87.

  18. 30 CFR 250.1002 - Design requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... incorporated by reference in 30 CFR 250.198. (5) You must design pipeline risers for tension leg platforms and..., API Spec 6A, or the equivalent (as incorporated by reference in 30 CFR 250.198). Each flange assembly... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Design requirements for DOI pipelines....

  19. 30 CFR 250.1002 - Design requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... incorporated by reference in 30 CFR 250.198. (5) You must design pipeline risers for tension leg platforms and..., API Spec 6A, or the equivalent (as incorporated by reference in 30 CFR 250.198). Each flange assembly... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Design requirements for DOI pipelines....

  20. 30 CFR 250.1002 - Design requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... incorporated by reference in 30 CFR 250.198. (5) You must design pipeline risers for tension leg platforms and..., API Spec 6A, or the equivalent (as incorporated by reference in 30 CFR 250.198). Each flange assembly... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Design requirements for DOI pipelines....

  1. "Doi Moi" (Renovation) and Higher Education Reform in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thanh, Pham Thi Hong

    2011-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced significant social, economic, political, and educational changes during the last two decades since the "Doi Moi" policy was implemented. To respond to new requirements required by the global economy, Vietnamese education has undergone remarkable reforms. This article critically examines these reforms in three areas:…

  2. Introduction of digital object identifiers (DOI) for seismic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Peter; Strollo, Angelo; Clark, Adam; Ahern, Tim; Newman, Rob; Clinton, John; Pequegnat, Catherine; Pedersen, Helle

    2015-04-01

    Proper attribution for scientific source data is important in promoting transparency and recognising the role of data providers in science. Data sets such as those produced by seismic networks now need to be citable and permanently locatable for research users. Recently the EIDA and IRIS-DMC communities have worked together on development of methods for generation, maintenance and promotion of persistent identifiers for seismic networks. This resulted in a 2014 Recommendation by the International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN) on the use of Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) for seismic networks. These can be cited equivalently to scientific papers, and tools such as DataCite allow the tracking of citations to these datasets. The GEOFON, IRIS and RESIF data centres have now begun to roll-out of these seismic network DOIs. This has involved working with principal investigators to prepare metadata consistent with the FDSN recommendation, preparation of landing pages, and changes to the web sites to promote DOIs where available. This has involved preparing improved descriptions of the data (metadata) and clarifying how individuals and institutions should best be recognised for their contributions to making the data available. We illustrate this process for a few representative networks. We will be in contact with additional network operators to help them establish DOIs for their networks in future.

  3. Did Oligocene crustal thickening precede basin development in northern Thailand? A geochronological reassessment of Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, Nicholas J.; Roberts, Nick M. W.; Morley, Christopher K.; Searle, Michael P.; Whitehouse, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    The Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep metamorphic core complexes in northern Thailand are comprised of amphibolite-grade migmatitic gneisses mantled by lower-grade mylonites and metasedimentary sequences, thought to represent Cordilleran-style core complexes exhumed through the mobilization of a low-angle detachment fault. Previous studies have interpreted two metamorphic events (Late Triassic and Late Cretaceous), followed by ductile extension between the late Eocene and late Oligocene, a model which infers movement on the detachment at ca. 40 Ma, and which culminates in a rapid unroofing of the complexes in the early Miocene. The Chiang Mai Basin, the largest such Cenozoic Basin in the region, lies immediately to the east. Its development is related to the extension observed at Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep, however it is not definitively dated, and models for its development have difficulty reconciling Miocene cooling ages with Eocene detachment movement. Here we present new in-situ LA-ICP-MS and SIMS U-Pb age data of zircon and monazite grains from gneiss and leucogranite samples taken from Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep. Our new zircon data exhibit an older age range of 221-210 Ma, with younger ages of ca. 72 Ma, and 32-26 Ma. Our monazite data imply an older age cluster at 83-67 Ma, and a younger age cluster of 34-24 Ma. While our data support the view of Indosinian basement being reworked in the Cretaceous, they also indicate a late Eocene-Oligocene tectonothermal event, resulting in prograde metamorphism and anatexis. We suggest that this later event is related to localized transpressional thickening associated with sinistral movement on the Mae Ping Fault, coupled with thickening at the restraining bend of the Mae Yuan Fault to the immediate west of Doi Inthanon. Further, this upper Oligocene age limit from our zircon and monazite data would imply a younger Miocene constraint on movement of the detachment, which, when combined with the previously recorded Miocene

  4. A flood map based DOI decoding method for block detector: a GATE simulation study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Han; Du, Dong; Su, Zhihong; Peng, Qiyu

    2014-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) systems using detectors with Depth of Interaction (DOI) capabilities could achieve higher spatial resolution and better image quality than those without DOI. Up till now, most DOI methods developed are not cost-efficient for a whole body PET system. In this paper, we present a DOI decoding method based on flood map for low-cost conventional block detector with four-PMT readout. Using this method, the DOI information can be directly extracted from the DOI-related crystal spot deformation in the flood map. GATE simulations are then carried out to validate the method, confirming a DOI sorting accuracy of 85.27%. Therefore, we conclude that this method has the potential to be applied in conventional detectors to achieve a reasonable DOI measurement without dramatically increasing their complexity and cost of an entire PET system.

  5. 43 CFR 2.31 - How will DOI respond to my appeal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will DOI respond to my appeal? 2.31... OF INFORMATION ACT FOIA Appeals § 2.31 How will DOI respond to my appeal? (a) Appeals will be decided... will state the basis for DOI's decision as follows: (1) Decision to release or withhold records. (i)...

  6. 41 CFR 102-75.650 - When must DOI request assignment of the property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must DOI request...-75.650 When must DOI request assignment of the property? Within 30 calendar days after the expiration of the 30-calendar day period specified in § 102-75.640, DOI must submit to the disposal agency...

  7. 43 CFR 17.314 - Age distinctions contained in DOI regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Age distinctions contained in DOI... Age Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 17.314 Age distinctions contained in DOI regulations. Any age distinctions contained in a rule or regulation issued by DOI shall be presumed to...

  8. 43 CFR 17.314 - Age distinctions contained in DOI regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Age distinctions contained in DOI... Age Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 17.314 Age distinctions contained in DOI regulations. Any age distinctions contained in a rule or regulation issued by DOI shall be presumed to...

  9. 43 CFR 17.314 - Age distinctions contained in DOI regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Age distinctions contained in DOI... Age Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 17.314 Age distinctions contained in DOI regulations. Any age distinctions contained in a rule or regulation issued by DOI shall be presumed to...

  10. 43 CFR 17.314 - Age distinctions contained in DOI regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Age distinctions contained in DOI... Age Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 17.314 Age distinctions contained in DOI regulations. Any age distinctions contained in a rule or regulation issued by DOI shall be presumed to...

  11. 43 CFR 17.314 - Age distinctions contained in DOI regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Age distinctions contained in DOI... Age Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 17.314 Age distinctions contained in DOI regulations. Any age distinctions contained in a rule or regulation issued by DOI shall be presumed to...

  12. Análise Temporal de Estruturas Morfológicas na Cauda do Tipo I do Cometa P/Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Matsuura, O. T.

    1996-08-01

    Com base em (Brandt et al, 1992), centenas de imagens do cometa P/Halley foram visualmente analisadas, objetivando examinar possíveis perturbações magnetohidrodinâmicas ao longo da cauda do tipo I. Do total de 1439 imagens, abrangendo o período entre 16 de outubro de 1982 e 12 de fevereiro de 1991, foram escolhidas 531 do período entre 17 de setembro de 1985 e 06 de julho de 1986 por mostrarem cauda bem desenvolvida e rica de estruturas morfológicas. Nelas constatou-se a existência de 124 estruturas ondulatórias (trens de onda) ao longo da cauda principal, 27 ao longo de caudas secundárias, 109 ondas solitárias (sólitons) ao longo da cauda principal, 36 ao longo de caudas secundárias, 12 caudas do tipo Swan, 47 eventos de desconexão e 23 regiões de adensamento ("knots"). Foi examinada a correlação temporal entre esses diferentes tipos de eventos. Os de desconexão foram analisados isoladamente. Seus movimentos próprios foram calculados, bem como os seus instantes iniciais, o que nos permitiu inferir a passagem do cometa pela fronteira entre setores magnéticos distintos. A velocidade do plasma cometário desconectado foi corrigida dos efeitos de projeção e correlacionada com a distância heliocêntrica do cometa. Também foi investigada a periodicidade de ocorrência das desconexães, e constatado que sua distribuição é bimodal. Por fim, a possibilidade dos modos de propagação de ondas MHD "sausage" e "kink" superficiais ou volumétricas, é discutida no contexto das descontinuidades magnéticas tangenciais. - Brandt, J.C., Niedner Jr., M.B., Rahe, J.: The International Halley Watch Atlas of Large-Scale Phenomena. Impresso por: Johnson Printing Co, Boulder, CO. University of Colorado-Boulder, 1992.

  13. A High Resolution Monolithic Crystal, DOI, MR Compatible, PET Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S Miyaoka

    2012-03-06

    The principle objective of this proposal is to develop a positron emission tomography (PET) detector with depth-of-interaction (DOI) positioning capability that will achieve state of the art spatial resolution and sensitivity performance for small animal PET imaging. When arranged in a ring or box detector geometry, the proposed detector module will support <1 mm3 image resolution and >15% absolute detection efficiency. The detector will also be compatible with operation in a MR scanner to support simultaneous multi-modality imaging. The detector design will utilize a thick, monolithic crystal scintillator readout by a two-dimensional array of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) devices using a novel sensor on the entrance surface (SES) design. Our hypothesis is that our single-ended readout SES design will provide an effective DOI positioning performance equivalent to more expensive dual-ended readout techniques and at a significantly lower cost. Our monolithic crystal design will also lead to a significantly lower cost system. It is our goal to design a detector with state of the art performance but at a price point that is affordable so the technology can be disseminated to many laboratories. A second hypothesis is that using SiPM arrays, the detector will be able to operate in a MR scanner without any degradation in performance to support simultaneous PET/MR imaging. Having a co-registered MR image will assist in radiotracer localization and may also be used for partial volume corrections to improve radiotracer uptake quantitation. The far reaching goal of this research is to develop technology for medical research that will lead to improvements in human health care.

  14. 30 CFR 250.1004 - Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1004 Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) The...

  15. 30 CFR 250.1004 - Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1004 Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) The lessee shall ensure the...

  16. 30 CFR 250.1003 - Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for DOI pipelines. 250.1003 Section 250.1003 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1003 Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI pipelines. (a)(1) Pipelines greater than 85/8 inches in diameter and installed in water depths...

  17. 30 CFR 250.1004 - Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1004 Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) The...

  18. 30 CFR 250.1003 - Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for DOI pipelines. 250.1003 Section 250.1003 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1003 Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI pipelines. (a)(1) Pipelines greater than 8-5/8 inches in diameter...

  19. 30 CFR 250.1003 - Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for DOI pipelines. 250.1003 Section 250.1003 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1003 Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI pipelines. (a)(1) Pipelines greater than 85/8 inches in diameter and installed in water depths...

  20. 30 CFR 250.1003 - Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for DOI pipelines. 250.1003 Section 250.1003 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1003 Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI...

  1. 30 CFR 250.1004 - Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1004 Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) The...

  2. 30 CFR 250.1004 - Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines... SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1004 Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines... required by this section on all incoming, departing, and crossing pipelines on platforms....

  3. 30 CFR 250.1003 - Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for DOI pipelines. 250.1003 Section 250.1003 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1003 Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI pipelines. (a)(1) Pipelines greater than 85/8 inches in diameter and installed in water depths...

  4. 43 CFR 45.25 - What will DOI do with any hearing requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What will DOI do with any hearing requests? 45.25 Section 45.25 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process Initiation of Hearing Process § 45.25 What will DOI...

  5. 43 CFR 45.25 - What will DOI do with any hearing requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What will DOI do with any hearing requests? 45.25 Section 45.25 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process Initiation of Hearing Process § 45.25 What will DOI...

  6. 43 CFR 45.25 - What will DOI do with any hearing requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true What will DOI do with any hearing requests? 45.25 Section 45.25 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process Initiation of Hearing Process § 45.25 What will DOI...

  7. 43 CFR 45.25 - What will DOI do with any hearing requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What will DOI do with any hearing requests? 45.25 Section 45.25 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process Initiation of Hearing Process § 45.25 What will DOI...

  8. 43 CFR 45.25 - What will DOI do with any hearing requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What will DOI do with any hearing requests? 45.25 Section 45.25 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process Initiation of Hearing Process § 45.25 What will DOI...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.232 - When must DOI respond to a request for reconsideration?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When must DOI respond to a request for reconsideration? 1000.232 Section 1000.232 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.232 When must DOI respond to a request...

  10. 43 CFR 17.301 - What is the purpose of DOI's age discrimination regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... general age discrimination regulations at 45 CFR part 90. The Act and the general regulations prohibit... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the purpose of DOI's age... Age General § 17.301 What is the purpose of DOI's age discrimination regulations? The purpose of...

  11. 43 CFR 2.32 - How long does DOI have to respond to my appeal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How long does DOI have to respond to my appeal? 2.32 Section 2.32 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior RECORDS AND TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT FOIA Appeals § 2.32 How long does DOI have to respond to my appeal?...

  12. 43 CFR 2.2 - What is DOI's policy regarding release of records under the FOIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is DOI's policy regarding release of records under the FOIA? 2.2 Section 2.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior RECORDS AND TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT General Information § 2.2 What is DOI's policy...

  13. 43 CFR 2.5 - Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Does DOI maintain an index of its reading... a FOIA Request § 2.5 Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials? Each bureau will maintain and make available for public inspection and copying a current subject-matter index of its...

  14. 43 CFR 2.34 - Where can I get a copy of DOI's FOIA annual report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Where can I get a copy of DOI's FOIA annual report? 2.34 Section 2.34 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior RECORDS... or by contacting DOI's Library which is located at the C Street entrance of the Main...

  15. 43 CFR 2.34 - Where can I get a copy of DOI's FOIA annual report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Where can I get a copy of DOI's FOIA annual report? 2.34 Section 2.34 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior RECORDS AND... DOI's Library which is located at the C Street entrance of the Main Interior Building (MIB), 1849...

  16. 43 CFR 2.5 - Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Does DOI maintain an index of its reading... a FOIA Request § 2.5 Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials? Each bureau will maintain and make available for public inspection and copying a current subject-matter index of its...

  17. 43 CFR 2.5 - Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Does DOI maintain an index of its reading... a FOIA Request § 2.5 Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials? Each bureau will maintain and make available for public inspection and copying a current subject-matter index of its...

  18. STS-87 Mission Specialist Doi with EVA coordinator Laws participates in the CEIT for his mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi , Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, participates in the Crew Equipment Integration Test (CEIT) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Glenda Laws, the extravehicular activity (EVA) coordinator, Johnson Space Center, stands behind Dr. Doi. The CEIT gives astronauts an opportunity to get a hands-on look at the payloads with which they will be working on-orbit. STS-87 will be the fourth United States Microgravity Payload and flight of the Spartan-201 deployable satellite. During the mission, Dr. Doi will be the first Japanese astronaut to perform a spacewalk. STS- 87 is scheduled for a Nov. 19 liftoff from KSC.

  19. Japan Link Center (JaLC): link management and DOI assignment for Japanese electronic scholarly contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takafumi; Tsuchiya, Eri; Kubota, Soichi; Miyagawa, Yoshiyuki

    JST, cooperated with several national institutes, is currently developing “Japan Link Center”, which manages Japanese electronic scholarly contents (journal articles, books, dissertations etc.) in an integrated fashion using Digital Object Identifier (DOI). Japan Link Center will manage metadata and whereabouts information of the contents in the digital environment and provide domestic and international linking information, cite/cited information to activate dissemination of S&T information, furthermore, to strengthen transmission of S&T information from Japan. Japan Link Center is expected to be appointed as the 9th DOI registration agency (RA) in the world by the International DOI Foundation (IDF) this spring.

  20. 41 CFR 102-75.670 - What responsibilities does DOI have after receiving the disposal agency's assignment letter?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... does DOI have after receiving the disposal agency's assignment letter? 102-75.670 Section 102-75.670... Property for Use As Public Park Or Recreation Areas § 102-75.670 What responsibilities does DOI have after..., the Secretary may proceed with the transfer. DOI must take all necessary actions to accomplish...

  1. 41 CFR 102-75.635 - What information must the Department of the Interior (DOI) furnish eligible public agencies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information must the Department of the Interior (DOI) furnish eligible public agencies? 102-75.635 Section 102-75.635... the Interior (DOI) furnish eligible public agencies? Upon request, DOI must furnish eligible...

  2. 41 CFR 102-75.665 - What happens after the disposal agency receives the assignment recommendation from DOI?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... disposal agency receives the assignment recommendation from DOI? 102-75.665 Section 102-75.665 Public... assignment recommendation from DOI? If, after considering other uses for the property, the disposal agency approves the assignment recommendation from DOI, it must assign the property by letter or other document...

  3. DOI Use of AVIRIS Data in Natural Resources Management: A Technology Transfer Project Status Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getter, James R.; Wickland, Diane

    1998-01-01

    A meeting was held in December 1996, attended by representatives from Department of the Interior (DOI) and National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) at the request of Department of the Interior Secretary, Bruce Babbitt and NASA, Administrator Director Dan Goldin, to discuss the use of hyperspectral systems and related remote sensing technologies in addressing environmental issues of environmental importance to the (DOI). It was determined that NASA/DOI Coordination be established, comprised of representatives from each agency, designated to address the environmental issues and resulting technologies. A steering committee was formed consisting of representatives from NASA Headquarters, NASA PI's from University California-Davis, University of Colorado-Boulder, University of New Hampshire and DOI Bureaus (Indian Affairs, Land Management, Reclamation, National Park Service, and US Geological Survey).

  4. DOI criticized for failing to inventory hazardous waste sites on federal lands

    SciTech Connect

    1993-11-01

    The Department of the Interior (DOI) manages approximately 440 million acres of public land across the United States, including national parks and forests, wildlife refuges, fish hatcheries, and water and hydroelectric projects. At these facilities, hazardous wastes are commonly generated through such activities as oil and gas drilling, coal mining, hydroelectric plant operation, and pesticide application. Consequently, a significant number of DOI sites are probably contaminated and thus must be identified, assessed, and remediated. 2 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Data always getting bigger -- A scalable DOI architecture for big and expanding scientific data

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Prakash, Giri; Shrestha, Biva; Younkin, Katarina; Jundt, Rolanda; Martin, Mark; Elliott, Jannean

    2016-08-31

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Archive established a data citation strategy based on Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) for the ARM datasets in order to facilitate citing continuous and diverse ARM datasets in articles and other papers. This strategy eases the tracking of data provided as supplements to articles and papers. Additionally, it allows future data users and the ARM Climate Research Facility to easily locate the exact data used in various articles. Traditionally, DOIs are assigned to individual digital objects (a report or a data table), but for ARM datasets, these DOIs are assigned to an ARM data product.more » This eliminates the need for creating DOIs for numerous components of the ARM data product, in turn making it easier for users to manage and cite the ARM data with fewer DOIs. In addition, the ARM data infrastructure team, with input from scientific users, developed a citation format and an online data citation generation tool for continuous data streams. As a result, this citation format includes DOIs along with additional details such as spatial and temporal information.« less

  6. Qué tipos hay de estudios clínicos

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre los diversos tipos de estudios clínicos de cáncer, como son los estudios de tratamiento, de prevención, de exámenes selectivos de detección, de cuidados médicos de apoyo y de cuidados paliativos.

  7. El espectro de KX TrA entre 1990 y 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandi, E.; García, L.; Ferrer, O.; Barbá, R.

    La estrella simbiótica KX TrA = He2-177 fue observada espectroscópicamente con el telescopio de 2.15 m del CASLEO entre los años 1990 y 1996, utilizándose resoluciones intermedia y alta. El rango espectral estudiado se extiende desde 4400 Åa 7200 Å. La historia fotométrica de KX TrA presenta explosiones del mismo tipo que las mostradas por la nova lenta RR Tel y su espectro de alta excitación, muy rico en líneas de emisión, es también similar al de RR Tel. Por lo tanto, es importante analizar la evolución espectral de KX TrA en el tiempo, prestando especial atención a los posibles cambios en los niveles de excitación. Las emisiones presentes corresponden a transiciones permitidas y prohibidas con un amplio rango de ionización, incluyéndose las anchas e intensas líneas originadas por scattering Raman de O VI en λλ 6825 y 7082 Å. En el período cubierto por nuestras observaciones se estudia la variación de la intensidad relativa de las emisiones, el comportamiento de las velocidades radiales y los cambios de perfiles de las líneas, especialmente en Hα y Hβ. El contínuo de la región roja observada indica un tipo espectral no más tardío que M3 para la componente gigante fría del sistema.

  8. Human platelet ( sup 125 I)R-DOI binding sites. Characterization by in vitro autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Himeno, A.; Saavedra, J.M. )

    1990-02-01

    We quantified binding sites for 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo-phenylisopropylamine (DOI), a 5-HT2 agonist and hallucinogen, in human platelets. We incubated sections from human platelet pellets with ({sup 125}I)R-DOI with or without 1 mumol/L ketanserin, followed by autoradiography and computerized microdensitometry. We corrected the values of binding density by the protein content of each section with a densitometric protein assay. The present method revealed a single class of high affinity binding sites for ({sup 125}I)R-DOI, with a Kd of 6.4 +/- 0.7 nmol/L and a Bmax of 100 +/- 10 fmol/mg protein. Kd and Bmax for ({sup 125}I)R-DOI determined by the classical membrane binding assay, were 2.7 +/- 0.4 nmol/L and 100 +/- 10 fmol/mg protein, respectively. The present method is precise, very sensitive, and allows the characterization of ({sup 125}I)R-DOI binding in sections obtained from as little as 3 ml of blood. Standardization is possible after correction by the protein content of each individual section.

  9. Diffusion of Innovation in Long-Term Care (DOI-LTC) Measurement Battery

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Eleanor S.; Corazzini, Kirsten N.; Lekan, Deborah; Bailey, Donald C.; Sloane, Richard; Landerman, L. Richard; Champagne, Mary T.

    2013-01-01

    Poor understanding of factors influencing integration of new practices into long-term care (LTC) hinders timely implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs). Using the Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) framework, a new instrument measuring staff perceptions of an EBP was developed as part of a DOI-LTC battery, and tested in a cross-sectional survey of North Carolina LTC nursing personnel. Valid questionnaires were received from 95 licensed nurses and 102 certified nursing assistants (CNAs). Internal consistency reliability for five of seven subscales was acceptable (Cronbach’s alpha = .77 to .95). Perception of innovation attributes was associated with intention to adopt the new practice (licensed nurses Spearman Rho = .41–.68, p < .0001; CNAs = .26–.54, p = .05 to < .0001). The DOI-LTC battery represents a promising new approach to studying implementation of EBPs in LTC. Future work should examine its responsiveness to interventions that facilitate implementation of EBPs in LTC. PMID:21702425

  10. Characterization of stacked-crystal PET detector designs for measurement of both TOF and DOI.

    PubMed

    Schmall, Jeffrey P; Surti, Suleman; Karp, Joel S

    2015-05-01

    A PET detector with good timing resolution and two-level depth-of-interaction (DOI) discrimination can be constructed using a single-ended readout of scintillator stacks of Lanthanum Bromide (LaBr3), with various Cerium dopant concentrations, including pure Cerium Bromide (CeBr3). The stacked crystal geometry creates a unique signal shape for interactions occurring in each layer, which can be used to identify the DOI, while retaining the inherently good timing properties of LaBr3 and CeBr3. In this work, single pixel elements are used to optimize the choice of scintillator, coupling of layers, and type of photodetector, evaluating the performance using a fast, single-channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) and a single 4 × 4 mm(2) silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). We also introduce a method to quantify and evaluate the DOI discrimination accuracy. From signal shape measurements using fast waveform sampling, we found that in addition to differences in signal rise times, between crystal layers, there were also differences in the signal fall times. A DOI accuracy of 98% was achieved using our classification method for a stacked crystal pair, consisting of a 15 mm long LaBr3(Ce:20%) crystal on top of a 15 mm long CeBr3 crystal, readout using a PMT. A DOI accuracy of 95% was measured with a stack of two, identical, 12 mm long, CeBr3 crystals. The DOI accuracy of this crystal pair was reduced to 91% when using a SiPM for readout. For the stack of two, 12 mm long, CeBr3 crystals, a coincidence timing resolution (average of timing results from the top and bottom layer) of 199 ps was measured using a PMT, and this was improved to 153 ps when using a SiPM. These results show that with stacked LaBr3/CeBr3 scintillators and fast waveform sampling nearly perfect DOI accuracy can be achieved with excellent timing resolution-timing resolution that is only minimally degraded compared to results from a single CeBr3 crystal of comparable length to the stacked crystals. The

  11. STS-87 Mission Specialist Doi and his wife pose at LC 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan poses with his wife, Hitomi Doi, in front of Kennedy Space Center's Launch Pad 39B during final prelaunch activities leading up to the scheduled Nov. 19 liftoff. The other STS-87 crew members are Commander Kevin Kregel; Pilot Steven Lindsey; Mission Specialists Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D., and Winston Scott; and Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine. STS-87 will be the fourth flight of the United States Microgravity Payload and the Spartan- 201 deployable satellite.

  12. Protótipo do primeiro interferômetro brasileiro - BDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Neri, J. A. C. F.; Bethi, N.; Felipini, N. S.; Madsen, F. R. H.; Andrade, M. C.; Soares, A. C.; Alonso, E. M. B., Sawant, H. S.

    2004-04-01

    A interferometria é uma poderosa ferramenta usada para investigar estruturas espaciais de fontes astrofísicas fornecendo uma riqueza de detalhes inatingível pelas técnicas convencionais de imageamento. Em particular, a interferometria com ondas de rádio abre o horizonte de conhecimento do Universo nesta ampla banda do espectro eletromagnético, que vai de cerca de 20 kHz até centenas de GHz já próximo ao infravermelho, e que está acessível a partir de instrumentos instalados em solo. Neste trabalho, apresentamos o interferômetro designado por Arranjo Decimétrico Brasileiro (BDA). Trata-se do primeiro interferômetro a ser desenvolvido no Brasil e América Latina que já está em operação na fase de protótipo. Apresentamos o desenvolvimento realizado até o momento, o sítio de instalação do instrumento, o protótipo e os principais resultados dos testes de sua operação, as perspectivas futuras e a ciência a ser desenvolvida com o instrumento nas fases II e III. Neste trabalho é dada ênfase ao desenvolvimento, testes de operação e principais resultados do protótipo. É discutida brevemente a ciência que pode ser feita com o instrumento. Tanto os detalhes técnicos quanto os principais parâmetros estimados para o instrumento nas próximas fases de desenvolvimento e o desempenho do protótipo serão publicados em breve.

  13. Data DOIs - virtues and weak points from the perspective of the data journal ESSD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffenberger, Hans; Carlson, David

    2016-04-01

    Fundamentally, data publication seeks to provide improved access, trust and utility for data users accompanied by improved recognition for data providers. The features of persistent identifier schemes used in this context and the policies of providers of their resolver systems can greatly contribute towards these aims! Unfortunately, we also recognize situations where identifier systems undermine some of our lofty data publication aims. From our 7 years of successful experience with the data journal ESSD, we will present our practical observations as well as future requirements on the DOI-system in particular, such as: * Most scientists contributing to or drawing benefit from ESSD seem to understand the notion of published data in the sense of a static, citable entity to build on, relying on its long term availability and integrity (as is the case with journal articles), secured by DOIs. * It is still true that many data providers - individuals or projects - can not find a repository for their (type of) data which would provide a DOI (or other persistent identifier) and that many data centers and databases holding valuable data have a hard time adding DOIs as a feature of their systems for conceptual, legacy or funding reasons. * The typical evolution of many important data collections or data products - such as the Global Carbon Budget - can adequately be tracked with yearly (or less frequent) issues of dataset and data article, each having a new DOI. However, issuing a new DOI for a dataset extended in time clashes with many producers' wish to amass all references to the developing dataset under one citation (and one DOI). * Current practises with DOIs and metadata associated with DOIs need to be clarified and amended so the identifier systems can and do express and track the relationships between versions of data, addressing extensions, corrections, modifications, revisions and retractions in an unambiguous (and machine readable) manner, while also removing

  14. Resolving DOI Based URNs Using Squid: An Experimental System at UKOLN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Andy

    1998-01-01

    Describes UKOLN's (United Kingdom Office for Library and Information Networking--a national center for support in network information management in the library/information communities) experimental system that allows digital object identifiers (DOIs) encoded as uniform resource names (URNs) to be resolved on behalf of Web browsers by Squid, a…

  15. Digital Object Identifiers (DOI's) usage and adoption in U.S Geological Survey (USGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frame, M. T.; Palanisamy, G.

    2013-12-01

    Addressing grand environmental science challenges requires unprecedented access to easily understood data that cross the breadth of temporal, spatial, and thematic scales. From a scientist's perspective, the big challenges lie in discovering the relevant data, dealing with extreme data heterogeneity, large data volumes, and converting data to information and knowledge. Historical linkages between derived products, i.e. Publications, and associated datasets has not existed in the earth science community. The USGS Core Science Analytics and Synthesis, in collaboration with DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Mercury Consortium (funded by NASA, USGS and DOE), established a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) service for USGS data, metadata, and other media. This service is offered in partnership through the University of California Digital Library EZID service. USGS scientists, data managers, and other professionals can generate globally unique, persistent and resolvable identifiers for any kind of digital objects. Additional efforts to assign DOIs to historical data and publications have also been underway. These DOI identifiers are being used to cite data in journal articles, web-accessible datasets, and other media for distribution, integration, and in support of improved data management practices. The session will discuss the current DOI efforts within USGS, including a discussion on adoption, challenges, and future efforts necessary to improve access, reuse, sharing, and discoverability of USGS data and information.

  16. The Transformation of Higher Education in Vietnam after DoiMoi: A Story of "Dualism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Hien

    2009-01-01

    This research was undertaken to investigate the transformation of higher education reform in Vietnam since "DoiMoi," which involves examining its rationale and practical implementation. The reform reveals an interesting picture of Vietnam's higher education system, in which two development visions--a "market-led" vision and a "socialist-oriented"…

  17. Development of prototype PET scanner using dual-sided readout DOI-PET modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, T.; Kataoka, J.; Kishimoto, A.; Kurei, Y.; Nishiyama, T.; Ohshima, T.; Taya, T.

    2014-12-01

    In our previous work, we proposed a novel design for a gamma-ray detector module capable of measuring the depth of interaction (DOI). In this paper, we further developed DOI-PET detector modules and a data acquisition system, and evaluated its performance. Each detector module was composed of a 3-D scintillator array and two large-area monolithic Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) arrays coupled to both ends of the 3-D scintillator array, leading to only 8-ch signal outputs from a module. The 3-D scintillator array was composed of 9 × 9 × 7 matrices of 1.0 × 1.0 × 3.0 mm3 Ce:GAGG crystals. The detector module showed good energy resolution of 10.6% as measured at 511 keV and a high average peak to valley ratio higher than 8 for each pixel crystal identified in the X-Y-Z directions. Moreover, we evaluated the spatial resolution of a virtual 18-ch PET gantry simulated by using two detector modules that were flexibly controlled using both the X-stage and θ-stage in 20-degree steps. By measuring a 22Na point source (0.25 mm in diameter), we showed that spatial resolution substantially degrades from 1.0 mm to 7.8 mm (FWHM; as measured at 0 mm and 28 mm off-center) with a non-DOI configuration, whereas the corresponding values for the DOI configuration were 0.9 mm and 1.5 mm, respectively (FWHM; as measured at 0 mm and 28 mm off-center). This preliminary study confirms that our DOI-PET module is useful for future high spatial resolution and compact small-animal PET scanners without radial image distortions at the peripheral regions of the field of view (FOV).

  18. Earth and Heavens: Two Separate Universes? (Spanish Title: Tierra y Cielos: ¿Dos Universos Separados?) Terra e Céus: Dois Universos Separados?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrascosa, Jaime; Gil-Pérez, Daniel; Solbes, Jordi; Vilches, Amparo

    2005-12-01

    The study of gravitation constitutes an exceptional occasion to show the richness and complexity of science and technology, contemplating, among other things: the problematic situations which are at the heart of the scientific knowledge, the difficulties encountered in the construction of knowledge and, especially, the necessity of overcoming "common-sense evidence" that proclaimed the existence of an insurmountable barrier between Earth and Heavens, hindering scientific development during many centuries. In this paper we present a program of activities to orient the study of Gravitation atUpperHigh School, favoring students' participation in the reconstruction of this first scientific revolution and giving them the opportunity to see the importance of Astronomy both in the history of science and today. El estudio de la gravitación constituye una ocasión excepcional para mostrar la ciencia y la tecnología en toda su riqueza y complejidad, considerando, entre otros aspectos:

  19. Las situaciones problemáticas relevantes que llevaron a la construcción de los conocimientos,
  20. las dificultades de todo tipo con las que hubo que enfrentarse y, muy en particular,
  21. la necesidad de superar las "evidencias de sentido común" que establecían una supuesta barrera infranqueable entre la Tierray los Cielos y que obstaculizaron durante siglos el desarrollo científico.
  22. En este trabajo presentamos un programa de actividades para el estudio de la gravitación en la secundaria superior, orientado a favorecer la participación de los estudiantes, en alguna medida, en la reconstrucción de este proceso que constituyó la denominada primera gran revolución científica y asomándonos al estudio de una de las ciencias más antiguas, la Astronomía, que hoy sigue despertando gran interés. O estudo da gravitação constitui uma ocasião excepcional para mostrar a ciência e a tecnologia em toda sua riqueza e

  23. 30 CFR 250.1006 - How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... a DOI pipeline? 250.1006 Section 250.1006 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1006 How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline? (a) The requirements for decommissioning pipelines are listed in § 250.1750...

  24. 30 CFR 250.1006 - How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... a DOI pipeline? 250.1006 Section 250.1006 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1006 How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline? (a) The requirements for decommissioning pipelines are listed in § 250.1750...

  1. 30 CFR 250.1006 - How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... a DOI pipeline? 250.1006 Section 250.1006 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1006 How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI...

  2. 30 CFR 250.1006 - How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... a DOI pipeline? 250.1006 Section 250.1006 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1006 How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline? (a) The requirements for decommissioning pipelines are listed in § 250.1750...

  3. 30 CFR 250.1006 - How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a DOI pipeline? 250.1006 Section 250.1006 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1006 How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline? (a) The requirements for decommissioning pipelines are listed in §...

  4. 25 CFR 900.208 - How are non-medical related tort claims and lawsuits filed for DOI?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are non-medical related tort claims and lawsuits filed for DOI? 900.208 Section 900.208 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, AND... Related Claims § 900.208 How are non-medical related tort claims and lawsuits filed for DOI?...

  5. DOI Climate Science Centers--Regional science to address management priorities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Malley, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Our Nation's lands, waters, and ecosystems and the living and cultural resources they contain face myriad challenges from invasive species, the effects of changing land and water use, habitat fragmentation and degradation, and other influences. These challenges are compounded by increasing influences from a changing climate—higher temperatures, increasing droughts, floods, and wildfires, and overall increasing variability in weather and climate. The Department of the Interior (DOI) has established eight regional Climate Science Centers (CSC) (fig. 1) that will provide scientific information and tools to natural and cultural resource managers as they plan for conserving these resources in a changing world. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center (NCCWSC) is managing the CSCs on behalf of the DOI.

  6. DOI Determination by Rise Time Discrimination in Single-Ended Readout for TOF PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, R.I.; Surti, S.; Karp, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical TOF PET systems achieve detection efficiency using thick crystals, typically of thickness 2–3cm. The resulting dispersion in interaction depths degrades spatial resolution for increasing radial positions due to parallax error. Furthermore, interaction depth dispersion results in time pickoff dispersion and thus in degraded timing resolution, and is therefore of added concern in TOF scanners. Using fast signal digitization, we characterize the timing performance, pulse shape and light output of LaBr3:Ce, CeBr3 and LYSO. Coincidence timing resolution is shown to degrade by ~50ps/cm for scintillator pixels of constant cross section and increasing length. By controlling irradiation depth in a scintillator pixel, we show that DOI-dependence of time pickoff is a significant factor in the loss of timing performance in thick detectors. Using the correlated DOI-dependence of time pickoff and charge collection, we apply a charge-based correction to the time pickoff, obtaining improved coincidence timing resolution of <200ps for a uniform 4×4×30mm3 LaBr3 pixel. In order to obtain both DOI identification and improved timing resolution, we design a two layer LaBr3[5%Ce]/LaBr3[30%Ce] detector of total size 4×4×30mm3, exploiting the dependence of scintillator rise time on [Ce] in LaBr3:Ce. Using signal rise time to determine interaction layer, excellent interaction layer discrimination is achieved, while maintaining coincidence timing resolution of <250ps and energy resolution <7% using a R4998 PMT. Excellent layer separation and timing performance is measured with several other commercially-available TOF photodetectors, demonstrating the practicality of this design. These results indicate the feasibility of rise time discrimination as a technique for measuring event DOI while maintaining sensitivity, timing and energy performance, in a well-known detector architecture. PMID:24403611

  7. 41 CFR 102-75.660 - What happens if DOI does not approve any applications or does not submit an assignment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if DOI does... Disposal Property for Use As Public Park Or Recreation Areas § 102-75.660 What happens if DOI does not approve any applications or does not submit an assignment recommendation? If DOI does not approve...

  8. 41 CFR 102-75.640 - When must DOI notify the disposal agency that an eligible applicant is interested in acquiring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must DOI notify the... Disposal Property for Use As Public Park Or Recreation Areas § 102-75.640 When must DOI notify the disposal agency that an eligible applicant is interested in acquiring the property? DOI must notify the...

  9. Use of internal scintillator radioactivity to calibrate DOI function of a PET detector with a dual-ended-scintillator readout

    SciTech Connect

    Bircher, Chad; Shao Yiping

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) detectors that use a dual-ended-scintillator readout to measure depth-of-interaction (DOI) must have an accurate DOI function to provide the relationship between DOI and signal ratios to be used for detector calibration and recalibration. In a previous study, the authors used a novel and simple method to accurately and quickly measure DOI function by irradiating the detector with an external uniform flood source; however, as a practical concern, implementing external uniform flood sources in an assembled PET system is technically challenging and expensive. In the current study, therefore, the authors investigated whether the same method could be used to acquire DOI function from scintillator-generated (i.e., internal) radiation. The authors also developed a method for calibrating the energy scale necessary to select the events within the desired energy window. Methods: The authors measured the DOI function of a PET detector with lutetium yttrium orthosilicate (LYSO) scintillators. Radiation events originating from the scintillators' internal Lu-176 beta decay were used to measure DOI functions which were then compared with those measured from both an external uniform flood source and an electronically collimated external point source. The authors conducted these studies with several scintillators of differing geometries (1.5 x 1.5 and 2.0 x 2.0 mm{sup 2} cross-section area and 20, 30, and 40 mm length) and various surface finishes (mirror-finishing, saw-cut rough, and other finishes in between), and in a prototype array. Results: All measured results using internal and external radiation sources showed excellent agreement in DOI function measurement. The mean difference among DOI values for all scintillators measured from internal and external radiation sources was less than 1.0 mm for different scintillator geometries and various surface finishes. Conclusions: The internal radioactivity of LYSO scintillators can be used

  10. 10 years of data publication with Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) at the World Data Center for Climate (WDCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockhause, Martina; Lautenschlager, Michael; Höck, Heinke; Toussaint, Frank

    2015-04-01

    The World Data Center for Climate (WDCC) has been Data DOI publication agency for 10 years. Before issuing the first Data DOI, five years were spent on the development of a concept out of the idea to make scientific data citable. Apart from the unique and persistent identification of data objects, questions e.g. about the organizational structure including the roles of libraries and data centers, cost models, data quality, and the granularity of data publications were targeted in this pre-phase. The first Data DOI publication system was developed within the German project 'std_doi' (Scientific and Technical Data DOI) funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). The German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB) acted as DOI Registration Agency and the data centers PANGAEA, GFZ and WDCC as publication agencies and long-term data archives. The first publication of scientific data came from WDCC in March 2004 (doi:10.1594/WDCC/EH4_OPYC_SRES_A2). About five years after the first data publications, in December 2009, the international organization DataCite was formed, leading to several organizational as well as technical changes affecting WDCC's scientific data publication process. Recently, WDCC became the data publisher for the decentrally disseminated data of the project CMIP5 (Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) and participated in the development of the data publication system 'atarrabi', requiring several additions and changes in WDCC's established data publication procedure. The challenges for the future of WDCC's scientific data publication lie in the connections of data to other DOI objects like scientific publications or to other persistent identifiers such as e.g. ORCID for persons or EPIC Handles for changeable data objects in the scientific workflow. Issues like data quality and data granularity have not been solved for the time being but are still under investigation.

  11. Sensitivity booster for DOI-PET scanner by utilizing Compton scattering events between detector blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Eiji; Tashima, Hideaki; Yamaya, Taiga

    2014-11-01

    In a conventional PET scanner, coincidence events are measured with a limited energy window for detection of photoelectric events in order to reject Compton scatter events that occur in a patient, but Compton scatter events caused in detector crystals are also rejected. Scatter events within the patient causes scatter coincidences, but inter crystal scattering (ICS) events have useful information for determining an activity distribution. Some researchers have reported the feasibility of PET scanners based on a Compton camera for tracing ICS into the detector. However, these scanners require expensive semiconductor detectors for high-energy resolution. In the Anger-type block detector, single photons interacting with multiple detectors can be obtained for each interacting position and complete information can be gotten just as for photoelectric events in the single detector. ICS events in the single detector have been used to get coincidence, but single photons interacting with multiple detectors have not been used to get coincidence. In this work, we evaluated effect of sensitivity improvement using Compton kinetics in several types of DOI-PET scanners. The proposed method promises to improve the sensitivity using coincidence events of single photons interacting with multiple detectors, which are identified as the first interaction (FI). FI estimation accuracy can be improved to determine FI validity from the correlation between Compton scatter angles calculated on the coincidence line-of-response. We simulated an animal PET scanner consisting of 42 detectors. Each detector block consists of three types of scintillator crystals (LSO, GSO and GAGG). After the simulation, coincidence events are added as information for several depth-of-interaction (DOI) resolutions. From the simulation results, we concluded the proposed method promises to improve the sensitivity considerably when effective atomic number of a scintillator is low. Also, we showed that FI estimate

  12. STS-87 Mission Specialist Doi addresses the media at the SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    As STS-87 Commander Kevin Kregel looks on, Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan addresses members of the press and media at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility after arriving for the final prelaunch activities leading up to the scheduled Nov. 19 liftoff. Other STS-87 crew members not pictured are Pilot Steven Lindsey; Mission Specialists Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D., and Winston Scott; and Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine. STS-87 will be the fourth flight of the United States Microgravity Payload and the Spartan-201 deployable satellite.

  13. A novel method to calibrate DOI function of a PET detector with a dual-ended-scintillator readout.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yiping; Yao, Rutao; Ma, Tianyu

    2008-12-01

    The detection of depth-of-interaction (DOI) is a critical detector capability to improve the PET spatial resolution uniformity across the field-of-view and will significantly enhance, in particular, small bore system performance for brain, breast, and small animal imaging. One promising technique of DOI detection is to use dual-ended-scintillator readout that uses two photon sensors to detect scintillation light from both ends of a scintillator array and estimate DOI based on the ratio of signals (similar to Anger logic). This approach needs a careful DOI function calibration to establish accurate relationship between DOI and signal ratios, and to recalibrate if the detection condition is shifted due to the drift of sensor gain, bias variations, or degraded optical coupling, etc. However, the current calibration method that uses coincident events to locate interaction positions inside a single scintillator crystal has severe drawbacks, such as complicated setup, long and repetitive measurements, and being prone to errors from various possible misalignments among the source and detector components. This method is also not practically suitable to calibrate multiple DOI functions of a crystal array. To solve these problems, a new method has been developed that requires only a uniform flood source to irradiate a crystal array without the need to locate the interaction positions, and calculates DOI functions based solely on the uniform probability distribution of interactions over DOI positions without knowledge or assumption of detector responses. Simulation and experiment have been studied to validate the new method, and the results show that the new method, with a simple setup and one single measurement, can provide consistent and accurate DOI functions for the entire array of multiple scintillator crystals. This will enable an accurate, simple, and practical DOI function calibration for the PET detectors based on the design of dual-ended-scintillator readout. In

  14. A novel method to calibrate DOI function of a PET detector with a dual-ended-scintillator readout

    SciTech Connect

    Shao Yiping; Yao Rutao; Ma Tianyu

    2008-12-15

    The detection of depth-of-interaction (DOI) is a critical detector capability to improve the PET spatial resolution uniformity across the field-of-view and will significantly enhance, in particular, small bore system performance for brain, breast, and small animal imaging. One promising technique of DOI detection is to use dual-ended-scintillator readout that uses two photon sensors to detect scintillation light from both ends of a scintillator array and estimate DOI based on the ratio of signals (similar to Anger logic). This approach needs a careful DOI function calibration to establish accurate relationship between DOI and signal ratios, and to recalibrate if the detection condition is shifted due to the drift of sensor gain, bias variations, or degraded optical coupling, etc. However, the current calibration method that uses coincident events to locate interaction positions inside a single scintillator crystal has severe drawbacks, such as complicated setup, long and repetitive measurements, and being prone to errors from various possible misalignments among the source and detector components. This method is also not practically suitable to calibrate multiple DOI functions of a crystal array. To solve these problems, a new method has been developed that requires only a uniform flood source to irradiate a crystal array without the need to locate the interaction positions, and calculates DOI functions based solely on the uniform probability distribution of interactions over DOI positions without knowledge or assumption of detector responses. Simulation and experiment have been studied to validate the new method, and the results show that the new method, with a simple setup and one single measurement, can provide consistent and accurate DOI functions for the entire array of multiple scintillator crystals. This will enable an accurate, simple, and practical DOI function calibration for the PET detectors based on the design of dual-ended-scintillator readout. In

  15. A high resolution, monolithic crystal, PET/MRI detector with DOI positioning capability.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoli; Lockhart, Cate; Lewellen, Tom K; Miyaoka, Robert S

    2008-01-01

    We report on a high resolution, monolithic crystal PET detector design that provides depth of interaction (DOI) positioning within the crystal and is compatible for operation in a MRI scanner to support multimodal anatomic and functional imaging. Our design utilizes a novel sensor on the entrance surface (SES) design combined with a maximum likelihood positioning algorithm. The sensor will be a two-dimensional array of micro-pixel avalanche photodiodes (MAPD). MAPDs are a new type of solid-state photodetector with Geiger mode operation that can provide signal gain similar to a photomltipiler tube (PMT). In addition, they can be operated in high magnetic fields to support PET/MR imaging. Utilizing a multi-step simulation process, we determined the intrinsic spatial resolution characteristics of a detector using the proposed design. For a 48.8 mm by 48.8 mm by 15 mm LSO crystal detector readout by an 8 by 8 array of 5.8 mm by 5.8 mm MAPD elements the intrinsic spatial resolution is 0.83 mm FWHM in X, 0.92 mm FWHM in Y and 1.83 mm FWHM in Z (i.e., DOI) for normally incident photons. Comparing the results versus using a conventional design with the photosensors on the backside of the crystal, an average improvement of 25% in X, 23% in Y, and 20% in Z is achieved.

  16. Local structure of spin Peierls compound TiPO4: 47/49Ti and 31P NMR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Raivo; Heinmaa, Ivo; Leitmäe, Alexander; Joon, Enno; Tsirlin, Alexander; Kremer, Reinhard; Glaum, Robert

    TiPO4 structure is made of slightly corrugated TiO2 ribbon chains of edge-sharing TiO6 octahedra. The almost perfect 1D spin 1/2 Ti3 + chains are well separated by PO4 tetrahedra. By magnetic susceptibility and MAS-NMR measurements [1] it was shown that TiPO4 has nonmagnetic singlet ground state with remarkably high Spin-Peierls (SP) transition temperature. The high-T magnetic susceptibility of TiPO4 follows well that of a S =1/2 Heisenberg chain with very strong nearest-neighbor AF spin-exchange coupling constant of J =965K. On cooling TiPO4 shows two successive phase transitions at 111K and 74K, with incommensurate (IC) SP phase between them. We studied local structure and dynamics in TiPO4 single crystal using 47/49Ti and 31P NMR in the temperature range 40K to 300K, and determined the principal values and orientation of the magnetic shift tensors for 31P and 47,49Ti nuclei. Since 47,49Ti (S =5/2 and S =7/2, respectively) have quadrupolar moments, we also found the principal axis values and orientations of the electric field gradient (efg) tensor in SP phase and at 295K. In SP phase the structure contains 2 magnetically inequivalent P sites and only one Ti site. From the T-dependence of the relaxation rate of 31P and 47Ti nuclei we determined activation energy Ea = 550 K for spin excitations in SP phase. J. Law et al ., PRB 83, 180414(R) (2011).

  17. Investigação dos perfís temporais de alta resolução de explosões solares tipo-III decimétricas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Sawant, H. S.; Madsen, F. R. H.

    2003-08-01

    Explosões solares tipo-III indicam a presença de feixes de elétrons acelerados durante "flares" solares. Sua investigação fornece informações tanto sobre os processos de aceleração de partículas quanto das características do agente causador e do local de aceleração. Explosões tipo-III decimétricas são geradas por feixes de elétrons viajando através de arcos magnéticos densos da baixa coroa solar. Os perfís temporais destes fenômenos, quando tomados com alta resolução, informam sobre os mecanismos de aceleração de partículas do feixe e o meio de transporte da energia liberada a partir da região de aceleração. Usando o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS), em operação no INPE, foram registradas dezenas de explosões tipo-III decimétricas, dentro da faixa de 2050-2250 MHz com alta resolução temporal (20 ms), em 13 de setembro de 2001, entre 13:00 e 16:10 UT. Foram selecionadas 10 explosões isoladas para uma investigação estatística detalhada de seus perfís temporais, em todos os cerca de 50 canais de freqüência. Os resultados indicam que cerca de 70% dos perfís temporais são complexos tanto durante a subida quanto descida. Os 30% restantes indicam que os perfís da subida podem ser bem representados, na maioria dos casos, por um processo não-linear e uma parcela significativa por processos lineares. Os perfís temporais da descida são dominados por um decaimento não-linear. Neste trabalho, será efetuada uma análise dos perfís temporais, tanto durante a subida quanto descida do fluxo, para as explosões selecionadas, em termos dos prováveis mecanismos de aceleração e relaxamento. 2

  18. Zygomycetes From Herbivore Dung in the Ecological Reserve of Dois IrmÃOs, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo Santiago, André Luiz Cabral Monteiro; Botelho Trufem, Sandra Farto; Malosso, Elaine; Dos Santos, Paulo Jorge Parreira; de Queiroz Cavalcanti, Maria Auxiliadora

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris), camel (Camelus bactrianus), horse (Equus caballus), deer (Cervus elaphus), agouti (Dasyprocta aguti), donkey (Equus asinus), llama (Llama glama) and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant. PMID:24031609

  19. Re-using the DataCite Metadata Store as DOI registration proxy and IGSN registry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J.; Ulbricht, D.

    2012-12-01

    Currently a lot of work is done to stimulate the reuse of data. In joint efforts research institutions establish infrastructure to facilitate the publication of scientific datasets. To create a citable reference, these datasets must be tagged with persistent identifiers (DOIs) and described with metadata. As most data in the geosciences are derived from samples, it is crucial to be able to uniquely identify the samples from which a set of data were derived. Incomplete documentation of samples in publications, use of ambiguous sample names are major obstacles for synthesis studies and re-use of data. Access to samples for re-analysis and re-appraisal is limited due to the lack of a central catalogue that allows finding a sample's archiving location. The International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) [1] provides solutions to the questions of unique sample identification and discovery. Use of the IGSN in digital data systems allows building linkages between the digital representation of samples in sample registries, e.g. SESAR [2], and their related data in the literature and in web accessible digital data repositories. DataCite recently decided to publish their metadata store (DataCite MDS) and accompanying software online [3]. The DataCite software allows registration of handles, deposition of metadata in an XML format, it offers a search interface, and is able to disseminate metadata via OAI-PMH. Its, REST interface allows an easy integration into institutional data work flows. For our applications at GFZ Potsdam we modified the DataCite MDS software for reuse it in two different contexts: as the DOIDB web service for data publications and as the IGSN registry web service for the registration of geological samples. The DOIDB acts as a proxy service to the DataCite Metadata Store and uses its REST-Interface for registration of DataCite DOI and associated DOI metadata. Metadata can be deposited in the DataCite or NASA DIF schema. Both schemata can be disseminated via OAI

  20. Zygomycetes From Herbivore Dung in the Ecological Reserve of Dois IrmÃOs, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Azevedo Santiago, André Luiz Cabral Monteiro; Botelho Trufem, Sandra Farto; Malosso, Elaine; dos Santos, Paulo Jorge Parreira; de Queiroz Cavalcanti, Maria Auxiliadora

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris), camel (Camelus bactrianus), horse (Equus caballus), deer (Cervus elaphus), agouti (Dasyprocta aguti), donkey (Equus asinus), llama (Llama glama) and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant. PMID:24031609

  1. Transient radiation effects in D.O.I. optical materials: KD{sup *}P

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons-Potter, K.

    1998-07-01

    Department of Energy and Defense Programs systems are becoming increasingly reliant on the use of optical technologies that must perform under a range of ionizing radiation environments. In particular, the radiation response of materials under consideration for applications in direct optical initiation (D.O.I.) schemes must be well characterized. In this report, transient radiation effects observed in a KD*P crystal are characterized. Under gamma exposure with 2 MeV photons in a 20--30 nsec pulse, the authors observe induced absorption at 1.06 {micro}m that causes a peak decrease in overall sample transmittance of only 10%. This induced loss is seen to recover fully within the first 30 {micro}sec.

  2. Zygomycetes From Herbivore Dung in the Ecological Reserve of Dois IrmÃOs, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo Santiago, André Luiz Cabral Monteiro; Botelho Trufem, Sandra Farto; Malosso, Elaine; Dos Santos, Paulo Jorge Parreira; de Queiroz Cavalcanti, Maria Auxiliadora

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris), camel (Camelus bactrianus), horse (Equus caballus), deer (Cervus elaphus), agouti (Dasyprocta aguti), donkey (Equus asinus), llama (Llama glama) and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant.

  3. STS-87 M.S. Doi and Chawla and P.S. Kadenyuk in slidewire basket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The crew of the STS-87 mission, scheduled for launch Nov. 19 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia from pad 39B at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), participates in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) at KSC. Testing a slide wire basket that is part of the pads emergency egress system are, from left, Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan; Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine (NSAU); and Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D. The TCDT is held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight providing the crew of each mission opportunities to participate in simulated countdown activities. The TCDT ends with a mock launch countdown culminating in a simulated main engine cut-off. The crew also spends time undergoing emergency egress training exercises at the pad and has an opportunity to view and inspect the payloads in the orbiter's payload bay.

  4. Transient radiation effects in D.O.I. optical materials: Schott filter glass

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons-Potter, K.

    1998-07-01

    Department of Energy and Defense Programs systems are becoming increasingly reliant on the use of optical technologies that must perform under a range of ionizing radiation environments. In particular, the radiation response of materials under consideration for applications in direct optical initiation (D.O.I.) schemes must be well characterized. In this report, transient radiation effects observed in Schott filter glass S-7010 are characterized. Under gamma exposure with 2 MeV photons in a 20--30 nsec pulse, the authors observe strong initial induced fluorescence in the red region of the spectrum followed by significant induced absorption over the same spectral region. Peak induced absorption coefficients of 0.113 cm{sup {minus}1} and 0.088 cm{sup {minus}1} were calculated at 800 nm and 660 nm respectively.

  5. Estudo espectral em raios-X duros de fontes do tipo Z com o HEXTE/RXTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, F.; Heindl, W. A.; Rothschild, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de um estudo espectral em raios-X de fontes do tipo Z. As fontes do tipo Z são binárias de raios-X de baixa massa (BXBM) com campo magnético intermediário (B~109G). Esta classe de fontes é composta por apenas 6 fontes Galácticas (a saber: ScoX-1, 9, 7, CygX-2, 5 e 0). A nossa análise se concentra na faixa de raios-X duros (E ~ 20keV), até cerca de 200keV, faixa ótima de operação do telescópio "High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment" (HEXTE), um dos três telescópios de raios-X à bordo do Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). Nossa motivação para tal estudo, uma busca de caudas em raios-X duros em fontes do tipo Z, foi o pouco conhecimento sobre a emissão nesta faixa de energia das referidas fontes quando comparadas, por exemplo, as fontes do tipo atoll (também BXBM). Apresentam-se a análise/redução de dados e explicita-se a maneira como o HEXTE mede o ru1do de fundo. Especial atenção é direcionada a este item devido a localização das fontes do tipo Z e também ao problema de contaminação por fontes próximas. Com exceção de ScoX-1, nenhuma cauda em raios-X duros foi encontrada para as outras fontes, a despeito de resultados de detecção dessas caudas em algumas fontes pelo satélite BeppoSAX. As interpretações deste resultado serão apresentadas. Do ponto de vista deste estudo, nós deduzimos que a produção de caudas de raios-X duros em fontes do tipo Z é um processo disparado quando, pelo menos, uma condição é satisfeita: o brilho da componente térmica do espectro precisa estar acima de um certo valor limiar de ~4´1036ergs-1.

  6. Anxiolytic-like effects of DOI microinjections into the hippocampus (but not the amygdala nor the PAG) in the mice four plates test.

    PubMed

    Masse, Fabienne; Petit-Demouliere, Benoit; Dubois, Isabelle; Hascoët, Martine; Bourin, Michel

    2008-04-01

    Anxiolytic-like effects of DOI, a 5-HT(2A/2C) agonist have been observed in the four plates test (FPT) after intra-peritoneal administrations. In the present study, DOI (1 microg, 2 microg or 5 microg per mice) was directly injected to three brain structures, the hippocampus, the amygdala and the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG). Tests were carried out immediately after injections. In amygdala and PAG, DOI exerted an anxiogenic-like effect. In the hippocampus, a strong anxiolytic-like effect was found only when injecting 5 microg DOI/mice in the FPT, with a size effect comparable to the anxiolytic-like effect of diazepam 1mg/kg injected intra-peritoneally. DOI or vehicle injections did not affect locomotor activity. These results help us to understand mechanisms of action of DOI in animal models of anxiety, probably through an interaction with other neurotransmitter system, which may take place in the hippocampus.

  7. The Issue of Motivating Entre(Intra)Preneurial Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winslow, Erik K.

    1990-01-01

    Six principles of motivating entre(intra)preneurial behavior are considered including the climate must allow the expression of such activity; motivation is broadly distributed in the general population; behavior is a function of its consequences; and motivating environments have an aura of excitement and experimentation. (DB)

  8. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging reveals increased DOI-induced brain activity in a mouse model of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Malkova, Natalia V.; Gallagher, Joseph J.; Yu, Collin Z.; Jacobs, Russell E.; Patterson, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal infection during pregnancy increases the risk for schizophrenia in offspring. In rodent models, maternal immune activation (MIA) yields offspring with schizophrenia-like behaviors. None of these behaviors are, however, specific to schizophrenia. The presence of hallucinations is a key diagnostic symptom of schizophrenia. In mice, this symptom can be defined as brain activation in the absence of external stimuli, which can be mimicked by administration of hallucinogens. We find that, compared with controls, adult MIA offspring display an increased stereotypical behavioral response to the hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), an agonist for serotonin receptor 2A (5-HT2AR). This may be explained by increased levels of 5-HT2AR and downstream signaling molecules in unstimulated MIA prefrontal cortex (PFC). Using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to identify neuronal activation elicited by DOI administration, we find that, compared with controls, MIA offspring exhibit a greater manganese (Mn2+) accumulation in several brain areas, including the PFC, thalamus, and striatum. The parafascicular thalamic nucleus, which plays the role in the pathogenesis of hallucinations, is activated by DOI in MIA offspring only. Additionally, compared with controls, MIA offspring demonstrate higher DOI-induced expression of early growth response protein 1, cyclooxygenase-2, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the PFC. Chronic treatment with the 5-HT2AR antagonist ketanserin reduces DOI-induced head twitching in MIA offspring. Thus, the MIA mouse model can be successfully used to investigate activity induced by DOI in awake, behaving mice. Moreover, manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is a useful, noninvasive method for accurately measuring this type of activity. PMID:24889602

  9. STS-87 Mission Specialists Scott and Doi with EVA coordinator Laws participate in the CEIT for their

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Participating in the Crew Equipment Integration Test (CEIT) at Kennedy Space Center are STS-87 crew members, assisted by Glenda Laws, extravehicular activity (EVA) coordinator, Johnson Space Center, at left. Next to Laws is Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, who is looking on as Mission Specialist Winston Scott gets a hands-on look at some of the equipment. The STS-87 mission will be the fourth United States Microgravity Payload and flight of the Spartan-201 deployable satellite. During the mission, scheduled for a Nov. 19 liftoff from KSC, Dr. Doi and Scott will both perform spacewalks.

  10. Process evaluation of a school-based weight gain prevention program: the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT).

    PubMed

    Singh, A S; Chinapaw, M J M; Brug, J; van Mechelen, W

    2009-10-01

    Health promotion programs benefit from an accompanying process evaluation since it can provide more insight in the strengths and weaknesses of a program. A process evaluation was conducted to assess the reach, implementation, satisfaction and maintenance of a school-based program aimed at the prevention of excessive weight gain among Dutch adolescents [Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT)]. Our process evaluation involved data collections by means of questionnaires among students, teachers, school board and site staff. The results indicated immense difficulties in the recruitment phase and therefore a low reach at school level. However, among adolescents of the schools that participated, the reach was high (84%). Furthermore, the classroom intervention was implemented successfully based on the number of lessons taught. Most teachers rated the DOiT-intervention positively; students rated the intervention 6.6 on a scale of 1-10. The majority of the teachers planned to implement the DOiT-intervention program in the future, as they perceived DOiT feasible for pre-vocational education students.

  11. Exploring Learner Perception of E-Learning Effectiveness in the Workplace Learning Context Based on Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Tzu-Ling; Chen, Tzu-Jung

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study aims to examine adult learner's perception related to e-learning effectiveness. The model of diffusion of innovations (DOI) was used as the research framework and quantitative research methodology employing survey techniques was applied to collect the data. The targeted population identified in this study includes adult…

  12. Bridging length and time scales in sheared demixing systems: from the Cahn-Hilliard to the Doi-Ohta model.

    PubMed

    Jelić, Asja; Ilg, Patrick; Ottinger, Hans Christian

    2010-01-01

    We develop a systematic coarse-graining procedure which establishes the connection between models of mixtures of immiscible fluids at different length and time scales. We start from the Cahn-Hilliard model of spinodal decomposition in a binary fluid mixture under flow from which we derive the coarse-grained description. The crucial step in this procedure is to identify the relevant coarse-grained variables and find the appropriate mapping which expresses them in terms of the more microscopic variables. In order to capture the physics of the Doi-Ohta level, we introduce the interfacial width as an additional variable at that level. In this way, we account for the stretching of the interface under flow and derive analytically the convective behavior of the relevant coarse-grained variables, which in the long wavelength limit recovers the familiar phenomenological Doi-Ohta model. In addition, we obtain the expression for the interfacial tension in terms of the Cahn-Hilliard parameters as a direct result of the developed coarse-graining procedure. Finally, by analyzing the numerical results obtained from the simulations on the Cahn-Hilliard level, we discuss that dissipative processes at the Doi-Ohta level are of the same origin as in the Cahn-Hilliard model. The way to estimate the interface relaxation times of the Doi-Ohta model from the underlying morphology dynamics simulated at the Cahn-Hilliard level is established. PMID:20365347

  13. 77 FR 19307 - Renewal of Information Collection; OMB Control Number 1040-0001, DOI Programmatic Clearance for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... languages other than English (e.g., Spanish) where appropriate. Topic areas serve as a guide within which... and who seek to influence the present and future state of DOI's resources, products, and services... Register (76 FR 77244) a request for public comments on this ] proposed renewal. We received one...

  14. 25 CFR 900.208 - How are non-medical related tort claims and lawsuits filed for DOI?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How are non-medical related tort claims and lawsuits...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Federal Tort Claims Act Coverage General Provisions Non-Medical Related Claims § 900.208 How are non-medical related tort claims and lawsuits filed for DOI?...

  15. DOIs for Data: Progress in Data Citation and Publication in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaghan, S.; Murphy, F.; Tedds, J.; Allan, R.

    2012-12-01

    publication, and assessing the trustworthiness of data archives. A key goal is to ensure that these projects reach out to, and are informed by, other related initiatives on a global basis, in particular anyone interested in developing long-term sustainable policies, processes, incentives and business models for managing and publishing research data. This presentation will give an overview of progress in the projects mentioned above, specifically focussing on the use of DOIs for datasets hosted in the NERC environmental data centers, and how DOIs are enabling formal data citation and publication in the geosciences.

  16. NASDA President Isao Uchida greets STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., after landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The president of the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan, Isao Uchida, at left, chats with STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of NASDA, shortly after the landing of Columbia at Kennedy Space Center. STS-87 concluded its mission with a main gear touchdown at 7:20:04 a.m. EST Dec. 5, at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility Runway 33, drawing the 15-day, 16-hour and 34- minute-long mission of 6.5 million miles to a close. Also onboard the orbiter were Commander Kevin Kregel; Pilot Steven Lindsey; Mission Specialists Winston Scott and Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D.; and Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine. During the 88th Space Shuttle mission, the crew performed experiments on the United States Microgravity Payload-4 and pollinated plants as part of the Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment. This was the 12th landing for Columbia at KSC and the 41st KSC landing in the history of the Space Shuttle program.

  17. STS-87 M.S. Takao Doi, Ph.D., of NASDA after landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan greets a NASDA official shortly after the orbiter Columbia returned to KSC, touching down on Runway 33 at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility. STS-87 concluded its mission with a main gear touchdown at 7:20:04 a.m. EST Dec. 5, drawing the 15-day, 16-hour and 34-minute-long mission of 6.5 million miles to a close. Also onboard the orbiter were Commander Kevin Kregel; Pilot Steven Lindsey; Mission Specialists Winston Scott and Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D.; and Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine. During the 88th Space Shuttle mission, the crew performed experiments on the United States Microgravity Payload-4 and pollinated plants as part of the Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment. This was the 12th landing for Columbia at KSC and the 41st KSC landing in the history of the Space Shuttle program.

  18. 25 CFR 1000.55 - Can a Tribe/Consortium appeal within DOI the Director's decision not to award a grant under this...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium appeal within DOI the Director's decision not to award a grant under this subpart? 1000.55 Section 1000.55 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... Negotiation Grants Advance Planning Grant Funding § 1000.55 Can a Tribe/Consortium appeal within DOI...

  19. Medición de los parámetros cosmológicos q0, ΩM, y ΩΛ, usando supernovas de Tipo Ia distantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clocchiatti, A.; High-Z Sne Search Team

    Las supernovas de tipo Ia son una herramienta de gran precisión para la medición de distancias de interés cosmológico. Los métodos recientes de calibración de su luminosidad intrínseca, que hacen uso de la forma de las curvas de luz en varios colores y permiten diferenciar entre supernovas distantes, intrínsecamente débiles, u oscurecidas por extinción, reducen la dispersión del método que las asume de magnitud absoluta constante de 0.50 mag a 0.15 mag, e incrementa el valor de la constante de Hubble de ~55 km s-1 Mpc-1, a 65 km s-1 Mpc-1. A partir de la calibración de las supernovas cercanas, con redshifts menores que 0.1, se pueden obtener distancias precisas a supernovas que explotan a alto redshift. Hemos aplicado estos métodos a 16 supernovas con 0.16 < Z < 0.97, encontrando que sus distancias son, en promedio, entre 10% y 13% (dependiendo del método empleado) mayores que las que uno esperaría en un universo con poca masa (Ω = 0.2), sin una constante cosmológica. Todos los métodos de ajuste de curvas de luz, y selección de subgrupos de la muestra de supernovas observadas, favorecen consistentemente modelos del universo que se expanden eternamente y que tienen una constante cosmológica positiva (ΩΛ > 0), y una aceleración de la expansión al presente (q0 < 0). Hay distintas fuentes de posibles errores sistemáticos que merecen ser analizadas, entre ellas: evolución de la metalicidad y estrellas progenitoras, extinción, bias en la elección de la muestra, amplificación por gravitational lensing, y contaminación de la muestra. Ninguno de estos efectos alcanza para reconciliar los datos con ΩΛ = 0, o q0 > 0.

  20. Concept for Future Data Services at the Long-Term Archive of WDCC combining DOIs with common PIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockhause, Martina; Weigel, Tobias; Toussaint, Frank; Höck, Heinke; Thiemann, Hannes; Lautenschlager, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The World Data Center for Climate (WDCC) hosted at the German Climate Computing Center (DKRZ) maintains a long-term archive (LTA) of climate model data as well as observational data. WDCC distinguishes between two types of LTA data: Structured data: Data output of an instrument or of a climate model run consists of numerous, highly structured individual datasets in a uniform format. Part of these data is also published on an ESGF (Earth System Grid Federation) data node. Detailed metadata is available allowing for fine-grained user-defined data access. Unstructured data: LTA data of finished scientific projects are in general unstructured and consist of datasets of different formats, different sizes, and different contents. For these data compact metadata is available as content information. The structured data is suitable for WDCC's DataCite DOI process, the project data only in exceptional cases. The DOI process includes a thorough quality control process of technical as well as scientific aspects by the publication agent and the data creator. DOIs are assigned to data collections appropriate to be cited in scientific publications, like a simulation run. The data collection is defined in agreement with the data creator. At the moment there is no possibility to identify and cite individual datasets within this DOI data collection analogous to the citation of chapters in a book. Also missing is a compact citation regulation for a user-specified collection of data. WDCC therefore complements its existing LTA/DOI concept by Persistent Identifier (PID) assignment to datasets using Handles. In addition to data identification for internal and external use, the concept of PIDs allows to define relations among PIDs. Such structural information is stored as key-value pair directly in the handles. Thus, relations provide basic provenance or lineage information, even if part of the data like intermediate results are lost. WDCC intends to use additional PIDs on metadata

  1. In-situ monitoring of undercoating corrosion damage by Direct Optical Interrogation (DOI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Garrity, Meng

    An approach referred to as "Direct Optical Interrogation" (DOI) has been developed as an extension of the thin film pitting approach developed and used by Frankel and others. Samples were prepared by depositing Al and Al-Cu alloy metallizations about 800 nm thick on glass substrates. These metallizations were then coated with various coatings and coating systems. Samples were introduced to aggressive environments and the progression of corrosion of the metallization under the coating was monitored in situ using low power videography. Because metallizations were thin, corrosion quickly penetrated through the metal layer to the glass substrate and then spread laterally. Measurement of the lateral spread of corrosion enabled non-electrochemical assessment of the corrosion kinetics. In Al-Cu thin films, both aged and as-deposited, corrosion sites are irregularly shaped because there is not enough cathodic current to propagate the entire corrosion site margin at equal rates. In a number of cases, corrosion propagates with a filamentary morphology resembling filiform corrosion. Cu played a strong role in determining under coating corrosion morphology and growth kinetics in experiments with Al-Cu thin films substrates. As-deposited Al-Cu metallizations were more corrosion resistant than aged metallization and both were more corrosion resistant than pure Al. Cu-rich dendrites were formed on the corrosion front. Corrosion rate (current density) was calculated using Faraday's law by collecting corrosion site perimeter and bottom area. Systematic exploration of the effects of a chromate and chromate-free conversion coatings, chromate and chromate-free primer coatings and the presence or absence of a polyurethane topcoat confirmed the extraordinary corrosion protection by chromates. A commercial praseodymium-pigmented primer coating was not particularly effective in retarding undercoating corrosion site growth unless paired with a chromate conversion coating. The presence of a

  2. Estudo de soluções locais e cosmológicas em teorias do tipo tensor-escalar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva E Costa, S.

    2003-08-01

    Teorias do tipo tensor-escalar são a mais simples extensão possí vel da Relatividade Geral. Nessas teorias, cujo modelo padrão é a teoria de Brans-Dicke, a curvatura do espaço-tempo, descrita por componentes tensoriais, aparece acoplada a um campo escalar que, de certo modo, representa uma variação na constante de acoplamento da gravitação. Tais teorias apresentam soluções locais e cosmológicas que, em determinados limites, recaem nas apresentadas pela Relatividade Geral, mas que em outros limites trazem novidades, tais como conseqüências observacionais da evolução de flutuações primordiais distintas daquelas previstas pela Relatividade Geral (ver, por ex., Nagata et al., PRD 66, p. 103510 (2002)). Graças a esta possibilidade de trazer à luz novidades em relação à gravitação, teorias do tipo tensor-escalar podem ser vistas como um interessante campo alternativo de pesquisas para soluções dos problemas de massa faltante (ou escura) e/ou energia escura. Seguindo tal linha, este trabalho, ainda em sua fase inicial, apresenta soluções gerais de teorias do tipo tensor-escalar para diversas situações, verificando-se em que consiste a divergência dessas soluções dos casos tradicionais possí veis na Relatividade Geral. Como exemplos das soluções aqui apresentadas pode-se destacar uma expressão geral para diferentes soluções cosmológicas englobando diferentes tipos de matéria (representados por diferentes equações de estado), e a expressão para uma solução local representando um buraco negro com rotação, similar à solução de Kerr da Relatividade Geral. Por fim, é importante ressaltar que, embora aqui apresentem-se poucos resultados novos, na literatura sobre o assunto a maior parte das soluções apresentadas limita-se a uns poucos casos especí ficos, tal como soluções cosmológicas apenas com curvatura nula, e que mesmo as soluções disponí veis são, em geral, pouco divulgadas e, portanto, pouco conhecidas, e

  3. Side readout of long scintillation crystal elements with digital SiPM for TOF-DOI PET

    SciTech Connect

    Yeom, Jung Yeol E-mail: cslevin@stanford.edu; Vinke, Ruud; Levin, Craig S. E-mail: cslevin@stanford.edu

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: Side readout of scintillation light from crystal elements in positron emission tomography (PET) is an alternative to conventional end-readout configurations, with the benefit of being able to provide accurate depth-of-interaction (DOI) information and good energy resolution while achieving excellent timing resolution required for time-of-flight PET. This paper explores different readout geometries of scintillation crystal elements with the goal of achieving a detector that simultaneously achieves excellent timing resolution, energy resolution, spatial resolution, and photon sensitivity. Methods: The performance of discrete LYSO scintillation elements of different lengths read out from the end/side with digital silicon photomultipliers (dSiPMs) has been assessed. Results: Compared to 3 × 3 × 20 mm{sup 3} LYSO crystals read out from their ends with a coincidence resolving time (CRT) of 162 ± 6 ps FWHM and saturated energy spectra, a side-readout configuration achieved an excellent CRT of 144 ± 2 ps FWHM after correcting for timing skews within the dSiPM and an energy resolution of 11.8% ± 0.2% without requiring energy saturation correction. Using a maximum likelihood estimation method on individual dSiPM pixel response that corresponds to different 511 keV photon interaction positions, the DOI resolution of this 3 × 3 × 20 mm{sup 3} crystal side-readout configuration was computed to be 0.8 mm FWHM with negligible artifacts at the crystal ends. On the other hand, with smaller 3 × 3 × 5 mm{sup 3} LYSO crystals that can also be tiled/stacked to provide DOI information, a timing resolution of 134 ± 6 ps was attained but produced highly saturated energy spectra. Conclusions: The energy, timing, and DOI resolution information extracted from the side of long scintillation crystal elements coupled to dSiPM have been acquired for the first time. The authors conclude in this proof of concept study that such detector configuration has the potential to enable

  4. Effect of GABAergic ligands on the anxiolytic-like activity of DOI (a 5-HT(2A/2C) agonist) in the four-plate test in mice.

    PubMed

    Massé, Fabienne; Hascoët, Martine; Bourin, Michel

    2007-01-01

    5-HTergic and GABAergic systems are involved in neurobiology of anxiety. Precedent studies have demonstrated that SSRIs possessed an anxiolytic-like effect in the four-plate test (FPT) at doses that did not modify spontaneous locomotor activity. This effect seems to be mediated through the activation of 5-HT(2A) postsynaptic receptors. The purpose of the present study was to examine the implication of GABA system in the anxiolytic-like activity of DOI in the FPT. To achieve this, the co-administration of DOI (5-HT(2A/2C) receptor agonists) with GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptor ligands was evaluated in the FPT. Alprazolam, diazepam and muscimol (for higher dose) potentiated the anxiolytic-like effect of DOI. Bicuculline, picrotoxin and baclofen inhibited the anxiolytic-like effect of DOI. Flumazenil and CGP 35348 had no effect on the anxiolytic-like activity of DOI. These results suggest that the GABA system seems to be strongly implicated in the anxiolytic-like activity of DOI in the FPT.

  5. The effect of the sigma-1 receptor selective compound LS-1-137 on the DOI-induced head twitch response in mice.

    PubMed

    Malik, Maninder; Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Mach, Robert H; Luedtke, Robert R

    2016-09-01

    Several receptor mediated pathways have been shown to modulate the murine head twitch response (HTR). However, the role of sigma receptors in the murine (±)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI)-induced HTR has not been previously investigated. We examined the ability of LS-1-137, a novel sigma-1 vs. sigma-2 receptor selective phenylacetamide, to modulate the DOI-induced HTR in DBA/2J mice. We also assessed the in vivo efficacy of reference sigma-1 receptor antagonists and agonists PRE-084 and PPCC. The effect of the sigma-2 receptor selective antagonist RHM-1-86 was also examined. Rotarod analysis was performed to monitor motor coordination after LS-1-137 administration. Radioligand binding techniques were used to determine the affinity of LS-1-137 at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. LS-1-137 and the sigma-1 receptor antagonists haloperidol and BD 1047 were able to attenuate a DOI-induced HTR, indicating that LS-1-137 was acting in vivo as a sigma-1 receptor antagonist. LS-1-137 did not compromise rotarod performance within a dose range capable of attenuating the effects of DOI. Radioligand binding studies indicate that LS-1-137 exhibits low affinity binding at both 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. Based upon the results from these and our previous studies, LS-1-137 is a neuroprotective agent that attenuates the murine DOI-induced HTR independent of activity at 5-HT2 receptor subtypes, D2-like dopamine receptors, sigma-2 receptors and NMDA receptors. LS-1-137 appears to act as a sigma-1 receptor antagonist to inhibit the DOI-induced HTR. Therefore, the DOI-induced HTR can be used to assess the in vivo efficacy of sigma-1 receptor selective compounds. PMID:27397487

  6. The effect of the sigma-1 receptor selective compound LS-1-137 on the DOI-induced head twitch response in mice.

    PubMed

    Malik, Maninder; Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Mach, Robert H; Luedtke, Robert R

    2016-09-01

    Several receptor mediated pathways have been shown to modulate the murine head twitch response (HTR). However, the role of sigma receptors in the murine (±)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI)-induced HTR has not been previously investigated. We examined the ability of LS-1-137, a novel sigma-1 vs. sigma-2 receptor selective phenylacetamide, to modulate the DOI-induced HTR in DBA/2J mice. We also assessed the in vivo efficacy of reference sigma-1 receptor antagonists and agonists PRE-084 and PPCC. The effect of the sigma-2 receptor selective antagonist RHM-1-86 was also examined. Rotarod analysis was performed to monitor motor coordination after LS-1-137 administration. Radioligand binding techniques were used to determine the affinity of LS-1-137 at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. LS-1-137 and the sigma-1 receptor antagonists haloperidol and BD 1047 were able to attenuate a DOI-induced HTR, indicating that LS-1-137 was acting in vivo as a sigma-1 receptor antagonist. LS-1-137 did not compromise rotarod performance within a dose range capable of attenuating the effects of DOI. Radioligand binding studies indicate that LS-1-137 exhibits low affinity binding at both 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. Based upon the results from these and our previous studies, LS-1-137 is a neuroprotective agent that attenuates the murine DOI-induced HTR independent of activity at 5-HT2 receptor subtypes, D2-like dopamine receptors, sigma-2 receptors and NMDA receptors. LS-1-137 appears to act as a sigma-1 receptor antagonist to inhibit the DOI-induced HTR. Therefore, the DOI-induced HTR can be used to assess the in vivo efficacy of sigma-1 receptor selective compounds.

  7. Basic performance evaluation of a Si-PM array-based LGSO phoswich DOI block detector for a high-resolution small animal PET system.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Seiichi

    2013-07-01

    The silicon photomultiplier (Si-PM) is a promising photodetector for PET. However, it remains unclear whether Si-PM can be used for a depth-of-interaction (DOI) detector based on the decay time differences of the scintillator where pulse shape analysis is used. For clarification, we tested the Hamamatsu 4 × 4 Si-PM array (S11065-025P) combined with scintillators that used different decay times to develop DOI block detectors using the pulse shape analysis. First, Ce-doped Gd(2)SiO(5) (GSO) scintillators of 0.5 mol% Ce were arranged in a 4 × 4 matrix and were optically coupled to the center of each pixel of the Si-PM array for measurement of the energy resolution as well as its gain variations according to the temperature. Then two types of Ce-doped Lu(1.9)Gd(0.1)Si0(5) (LGSO) scintillators, 0.025 mol% Ce (decay time: ~31 ns) and 0.75 mol% Ce (decay time: ~46 ns), were optically coupled in the DOI direction, arranged in a 11 × 7 matrix, and optically coupled to a Si-PM array for testing of the possibility of a high-resolution DOI detector. The energy resolution of the Si-PM array-based GSO block detector was 18 ± 4.4 % FWHM for a Cs-137 gamma source (662 keV). Less than 1 mm crystals were clearly resolved in the position map of the LGSO DOI block detector. The peak-to-valley ratio (P/V) derived from the pulse shape spectra of the LGSO DOI block detector was 2.2. These results confirmed that Si-PM array-based DOI block detectors are promising for high-resolution small animal PET systems.

  8. Implication of 5-HT2A subtype receptors in DOI activity in the four-plates test-retest paradigm in mice.

    PubMed

    Ripoll, Nadège; Hascoët, Martine; Bourin, Michel

    2006-01-01

    The four-plates test (FPT) is an animal model of anxiety which allows the detection of anxiolytic effect not only of benzodiazepines (BZDs) but also of other non-BZDs anxiolytic compounds such as antidepressants (ADs). Furthermore, DOI, a 5-HT(2A/2C) agonist, has been shown to exert an anxiolytic-like effect in this model. Retesting mice in animal models of anxiety (test-retest paradigm) induces an anxiogenic-like and a loss of anxiolytic-like effects in response to BZDs and ADs. On the contrary, DOI has been reported to oppose the fear potentiation induced by trial 1 in the FPT. Despite DOI is considered as one of the most selective 5-HT(2A) available, it acts as agonist at all three 5-HT(2) receptor subtypes (5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B) and 5-HT(2C)). The aim of this study was thus to investigate in the FPT test-retest paradigm, which 5-HT(2) receptor subtype(s) was involved in the DOI-induced effect in experienced mice. The effect of DOI (0.25-4 mg/kg) and the agonists, 5-HT(2B), BW 723C86 (1-16 mg/kg) and 5-HT(2C), RO 60-0175 (0.25-4 mg/kg) have also been studied. Then, antagonism studies were conducted combinating the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist SR 46349B, the 5-HT(2B/2C) receptor antagonist SB 206553 or the selective 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist RS 10-2221 (at the doses of 0.1 and 1 mg/kg) with the DOI (1 mg/kg). Our study shows that the BW 723C86 had no effect on retesting mice, whereas it exerted an anxiolytic-like effect in naive mice. By contrast to DOI, the RO 60-0175 had no effect neither in naive nor experienced mice. Furthermore, only the SR 46349B antagonized the DOI-induced anti-punishment effect. Diazepam included as a positive control also increased in each case the number of punished passages in naive mice. Our findings altogether also suggest that DOI exerts its anxiolytic-like effect in the FPT test-retest paradigm through 5-HT(2A) receptors.

  9. Uma Comparação entre Técnicas de Propagação de Erros em Astrofísica: Monte Carlo x Bootstrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabot, Alexandre; Baptista, Raymundo

    2005-07-01

    Neste trabalho é feito um estudo comparativo entre dois algoritmos numéricos usados para propagação de erros em dados experimentais. Um deles é conhecido por Método de Monte carlo e o outro por Método de Bootstrap. Recentemente, Dhullon & Watson argüiram que a aplicação do método de Monte Carlo introduz ruído nos dados, e propuseram então a utilização do Bootstrap como alternativa capaz de produzir resultados superiores. O objetivo deste trabalho é testar a validade dessa afirmação. As duas técnicas foram aplicadas a três problemas diferentes: o ajsute de modelos de emissão LTE simples e atmosfera estelar a espectros estelares observados e o ajuste de curvas de luz de eclipses de Variáveis Cataclísmicas para a detemrinação da distribuição radial de brilho dos seus discos de acréscimo. Os métodos foram testados quanto à sua robusteza, ou seja, a capacidade de prover resultados coerentes enre si. Além disso, as soluções dos métodos foram comparadas. Os resultados indicam que não existe evidência de superioridade de um métodos em relação ao outro.

  10. Exploring facilitating factors and barriers to the nationwide dissemination of a Dutch school-based obesity prevention program “DOiT”: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The evidence-based Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program is a school-based obesity prevention program for 12 to 14-year olds attending the first two years of prevocational education. This paper describes the study protocol applied to evaluate (a) the nationwide dissemination process of DOiT in the Netherlands, and (b) the relationship between quality of implementation and effectiveness during nationwide dissemination of the program in the Netherlands. Methods In order to explore facilitating factors and barriers for dissemination of DOiT, we monitored the process of adoption, implementation and continuation of the DOiT program among 20 prevocational schools in the Netherlands. The study was an observational study using qualitative (i.e. semi-structured interviews) and quantitative methods (i.e. questionnaires and logbooks). Eight process indicators were assessed: recruitment, context, reach, dosage, fidelity, satisfaction, effectiveness and continuation. All teachers, students and parents involved in the implementation of the program were invited to participate in the study. As part of the process evaluation, a cluster-controlled trial with ten control schools was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the program on students’ anthropometry and energy balance-related behaviours and its association with quality of implementation. Discussion The identified impeding and facilitating factors will contribute to an adjusted strategy promoting adoption, implementation and continuation of the DOiT program to ensure optimal use and, thereby, prevention of obesity in Dutch adolescents. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN92755979. PMID:24355056

  11. Biaxial deformation of a polymer under shear: NMR test of the Doi-Edwards model with convected constraint release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, Ryan J.; Kilfoil, Maria L.; Callaghan, Paul T.

    2001-11-01

    2H NMR quadrupole interaction spectroscopy has been used to measure the deformation of a 670 kD poly(dimethylsiloxane) melt under shear in a Couette cell. The signals were acquired from a per deuterated benzene probe molecule which provides a motionally averaged sampling of the entire segmental ensemble. We have measured the dependence on shear rate of the SXX (velocity), SYY (velocity gradient), SZZ (vorticity), and SXY (shear) elements of the segmental alignment tensor, as well as the angular dependence of the deuterium quadrupole splitting at fixed shear rate. We show that the data agree quite well with the Doi-Edwards theory but significantly better when convected constraint release effects are included. These fits return a value for the tube disengagement time of 100 ms.

  12. Hyperspectral Technology Transfer to the US Department of Interior: Summary of Results of the NASA/DOI Hyperspectral Technology Transfer Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Root, Ralph; Wickland, Diane

    2001-01-01

    In 1997 the Office of Biological Informatics and Outreach (OBIO), Biological Resources Division, US Geological Survey and NASA, Office of Earth Science (OES), initiated a coordinated effort for applying Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data and analysis, as a technology transfer project, to critical DOI environmental issues in four study sites throughout the United States. This work was accomplished by four US Department of the Interior (DOI) study teams with support from NASA/OES principal investigators and the Office of Earth Science programs. The studies, including personnel, objectives, background, project plans, and milestones were documented in a project website at . This report summarizes the final outcomes of the project, detailing accomplishments, lessons learned, and benefits realized to NASA, the US Geological Survey, and the participating DOI bureaus.

  13. Evidence for a 5-HT2A receptor mode of action in the anxiolytic-like properties of DOI in mice.

    PubMed

    Nic Dhonnchadha, Bríd Aine; Hascoët, Martine; Jolliet, Pascale; Bourin, Michel

    2003-12-17

    DOI [(+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane] displays a high affinity for the rat 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors (pKi 7.3, 7.4 and 7.8, respectively) and acts as an agonist. DOI (0.5-4 mg/kg, i.p. 30 min pre-test) increased the number of punished passages in the mouse four plates test (FPT). The anti-punishment action of DOI (1 mg/kg, i.p. 30 min pre-test) was abolished by prior treatment with the selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist SR 46949B (0.1 and 1 mg/kg, i.p. 45 min pre-test) but not by the selective 5-HT2C receptor antagonist RS 10-2221 (0.1 and 1 mg/kg, i.p. 45 min pre-test) nor the selective 5-HT2C/2B receptor antagonist SB 206553 (0.1 and 1 mg/kg, i.p. 45 min pre-test). An anxiolytic-like action was also observed for DOI (1 mg/kg) in the elevated plus maze (EPM). The anxiolytic-like action of DOI (1 mg/kg, i.p. 30 min pre-test) was antagonised by pre-treatment with SR 46949B (0.125 and 0.5 mg/kg, i.p. 45 min pre-test) but not by RS 10-2221 (0.1 and 1 mg/kg, i.p. 45 min pre-test) nor SB 206553 (0.1 and 1 mg/kg, i.p. 45 min pre-test). In conclusion, DOI produced an anxiolytic-like profile in the mouse FPT and EPM. These effects are likely to be 5-HT2A receptor mediated.

  14. Peculiaridades observadas no espectro da estrela magnética HD 190073 - candidata a estrela do tipo Ae de Herbig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, G. A. P.; Pogodin, M. A.; Lopes, D. F.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentaremos os resultados de uma investigação espectroscópica cooperativa da estrela magnética HD 190073. As observações foram conduzidas no Observatório do Pico dos Dias (LNA/MCT), European Southern Observatory (ESO, Chile), e Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO, Ucrânia), entre 1998 e 2002. Discutiremos em detalhe um dos padrões mais marcantes do espectro desse objeto - as multicomponentes em absorção das linhas Ca ii K e H. De acordo com nossos resultados, a estrutura complexa desse perfil permaneceu constante durante várias decadas (dos anos 30 até os anos 80) após o que apresentou mudanças marcantes nos anos 90. Essa variabilidade apresenta óbvia contradição com a interpretação tradicional desse fenômeno como o resultado de espalhamento ressonante atuando seletivamente sobre o vento estelar em distâncias diferentes. Propomos uma explicação alternativa com base em uma topologia especí fica do campo magnético estelar. Essa hipótese permite, também, explicar uma série de outras peculiaridades observadas no envoltório de HD 190073, tais como: (a) a baixa velocidade de rotação pode ser o resultado da interação entre a magnetosfera estelar e um disco equatorial hipotético; (b) o gás circumstelar acumulado em loops magnéticos em latitudes intermediárias pode estimular a formação de regiões gasosas densas a distâncias intermediárias da estrela, onde linhas em emissão com perfil simples são formadas.

  15. A Common Model To Support Interoperable Metadata: Progress Report on Reconciling Metadata Requirements from the Dublin Core and INDECS/DOI Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, David; Rust, Godfrey; Weibel, Stuart; Miller, Eric; Trant, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    The Dublin Core metadata community and the INDECS/DOI community of authors, rights holders, and publishers are seeking common ground in the expression of metadata for information resources. An open "Schema Harmonization" working group has been established to identify a common framework to support interoperability among these communities.…

  16. Negative decision outcomes are more common among people with lower decision-making competence: an item-level analysis of the Decision Outcome Inventory (DOI)

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Andrew M.; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2015-01-01

    Most behavioral decision research takes place in carefully controlled laboratory settings, and examination of relationships between performance and specific real-world decision outcomes is rare. One prior study shows that people who perform better on hypothetical decision tasks, assessed using the Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC) measure, also tend to experience better real-world decision outcomes, as reported on the Decision Outcomes Inventory (DOI). The DOI score reflects avoidance of outcomes that could result from poor decisions, ranging from serious (e.g., bankruptcy) to minor (e.g., blisters from sunburn). The present analyses go beyond the initial work, which focused on the overall DOI score, by analyzing the relationships between specific decision outcomes and A-DMC performance. Most outcomes are significantly more likely among people with lower A-DMC scores, even after taking into account two variables expected to produce worse real-world decision outcomes: younger age and lower socio-economic status. We discuss the usefulness of DOI as a measure of successful real-world decision-making. PMID:25904876

  17. In Preparation of the Nationwide Dissemination of the School-Based Obesity Prevention Program DOiT: Stepwise Development Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Nassau, Femke; Singh, Amika S.; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes; Chin A. Paw, Mai J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The school-based Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program is an evidence-based obesity prevention program. In preparation for dissemination throughout the Netherlands, this study aimed to adapt the initial program and to develop an implementation strategy and materials. Methods: We revisited the Intervention Mapping (IM)…

  18. Temperature data acquired from the DOI/GTN-P Deep Borehole Array on the Arctic Slope of Alaska, 1973-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clow, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    System (GTOS). The data will also be useful for refining our basic understanding of the physical conditions in permafrost in Arctic Alaska, as well as providing important information for validating predictive models used for climate impact assessments. The processed data are available from the Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS) repository at doi:10.5065/D6N014HK.

  19. Implemented or Not Implemented? Process Evaluation of the School-Based Obesity Prevention Program DOiT and Associations with Program Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Nassau, Femke; Singh, Amika S.; Hoekstra, Trynke; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes; Chinapaw, Mai J. M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates if and to what extent the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program was implemented as intended and how this affected program effectiveness. We collected data at 20 prevocational education schools in the Netherlands. We assessed seven process indicators: recruitment, reach, dosage, fidelity, satisfaction,…

  20. Hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists LSD and DOI enhance dopamine D2R protomer recognition and signaling of D2-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complexes.

    PubMed

    Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Narvaez, Manuel; Oflijan, Julia; Agnati, Luigi F; Fuxe, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine D2LR-serotonin 5-HT2AR heteromers were demonstrated in HEK293 cells after cotransfection of the two receptors and shown to have bidirectional receptor-receptor interactions. In the current study the existence of D2L-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complexes was demonstrated also in discrete regions of the ventral and dorsal striatum with in situ proximity ligation assays (PLA). The hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists LSD and DOI but not the standard 5-HT2AR agonist TCB2 and 5-HT significantly increased the density of D2like antagonist (3)H-raclopride binding sites and significantly reduced the pKiH values of the high affinity D2R agonist binding sites in (3)H-raclopride/DA competition experiments. Similar results were obtained in HEK293 cells and in ventral striatum. The effects of the hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists on D2R density and affinity were blocked by the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin. In a forskolin-induced CRE-luciferase reporter gene assay using cotransfected but not D2R singly transfected HEK293 cells DOI and LSD but not TCB2 significantly enhanced the D2LR agonist quinpirole induced inhibition of CRE-luciferase activity. Haloperidol blocked the effects of both quinpirole alone and the enhancing actions of DOI and LSD while ketanserin only blocked the enhancing actions of DOI and LSD. The mechanism for the allosteric enhancement of the D2R protomer recognition and signalling observed is likely mediated by a biased agonist action of the hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists at the orthosteric site of the 5-HT2AR protomer. This mechanism may contribute to the psychotic actions of LSD and DOI and the D2-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complex may thus be a target for the psychotic actions of hallunicogenic 5-HT2A agonists.

  1. NASDA President Isao Uchida shakes hands with STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., after land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The president of the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan, Isao Uchida, at left, shakes hands with STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of NASDA, shortly after the landing of Columbia at Kennedy Space Center. STS-87 concluded its mission with a main gear touchdown at 7:20:04 a.m. EST Dec. 5, at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility Runway 33, drawing the 15-day, 16-hour and 34-minute-long mission of 6.5 million miles to a close. Also onboard the orbiter were Commander Kevin Kregel; Pilot Steven Lindsey; Mission Specialists Winston Scott and Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D.; and Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine. During the 88th Space Shuttle mission, the crew performed experiments on the United States Microgravity Payload-4 and pollinated plants as part of the Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment. This was the 12th landing for Columbia at KSC and the 41st KSC landing in the history of the Space Shuttle program.

  2. A Three-Legged Stool or Race? Governance Models for NOAA RISAs, DOI CSCs, and USDA Climate Hubs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    NOAAs Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) Teams, DOIs Climate Science Centers (CSCs), and USDAs Regional Climate Hubs (RCHs) have common missions of integrating climate and related knowledge across scientific disciplines and regions to create "actionable" information that decision-makes can use to manage climate risks and impacts at state and local scales. However, the sponsoring agency programs, university investigators, and local federal officials govern each differently. The three models of program and center governance are 1) exclusively university (RISAs), 2) a hybrid of Federal government and (host) university (CSCs,), and 3) exclusively Federal (Hubs). Each model has it's advantages and disadvantages in terms of legal definition and authority, scientific mission requirements and strategies, flexibility and legitimacy to conduct research and to collaborate regionally with constituencies, leadership and governance approach and "friction points,", staff capacity and ability to engage stakeholders, necessity to deliver products and services, bureaucratic oversight, performance evaluation, and political support at Congressional, state, and local levels. Using available sources of information and data, this paper will compare and contrast the strengths and weakness of these three regional applied climate science center governance models.

  3. A Three-Legged Stool or Race? Governance Models for NOAA RISAs, DOI CSCs, and USDA Climate Hub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    NOAAs Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) Teams, DOIs Climate Science Centers (CSCs), and USDAs Regional Climate Hubs (RCHs) have common missions of integrating climate and related knowledge across scientific disciplines and regions to create "actionable" information that decision-makes can use to manage climate risks and impacts at state and local scales. However, the sponsoring agency programs, university investigators, and local federal officials govern each differently. The three models of program and center governance are 1) exclusively university (RISAs), 2) a hybrid of Federal government and (host) university (CSCs,), and 3) exclusively Federal (Hubs). Each model has it's advantages and disadvantages in terms of legal definition and authority, scientific mission requirements and strategies, flexibility and legitimacy to conduct research and to collaborate regionally with constituencies, leadership and governance approach and "friction points,", staff capacity and ability to engage stakeholders, necessity to deliver products and services, bureaucratic oversight, performance evaluation, and political support at Congressional, state, and local levels. Using available sources of information and data, this paper will compare and contrast the strengths and weakness of these three regional applied climate science center governance models.

  4. P- T- t constraints on the development of the Doi Inthanon metamorphic core complex domain and implications for the evolution of the western gneiss belt, northern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, A. S.; Barr, S. M.; Miller, B. V.; Reynolds, P. H.; Rhodes, B. P.; Yokart, B.

    2010-01-01

    The western gneiss belt in northern Thailand is exposed within two overlapping Cenozoic structural domains: the extensional Doi Inthanon metamorphic core complex domain located west of the Chiang Mai basin, and the Mae Ping strike-slip fault domain located west of the Tak batholith. New P- T estimates and U-Pb and 40Ar/ 39Ar age determinations from the Doi Inthanon domain show that the gneiss there records a complex multi-stage history that can be represented by a clockwise P- T- t path. U-Pb zircon and titanite dating of mylonitic calc-silicate gneiss from the Mae Wang area of the complex indicates that the paragneissic sequence experienced high-grade, medium-pressure metamorphism (M1) in the Late Triassic - Early Jurassic (ca. 210 Ma), in good agreement with previously determined zircon ages from the underlying core orthogneiss exposed on Doi Inthanon. Late Cretaceous monazite ages of 84 and 72 Ma reported previously from the core orthogneiss are attributed to a thermal overprint (M2) to upper-amphibolite facies in the sillimanite field. U-Pb zircon and monazite dating of granitic mylonite from the Doi Suthep area of the complex provides an upper age limit of 40 Ma (Late Eocene) for the early stage(s) of development of the actual core complex, by initially ductile, low-angle extensional shearing under lower amphibolite-facies conditions (M3), accompanied by near-isothermal diapiric rise and decompression melting. 40Ar/ 39Ar laserprobe dating of muscovite from both Doi Suthep and Doi Inthanon provided Miocene ages of ca. 26-15 Ma, representing cooling through the ca. 350 °C isotherm and marking late-stage development of the core complex by detachment faulting of the cover rocks and isostatic uplift of the sheared core zone and mantling gneisses in the footwall. Similarities in the thermochronology of high-grade gneisses exposed in the core complex and shear zone domains in the western gneiss belt of northern Thailand (and also in northern Vietnam, Laos, Yunnan

  5. Multiple conformations of 5-HT2A and 5-HT 2C receptors in rat brain: an autoradiographic study with [125I](±)DOI.

    PubMed

    López-Giménez, Juan F; Vilaró, M Teresa; Palacios, José M; Mengod, Guadalupe

    2013-10-01

    Earlier autoradiographic studies with the 5-HT2 receptor agonist [(125)I](±)DOI in human brain showed unexpected biphasic competition curves for various 5-HT2A antagonists. We have performed similar studies in rat brain regions with selective 5-HT2A (M100907) and 5-HT2C (SB242084) antagonists together with ketanserin and mesulergine. The effect of GTP analogues on antagonist competition was also studied. Increasing concentrations of Gpp(NH)p or GTPγS resulted in a maximal inhibition of [(125)I](±)DOI-specific binding of approximately 50 %. M100907 competed biphasically in all regions. In the presence of 100 μM Gpp(NH)p, M100907 still displaced biphasically the remaining [(125)I](±)DOI binding. Ketanserin showed biphasic curves in some regions and monophasic curves in others. In the latter, Gpp(NH)p evidenced an additional high-affinity site. SB242084 competed biphasically in brainstem nuclei and monophasically in the other regions. In most areas, SB242084 affinities were not notably altered by Gpp(NH)p. Mesulergine competed monophasically in all regions without alteration by Gpp(NH)p. These results conform with the extended ternary complex model of receptor action: receptor exists as an equilibrium of multiple conformations, i.e. ground (R), partly activated (R*) and activated G-protein-coupled (R*G) conformation/s. Thus, [(125)I](±)DOI would label multiple conformations of both 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in rat brain, and M100907 and ketanserin would recognise these conformations with different affinities.

  6. Temperature data acquired from the DOI/GTN-P Deep Borehole Array on the Arctic Slope of Alaska, 1973-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clow, G. D.

    2014-05-01

    A homogeneous set of temperature measurements obtained from the DOI/GTN-P Deep Borehole Array between 1973 and 2013 is presented; DOI/GTN-P is the US Department of the Interior contribution to the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P). The 23-element array is located on the Arctic Slope of Alaska, a region of cold continuous permafrost. Most of the monitoring wells are situated on the Arctic coastal plain between the Brooks Range and the Arctic Ocean, while others are in the foothills to the south. The data represent the true temperatures in the wellbores and surrounding rocks at the time of the measurements; they have not been corrected to remove the thermal disturbance caused by drilling the wells. With a few exceptions, the drilling disturbance is estimated to have been on the order of 0.1 K or less by 1989. Thus, most of the temperature measurements acquired during the last 25 yr are little affected by the drilling disturbance. The data contribute to ongoing efforts to monitor changes in the thermal state of permafrost in both hemispheres by the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost, one of the primary subnetworks of the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS). The data will also be useful for refining our basic understanding of the physical conditions in permafrost in Arctic Alaska, as well as providing important information for validating predictive models used for climate impact assessments. The processed data are available from the Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS) repository at doi.org/10.5065/D6N014HK"target="_blank"> doi:10.5065/D6N014HK.

  7. La problematica de la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia y sus implicaciones en la educacion cientifica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez Tolentino, Dinorah

    2011-12-01

    En la sociedad prevalece una tendencia generalizada hacia la inclusion de creencias y practicas pseudocientificas. Esta investigacion responde a la necesidad de analizar como la proliferacion de las pseudociencias afecta la vision que tienen los estudiantes universitarios sobre las ciencias naturales. A tales efectos, la investigadora describe las concepciones epistemologicas que tienen los estudiantes sobre las ciencias y las pseudociencias e identifica los criterios de demarcacion, entre un area y otra, que se derivan de estas concepciones. De igual modo, esta identifica las creencias y practicas pseudocientificas de mayor arraigo entre los estudiantes, destacando, a su vez, la razon de ser de las mismas. Por ultimo, la investigadora analiza las implicaciones educativas de la problematica de la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia. La investigacion es de naturaleza mixta, enmarcada en los paradigmas empirico- analitico y cualitativo. El proceso investigativo se llevo a cabo mediante la administracion del cuestionario Criterios para la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia. La parte cualitativa estuvo enmarcada en el diseno de estudio de caso, recopilando informacion mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas en dos grupos focales. La poblacion de estudio estuvo constituida por estudiantes universitarios del nivel subgraduado de la Universidad Central de Bayamon. Los resultados del estudio reflejaron las concepciones erroneas de los estudiantes sobre la naturaleza de las ciencias y las pseudociencias. Con respecto a la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia, el criterio imperante entre los universitarios es el de la verificabilidad, considerando la aplicacion del metodo cientifico como el metodo para demostrar la veracidad de las teorias cientificas. Las creencias y practicas pseudocientificas no son muy frecuentes entre los universitarios. Estos atribuyen las mismas a la prevalencia de elementos supersticiosos y al engano a que es sometida la poblacion

  8. Development of 1.45-mm resolution four-layer DOI-PET detector for simultaneous measurement in 3T MRI.

    PubMed

    Nishikido, Fumihiko; Tachibana, Atsushi; Obata, Takayuki; Inadama, Naoko; Yoshida, Eiji; Suga, Mikio; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga

    2015-01-01

    Recently, various types of PET-MRI systems have been developed by a number of research groups. However, almost all of the PET detectors used in these PET-MRI systems have no depth-of-interaction (DOI) capability. The DOI detector can reduce the parallax error and lead to improvement of the performance. We are developing a new PET-MRI system which consists of four-layer DOI detectors positioned close to the measured object to achieve high spatial resolution and high scanner sensitivity. As a first step, we are investigating influences the PET detector and the MRI system have on each other using a prototype four-layer DOI-PET detector. This prototype detector consists of a lutetium yttrium orthosilicate crystal block and a 4 × 4 multi-pixel photon counter array. The size of each crystal element is 1.45 mm × 1.45 mm × 4.5 mm, and the crystals are arranged in 6 × 6 elements × 4 layers with reflectors. The detector and some electric components are packaged in an aluminum shielding box. Experiments were carried out with 3.0 T MRI (GE, Signa HDx) and a birdcage-type RF coil. We demonstrated that the DOI-PET detector was normally operated in simultaneous measurements with no influence of the MRI measurement. A slight influence of the PET detector on the static magnetic field of the MRI was observed near the PET detector. The signal-to-noise ratio was decreased by presence of the PET detector due to environmental noise entering the MRI room through the cables, even though the PET detector was not powered up. On the other hand, no influence of electric noise from the PET detector in the simultaneous measurement on the MRI images was observed, even though the PET detector was positioned near the RF coil.

  9. A DOI Detector With Crystal Scatter Identification Capability for High Sensitivity and High Spatial Resolution PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Z.; Prout, D. L.; Silverman, R. W.; Herman, H.; Dooraghi, A.; Chatziioannou, A. F.

    2015-01-01

    potentially lead to a high spatial resolution, high sensitivity and DOI PET system. PMID:26478600

  10. Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds: Youth Violence Prevention for Acculturating Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smokowski, Paul R.; Bacallao, Martica

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the efficacy of Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds (EDM) prevention for Latino adolescents. Method: In an experimental trial to compare implementation formats, 41 Latino families were randomly assigned to EDM action-oriented skills training groups, and 47 families were randomly assigned to unstructured EDM support…

  11. Second Comment on: ``Characterization of Micro-roughness Parameters in Titanium Nitride Thin Films Grown by DC Magnetron Sputtering'' [J Fusion Energ DOI 10.1007/s10894-012-9534-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solaymani, Shahram; Ghaderi, Atefeh; Naseri, Mosayeb; Nezafat, Negin Beryani; Bouchani, Arash

    2012-12-01

    At recent comment written by [A. Gelali, A. Shafiekhani, A. Ghorbani, A. Ahmadpourian. J. Fusion Energ. DOI: 10.1007/s10894-012-9542-4] that is a comment on [S. Solaymani, A. Ghaderi, N. B. Nezafat. J. Fusion Energ. DOI: 10.1007/s10894-012-9534-4] some clear and unavoidable errors can be seen. These issues will be discussed by the present brief communication.

  12. Plagiarism in the article Emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous pyelitis: a clinically misleading association. Mustapha Ahsaini et al. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2013;16:18. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505).

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This retracts article Emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous pyelitis: a clinically misleading association. Mustapha Ahsaini, Amadou Kassogue, Mohammed Fadl Tazi, Anas Zaougui, Jalal Edine Elammari, Abdelhak Khallouk, Mohammed Jamal El Fassi, My Hassan Farih. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2013;16:18. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505).[This retracts the article DOI: 10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505.]. PMID:26328003

  13. Feasibility of a brain-dedicated PET-MRI system using four-layer DOI detectors integrated with an RF head coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikido, F.; Obata, T.; Shimizu, K.; Suga, M.; Inadama, N.; Tachibana, A.; Yoshida, E.; Ito, H.; Yamaya, T.

    2014-08-01

    We are developing a PET-MRI system which consists of PET detectors integrated with the head coil of the MRI in order to realize high spatial resolution and high sensitivity in simultaneous measurements. In the PET-MRI system, the PET detectors which consist of a scintillator block, photo-detectors and front-end circuits with four-layer depth-of-interaction (DOI) encoding capability are placed close to the measured object. Therefore, the proposed system can achieve high sensitivity without degradation of spatial resolution at the edge of the field-of-view due to parallax error thanks to the four-layer DOI capability. In this paper, we fabricated a prototype system which consists of a prototype four-layer DOI-PET detector, a dummy PET detector and a prototype birdcage type head coil. Then we used the prototype system to evaluate the performance of the four-layer DOI-PET detector and the reciprocal influence between the PET detectors and MRI images. The prototype DOI-PET detector consists of six monolithic multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) arrays (S11064-050P), a readout circuit board, two scintillator blocks and a copper shielding box. Each scintillator block consists of four layers of Lu1.8Gd0.2SiO5:Ce (LGSO) scintillators and reflectors are inserted between the scintillation crystals. The dummy detector has all these components except the two scintillator blocks. The head coil is dedicated to a 3.0 T MRI (MAGNETOM Verio, Siemens) and the two detectors are mounted in gaps between head coil elements. Energy resolution and crystal identification performance of the prototype four-layer DOI-PET detector were evaluated with and without MRI measurements by the gradient echo and spin echo methods. We identified crystal elements in all four layers from a 2D flood histogram and energy resolution of 15-18% was obtained for single crystal elements in simultaneous measurements. The difference between the average energy resolutions and photo-peak positions with and without MRI

  14. Temperature data acquired from the DOI/GTN-P Deep Borehole Array on the Arctic Slope of Alaska, 1973-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clow, G. D.

    2014-01-01

    A homogeneous set of temperature measurements obtained from the DOI/GTN-P Deep Borehole Array between 1973 and 2013 is presented. The 23-element array is located on the Arctic Slope of Alaska, a region of cold continuous permafrost. Most of the monitoring wells are situated on the arctic coastal plain between the Brooks Range and the Arctic Ocean, while others are in the foothills to the south. The data represent the true temperatures in the wellbores and surrounding rocks at the time of the measurements; they have not been corrected to remove the thermal disturbance caused by drilling the wells. With a few exceptions, the drilling disturbance is estimated to have been of order 0.1 K or less by 1989. Thus, most of the temperature measurements acquired during the last 25 yr are little affected by the drilling disturbance. The data contribute to ongoing efforts to monitor changes in the thermal state of permafrost in both hemispheres by the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P), one of the primary subnetworks of the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS). The data will also be useful for refining our basic understanding of the physical conditions in permafrost in arctic Alaska, as well as provide important information for validating predictive models used for climate impact assessments. The processed data are available from the ACADIS repository at doi.org/10.5065/D6N014HK"target="_blank">doi:10.5065/D6N014HK.

  15. ESTIGMA Y VIH/SIDA ENTRE PADRES/MADRES Y ADOLESCENTES PUERTORRIQUEÑOS/AS

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Grace Rosado; Reyes, Glendalys Rivera; Villanueva, Victoria Larrieux; Torres, Gilliam J. Torres; Díaz, Elba Betancourt; Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Villaruel, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    La comunicación entre padres/madres y adolescentes sobre el tema de la sexualidad es importante para el desarrollo de la salud de personas jóvenes. Dicha comunicación puede verse negativamente impactada por actitudes estigmatizantes hacia el tema del VIH/SIDA. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar actitudes estigmatizantes hacia el VIH/SIDA entre padres/madres y adolescentes puertorriqueños/as. Este esfuerzo es parte del Proyecto Cuídalos, dirigido a probar una intervención en formato electrónico que busca aumentar la comunicación sobre sexualidad y salud entre padres/madres y adolescentes mediante un diseño experimental con 458 diadas de padres/madres y adolescentes de 13 a 17 años. Para propósitos de este artículo reportamos estadísticas descriptivas sobre estigma hacia el VIH/SIDA con la información recopilada en la medición basal. Tanto adultos/as como adolescentes mostraron actitudes estigmatizantes hacia el VIH/SIDA. A la luz de los resultados es necesario continuar desarrollando intervenciones para la reducción de estigma en esta población. Los/as padres/madres pueden ser un recurso invaluable para reducir el estigma en los/as jóvenes, y prevenir conductas sexuales de riesgo e infecciones. PMID:27099649

  16. Reply to: "Palmitoylethanolamide: problems regarding micronization, ultra-micronization and additives" Inflammopharmacology DOI:10.1007/s10787-014-0202-3.

    PubMed

    Skaper, Stephen D; Facci, Laura; Fusco, Mariella; Della Valle, Maria Federica; Zusso, Morena; Costa, Barbara; Giusti, Pietro

    2015-06-01

    This is a reply to a recently published Commentary: "Palmitoylethanolamide: problems regarding micronization, ultra-micronization and additives" Inflammopharmacology DOI: 10.1007/s10787-014-0202-3 , written in relation to our review article: Skaper SD, Facci L, Fusco M, della Valle MF, Zusso M, Costa B, Giusti P (2014) "Palmitoylethanolamide, a naturally occurring disease-modifying agent in neuropathic pain" Inflammopharmacology 22:79-94 DOI: 10.1007/s10787-013-0191-7 . We believe that the Commentary by Kriek contains a number of erroneous statements and misinterpretations of the published scientific/medical literature which our reply shall elaborate on. Further, the writer of the Commentary has a direct connection to a company, JP Russell Science Ltd that sells palmitoylethanolamide. The take-home message of our review remains as originally stated: "Collectively, the findings presented here propose that palmitoylethanolamide merits further consideration as a disease-modifying agent for controlling inflammatory responses and related chronic and neuropathic pain".

  17. Phospholipase C mediates (±)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI)-, but not lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-elicited head bobs in rabbit medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Emmanuelle A D; Harvey, John A; Aloyo, Vincent J

    2013-01-23

    The phenethylamine and indoleamine classes of hallucinogens demonstrate distinct pharmacological properties, although they share a serotonin(2A) (5-HT(2A)) receptor mechanism of action (MOA). The 5-HT(2A) receptor signals through phosphatidylinositol (PI) hydrolysis, which is initiated upon activation of phospholipase C (PLC). The role of PI hydrolysis in the effects of hallucinogens remains unclear. In order to better understand the role of PI hydrolysis in the MOA of hallucinogens, the PLC inhibitor, 1-[6-((17β-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl)amino)hexyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (U73122), was used to study the effects of two hallucinogens, the phenethylamine, (±)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI), and the indoleamine, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). PI hydrolysis was quantified through release of [3H]inositol-4-phosphate from living rabbit frontocortical tissue prisms. Head bobs were counted after hallucinogens were infused into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of rabbits. Both DOI and LSD stimulated PI hydrolysis in frontocortical tissue through activation of PLC. DOI-stimulated PI hydrolysis was blocked by 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor antagonist, ketanserin, whereas the LSD signal was blocked by 5-HT(2B/2C) receptor antagonist, SB206553. When infused into the mPFC, both DOI- and LSD-elicited head bobs. Pretreatment with U73122 blocked DOI-, but not LSD-elicited head bobs. The two hallucinogens investigated were distinct in their activation of the PI hydrolysis signaling pathway. The serotonergic receptors involved with DOI and LSD signals in frontocortical tissue were different. Furthermore, PLC activation in mPFC was necessary for DOI-elicited head bobs, whereas LSD-elicited head bobs were independent of this pathway. These novel findings urge closer investigation into the intracellular mechanism of action of these unique compounds.

  18. Autoradiographic characterization of (+-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-( sup 125 I) iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (( sup 125 I)DOI) binding to 5-HT2 and 5-HT1c receptors in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, N.M.; Mitchell, W.M.; Garlick, R.K.; Glennon, R.A.; Teitler, M.; De Souza, E.B. )

    1990-11-01

    The 5-HT2 (serotonin) receptor has traditionally been labeled with antagonist radioligands such as (3H)ketanserin and (3H)spiperone, which label both agonist high-affinity (guanyl nucleotide-sensitive) and agonist low-affinity (guanyl nucleotide-insensitive) states of this receptor. The hallucinogen 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) is an agonist which labels the high-affinity guanyl nucleotide-sensitive state of brain 5-HT2 receptors selectively. In the present study, conditions for autoradiographic visualization of (+/-)-(125I)DOI-labeled 5-HT2 receptors were optimized and binding to slide-mounted sections was characterized with respect to pharmacology, guanyl nucleotide sensitivity and anatomical distribution. In slide-mounted rat brain sections (+/-)-(125I)DOI binding was saturable, of high affinity (KD approximately 4 nM) and displayed a pharmacologic profile typical of 5-HT2 receptors. Consistent with coupling of 5-HT2 receptors in the high-affinity state to a guanyl nucleotide regulatory protein, (125I)DOI binding was inhibited by guanyl nucleotides but not by adenosine triphosphate. Patterns of autoradiographic distribution of (125I)DOI binding to 5-HT2 receptors were similar to those seen with (3H)ketanserin- and (125I)-lysergic acid diethylamide-labeled 5-HT2 receptors. However, the density of 5-HT2 receptors labeled by the agonist (125I)DOI was markedly lower (30-50%) than that labeled by the antagonist (3H)ketanserin. High densities of (125I)DOI labeling were present in olfactory bulb, anterior regions of cerebral cortex (layer IV), claustrum, caudate putamen, globus pallidus, ventral pallidum, islands of Calleja, mammillary nuclei and inferior olive. Binding in hippocampus, thalamus and hypothalamus was generally sparse.

  19. Composição química, evolução e cinemática de estrelas de tipo solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, R. O.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; Milone, A. C.

    2003-08-01

    A composição química das estrelas de tipo solar é um diagnóstico extremamente valioso da evolução química do disco da Galáxia. Existe alguma evidência de que tal evolução tem sido heterogênea no espaço e ao longo do tempo e que a composição química do Sol pode não ser um padrão representativo de abundâncias. Neste trabalho, foram obtidas as abundâncias dos elementos químicos C, N, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd e Sm em uma amostra de estrelas de tipo solar na vizinhança solar (distâncias £ 25 pc). A técnica empregada foi a análise espectroscópica diferencial em relação ao Sol, baseando-se em dados de alta resolução (R ~ 46.000) e alta razão sinal/ruído (S/R > 300), obtidos com o espectrógrafo échelle de bancada do telescópio de 1,5 m do CTIO. Adicionalmente, abundâncias de C e N foram obtidas através de síntese de bandas moleculares dos Sistemas Eletrônicos Swan do C2 e Vermelho do CN utilizando-se um programa de síntese espectral. Os parâmetros atmosféricos foram estabelecidos usando cores fotométricas, o equilíbrio de excitação e ionização de linhas do Fe e a análise da temperatura e da luminosidade estelares no diagrama HR. Os resultados de abundâncias químicas obtidos proporcionam uma melhor compreensão da relação das abundâncias conhecidas para o Sol com a das estrelas anãs de tipo G da população local, uma vez que as razões de abundâncias de diversos elementos (em relação ao ferro) obtidas para estrelas de metalicidade semelhante à solar diferem daquelas obtidas para o Sol. Tais resultados também contribuem para um melhor entendimento do processo de evolução química da vizinhança solar e do enriquecimento nucleossintético do disco galáctico.

  20. Relaciones entre el sueño y la adicción

    PubMed Central

    Cañellas, Francesca; de Lecea, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Resumen La interacción entre los trastornos del sueño y el abuso de sustancias es ya conocida, pero seguramente más compleja de lo que se pensaba. Existe tanto una relación positiva entre tener un trastorno por uso de substancias y sufrir un trastorno de sueño, como viceversa. Los efectos sobre el sueño dependen de la substancia utilizada, pero se ha demostrado que tanto durante su uso como en período de abstinencia los consumidores tienen diferentes problemas de sueño y fundamentalmente un sueño más fragmentado. Sabemos que hay que tener en cuenta los problemas de sueño para evitar recaídas en la adicción. Investigaciones recientes indican que el sistema hipocretinérgico definido por el neuropéptido hipocretina/orexina (Hcrt/ox), localizado en el hipotálamo lateral e implicado entre otros en la regulación del ciclo sueño-vigilia, jugaría un papel importante en las conductas adictivas. Diferentes estudios han demostrado interacciones entre el sistema hipocretinérgico, los circuitos de respuesta aguda al estrés y los sistemas de recompensa. También sabemos que la activación optogenética selectiva del sistema hipocretinérgico incrementa la probabilidad de la transición del sueño a la vigilia, y también es suficiente para iniciar un comportamiento compulsivo de recaída adictiva. La activación del sistema hipocretinérgico podría explicar la hipervigilia asociada al estrés y a la adicción. El mayor conocimiento de esta interacción permitiría entender mejor los mecanismos de la adicción y encontrar nuevas estrategias para el tratamiento de las adicciones. PMID:23241715

  1. "Rice is essential but tiresome; you should get some noodles": Doi Moi and the political economy of men's extramarital sexual relations and marital HIV risk in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phinney, Harriet M

    2008-04-01

    Research from around the world has suggested that married women's greatest risk for contracting HIV is from having sexual intercourse with their husbands. On the basis of 6 months of ethnographic research in Hanoi, Vietnam, I argue that the contemporary nature of the HIV epidemic in Hanoi is shaped by 3 interrelated policies implemented in 1986 as part of the government's new economic policy, Doi Moi (Renovation). Together, these policies structure men's opportunities for extramarital sexual relations and encourage wives to acquiesce to their husbands' sexual infidelity, putting both at risk of HIV. I propose 4 structural intervention strategies that address the policies that contribute to men's opportunities for extramarital liaisons and to marital HIV risk.

  2. Sub-millimetre DOI detector based on monolithic LYSO and digital SiPM for a dedicated small-animal PET system.

    PubMed

    Marcinkowski, Radosław; Mollet, Pieter; Van Holen, Roel; Vandenberghe, Stefaan

    2016-03-01

    The mouse model is widely used in a vast range of biomedical and preclinical studies. Thanks to the ability to detect and quantify biological processes at the molecular level in vivo, PET has become a well-established tool in these investigations. However, the need to visualize and quantify radiopharmaceuticals in anatomic structures of millimetre or less requires good spatial resolution and sensitivity from small-animal PET imaging systems.In previous work we have presented a proof-of-concept of a dedicated high-resolution small-animal PET scanner based on thin monolithic scintillator crystals and Digital Photon Counter photosensor. The combination of thin monolithic crystals and MLE positioning algorithm resulted in an excellent spatial resolution of 0.7 mm uniform in the entire field of view (FOV). However, the limitation of the scanner was its low sensitivity due to small thickness of the lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystals (2 mm).Here we present an improved detector design for a small-animal PET system that simultaneously achieves higher sensitivity and sustains a sub-millimetre spatial resolution. The proposed detector consists of a 5 mm thick monolithic LYSO crystal optically coupled to a Digital Photon Counter. Mean nearest neighbour (MNN) positioning combined with depth of interaction (DOI) decoding was employed to achieve sub-millimetre spatial resolution. To evaluate detector performance the intrinsic spatial resolution, energy resolution and coincidence resolving time (CRT) were measured. The average intrinsic spatial resolution of the detector was 0.60 mm full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM). A DOI resolution of 1.66 mm was achieved. The energy resolution was 23% FWHM at 511 keV and CRT of 529 ps were measured. The improved detector design overcomes the sensitivity limitation of the previous design by increasing the nominal sensitivity of the detector block and retains an excellent intrinsic spatial resolution. PMID:26907952

  3. Sub-millimetre DOI detector based on monolithic LYSO and digital SiPM for a dedicated small-animal PET system.

    PubMed

    Marcinkowski, Radosław; Mollet, Pieter; Van Holen, Roel; Vandenberghe, Stefaan

    2016-03-01

    The mouse model is widely used in a vast range of biomedical and preclinical studies. Thanks to the ability to detect and quantify biological processes at the molecular level in vivo, PET has become a well-established tool in these investigations. However, the need to visualize and quantify radiopharmaceuticals in anatomic structures of millimetre or less requires good spatial resolution and sensitivity from small-animal PET imaging systems.In previous work we have presented a proof-of-concept of a dedicated high-resolution small-animal PET scanner based on thin monolithic scintillator crystals and Digital Photon Counter photosensor. The combination of thin monolithic crystals and MLE positioning algorithm resulted in an excellent spatial resolution of 0.7 mm uniform in the entire field of view (FOV). However, the limitation of the scanner was its low sensitivity due to small thickness of the lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystals (2 mm).Here we present an improved detector design for a small-animal PET system that simultaneously achieves higher sensitivity and sustains a sub-millimetre spatial resolution. The proposed detector consists of a 5 mm thick monolithic LYSO crystal optically coupled to a Digital Photon Counter. Mean nearest neighbour (MNN) positioning combined with depth of interaction (DOI) decoding was employed to achieve sub-millimetre spatial resolution. To evaluate detector performance the intrinsic spatial resolution, energy resolution and coincidence resolving time (CRT) were measured. The average intrinsic spatial resolution of the detector was 0.60 mm full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM). A DOI resolution of 1.66 mm was achieved. The energy resolution was 23% FWHM at 511 keV and CRT of 529 ps were measured. The improved detector design overcomes the sensitivity limitation of the previous design by increasing the nominal sensitivity of the detector block and retains an excellent intrinsic spatial resolution.

  4. Mycoflora and mycotoxins natural occurrence in corn from entre rios province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Am, P; LE, B; Sl, R; Hhl, G

    2001-03-01

    Corn samples were collected in 1999 from three departments of Entre Réos province, Argentina, and were surveyed for mould contamination and natural occurrence ofFusarium mycotoxins, ochratoxin A and aflatoxins.Fusarium verticillioides was the most prevalent fungal species recorded at all departments. Zearalenone, deoxynivalenol and ochratoxin A were not found in any samples. Only one of the 52 corn samples analysed was contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (17 μg/kg). Fumonisin B1 was found in 58 % of samples (range of positive samples: 47- 3,347 μg/kg), fumonisin B2 in 33.0 % (range of positive samples: 23-537 μg/kg) and fumonisin B3 in 25.0 % (range of positive samples: 24-287 μg/kg) of them. This is the first report on the natural occurrence of mycotoxins in corn from Entre Ríos province, Argentina. Levels of fumonisins were lower than detected in other Argentinian provinces. PMID:23605614

  5. Mycoflora and mycotoxins natural occurrence in corn from entre rios province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Am, P; LE, B; Sl, R; Hhl, G

    2001-03-01

    Corn samples were collected in 1999 from three departments of Entre Réos province, Argentina, and were surveyed for mould contamination and natural occurrence ofFusarium mycotoxins, ochratoxin A and aflatoxins.Fusarium verticillioides was the most prevalent fungal species recorded at all departments. Zearalenone, deoxynivalenol and ochratoxin A were not found in any samples. Only one of the 52 corn samples analysed was contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (17 μg/kg). Fumonisin B1 was found in 58 % of samples (range of positive samples: 47- 3,347 μg/kg), fumonisin B2 in 33.0 % (range of positive samples: 23-537 μg/kg) and fumonisin B3 in 25.0 % (range of positive samples: 24-287 μg/kg) of them. This is the first report on the natural occurrence of mycotoxins in corn from Entre Ríos province, Argentina. Levels of fumonisins were lower than detected in other Argentinian provinces. PMID:23605615

  6. Comment on ``Mixed convection boundary layer flow over a horizontal plate with thermal radiation'' by A. Ishak, Heat Mass Transfer, DOI 10.1007/s00231-009-0552-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magyari, Eugen

    2010-10-01

    In a recent paper of Ishak (Heat Mass Transfer, doi: 10.1007/s00231-009-0552-3 DOI"/> , 2009) the similarity solutions of the title problem have been investigated numerically in some detail. The present note shows, however, that with the aid of a simple rescaling of the Prandtl number, the results reported by Ishak can easily be recovered from the well known solution of the same problem, without the effect of thermal radiation.

  7. Etude des relations entre photosynthese respiration, transpiration et nutrition minerale chez le ble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, M.; Ducloux, H.; Richaud, C.; Massimino, D.; Daguenet, A.; Massimino, J.; Gerbaud, A.

    La croissance du Blé Triticum aestivum a été étudiée en environnement contrôlé et fermé pendant une période de 70 jours. Les échanges gazeux (Photosynthèse, Respiration) hydriques (Transpiration) et la consommation en éléments minéraux (Azote, Phosphore, Potassium) ont été mesurés en continu. On présentera les relations dynamiques observées entre les différentes fonctions physiologiques, d'une part sous l'influence de la croissance et d'autre part en réponse à des modifications de l'environnement. L'influence de la teneur en CO2 pendant la croissance (teneur normale ou doublée) sera mise en évidence.

  8. An Environmental Management Model of Thermal Waters in Entre Ríos Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pablo, Mársico Daniel; Luís, Díaz Eduardo; Ivana, Zecca; Oscar, Dallacosta; Antonio, Paz-González

    2015-04-01

    Deep exploratory drillings, i.e. those with more than 500 meters depth, have been performed in the Entre Ríos province, Argentina, in order to ascertain the presence of thermal water. Drilling began in 1994, and until now there have been 18 polls with very variable results in terms of mineralization, resource flow, and temperature. The aim of this study was to present a management model, which should allow operators of thermal complexes to further develop procedures for safeguarding the biodiversity of the ecosystems involved, both during exploration and exploitation activities. The environmental management Plan proposed is constituted by a set of technical procedures that are formulated and should be performed during the stages of exploration and exploitation of the resource, and consists of: environmental monitoring, environmental audit, public information and contingency programs. This Plan describes the measures and proposals aimed at protecting environmental quality in the area of influence of a thermal complex project, ensuring that its execution remains environmentally responsibly, and allowing implementation of specific actions to prevent or correct environmental impacts, as predicted in the evaluation of the Environmental Program. The audit of environmental impact includes and takes into account natural factors, such as water, soil, atmosphere, flora and fauna, and also cultural factors. The technical audit Plan was prepared in order to get a systematic structure and organization of the verification process, and also with regard to document the degree of implementation of the proposed mitigation measures. Finally, an environmental contingency program was implemented, and its objective was to consider the safeguarding of life and its natural environment. Thus, a guide has been developed with the main actions to be taken on a contingency, since forecast increases the efficiency of the response. The methodology developed here was adopted as the procedure

  9. DOI/GTN-P Climate and active-layer data acquired in the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 1998–2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urban, Frank E.; Clow, Gary D.

    2016-03-04

    This report provides data collected by the climate monitoring array of the U.S. Department of the Interior on Federal lands in Arctic Alaska over the period August 1998 to July 2014; this array is part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (DOI/GTN-P). In addition to presenting data, this report also describes monitoring, data collection, and quality-control methods. The array of 16 monitoring stations spans lat 68.5°N. to 70.5°N. and long 142.5°W. to 161°W., an area of approximately 150,000 square kilometers. Climate summaries are presented along with quality-controlled data. Data collection is ongoing and includes the following climate- and permafrost-related variables: air temperature, wind speed and direction, ground temperature, soil moisture, snow depth, rainfall totals, up- and downwelling shortwave radiation, and atmospheric pressure. These data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in close collaboration with the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  10. DOI/GTN-P climate and active-layer data acquired in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urban, Frank E.; Clow, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides data collected by the climate monitoring array of the U.S. Department of the Interior on Federal lands in Arctic Alaska over the period August 1998 to July 2013; this array is part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost, (DOI/GTN-P). In addition to presenting data, this report also describes monitoring, data collection, and quality-control methods. This array of 16 monitoring stations spans lat 68.5°N. to 70.5°N. and long 142.5°W. to 161°W., an area of approximately 150,000 square kilometers. Climate summaries are presented along with quality-controlled data. Data collection is ongoing and includes the following climate- and permafrost-related variables: air temperature, wind speed and direction, ground temperature, soil moisture, snow depth, rainfall totals, up- and downwelling shortwave radiation, and atmospheric pressure. These data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in close collaboration with the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  11. DOI/GTN-P climate and active-layer data acquired in the National Petroleum Reserve: Alaska and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 1998-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urban, Frank E.; Clow, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides data collected by the climate monitoring array of the U.S. Department of the Interior on Federal lands in Arctic Alaska over the period August 1998 to July 2011; this array is part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost, (DOI/GTN-P). In addition to presenting data, this report also describes monitoring, data collection, and quality-control methodology. This array of 16 monitoring stations spans lat 68.5°N. to 70.5°N. and long 142.5°W. to 161°W., an area of approximately 150,000 square kilometers. Climate summaries are presented along with quality-controlled data. Data collection is ongoing and includes the following climate- and permafrost-related variables: air temperature, wind speed and direction, ground temperature and soil moisture, snow depth, rainfall, up- and downwelling shortwave radiation, and atmospheric pressure. These data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in close collaboration with the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  12. D-serine deficiency attenuates the behavioral and cellular effects induced by the hallucinogenic 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist DOI.

    PubMed

    Santini, Martin A; Balu, Darrick T; Puhl, Matthew D; Hill-Smith, Tiffany E; Berg, Alexandra R; Lucki, Irwin; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Coyle, Joseph T

    2014-02-01

    Both the serotonin and glutamate systems have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, as well as in the mechanism of action of antipsychotic drugs. Psychedelic drugs act through the serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR), and elicit a head-twitch response (HTR) in mice, which directly correlates to 5-HT2AR activation and is absent in 5-HT2AR knockout mice. The precise mechanism of this response remains unclear, but both an intrinsic cortico-cortical pathway and a thalamo-cortical pathway involving glutamate release have been proposed. Here, we used a genetic model of NMDAR hypofunction, the serine racemase knockout (SRKO) mouse, to explore the role of glutamatergic transmission in regulating 5-HT2AR-mediated cellular and behavioral responses. SRKO mice treated with the 5-HT2AR agonist (±)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) showed a clearly diminished HTR and lower induction of c-fos mRNA. These altered functional responses in SRKO mice were not associated with changes in cortical or hippocampal 5-HT levels or in 5-HT2AR and metabotropic glutamate-2 receptor (mGluR2) mRNA and protein expression. Together, these findings suggest that D-serine-dependent NMDAR activity is involved in mediating the cellular and behavioral effects of 5-HT2AR activation.

  13. DOI/GTN-P Climate and active-layer data acquired in the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 1998–2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urban, Frank E.; Clow, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    This report provides data collected by the climate monitoring array of the U.S. Department of the Interior on Federal lands in Arctic Alaska over the period August 1998 to July 2014; this array is part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (DOI/GTN-P). In addition to presenting data, this report also describes monitoring, data collection, and quality-control methods. The array of 16 monitoring stations spans lat 68.5°N. to 70.5°N. and long 142.5°W. to 161°W., an area of approximately 150,000 square kilometers. Climate summaries are presented along with quality-controlled data. Data collection is ongoing and includes the following climate- and permafrost-related variables: air temperature, wind speed and direction, ground temperature, soil moisture, snow depth, rainfall totals, up- and downwelling shortwave radiation, and atmospheric pressure. These data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in close collaboration with the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  14. Religiosidade, juventude e sexualidade: entre a autonomia e a rigidez1

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves da; Santos, Alessandro Oliveira; Licciardi, Daniele Carli; Paiva, Vera; Parker, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Esse artigo descreve como jovens religiosos e autoridades religiosas de sua comunidade compreendem a sexualidade, considerando suas experiências pessoais e como membros de comunidades religiosas. A análise pretende contribuir para que políticas públicas dedicadas à promoção da saúde sexual da juventude considerem a religiosidade, no contexto de um estado laico e da promoção do direito à prevenção. Foram realizadas 26 entrevistas abertas e semidirigidas em diferentes comunidades da região metropolitana da cidade de São Paulo (comunidades católicas, da umbanda, do candomblé e de diferentes denominações evangélicas) sobre iniciação sexual, casamento, gravidez, contracepção e prevenção das DST/Aids, homossexualidade, aborto e direitos humanos. Observou-se como jovens e autoridades religiosas convivem com a tensão entre tradição e modernidade e os distintos discursos sobre a sexualidade. Como sujeitos religiosos (do discurso religioso) e sujeitos sexuais (de discursos sobre sexualidade), devem ser incorporados pelos programas como sujeitos de direito nos termos de sua religiosidade. PMID:21886456

  15. Seasonal biodiversity of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) and evaluation of ecological factors influencing species distribution at Doi Pha Hom Pok National Park, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Srisuka, Wichai; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Otsuka, Yasushi; Fukuda, Masako; Thongsahuan, Sorawat; Taai, Kritsana; Choochote, Wej; Saeung, Atiporn

    2015-09-01

    This is the first study on the seasonal biodiversity of black flies and evaluation of ecological factors influencing their distribution at Doi Pha Hom Pok National Park, northern Thailand. Larvae were collected from six fixed-stream sites in relation to altitude gradients from May 2011 to April 2013. The water temperature, water pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), salt, water velocity, stream width and depth, streambed particle sizes, riparian vegetation, and canopy cover were recorded from each site. Monthly collections from the six sites yielded 5475 last-instar larvae, belonging to 29 black fly species. The most frequently found species from all sites were Simulium asakoae (100%) followed by Simulium yuphae (83.3%), and Simulium chiangdaoense, Simulium gombakense, Simulium phahompokense, Simulium fruticosum, Simulium maeaiense and Simulium fenestratum (66.6%). Of the 5475 last-instar larvae, S. maeaiense (19.3%), S. chiangdaoense (15.8%) and S. asakoae (14.8%), were the three most abundant species. The Shannon diversity index (H) at the six sites with different altitudes of 2100m, 2000m, 1500m, 1400m, 700m, and 500m above mean sea level, were 2.042, 1.832, 2.158, 2.123, 1.821 and 1.822, respectively. The Shannon index and number of taxa in the cold season were higher than those in the rainy and hot seasons. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that at least three principal components have eigen values >1.0 and accounted for 93.5% of the total variability of ecological factors among sampling sites. The Canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) showed that most species had a trend towards altitude, canopy cover, riparian vegetation and water velocity.

  16. Comment on: "Characterization of Microroughness Parameters in Titanium Nitride Thin Films Grown by DC Magnetron Sputtering" [J Fusion Energ DOI 10.1007/s10894-012-9510-z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solaymani, Shahram; Ghaderi, Atefeh; Nezafat, Negin Beryani

    2012-12-01

    In recent article [Ali Gelali. Azin Ahmadpourian. Reza Bavadi. M. R. Hantehzadeh. Arman Ahmadpourian. J Fusion Energ DOI 10.1007/s10894-012-9510-z], Ali Geleli et al. studied the PSD and RMS Roughness parameters in Titanium Nitride thin films by AFM data and used the computed fractal dimension value of micrographs to describe the surface morphology of thin films. Here, the correct form of equations and relationship between PSD and RMS will be discussed.

  17. Establishing the Empirical Relationship Between Non-Science Majoring Undergraduate Learners' Spatial Thinking Skills and Their Conceptual Astronomy Knowledge. (Spanish Title: Estableciendo Una Relación Empírica Entre el Razonamiento Espacial de los Estudiantes de Graduación de Carreras no Científicas y su Conocimento Conceptual de la Astronomía.) Estabelecendo Uma Relação Empírica Entre o RacioCínio Espacial dos Estudantes de Graduação EM Carreiras Não Científicas e Seu Conhecimento Conceitual da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, Inge; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2013-12-01

    normalizadas, en el desempeño de los estudiantes en estos dos asuntos foram pequenas, 0.26 e 0.13 respectivamente. El razonamiento espacial de los estudiantes fue medido utilizando un instrumento específico desarrollado para este trabaljo. Las correlaciones entre los resultados de los tests astronómicos y este instrumento específico, antes y después del curso mostraron una relación entre moderada y fuerte, sugiriendo que la relación entre el razonamiento espacial y el conocimiento astronómico puede explicar hasta un 25% de la variación em el desempeño de los estudiantes. A comunidade da educação em astronomia tem suposto de forma implícita que o aprendizado da astronomia consiste em um domínio conceitual fundamentado no raciocínio espacial. Como um primeiro passo para identificar formalmente uma relação empírica entre estas duas coisas, utilizamos como amostra os estudantes de graduação de carreiras não científicas de um curso exploratório em uma universidade norte-americana do meio-oeste de médio porte com programa de Doutorado em andamento, onde estes estudantes foram submetidos a um diagnóstico de raciocino espacial e conceitos astronômicos antes e depois do mesmo. As ferramentas utilizadas foram o Test Of Astronomy Standards (TOAST) e o questionário What do you know? Utilizando somente dados completamente consistentes para esta análise, nossa amostra consistiu de 86 estudantes de graduação. As melhoras, depois de normalizadas, do desempenho dos estudantes nos dois quesitos foram pequenas, 0.26 e 0.13 respectivamente. O raciocínio espacial dos estudantes foi medido utilizando um instrumento específico desenhado para este trabalho. As correlações entre os resultados dos testes astronômicos e este instrumento específico antes e depois do curso mostraram uma relação entre moderada e forte, sugerindo que a relação entre o raciocínio espacial e o conhecimento astronômico pode explicar até um 25% na variação no desempenho dos

  18. Discussion of "The Case for the Median Fragment Size as a Better Fragment Size Descriptor than the Mean" by Finn Ouchterlony, Rock Mech Rock Eng, 2015. doi:10.1007/s00603-015-0722-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spathis, A. T.

    2016-01-01

    Ouchterlony (The Case for the Median Fragment Size as a Better Fragment Size Descriptor than the Mean, Rock Mech Rock Eng, 2015. doi: 10.1007/s00603-015-0722-1) argues that the median is preferred over the mean as a measure of central tendency of the rock fragmentation size distribution produced by blasting. This discussion suggests that neither is favoured over the other. Indeed, for distributions where both exist, they may be found in terms of each other, either by an analytical expression or by numerical calculation.

  19. Erratum: Hayward IP, Bridle KR, Campbell GR, Underwood PA, Campbell JH (1995) Effect of Extracellular Matrix Proteins on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotype. Cell Biology International 19: 839-846. doi: 10.1006/cbir.1995.1019.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    The above article, published in print in Cell Biology International in September 1995 and online on 2 January 2013 in Wiley Online Library (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1006/cbir.1995.1019/abstract), is an exact duplicate of the article 'Effect of Extracellular Matrix Proteins on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotype' (Hayward et al., ), which was published in the previous issue of Cell Biology International (Hayward et al., ). The duplicate publication is the result of an administrative error. The publisher apologises for any inconvenience.

  20. Geophysical Exploration of Castle Remains in Barwałd Górny (Near Kalwaria Zebrzydowska, Poland) Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) with Assistance of Depth of Investigation Index (DOI) Method.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazer, Michał; Kula, Damian; Saternus, Robert; Lewicki, Paweł

    2014-09-01

    In March of 2014 at ruins of the 14th century castle, situated at the top of Mount Żar in Małopolska region, Poland, geophysical surveys were performed. Surveys were planned to investigate remains of the castle that could remain in the ground. Electrical Resistivity Tomography method was used there. In the paper 4 sections have been presented. During interpretation, as the supporting method, maps of Depth-of-Investigation (DOI) index have been used. Results of the surveys can point out potential remains of the castle walls and ruins of buildings that were situated in the stronghold

  1. Servicio de Mapas en Internet para la Salud Ambiental en la Region Fronteriza Entre los Estados Unidos y Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckler, Denny; Stefanov, Jim

    2004-01-01

    La region fronteriza de los Estados Unidos y Mexico abarca una gran diversidad de ambientes fisicos y habitaciones, entre los cuales estan los humedales, desiertos, pastos, montanas, y bosques. Estos a su vez son unicos en cuanto a su diversidad de recursos acuaticos minerales, y biologicos. La region se interconecta economica, politica, y socialmente debido a su herencia binacional. En 1995, cerca de 11 millones de habitantes vivian en la zona adyacente a la frontera. Un estudio sugiere que esa poblacion podria doblarse antes del ano 2020.

  2. Structure and electrical conductivity of a novel inorganic solid electrolyte: Na 14.5[Al(PO 4) 2F 2] 2.5[Ti(PO 4) 2F 2] 0.5 (NATP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Tian, Peng; Sun, Zhengang; Liu, Ziyu; Zhang, Yangyang; Qu, Lihong; Sang, Shiyun; Liu, Zhongmin

    2007-02-01

    A novel inorganic solid electrolyte with a layered framework structure stable up to 1043 K, Na 14.5[Al(PO 4) 2F 2] 2.5[Ti(PO 4) 2F 2] 0.5 (NATP), has been hydrothermally prepared and characterized by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction techniques, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis, IR spectroscopic measurement, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA and DTA). NATP crystallizes in the acentric hexagonal space group P3 with a=10.448(2), b=10.448(2), c=6.589(3) Å, Z=1, containing a large number of Na + cations in the interlamellar space and the cavities of its framework. There are six different crystallographic Na + cationic sites, in which 8% Na(5) and 12% Na(6) sites are vacant. Electrical conductivity measurements show that Na + cations exhibit a high mobility with two domains for the electrical conductivity versus temperature.

  3. Brain structures implicated in the four-plate test in naïve and experienced Swiss mice using injection of diazepam and the 5-HT2A agonist DOI.

    PubMed

    Petit-Demoulière, Benoit; Massé, Fabienne; Cogrel, Nicolas; Hascoët, Martine; Bourin, Michel

    2009-12-01

    Four-plate test-retest (FPT-R) is a useful tool to study aversive memory and abolishment of benzodiazepine effects in experienced mice to four-plate test (FPT), namely one-trial tolerance. In the present study, we have used local injections paradigm, in order to localize structures implied in anxiolytic-like effects of two drugs in naïve and experienced mice: a benzodiazepine, diazepam that is only active in naïve mice; and a 5-HT(2A/2C) agonist, DOI that exert its anxiolytic-like effect both in naïve and experienced mice. Periacqueductal grey substance, three sub-regions of hippocampus (CA1, CA2 and CA3) and two nuclei of amygdala (BLA and LA) have been studied. Local injections did not cause any modifications of ambulatory activity. DOI injections elicit anxiolytic-like effects only when injected into CA2, in naïve and experienced mice. Diazepam had an anxiolytic-like effect in naïve mice, only when injected into lateral nucleus of amygdala; and in experienced mice when injected into PAG. These results help us to better understand the way of action of these two compounds and the structures functionally involved in their effects and in one-trial tolerance (OTT).

  4. Clostridium perfringens growth from spore inocula in sous-vide processed pork-based Mexican entrée.

    PubMed

    Miguel-Garcia, Denise Y; Juneja, Vijay K; Valenzuela-Melendrez, Martin; Díaz-Cinco, Martha E; Thippareddi, H; Aida Peña-Ramos, E

    2009-01-01

    The combined effect of Citricidal wih irradiation on Clostridium perfringens growth from spores in a sous-vide processed marinated pork meat Mexican entrée was investigated. Citricidal was added at 200 or 800 ppm after mixing pork meat with tomatillo sauce and inoculated with 3 log(10) CFU/g of C. perfringens spores. Samples were irradiated at either 0 or 2 kGy, heated to an internal temperature of 71 degrees C, and stored at 4 degrees C for 28 d, 15 degrees C for 45 d, and 25 degrees C for 26 h. To simulate the conditions that may occur during transportation, distribution, storage, or handling in supermarkets or by consumers, the effect of static temperature abuse on C. perfringens growth was assessed by transferring samples stored at 4 to 25 degrees C for 13 and 15 h. Total C. perfringens populations were determined by plating diluted samples on tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar. Growth was not observed up to 45 d of storage at 15 degrees C in samples supplemented with 800 ppm of Citricidal. At 25 degrees C, no significant differences (P > 0.05) on the lag phase duration due to antimicrobial treatments was observed. The temperature abuse of refrigerated products for up to 15 h did not lead to C. perfringens growth to high infective dose levels of 1 million cells required to cause food poisoning. The results suggest that 800 ppm Citricidal can have significant bacteriostatic activity against C. perfringens and may provide a degree of protection against this pathogen in sous-vide processed marinated pork meat Mexican entrée, under mild temperature abuse (

  5. “Rice Is Essential but Tiresome; You Should Get Some Noodles”: Doi Moi and the Political Economy of Men’s Extramarital Sexual Relations and Marital HIV Risk in Hanoi, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Phinney, Harriet M.

    2008-01-01

    Research from around the world has suggested that married women’s greatest risk for contracting HIV is from having sexual intercourse with their husbands. On the basis of 6 months of ethnographic research in Hanoi, Vietnam, I argue that the contemporary nature of the HIV epidemic in Hanoi is shaped by 3 interrelated policies implemented in 1986 as part of the government’s new economic policy, Doi Moi (Renovation). Together, these policies structure men’s opportunities for extramarital sexual relations and encourage wives to acquiesce to their husbands’ sexual infidelity, putting both at risk of HIV. I propose 4 structural intervention strategies that address the policies that contribute to men’s opportunities for extramarital liaisons and to marital HIV risk. PMID:18309136

  6. Design of the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (NRG-DOiT): systematic development, implementation and evaluation of a school-based intervention aimed at the prevention of excessive weight gain in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amika S; Chin A Paw, Marijke JM; Kremers, Stef PJ; Visscher, Tommy LS; Brug, Johannes; van Mechelen, Willem

    2006-01-01

    Background Only limited data are available on the development, implementation, and evaluation processes of weight gain prevention programs in adolescents. To be able to learn from successes and failures of such interventions, integral written and published reports are needed. Methods Applying the Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol, this paper describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT), a school-based intervention program aimed at the prevention of excessive weight gain. The intervention focussed on the following health behaviours: (1) reduction of the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, (2) reduction of energy intake derived from snacks, (3) decrease of levels of sedentary behaviour, and (4) increase of levels of physical activity (i.e. active transport behaviour and sports participation). The intervention program consisted of an individual classroom-based component (i.e. an educational program, covering 11 lessons of both biology and physical education classes), and an environmental component (i.e. encouraging and supporting changes at the school canteens, as well as offering additional physical education classes). We evaluated the effectiveness of the intervention program using a randomised controlled trial design. We assessed the effects of the intervention on body composition (primary outcome measure), as well as on behaviour, behavioural determinants, and aerobic fitness (secondary outcome measures). Furthermore, we conducted a process evaluation. Discussion The development of the DOiT-intervention resulted in a comprehensive school-based weight gain prevention program, tailored to the needs of Dutch adolescents from low socio-economic background. PMID:17173701

  7. Soil Quality Indicators to Define Land Use in the Area of Native Forest of Entre Ríos, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, M. G.; Tasi, H. A.; Paz González, A.; Díaz, E. L.; Sasal, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    The main economic activity in the area of native forest of the province of Entre Ríos (Argentina) has long been the agricultural and/or livestock production, especially cattle breeding. In recent years, the proportion of agricultural crops in the rotations, especially that of soybean, has increased, thus leading to an increase in the need for land clearing to incorporate new lands for agricultural use. Most of these lands are considered marginal for agricultural use. In addition rice farming with irrigation is a critical part of the Entre Ríos economy. Defining and assessing soil quality indicators (SQI) that show the evolution of the soil with different uses and management systems is a way to contribute to the knowledge of soil quality. The aims of this study were to characterize the current land use and land tenure in the area of native forest of Entre Ríos, as well as to identify and select variables sensitive to agricultural and/or livestock use of the most representative soils of this area (indicators of the dynamic quality of the soil) and define the most appropriate land use according to land suitability and behavior of these indicators. We identified the most representative soil subgroups (corresponding to the orders Vertisols, Mollisols and Alfisols) and defined the production systems livestock-agricultural, agricultural-livestock, agricultural without irrigation, and rice crop irrigated with water from groundwater and surface reservoirs. We also determined the physical, physico-chemical, chemical and microbiological variables of the soil, and characterized the quality of the water for irrigation. We selected the SQI using Principal Components Analysis, to form a minimum data set (MDS). The change in the use of the land responded to a favorable economic situation for agriculture that started in the 1990's. The leasing and sharecropping schemes and the incidental contracts have become increasingly important, predominating over the undivided property. We

  8. Competition entre les phases ferromagnetique metallique et ordre de charges a l'interface de manganites a magnetoresistance colossale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laverdiere, Jonathan

    Dans la these qui suit, l'interaction entre deux manganites a magnetoresistance colossale domines par des phases antagonistes est etudiee a l'interface de bicouches. Un manganite isolant anti-ferromagnetique presentant une phase d'ordre de charges a basse temperature et un manganite metallique domine par les interactions ferromagnetiques. L'objectif est de verifier si l'interaction entre ces deux manganites est susceptible de soit 1) affaiblir la stabilite de l'ordre de charges ou soit 2) de rendre la phase metallique plus resistive afin d'ameliorer les proprietes de magnetoresistance colossale. Deux series de bicouches ont ete preparees par depot par ablation laser pulse et analysees avec une combinaison de plusieurs methodes experimentales telles que la mesure de resistance electrique, la spectroscopie Raman, la mesure d'aimantation et la diffraction des rayons X. Dans la premiere serie de bicouches, la configuration utilisee consiste en une couche tampon ferromagnetique sur laquelle une couche de manganite a ordre de charges est deposee. Il s'est avere que la phase d'ordre de charges n'est pas destabilisee par la phase ferromagnetique metallique dans une couche d'ordre de charges aussi mince que 10 nm. Les mesures de resistance montrent que la phase isolante demeure difficile a rendre metallique sous l'application d'un champ magnetique. La spectroscopie Raman montre egar lement une phase d'ordre de charges tres stable et suggere que les contraintes mecaniques appliquees par la couche tampon sont responsables de cette stabilite, malgre la presence de la phase ferromagnetique a proximite. Dans la deuxieme serie de bicouches, la configuration utilisee consiste en une couche tampon presentant de l'ordre de charges sur laquelle une couche ferromagnetique metallique est deposee. La diminution de l'epaisseur de la couche ferromagnetique metallique se repercute sur une diminution de la temperature de Curie et de la transition metal-isolant. Entre 4 et 5 nm, la

  9. Effect of grapefruit seed extract on thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes during sous-vide processing of two marinated Mexican meat entrées

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    D and z values of Listeria monocytogenes were obtained for two Mexican meat entrées: pork meat marinated in tomatillo (green tomato) sauce (PTS) and beef marinated in a red chili sauce (BRCS), with addition of 0, 200 and 800 ppm of grapefruit seed extract (GSE). Meat samples, inoculated with L.monoc...

  10. A Process Evaluation of an Efficacious Family-Based Intervention to Promote Healthy Eating: The "Entre Familia: Reflejos de Salud" Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmied, Emily; Parada, Humberto; Horton, Lucy; Ibarra, Leticia; Ayala, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    "Entre Familia: Reflejos de Salud" was a successful family-based randomized controlled trial designed to improve dietary behaviors and intake among U.S. Latino families, specifically fruit and vegetable intake. The novel intervention design merged a community health worker ("promotora") model with an entertainment-education…

  11. State of Conservation of the Native Forests in Entre Ríos (Argentina) and Changes in Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabattini, R. A.; Sione, S. M.; Ledesma, S. G.; Sabattini, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    The native forest area of Entre Ríos province (Argentina) is associated with a constant change in land use, with an increase in recent years in agricultural use, especially for soybean crop. In addition, since its inadequate management has triggered degradation processes of the natural forest structure, the implementation of strategies for the restoration and conservation of native forests has become a priority. The aim of this study was to diagnose the conservation state of the native forest in the basin of the Estacas Stream (Entre Ríos, Argentina) after the change in land use, to help design guidelines for the restoration and sustainable management of these ecosystems. The field study was conducted in October 2010, in a representative area of the native forest of 73,000 ha. Using Landsat 5-TM images (INPE), environments were separated by manual vectorization, identifying and classifying native forests and other lands (agricultural, urban). Using a field exploratory survey (58 geo-referenced sampling points), we developed patterns corresponding to the different types of forests, contrasting this information with the digital data of the images. The native forests were classified according to type (high/low forest, open/closed forest, savanna), successional stage (climax, successional or regeneration forest) and degree of disturbance (weed growth, erosion, fire), and their frequency determined. Each classification was assessed by a contingency matrix, and global reliability index and the Kappa index. The information obtained generated a classification map of native forests in the basin scale. We found that the native forest covered an area of 42,726.91 ha, accounting for 58.52% of the total basin area, and that the rest corresponded to other land uses. The most frequent native forests (59.09%) were climax forest, but accounted for only 8.2% of the basin area. Within this group, the most important were the low and open forest, with Prosopis affinis and Prosopis

  12. Natural co-occurrence of fungi and mycotoxins in poultry feeds from Entre Ríos, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Monge, M P; Dalcero, A M; Magnoli, C E; Chiacchiera, S M

    2013-01-01

    A total of 120 pelleted poultry feed samples from Entre Ríos Province, Argentina, were evaluated. The aims were to investigate (1) the presence of relevant toxigenic fungi, as well as to determine the ability to produce aflatoxins (AFs) by Aspergillus section Flavi isolated strains; and (2) the natural co-occurrence of AFs, fumonisins (FBs), gliotoxin, diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), HT-2 and T-2 toxin by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Total fungal counts were below the established value (1 × 10⁴ CFU g⁻¹). Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus were the only aflatoxigenic species isolated. Co-occurrence of fumonisin B₁ (FB₁), HT-2 and T-2 toxin was detected in 100% of the feeds, with mean levels from 4502 to 5813; 6.7 to 21.6 and 19.6 to 30.3 µg kg⁻¹, respectively. A large number of starter samples were co-contaminated with aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁), FB₁, HT-2 and T-2 toxins. Gliotoxin and DAS were not found in this survey.

  13. Análisis de la correlación espacio-temporal entre ondas EIT y ondas Moreton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgazzi, A.; Rovira, M.; Stenborg, G.

    Observaciones de la atmósfera solar en distintas longitudes de onda han demostrado la presencia de fenómenos ondulatorios, tanto a nivel cromosférico como coronal. En el primero de los casos a las ondas observadas se las dió por llamar ondas Moreton, mientras que en el segundo ondas EIT. En el presente trabajo se abordará el estudio de la posible relación causal entre ambos fenómenos ondulatorios. Para concretar dicha meta se hará uso de un conjunto de observaciones del disco solar en Hα (para la determinación y análisis de las ondas Moreton) y en Fe XII (para la determinación y análisis de las ondas EIT). Los observables que se midan serán luego usados para la interpretación física del fenómeno en base a modelos teóricos existentes.

  14. Reference Linking with DOIs: A Case Study [and] The Santa Fe Convention of the Open Archives Initiative [and] The UPS Prototype: An Experiment End-User Service across E-Print Archives [and] The Costs of Print, Fiche, and Digital Access: The Early Canadiana Online Project [and] Ad*Access: Seeking Copyright Permissions for a Digital Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Helen; Lyons, Catherine; Ratner, Howard; Risher, Carol; Shillum, Chris; Sidman, David; Stevens, Andrew; Van de Sompel, Herbert; Lagoze, Carl; Van de Sompel, Herbert; Krichel, Thomas; Nelson, Michael L.; Hochstenbach, Patrick; Lyapunov, Victor M.; Maly, Kurt; Zubair, Mohammad; Kholief, Mohamed; Liu, Xiaoming; O'Connell, Heath; Kingma, Bruce R.; Pritcher, Lynn

    2000-01-01

    Includes five articles that discuss publishers' metadata hyperlinks with Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) on the Internet; the Santa Fe Convention of the Open Archives initiative (Oai) that promotes author self-archiving; the Universal Preprint Service; costs of digital, microfiche, and print access; and an online database of old print…

  15. DOI: Current Status and Outlook [and] The Virtual Naval Hospital: Lessons Learned in Creating and Operating a Digital Health Sciences Library for Nomadic Patrons [and] Interoperability for Digital Objects and Repositories: The Cornell/CNRI Experiments [and] Education for Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paskin, Norman; D'Alessandro, Michael P.; D'Alessandro, Donna M.; Hendrix, Mary J. C.; Bakalar, Richard S.; Ashley, Denis E.; Payette, Dandra; Blanchi, Christophe; Lagoze, Carl; Overly, Edward A.; Spink, Amanda

    1999-01-01

    Describes the origin of the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) as a persistent identifier for managing copyrighted materials and its development; creation of the U.S. Navy digital health sciences library for isolated primary care providers and their patients; Cornell and CNRI prototype architecture for interoperable digital objects and repositories;…

  16. On acoplamento mecânico entre a antena e o transdutor no detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, J. L.; Aguiar, O. D.; Velloso, W. F., Jr.; Lucena, A. U.

    2003-08-01

    O detector de ondas gravitacionais MARIO SCHENBERG consistirá de uma massa esférica de cobre-alumínio de 1150kg resfriada a 4K, sobre a qual serão instalados 6 transdutores de nióbio. Com estes trandutores pretende-se converter um possível sinal de onda gravitacional detectado em sinal elétrico, para tanto é necessário que o acoplamento mecânico entre os transdutores e a massa ressonante seja o maior possível. Isto significa que o transdutor deve ser ressonante na mesma freqüência que a antena (aproximadamente 3200Hz). Neste trabalho foi desenvolvida uma geometria para a estrutura mecânica do trandutor. Isto foi feito criando-se modelos em elementos finitos usando-se o "software" MSC/Nastran. Estes modelos criados foram analisados estaticamente (cálculo de tensões) e dinamicamente (cálculo das freqüências de ressonâncias e seus respectivos modos normais) de maneira a se obter o primeiro modo normal do transdutor em 3200Hz. A partir destes cálculos escolheu-se a melhor geometria para o transdutor. Os próximos passos do trabalho serão: usinar este transdutor em uma barra de nióbio e testá-lo à temperatura ambiente e à baixa temperatura. Após isto, pretende-se testá-lo na própria antena resfriada.

  17. HACCP models for quality control of entrée production in hospital foodservice systems. I. Development of hazard analysis critical control point models.

    PubMed

    Bobeng, B J; David, B D

    1978-11-01

    HACCP models were developed as part of a research project for quality control of entrée production in three types of hospital foodservice systems: Conventional, cook/chill, and cook/freeze. Critical control points at process stages were identified. Time-temperature was a critical control point throughout entrée production in each model; time-temperature parameters were established for critical control points. Equipment sanitation and personnel sanitation are critical control points for which standards must be established by each foodservice system. Determination of the effectiveness of control measures included continuous monitoring of critical control points for time-temperature. Sanitation of equipment and personnel should be monitored using standards established by the foodservice system.

  18. Half-size me? How calorie and price information influence ordering on restaurant menus with both half and full entrée portion sizes.

    PubMed

    Haws, Kelly L; Liu, Peggy J

    2016-02-01

    Many restaurants are increasingly required to display calorie information on their menus. We present a study examining how consumers' food choices are affected by the presence of calorie information on restaurant menus. However, unlike prior research on this topic, we focus on the effect of calorie information on food choices made from a menu that contains both full size portions and half size portions of entrées. This different focus is important because many restaurants increasingly provide more than one portion size option per entrée. Additionally, we examine whether the impact of calorie information differs depending on whether full portions are cheaper per unit than half portions (non-linear pricing) or whether they have a similar per unit price (linear pricing). We find that when linear pricing is used, calorie information leads people to order fewer calories. This decrease occurs as people switch from unhealthy full sized portions to healthy full sized portions, not to unhealthy half sized portions. In contrast, when non-linear pricing is used, calorie information has no impact on calories selected. Considering the impact of calorie information on consumers' choices from menus with more than one entrée portion size option is increasingly important given restaurant and legislative trends, and the present research demonstrates that calorie information and pricing scheme may interact to affect choices from such menus. PMID:26654889

  19. Half-size me? How calorie and price information influence ordering on restaurant menus with both half and full entrée portion sizes.

    PubMed

    Haws, Kelly L; Liu, Peggy J

    2016-02-01

    Many restaurants are increasingly required to display calorie information on their menus. We present a study examining how consumers' food choices are affected by the presence of calorie information on restaurant menus. However, unlike prior research on this topic, we focus on the effect of calorie information on food choices made from a menu that contains both full size portions and half size portions of entrées. This different focus is important because many restaurants increasingly provide more than one portion size option per entrée. Additionally, we examine whether the impact of calorie information differs depending on whether full portions are cheaper per unit than half portions (non-linear pricing) or whether they have a similar per unit price (linear pricing). We find that when linear pricing is used, calorie information leads people to order fewer calories. This decrease occurs as people switch from unhealthy full sized portions to healthy full sized portions, not to unhealthy half sized portions. In contrast, when non-linear pricing is used, calorie information has no impact on calories selected. Considering the impact of calorie information on consumers' choices from menus with more than one entrée portion size option is increasingly important given restaurant and legislative trends, and the present research demonstrates that calorie information and pricing scheme may interact to affect choices from such menus.

  20. L’expression verbale de la douleur chez l’enfant : Comparaison intermodale entre sensation de douleur et manipulation tactile

    PubMed Central

    Bienvenu, Margaux; Jacquet, Denis; Michelutti, Marjolaine; Wood, Chantal

    2011-01-01

    HISTORIQUE: La présente étude se situe dans le contexte de l’expression verbale de la douleur chez l’enfant. Elle porte plus particulièrement sur la dimension qualitative de la sensation de douleur. OBJECTIF: Nous cherchons à repérer les particularités de l’expression verbale relativement à l’aspect qualitatif de la douleur. MÉTHODOLOGIE: La recherche a été menée auprès de 60 patients de quatre à 18 ans ressentant de la douleur, rencontrés dans un hôpital universitaire pédiatrique. Elle confirme en premier lieu l’origine des descripteurs sensoriels de la douleur, qui renvoient aux expériences perceptives passées de l’enfant, non nécessairement liées à la douleur. Ces expériences sont qualifiées de prototypiques, dans la mesure où, bien qu’elles soient liées à des contextes de vie variés, le type de rapport au monde qu’elles provoquent ne varie pas. RÉSULTATS: Dans ce cadre, le pincement, le tiraillement, le tapement, l’écrasement et l’appuiement, le picotement et le serrement constituent chacune des expériences sensorielles et motrices particulières dont la structure de base ne varie pas d’un contexte à l’autre. En second lieu, les résultats obtenus montrent que dès quatre ans, l’enfant est en mesure de comparer, puis de reconnaître une analogie entre une expérience exclusivement tactile et sa sensation de douleur. CONCLUSION: Ces résultats mettent en lumière le rôle primordial du raisonnement analogique dans l’expression verbale de la douleur, ce qui amène à affirmer que le niveau de développement cognitif de l’enfant n’est pas une variable a priori déterminante lorsqu’il s’agit de qualifier sa douleur. PMID:21766069

  1. Cristallisation, syncristallisation, et alliages moléculaires entre le lorazépam et l'oxazépam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascherpa-Corral, D.; Mascherpa, G.; Chauvet, A.

    1993-04-01

    Le polymorphisme et pseudopolymorphisme du lorazépam et oxazépam ont été étudiés par analyse thermique, calorimétrie différentielle à balayage et diffraction de rayons X. Deux formes polymorphes du lorazépam et plusieurs mono et hemisolvates ont été isolés à partir de recristallisation dans divers soivants. Aucun polymorphisme ni solvate n'a été mis en évidence avec l'oxazépam. Les paramètres cristallographiques des phases isolées ont été déterminées. A 160 et 203°C, le lorazépam et l'oxazépam perdent respectivement une molécule d'eau pour donner après réarrangement la quinazolinecarboxaldéhyde correspondante. La syncristallisation des deux benzodiazépines dans le benzène conduit à des alliages moléculaires à miscibilité totale à l'état solide dans tout le domaine de concentration entre l'exazépam el la forme α du lorazépam, elle n'est que partielle avec la forme β. Thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction were carried out to study the polymorphism and pseudopolymorphism of lorazepam and oxazepam. Two polymorphic forms of lorazepam and several mono- or hemisolvates were obtained after recrystallization from various solvents. No polymorphic form or solvate has been found for oxazepam. The crystallographic parameters of these new phases were determined. Lorazepam and oxazepam can lose a molecule of water at 160 and 203°C, respectively, and rearrange to quinazolinecarboxaldehyde. Mixed crystals of the two benzodiazepines, after recrystallization from benzene, lead to molecular alloys with complete solid solubility between oxazepam and the α-form of lorazepam over the whole range of composition but only to partial solubility with the β-form of lorazepam.

  2. La différence épidémiologique des hémorragies digestives hautes entre les hommes et les femmes

    PubMed Central

    El Mekkaoui, Amine; Saâda, Kaoutar; Mellouki, Ihssane; El Yousfi, Mounia; Aqodad, Nourdin; El Abkari, Mohammed; Ibrahimi, Adil; Benajah, Dafr-Allah

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Des différences épidémiologiques, étiologique voire pronostique des hémorragies digestives hautes (HDH) entre les deux sexes opposés ont été cité par différentes études. Méthodes Nous avons essayé de déceler ces différences à travers une analyse rétrospective nichée sur une étude prospective sur les hémorragies digestives hautes ayant inclus 945 patients. Résultats Six cents trente-sept patients étaient des hommes (67,4% Vs 32,6%). Un antécédent d'HDH était trouvé chez 24,2% des cas sans différence significative entre les deux sexes. L'âge de survenue de l'hémorragie était plus élevé chez les femmes que chez les hommes : 51,5 ans ± 18,8 Vs 47,8 ans ± 18,3 (p : 0,003). Les étiologies de l'HDH étaient différentes entre les deux sexes. Alors que l'hémorragie liée à l'HTP était la première cause chez la femme (38 % Vs 23,5 % chez l'homme, p<0,0001), c'est la pathologie ulcéreuse qui venait en premier chez l'homme (62 % Vs 36,7 % chez la femme, p<0,0001). Un besoin transfusionnel était noté chez 42,4 % des patients de sexe masculin contre 35,4 % des patientes avec un p = 0,03. Le taux de récidive et de décès global étaient de 7,5 % et de 5,7 % des cas respectivement, sans différence significative entre les deux sexes. Conclusion L'étude trouve un profil épidémiologique, clinique et étiologique différent selon le sexe des patients. PMID:23077715

  3. Relation entre les caractéristiques des table-bancs et les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers au Benin

    PubMed Central

    Falola, Stève Marjelin; Gouthon, Polycarpe; Falola, Jean-Marie; Fiogbe, Michel Armand; Nigan, Issiako Bio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le mobilier scolaire et la posture assise en classe sont souvent impliqués dans l'apparition des douleurs rachidiennes, influant de fait sur la qualité des tâches réalisées par les apprenants. Aucune étude n'a encore vérifié le degré d'adéquation entre les caractéristiques du mobilier et celles des écoliers au Bénin. L'objectif de cette étude transversale est donc de déterminer la relation entre les dimensions des table-bancs utilisées en classe et les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers au Bénin. Methods Elle a été réalisée avec un échantillon probabiliste de 678 écoliers, âgés de 4 à 17 ans. Les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers et les mensurations relatives aux longueurs, largeurs et hauteurs des table-bancs ont été mesurées, puis intégrées aux équations proposées dans la littérature. Les pourcentages des valeurs situées hors des limitesacceptables, dérivées de l'application des équations ont été calculés. Results La largeur et la hauteur des table-bancs utilisées par les écoliers étaient plus élevées (p < 0,05) que les valeurs de référence recommandées par les structures officielles de contrôle et de production des mobiliers scolaires au Bénin. Quel que soit le sexe, il y avait une inadéquation entre la largeur du banc et la longueur fesse-poplité, puis entre la hauteur de la table et la distance coude-bancdes écoliers. Conclusion Les résultats suggèrent de prendre en compte l’évolution des mesures anthropométriques des écoliers dans la confection des table-bancs, afin de promouvoir de bonnes postures assises en classe et de réduire le risque de troubles du rachis. PMID:25317232

  4. HACCP models for quality control of entrée production in hospital foodservice systems. II. Quality assessment of beef loaves utilizing HACCP models.

    PubMed

    Bobeng, B J; David, B D

    1978-11-01

    HACCP models were developed for quality control of entrée production in three hospital foodservice systems: Conventional, cook/chill, and cook/freeze (1). The three systems were stimulated in a laboratory to evaluate the effectiveness of the HACCP models for quality control and to generate quantitative data for evaluating and comparing the quality of beef loaves produced under controlled conditions. Attributes measured were weight (yield) and microbiologic, nutritional, and sensory qualities. The only significant difference in the beef loaves among systems was sensory quality. Scores for overall acceptability of beef loaves in the conventional system were significantly greater (P less than 0.05) than for those of the cook/chill and cook/freeze systems. The HACCP models were effective quality control tools for entrée production; implementation of the HACCP system is recommended for hospital foodservices. The importance of the time-temperature critical point for monitoring control points in hospital foodservice systems is emphasized.

  5. Católicos, fidelidade conjugal e AIDS: entre a cruz da doutrina moral e as espadas do cotidiano sexual dos adeptos1

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Luis Felipe; de Aquino, Francisca Luciana; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Oliveira, Cinthia; Parker, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Neste artigo discutimos a visão da Igreja Católica sobre sexualidade na interface com a epidemia do HIV/AIDS. Nossa reflexão está embasada em pesquisa etnográfica que envolveu dois meses de observação participante do cotidiano de católicos de um bairro popular da Região Metropolitana do Recife, além de contar com entrevistas a onze dos leigos engajados nos serviços religiosos da igreja do bairro e a oito sacerdotes que realizam seus trabalhos religiosos em outras localidades. Nelas abordamos diferentes temáticas relacionadas ao enfrentamento da epidemia da AIDS. Nesse contexto, conjugalidade e fidelidade se afiguram como importantes analisadores de como aqueles lidam com a epidemia, em uma variedade de re-descrições práticas e de re-interpretações conceptuais das assertivas do discurso moral religioso – ainda que, muitos impasses permaneçam em aberto em termos das prerrogativas da Igreja e seus possíveis rebatimentos na saúde sexual dos adeptos. PMID:21765650

  6. Effect of Grapefruit Seed Extract on Thermal Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes during Sous-Vide Processing of Two Marinated Mexican Meat Entrées.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Melendres, Martin; Peña-Ramos, E Aida; Juneja, Vijay K; Camou, Juan Pedro; Cumplido-Barbeitia, German

    2016-07-01

    D- and z-values for Listeria monocytogenes were obtained for two Mexican meat entrées: pork meat marinated in tomatillo (green tomato) sauce (PTS) and beef marinated in a red chili sauce (BRCS), with addition of 0, 200, and 800 ppm of grapefruit seed extract (GSE). Meat samples inoculated with L. monocytogenes were packaged in sterile bags, immersed in a water bath, and held at 55, 57.5, 60, and 62.5°C for different periods of time. Depending upon the temperature, D-values at 0 ppm of GSE ranged from 26.19 to 2.03 min in BRCS and 26.41 to 0.8 min in PTS. Adding 800 ppm of GSE to BRCS thermally treated at 55 and 62.5°C significantly decreased inactivation time by 35%. A reduction in time of 25.9, 10.6, and 40.1% at 55, 57.5, and 60°C, respectively, was observed in PTS with 800 ppm of GSE. The z-values of L. monocytogenes were not significantly affected by GSE addition; average z-values were 7.25 and 5.09°C for BRCS and PTS, respectively. Estimated thermal lethality for a 7-D log reduction of L. monocytogenes under commercial-size sous-vide conditions at a reference temperature of 55°C was reached at 78 and 71 min for BRCS without and with 800 ppm of GSE, respectively. For PTS, 7-D reduction was attained at 69 and 61 min without and with addition of 800 ppm of GSE, respectively. Supplementing both Mexican meat entrées (BRCS and PTS) with 800 ppm of GSE rendered L. monocytogenes cells more sensitive to the lethal effect of heat. The results of this study will assist the retail food industry in designing acceptance limits on critical control points pertaining to cooking regimes to effectively eliminate L. monocytogenes in BRCS and PTS sous-vide processed Mexican meat entrées. PMID:27357037

  7. Effect of Grapefruit Seed Extract on Thermal Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes during Sous-Vide Processing of Two Marinated Mexican Meat Entrées.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Melendres, Martin; Peña-Ramos, E Aida; Juneja, Vijay K; Camou, Juan Pedro; Cumplido-Barbeitia, German

    2016-07-01

    D- and z-values for Listeria monocytogenes were obtained for two Mexican meat entrées: pork meat marinated in tomatillo (green tomato) sauce (PTS) and beef marinated in a red chili sauce (BRCS), with addition of 0, 200, and 800 ppm of grapefruit seed extract (GSE). Meat samples inoculated with L. monocytogenes were packaged in sterile bags, immersed in a water bath, and held at 55, 57.5, 60, and 62.5°C for different periods of time. Depending upon the temperature, D-values at 0 ppm of GSE ranged from 26.19 to 2.03 min in BRCS and 26.41 to 0.8 min in PTS. Adding 800 ppm of GSE to BRCS thermally treated at 55 and 62.5°C significantly decreased inactivation time by 35%. A reduction in time of 25.9, 10.6, and 40.1% at 55, 57.5, and 60°C, respectively, was observed in PTS with 800 ppm of GSE. The z-values of L. monocytogenes were not significantly affected by GSE addition; average z-values were 7.25 and 5.09°C for BRCS and PTS, respectively. Estimated thermal lethality for a 7-D log reduction of L. monocytogenes under commercial-size sous-vide conditions at a reference temperature of 55°C was reached at 78 and 71 min for BRCS without and with 800 ppm of GSE, respectively. For PTS, 7-D reduction was attained at 69 and 61 min without and with addition of 800 ppm of GSE, respectively. Supplementing both Mexican meat entrées (BRCS and PTS) with 800 ppm of GSE rendered L. monocytogenes cells more sensitive to the lethal effect of heat. The results of this study will assist the retail food industry in designing acceptance limits on critical control points pertaining to cooking regimes to effectively eliminate L. monocytogenes in BRCS and PTS sous-vide processed Mexican meat entrées.

  8. Amorçage d'une décharge dans le vide entre deux electrodes d'argent ou des alliages argent-nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zouache, N.; Lefort, A.

    1997-03-01

    Comparison of the characteristics of an electric are breakdown in vacuum between two silver or silver-nickel alloy electrodes prompted us to study the evolution of the breakdown voltage with electrode separation, with resistance value placed between the anode and the high voltage supply used for the breakdown, and with the effect of conditionning by heating in vacuum. The measurement of the commutation time and delay time, and the observations by a metallographic microscope of the electrodes surfaces after one breakdown, enabled us to evidence the origin of the electric arc for each of the studied materials. La comparaison des caractéristiques de l'amorçage d'un arc électrique dans le vide entre deux électrodes bombées de 8mm de diamètre et de rayon de courbure en surface de 16mm, constituées d'argent ou de son alliage avec le nickel, nous a amené à étudier l'évolution de la tension d'amorçage avec plusieurs paramètres : la distance inter-électrodes, les valeurs de la résistance intercalée entre la source haute tension servant au claquage et les électrodes et le conditionnement par chauffage sous vide des électrodes. La mesure du temps de commutation, du temps de retard et les observations au microscope métallographique de la surface des électrodes après un amorçage donnent des informations sur l'origine de l'arc électrique concernant chaque matériau étudié.

  9. Uma comparação entre técnicas de propagação de erros em astrofísica: Monte Carlo x Bootstrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waelkens, A. H.; Janot Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    Recentemente Dhillon & Watson (2001) criticaram o procedimento de determinação de erros via simulações de Monte Carlo no caso do imageamento indireto de estrelas, por introduzir ruído nos dados e resultar em erros superestimados. Estes autores propuseram a utilização alternativa do método de Bootstrap como uma técnica superior para a estimativa de erros. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados de um estudo comparativo da performance das técnicas de simulação por Monte Carlo e por Bootstrap para a determinação de erros em duas situações de interesse: (i) ajuste de modelos a espectros observados e (ii) imageamento indireto de discos de acréscimo com técnicas de mapeamento por eclipse. No caso (i), os dados de entrada são espectros de emissão simples de hidrogênio aos quais é adicionado ruído gaussiano de amplitude selecionada. No caso (ii), são produzidas curvas de luz do eclipse de uma distribuição de brilho seguindo a lei TµR-3/4 para discos estacionários cuja taxa de acréscimo varia ao longo do eclipse segundo uma distribuição gaussiana de amplitude selecionada, simulando o ruído. A avaliação da performance é feita com o auxílio de um diagrama do erro relativo na grandeza ajustada, conforme obtido por cada método, versus o erro relativo (ruído/sinal) dos dados de entrada. O estudo mostra que as duas técnicas produzem resultados semelhantes nos dois casos, e que a suposta superioridade do método de Bootstrap não se confirma.

  10. A Process Evaluation of an Efficacious Family-Based Intervention to Promote Healthy Eating: The Entre Familia: Reflejos de Salud Study.

    PubMed

    Schmied, Emily; Parada, Humberto; Horton, Lucy; Ibarra, Leticia; Ayala, Guadalupe

    2015-10-01

    Entre Familia: Reflejos de Salud was a successful family-based randomized controlled trial designed to improve dietary behaviors and intake among U.S. Latino families, specifically fruit and vegetable intake. The novel intervention design merged a community health worker (promotora) model with an entertainment-education component. This process evaluation examined intervention implementation and assessed relationships between implementation factors and dietary change. Participants included 180 mothers randomized to an intervention condition. Process evaluation measures were obtained from participant interviews and promotora notes and included fidelity, dose delivered (i.e., minutes of promotora in-person contact with families, number of promotora home visits), and dose received (i.e., participant use of and satisfaction with intervention materials). Outcome variables included changes in vegetable intake and the use of behavioral strategies to increase dietary fiber and decrease dietary fat intake. Participant satisfaction was high, and fidelity was achieved; 87.5% of families received the planned number of promotora home visits. In the multivariable model, satisfaction with intervention materials predicted more frequent use of strategies to increase dietary fiber (p ≤ .01). Trends suggested that keeping families in the prescribed intervention timeline and obtaining support from other social network members through sharing of program materials may improve changes. Study findings elucidate the relationship between specific intervention processes and dietary changes.

  11. A Process Evaluation of an Efficacious Family-Based Intervention to Promote Healthy Eating: The Entre Familia: Reflejos de Salud Study.

    PubMed

    Schmied, Emily; Parada, Humberto; Horton, Lucy; Ibarra, Leticia; Ayala, Guadalupe

    2015-10-01

    Entre Familia: Reflejos de Salud was a successful family-based randomized controlled trial designed to improve dietary behaviors and intake among U.S. Latino families, specifically fruit and vegetable intake. The novel intervention design merged a community health worker (promotora) model with an entertainment-education component. This process evaluation examined intervention implementation and assessed relationships between implementation factors and dietary change. Participants included 180 mothers randomized to an intervention condition. Process evaluation measures were obtained from participant interviews and promotora notes and included fidelity, dose delivered (i.e., minutes of promotora in-person contact with families, number of promotora home visits), and dose received (i.e., participant use of and satisfaction with intervention materials). Outcome variables included changes in vegetable intake and the use of behavioral strategies to increase dietary fiber and decrease dietary fat intake. Participant satisfaction was high, and fidelity was achieved; 87.5% of families received the planned number of promotora home visits. In the multivariable model, satisfaction with intervention materials predicted more frequent use of strategies to increase dietary fiber (p ≤ .01). Trends suggested that keeping families in the prescribed intervention timeline and obtaining support from other social network members through sharing of program materials may improve changes. Study findings elucidate the relationship between specific intervention processes and dietary changes. PMID:25810469

  12. Études dynamiques des propriétés mécaniques et électriques des contacts entre solides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Guy; Hauchecorne, Gérard

    1996-08-01

    Dynamical methods are used to study contacts between solids. We describe some devices for exciting and measuring periodical oscillations of a small object laying against a table. For small amplitude (simeq 10^{-8} cm) of relative motion, the normal modes of oscillation are harmonic and their frequencies give the derivative of the force versus displacement. The effects of a static force on those mutual frequencies give the second derivatives. In these modes of relative motion the strain potential energy is concentrated in the small volumes (simeq 10^{12} cm3) near the contacts. They show a rather strong damping coefficient which we have measured. For larger amplitudes of motion, various non-linear effects show up. We have studied with some care sub-harmonic generation. When both solids in contact are electrically conducting the impedance modulation induced by the mechanical oscillations has been measured and brings some more information. Hertz theory has guided us. The fractional exponents we observe in the relations force versus displacement for various contacts are reasonably close to the Hertzian predictions. The effect of a magnetic field on the mutual frequencies of two solids made of ferrite (Mn, Zn) has been found too strong to be accounted for easily. Nous étudions par des méthodes dynamiques le nature des contacts entre deux solides. Nous décrivons divers dispositifs permettant de provoquer et d'observer de petites oscillations périodiques d'un objet appuyé contre une table autour de sa positions d'équilibre statique. Pour des amplitudes de mouvement relatif petites, de l'ordre de l'Angström, les modes propres d'oscillation sont harmoniques et leur fréquence donne la dérivée de la force par rapport au déplacement. L'influence d'une force statique sur cette fréquence mutuelle donne la dérivée seconde. Dans ces modes de mouvement relatif l'énergie potentielle de déformation est localisée dans les très petits volumes proches des contacts

  13. Métastases cutanées vues au laboratoire d'anatomie pathologique à Lomé, Togo entre 2005 et 2014

    PubMed Central

    Darre, Tchin; Saka, Bayaki; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Mouhari-Toure, Abas; Amegbor, Koffi; Pitché, Palokinam; Napo-Koura, Gado

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de cette étude était de documenter le profil épidémiologique et histologique des métastases cutanées vues au laboratoire d'anatomie pathologique (LAP) de Lomé. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude descriptive et transversale portant sur des cas de métastases cutanées observées au LAP du CHU Sylvanus Olympio entre 2005 et 2014. Résultats Au cours de cette période d’étude, nous avons recensé 32 cas de métastases cutanées représentant 3,2% (1005 cas) de l'ensemble des cas de métastases enregistrées au LAP. L’âge moyen des patients atteints de ces métastases cutanées était de 42,6 ans et le sex-ratio (F/H) de 2,2. Sur le plan macroscopique, ces métastases étaient nodulaires dans 15 cas, bourgeonnantes dans 12 cas, ulcéré dans 3 cas et ulcéro-bourgeonnant dans 2 cas. Les types histologiques étaient représentés par les adénocarcinomes (19 cas, 59,4%), les carcinomes épidermoïdes (8 cas, 25%), la maladie de Paget (3 cas, 9,4%), le carcinome à petites cellules du type neuroendocrine (un cas, 3,1%) et le mélanome (un cas, 3,1%). Selon le degré de différenciation, les métastases cutanées étaient bien différenciées dans 14 cas (56%). Les principales localisations de ces métastases cutanées étaient le thorax (11 cas, 34,4%) suivi de l'abdomen (10 cas, 31,3%). Les cancers primitifs étaient surtout d'origine mammaire (14 cas, 43,7%). Conclusion Cette étude montre que les métastases cutanées sont relativement rares et les tumeurs malignes d'origine mammaire sont les tumeurs primitives prédominantes. Avec un pourcentage élevé des formes peu différenciées et celles indifférenciées, l'amélioration du plateau technique du LAP (immunohistochimie) permettra d'accroitre ses capacités diagnostiques. PMID:27047627

  14. A Reappraising of Cosmography: the Interface Between Astronomical and Geographic Studies. (Breton Title: Releitura do Conceito de Cosmografia: a Interface Entre os Estudos Astronômicos e Geográficos.) Una Relectura del Concepto de Cosmografía: la Interfase Entre los Estudios Astronómicos y Geográficos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Sobreira, Paulo Henrique

    2012-12-01

    The concept of "Cosmography" is in disuse since the 80s of the last century, but the astronomical themes previously discussed in the school subjects of Geography and Cosmography remain in current textbooks. The use of term "Cosmography" was rescued in this research, and the study of its re-signification prompted the appearance of the term Geographic Cosmography. The Geographic Cosmography is a field of studies of the Geography, whose set of knowledge and skills is predominantly scholar. It studies the interface between terrestrial and celestial knowledge, and assigns a geographic significance to them. It examines human and natural relationships with Sidereal Space and its consequences for society and nature. O conceito de "Cosmografia" está em desuso desde os anos 80 do século XX, mas os temas astronômicos anteriormente abordados nas disciplinas escolares de Cosmografia e de Geografia permanecem nos atuais livros didáticos. O uso do termo "Cosmografia" foi resgatado nesta pesquisa e o estudo de sua ressignificação proporcionou o surgimento do termo Cosmografia Geográfica. A Cosmografia Geográfica é um campo de estudos da Geografia, cujo conjunto de conhecimentos e habilidades é predominantemente escolar. Estuda a interface entre os conhecimentos terrestres e os celestes e lhes atribui significância geográfica. Analisa as relações humanas e naturais com o Espaço Sideral e suas consequências para a sociedade e a natureza.

    Aunque el concepto de "Cosmografía" no se usa desde la década de los '80 del siglo pasado, los temas astronómicos que se enseñaban anteriormente en las asignaturas escolares de Cosmografía y de Geografía permanecen en los actuales libros didácticos. El uso del término "Cosmografía" fue rescatado en esta investigación y el estudio de su resignificación proporcionó el surgimiento del término Cosmografía Geográfica. La Cosmografía Geográfica es un campo de estudio de la Geografía, donde

  15. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    infectarse por el VIH (sólo un doble negativo tuvo un amplio conocimiento sobre la hepatitis C). Estas intencionalidades no son mutuamente excluyentes. La presencia de varias refuerza la puesta en práctica a diario de comportamientos que pueden ayudar al que se inyecta a mantenerse libre de infecciones durante años. Algunas prácticas que hemos identificado se implementan en grupo y se comunican de UDI a UDI, de esta manera se extienden entre algunas redes sociales de UDI. Conclusiones Los UDI que permanecen sin infectarse planean e implementan estrategias de prevención en circunstancias donde otros UDI aplican prácticas de riesgo. El mantenimiento de la no infección no es, por lo tanto, un resultado del azar, sino más bien el resultado del esfuerzo (agencia) de los UDI. Investigar y extender estas estrategias y tácticas a través de programas de prevención podría contribuir a la prevención del VIH y el VHC. PMID:21915175

  16. Le renforcement de l'interface entre les services de santé publique et de première ligne : enjeux et pistes de solution

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Daniel; Reinharz, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Le développement de liens étroits entre la santé publique et les services cliniques, notamment ceux offerts par les médecins de famille œuvrant en première ligne, est prôné dans tous systèmes de santé occidentaux. On suppose que les collaborations formant une telle interface ont des impacts positifs à la fois sur la qualité des soins, sur le fardeau des maladies et sur l'équité dans le système de santé. Si les acteurs des deux domaines admettent le bien-fondé de l'interface et favorisent en principe son développement, plusieurs barrières nuisent aux collaborations dans la réalité. Or, peu est connu sur ces barrières dans le système de santé québécois. Cette étude vise à répondre à ce manque d'information en étudiant l'interface à partir d'une perspective organisationnelle. Deux cadres conceptuels ont été utilisés, soit la typologie de Lasker (1997) et les archétypes de Hinings et Greenwood (1988). L'analyse met en évidence deux des six formes de collaboration proposées par la typologie utilisée, soit la coordination des services aux individus et la mise à profit des rencontres cliniques pour les fins de la santé publique. Les activités associées à ces formes de collaboration, qui sont importantes eu égard au mandat de la santé publique, comportent un intérêt essentiellement pour la santé publique et sont déterminées en pratique unilatéralement par cette dernière. En outre, le manque de coordination des activités qui impliquent une collaboration avec les médecins constitue un obstacle au développement de telles activités en créant des irritants pour les médecins. Il y a donc, dans le système de santé québécois, des possibilités de développement de l'interface là où la collaboration se fait également au profit du travail clinique et là où elle tient compte des contraintes du milieu clinique. PMID:20436801

  17. Comment on “An alternative plate tectonic model for the Palaeozoic-Early Mesozoic Palaeotethyan evolution of Southeast Asia (Northern Thailand-Burma)” by O.M. Ferrari, C. Hochard & G.M. Stampfli, Tectonophysics 451, 346-365 (doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2007.11.065)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, I.

    2009-06-01

    Ferrari et al. [Ferrari, O.M., Hochard, C., Stampfli, G.M., 2008. An alternative plate tectonic model for the Palaeozoic-Early Mesozoic Palaeotethyan evolution of Southeast Asia (Northern Thailand-Burma). Tectonophysics 451, 346-365. doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2007.11.065.] redefine the "Shan-Thai" terrane in Thailand as a Cathaysian Indochina-derived terrane when this has traditionally been defined and used as a Gondwana-derived continental block, hence introducing unnecessary confusion. In their definition of "Shan-Thai", they also inappropriately combine oceanic suture zone rocks (the Palaeo-Tethys Inthanon suture) and continental arc rocks (Sukhothai Island Arc system). The Mai Yuam Fault, identified by Ferrari et al. (2008) as the Palaeo-Tethys suture, is in fact a Cenozoic fault and the Palaeo-Tethys suture zone is represented by the Inthanon Suture zone in Thailand which is equivalent to the previously recognised Inthanon zone. The concept of derivation of "Orang Laut" terranes from South China-Indochina by back-arc spreading is innovative but the proposed Permo-Triassic back-arc along the Song Da/Song Ma zone in Vietnam is less convincing. There is little evidence to support the proposed southwards subduction of Palaeo-Tethys beneath eastern Gondwana in the Permian.

  18. Le transfert de connaissances entre les mathematiques et les sciences. Une etude exploratoire aupres d'eleves de 4e secondaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, Ghislain

    2003-06-01

    Au moment ou dans plusieurs pays on travaille a refondre les programmes d'etudes, tant au primaire qu'au secondaire, l'interet pour le transfert renait. Un des concepts fondamentaux en apprentissage consiste en l'habilete a reutiliser de facon consciente et efficace un acquis d'une situation a une autre situation. Cette recherche emane de preoccupations professionnelles au moment ou le chercheur etait enseignant au secondaire. Au cours de ces annees, il lui a ete possible de constater que plusieurs eleves percevaient difficilement les liens presents entre les disciplines mathematiques et scientifiques. Des travaux en psychologie cognitive et plus particulierement selon une perspective du traitement de l'information ont servi de cadre de reference pour evaluer et analyser les capacites de transfert aupres d'eleves de 4e secondaire. Ce cadre de reference permet de formuler le principal objectif qui est de mieux comprendre le processus de transfert chez des eleves en situation de resolution de problemes scientifiques. Cette these s'interesse donc au transfert en tant que phenomene important du processus d'apprentissage au sens de l'integration. La methode de recherche choisie, de nature qualitative, est principalement axee sur l'evaluation de la capacite a transferer des connaissances lors d'une epreuve et d'un entretien. Pour evaluer ce potentiel de transfert, nous avons elabore deux outils: une epreuve en mathematiques et en sciences et un guide d'entretien. Pour la passation de l'epreuve, le chercheur a pu compter sur la collaboration de 130 sujets provenant de deux ecoles. L'entretien complete la prise de donnees avec 13 sujets ayant accepte de poursuivre l'etude. Les donnees recueillies par ces instruments font ensuite l'objet d'une analyse de contenu. En premier lieu, les verbatims de l'epreuve et de l'entretien ont ete transcrits, puis codifies. La correction des reponses fournies pour les problemes resolus s'est faite a partir d'une grille d

  19. 30 CFR 250.1002 - Design requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Spec 17J, incorporated by reference as specified in 30 CFR 250.198. (5) You must design pipeline risers... 30 CFR 250.198) where— P=Internal design pressure in pounds per square inch (psi). S=Specified..., API Spec 6A, or the equivalent (incorporated by reference as specified in 30 CFR 250.198). Each...

  20. 30 CFR 250.1002 - Design requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (incorporated by reference as specified in 30 CFR 250.198) where— P=Internal design pressure in pounds per... requirements of ANSI B16.5, API Spec 6A, or the equivalent (incorporated by reference as specified in 30 CFR... procedures of API Spec 17J, incorporated by reference as specified in 30 CFR 250.198. (5) You must...

  1. Doi Moi, Education and Identity Formation in Contemporary Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomon, Matthieu; Ket, Vu Doan

    2007-01-01

    In 2006 Vietnam had experienced more than two decades of reform. However, while the reforms have transformed the entire Vietnamese economy and opened the country to globalization, the education system is still very much under the Vietnamese Communist Party's control. The schoolbooks are published under close supervision of the authorities. The…

  2. Duration of immunity (DOI)--The regulatory issues.

    PubMed

    Gaskell, Rosalind M; Dawson, Susan; Radford, Alan D

    2006-10-01

    This paper discusses the efficacy of cat and dog vaccines, with respect to duration of immunity and regulatory issues. The European Union (EU) regulatory requirements are described: briefly, efficacy claims, which include duration of immunity, have to be specific for the product and supported by controlled laboratory and field trials. As a result, the duration of immunity shown has typically been a minimum, because of the cost and welfare implications of keeping animals for long periods of time in isolation. In contrast, in the US, duration of immunity has not traditionally been required for each individual product, only for rabies vaccines and some other vaccines for which no other products are available. The consequence of this is that in the US, various scientific authorities have produced guidelines appropriate for individual diseases. Undoubtedly this will continue, although the regulatory authorities also appear to be moving towards a position where lack of information may be indicated on the product label, and studies are required to support extended duration of immunity claims. The advantages and disadvantages of laboratory challenge studies versus field trials are discussed, and the use of alternatives such as surrogate markers of protection. The approaches used for small animal vaccines are compared to those used, for example, in human medicine. The main issue for small animals is that unlike in some other species, the aim generally is to maximise protection in the individual, rather than induce protection at the population level. The drawbacks of the present EU system are summarised, and the ways in which the situation is currently being approached and improved are presented.

  3. Association entre les hormones sexuelles, les marqueurs de remodelage osseux et la densité minérale osseuse chez des femmes ménopausées d'origine marocaine (étude transversale)

    PubMed Central

    El Maataoui, Aissam; Biaz, Asmae; El Boukhrissi, Fatima; El Machtani, Si; Dami, Abdellah; Bouhsain, Sanae; Bamou, Youssef; El Maghraoui, Abdellah; Ouzzif, Zhor

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Le présent travail se propose d’étudier la relation entre les hormones sexuelles, notamment l’œstradiol et l'indice de l’œstradiol libre, le sulfate de déhydroépiandrosterone et la sex hormone binding globulin, les marqueurs de remodelage osseux et la densité minérale osseuse chez une population de femmes marocaine ménopausées. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude transversale, menée sur une période de 6 mois d'octobre 2012 à fin avril 2013 et ayant fait participer deux cent deux (202). Résultats L’œstradiol et l'indice d’œstradiol libre (IEL) ont montré une corrélation négative respectivement à l'ostéocalcine (OC), à la crosslaps (β-CTX) et l'OC (p<0.001). La sulfate de déhydroepiandrosterone S-DHEA a été corrélée positivement à l'OC (p<0.001), alors que e taux sérique de la sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) l'a été corrélé à la β-CTX et l'OC (p<0.001). Par ailleurs, une corrélation positive a été établie entre la densité minérale osseuse (DMO) au col de fémur et le poids, l'indice de masse corporelle (IMC), l'IEL et la S-DHEA. Une corrélation négative a été retrouvée entre la DMO au col de fémur d'une part et l’âge, la DDR, la SHBG, la β-CTX et l'OC d'une autre part. Conclusion Le présent travail montre que l'augmentation de l’âge et la diminution de l’œstradiol libre expliquent la diminution de la DMO au niveau du col du fémur, alors que l'augmentation du taux sérique de la SHBG et la diminution du poids expliquent la diminution de la DMO au rachis lombaire. PMID:26848353

  4. Factores socio-económicos asociados a la percepción de situación socioeconómica entre adultos mayores de dos países latinoamericanos

    PubMed Central

    Brenes-Camacho, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo principal del artículo es estudiar la asociación entre la percepción subjetiva sobre la situación económica propia y una serie de medidas objetivas de bienestar socioeconómico –fuentes de ingresos, tenencia de vivienda, nivel educativo y transferencias familiares informales de dinero- entre adultos mayores de dos países Latinoamericanos: México y Costa Rica. Los datos se obtienen de las primeras rondas de dos encuestas sobre envejecimiento: CRELES para Costa Rica y ENASEM para México. La variable dependiente más importante se obtiene de las respuestas a las pregunta “¿Cómo califica su situación económica actual?” en Costa Rica y “¿Diría usted que su situación económica es…?” en México. Para ambas encuestas, las respuestas se codificaron en forma binaria; el código 0 representa las categorías Excelente, Muy buena y Buena, y el código 1 representa a las categorías Regular y Mala. Se encontró que el ingreso por jubilación es un importante determinante de la percepción de bienestar en ambos países. En Costa Rica, el ingreso del cónyuge y la tenencia de vivienda son importantes predictores de la percepción de bienestar, mientras que en México, los ingresos por transferencias están fuertemente asociados con dicha percepción. PMID:25360057

  5. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Balán, Iván C; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María M

    2011-03-01

    El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin.

  6. Determinação de elementos próprios dos asteróides troianos: comparação entre as teorias semi-analítica e sintética

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, F.; Beaugé, C.

    2003-08-01

    Além do cálculo semi-analítico de elementos próprios dos asteróides Troianos (Beaugé & Roig 2001, Icarus 153, 391), recentemente foi apresentado um novo conjunto destes elementos próprios determinado através de uma teoria sintética (Knenezevic & Milani 2003, comunicação pessoal). As bases de dados contendo estas determinações estão disponiveis na pagina web do Asteroid Dynamical Site (http://hamilton.dm.unipi.it/cgi-bin/astdys/astibo). Nesta comunicação apresentamos os primeiros resultados de um estudo comparativo entre ambos conjuntos de elementos próprios, analisando suas vantagens e desvantagens, assim como os limites de precisão de cada conjunto. Mostramos que os elementos próprios sintéticos são mais precisos que os smi-analíticos para grandes amplitudes de libração do ângulo s = l-lJup, embora acontece o contrario para os corpos cuja amplitude de libração é muito pequena. Finalmente discutimos a influencia destes erros na determinação de familias de asteroides e da estrutura resonante em torno dos pontos Lagrangeanos L4 e L5.

  7. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires

    PubMed Central

    Balán, Iván C.; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O.; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria; Ávila, María M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

  8. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Balán, Iván C; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María M

    2011-03-01

    El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

  9. Traces de l'interaction entre galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc, Pierre-Alain

    2016-08-01

    Within a galaxy, collisions between stars are exceptional; collisions between galaxies are themselves much more frequent. They are even supposed to play a major role in the formation of structures according to the standard hierarchical cosmological model. Gravitational interactions, tidal forces and following mergers shape the morphology of galaxies, and leave vestiges which can survive for a few Gyr. They consist of stellar shells, streams, tails and plumes which emit a diffuse and extended optical light. Several deep imaging projects use telescopes of all sizes to try to detect this light. We detail here what the census of collisional debris can tel us about the past history of galaxies and about the models and simulations supposedly accounting for it.

  10. A Concepção de Universo entre Alunos do Ensino Médio de São Paulo e suas Fontes de Aquisição

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, M. A. A.; Elias, D. C. N.; Amaral, L. H.; Araújo, M. S. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2006-08-01

    Nesse trabalho procurou-se identificar por meio de um questionário as concepções de Universo, de espaço e tempo que sustentam a visão de mundo de um grupo de 270 estudantes de Ensino Médio, pertencentes a três escolas de São Paulo. As questões relacionadas aos conhecimentos prévios dos estudantes permitiram constatar que há pouco conhecimento acerca dos temas investigados, destacando-se que apenas 20% dos alunos foram capazes de relacionar as semanas com as fases da lua, enquanto 28% associaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra e 23% tinham noções das distâncias entre objetos celestes próximos da Terra. Enquanto 56% conseguiram relacionar o Big Bang com a origem do Universo, verificou-se que 37% reconheciam ano-luz como unidade de distância e 60% concebiam o Sol como uma estrela. No que se refere às fontes de aquisição que proporcionaram esses conhecimentos, apesar de 60% dos alunos indicarem a escola como principal fonte dos conhecimentos de Ast! ronomia, verificou-se claramente que para a maioria dos alunos seus conceitos ainda são inadequados, havendo necessidade de aprimoramento da abordagem desses conteúdos, pois apesar de popular, a Astronomia ainda é veiculada de maneira pouco esclarecedora e com imprecisões. Nesse contexto, são discutidas algumas possíveis contribuições que podem ser dadas para o ensino de Astronomia pelo uso das ferramentas computacionais nas escolas.

  11. Distinción Empírica Entre Engagement y Trabajolismo en Enfermeras Hospitalarias de Japón: Efecto Sobre la Calidad del Sueño y el Desempeño Laboral

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Kazumi; Shimazu, Akihito; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Nakata, Akinori; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo El objetivo de este estudio es demostrar la distinción entre engagement y trabajolismo, estudiando su relación con la calidad del sueño y el desempeño laboral. Método Un total de 447 enfermeras de 3 hospitales de Japón fueron entrevistadas mediante un cuestionario autoadministrado que incluía la escala Utrecht (UWES, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale), la Escala de Adicción al Trabajo Holandesa (DUWAS, Dutch Workaholism Scale), preguntas sobre la calidad del sueño (7 ítems) con respecto a (1) dificultad para conciliar el sueño, (2) dificultad para mantener el sueño, (3) despertar temprano por la mañana, (4) dormirse o tomar siestas durante el día, (5) somnolencia diurna excesiva en el trabajo, (6) dificultad para despertarse por la mañana, y (7) despertar cansado en la mañana, y el Cuestionario sobre Salud y Desempeño (CSD) de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados Los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales demostraron que el engagement se relaciona positivamente con la calidad del sueño y el rendimiento laboral, mientras que el trabajolismo tiene una relación negativa con la calidad del sueño y el desempeño laboral. Conclusión Los resultados indican que el engagement y el trabajolismo son conceptualmente diferentes. El primero tiene una connotación positiva, mientras que el segundo se asocia de manera negativa al bienestar (buena calidad del sueño y buen rendimiento en el trabajo). PMID:26752805

  12. Discriminação de núcleos primários no Observatório Auger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiba, A. K. O.; Medina Tanco, G. A.; Sciutto, S. J.

    2003-08-01

    A identidade das partículas, com energias E > 10EeV, que geram chuveiros atmosféricos extensivos (CAE) na atmosfera terrestre é um incógnita. Existem diferenças sutis, mas apreciáveis entre chuveiros gerados por fótons e por núcleos, como temos demonstrado em trabalho recente. Porém entre os núcleos, as diferenças são tão sutis, que a baixa estatística e incertezas experimentais têm limitado fortemente sua diferenciação até o presente. Tal discriminação precede qualquer aplicação astrofísica mas sofisticada de raios cósmicos de ultra-alta energia. Apresentamos aqui os resultados do desenvolvimento de novos métodos de diagnóstico para a análise de CAEs com aplicação específica ao Experimento Pierre Auger. Redes neurais, combinadas com simulações numéricas detalhadas de CAEs e dos dois tipos diferentes de detectores (Cherenkov em água e de fluorescência atmosférica) presentes no experimento são empregados na análise. Mostraremos a capacidade dos métodos de diagnóstico desenvolvidos, para a discriminação de diversas distribuições hipotéticas de massa-anergia.

  13. Mumps Outbreak among Highly Vaccinated Teenagers and Children in the Central Region of Portugal, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Eugénio; Ferreira, Muriel; Rodrigues, Fernanda; Palminha, Paula; Vinagre, Elsa; Pimentel, João Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A vacina contra o sarampo, parotidite epidémica e rubéola foi introduzida no Programa Nacional de Vacinação em 1987, atingindo rapidamente uma cobertura vacinal > 92% para duas doses, com redução importante da incidência anual da doença. Reportamos um surto de parotidite na Região Centro de Portugal ocorrido entre outubro de 2012 e março de 2013. Material e Métodos: Foram investigados os casos de tumefação de glândulas salivares e sintomas compatíveis com parotidite. Para cada caso foram analisados dados demográficos, clínicos, laboratoriais e vacinais. Resultados: Ao longo de seis meses foram notificados 148 casos: 87,8% ocorreram em três dos 16 concelhos afetados e 78,4% tinham uma relação epidemiológica conhecida. A idade mediana foi de 14,5 anos (2-62) e 70,3% tinham entre 11 e 20 anos; 61,5% eram do sexo masculino. Na maioria dos casos a doença foi ligeira, com uma duração média de sete dias (2-20). A febre ocorreu em 80,4% e a glândula parótida apresentou envolvimento unilateral em 55,4%; sete casos tiveram orquite, um ooforite e uma nefrite. Dois doentes foram internados. A transmissão da doença ocorreu predominantemente em ambiente escolar, com taxas de ataque < 30%. A maioria dos casos ocorreu em indivíduos vacinados (92%), dos quais 86,8% com duas doses. Em 17,7% foi identificada uma dosede vacina contendo a estirpe Rubini. Foi identificado o genótipo G do vírus da parotidite em quatro casos. Discussão: Este surto de parotidite numa população com coberturas vacinais elevadas, atingindo principalmente adolescentes em meio escolar, poderá dever-se à efetividade parcial da vacina contra a doença (especialmente no grupo vacinado com a estirpe Rubini), à perda de imunidade ao longo do tempo ou ainda à discordância entre os genótipos vacinal e circulante causador de doença. Conclusões: O relato deste surto releva a importância da discussão sobre a necessidade de mais doses de reforço da vacina atual

  14. Análisis de abundancias de estrellas δ Sct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, E.; Pintado, O. I.

    Las estrellas δ Sct se encuentran en la parte inferior de la franja de inestabilidad, su tipo espectral está entre A y F y sus luminosidades se extienden entre la Secuencia Principal y 2 magnitudes por encima de ella. Sus períodos son menores que 0d.3 y sus amplitudes varían entre milésimas y décimas de magnitud. En este trabajo se realiza un análisis detallado de las abundancias de un grupo de estrellas δ Sct observadas en el CASLEO con el espectrógrafo REOSC. Este trabajo forma parte de un proyecto destinado a estudiar las relaciones existentes entre los parámetros de pulsación (período y amplitudes) y parámetros físicos tales como velocidad de rotación, temperatura efectiva, metalicidades de este tipo de estrellas.

  15. Estrellas de tipo espectral B y A observadas con EBASIM de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintado, O. I.; Adelman, S. J.; Pedrosa, S.

    The chemical abundances of ξOct (B6IV), α Sex (B9.5III), 68Tau (A2IV) y HR4817(B8II/III) were derived using the data from EBASIM spectrograph at CASLEO. The wavelength range coverage isλ λ 410-640 nm for ξ Oct and λ λ 400-900 nm for the other stars. The spectra were extracted with IRAF, coadded with TSTACK and measured with REDUCE (Hill, Fischer y Poekert,1982). The maximun signal-to-noise ratios are tipically 400 in the centers and 50-200 at the ends of the orders. The effective temperature and the surface gravity were calculated with uvbyβ photometry. The adopted microturbulence were those for which the FeI and FeII derived abundances were independent of the equivalent widths. SYNSPEC (Hubeny et al 1994) were used to derive the He abundances and WIDTH9 (Kurucz, 1993) for the metal abundances. The derived ξ Oct abundances were compared with those obtained with the Anglo Australian Telescope echelle spectrograph (Adelman et al, 1993) and with the CASLEO REOSC echelle spectrograph(Pintado & Adelman, 1996). The results are comparable. The α Sex abundances are similar to those of other stars of the same spectral type. The 68Tau abundances were compared with those obtained with the Coudè spectrograph from the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (Adelman, 1994). In the last two stars It was possible to identify new chemical elements because their spectra extends to longer wavelengths. HR4817, classified as a HgMn star, has a relatively high He abundance and in this paper, the derived abundances of MnI and MnII are better determined than on former papers (Adelman & Pintado, 1997).

  16. Fotometría uvby y Hβ para estrellas de los últimos tipos.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reglero, V.; Giménez, A.; Fabregat, J.; Suso, J.

    In the last ten years important progresses have been done towards the calibration of the uvby and Hβ photometric systems for late type stars. The authors present a brief summary of the most relevant results obtained by their group. In particular they present a detailed discussion on the effects induced by the stellar activity and their influence on the [Fe/H] abundance determinations.

  17. Materials Data on Ti(PO3)3 (SG:9) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  18. La interacción planeta-estrella en estrellas con planetas de tipo ``Hot Jupiter''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, C. F.; Jofré, E.; Petrucci, R.; Chavero, C.; Gómez, M.

    In this contribution we investigate the planet-star interaction for a group of southern stars harboring ``Hot Jupiter'' planets. To this aim we obtained EBASIM (CASLEO) spectra of 12 stars with ``Hot Jupiter'' planets and for other two stars with no exoplanet detected by the Doppler technique. We determine the stellar parameters for these objects to compute synthetic spectra and to compare with the observed spectra. The matches for the stars with no detected planets are slightly better than for those with ``Hot Jupiter'' planets. The differences between the observed and theoretical spectra might be due to the influence of the planet on the host-star spectrum. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  19. Objetos de tipo espectral temprano en la vecindad de estrellas Wolf-Rayet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collado, A.; Gamen, R.; Barbá, R.

    We are carrying out a spectroscopic monitoring of faint and poor-studied Galactic Wolf-Rayet stars in order to detect new binary systems. Since most of these systems are not related to known clusters or OB associations, a study of the stellar surrounding population is being done. These objects were chosen according to their IR colors in the 2MASS Catalogue and re- sulted in the discovery of several objects with early spectral types. The observations were performed in 2007 and 2008 with the 4-m telescope V. Blanco of the Inter-American Observatory of Cerro Tololo, Chile. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  20. Materials Data on Li2TiPO4F (SG:1) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-10

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  1. Materials Data on TiPO4F (SG:2) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-04

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  2. Substance use disorders and HIV in Vietnam since Doi Moi (Renovation): an overview.

    PubMed

    Giang, Le Minh; Ngoc, Lung Bich; Hoang, Vu Huy; Mulvey, Kevin; Rawson, Richard A

    2013-12-01

    Drawing from published and gray literature, this manuscript focuses on the following topics: (1) changing patterns of substance use and abuse in Vietnam since the early 1990s; (2) the roles of substance use in the HIV epidemic; (3) the responses of the Vietnamese government and other entities (both domestic and international) to substance use disorders (SUDs) and HIV; and (4) the current research capacity in Vietnam and ways in which furthering research in Vietnam could enrich our knowledge of the linkages between SUDs and HIV and of effective measures to reduce their public health consequences. A growing number of studies during the past two decades show dynamic and still evolving twin epidemics of SUDs and HIV in Vietnam, including a shift from consumption of opium to heroin and amphetamine-type stimulants, the concurrent use of drugs, and the increasing embrace by the government of internationally recognized effective responses (including harm reduction and methadone substitution therapy). And yet, remaining issues, such as the rapid ascendance of amphetamine-type stimulant use among the country's most vulnerable populations, the lack of effective integration of SUD and HIV services for HIV-infected drug users, and the reliance on international resources for maintaining quality services, among others, are posing challenges for building sustainable Vietnamese responses. Therefore, building local research and training capacity is a crucial foundation to meet these challenges.

  3. Drilling and Testing the DOI041A Coalbed Methane Well, Fort Yukon, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Arthur; Barker, Charles E.; Weeks, Edwin P.

    2009-01-01

    The need for affordable energy sources is acute in rural communities of Alaska where costly diesel fuel must be delivered by barge or plane for power generation. Additionally, the transport, transfer, and storage of fuel pose great difficulty in these regions. Although small-scale energy development in remote Arctic locations presents unique challenges, identifying and developing economic, local sources of energy remains a high priority for state and local government. Many areas in rural Alaska contain widespread coal resources that may contain significant amounts of coalbed methane (CBM) that, when extracted, could be used for power generation. However, in many of these areas, little is known concerning the properties that control CBM occurrence and production, including coal bed geometry, coalbed gas content and saturation, reservoir permeability and pressure, and water chemistry. Therefore, drilling and testing to collect these data are required to accurately assess the viability of CBM as a potential energy source in most locations. In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Alaska Department of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), the Doyon Native Corporation, and the village of Fort Yukon, organized and funded the drilling of a well at Fort Yukon, Alaska to test coal beds for CBM developmental potential. Fort Yukon is a town of about 600 people and is composed mostly of Gwich'in Athabascan Native Americans. It is located near the center of the Yukon Flats Basin, approximately 145 mi northeast of Fairbanks.

  4. Image properties of list mode likelihood reconstruction for a rectangular positron emission mammography with DOI measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Jinyi; Klein, Gregory J.; Huesman, Ronald H.

    2000-10-01

    A positron emission mammography scanner is under development at our Laboratory. The tomograph has a rectangular geometry consisting of four banks of detector modules. For each detector, the system can measure the depth of interaction information inside the crystal. The rectangular geometry leads to irregular radial and angular sampling and spatially variant sensitivity that are different from conventional PET systems. Therefore, it is of importance to study the image properties of the reconstructions. We adapted the theoretical analysis that we had developed for conventional PET systems to the list mode likelihood reconstruction for this tomograph. The local impulse response and covariance of the reconstruction can be easily computed using FFT. These theoretical results are also used with computer observer models to compute the signal-to-noise ratio for lesion detection. The analysis reveals the spatially variant resolution and noise properties of the list mode likelihood reconstruction. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with Monte Carlo results.

  5. 77 FR 17493 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; DOI Generic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Management and Budget and request for comments. SUMMARY: As part of a Federal Government-wide effort to... No comments were received in response to the 60-day notice published in the Federal Register...

  6. Substance use disorders and HIV in Vietnam since Doi Moi (Renovation): an overview.

    PubMed

    Giang, Le Minh; Ngoc, Lung Bich; Hoang, Vu Huy; Mulvey, Kevin; Rawson, Richard A

    2013-12-01

    Drawing from published and gray literature, this manuscript focuses on the following topics: (1) changing patterns of substance use and abuse in Vietnam since the early 1990s; (2) the roles of substance use in the HIV epidemic; (3) the responses of the Vietnamese government and other entities (both domestic and international) to substance use disorders (SUDs) and HIV; and (4) the current research capacity in Vietnam and ways in which furthering research in Vietnam could enrich our knowledge of the linkages between SUDs and HIV and of effective measures to reduce their public health consequences. A growing number of studies during the past two decades show dynamic and still evolving twin epidemics of SUDs and HIV in Vietnam, including a shift from consumption of opium to heroin and amphetamine-type stimulants, the concurrent use of drugs, and the increasing embrace by the government of internationally recognized effective responses (including harm reduction and methadone substitution therapy). And yet, remaining issues, such as the rapid ascendance of amphetamine-type stimulant use among the country's most vulnerable populations, the lack of effective integration of SUD and HIV services for HIV-infected drug users, and the reliance on international resources for maintaining quality services, among others, are posing challenges for building sustainable Vietnamese responses. Therefore, building local research and training capacity is a crucial foundation to meet these challenges. PMID:25278736

  7. "Lo Ultimo": "Consejos"--"Un Dialogo Respetoso Entre Colegas"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Olga A.; Flores, Belinda Bustos; Clark, Ellen Riojas

    2001-01-01

    "Los testimonios," or life stories, shared in this volume reveal that academia represents a labyrinth of challenges for aspiring and emerging Latina scholars--a story these authors know all too well. As Latina "veterana" scholars, who have traveled this arduous journey, the authors recognize that their collective efforts have…

  8. A Astronomia no Ensino Superior Brasileiro entre 1808 e 1889

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo S.; Videira, Antonio A. P.

    2003-05-01

    Este artigo apresenta os principais eventos ocorridos na história do ensino de astronomia nos cursos superiores que existiram no Brasil desde a chegada da Família Real portuguesa em 1808 até o final do período monárquico. Para compor esse esboço histórico, utilizamos, principalmente, livros didáticos, regulamentos, decretos e leis responsáveis pelas organizações dos conteúdos oferecidos e das carreiras dos responsáveis pela disciplina. Na análise do material empregado, investigamos a presença de concepções filosóficas e científicas, que podem ter norteado os conteúdos disciplinares. Não realizamos nenhuma comparação com o ensino de astronomia em outros países. Concluímos mostrando que o estudo de astronomia, durante o período monárquico, foi mais direcionado para a formação d engenheiros do que astrônomos. Gostaríamos de observar que o presente artigo não tem a pretensão de abordar o assunto de maneira completa e detalhada.

  9. Toxicité sérotoninergique résultant d’une interaction médicamenteuse entre le bleu de méthylène et les inhibiteurs de la recapture de la sérotonine

    PubMed Central

    Charbonneau, Annie

    2013-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte : Le bleu de méthylène est employé en pratique pour diverses raisons médicales. Des données récentes ont évoqué une interaction potentielle avec les inhibiteurs de la recapture de la sérotonine, pouvant conduire à une toxicité sérotoninergique. Objectif : Décrire le risque de toxicité sérotoninergique associé à l’interaction entre le bleu de méthylène et les inhibiteurs de la recapture de la sérotonine. Sources de l’information : Les publications pertinentes ont été ciblées systématiquement au moyen des moteurs de recherche MEDLINE (1946 au 21 mars 2013) et Embase (1974 à 2013, semaine 11) en utilisant les mots clés suivants : methylene blue, methylthioninium, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, serotonin reuptake inhibitors et serotonin syndrome. Aucune restriction touchant l’indication du bleu de méthylène ou la langue n’a été appliquée. Les références des publications ont également été analysées. Sélection des études et extraction des données : Dix-huit études de cas et deux séries de cas systématiques ont été sélectionnées. Aucune étude clinique aléatoire n’a encore été publiée. Synthèse des résultats : La première étude de cas à avoir soupçonné une interaction entre le bleu de méthylène et les inhibiteurs de la recapture de la sérotonine est parue en 2003. Dix-sept autres études de cas décrivant le même type d’interaction ont par la suite été rapportées. Les deux séries de cas ont regroupé les données de quelques 325 parathyroïdectomies où le bleu de méthylène avait été employé comme agent colorant. Les 17 patients qui ont présenté une toxicité du système nerveux central prenaient tous en période préopératoire des inhibiteurs de recapture de la sérotonine. Conclusion : Lorsqu’il est administré en concomitance avec des inhibiteurs de recapture de la sérotonine, le bleu de méthylène peut conduire à une toxicité sérotoninergique à une dose aussi

  10. Etude de la flore bactérienne contaminant les téléphones mobiles avant et après la désinfection: comparaison entre les professionnels soignants de l'hôpital militaire d'instruction Mohammed V de Rabat et les témoins

    PubMed Central

    Uwingabiye, Jean; Moustanfii, Wafaa; Chadli, Meryem; Sekhsokh, Yassine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de notre travail était évaluer la contamination microbienne des téléphones mobiles utilisés par les personnels soignants des différents services de l'hôpital militaire d'instructions Mohammed V de Rabat et la comparer à celui d'une population témoin et aussi démontrer l'efficacité des solutions hydroalcoolique dans la désinfection de ces téléphones mobiles. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude descriptive transversale réalisée sur une période de 9 mois entre septembre 2010 et juin 2011, dans le service de bactériologie de l'hôpital militaire d'Instruction Mohammed V. Résultats L’étude bactériologique a été faite sur 240 téléphones mobiles dont 50% provenaient de personnels de sante. Le taux de contamination bactérienne de tous les téléphones mobiles était de 100%. Les cultures des bactéries isolées au niveau des téléphones mobiles du personnel médical étaient plus polymorphes que celles de la population témoin (p=0,028). Parmi 437 bactéries isolées: 223(51%) provenaient de téléphones de personnels de santé et 214(49%) de téléphones de la population témoin avec une différence qui n’était pas statistiquement significative(p>0,05) sauf pour les isolats de Staphylocoque à coagulase négative et Staphylococcus aureus. Les bactéries isolées étaient représentées par: Staphylocoque à coagulase (57,7%), Staphylococcus aureus (18,1%), Corynebacterium sp (18,8%), Bacillus sp (2,3%) et autres (2,2%). La différence entre la prévalence des bactéries isolées selon les services et les fonctions des personnels de santé n’était pas statistiquement significative (p>0,05). La désinfection des téléphones portables par la solution hydroalcoolique a réduit à 99,5% le nombre des colonies. Conclusion Ce travail montre que les téléphones portables pourraient jouer un rôle dans la transmission des infections nosocomiales et communautaires. Dans le cadre de prévention de ces risques, il faut

  11. [CD4+, CD8+ AND CD19+ cells in individuals with dyslipidemia].

    PubMed

    Pereira de Moura, Jose; Santos Rosa, Manuel; Alves, Vera; Mota Pinto, Anabela; Rodrigues, Victor; Silva, José Manuel; Alves de Moura, J J

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: Os mecanismos imunológicos e inflamatórios têm um papel crucial no desenvolvimento da aterosclerose e na sua tradução clínica. São inúmeros os estudos que procuraram relacionar os mais diversos marcadores inflamatórios – leucócitos, proteína C reactiva, interleucinas, quimiocinas, moléculas de adesão, metaloproteinases, etc – com os factores de risco clássicos da aterosclerose, a formação da placa e os fenómenos clínicos. Não são tantos, que tenhamos conhecimento, os trabalhos que analisaram o comportamento das diversas células mononucleares na fisiopatologia da aterosclerose. Sendo os monócitos/macrófagos e os linfócitos células fundamentais no desencadear e posterior evolução desta doença vascular, procurámos determinar as percentagens das diversas populações celulares periféricas em indivíduos dislipidémicos e em normolipidémicos.Material e Métodos: Por citometria de fluxo, determinámos em indivíduos com dislipidemia e num grupo controlo, as concentrações no sangue periférico dos CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD19+, CD56+, CD56CD8+, DN, CD25+, CD26+, CD25CD3+, CD26CD3+, CD25CD26CD3+, CCR5+, CCR5CD3+, CCR5CD4+, HLADR+, HLADRCD4+, HLADRCD8h+, HLADRCD8low+, HLADRCD8+, CD95+, CD95CD95L+, CD3CD95+, CD3CD95L+, CD62L+, CD3CD62L+, CD69+, CD69CD3+ e CD69CD4+. Resultados: Embora na sua grande maioria não tenham sido encontradas diferenças significativas entre os dois grupos de participantes, verificaram-se em algumas populações celulares, resultados que nos mereceram alguns comentários. Neste artigo debruçámo-nos apenas sobre as populações positivas para os CD4, CD8 e CD19.Discussão: A menor concentração das células CD4+ na nossa população de dislipidémicos foi aparentemente inesperada devido ao relacionamento existente entre este tipo celular, os factores de risco e a aterosclerose. Não foram determinados os subtipos Th1 e Th2, nem a população de células reguladoras CD4+CD25+, que poderiam explicar a

  12. Home-Type Activities at the Day Care Center. (Tipos De Actividades Del Hogar En El Centro De Cuidado Diario.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaronson, May; Moberg, Patricia E.

    This paper argues that home activities comprise a valuable unplanned curriculum and that many of these activities can be transferred to the day care center. It is suggested that these activities foster a closer relationship between child and caregiver and bridge the gap between familiar home environment and novel day care setting. Home activities…

  13. Relaciones fundamentales de la población de galaxias de tipo temprano del cúmulo de Antlia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderón, J. P.; Bassino, L. P.; Cellone, S. A.; Smith Castelli, A. V.; Caso, J. P.

    We present the results of a study of more than 100 early-type galaxies in Antlia Cluster, that span from giant ellipticals to dwarf ellipticals, covering a magnitude range of 11 magnitudes (M_{V_T} = -22 to -11). We perform surface photometry of these galaxies, and their total magnitudes, surface brightnesses and radii are determined on the basis of the Sérsic law fits. Finally, the fundamental relations between them are analyzed. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  14. Fotometría superficial de galaxias de tipo temprano en las regiones externas del cúmulo de Antlia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderón, J. P.; Bassino, L. P.; Smith Castelli, A. V.; Cellone, S. A.

    We present surface photometry of 30 early-type galaxies in the Antlia clus- ter, and analyze their color-magnitude and surface brightness - luminosity relations. The photometric relations are consistent, in the range correspond- ing to low luminosities, with those obtained in previous papers for galaxies lying in the central Antlia region. The projected spatial distribution con- firms the elongated structure followed by other Antlia galaxies as well as globular clusters, in the direction that connects the more massive galaxies. In addition, surface brightness profiles have been measured for a sub-sample using the task ELLIPSE within IRAF. We are currently fitting Sérsic models to these profiles, in order to quantify the morphology of the studied galax- ies. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  15. Cinemática y masas de agujeros negros en galaxias activas del tipo "Narrow Line Seyfert 1"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oío, G.; Schmidt, E.; Vega Neme, L. R.

    We apply a spectral synthesis method to Narrow Line Seyfert 1 active galax- ies with public spectra available. Our goal will be to obtain the stellar ve- locity dispersions, and then the central black hole masses via the Tremaine relation. We comment several problems we found in fitting this type of objects and the possibility of obtaining masses through the emission lines. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  16. Comment on "Direct solution for discharge in circular free overfall by Z. Ahmad, H. Md. Azamathulla" J. Hydrol., in press. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.04.025

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vatankhah, Ali R.

    2012-10-01

    Recently, it is proposed [by Ahmad and Azamathulla (2012)] a closed form equation for discharge in terms of end depth in subcritical flows by simulation of the free overfall in a circular channel with a sharp-crested weir. As shown in this discussion, the theoretical discharge relationship can be accurately integrated with the aid of popular mathematical software and series expansion method is not required. According to this study, the theoretical end-depth ratio (EDR) is almost constant with an average value of 0.766 over the entire practical range. Using the numerical results which are accurate to six significant digits, this discussion shows that the proposed power equation by the authors for theoretical discharge in subcritical flow regime is not very accurate (the errors increase up to 12%), thus it is proposed a new accurate equation (with maximum error less than 0.35%) for prediction of theoretical discharge in circular channel with a single measurement of end flow depth.

  17. Melanosomes and ancient coloration re-examined: A response to Vinther 2015 (DOI 10.1002/bies.201500018).

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Mary H; Lindgren, Johan; Moyer, Alison E

    2015-11-01

    Round to elongate microbodies associated with fossil vertebrate soft tissues were interpreted as microbial traces until 2008, when they were re-described as remnant melanosomes - intracellular, pigment-containing eukaryotic organelles. Since then, multiple claims for melanosome preservation and inferences of organismal color, behavior, and physiology have been advanced, based upon the shape and size of these microstructures. Here, we re-examine evidence for ancient melanosomes in light of information reviewed in Vinther (2015), and literature regarding the preservation potential of microorganisms and their exopolymeric secretions. We: (i) address statements in Vinther's recent (2015) review that are incorrect or which misrepresent published data; (ii) discuss the need for caution in interpreting "voids" and microbodies associated with degraded fossil soft tissues; (iii) present evidence that microorganisms are in many cases an equally parsimonious source for these "voids" as are remnant melanosomes; and (iv) suggest methods/criteria for differentiating melanosomes from microbial traces in the fossil record.

  18. 76 FR 77244 - Renewal of Information Collection; OMB Control Number 1040-0001, DOI Programmatic Clearance for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... February 10, 2012. ADDRESSES: Mail or hand carry comments to the Department of the Interior; Office of... the public and to respond accordingly. We use customer satisfaction surveys to help us fulfill our... support all aspects of planning to include buildings, roads, interpretive exhibits, and technical...

  19. Problematizing Digital Research Evaluation using DOIs in Practice-Based Arts, Humanities and Social Science Research.

    PubMed

    Swijghuisen Reigersberg, Muriel

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores emerging practices in research data management in the arts, humanities and social sciences (AHSS). It will do so vis-à-vis current citation conventions and impact measurement for research in AHSS. Case study findings on research data inventoried at Goldsmiths', University of London will be presented. Goldsmiths is a UK research-intensive higher education institution which specialises in arts, humanities and social science research. The paper's aim is to raise awareness of the subject-specific needs of AHSS scholars to help inform the design of future digital tools for impact analysis in AHSS. Firstly, I shall explore the definition of research data and how it is currently understood by AHSS researchers. I will show why many researchers choose not to engage with digital dissemination techniques and ORCID. This discussion must necessarily include the idea that practice-based and applied AHSS research are processes which are not easily captured in numerical 'sets' and cannot be labelled electronically without giving careful consideration to what a group or data item 'represents' as part of the academic enquiry, and therefore how it should be cited and analysed as part of any impact assessment. Then, the paper will explore: the role of the monograph and arts catalogue in AHSS scholarship; how citation practices and digital impact measurement in AHSS currently operate in relation to authorship and how digital identifiers may hypothetically impact on metrics, intellectual property (IP), copyright and research integrity issues in AHSS. I will also show that, if we are to be truly interdisciplinary, as research funders and strategic thinkers say we should, it is necessary to revise the way we think about digital research dissemination. This will involve breaking down the boundaries between AHSS and other types of research. PMID:26236470

  20. Educational and Social Development in Doi Ang Khang: A Comparative Study of the Khob Dong and Nor Lae Villages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Timothy; Gray, Lauren; Lake, John; Roy, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    Northern Thailand is home to many hill tribes, who have lived for hundreds of years as subsistence farmers or nomadic hunters. In the 1940s, communist insurgencies drove many hill tribes from China, Burma, and other nations south into northern Thailand. Uprooted from their native lands, the hill tribes left behind ties to economic resources and,…

  1. Problematizing Digital Research Evaluation using DOIs in Practice-Based Arts, Humanities and Social Science Research

    PubMed Central

    Swijghuisen Reigersberg, Muriel

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores emerging practices in research data management in the arts, humanities and social sciences (AHSS). It will do so vis-à-vis current citation conventions and impact measurement for research in AHSS. Case study findings on research data inventoried at Goldsmiths’, University of London will be presented. Goldsmiths is a UK research-intensive higher education institution which specialises in arts, humanities and social science research. The paper’s aim is to raise awareness of the subject-specific needs of AHSS scholars to help inform the design of future digital tools for impact analysis in AHSS. Firstly, I shall explore the definition of research data and how it is currently understood by AHSS researchers. I will show why many researchers choose not to engage with digital dissemination techniques and ORCID. This discussion must necessarily include the idea that practice-based and applied AHSS research are processes which are not easily captured in numerical ‘sets’ and cannot be labelled electronically without giving careful consideration to what a group or data item ‘represents’ as part of the academic enquiry, and therefore how it should be cited and analysed as part of any impact assessment. Then, the paper will explore: the role of the monograph and arts catalogue in AHSS scholarship; how citation practices and digital impact measurement in AHSS currently operate in relation to authorship and how digital identifiers may hypothetically impact on metrics, intellectual property (IP), copyright and research integrity issues in AHSS. I will also show that, if we are to be truly interdisciplinary, as research funders and strategic thinkers say we should, it is necessary to revise the way we think about digital research dissemination. This will involve breaking down the boundaries between AHSS and other types of research. PMID:26236470

  2. Process Evaluation of a School-Based Weight Gain Prevention Program: The Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, A. S.; Chinapaw, M. J. M.; Brug, J.; van Mechelen, W.

    2009-01-01

    Health promotion programs benefit from an accompanying process evaluation since it can provide more insight in the strengths and weaknesses of a program. A process evaluation was conducted to assess the reach, implementation, satisfaction and maintenance of a school-based program aimed at the prevention of excessive weight gain among Dutch…

  3. Correction to: Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw 2015;18(2);59-71 DOI: 10.1089/cyber.2014.0343.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    In the February 2015 issue of Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking (vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 59–71), the article "Association Between Pornography Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors in Adult Consumers: A Systematic Review," by Emily L. Harkness et al., the second author's name was displayed as "Barbara M. Mullan;" however, the middle initial is incorrect. The authors wish to apologize for the error and Dr. Mullan would like to be cited without a middle initial simply as "B Mullan."

  4. Correction to: Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw 2015;18(2);59-71 DOI: 10.1089/cyber.2014.0343.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    In the February 2015 issue of Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking (vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 59–71), the article "Association Between Pornography Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors in Adult Consumers: A Systematic Review," by Emily L. Harkness et al., the second author's name was displayed as "Barbara M. Mullan;" however, the middle initial is incorrect. The authors wish to apologize for the error and Dr. Mullan would like to be cited without a middle initial simply as "B Mullan." PMID:26544786

  5. Restoring the Great Lakes: DOI stories of success and partnership in implementing the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; ,; ,; ,; ,

    2013-01-01

    The Great Lakes are a monumentally unique national treasure containing nearly ninety-five percent of the United States' fresh surface water. Formed by receding glaciers, the Great Lakes support a thriving, resilient ecosystem rich with fish, wildlife, and abundant natural resources. The Great Lakes also support an array of commercial uses, including shipping, and provide a source of recreation, drinking water, and other critical services that drive the economy of the region and the Nation. Regrettably, activities such as clear cutting of mature forests, over-harvesting of fish populations, industrial pollution, invasive species, and agricultural runoffs have degraded these treasured lakes over the decades creating long-term impacts to the surrounding watershed. Fortunately, the people who live, work, and recreate in the region recognize the critical importance of a healthy Great Lakes ecosystem, and have come together to support comprehensive restoration. To stimulate and promote the goal of a healthy Great Lakes region, President Obama and Congress created the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) in 2009. This program provides the seed money to clean up legacy pollution, restore habitats, protect wildlife, combat invasive species, and address agricultural runoff in the Great Lakes watershed. At the same time GLRI promotes public outreach, education, accountability, and partnerships.

  6. Multicellularity arose several times in the evolution of eukaryotes (response to DOI 10.1002/bies.201100187).

    PubMed

    Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Lahr, Daniel J G

    2013-04-01

    The cellular slime mold Dictyostelium has cell-cell connections similar in structure, function, and underlying molecular mechanisms to animal epithelial cells. These similarities form the basis for the proposal that multicellularity is ancestral to the clade containing animals, fungi, and Amoebozoa (including Dictyostelium): Amorphea (formerly "unikonts"). This hypothesis is intriguing and if true could precipitate a paradigm shift. However, phylogenetic analyses of two key genes reveal patterns inconsistent with a single origin of multicellularity. A single origin in Amorphea would also require loss of multicellularity in each of the many unicellular lineages within this clade. Further, there are numerous other origins of multicellularity within eukaryotes, including three within Amorphea, that are not characterized by these structural and mechanistic similarities. Instead, convergent evolution resulting from similar selective pressures for forming multicellular structures with motile and differentiated cells is the most likely explanation for the observed similarities between animal and dictyostelid cell-cell connections. PMID:23315654

  7. Linking to Journal Articles in an Online Teaching Environment: The Persistent Link, DOI, and OpenURL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langston, Marc; Tyler, James

    2004-01-01

    The growing availability of online journal literature and the license agreements that make such literature useable in an academic environment present educators opportunities for using journal articles in online teaching. The use of online journal articles avoids logistical challenges associated with the use of printed copies of journal articles,…

  8. [Hodgkin's Lymphoma and Autoimmunity: Is There a Relationship?].

    PubMed

    Jerónimo, Mónica; Silva, Sónia; Benedito, Manuela; Brito, Manuel João

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A relação entre linfomas e doenças autoimunes é descrita na literatura como bidirecional, existindo poucos dados em idade pediátrica. Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de doenças autoimunes em crianças e adolescentes com linfoma de Hodgkin seguidos num Serviço de Oncologia Pediátrica. Material e Métodos: Ao rever a casuística do Serviço de linfomas de Hodgkin nos últimos 16 anos (dados colhidos prospetivamente), constatou-se uma incidência aparentemente elevada de doenças autoimunes nas raparigas pelo que se realizou um estudo retrospetivo, com atualização do seguimento fora de tratamento, relativamente à existência de doenças autoimunes. Avaliaram-se: idade, sexo, tipo de doença autoimune, relação temporal com o linfoma, estádio e grupo histológico do linfoma e terapêutica efetuada. Resultados: Incluíram-se 52 casos de linfoma de Hodgkin, dos quais sete (13,5%), todos do sexo feminino, tiveram uma doença autoimune diagnosticada previamente, em simult'neo ou posteriormente ao linfoma. As doenças autoimunes encontradas foram: artrite idiopática juvenil, doença inflamatória intestinal, doença de Behçet, hepatite autoimune, lúpus eritematoso sistémico, tiroidite de Hashimoto e púrpura trombocitopénica idiopática. Em quatro doentes o diagnóstico foi posterior ao linfoma, em dois, prévio, e num simult'neo. Todos os casos, exceto o diagnóstico simult'neo, estão fora de tratamento e sem recidiva da doença oncológica. Não se verificaram óbitos. Discussão: Verificou-se uma importante prevalência de doenças autoimunes nas raparigas com linfoma de Hodgkin. Apresentamos os dados e discutimos possíveis causas desta relação com base numa revisão bibliográfica. Conclusões: Esta associação deve ser evocada, sendo necessário mais estudos, sobretudo em idade pediátrica.

  9. Observação do abrilhantamento de limbo solar e de estruturas filamentares em 48 ghz utilizando a técnica de regularização adaptativa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, W. R. S.; Mascarenhas, N.; Costa, J. E. R.; Silva, A. V. R.

    2003-08-01

    O radiotelescópio do Itapetinga tem sido utilizado em campanhas de observações de explosões solares gerando um grande número de mapas diários em 48 GHz como sub-produto destas observações. A resolução espacial do telescópio de 14m do Itapetinga nesta freqüência é de aproximadamente dois minutos de arco. Estruturas de interesse para análise da atmosfera solar quiescente tais como os filamentos e o anel de abrilhantamento do limbo são de dimensão angular moderada da ordem ou ligeiramente menores que a resolução do telescópio. É conhecido que a convolução da função de espalhamento do telescópio, PSF (padrão de ganho do feixe) borra as estruturas de dimensão angular abaixo do HPBW (largura a meia potência do feixe) e portanto é comum a busca por técnicas de restauração que eliminem pelo menos em parte este borramento. Estudamos a restauração destas radioimagens usando a técnica de regularização adaptativa e os resultados ressaltam estas estruturas espaciais de pequeno contraste. O algoritmo da regularização adaptativa faz uso de k imagens, chamadas protótipos, obtidas através da variação de parâmetros de um filtro de regularização. Para controle da qualidade da restauração utilizamos uma imagem de alta resolução espacial obtida na linha H-a e a PSF do Itapetinga para borrá-la. Pequenos desvios, entre a PSF utilizada para o borramento e a PSF utilizada na restauração, produziram alguns desvios notáveis na imagem restaurada porém a adição de ruído nas simulações de restauração foram mais influentes no cálculo da rugosidade da imagem e portanto mais limitante para a restauração. Apresentamos como nosso primeiro resultado uma imagem em 48 GHz com a presença clara do abrilhantamento de limbo que não estava evidente na imagem original e traços de estruturas filamentares, porém ainda sem grande evidência.

  10. Transferências orbitais dentro do modelo quase bicircular no sistema Terra-Lua-Sol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, A. A.; de Almeida Prado, A. F. B.; Stuchi, T. J.; Beaugé, C.

    2003-08-01

    O problema quase bicircular planar consiste na determinação da dinâmica de um corpo, de massa desprezível, que se move sob o campo gravitacional de três corpos. No caso estudado, o quarto corpo é considerado um satélite artificial e os demais são a Terra, a Lua e o Sol, formando o sistema de três corpos. Este modelo permite a construção de uma hamiltoniana similar a do problema restrito de três corpos (PRTC), incluindo termos periódicos não autônomos, provenientes da presença do Sol, portanto pode ser entendido como uma perturbação ao PRTC. Suas órbitas periódicas aparecem isoladas e possuem o mesmo período solar. Os pontos de equilíbrio colineares possuem o mesmo caráter de estabilidade linear dos pontos lagrangianos (L1, L2 e L3) do PRTC, sendo do tipo sela x centro x centro, instável na direção x e estáveis nas direções y e z. As órbitas periódicas tridimensionais ao redor do ponto colinear é chamada órbita Halo. O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar órbitas de transferências de baixo consumo de combustível para um veículo espacial partindo de uma órbita de estacionamento ao redor da Terra em direção a uma órbita Halo do ponto L1, situado entre a Terra e Lua. Esta tarefa pode ser transformada no problema de valor de contorno: dado um ponto inicial na órbita de estacionamento, um ponto final na órbita halo e o tempo de transferência, deseja-se obter a trajetória que liga estes dois pontos e que minimize os incrementos de velocidade do veículo. Essas transferências são realizadas baseadas no método de Lambert e analisadas de modo a fornecer um baixo consumo. Posteriormente, é feita uma comparação de consumo com as órbitas de transferência equivalentes do PRTC.

  11. Espectroscopia infravermelha de núcleos ativos de galáxias: resultados adicionais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Ardila, A.; Viegas, S.; Pastoria, M. G.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos resultados parciais de um levantamento espectroscópico na região do infravermelho próximo (NIR) realizado em 30 núcleos ativos de galáxias (AGN), incluindo vários objetos selecionados do catálogo PG com z de até 0.55. O objetivo é estudar a natureza do contínuo observado e as condições físicas do gas emissor. Todas as fontes de tipo 1 apresentam uma mudança na inclinação do contínuo na região de 1.2mm, associada ao término da contribuição do contínuo emitido pelo AGN e ao início da contribuição do contínuo emitido pela poeira quente atribuída ao tórus que rodeia a fonte central. O índice espectral associado à segunda contribuição varia apreciavelmente de objeto para objeto. Este resultado é comparado com distribuições espectrais de energia preditas por modelos de toroides para testar a validez do modelo unificado. A partir das linhas de FeII observado nos espectros deriva-se, pela primeira vez nessa região espectral, um template empírico de FeII para estudar a intensidade e a origem dessa emissão. A intensidade do FeII é estudada em conjunto com aquela da região visível e comparada às predições de modelos teóricos que incluem fluorescência de Lya, excitação colisional e auto-fluorescência como mecanismos dominantes de exitação. Encontra-se que os dois primeiros processos dominam na formação do espectro de FeII observado. Indicadores de avermelhamento, entre eles Brg/Pab, Pab/Pag, Pab/Pad e [FeII] 1.257/1.644 mm são utilizados para mapear a distribuição de poeira nas regiões emissoras de linhas. Encontra-se valores de extinção Av~3 associados ao último indicador e valores significativamente menores (Av~1.5) para os restantes, o que sugere que o [FeII] se forma em uma região separada da maior parte do gás emissor de linhas estreitas.

  12. Determination of the Galactic Rotation Curve Based on Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diara, C. M.; Maciel, W. J.

    1990-11-01

    ABSTRACT:Planetary nebulae of types I, lIa, and llb are considered in order to determine the galactic rotation curve. It is shown that the curves defined by the first two types do not differ substantially from the one derived on the basis of young population I objects, such as CO-H II molecular complexes. RESUMO:Um grupo de nebulosas planetarias de tipos I, lIa, e lIb e utilizado para determinar a curva de rota o galatica. Mostra-se que as curvas definidas pelos dois primeiros tipos de nebulosas diferem substancialmente da curva obtida a partir de objetos jovens, de popuIa o I, como Os complexos moleculares CO-H II. Koy words: GALAXY-STRUCTURE - NEBULAE-PLANETARY

  13. [Abstract of Cochrane review].

    PubMed

    Carneiro, António Vaz; Costa, João

    2013-01-01

    Objectivos: Esta revisão sistemática destinou-se a determinar os efeitos sobre a mortalidade e morbilidade do rastreio do cancro da mama com mamografia em mulheres de risco baixo e em cuidados primários.Material e Métodos: Foram pesquisadas duas bases de dados - PubMed (Novembro 2012) e a World Health Organization’s International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (Novembro 2012) – para identificação de ensaios clínicos aleatorizados, prospectivos e controlados (Randomized Clinical trials – RCTs) comparando o rastreio com a não realização do rastreio. A extracção dos dados foi feita por dois investigadores que contactaram, quando necessário, os autores dos estudos para informação adicional.Resultados: Foram identificados 8 RCTs cujas amostras somaram 600 000 mulheres com idades entre 39-74 anos. Os resultados agregados dos ensaios de melhor qualidade metodológica (baixo risco de viés de selecção) não detectaram diferenças na mortalidade por cancro da mama aos 7 (risco relativo [RR] = 0,93; Intervalo de Confiança [IC] 95%: 0,79-1,09) ou aos 13 anos (RR = 0,90; IC 95%: 0,79-1,02). Os resultados agregados dos ensaios com maior risco de viés de selecção (por possível aleatorização inadequada) mostraram reduções significativas na mortalidade por cancro da mama aos 7 (RR = 0,71; IC95%: 0,61-0,83) e aos 13 anos (RR = 0,75; IC95%: 0,67-0,83). Não se verificou heterogeneidade entre os resultados dos estudos. Os resultados dos estudos de melhor epior qualidade metodológica foram semelhantes para as mulheres com menos e com mais de 50 anos de idade. Quer os resultados dos estudos de melhor qualidade, quer os resultados dos estudos com maior risco de viés, não encontraram diferenças na mortalidade oncológica (por todos os tipos de cancro) nem na mortalidade global, quer aos 7, quer aos 13 anos. Devido a deficiente classificação das causas de morte nas amostras dos RCTs, a mortalidade por cancro da mama revelou-se um resultado (outcome

  14. [Prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance in hypertensive patients].

    PubMed

    Rubio-Guerra, Alberto Francisco; Rodríguez-López, Leticia; Lozano-Nuevo, José Juan; Vargas-Ayala, German; Beltrán-Soto, José Martín; Durán-Salgado, Montserrat Berenice

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: la hipertensión arterial y la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 tienden a coexistir en el mismo paciente. La hiperglucemia postprandial de dos horas es un predictor de enfermedad cardiovascular. Nuestro objetivo fue investigar la prevalencia de tolerancia a la glucosa alterada en sujetos hipertensos con glucosa de ayuno normal. Métodos: se incluyeron 65 pacientes hipertensos no diabéticos y con glucosa plasmática de ayuno < 100 mg/dL, en quienes se realizó una prueba de tolerancia a la glucosa. Resultados: encontramos tolerancia a la glucosa alterada en 32 pacientes (49.2 %), 29 en rango de intolerancia a la glucosa y tres casos en rango de diabetes mellitus. No hallamos relación entre glucosa postprandial con cifras de presión arterial ni con la edad, pero sí una correlación significativa entre intolerancia a la glucosa e índice de masa corporal > 32.6 (R = 0.59, p < 0.005, RR 4.2). Conclusión: nuestros resultados muestran que los pacientes hipertensos no diabéticos suelen cursar con tolerancia a la glucosa alterada, particularmente aquellos con índice de masa corporal aumentado, y que la glucosa de ayuno no es suficiente como prueba de monitoreo para diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en ese tipo de pacientes.

  15. Evolução temporal da explosão solar de 06 de junho de 2000 apresentando estruturas finas em rádio freqüências

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, F. C. R.; Sawant, H. S.; Cecatto, J. R.; Caracini, A. G.; Vats, H. O.; Karlický, M.; Meszarosova, H.

    2003-08-01

    Em 06 de junho de 2000 (~15: 00-17: 00 UT), o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS) registrou uma explosão solar intensa no intervalo de freqüência de (1000-2000) MHz, com alta resolução temporal (100 ms) e espectral (5 MHz). A atividade solar relacionada a esta explosão associada à região ativa (AR) 9026 e classificada como X2.3 foi grande. O Ondrejov Observatory registrou rádio emissões até 4,5 GHz. O satélite SOHO registrou uma série de erupções solares, incluindo uma Ejeção de Massa Coronal (CME) tipo "full-halo" (~15: 54 UT). Explosões tipo II/IV também foram registradas. Na faixa de ondas decimétricas, este evento apresentou dois picos distintos (~15: 21 UT e ~16: 42 UT). O primeiro pico coincide com a explosão registrada em raios-X moles (GOES) e em raios-X duros (Yohkoh). Os espectros dinâmicos com alta resolução do BSS revelaram várias estruturas finas, principalmente emissões tipo "zebra" e "fibra", rádio pulsações, emissões tipo III e do único caso de emissões "zebra" harmônicas observado na faixa decimétrica. Neste trabalho, analisamos a evolução temporal e o comportamento global do evento de 06 de junho de 2000, com ênfase na identificação e associação da ocorrência de cada tipo de estrutura fina registrada em rádio com cada etapa da explosão. Resultados preliminares mostraram que, na fase pré-flare, as estruturas finas apresentaram taxa de deriva negativa (~ 70-190 MHz/s). As emissões tipo "zebra" concentram-se na fase de descida do primeiro pico impulsivo e na de subida do segundo pico. Enquanto que as emissões tipo "fibra" ocorrem em ambas fases, mas preferivelmente durante a fase de descida. Os resultados serão apresentados e discutidos.

  16. Modelado de las Distribuciones Espectrales de Energía de tres nuevas estrellas jóvenes de tipo FU Orionis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramajo, L. V.; Rodón, J.; Gómez, M.; Whitney, B.

    In this work we present the modeling of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of three protostellar objects of the FU Orionis type, for which an outburst was observed in the last two years. We applied the code developed by Whitney et al. (ApJ 591, 1049, 2003) to model the SEDs. We derived physical and geometric parameters for each object, which agree with those previously obtained for other FU Orionis type stars. Furthermore, the three objects were studied in their stages of high and low activity. Our results suggest that the disk plays a key role in the outburst event, which is reflected in an increase of at least one order of magnitude of the mass accretion rate from the disk to the central object, with respect to the low activity period. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  17. Estrellas Wolf-Rayet de tipo WN en la Vía Láctea: Campaña 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collado, A.; Gamen, R.; Barbá, R. H.

    We are carrying out a spectroscopic monitoring of Galactic Wolf-Rayet stars, in order to detect binary systems. The sample consists of approx- imately 50 stars of the Nitrogen sequence (WN) and fainter than V =13. The observations are made from the 4-m telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter- American Observatory (CTIO), Chile. In the following, we present the first results of the 2007-2008 campaign. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  18. Análisis y determinación de parámetros físicos de estrellas de tipo FU Orionis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramajo, L.; Gómez, M.; Whitney, B.

    FU Orionis stars (FUORs) are pre-main sequence objects that periodically incur in a steeply increase of brightness (outburst) of DeltaV~ 6 mag in a period of ~ 10 yr, followed by a gradual descent to the original magnitude in an interval of time of ~100 yr. In this contribution we present initial results on the modeling of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of a group of 7 FU Orionis stars: FU Ori, V1515 Cyg, V1057 Cyg, Z CMa, BBW 76, V1735 Cyg, and V883 Ori. We initially used the grid of SEDs calculated by Robitaille et al. (2006). This solution was refined applying the code developed by Whitney et al. (2003). We derived physical and geometrical parameters for the disks of these FUORs. We compared these properties with those of ''canonical'' T Tauri disks. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  19. Añadir quimioterapia después de la radioterapia mejora la supervivencia de adultos con un tipo de tu

    Cancer.gov

    Adultos con gliomas de grado bajo, una forma de tumor cerebral, que recibieron tratamiento con quimioterapia después de la radioterapia vivieron más tiempo que pacientes que recibieron solo radioterapia, según los resultados de seguimiento a largo plazo d

  20. Stay at a Healthy Weight. Tips for Kids with Type 2 Diabetes = Mantente en un Peso Saludable. Consejos Para Muchachos con Diabetes Tipo 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A healthy weight means you are not too fat or too thin. Your doctor may have said that you should not gain more weight or that you need to lose a few pounds. If you have diabetes and are overweight, you are not alone. The steps you take to manage your weight will help you feel better and may improve your blood sugar or glucose (GLOO-kos) levels.…

  1. Entre Reproduction et Mobilisation: les Rapports de Genre EN Formation Continue EN France et AU Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourner, Christine; Béret, Pierre; Doray, Pierre; Bélanger, Paul

    2009-01-01

    REPRODUCTION OR MOBILISATION? GENDER PROPORTIONS IN CONTINUING EDUCATION IN FRANCE AND CANADA - Initial education provisions for women have evolved greatly over the past 40 years. But what about their situation within adult education and training? This article, comparing Canada and France, shows that, while it is well known that more women than men participate in adult education, their greater presence in professional training courses is a new development. The analysis highlights certain particular findings, such as the growing demand for continuing education in Canada and the increased rate of participation by full-time employees in France. In both countries, a number of social factors continue to influence women's participation.

  2. Dominicanas entre La Gran Manzana y Quisqueya: Family, Schooling, and Language Learning in a Transnational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from a one-year qualitative research study, this article explores the transnational lives and experiences of three young women and their little sisters in New York with close ties to the Dominican Republic. Using ethnographic research methods--life history interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and document analysis, I examine…

  3. Calculs Numeriques des Interactions Entre les Champs Electromagnetiques et les Tissus Biologiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtech, Kamel-Eddine

    The understanding of electromagnetic field effects on health is a very acute problem nowadays. Indeed, the daily landscape is invaded by waves generated by affordable state-of-the-art equipment. It becomes urgent to improve the knowledge in order to ensure the safety of the users and the general public. At high frequencies two areas of concern can be distinguished: cellular telephony and wireless indoor communications. This dissertation is devoted to two aspects of the research in this field i.e. the numerical dosimetry and the biological experimentation. A new formulation for an expanding grid algorithm based upon the FDTD that can be applied, in particular, at high frequencies is presented. The energy deposition and the associated temperature rise in a model of the human eye due to a resonant dipole at frequencies of 840, 915, 1500 and 1800 MHz are then calculated. The duty cycle of each system is then introduced and its impact on temperature elevation is examined. Finally, a methodological approach to standard setting for portable transceivers is proposed. On the experimental aspect, a protocol has been elaborated and an experimentation to study athermal effects of electromagnetic fields at 9.3 GHz has been carried out. In particular, the importance of polarization has been examined.

  4. New York: Les ecoles entre SURR et STAR (New York: Schools between SURR and STAR).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueberschlag, Roger

    1994-01-01

    Three problems of New York City (New York) schools--overpopulation, low academic standards, violence--are examined, and an effort led by parent and teacher organizations to improve conditions is described. Threatened closings (schools under registration review, SURR) and a program of violence reduction (Straight Talk about Risks, STAR) are noted.…

  5. GPS, punto de contacto entre la Astronomía y otras disciplinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdomo, R.

    En los primeros años de la pasada década, un grupo de Astrónomos de La Plata iniciaron trabajos de investigación en Geodesia Satelital. En esta presentación se propone repasar sus principales logros y situarlos en el contexto del desarrollo de la disciplina a nivel mundial. Por entonces las aplicaciones prácticas de la disciplina eran indirectas y solo evidentes para los especialistas. Los errores del Posicionamiento Satelital eran de varios metros y en posicionamiento relativo, del orden de medio metro. Estos resultados se lograban al cabo de varios días de medición continuada. En los años siguientes, el sistema GPS alcanzó su nivel operacional y produjo una revolución tanto en lo relacionado con los tiempos de medición como con las precisiones. El grupo de La Plata se desarrolló simultáneamente con GPS, lo que posibilitó su participación actual en diversos temas vigentes: aplicaciones de alta precisión para la materialización de sistemas terrestres de referencia, monitoreo de movimientos de la corteza, contribución con servicios internacionales para la determinación de movimientos tectónicos globales y regionales, monitoreo de la ionósfera a partir de la propagación de las señales, determinación de la ondulación del geoide a escala local, etc. También se generaron muchas aplicaciones prácticas algunas en tiempo real: navegación, apoyo a imágenes aéreas o satelitales, aplicaciones a la agricultura, catastro y ordenamiento territorial, apoyo a relevamientos geofísicos, etc.

  6. Vinculación entre varios cúmulos estelares y estructuras del medio interestelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corti, M. A.; Baume, G. L.; Panei, J. A.; Suad, L. A.; Testori, J. C.; Borissova, J.; Kurtev, R.; Chené, A. N.; Ramirez Alegría, S.

    2015-08-01

    We study the embedded clusters DBS77, 78, 102, 160, and 161 located in the Galactic plane in the fourth quadrant of the Milky Way and the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM). We analyzed UBVIc photometry (SOAR) and infrared spectroscopy (NTT, ESO). We complemented these data with JHK (VVV2MASS), HI 21 cm bands (SGPS), 1.4 GHz (ATCA), and 4.85 GHz (PMN). We did multiband analysis and spectral classification of the brightest stars in each area. We also identified the ISM structures possibly related to the clusters. Finally, we obtained the main parameters of the studied clusters, the structures of the ISM and the link between them.

  7. Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds: Bicultural Development in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacallao, Martica L.; Smokowski, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    How do Mexican immigrant adolescents balance different, and often oppositional, cultural influences in the acculturation process? In this article, we explore how acculturating adolescents absorb cultural messages and go about creating their (multiple) identities. Guided by Alternation Theory, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 12…

  8. Actividades interrelacionadas entre el nino y la familia (Interrelated Activities between the Child and the Family).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veglio, Ana M.

    1993-01-01

    Offers a rationale for parent involvement in early childhood education. Describes the benefits of mother-child gymnastics in terms of the development of motor skills and positive attitudes toward school. Highlights particular exercises and games. (AC)

  9. "Entre Familia": Immigrant Parents' Strategies for Involvement in Children's Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poza, Luis; Brooks, Maneka Deanna; Valdés, Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    Teachers and administrators in schools with large, working-class Latino populations often complain of parents' indifference or lack of involvement in children's schooling because of their low visibility at school events and relatively little face-to-face communication with teachers and school administration. In a series of…

  10. Let's Talk About Water: Film Screenings as an Entrée to Water Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, R. P.; Lilienfeld, L.; Arrigo, J.

    2011-12-01

    "Let's Talk about Water" is a film symposium designed to bring together experts and the public to talk about the complex water issues facing society. The format of the event is quite simple: a panel of experts and the audience view a water documentary (such as "FLOW", "Liquid Assets", or "Gasland") together and there is an extended moderated discussion period following the film between the panel and the audience. Properly handled, this simple format can be very effective. A film creates a context of subject and language for the discussion--it gets the audience and the panel on the same page. The moderators must actively manage the discussion, both challenging the panelists with follow up questions, asking questions to simplify the language the expert is using, and passing a question among panelists to bring out different points of view. The panelists are provided with the film in advance to view and, most importantly, meet the day before the event to discuss the film. This makes for a much more convivial discussion at the event. We have found that these discussions can easily be sustained for 90 to 120 minutes with active audience participation. This format has been applied at college campuses with a target audience of lower-level undergraduates. Student clubs are engaged to help with publicity before the event and to assist with registration and ushering during the event. Appropriate classes offer extra credit for student attendance to ensure a strong turnout. A Hollywood film ("Chinatown" in southern California, "A Civil Action" in Boston) is shown on campus during the week preceding the event to help advertise the event. The event itself is typically held on a Saturday with a morning screening of the film. The audience is provided with index cards and pencils to write down questions they have about the film. A lunch is provided during which the questions are organized and used to initiate different discussion themes. The discussion begins with points raised by the movie (are these issues real? Do they apply here? What are the scientific, engineering, and policy solutions to these problems?) and then segues into a discussion about career opportunities in the water sector. Our past events at UC Irvine and at UMass Boston have been successful in attracting large audiences and have been viewed positively by attendees.

  11. Los Pactos entre Padres y Maestros (Teacher-Parent Partnerships). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.

    Research provides insight into parent attributes that support partnerships with teachers. These attributes include warmth, sensitivity, nurturance, the ability to listen, consistency, positive self-image, personal competence, and effective interpersonal skills. Researchers have cited positive attitudes, continuous teacher training, involvement in…

  12. La formation a Bukavu au Zaire: une course entre l'education et la catastrophe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balegamire, Bazilashe Juvénal

    1996-11-01

    A description of the socio-educational situation in Bukavu since the colonial era clearly shows why the population has sought means of overcoming the gradual abandonment by the Zairean State of its responsibilities, which has been aggravated by the large-scale influx into Kivu, in Eastern Zaire, of refugees from Rwanda and Burundi and of Zaireans who has been living in those countries for some years. These means are principally trade occupations, small-time selling, short-term vocational training and higher and university education at private institutions which are financed locally and/or by funds from the North. A new approach has been deveoped, that of training the trainers working for non-governmental development organisations. Trainers of trainers have been recruited locally among the many graduates of the Higher Institutes of Education and Rural Development, which have been affected by unemployment and the miserable salaries which the State offers to its employees. The trainers of trainers could be trained by the Higher Institute of Rural Development, making the largest possible use of local skills. However, such training should be one of a set of reforms of the Zairean education system. All of this only makes sense if Zaire and its neighbours urgently defuse present socio-political tensions so that all of our populations can peacefully and resolutely engage in the healthy transformation of our societies.

  13. La Communicacion entre los Centros de Investigacion en Educacion (Communication among Educational Research Centers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefelbein, Ernesto

    1972-01-01

    In Latin America there is a lack of communication concerning educational research. This lack has been underlined in many regional meetings, but no action has been taken. Possible steps that would lead to improvement include circulation of research summaries, both for completed and current works, efforts by research centers to organize meetings,…

  14. Psychotic-like Experiences and Substance Use in College Students.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Paino, Mercedes; Muñiz, José

    2016-03-02

    Los trastornos del espectro esquizofrénico, así como las experiencias psicóticas, se han asociado con un mayor consumo de sustancias. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la relación entre las experiencias psicóticas atenuadas y el consumo de sustancias en adultos jóvenes. La muestra la formaron un total de 660 participantes universitarios (M = 20,3 años; DT = 2,6). Los resultados mostraron que un 96% de la muestra informó de alguna experiencia de ideación delirante, mientras que el 20,3% informó de, al menos, una experiencia atenuada de tipo cognitivo-perceptual. El 41,1% de la muestra refirió algún consumo de sustancias, encontrándose diferencias en función del género. Los participantes consumidores informaron de un mayor número de experiencias psicóticas, sobre todo de tipo positivo. Asimismo, el consumo de alcohol predijo, en la mayoría de los casos, las puntuaciones extremas en las medidas de ideación delirante y experiencias pseudopsicóticas. La asociación entre estas dos variables parece mostrar un patrón diferenciado, encontrándose el consumo de sustancias más relacionado con las experiencias pseudo-psicóticas de tipo cognitivoperceptual. Estos hallazgos parecen apoyar los modelos dimensionales del fenotipo psicótico y permiten mejorar la comprensión de la relación entre las experiencias psicóticas atenuadas y el consumo de sustancias en adultos jóvenes. Futuros estudios deberían seguir analizando el papel de los factores de riesgo a los trastornos psicóticos, así como incorporar modelos de interacción gen x ambiente.

  15. [Dyslalias associated to maloclussion in schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Reyes, Adriana; Reyes Y Zepeda, Adriana; Moyaho-Bernal, Angeles; Moreno-García, Alicia; Montiel-Jarquín, Alvaro José; Hernández-Ruíz, Ana Karen; Bejarano-Huertas, Ruth; López-Colombo, Aurelio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: el test para evaluar los procesos fonológicos de simplificación (TEPROSIF) es un instrumento que sirve para identificar las dislalias. El objetivo fue determinar la asociación entre dislalias y maloclusión dental en niños de 4 a 6 años mediante la aplicación del TEPROSIF. Métodos: después de su estandarización (kappa 0.9) el instrumento se aplicó en 116 niños de 4 a 6 años. Los pacientes se llevaron a oclusión céntrica por deglución. Se observó tipo de mordida, sobremordida, oclusión y plano terminal para relacionarlos con la dislalia presentada. Utilizamos ?? y consideramos estadísticamente significativa una p = 0.05. Resultados: fueron un total de 55 niños (47.4 %) y 61 niñas (52.6 %), con edad media de 5 años + 0.71. La sustitución de fonemas se encontró con más frecuencia. Hubo correlación significativa entre omisión de fonemas y plano terminal (p = 0.01), arco de Baume tipo I (p = 0.00) y ausencia de dientes (p = 0.00). También entre sustitución de fonemas y plano terminal (p = 0.03), tipo de mordida (p = 0.01) y ausencia de dientes (p = 0.00). Conclusión: en niños de 4 a 6 años, la sustitución de fonemas es la alteración más frecuente; esta va seguida de la omisión de fonemas y, por último, la distorsión de fonemas.

  16. Oral nutritional supplements intake and nutritional status among inpatients admitted in a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Lammel Ricardi, Juliana; Marcadenti, Aline; Perocchin de Souza, Simone; Siviero Ribeiro, Anelise

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La malnutrición es muy frecuente en los hospitales y, en los pacientes ingresados con una prescripción de suplementación nutricional oral, hay una mejoría del estado nutricional. Objetivos: Detectar la tasa total de aceptación y la posible asociación entre la toma de suplementos de nutrición oral con el estado nutricional. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal entre 398 pacientes ingresados. Se analizaron 15 tipos de suplementos y se detectó el estado nutricional mediante la escala Subjective Global Assessment (SGA). Se obtuvo el índice reposo-ingesta (IR) y se empleó la regresión modificada de Poisson para detectar las asociaciones entre el estado nutricional y la toma de suplementos nutritivos. Resultados: La prevalencia de malnutrición fue del 43, 7% y la aceptación global de los suplementos fue de alrededor del 75%. Los suplementos de origen industrial tienen una mejor aceptación entre los pacientes bien nutridos y los pacientes que ingieren menos del 80% del suplemento ofrecido (ya sea industrial o casero) presentan un mayor riesgo de malnutrición (48%). Conclusión: Hubo una asociación entre la ingesta de suplementos nutricionales orales y el estado nutricional, a pesar de una buena tasa de aceptación.

  17. X-Rays and Infrared Selected AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirhakos, S. D.; Steiner, J. E.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. En la busqueda de nucleos activos galacticos (NAG) oscurecidos, seleccionamos una tnuestra de galaxias ernisoras de rayos S infrarrojos, Ia mayoria de las cuales son vistas de perf ii. La 6ptica de la regi6n nuclear de las galaxias seleccionadas revelan que el 76% de ellas muestran lineas de emisi5n La clasificaci6n de los es- pectros de acuerdo a los anchos y a la intensidad de cocientes de lineas muestran que existen 34 NAG, 34 objetos de tipo de transici6n y 34 galaxias de la regi6n con nucleos de tipo regi6n H II. Entre los NAG, 3 son del tipo Seyfert I y las otras son del tipo 2. Sugerimos que los objetos identificados como NAG de llneas angostas son objetos tipo Seyfert I oscurecidos ABSTRACT. Looking for obscured active galactic nuclei (AGN), we selected a sample of infrarediX-rays emitting galaxies, mos"t of which are seen as edge-on. Optical spectroscopy of the nuclear region of the selected galaxies revealed that 76 % of them show emission l 'nes. Classification of the spectra according to the widths and line intensity ratios shows that there are 34 AGN, 34 transition type objects and 43 nuclear HIl-like region galaxies. Among the AGN, three are Seyfert type 1 and the others are type 2 objects. We suggest that the objects identified as narrow line AGN are obscured Seyfert 1. o'L : GALAXIES-ACTIVE - X-RAY S-GENERAL

  18. [Oral magnesium supplementation: an adjuvant alternative to facing the worldwide challenge of type 2 diabetes?].

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Romero, Fernando; Rodríguez-Morán, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: ante la repercusión de la diabetes tipo 2 en la calidad de vida y los altos costos de su tratamiento, es urgente la búsqueda de alternativas para el control metabólico y la prevención primaria de esta enfermedad. Objetivo: revisar la evidencia derivada de estudios de cohortes acerca de la relación entre las concentraciones séricas y la ingesta de magnesio con el riesgo de diabetes tipo 2, y de ensayos clínicos de la eficacia de las sales orales de magnesio en la reducción de la glucemia. Material y métodos: estudio retrospectivo, efectuado con base en la búsqueda de estudios de cohorte mayores de 10 años en MEDLINE, EMBASE, y Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, actualizada al 30 de septiembre del 2013. Resultados: se encontraron siete estudios de cohorte (24,388 personas/ año) que muestran que la ingesta de magnesio disminuye el riesgo de diabetes tipo 2; dos estudios (13,076 personas/año) indican que la baja ingesta de magnesio en la dieta no parece asociarse con el riesgo de diabetes; 1 estudio (8,735 personas/año) demuestra que la hipomagnesemia se asocia con alteraciones del metabolismo de la glucosa. De 11 ensayos clínicos con asignación al azar, 5 estudios en sujetos de riesgo muestran que las sales orales de magnesio reducen la glucemia, y 6 estudios en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 muestran resultados inconsistentes. Conclusiones: la ingesta de magnesio en la dieta habitual o de sales orales de magnesio es recomendable en la prevención de diabetes. La eficacia de las sales de magnesio en la reducción de la glucemia de pacientes con diabetes tipo 2, es inconsistente.

  19. Resistive graphene humidity sensors with rapid and direct electrical readout† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06038a

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Anderson D.; Elgammal, Karim; Delin, Anna; Fischer, Andreas C.; Vaziri, Sam; Forsberg, Fredrik; Råsander, Mikael; Hugosson, Håkan; Bergqvist, Lars; Schröder, Stephan; Kataria, Satender; Östling, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate humidity sensing using a change of the electrical resistance of single-layer chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene that is placed on top of a SiO2 layer on a Si wafer. To investigate the selectivity of the sensor towards the most common constituents in air, its signal response was characterized individually for water vapor (H2O), nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), and argon (Ar). In order to assess the humidity sensing effect for a range from 1% relative humidity (RH) to 96% RH, the devices were characterized both in a vacuum chamber and in a humidity chamber at atmospheric pressure. The measured response and recovery times of the graphene humidity sensors are on the order of several hundred milliseconds. Density functional theory simulations are employed to further investigate the sensitivity of the graphene devices towards water vapor. The interaction between the electrostatic dipole moment of the water and the impurity bands in the SiO2 substrate leads to electrostatic doping of the graphene layer. The proposed graphene sensor provides rapid response direct electrical readout and is compatible with back end of the line (BEOL) integration on top of CMOS-based integrated circuits. PMID:26523705

  20. Biomolecular environment, quantification, and intracellular interaction of multifunctional magnetic SERS nanoprobes† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6an00890a

    PubMed Central

    Büchner, Tina; Drescher, Daniela; Merk, Virginia; Traub, Heike; Guttmann, Peter; Werner, Stephan; Jakubowski, Norbert; Schneider, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Multifunctional composite nanoprobes consisting of iron oxide nanoparticles linked to silver and gold nanoparticles, Ag–Magnetite and Au–Magnetite, respectively, were introduced by endocytic uptake into cultured fibroblast cells. The cells containing the non-toxic nanoprobes were shown to be displaceable in an external magnetic field and can be manipulated in microfluidic channels. The distribution of the composite nanostructures that are contained in the endosomal system is discussed on the basis of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) mapping, quantitative laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) micromapping, and cryo soft X-ray tomography (cryo soft-XRT). Cryo soft-XRT of intact, vitrified cells reveals that the composite nanoprobes form intra-endosomal aggregates. The nanoprobes provide SERS signals from the biomolecular composition of their surface in the endosomal environment. The SERS data indicate the high stability of the nanoprobes and of their plasmonic properties in the harsh environment of endosomes and lysosomes. The spectra point at the molecular composition at the surface of the Ag–Magnetite and Au–Magnetite nanostructures that is very similar to that of other composite structures, but different from the composition of pure silver and gold SERS nanoprobes used for intracellular investigations. As shown by the LA-ICP-MS data, the uptake efficiency of the magnetite composites is approximately two to three times higher than that of the pure gold and silver nanoparticles. PMID:27353290

  1. Reconstructing historical habitat data with predictive models Read More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/13-0327.1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zweig, Christa L.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2014-01-01

    Historical vegetation data are important to ecological studies, as many structuring processes operate at long time scales, from decades to centuries. Capturing the pattern of variability within a system (enough to declare a significant change from past to present) relies on correct assumptions about the temporal scale of the processes involved. Sufficient long-term data are often lacking, and current techniques have their weaknesses. To address this concern, we constructed multistate and artificial neural network models (ANN) to provide fore- and hindcast vegetation communities considered critical foraging habitat for an endangered bird, the Florida Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis). Multistate models were not able to hindcast due to our data not satisfying a detailed balance requirement for time reversibility in Markovian dynamics. Multistate models were useful for forecasting and providing environmental variables for the ANN. Results from our ANN hindcast closely mirrored the population collapse of the Snail Kite population using only environmental data to inform the model. The parallel between the two gives us confidence in the hindcasting results and their use in future demographic models.

  2. Review on measurement techniques of transport properties of nanowires Additions and Corrections. See DOI:10.1039/C3NR03242F Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Rojo, Miguel Muñoz; Calero, Olga Caballero; Lopeandia, A. F.; Rodriguez-Viejo, J.

    2013-01-01

    Physical properties at the nanoscale are novel and different from those in bulk materials. Over the last few decades, there has been an ever growing interest in the fabrication of nanowire structures for a wide variety of applications including energy generation purposes. Nevertheless, the study of their transport properties, such as thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity or Seebeck coefficient, remains an experimental challenge. For instance, in the particular case of nanostructured thermoelectrics, theoretical calculations have shown that nanowires offer a promising way of enhancing the hitherto low efficiency of these materials in the conversion of temperature differences into electricity. Therefore, within the thermoelectrical community there has been a great experimental effort in the measurement of these quantities in actual nanowires. The measurements of these properties at the nanoscale are also of interest in fields other than energy, such as electrical components for microchips, field effect transistors, sensors, and other low scale devices. For all these applications, knowing the transport properties is mandatory. This review deals with the latest techniques developed to perform the measurement of these transport properties in nanowires. A thorough overview of the most important and modern techniques used for the characterization of different kinds of nanowires will be shown. PMID:24113712

  3. "How Should I Know What Scientists Do?--I Am Just a Kid": Fourth-Grade Students' Conceptions of Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerson, Valarie L.; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad S.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore elementary students' views of (NOS) to see how well they align with national reform recommendations (AAAS, 1993; NRC, 1996). Using an open-ended questionnaire coupled with one-on-one interviews of fourth-grade students conducted at the end of the school year, the researchers explored students' understandings…

  4. [Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Depression and Eating Disorders in Patients Submitted to Bariatric Surgery].

    PubMed

    Brandão, Isabel; Marques Pinho, Ana; Arrojado, Filipa; Pinto-Bastos, Ana; Maia da Costa, José; Coelho, Rui; Calhau, Conceição; Conceição, Eva

    2016-03-01

    Introdução: A obesidade associa-se a um elevado número de comorbilidades, entre as quais a diabetes mellitus tipo 2 e a patologia psiquiátrica. A cirurgia bariátrica tem demonstrado ser a melhor solução para a perda de peso e a melhoria das complicações nos casos de obesidade mórbida. O objetivo deste estudo é o de analisar a evolução da diabetes mellitus tipo 2 e de variáveis psicopatológicas antes e depois da cirurgia bariátrica e verificar o seu impacto na perda de peso. Material e Métodos: É um estudo longitudinal, que avalia 75 indivíduos antes e depois de serem submetidos a cirurgia bariátrica (47 - banda gástrica; 19 - bypass Roux-en-Y gástrico; 9 - sleeve gástrico), com tempo de follow-up entre 18 e 46 meses. Os instrumentos de avaliação foram a entrevista clínica e os questionários Eating Disorder Examination questionnaire - EDE-Q e Beck Depression Inventory - BDI. Resultados: Verificou-se melhoria relativamente à variável dicotómica diabetes mellitus tipo 2 após a cirurgia (X(1) = 26,132, p < 0,001). Não ocorreu melhoria significativa em termos de patologia psiquiátrica quando a análise foi controlada para o tipo de cirurgia. Encontrámos uma associação significativa entre as variáveis em estudo no pós-cirúrgico e a perda de peso. Este modelo explica 27% da variação do peso após a cirurgia (R2 = 0,265) e é significativo F (3,33) = 2,981, p = 0,038. Discussão: A diabetes mellitus tipo 2, patologia depressiva ou do comportamento alimentar mostraram estar relacionados com a perda de peso. Não ficou esclarecido em que sentido esta relação é estabelecida, nem a relação que estas variáveis metabólicas e psicológicas possam ter entre si ao longo do período pós cirurgia bariátrica. Conclusão: A diabetes mellitus tipo 2 evoluiu favoravelmente após a cirurgia. Diabetes mellitus tipo 2, depressão e patologia alimentar no período pós-cirúrgico associaram-se a menor perda de peso. As variáveis estudadas no

  5. [Juvenile Pompe disease: retrospective clinical study].

    PubMed

    Loureiro Neves, Filipa; Garcia, Paula Cristina; Madureira, Núria; Araújo, Henriqueta; Rodrigues, Fidjy; Estêvão, Maria Helena; Lacerda, Lúcia; Diogo Matos, Luísa Maria

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: A doença de Pompe ou glicogenose tipo II é uma doença autossómica recessiva por deficiência de maltase ácida. É uma entidade rara, com prevalência de 1/40.000 nas populações holandesa e afro-americana e 1/46000 na população australiana. Embora se distingam três formas de apresentação (infantil, juvenil e do adulto), observa-se um amplo espectro clínico. Em Portugal está disponível terapêutica enzimática de substituição desde 2006.Material e Métodos: Fez-se o estudo retrospetivo de quatro doentes (duas das quais irmãs), baseado na revisão dos processos clínicos.Resultados: Em todas, a doença manifestou-se no segundo ano de vida. O tempo até ao diagnóstico variou entre dois e onze anos. Aquando do diagnóstico, todas apresentavam miopatia com atraso de aquisições motoras e em duas havia hipertrofia miocárdica. A suspeita clínica surgiu por insuficiência respiratória em contexto infeccioso em duas doentes. Em todas havia elevação da creatina quinase e das aminotransferases. Todas evoluíram com insuficiência respiratória crónica por síndrome restritiva. O diagnóstico foi baseado na diminuição da atividade da maltase ácida em fibroblastos (0 a 1,5% do limite inferior do normal). Na biópsia muscular, realizada em três doentes, demonstrou-se acumulação lisossómica de glicogénio. Todas apresentavam a mutação c.1064T > C no exão 6 do gene GAA (glucosidase-alpha-acid), em homozigotia numa delas, associada às mutações c.1666A > G no exão 12 e c.2065G > A no exão 15 nas duas irmãs e à mutação c.380G > T no exão 2 na doente mais nova. Todas iniciaram terapia enzimática de substituiçãologo que disponível, com boa tolerância. A doente mais jovem faleceu pouco depois. As outras mantêm medidas de suporteventilatório e fisioterapia, deslocando-se a mais velha, em cadeira de rodas, mantendo a irmã marcha independente e necessitando a mais nova de andarilho.Conclusão: Os nossos casos incluem

  6. [Physical activity and respiratory function: corporal composition and spirometric values analysis].

    PubMed

    Paulo, Rui; Petrica, João; Martins, Júlio

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: A presente investigação tem como principal objetivo verificar os efeitos da atividade física na composição corporal (índice de massa corporal e perímetro da cintura), nos valores espirométricos e relacionar esses indicadores com a função respiratória.Material e Métodos: A amostra, constituída por 86 indivíduos, alunos do ensino superior, com média de idade de 21,3 ± 2,4 anos, foi dividida em dois grupos: grupo de controlo constituído por 28 sujeitos sedentários (20,9 ± 1,3 anos), e grupo experimental constituído por 58 sujeitos (21,5 ± 2,8 anos) praticantes de exercício supervisionado. Para caraterizar a amostra quanto ao tipo de atividade física,aplicámos uma adaptação do questionário de Telama et al. Avaliaram-se os valores de espirometria (DEMI, VEF1 e CVF) com o espirómetro Microquark da Cosmed e os valores de índice de massa corporal e perímetro da cintura. Os dados obtidos foram tratados no S.P.S.S. 19.0, através do t-test, do teste de Levene, do teste Mann-Whitney e do teste de correlação de Spearman, adotando-se um nível de significância de 5%.Resultados: O grupo experimental obteve resultados significativamente melhores (p ≤ 0,05) nos valores de índice de massa corporal, do perímetro da cintura e em todos os valores avaliados pela espirometria (DEMI, VEF1 e CVF), comparativamente ao grupo de controlo. Verificámos também que há uma tendência para correlação negativa entre os valores da composição corporal e os valores espirométricos, apenas observável em algumas variáveis (DEMI, VEF1), ou seja, quanto maiores os valores da composição corporal, menores os valores espirométricos.Conclusão: Os alunos com prática de exercício supervisionado, apresentaram melhores índices de composição corporal e de função respiratória. Valores de índice de massa corporal e de perímetro da cintura desajustados poderão provocar disfunção respiratória, aonível da ventilação e respetivos volumes

  7. 43 CFR Appendix B to Part 2 - Internet Addresses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....doi.gov/foia/list.html 5. DOI FOIA Contacts: http://www.doi.gov/foia/contacts.html 6. DOI FOIA Regulations (43 CFR, Part 2, Subparts A and B): http://www.doi.gov/foia/foiaregs.html 7. DOI FOIA Policy and Guidance: http://www.doi.gov/foia/policy.html 8. Electronic Reading Room:...

  8. Polarización lineal de cinco binarias simbióticas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, L. G.; Brandi, E.; Ferrer, O.; Quiroga, C.

    En este trabajo comunicamos el resultado del análisis de mediciones de polarización lineal. Las observaciones fueron realizadas durante el período 1994-2001 y obtenidas con el Fotopolarímetro de cinco canales simultáneos, UBVRI, adosado al telescopio de 2.15-m del CASLEO, San Juan, Argentina. Nuestra muestra de simbióticas observadas consiste de dos simbióticas tipo-S, MWC 560 y St2-22 y tres simbióticas Mira tipo-D, Hen2-104, Hen2-147 y R Aqr. Se buscó en estos objetos alguna evidencia de polarización intrínseca a través de variaciones en el porcentaje de polarización y el ángulo de posición con la longitud de onda y con el tiempo. Se buscó también la posible correlación entre la variación temporal polarimétrica y el período de pulsación de la Mira.

  9. A Dynamical Study of the Formation of Peculiar Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, T. K.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Un estudlo de la formaci6n de diferentes tipos de galaxias peculiares (interactuantes) es conducido en base de la dina'mioa de la colisi6n lievando a su formaci6n usando la aproximaci6n impulsiva. Los resultados indican la existencia de una relaci6n caracteristica en base del camblo de la energia interna durante la colisi6n, cual determina el tipo de la galaxia peculiar formado. La relacion es analisada y valores criticos del camblo de Ia energia interna, ilevando a la interacci6n entre galaxias de varias intensidades y la formaci6n consecuente de varios tipos de sistemas peculiares es discutido. ABSTRACT. A study of the formation of different types of peculiar (interacting) galaxies is conducted based on the dynamics of the collision leading to their formation, using the impulsive approximation. Results indicate the existance of a characteristic relationship, based on the internal energy changes during the collision, governing the type of peculiar galaxy formed. The relationship is analysed and critical values of internal energy changes, leading to galaxy interaction of varying intensities and consequent formation of different types of peculiar galaxies is discussed. Key words: GALAXIES-DYNAMICS -- GALAXIES-FORMATION

  10. Distribución espacial de cúmulos y asociaciones estelares con diferentes edades en la Nube Mayor de Magallanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bica, E.; Clariá, J. J.; Dottori, H.; Santos, J. F. C.; Piatti, A. E.

    Sobre la base de observaciones realizadas en Cerro Tololo y el Casleo, se presenta un catálogo con fotometría UBV integrada de 504 cúmulos y 120 asociaciones estelares en la Nube Mayor de Magallanes. Se determinan edades en términos de los tipos SWB y se identifican 38 cúmulos tipo VII, muchos de los cuales pueden ser cúmulos globulares clásicos. El tamaño de las distribuciones espaciales crece uniformemente con la edad (tipo SWB), en tanto que existe una diferencia en el cociente axial entre los grupos más jóvenes y más viejos que 30 millones de años, lo que implica una orientación aproximadamente de frente para los primeros y una posición inclinada ~ 45o para el segundo grupo. Las asimetrías en las distribuciones espaciales, juntamente con la falta de coincidencia de los centroides de los diferentes grupos de edad, sugiere que el disco de la Nube Mayor de Magallanes fue severamente perturbado en el pasado.

  11. [SNP-19 genotypic variants of CAPN10 gene and its relation to diabetes mellitus type 2 in a population of Ciudad Juarez, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Loya Méndez, Yolanda; Reyes Leal, Gilberto; Sánchez González, Adriana; Portillo Reyes, Verónica; Reyes Ruvalcaba, David; Bojórquez Rangel, Guillermo

    2014-09-28

    Introducción: La diabetes mellitus (DM) tipo 2 es una patología común de origen multifactorial cuyas bases genéticas exactas se desconocen aún; diversos estudios sugieren que los polimorfismos de nucleótido único (SNPs) en el gen CAPN10 (Locus 2q37.3) podrían participar en su desarrollo, incluyendo el polimorfismo de inserción/ deleción SNP-19 (2R→3R). Objetivo: Determinar la relación entre el polimorfismo SNP-19 y la presencia de DM tipo 2 en una población de Ciudad Juárez. Métodos: Se seleccionaron 107 individuos: 43 diabéticos tipo 2 (casos) y 64 no diabéticos sin antecedentes heredo-familiares de DM tipo 2 en primer grado (control). Se realizó estudio antropométrico y perfil bioquímico de lípidos, lipoproteínas y glucosa sérica. Se extrajo ADN de linfocitos de sangre periférica y se amplificó mediante la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). Se analizaron los genotipos del polimorfismo SNP-19 del gen CAPN10 por análisis electroforético en geles de agarosa. Se calcularon las frecuencias genotípicas y alélicas y se realizaron pruebas de equilibrio de Hardy-Weinberg (GenAlEx 6.4). Resultados: El análisis mediante la prueba X² identificó diferencias en los genotipos entre casos y control, con una mayor frecuencia del genotipo homocigoto 3R del SNP-19 en el grupo de casos (0.418) respecto al grupo control (0.265). El genotipo 2R/3R presentó relación con valores elevados de peso, índice de masa corporal y perímetros de cintura y cadera; pero solo en el grupo de diabéticos (P=< 0.05). Conclusión: Los resultados de esta investigación sugieren la participación del SNP-19 del gen CAPN10 en el desarrollo de DM tipo 2 en la población estudiada.

  12. Safety in the hypertriglyceridemia treatment with N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on glucose metabolism in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Reis, Caio Eduardo Gonçalves; Landim, Karla Câmara; Nunes, Aline Costa Santos; Dullius, Jane

    2014-10-06

    Introducción: Diabetes mellitus tipo 2 aumenta el riesgo de hipertrigliceridemia y es un factor de riesgo independiente para las enfermedades cardiovasculares. La literatura actual revela efectos beneficiosos de n-3 ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (n-3 AGPI) en el tratamiento de la hipertrigliceridemia, sin embargo, la seguridad de este tratamento en los sujetos diabéticos tipo 2 es discutible. Esta revisión de la literatura discute la seguridad del n-3 PUFA la suplementación sobre el metabolismo de la glucosa en el tratamiento de la hipertrigliceridemia en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Métodos: Se ha realizado una revisión de la literatura en la base de datos MEDLINE y EMBASE del los ensayos clínicos publicados con fecha posterior al 1990 hasta Junio de 2014 sobre los efectos de la ingesta / suplementos del n-3 AGPI en el tratamiento de la hipertrigliceridemia en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Resultados y Discusión: Catorce estudios clínicos (n = 2105) se incluyeron en esta revisión. Del estudios informaron una reducción en los niveles de triglicéridos entre 12 a 34% en interior del grupo comparación y de 15 a 36% en entre grupos análisis. Cuatro estudios mostraron un aumento significativo en el LDL-c (6-18%) y otros cuatro en los niveles de HDL-c (4 - 15%). No se encontraron cambios significativos en el colesterol total, VLDL-c, la glucosa, HbA1c y el índice de sensibilidad a la insulina. Conclusión: El n-3 AGPI suplementación lleva una mejora en los niveles de triglicéridos y no arrojaron deterioro en el metabolismo de la glucosa en pacientes con hipertrigliceridemia con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 siendo una opción segura para el tratamiento de la población diabética.

  13. Corrigendum. Expression and Localization of Luman/CREB3 in Mouse Embryos during the Pre-implantation period--Genet. Mol. Res. 14 (4): 13595-13602. Published online: October 28, 2015 (DOI: 10.4238/2015.October.28.20). Corrected after publication: January 22, 2016 (DOI: 10.4238/gmr.150156091).

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, T N; Lin, P F; Chen, F L; Zhou, J H; Wang, X G; Wang, N; Li, X; Jin, Y P

    2016-01-01

    In regard to the affiliation mistake that was made during our correspondence in our manuscript, we write this letter in order to correct it as per my PhD requirements and this is the Final decision as I have no other option. The correction is only in the affiliation and should be: T.N. Mahmoud(1,2), P.F. Lin(1), F.L. Chen(1), J.H. Zhou(1), X.G. Wang(1), N. Wang(1), X. Li(1) and Y.P. Jin(1). (1)Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology of the Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China. (2)Department of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nyala University, Nyala, South Darfur, Sudan.

  14. [Comparative regions of interest study in schizophrenia, panic disorder and its comorbidity: the relationship between hippocampal volume and positive psychotic symptoms].

    PubMed

    Cortizo-Vidal, Romina; Carmona-Canabate, Susana; Picado-Rossi, Marisol; Pailhez-Vindual, Guillem; Vilarroya-Oliver, Óscar; Bulbena-Vilarasa, Antoni

    2015-01-16

    Introduccion. En la esquizofrenia y en el trastorno de panico se han descrito anomalias limbicas que sugieren una reduccion del volumen del hipocampo y la amigdala. Los resultados son contradictorios y no disponemos de estudios de neuroimagen que evaluen las alteraciones que implica la comorbilidad entre ambas patologias. Objetivo. Determinar el tipo y magnitud de las alteraciones limbicas en la esquizofrenia, el trastorno de panico y su comorbilidad. Sujetos y metodos. Se midio el volumen de la amigdala y el hipocampo empleando el metodo de segmentacion manual de regiones de interes en pacientes con diagnostico de esquizofrenia (grupo 1), trastorno de panico (grupo 2) y ambos diagnosticos (grupo 3), incluyendo un grupo control de sujetos sanos (grupo 4). Resultados. Los pacientes de los grupos 1 y 3 presentan un volumen del hipocampo izquierdo significativamente inferior al grupo control. En estos grupos existe una correlacion positiva significativa entre la sintomatologia psicotica positiva y el volumen del hipocampo izquierdo. No se hallaron diferencias entre los grupos en el volumen de la amigdala. Conclusiones. Los resultados confirman una reduccion del volumen del hipocampo izquierdo asociada a la esquizofrenia. La relacion entre la gravedad de la sintomatologia positiva y el volumen del hipocampo sugiere que los pacientes que presentan mayor volumen del hipocampo tendran tambien mayor predisposicion a presentar una respuesta de miedo condicionada ante estimulos neutros y, por tanto, a presentar, en mayor medida, ideas delirantes y fenomenos alucinatorios.

  15. [VITAMIN D AND ITS RELATION WITH THE ANATOMICAL LOCATION OF HIP FRACTURE IN CHILEAN OLDER ADULTS HOSPITALIZED].

    PubMed

    Dinamarca Montecinos, Jose Luis; Vásquez Leiva, Alejandra; Durán Agüero, Samuel; Rubio Herrera, Ramona

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: en los adultos mayores son frecuentes el deficit de vitamina D y las fracturas de cadera (FC). Existe relacion entre ambas condiciones, demostrandose que la suplementacion de vitamina D mejora el pronostico de las FC. En el caso de Chile, existe escasa informacion sobre la relacion entre vitamina D y FC. Objetivo: cuantificar los niveles plasmaticos de vitamina D (NPVD) y relacionarlos con la ubicacion anatomica de la FC. Métodos: estudio transversal. 222 adultos mayores chilenos ≥60 anos hospitalizados por FC entre junio de 2014 y junio de 2015. Se utilizaron los datos de ficha clinica de genero, edad, estacionalidad y ubicacion anatomica (FIC = intra, FEC = extracapsular) de la FC. Se midio NPVD y velocidad de filtrado glomerular (VFG) (MDRD- 6). Se utilizaron la prueba de Kolmogorov-Smirnov y pruebas no parametricas. Para determinar la relacion entre NPVD y el tipo de fractura se uso regresion lineal. Resultados: hubo predominio de mujeres (80,6%), la edad promedio fue 80,7 anos (DE=7,8) y se encontro 43,2% de FIC. Los NPVD promedio fueron 13,3 ng/cc (DE=6,7); los sujetos con FIC tienen 4,52 ng/cc menos de vitamina D que aquellos con FEC (p.

  16. [Orality and writing: argumentation in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Paúls, Beatriz; Moreno-Campos, Verónica

    2014-02-24

    Introduccion. Este trabajo profundiza en las diferencias de competencia linguistica de niños con trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH) en oralidad y escritura. Objetivos. Verificar si estos niños presentan en las tareas orales los mismos problemas de control inhibitorio y de autorregulacion que se han señalado en investigaciones basadas en datos escritos, y describir tales problemas (falta de adecuacion, produccion inadecuada) segun aparecen en nuestros datos orales. Pacientes y metodos. Se analiza una argumentacion escrita y otra oral de 25 participantes entre 9 y 11 años. En la tarea escrita los niños redactaron sus argumentaciones y en la tarea oral se filmo su interaccion argumentativa con una colaboradora; se analizo en cada caso el tipo de argumentaciones utilizadas (logicas, falaces, de sancion o moralistas). Resultados. Se comprueba la diferencia evidente entre los resultados de las dos pruebas, lo que indica la necesidad de revisar los mecanismos de evaluacion verbal y de completar los resultados escritos con pruebas de destreza oral. Los problemas normalmente asociados a las tareas escritas no aparecen en lenguaje oral; los participantes son capaces de seguir el hilo discursivo y aportar nuevas argumentaciones relacionadas con el tema. Conclusiones. Los datos analizados ponen de manifiesto la dificultad adicional que supone la tarea escrita para los niños con TDAH, la fiabilidad de los resultados orales respecto a las habilidades linguisticas y la necesidad de usar ambos tipos de datos en la evaluacion.

  17. El rol de Ia colaboracion y el Modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) mediante el lente de la Teoria de Actividad (CHAT): un estudio de caso con estudiantes de 9no grado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Isabel C.

    Los modelos de eensenanza y aprendizaje constructivistas conceptualizan el aprendizaje como un proceso activo. El modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) se distingue por una serie de componentes, entre los cuales se destaca el aspecto colaborativo y cooperativo como un reto al momento de su implantacion. Son pocas las investigaciones que se concentran en este aspecto del modelo. En este estudio, se analizaron las diversas interacciones que surgen durante la implantacion de una unidad curricular sobre el tema de Geologia de Puerto Rico, la cual se diseno con el modelo ABPr cuyo enfoque es orientacion a proyectos. Particularmente, se examinaron las interacciones sociales que surgen entre los pares y entre pares y docente durante el proceso de planificacion y desarrollo de los productos finales, al igual que las interacciones entre los estudiantes y el material didactico en estas etapas del modelo. La investigacion es de tipo cualitativo e incorpora como diseno el estudio de caso. Las diversas interacciones constituyen la unidad de analisis. En el estudio participaron 19 estudiantes de 9no grado, a quienes se organizaron en 5 grupos colaborativos por temas de interes (Pangea, Placas tectonicas, Volcanes, Tsunamis y Terremotos). Las tecnicas que se utilizaron para recopilar los datos fueron: observaciones participativas, grupos focales y analisis de documentos (cuadernos reflexivos y respuestas de los estudiantes a la pregunta central del proyecto). Para el analisis de los datos se aplico la teoria de actividad (CHAT) que concentra la unidad de analisis en la actividad humana en un contexto particular. Los resultados del estudio senalan que las interacciones entre pares, entre pares y docente, asi como entre estudiantes y material didactico son fundamentales en el proceso de aprendizaje. Una mayor interaccion entre pares durante las etapas de planificar y desarrollar los productos finales de la unidad, promueve una mejor comprension de los conceptos de la

  18. Taxas de eventos para as fontes astrofísicas do detector Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, C. S.; Araujo, J. C. N.; Miranda, O. D.; Aguiar, O. D.

    2003-08-01

    O detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg será sensível a sinais que cheguem à Terra com amplitude h~10-21 e dentro da faixa em frequências que varia de 3,0 a 3,4 kHz. As principais fontes astrofísicas em condições de gerar um sinal detectável pela antena Schenberg são: colapsos estelares que produzam eventos do tipo supernova; instabilidades hidrodinâmicas em estrelas de nêutrons; excitação dos modos fluído (modos f) de estrelas de nêutrons; excitação dos primeiros modos quadrupolares de buracos negros com massa ~ 3,8 M¤; coalescências de estrelas de nêutrons e buracos negros em sistemas binários e, ainda, espiralações de mini-buracos negros. Neste trabalho nós determinamos as taxas de eventos para o Schenberg associadas a dois tipos de fontes: através da de-excitação dos modos f de estrelas de nêutrons e através da coalescência de mini-buracos negros de 0,5 M¤ (que atualmente têm sido colocados como possíveis candidatos a objetos massivos do halo Galáctico). Nós mostramos que esses tipos de fontes poderão produzir sinais em ondas gravitacionais com uma taxa em torno de um evento por ano dentro da banda do Schenberg.

  19. Lien analytique entre les systèmes de référence géocentriques relativistes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moisson, X.

    The general relativity theory is of practicle importance in astronomy. For instance, it does introduce new reference systems, the hierarchie of which has been elaborated for the barycentric, geocentric and topocentric levels. Four dimensional transformations are performed between these levels. This paper is devoted to the computation of the geometrical link between the dynamically and kinematically non-rotating reference systems (DGRS and KGRS respectively) based on the expression of the three dynamical Euler angles. The differences between the rotation vector of the International Terrestrial Reference system, as seen in DGRS and KGRS is investigated.

  20. Diriger un Memoire Professionnel--Entre Dispositif Institutionnel et Problematique Relationnelle: Le Cas de la Formation des Enseignants en France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailleul, Marc; Bodergat, Jean-Yves

    2001-01-01

    Describes research conducted in a French teacher training college about the supervision of preservice teachers writing professional dissertations (which became compulsory in 1991). After describing elementary and secondary level preservice teachers' perspectives, researchers examined the perspectives of their supervisors to show discrepancies.…

  1. Neuropatía persistente aumenta el riesgo de caídas entre supervivientes de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Muchas mujeres supervivientes de cáncer tienen problemas de movilidad y de otras funciones físicas como resultado de la neuropatía periférica persistente causada por el tratamiento de quimioterapia, según un estudio nuevo.

  2. Pertes de charge des fluides non newtoniens thermodependants en écoulement entre deux plaques parallèles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Van Tuan; Lebouche, Michel

    2007-01-01

    In this Note, the pressure drop of non-Newtonian thermodependent fluids flowing between two parallel plates is considered. The effects of different parameters on the evolution of local friction factor are numerically investigated in two heating cases and correlations are proposed to compute the pressure drop. To cite this article: V.T. Nguyen, M. Lebouche, C. R. Mecanique 335 (2007).

  3. Interactivite, relations entre interlocuteurs et constitution d'unites conversationnelles (Interaction Processes, Participants' Relationships and Definition of Conversation Units).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenone, Anna

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes a type of conversational exchange where the participants focus on a given subject or theme contributing personal views to the discussion. Characterizes the relationship among the participants as a "cooperative conflict," examining the internal structure of speech acts and their illocutory functions, particularly the initiatory and…

  4. Alternancia entre el estado de emisión de Rayos-X y Pulsar en Sistemas Binarios Interactuantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vito, M. A.; Benvenuto, O. G.; Horvath, J. E.

    2015-08-01

    Redbacks belong to the family of binary systems in which one of the components is a pulsar. Recent observations show redbacks that have switched their state from pulsar - low mass companion (where the accretion of material over the pulsar has ceased) to low mass X-ray binary system (where emission is produced by the mass accretion on the pulsar), or inversely. The irradiation effect included in our models leads to cyclic mass transfer episodes, which allow close binary systems to switch between one state to other. We apply our results to the case of PSR J1723-2837, and discuss the need to include new ingredients in our code of binary evolution to describe the observed state transitions.

  5. Entre el Renacimiento y el Nuevo Mundo: Vida y obras de Hernan Perez de Oliva (1494?-1531)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellus Perez, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Hernan Perez de Oliva (1494?-1531) was a learned Spanish humanist who wrote his major works in the decades following the discovery of America. By articulating events of his career and literary life, my goal is to comprehend his contributions to the early literary production regarding the newly-found Americas. The thesis consists of three parts.…

  6. Relación entre distribuciones de colisiones de baja energía y trayectorias de escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppetti, F. A.; Leiva, A. M.; Briozzo, C. B.

    In the restricted three-body problem; the impact distributions on the secondary mass originated by low-energy trajectories exhibit peculiar properties concerning the positions and directions of the impacts. In particular; for low energies there are regions on the surface of the secondary mass where no collisions happen. On the other hand; similar surface distributions can be obtained when only considering those test particles whose low-energy trajectories satisfy the escape condition. In this work; taking into account the Earth-Moon problem; we analyze the relations between these two distributions and discuss their possible applications. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  7. Henri Chretien, un savant entre science et technique: reflections a propos de l'invention de l'hypergonar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Guet Tully, Francoise

    At the beggining of the 20-th century, French engineers and scientists were not well acquainted with some of the importnat principles of applied optics developed elsewhere, especially in Germany, over the preceding fifty years. In preparation for a career as a designer of astronomical instruments, Henri Chretien visited observatories in several countries and read widely. His research in optics produced many tangible advances. The Richy-Chretien telescope, which gained popularity in the 1960s and still in use today, was designed in 1910, based on an application of the principles developed by Abbe in Germany first to make color movies and then, though another application of the same principle, to project motion pictures onto a wide screen (The "Hypergonar" objective).

  8. Detection of PhIP in grilled chicken entrées at popular chain restaurants throughout California.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kristie M; Erickson, Michael A; Sandusky, Chad B; Barnard, Neal D

    2008-01-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs), compounds formed when meat is cooked at high temperatures particularly through pan frying, grilling, or barbequing, pose a potential carcinogenic risk to the public. It is unclear whether there is any level at which consumption of HCAs can be considered safe. Efforts to measure these compounds mainly include cooking studies under laboratory conditions and some measurement of home-cooked foods, but analysis of commercially cooked foods has been minimal. Attempts to estimate exposure of the public to these compounds must take into consideration dining outside the home, which could result in significant exposure for some individuals. We surveyed at least 9 locations each of 7 popular chain restaurants (McDonald's, Burger King, Chick-fil-A, Chili's, TGI Friday's, Outback Steakhouse, and Applebee's) in California, collecting one or two entrees from each location. Entrees were analyzed for 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. All 100 samples contained PhIP. Concentrations were variable within and between entrees and ranged from 0.08 to 43.2 ng/g. When factoring in the weight of the entrees, absolute levels of PhIP reached over 1,000 ng for some entrees. Potential strategies for reducing exposure include the avoidance of meats cooked using methods that are known to form PhIP. PMID:18791922

  9. Entre le zero et l'infini...l'environnement (Between Zero and the Infinite...the Environment).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Jacques

    1982-01-01

    Envisages the environment as that which surrounds, conditions, opposes, and allows one to understand, identify, and attain a series of objectives. The relationship of this understanding of environment to second language learning is explored, with particular emphasis on recent methodologies that see language as a culture's mode of expression. (AMH)

  10. Modelisation de l'interaction entre une impulsion laser ultrabreve et une nanostructure plasmonique en milieu aqueux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulais, Etienne

    There is still a limited understanding of the basic mechanisms and processes triggered by laser irradiation that lead to the damaging of the surrounding structures. In particular, there exists for the moment no complete modelling of the process that includes all potential sources of cellular damage, including temperature rise, plasma generation, pressure wave emission and vapor bubble formation. This thesis presents such a modelling, with the cell environment emulated by a much simpler aqueous medium. Water is used as its optical, mechanical and thermal characteristic are similar enough to the cell environment to enable the transposition of the results and tendencies observed in water to this medium. Modelling consists in a continuous medium based approach that uses coupled partial differential equations to simulate the nanostructure-water system's response to an ultrafast laser pulse. The time-dependant field distribution in the system is simulated using classical electromagnetic theory, while the temperature in the nanostructure is calculated using a two-temperature model. Generation and heating of a plasma in the nanostructure's vicinity from photoionization and impact ionization in the near-field, as well as from photothermal emission from the nanostructure at the metal interface are also included. This plasma locally modifies the refractive index, which alters the simulated optical response of the system. Energy relaxation from this plasma as well as heat conduction from the nanostructure's lattice transfer energy to the water, which dynamics and thermodynamics evolutions are simulated from hydrodynamic and energy conservation equations. Modelling is used for analyzing the interaction of a near-infrared ultrafast laser pulse (45 fs, 800 nm, 200 mJ/cm2) with two distinct systems : a 100nm gold nanoparticle and a 10x41 nm2 gold nanorod. The gold nanoparticle shows a plasmon resonance at a ˜550 nm wavelength, and is thus slightly off-resonance at the 800 nm irradiation wavelength. In opposition, the gold nanorod shows a plasmon resonance directly at 800 nm and is thus in-resonance at the irradiation wavelength. The system of tightly coupled time-dependant non-linear partial differential equations is solved in 3D using a finite-element method. The modelling shows the generation of vapor bubble around both systems, which maximal diameter and growth time are validated from spectroscopic measurements. Results show an important production of plasma in the nanostructure's near field, which fast relaxation heats rapidly the surrounding water, leading to the emission of strong pressure wave and to the formation of a vapor bubble. Simulations further demonstrate the crucial importance of the plasma in the cavitation mechanism. For both the nanoparticle and the nanorod, results show that most of the laser energy is indeed absorbed in the plasma surrounding the nanostructure rather than in the nanostructure itself. In particular, the energy absorbed in the nanoparticle is shown to be insufficient to induce the formation of a vapor bubble at 200 mJ/cm2, whereas such a bubble is experimentally observed. This is a major result of the thesis, as such a plasma-mediated plasmonic enhanced cavitation mechanism has never been reported in the literature. The existence of this plasma-mediated mechanism that does not rely on the particle extreme heating to initiate cavitation has important consequences on cell nanosurgery applications. Finally, based on the same modelling, we develop a simple and efficient method to evaluate the potential of specific nanostructures and irradiation parameters for cell nanosurgery. We introduce a performance factor based on minimizing the energy density deposited in the nanostructure to avoid fragmentation, while maximizing the overall energy deposited in the system, to enhance the production of vapor bubbles. Results predict off-resonance 175 nm gold nanoparticles to be best suited for near-infrared ultrafast laser cell nanosurgery using 45 fs pulses at a wavelength of 800 nm. They also confirm the low inte

  11. Comparing the performance of the SF-6D and the EQ-5D in different patient groups.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lara N; Ferreira, Pedro L; Pereira, Luis N

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: O objectivo geral deste artigo consiste em comparar o desempenho do EQ-5D e do SF-6D em quatro grupos de doentes que sofrem de asma, doença pulmonar obstrutiva crónica, cataratas e artrite reumatóide. Em particular, este artigo tem dois objectivos específicos: 1) estudar o nível de concordância entre os índices e os sistemas descritivos das dimensões do SF-6D e EQ-5D, e 2) analisar a capacidade de discriminação dos instrumentos.Material e Métodos: Uma amostra de 643 doentes respondeu ao SF-36v2 e ao EQ-5D. Foram analisados a capacidade de discriminação dos instrumentos, bem como o nível de concordância entre os índices e os sistemas descritivos das dimensões do SF-6D e EQ-5D. O nível de concordância entre os instrumentos foi estudado com base em coeficientes de correlação e nos gráficos de Bland-Altman, enquanto a influência da condição médica e de outras variáveis de natureza sociodemográfica nos índices foi analisada com o recurso a testes não paramétricos. Utilizaram-se também testes para amostras emparelhadas para identificar diferenças entre osscores finais dos instrumentos.Resultados e Discussão: Verificou-se a existência de uma correlação forte e de uma concordância elevada entre os dois índices. Em termos globais, os índices diferem por condição médica e por grupo sociodemográfico e ambos os instrumentos demonstraram uma capacidade discriminativa semelhante entre grupos sociodemográficosConclusão: Confirmou-se a hipótese de que o SF-6D gera valores de utilidade superiores em populações com doenças. O SF-6D e o EQ-5D parecem comportar-se de forma diferente em cada uma das doenças analisadas, uma vez que as medidas descritivas diferem entre instrumentos e os coeficientes de correlação não são uniformes. Os resultados demonstraram que o EQ-5D e o SF-6D geram valores de utilidade diferentes, mas que existe uma concordância elevada entre os dois instrumentos. Pode-se concluir que os resultados

  12. Las ideologias, las ciencias naturales y sus implicaciones en la educacion cientifica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozada Roldan, Sandra

    Este estudio ausculto las concepciones epistemologicas de los docentes de ciencia del nivel secundario con relacion a las ideologias y las ciencias naturales. Tambien examino las posiciones de los docentes ante asuntos publicos relacionados a la ciencia. Para propositos de este estudio se diseno y se valido el cuestionario con el cual se obtuvieron los resultados. La investigacion es de tipo cuantitativa y se utilizo como diseno la encuesta. El cuestionario se administro en varias actividades de desarrollo profesional para maestros de ciencia. Un total de 78 maestros del nivel secundario respondieron el cuestionario. Para analizar los datos obtenidos se utilizaron estadisticas descriptivas como la distribucion de frecuencia y el porciento. Ademas se establecieron codigos y categorias para describir las posiciones de los maestros ante asuntos publicos relacionados a la ciencia. Los analisis demostraron que entre los docentes participantes de este estudio prevalecen ciertas concepciones epistemologicas adecuadas acerca de las ciencias naturales, a la luz de la literatura consultada. Entre estas concepciones se destacan las siguientes: a) la filosofia materialista de las ciencias naturales, b) la naturaleza tentativa y constructivista del conocimiento cientifico, c) el uso de una metodologia que garantiza cierto grado de objetividad y con el que se justifican y validan los enunciados cientificos y d) la funcion instrumental del conocimiento cientifico. Sin embargo, entre los docentes participantes de este estudio prevalecen ciertas concepciones epistemologicas erroneas acerca de las ciencias naturales, a la luz de la literatura consultada. Entre estas concepciones se destacan las siguientes: a) tendencia inductivista en el que las teorias cientificas comienzan con observaciones que establecen generalizaciones, b) secuencia jerarquica de la metodologia cientifica. Ademas, entre los docentes participantes de este estudio prevalecen concepciones epistemologicas adecuadas

  13. Hepatic inflammatory biomarkers and its link with obesity and chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro Volp, Ana Carolina; Santos Silva, Fernanda Cacilda; Bressan, Josefina

    2015-05-01

    Introdución: El bajo grado de inflamación y la resistencia a la insulina son dos eventos que podrían estar presentes en mayor o menor grado, en la obesidad y las enfermedades crónicas. El grado de inflamación subclínica se puede evaluar por medición de las concentraciones de algunos biomarcadores inflamatorios, incluyendo los de origen hepático. Algunos de estos biomarcadores son el ácido siálico, 1-antitripsina y el fragmento C-terminal de la alfa 1-antitripsina, ceruloplasmina, fibrinógeno, haptoglobina, la homocisteína y el inhibidor-1 del activador del plasminógeno. Objetivos: Evaluar la relación entre la obesidad y los marcadores de inflamación hepática, y las posibles asociaciones entre los biomarcadores inflamatorios hepáticos y la obesidad, así como su capacidad de predicción de las enfermedades crónicas como la diabetes tipo 2 y enfermedades cardiovasculares aterotromboticas. Métodos: Se utilizaron bases científicas electrónicas para selección de artículos, sin límite de año de publicación. Resultados: El ácido siálico predice el aumento de convertirse en diabéticos tipo 2 independientemente del IMC. Por otra parte, los biomarcadores 1-antitripsina, ceruloplasmina, fibrinógeno y haptoglobulina, parecen predecir el aumento de convertirse en diabético tipo 2, dependiente, de IMC. Por lo tanto, este proceso podría verse agravada por la obesidad. Las concentraciones de fibrinógeno, homocisteína y PAI-1 incrementam proporcionalmente a la insulinoresisténcia, mostrando su relación con el síndrome metabólico (estado de resistencia insulínica) y con la diabetes tipo 2. En relación con las enfermedades cardiovasculares, cada biomarcador informado en esta revisión parece aumentar el riesgo, llegando a ser muy útil en el complemento pronóstico.

  14. ROLE OF PARENTERAL NUTRITION IN ONCOLOGIC PATIENTS WITH INTESTINAL OCCLUSION AND PERITONEAL CARCINOMATOSIS.

    PubMed

    Aría Guerra, Eva; Cortés-Salgado, Alfonso; Mateo-Lobo, Raquel; Nattero, Lía; Riveiro, Javier; Vega-Piñero, Belén; Valbuena, Beatriz; Carabaña, Fátima; Carrero, Carmen; Grande, Enrique; Carrato, Alfredo; Botella-Carretero, José Ignacio

    2015-09-01

    Introducción y objetivos: el papel preciso de la nutrición parenteral en el manejo de los pacientes oncológicos con obstrucción intestinal no está bien definido todavía. El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar los efectos de la nutrición parenteral en este tipo de pacientes en cuanto al pronóstico. Material y métodos: fueron incluidos 55 pacientes con obstrucción intestinal y carcinomatosis peritoneal. La nutrición parenteral proporcionó 20-35 kcal/Kg/día y 1.0 g/kg/día de aminoácidos. El peso, el IMC, el tipo de tumor, el tipo de quimioterapia recibida y el ECOG, entre otras variables, fueron recogidas y analizadas. Resultados: un 69,1% de los pacientes presentaban tumors gastrointestinales, un 18,2% ginecológicos y otros tumores el 12,7% restante. La edad media fue de 60 ± 13 años, con un ECOG basal de 1,5 ± 0,5 y un IMC de 21,6 ± 4,3. La presencia de malnutrición fue de un 85%. La supervivencia desde el inicio de la nutrición parenteral no fue significativamente distinta entre los pacientes al considerar su ECOG basal (log rank = 0,593, p = 0,743), las líneas previas de quimioterapia recibida (log rank = 2,117, p = 0,548), el IMC basal (log rank = 2,686, p = 0,261), o el tipo de tumor (log rank = 2,066, p = 0,356). La supervivencia en los pacientes en que fue posible el alta hospitalaria con nutrición parenteral fue superior (log rank = 7,090, p = 0,008). La supervivencia en los pacientes en que se inició la quimioterapia durante o tras iniciar la nutrición parenteral fue también superior (log rank = 17,316, p < 0,001). Un total de 3,6% de los pacientes presentaron infección relacionada con el catéter sin afectar la supervivencia (log rank = 0,061, p = 0,804). Conclusión: la nutrición parenteral en los pacientes oncológicos con obstrucción intestinal y carcinomatosis peritoneal es segura y, en aquellos que responden a qui mioterapia, el uso de la nutrición parenteral domiciliaria, junto con en tratamiento antitumoral activo

  15. [Cerebellum and language: speech therapy intervention to treat their disorders].

    PubMed

    Ferri, Lluís

    2015-02-25

    Introduccion. Los avances en las tecnicas de neuroimagen han propiciado un creciente interes por el estudio del cerebelo y su participacion en los procesos cognitivos. Es cada vez mas evidente la relacion que existe entre este organo y la produccion linguistica, y entre las patologias cerebelosas y determinados trastornos del lenguaje, como la disartria cerebelosa. Objetivo. Revisar la contribucion del cerebelo a las funciones linguisticas, analizar los trastornos del lenguaje que derivan de las enfermedades cerebelosas y plantear la intervencion logopedica en este tipo de afectaciones. Desarrollo. Se realiza un analisis de la funcion moduladora del cerebelo en el lenguaje, de la disartria cerebelosa, de los factores etiologicos y de las manifestaciones clinicas observables en la produccion verbal. Se plantean los procedimientos para la valoracion funcional y los contenidos del tratamiento logopedico. Conclusiones. La adquisicion del lenguaje en la infancia esta condicionado, entre otros aspectos, por la conformacion anatomica y la actividad neurofisiologica del cerebelo. Las alteraciones en el desarrollo de la estructura cerebelosa, las patologias y las disfunciones neurofisiologicas de este pueden ocasionar trastornos del lenguaje. El diagnostico logopedico ha de servir para iniciar lo mas pronto posible el tratamiento, que incidira en la mejora de la organizacion perceptiva, las habilidades motrices, el perfil cognitivo y las competencias linguisticas. El programa de trabajo se planteara de manera global e interdisciplinar. La intervencion familiar y su participacion en el proceso terapeutico sera una contribucion de gran valor para contar con entornos de recuperacion positivos.

  16. Modelado del efecto de manchas frías en el perfil del tránsito de proto-planetas en estrellas jóvenes de tipo WTTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovos, F. V.; Gómez, M.; Ahumada, J. A.; Petrucci, R.; Jofré, J. E.

    2016-08-01

    Weak Emission T Tauri stars (WTTS) are pre-main sequence stars with ages of 10 10 yr, stage at which circumstellar disk material is being used to form planets. This class of young stars shows photometric variations that correlate with the rotational period and are attributed to magnetic cold spots. To model the planet-spot-star system we use the soap-t code, that allows the construction of light curves including planetary transits and spots at the same time. We focus on the deformations that the spot introduces to the transit profile for the case of a proto-planet with 2 Jupiter radii. We consider spotted areas typical for WTTS covering from to of the visible stellar disk, with temperatures of 500 and 1400 K less than that of the stellar surface. The results show the modulation of the stellar brightness caused by the spot. In particular, this modulation increases the depth of the transit. Furthermore, when the spot is eclipsed by the proto-planet, a rebrightening is observed as the planet blocks a zone cooler than the rest of the stellar surface.

  17. [Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with chronic kidney disease. Grupo de Trabajo para el Documento de Consenso sobre el tratamiento de la diabetes tipo 2 en el paciente con enfermedad renal crónica].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Huelgas, Ricardo; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Artola, Sara; Górriz, José Luis; Menéndez, Edelmiro

    2014-01-21

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are highly prevalent chronic diseases, which represent an important public health problem and require a multidisciplinary management. T2DM is the main cause of CKD and it also causes a significant comorbidity with regard to non-diabetic nephropathy. Patients with diabetes and kidney disease represent a special risk group as they have higher morbi-mortality as well as higher risk of hypoglycemia than diabetic individuals with a normal kidney function. Treatment of T2DM in patients with CKD is controversial because of the scarcity of available evidence. The current consensus report aims to ease the appropriate selection and dosage of antidiabetic treatments as well as the establishment of safety objectives of glycemic control in patients with CKD. PMID:24268912

  18. The Preschool Classroom as a Context for Cognitive Development: Type of Teacher Feedback and Children's Metacognitive Control (El aula Preescolar como espacio de desarrollo cognitivo: tipo de feedback docente y control metacognitivo en los niños)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz, Liz; Cruz, Josefina Santa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this work was to determine whether the type of feedback given by the preschool teacher during class impacts the children's metacognitive control. For this purpose, the children's behavior was analyzed while teachers provided feedback during collaborative learning sessions. Method: A quasi-experimental, cross-sectional…

  19. "Processing Instruction": un tipo di grammatica comunicativa per la classe di lingua straniera. Il caso del futuro italiano. (Processing Instruction: One Type of Communicative Grammar for the Foreign Language Classroom. The Case of the Italian Future Tense).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benati, Alessandro

    2000-01-01

    Examines the theoretical and practical rationale for processing instruction as a method of incorporating grammar instruction in a communicative foreign language approach. Presents results of a study on the role of processing instruction on the learning of the Italian future indicative tense by a group of English-speaking students. Results…

  20. The Impact of Different Types of Journaling Techniques on EFL Learners' Self-Efficacy (El impacto de diferentes tipos de diario en la autosuficiencia de estudiantes de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baleghizadeh, Sasan; Mortazavi, Mahboobeh

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of the impact of different methods of journaling on self-efficacy of learners of English as a foreign language. Sixty upper-intermediate Iranian English language learners were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions, namely no-feedback, teacher-feedback, and peer-feedback, and one control…

  1. [Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with chronic kidney disease. Grupo de Trabajo para el Documento de Consenso sobre el tratamiento de la diabetes tipo 2 en el paciente con enfermedad renal crónica].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Huelgas, Ricardo; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Artola, Sara; Górriz, José Luis; Menéndez, Edelmiro

    2014-01-21

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are highly prevalent chronic diseases, which represent an important public health problem and require a multidisciplinary management. T2DM is the main cause of CKD and it also causes a significant comorbidity with regard to non-diabetic nephropathy. Patients with diabetes and kidney disease represent a special risk group as they have higher morbi-mortality as well as higher risk of hypoglycemia than diabetic individuals with a normal kidney function. Treatment of T2DM in patients with CKD is controversial because of the scarcity of available evidence. The current consensus report aims to ease the appropriate selection and dosage of antidiabetic treatments as well as the establishment of safety objectives of glycemic control in patients with CKD.

  2. Exploración del catálogo de objetos en emisión H de Henize y All Sky Automated Survey: nuevas variables y tipos espectrales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaque Arancibia, M.; Barbá, R. H.; Collado, A.; Gamen, R.; Arias, J. I.

    2016-08-01

    Large astronomical surveys allow us to do systematic studies of stellar populations with significant statistical weight. In this study, we have cross-correlated the Henize's (1976) catalog of stellar sources with H emission-line with “The All Sky Automated Survey'' database. After the positional cross-matching we have found that 1402 of 1926 H sources have ASAS light-curves. From that number, more than 50 (723 sources) are periodic variables with amplitude larger than 0.05 magnitudes, while 276 sources show photometric variations without a clear periodicity. Variable stars that we have found are of many different types, among them Miras, eclipsing binaries, bursting stars, etc. Also, only 133 stars are known previously as variable sources in ASAS catalogue, and 93 of them were studied previously in detail. In order to characterize the nature of the sources, we have started a medium-resolution spectroscopic survey of the unstudied variable emission-line objects using the 2.15-m Jorge Sahade Telescope at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (Argentina). At the moment, we have observed a set of 67 blue stars selected using 2MASS colors, being almost all of them Be-type stars. This set of bright new variable Be-type stars is ideal for follow-up monitoring for the study of the Be-phenomenon.

  3. Improvement of C peptide zero BMI 24-34 diabetic patients after tailored one anastomosis gastric bypass (BAGUA).

    PubMed

    Garciacaballero, M; Martínez-Moreno, J M; Toval, J A; Miralles, F; Mínguez, A; Osorio, D; Mata, J M; Reyes-Ortiz, A

    2013-03-01

    Introducción: Aunque la cirugía bariátrica ha demostrado ser un método muy eficaz en el tratamiento de pacientes diabéticos cuyo páncreas aún es capaz de producir insulina (diabetes tipo 2), así como del síndrome metabólico y las complicaciones relacionadas con la diabetes, no hay información sobre el efecto de este tipo de cirugía en pacientes IMC 24-34 cuando el páncreas no produce insulina en absoluto (tipo 1, tipo LADA y diabetes tipo 2 de larga evolución, entre otros). Métodos: Presentamos datos preliminares de una serie de 11 pacientes todos con valores de Péptido C < 0,0 ng/ml. El seguimiento postoperatorio varia de 6 y 60 meses (media 19 meses). Estudiamos los cambios en el control de la glucemia, evolución del síndrome metabólico y complicaciones relacionadas con la diabetes tras bypass de una anastomosis (BAGUA). Resultados: Mejoraron todos los valores relativos al control glucémico HbA1c (de 8,9 ± 0,6 a 6,7 ± 0,2%), FPG (Glucosa Plasmática Ayunas) (de 222,36 ± 16,87 a 94 ± 5 (mg/dl)) así como el requerimiento diario de insulina, tanto de insulina rápida (de 40,6 ± 12,8 a 0 U/día) como de insulina retardada (41,27 ± 7,3 U/día a 15,2 ± 3,3 U/día). Se resolvieron el 100% de las comorbilidades estudiadas y se mejoraron algunas complicaciones graves derivadas de la diabetes como retinopatía o nefropatía. Conclusiones: El bypass gástrico de una anastomosis adaptado a pacientes diabéticos IMC24-34 con péptido C cero elimina el uso de insulina de acción rápida, reduce a una sola inyección diaria la insulina retardada y mejora el control glucémico. Tras la cirugía desaparecen el síndrome metabólico y los episodios severos de hipoglucemia, y mejora significativamente la retinopatía, neuropatía, nefropatía, vasculopatía periférica y cardiopatía.

  4. Obesity and metabolic surgery in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Raab, Heike; Weiner, R A; Frenken, M; Rett, K; Weiner, S

    2013-03-01

    Introducción: La cirugía de la obesidad es un método eficaz para el tratamiento de la obesidad y la diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Este tipo de diabetes puede se resuelve por completo en el 78,1% de los pacientes diabéticos y mejora en el 86,6% de los pacientes diabéticos. Sin embargo, poco se sabe acerca de la cirugía bariátrica en la diabetes mellitus tipo 1. Métodos: Presentamos 6 pacientes mujeres obesas con diabetes mellitus tipo 1 que se sometieron a cirugía bariátrica. Dos de ellas fueron sometidas a un bypass gástrico en-Y-Roux (BPGYR), una se le realizó una gastrectomía en manga y a las tres restantes una derivación biliopancreática con-switch duodenal (DBP-SD). Resultados: Nuestros resultados mostraron una reducción de peso notable, así como una mejora en el control de la glucosa en sangre y el requerimiento de insulina en los años de seguimiento después de la cirugía. El IMC prequirúrgico de las 6 pacientes osciló entre 37,3-46,0 kg/m2 y mejoró a 25,8-29,0 kg/m2 un año después de la cirugía. La HbA1c disminuyó de 6,7-9,8% antes de la cirugía a 5,7-8,5% un año después de la cirugía. El requerimiento diario de insulina se redujo de 62-150 UI/día antes de la cirugía a 15-54 UI /día al cabo de un año. Conclusión: Los resultados son impresionantes y muestran una mejora en la sensibilidad a la insulina tras una cirugía de la obesidad. No obstante, un control óptimo de la glucosa de sangre sigue siendo muy importante en la terapia de la diabetes mellitus tipo 1 para evitarcomplicaciones a largo plazo.

  5. [OVERWEIGHT AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PRACTICE ASSOCIATED WITH EATING BEHAVIOR OF BRAZILIAN COLLEGE STUDENTS].

    PubMed

    da Silva Gasparotto, Guilherme; Pereira da Silva, Michael; Miranda Medeiros Cruz, Raphael; de Campos, Wagner

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: la ingestión inadecuada de alimentos puede comprometer la salud cardiovascular de la persona, lo que aumenta las posibilidades de desarrollar una serie de enfermedades. La relación entre la ingesta dietética inadecuada y ciertos factores de riesgo cardiovascular en poblaciones de adultos jóvenes no está clara. Objetivos: el objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la asociación entre los hábitos alimentarios de los estudiantes universitarios, el exceso de peso corporal, la presión arterial alta y la actividad física regular. Material y métodos: se realizó un estudio de corte transversal analítico en estudiantes de una universidad federal brasileña. Se incluyeron 1.599 estudiantes de entre 18 y 25 años. Se aplicó una encuesta tipo entrevista que incluía variables sociodemográficas y el Cuestionario Internacional de Actividad Física (IPAQ). Posteriormente, se realizó la valoración de la composición corporal (talla, peso, índice de masa corporal (IMC), circunferencia de la cintura (CC)). Los hábitos alimentarios y las conductas de riesgo cardiovascular se evaluaron mediante el cuestionario YRBSS-C (Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance). Resultados: utilizando la prueba de chi-cuadrado, se encontró una asociación entre el consumo excesivo de alcohol, el consumo de frutas y el consumo de ensaladas/ verduras con actividad física regular. También se observó la asociación entre el consumo de dulces y salados, con el IMC y la circunferencia de la cintura alta. La regresión logística mostró asociación entre la ingesta de dulces (odds = 1,34) y salados (odds = 1,39) con el IMC alto. También mostró asociación con la circunferencia de la cintura, el consumo de dulces (odds = 1,33) y salados (odds = 1,74). La AFMV estaba relacionada con el consumo excesivo de alcohol (odds = 1,23), el consumo de frutas (1,46) y el consumo de ensaladas/verduras (odds = 1,49). De este modo, se comprobó la asociación entre la conducta alimentaria de

  6. [Association between sucrose intake and cancer: a review of the evidence].

    PubMed

    Aranceta Bartrina, Javier; Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen

    2013-07-01

    Objetivos: El objetivo de esta revisión es resumir la evidencia disponible sobre la asociación entre el consumo de azúcar, principalmente sacarosa, y el riesgo de cáncer de distinta localización. Métodos: Se ha realizado una revisión de los principales informes publicados, las revisiones sistemáticas, metanálisis, así como grandes estudios epidemiológicos prospectivos publicados con fecha posterior al 1 de enero de 2007 hasta 31 de diciembre de 2012 sobre la asociación entre el consumo de azúcar, principalmente sacarosa, y el riesgo de cáncer. Resultados: La evidencia de asociación entre la ingesta de mono y disacáridos con los distintos tipos de cáncer es insuficiente o existe evidencia de no asociación. Sólo existe evidencia posible de una relación positiva entre la ingesta de monosacáridos (fructosa y glucosa) y el riesgo de cáncer de páncreas. La evidencia sobre la asociación entre la ingesta de monosacáridos y el riesgo de obesidad es insuficiente, lo mismo que en relación con la ingesta de sacarosa o azúcar añadido y el riesgo de obesidad en adultos o en niños. Existe evidencia posible de una asociación positiva entre el índice glucémico (IG) y cáncer colorrectal y de que no hay asociación entre el IG y el riesgo de cáncer de endometrio, mama y páncreas. Conclusiones: Es necesario seguir investigando. Son especialmente necesarios estudios de cohortes y serían deseables estudios aleatorizados de intervención, aunque son difíciles en este ámbito.

  7. Investigations on recyclisation and hydrolysis in avibactam mediated serine β-lactamase inhibition† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6ob00353b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hwanho; Paton, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    β-Lactams inhibit penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and serine β-lactamases by acylation of a nucleophilic active site serine. Avibactam is approved for clinical use in combination with ceftazidime, and is a breakthrough non β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor also reacting via serine acylation. Molecular dynamics (MD) and quantum chemical calculations on avibactam-mediated inhibition of a clinically relevant cephalosporinase reveal that recyclisation of the avibactam derived carbamoyl complex is favoured over hydrolysis. In contrast, we show that analogous recyclisation in β-lactam mediated inhibition is disfavoured. Avibactam recyclisation is promoted by a proton shuttle, a ‘structural’ water protonating the nucleophilic serine, and stabilization of the negative charge developed on aminocarbonyl oxygen. The results imply the potential of calculations for distinguishing between bifurcating pathways during inhibition and in generating hypotheses for predicting resistance. The inability of β-lactams to undergo recyclisation may be an Achilles heel, but one that can be addressed by suitably functionalized reversibly binding inhibitors. PMID:27072755

  8. Photoelectrochemical water splitting strongly enhanced in fast-grown ZnO nanotree and nanocluster structures† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6ta02788a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Sangle, Abhijeet; Zhang, Siyuan; Yuan, Shuai; Zhao, Yin; Shi, Liyi; Hoye, Robert L. Z.; Cho, Seungho; Li, Dongdong

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate selective growth of ZnO branched nanostructures: from nanorod clusters (with branches parallel to parent rods) to nanotrees (with branches perpendicular to parent rods). The growth of these structures was realized using a three-step approach: electrodeposition of nanorods (NRs), followed by the sputtering of ZnO seed layers, followed by the growth of branched arms using hydrothermal growth. The density, size and direction of the branches were tailored by tuning the deposition parameters. To our knowledge, this is the first report of control of branch direction. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of the ZnO nanostructures follows the order: nanotrees (NTs) > nanorod clusters (NCs) > parent NRs. The NT structure with the best PEC performance also possesses the shortest fabrication period which had never been reported before. The photocurrent of the NT and NC photoelectrodes is 0.67 and 0.56 mA cm–2 at 1 V vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively, an enhancement of 139% and 100% when compared to the ZnO NR structures. The key reason for the improved performance is shown to be the very large surface-to-volume ratios in the branched nanostructures, which gives rise to enhanced light absorption, improved charge transfer across the nanostructure/electrolyte interfaces to the electrolyte and efficient charge transport within the material. PMID:27774147

  9. Photoactive rolled-up TiO2 microtubes: fabrication, characterization and applications† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4tc00796d Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Marz, Sonja M.; Soler, Lluís; Madani, Abbas; Jorgensen, Matthew R.; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2014-01-01

    Because of its unique properties, titania (TiO2) represents a promising candidate in a wide variety of research fields. In this paper, some of the properties and potential applications of titania within rolled-up nanotechnology are explored. It is shown how the structural and optical properties of rolled titania microtubes can be controlled by properly tuning the microfabrication parameters. The rolling up of titania films on different sacrificial layers and containing different shapes, achieving a control on the diameter of the fabricated titania microtubes, is presented. In order to obtain the more photoactive crystalline form of titania, one during-fabrication and two post-fabrication methods are demonstrated. Interesting applications in the fields of photocatalysis and photonics are suggested: the use of titania rolled-up microtubes as micromotors and optical microresonators is presented. PMID:25580249

  10. Design of thiol–ene photoclick hydrogels using facile techniques for cell culture applications† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4bm00187g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Sawicki, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Thiol–ene ‘click’ chemistries have been widely used in biomaterials applications, including drug delivery, tissue engineering, and controlled cell culture, owing to their rapid, cytocompatible, and often orthogonal reactivity. In particular, hydrogel-based biomaterials formed by photoinitiated thiol–ene reactions afford spatiotemporal control over the biochemical and biomechanical properties of the network for creating synthetic materials that mimic the extracellular matrix or enable controlled drug release. However, the use of charged peptides functionalized with cysteines, which can form disulfides prior to reaction, and vinyl monomers that require multistep syntheses and contain ester bonds, may lead to undesired inhomogeneity or degradation under cell culture conditions. Here, we designed a thiol–ene hydrogel formed by the reaction of allyloxycarbonyl-functionalized peptides and thiol-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol). Hydrogels were polymerized by free radical initiation under cytocompatible doses of long wavelength ultraviolet light in the presence of water-soluble photoinitiators (lithium acylphosphinate, LAP, and 2-hydroxy-1-[4-(2-hydroxyethoxy)phenyl]-2-methyl-1-propanone, Irgacure 2959). Mechanical properties of these hydrogels were controlled by varying the monomer concentration to mimic a range of soft tissue environments, and hydrogel stability in cell culture medium was observed over weeks. Patterns of biochemical cues were created within the hydrogels post-formation and confirmed through the incorporation of fluorescently-labeled peptides and Ellman's assay to detect free thiols. Human mesenchymal stem cells remained viable after encapsulation and subsequent photopatterning, demonstrating the utility of the monomers and hydrogels for three-dimensional cell culture. This facile approach enables the formation and characterization of hydrogels with well-defined, spatially-specific properties and expands the suite of monomers available for three-dimensional cell culture and other biological applications. PMID:25717375

  11. Conductance tomography of conductive filaments in intrinsic silicon-rich silica RRAM† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04982b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Montesi, Luca; Hudziak, Stephen; Mehonic, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    We present results from an imaging study of filamentary conduction in silicon suboxide resistive RAM devices. We used a conductive atomic force microscope to etch through devices while measuring current, allowing us to produce tomograms of conductive filaments. To our knowledge this is the first report of such measurements in an intrinsic resistance switching material. PMID:26482563

  12. Enzyme classification using complex dynamic hemithioacetal systems† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: NMR spectra, linear discriminant analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cc01823h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Jayawardena, H. Surangi N.

    2016-01-01

    A complex dynamic hemithioacetal system was generated for the evaluation of lipase reactivities in organic media. In combination with pattern recognition methodology, twelve different lipases were successfully classified into four distinct groups following their reaction selectivities and reactivities. A probe lipase was further categorized using the training matrix with predicted reactivity. PMID:26987550

  13. Synthesis of double-clickable functionalised graphene oxide for biological applications† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc05412e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Kuo-Ching; Rubio, Noelia; Costa, Pedro M.; Kafa, Houmam; Abbate, Vincenzo; Festy, Frederic; Bansal, Sukhvinder S.; Hider, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Azide- and alkyne-double functionalised graphene oxide (Click2 GO) was synthesised and characterised with attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Raman spectroscopy. Fourteen-percentage increase in azide content was found, after pre-treatment of GO with meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (mCPBA), determined with elemental analysis. No effect on A549 cell viability was found, up to 100 μg mL–1 and 72 h of incubation, determined with the modified lactate dehydrogenase (mLDH) assay. Two sequential copper(i) catalysed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reactions were performed to conjugate the propargyl-modified blood–brain barrier targeting peptide Angiopep-2, and a bis-azide polyethylene glycol (M W = 3500), to the Click2 GO. The final conjugate was characterised with ATR-FTIR and TGA. PMID:26295072

  14. Asymmetric synthesis of chiral β-alkynyl carbonyl and sulfonyl derivatives via sequential palladium and copper catalysis† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc01724j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Masters, James T.; Taft, Benjamin R.; Lumb, Jean-Philip

    2016-01-01

    We present a full account detailing the development of a sequential catalysis strategy for the synthesis of chiral β-alkynyl carbonyl and sulfonyl derivatives. A palladium-catalyzed cross coupling of terminal alkyne donors with acetylenic ester, ketone, and sulfone acceptors generates stereodefined enynes in high yield. These compounds are engaged in an unprecedented, regio- and enantioselective copper-catalyzed conjugate reduction. The process exhibits a high functional group tolerance, and this enables the synthesis of a broad range of chiral products from simple, readily available alkyne precursors. The utility of the method is demonstrated through the elaboration of the chiral β-alkynyl products into a variety of different molecular scaffolds. Its value in complex molecule synthesis is further validated through a concise, enantioselective synthesis of AMG 837, a potent GPR40 receptor agonist. PMID:27746892

  15. Rational, yet simple, design and synthesis of an antifreeze-protein inspired polymer for cellular cryopreservation† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc04647e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Daniel E.; Cameron, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    Antifreeze (glyco) proteins AF(G)Ps are potent ice recrystallization inhibitors, which is a desirable property to enhance cryopreservation of donor tissue/cells. Here we present the rational synthesis of a new, biomimetic, ice-recrystallization inhibiting polymer derived from a cheap commodity polymer, based on an ampholyte structure. The polymer is used to enhance the cryopreservation of red blood cells, demonstrating a macromolecular solution to tissue storage. PMID:26176027

  16. Graphene-oxide-supported ultrathin Au nanowires: efficient electrocatalysts for borohydride oxidation† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc06705g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Leelavathi, Annamalai; Ahmad, Rafia; Singh, Abhishek K.; Madras, Giridhar

    2015-01-01

    We report stable ultrathin Au nanowires supported on reduced graphene oxide with outstanding electrocatalytic activity for borohydride oxidation. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements showed abnormal inductive behavior, indicative of surface reactivation. DFT calculations indicate that the origin of the high activity stems from the position of the Au d-band center. PMID:26439584

  17. Accurate calculation of the absolute free energy of binding for drug molecules† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc02678d Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Aldeghi, Matteo; Heifetz, Alexander; Bodkin, Michael J.; Knapp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Accurate prediction of binding affinities has been a central goal of computational chemistry for decades, yet remains elusive. Despite good progress, the required accuracy for use in a drug-discovery context has not been consistently achieved for drug-like molecules. Here, we perform absolute free energy calculations based on a thermodynamic cycle for a set of diverse inhibitors binding to bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) and demonstrate that a mean absolute error of 0.6 kcal mol–1 can be achieved. We also show a similar level of accuracy (1.0 kcal mol–1) can be achieved in pseudo prospective approach. Bromodomains are epigenetic mark readers that recognize acetylation motifs and regulate gene transcription, and are currently being investigated as therapeutic targets for cancer and inflammation. The unprecedented accuracy offers the exciting prospect that the binding free energy of drug-like compounds can be predicted for pharmacologically relevant targets. PMID:26798447

  18. Comment on: Alam Akhtar, Ahmad Shabir, Sultan Bhat, M., Ahmad Bashir, 2015. Tectonic evolution of Kashmir basin in northwest Himalayas. Geomorphology doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2015.03.025

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Alam et al. (2015) have challenged the classic piggyback tectonic model for the development of Kashmir basin, NW Himalaya. However, all the evidence shown is completely contrary to the geologic, tectonic, structural, seismologic, geodetic, and geomorphic data of previous works. A perfectly planar major (~ 165 km) dextral strike-slip fault has been mapped; however, with such planar geometry, any strike-slip fault cannot produce a pull-apart basin because such basins are characteristic features of step-overs and linkage fault geometries. And the Horsetail structures are impossible for a major planar strike-slip fault geometry that is proposed by the authors. The recent geodetic data of the Kashmir basin strongly refutes the pure strike-slip model. Therefore, the structures, geomorphology, geology, and kinematics associated with typical dextral strike-slip fault geometry completely contradict to what has been proposed by Alam et al. (2015).

  19. A general mechanism for intracellular toxicity of metal-containing nanoparticles† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01234h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Sabella, Stefania; Carney, Randy P.; Brunetti, Virgilio; Malvindi, Maria Ada; Al-Juffali, Noura; Vecchio, Giuseppe; Janes, Sam M.; Bakr, Osman M.; Cingolani, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of the risks exerted by nanoparticles is a key challenge for academic, industrial, and regulatory communities worldwide. Experimental evidence points towards significant toxicity for a range of nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo. Worldwide efforts aim at uncovering the underlying mechanisms for this toxicity. Here, we show that the intracellular ion release elicited by the acidic conditions of the lysosomal cellular compartment – where particles are abundantly internalized – is responsible for the cascading events associated with nanoparticles-induced intracellular toxicity. We call this mechanism a “lysosome-enhanced Trojan horse effect” since, in the case of nanoparticles, the protective cellular machinery designed to degrade foreign objects is actually responsible for their toxicity. To test our hypothesis, we compare the toxicity of similar gold particles whose main difference is in the internalization pathways. We show that particles known to pass directly through cell membranes become more toxic when modified so as to be mostly internalized by endocytosis. Furthermore, using experiments with chelating and lysosomotropic agents, we found that the toxicity mechanism for different metal containing NPs (such as metallic, metal oxide, and semiconductor NPs) is mainly associated with the release of the corresponding toxic ions. Finally, we show that particles unable to release toxic ions (such as stably coated NPs, or diamond and silica NPs) are not harmful to intracellular environments. PMID:24842463

  20. Response to Comment on ''Reverse level pool routing: Comparison between a deterministic and a stochastic approach" by H. Md. Azamathulla, J. Hydrol. (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.09.005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Oria, Marco; Mignosa, Paolo; Tanda, Maria Giovanna

    2012-12-01

    This discussion is in reply to the comments made by Dr. Azamathulla (in press) on the results presented in D'Oria et al., 2012 concerning a comparison between a deterministic and a stochastic approach for reverse level pool routing. In this article we summarize and answer all the comments and we try to clarify all the highlighted reservations concerning the applicability of the inverse procedures even if they are not strictly relevant to the focus of our paper. We believe that Dr. Azamathulla has overlooked some important points already reported in the discussed paper that are crucial to explain the obtained results and we reassert here their correctness.

  1. Switching specific biomolecular interactions on surfaces under complex biological conditions† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4an01225a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Lashkor, Minhaj; Rawson, Frankie J.; Preece, Jon A.

    2014-01-01

    Herein, electrically switchable mixed self-assembled monolayers based on oligopeptides have been developed and investigated for their suitability in achieving control over biomolecular interactions in the presence of complex biological conditions. Our model system, a biotinylated oligopeptide tethered to gold within a background of tri(ethylene glycol) undecanethiol, is ubiquitous in both switching specific protein interactions in highly fouling media while still offering the non-specific protein-resistance to the surface. Furthermore, the work demonstrated that the performance of the switching on the electro-switchable oligopeptide is sensitive to the characteristics of the media, and in particular, its protein concentration and buffer composition, and thus such aspects should be considered and addressed to assure maximum switching performance. This study lays the foundation for developing more realistic dynamic extracellular matrix models and is certainly applicable in a wide variety of biological and medical applications. PMID:25180245

  2. Electrically-driven modulation of surface-grafted RGD peptides for manipulation of cell adhesion† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental methods. See DOI: 10.1039/c4cc06649a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Lashkor, Minhaj; Rawson, Frankie J.; Stephenson-Brown, Alex; Preece, Jon A.

    2014-01-01

    Reported herein is a switchable surface that relies on electrically-induced conformational changes within surface-grafted arginine–glycine–aspartate (RGD) oligopeptides as the means of modulating cell adhesion. PMID:25360452

  3. Micropatterned, clickable culture substrates enable in situ spatiotemporal control of human PSC-derived neural tissue morphology† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4cc08665a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Knight, G. T.; Sha, J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a modular culture platform that enables spatiotemporal control of the morphology of 2D neural tissues derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) by simply adding clickable peptides to the media. It should be widely applicable for elucidating how spatiotemporal changes in morphology and substrate biochemistry regulate tissue morphogenesis. PMID:25688384

  4. An iron–oxygen intermediate formed during the catalytic cycle of cysteine dioxygenase† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental and computational details. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cc03904a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Tchesnokov, E. P.; Faponle, A. S.; Davies, C. G.; Quesne, M. G.; Turner, R.; Fellner, M.; Souness, R. J.; Wilbanks, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Cysteine dioxygenase is a key enzyme in the breakdown of cysteine, but its mechanism remains controversial. A combination of spectroscopic and computational studies provides the first evidence of a short-lived intermediate in the catalytic cycle. The intermediate decays within 20 ms and has absorption maxima at 500 and 640 nm. PMID:27297454

  5. A microfluidic platform reveals differential response of regulatory T cells to micropatterned costimulation arrays† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ib00215j

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joung-Hyun; Dustin, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    T cells are key mediators of adaptive immunity. However, the overall immune response is often directed by minor subpopulations of this heterogeneous family of cells, owing to specificity of activation and amplification of functional response. Knowledge of differences in signaling and function between T cell subtypes is far from complete, but is clearly needed for understanding and ultimately leveraging this branch of the adaptive immune response. This report investigates differences in cell response to micropatterned surfaces by conventional and regulatory T cells. Specifically, the ability of cells to respond to the microscale geometry of TCR/CD3 and CD28 engagement is made possible using a magnetic-microfluidic device that overcomes limitations in imaging efficiency associated with conventional microscopy equipment. This device can be readily assembled onto micropatterned surfaces while maintaining the activity of proteins and other biomolecules necessary for such studies. In operation, a target population of cells is tagged using paramagnetic beads, and then trapped in a divergent magnetic field within the chamber. Following washing, the target cells are released to interact with a designated surface. Characterization of this system with mouse CD4+ T cells demonstrated a 50-fold increase in target-to-background cell purity, with an 80% collection efficiency. Applying this approach to CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, it is then demonstrated that these rare cells respond less selectively to micro-scale features of anti-CD3 antibodies than CD4+CD25– conventional T cells, revealing a difference in balance between TCR/CD3 and LFA-1-based adhesion. PKC-θ localized to the distal pole of regulatory T cells, away from the cell–substrate interface, suggests a mechanism for differential regulation of TCR/LFA-1-based adhesion. Moreover, specificity of cell adhesion to anti-CD3 features was dependent on the relative position of anti-CD28 signaling within the cell–substrate interface, revealing an important role for coincidence of TCR and costimulatory pathway in triggering regulatory T cell function. PMID:26400012

  6. Genetically encoded optical activation of DNA recombination in human cells† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental protocols. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cc03934k Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Luo, J.; Arbely, E.; Zhang, J.; Chou, C.; Uprety, R.; Chin, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    We developed two tightly regulated, light-activated Cre recombinase enzymes through site-specific incorporation of two genetically-encoded photocaged amino acids in human cells. Excellent optical off to on switching of DNA recombination was achieved. Furthermore, we demonstrated precise spatial control of Cre recombinase through patterned illumination. PMID:27277957

  7. Observation of compositional domains within individual copper indium sulfide quantum dots† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/C6NR03269A Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Harvie, Andrew J.; Booth, Matthew; Chantry, Ruth L.; Hondow, Nicole; Kepaptsoglou, Demie M.; Ramasse, Quentin M.; Evans, Stephen D.

    2016-01-01

    The origin of photoluminescence in copper indium sulfide (CIS) quantum dots (Qdots) has previously been ascribed to a donor–acceptor pair (DAP) recombination, with a crystal lattice defect implicated as the origin of the donor state. In this study, electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) was used to observe defect-rich compositional domains within individual CIS Qdots, supporting a model of defect-state-mediated photoluminescence for these particles, and identifying them as an ideal model system for future study of lattice defects on Qdot properties. PMID:27465708

  8. Chemical generation and modification of peptides containing multiple dehydroalanines† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc05469a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Philip M.; Foley, Patrick J.; Warriner, Stuart L.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical formation of dehydroalanine has been widely used for the post-translational modification of proteins and peptides, however methods to incorporate multiple dehydroalanine residues into a single peptide have not been defined. We report the use of methyl 2,5-dibromovalerate which can be used to cleanly carry out this transformation. PMID:26219458

  9. Comment on 'Shang S. 2012. Calculating actual crop evapotranspiration under soil water stress conditions with appropriate numerical methods and time step. Hydrological Processes 26: 3338-3343. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8405'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yatheendradas, Soni; Narapusetty, Balachandrudu; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Funk, Christopher; Verdin, James

    2014-01-01

    A previous study analyzed errors in the numerical calculation of actual crop evapotranspiration (ET(sub a)) under soil water stress. Assuming no irrigation or precipitation, it constructed equations for ET(sub a) over limited soil-water ranges in a root zone drying out due to evapotranspiration. It then used a single crop-soil composite to provide recommendations about the appropriate usage of numerical methods under different values of the time step and the maximum crop evapotranspiration (ET(sub c)). This comment reformulates those ET(sub a) equations for applicability over the full range of soil water values, revealing a dependence of the relative error in numerical ET(sub a) on the initial soil water that was not seen in the previous study. It is shown that the recommendations based on a single crop-soil composite can be invalid for other crop-soil composites. Finally, a consideration of the numerical error in the time-cumulative value of ET(sub a) is discussed besides the existing consideration of that error over individual time steps as done in the previous study. This cumulative ET(sub a) is more relevant to the final crop yield.

  10. Erratum: Water Science and Technology 72 (7): Development of a new wastewater treatment process for resource recovery of carotenoids, H. Sato, H. Nagare, T. N. C. Huynh and H. Komatsu, doi: 10.2166/wst.2015.330.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    A new wastewater treatment process that involves coagulation, ozonation, and microalgae cultivation has been developed. Here, two challenges are discussed. The first was minimizing phosphorus removal during coagulation in order to maximize algal production. The second was to optimize microalgae cultivation; algal species that grow rapidly and produce valuable products are ideal for selection. Haematococcus pluvialis, which produces the carotenoid astaxanthin, was used. Growth rate, nutrient removal ability, and astaxanthin production of H. pluvialis in coagulated wastewater were investigated. After coagulation with chitosan, the turbidity and suspended solids decreased by 89% ± 8% and 73% ± 16%, respectively. The nitrogen and phosphorus contents of the supernatant remained at 86% ± 6% and 67% ± 24%, respectively. These results indicate that coagulation with chitosan can remove turbidity and SS while preserving nutrients. H. pluvialis grew well in the supernatant of coagulated wastewater. The astaxanthin yield from coagulated wastewater in which microalgae were cultured was 3.26 mg/L, and total phosphorus and nitrogen contents decreased 99% ± 1% and 90% ± 8% (Days 31-35), respectively. PMID:27508383

  11. Triplet–triplet annihilation upconversion followed by FRET for the red light activation of a photodissociative ruthenium complex in liposomes† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cp04352b

    PubMed Central

    Askes, Sven H. C.; Kloz, Miroslav; Bruylants, Gilles; Kennis, John T. M.

    2015-01-01

    Upconversion is a promising way to trigger high-energy photochemistry with low-energy photons. However, combining upconversion schemes with non-radiative energy transfer is challenging because bringing several photochemically active components in close proximity results in complex multi-component systems where quenching processes may deactivate the whole assembly. In this work, PEGylated liposomes were prepared that contained three photoactive components: a porphyrin dye absorbing red light, a perylene moiety emitting in the blue, and a light-activatable ruthenium prodrug sensitive to blue light. Time-dependent spectroscopic studies demonstrate that singlet perylene excited states are non-radiatively transferred to the nearby ruthenium complex by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Under red-light irradiation of the three-component membranes, triplet–triplet annihilation upconversion (TTA-UC) occurs followed by FRET, which results in a more efficient activation of the ruthenium prodrug compared to a physical mixture of two-component upconverting liposomes and liposomes containing only the ruthenium complex. This work represents a rare example where TTA-UC and Förster resonance energy transfer are combined to achieve prodrug activation in the phototherapeutic window. PMID:26420663

  12. The stabilizing effect of shear thinning on the onset of purely elastic instabilities in serpentine microflows† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sm00326e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Casanellas, Laura; Alves, Manuel A.; Poole, Robert J.; Lerouge, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    We determine both experimentally and numerically the onset of elastic flow instabilities in viscoelastic polymer solutions with different levels of shear thinning. Previous experiments realized in microfluidic serpentine channels using dilute polymeric solutions showed that the onset of elastic instabilities strongly depends on the channel curvature. The scaling dependence is well captured by the general instability scaling criterion proposed by Pakdel and McKinley [Phys. Rev. Lett., 1996, 76, 2459:1–4]. We determine here the influence of fluid shear thinning on the onset of such purely-elastic flow instabilities. By testing a set of polyethylene oxide solutions of high molecular weight at different polymer concentrations in microfluidic serpentine channels we observe that shear thinning has a stabilizing effect on the microfluidic flow. Three-dimensional numerical simulations performed using the White–Metzner model predict similar trends, which are not captured by a simple scaling analysis using the Pakdel–McKinley criterion. PMID:27265240

  13. Supramolecular copolymers with stimuli-responsive sequence control† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc06951c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Albertazzi, Lorenzo; van der Veeken, Nick; Baker, Matthew B.; Palmans, Anja R. A.

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel responsive supramolecular copolymer able to change its monomer sequence as a result of molecular stimuli. Nucleic acids and RNAse are used as molecular inputs, controlling the clustering of specific monomers along the polymer backbone. This opens new ways towards the molecular control of synthetic supramolecular networks. PMID:26390385

  14. Trienamine catalyzed asymmetric synthesis and biological investigation of a cytochalasin B-inspired compound collection† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ob02272j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Sellstedt, Magnus; Schwalfenberg, Melanie; Ziegler, Slava; Antonchick, Andrey P.

    2016-01-01

    Due to their enhanced metabolic needs many cancers need a sufficient supply of glucose, and novel inhibitors of glucose import are in high demand. Cytochalasin B (CB) is a potent natural glucose import inhibitor which also impairs the actin cytoskeleton leading to undesired toxicity. With a view to identifying selective glucose import inhibitors we have developed an enantioselective trienamine catalyzed synthesis of a CB-inspired compound collection. Biological analysis revealed that indeed actin impairment can be distinguished from glucose import inhibition and led to the identification of the first selective glucose import inhibitor based on the basic structural architecture of cytochalasin B. PMID:26606903

  15. A novel design strategy for nanoparticles on nanopatterns: interferometric lithographic patterning of Mms6 biotemplated magnetic nanoparticles† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5tc03895b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Bird, S. M.; El-Zubir, O.; Rawlings, A. E.; Leggett, G. J.

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology demands the synthesis of highly precise, functional materials, tailored for specific applications. One such example is bit patterned media. These high-density magnetic data-storage materials require specific and uniform magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to be patterned over large areas (cm2 range) in exact nanoscale arrays. However, the realisation of such materials for nanotechnology applications depends upon reproducible fabrication methods that are both precise and environmentally-friendly, for cost-effective scale-up. A potentially ideal biological fabrication methodology is biomineralisation. This is the formation of inorganic minerals within organisms, and is known to be highly controlled down to the nanoscale whilst being carried out under ambient conditions. The magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 uses a suite of dedicated biomineralisation proteins to control the formation of magnetite MNPs within their cell. One of these proteins, Mms6, has been shown to control formation of magnetite MNPs in vitro. We have previously used Mms6 on micro-contact printed (μCP) patterned self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces to control the formation and location of MNPs in microscale arrays, offering a bioinspired and green-route to fabrication. However, μCP cannot produce patterns reliably with nanoscale dimensions, and most alternative nanofabrication techniques are slow and expensive. Interferometric lithography (IL) uses the interference of laser light to produce nanostructures over large areas via a simple process implemented under ambient conditions. Here we combine the bottom-up biomediated approach with a top down IL methodology to produce arrays of uniform magnetite MNPs (86 ± 21 nm) with a period of 357 nm. This shows a potentially revolutionary strategy for the production of magnetic arrays with nanoscale precision in a process with low environmental impact, which could be scaled readily to facilitate large-scale production of nanopatterned surface materials for technological applications. PMID:27358738

  16. A simple approach to obtain hybrid Au-loaded polymeric nanoparticles with a tunable metal load† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06850a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Luque-Michel, Edurne; Larrea, Ane; Lahuerta, Celia; Imbuluzqueta, Edurne; Arruebo, Manuel; Santamaría, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    A new strategy to nanoengineer multi-functional polymer–metal hybrid nanostructures is reported. By using this protocol the hurdles of most of the current developments concerning covalent and non-covalent attachment of polymers to preformed inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) are overcome. The strategy is based on the in situ reduction of metal precursors using the polymeric nanoparticle as a nanoreactor. Gold nanoparticles and poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid), PLGA, are located in the core and shell, respectively. This novel technique enables the production of PLGA NPs smaller than 200 nm that bear either a single encapsulated Au NP or several smaller NPs with tunable sizes and a 100% loading efficiency. In situ reduction of Au ions inside the polymeric NPs was achieved on demand by using heat to activate the reductive effect of citrate ions. In addition, we show that the loading of the resulting Au NPs inside the PLGA NPs is highly dependent on the surfactant used. Electron microscopy, laser irradiation, UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy characterization techniques confirm the location of Au nanoparticles. These promising results indicate that these hybrid nanomaterials could be used in theranostic applications or as contrast agents in dark-field imaging and computed tomography. PMID:26612770

  17. Comment on Urban et al. "Assessment of human health risks posed by consumption of fish from the Lower Passaic River (LPR), New Jersey" (2009, doi:10.1016/jscitotenv.2009.03.004).

    PubMed

    Mugdan, Walter

    2010-02-15

    Urban et al. (2009) presented a human health risk assessment for the Lower Passaic River that is not consistent with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) risk assessment guidance for Superfund cited in the article, because it is based on a fish ingestion rate that underestimates angler exposure to contaminated fish, does not evaluate exposure to contaminated crab, and underestimates the cancer risks and non-cancer health hazards associated with these exposure pathways. USEPA recommends that people follow the health advisories for the Lower Passaic River, available online at http://www.state.nj.us/dep/dsr/2009FishAdvisoryBrochure.pdf. PMID:20006897

  18. Cesium-containing triple cation perovskite solar cells: improved stability, reproducibility and high efficiency† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ee03874j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Taisuke; Seo, Ji-Youn; Domanski, Konrad; Correa-Baena, Juan-Pablo; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Tress, Wolfgang; Abate, Antonio; Hagfeldt, Anders; Grätzel, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Today's best perovskite solar cells use a mixture of formamidinium and methylammonium as the monovalent cations. With the addition of inorganic cesium, the resulting triple cation perovskite compositions are thermally more stable, contain less phase impurities and are less sensitive to processing conditions. This enables more reproducible device performances to reach a stabilized power output of 21.1% and ∼18% after 250 hours under operational conditions. These properties are key for the industrialization of perovskite photovoltaics. PMID:27478500

  19. Metal organic framework synthesis in the presence of surfactants: towards hierarchical MOFs?† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4ce02324b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Dikhtiarenko, A.; Mayoral, A.; Tellez, C.; Coronas, J.; Kapteijn, F.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of synthesis pH and H2O/EtOH molar ratio on the textural properties of different aluminium trimesate metal organic frameworks (MOFs) prepared in the presence of the well-known cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at 120 °C was studied with the purpose of obtaining a MOF with hierarchical pore structure. Depending on the pH and the solvent used, different topologies were obtained (namely, MIL-96, MIL-100 and MIL-110). On the one hand, MIL-110 was obtained at lower temperatures than those commonly reported in the literature and without additives to control the pH; on the other hand, MIL-100 with crystallite sizes as small as 30 ± 10 nm could be easily synthesized in a mixture of H2O and EtOH with a H2O/EtOH molar ratio of 3.4 at pH 2.6 in the presence of CTAB. The resulting material displays a hierarchical porosity that combines the microporosity from the MOF and the non-ordered mesopores defined in between the MOF nanoparticles. Interestingly, the maximum of the pore size distribution could be varied between 3 and 33 nm. Finally, at pH 2.5 and using water as a solvent, platelets of MIL-96, a morphology never observed before for this MOF, were synthesized with a (001) preferential crystal orientation, the (001) plane running parallel to the bipyramidal cages of the MIL-96 topology. PMID:26246799

  20. Investigation of intervertebral disc degeneration using multivariate FTIR spectroscopic imaging† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5fd00160a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Mirte; Detiger, Suzanne E. L.; Helder, Marco N.; Smit, Theo H.; Le Maitre, Christine L.; Sammon, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally tissue samples are analysed using protein or enzyme specific stains on serial sections to build up a picture of the distribution of components contained within them. In this study we investigated the potential of multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to deconvolute 2nd derivative spectra of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopic images measured in transflectance mode of goat and human paraffin embedded intervertebral disc (IVD) tissue sections, to see if this methodology can provide analogous information to that provided by immunohistochemical stains and bioassays but from a single section. MCR-ALS analysis of non-degenerate and enzymatically in vivo degenerated goat IVDs reveals five matrix components displaying distribution maps matching histological stains for collagen, elastin and proteoglycan (PG), as well as immunohistochemical stains for collagen type I and II. Interestingly, two components exhibiting characteristic spectral and distribution profiles of proteoglycans were found, and relative component/tissue maps of these components (labelled PG1 and PG2) showed distinct distributions in non-degenerate versus mildly degenerate goat samples. MCR-ALS analysis of human IVD sections resulted in comparable spectral profiles to those observed in the goat samples, highlighting the inter species transferability of the presented methodology. Multivariate FTIR image analysis of a set of 43 goat IVD sections allowed the extraction of semi-quantitative information from component/tissue gradients taken across the IVD width of collagen type I, collagen type II, PG1 and PG2. Regional component/tissue parameters were calculated and significant correlations were found between histological grades of degeneration and PG parameters (PG1: p = 0.0003, PG2: p < 0.0001); glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content and PGs (PG1: p = 0.0055, PG2: p = 0.0001); and MRI T2* measurements and PGs (PG1: p = 0.0021, PG2: p < 0.0001). Additionally, component/tissue parameters for collagen type I and II showed significant correlations with total collagen content (p = 0.0204, p = 0.0127). In conclusion, the presented findings illustrate, that the described multivariate FTIR imaging approach affords the necessary chemical specificity to be considered an important tool in the study of IVD degeneration in goat and human IVDs. PMID:27057647

  1. Efficient bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells through disorder by design† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ta10091g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Muñoz, José M.; Carretero-Palacios, Sol; Jiménez-Solano, Alberto; Li, Yuelong; Lozano, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Herein we realize an optical design that optimizes the performance of bifacial solar cells without modifying any of the usually employed components. In order to do so, dielectric scatterers of controlled size and shape have been successfully integrated in the working electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), resulting in bifacial devices of outstanding performance. Power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) as high as 6.7% and 5.4% have been attained under front and rear illumination, respectively, which represent a 25% and a 33% PCE enhancement with respect to an 8 μm-thick standard solar cell electrode using platinum as the catalytic material. The remarkable bifacial character of our approach is demonstrated by the high rear/front efficiency ratio attained, around 80%, which is among the largest reported for this sort of device. The proposed optimized design is based on a Monte Carlo approach in which the multiple scattering of light within the cell is fully accounted for. We identified that the spherical shape of the scatterers is the key parameter controlling the angular distribution of the scattering, the most efficient devices being those in which the inclusions provide a narrow forward-oriented angular distribution of the scattered light. PMID:27019714

  2. Towards a general growth model for graphene CVD on transition metal catalysts† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06873h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Cabrero-Vilatela, Andrea; Braeuninger-Weimer, Philipp; Caneva, Sabina; Hofmann, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of graphene on three polycrystalline transition metal catalysts, Co, Ni and Cu, is systematically compared and a first-order growth model is proposed which can serve as a reference to optimize graphene growth on any elemental or alloy catalyst system. Simple thermodynamic considerations of carbon solubility are insufficient to capture even basic growth behaviour on these most commonly used catalyst materials, and it is shown that kinetic aspects such as carbon permeation have to be taken into account. Key CVD process parameters are discussed in this context and the results are anticipated to be highly useful for the design of future strategies for integrated graphene manufacture. PMID:26730836

  3. Comment on: Measurement of the force exerted on the surface of an object immersed in a plasma. Eur. Phys. J. D 69: 91 (2015), DOI: 10.1140/epjd/e2015-50743-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnetzki, Uwe; Tsankov, Tsanko V.

    2015-10-01

    Surfaces exposed to a plasma experience a certain pressure that pushes them away from the volume. This effect has been investigated experimentally in a recent article by Thomas Trottenberg, Thomas Richter, and Holger Kersten from Kiel University/Germany [Eur. Phys. J. D 69, 91 (2015)]. The experimental results are impressive and have actually drawn the attention of the community to an interesting question which so far has been largely ignored. In addition to their experimental results the Kiel group proposes also a rough concept in order to explain their findings which provides certainly a basic qualitative understanding of the physical processes involved. However, on a closer inspection the picture developed so far is not entirely satisfying and the problem seems to require a more fundamental approach. This comment shows that the effect of the wall pressure can be described exactly using only analytical methods. The physical situation is analyzed by three different approaches. First, the simple case of only one spatial dimension is presented in detail. Second, the case of spherical symmetry is analyzed by some simplifying assumptions in order to investigate the effect of higher dimensionality. Third, a formal derivation for arbitrary geometry is given. This general result includes the one-dimensional case but does not allow a convenient connection between the pressures at the wall and in the center. Finally, the results are summarized and some conclusions are drawn.

  4. Monitoring cytosolic and ER Zn2+ in stimulated breast cancer cells using genetically encoded FRET sensors† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5mt00257e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Hessels, Anne M.; Taylor, Kathryn M.

    2016-01-01

    The Zn2+-specific ion channel ZIP7 has been implicated to play an important role in releasing Zn2+ from the ER. External stimulation of breast cancer cells has been proposed to induce phosphorylation of ZIP7 by CK2α, resulting in ZIP7-mediated Zn2+ release from the ER into the cytosol. Here, we examined whether changes in cytosolic and ER Zn2+ concentrations can be detected upon such external stimuli. Two previously developed FRET sensors for Zn2+, eZinCh-2 (K d = 1 nM at pH 7.1) and eCALWY-4 (K d = 0.63 nM at pH 7.1), were expressed in both the cytosol and the ER of wild-type MCF-7 and TamR cells. Treatment of MCF-7 and TamR cells with external Zn2+ and pyrithione, one of the previously used triggers, resulted in an immediate increase in free Zn2+ in both cytosol and ER, suggesting that Zn2+ was directly transferred across the cellular membranes by pyrithione. Cells treated with a second trigger, EGF/ionomycin, showed no changes in intracellular Zn2+ levels, neither in multicolor imaging experiments that allowed simultaneous imaging of cytosolic and ER Zn2+, nor in experiments in which cytosolic and ER Zn2+ were monitored separately. In contrast to previous work using small-molecule fluorescent dyes, these results indicate that EGF–ionomycin treatment does not result in significant changes in cytosolic Zn2+ levels as a result from Zn2+ release from the ER. These results underline the importance of using genetically encoded fluorescent sensors to complement and verify intracellular imaging experiments with synthetic fluorescent Zn2+ dyes. PMID:26739447

  5. Photoluminescence enhancement of aligned arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes by polymer transfer† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05163k Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Schweiger, Manuel; Zakharko, Yuriy; Gannott, Florentina; Grimm, Stefan B.

    2015-01-01

    The photoluminescence of as-grown, aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) on quartz is strongly quenched and barely detectable. Here we show that transferring these SWNTs to another substrate such as clean quartz or glass increases their emission efficiency by up to two orders of magnitude. By statistical analysis of large nanotube arrays we show at what point of the transfer process the emission enhancement occurs and how it depends on the receiving substrate and the employed transfer polymer. We find that hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) as the transfer polymer results in higher photoluminescence enhancement than the more hydrophilic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Possible mechanisms for this enhancement such as strain relief, disruption of the strong interaction of SWNTs with the substrate and localized emissive states are discussed. PMID:26400227

  6. Identification of polymer surface adsorbed proteins implicated in pluripotent human embryonic stem cell expansion† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6bm00214e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Hammad, Moamen; Rao, Wei; Smith, James G. W.; Anderson, Daniel G.; Langer, Robert; Young, Lorraine E.; Barrett, David A.; Davies, Martyn C.; Denning, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Improved biomaterials are required for application in regenerative medicine, biosensing, and as medical devices. The response of cells to the chemistry of polymers cultured in media is generally regarded as being dominated by proteins adsorbed to the surface. Here we use mass spectrometry to identify proteins adsorbed from a complex mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) conditioned medium found to support pluripotent human embryonic stem cell (hESC) expansion on a plasma etched tissue culture polystyrene surface. A total of 71 proteins were identified, of which 14 uniquely correlated with the surface on which pluripotent stem cell expansion was achieved. We have developed a microarray combinatorial protein spotting approach to test the potential of these 14 proteins to support expansion of a hESC cell line (HUES-7) and a human induced pluripotent stem cell line (ReBl-PAT) on a novel polymer (N-(4-Hydroxyphenyl) methacrylamide). These proteins were spotted to form a primary array yielding several protein mixture ‘hits’ that enhanced cell attachment to the polymer. A second array was generated to test the function of a refined set of protein mixtures. We found that a combination of heat shock protein 90 and heat shock protein-1 encourage elevated adherence of pluripotent stem cells at a level comparable to fibronectin pre-treatment. PMID:27466628

  7. Oxidative dearomatisation: the key step of sorbicillinoid biosynthesis† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Containing all experimental details. See DOI: 10.1039/c3sc52911h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Fahad, Ahmed al; Abood, Amira; Fisch, Katja M.; Osipow, Anna; Davison, Jack; Avramović, Marija; Butts, Craig P.; Piel, Jörn; Simpson, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    An FAD-dependent monooxygenase encoding gene (SorbC) was cloned from Penicillium chrysogenum E01-10/3 and expressed as a soluble protein in Escherichia coli. The enzyme efficiently performed the oxidative dearomatisation of sorbicillin and dihydrosorbicillin to give sorbicillinol and dihydrosorbicillinol respectively. Bioinformatic examination of the gene cluster surrounding SorbC indicated the presence of two polyketide synthase (PKS) encoding genes designated sorbA and sorbB. The gene sorbA-encodes a highly reducing iterative PKS while SorbB encodes a non-reducing iterative PKS which features a reductive release domain usually involved in the production of polyketide aldehydes. Using these observations and previously reported results from isotopic feeding experiments a new and simpler biosynthetic route to the sorbicillin class of secondary metabolites is proposed which is consistent with all reported experimental results. PMID:25580210

  8. A computational study of the quantum transport properties of a Cu–CNT composite† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cp01470k Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Koziol, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    The quantum transport properties of a Cu–CNT composite are studied using a non-equilibrium Green's function approach combined with the self-consistent-charge density-functional tight-binding method. The results show that the electrical conductance of the composite depends strongly on CNT density and alignment but more weakly on chirality. Alignment with the applied bias is preferred and the conductance of the composite increases as its mass density increases. PMID:26120607

  9. Characterization of a functional C3A liver spheroid model† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6tx00101g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Gaskell, Harriet; Colley, Helen E.; Murdoch, Craig; Williams, Dominic P.; Webb, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    More predictive in vitro liver models are a critical requirement for preclinical screening of compounds demonstrating hepatotoxic liability. 3D liver spheroids have been shown to have an enhanced functional lifespan compared to 2D monocultures; however a detailed characterisation of spatiotemporal function and structure of spheroids still needs further attention before widespread use in industry. We have developed and characterized the structure and function of a 3D liver spheroid model formed from C3A hepatoma cells. Spheroids were viable and maintained a compact in vivo-like structure with zonation features for up to 32 days. MRP2 and Pgp transporters had polarised expression on the canalicular membrane of cells in the spheroids and were able to functionally transport CMFDA substrate into these canalicular structures. Spheroids expressed CYP2E1 and were able to synthesise and secrete albumin and urea to a higher degree than monolayer C3A cultures. Penetration of doxorubicin throughout the spheroid core was demonstrated. Spheroids showed increased susceptibility to hepatotoxins when compared to 2D cultures, with acetaminophen having an IC50 of 7.2 mM in spheroids compared to 33.8 mM in monolayer culture. To conclude, we developed an alternative method for creating C3A liver spheroids and demonstrated cellular polarisation and zonation, as well as superior liver-specific functionality and more sensitive toxicological response compared to standard 2D liver models, confirming a more in vivo-like liver model. PMID:27746894

  10. Retaining individualities: the photodynamics of self-ordering porphyrin assemblies† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc09095d Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Wen-Dong; Pitto-Barry, Anaïs; Baker, Lewis A.; Stulz, Eugen; Napier, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The retention of photochemical properties of individual chromophores is a key feature of biological light harvesting complexes. This is achieved despite extensive aggregation of the chromophores, which in synthetic chromophore assemblies often yields a change in spectral characteristics. As an alternative approach towards mimicking biological light harvesting complexes, we report the synthesis of porphyrin assemblies which retained the photochemical properties of the individual chromophore units despite their substantial aggregation. These new materials highlight a new bottom-up approach towards the design and understanding of more complex biomimetic and naturally occurring biological systems. PMID:26680651

  11. Tuning the nitric oxide release from CPO-27 MOFs† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ra24023a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Cattaneo, Damiano; Duncan, Morven J.; Kelsall, Christopher J.; Doherty, Mary K.; Whitfield, Phillip D.; Megson, Ian L.; Morris, Russell E.

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) storage and release measurements have been recorded for Ni-doped CPO-27 (Mg) and CPO-27 (Zn), and the biological effect of the released NO was assessed in porcine coronary artery relaxation tests. The results indicate that the doping strategy leads to increased levels of NO storage and delivery compared to the parent materials and that the NO dosage and biological response can be tuned via this approach to suit the requirements of particular applications. PMID:27019705

  12. Young Adults in America. A Booklet for [Vietnamese] Refugees in Their Late Teens = Doi Song Thanh Thieu Nien O Hoa Ky. Tap Huong Dan Thanh Thieu Nien Viet-Nam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Language and Orientation Resource Center.

    Young persons in their late teens have problems and concerns that are different from those of persons who are younger or older. This booklet recognizes this fact and discusses some aspects of American life that might be of particular interest to young people of Vietnamese origin. It gives information that will be helpful in making knowledgeable…

  13. Synthetic heparan sulfate dodecasaccharides reveal single sulfation site interconverts CXCL8 and CXCL12 chemokine biology† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc05222j

    PubMed Central

    Jayson, Gordon C.; Hansen, Steen U.; Miller, Gavin J.; Cole, Claire L.; Rushton, Graham; Avizienyte, Egle

    2015-01-01

    The multigram-scale synthesis of a sulfation-site programmed heparin-like dodecasaccharide is described. Evaluation alongside dodecasaccharides lacking this single glucosamine O6-sulfation, or having per-O6-sulfation, shows that site-specific modification of the terminal glucosamine dramatically interconverts regulation of in vitro and in vivo biology mediated by the two important chemokines, CXCL12 (SDF1α) or CXCL8 (IL-8). PMID:26234943

  14. Comment on Urban et al. "Assessment of human health risks posed by consumption of fish from the Lower Passaic River (LPR), New Jersey" (2009, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.03.004).

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Gary A; Hayton, Anne G; Macgregor, Janine

    2010-03-15

    Urban et al. (2009) presented a human health risk assessment for the Lower Passaic River that very narrowly defines fish consumption, ignores crab consumption, and is not consistent with current NJ or EPA risk assessment procedures and guidance. The restrictively defined consumption then leads to inappropriate conclusions on the risk of eating fish from this highly contaminated estuarine river. The paper underestimates angler exposure to contaminated fish, does not evaluate exposure to contaminated crab, and underestimates the cancer risks and non-cancer health hazards associated with these exposure pathways. The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection along with the NJ Department of Health and Senior Services issues fish and crab consumption advisories for all state waters; these advisories should be followed for the Passaic River and surrounding waters: http://www.state.nj.us/dep/dsr/FishSmartEatSmartNJ.org. PMID:20149414

  15. 14N overtone NMR under MAS: signal enhancement using symmetry-based sequences and novel simulation strategies† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4cp03994g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Haies, Ibraheem M.; Jarvis, James A.; Bentley, Harry; Heinmaa, Ivo; Kuprov, Ilya; Williamson, Philip T. F.

    2015-01-01

    Overtone 14N NMR spectroscopy is a promising route for the direct detection of 14N signals with good spectral resolution. Its application is currently limited, however, by the absence of efficient polarization techniques for overtone signal enhancement and the lack of efficient numerical simulation techniques to aid in both the development of new methods and the analysis and interpretation of experimental data. In this paper we report a novel method for the transfer of polarization from 1H to the 14N overtone using symmetry-based R-sequences that overcome many of the limitations of adiabatic approaches that have worked successfully on static samples. Refinement of these sequences and the analysis of the resulting spectra have been facilitated through the development of an efficient simulation strategy for 14N overtone NMR spectroscopy of spinning samples, using effective Hamiltonians on top of Floquet and Fokker–Planck equations. PMID:25662410

  16. Glycosylated gold nanoparticle libraries for label-free multiplexed lectin biosensing† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5tb01994j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Sarah-Jane; Otten, Lucienne

    2016-01-01

    Glycan/lectin interactions drive a wide range of recognition and signal transduction processes within nature. However, their measurement is complicated or limited by the analytical tools available. Most technologies require fluorescently labelled proteins (e.g. microarrays) or expensive infrastructure (such as surface plasmon resonance). This also limits their application in biosensing, especially for low-resource settings, where detection of pathogens based on glycan binding could speed up diagnosis. Here we employ a library-oriented approach to immobilise a range of monosaccharides onto polymer-stabilised gold nanoparticles to enable rapid and high-throughput evaluation of their binding specificities with a panel of lectins. The red to blue colour shift upon gold nanoparticle aggregation is used as the output, removing the need for labelled protein, enabling compatibility with 96-well microplates. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of a flatbed scanner (or digital camera) to extract biophysical data, ensuring that only minimal resources are required. Finally, linear discriminant analysis is employed to demonstrate how the glyconanoparticles can be applied as a multiplexed biosensor capable of identifying pathogenic lectins without the need for any infrastructure and overcoming some of the issues of lectin promiscuity. PMID:27162639

  17. Local dynamic mechanical analysis for heterogeneous soft matter using ferrule-top indentation† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sm00300a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Kurniawan, Nicholas A.; Koenderink, Gijsje H.

    2016-01-01

    There is a strong demand for nanoindentation methods to probe the heterogeneous viscoelastic properties of soft tissues. Important applications include diagnosis of early onset diseases such as arthritis and investigations into cellular mechanoresponse in tissue. Quantification of tissue mechanics at length and time scales relevant to biological processes, however, remains a technical challenge. Here, we present a new nanoindentation approach that is ideally suited to probe the viscoelastic properties of soft, hydrated tissues. We built a ferrule-top probe that uses wavelength modulation in a Fabry–Pérot cavity configuration to detect cantilever deflection and to drive a feedback-controlled piezoelectric actuator. This technique allows us to control the static load applied onto the sample using an all-optical mm-sized probe. We extract the local elastic and viscous moduli of the samples by superposing a small oscillatory load and recording the indentation depth at the frequency of oscillation. By using a set of silicone elastomers with a range of stiffnesses representative of biological tissues, we demonstrate that the technique can accurately determine moduli over a wide range (0.1–100 kPa) and over a frequency range of 0.01–10 Hz. Direct comparison with macroscopic rheology measurements yields excellent quantitative agreement, without any fitting parameters. Finally, we show how this method can provide a spatially-resolved map of large variations in mechanical properties (orders of magnitude) across the surface of soft samples thanks to high sensitivity over large (>μm) cantilever deflections. This approach paves the way to investigations into the local dynamic mechanical properties of biological soft matter. PMID:26908197

  18. Digitalización de espectros fotográficos de standards MK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corti, M.; Morrell, N.

    Se digitalizaron 70 espectros fotográficos de estrellas standards de clasificación MK con tipos espectrales comprendidos entre O3 y A2 y diferentes clases de luminosidad. Las observaciones utilizadas consisten en espectrogramas cuya dispersión recíproca es de 43 Å~mm-1, obtenidos con el telescopio de 1m de Cerro Tololo y su espectrógrafo Cassegrain, durante los años 1982 a 1985. Los trazados digitales se obtuvieron con el instrumento Grant de la Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas de La Plata y posteriormente fueron calibrados en longitud de onda y rectificados utilizando rutinas comprendidas dentro del paquete de procesamiento de imágenes IRAF. El material resultante puede utilizarse como ayuda para la clasificación de espectros obtenidos con similar configuración instrumental.

  19. [Skin cancer incidence in Zacatecas].

    PubMed

    Pinedo-Vega, José Luis; Castañeda-López, Rosalba; Dávila-Rangel, J Ignacio; Mireles-García, Fernando; Ríos-Martínez, Carlos; López-Saucedo, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: el cáncer de piel es una neoplasia relacionada con la radiación ultravioleta solar. El objetivo fue estimar la incidencia del cáncer de piel de tipo melanoma y no-melanoma. MÉTODOS: se llevó a cabo un estudio epidemiológico entre 2008 y 2012 en Zacatecas, México. La información se obtuvo de los registros confirmados de cáncer de piel en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, el Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado, la Secretaría de Salud de Zacatecas y el laboratorio privado del Centro Médico Alameda. Se calculó la incidencia y la prevalencia global.

  20. PREVENCIÓN DEL VIH/SIDA EN LOS CIRCUITOS DE LEVANTE HSH: UNA ASIGNATURA PENDIENTE.

    PubMed

    Barreda, Victoria; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén; Balán, Iván; Pando, María Ángeles; Avila, María Mercedes

    2010-12-01

    A partir de un relevamiento de tipo etnográfico, se describen lugares de encuentro de HSH en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y sus prácticas sexuales. El reconocimiento de tales espacios, así como las características que asumen en ellos los encuentros sexuales entre los HSH, plantean obstáculos específicos en la adopción de comportamientos preventivos y, asimismo, generan nuevos desafíos para las actividades de prevención. Se plantean las dificultades y debates conceptuales que la misma categoría presenta, y sus consecuencias en el abordaje preventivo y teórico-metodológico para las ciencias sociales. Además, se proponen nuevos interrogantes acerca de los alcances y las limitaciones del modelo preventivo del VIH/Sida para HSH.

  1. PREVENCIÓN DEL VIH/SIDA EN LOS CIRCUITOS DE LEVANTE HSH: UNA ASIGNATURA PENDIENTE1

    PubMed Central

    Barreda, Victoria; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén; Balán, Iván; Pando, María Ángeles; Ávila, María Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Resumen A partir de un relevamiento de tipo etnográfico, se describen lugares de encuentro de HSH en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y sus prácticas sexuales. El reconocimiento de tales espacios, así como las características que asumen en ellos los encuentros sexuales entre los HSH, plantean obstáculos específicos en la adopción de comportamientos preventivos y, asimismo, generan nuevos desafíos para las actividades de prevención. Se plantean las dificultades y debates conceptuales que la misma categoría presenta, y sus consecuencias en el abordaje preventivo y teórico-metodológico para las ciencias sociales. Además, se proponen nuevos interrogantes acerca de los alcances y las limitaciones del modelo preventivo del VIH/Sida para HSH. PMID:21874154

  2. Estudio espectroscópico de la simbiótica CD-43o14304

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, L. G.; Brandi, E.; Ferrer, O. E.; Barbá, R.

    En base a un monitoreo espectroscópico de estrellas simbióticas del hemisferio sur, realizado entre 1990 y 1997, se han reunido espectros en intermedia y alta resolución de la simbiótica CD-43o14304. Se trata de un sistema binario compuesto por una enana blanca y una gigante tipo K5 con un período orbital recientemente determinado, de 1448 días. Por primera vez se analiza el comportamiento espectral del objeto en un amplio rango espectral (3700-10000 Å) y en función de las fases orbitales observadas. Se interpretan las velocidades radiales de las emisiones y absorciones presentes y las variaciones en los perfiles estructurados de las líneas de Balmer y en el resto de las emisiones.

  3. PREVENCIÓN DEL VIH/SIDA EN LOS CIRCUITOS DE LEVANTE HSH: UNA ASIGNATURA PENDIENTE.

    PubMed

    Barreda, Victoria; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén; Balán, Iván; Pando, María Ángeles; Avila, María Mercedes

    2010-12-01

    A partir de un relevamiento de tipo etnográfico, se describen lugares de encuentro de HSH en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y sus prácticas sexuales. El reconocimiento de tales espacios, así como las características que asumen en ellos los encuentros sexuales entre los HSH, plantean obstáculos específicos en la adopción de comportamientos preventivos y, asimismo, generan nuevos desafíos para las actividades de prevención. Se plantean las dificultades y debates conceptuales que la misma categoría presenta, y sus consecuencias en el abordaje preventivo y teórico-metodológico para las ciencias sociales. Además, se proponen nuevos interrogantes acerca de los alcances y las limitaciones del modelo preventivo del VIH/Sida para HSH. PMID:21874154

  4. Laryngeal complications by orotracheal intubation: Literature review.

    PubMed

    Mota, Luiz Alberto Alves; de Cavalho, Glauber Barbosa; Brito, Valeska Almeida

    2012-04-01

    Introdução: As lesões causadas pela intubação orotraqueal são comuns no nosso meio e amplamente relatadas pela literatura. Geralmente são causadas por acidentes na colocação do tubo ou consequência de sua permanência nas vias aéreas do paciente. Há diversos tipos de lesões laríngeas, causadas por múltiplos mecanismos.Objetivo: Verificar, na literatura, as principais causas de complicações laríngeas pós-intubação orotraqueal e seus mecanismos de lesão.Revisão de Literatura: As bases de dados pesquisadas foram LILACS, BIREME e SCIELO. Foram utilizados artigos, livros e teses, delimitando-se o período entre 1953 a 2009. As palavras-chaves utilizadas para a busca dos artigos foram: complicações, lesões, laringe, intubação, entubação, endotraqueal, orotraqueal, granulomas, estenose. Foram selecionadas 59 referências. Os critérios de inclusão utilizados para a escolha dos artigos foram os que mostraram os diversos tipos de lesões ocasionadas pela intubação orotraqueal e suas fisiopatologias.Considerações Finais: Esta revisão de literatura foi motivada pela observação na prática clínica de um grande número de sequelas laríngeas em pacientes submetidos à intubação orotraqueal. Diante disto é importante o conhecimento, pelos profissionais da área de saúde, dos tipos de complicações e de suas causas, com o intuito de evitá-las, adotando medidas de prevenção dessas lesões.

  5. [Acute silicosis. An infrequent pneumoconiosis].

    PubMed

    Méndez-Vargas, María Martha; Soto-de la Fuente, Andrés Eduardo; Soto-Vera, Eduardo Andrés; Leo-Méndez, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la silicosis aguda fue descrita inicialmente en 1900 por Betts. Se le denomina también silicoproteinosis alveolar. Es una forma infrecuente de neumoconiosis producida al utilizar chorro de arena (sandblast) para pulir. Caso clínico: masculino de 27 años, trabajó 4 años en un expendio de vidrios, esmerilándolos por medio de chorro de arena. Padecimiento de 4 años con disnea de esfuerzos rápidamente progresiva hasta mínimos esfuerzos, tos seca, emetizante y disneizante, con expectoración hialina 50 ml diarios, pérdida de 20 kg de peso en 1 año y dolor torácico generalizado de tipo pungitivo intenso. Frecuencia respiratoria 36X´ frecuencia cardiaca 120X´, estertores crepitantes basales bilaterales. En la telerradiografía de tórax se observa festón de Mengeaux en hemidiafragma derecho y en el vértice derecho, opacidades redondeadas entre 3 y 10 mm de diámetro tipo 2/2 r/r de la Clasificación de la OIT, 2000. En el pulmón izquierdo las opacidades confluyen formando un silicoma tipo B e imágenes en panal de abeja. Silueta cardiaca deshilachada y cardiomegalia grado 1. Fallece a los 5 años de iniciado su padecimiento. Conclusiones: se deben prohibir estas operaciones o aplicar programa de higiene industrial con uso de respirador autónomo.

  6. Reply to comments by Ahmad et al. on: Shah, A. A., 2013. Earthquake geology of Kashmir Basin and its implications for future large earthquakes International Journal of Earth Sciences DOI:10.1007/s00531-013-0874-8 and on Shah, A. A., 2015. Kashmir Basin Fault and its tectonic significance in NW Himalaya, Jammu and Kashmir, India, International Journal of Earth Sciences DOI:10.1007/s00531-015-1183-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    Shah (Int J Earth Sci 102:1957-1966, 2013) mapped major unknown faults and fault segments in Kashmir basin using geomorphological techniques. The major trace of out-of-sequence thrust fault was named as Kashmir basin fault (KBF) because it runs through the middle of Kashmir basin, and the active movement on it has backtilted and uplifted most of the basin. Ahmad et al. (Int J Earth Sci, 2015) have disputed the existence of KBF and maintained that faults identified by Shah (Int J Earth Sci 102:1957-1966, 2013) were already mapped as inferred faults by earlier workers. The early works, however, show a major normal fault, or a minor out-of-sequence reverse fault, and none have shown a major thrust fault.

  7. [SLEEP DISTURBANCES AND GESTATIONAL DIABETES PREVALENCE ON LAST TRIMESTER OF PREGNANCY].

    PubMed

    Ruiz González, Isabel; Valenza, Marie Carmen; Molina, Carmen M; Torres Sanchez, Irene; Cabrera Martos, Irene; González-Jiménez, Emilio

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: estudios recientes sugieren que las mujeres con diagnóstico de diabetes gestacional tienen más probabilidad de padecer trastornos del sueño en comparación con el resto de las mujeres embarazadas. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron analizar los factores de riesgo asociados a diabetes gestacional y verificar una asociación entre padecer o no diabetes gestacional y la calidad del sueño y/o somnolencia. Material y métodos: estudio observacional de casos y controles a partir de una muestra de 130 gestantes, 46 con diabetes gestacional y 84 controles. Se realizó una valoración antropométrica, evaluando peso, estatura, índice de masa corporal (IMC) y perímetro abdominal. Se realizó una valoración sociodemográfica, evaluando edad y situación familiar y laboral, así como un estudio ginecológico, evaluando número de partos simples y múltiples, número de abortos y patología ginecológica durante los últimos tres años. Para el diagnóstico de diabetes gestacional se realizó el test de O‘Sullivan. Se midió la calidad del sueño y la somnolencia diurna. Resultados: del total de gestantes estudiadas, 46 fueron diagnosticadas de diabetes gestacional. Existen diferencias significativas (p < 0,001) en las puntuaciones del IMC entre gestantes diabéticas y no diabéticas, siendo sus valores más elevados entre las diabéticas. Existe una asociación significativa (p = 0,002) entre la existencia de antecedentes familiares de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y padecer o no diabetes gestacional. Las gestantes diabéticas presentan un significativo empeoramiento (p < 0,001) de la calidad del sueño. Respecto a la somnolencia diurna, las gestantes diabéticas poseen una somnolencia diurna superior a la media poblacional. Conclusiones: en la población estudiada, puntuaciones elevadas en el IMC, así como antecedentes familiares de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 parecen ser factores asociados al riesgo de padecer diabetes gestacional. Las embarazadas con

  8. [Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetics: a new treatment for Alzheimer's disease?].

    PubMed

    García-Casares, Natalia; García-Arnés, Juan Antonio; Gómez-Huelgas, Ricardo; Valdivielso-Felices, Pedro; García-Arias, Carlota; González-Santos, Pedro

    2014-12-01

    Introduccion. Los analogos del glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) son una opcion terapeutica establecida en los pacientes con diabetes tipo 2. Sin embargo, las propiedades de los analogos del GLP-1 van mas alla del control estrictamente metabolico del paciente diabetico. Los efectos neuroprotectores de los analogos del GLP-1 se han puesto de manifiesto en estudios recientes y han abierto nuevos campos de investigacion en trastornos neurodegenerativos como la enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA), entre otros. Objetivo. Revision sistematica de los estudios experimentales y ensayos clinicos en humanos que demuestran las propiedades neuroprotectoras de los analogos del GLP-1 en la EA. Desarrollo. Los estudios experimentales que se han llevado a cabo en modelos de roedores con EA demuestran las propiedades neuroprotectoras de los analogos del GLP-1 sobre el sistema nervioso central que reducen las placas de beta-amiloide, el estres oxidativo y la respuesta inflamatoria cerebral. Recientemente se han puesto en marcha estudios con analogos del GLP-1 en humanos con deterioro cognitivo y EA. Conclusiones. Los analogos del GLP-1 presentan propiedades neuroprotectoras. Al considerarse la diabetes tipo 2 un factor de riesgo para el deterioro cognitivo y la demencia, deben considerarse los beneficios de los analogos del GLP-1 sobre la cognicion. Del mismo modo, los analogos del GLP-1 suponen un tratamiento prometedor en la EA.

  9. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Reyna, Nadia; Moreno Rojas, Rafael; Mendoza, Laura; Parra, Karla; Linares, Sergia; Reyna, Eduardo; Cámara Martos, Fernando

    2016-03-25

    Se ha estudiado el índice glicémico, la carga glicémica y el efecto de saciedad producido en adultos jóvenes (12 hombres y 8 mujeres) por el consumo de tres tipos de barritas nutricionales formuladas con proteínas lactoséricas (LS), caseínas (CS) o hidratos de carbono (HC) frente a un control (C). Los valores de glucemia en la sangre a los 30 min fueron significativamente mayores (p < 0,05) para la barra HC (129 ± 8 mg/dl) frente a las barras CS (103 ± 6 mg/dl) y LS (86 ± 8 mg/dl). Asimismo, también se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p < 0,05) entre los índices glicémicos de los tres tipos de barras estudiadas (LS = 11,5 ± 3,9; CS = 40,7 ± 6,5; HC = 68,8 ± 13,0). Por otro lado, las barritas nutricionales formuladas con proteínas lácteas (LS y CS) muestran un efecto de saciedad mucho más intenso y prolongado que la formulada con hidratos de carbono (HC), lo que pone de manifiesto el potencial de estas proteínas para ser utilizadas en la formulación de productos para diabéticos y dietéticos.

  10. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Reyna, Nadia; Moreno Rojas, Rafael; Mendoza, Laura; Parra, Karla; Linares, Sergia; Reyna, Eduardo; Cámara Martos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Se ha estudiado el índice glicémico, la carga glicémica y el efecto de saciedad producido en adultos jóvenes (12 hombres y 8 mujeres) por el consumo de tres tipos de barritas nutricionales formuladas con proteínas lactoséricas (LS), caseínas (CS) o hidratos de carbono (HC) frente a un control (C). Los valores de glucemia en la sangre a los 30 min fueron significativamente mayores (p < 0,05) para la barra HC (129 ± 8 mg/dl) frente a las barras CS (103 ± 6 mg/dl) y LS (86 ± 8 mg/dl). Asimismo, también se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p < 0,05) entre los índices glicémicos de los tres tipos de barras estudiadas (LS = 11,5 ± 3,9; CS = 40,7 ± 6,5; HC = 68,8 ± 13,0). Por otro lado, las barritas nutricionales formuladas con proteínas lácteas (LS y CS) muestran un efecto de saciedad mucho más intenso y prolongado que la formulada con hidratos de carbono (HC), lo que pone de manifiesto el potencial de estas proteínas para ser utilizadas en la formulación de productos para diabéticos y dietéticos. PMID:27238803

  11. Cinética Química: el laboratorio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabañas Galán, B.

    La interpretación de las transformaciones químicas que se producen en la atmósfera requiere un profundo conocimiento de la cinética, productos y mecanismos de reacción de las posibles interacciones que pueden ocurrir entre las distintas especies presentes en ella. Información cuantitativa de este tipo es un prerrequisito para la construcción de modelos numéricos adecuados que expliquen el comportamiento químico-físico de la atmósfera. Esta información se obtiene a partir de experimentos realizados en laboratorios y por tanto independiente de medidas atmosféricas, por lo que los modelos atmosféricos derivados de ellos, pueden usarse para diagnosticar y predecir adecuadamente el comportamiento atmosférico. En esta exposición se recogen las técnicas experimentales más extendidas para la obtención de datos cinéticos así como los métodos de análisis de datos más utilizados en el estudio de las distintas reacciones de interés atmosférico. Se analizan sus características generales así como su adecuación a los distintos tipos de reacciones.

  12. [Diet and multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Pozuelo-Moyano, Beatriz; Benito-León, Julián

    2014-05-16

    Introduccion. El tipo de dieta se ha relacionado con el proceso inflamatorio que forma parte de la esclerosis multiple (EM). En los ultimos años, distintas lineas de investigacion han generado una gran cantidad de conocimiento sobre la participacion de la dieta en la patogenesis de la EM. Objetivo. Elucidar de modo critico las evidencias que relacionan distintos tipos de dietas y alimentos con la EM. Desarrollo. Se incluye una actualizacion de los estudios publicados mas significativos que han analizado el papel de la dieta en la patogenesis y en el tratamiento de la EM. Para explorar la asociacion entre la dieta y el riesgo de EM se ha revisado la evidencia disponible hasta el momento, pasando por estudios observacionales hasta terminar con estudios de intervencion. Conclusiones. Se necesita mas investigacion sobre la nutricion como factor de riesgo, ya que podria tener relacion con la enfermedad, y el control de esta podria llevar a una disminucion significativa de la incidencia o progresion de la patologia.

  13. [Postoperative complications of cochlear implant: eight years of experience].

    PubMed

    Yépez-Pabón, Daniela; Guevara-Sánchez, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: el implante coclear es una cirugía con poca morbimortalidad. Las complicaciones posquirúrgicas pueden ser menores y mayores. Las menores requieren manejo conservador; las mayores, reintervención o retiro del implante. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar nuestras complicaciones y cotejarlas con series internacionales y latinoamericanas. Métodos: se analizan retrospectivamente 275 casos intervenidos entre diciembre 2005 y diciembre 2013. Se incluyen niños y adultos entre 11 meses hasta 82 años de edad. Se evalúan datos demográficos, colocación uni o bilateral, tipo de cirugía y las complicaciones posquirúrgicas. El seguimiento fue por 20 meses. Resultados: el 57.46 % son niños y adolescentes; el 33.81 % jóvenes y adultos, y el 8.73 % adultos mayores. El índice de complicaciones es del 12 % (n = 33), 6.91 % en mujeres y 5.09 % en hombres. Entre los 19 a 60 años hay más complicaciones. Las complicaciones menores representan el 7.64 %: infección local (n = 9), parálisis facial transitoria tardía (n = 7), vértigo (n = 3) y tinnitus (n = 2). Prevalecen en niños y adultos. Las complicaciones mayores son el 4.36 %: hematomas postquirúrgicos (n = 8), extrusiones (n = 2) e inadecuada colocación de electrodos (n = 2). Predominan en los adultos entre 19 a 60 años. No se presentan casos de meningitis ni decesos. Conclusiones: la implantación coclear tiene baja incidencia de complicaciones. Nuestros resultados, los únicos reportados a nivel nacional, son similares a los que menciona la literatura.

  14. [Dermatoglyphics differences among children with nephrotic syndrome according to steroid response].

    PubMed

    Corona-Rivera, Jorge Román; Pérez-Cortés, Gustavo; Osuna-Osuna, Julieta; Garay-Cortés, Marcela Guadalupe; Pérez-Molina, J Jesús; Ramírez-Godínez, Santa; Peña-Padilla, Christian; Rivera-Vargas, Jehú; Bobadilla-Morales, Lucina

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: aunque la asociación entre el tipo de síndrome nefrótico idiopático (SNI) y algún patrón peculiar de huellas digitales sugeriría la presencia de factores genéticos relacionados a ambos, esto no ha sido previamente estudiado. Este estudio pretende evaluar si existen diferencias entre los patrones digitales de niños con SNI resistente a esteroides (SNRE) y aquellos con el SNI sensible a esteroides (SNSE). Métodos: se estudiaron las frecuencias de arcos, asas cubitales, asas radiales y rizos en 60 niños con SNRE y 60 niños con SNSE. Se realizó análisis bivariado para detectar la relación entre cada figura digital y los grupos de estudio mediante la prueba de Chi cuadrada y para evaluar su posible asociación se calcularon los odds ratio (OR) con sus intervalos de confianza del 95 %. Resultados: los pacientes con SNRE tuvieron una mayor frecuencia de rizos en comparación con pacientes con SNSE (46.7 % frente a 30.7 %, p = 0.005). Comparaciones adicionales utilizando una definición de «excesos de rizos» obtenida datos normativos previos de nuestra población (≥ 7 rizos en mujeres o ≥ 8 en varones), también se asoció a la presencia de SNRE (OR: 2.96, IC95 %: 1.15-7.61). Conclusiones: estos hallazgos indican que existen diferencias entre los niños con SNRE y SNSE a nivel de los dermatoglifos digitales, aunque son necesarios estudios adicionales para confirmar la presente asociación y sus posibles implicaciones.

  15. Nuevas Galaxias Seyfert 1 Australes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maza, J.; Ruiz, M. T.

    1987-05-01

    En 1984 se inició una extensión del "survey" de Tololo que de- sarrollara en 1975 Smith, con la cámara Curtis-Schmidt y el prisma UV delgado. Utilizando placas IIIaJ horneadas, sin filtro, expues tas 90 minutos sin ensanchamiento se han obtenido a la fecha más de 150 placas que cubren la zona entre -20° y -45° a latitudes galácticas mayores de 20°; se presenta un detalle de las franjas que comprende el survey Calan-Tololo, indicando el grado de completitud de las mismas. Se ha encontrado un gran número de galaxias con líneas de emisión entre las cuales las más frecuentes, más de 300, son galaxias irregulares con formación estelar violenta ("starburst galaxies"). Se ha encontrado un número de cuasares cercano a 100; casi todos ellos tienen la linea Lyman alfa en la zona entre 3300 y 5300 A, que corresponde a un rango de corrimientosal rojo 1.7< z <3.3 el cuasar con mayor corri- miento al rojo encontrado a la fecha en el survey tiene z = 3.1. La información detallada sobre cuasares y galaxias tipo "starburst" será presentada en otro lugar. Entre los objetos más interesantes encontrados en el survey Calán- Tololo destacan unas 50 nuevas galaxias Seyfert 1. Estas galaxias han sido encontradas por su fuerte exceso UV y su brillante núcleo, más que por sus intensas lineas de emisión. Hemos observado espectroscópicamente, en el Observatorio Interamericano de Cerro Tololo, 37 de ellas para las cuales se presentan cartas de identificación, coordenadas y los datos espectroscópicos obtenidos.

  16. [Epidemiological study of traumatic hand injuries in Toluca, State of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Osnaya-Moreno, Humberto; Romero-Espinosa, Jesús Fernando; Mondragón-Chimal, Marco Antonio; Ochoa-González, Gabriel; Escoto-Gómez, Jorge Armando

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: las lesiones traumáticas de la mano se encuentran entre los tipos más frecuentes de lesiones y se refieren al daño agudo ocasionado a la mano por un agente externo. Objetivo: determinar las características de las lesiones de mano atendidas en el Centro Médico Lic. Adolfo López Mateos, ISEM y compararlas con lo reportado en otros países. Material y métodos: estudio retrospectivo de pacientes atendidos en el servicio de Cirugía Plástica y Reconstructiva del Centro Médico Licenciado Adolfo López Mateos, entre el 6 de septiembre de 2010 y el 5 de septiembre de 2011, con diagnóstico de lesión traumática de mano. Resultados: se atendieron 105 casos. Predominó el sexo masculino (82.9%). El límite de edad más afectado fue el de 20 a 29 años (44.8%). La mano más lesionada fue la derecha (46.7%). El mecanismo de lesión más común fue por esmeril (41%), seguido por objeto cortante (32.4%). La mano dominante fue la más lesionada (50.47%). Las lesiones más comunes fueron de tipo abierto (88.6%), y simple (84.8%). Conclusiones: las lesiones de mano fueron más comunes en hombres, en sitios de actividad laboral, por lo que deben mejorarse los programas de seguridad en el trabajo. Las características de las lesiones traumáticas de mano en nuestra unidad fueron muy semejantes a las observadas en el resto del mundo.

  17. [Functional properties and health benefits of lycopene].

    PubMed

    Cruz Bojórquez, Reyna María; González Gallego, Javier; Sánchez Collado, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El licopeno es un carotenoide que se encuentra principalmente en el tomate, conserva sus propiedades funcionales después de ser procesado, no presenta toxicidad y posee efectos antioxidantes, antiinflamatorios y quimioterapéuticos sobre las enfermedades cardiovasculares, neurodegenerativas y algunos tipos de cáncer. Sin embargo, parece que su consumo a través de la dieta es insuficiente. Objetivo: El objetivo de la presente revisión es destacar las propiedades del licopeno y las recomendaciones para su aprovechamiento en beneficio de la salud. Métodos: Se realizó la revisión bibliográfica relacionada con el tema a través de la base de datos Pub Med. Resultados: La OMS y los gobiernos nacionales promueven a través de las guías alimentarias el consumo diario de 400 g de frutas y verduras por su contenido en sustancias antioxidantes entre ellas el licopeno. La ingesta de licopeno es muy variada con un consumo promedio entre 5 y 7 mg/día. Esta cifra causa controversia debido a que los diferentes estudios presentan grandes diferencias y no existe una cantidad recomendada, lo que impide hacer comparaciones de nivel nacional e internacional y establecer políticas y estrategias que aseguren su consumo. Conclusión: La ingesta de licopeno puede considerarse como una medida preventiva y terapéutica no farmacológica para diferentes tipos de enfermedades, pero se requiere el trabajo de los profesionales de la nutrición y la salud para incrementar su consumo a través de la educación alimentaria y proponer a partir de los resultados de investigaciones científicas sus niveles de ingesta diaria.

  18. [Systematic review about dental caries in children and adolescents with obesity and/or overweight].

    PubMed

    González Muñoz, María; Adobes Martín, Milagros; González de Dios, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Obesidad y el sobrepeso (O/SP) infantil han alcanzado caracteres de epidemia y son un factor de riesgo de enfermedades crónicas graves para la salud. El objetivo es realizar una revisión sistemática (RS) sobre la relación de O/SP con caries en pediatría. Material y métodos: RS de la literatura 2007-2011 en fuentes de información terciaria (Trip, Cochrane y NGC), secundaria (PubMed, IME, IBECS y MEDES) y primarias (revisión de referencias). Criterios de inclusión: Pacientes (niños de 0-18 años), factor de riesgo (O/SP) y variable de interés (primaria: caries; secundarias: resto patología bucodental). Datos recogidos: Autor, año, país, tipo de estudio, edad pacientes, casos (con O/SP) y controles (con índice de masa corporal -IMC- normal o bajo), estado socioeconómico, prevalencia de caries y otros resultados en salud bucodental. Resultados: Se localizaron un total de 48 documentos, de los que 37 cumplieron los criterios de búsqueda de la RS, distribuidos temporalmente: 6 artículos del año 2007, 6 del 2008, 5 del 2009, 11 del 2010 y 9 del 2011. Presentaron un grado de heterogeneidad muy amplio (en pacientes, intervención, variable principal de interés y tipo de diseño), lo que no permite aplicar síntesis cuantitativa (metanálisis) de los datos, pero si cualitativa. Los estudios son discordantes respecto a la relación entre IMC y frecuencia de caries (CAOD, caod). Conclusiones: La RS permite al odontólogo y pediatra conocer la potencial relación entre O/SP y caries dental.

  19. On Ensino de Astronomia: Desafios para Implantação

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, R. Z.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    Em 2002 o ensino de Astronomia foi proposto como um dos temas estruturadores pelos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e sugerido como facilitador para que o aluno compreendesse a Física como construção humana e parte do seu mundo vivencial, mas raramente seus conceitos foram ensinados. A presente pesquisa discute dois aspectos relacionados à abordagem de Astronomia. O primeiro aspecto é se ela está sendo abordada pelos professores do Ensino Médio e o segundo, aborda a maneira como ela está sendo ensinada. Optou-se pela aplicação de um questionário a partir do 2° semestre de 2006 e durante o ano de 2007 com professores que ministram a disciplina de Física, os quais trabalham em escolas estaduais em Rio Grande da Serra, Ribeirão Pires e Mauá no estado São Paulo. Dos 66,2% dos professores que responderam ao questionário nos municípios de Rio Grande da Serra, Ribeirão Pires e Mauá, 57,4% não aplicaram nenhum tópico de astronomia, 70,2% não utilizaram laboratório, 89,4% não utilizaram qualquer tipo de programa computacional, 83,0% nunca fizeram visitas com alunos a museus e planetários e 38,3% não indicaram qualquer tipo de livro ou revista referente à astronomia aos seus alunos. Mesmo considerando a Astronomia um conteúdo potencialmente significativo, esta não fez parte dos planejamentos escolares. Portanto são necessárias propostas que visem estratégias para a educação continuada dos professores como, por exemplo, cursos específicos sobre o ensino em Astronomia.

  20. [Incidence and risk factors of endoleak in endovascular aortic aneurysm repair].

    PubMed

    Baez, Julio; Cura, Angela Betiana; Figueroa, Jose Adolfo; Paulazo, Carolina; Castro Pizarro, Rodolfo; García Brasca, Daniela; Castrillon, Maria Elena; Pieroni, Mario Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La reparación endovascular de la patología aneurismática de la aorta ha permitido una disminución de la morbilidad y una recuperación más precoz con respecto a la cirugía convencional. Entre las complicaciones más frecuentes del procedimiento se encuentra la endofuga, cuyo principal riesgo es el aumento de la presión dentro del saco aneurismático y rotura del aneurisma. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar la incidencia global de endofugas en los controles tomográficos de los pacientes tratados mediante reparación aórtica endovascular en la institución y reconocer los factores de riesgo que predicen su presentación. Materiales y Métodos: En un diseño retrospectivo se incluyeron todos los pacientes (N: 43, hombres 88%) tratados por reparacion endovascular entre febrero de 2008 y febrero de 2012 (4 años), con seguimiento clínico y tomográfico en la institución. La edad promedio fue de 70,5 ± 6 años. El evento primario evaluado fue la presentación de endofugas en la tomografía computada de control a 1, 6 y 12 meses posteriores al procedimiento, y su asociación a distintos factores predisponentes: hipertensión arterial, tabaquismo, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica y diámetro del aneurisma. Resultados: La incidencia global de endofugas fue del 11% (9% tipo I y 2% tipo III), todas en aneurismas abdominales infrarrenales. Hubo tendencia a la significación, como factor de riesgo predisponente, en el diámetro de aneurisma mayor de 60 mm (30% vs. 6%; p:0,073), mientras que los demás factores analizados no presentaron relación con la complicación. Conclusión: La endofuga luego de la reparación endovascular de la aorta es frecuente. El diametro del aneurisma puede ser un factor predisponente para este tipo de complicación.

  1. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    MIján de la Torre, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    El síndrome de caquexia cancerosa es responsable de la muerte de un número significativo de pacientes con cáncer. Se caracteriza por la presencia de una ingesta reducida, con inflamación sistémica y un metabolismo alterado. Los enfermos presentan característicamente una progresiva pérdida de peso y de masa muscular, junto a deterioro funcional. La pérdida muscular se debe a la combinación de reducción de la síntesis proteica con aumento de su degradación. Ello conduce tanto a un acortamiento como a una reducción en el área de la fibra muscular. Asimismo, existen datos que apoyan que selectivamente algunos de los tipos de fibra muscular se ven más afectados. Es necesario definir bien los valores de corte de sarcopenia para diagnosticar la pérdida muscular y existen diferentes métodos. El sistema de la ubiquitina-proteasoma parece desempeñar un papel predominante en la degradación de la proteína miofibrilar. La tendencia a perder masa muscular en los pacientes con caquexia cancerosa parece estar asociada a la activación de señales catabólicas por citoquinas proinflamatorias, así como por productos tumorales del tipo factor inductor de proteólisis. En referencia a los factores pronósticos, el riesgo de muerte está bien documentado en pacientes con sarcopenia y, especialmente, en aquellos con obesidad asociada a la sarcopenia. Asimismo, se ha establecido una relación directa entre la pérdida intensa de masa muscular y la supervivencia en pacientes con diferentes tipos de tumores del tipo de cáncer de páncreas, pulmón, tracto biliar o cáncer colorrectal. Respecto de la terapia en el síndrome de caquexia cancerosa, es factible que requiera tratamiento con varios grupos combinados que incluyan, junto al soporte nutricional, fármacos orexígenos, con efecto anabólico y antinflamatorio, asociados a intervenciones que estimulen el ejercicio físico. PMID:27269215

  2. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    MIján de la Torre, Alberto

    2016-06-03

    El síndrome de caquexia cancerosa es responsable de la muerte de un número significativo de pacientes con cáncer. Se caracteriza por la presencia de una ingesta reducida, con inflamación sistémica y un metabolismo alterado. Los enfermos presentan característicamente una progresiva pérdida de peso y de masa muscular, junto a deterioro funcional. La pérdida muscular se debe a la combinación de reducción de la síntesis proteica con aumento de su degradación. Ello conduce tanto a un acortamiento como a una reducción en el área de la fibra muscular. Asimismo, existen datos que apoyan que selectivamente algunos de los tipos de fibra muscular se ven más afectados. Es necesario definir bien los valores de corte de sarcopenia para diagnosticar la pérdida muscular y existen diferentes métodos. El sistema de la ubiquitina-proteasoma parece desempeñar un papel predominante en la degradación de la proteína miofibrilar. La tendencia a perder masa muscular en los pacientes con caquexia cancerosa parece estar asociada a la activación de señales catabólicas por citoquinas proinflamatorias, así como por productos tumorales del tipo factor inductor de proteólisis. En referencia a los factores pronósticos, el riesgo de muerte está bien documentado en pacientes con sarcopenia y, especialmente, en aquellos con obesidad asociada a la sarcopenia. Asimismo, se ha establecido una relación directa entre la pérdida intensa de masa muscular y la supervivencia en pacientes con diferentes tipos de tumores del tipo de cáncer de páncreas, pulmón, tracto biliar o cáncer colorrectal. Respecto de la terapia en el síndrome de caquexia cancerosa, es factible que requiera tratamiento con varios grupos combinados que incluyan, junto al soporte nutricional, fármacos orexígenos, con efecto anabólico y antinflamatorio, asociados a intervenciones que estimulen el ejercicio físico.

  3. [Microorganisms responsible of nosocomial infections in the Mexican Social Security Institute].

    PubMed

    Arias-Flores, Rafael; Rosado-Quiab, Ulises; Vargas-Valerio, Alfredo; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la prevención y el control de las infecciones nosocomiales requiere el conocimiento del tipo de microorganismo que es más frecuentemente aislado. En México se carece de una estadística nacional que identifique el principal microorganismo causante de infecciones nosocomiales. Métodos: se estudiaron todos los resultados positivos de los cultivos de las infecciones nosocomiales reportadas por el sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica Hospitalaria del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social durante el año 2013. Se reportaron los microorganismos más frecuentes y los de mayor relevancia epidemiológica. Resultados: se estudiaron 48 377 resultados de cultivos de infecciones nosocomiales; de estos, 13 207 (27.3 %) correspondieron a las 25 unidades médicas de alta especialidad y 35 170 (72.6 %) a las 197 unidades médicas de segundo nivel. El microorganismo más frecuentemente aislado fue la Escherichia coli con 8192 (16.9 %), seguido del grupo de los Staphylococcus coagulasa-negativos con 6771 (14 %) y la Pseudomonas aeruginosa 5275 (19.9 %). Se observaron diferencias ligeras entre los niveles de atención y entre los hospitales monotemáticos. Conclusiones: el presente estudio identifica a la Escherichia coli, a los Staphylococcus coagulasa-negativos y a la Pseudomonas aeruginosa como los principales microorganismos que se deben combatir.

  4. Estudio fotométrico de estrellas tardías de alta luminosidad en 23 cúmulos abiertos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clariá, J. J.; Piatti, A. E.; Osborn, W.

    Se presentan resultados obtenidos en los Observatorios de Cerro Tololo, Kitt Peak, Lowell y Las Campanas, a partir de fotometría UBV y DDO de 54 estrellas tardías de alta luminosidad en 23 cúmulos abiertos. La aplicación de dos criterios fotométricos independientes permite asignar a cada estrella probabilidades de pertenencia a cada agregado. Se encuentra que 32 estrellas son muy probablemente miembros de los cúmulos, mientras que las restantes son objetos del campo. En todos los casos se determinan excesos de color E(B-V) a través de procedimientos fotométricos y espectroscópicos tradicionales. Recientes calibraciones del sistema DDO permiten, además, derivar tipos espectrales MK, temperaturas efectivas, y abundancias superficiales de la muestra examinada. Las metalicidades DDO derivadas se distribuyen entre valores típicos de cúmulos moderadamente pobres en metales ([Fe/H]~=-0.3) y moderadamente ricos ([Fe/H]~=0.2), en tanto que las masas calculadas para las gigantes rojas oscilan entre 1 y 4 masas solares, con una dispersión dentro de cada cúmulo menor que 1 Msolar.

  5. CORRELATION OF SERUM VITAMIN D LEVEL WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS IN CHILDREN: A META-ANALYSIS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changwei; Lu, Mi; Xia, Xiaona; Wang, Jingwen; Wan, Yuanyuan; He, Lianping; Li, Mei

    2015-10-01

    Objetivo: evaluar la relación entre sueros de vitamina D y la diabetes mellitus tipo 1 (T1DM) en niños. Métodos: fueron utilizadas las siguientes bases de datos electrónicas hasta septiembre de 2014 para identificar los estudios que evaluaron la relación entre la vitamina D y la T1DM: PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Central Register of Controlled Trials, CBM, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), wangfang; las enmiendas a la escala se utilizan para evaluar la calidad de los estudios, y los ensayos estadísticos fueron realizados mediante el software Stata 11.0. Resultado: fueron incluidos un total de 10 estudios. Nuestros resultados mostraron que los niveles séricos de vitamina D fueron significativamente menores en los niños con T1DM que en los controles sanos (MD = -0,60, P < 0,05). No hay evidencia de sesgo de publicación en el presente estudio. Conclusión: el metaanálisis sugiere que la vitamina D está asociada con la T1DM en niños.

  6. La binaria LSS 3074 y su entorno: ?`una nueva asociación OB?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemela, V.; Morrell, N.; Corti, M.

    En este trabajo presentamos un nuevo análisis orbital de LSS~3074, junto con tipos espectrales y velocidades radiales de estrellas que podrían constituir con ella una nueva asociación OB. La estrella O4f LSS3074 fue descubierta como binaria espectroscópica de corto período y líneas dobles por Morrell & Niemela (1990, ASP Conf. Ser. 7, 57). Posteriormente, Haefner et~al.(1994, IBVS 3969) encontraron variaciones fotométricas, estimando una inclinación orbital entre 50o y 55o. Teniendo en cuenta la importancia de obtener valores empíricos para las masas de estrellas O tempranas, y considerando la gran dispersión existente entre los valores observados y su discrepancia con los predichos por los modelos teóricos, hemos obtenido nuevas observaciones espectroscópicas de este sistema, con el propósito de mejorar los elementos orbitales derivados en la solución preliminar. Además, como las estrellas O tempranas suelen formar parte de cúmulos y asociaciones OB, hemos llevado a cabo una investigación espectroscópica de varias estrellas tempranas que podrían estar físicamente relacionadas con LSS~3074.

  7. [Depression prevalence among end stage renal disease patients in maintenance hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Murillo-Zamora, Efrén; Macías-de la Torre, Aída Anahí; Higareda-Almaraz, Martha Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la depresión es una morbilidad frecuente en pacientes con enfermedad renal terminal (ERT) e impacta negativamente en los resultados esperados del tratamiento. El objetivo de este estudio fue mediar la prevalencia de depresión entre pacientes mexicanos con ERT en hemodiálisis de mantenimiento (HDM) y evaluar la relación con el tiempo transcurrido (< 1 año o ≥ 1 año) desde el inicio de la terapia. Métodos: se realizó un estudio de tipo transversal en un hospital urbano del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social y 81 individuos de 30 – 69 años de edad fueron incluidos. El inventario de depresión de Beck (IDB) fue aplicado y se realizó un análisis estratificado. Resultados: la prevalencia general de depresión (≥ 16 puntos, IDB) fue 42.0 % y 35.6 % y 50.0 % en el grupo con < 1 año 0 ≥ 1 año en tratamiento respectivamente (p = 0.191). Conclusiones: nuestros hallazgos sugieren que la prevalencia de depresión es alta entre pacientes adultos en HDM y parece ser independiente del tiempo transcurrido desde el inicio de la terapia.

  8. El origen de las galaxias en modelos jerárquicos de formación de la estructura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, J. F.

    En esta charla presentaré una revisión de los modelos corrientes de formación de galaxias. En particular, haré énfasis en el origen de la gran variedad de morfologías galácticas y de las correlaciones entre las propiedades estructurales de discos y esferoides, todo dentro del contexto cosmológico jerárquico provisto por teorías como la de materia oscura fría. En este tipo de teorías las correlaciones observadas entre la luminosidad, velocidad de rotación, momento angular, y tamaño de galaxias son el resultado de la falta de escalas naturales en el proceso de formación de los halos de materia oscura que dichas galaxias habitan. Simulaciones numéricas que incorporan efectos gravitacionales, hidrodinámicos y de formación estelar ilustran estas ideas y demuestran las dificultades que aquejan a modelos donde tanto discos como esferoides son el resultado final de una secuencia de fusiones de sistemas protogalácticos.

  9. [CONCORDANCE IN THE RESULTS OF CONTROL INTAKE PERFORMANCE OF 72 H BY DIFFERENT HEALTH PROFESSIONALS IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL].

    PubMed

    Benítez Brito, Néstor; Mora Mendoza, Alejandra; Suárez Llanos, José Pablo; Delgado Brito, Irina; Pérez Méndez, Lina I; Herrera Rodríguez, Eva María; Oliva García, José Gregorio; Pereyra-García Castro, Francisca

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: el cribado nutricional CIPA es positivo cuando se cumple uno de los siguientes parametros: Control de Ingestas (CI) 72 h < 50%; albumina < 3 g/dl; Indice de Masa Corporal (IMC) < 18,5 kg/m2 o Circunferencia del Brazo (CB) ≤ 22,5 cm (si no se puede determinar IMC). El unico parametro no totalmente objetivo es el CI, por lo que este estudio busca reforzar la validez del mismo. Objetivos: analizar la concordancia existente entre diferentes profesionales sanitarios a la hora de evaluar un CI de 72 h. Material y métodos: estudio prospectivo de pacientes ingresados en plantas de hospitalizacion (febrero-octubre de 2014). Variables recogidas: edad, sexo, servicio medico, CI de 72 h y tipo de dieta. El objetivo del CI es valorar la cantidad de alimento consumido, diferenciando entre ingestas superiores o inferiores al 50%. Se analiza la concordancia de los resultados del CI dictaminados por un medico, una enfermera y un nutricionista (gold-standar) mediante el coeficiente Kappa (K). Posteriormente se calculo la sensibilidad (S) y la especificidad (E) de los CI positivos. Resultados: se analizaron 176 controles de ingestas. Edad: 63,70 } 14,46 anos; 42% mujeres. Servicios: Digestivo (22,2%), Neumologia (42%), Medicina Interna (21,6%), Nefrologia (9,1%), Otros (5,1%). Tipo de dieta: basal (23,3%), terapeutica (67%), consistencia (4%), progresion (3,4%), otros (2,3%). Se comparo el CI de enfermeria vs. nutricionista (K = 0,798; p < 0,001), y del medico vs. nutricionista (K = 0,823; p < 0,001). La S y E de enfermeria vs. nutricionista fue de 84% y 97%, mientras que entre medico y nutricionista fue de 84% y 98%, respectivamente. Conclusiones: la concordancia de los resultados de un CI de 72 horas (ingestas < o > al 50%) realizado en pacientes hospitalizados por un medico, una enfermera y un nutricionista es alta, restando subjetividad a este parametro. El CI resulta util para su uso dentro de la practica clinica habitual y, en concreto, dentro de cribados

  10. [Nutritional risk factors to users in dysmorphia muscular strength of room].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Segura, Asier; Cortés Castell, Ernesto; Martínez-Amorós, Natalia; Rizo-Baeza, María Mercedes

    2015-04-01

    Objetivo: Se muestra un estudio novedoso en el cual se han analizado la prevalencia y el tipo de suplementos consumidos entre usuarios de gimnasio de la provincia de Alicante que padecen dismorfia muscular (DM). Metodología: Se analizaron gimnastas de varias salas de musculación de Alicante (zona urbana del sureste español), donde se recogieron las medidas de 141 varones de edad comprendida entre 18-45 años, que persiguen el aumento de su masa muscular. Se tuvieron en cuenta el IMC (kg/m2), si consumían suplementos y que tipos. Y se ha determinado si padecían o no DM, a través de la Escala de satisfacción muscular. Resultados: La muestra está constituida por 141 varones, de los cuales 45 son DM y 96 no lo son. Un 89,9% y un 71,9% consumen o han consumido suplementos respectivamente. El consumo de los suplementos: proteínas, hidratos de carbono y creatina han resultado significativamente mayores entre los DM (p=0,007, p=0,016 y p=0,016 respectivamente). Los resultados del test Kidmed no han resultado significativos según el test Chi-cuadrado, pero con un porcentaje de dieta mediterránea superior en el grupo de los que padecen DM. Según el análisis multivariante son factores de riesgo el consumo de suplementos con una OR = 3.4 (IC95% = 1.1-10.9; p=0,041), el estar en sobrepeso con una OR = 20.9 (IC95% = 2.2-195.6; p=0,008) y ser obesos con OR = 15.5 (IC95% = 1.6-145.8; p=0,017). Conclusión: La prevalencia de consumo de suplementos tanto en DM como en no DM ha dado valores relativamente altos con respecto a la mayoría de estudios. Los suplementos mas consumidos fueron proteínas, creatina e hidratos de carbono. El riesgo de padecer DM aumenta con el grado de obesidad y el grado en que se consumen suplementos.

  11. [EFFECTS OF GREEN TEA ON THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF THE EXERCISE].

    PubMed

    Albert Pérez, Enrique José; Reig García-Galbis, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Objetivo: evaluar el efecto del té verde o sus sucedáneos en el estado nutricional de los sujetos que realizan ejercicio físico. Metodología: las palabras clave son: “green tea” AND “exercise”, en cuatro bases de datos documentales: Pubmed, EBSCOHOST, OvidSP y Proquest. Criterios de inclusión (enero de 2010 y diciembre de 2014): edad adulta de la muestra (18-65 años, OMS); consumo de una cantidad cuantificada de té verde o sucedáneos, junto con la realización de ejercicio físico medible en intensidad. Resultados: de 260 artículos, se incluyeron el 5%. En el 69% se trata de estudios con un entrenamiento diseñado, y en el 92% se ha incluido un test de ejercicio para valorar parámetros. El 77% oscilan entre 20-40 años; las muestras varían entre 9 y 36 individuos. El 69% son de larga duración. El GTE ha sido el sucedáneo más utilizado (38%). El 92% de los ensayos han obtenido algún tipo de mejora (en el 92% fue significativa). Conclusiones: se recomienda aumentar las investigaciones sobre la clasificación de los ejercicios. Las mejoras significativas en el estado nutricional de los sujetos por la ingesta del té verde o sucedáneos son: IMC, peso, IGC, MM, INM, OM y MR. El GTE ha sido el que mayores resultados satisfactorios ha proporcionado. No existe homogeneidad en los resultados significativos. Se necesitan realizar nuevos ensayos clínicos. Las diferencias entre los ensayos clínicos revisados reflejan que las mejoras encontradas en el estado nutricional de los sujetos que realizan actividad física deben ser avaladas con nuevas investigaciones. Esto ayudará a crear evidencia en este tipo de aspectos.

  12. Previniendo el Uso de Drogas entre Ninos y Adolescentes: Una Guia Basada en Investigaciones (Preventing Drug Use among Children and Adolescents: A Research-Based Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloboda, Zili; David, Susan L.

    This question and answer guide provides an overview of the research on the origins and pathways of drug abuse, the basic principles derived from effective drug abuse prevention research, and the application of research results to the prevention of drug use among young people. The basic principles derived from drug abuse prevention research are…

  13. Entre dicho y hecho ...: An Assessment of the Application of Research from Second Language Acquisition and Related Fields to the Creation of Spanish CALL Materials for Lexical Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A.; Lafford, Peter A.; Sykes, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Despite the problems presented by lexical errors in second language (L2) communication, most computer assisted language learning (CALL) programs tend to focus on the acquisition of grammar points rather than on the development of the L2 lexicon. In addition, CALL vocabulary tasks are typically limited in scope and mechanical in nature, covering…

  14. Modelo Crosscultural de Pasantias para Lideres de la Educacion: Cooperacion entre Estados Unidos y Venezuela (Designing an Effective School Administrator Internship Program: United States and Venezuela Cooperation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafin, Ana Gil; Thompson, Eugene W.

    A model was developed of an internship program designed to give valuable cross-cultural experience to school administrators in training at universities in the United States and Venezuela. A naturalistic approach was used to develop the model. Leading school administrators and educational leadership theorists in both countries were interviewed by…

  15. Relación física entre el cúmulo abierto Hogg 15 y la estrella Wolf-Rayet WR 47

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Bica, E.; Santos, J. F. C., Jr.; Clariá, J. J.

    We revise the fundamental parameters of the faint open cluster Hogg 15, for which two recent colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) studies have obtained significantly different ages (Sagar et al. 2001, MNRAS, 327, 23; Piatti & Clariá 2001, A&A, 370, 931). In the present study, we combine a series of methods trying to constrain age, together with other fundamental parameters. We employ spatial extractions to construct the CMDs, and the cluster integrated spectrum to compare the latter with those of templates of known age. For Hogg 15 we derive an age of (20 ± 10) Myr, a reddening of (1.10 ± 0.05) mag, and a distance of (3.1 ± 0.5) kpc. We conclude that the estimation of an older age in the study of Piatti & Clariá can be accounted for in terms of main sequence/turnoff curvature being blurred in the CMDs, an effect mainly caused by field contamination. To clarify the issue of whether the Wolf-Rayet star HDE 311884 (WR 47), known to be a WN6 + O5V binary system, is associated or not with Hogg 15, we discuss its fundamental parameters, particularly its distance. Based on the WR 47 spectrum and available photometry, we assume that the underestimated distance implied by the Hipparcos parallax (216 pc) is affected by its binary character. By comparing the WR 47 spectrum with those of WR stars of a similar type, we conclude that WR 47 is not affected by a E(B-V) colour excess much higher than that associated with Hogg 15, namely E(B-V) = 1.10. On the basis of the WR 47's resulting distance of (5.2 ± 0.9) kpc, which largely surpasses that of the cluster, we conclude that WR 47 is not related to Hogg 15 from the point of view of origin, since the cluster and the star do not belong to the same formation event.

  16. Vinculación Física entre Super Cáscaras de Hidrógeno Neutro y Formación Estelar Reciente

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corti, M. A.; Arnal, E. M.

    Many of the known galactic HI supershells (SCHI) may have been formed by the combined effects of stellar winds and supernovae explotions. Having most of them dynamic lifetimes of a few times 10^7 yr, these huge structures are likely to outlive the stars that gave rise to them. Hence, these SCHI may be used as fossil records of the Milky Way star formation history. Furthermore, along their evolution SCHI may trigger star formation. In this paper we analyze the genetic link put forward by McClure-Griffiths et al. (2002) between the OB association Cen OB1 and the SCHI GSH305+01-24. From our study we conclude that GSH305+01-24 may not represent a real physical structure. Instead, we believe that this structure is best represented by two unrelated huge HI shells. The role played by Cen OB1 in powering one of these HI shells is unclear for the time being. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH.

  17. Denomination et categorisation des modeles d'enseignement des langues: entre institution et pratique (Denomination and Categorization of Language Teaching Models: Between Institution and Practice).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gajo, Laurent; Matthey, Marinette

    1998-01-01

    The process and issues of labeling language program models is discussed insofar as it may affect the objectives, content, and method of instruction. The first section describes the origins, stated objectives, and implementation of a Neuchatel (Switzerland) school program integrating heritage language and culture into the school curriculum, noting…

  18. En la búsqueda de características en eyecciones coronales de masa que discriminen entre dos paradigmas físicos en modelos de ECMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paissan, G.; Stenborg, G.; Rovira, M.

    Se conocen tres diferentes fenómenos de gran escala que ocurren en la atmósfera solar, denominados eyecciones coronales de masa (ECMs), protuberancias eruptivas y grandes fulguraciones de dos bandas. Estos fenómenos están estrechamente relacionados y podrían ser distintas manifestaciones de un único proceso físico. Las ECMs son definidas como eyecciones de gran escala de masa y flujo magnético desde la baja corona al espacio interplanetario. Desde su descubrimiento en los '70, muchos modelos han sido propuestos para explicar su origen y evolución. La explicación física de las ECMs es un tema de debate intenso. No obstante, los modelos pueden sintetizarse en dos grandes grupos: 1) los modelos de inyección de flujo y 2) los modelos de almacenamiento y liberación. En este trabajo, se presentan los estudios realizados con una serie de eventos observados con el coronógrafo MICA (Mirror Coronograph for Argentina), el telescopio en H-alfa HASTA (H-alpha Solar Telescope for Argentina) y los coronógrafos C2 y C3 de la sonda SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory). Los eventos que pudieron ser identificados como ECMs son contrastados dentro del esquema de los dos paradigmas teóricos propuestos.

  19. Relations structurales entre U 3O 8 et quelques fluorures mixtes de formules M2M' 3F 11, MM' 2F 7 et MM' 3F 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aléonard, S.; Le Fur, Y.; Champarnaud-Mesjard, J. C.; Frit, B.; Roux, M. Th.

    1983-01-01

    U 3O 8 oxide, as well as M2M' 3F 11, MM' 2F 7 and MM' 3F 10 fluorides, with M = Rb, Tl, Cs, NH 4 and M' = In, Lu, Yb, Tm, is described as the regular repetition according to the … A-A-A … sequence of identical and parallel sheets of edge-and corner-sharing M'F 7 or UO 7 pentagonal bipyramids and M'F 6 octahedra. M' and U atoms are systematically located at the lattice points of a pseudohexagonal network, but in the fluorides some of these lattice points are vacant, producing hexagonal tunnels in which M atoms are located. It is shown that in the two kinds of compounds the same linear chains and M' 3X17 groups of pentagonal bipyramids are present, and that the transformation of the U 3O 8 structure into the fluorides can be achieved by an ordered substitution of some linear … UOUO … chains by … M- M- M … chains. All these structures can be described with the same structural model based on the chemical twinning principle.

  20. Thriving Together: Connecting Rural School Improvement and Community Development = Prosperando juntos: La conexion entre el mejoramiento de la escuela rural y el desarrollo comunitario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boethel, Martha

    Available in English or Spanish, this resource guide aims to help rural schools and communities learn ways of supporting each other so that both can thrive. Background information and basic tools are provided for starting a joint school-community development effort. Chapters contain: (1) outline of the guide and statement of beliefs about…

  1. The Effect of Low Dose Irradiation and Grapefruit Extract on C. perfringens Growth from Spores in sous vide Processed Pork-Based Mexican Entrée

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sous vide, a common cooking method for meat and poultry products is widely used for providing ready-to-eat meals. Traditionally, these products have limited shelf life, ranging from 2 to 3 weeks. However, similar products may be stored for longer periods in the U.S. and other countries, requiring ad...

  2. Relación entre la orientación de Nebulosas Planetarias y el campo magnético galáctico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidmann, W.; Díaz, R. J.; Carranza, G.

    Un estudio detallado de las orientaciones diferenciales de nebulosas planetarias en todo el cielo sugiere fuertemente una relación con la dirección de los campos magnéticos de origen galáctico, determinados en la polarización de estrellas de campo. Esto da consistencia a la hipótesis de que la orientación de las nebulosas planetarias ovaladas es inducida, al menos parcialmente, por el campo magnético general de la Vía Láctea.

  3. Une experience de collaboration entre la BBC et des etablissements d'enseignement superieur britanniques (Collaboration Experiences between BBC and Some British Higher Education Institutions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Brian

    1980-01-01

    Describes the BBC French language program and the activities that have resulted from BBC's collaboration with institutions such as the Brighton Polytechnic. These activites include the organization of intensive courses, the publication of instructional materials for teachers, and the development of correspondence studies. (MES)

  4. Prevalence of high-risk egg-preparation practices in restaurants that prepare breakfast egg entrées: an EHS-Net study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Robin; Beatty, Mark E; Bogard, April K; Esko, Michael-Peter; Angulo, Frederick J; Selman, Carol

    2004-07-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (SE) is a common cause of foodborne illness in the United States. Foods prepared with raw shell eggs have often been associated with SE outbreaks. The federal government published the Egg Safety Action Plan in December 1999 that called for reduction of egg-preparation practices that may contribute to the survival and proliferation of SE. In seven states, an interview and brief site evaluation of 153 restaurants that prepare eggs during all hours of operation was conducted by the Environmental Health Specialists Network to determine the prevalence of such practices. Fifty-four percent (83 of 153) of restaurants pooled raw shell eggs not intended for immediate service. These pooled eggs were held a median of 4 h for scrambled eggs, 5.5 h for omelets, and 6 h for pancakes and French toast. Nearly 26% (39 of 152) of restaurants reported storing eggs at room temperature, and 5% (7 of 152) stored eggs on ice or in cold-water baths before cooking. Generally, eggs were cooked to 72 to 83 degrees C, which is above the recommended final cook temperature of 63 to 68 degrees C. Employees reported sanitizing utensils used to prepare eggs less than once every 4 h in 42% (57 of 136) of restaurants. Several areas were identified in which further emphasis might reduce egg-associated SE infections in accordance with Healthy People 2010 goals.

  5. Evidence supporting a promotora-delivered entertainment education intervention for improving mothers' dietary intake: the Entre Familia: Reflejos de Salud Study.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Guadalupe X; Ibarra, Leticia; Horton, Lucy; Arredondo, Elva M; Slymen, Donald J; Engelberg, Moshe; Rock, Cheryl L; Hernandez, Erika; Parada, Humberto; Elder, John P

    2015-01-01

    Entertainment education and the promotora model are 2 evidence-based health communication strategies. This study examined their combined effect on promoting healthy eating among mothers in a family-based intervention. Participants were 361 Mexican-origin families living in Imperial County, California, who were randomly assigned to an intervention or delayed treatment condition. The intervention involved promotoras (community health workers) who delivered 11 home visits and 4 telephone calls. Home visits included a 12-minute episode of a 9-part situation comedy depicting a family struggling with making healthy eating choices; an accompanying family workbook was reviewed to build skills and left with the family. Baseline and immediate postintervention data were collected from the mothers, including the primary outcome of daily servings of fruits and vegetables. Other dietary and psychosocial factors related to healthy eating were examined. At postintervention, mothers in the intervention reported increases in daily vegetable servings (p ≤ .05); however, no changes were observed in fruit consumption. Improvements were observed in behavioral strategies to increase fiber (p ≤ .001) and to decrease fat intake (p ≤ .001), unhealthy eating behaviors (p ≤ .001), and individual (p ≤ .05) and family-related (p ≤ .01) perceived barriers to healthy eating. Entertainment education and promotoras engaged families and improved mothers' diets. Further research should examine the dose needed for greater changes.

  6. Transitioning to new child-care nutrition policies: nutrient content of preschool menus differs by presence of vegetarian main entrée.

    PubMed

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Hales, Sarah B; Baum, Angela C

    2014-01-01

    Children who attend child care outside the home may be at increased risk for developing obesity. In 2012, the South Carolina ABC Child Care program issued new standards for food and nutrition. The goal of our study (conducted June to December 2012) was to examine changes that occurred at a large, Columbia, SC, preschool during the implementation of the South Carolina ABC Child Care program standards using an observational design, including a survey of parents and nutrient analysis of menus. The nutrition content of menu items before (n=15 days; six of which were vegetarian) and after (n=15 days; six of which were vegetarian) implementation of the new standards was compared. In addition, parents (N=75) were surveyed to examine opinions and support for the changes. Independent samples t tests were used to compare nutrient values before and after menu changes and analysis of variance was used to compare pre- and post-change vegetarian menus and pre- and post-change nonvegetarian menus. There were no significant differences between before and after menus with the exception of a 0.3 cup/day increase in vegetables (P<0.05). Vegetarian menus after the revisions were significantly higher in fiber (13 ± 3 g) than postrevision nonvegetarian menus (11 ± 3 g; P<0.05) and lower in sodium (1,068 ± 207 mg) than postrevision nonvegetarian menus (1,656 ± 488 mg; P<0.05). Standards that received the most parental support were serving at least two vegetables (score of 8.7 on a scale of one to nine) and two fruits per day (score of 8.6) and implementing policies against staff using food as a reward or punishment (score of 8.6). The center-specific policy of only bringing healthy foods for celebrations received the lowest support (score of 5.8). Adding more vegetarian menu items has the potential to improve the nutrient content of menus while keeping energy intake, saturated fat, sodium, and cholesterol levels at a more optimum level.

  7. Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Mental Health in School Counselors (Relación entre Inteligencia Emocional y salud mental en Orientadores Educativos)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cejudo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the present research is aimed at studying the relationship between emotional intelligence as an ability and emotional intelligence as a trait and mental health of a sample of school counsellors. Method: The sample has been made up of 203 school counsellors. The instruments used have been: Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional…

  8. Prevalence of high-risk egg-preparation practices in restaurants that prepare breakfast egg entrées: an EHS-Net study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Robin; Beatty, Mark E; Bogard, April K; Esko, Michael-Peter; Angulo, Frederick J; Selman, Carol

    2004-07-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (SE) is a common cause of foodborne illness in the United States. Foods prepared with raw shell eggs have often been associated with SE outbreaks. The federal government published the Egg Safety Action Plan in December 1999 that called for reduction of egg-preparation practices that may contribute to the survival and proliferation of SE. In seven states, an interview and brief site evaluation of 153 restaurants that prepare eggs during all hours of operation was conducted by the Environmental Health Specialists Network to determine the prevalence of such practices. Fifty-four percent (83 of 153) of restaurants pooled raw shell eggs not intended for immediate service. These pooled eggs were held a median of 4 h for scrambled eggs, 5.5 h for omelets, and 6 h for pancakes and French toast. Nearly 26% (39 of 152) of restaurants reported storing eggs at room temperature, and 5% (7 of 152) stored eggs on ice or in cold-water baths before cooking. Generally, eggs were cooked to 72 to 83 degrees C, which is above the recommended final cook temperature of 63 to 68 degrees C. Employees reported sanitizing utensils used to prepare eggs less than once every 4 h in 42% (57 of 136) of restaurants. Several areas were identified in which further emphasis might reduce egg-associated SE infections in accordance with Healthy People 2010 goals. PMID:15270499

  9. Estatuto del Docente: Modificaciones Introducidas entre el Mes de Junio de 1967 y Setiembre de 1970 (Teacher Regulations: Changes Made between June 1967 and September 1970).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Cultura y Educacion, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro National de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa.

    This booklet contains the modifications made in the regulations governing the teaching profession in Argentina between June 1967 and September 1970. Regulations cover the qualifications and requirements for certification, promotion, and retirement and the mechanics for classification and advancement. (VM)

  10. Contribution à l'analyse des inter-relations entre activités humaines et variabilité climatique : cas du Sud forestier ivoirien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Télésphore Brou; Servat, Eric; Paturel, Jean-Emmanuel

    1998-12-01

    The South Ivorian Forest has suffered a large rainfall deficit for 25 years. At the same time, it has been noticed that the movement of the coffee and cocoa production seems concomitant with that of the isohyets during recent decades. The variations in albedo and rainfall gradient seem to be linked to the significant changes to the forest cover. These could affect precipitation locally.

  11. La Linguistica Aplicada a la Relacion Paradigmatica entre los Verbos "Ser" y "Estar" (Linguistics Applied to the Paradigmatic Relationship between the Verbs "Ser" and "Estar")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchetti, Magda Ruggeri

    1977-01-01

    Speakers of Italian often have problems mastering Spanish because they erroneously believe its great similiarity to Italian makes it easy to learn. One of the fundamental problems is the lack of ability to choose the correct verb, "ser" or "estar," both equivalents of the Italian "essere." (Text is in Spanish.) (CFM)

  12. Make the Reading-Writing Connection: Tips for Parents of Young Learners = Haga el enlace entre lectura y escrita: Consejos para padres de jovenes que estan aprendiendo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Reading Association, Newark, DE.

    This brochure offers parents tips on helping their children connect writing with reading. It begins by noting that preschool children often want to scribble on paper, scribbles which sometimes represent a story. It suggests making space in the home for literacy, and encouraging early efforts. The brochure then offers four brief activities for…

  13. L'espace du mouvement: Une analyse des conflits dans les interactions entre institutrice et eleves d'une ecole maternelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvão, Izabel

    1995-01-01

    The research described in this article, winner of the Gottfried Hausmann Prize for 1994, was carried out in a kindergarten in São Paolo, Brazil, using the theory developed by Henri Wallon. The aim was to examine how primary school children are affected in their development by: (a) unnecessary restrictions placed on their physical movements during lessons; and (b) failure to organize the classroom space in a way that assists the learning process. The author concludes that these factors lead to tensions in the classroom which could be avoided through a different approach to movement and space.

  14. Etudes sociales 30. Sujet B: Interaction entre nations. Cahier de l'eleve. Edition finale = Social Studies 30. Subject B: Interaction between Nations. Student Workbook. Final Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    In this Alberta (Canada) student workbook, four history units are presented for study. These are: (1) Between Two Wars (1919-1936); (2) World War II; (3) The Emergence and Interaction of the Superpowers; and (4) Contemporary World Interactions. Advice is offered to students in each unit along with information about key events and issues during…

  15. La preparacion del maestro y la interaccion entre maestro y nino en programas preescolares (Teacher Preparation and Teacher-Child Interaction in Preschools). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontos, Susan; Wilcox-Herzog, Amanda

    It is generally agreed that because so much basic early learning occurs through interactive experiences when children are very young, the quality of teacher-child interactions contributes substantially to effects of group care and preschool education on children. Thus it is important to know if specialized teacher education in early childhood…

  16. Psychological Correlates of the Transmission and Acceptance of Rumors about AIDS = Correlates Psychologiques Entre la Transmission et l'Acceptation des Rumeurs sur le SIDA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Allan J.

    Public reactions to the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) crisis are accompanied by the sorts of emotional and cognitive factors that have been identified by researchers as predictors of rumor generation and transmission. The present investigation attempted to ascertain the extent that various subjective factors (including anxiety,…

  17. Aquecimento alfvênico viscoso-resistivo em discos de acresção ao redor de estrelas T Tauri clássicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, W. M.; Vasconcelos, M. J.

    2003-08-01

    Com a crescente disponibilidade de dados observacionais sobre estrelas T Tauri, a busca por modelos mais precisos vem se tornando cada vez maior. Estes modelos devem explicar, entre outras coisas, o mecanismo dissipativo responsável pelo transporte de momento angular no disco de acresção que acredita-se, circunda estas estrelas. O mecanismo mais viável, do ponto de vista teórico, é uma instabilidade MHD conhecida como "instabilidade magnetorotacional ou Balbus-Hawley" (IBH). Esta instabilidade veio mostrar que o campo magnético desempenha um papel importante na evolução destes objetos mas requer, no entanto, um acoplamento mínimo entre o gás e o campo magnético no disco que não é atingido para os valores de temperatura obtidos do modelo padrão. Contudo, alguns mecanismos de aquecimento para o disco precisam ser examinados. Neste trabalho, propomos a dissipação de ondas Alfvén como uma fonte de aquecimento para o disco. Se o gás apresentar uma condutividade elétrica finita e viscosidade, teremos um tipo de amortecimento para as ondas denominado amortecimento viscoso-resistivo que será aqui considerado. Este mecanismo é aplicado ao modelo de disco em camadas. Calculam-se as taxas de aquecimento Alfvênico, a temperatura efetiva do disco bem como as taxas de ionização decorrentes deste aquecimento e do aquecimento gerado pela absorção de raios cósmicos. Comparações com os dados observacionais de Kitamura et. al. (2001) são efetuadas, ressaltando-se os pontos comuns entre suas observações e nossos dados teóricos.

  18. [Eating habits and attitudes towards change in Spanish university students and workers].

    PubMed

    Zazpe, Itziar; Marqués, María; Sánchez-Tainta, Ana; Rodríguez-Mourille, Ana; Beunza, Juan-José; Santiago, Susana; Fernández-Montero, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El entorno educativo y laboral ha adquirido protagonismo como ámbito prometedor para llevar a cabo intervenciones nutricionales en población adulta. Objetivos: El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar los hábitos alimentarios y actitudes hacia el cambio en trabajadores y alumnos universitarios con distinto perfil académico. Métodos: Estudio epidemiológico descriptivo de tipo transversal en población universitaria española de 1.429 sujetos. Se analizaron los hábitos alimentarios y las actitudes hacia el cambio de hábitos. Resultados: La edad media de los trabajadores fue de 37 años y en los estudiantes de 23 años. En ambos grupos el fraccionamiento de la ingesta más frecuente fue de cuatro tomas al día. En los alumnos se observó menor frecuencia de consumo de verdura, vino, pescado y frutos secos y mayor de bebidas carbonatadas, repostería comercial, fast-food y carnes rojas. Por otro lado, en general los hábitos alimentarios de los estudiantes de ciencias fueron más saludables que los de letras. Aunque no se observaron diferencias significativas en las actitudes hacia el cambio entre estudiantes y trabajadores, el 32% de los empleados y el 39% de los estudiantes afirmaron estar planteándose seriamente cambiar sus costumbres. Conclusiones: El patrón alimentario fue más saludable entre los trabajadores que entre los alumnos, especialmente en aquellos que cursan grados de letras, que constituyen el grupo más vulnerable desde el punto de vista nutricional. Además, aproximadamente un tercio de los trabajadores y alumnos se planteaba modificar sus hábitos.

  19. [Childhood obesity is associated to the interaction between firmicutes and high energy food consumption].

    PubMed

    Estrada-Velasco, Barbara Ixchel; Cruz, Miguel; Garcia-Mena, Jaime; Valladares Salgado, Adan; Peralta Romero, Jesus; Guna Serrano, Maria de Los Remedios; Madrid-Marina, Vicente; Orbe Orihuela, Citlalli; López Islas, Claudia; Burguete-García, Ana Isabel

    2014-12-16

    Introducción: La obesidad es un grave problema de salud pública en México, la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición (ENSANUT 2012) reporta una prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en niños de 5 a 11 años de 34.4%, siendo el país con mayor prevalencia a nivel mundial. Investigaciones recientes han sugerido que la microbiota intestinal puede ser factor de riesgo de la obesidad por su influencia en el metabolismo humano. Objetivo: Evaluar si existe asociación entre el perfil de la microbiota intestinal y la obesidad infantil y si esta asociación se modifica dependiendo del patrón de alimentación de una muestra de niños de edad escolar de la Ciudad de México. Metodología y Resultados: Estudio transversal en 1042 niños de 6 a 14 años, a todos se les aplicó cuestionario de actividad física, antecedentes patológicos personales y heredofamiliares de obesidad y diabetes tipo 2. La definición de los patrones de alimentación se realizó por análisis de componentes principales (ACP). La asociación entre microbiota intestinal y sobrepeso/obesidad dependiendo de la dieta se evaluó con modelos de regresión logística, ajustados por factores de confusión. Encontramos que un perfil de abundancia relativa alta de Firmicutes y una abundancia relativa baja de Bacteroidetes aunado a un consumo elevado de dietas ricas en carbohidratos y grasas saturadas se asocia con un mayor riesgo de obesidad. Conclusión: La interacción entre la microbiota intestinal y la dieta, particularmente con alto contenido de grasas y carbohidratos simples incrementa las posibilidades de presentar obesidad.

  20. O que bilíngues bimodais têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue?

    PubMed Central

    de Quadros, Ronice Müller; Lillo-Martin, Diane; Pichler, Deborah Chen

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar o que as pesquisas que estamos desenvolvendo com crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, adquirindo Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras) e Português e Língua de Sinais Americana (ASL) e Inglês (Lillo-Martin et al. 2010) têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue. Os dados deste estudo fazem parte de um banco de dados de interações espontâneas coletadas longitudinalmente, alternando contextos de aquisição da Libras e do português como língua alvo, no Brasil e dados coletados longitudinalmente. nos mesmos contextos, de crianças adquirindo ASL e inglês1. Além disso, há também dados do estudo experimental com testes aplicados nos dois pares de línguas que se agregam ao presente estudo. Uma visão geral dos estudos desenvolvidos sobre a aquisição bilíngue bimodal por crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, será apresentada e, então, serão expostos alguns aspectos linguísticos deste tipo de aquisição, considerando as discussões sobre aquisição bilíngue a partir da pesquisa realizada. PMID:24431480

  1. Effects of local anesthetic on the time between analgesic boluses and the duration of labor in patient-controlled epidural analgesia: prospective study of two ultra-low dose regimens of ropivacaine and sufentanil.

    PubMed

    Costa-Martins, José Manuel; Dias, Cláudia Camila; Pereira, Marco; Tavares, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A patient-controlled epidural analgesia com baixas concentrações de anestésicos é eficaz na redução da dor de parto. O objectivo deste estudo foi comparar dois regimes de doses ultrabaixas de ropivacaína e sufentanil (0,1% ropivacaína associada a 0,5 μg.ml-1 sufentanil vs. 0,06% ropivacaína associada a 0,5 μg.ml-1 sufentanil) nos intervalos entre bólus e na duração do trabalho de parto. Material e Métodos: Neste estudo prospectivo não-randomizado, realizado entre Janeiro e Julho de 2010, dois grupos de parturientes receberam patient-controlled epidural analgesia: o Grupo I (n = 58; 1 mg.ml-1 ropivacaína + 0,5 μg.ml-1 sufentanil) e o Grupo II (n = 57; 0,6 mg.ml-1 ropivacaína + 0,5 μg.ml-1 sufentanil). Quando necessário administraram-se doses de resgate de ropivacaína na concentração definida para cada grupo e sem sufentanil. Registaram-se a dor, os consumos de analgésicos, as características do bloqueio neuroaxial, do trabalho de parto, do recém-nascido, e a satisfação materna. Resultados: A dose de ropivacaína foi maior no Grupo I (9,5 [7,7-12,7] mg.h-1 vs. 6,1 [5,1-9,8 mg.h-1], p < 0,001). No Grupo I observouse um aumento do intervalo de tempo entre bólus (beta = 32,61 min, 95% CI [25,39; 39,82], p < 0,001), enquanto no Grupo II se observou uma diminuição dos intervalos (beta = -1,40 min, 95% CI [-2,44; -0,36], p = 0,009). A duração do segundo estadio do trabalho de parto foi significativamente maior no Grupo I do que no Grupo II (78 min vs. 65 min, p < 0,001). Conclusões: As parturientes que receberam ropivacaína a 0,06% exibiram uma menor evidência de efeitos cumulativos e um segundo estadio do trabalho de parto mais rápido do que as que receberam ropivacaína a 0,1%.

  2. Oncology Referral Concerning Paediatric Neurosurgery? Analysis of the Situation between 2008-2013 in the North of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Batista, Ana; Nogueira-Silva, Luís; Vaz, Rui; Oliveira, Joana

    2016-01-01

    Introdução: Os tumores primários do sistema nervoso central representam o segundo grupo de neoplasias mais frequente e são a principal causa de morte devido a tumores sólidos em crianças. O nosso estudo teve como objetivos realizar a mais atualizada análise epidemiológica desta doença no norte de Portugal e avaliar o possível benefício da centralização de cuidados. Material e Métodos: Este estudo de base populacional incluiu todos os tumores primários do sistema nervoso central diagnosticados e histologicamente confirmados em indivíduos menores de 18 anos de idade, que residem no norte do país, desde Janeiro 2008 até Dezembro 2013. Os dados foram obtidos por meio da avaliação dos processos clínicos dos doentes. Nós descrevemos as características das crianças e dos seus tumores e analisámos os quocientes doente: neurocirurgião pediátrico e tipo histológico de tumor: neurocirurgião pediátrico e as taxas de sobrevivência, mortalidade, complicações e recidiva. Resultados: Foram registados 147 casos. A média de idade ao diagnóstico foi de 8,0 ± 5,2 anos. Os astrocitomas foram o tipo histológico mais frequentemente encontrado (34%). O tipo histológico foi a única variável com influência estatisticamente significativa na mortalidade (p = 0,001). As sobrevivências a um, três e cinco anos relativas ao período entre 2008 - 2013 foram estatisticamente superiores às do intervalo entre 2005 - 2007. Os astrocitomas apresentam a mais alta taxa de sobrevivência, sendo estatisticamente diferente dos outros tipos de tumor (p = 0,015). Estimámos uma média de 12,25 casos tratados anualmente por neurocirurgião pediátrico no nosso hospital. Discussão: Os nossos resultados são, globalmente, consistentes com os encontrados na literatura mundial, mas registrámos taxas de sobrevivência mais altas. O número de casos tratados por neurocirurgião pediátrico está de acordo com o recomendado. Conclusão: Demonstrámos que houve melhoria

  3. População nuclear e extranuclear em rádio-galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimann, D. I.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Quintana, H.; Alloin, D.; Hunstead, R.; Wisotzki, L.

    2003-08-01

    A natureza do contínuo UV/ótico em rádio-galáxias é muito importante para o seu entendimento. Em baixos redshifts existem evidências de que muitas delas são dominadas no ótico por luz de estrelas velhas, características de galáxias early-type e em altos redshifts a característica dominante é um excesso de luz no UV, freqüentemente associado com estruturas que estão alinhadas aos eixos das estruturas rádio em grande escala. Inicialmente esse excesso foi interpretado como devido a episódios intensos de formação estelar nas galáxias hospedeiras. Entretanto, as descobertas dos alinhamentos entre as estruturas UV e rádio modificaram essa idéia. Foi proposto que a formação estelar é iniciada pela passagem do jato rádio através do meio interestelar das galáxias hospedeiras. A natureza do excesso UV começou a ser compreendida em um estudo detalhado do continuo ótico da 3C321, onde se concluiu que o contínuo desta galáxia tem origem multicomponente, com contribuições de populações velhas e intermediárias, de luz espalhada oriunda de um quasar obscurecido e do contínuo nebular. No presente trabalho estudamos a população nuclear e extranuclear de uma amostra de 24 rádio-galáxias, utilizando espectros óticos de fenda longa, com alta razão sinal/ruído. Através do método de síntese espectral de populações estelares, foram estimadas as contribuições de populações estelares de diferentes idades (e de um contínuo tipo lei de potência devido a um AGN, FC) para a luz integrada das galáxias, em 4020Å. As principais conclusões deste trabalho são: apenas quatro dos objetos estudados têm contribuições significativas (maiores do que 10%) das populações de 100 milhões de anos ou mais jovens (ou de FC) ao longo da região espacial estudada (6 kpc centrais); nenhuma das rádio-galáxias de tipo FRI estudadas tem contribuição significativa destas populações ao longo desta região; duas (de oito) de tipo FRII tem contribui

  4. Breast cancer patients survival and associated factors: reported outcomes from the Southern Cancer Registry in Portugal.

    PubMed

    André, Maria Rosario; Amaral, Sandra; Mayer, Alexandra; Miranda, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Objectivos: A incidência do cancro da mama em Portugal é inferior à média europeia, sendo, ainda assim, a neoplasia mais frequente na mulher. As taxas de mortalidade por cancro de mama apresentam uma distribuição heterogénea nas diferentes regiões de Portugal. São múltiplos os factores que podem influenciar esta distribuição, incluindo aspectos demográficos e socioeconómicos, características biológicas tumorais, e o acesso aos cuidados de saúde. O objectivo deste estudo é detectar diferenças na sobrevivência do cancro de mama feminino e os principais factores associados. Material e Métodos: Estudo de coorte, de base populacional e orientação retrospectiva, com follow-up. Foram incluídos casos de cancro de mama diagnosticados em 2005 e residentes na região sul de Portugal, tendo os dados sido recolhidos a partir da base de dados do Registo Oncológico Regional Sul (ROR-Sul) e complementados com dados dos processos clínicos. Resultados: Foram incluídos neste estudo 1 354 doentes. Observaram-se as seguintes variações geográficas: na distribuição etária, com uma população envelhecida no Alentejo; na distribuição de sub-tipos tumorais, com uma maior incidência de tumores HER2- positivo no Algarve e maior incidência de tumores HER2-negativo na Região Autónoma da Madeira. A sobrevivência global estimada aos 5 anos foi de 80%, com uma associação significativa com o estadio, receptores hormonais e status HER2. Não foram identificadas diferenças na sobrevivência entre mulheres residentes em regiões geográficas distintas. Discussão: Apesar das diferenças observadas na distribuição etária e de sub-tipos tumorais entre regiões geográficas, os nossos resultados não suportam a existência de discrepâncias na sobrevivência do cancro de mama entre estas regiões. As características biológicas tumorais parecem ser os principais factores associados à sobrevivência do cancro de mama feminino na nossa população. Conclus

  5. 43 CFR 17.331 - Complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or on behalf of others, may file a complaint with DOI, alleging discrimination prohibited by the Act... good cause shown, however, DOI may extend this time limit. (b) DOI will consider the date a complaint... described in paragraphs (a) and (c)(1) of this section. (c) DOI will attempt to facilitate the filing...

  6. 43 CFR 17.339 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DOI has made no finding with regard to the complaint; or (2) DOI issues any finding in favor of the recipient. (b) If DOI fails to make a finding within 180 days or issues a finding in favor of the recipient, DOI will: (1) Promptly advise the complainant of this fact; (2) Advise the complainant of his or...

  7. 44 CFR 206.348 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... designated representative of the Department of the Interior (DOI) at the regional level before approving any.... (a) The consultation shall be by written memorandum to the DOI representative and shall contain the... understanding with DOI, the DOI representative will provide technical information and an opinion whether or...

  8. 43 CFR 17.320 - General responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age Duties of Doi Recipients § 17.320 General responsibilities. Each DOI recipient has primary responsibility to ensure that... information, and to afford DOI access to its records to the extent DOI finds necessary to determine...

  9. 43 CFR 17.332 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., and Enforcement Procedures § 17.332 Mediation. (a) Referral of complaints for mediation. DOI will... it. The FMCS shall send the agreement to DOI. DOI, however, retains the right to monitor the... process without prior approval of the head of the mediation agency. (e) DOI will use the mediation...

  10. A fonte ionizante do disco de acreção no núcleo de NGC1097

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, R. N.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.

    2003-08-01

    Observações em raios-X revelam o "coração" dos núcleos ativos de galáxias, pois esse tipo de radiação provém das suas regiões mais internas, próximas ao buraco negro central. Neste trabalho apresentamos observações em raios-X da região central da galáxia NGC1097, que hospeda um buraco negro supermassivo e um disco de acreção cuja emissão vem sendo observada há dez anos através da linha de emissão Ha larga (10000 km/s) e de duplo pico. As observações em raios-X - que foram obtidas com o Telescópio Chandra - foram combinadas com observações no ultravioleta obtidas com o Telescópio Espacial Hubble e são usadas para estudar as características da fonte central que ioniza o disco de acreção. A distribuição espectral de energia é comparada com a predita por modelos, em particular o de uma estrutura "ADAF" ("advection dominated accretion flow") na parte interna do disco. Tal estrutura produz um espectro de emissão de linhas estreitas tipo LINER, como observado em NGC1097 e em rádio-galáxias que apresentam linhas de Balmer largas de duplo pico. Apresentamos também uma comparação entre outros LINERs com linhas de emissão largas de duplo pico, disponíveis na literatura ou nos arquivos do Chandra e do Telescópio Espacial Hubble e discutimos as correspondentes implicações para modelos da fonte central.

  11. [Control of epilepsy in adult patients with tuberous sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Tur, Alejandro; García-Martín, Guillermina; Chamorro-Muñoz, María Isabel; Romero-Godoy, Jorge; Romero-Acebal, Manuel

    2013-06-01

    Introduccion. La esclerosis tuberosa es una enfermedad genetica cuyas manifestaciones principales son la formacion de tumores neuroectodermicos, que asocia epilepsia secundaria muy frecuentemente. Objetivo. Describir el perfil epileptico, el control, la frecuencia de crisis y la efectividad del tratamiento en pacientes adultos con esclerosis tuberosa. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio descriptivo en el que se han incluido pacientes adultos (mayores de 14 anos) con diagnostico confirmado de esclerosis tuberosa. Se ha analizado la frecuencia y tipos de crisis. Se ha realizado un estudio y contabilizacion de los diferentes farmacos antiepilepticos en cada paciente, la frecuencia de uso de cada principio activo y un estudio comparativo entre control de crisis y tipo de terapia. Resultados. De 19 adultos estudiados, tuvieron crisis epilepticas 16 (84%). Presentaron control de crisis completo, crisis esporadicas y crisis frecuentes el 44%, 25% y 31%, respectivamente. Hubo frecuencia de crisis focales, generalizadas y ambas en el 38%, 6% y 25%, respectivamente. Estaban en tratamiento con farmacos antiepilepticos en monoterapia, biterapia y triterapia el 38%, 44% y 19%, respectivamente. El mas consumido globalmente fue el levetiracetam, seguido de la carbamacepina y el acido valproico. En monoterapia, el mas frecuente fue la carbamacepina, con mayor proporcion de control completo. Conclusiones. La epilepsia en la esclerosis tuberosa es relativamente benigna, y se consigue un aceptable control en la mayoria de casos con un numero de antiepilepticos acorde con lo aconsejado en las guias de tratamiento. Se observa estabilidad de lesiones, y no hay malignizacion en nuestra serie. El bajo numero de la muestra limita el estudio, pero se observan proporciones similares de efectividad del tratamiento respecto a otra serie publicada.

  12. [Metabolic myopathies].

    PubMed

    Papazian, Óscar; Rivas-Chacón, Rafael

    2013-09-01

    Objetivo. Revisar las miopatias metabolicas manifestadas solamente por crisis de mialgias, calambres y rigidez musculares con dificultad para contraer los musculos afectados y el examen neurologico normal entre las crisis en niños y adolescentes. Desarrollo. Estas miopatias metabolicas se deben a deficits enzimaticos heredados en forma autosomica recesiva del metabolismo de los carbohidratos y lipidos. El resultado final es una reduccion del trifosfato de adenosina principalmente a traves de la fosforilacion oxidativa mitocondrial con disminucion de la energia disponible para la contraccion muscular. Las secundarias a trastornos del metabolismo de los carbohidratos se producen por ejercicios de alta intensidad y breves (< 10 min) y las secundarias a trastornos de los lipidos, por ejercicios de baja intensidad y prolongados (> 10 min). Los deficits enzimaticos en el primer grupo son de miofosforilasa (glucogenosis V), fosfofructocinasa muscular (glucogenosis VII), fosfoglicerato mutasa 1 (glucogenosis X) y beta enolasa (glucogenosis XIII), y en el segundo, de carnitina palmitol transferasa tipo II y de acil-CoA deshidrogenasa de cadena muy larga. Conclusiones. Las caracteristicas diferenciales de los pacientes en cada grupo y dentro de cada grupo permitiran el diagnostico clinico presuntivo inicial en la mayoria y solicitar solamente los examenes necesarios para corroborar el diagnostico. El tratamiento de las crisis consiste en hidratacion, glucosa y alcalinizacion de la orina. Las medidas preventivas son evitar el tipo de ejercicio que induce las crisis y el ayuno. No existe cura o tratamiento especifico. El pronostico es bueno con la excepcion de casos raros de insuficiencia renal aguda debido a la elevacion sanguinea de la mioglobina producto de una rabdomiolisis grave.

  13. [An assessment of the management of spasticity in Spain: the 5E Study].

    PubMed

    Garreta-Figuera, R; Torrequebrada-Gimenez, A; En Representacion Del Grupo de Estudio 5e, En Representacion Del Grupo de Estudio 5e

    2016-10-01

    Introduccion. Aunque la espasticidad es una secuela que presenta una incidencia alta, hay una carencia de estudios que evaluen su manejo terapeutico en España. Objetivo. Evaluar el tratamiento de la espasticidad en España. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio epidemiologico, observacional, multicentrico y retrospectivo en el que participaron 49 servicios de rehabilitacion de hospitales publicos y privados. Resultados. Se incluyeron 235 pacientes, con espasticidad del miembro superior (MS) o inferior (MI), que realizaron una visita basal valida y al menos una visita de seguimiento. De los pacientes incluidos en el estudio, 148 (62,9%) tenian espasticidad postictus; 79 (33,6%), espasticidad del MI; 38 (16,1%), del MS; y 118 (50,3%), de ambos. En la visita basal, la escala modificada de Ashworth, la goniometria, la escala analogica visual para el dolor y la escala de Tardieu se habian realizado en 164 (69,8%), 99 (42,1%), 85 (36,2%) y 26 (11,1%) pacientes, respectivamente. Un 93,8% (intervalo de confianza al 95%: 81,4-97,6%) de los centros definio los objetivos del tratamiento de forma exacta, y un 52% de los objetivos fueron consensuados con el paciente. La toxina botulinica tipo A se administro a 186 (79,1%) pacientes; 49 (20,9%) se trataron con antiespasticos orales, y 93 (39,6%), con fisioterapia. Conclusiones. La mayoria de los pacientes incluidos presentaban espasticidad postictus. Ademas, la toxina botulinica tipo A era el tratamiento mas comunmente aplicado a los pacientes con espasticidad. Los resultados demuestran que el tratamiento de la espasticidad varia considerablemente entre los diferentes centros participantes en el estudio.

  14. [Study of the metabolic syndrome and obesity in hemodialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Quero Alfonso, Angel I; Fernández Gallegos, Ruth; Fernández Castillo, Rafael; Gomez Jimenez, Francisco Javier; García Rios, María Del Carmen; García García, Inmaculada

    2014-10-23

    Introducción: El síndrome metabólico (SM) esta formado por un conjunto de alteraciones clínicas y bioquímicas es muy comun entre los pacientes en hemodiálisis crónica y representa la principal causa de mortalidad en estos pacientes, 44% del total de pacientes sometidos a diálisis. Objetivos: El objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar la prevalencia del Sindrome Metabolico y factores de riesgo asociados a su desarrollo, asi como la prevalencia de la obesidad en pacientes en HD. Métodos: En este trabajo se ha seguido a 90 pacientes de ambos sexos con IRC que fueron tratados con hemodiálisis periódicamente en nuestra unidad durante diez años. A todos los pacientes se le realizaron mediciones trimestrales de albúmina plasmática (Alb), y otras determinaciones bioquimicas, y se les efectuaron mediciones antropométricas de peso, altura e índice de masa corporal calculado mediante la formula peso/talla2, agrupada en valores IMC según la OMS, se recogieron datos acerca de hipertensión, glucosa. Resultados: La prevalencia de SM fue del 25º% y de la obesidad fue, 45% sobrepeso tipo I; 30,8% de pacientes con sobrepeso tipo II y 12 ,2% obesas. Como factores de riesgo estadísticamente significativos se obtuvieron el IMC, sobrepeso, triglicéridos, colesterol total y colesterol HDL así como la hipertensión y niveles elevados de glucosa. Conclusiones: El SM compromete la supervivencia del paciente hemodiálisis pudiendo apreciarse una alta prevalecia del mismo. Los factores de riesgo fundamenteles en el SM son la vigilancia del peso, IMC, trigliceridos y colesterol HDL, hipertension y la diabetes.

  15. Reliability beyond Theory and into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sijtsma, Klaas

    2009-01-01

    The critical reactions of Bentler (2009, doi: 10.1007/s11336-008-9100-1), Green and Yang (2009a, doi: 10.1007/s11336-008-9098-4 ; 2009b, doi: 10.1007/s11336-008-9099-3), and Revelle and Zinbarg (2009, doi: 10.1007/s11336-008-9102-z) to Sijtsma's (2009, doi: 10.1007/s11336-008-9101-0) paper on Cronbach's alpha are addressed. The dissemination of…

  16. BSSDATA - um programa otimizado para filtragem de dados em radioastronomia solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinon, A. R. F.; Sawant, H. S.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Stephany, S.; Preto, A. J.; Dobrowolski, K. M.

    2003-08-01

    A partir de 1998, entrou em operação regular no INPE, em São José dos Campos, o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS). O BSS é dedicado às observações de explosões solares decimétricas com alta resolução temporal e espectral, com a principal finalidade de investigar fenômenos associados com a liberação de energia dos "flares" solares. Entre os anos de 1999 e 2002, foram catalogadas, aproximadamente 340 explosões solares classificadas em 8 tipos distintos, de acordo com suas características morfológicas. Na análise detalhada de cada tipo, ou grupo, de explosões solares deve-se considerar a variação do fluxo do sol calmo ("background"), em função da freqüência e a variação temporal, além da complexidade das explosões e estruturas finas registradas superpostas ao fundo variável. Com o intuito de realizar tal análise foi desenvolvido o programa BSSData. Este programa, desenvolvido em linguagem C++, é constituído de várias ferramentas que auxiliam no tratamento e análise dos dados registrados pelo BSS. Neste trabalho iremos abordar as ferramentas referentes à filtragem do ruído de fundo. As rotinas do BSSData para filtragem de ruído foram testadas nos diversos grupos de explosões solares ("dots", "fibra", "lace", "patch", "spikes", "tipo III" e "zebra") alcançando um bom resultado na diminuição do ruído de fundo e obtendo, em conseqüência, dados onde o sinal torna-se mais homogêneo ressaltando as áreas onde existem explosões solares e tornando mais precisas as determinações dos parâmetros observacionais de cada explosão. Estes resultados serão apresentados e discutidos.

  17. Association of β1 and β3 adrenergic receptors gene polymorphisms with insulin resistance and high lipid profiles related to type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Burguete-Garcia, Ana I; Martinez-Nava, Gabriela A; Valladares-Salgado, Adan; Bermudez Morales, V H; Estrada-Velasco, Barbara; Wacher, Niels; Peralta-Romero, Jesus; Garcia-Mena, Jaime; Parra, Esteban; Cruz, Miguel

    2014-06-01

    Antecedentes: Entre los diversos genes asociados a la diabetes tipo 2 (DT2), los receptores –adrenérgicos– son excelentes candidatos para estudiar en la población mexicana dada la alta prevalencia de estas patologías. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la asociación de polimorfismos en los genes ADRB1 (rs1801253) (Arg389Gly) y ADRB3 (Trp64Arg) con DT2 y SM. Métodos: Se estudiaron 445 pacientes con Síndrome Metabólico, 502 con diabetes tipo 2 y 552 controles sanos. Se evaluaron las características antropométricas, perfil bioquímico completo y los polimorfismos Arg389Gly y Trp64Arg SNPs se determinaron mediante ensayos TaqMan. El análisis de datos fue ajustado por porcentaje de ancestralidad. Resultados: Para la variante ADRB1 Arg389Gly se observó una asociación estadísticamente significativa con un aumento de los niveles de LDL (P < 0,008 ), y la variante ADRB3 Trp64Arg se asoció a mayor HOMA- IR (p < 0,018) y con un aumento de los niveles de insulina (P < 0,001). Mediante modelos de regresión logística múltiple en los tres modelos de heredabilidad se evaluó la asociación de ambos polimorfismos y DT2 y SM, observando un asociación significativa en los 3 modelos solo con DT2, ADRB3 en el modelo codominante Trp/Arg un OR de 1.53 (1.9 a 2.13 , P < 0.003) que se incrementó hasta OR 2,99 (1,44 a 6,22 , P < 0,003) para el genotipo Arg/Arg . Se encontró bajo el modelo dominante genotipo Trp/Arg- Arg/Arg con OR 1.67 (1.21 a 2.30, p < 0.002). En el modelo recesivo (Arg/Arg), también un OR 2.56 (1.24 a 5.26 , P < 0.01). Conclusiones: La variante ADRB3 Trp64Arg se asoció significativamente con DT2 y ADRB1 Gly389Arg en alteraciones en el metabolismo de lípidos. Nuestros resultados demuestran que estas variantes son posibles biomarcadores para predecir las alteraciones metabólicas y la evolución en pacientes con síndrome Metabólico y diabetes tipo 2.

  18. [Medullary carcinoma experience in breast oncology unit of Hospital Juarez Mexico].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Villanueva, Xicoténcatl; Hernández-Rubio, Angela; García-Rodríguez, Francisco Mario; García, Rebeca Gil; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario; Herrera-Torre, Analy

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el carcinoma de mama, variante medular, es poco frecuente y de buen pronóstico. Objetivo: conocer las características epidemiológicas y clínicas de la población atendida en el Hosital Juárez de México, saber si se asemejan a las descritas a nivel mundial y si los tratamientos propuestos internacionalmente son aplicables para este centro hospitalario. Material y métodos: estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo de 41 expedientes de pacientes con cáncer de mama tipo medular atendidas entre febrero de 1993 y febrero 2011. Resultados: se encontró que la incidencia de cáncer de mama de tipo medular fue de 3.04% en pacientes originarias de 11 estados mexicanos, con edad promedio de 50 años, nivel socioeconómico medio bajo para 39.02%, sin antecedentes familiares pero sí personales patológicos para: diabetes mellitus tipo 2, hipertensión arterial sistémica y cáncer de mama previo. Eran postmenopáusicas 63.41%. El promedio del tamaño clínico del tumor fue 58 mm, localizado en 63% de los casos en la mama izquierda. Los estadios clínicos fueron: 53.1% en I y II, 46.3% en III y 9.6% no etapificable. El 47% de las pacientes tenía ganglios linfáticos axilares positivos al momento del diagnóstico. La inmunohistoquímica sólo se reportó en 14 de las 41 pacientes; de acuerdo con la clasificación molecular para cáncer de mama: 8 fueron triple negativo, 2 luminal A, 1 luminal B y 3 Her2Neu. Conclusión: la población mexicana tiene características epidemiológicas y clínicas similares a las de las pacientes descritas en estudios internacionales.

  19. Peptide:glycosaminoglycan hybrid hydrogels as an injectable intervention for spinal disc degeneration† †The data associated with this paper are openly available from the University of Leeds data repository, http://doi.org/10.5518/47 ‡ ‡Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Full experimental methods, additional self-assembly and gelation data, additional FTIR spectra and TEM images, rheometry frequency sweep plots and peptide purity and content information. See DOI: 10.1039/c6tb00121a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Miles, D. E.; Mitchell, E. A.; Kapur, N.

    2016-01-01

    Degeneration of the spinal discs is a major cause of back pain. During the degeneration process, there is a loss of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) from the proteoglycan-rich gel in the disc's nucleus, which adversely alters biomechanical performance. Current surgical treatments for back pain are highly invasive and have low success rates; there is an urgent need for minimally-invasive approaches that restore the physiological mechanics of the spine. Here we present an injectable peptide:GAG hydrogel that rapidly self-assembles in situ and restores the mechanics of denucleated intervertebral discs. It forms a gel with comparable mechanical properties to the native tissue within seconds to minutes depending on the peptide chosen. Unlike other biomaterials that have been proposed for this purpose, these hybrid hydrogels can be injected through a very narrow 25 G gauge needle, minimising damage to the surrounding soft tissue, and they mimic the ability of the natural tissue to draw in water by incorporating GAGs. Furthermore, the GAGs enhance the gelation kinetics and thermodynamic stability of peptide hydrogels, significantly reducing effusion of injected material from the intervertebral disc (GAG leakage of 8 ± 3% after 24 h when peptide present, compared to 39 ± 3% when no peptide present). In an ex vivo model, we demonstrate that the hydrogels can restore the compressive stiffness of denucleated bovine intervertebral discs. Compellingly, this novel biomaterial has the potential to transform the clinical treatment of back pain by resolving current surgical challenges, thus improving patient quality of life. PMID:27429755

  20. Assessment of biocompatibility of 3D printed photopolymers using zebrafish embryo toxicity assays† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Supporting Fig. S1–2 and Table T1. See DOI: 10.1039/c5lc01374g Click here for additional data file. ‡ ‡We would also want to draw the attention of the reader to the availability of the dataset associated with this paper, available here (http://dx.doi.org/10.5525/gla.researchdata.238).

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, N. P.; Zhu, F.; Hall, C. J.; Reboud, J.; Crosier, P. S.; Patton, E. E.; Wlodkowic, D.

    2016-01-01

    3D printing has emerged as a rapid and cost-efficient manufacturing technique to enable the fabrication of bespoke, complex prototypes. If the technology is to have a significant impact in biomedical applications, such as drug discovery and molecular diagnostics, the devices produced must be biologically compatible to enable their use with established reference assays and protocols. In this work we demonstrate that we can adapt the Fish Embryo Test (FET) as a new method to quantify the toxicity of 3D printed microfluidic devices. We assessed the biocompatibility of four commercially available 3D printing polymers (VisiJetCrystal EX200, Watershed 11122XC, Fototec SLA 7150 Clear and ABSplus P-430), through the observation of key developmental markers in the developing zebrafish embryos. Results show all of the photopolymers to be highly toxic to the embryos, resulting in fatality, although we do demonstrate that post-printing treatment of Fototec 7150 makes it suitable for zebrafish culture within the FET. PMID:26646354

  1. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, the association with socioeconomic variables in adolescents from low-income region.

    PubMed

    Nascimento-Ferreira, Marcus Vinicius; De Moraes, Augusto Cesar F; Carvalho, Heraclito B; Moreno, Luis A; Gomes Carneiro, André Luiz; dos Reis, Victor Manuel M; Torres-Leal, Francisco Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Objetivos: Estimar la prevalencia de obesidad y sobrepeso, obesidad abdominal y hipertensión arterial en una muestra de adolescentes pertenecientes a una ciudad de baja renta en Brasil y su relación con el nivel socioeconómico, nivel educativo de lo responsable de la familia y tipo de escuela. Métodos: Estudio transversal con una muestra de 1014 adolescentes (54,8% chicas), con edades entre 14-19 años, estudiantes de las escuelas de la ciudad de Imperatriz (Brasil), seleccionadas por un muestreo aleatorio. Las variables dependientes evaluadas son: obesidad general y sobrepeso, obesidad abdominal, y tensión arterial alta (sistólica y/o diastólica). Las variables independientes son: nivel socioeconómico de la familia (NSO), el nivel de educación de lo responsable de la familia (NERF) y tipo de escuela. Las variables de confusión son: sexo, edad y nivel de actividad física. La prevalencia fue estimada, y la asociación entre las variables dependientes y las variables independientes se analizaron mediante razón de prevalencia (RP), con intervalo de confianza (IC) del 95%, estimado por la regresión de Poisson. Resultados: La prevalencia de la obesidad general fue de 3,8%, sobrepeso 13,1%, obesidad abdominal 22,7% y la tesión arterial alta 21,3%. Las análisis ajustadas indicaron que las chicas con NSO alto tienen mayor probabilidad de tener sobrepeso (RP=1,71 [IC95%: 1,13 a 2,87]), y chicos de las escuelas privadas tienen más probabilidad de tener obesidad (RP=1,79 [IC95%: 1.04- 3,08]) y obesidad abdominal (RP=1,64 [IC95%: 1,06 a 2,54]). Conclusión: La prevalencia de los FRC es alta en adolescentes de una región de baja renta. Los chicos de las escuelas privadas son más propensos a tener obesi dad y obesidad abdominal, y las chicas con NSO alto son más propensas a tener sobrepeso.

  2. [Anogenital Warts in a Major Venereology Clinic: Centro de Saúde da Lapa - Lisbon, 2008 to 2014].

    PubMed

    Gameiro, Ana; Alves, João; Santo, Irene; Azevedo, Jacinta

    2016-02-01

    Introdução: O vírus do papiloma humano é responsável pela infeção sexualmente transmissível mais comum, podendo manifestar--se por um conjunto amplo de doenças, nomeadamente condilomas anogenitais, papilomatose laríngea recorrente, e neoplasias da região anogenital, colo do útero e orofaringe. Estima-se que os condilomas anogenitais afetem 1% da população sexualmente ativa, causados em cerca de 90% pelos genótipos 6 e 11. Material e Métodos: Identificámos os doentes com primeiro diagnóstico de condilomas anogenitais da consulta de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis do Centro de Saúde da Lapa, entre janeiro de 2008 e dezembro de 2014, e caracterizámos os doentes por sexo, orientação sexual, idade, localização das lesões, e número de parceiros nos últimos seis meses. Resultados: Foram identificados 902 indivíduos com primeiro diagnóstico de condilomas anogenitais. Observámos uma diminuição significativa de novos casos nas mulheres com < 19 anos (r = -0,848; p = 0,016), e uma diminuição sem significado estatístico nos homens com < 19 anos e nas mulheres entre os 20 - 24 anos. Discussão: Em outubro de 2008, a vacina quadrivalente (genótipos 6, 11, 16, 18) foi introduzida no plano nacional de vacinação de Portugal, abrangendo as adolescentes com 13 anos, com um catch-up para as de 17 anos. A diminuição de primeiros diagnósticos de condilomas anogenitais nas mulheres, deve-se provavelmente à sua vacinação antes de iniciarem a vida sexual. Conclusão: Este estudo reforça a import'ncia do programa nacional de vacinação para o vírus do papiloma humano.

  3. [Psychiatric comorbidities associated with headaches: the experience of the liaison consultation].

    PubMed

    Martins, Vera; Temótio, José; Murta, Ilda

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A comorbilidade entre cefaleias e perturbações psiquiátricas é frequente, podendo ser explicada quer ao nível de modelos uni ou bidirecionais, quer ao nível da partilha de factores de risco genéticos e ambientais, comuns ao desenvolvimento de ambas as condições clínicas. A presença desta comorbilidade tem implicações importantes, agravando o quadro clínico, aumentando o risco de cronicidade, elevando a intensidade da dor e a taxa de insucesso terapêutico. Material e Métodos: Os autores realizaram um estudo descritivo, retrospectivo, de prevalência, envolvendo 250 doentes observados na consulta de ligação de Psiquiatria-Cefaleias, durante um período de 3 anos, entre 1 de Julho de 2011 e 1 de Julho de 2013, no qual se procedeu à análise dos processos clínicos, relativamente aos dados sociodemográficos e clínicos, diagnóstico psiquiátrico, neurológico e terapêutica prescrita. Resultados e Discussão: Foram efectuadas 689 consultas de ligação Psiquiatria-Cefaleias, verificando-se maior prevalência de doentes do sexo feminino (84%), com média de idades de 47 anos. As cefaleias tipo tensão (60,8%), a enxaqueca (24,8%) e as cefaleias atribuídas a perturbações psiquiátricas (7,2%), foram os tipos mais prevalentes, enquanto as perturbações de humor (62%) e as perturbações neuróticas relacionadas com o stress (39,2%) foram os diagnósticos psiquiátricos mais frequentes na consulta. A intervenção terapêutica nestes casos privilegiou a intervenção multidisciplinar do médico Neurologista e do Psiquiatra, baseando-se na psicoeducação, abordagem cognitivo-comportamental e tratamento psicofarmacológico. Conclusão: Dada a complexidade dos quadros clínicos nos casos de comorbilidade, a experiência da consulta de psiquiatria de ligação e da intervenção multidisciplinar revelou-se uma mais valia no tratamento destes doentes, configurando-se como o cenário mais adequado para o tratamento destas patologias.

  4. ACCEPTANCE OF FUNCTIONAL FOOD AMONG CHILEAN CONSUMERS: APPLE LEATHER.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Maya; Adasme-Berrios, Cristian; Schnettler, Berta

    2015-10-01

    Objetivo: el objetivo de este estudio es medir la aceptación de un alimento funcional como la lámina frutal de manzana, en base a características organolépticas. Se identificaron tipos de consumidores y sus preferencias hacia los aditivos naturales que aumentan la funcionalidad del producto y satisfacen las necesidades nutricionales actuales. Materiales y método: una muestra de 800 consumidores permitió la evaluación de la lámina frutal de manzana en términos de aceptación (gusto). se llevó a cabo un panel sensorial utilizando una escala hedónica de nueve puntos. Se utilizó el análisis de conglomerados para establecer diferentes tipos de consumidores, basados en la aceptación del producto. Además, el análisis conjunto permitió determinar la preferencia sobre diferentes aditivos. Resultados: el análisis de conglomerados permitió identificar cuatro grupos con diferencias significativas en los gustos promedios, obtenidos del panel sensorial. Los resultados indican que el dulzor de la lámina frutal de manzana fue mejor evaluada entre todos los grupos y, en promedio, el color fue calificado como el peor atributo. Además, a pesar de que existe una “aceptabilidad global” por el producto, existen diferencias significativas entre los grupos. Los resultados del análisis conjunto indican que, en general, los consumidores prefieren la agregación de aditivos naturales que aumentan la funcionalidad del producto. Conclusiones: en este estudio, la lámina frutal de manzana como alimento funcional se ajusta con el hábito de las personas de consumir alimentos dulces, lo que promueve su aceptación. Además, la agregación de aditivos naturales al producto, tales como anticariogénicos y antioxidantes, permite considerarlo como un alimento funcional sustituto de los snacks, poco saludables y/o de los caramelos.

  5. Identificação de variáveis cataclísmicas eruptivas na direção do bojo galáctico e Nuvens de Magalhães usando dados do OGLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieslinski, D.; Diaz, M. P.; Mennickent, R.; Pietrzyski, G.

    2003-08-01

    Na década de 90 iniciaram-se vários programas para a pesquisa de matéria escura na Galáxia usando o efeito de microlentes gravitacionais. Entre os projetos mais bem conhecidos podemos mencionar o OGLE (Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment) e o MACHO (MAssive Compact Halo Objects). A estratégia usada por eles consiste em fazer fotometria de banda larga (normalmente B, R e I) de um grande número de estrelas (dezenas de milhões) tão freqüentemente quanto possí vel e por longos perí odos de tempo (anos). Uma tal sistemática de observação, além de descobrir inúmeras lentes gravitacionais, é também muito apropriada para a descoberta de estrelas variáveis. De fato, inúmeras novas variáveis de vários tipos foram descobertas como subproduto. Exemplos podem ser encontrados nos endereços http://bulge.princeton.edu/~ogle/ e http://wwwmacho.mcmaster.ca/. As variáveis cataclí smicas eruptivas (novas clássicas, novas recorrentes e novas anãs) são objetos que apresentam variabilidade de grande amplitude com escalas de tempo de dias a centenas de dias e, por esta razão, devem ter sido detectadas em grande número nestes "surveys". Para testar esta possibilidade nós procuramos nos dados do OGLE por tais sistemas e o presente trabalho mostra os resultados desta pesquisa. Os objetos foram selecionados entre as variáveis detectadas usando a amplitude de variação de brilho como critério principal. Este critério forneceu 13756 objetos, sendo 2169 na direção da Grande Nuvem de Magalhães, 1162 na direção da Pequena Nuvem de Magalhães e o restante na direção do Bojo Galáctico. A análise foi feita inspecionando-se visualmente cada curva de luz por erupções com as características acima mencionadas. Os resultados obtidos podem ser sumarizados como: descoberta de duas novas clássicas e 33 novas anãs. Além disso, pode-se mencionar a identificação de candidatas a outros tipos de variáveis como: estrelas simbióticas, RV Tauri, R Coronae

  6. Espectroscopia de candidatos a remanescentes de aglomerados abertos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavani, D. B.; Bica, E.; Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.

    2003-08-01

    A pesquisa sobre remanescentes de aglomerados abertos tem despertado grande interesse. Seguindo esta tendência encontramos estudos teóricos e observacionais. Os primeiros baseiam-se em simulações numéricas buscando determinar fração de binárias e distâncias galatocêntricas, tempo de vida e conteúdo estelar. Estes estão relacionados à função inicial de massa e densidade de estrelas, ou seja, se ricos ou pobremente povoados, compactos ou esparsos. No caso observacional procuram-se identificar os remanescentes considerando-se que trazem estas assinaturas de seus percursores. No presente estudo empregamos espectroscopia para analisar oito concentrações pobremente povoadas, previamente classificadas como aglomerados abertos, sendo sete compactas e uma esparsa. As observações foram obtidas através do telescópio de 2,15 m do CASLEO em San Juan, Argentina, em turnos entre 2001 e 2003. Utilizamos uma câmara CCD contendo um chip Tektronics de 1024X1024 pixeis aliado a um espectrógrafo REOSC. O domínio espectral vai de 3700 a 7000 Å. As reduções foram realizadas no Observatório Astronômico de Córdoba (Argentina) usando pacotes IRAF padrões. Determinamos idades, avermelhamentos e tipos espectrais através de comparações com biblioteca de estrelas e de aglomerados. Em alguns casos nossos espectros estavam dominados por estrelas individuais às quais determinamos seus tipos espectrais. Aos oito objetos adicionamos mais cinco da literatura recente analisados via espectro ou diagrama cor-magnitude. O histograma resultante contém idades típicas entre 0.5 e 3 Ganos. Considerando que predominantemente estes objetos encontram-se na vizinhança solar e, portanto, não cruzaram muitas vezes o plano Galático esperamos que a diferença no tempo necessário para dissolução destes prováveis remanescentes seja em função de diferentes massas iniciais.

  7. Spatially explicit estimates of stock size, structure and biomass of North Atlantic albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehodey, P.; Senina, I.; Dragon, A.-C.; Arrizabalaga, H.

    2014-09-01

    The development of the ecosystem approach and models for the management of ocean marine resources requires easy access to standard validated data sets of historical catch data for the main exploited species. They are used to measure the impact of biomass removal by fisheries and to evaluate the models outputs, while the use of a standard data set facilitates models inter-comparison. Unlike standard stock assessment models, new state-of-the-art ecosystem models require geo-referenced fishing data with the highest possible spatial resolution. This study presents an application to the North Atlantic albacore tuna stock with a careful definition and validation of a spatially explicit fishing data set prepared from publicly available sources (ICCAT) for its use in a spatial ecosystem and population dynamics model (SEAPODYM) to provide the first spatially explicit estimate of albacore density in the North Atlantic by life stage. Density distributions together with the fishing data used for the estimates are provided at doi.pangaea.de/">http://doi.pangaea.de/ (see section Source Data References) (doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.828115">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828115; doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.828226">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828226; doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.828227">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828227; doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.828228">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828228; doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.828229">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828229; doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.828230">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828230; doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.828231">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828231; doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.828232">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828232; doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.828232">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828232; doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.828233">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828233; doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA

  8. Fotometria diferencial de estrelas T Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P. C. R.; Santos-Júnior, J. M.; Cruz, W. S.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados preliminares de um monitoramento de estrelas jovens, que pretende ser de longa duração. As estrelas estão em sua maioria localizadas no complexo Lupus-Scorpius. Nosso objetivo principal é o estudo da variabilidade em escalas de tempo de minutos até vários dias para estrelas cujos períodos não estão determinados ou apresentam discrepâncias entre diferentes publicações. A técnica utilizada foi a fotometria diferencial, com exposições de 60s e 90s, com as câmaras CCD SBIG ST7E e ST8E acopladas aos telescópios Schmidt-Cassegrain LX200 (10 e 12 polegadas), instalados na Fundação Planetário da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Os primeiros resultados indicam que a técnica é bastante sólida com relação à instabilidade na transparência do céu, mesmo com o uso de telescópios de pequeno porte. Objetos de magnitude 14, no telescópio de 10 polegadas, apresentam dispersões na diferença de magnitudes das comparações, em torno de 0,008mag nas exposições de 60s. Note-se, ainda, que a dispersão pode ser melhorada utilizando-se a técnica de soma de imagens. Destacamos AK Sco, GW Lup, GQ Lup e TW Hya. AK Sco é uma binária que, apesar de ter a sua órbita e período cobertos espectroscopicamente (13,6dias), nunca teve seus eclipses estudados por meio de fotometria. GW Lup não tem período determinado na literatura. Temos acompanhado este objeto há alguns anos, e sugestões de períodos entre 5 e 6 dias têm sido encontradas. O objeto que mereceu maior atenção foi TW Hya por apresentar vários trabalhos fotométricos e espectroscópicos com resultados discrepantes quanto ao período rotacional, que varia de 1,8 a 4,4 dias (Rucinsky & Krautter 1983, A&A 121, 217; Herbst & Koret 1988, AJ 96, 1949; Mekkaden 1988, A&A 340, 135; Batalha et al. 2002, ApJ 580, 343). Dedicamos 13 noites para essa estrela, totalizando cerca de 2.000 pontos na curva de luz. Nossos dados indicam a presença de uma modulação com dois

  9. Comparing Teaching Styles and Personality Types of EFL Instructors in the Public and Private Sectors (Una comparación de los estilos de enseñanza y los tipos de personalidad de profesores de inglés de los sistemas educativos estatal y privado)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz Larenas, Claudio H.; Rodriguez Moran, Andrea Victoria; Poblete Rivera, Karen Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    This is an exploratory non-experimental research study whose main objective is to compare the teaching styles of a group of thirty teachers of English working in either public or private secondary education in Chile. In order to collect the required data, two instruments were administered to the participants: a teaching style inventory and a…

  10. Prevalence of Late Preterm and Early Term Birth in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Barros, Joana G; Clode, Nuno; Graça, Luís M

    2016-04-01

    Introdução: Nos últimos anos, vários autores evidenciaram a morbilidade associada aos partos ocorridos entre as 34 e 36 semanas (pré-termo tardio) e entre as 37 e 38 semanas de gestação (termo precoce). Neste sentido, pretendemos realizar um estudo epide-miológico dos partos que ocorrem nestas idades gestacionais, em Portugal. Material e Métodos: Realizámos um inquérito, que foi aplicado a todos os hospitais públicos de Portugal, acerca da prevalência e via de parto nos partos pré-termo tardios e de termo precoce, e morbilidade e mortalidade neonatal associada. As questões referiam-se apenas a gestações de feto único e a partos ocorridos em 2013. Resultados: Incluímos 14 hospitais, correspondendo a 33,5% dos partos ocorridos em Portugal, em 2013. Verificámos que 5,4% dos partos ocorreram no período pré-termo tardio e 27% no termo precoce. Aproximadamente dois terços dos partos pré-termo tardio e três quartos dos partos de termo precoce foram espontâneos. A taxa de cesariana foi mais elevada entre as 34 e 36 semanas de gestação (39,1%) do que entre as 37 e 38 semanas (26,4%). As complicações neonatais foram mais frequentes após um parto pré-termo tardio (34,2%), quando comparadas com os de termo precoce (14,2%). Discussão: Na nossa amostra, a prevalência de parto pré-termo tardio e de termo precoce, ainda que ligeiramente inferior, é comparável à publicada em estudos anteriores. Conclusão: Á importante que a comunidade obstétrica nacional adote atitudes no sentido de limitar os partos antes das 39 semanas de gestação. Assim, nestas idades gestacionais os partos devem possuir uma indicação médica válida.

  11. [A study of sexual function in migraine and cluster headache].

    PubMed

    Bellosta-Diago, E; Velazquez-Benito, A; Viloria-Alebesque, A; Iniguez-Martinez, C; Santos-Lasaosa, S

    2016-06-01

    Introduccion. La disfuncion erectil y sexual son sintomas comunes a muchas enfermedades cronicas cuyo diagnostico va a condicionar el manejo terapeutico de los pacientes. Objetivo. Valorar la funcion sexual en varones con migrana o cefalea en racimos (CR) comparandola con un grupo control. Sujetos y metodos. Estudio descriptivo transversal de 34 pacientes con migrana, 31 pacientes con CR y 60 sujetos control de edad inferior a 46 anos. La disfuncion erectil se valoro con el indice internacional de disfuncion erectil (IIEF), y el estado emocional, mediante el inventario de depresion de Beck. Resultados. La puntuacion media en el IIEF fue de 68,41 ± 10,09, 64,26 ± 5,73 y 59,33 ± 15,89 en los grupos control, con migrana y con CR, respectivamente (p = 0,041), y la diferencia es significativa entre controles y con CR (p = 0,036). En el grupo de pacientes migranosos, tres pacientes tenian disfuncion erectil leve, y uno, moderada. En el grupo de pacientes con CR, 12 puntuaron en rango de disfuncion erectil leve y dos cumplieron criterios de disfuncion erectil grave (p < 0,05). Al analizar las diferencias en los diferentes dominios del IIEF, estas fueron significativas en el dominio de satisfaccion global (p = 0,015) entre el grupo control y los pacientes con CR (p = 0,012). Conclusiones. Hemos encontrado una mayor frecuencia de disfuncion erectil y afectacion de la funcion sexual en terminos de satisfaccion global en los pacientes con migrana y con CR. Creemos que la valoracion de la funcion sexual en este tipo de cefaleas debe integrarse en nuestra practica clinica habitual.

  12. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    San Mauro Martin, Ismael; Mendive Dubourdieu, Paula; Paredes Barato, Víctor; Garicano Vilar, Elena

    2016-07-19

    Introducción: la tradición de la comida picante desempeña un papel muy importante en el gusto por este tipo de comida y su tolerancia. Las preferencias alimentarias muestran influencia genética y ambiental.Objetivos: estudiar la tolerancia y el gusto por el picante de tres poblaciones, y la influencia hereditaria y del ambiente.Métodos:se realizó una encuesta a 522 sujetos, de tres continentes (Asia, Europa y Latinoamérica) en tres idiomas (español, inglés y chino) a través de Internet. Se realizaron preguntas acerca de la tolerancia al picante, el gusto por los alimentos picantes, su uso, la edad de comienzo de consumo, el gusto del padre y de la madre y si ella lo consumía durante el embarazo y/o lactancia.Resultados: existe diferencia entre el gusto por el picante del hijo y el sexo (p < 0,001), la tolerancia (p < 0,001) y, solo en el sexo femenino, el gusto de la madre por el picante (p < 0,001), su consumo durante el embarazo (p < 0,001) y la lactancia (p = 0,005) y el gusto del padre por el picante (p = 0,003). Existe correlación entre el continente de residencia (p = 0,007) y de nacimiento (p = 0,012) y la tolerancia a los alimentos picantes.Conclusión: la influencia de los progenitores, el género y la composición corporal se relacionaron con gustos y tolerancias diferentes.

  13. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    San Mauro Martin, Ismael; Mendive Dubourdieu, Paula; Paredes Barato, Víctor; Garicano Vilar, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la tradición de la comida picante desempeña un papel muy importante en el gusto por este tipo de comida y su tolerancia. Las preferencias alimentarias muestran influencia genética y ambiental.Objetivos: estudiar la tolerancia y el gusto por el picante de tres poblaciones, y la influencia hereditaria y del ambiente.Métodos:se realizó una encuesta a 522 sujetos, de tres continentes (Asia, Europa y Latinoamérica) en tres idiomas (español, inglés y chino) a través de Internet. Se realizaron preguntas acerca de la tolerancia al picante, el gusto por los alimentos picantes, su uso, la edad de comienzo de consumo, el gusto del padre y de la madre y si ella lo consumía durante el embarazo y/o lactancia.Resultados: existe diferencia entre el gusto por el picante del hijo y el sexo (p < 0,001), la tolerancia (p < 0,001) y, solo en el sexo femenino, el gusto de la madre por el picante (p < 0,001), su consumo durante el embarazo (p < 0,001) y la lactancia (p = 0,005) y el gusto del padre por el picante (p = 0,003). Existe correlación entre el continente de residencia (p = 0,007) y de nacimiento (p = 0,012) y la tolerancia a los alimentos picantes.Conclusión: la influencia de los progenitores, el género y la composición corporal se relacionaron con gustos y tolerancias diferentes. PMID:27571668

  14. [PREVALENCE OF METABOLIC SYNDROME AMONG THE STAFF OF UNIVERSIDAD INTERNACIONAL DEL ECUADOR, HEADQUARTERS, PERIOD 2014-2015].

    PubMed

    Viteri Holguín, María Paula; Castro Burbano, José

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: el síndrome metabólico es un conjunto de alteraciones metabólicas que incrementan el riesgo de desarrollar diabetes tipo 2 y enfermedades cardiovasculares. Existen varios criterios para su diagnóstico, entre ellos los más utilizados son el de la Federación Internacional de Diabetes (IDF) y el del Panel de Tratamiento de Adultos III (ATP III). Un tratamiento oportuno puede evitar las complicaciones asociadas y mejorar la calidad y esperanza de vida del paciente, que debe ser enfocado a realizar modificaciones en el estilo de vida, como una alimentación saludable y actividad física regular. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de síndrome metabólico según los criterios de diagnóstico de la Federación Internacional de Diabetes (IDF) y del Panel de Tratamiento de Adultos III (ATP III). Metodología: es un estudio de corte transversal en el cual participaron 128 personas (55 mujeres y 73 hombres) de entre 18 y 75 años de edad, a quienes se les realizó una historia nutricional, medidas antropométricas y exámenes bioquímicos. Resultados: la prevalencia de exceso de peso fue del 63% (sobrepeso 48% y obesidad 15%). La prevalencia de síndrome metabólico según IDF fue 15,6% y según ATPIII 14,8%. Conclusiones: en el personal evaluado, es evidente la alta prevalencia de exceso de peso y síndrome metabólico, por lo que es prioritario trabajar en la implementación de medidas preventivas para detener su progresión y el desarrollo de complicaciones cardiometabólicas.

  15. Determinação da composição química em nebulosas planetárias na direção do anticentro galáctico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, R. D. D.; Uchida, M. M. M.; Maciel, W. J.

    2003-08-01

    Existe um gradiente radial de abundâncias no disco galáctico, cujo comportamento é razoavelmente bem conhecido para distâncias galactocêntricas entre 3 e 10 kpc. Foi obtido a partir de resultados derivados de nebulosas planetárias, regiões HII e estrelas, como as estrelas quentes de tipo O, B e aglomerados abertos. Com o objetivo de investigar o comportamento deste gradiente radial na região externa do disco, conhecida como anticentro galáctico, reportamos aqui os resultados finais da análise de uma amostra de nebulosas planetárias na direção do anticentro, observadas no LNA e no ESO entre 1995 e 2000. O uso de nebulosas planetárias permite o cálculo das abundâncias de elementos traçadores da evolução química do disco como oxigênio, argônio e neônio com o uso de técnicas de espectroscopia nebular. Os resultados indicam uma distribuição de abundâncias distinta daquela encontrada na vizinhança solar, mostrando que o gradiente radial diminui sensivelmente para distâncias galactocêntricas maiores que 10 kpc. Este resultado está de acordo com os mais recentes modelos de evolução química do disco, que prevêem uma diminuição ou mesmo um desaparecimento do gradiente radial no bordo externo do disco galáctico. (FAPESP/CNPq)

  16. [The prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in paediatric patients with epilepsy treated in monotherapy with valproic acid].

    PubMed

    Carmona-Vazquez, C R; Ruiz-Garcia, M; Pena-Landin, D M; Diaz-Garcia, L; Greenawalt, S R

    2015-09-01

    Introduccion. El acido valproico (VPA) es un antiepileptico util para controlar diferentes tipos de epilepsia. Tiene efectos colaterales y se asocia a incremento del peso corporal y a alteraciones metabolicas y endocrinas, entre ellas sindrome metabolico. Objetivo. Conocer la prevalencia de la obesidad y el sindrome metabolico en pacientes pediatricos con epilepsia tratados en monoterapia con VPA. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio transversal, observacional, analitico. Se estudiaron pacientes tratados con VPA entre 2010-2014, y se midio el indice de masa corporal (IMC), el perimetro abdominal, la presion arterial, la glucosa, los trigliceridos y las lipoproteinas de alta densidad (HDL), en busqueda de obesidad y sindrome metabolico. La obesidad se definio con un IMC mayor del percentil 95; el sindrome metabolico, con al menos tres de los siguientes criterios: perimetro abdominal mayor del percentil 90, presion arterial sistemica mayor del percentil 90, trigliceridos mayores de 110 mg/dL y HDL menor de 40 mg/dL. Resultados. Se estudiaron 47 pacientes con una edad media de 10,1 ± 4 años; el 51,06% eran varones. Ocho (17%) desarrollaron obesidad y, de ellos, dos (25%), sindrome metabolico. Tres pacientes desarrollaron sobrepeso (6%). Observamos diferencias estadisticamente significativas de media de edad comparados con los grupos de IMC, donde los pacientes obesos eran adolescentes (ANOVA; p = 0,0001), y aquellos que tomaban mas VPA al dia eran los obesos (ANOVA; p = 0,024). Conclusiones. Los pacientes tratados con VPA que se convierten en obesos pueden desarrollar sindrome metabolico. Requieren una monitorizacion cuidadosa y, ante la presencia de ganancia de peso, se debera valorar la retirada del farmaco.

  17. [End stage renal disease lymphopenia; characterization and clinical correlation].

    PubMed

    Lepe-Zúñiga, José Luis; Morales-Molina, Pedro; García-Nandayapa, Gabriela Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: los pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica en etapa terminal (ERET), presentan alteraciones inmunológicas diversas que los hacen más susceptibles a infecciones. Entre las alteraciones reportadas se encuentra la linfopenia. Se han realizado pocos estudios en nuestro medio que muestren la frecuencia y características de esta alteración así como su trascendencia clínica, relacionada con las infecciones que afectan a estos pacientes. Métodos: se analizó una serie de variables, incluyendo los valores de linfocitos y la presencia de infecciones, en un grupo de 190 pacientes con ERET de febrero 2008 a noviembre 2012. Se correlacionan y comparan los valores obtenidos entre ellos en dos momentos de su evolución: antes y durante su tratamiento dialítico. Resultados: en los pacientes con ERET, se obtuvo un perfil hematológico característico, caracterizado por anemia crónica severa, leucocitos totales normales o por arriba de lo normal y linfocitos normales o por debajo de lo normal (linfopenia). El grado de alteración hematológica correlacionó con el grado de afección renal y se corrigió en la medida que se corrigieron las alteraciones bioquímicas relacionadas con la ERET mediante diálisis peritoneal. Conclusiones: la linfopenia se encontró en cerca de la mitad de los pacientes con ERET y se asoció con el incremento de infecciones; el tipo de infecciones fue similar a lo observado en pacientes sin linfopenia y diferente al observado en pacientes con inmunodeficiencias primarias o adquiridas que afectan a los linfocitos.

  18. [ENERGY AND MACRONUTRIENT INTAKE IN FEMALE ATHLETES].

    PubMed

    Bernad Asencio, Laura; Reig García-Galbis, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Objetivo: determinar la ingesta de macronutrientes adecuada para mejorar el estado nutricional de las mujeres atletas y su rendimiento deportivo. Métodos: se realizó una búsqueda en cuatro bases de datos: EBSCO, Proquest, Pubmed y OvidSP, empleando las palabras clave “protein intake” AND “athletes” y “endurance athletes” AND “nutrition”. Criterios de selección: artículos originales sobre el consumo de proteínas en atletas femeninas (Entre 2009 y 2014), en revistas científicas indexadas. Resultados: se identificaron 722 artículos, de los cuales solo el 1,4% fueron considerados como incluidos. El 100% eran ensayos clínicos finalizados y publicados en el extranjero, el 50% en EE. UU. El 20% eran estudios exclusivos de mujeres atletas y el 80% incluían hombres y mujeres en la muestra. En el 70% de los estudios las mujeres atletas presentaron déficits energéticos; en la ingesta proteica, el 70% cumplieron con las recomendaciones dietéticas; la ingesta de hidratos de carbono fue inadecuada en el 90% de los ensayos clínicos y, en el 50%, las mujeres presentaban una sobreingesta de grasas. Conclusiones: existe una deficiencia de información acerca de la nutrición en mujeres atletas en Europa y a nivel internacional. Las atletas femeninas consumen energía y macronutrientes en menor proporción que los atletas masculinos. No existe consenso en el rango de proteínas recomendado y se encuentran discrepancias en el consumo en función del tipo de ejercicio físico que se realice. Se recomienda llevar a cabo un acuerdo entre instituciones científicas de prestigio sobre la ingesta energética y de macronutrientes en el deporte, especialmente en la mujer.

  19. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF HEALTHY EATING INDEXES IN ADULTS AND ELDERLY: APPLICABILITY AND VALIDITY.

    PubMed

    Pinto de Souza Fernandes, Dalila; Queiroz Ribeiro, Andréia; Lopes Duarte, Maria Sônia; Castro Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: los índices de alimentación saludable evalúan la combinación de diferentes tipos de alimentos, nutrientes y componentes de la dieta. Estos indicadores han sido adaptados en algunos países considerando las directrices dietéticas locales. Objetivo: esta revisión sistemática identifica todos los índices de alimentación saludable publicados hasta el momento; así mismo, discute la validez, aplicabilidad y limitaciones de los mismos. Métodos: para ello se realizó una búsqueda electrónica en PubMed, Science Direct, BVS y SciELO utilizando los siguientes términos: Healthy Eating Index, Index of Diet Quality, Quality of diet y Diet surveys con diferentes combinaciones e idiomas. Resultados: un total de 11 estudios fueron seleccionados y analizados críticamente: entre ellos, un estudio que desarrolla el primer índice, seis estudios en los que se proponen ajustes en la metodología utilizada, dos estudios que evaluan la validez y la fiabilidade, así como dos de revisión y actualización. Los datos muestran que los índices de alimentación saludable son buenas herramientas para valorar la calidad de la dieta, pero la falta de estandarización en la metodología hace difícil la comparación entre los resultados de las diferentes poblaciones.

  20. Maternal fat mass may predict overweight/obesity in non-instituzionalized women with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Fornieles, Gabriel; Camacho-Molina, Alejandra; Rosety, Miguel A; Díaz, Antonio J; Rosety, Ignacio; Rosety-Rodríguez, Manuel; Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Rosety, Manuel; Ordonez, Francisco J

    2013-11-01

    Fundamento y objetivo: Recientes estudios han encontrado en la población general una correlación entre la incidencia de sobrepeso/obesidad de padres e hijos, especialmente a edades tempranas. Sin embargo, este asunto no ha recibido atención en el caso de hijos adultos con discapacidad intelectual no institucionalizados. El presente estudio pretende determinar una posible correlación entre el sobrepeso/obesidad de padres respecto a sus hijas adultas con discapacidad intelectual que viven en el domicilio. Material y método: Se diseñó un estudio de tipo transversal observacional en el que participaron 34 mujeres adultas con síndrome de Down (22.6±2.1años; 29.6±3.3km/m2). Asimismo 34 madres (59.6±4.9años; 28.5±3.2km/m2) y 34 padres (61.5±5.3años; 26.2±2.7 km/m2) biológicos participaron voluntariamente. Todos los participante se sometieron a un estudio cinenatropométrico en el que se obtuvo el índice de masa corporal (IMC). Este protocolo fue aprobado por un Comité de Ética Institucional. Resultados: El 76.5% de las mujeres con discapacidad intelectual estudiadas presentaba sobrepeso/obesidad. En cuanto a los progenitores, el 66.6% de las madres y el 53.3 de los padres también presentó sobrepeso/obesidad. El IMC de las participantes se correlacionó significativamente con el de sus madres (r=0.412;p.