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Sample records for envelope protein vp51a

  1. [NESPRINS--nuclear envelope proteins ensuring integrity].

    PubMed

    Pershina, E G; Morozova, K N; Kiseleva, E V

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the nesprins (nuclear envelope spectrin-repeat proteins), which are recently discovered family of nuclear envelope proteins. These proteins play an important role in maintaining the cellular architecture and establish the link between the nucleus and other sub-cellular compartments. Many tissue-specific diseases including lipodystrophies, hearing loss, cardiac and skeletal myopathies are associated with nesprins mutations. These proteins comprise of multiple tissue specific isoforms which contain spectrin repeats providing interaction of nesprins with other nuclear membrane proteins, cytoskeleton and intranuclear matrix. We summarize recent findings and suggestions about nesprins structural organization and function inside the cell. Human diseases caused by abnormal nesprins expression are also described.

  2. Exploring the Protein Composition of the Plant Nuclear Envelope.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao; Tamura, Kentaro; Graumann, Katja; Meier, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Due to rather limited sequence similarity, targeted identification of plant nuclear envelope and nuclear pore complex proteins has mainly followed two routes: (1) advanced computational identification followed by experimental verification and (2) immunoaffinity purification of complexes followed by mass spectrometry. Following candidate identification, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) provide powerful tools to verify protein-protein interactions in situ at the NE. Here, we describe these methods for the example of Arabidopsis thaliana nuclear pore and nuclear envelope protein identification.

  3. Proteomic analysis of Singapore grouper iridovirus envelope proteins and characterization of a novel envelope protein VP088.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sheng; Wan, Qingjiao; Huang, Youhua; Huang, Xiaohong; Cao, Jianhao; Ye, Lili; Lim, Teck-Kwang; Lin, Qingsong; Qin, Qiwei

    2011-06-01

    Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) is an enveloped virus causing heavy economic losses to marine fish culture. The envelope fractions of SGIV were separated from the purified virions by Triton X-100 treatment, and subjected to 1-DE-MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS and LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS analysis. A total of 19 virus-encoded envelope proteins were identified in this study and 73.7% (13/17) of them were predicted to be membrane proteins. Three viral envelope proteins were uniquely identified by 1-DE-MALDI, whereas another ten proteins were identified only by LC-MALDI, with six proteins identified by both workflows. VP088 was chosen as a representative of proteomic identification and characterized further. VP088 was predicted to be a viral transmembrane envelope protein which contains two RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) motifs, three transmembrane domains, and five N-glycosylation sites. VP088 gene transcript was first detected at 12 h p.i. and reached the peak at 48 h p.i. Combined with the drug inhibition assay, VP088 gene was identified as a late (L) gene. Recombinant VP088 (rVP088) was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the specific antiserum against rVP088 was raised. VP088 was proved to be a viral envelope protein by Western blot and immunoelectron microscopy (IEM). Furthermore, rVP088 can bind to a 94 kDa host cell membrane protein, suggesting that VP088 might function as an attaching protein. Neutralization assay also suggested that VP088 is involved in SGIV infection. This study will lead to a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of the iridoviral pathogenesis and virus-host interactions.

  4. Different evolutionary patterns of classical swine fever virus envelope proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Yang, Zexiao; Zhang, Mingwang

    2016-03-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever, which is a highly contagious disease of the domestic pig as well as wild boar. The proteins E(rns), E1, and E2 are components of the viral envelope membrane. They are also implicated in virus attachment and entry, replication, and (or) anti-immune response. Here, we studied the genetic variations of these envelope proteins in the evolution of CSFV. The results reveal that the envelope proteins underwent different evolutionary fates. In E(rns) and E1, but not E2, a number of amino acid sites experienced functional divergence. Furthermore, the diversification in E(rns) and E1 was generally episodic because the divergence-related changes of E1 only occurred with the separation of 2 major groups of CSFV and that of E(rns) took place with the division of 1 major group. The major divergence-related sites of E(rns) are located on one of the substrate-binding regions of the RNase domain and C-terminal extension. These functional domains have been reported to block activation of the innate immune system and attachment and entry into host cells, respectively. Our results may shed some light on the divergent roles of the envelope proteins. PMID:26911308

  5. Inactivation of enveloped virus by laser-driven protein aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsen, Shaw-Wei D.; Chapa, Travis; Beatty, Wandy; Tsen, Kong-Thon; Yu, Dong; Achilefu, Samuel

    2012-12-01

    Ultrafast lasers in the visible and near-infrared range have emerged as a potential new method for pathogen reduction of blood products and pharmaceuticals. However, the mechanism of enveloped virus inactivation by this method is unknown. We report the inactivation as well as the molecular and structural effects caused by visible (425 nm) femtosecond laser irradiation on murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV), an enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus. Our results show that laser irradiation (1) caused a 5-log reduction in MCMV titer, (2) did not cause significant changes to the global structure of MCMV virions including membrane and capsid, as assessed by electron microscopy, (3) produced no evidence of double-strand breaks or crosslinking in MCMV genomic DNA, and (4) caused selective aggregation of viral capsid and tegument proteins. We propose a model in which ultrafast laser irradiation induces partial unfolding of viral proteins by disrupting hydrogen bonds and/or hydrophobic interactions, leading to aggregation of closely associated viral proteins and inactivation of the virus. These results provide new insight into the inactivation of enveloped viruses by visible femtosecond lasers at the molecular level, and help pave the way for the development of a new ultrafast laser technology for pathogen reduction.

  6. Inactivation of enveloped virus by laser-driven protein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Tsen, Shaw-Wei D; Chapa, Travis; Beatty, Wandy; Tsen, Kong-Thon; Yu, Dong; Achilefu, Samuel

    2012-12-01

    Ultrafast lasers in the visible and near-infrared range have emerged as a potential new method for pathogen reduction of blood products and pharmaceuticals. However, the mechanism of enveloped virus inactivation by this method is unknown. We report the inactivation as well as the molecular and structural effects caused by visible (425 nm) femtosecond laser irradiation on murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV), an enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus. Our results show that laser irradiation (1) caused a 5-log reduction in MCMV titer, (2) did not cause significant changes to the global structure of MCMV virions including membrane and capsid, as assessed by electron microscopy, (3) produced no evidence of double-strand breaks or crosslinking in MCMV genomic DNA, and (4) caused selective aggregation of viral capsid and tegument proteins. We propose a model in which ultrafast laser irradiation induces partial unfolding of viral proteins by disrupting hydrogen bonds and/or hydrophobic interactions, leading to aggregation of closely associated viral proteins and inactivation of the virus. These results provide new insight into the inactivation of enveloped viruses by visible femtosecond lasers at the molecular level, and help pave the way for the development of a new ultrafast laser technology for pathogen reduction. PMID:23224114

  7. MCLIP Detection of Novel Protein-Protein Interactions at the Nuclear Envelope.

    PubMed

    Jafferali, Mohammed Hakim; Figueroa, Ricardo A; Hallberg, Einar

    2016-01-01

    The organization and function of the nuclear envelope (NE) involves hundreds of nuclear membrane proteins and myriad protein-protein interactions, most of which are still uncharacterized. Many NE proteins interact stably or dynamically with the nuclear lamina or chromosomes. This can make them difficult to extract under nondenaturing conditions, and greatly limits our ability to explore and identify functional protein interactions at the NE. This knowledge is needed to understand nuclear envelope structure and the mechanisms of human laminopathy diseases. This chapter provides detailed protocols for MCLIP (membrane cross-linking immunoprecipitation) identification of novel protein-protein interactions in mammalian cells.

  8. Actin Interacts with Dengue Virus 2 and 4 Envelope Proteins.

    PubMed

    Jitoboam, Kunlakanya; Phaonakrop, Narumon; Libsittikul, Sirikwan; Thepparit, Chutima; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Smith, Duncan R

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) remains a significant public health problem in many tropical and sub-tropical countries worldwide. The DENV envelope (E) protein is the major antigenic determinant and the protein that mediates receptor binding and endosomal fusion. In contrast to some other DENV proteins, relatively few cellular interacting proteins have been identified. To address this issue a co-immuoprecipitation strategy was employed. The predominant co-immunoprecipitating proteins identified were actin and actin related proteins, however the results suggested that actin was the only bona fide interacting partner. Actin was shown to interact with the E protein of DENV 2 and 4, and the interaction between actin and DENV E protein was shown to occur in a truncated DENV consisting of only domains I and II. Actin was shown to decrease during infection, but this was not associated with a decrease in gene transcription. Actin-related proteins also showed a decrease in expression during infection that was not transcriptionally regulated. Cytoskeletal reorganization was not observed during infection, suggesting that the interaction between actin and E protein has a cell type specific component. PMID:27010925

  9. Actin Interacts with Dengue Virus 2 and 4 Envelope Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jitoboam, Kunlakanya; Phaonakrop, Narumon; Libsittikul, Sirikwan; Thepparit, Chutima; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Smith, Duncan R.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) remains a significant public health problem in many tropical and sub-tropical countries worldwide. The DENV envelope (E) protein is the major antigenic determinant and the protein that mediates receptor binding and endosomal fusion. In contrast to some other DENV proteins, relatively few cellular interacting proteins have been identified. To address this issue a co-immuoprecipitation strategy was employed. The predominant co-immunoprecipitating proteins identified were actin and actin related proteins, however the results suggested that actin was the only bona fide interacting partner. Actin was shown to interact with the E protein of DENV 2 and 4, and the interaction between actin and DENV E protein was shown to occur in a truncated DENV consisting of only domains I and II. Actin was shown to decrease during infection, but this was not associated with a decrease in gene transcription. Actin-related proteins also showed a decrease in expression during infection that was not transcriptionally regulated. Cytoskeletal reorganization was not observed during infection, suggesting that the interaction between actin and E protein has a cell type specific component. PMID:27010925

  10. Protein folding in the cell envelope of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    De Geyter, Jozefien; Tsirigotaki, Alexandra; Orfanoudaki, Georgia; Zorzini, Valentina; Economou, Anastassios; Karamanou, Spyridoula

    2016-01-01

    While the entire proteome is synthesized on cytoplasmic ribosomes, almost half associates with, localizes in or crosses the bacterial cell envelope. In Escherichia coli a variety of mechanisms are important for taking these polypeptides into or across the plasma membrane, maintaining them in soluble form, trafficking them to their correct cell envelope locations and then folding them into the right structures. The fidelity of these processes must be maintained under various environmental conditions including during stress; if this fails, proteases are called in to degrade mislocalized or aggregated proteins. Various soluble, diffusible chaperones (acting as holdases, foldases or pilotins) and folding catalysts are also utilized to restore proteostasis. These responses can be general, dealing with multiple polypeptides, with functional overlaps and operating within redundant networks. Other chaperones are specialized factors, dealing only with a few exported proteins. Several complex machineries have evolved to deal with binding to, integration in and crossing of the outer membrane. This complex protein network is responsible for fundamental cellular processes such as cell wall biogenesis; cell division; the export, uptake and degradation of molecules; and resistance against exogenous toxic factors. The underlying processes, contributing to our fundamental understanding of proteostasis, are a treasure trove for the development of novel antibiotics, biopharmaceuticals and vaccines. PMID:27573113

  11. Immunogenicity of Escherichia coli expressed envelope 2 protein of Chikungunya virus.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Nagesh K; Priya, Raj; Shrivastava, Ambuj

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya fever, a re-emerging infection, is an arthropod-borne viral disease prevalent in different parts of the world, particularly Africa and South East Asia. Chikungunya virus envelope 2 protein is involved in binding to host receptors and it contains specific epitopes that elicit virus neutralizing antibodies. A highly immunogenic, recombinant Chikungunya virus envelope 2 protein was produced by bioreactor in Escherichia coli for development of a suitable diagnostic and vaccine candidate. This protein was refolded and further purified to achieve biologically active protein. The biological function of refolded and purified recombinant envelope 2 protein of Chikungunya virus was confirmed by its ability to generate envelope 2 specific antibodies with high titers in animal models. These findings suggest that recombinant envelope 2 protein of Chikungunya virus in combination with compatible adjuvant is highly immunogenic. Thus, recombinant envelope 2 protein can be a potential diagnostic reagent and vaccine candidate against Chikungunya virus infection.

  12. Coronavirus envelope (E) protein remains at the site of assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatagopalan, Pavithra; Daskalova, Sasha M.; Lopez, Lisa A.; Dolezal, Kelly A.; Hogue, Brenda G.

    2015-04-15

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) assemble at endoplasmic reticulum Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) membranes and egress from cells in cargo vesicles. Only a few molecules of the envelope (E) protein are assembled into virions. The role of E in morphogenesis is not fully understood. The cellular localization and dynamics of mouse hepatitis CoV A59 (MHV) E protein were investigated to further understanding of its role during infection. E protein localized in the ERGIC and Golgi with the amino and carboxy termini in the lumen and cytoplasm, respectively. E protein does not traffic to the cell surface. MHV was genetically engineered with a tetracysteine tag at the carboxy end of E. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) showed that E is mobile in ERGIC/Golgi membranes. Correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM) confirmed the presence of E in Golgi cisternae. The results provide strong support that E proteins carry out their function(s) at the site of budding/assembly. - Highlights: • Mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV-CoV) E protein localizes in the ERGIC and Golgi. • MHV-CoV E does not transport to the cell surface. • MHV-CoV can be genetically engineered with a tetracysteine tag appended to E. • First FRAP and correlative light electron microscopy of a CoV E protein. • Live-cell imaging shows that E is mobile in ERGIC/Golgi membranes.

  13. Crystal Structure of the Japanese Encephalitis Virus Envelope Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Luca, Vincent C.; AbiMansour, Jad; Nelson, Christopher A.; Fremont, Daved H.

    2012-03-13

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the leading global cause of viral encephalitis. The JEV envelope protein (E) facilitates cellular attachment and membrane fusion and is the primary target of neutralizing antibodies. We have determined the 2.1-{angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the JEV E ectodomain refolded from bacterial inclusion bodies. The E protein possesses the three domains characteristic of flavivirus envelopes and epitope mapping of neutralizing antibodies onto the structure reveals determinants that correspond to the domain I lateral ridge, fusion loop, domain III lateral ridge, and domain I-II hinge. While monomeric in solution, JEV E assembles as an antiparallel dimer in the crystal lattice organized in a highly similar fashion as seen in cryo-electron microscopy models of mature flavivirus virions. The dimer interface, however, is remarkably small and lacks many of the domain II contacts observed in other flavivirus E homodimers. In addition, uniquely conserved histidines within the JEV serocomplex suggest that pH-mediated structural transitions may be aided by lateral interactions outside the dimer interface in the icosahedral virion. Our results suggest that variation in dimer structure and stability may significantly influence the assembly, receptor interaction, and uncoating of virions.

  14. Structural changes of envelope proteins during alphavirus fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Long; Jose, Joyce; Xiang, Ye; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-12-08

    Alphaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses that have a diameter of about 700 {angstrom} and can be lethal human pathogens. Entry of virus into host cells by endocytosis is controlled by two envelope glycoproteins, E1 and E2. The E2-E1 heterodimers form 80 trimeric spikes on the icosahedral virus surface, 60 with quasi-three-fold symmetry and 20 coincident with the icosahedral three-fold axes arranged with T = 4 quasi-symmetry. The E1 glycoprotein has a hydrophobic fusion loop at one end and is responsible for membrane fusion. The E2 protein is responsible for receptor binding and protects the fusion loop at neutral pH. The lower pH in the endosome induces the virions to undergo an irreversible conformational change in which E2 and E1 dissociate and E1 forms homotrimers, triggering fusion of the viral membrane with the endosomal membrane and then releasing the viral genome into the cytoplasm. Here we report the structure of an alphavirus spike, crystallized at low pH, representing an intermediate in the fusion process and clarifying the maturation process. The trimer of E2-E1 in the crystal structure is similar to the spikes in the neutral pH virus except that the E2 middle region is disordered, exposing the fusion loop. The amino- and carboxy-terminal domains of E2 each form immunoglobulin-like folds, consistent with the receptor attachment properties of E2.

  15. Several Novel Nuclear Envelope Transmembrane Proteins Identified in Skeletal Muscle Have Cytoskeletal Associations*

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, Gavin S.; Korfali, Nadia; Swanson, Selene K.; Malik, Poonam; Srsen, Vlastimil; Batrakou, Dzmitry G.; de las Heras, Jose; Zuleger, Nikolaj; Kerr, Alastair R. W.; Florens, Laurence; Schirmer, Eric C.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear envelopes from liver and a neuroblastoma cell line have previously been analyzed by proteomics; however, most diseases associated with the nuclear envelope affect muscle. To determine whether muscle has unique nuclear envelope proteins, rat skeletal muscle nuclear envelopes were prepared and analyzed by multidimensional protein identification technology. Many novel muscle-specific proteins were identified that did not appear in previous nuclear envelope data sets. Nuclear envelope residence was confirmed for 11 of these by expression of fusion proteins and by antibody staining of muscle tissue cryosections. Moreover, transcript levels for several of the newly identified nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins increased during muscle differentiation using mouse and human in vitro model systems. Some of these proteins tracked with microtubules at the nuclear surface in interphase cells and accumulated at the base of the microtubule spindle in mitotic cells, suggesting they may associate with complexes that connect the nucleus to the cytoskeleton. The finding of tissue-specific proteins in the skeletal muscle nuclear envelope proteome argues the importance of analyzing nuclear envelopes from all tissues linked to disease and suggests that general investigation of tissue differences in organellar proteomes might yield critical insights. PMID:20876400

  16. Several novel nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins identified in skeletal muscle have cytoskeletal associations.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, Gavin S; Korfali, Nadia; Swanson, Selene K; Malik, Poonam; Srsen, Vlastimil; Batrakou, Dzmitry G; de las Heras, Jose; Zuleger, Nikolaj; Kerr, Alastair R W; Florens, Laurence; Schirmer, Eric C

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear envelopes from liver and a neuroblastoma cell line have previously been analyzed by proteomics; however, most diseases associated with the nuclear envelope affect muscle. To determine whether muscle has unique nuclear envelope proteins, rat skeletal muscle nuclear envelopes were prepared and analyzed by multidimensional protein identification technology. Many novel muscle-specific proteins were identified that did not appear in previous nuclear envelope data sets. Nuclear envelope residence was confirmed for 11 of these by expression of fusion proteins and by antibody staining of muscle tissue cryosections. Moreover, transcript levels for several of the newly identified nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins increased during muscle differentiation using mouse and human in vitro model systems. Some of these proteins tracked with microtubules at the nuclear surface in interphase cells and accumulated at the base of the microtubule spindle in mitotic cells, suggesting they may associate with complexes that connect the nucleus to the cytoskeleton. The finding of tissue-specific proteins in the skeletal muscle nuclear envelope proteome argues the importance of analyzing nuclear envelopes from all tissues linked to disease and suggests that general investigation of tissue differences in organellar proteomes might yield critical insights. PMID:20876400

  17. GTP-binding proteins in rat liver nuclear envelopes.

    PubMed Central

    Rubins, J B; Benditt, J O; Dickey, B F; Riedel, N

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear transport as well as reassembly of the nuclear envelope (NE) after completion of mitosis are processes that have been shown to require GTP and ATP. To study the presence and localization of GTP-binding proteins in the NE, we have combined complementary techniques of [alpha-32P]GTP binding to Western-blotted proteins and UV crosslinking of [alpha-32P]GTP with well-established procedures for NE subfractionation. GTP binding to blotted NE proteins revealed five low molecular mass GTP-binding proteins of 26, 25, 24.5, 24, and 23 kDa, and [alpha-32P]GTP photoaffinity labeling revealed major proteins with apparent molecular masses of 140, 53, 47, 33, and 31 kDa. All GTP-binding proteins appear to localize preferentially to the inner nuclear membrane, possibly to the interface between inner nuclear membrane and lamina. Despite the evolutionary conservation between the NE and the rough endoplasmic reticulum, the GTP-binding proteins identified differed between these two compartments. Most notably, the 68- and 30-kDa GTP-binding subunits of the signal recognition particle receptor, which photolabeled with [alpha-32P]GTP in the rough endoplasmic reticulum fraction, were totally excluded from the NE fraction. Conversely, a major 53-kDa photolabeled protein in the NE was absent from rough endoplasmic reticulum. Whereas Western-blotted NE proteins bound GTP specifically, all [alpha-32P]GTP photolabeled proteins could be blocked by competition with ATP, although with a competition profile that differed from that obtained with GTP. In comparative crosslinking studies with [alpha-32P]ATP, we have identified three specific ATP-binding proteins with molecular masses of 160, 78, and 74 kDa. The localization of GTP- and ATP-binding proteins within the NE appears appropriate for their involvement in nuclear transport and in the GTP-dependent fusion of nuclear membrane vesicles required for reassembly of the nucleus after mitosis. Images PMID:2119502

  18. OOCYTE ENVELOPE PROTEINS AND VITELLOGENIN IN MALE SHEEPHEAD MINNOW EXPOSED TO ESTRADIOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oocyte Envelope Proteins and Vitellogenin Expression in Male Sheepshead Minnows Exposed to Estradiol (Abstract). To be presented at the 22nd Annual Meeting of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry: Changing Environmental Awareness: Societal Concerns and Scientifi...

  19. Identifying Protein-Protein Associations at the Nuclear Envelope with BioID.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae In; Jensen, Samuel C; Roux, Kyle J

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear envelope (NE) is a critical cellular structure whose constituents and roles in a myriad of cellular processes seem ever expanding. To determine the underlying mechanisms by which the NE constituents participate in various cellular events, it is necessary to understand the nature of their protein-protein associations. BioID (proximity-dependent biotin identification) is a recently established method to generate a history of protein-protein associations as they occur over time in living cells. BioID is based on fusion of a bait protein to a promiscuous biotin ligase. Expression of the BioID fusion protein in a relevant cellular environment enables biotinylation of vicinal and interacting proteins of the bait protein, permitting isolation and identification by conventional biotin-affinity capture and mass-spec analysis. In this way, BioID provides unique capabilities to identify protein-protein associations at the NE. In this chapter we provide a detailed protocol for the application of BioID to the study of NE proteins.

  20. Identification and characterization of a novel envelope protein in Rana grylio virus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhe; Ke, Fei; Huang, You-Hua; Zhao, Jiu-Gang; Gui, Jian-Fang; Zhang, Qi-Ya

    2008-08-01

    Viral envelope proteins have been proposed to play significant roles in virus infection and assembly. In this study, an envelope protein gene, 53R, was cloned and characterized from Rana grylio virus (RGV), a member of the family Iridoviridae. Database searches found its homologues in all sequenced iridoviruses, and sequence alignment revealed several conserved structural features shared by virus capsid or envelope proteins: a myristoylation site, two predicted transmembrane domains and two invariant cysteine residues. Subsequently, RT-PCR and Western blot detection revealed that the transcripts encoding RGV 53R and the protein itself appeared late during infection of fathead minnow cells and that their appearance was blocked by viral DNA replication inhibitor, indicating that RGV 53R is a late expression gene. Moreover, immunofluorescence localization found an association of 53R with virus factories in RGV-infected cells, and this association was further confirmed by expressing a 53R-GFP fusion protein in pEGFP-N3/53R-transfected cells. Furthermore, detergent extraction and Western blot detection confirmed that RGV 53R was associated with virion membrane. Therefore, the current data suggest that RGV 53R is a novel viral envelope protein and that it may play an important role in virus assembly. This is thought to be the first report on a viral envelope protein that is conserved in all sequenced iridoviruses.

  1. Bacterially expressed and refolded envelope protein (domain III) of dengue virus type-4 binds heparan sulfate.

    PubMed

    Pattnaik, Priyabrata; Babu, J Pradeep; Verma, Shailendra Kumar; Tak, Vijay; Rao, P V Lakshmana

    2007-02-01

    An arboviral infection like dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) with high morbidity and mortality rate are extensively prevalent in several parts of the world. Global efforts have been directed towards development of vaccine for prevention of dengue. However, lack of thorough understanding about biology and pathogenesis of dengue virus restricts us from development of an effective vaccine. Here we report molecular interaction of domain III of envelope protein of dengue virus type-4 with heparan sulfate. A codon optimized synthetic gene encoding domain III of dengue virus type-4 envelope protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified under denaturing conditions, refolded and purified to homogeneity. Refolded Den4-DIII was characterized using biochemical and biophysical methods and shown to be pure and homogeneous. The purified protein was recognized in Western analyses by monoclonal antibody specific for the 6x His tag as well as the H241 monoclonal antibody. The in vitro refolded recombinant protein preparation was biologically functional and found to bind cell free heparan sulfate. This is the first report providing molecular evidence on binding of dengue-4 envelope protein to heparan sulfate. We developed a homology model of dengue-4 envelope protein (domain III) and mapped the possible amino acid residues critical for binding to heparan sulfate. Domain III envelope protein of dengue virus is a lead vaccine candidate. Our findings further the understanding on biology of dengue virus and will help in development of bioassay for the proposed vaccine candidate.

  2. Protein- and energy-mediated targeting of chloroplast outer envelope membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Nancy R; Theg, Steven M

    2005-12-01

    While the import of nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins is relatively well studied, the targeting of proteins to the outer membrane of the chloroplast envelope is not. The insertion of most outer membrane proteins (OMP) is generally considered to occur without the utilization of energy or proteinaceous components. Recently, however, proteins have been shown to be involved in the integration of outer envelope protein 14 (OEP14), whose outer membrane insertion was previously thought to be spontaneous. Here we investigate the insertion of two proteins from Physcomitrella patens, PpOEP64-1 and PpOEP64-2 (formerly known as PpToc64-1 and PpToc64-2), into the outer membrane of chloroplasts. The association of PpOEP64-1 with chloroplasts was not affected by chloroplast pre-treatments. Its insertion into the membrane was affected, however, demonstrating the importance of measuring insertion specifically in these types of assays. We found that the insertion of PpOEP64-1, PpOEP64-2 and two other OMPs, OEP14 and digalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase 1 (DGD1), was reduced by either nucleotide depletion or proteolysis of the chloroplasts. Integration was also inhibited in the presence of an excess of an imported precursor protein. In addition, OEP14 competed with the insertion of the OEP64s and DGD1. These data demonstrate that the targeting of several OMPs involves proteins present in chloroplasts and requires nucleotides. Together with previous reports, our data suggest that OMPs in general do not insert spontaneously.

  3. Sequence analysis and protein import studies of an outer chloroplast envelope polypeptide.

    PubMed Central

    Salomon, M; Fischer, K; Flügge, U I; Soll, J

    1990-01-01

    A chloroplast outer envelope membrane protein was cloned and sequenced and from the sequence it was possible to deduce a polypeptide of 6.7 kDa. It has only one membrane-spanning region; the C terminus extends into the cytosol, whereas the N terminus is exposed to the space between the two envelope membranes. The protein was synthesized in an in vitro transcription-translation system to study its routing into isolated chloroplasts. The import studies revealed that the 6.7-kDa protein followed a different and heretofore undescribed translocation pathway in the respect that (i) it does not have a cleavable transit sequence, (ii) it does not require ATP hydrolysis for import, and (iii) protease-sensitive components that are responsible for recognition of precursor proteins destined for the inside of the chloroplasts are not involved in routing the 6.7-kDa polypeptide to the outer chloroplast envelope. Images PMID:2377616

  4. Nuclear envelope-associated endosomes deliver surface proteins to the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Chaumet, Alexandre; Wright, Graham D; Seet, Sze Hwee; Tham, Keit Min; Gounko, Natalia V; Bard, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis directs molecular cargo along three main routes: recycling to the cell surface, transport to the Golgi apparatus or degradation in endolysosomes. Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE) is a bacterial protein that typically traffics to the Golgi and then the endoplasmic reticulum before translocating to the cytosol. Here we show that a substantial fraction of internalized PE is also located in nuclear envelope-associated endosomes (NAE), which display limited mobility, exhibit a propensity to undergo fusion and readily discharge their contents into the nuclear envelope. Electron microscopy and protein trapping in the nucleus indicate that NAE mediate PE transfer into the nucleoplasm. RNAi screening further revealed that NAE-mediated transfer depends on the nuclear envelope proteins SUN1 and SUN2, as well as the Sec61 translocon complex. These data reveal a novel endosomal route from the cell surface to the nucleoplasm that facilitates the accumulation of extracellular and cell surface proteins in the nucleus. PMID:26356418

  5. A Betabaculovirus-Encoded gp64 Homolog Codes for a Functional Envelope Fusion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ardisson-Araújo, Daniel M. P.; Melo, Fernando L.; Clem, Rollie J.; Wolff, José L. C.

    2015-01-01

    The GP64 envelope fusion protein is a hallmark of group I alphabaculoviruses. However, the Diatraea saccharalis granulovirus genome sequence revealed the first betabaculovirus species harboring a gp64 homolog (disa118). In this work, we have shown that this homolog encodes a functional envelope fusion protein and could enable the infection and fusogenic abilities of a gp64-null prototype baculovirus. Therefore, GP64 may complement or may be in the process of replacing F protein activity in this virus lineage. PMID:26537678

  6. Shrimp arginine kinase being a binding protein of WSSV envelope protein VP31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Cuiyan; Gao, Qiang; Liang, Yan; Li, Chen; Liu, Chao; Huang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    Viral entry into the host is the earliest stage of infection in the viral life cycle in which attachment proteins play a key role. VP31 (WSV340/WSSV396), an envelope protein of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide domain known as a cellular attachment site. At present, the process of VP31 interacting with shrimp host cells has not been explored. Therefore, the VP31 gene was cloned into pET30a (+), expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 and purified with immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. Four gill cellular proteins of shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were pulled down by an affinity column coupled with recombinant VP31 (rVP31), and the amino acid sequences were identified with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Hemocyanin, beta-actin, arginine kinase (AK), and an unknown protein were suggested as the putative VP31 receptor proteins. SDS-PAGE showed that AK is the predominant binding protein of VP31. An i n vitro binding activity experiment indicated that recombinant AK's (rAK) binding activity with rVP31 is comparable to that with the same amount of WSSV. These results suggested that AK, as a member of the phosphagen kinase family, plays a role in WSSV infection. This is the first evidence showing that AK is a binding protein of VP31. Further studies on this topic will elucidate WSSV infection mechanism in the future.

  7. Shrimp arginine kinase being a binding protein of WSSV envelope protein VP31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Cuiyan; Gao, Qiang; Liang, Yan; Li, Chen; Liu, Chao; Huang, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Viral entry into the host is the earliest stage of infection in the viral life cycle in which attachment proteins play a key role. VP31 (WSV340/WSSV396), an envelope protein of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide domain known as a cellular attachment site. At present, the process of VP31 interacting with shrimp host cells has not been explored. Therefore, the VP31 gene was cloned into pET30a (+), expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 and purified with immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. Four gill cellular proteins of shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were pulled down by an affinity column coupled with recombinant VP31 (rVP31), and the amino acid sequences were identified with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Hemocyanin, beta-actin, arginine kinase (AK), and an unknown protein were suggested as the putative VP31 receptor proteins. SDS-PAGE showed that AK is the predominant binding protein of VP31. An i n vitro binding activity experiment indicated that recombinant AK's (rAK) binding activity with rVP31 is comparable to that with the same amount of WSSV. These results suggested that AK, as a member of the phosphagen kinase family, plays a role in WSSV infection. This is the first evidence showing that AK is a binding protein of VP31. Further studies on this topic will elucidate WSSV infection mechanism in the future.

  8. Functional incorporation of green fluorescent protein into hepatitis B virus envelope particles

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Carsten; Thome, Nicole; Kluck, Christoph J.; Prange, Reinhild . E-mail: prange@mail.uni-mainz.de

    2004-12-05

    The envelope of hepatitis B virus (HBV), containing the L, M, and S proteins, is essential for virus entry and maturation. For direct visualization of HBV, we determined whether envelope assembly could accommodate the green fluorescent protein (GFP). While the C-terminal addition of GFP to S trans-dominant negatively inhibited empty envelope particle secretion, the N-terminal GFP fusion to S (GFP.S) was co-integrated into the envelope, giving rise to fluorescent particles. Microscopy and topogenesis analyses demonstrated that the proper intracellular distribution and folding of GFP.S, required for particle export were rescued by interprotein interactions with wild-type S. Thereby, a dual location of GFP, inside and outside the envelope, was observed. GFP.S was also efficiently packaged into the viral envelope, and these GFP-tagged virions retained the capacity for attachment to HBV receptor-positive cells in vitro. Together, GFP-tagged virions should be suitable to monitor HBV uptake and egress in live hepatocytes.

  9. Enveloped virus inactivation using neutral arginine solutions and applications in therapeutic protein purification processes.

    PubMed

    McCue, Justin T; Selvitelli, Keith; Cecchini, Doug; Brown, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    For the manufacturing of recombinant protein therapeutics produced from mammalian cell culture, demonstrating the capacity of the purification process to effectively clear infectious viruses is a regulatory requirement. At least two process steps, using different mechanisms of virus removal and/or inactivation, should be validated in support of the regulatory approval process. For example, exposure of the product stream to low pH, detergents or solvent/detergent combinations is commonly incorporated in protein purification processes for the inactivation of lipid-enveloped viruses. However, some proteins have limited stability at low pH or in the presence of the detergents, and alternative techniques for achieving the inactivation of enveloped viruses would be beneficial. We present here an alternative and novel approach for the rapid inactivation of enveloped viruses using pH-neutral buffer solutions containing arginine. The implementation of this approach in a monoclonal antibody or Fc-fusion protein purification process is described and illustrated with several different therapeutic proteins. The use of the neutral pH arginine solution was able to effectively inactivate two enveloped model viruses, with no measurable effect on the product quality of the investigated proteins. Thus, the use of pH-neutral arginine containing buffer solutions provides an alternative means of virus inactivation where other forms of virus inactivation, such as low pH and/or solvent/detergent treatments are not possible or undesirable due to protein stability limitations.

  10. Recent advance in the structural analysis of HIV-1 envelope protein.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Zene

    2015-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1), a causative agent of AIDS, is affecting today more than 35 millions of people worldwide. The advance of anti-HIV chemotherapy has made AIDS a chronic non-fatal disease in resourceful countries. Long-awaited anti-HIV-1 vaccine is still not with us yet; however, great progress in structural analyses of the envelope protein of HIV-1 in recent years starts to shed light on rational intervention targeted at the envelope protein, as will be reviewed in this article.

  11. Poly(A) binding proteins located at the inner surface of resealed nuclear envelopes.

    PubMed

    Prochnow, D; Riedel, N; Agutter, P S; Fasold, H

    1990-04-25

    We have used a photoreactive cross-linking reagent, poly(A/8-N3-A) (a poly(A) of average molecular mass of 100 kDa in which 5-10% of the A residues are replaced by 8-N3-A), to label poly(A) binding proteins of rat liver nuclear envelopes. This reagent was prepared by polymerizing a mixture of ADP and 8-N3-ADP with polynucleotide phosphorylase. The purified poly(A) was labeled in the 5'-position with a 32P group. In nuclear envelopes prepared by a low salt DNase I procedure, the poly(A/8-N3-A) labeled a protein-nucleic acid complex of approximately 270 kDa, which on degradation with RNase U2 or NaOH at pH 10 yielded two polypeptides of approximately 50 and 30 kDa. These photoreaction products were markedly decreased when resealed nuclear envelopes or non-nuclear envelope proteins were irradiated in the presence of poly(A/8-N3-A). The affinity labeling was intensified when resealed vesicles were made leaky by freezing or ultrasonication, suggesting that the poly(A) binding proteins are accessible from the nucleoplasmic but not the cytoplasmic face of the envelope. Moreover binding was specific for poly(A). Alternative reagents, random poly(A/8-N3-A,C,G,U) of about 100 kDa and poly(dA) (molecular mass between 350 and 515 kDa), showed a very low affinity for poly(A) recognition proteins in the low salt DNase I-treated nuclear envelopes; the 270-kDa band was labeled only weakly. The binding site was not protected by poly(A,C,G,U), weakly by poly(dA), and distinctly by poly(A).

  12. Effects of retroviral envelope-protein cleavage upon trafficking, incorporation, and membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, Swapna; Sanders, David Avram

    2010-09-15

    Retroviral envelope glycoproteins undergo proteolytic processing by cellular subtilisin-like proprotein convertases at a polybasic amino-acid site in order to produce the two functional subunits, SU and TM. Most previous studies have indicated that envelope-protein cleavage is required for rendering the protein competent for promoting membrane fusion and for virus infectivity. We have investigated the role of proteolytic processing of the Moloney murine leukemia virus envelope-protein through site-directed mutagenesis of the residues near the SU-TM cleavage site and have established that uncleaved glycoprotein is unable either to be incorporated into virus particles efficiently or to induce membrane fusion. Additionally, the results suggest that cleavage of the envelope protein plays an important role in intracellular trafficking of protein via the cellular secretory pathway. Based on our results it was concluded that a positively charged residue located at either P2 or P4 along with the arginine at P1 is essential for cleavage.

  13. Crystal Structure of Major Envelope Protein VP24 from White Spot Syndrome Virus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lifang; Su, Yintao; Zhao, Yanhe; Fu, Zheng-Qing; Wu, Yunkun

    2016-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the major and most serious pathogen in the shrimp industry. As one of the most abundant envelope protein, VP24 acts as a core protein interacting with other structure proteins and plays an important role in virus assembly and infection. Here, we have presented the crystal structure of VP24 from WSSV. In the structure, VP24 consists of a nine-stranded β-barrel fold with mostly antiparallel β-strands, and the loops extending out the β-barrel at both N-terminus and C-terminus, which is distinct to those of the other two major envelope proteins VP28 and VP26. Structural comparison of VP24 with VP26 and VP28 reveals opposite electrostatic surface potential properties of them. These structural differences could provide insight into their differential functional mechanisms and roles for virus assembly and infection. Moreover, the structure reveals a trimeric assembly, suggesting a likely natural conformation of VP24 in viral envelope. Therefore, in addition to confirming the evolutionary relationship among the three abundant envelope proteins of WSSV, our structural studies also facilitate a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying special roles of VP24 in WSSV assembly and infection. PMID:27572278

  14. Characterization of the fusion core in zebrafish endogenous retroviral envelope protein.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jian; Zhang, Huaidong; Gong, Rui; Xiao, Gengfu

    2015-05-01

    Zebrafish endogenous retrovirus (ZFERV) is the unique endogenous retrovirus in zebrafish, as yet, containing intact open reading frames of its envelope protein gene in zebrafish genome. Similarly, several envelope proteins of endogenous retroviruses in human and other mammalian animal genomes (such as syncytin-1 and 2 in human, syncytin-A and B in mouse) were identified and shown to be functional in induction of cell-cell fusion involved in placental development. ZFERV envelope protein (Env) gene appears to be also functional in vivo because it is expressible. After sequence alignment, we found ZFERV Env shares similar structural profiles with syncytin and other type I viral envelopes, especially in the regions of N- and C-terminal heptad repeats (NHR and CHR) which were crucial for membrane fusion. We expressed the regions of N + C protein in the ZFERV Env (residues 459-567, including predicted NHR and CHR) to characterize the fusion core structure. We found N + C protein could form a stable coiled-coil trimer that consists of three helical NHR regions forming a central trimeric core, and three helical CHR regions packing into the grooves on the surface of the central core. The structural characterization of the fusion core revealed the possible mechanism of fusion mediated by ZFERV Env. These results gave comprehensive explanation of how the ancient virus infects the zebrafish and integrates into the genome million years ago, and showed a rational clue for discovery of physiological significance (e.g., medicate cell-cell fusion). PMID:25804638

  15. Characterization of the VP39 envelope protein from Singapore grouper iridovirus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Honglian; Zhou, Sheng; Xia, Liqun; Huang, Xiaohong; Huang, Youhua; Cao, Jianhao; Qin, Qiwei

    2015-12-01

    Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) is a major pathogen that causes heavy economic losses to the grouper aquaculture industry in China and Southeast Asian countries. In the present study, a viral envelope protein, VP39, encoded by SGIV ORF39L, was identified and characterized. SGIV ORF39L was found in all sequenced iridoviruses and is now considered to be a core gene of the family Iridoviridae. ORF39L was classified as a late gene during in vitro infection using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and a drug inhibition analysis. An indirect immunofluorescence assay revealed that the VP39 protein was confined to the cytoplasm, especially at viral assembly sites. Western blot and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight tandem mass spectrometry analyses suggested that VP39 is an envelope protein. Immunogold electron microscopy further confirmed that VP39 is a viral envelope protein. Furthermore, a mouse anti-VP39 polyclonal antibody exhibited SGIV-neutralizing activity in vitro, suggesting that VP39 is involved in SGIV infection. Taken together, the current data suggest that VP39 represents a conserved envelope protein of iridoviruses that contributes to viral infection.

  16. Crystal Structure of Major Envelope Protein VP24 from White Spot Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lifang; Su, Yintao; Zhao, Yanhe; Fu, Zheng-qing; Wu, Yunkun

    2016-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the major and most serious pathogen in the shrimp industry. As one of the most abundant envelope protein, VP24 acts as a core protein interacting with other structure proteins and plays an important role in virus assembly and infection. Here, we have presented the crystal structure of VP24 from WSSV. In the structure, VP24 consists of a nine-stranded β–barrel fold with mostly antiparallel β-strands, and the loops extending out the β–barrel at both N-terminus and C-terminus, which is distinct to those of the other two major envelope proteins VP28 and VP26. Structural comparison of VP24 with VP26 and VP28 reveals opposite electrostatic surface potential properties of them. These structural differences could provide insight into their differential functional mechanisms and roles for virus assembly and infection. Moreover, the structure reveals a trimeric assembly, suggesting a likely natural conformation of VP24 in viral envelope. Therefore, in addition to confirming the evolutionary relationship among the three abundant envelope proteins of WSSV, our structural studies also facilitate a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying special roles of VP24 in WSSV assembly and infection. PMID:27572278

  17. Distinct Pathways Mediate the Sorting of Tail-Anchored Proteins to the Plastid Outer Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Dhanoa, Preetinder K.; Richardson, Lynn G. L.; Smith, Matthew D.; Gidda, Satinder K.; Henderson, Matthew P. A.; Andrews, David W.; Mullen, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Background Tail-anchored (TA) proteins are a distinct class of membrane proteins that are sorted post-translationally to various organelles and function in a number of important cellular processes, including redox reactions, vesicular trafficking and protein translocation. While the molecular targeting signals and pathways responsible for sorting TA proteins to their correct intracellular destinations in yeasts and mammals have begun to be characterized, relatively little is known about TA protein biogenesis in plant cells, especially for those sorted to the plastid outer envelope. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we investigated the biogenesis of three plastid TA proteins, including the 33-kDa and 34-kDa GTPases of the translocon at the outer envelope of chloroplasts (Toc33 and Toc34) and a novel 9-kDa protein of unknown function that we define here as an outer envelope TA protein (OEP9). Using a combination of in vivo and in vitro assays we show that OEP9 utilizes a different sorting pathway than that used by Toc33 and Toc34. For instance, while all three TA proteins interact with the cytosolic OEP chaperone/receptor, AKR2A, the plastid targeting information within OEP9 is distinct from that within Toc33 and Toc34. Toc33 and Toc34 also appear to differ from OEP9 in that their insertion is dependent on themselves and the unique lipid composition of the plastid outer envelope. By contrast, the insertion of OEP9 into the plastid outer envelope occurs in a proteinaceous-dependent, but Toc33/34-independent manner and membrane lipids appear to serve primarily to facilitate normal thermodynamic integration of this TA protein. Conclusions/Significance Collectively, the results provide evidence in support of at least two sorting pathways for plastid TA outer envelope proteins and shed light on not only the complex diversity of pathways involved in the targeting and insertion of proteins into plastids, but also the molecular mechanisms that underlie the delivery of TA

  18. Phytochrome regulates GTP-binding protein activity in the envelope of pea nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, G. B.; Memon, A. R.; Thompson, G. A. Jr; Roux, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    Three GTP-binding proteins with apparent molecular masses of 27, 28 and 30 kDa have been detected in isolated nuclei of etiolated pea plumules. After LDS-PAGE and transfer to nitrocellulose these proteins bind [32P]GTP in the presence of excess ATP, suggesting that they are monomeric G proteins. When nuclei are disrupted, three proteins co-purify with the nuclear envelope fraction and are highly enriched in this fraction. The level of [32P]GTP-binding for all three protein bands is significantly increased when harvested pea plumules are irradiated by red light, and this effect is reversed by far-red light. The results indicate that GTP-binding activity associated with the nuclear envelope of plant cells is photoreversibly regulated by the pigment phytochrome.

  19. TMEM120A and B: Nuclear Envelope Transmembrane Proteins Important for Adipocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Batrakou, Dzmitry G.; de las Heras, Jose I.; Czapiewski, Rafal; Mouras, Rabah; Schirmer, Eric C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work indicates that the nuclear envelope is a major signaling node for the cell that can influence tissue differentiation processes. Here we present two nuclear envelope trans-membrane proteins TMEM120A and TMEM120B that are paralogs encoded by the Tmem120A and Tmem120B genes. The TMEM120 proteins are expressed preferentially in fat and both are induced during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Knockdown of one or the other protein altered expression of several genes required for adipocyte differentiation, Gata3, Fasn, Glut4, while knockdown of both together additionally affected Pparg and Adipoq. The double knockdown also increased the strength of effects, reducing for example Glut4 levels by 95% compared to control 3T3-L1 cells upon pharmacologically induced differentiation. Accordingly, TMEM120A and B knockdown individually and together impacted on adipocyte differentiation/metabolism as measured by lipid accumulation through binding of Oil Red O and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy (CARS). The nuclear envelope is linked to several lipodystrophies through mutations in lamin A; however, lamin A is widely expressed. Thus it is possible that the TMEM120A and B fat-specific nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins may play a contributory role in the tissue-specific pathology of this disorder or in the wider problem of obesity. PMID:26024229

  20. Envelope protein complexes of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and their antigenicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease, a chronic enteric disease of ruminant animals. In the present study, blue native PAGE electrophoresis and 2D SDS-PAGE were used to separate MAP envelope protein complexes, followed by mass spectrometry (MS) ...

  1. Effects of glycosylation on antigenicity and immunogenicity of classical swine fever virus envelope proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) harbors three envelope glycoproteins (E(rns), E1 and E2). Previous studies have demonstrated that removal of specific glycosylation sites within these proteins yielded attenuated and immunogenic CSFV mutants. Here we analyzed the effects of lack of glycosylation of...

  2. Structural proteins of ribonucleic acid tumor viruses. Purification of envelope, core, and internal components.

    PubMed

    Strand, M; August, J T

    1976-01-25

    Murine type C virus structural proteins, the envelope glycopeptides, 30,000 dalton major core protein, and 15,000 dalton internal protein have each been purified to near homogeneity and in high yield from the smae batch of virus by use of phosphocellulose column chromatography and gel filtration procedures. Evidence that these proteins are specified by the viral genome was obtained by competition radioimmunoassay analysis, comparing these polypeptides from Rauscher virus cultivated in a variety of mammalian cell lines; all of the reactive antigenic determinants of these proteins appeared to be virus-specific.

  3. Characterization of the fusion core in zebrafish endogenous retroviral envelope protein

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Jian; Zhang, Huaidong; Gong, Rui; Xiao, Gengfu

    2015-05-08

    Zebrafish endogenous retrovirus (ZFERV) is the unique endogenous retrovirus in zebrafish, as yet, containing intact open reading frames of its envelope protein gene in zebrafish genome. Similarly, several envelope proteins of endogenous retroviruses in human and other mammalian animal genomes (such as syncytin-1 and 2 in human, syncytin-A and B in mouse) were identified and shown to be functional in induction of cell–cell fusion involved in placental development. ZFERV envelope protein (Env) gene appears to be also functional in vivo because it is expressible. After sequence alignment, we found ZFERV Env shares similar structural profiles with syncytin and other type I viral envelopes, especially in the regions of N- and C-terminal heptad repeats (NHR and CHR) which were crucial for membrane fusion. We expressed the regions of N + C protein in the ZFERV Env (residues 459–567, including predicted NHR and CHR) to characterize the fusion core structure. We found N + C protein could form a stable coiled-coil trimer that consists of three helical NHR regions forming a central trimeric core, and three helical CHR regions packing into the grooves on the surface of the central core. The structural characterization of the fusion core revealed the possible mechanism of fusion mediated by ZFERV Env. These results gave comprehensive explanation of how the ancient virus infects the zebrafish and integrates into the genome million years ago, and showed a rational clue for discovery of physiological significance (e.g., medicate cell–cell fusion). - Highlights: • ZFERV Env shares similar structural profiles with syncytin and other type I viral envelopes. • The fusion core of ZFERV Env forms stable coiled-coil trimer including three NHRs and three CHRs. • The structural mechanism of viral entry mediated by ZFERV Env is disclosed. • The results are helpful for further discovery of physiological function of ZFERV Env in zebrafish.

  4. Reduction of a 4q35-encoded nuclear envelope protein in muscle differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ostlund, Cecilia; Guan, Tinglu; Figlewicz, Denise A.; Hays, Arthur P.; Worman, Howard J.; Gerace, Larry; Schirmer, Eric C.

    2009-11-13

    Muscular dystrophy and peripheral neuropathy have been linked to mutations in genes encoding nuclear envelope proteins; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying these disorders remain unresolved. Nuclear envelope protein p19A is a protein of unknown function encoded by a gene at chromosome 4q35. p19A levels are significantly reduced in human muscle as cells differentiate from myoblasts to myotubes; however, its levels are not similarly reduced in all differentiation systems tested. Because 4q35 has been linked to facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) and some adjacent genes are reportedly misregulated in the disorder, levels of p19A were analyzed in muscle samples from patients with FSHD. Although p19A was increased in most cases, an absolute correlation was not observed. Nonetheless, p19A downregulation in normal muscle differentiation suggests that in the cases where its gene is inappropriately re-activated it could affect muscle differentiation and contribute to disease pathology.

  5. Antibodies targeting linear determinants of the envelope protein protect mice against West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Ledizet, Michel; Kar, Kalipada; Foellmer, Harald G; Bonafé, Nathalie; Anthony, Karen G; Gould, L Hannah; Bushmich, Sandra L; Fikrig, Erol; Koski, Raymond A

    2007-12-15

    The flavivirus envelope (E) protein mediates cellular attachment and fusion with host cell membranes and is recognized by virus-neutralizing antibodies. We raised antibodies against a broad range of epitopes by immunizing a horse with recombinant West Nile virus (WNV) E protein. To define epitopes recognized by protective antibodies, we selected, by affinity chromatography, immunoglobulins against immobilized linear peptides derived from parts of the E protein. Immunoglobulins binding 9 different peptides from domains I, II, and III of the E protein neutralized WNV in vitro. This indicates that multiple protective epitopes can be found in the E protein. Immunoglobulins recognizing 3 peptides derived from domains I and II of E protein protected mice against a lethal challenge with WNV. These immunoglobulins recognized the E proteins of related flaviviruses, demonstrating that antibodies targeting specific E protein epitopes could be developed for prevention and treatment of multiple flavivirus infections. PMID:18190253

  6. Signal peptides direct surface proteins to two distinct envelope locations of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    DeDent, Andrea; Bae, Taeok; Missiakas, Dominique M; Schneewind, Olaf

    2008-01-01

    Surface proteins of Gram-positive bacteria are covalently linked to the cell wall envelope by a mechanism requiring an N-terminal signal peptide and a C-terminal LPXTG motif sorting signal. We show here that surface proteins of Staphylococcus aureus arrive at two distinct destinations in the bacterial envelope, either distributed as a ring surrounding each cell or as discrete assembly sites. Proteins with ring-like distribution (clumping factor A (ClfA), Spa, fibronectin-binding protein B (FnbpB), serine-aspartate repeat protein C (SdrC) and SdrD) harbour signal peptides with a YSIRK/GS motif, whereas proteins directed to discrete assembly sites (S. aureus surface protein A (SasA), SasD, SasF and SasK) do not. Reciprocal exchange of signal peptides between surface proteins with (ClfA) or without the YSIRK/GS motif (SasF) directed recombinant products to the alternate destination, whereas mutations that altered only the YSIRK sequence had no effect. Our observations suggest that S. aureus distinguishes between signal peptides to address proteins to either the cell pole (signal peptides without YSIRK/GS) or the cross wall, the peptidoglycan layer that forms during cell division to separate new daughter cells (signal peptides with YISRK/GS motif). PMID:18800056

  7. In vitro and in vivo screening for novel essential cell-envelope proteins in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Piñar, Regina; Lo Sciuto, Alessandra; Rossi, Alice; Ranucci, Serena; Bragonzi, Alessandra; Imperi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents a prototype of multi-drug resistant opportunistic pathogens for which novel therapeutic options are urgently required. In order to identify new candidates as potential drug targets, we combined large-scale transposon mutagenesis data analysis and bioinformatics predictions to retrieve a set of putative essential genes which are conserved in P. aeruginosa and predicted to encode cell envelope or secreted proteins. By generating unmarked deletion or conditional mutants, we confirmed the in vitro essentiality of two periplasmic proteins, LptH and LolA, responsible for lipopolysaccharide and lipoproteins transport to the outer membrane respectively, and confirmed that they are important for cell envelope stability. LptH was also found to be essential for P. aeruginosa ability to cause infection in different animal models. Conversely, LolA-depleted cells appeared only partially impaired in pathogenicity, indicating that this protein likely plays a less relevant role during bacterial infection. Finally, we ruled out any involvement of the other six proteins under investigation in P. aeruginosa growth, cell envelope stability and virulence. Besides proposing LptH as a very promising drug target in P. aeruginosa, this study confirms the importance of in vitro and in vivo validation of potential essential genes identified through random transposon mutagenesis.

  8. In vitro and in vivo screening for novel essential cell-envelope proteins in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Piñar, Regina; Lo Sciuto, Alessandra; Rossi, Alice; Ranucci, Serena; Bragonzi, Alessandra; Imperi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents a prototype of multi-drug resistant opportunistic pathogens for which novel therapeutic options are urgently required. In order to identify new candidates as potential drug targets, we combined large-scale transposon mutagenesis data analysis and bioinformatics predictions to retrieve a set of putative essential genes which are conserved in P. aeruginosa and predicted to encode cell envelope or secreted proteins. By generating unmarked deletion or conditional mutants, we confirmed the in vitro essentiality of two periplasmic proteins, LptH and LolA, responsible for lipopolysaccharide and lipoproteins transport to the outer membrane respectively, and confirmed that they are important for cell envelope stability. LptH was also found to be essential for P. aeruginosa ability to cause infection in different animal models. Conversely, LolA-depleted cells appeared only partially impaired in pathogenicity, indicating that this protein likely plays a less relevant role during bacterial infection. Finally, we ruled out any involvement of the other six proteins under investigation in P. aeruginosa growth, cell envelope stability and virulence. Besides proposing LptH as a very promising drug target in P. aeruginosa, this study confirms the importance of in vitro and in vivo validation of potential essential genes identified through random transposon mutagenesis. PMID:26621210

  9. Immunising with the transmembrane envelope proteins of different retroviruses including HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Denner, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    The induction of neutralizing antibodies is a promising way to prevent retrovirus infections. Neutralizing antibodies are mainly directed against the envelope proteins, which consist of two molecules, the surface envelope (SU) protein and the transmembrane envelope (TM) protein. Antibodies broadly neutralizing the human immunodeficiencvy virus-1 (HIV-1) and binding to the TM protein gp41 of the virus have been isolated from infected individuals. Their epitopes are located in the membrane proximal external region (MPER). Since there are difficulties to induce such neutralizing antibodies as basis for an effective AIDS vaccine, we performed a comparative analysis immunising with the TM proteins of different viruses from the family Retroviridae. Both subfamilies, the Orthoretrovirinae and the Spumaretrovirinae were included. In this study, the TM proteins of three gammaretroviruses including (1) the porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV), (2) the Koala retrovirus (KoRV), (3) the feline leukemia virus (FeLV), of two lentiviruses, HIV-1, HIV-2, and of two spumaviruses, the feline foamy virus (FFV) and the primate foamy virus (PFV) were used for immunisation. Whereas in all immunisation studies binding antibodies were induced, neutralizing antibodies were only found in the case of the gammaretroviruses. The induced antibodies were directed against the MPER and the fusion peptide proximal region (FPPR) of their TM proteins; however only the antibodies against the MPER were neutralizing. Most importantly, the epitopes in the MPER were localized in the same position as the epitopes of the antibodies broadly neutralizing HIV-1 in the TM protein gp41 of HIV-1, indicating that the MPER is an effective target for the neutralization of retroviruses. PMID:23249763

  10. Mutational analyses of fs(1)Ya, an essential, developmentally regulated, nuclear envelope protein in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jun; Song, Kiwon; Wolfner, M.F.

    1995-12-01

    The fs(1)Ya protein (YA) is an essential, maternally encoded, nuclear lamina protein that is under both developmental and cell cycle control. A strong Ya mutation results in early arrest of embryos. To define the function of YA in the nuclear envelope during early embryonic development, we characterized the phenotypes of four Ya mutant alleles and determined their molecular lesions. Ya mutant embryos arrest with abnormal nuclear envelopes prior to the first mitotic division; a proportion of embryos from two leaky Ya mutants proceed beyond this but arrest after several abnormal divisions. Ya unfertilized eggs contain nuclei of different sizes and condensation states, apparently due to abnormal fusion of the meiotic products immediately after meiosis. Lamin is localized at the periphery of the uncondensed nuclei in these eggs. These results suggest that Ya function is required during and after egg maturation to facilitate proper chromatin condensation, rather than to allow a lamin-containing nuclear envelope to form. Two leaky Ya alleles that partially complement have lesions at opposite ends of the YA protein, suggesting that the N- and C-termini are important for YA function might interact with itself either directly or indirectly. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Energetic cost of protein import across the envelope membranes of chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lan-Xin; Theg, Steven M

    2013-01-15

    Chloroplasts are the organelles of green plants in which light energy is transduced into chemical energy, forming ATP and reduced carbon compounds upon which all life depends. The expenditure of this energy is one of the central issues of cellular metabolism. Chloroplasts contain ~3,000 proteins, among which less than 100 are typically encoded in the plastid genome. The rest are encoded in the nuclear genome, synthesized in the cytosol, and posttranslationally imported into the organelle in an energy-dependent process. We report here a measurement of the amount of ATP hydrolyzed to import a protein across the chloroplast envelope membranes--only the second complete accounting of the cost in Gibbs free energy of protein transport to be undertaken. Using two different precursors prepared by three distinct techniques, we show that the import of a precursor protein into chloroplasts is accompanied by the hydrolysis of ~650 ATP molecules. This translates to a ΔG(protein) (transport) of some 27,300 kJ/mol protein imported. We estimate that protein import across the plastid envelope membranes consumes ~0.6% of the total light-saturated energy output of the organelle.

  12. Energetic cost of protein import across the envelope membranes of chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lan-Xin; Theg, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Chloroplasts are the organelles of green plants in which light energy is transduced into chemical energy, forming ATP and reduced carbon compounds upon which all life depends. The expenditure of this energy is one of the central issues of cellular metabolism. Chloroplasts contain ∼3,000 proteins, among which less than 100 are typically encoded in the plastid genome. The rest are encoded in the nuclear genome, synthesized in the cytosol, and posttranslationally imported into the organelle in an energy-dependent process. We report here a measurement of the amount of ATP hydrolyzed to import a protein across the chloroplast envelope membranes—only the second complete accounting of the cost in Gibbs free energy of protein transport to be undertaken. Using two different precursors prepared by three distinct techniques, we show that the import of a precursor protein into chloroplasts is accompanied by the hydrolysis of ∼650 ATP molecules. This translates to a ΔGprotein transport of some 27,300 kJ/mol protein imported. We estimate that protein import across the plastid envelope membranes consumes ∼0.6% of the total light-saturated energy output of the organelle. PMID:23277572

  13. Tic21 Is an Essential Translocon Component for Protein Translocation across the Chloroplast Inner Envelope Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Yi-Shan; Su, Yi-shin; Chen, Lih-Jen; Lee, Yong Jik; Hwang, Inhwan; Li, Hsou-min

    2006-01-01

    An Arabidopsis thaliana mutant defective in chloroplast protein import was isolated and the mutant locus, cia5, identified by map-based cloning. CIA5 is a 21-kD integral membrane protein in the chloroplast inner envelope membrane with four predicted transmembrane domains, similar to another potential chloroplast inner membrane protein-conducting channel, At Tic20, and the mitochondrial inner membrane counterparts Tim17, Tim22, and Tim23. cia5 null mutants were albino and accumulated unprocessed precursor proteins. cia5 mutant chloroplasts were normal in targeting and binding of precursors to the chloroplast surface but were defective in protein translocation across the inner envelope membrane. Expression levels of CIA5 were comparable to those of major translocon components, such as At Tic110 and At Toc75, except during germination, at which stage At Tic20 was expressed at its highest level. A double mutant of cia5 At tic20-I had the same phenotype as the At tic20-I single mutant, suggesting that CIA5 and At Tic20 function similarly in chloroplast biogenesis, with At Tic20 functioning earlier in development. We renamed CIA5 as Arabidopsis Tic21 (At Tic21) and propose that it functions as part of the inner membrane protein-conducting channel and may be more important for later stages of leaf development. PMID:16891400

  14. Inflammatory response of endothelial cells to hepatitis C virus recombinant envelope glycoprotein 2 protein exposure

    PubMed Central

    Urbaczek, Ana Carolina; Ribeiro, Lívia Carolina de Abreu; Ximenes, Valdecir Farias; Afonso, Ana; Nogueira, Camila Tita; Generoso, Wesley Cardoso; Alberice, Juliana Vieira; Rudnicki, Martina; Ferrer, Renila; da Fonseca, Luiz Marcos; da Costa, Paulo Inácio

    2014-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) encodes approximately 10 different structural and non-structural proteins, including the envelope glycoprotein 2 (E2). HCV proteins, especially the envelope proteins, bind to cell receptors and can damage tissues. Endothelial inflammation is the most important determinant of fibrosis progression and, consequently, cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the inflammatory response of endothelial cells to two recombinant forms of the HCV E2 protein produced in different expression systems (Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris). We observed the induction of cell death and the production of nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, interleukin-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor A in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) stimulated by the two recombinant E2 proteins. The E2-induced apoptosis of HUVECs was confirmed using the molecular marker PARP. The apoptosis rescue observed when the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine was used suggests that reactive oxygen species are involved in E2-induced apoptosis. We propose that these proteins are involved in the chronic inflammation caused by HCV. PMID:25317702

  15. Western Blot Detection of Human Anti-Chikungunya Virus Antibody with Recombinant Envelope 2 Protein.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhaoshou; Lee, Jihoo; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Dias, Ronaldo F; Nam, Ho-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a tropical pathogen, has re-emerged and has massive outbreaks abruptly all over the world. Containing many dominant epitopes, the envelope E2 protein of CHIKV has been explored for the vaccination or diagnosis. In the present study, the antigenicity of a recombinant expressed intrinsically disorder domain (IUD) of E2 was tested for the detection of the antibody against CHIKV through western blot method. The gene of the IUD of E2 was inserted into 2 different vectors and expressed as recombinant GST-E2 and recombinant MBP-E2 fusion protein, respectively. Two kinds of fusion proteins were tested with 30 CHIKV patient sera and 30 normal sera, respectively. Both proteins were detected by 25 patients sera (83.3%) and 1 normal serum (3.3%). This test showed a relatively high sensitivity and very high specificity of the recombinant E2 proteins to be used as diagnostic antigens against CHIKV infection. PMID:27180586

  16. Western Blot Detection of Human Anti-Chikungunya Virus Antibody with Recombinant Envelope 2 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhaoshou; Lee, Jihoo; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Dias, Ronaldo F.; Nam, Ho-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a tropical pathogen, has re-emerged and has massive outbreaks abruptly all over the world. Containing many dominant epitopes, the envelope E2 protein of CHIKV has been explored for the vaccination or diagnosis. In the present study, the antigenicity of a recombinant expressed intrinsically disorder domain (IUD) of E2 was tested for the detection of the antibody against CHIKV through western blot method. The gene of the IUD of E2 was inserted into 2 different vectors and expressed as recombinant GST-E2 and recombinant MBP-E2 fusion protein, respectively. Two kinds of fusion proteins were tested with 30 CHIKV patient sera and 30 normal sera, respectively. Both proteins were detected by 25 patients sera (83.3%) and 1 normal serum (3.3%). This test showed a relatively high sensitivity and very high specificity of the recombinant E2 proteins to be used as diagnostic antigens against CHIKV infection. PMID:27180586

  17. In Situ Detection of Interactions Between Nuclear Envelope Proteins and Partners.

    PubMed

    Barateau, Alice; Buendia, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Proximity ligation assay (PLA) appears as a quick and easy technique to visualize within fixed cells the occurrence and in situ distribution of protein complexes. PLA has been validated to detect protein-protein interactions within the nuclear compartment. Here, we describe a protocol which allows the detection of interactions between A-type nuclear lamins and either LEM-domain proteins (such as emerin, integrated within the inner nuclear membrane, and LAP2α which accumulates within the nucleoplasm) or gene regulatory factors (e.g., the transcription factor SREBP1). The distinct amounts and patterns of PLA signals obtained for various complexes highlight the pertinence of using PLA to reveal in situ where and to which extent nuclear envelope proteins bind specific partners. PMID:27147040

  18. Residue-level resolution of alphavirus envelope protein interactions in pH-dependent fusion.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiancheng; Mukhopadhyay, Suchetana; Brooks, Charles L

    2015-02-17

    Alphavirus envelope proteins, organized as trimers of E2-E1 heterodimers on the surface of the pathogenic alphavirus, mediate the low pH-triggered fusion of viral and endosomal membranes in human cells. The lack of specific treatment for alphaviral infections motivates our exploration of potential antiviral approaches by inhibiting one or more fusion steps in the common endocytic viral entry pathway. In this work, we performed constant pH molecular dynamics based on an atomic model of the alphavirus envelope with icosahedral symmetry. We have identified pH-sensitive residues that cause the largest shifts in thermodynamic driving forces under neutral and acidic pH conditions for various fusion steps. A series of conserved interdomain His residues is identified to be responsible for the pH-dependent conformational changes in the fusion process, and ligand binding sites in their vicinity are anticipated to be potential drug targets aimed at inhibiting viral infections.

  19. Repairing oxidized proteins in the bacterial envelope using respiratory chain electrons.

    PubMed

    Gennaris, Alexandra; Ezraty, Benjamin; Henry, Camille; Agrebi, Rym; Vergnes, Alexandra; Oheix, Emmanuel; Bos, Julia; Leverrier, Pauline; Espinosa, Leon; Szewczyk, Joanna; Vertommen, Didier; Iranzo, Olga; Collet, Jean-François; Barras, Frédéric

    2015-12-17

    The reactive species of oxygen and chlorine damage cellular components, potentially leading to cell death. In proteins, the sulfur-containing amino acid methionine is converted to methionine sulfoxide, which can cause a loss of biological activity. To rescue proteins with methionine sulfoxide residues, living cells express methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs) in most subcellular compartments, including the cytosol, mitochondria and chloroplasts. Here we report the identification of an enzymatic system, MsrPQ, repairing proteins containing methionine sulfoxide in the bacterial cell envelope, a compartment particularly exposed to the reactive species of oxygen and chlorine generated by the host defence mechanisms. MsrP, a molybdo-enzyme, and MsrQ, a haem-binding membrane protein, are widely conserved throughout Gram-negative bacteria, including major human pathogens. MsrPQ synthesis is induced by hypochlorous acid, a powerful antimicrobial released by neutrophils. Consistently, MsrPQ is essential for the maintenance of envelope integrity under bleach stress, rescuing a wide series of structurally unrelated periplasmic proteins from methionine oxidation, including the primary periplasmic chaperone SurA. For this activity, MsrPQ uses electrons from the respiratory chain, which represents a novel mechanism to import reducing equivalents into the bacterial cell envelope. A remarkable feature of MsrPQ is its capacity to reduce both rectus (R-) and sinister (S-) diastereoisomers of methionine sulfoxide, making this oxidoreductase complex functionally different from previously identified Msrs. The discovery that a large class of bacteria contain a single, non-stereospecific enzymatic complex fully protecting methionine residues from oxidation should prompt a search for similar systems in eukaryotic subcellular oxidizing compartments, including the endoplasmic reticulum.

  20. Repairing oxidized proteins in the bacterial envelope using respiratory chain electrons

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Camille; Agrebi, Rym; Vergnes, Alexandra; Oheix, Emmanuel; Bos, Julia; Leverrier, Pauline; Espinosa, Leon; Szewczyk, Joanna; Vertommen, Didier; Iranzo, Olga; Collet, Jean-François; Barras, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The reactive species of oxygen (ROS) and chlorine (RCS) damage cellular components, potentially leading to cell death. In proteins, the sulfur-containing amino acid methionine (Met) is converted to methionine sulfoxide (Met-O), which can cause a loss of biological activity. To rescue proteins with Met-O residues, living cells express methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs) in most subcellular compartments, including the cytosol, mitochondria and chloroplasts 1-3. Here, we report the identification of an enzymatic system, MsrPQ, repairing Met-O containing proteins in the bacterial cell envelope, a compartment particularly exposed to the ROS and RCS generated by the host defense mechanisms. MsrP, a molybdo-enzyme, and MsrQ, a heme-binding membrane protein, are widely conserved throughout Gram-negative bacteria, including major human pathogens. MsrPQ synthesis is induced by hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a powerful antimicrobial released by neutrophils. Consistently, MsrPQ is essential for the maintenance of envelope integrity under bleach stress, rescuing a wide series of structurally unrelated periplasmic proteins from Met oxidation, including the primary periplasmic chaperone SurA. For this activity, MsrPQ uses electrons from the respiratory chain, which represents a novel mechanism to import reducing equivalents into the bacterial cell envelope. A remarkable feature of MsrPQ is its capacity to reduce both R- and S- diastereoisomers of Met-O, making this oxidoreductase complex functionally different from previously identified Msrs. The discovery that a large class of bacteria contain a single, non-stereospecific enzymatic complex fully protecting Met residues from oxidation should prompt search for similar systems in eukaryotic subcellular oxidizing compartments, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). PMID:26641313

  1. Interaction of outer envelope proteins of Chlamydia psittaci GPIC with the HeLa cell surface.

    PubMed

    Ting, L M; Hsia, R C; Haidaris, C G; Bavoil, P M

    1995-09-01

    The chlamydial life cycle involves the intimate interaction of components of the infectious elementary body (EB) surface with receptors on the susceptible eukaryotic cell plasma membrane. We have developed an in vitro ligand binding assay system for the identification and characterization of detergent-extracted EB envelope proteins capable of binding to glutaraldehyde-fixed HeLa cell surfaces. With this assay, the developmentally regulated cysteine-rich envelope protein Omp2 of Chlamydia psittaci strain guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis was shown to bind specifically to HeLa cells. HeLa cells bound Omp2 selectively over other cell wall-associated proteins, including the major outer membrane protein, and the binding of Omp2 was abolished under conditions which alter its conformation. Furthermore, trypsin treatment, which reduces EB adherence, resulted in the proteolytic removal of a small terminal peptide of Omp2 at the EB surface and inactivated Omp2 in the ligand binding assay, while having a negligible effect on the major outer membrane protein. Collectively, our results suggest that Omp2 possesses the capacity to engage in a specific interaction with the host eukaryotic cell. We speculate that, since Omp2 is present only in the infectious EB form, the observed in vitro interaction may be representative of a determining step of the chlamydial pathogenic process.

  2. A Network of Nuclear Envelope Membrane Proteins Linking Centromeres to Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    King, Megan C.; Drivas, Theodore G.; Blobel, Günter

    2008-01-01

    Summary In the fission yeast S. pombe, nuclei are actively positioned at the cell center by microtubules. Here we show that cytoplasmic microtubules are mechanically coupled to the nuclear heterochromatin through proteins embedded in the nuclear envelope. This includes an integral outer nuclear membrane protein of the KASH family (Kms2) and two integral inner nuclear membrane proteins: the SUN-domain protein Sad1 and the novel, conserved protein Ima1. Ima1 specifically binds to heterochromatic regions and promotes the tethering of centromeric DNA to the SUN-KASH complex. In the absence of Ima1, or in cells harboring mutations in the centromeric Ndc80 complex, inefficient coupling of centromeric heterochromatin to Sad1 leads to striking defects in the ability of the nucleus to tolerate microtubule-dependent forces, leading to changes in nuclear shape, loss of spindle pole body components from the nuclear envelope, and partial dissociation of SUN-KASH complexes. This work highlights a novel means of communication between cytoplasmic microtubules and chromatin. PMID:18692466

  3. Specific targeting of proteins to outer envelope membranes of endosymbiotic organelles, chloroplasts, and mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junho; Kim, Dae Heon; Hwang, Inhwan

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplasts and mitochondria are endosymbiotic organelles thought to be derived from endosymbiotic bacteria. In present-day eukaryotic cells, these two organelles play pivotal roles in photosynthesis and ATP production. In addition to these major activities, numerous reactions, and cellular processes that are crucial for normal cellular functions occur in chloroplasts and mitochondria. To function properly, these organelles constantly communicate with the surrounding cellular compartments. This communication includes the import of proteins, the exchange of metabolites and ions, and interactions with other organelles, all of which heavily depend on membrane proteins localized to the outer envelope membranes. Therefore, correct and efficient targeting of these membrane proteins, which are encoded by the nuclear genome and translated in the cytosol, is critically important for organellar function. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the mechanisms of protein targeting to the outer membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts in two different directions, as well as targeting signals and cytosolic factors.

  4. Role of N Glycosylation of Hepatitis B Virus Envelope Proteins in Morphogenesis and Infectivity of Hepatitis Delta Virus

    PubMed Central

    Sureau, Camille; Fournier-Wirth, Chantal; Maurel, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) particles are coated with the large (L), middle (M), and small (S) hepatitis B virus envelope proteins. In the present study, we constructed glycosylation-defective envelope protein mutants and evaluated their capacity to assist in the maturation of infectious HDV in vitro. We observed that the removal of N-linked carbohydrates on the S, M, and L proteins was tolerated for the assembly of subviral hepatitis B virus (HBV) particles but was partially inhibitory for the formation of HDV virions. However, when assayed on primary cultures of human hepatocytes, virions coated with S, M, and L proteins lacking N-linked glycans were infectious. Furthermore, in the absence of M, HDV particles coated with nonglycosylated S and L proteins retained infectivity. These results indicate that carbohydrates on the HBV envelope proteins are not essential for the in vitro infectivity of HDV. PMID:12692255

  5. Nuclear Envelope Protein SUN2 Promotes Cyclophilin-A-Dependent Steps of HIV Replication

    PubMed Central

    Lahaye, Xavier; Satoh, Takeshi; Gentili, Matteo; Cerboni, Silvia; Silvin, Aymeric; Conrad, Cécile; Ahmed-Belkacem, Abdelhakim; Rodriguez, Elisa C.; Guichou, Jean-François; Bosquet, Nathalie; Piel, Matthieu; Le Grand, Roger; King, Megan C.; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel; Manel, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Summary During the early phase of replication, HIV reverse transcribes its RNA and crosses the nuclear envelope while escaping host antiviral defenses. The host factor Cyclophilin A (CypA) is essential for these steps and binds the HIV capsid; however, the mechanism underlying this effect remains elusive. Here, we identify related capsid mutants in HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIVmac that are restricted by CypA. This antiviral restriction of mutated viruses is conserved across species and prevents nuclear import of the viral cDNA. Importantly, the inner nuclear envelope protein SUN2 is required for the antiviral activity of CypA. We show that wild-type HIV exploits SUN2 in primary CD4+ T cells as an essential host factor that is required for the positive effects of CypA on reverse transcription and infection. Altogether, these results establish essential CypA-dependent functions of SUN2 in HIV infection at the nuclear envelope. PMID:27149839

  6. Molecular docking analyses of Avicennia marinaderived phytochemicals against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) envelope protein-VP28.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Sunil Kumar; Kathiresan, Kandasamy; Singh, Reena; Senthilraja, Poomalai

    2012-01-01

    White spot syndrome (WSS) is one of the most common and most disastrous diseases of shrimp worldwide. It causes up to 100% mortality within 3 to 4 days in commercial shrimp farms, resulting in large economic losses to the shrimp farming industry. VP28 envelope protein of WSSV is reported to play a key role in the systemic infection in shrimps. Considering the most sombre issue of viral disease in cultivated shrimp, the present study was undertaken to substantiate the inhibition potential of Avicennia marinaderived phytochemicals against the WSSV envelope protein VP28. Seven A. marina-derived phytochemicals namely stigmasterol, triterpenoid, betulin, lupeol, avicenol-A, betulinic acid and quercetin were docked against the WSSV protein VP28 by using Argus lab molecular docking software. The chemical structures of the phytochemicals were retrieved from Pubchem database and generated from SMILES notation. Similarly the protein structure of the envelope protein was obtained from protein data bank (PDB-ID: 2ED6). Binding sites were predicted by using ligand explorer software. Among the phytochemicals screened, stigmasterol, lupeol and betulin showed the best binding exhibiting the potential to block VP28 envelope protein of WSSV, which could possibly inhibit the attachment of WSSV to the host species. Further experimental studies will provide a clear understanding on the mode of action of these phytochemicals individually or synergistically against WSSV envelope protein and can be used as an inhibitory drug to reduce white spot related severe complications in crustaceans.

  7. Nuclear envelope breakdown induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 involves the activity of viral fusion proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Maric, Martina; Haugo, Alison C.; Dauer, William; Johnson, David; Roller, Richard J.

    2014-07-15

    Herpesvirus infection reorganizes components of the nuclear lamina usually without loss of integrity of the nuclear membranes. We report that wild-type HSV infection can cause dissolution of the nuclear envelope in transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts that do not express torsinA. Nuclear envelope breakdown is accompanied by an eight-fold inhibition of virus replication. Breakdown of the membrane is much more limited during infection with viruses that lack the gB and gH genes, suggesting that breakdown involves factors that promote fusion at the nuclear membrane. Nuclear envelope breakdown is also inhibited during infection with virus that does not express UL34, but is enhanced when the US3 gene is deleted, suggesting that envelope breakdown may be enhanced by nuclear lamina disruption. Nuclear envelope breakdown cannot compensate for deletion of the UL34 gene suggesting that mixing of nuclear and cytoplasmic contents is insufficient to bypass loss of the normal nuclear egress pathway. - Highlights: • We show that wild-type HSV can induce breakdown of the nuclear envelope in a specific cell system. • The viral fusion proteins gB and gH are required for induction of nuclear envelope breakdown. • Nuclear envelope breakdown cannot compensate for deletion of the HSV UL34 gene.

  8. Coat as a Dagger: The Use of Capsid Proteins to Perforate Membranes during Non-Enveloped DNA Viruses Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Bilkova, Eva; Forstova, Jitka; Abrahamyan, Levon

    2014-01-01

    To get access to the replication site, small non-enveloped DNA viruses have to cross the cell membrane using a limited number of capsid proteins, which also protect the viral genome in the extracellular environment. Most of DNA viruses have to reach the nucleus to replicate. The capsid proteins involved in transmembrane penetration are exposed or released during endosomal trafficking of the virus. Subsequently, the conserved domains of capsid proteins interact with cellular membranes and ensure their efficient permeabilization. This review summarizes our current knowledge concerning the role of capsid proteins of small non-enveloped DNA viruses in intracellular membrane perturbation in the early stages of infection. PMID:25055856

  9. Accurate and Efficient Resolution of Overlapping Isotopic Envelopes in Protein Tandem Mass Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Kaijie; Yu, Fan; Fang, Houqin; Xue, Bingbing; Liu, Yan; Tian, Zhixin

    2015-01-01

    It has long been an analytical challenge to accurately and efficiently resolve extremely dense overlapping isotopic envelopes (OIEs) in protein tandem mass spectra to confidently identify proteins. Here, we report a computationally efficient method, called OIE_CARE, to resolve OIEs by calculating the relative deviation between the ideal and observed experimental abundance. In the OIE_CARE method, the ideal experimental abundance of a particular overlapping isotopic peak (OIP) is first calculated for all the OIEs sharing this OIP. The relative deviation (RD) of the overall observed experimental abundance of this OIP relative to the summed ideal value is then calculated. The final individual abundance of the OIP for each OIE is the individual ideal experimental abundance multiplied by 1 + RD. Initial studies were performed using higher-energy collisional dissociation tandem mass spectra on myoglobin (with direct infusion) and the intact E. coli proteome (with liquid chromatographic separation). Comprehensive data at the protein and proteome levels, high confidence and good reproducibility were achieved. The resolving method reported here can, in principle, be extended to resolve any envelope-type overlapping data for which the corresponding theoretical reference values are available. PMID:26439836

  10. Structure of a Conserved Golgi Complex-targeting Signal in Coronavirus Envelope Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Surya, Wahyu; Claudine, Stephanie; Torres, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    Coronavirus envelope (CoV E) proteins are ∼100-residue polypeptides with at least one channel-forming α-helical transmembrane (TM) domain. The extramembrane C-terminal tail contains a completely conserved proline, at the center of a predicted β-coil-β motif. This hydrophobic motif has been reported to constitute a Golgi-targeting signal or a second TM domain. However, no structural data for this or other extramembrane domains in CoV E proteins is available. Herein, we show that the E protein in the severe acute respiratory syndrome virus has only one TM domain in micelles, whereas the predicted β-coil-β motif forms a short membrane-bound α-helix connected by a disordered loop to the TM domain. However, complementary results suggest that this motif is potentially poised for conformational change or in dynamic exchange with other conformations. PMID:24668816

  11. Role of protein disulfide isomerase and other thiol-reactive proteins in HIV-1 envelope protein-mediated fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ou Wu . E-mail: wou@niaid.nih.gov; Silver, Jonathan . E-mail: jsilver@nih.gov

    2006-07-05

    Cell-surface protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) has been proposed to promote disulfide bond rearrangements in HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) that accompany Env-mediated fusion. We evaluated the role of PDI in ways that have not been previously tested by downregulating PDI with siRNA and by overexpressing wild-type or variant forms of PDI in transiently and stably transfected cells. These manipulations, as well as treatment with anti-PDI antibodies, had only small effects on infection or cell fusion mediated by NL4-3 or AD8 strains of HIV-1. However, the cell-surface thiol-reactive reagent 5, 5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) had a much stronger inhibitory effect in our system, suggesting that cell-surface thiol-containing molecules other than PDI, acting alone or in concert, have a greater effect than PDI on HIV-1 Env-mediated fusion. We evaluated one such candidate, thioredoxin, a PDI family member reported to reduce a labile disulfide bond in CD4. We found that the ability of thioredoxin to reduce the disulfide bond in CD4 is enhanced in the presence of HIV-1 Env gp120 and that thioredoxin also reduces disulfide bonds in gp120 directly in the absence of CD4. We discuss the implications of these observations for identification of molecules involved in disulfide rearrangements in Env during fusion.

  12. [Mapping of the B Cell Neutralizing Epitopes on ED III of Envelope Protein from Dengue Virus].

    PubMed

    Lin, Yaying; Wen, Kun; Guo, Yonghui; Qiu, Liwen; Pan, Yuxian; Yu, Lan; Di, Biao; Chen, Yue

    2015-11-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) envelope [E] protein is the major surface protein of the virions that indued neutralizing antibodies. The domain III of envelope protein (EDIII) is an immunogenic region that holds potential for the development of vaccines; however, the epitopes of DENV EDIII, especially neutralizing B-cell linear epitopes, have not been comprehensively mapped. We mapped neutralizing B-cell linear epitopes on DENV-1 EDIII using 27 monoclonal antibodies against DENV-1 EDIII proteins from mice immunized with the DENV-1 EDIII. Epitope recognition analysis was performed using two set of sequential overlapping peptides (16m and 12m) that spanned the entire EDIII protein from DENV-1, respectively. This strategy identified a DENV-1 type- specific and a group-specific neutralizing epitope, which were highly conserved among isolates of DENV-1 and the four DENV serotypes and located at two regions from DENV-1 E, namely amino acid residues 309-320 and 381-392(aa 309-320 and 381-392), respectively. aa310 -319(310KEVAETQHGT319)was similar among the four DENV serotypes and contact residues on aa 309 -320 from E protein were defined and found that substitution of residues E309 , V312, A313 and V320 in DENV-2, -3, -4 isolates were antigenically silent. We also identified a DENV-1 type-specific strain-restricted neutralizing epitope, which was located at the region from DENV-1 E, namely amino acid residues 329-348 . These novel type- and group-specific B-cell epitopes of DENV EDIII may aid help us elucidate the dengue pathogenesis and accelerate vaccine design. PMID:26951013

  13. The small envelope protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus possesses ion channel protein-like properties

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Changhee; Yoo, Dongwan . E-mail: dyoo@uoguelph.ca

    2006-11-10

    The small envelope (E) protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a hydrophobic 73 amino acid protein encoded in the internal open reading frame (ORF) of the bicistronic mRNA2. As a first step towards understanding the biological role of E protein during PRRSV replication, E gene expression was blocked in a full-length infectious clone by mutating the ATG translational initiation to GTG, such that the full-length mutant genomic clone was unable to synthesize the E protein. DNA transfection of PRRSV-susceptible cells with the E gene knocked-out genomic clone showed the absence of virus infectivity. P129-{delta}E-transfected cells however produced virion particles in the culture supernatant, and these particles contained viral genomic RNA, demonstrating that the E protein is essential for PRRSV infection but dispensable for virion assembly. Electron microscopy suggests that the P129-{delta}E virions assembled in the absence of E had a similar appearance to the wild-type particles. Strand-specific RT-PCR demonstrated that the E protein-negative, non-infectious P129-{delta}E virus particles were able to enter cells but further steps of replication were interrupted. The entry of PRRSV has been suggested to be via receptor-mediated endocytosis, and lysomotropic basic compounds and known ion-channel blocking agents both inhibited PRRSV replication effectively during the uncoating process. The expression of E protein in Escherichia coli-mediated cell growth arrests and increased the membrane permeability. Cross-linking experiments in cells infected with PRRSV or transfected with E gene showed that the E protein was able to form homo-oligomers. Taken together, our data suggest that the PRRSV E protein is likely an ion-channel protein embedded in the viral envelope and facilitates uncoating of virus and release of the genome in the cytoplasm.

  14. The HERV-K Human Endogenous Retrovirus Envelope Protein Antagonizes Tetherin Antiviral Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lemaître, Cécile; Harper, Francis; Pierron, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Endogenous retroviruses are the remnants of past retroviral infections that are scattered within mammalian genomes. In humans, most of these elements are old degenerate sequences that have lost their coding properties. The HERV-K(HML2) family is an exception: it recently amplified in the human genome and corresponds to the most active proviruses, with some intact open reading frames and the potential to encode viral particles. Here, using a reconstructed consensus element, we show that HERV-K(HML2) proviruses are able to inhibit Tetherin, a cellular restriction factor that is active against most enveloped viruses and acts by keeping the viral particles attached to the cell surface. More precisely, we identify the Envelope protein (Env) as the viral effector active against Tetherin. Through immunoprecipitation experiments, we show that the recognition of Tetherin is mediated by the surface subunit of Env. Similar to Ebola glycoprotein, HERV-K(HML2) Env does not mediate Tetherin degradation or cell surface removal; therefore, it uses a yet-undescribed mechanism to inactivate Tetherin. We also assessed all natural complete alleles of endogenous HERV-K(HML2) Env described to date for their ability to inhibit Tetherin and found that two of them (out of six) can block Tetherin restriction. However, due to their recent amplification, HERV-K(HML2) elements are extremely polymorphic in the human population, and it is likely that individuals will not all possess the same anti-Tetherin potential. Because of Tetherin's role as a restriction factor capable of inducing innate immune responses, this could have functional consequences for individual responses to infection. IMPORTANCE Tetherin, a cellular protein initially characterized for its role against HIV-1, has been proven to counteract numerous enveloped viruses. It blocks the release of viral particles from producer cells, keeping them tethered to the cell surface. Several viruses have developed strategies to

  15. Inner nuclear envelope protein SUN1 plays a prominent role in mammalian mRNA export

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Noegel, Angelika A.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear export of messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs) through the nuclear pore complex (NPC) can be roughly classified into two forms: bulk and specific export, involving an nuclear RNA export factor 1 (NXF1)-dependent pathway and chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1)-dependent pathway, respectively. SUN proteins constitute the inner nuclear envelope component of the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex. Here, we show that mammalian cells require SUN1 for efficient nuclear mRNP export. The results indicate that both SUN1 and SUN2 interact with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) F/H and hnRNP K/J. SUN1 depletion inhibits the mRNP export, with accumulations of both hnRNPs and poly(A)+RNA in the nucleus. Leptomycin B treatment indicates that SUN1 functions in mammalian mRNA export involving the NXF1-dependent pathway. SUN1 mediates mRNA export through its association with mRNP complexes via a direct interaction with NXF1. Additionally, SUN1 associates with the NPC through a direct interaction with Nup153, a nuclear pore component involved in mRNA export. Taken together, our results reveal that the inner nuclear envelope protein SUN1 has additional functions aside from being a central component of the LINC complex and that it is an integral component of the mammalian mRNA export pathway suggesting a model whereby SUN1 recruits NXF1-containing mRNP onto the nuclear envelope and hands it over to Nup153. PMID:26476453

  16. Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase enhances F protein-mediated membrane fusion of reconstituted Sendai virus envelopes with cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bagai, S; Puri, A; Blumenthal, R; Sarkar, D P

    1993-01-01

    Reconstituted Sendai virus envelopes containing both the fusion (F) protein and the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) (F,HN-virosomes) or only the F protein (F-virosomes) were prepared by solubilization of the intact virus with Triton X-100 followed by its removal by using SM2 Bio-Beads. Viral envelopes containing HN whose disulfide bonds were irreversibly reduced (HNred) were also prepared by treating the envelopes with dithiothreitol followed by dialysis (F,HNred-virosomes). Both F-virosomes and F,HNred-virosomes induced hemolysis of erythrocytes in the presence of wheat germ agglutinin, but the rates and extents were markedly lower than those for hemolysis induced by F,HN-virosomes. Using an assay based on the relief of self-quenching of a lipid probe incorporated in the Sendai virus envelopes, we demonstrate the fusion of both F,HN-virosomes and F-virosomes with cultured HepG2 cells containing the asialoglycoprotein receptor, which binds to a terminal galactose moiety of F. By desialylating the HepG2 cells, the entry mediated by HN-terminal sialic acid receptor interactions was bypassed. We show that both F-virosomes and F,HN-virosomes fuse with desialylated HepG2 cells, although the rate was two- to threefold higher if HN was included in the viral envelope. We also observed enhancement of fusion rates when both F and HN envelope proteins were attached to their specific receptors. Images PMID:8388501

  17. Expression and characterization of a soluble rubella virus E1 envelope protein.

    PubMed

    Seto, N O; Gillam, S

    1994-10-01

    Individual specific antigenic rubella virus (RV) structural proteins are required for accurate serological diagnosis of acute and congenital rubella infections as well as rubella immune status. The RV envelope glycoprotein E1 is the major target antigen and plays an important role in viral-specific immune responses. The native virion is difficult to produce in large quantities and the protein subunits are also difficult to isolate without loss of antigenicity. The production of a soluble RV E1 (designated E1 delta Tm) using the baculovirus-insect cell expression system is described. In contrast to wild-type RV E1, the genetically engineered E1 delta Tm protein lacks a transmembrane anchor. It behaved as a secretory protein and was secreted abundantly from insect cells. Pulse-chase studies were used to examine the synthesis, glycosylation, and secretion of E1 delta Tm by the insect cells. The secreted E1 delta Tm protein was purified from serum-free medium by one-step immunochromatography. The purified E1 delta Tm protein retained full antigenicity and may be a convenient source of E1 protein for use in diagnostic assay and rubella vaccine development. PMID:7852960

  18. Protein B5 is required on extracellular enveloped vaccinia virus for repulsion of superinfecting virions.

    PubMed

    Doceul, Virginie; Hollinshead, Michael; Breiman, Adrien; Laval, Kathlyn; Smith, Geoffrey L

    2012-09-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) spreads across cell monolayers fourfold faster than predicted from its replication kinetics. Early after infection, infected cells repulse some superinfecting extracellular enveloped virus (EEV) particles by the formation of actin tails from the cell surface, thereby causing accelerated spread to uninfected cells. This strategy requires the expression of two viral proteins, A33 and A36, on the surface of infected cells and upon contact with EEV this complex induces actin polymerization. Here we have studied this phenomenon further and investigated whether A33 and A36 expression in cell lines causes an increase in VACV plaque size, whether these proteins are able to block superinfection by EEV, and which protein(s) on the EEV surface are required to initiate the formation of actin tails from infected cells. Data presented show that VACV plaque size was not increased by expression of A33 and A36, and these proteins did not block entry of the majority of EEV binding to these cells. In contrast, expression of proteins A56 and K2 inhibited entry of both EEV and intracellular mature virus. Lastly, VACV protein B5 was required on EEV to induce the formation of actin tails at the surface of cells expressing A33 and A36, and B5 short consensus repeat 4 is critical for this induction.

  19. Recombinant lipidated dengue-3 envelope protein domain III stimulates broad immune responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chen-Yi; Liu, Shih-Jen; Hsieh, Chun-Hsiang; Chen, Mei-Yu; Tsai, Jy-Ping; Liu, Hsueh-Hung; Chen, I-Hua; Chong, Pele; Leng, Chih-Hsiang; Chen, Hsin-Wei

    2016-02-17

    The linkage of an immunogen with a toll-like receptor ligand has great potential to induce highly potent immune responses with the initial features of antigen-presenting cell activation. In the current study, we expressed recombinant dengue-3 envelope protein domain III (D3ED III) in lipidated form using an Escherichia coli-based system. The recombinant lipidated dengue-3 envelope protein domain III (LD3ED III) augments the expression levels of IL-12 family cytokines. LD3ED III-immunized mice enhance wide ranges of T cell responses as indicated by IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-21 production. Additionally, LD3ED III-immunized mice increase the frequencies of anti-D3ED III antibody producing cells. The boosted antibody titers cover various IgG isotypes, including IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3. Importantly, LD3ED III-immunized mice induce neutralizing antibody capacity associated with a reduction of viremia levels after challenges. In contrast, mice that are immunized with D3ED III formulated with aluminum phosphate (D3ED III/Alum) only enhance Th2 responses and boost IgG1 antibody titers. Neither neutralizing antibody responses nor the inhibition of viremia levels after challenge is observed in mice that are immunized with D3ED III/Alum. These results suggest that LD3ED III can induce broad profiles of cellular and humoral immune responses.

  20. Envelope Proteins of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Interact with Litopenaeus vannamei Peritrophin-Like Protein (LvPT)

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shijun; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jiquan; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp cultures. The interactions between viral proteins and their receptors on the surface of cells in a frontier target tissue are crucial for triggering an infection. In this study, a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) library was constructed using cDNA obtained from the stomach and gut of Litopenaeus vannamei, to ascertain the role of envelope proteins in WSSV infection. For this purpose, VP37 was used as the bait in the Y2H library screening. Forty positive clones were detected after screening. The positive clones were analyzed and discriminated, and two clones belonging to the peritrophin family were subsequently confirmed as genuine positive clones. Sequence analysis revealed that both clones could be considered as the same gene, LV-peritrophin (LvPT). Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed the interaction between LvPT and VP37. Further studies in the Y2H system revealed that LvPT could also interact with other WSSV envelope proteins such as VP32, VP38A, VP39B, and VP41A. The distribution of LvPT in tissues revealed that LvPT was mainly expressed in the stomach than in other tissues. In addition, LvPT was found to be a secretory protein, and its chitin-binding ability was also confirmed. PMID:26692362

  1. Envelope Proteins of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Interact with Litopenaeus vannamei Peritrophin-Like Protein (LvPT).

    PubMed

    Xie, Shijun; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jiquan; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp cultures. The interactions between viral proteins and their receptors on the surface of cells in a frontier target tissue are crucial for triggering an infection. In this study, a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) library was constructed using cDNA obtained from the stomach and gut of Litopenaeus vannamei, to ascertain the role of envelope proteins in WSSV infection. For this purpose, VP37 was used as the bait in the Y2H library screening. Forty positive clones were detected after screening. The positive clones were analyzed and discriminated, and two clones belonging to the peritrophin family were subsequently confirmed as genuine positive clones. Sequence analysis revealed that both clones could be considered as the same gene, LV-peritrophin (LvPT). Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed the interaction between LvPT and VP37. Further studies in the Y2H system revealed that LvPT could also interact with other WSSV envelope proteins such as VP32, VP38A, VP39B, and VP41A. The distribution of LvPT in tissues revealed that LvPT was mainly expressed in the stomach than in other tissues. In addition, LvPT was found to be a secretory protein, and its chitin-binding ability was also confirmed.

  2. Exceptional flexibility in the sequence requirements for coronavirus small envelope protein function.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Lili; Hurst, Kelley R; Masters, Paul S

    2007-03-01

    The small envelope protein (E) plays a role of central importance in the assembly of coronaviruses. This was initially established by studies demonstrating that cellular expression of only E protein and the membrane protein (M) was necessary and sufficient for the generation and release of virus-like particles. To investigate the role of E protein in the whole virus, we previously generated E gene mutants of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) that were defective in viral growth and produced aberrantly assembled virions. Surprisingly, however, we were also able to isolate a viable MHV mutant (DeltaE) in which the entire E gene, as well as the nonessential upstream genes 4 and 5a, were deleted. We have now constructed an E knockout mutant that confirms that the highly defective phenotype of the DeltaE mutant is due to loss of the E gene. Additionally, we have created substitution mutants in which the MHV E gene was replaced by heterologous E genes from viruses spanning all three groups of the coronavirus family. Group 2 and 3 E proteins were readily exchangeable for that of MHV. However, the E protein of a group 1 coronavirus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus, became functional in MHV only after acquisition of particular mutations. Our results show that proteins encompassing a remarkably diverse range of primary amino acid sequences can provide E protein function in MHV. These findings suggest that E protein facilitates viral assembly in a manner that does not require E protein to make sequence-specific contacts with M protein.

  3. Preparation of vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotype with Chikungunya virus envelope protein.

    PubMed

    Tong, W; Yin, X-X; Lee, B-J; Li, Y-G

    2015-06-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) in millions of people mainly in developing countries. CHIKF is characterized by high fever, fatigue, headache, nausea, vomiting, rash, myalgia and severe arthralgia. To date, there is no specific treatment and no licensed vaccine against CHIKV infection. In this study, we developed a safe, efficient and easy neutralization assay of CHIKV based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotype with CHIKV envelope protein and the green fluorescent protein (GFP) or luciferase as reporter gene, which could be used under a reduced safety level. The VSV pseudotype can be applied to the epidemic survey by measuring the expression of GFP or luciferase activity in infected cells. This system can also be used to study the mechanisms of virus entry.

  4. The Flavivirus Precursor Membrane-Envelope Protein Complex: Structure and Maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Long; Lok, Shee-Mei; Yu, I-Mei; Zhang, Ying; Kuhn, Richard J.; Chen, Jue; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2008-09-17

    Many viruses go through a maturation step in the final stages of assembly before being transmitted to another host. The maturation process of flaviviruses is directed by the proteolytic cleavage of the precursor membrane protein (prM), turning inert virus into infectious particles. We have determined the 2.2 angstrom resolution crystal structure of a recombinant protein in which the dengue virus prM is linked to the envelope glycoprotein E. The structure represents the prM-E heterodimer and fits well into the cryo-electron microscopy density of immature virus at neutral pH. The pr peptide {beta}-barrel structure covers the fusion loop in E, preventing fusion with host cell membranes. The structure provides a basis for identifying the stages of its pH-directed conformational metamorphosis during maturation, ending with release of pr when budding from the host.

  5. Enhanced proliferation of primary rat type II pneumocytes by Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus envelope protein

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Chassidy; Jahid, Sohail; Voelker, Dennis R.; Fan Hung

    2011-04-10

    Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is the causative agent of a contagious lung cancer in sheep. The envelope protein (Env) is the oncogene, as it can transform cell lines in culture and induce tumors in animals, although the mechanisms for transformation are not yet clear because a system to perform transformation assays in differentiated type II pneumocytes does not exist. In this study we report culture of primary rat type II pneumocytes in conditions that favor prolonged expression of markers for type II pneumocytes. Env-expressing cultures formed more colonies that were larger in size and were viable for longer periods of time compared to vector control samples. The cells that remained in culture longer were confirmed to be derived from type II pneumocytes because they expressed surfactant protein C, cytokeratin, displayed alkaline phosphatase activity and were positive for Nile red. This system will be useful to study JSRV Env in the targets of transformation.

  6. Oral and parenteral immunization of chickens (Gallus gallus) against West Nile virus with recombinant envelope protein

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fassbinder-Orth, C. A.; Hofmeister, E.K.; Weeks-Levy, C.; Karasov, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes morbidity and mortality in humans, horses, and in more than 315 bird species in North America. Currently approved WNV vaccines are designed for parenteral administration and, as yet, no effective oral WNV vaccines have been developed. WNV envelope (E) protein is a highly antigenic protein that elicits the majority of virus-neutralizing antibodies during a WNV immune response. Leghorn chickens were given three vaccinations (each 2 wk apart) of E protein orally (20 ??g or 100 ??g/dose), of E protein intramuscularly (IM, 20 ??g/dose), or of adjuvant only (control group) followed by a WNV challenge. Viremias were measured post-WNV infection, and three new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were developed for quantifying IgM, IgY, and IgA-mediated immune response of birds following WNV infection. WNV viremia levels were significantly lower in the IM group than in both oral groups and the control group. Total WNV E protein-specific IgY production was significantly greater, and WNV nonstructural 1-specific IgY was significantly less, in the IM group compared to all other treatment groups. The results of this study indicate that IM vaccination of chickens with E protein is protective against WNV infection and results in a significantly different antibody production profile as compared to both orally vaccinated and nonvaccinated birds. ?? 2009 American Association of Avian Pathologists.

  7. Proteomic analysis of Brucella abortus cell envelope and identification of immunogenic candidate proteins for vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Joseph P; Comerci, Diego; Alefantis, Timothy G; Walz, Alexander; Quan, Marian; Chafin, Ryan; Grewal, Paul; Mujer, Cesar V; Ugalde, Rodolfo A; DelVecchio, Vito G

    2006-07-01

    Brucella abortus is the etiologic agent of bovine brucellosis and causes a chronic disease in humans known as undulant fever. In livestock the disease is characterized by abortion and sterility. Live, attenuated vaccines such as S19 and RB51 have been used to control the spread of the disease in animals; however, they are considered unsafe for human use and they induce abortion in pregnant cattle. For the development of a safer and equally efficacious vaccine, immunoproteomics was utilized to identify novel candidate proteins from B. abortus cell envelope (CE). A total of 163 proteins were identified using 2-DE with MALDI-TOF MS and LC-MS/MS. Some of the major protein components include outer-membrane protein (OMP) 25, OMP31, Omp2b porin, and 60 kDa chaperonin GroEL. 2-DE Western blot analyses probed with antiserum from bovine and a human patient infected with Brucella identified several new immunogenic proteins such as fumarate reductase flavoprotein subunit, F0F1-type ATP synthase alpha subunit, and cysteine synthase A. The elucidation of the immunome of B. abortus CE identified a number of candidate proteins for developing vaccines against Brucella infection in bovine and humans.

  8. Atomic-level functional model of dengue virus Envelope protein infectivity.

    PubMed

    Christian, Elizabeth A; Kahle, Kristen M; Mattia, Kimberly; Puffer, Bridget A; Pfaff, Jennifer M; Miller, Adam; Paes, Cheryl; Davidson, Edgar; Doranz, Benjamin J

    2013-11-12

    A number of structures have been solved for the Envelope (E) protein from dengue virus and closely related flaviviruses, providing detailed pictures of the conformational states of the protein at different stages of infectivity. However, the key functional residues responsible for mediating the dynamic changes between these structures remain largely unknown. Using a comprehensive library of functional point mutations covering all 390 residues of the dengue virus E protein ectodomain, we identified residues that are critical for virus infectivity, but that do not affect E protein expression, folding, virion assembly, or budding. The locations and atomic interactions of these critical residues within different structures representing distinct fusogenic conformations help to explain how E protein (i) regulates fusion-loop exposure by shielding, tethering, and triggering its release; (ii) enables hinge movements between E domain interfaces during triggered structural transformations; and (iii) drives membrane fusion through late-stage zipper contacts with stem. These results provide structural targets for drug and vaccine development and integrate the findings from structural studies and isolated mutagenesis efforts into a cohesive model that explains how specific residues in this class II viral fusion protein enable virus infectivity.

  9. Analysis of jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) envelope protein domains in transformation.

    PubMed

    Hull, Stacey; Lim, Joohyun; Hamil, Alexander; Nitta, Takayuki; Fan, Hung

    2012-12-01

    Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is the causative agent of a transmissible lung cancer in sheep. A unique feature is that JSRV envelope protein is also the oncogene for this virus. Previous studies have identified the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of the envelope transmembrane (TM) protein as critical for transformation although other regions of Env have also been implicated. In this study, the roles of other Env regions in transformation were investigated. Chimeras between JSRV Env and the Env of a related non-oncogenic endogenous retrovirus (enJSRV, 5F16) were used. A chimera containing the membrane-spanning region (MSR) of enJSRV inserted into JSRV Env showed substantially reduced transformation, indicating that the MSR plays a role in transformation. Transformation by this chimera was highly dependent on both Ras/Raf/MEK/MAPK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling. A chimera containing the two amino acids in the TM ectodomain that distinguish JSRV and enJSRV showed modestly reduced transformation. Chimeras in the SU protein indicated that the amino terminal region of SU contributes to transformation, while the C-terminal part is not important. To test if Env trimerization is important for transformation, we mutated a leucine-rich sequence in the putative trimerization domain in the ectodomain of TM (Tri-M). This mutant could not transform cells and it did not oligomerize. However, Tri-M could complement a non-transforming mutant CT mutant (Y590F) so oligomerization is not necessary for at least some aspects of transformation. These experiments provide new insight into the regions and residues of JSRV Env protein necessary for oncogenic transformation.

  10. Specific nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins can promote the location of chromosomes to and from the nuclear periphery

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Different cell types have distinctive patterns of chromosome positioning in the nucleus. Although ectopic affinity-tethering of specific loci can be used to relocate chromosomes to the nuclear periphery, endogenous nuclear envelope proteins that control such a mechanism in mammalian cells have yet to be widely identified. Results To search for such proteins, 23 nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins were screened for their ability to promote peripheral localization of human chromosomes in HT1080 fibroblasts. Five of these proteins had strong effects on chromosome 5, but individual proteins affected different subsets of chromosomes. The repositioning effects were reversible and the proteins with effects all exhibited highly tissue-restricted patterns of expression. Depletion of two nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins that were preferentially expressed in liver each reduced the normal peripheral positioning of chromosome 5 in liver cells. Conclusions The discovery of nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins that can modulate chromosome position and have restricted patterns of expression may enable dissection of the functional relevance of tissue-specific patterns of radial chromosome positioning. PMID:23414781

  11. Intra-nuclear localization of two envelope proteins, gB and gD, of herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Stannard, L M; Himmelhoch, S; Wynchank, S

    1996-01-01

    precursor core proteins for both gB and gD are transported first to the nucleus, and then, together with maturing capsids, are targeted to the INM, and later inserted into viral envelopes at the site of budding. Post-translational glycosylation of envelope proteins could occur as virus particles exit the nucleus and travel through the ER and Golgi compartments.

  12. Contribution of Protein and Lipid Components to the Salt Response of Envelopes of an Extremely Halophilic Bacterium1

    PubMed Central

    Kushner, D. J.; Onishi, H.

    1966-01-01

    Kushner, D. J. (National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada), and H. Onishi. Contribution of protein and lipid components to the salt response of envelopes of an extremely halophilic bacterium. J. Bacteriol. 91:653–660. 1966.—Removal of protein from envelopes of Halobacterium cutirubrum by peptic digestion left residues that required little or no salt for stability. The salt requirement of envelopes was also lowered by incubation in 0.1 m MgCl2, and could be lowered even further by digestion with trypsin or chymotrypsin in 0.1 m MgCl2. Dissolution of envelopes in low salt concentrations made their protein more susceptible to attack by these and other proteolytic enzymes. Removal of lipids raised the requirement for divalent cations, particularly for Mg++; it slightly increased the Na+ requirement and did not affect the requirement for K+. It was concluded that the requirement for high salt concentrations in extreme halophiles is due to mutual repulsion between negatively charged groups on proteins rather than to repulsion between negatively charged phosphate groups on the lipids. The latter act primarily as sites on which divalent cations, especially Mg++ which is required in high concentrations by growing cells, are bound. In this manner, the phosphate groups support envelope structure. PMID:5327362

  13. Immunogenicity of a novel tetravalent vaccine formulation with four recombinant lipidated dengue envelope protein domain IIIs in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Chen-Yi; Pan, Chien-Hsiung; Chen, Mei-Yu; Hsieh, Chun-Hsiang; Tsai, Jy-Ping; Liu, Hsueh-Hung; Liu, Shih-Jen; Chong, Pele; Leng, Chih-Hsiang; Chen, Hsin-Wei

    2016-01-01

    We developed a novel platform to express high levels of recombinant lipoproteins with intrinsic adjuvant properties. Based on this technology, our group developed recombinant lipidated dengue envelope protein domain IIIs as vaccine candidates against dengue virus. This work aims to evaluate the immune responses in mice to the tetravalent formulation. We demonstrate that 4 serotypes of recombinant lipidated dengue envelope protein domain III induced both humoral and cellular immunity against all 4 serotypes of dengue virus on the mixture that formed the tetravalent formulation. Importantly, the immune responses induced by the tetravalent formulation in the absence of the exogenous adjuvant were functional in clearing the 4 serotypes of dengue virus in vivo. We affirm that the tetravalent formulation of recombinant lipidated dengue envelope protein domain III is a potential vaccine candidate against dengue virus and suggest further detailed studies of this formulation in nonhuman primates. PMID:27470096

  14. Immunogenicity of a novel tetravalent vaccine formulation with four recombinant lipidated dengue envelope protein domain IIIs in mice.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chen-Yi; Pan, Chien-Hsiung; Chen, Mei-Yu; Hsieh, Chun-Hsiang; Tsai, Jy-Ping; Liu, Hsueh-Hung; Liu, Shih-Jen; Chong, Pele; Leng, Chih-Hsiang; Chen, Hsin-Wei

    2016-01-01

    We developed a novel platform to express high levels of recombinant lipoproteins with intrinsic adjuvant properties. Based on this technology, our group developed recombinant lipidated dengue envelope protein domain IIIs as vaccine candidates against dengue virus. This work aims to evaluate the immune responses in mice to the tetravalent formulation. We demonstrate that 4 serotypes of recombinant lipidated dengue envelope protein domain III induced both humoral and cellular immunity against all 4 serotypes of dengue virus on the mixture that formed the tetravalent formulation. Importantly, the immune responses induced by the tetravalent formulation in the absence of the exogenous adjuvant were functional in clearing the 4 serotypes of dengue virus in vivo. We affirm that the tetravalent formulation of recombinant lipidated dengue envelope protein domain III is a potential vaccine candidate against dengue virus and suggest further detailed studies of this formulation in nonhuman primates. PMID:27470096

  15. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus envelope protein ion channel activity promotes virus fitness and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Torres, Jose L; DeDiego, Marta L; Verdiá-Báguena, Carmina; Jimenez-Guardeño, Jose M; Regla-Nava, Jose A; Fernandez-Delgado, Raul; Castaño-Rodriguez, Carlos; Alcaraz, Antonio; Torres, Jaume; Aguilella, Vicente M; Enjuanes, Luis

    2014-05-01

    Deletion of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) envelope (E) gene attenuates the virus. E gene encodes a small multifunctional protein that possesses ion channel (IC) activity, an important function in virus-host interaction. To test the contribution of E protein IC activity in virus pathogenesis, two recombinant mouse-adapted SARS-CoVs, each containing one single amino acid mutation that suppressed ion conductivity, were engineered. After serial infections, mutant viruses, in general, incorporated compensatory mutations within E gene that rendered active ion channels. Furthermore, IC activity conferred better fitness in competition assays, suggesting that ion conductivity represents an advantage for the virus. Interestingly, mice infected with viruses displaying E protein IC activity, either with the wild-type E protein sequence or with the revertants that restored ion transport, rapidly lost weight and died. In contrast, mice infected with mutants lacking IC activity, which did not incorporate mutations within E gene during the experiment, recovered from disease and most survived. Knocking down E protein IC activity did not significantly affect virus growth in infected mice but decreased edema accumulation, the major determinant of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) leading to death. Reduced edema correlated with lung epithelia integrity and proper localization of Na+/K+ ATPase, which participates in edema resolution. Levels of inflammasome-activated IL-1β were reduced in the lung airways of the animals infected with viruses lacking E protein IC activity, indicating that E protein IC function is required for inflammasome activation. Reduction of IL-1β was accompanied by diminished amounts of TNF and IL-6 in the absence of E protein ion conductivity. All these key cytokines promote the progression of lung damage and ARDS pathology. In conclusion, E protein IC activity represents a new determinant for SARS-CoV virulence. PMID:24788150

  16. Structural, Antigenic, and Evolutionary Characterizations of the Envelope Protein of Newly Emerging Duck Tembusu Virus

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bing; Ma, Xiuli; Li, Yufeng; Yuan, Xiaoyuan; Qin, Zhuoming; Wang, Dan; Chakravarty, Suvobrata; Li, Feng; Song, Minxun; Sun, Huaichang

    2013-01-01

    Since the first reported cases of ducks infected with a previously unknown flavivirus in eastern China in April 2010, the virus, provisionally designated Duck Tembusu Virus (DTMUV), has spread widely in domestic ducks in China and caused significant economic losses to poultry industry. In this study, we examined in detail structural, antigenic, and evolutionary properties of envelope (E) proteins of six DTMUV isolates spanning 2010–2012, each being isolated from individual farms with different geographical locations where disease outbreaks were documented. Structural analysis showed that E proteins of DTMUV and its closely related flavivirus (Japanese Encephalitis Virus) shared a conserved array of predicted functional domains and motifs. Among the six DTMUV strains, mutations were observed only at thirteen amino acid positions across three separate domains of the E protein. Interestingly, these genetic polymorphisms resulted in no detectable change in viral neutralization properties as demonstrated in a serum neutralization assay. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the E proteins showed that viruses evolved into two distinct genotypes, termed as DTMUV.I and DTMUV.II, with II emerging as the dominant genotype. New findings described here shall give insights into the antigenicity and evolution of this new pathogen and provide guidance for further functional studies of the E protein for which no effective vaccine has yet been developed. PMID:23990944

  17. Essential Role of Dengue Virus Envelope Protein N Glycosylation at Asparagine-67 during Viral Propagation▿

    PubMed Central

    Mondotte, Juan A.; Lozach, Pierre-Yves; Amara, Ali; Gamarnik, Andrea V.

    2007-01-01

    Dengue virus envelope protein (E) contains two N-linked glycosylation sites, at Asn-67 and Asn-153. The glycosylation site at position 153 is conserved in most flaviviruses, while the site at position 67 is thought to be unique for dengue viruses. N-linked oligosaccharide side chains on flavivirus E proteins have been associated with viral morphogenesis, infectivity, and tropism. Here, we examined the relevance of each N-linked glycan on dengue virus E protein by removing each site in the context of infectious viral particles. Dengue viruses lacking Asn-67 were able to infect mammalian cells and translate and replicate the viral genome, but production of new infectious particles was abolished. In addition, dengue viruses lacking Asn-153 in the E showed reduced infectivity. In contrast, ablation of one or both glycosylation sites yielded viruses that replicate and propagate in mosquito cells. Furthermore, we found a differential requirement of N-linked glycans for E secretion in mammalian and mosquito cells. While secretion of E lacking Asn-67 was efficient in mosquito cells, secretion of the same protein expressed in mammalian cells was dramatically impaired. Finally, we found that viruses lacking the carbohydrate at position 67 showed reduced infection of immature dendritic cells, suggesting interaction between this glycan and the lectin DC-SIGN. Overall, our data defined different roles for the two glycans present at the E protein during dengue virus infection, highlighting the involvement of distinct host functions from mammalian and mosquito cells during dengue virus propagation. PMID:17459925

  18. Loss of the integral nuclear envelope protein SUN1 induces alteration of nucleoli.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Ayaka; Sakamoto, Chiyomi; Matsumori, Haruka; Katahira, Jun; Yasuda, Yoko; Yoshidome, Katsuhide; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Goldberg, Ilya G; Matsuura, Nariaki; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi; Saitoh, Noriko; Hieda, Miki

    2016-01-01

    A supervised machine learning algorithm, which is qualified for image classification and analyzing similarities, is based on multiple discriminative morphological features that are automatically assembled during the learning processes. The algorithm is suitable for population-based analysis of images of biological materials that are generally complex and heterogeneous. Here we used the algorithm wndchrm to quantify the effects on nucleolar morphology of the loss of the components of nuclear envelope in a human mammary epithelial cell line. The linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex, an assembly of nuclear envelope proteins comprising mainly members of the SUN and nesprin families, connects the nuclear lamina and cytoskeletal filaments. The components of the LINC complex are markedly deficient in breast cancer tissues. We found that a reduction in the levels of SUN1, SUN2, and lamin A/C led to significant changes in morphologies that were computationally classified using wndchrm with approximately 100% accuracy. In particular, depletion of SUN1 caused nucleolar hypertrophy and reduced rRNA synthesis. Further, wndchrm revealed a consistent negative correlation between SUN1 expression and the size of nucleoli in human breast cancer tissues. Our unbiased morphological quantitation strategies using wndchrm revealed an unexpected link between the components of the LINC complex and the morphologies of nucleoli that serves as an indicator of the malignant phenotype of breast cancer cells. PMID:26962703

  19. Infectious Entry Pathway Mediated by the Human Endogenous Retrovirus K Envelope Protein

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Lindsey R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), the majority of which exist as degraded remnants of ancient viruses, comprise approximately 8% of the human genome. The youngest human ERVs (HERVs) belong to the HERV-K(HML-2) subgroup and were endogenized within the past 1 million years. The viral envelope protein (ENV) facilitates the earliest events of endogenization (cellular attachment and entry), and here, we characterize the requirements for HERV-K ENV to mediate infectious cell entry. Cell-cell fusion assays indicate that a minimum of two events are required for fusion, proteolytic processing by furin-like proteases and exposure to acidic pH. We generated an infectious autonomously replicating recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in which the glycoprotein was replaced by HERV-K ENV. HERV-K ENV imparts an endocytic entry pathway that requires dynamin-mediated membrane scission and endosomal acidification but is distinct from clathrin-dependent or macropinocytic uptake pathways. The lack of impediments to the replication of the VSV core in eukaryotic cells allowed us to broadly survey the HERV-K ENV-dictated tropism. Unlike extant betaretroviral envelopes, which impart a narrow species tropism, we found that HERV-K ENV mediates broad tropism encompassing cells from multiple mammalian and nonmammalian species. We conclude that HERV-K ENV dictates an evolutionarily conserved entry pathway and that the restriction of HERV-K to primate genomes reflects downstream stages of the viral replication cycle. IMPORTANCE Approximately 8% of the human genome is of retroviral origin. While many of those viral genomes have become inactivated, some copies of the most recently endogenized human retrovirus, HERV-K, can encode individual functional proteins. Here, we characterize the envelope protein (ENV) of the virus to define how it mediates infection of cells. We demonstrate that HERV-K ENV undergoes a proteolytic processing step and triggers membrane fusion in response to

  20. PSORTdb: expanding the bacteria and archaea protein subcellular localization database to better reflect diversity in cell envelope structures

    PubMed Central

    Peabody, Michael A.; Laird, Matthew R.; Vlasschaert, Caitlyn; Lo, Raymond; Brinkman, Fiona S.L.

    2016-01-01

    Protein subcellular localization (SCL) is important for understanding protein function, genome annotation, and has practical applications such as identification of potential vaccine components or diagnostic/drug targets. PSORTdb (http://db.psort.org) comprises manually curated SCLs for proteins which have been experimentally verified (ePSORTdb), as well as pre-computed SCL predictions for deduced proteomes from bacterial and archaeal complete genomes available from NCBI (cPSORTdb). We now report PSORTdb 3.0. It features improvements increasing user-friendliness, and further expands both ePSORTdb and cPSORTdb with a focus on improving protein SCL data in cases where it is most difficult—proteins associated with non-classical Gram-positive/Gram-negative/Gram-variable cell envelopes. ePSORTdb data curation was expanded, including adding in additional cell envelope localizations, and incorporating markers for cPSORTdb to automatically computationally identify if new genomes to be analysed fall into certain atypical cell envelope categories (i.e. Deinococcus-Thermus, Thermotogae, Corynebacteriales/Corynebacterineae, including Mycobacteria). The number of predicted proteins in cPSORTdb has increased from 3 700 000 when PSORTdb 2.0 was released to over 13 000 000 currently. PSORTdb 3.0 will be of wider use to researchers studying a greater diversity of monoderm or diderm microbes, including medically, agriculturally and industrially important species that have non-classical outer membranes or other cell envelope features. PMID:26602691

  1. Cell envelope of Bordetella pertussis: immunological and biochemical analyses and characterization of a major outer membrane porin protein

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    Surface molecules of Bordetella pertussis which may be important in metabolism, pathogenesis, and immunity to whooping cough were examined using cell fractionation and /sup 125/I cell surface labeling. Antigenic envelope proteins were examined by immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting procedures using monoclonal antibodies and convalescent sera. A surface protein with a high M/sub r/, missing in a mutant lacking the filamentous hemagglutinin, was identified in virulent Bordetella pertussis but was absent in virulent B. pertussis strains. At least three envelope proteins were found only in virulent B. pertussis strains and were absent or diminished in avirulent and most phenotypically modulated strains. Transposon-induced mutants unable to produce hemolysin, dermonecrotic toxin, pertussis toxin, and filamentous hemagglutinin also lacked these three envelope proteins, confirming that virulence-associated envelope proteins were genetically regulated with other virulence-associated traits. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed at least five heat modifiable proteins which migrated as higher or lower M/sub r/ moieties if solubilized at 25/sup 0/C instead of 100/sup 0/C.

  2. Role of the Antigenic Loop of the Hepatitis B Virus Envelope Proteins in Infectivity of Hepatitis Delta Virus

    PubMed Central

    Jaoudé, Georges Abou; Sureau, Camille

    2005-01-01

    The infectious particles of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) are coated with the large, middle, and small envelope proteins encoded by HBV. While it is clear that the N-terminal pre-S1 domain of the large protein, which is exposed at the virion surface, is implicated in binding to a cellular receptor at viral entry, the role in infectivity of the envelope protein antigenic loop, also exposed to the virion surface and accessible to neutralizing antibodies, remains to be established. In the present study, mutations were created in the antigenic loop of the three envelope proteins, and the resulting mutants were evaluated for their capacity to assist in the maturation and infectivity of HDV. We observed that short internal combined deletions and insertions, affecting residues 109 to 133 in the antigenic loop, were tolerated for secretion of both subviral HBV particles and HDV virions. However, when assayed for infectivity on primary cultures of human hepatocytes or on the recently described HepaRG cell line, virions carrying deletions between residues 118 and 129 were defective. Single amino acid substitutions in this region revealed that Gly-119, Pro-120, Cys-121, Arg-122, and Cys-124 were instrumental in viral entry. These results demonstrate that in addition to a receptor-binding site previously identified in the pre-S1 domain of the L protein, a determinant of infectivity resides in the antigenic loop of HBV envelope proteins. PMID:16051838

  3. Dystonin/Bpag1 is a necessary endoplasmic reticulum/nuclear envelope protein in sensory neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Kevin G.; Kothary, Rashmi

    2008-09-10

    Dystonin/Bpag1 proteins are cytoskeletal linkers whose loss of function in mice results in a hereditary sensory neuropathy with a progressive loss of limb coordination starting in the second week of life. These mice, named dystonia musculorum (dt), succumb to the disease and die of unknown causes prior to sexual maturity. Previous evidence indicated that cytoskeletal defects in the axon are a primary cause of dt neurodegeneration. However, more recent data suggests that other factors may be equally important contributors to the disease process. In the present study, we demonstrate perikaryal defects in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons at stages preceding the onset of loss of limb coordination in dt mice. Abnormalities include alterations in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone protein expression, indicative of an ER stress response. Dystonin in sensory neurons localized in association with the ER and nuclear envelope (NE). A fusion protein ofthe dystonin-a2 isoform, which harbors an N-terminal transmembrane domain, associated with and reorganized the ER in cell culture. This isoform also interacts with the NE protein nesprin-3{alpha}, but not nesprin-3{beta}. Defects in dt mice, as demonstrated here, may ultimately result in pathogenesis involving ER dysfunction and contribute significantly to the dt phenotype.

  4. Envelope protein VP24 from White spot syndrome virus: expression, purification and crystallization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lifang; Wu, Yunkun

    2016-08-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major shrimp pathogen known to infect penaeid shrimp and other crustaceans. VP24 is one of the major envelope proteins of WSSV. In order to facilitate purification, crystallization and structure determination, the predicted N-terminal transmembrane region of approximately 26 amino acids was truncated from VP24 and several mutants were prepared to increase the proportion of selenomethionine (SeMet) residues for subsequent structural determination using the SAD method. Truncated VP24, its mutants and the corresponding SeMet-labelled proteins were purified, and the native and SeMet proteins were crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals of VP24 were obtained using a reservoir consisting of 0.1 M Tris-HCl pH 8.5, 2.75 M ammonium acetate with a drop volume ratio of two parts protein solution to one part reservoir solution. Notably, ATP was added as a critical additive to the drop with a final concentration of 10 mM. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP24 mutant diffracted to 3.0 Å resolution and those of the native diffracted to 2.4 Å resolution; the crystals belonged to space group I213, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 140 Å. PMID:27487921

  5. Characterization and purification of recombinant bovine viral diarrhea virus particles with epitope-tagged envelope proteins.

    PubMed

    Wegelt, Anne; Reimann, Ilona; Granzow, Harald; Beer, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. The lipid membrane of the virions is supposed to contain the three glycosylated envelope proteins E(rns), E1 and E2, but detailed studies of virus assembly are complicated because no efficient purification method for pestiviruses has been described so far. In this study, we generated infectious BVDV with N-terminally FLAG-tagged E(rns) or E2 proteins, respectively. The expression of the epitope-tagged E(rns) and E2 proteins could be shown by immunofluorescence and Western blot experiments. Furthermore, an affinity tag purification protocol for the isolation and concentration of infectious BVDV was established. In the preparation with a titre of 10(8.75) TCID(50) ml(-1), spherical particles with a diameter of 43-58 nm (mean diameter: 48 nm) could be detected by negative staining electron microscopy, and immunogold labelling located both E(rns) and E2 proteins at the virus membrane.

  6. The 32-kilodalton envelope protein of vaccinia virus synthesized in Escherichia coli binds with specificity to cell surfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Lai, C F; Gong, S C; Esteban, M

    1991-01-01

    The nature of interaction between vaccinia virus and the surface of host cells as the first step in virus infection is undefined. A 32-kDa virus envelope protein has been identified as a cell surface binding protein (J.-S. Maa, J. F. Rodriguez, and M. Esteban, J. Biol. Chem. 265:1569-1577, 1990). To carry out studies on the structure-function relationship of this protein, the 32-kDa protein was obtained from Escherichia coli cells harboring the expression plasmid pT7Ek32. The recombinant polypeptide was found to have structural properties similar to those of the native virus envelope protein. Binding studies of 125I-labeled 32-kDa protein to cultured cells of various origins revealed that the E. coli-produced 32-kDa protein exhibited selectivity, specificity, and saturability. Scatchard analysis indicated about 4.5 x 10(4) sites per cell with a high affinity (Kd = 1.8 x 10(-9) M), suggesting interaction of the 32-kDa protein with a specific receptor. The availability of large quantities of the 32-kDa virus protein in bacteria will permit further structural and functional studies of this virus envelope protein and facilitate identification of the specific cell surface receptor. Images PMID:1985213

  7. The dengue virus type 2 envelope protein fusion peptide is essential for membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Claire Y.-H.; Butrapet, Siritorn; Moss, Kelly J.; Childers, Thomas; Erb, Steven M.; Calvert, Amanda E.; Silengo, Shawn J.; Kinney, Richard M.; Blair, Carol D.; Roehrig, John T.

    2010-01-20

    The flaviviral envelope (E) protein directs virus-mediated membrane fusion. To investigate membrane fusion as a requirement for virus growth, we introduced 27 unique mutations into the fusion peptide of an infectious cDNA clone of dengue 2 virus and recovered seven stable mutant viruses. The fusion efficiency of the mutants was impaired, demonstrating for the first time the requirement for specific FP AAs in optimal fusion. Mutant viruses exhibited different growth kinetics and/or genetic stabilities in different cell types and adult mosquitoes. Virus particles could be recovered following RNA transfection of cells with four lethal mutants; however, recovered viruses could not re-infect cells. These viruses could enter cells, but internalized virus appeared to be retained in endosomal compartments of infected cells, thus suggesting a fusion blockade. Mutations of the FP also resulted in reduced virus reactivity with flavivirus group-reactive antibodies, confirming earlier reports using virus-like particles.

  8. Monoclonal antibody targeting chikungunya virus envelope 1 protein inhibits virus release.

    PubMed

    Masrinoul, Promsin; Puiprom, Orapim; Tanaka, Atsushi; Kuwahara, Miwa; Chaichana, Panjaporn; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Okabayashi, Tamaki

    2014-09-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes an acute clinical illness characterized by sudden high fever, intense joint pain, and skin rash. Recent outbreaks of chikungunya disease in Africa and Asia are a major public health concern; however, there is currently no effective licensed vaccine or specific treatment. This study reported the development of a mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb), CK47, which recognizes domain III within the viral envelope 1 protein and inhibited the viral release process, thereby preventing the production of progeny virus. The MAb had no effect on virus entry and replication processes. Thus, CK47 may be a useful tool for studying the mechanisms underlying CHIKV release and may show potential as a therapeutic agent.

  9. Development and evaluation of baculovirus-expressed Chikungunya virus E1 envelope proteins for serodiagnosis of Chikungunya infection.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; Pok, Kwoon-Yong; Tan, Li-Kiang; Angela, Chow; Leo, Yee-Sin; Ng, Lee-Ching

    2014-09-01

    Population-based serosurveillance studies provide critical estimates on community-level immunity and the potential for future outbreaks. Currently, serological assays, such as IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and indirect immunofluorescence tests (IIFT) based on the inactivated whole virus are used to determine past Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. However, these commercially available tests have variable sensitivities. To develop and evaluate recombinant based CHIKV-specific IgG antibody capture ELISAs (GAC-ELISAs), baculoviruses carrying wild-type (E1-A226, named WT) or mutant (E1-A226V, named MUT) E1 envelope protein genes of CHIKV were generated. The seroreactivity of recombinant CHIKV WT and MUT envelope proteins were determined using residual blood, collected from CHIKV-confirmed patients. The sensitivities of both recombinant CHIKV envelope proteins were 83.0% as measured by GAC-ELISAs. The specificities of both recombinant proteins were 87.8%. These GAC-ELISAs were also able to detect the persistence of anti-CHIKV IgG antibodies up to 6 months after the disease onset, together with rise in sensitivities with increasing time. These results suggest that the baculovirus purified recombinant CHIKV envelope proteins react with anti-CHIKV IgG antibodies and may be useful in population-based seroprevalence surveys. In addition, these GAC-ELISAs offer good diagnostic value to determine the recent/past CHIKV infection status in non-endemic populations.

  10. Expression of Leukemia-Associated Nup98 Fusion Proteins Generates an Aberrant Nuclear Envelope Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Fahrenkrog, Birthe; Martinelli, Valérie; Nilles, Nadine; Fruhmann, Gernot; Chatel, Guillaume; Juge, Sabine; Sauder, Ursula; Di Giacomo, Danika; Mecucci, Cristina; Schwaller, Jürg

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations involving the nucleoporin NUP98 have been described in several hematopoietic malignancies, in particular acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In the resulting chimeric proteins, Nup98's N-terminal region is fused to the C-terminal region of about 30 different partners, including homeodomain (HD) transcription factors. While transcriptional targets of distinct Nup98 chimeras related to immortalization are relatively well described, little is known about other potential cellular effects of these fusion proteins. By comparing the sub-nuclear localization of a large number of Nup98 fusions with HD and non-HD partners throughout the cell cycle we found that while all Nup98 chimeras were nuclear during interphase, only Nup98-HD fusion proteins exhibited a characteristic speckled appearance. During mitosis, only Nup98-HD fusions were concentrated on chromosomes. Despite the difference in localization, all tested Nup98 chimera provoked morphological alterations in the nuclear envelope (NE), in particular affecting the nuclear lamina and the lamina-associated polypeptide 2α (LAP2α). Importantly, such aberrations were not only observed in transiently transfected HeLa cells but also in mouse bone marrow cells immortalized by Nup98 fusions and in cells derived from leukemia patients harboring Nup98 fusions. Our findings unravel Nup98 fusion-associated NE alterations that may contribute to leukemogenesis. PMID:27031510

  11. Expression of Leukemia-Associated Nup98 Fusion Proteins Generates an Aberrant Nuclear Envelope Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Fahrenkrog, Birthe; Martinelli, Valérie; Nilles, Nadine; Fruhmann, Gernot; Chatel, Guillaume; Juge, Sabine; Sauder, Ursula; Di Giacomo, Danika; Mecucci, Cristina; Schwaller, Jürg

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations involving the nucleoporin NUP98 have been described in several hematopoietic malignancies, in particular acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In the resulting chimeric proteins, Nup98's N-terminal region is fused to the C-terminal region of about 30 different partners, including homeodomain (HD) transcription factors. While transcriptional targets of distinct Nup98 chimeras related to immortalization are relatively well described, little is known about other potential cellular effects of these fusion proteins. By comparing the sub-nuclear localization of a large number of Nup98 fusions with HD and non-HD partners throughout the cell cycle we found that while all Nup98 chimeras were nuclear during interphase, only Nup98-HD fusion proteins exhibited a characteristic speckled appearance. During mitosis, only Nup98-HD fusions were concentrated on chromosomes. Despite the difference in localization, all tested Nup98 chimera provoked morphological alterations in the nuclear envelope (NE), in particular affecting the nuclear lamina and the lamina-associated polypeptide 2α (LAP2α). Importantly, such aberrations were not only observed in transiently transfected HeLa cells but also in mouse bone marrow cells immortalized by Nup98 fusions and in cells derived from leukemia patients harboring Nup98 fusions. Our findings unravel Nup98 fusion-associated NE alterations that may contribute to leukemogenesis.

  12. SUN proteins facilitate the removal of membranes from chromatin during nuclear envelope breakdown

    PubMed Central

    Turgay, Yagmur; Champion, Lysie; Balazs, Csaba; Held, Michael; Toso, Alberto; Gerlich, Daniel W.; Meraldi, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    SUN proteins reside in the inner nuclear membrane and form complexes with KASH proteins of the outer nuclear membrane that connect the nuclear envelope (NE) to the cytoskeleton. These complexes have well-established functions in nuclear anchorage and migration in interphase, but little is known about their involvement in mitotic processes. Our analysis demonstrates that simultaneous depletion of human SUN1 and SUN2 delayed removal of membranes from chromatin during NE breakdown (NEBD) and impaired the formation of prophase NE invaginations (PNEIs), similar to microtubule depolymerization or down-regulation of the dynein cofactors NudE/EL. In addition, overexpression of dominant-negative SUN and KASH constructs reduced the occurrence of PNEI, indicating a requirement for functional SUN–KASH complexes in NE remodeling. Codepletion of SUN1/2 slowed cell proliferation and resulted in an accumulation of morphologically defective and disoriented mitotic spindles. Quantification of mitotic timing revealed a delay between NEBD and chromatin separation, indicating a role of SUN proteins in bipolar spindle assembly and mitotic progression. PMID:24662567

  13. Duck tembusu virus and its envelope protein induce programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Shaozhou, Wulin; Li, Chenxi; Zhang, Qingshan; Meng, Runzhe; Gao, Youlan; Liu, Hongyu; Bai, Xiaofei; Chen, Yuhuan; Liu, Ming; Liu, Siguo; Zhang, Yun

    2015-08-01

    The cytopathic effect produced in cells infected with duck tembusu virus (DTMUV) suggests that this emerging virus may induce apoptosis in primary cultures of duck embryo fibroblasts (DEF). Here, we present evidence that DTMUV infection of cultured cells activates apoptosis and that the ability of DTMUV to induce apoptosis is not restricted to cell type because DTMUV-induced apoptosis in duck and mammalian host cells. We further investigated which viral components induce apoptosis in DTMUV-infected host cells. The major envelope glycoprotein (E) was investigated for its apoptotic activities in expressed cells. Transient expression of the E protein alone triggered apoptosis in DEF, Vero, and BHK cells. Expression of the E protein resulted in activation of caspase-3-like proteases in cultured cells. These results indicate that infection of cells with DTMUV or expression of DTMUV E protein alone induces apoptosis, providing the basis for future to define the molecules that play key roles in the fate of DTMUV-infected cells. PMID:26056013

  14. Recovery of West Nile Virus Envelope Protein Domain III Chimeras with Altered Antigenicity and Mouse Virulence

    PubMed Central

    McAuley, Alexander J.; Torres, Maricela; Plante, Jessica A.; Huang, Claire Y.-H.; Bente, Dennis A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Flaviviruses are positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses responsible for millions of human infections annually. The envelope (E) protein of flaviviruses comprises three structural domains, of which domain III (EIII) represents a discrete subunit. The EIII gene sequence typically encodes epitopes recognized by virus-specific, potently neutralizing antibodies, and EIII is believed to play a major role in receptor binding. In order to assess potential interactions between EIII and the remainder of the E protein and to assess the effects of EIII sequence substitutions on the antigenicity, growth, and virulence of a representative flavivirus, chimeric viruses were generated using the West Nile virus (WNV) infectious clone, into which EIIIs from nine flaviviruses with various levels of genetic diversity from WNV were substituted. Of the constructs tested, chimeras containing EIIIs from Koutango virus (KOUV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), and Bagaza virus (BAGV) were successfully recovered. Characterization of the chimeras in vitro and in vivo revealed differences in growth and virulence between the viruses, with in vivo pathogenesis often not being correlated with in vitro growth. Taken together, the data demonstrate that substitutions of EIII can allow the generation of viable chimeric viruses with significantly altered antigenicity and virulence. IMPORTANCE The envelope (E) glycoprotein is the major protein present on the surface of flavivirus virions and is responsible for mediating virus binding and entry into target cells. Several viable West Nile virus (WNV) variants with chimeric E proteins in which the putative receptor-binding domain (EIII) sequences of other mosquito-borne flaviviruses were substituted in place of the WNV EIII were recovered, although the substitution of several more divergent EIII sequences was not tolerated. The differences in virulence and tissue tropism observed with the chimeric

  15. Transmembrane protein TMEM170A is a newly discovered regulator of ER and nuclear envelope morphogenesis in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Christodoulou, Andri; Santarella-Mellwig, Rachel; Santama, Niovi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) morphogenesis is incompletely understood. ER tubules are shaped by the reticulons (RTNs) and DP1/Yop1p family members, but the mechanism of ER sheet formation is much less clear. Here, we characterize TMEM170A, a human transmembrane protein, which localizes in ER and nuclear envelope membranes. Silencing or overexpressing TMEM170A in HeLa K cells alters ER shape and morphology. Ultrastructural analysis reveals that downregulation of TMEM170A specifically induces tubular ER formation, whereas overexpression of TMEM170A induces ER sheet formation, indicating that TMEM170A is a newly discovered ER-sheet-promoting protein. Additionally, downregulation of TMEM170A alters nuclear shape and size, decreases the density of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) in the nuclear envelope and causes either a reduction in inner nuclear membrane (INM) proteins or their relocalization to the ER. TMEM170A interacts with RTN4, a member of the reticulon family; simultaneous co-silencing of TMEM170A and RTN4 rescues ER, NPC and nuclear-envelope-related phenotypes, implying that the two proteins have antagonistic effects on ER membrane organization, and nuclear envelope and NPC formation. PMID:26906412

  16. Structure based design towards the identification of novel binding sites and inhibitors for the chikungunya virus envelope proteins.

    PubMed

    Rashad, Adel A; Keller, Paul A

    2013-07-01

    Chikungunya virus is an emerging arbovirus that is widespread in tropical regions and is spreading quickly to temperate climates with recent epidemics in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas. It is having an increasingly major impact on humans with potentially life-threatening and debilitating arthritis. Thus far, neither vaccines nor medications are available to treat or control the virus and therefore, the development of medicinal chemistry is a vital and immediate issue that needs to be addressed. The viral envelope proteins play a major role during infection through mediation of binding and fusion with the infected cell surfaces. The possible binding target sites of the chikungunya virus envelope proteins have not previously been investigated; we describe here for the first time the identification of novel sites for potential binding on the chikungunya glycoprotein complexes and the identification of possible antagonists for these sites through virtual screening using two successive docking scores; FRED docking for fast precise screening, with the top hits then subjected to a ranking scoring using the AUTODOCK algorithm. Both the immature and the mature forms of the chikungunya envelope proteins were included in the study to increase the probability of finding positive and reliable hits. Some small molecules have been identified as good in silico chikungunya virus envelope proteins inhibitors and these could be good templates for drug design targeting this virus.

  17. Transmembrane protein TMEM170A is a newly discovered regulator of ER and nuclear envelope morphogenesis in human cells.

    PubMed

    Christodoulou, Andri; Santarella-Mellwig, Rachel; Santama, Niovi; Mattaj, Iain W

    2016-04-15

    The mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) morphogenesis is incompletely understood. ER tubules are shaped by the reticulons (RTNs) and DP1/Yop1p family members, but the mechanism of ER sheet formation is much less clear. Here, we characterize TMEM170A, a human transmembrane protein, which localizes in ER and nuclear envelope membranes. Silencing or overexpressing TMEM170A in HeLa K cells alters ER shape and morphology. Ultrastructural analysis reveals that downregulation of TMEM170A specifically induces tubular ER formation, whereas overexpression of TMEM170A induces ER sheet formation, indicating that TMEM170A is a newly discovered ER-sheet-promoting protein. Additionally, downregulation of TMEM170A alters nuclear shape and size, decreases the density of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) in the nuclear envelope and causes either a reduction in inner nuclear membrane (INM) proteins or their relocalization to the ER. TMEM170A interacts with RTN4, a member of the reticulon family; simultaneous co-silencing of TMEM170A and RTN4 rescues ER, NPC and nuclear-envelope-related phenotypes, implying that the two proteins have antagonistic effects on ER membrane organization, and nuclear envelope and NPC formation.

  18. Hepatitis delta virus: protein composition of delta antigen and its hepatitis B virus-derived envelope.

    PubMed Central

    Bonino, F; Heermann, K H; Rizzetto, M; Gerlich, W H

    1986-01-01

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV)-associated particles were purified from the serum of an experimentally infected chimpanzee by size chromatography and by density centrifugation. Hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) was detected after mild detergent treatment at a column elution volume corresponding to 36-nm particles and banded at a density of 1.25 g/ml. The serum had an estimated titer of 10(9) to 10(10) HDV-associated particles and had only a 10-fold excess of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) not associated with HDAg. Therefore, HDV appears to be much more efficiently packed and secreted than is its helper virus, hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is usually accompanied by a 1,000-fold excess of HBsAg. The protein compositions of the HDAg-containing particles were analyzed by immunoblotting with HDAg-, HBsAg-, and hepatitis B core antigen-specific antisera and monoclonal antibodies to HBV surface gene products. The HBsAg envelope of HDAg contained approximately 95% P24/GP27s, 5% GP33/36s, and 1% P39/GP42s proteins. This protein composition was more similar to that of the 22-nm particles of HBsAg than to that of complete HBV. The significant amount of GP33/36s suggests that the HBsAg component of the HDV-associated particle carries the albumin receptor. Two proteins of 27 and 29 kilodaltons which specifically bound antibody to HDAg but not HBV-specific antibodies were detected in the interior of the 36-nm particle. Since these proteins were structural components of HDAg and were most likely coded for by HDV, they were designated P27d and P29d. Images PMID:3701932

  19. Prm3p is a pheromone-induced peripheral nuclear envelope protein required for yeast nuclear fusion.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shu; Tobery, Cynthia E; Rose, Mark D

    2009-05-01

    Nuclear membrane fusion is the last step in the mating pathway of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We adapted a bioinformatics approach to identify putative pheromone-induced membrane proteins potentially required for nuclear membrane fusion. One protein, Prm3p, was found to be required for nuclear membrane fusion; disruption of PRM3 caused a strong bilateral defect, in which nuclear congression was completed but fusion did not occur. Prm3p was localized to the nuclear envelope in pheromone-responding cells, with significant colocalization with the spindle pole body in zygotes. A previous report, using a truncated protein, claimed that Prm3p is localized to the inner nuclear envelope. Based on biochemistry, immunoelectron microscopy and live cell microscopy, we find that functional Prm3p is a peripheral membrane protein exposed on the cytoplasmic face of the outer nuclear envelope. In support of this, mutations in a putative nuclear localization sequence had no effect on full-length protein function or localization. In contrast, point mutations and deletions in the highly conserved hydrophobic carboxy-terminal domain disrupted both protein function and localization. Genetic analysis, colocalization, and biochemical experiments indicate that Prm3p interacts directly with Kar5p, suggesting that nuclear membrane fusion is mediated by a protein complex.

  20. Rendezvin: An Essential Gene Encoding Independent, Differentially Secreted Egg Proteins That Organize the Fertilization Envelope Proteome after Self-Association

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Julian L.

    2006-01-01

    Preventing polyspermy during animal fertilization relies on modifications to the egg's extracellular matrix. On fertilization in sea urchins, the contents of cortical granules are secreted and rapidly assemble into the egg's extracellular vitelline layer, forming the fertilization envelope, a proteinaceous structure that protects the zygote from subsequent sperm. Here, we document rendezvin, a gene whose transcript is differentially spliced to yield proteins destined for either cortical granules or the vitelline layer. These distinctly trafficked variants reunite after cortical granule secretion at fertilization. Together, they help coordinate assembly of the functional fertilization envelope, whose proteome is now defined in full. PMID:17005910

  1. Bloch spin waves and emergent structure in protein folding with HIV envelope glycoprotein as an example.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jin; Niemi, Antti J; He, Jianfeng; Sieradzan, Adam; Ilieva, Nevena

    2016-03-01

    We inquire how structure emerges during the process of protein folding. For this we scrutinize collective many-atom motions during all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. We introduce, develop, and employ various topological techniques, in combination with analytic tools that we deduce from the concept of integrable models and structure of discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The example we consider is an α-helical subunit of the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp41. The helical structure is stable when the subunit is part of the biological oligomer. But in isolation, the helix becomes unstable, and the monomer starts deforming. We follow the process computationally. We interpret the evolving structure both in terms of a backbone based Heisenberg spin chain and in terms of a side chain based XY spin chain. We find that in both cases the formation of protein supersecondary structure is akin the formation of a topological Bloch domain wall along a spin chain. During the process we identify three individual Bloch walls and we show that each of them can be modelled with a precision of tenths to several angstroms in terms of a soliton solution to a discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. PMID:27078392

  2. Bloch spin waves and emergent structure in protein folding with HIV envelope glycoprotein as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Jin; Niemi, Antti J.; He, Jianfeng; Sieradzan, Adam; Ilieva, Nevena

    2016-03-01

    We inquire how structure emerges during the process of protein folding. For this we scrutinize collective many-atom motions during all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. We introduce, develop, and employ various topological techniques, in combination with analytic tools that we deduce from the concept of integrable models and structure of discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The example we consider is an α -helical subunit of the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp41. The helical structure is stable when the subunit is part of the biological oligomer. But in isolation, the helix becomes unstable, and the monomer starts deforming. We follow the process computationally. We interpret the evolving structure both in terms of a backbone based Heisenberg spin chain and in terms of a side chain based XY spin chain. We find that in both cases the formation of protein supersecondary structure is akin the formation of a topological Bloch domain wall along a spin chain. During the process we identify three individual Bloch walls and we show that each of them can be modelled with a precision of tenths to several angstroms in terms of a soliton solution to a discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  3. Structures of the Zika Virus Envelope Protein and Its Complex with a Flavivirus Broadly Protective Antibody.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lianpan; Song, Jian; Lu, Xishan; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Musyoki, Abednego Moki; Cheng, Huijun; Zhang, Yanfang; Yuan, Yuan; Song, Hao; Haywood, Joel; Xiao, Haixia; Yan, Jinghua; Shi, Yi; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Qi, Jianxun; Gao, George F

    2016-05-11

    Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is a current global public health concern. The flavivirus envelope (E) glycoprotein is responsible for virus entry and represents a major target of neutralizing antibodies for other flaviviruses. Here, we report the structures of ZIKV E protein at 2.0 Å and in complex with a flavivirus broadly neutralizing murine antibody 2A10G6 at 3.0 Å. ZIKV-E resembles all the known flavivirus E structures but contains a unique, positively charged patch adjacent to the fusion loop region of the juxtaposed monomer, which may influence host attachment. The ZIKV-E-2A10G6 complex structure reveals antibody recognition of a highly conserved fusion loop. 2A10G6 binds to ZIKV-E with high affinity in vitro and neutralizes currently circulating ZIKV strains in vitro and in mice. The E protein fusion loop epitope represents a potential candidate for therapeutic antibodies against ZIKV.

  4. Expression, purification and crystallization of two major envelope proteins from white spot syndrome virus

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Xuhua; Hew, Choy Leong

    2007-07-01

    The crystallization of the N-terminal transmembrane region-truncated VP26 and VP28 of white spot syndrome virus is described. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major virulent pathogen known to infect penaeid shrimp and other crustaceans. VP26 and VP28, two major envelope proteins from WSSV, have been identified and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. In order to facilitate purification and crystallization, predicted N-terminal transmembrane regions of approximately 35 amino acids have been truncated from both VP26 and VP28. Truncated VP26 and VP28 and their corresponding SeMet-labelled proteins were purified and the SeMet proteins were crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP26 were obtained using a reservoir consisting of 0.1 M citric acid pH 3.5, 3.0 M sodium chloride and 1%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350, whereas SeMet VP28 was crystallized using a reservoir solution consisting of 25% polyethylene glycol 8000, 0.2 M calcium acetate, 0.1 M Na HEPES pH 7.5 and 1.5%(w/v) 1,2,3-heptanetriol. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP26 diffract to 2.2 Å resolution and belong to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 73.92, c = 199.31 Å. SeMet-labelled VP28 crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 105.33, b = 106.71, c = 200.37 Å, and diffracts to 2.0 Å resolution.

  5. Expression, Purification, Crystallization of Two Major Envelope Proteins from White Spot Syndrome Virus

    SciTech Connect

    Tang,X.; Hew, C.

    2007-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major virulent pathogen known to infect penaeid shrimp and other crustaceans. VP26 and VP28, two major envelope proteins from WSSV, have been identified and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. In order to facilitate purification and crystallization, predicted N-terminal transmembrane regions of approximately 35 amino acids have been truncated from both VP26 and VP28. Truncated VP26 and VP28 and their corresponding SeMet-labelled proteins were purified and the SeMet proteins were crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP26 were obtained using a reservoir consisting of 0.1 M citric acid pH 3.5, 3.0 M sodium chloride and 1%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350, whereas SeMet VP28 was crystallized using a reservoir solution consisting of 25% polyethylene glycol 8000, 0.2 M calcium acetate, 0.1 M Na HEPES pH 7.5 and 1.5%(w/v) 1,2,3-heptanetriol. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP26 diffract to 2.2 {angstrom} resolution and belong to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 73.92, c = 199.31 {angstrom}. SeMet-labelled VP28 crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 105.33, b = 106.71, c = 200.37 {angstrom}, and diffracts to 2.0 {angstrom} resolution.

  6. Expression of African swine fever virus envelope protein j13L inhibits vaccinia virus morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, S C; Dixon, L K; Brookes, S M; Smith, G L

    1998-05-01

    The African swine fever virus (ASFV) strain Malawi LIL20/1 open reading frame (ORF) j13L was expressed in vaccinia virus (VV) from a strong synthetic late promoter as either a complete ORF (vSJ1) or lacking codons 1-31 (vSJ2). Each recombinant VV produced a small plaque which rapidly reverted to a normal size upon passage. The yield of infectious virus from a single cycle infection with vSJ1 or vSJ2 was reduced 50- to 100-fold compared to wild-type (wt) and a revertant virus (vSJ5) in which the j13L ORF was removed and the VV thymidine kinase gene restored. PCR analysis of nine spontaneous large plaque revertant viruses, recovered after passage of vSJ1 in BSC-40 cells, showed that six had lost the j13L ORF and the co-inserted beta-galactosidase gene. Three viruses retained the j13L and beta-galactosidase genes, but in each case the j13L protein was not expressed due to a different single base deletion near the 5' end of the j13L coding region which introduced a stop codon a short distance downstream. The formation of intracellular mature virus (IMV) and extracellular enveloped virus was reduced 50- to 75-fold in cells infected with vSJ1 compared to wt VV and revertant vSJ5. Electron microscopy showed aberrant IMV precursor structures in vSJ1-infected cells, and immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that these structures contained j13L protein. These results indicate that expression of the j13L protein is toxic for VV replication due to interference with VV morphogenesis prior to IMV formation.

  7. Surface Proteins of Gram-Positive Bacteria and Mechanisms of Their Targeting to the Cell Wall Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Navarre, William Wiley; Schneewind, Olaf

    1999-01-01

    The cell wall envelope of gram-positive bacteria is a macromolecular, exoskeletal organelle that is assembled and turned over at designated sites. The cell wall also functions as a surface organelle that allows gram-positive pathogens to interact with their environment, in particular the tissues of the infected host. All of these functions require that surface proteins and enzymes be properly targeted to the cell wall envelope. Two basic mechanisms, cell wall sorting and targeting, have been identified. Cell well sorting is the covalent attachment of surface proteins to the peptidoglycan via a C-terminal sorting signal that contains a consensus LPXTG sequence. More than 100 proteins that possess cell wall-sorting signals, including the M proteins of Streptococcus pyogenes, protein A of Staphylococcus aureus, and several internalins of Listeria monocytogenes, have been identified. Cell wall targeting involves the noncovalent attachment of proteins to the cell surface via specialized binding domains. Several of these wall-binding domains appear to interact with secondary wall polymers that are associated with the peptidoglycan, for example teichoic acids and polysaccharides. Proteins that are targeted to the cell surface include muralytic enzymes such as autolysins, lysostaphin, and phage lytic enzymes. Other examples for targeted proteins are the surface S-layer proteins of bacilli and clostridia, as well as virulence factors required for the pathogenesis of L. monocytogenes (internalin B) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (PspA) infections. In this review we describe the mechanisms for both sorting and targeting of proteins to the envelope of gram-positive bacteria and review the functions of known surface proteins. PMID:10066836

  8. Proteomics computational analyses suggest that hepatitis C virus E1 and pestivirus E2 envelope glycoproteins are truncated class II fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Garry, Robert F; Dash, Srikanta

    2003-03-15

    Class II fusion proteins encoded by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), dengue virus, and Semliki Forest virus have a fusion peptide located at the end of a rod-like molecule comprised of three antiparallel beta sheet domains. Proteomics computational analyses suggest that hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope glycoprotein E1 and pestivirus envelope glycoprotein E2 are truncated class II fusion proteins. Similarities were also detected between the receptor-binding portion of TBEV E and HCV E2, and between TBEV small membrane protein precursor prM and pestivirus E1. The proposed models of Flaviviridae envelope proteins can facilitate drug and vaccine development.

  9. Multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase is necessary for nuclear envelope breakdown

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The role of multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) in nuclear envelope breakdown (NEB) was investigated in sea urchin eggs. The eggs contain a 56-kD polypeptide which appears to be a homologue of neuronal CaM kinase. For example, it undergoes Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent autophosphorylation that converts it to a Ca2(+)-independent species, a hallmark of multifunctional CaM kinase. It is homologous to the alpha subunit of rat brain CaM kinase. Autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation by the sea urchin egg kinase are inhibited in vitro by CaMK(273-302), a synthetic peptide corresponding to the autoinhibitory domain of the neuronal CaM kinase. This peptide inhibited NEB when microinjected into sea urchin eggs. Only one mAb to the neuronal enzyme immunoprecipitated the 56-kD polypeptide. Only this antibody blocked or significantly delayed NEB when microinjected into sea urchin eggs. These results suggest that sea urchin eggs contain multifunctional CaM kinase, and that this enzyme is involved in the control of NEB during mitotic division. PMID:2229172

  10. Immunogenic Subviral Particles Displaying Domain III of Dengue 2 Envelope Protein Vectored by Measles Virus

    PubMed Central

    Harahap-Carrillo, Indira S.; Ceballos-Olvera, Ivonne; Reyes-del Valle, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines against dengue virus (DV) are commercially nonexistent. A subunit vaccination strategy may be of value, especially if a safe viral vector acts as biologically active adjuvant. In this paper, we focus on an immunoglobulin-like, independently folded domain III (DIII) from DV 2 envelope protein (E), which contains epitopes that elicits highly specific neutralizing antibodies. We modified the hepatitis B small surface antigen (HBsAg, S) in order to display DV 2 DIII on a virus-like particle (VLP), thus generating the hybrid antigen DIII-S. Two varieties of measles virus (MV) vectors were developed to express DIII-S. The first expresses the hybrid antigen from an additional transcription unit (ATU) and the second additionally expresses HBsAg from a separate ATU. We found that this second MV vectoring the hybrid VLPs displaying DIII-S on an unmodified HBsAg scaffold were immunogenic in MV-susceptible mice (HuCD46Ge-IFNarko), eliciting robust neutralizing responses (averages) against MV (1:1280 NT90), hepatitis B virus (787 mIU/mL), and DV2 (1:160 NT50) in all of the tested animals. Conversely, the MV vector expressing only DIII-S induced immunity against MV alone. In summary, DV2 neutralizing responses can be generated by displaying E DIII on a scaffold of HBsAg-based VLPs, vectored by MV. PMID:26350592

  11. Mutation analysis of the fusion domain region of St. Louis encephalitis virus envelope protein

    SciTech Connect

    Trainor, Nicole B.; Crill, Wayne D. . E-mail: wcrill@cdc.gov; Roberson, Jill A.; Chang, Gwong-Jen J.

    2007-04-10

    The immune response to flavivirus infections produces both species-specific and flavivirus cross-reactive antibodies. The presence of cross-reactive antibodies complicates serodiagnosis of flavivirus infections, especially secondary infections caused by a heterologous virus. A successful public health response to the growing global threat posed by flaviviruses necessitates the development of virus-specific diagnostic antigens. The flavivirus envelope (E) glycoprotein is the principle antigen stimulating protective immunity during infection. Using recombinant St. Louis encephalitis virus-like particles (VLPs), we have identified amino acid residues involved in flavivirus cross-reactive epitope determinants. Most significant among the residues studied are three highly conserved amino acids in the fusion peptide: Gly104, Gly106, and Leu107. Substitutions of these residues dramatically influenced VLP secretion and cross-reactive monoclonal antibody reactivity. These results provide critical insight into the antigenic structure of the flaviviral E protein and toward development of species-specific diagnostic antigens that should improve both flavivirus diagnosis and estimates of disease burden.

  12. De Novo Structural Modeling and Conserved Epitopes Prediction of Zika Virus Envelop Protein for Vaccine Development.

    PubMed

    Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Ahmed, Bilal

    2016-09-01

    Zika virus (Zika V) is a positive single-stranded RNA virus that is transmitted by mosquito bites. Zika V Envelop protein is antigenic and is involved in fusion and entry of viral particles into the cell. Till date, there is no vaccine and antiviral drug available against Zika V. Thus, there is a need to develop a vaccine against Zika V. This study was designed for the prediction of B cell and T cell epitopes that can be helpful in diagnosis and vaccine designing against this emerging threat. For this purpose, several B cell and T cell epitopes were predicted that are conserved among Zika virus genomes taken from 12 different countries. Peptides QTLTPVGRL, in case of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, and IRCIGVSNRDFV, in case of MHC class II, are highly antigenic among T cell epitopes. Molecular docking was performed to study the interactions of B cell epitopes with HLA-B7. However, these predicted epitopes could play a constructive role in designing of a vaccine against Zika V.

  13. Immunogenic Subviral Particles Displaying Domain III of Dengue 2 Envelope Protein Vectored by Measles Virus.

    PubMed

    Harahap-Carrillo, Indira S; Ceballos-Olvera, Ivonne; Valle, Jorge Reyes-Del

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines against dengue virus (DV) are commercially nonexistent. A subunit vaccination strategy may be of value, especially if a safe viral vector acts as biologically active adjuvant. In this paper, we focus on an immunoglobulin-like, independently folded domain III (DIII) from DV 2 envelope protein (E), which contains epitopes that elicits highly specific neutralizing antibodies. We modified the hepatitis B small surface antigen (HBsAg, S) in order to display DV 2 DIII on a virus-like particle (VLP), thus generating the hybrid antigen DIII-S. Two varieties of measles virus (MV) vectors were developed to express DIII-S. The first expresses the hybrid antigen from an additional transcription unit (ATU) and the second additionally expresses HBsAg from a separate ATU. We found that this second MV vectoring the hybrid VLPs displaying DIII-S on an unmodified HBsAg scaffold were immunogenic in MV-susceptible mice (HuCD46Ge-IFNar(k)(o)), eliciting robust neutralizing responses (averages) against MV (1:1280 NT90), hepatitis B virus (787 mIU/mL), and DV2 (1:160 NT50) in all of the tested animals. Conversely, the MV vector expressing only DIII-S induced immunity against MV alone. In summary, DV2 neutralizing responses can be generated by displaying E DIII on a scaffold of HBsAg-based VLPs, vectored by MV. PMID:26350592

  14. [Envelope protein of Jaagsiekte sheep retrovious expressed in NIH3T3 cells promotes cell proliferation].

    PubMed

    DU, Fangyuan; Chen, Dayong; Zhang, Yufei; Sun, Xiaolin; Guo, Wenqing; Liu, Shuying

    2016-09-01

    Objective To explore the influence of the exogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovious (exJSRV) envelope protein (Env) on NIH3T3 cell proliferation. Methods A recombinant plasmid pcDNA4/myc-His/exJSRV- env carrying exJSRV- env gene was constructed, and then the correctness of the recombinant plasmid was identified by PCR, restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing. The recombinant plasmid pcDNA4/myc-His/exJSRV- env was transiently transfected into NIH3T3 cells by Lipofectamine(TM) LTX. After the transfection of the recombinant plasmid, the expression of exJSRV- env was detected by reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting. The effect of Env on cell proliferation was investigated by CCK-8 assay and plate colony formation assay. Results The recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid containing exJSRV- env was successfully constructed as identified by PCR, restriction enzyme identification and sequencing. After the recombinant plasmid was transiently transfected into NIH3T3 cells, reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting showed the expression of exJSRV- env , and Env promoted NIH3T3 cell proliferation significantly. Conclusion JSRV Env was expressed successfully in the NIH3T3 cells and promoted the proliferation of NIH3T3 cells. PMID:27609573

  15. Crystal Structures of Major Envelope Proteins VP26 and VP28 from White Spot Syndrome Virus Shed Light on Their Evolutionary Relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Tang,X.; Wu, J.; Sivaraman, J.; Hew, C.

    2007-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a virulent pathogen known to infect various crustaceans. It has bacilliform morphology with a tail-like appendage at one end. The envelope consists of four major proteins. Envelope structural proteins play a crucial role in viral infection and are believed to be the first molecules to interact with the host. Here, we report the localization and crystal structure of major envelope proteins VP26 and VP28 from WSSV at resolutions of 2.2 and 2.0 {angstrom}, respectively. These two proteins alone account for approximately 60% of the envelope, and their structures represent the first two structural envelope proteins of WSSV. Structural comparisons among VP26, VP28, and other viral proteins reveal an evolutionary relationship between WSSV envelope proteins and structural proteins from other viruses. Both proteins adopt {beta}-barrel architecture with a protruding N-terminal region. We have investigated the localization of VP26 and VP28 using immunoelectron microscopy. This study suggests that VP26 and VP28 are located on the outer surface of the virus and are observed as a surface protrusion in the WSSV envelope, and this is the first convincing observation for VP26. Based on our studies combined with the literature, we speculate that the predicted N-terminal transmembrane region of VP26 and VP28 may anchor on the viral envelope membrane, making the core {beta}-barrel protrude outside the envelope, possibly to interact with the host receptor or to fuse with the host cell membrane for effective transfer of the viral infection. Furthermore, it is tempting to extend this host interaction mode to other structural viral proteins of similar structures. Our finding has the potential to extend further toward drug and vaccine development against WSSV.

  16. The intracellular production and secretion of HIV-1 envelope protein in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Scorer, C A; Buckholz, R G; Clare, J J; Romanos, M A

    1993-12-22

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein, gp120 (ENV), is required in large quantities for immunological studies and as a potential vaccine component. We have expressed the DNA encoding gp120 in a highly efficient expression system based on the methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris. The native gene was found to contain a sequence which resembled a Saccharomyces cerevisiae polyadenylation consensus and acted as a premature polyadenylation site in P. pastoris, resulting in the production of truncated mRNA. As full-length mRNA was produced in S. cerevisiae, this indicates differences in mRNA 3'-end formation between the two yeasts. Inactivation of this site by site-directed mutagenesis revealed several additional fortuitous polyadenylation sites within the gene. We have designed and constructed a 69%-synthetic gene with increased G + C content which overcomes this transcriptional problem, giving rise to full-length mRNA. High levels of intracellular, insoluble, unglycosylated ENV were produced [1.25 mg/ml in high-density (2 x 10(10) cells per ml) fermentations]. ENV also was secreted from P. pastoris using the S. cerevisiae alpha-factor prepro secretion leader and the S. cerevisiae invertase signal sequence. However, a high proportion of the secreted product was found to be hyperglycosylated, in contrast to other foreign proteins secreted from P. pastoris. There also was substantial proteolytic degradation, but this was minimized by maintaining a low pH on induction. Insoluble, yeast-derived ENV proteins are being considered as vaccine antigens and the P. pastoris system offers an efficient method of production. PMID:8293993

  17. Nuclear envelope proteins modulate proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells during cyclic stretch application.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ying-Xin; Yao, Qing-Ping; Huang, Kai; Shi, Qian; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Guo-Liang; Han, Yue; Bao, Han; Wang, Lu; Li, Hai-Peng; Shen, Bao-Rong; Wang, Yingxiao; Chien, Shu; Jiang, Zong-Lai

    2016-05-10

    Cyclic stretch is an important inducer of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, which is crucial in vascular remodeling during hypertension. However, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. We studied the effects of emerin and lamin A/C, two important nuclear envelope proteins, on VSMC proliferation in hypertension and the underlying mechano-mechanisms. In common carotid artery of hypertensive rats in vivo and in cultured cells subjected to high (15%) cyclic stretch in vitro, VSMC proliferation was increased significantly, and the expression of emerin and lamin A/C was repressed compared with normotensive or normal (5%) cyclic stretch controls. Using targeted siRNA to mimic the repressed expression of emerin or lamin A/C induced by 15% stretch, we found that VSMC proliferation was enhanced under static and 5%-stretch conditions. Overexpression of emerin or lamin A/C reversed VSMC proliferation induced by 15% stretch. Hence, emerin and lamin A/C play critical roles in suppressing VSMC hyperproliferation induced by hyperstretch. ChIP-on-chip and MOTIF analyses showed that the DNAs binding with emerin contain three transcription factor motifs: CCNGGA, CCMGCC, and ABTTCCG; DNAs binding with lamin A/C contain the motifs CVGGAA, GCCGCYGC, and DAAGAAA. Protein/DNA array proved that altered emerin or lamin A/C expression modulated the activation of various transcription factors. Furthermore, accelerating local expression of emerin or lamin A/C reversed cell proliferation in the carotid artery of hypertensive rats in vivo. Our findings establish the pathogenetic role of emerin and lamin A/C repression in stretch-induced VSMC proliferation and suggest mechanobiological mechanism underlying this process that involves the sequence-specific binding of emerin and lamin A/C to specific transcription factor motifs.

  18. Nuclear envelope proteins modulate proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells during cyclic stretch application

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Ying-Xin; Yao, Qing-Ping; Huang, Kai; Shi, Qian; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Guo-Liang; Han, Yue; Bao, Han; Wang, Lu; Li, Hai-Peng; Shen, Bao-Rong; Wang, Yingxiao; Chien, Shu; Jiang, Zong-Lai

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic stretch is an important inducer of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, which is crucial in vascular remodeling during hypertension. However, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. We studied the effects of emerin and lamin A/C, two important nuclear envelope proteins, on VSMC proliferation in hypertension and the underlying mechano-mechanisms. In common carotid artery of hypertensive rats in vivo and in cultured cells subjected to high (15%) cyclic stretch in vitro, VSMC proliferation was increased significantly, and the expression of emerin and lamin A/C was repressed compared with normotensive or normal (5%) cyclic stretch controls. Using targeted siRNA to mimic the repressed expression of emerin or lamin A/C induced by 15% stretch, we found that VSMC proliferation was enhanced under static and 5%-stretch conditions. Overexpression of emerin or lamin A/C reversed VSMC proliferation induced by 15% stretch. Hence, emerin and lamin A/C play critical roles in suppressing VSMC hyperproliferation induced by hyperstretch. ChIP-on-chip and MOTIF analyses showed that the DNAs binding with emerin contain three transcription factor motifs: CCNGGA, CCMGCC, and ABTTCCG; DNAs binding with lamin A/C contain the motifs CVGGAA, GCCGCYGC, and DAAGAAA. Protein/DNA array proved that altered emerin or lamin A/C expression modulated the activation of various transcription factors. Furthermore, accelerating local expression of emerin or lamin A/C reversed cell proliferation in the carotid artery of hypertensive rats in vivo. Our findings establish the pathogenetic role of emerin and lamin A/C repression in stretch-induced VSMC proliferation and suggest mechanobiological mechanism underlying this process that involves the sequence-specific binding of emerin and lamin A/C to specific transcription factor motifs. PMID:27114541

  19. AT_CHLORO, a Comprehensive Chloroplast Proteome Database with Subplastidial Localization and Curated Information on Envelope Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Myriam; Brugière, Sabine; Salvi, Daniel; Seigneurin-Berny, Daphné; Court, Magali; Moyet, Lucas; Ramus, Claire; Miras, Stéphane; Mellal, Mourad; Le Gall, Sophie; Kieffer-Jaquinod, Sylvie; Bruley, Christophe; Garin, Jérôme; Joyard, Jacques; Masselon, Christophe; Rolland, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the proteomics field have allowed a series of high throughput experiments to be conducted on chloroplast samples, and the data are available in several public databases. However, the accurate localization of many chloroplast proteins often remains hypothetical. This is especially true for envelope proteins. We went a step further into the knowledge of the chloroplast proteome by focusing, in the same set of experiments, on the localization of proteins in the stroma, the thylakoids, and envelope membranes. LC-MS/MS-based analyses first allowed building the AT_CHLORO database (http://www.grenoble.prabi.fr/protehome/grenoble-plant-proteomics/), a comprehensive repertoire of the 1323 proteins, identified by 10,654 unique peptide sequences, present in highly purified chloroplasts and their subfractions prepared from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. This database also provides extensive proteomics information (peptide sequences and molecular weight, chromatographic retention times, MS/MS spectra, and spectral count) for a unique chloroplast protein accurate mass and time tag database gathering identified peptides with their respective and precise analytical coordinates, molecular weight, and retention time. We assessed the partitioning of each protein in the three chloroplast compartments by using a semiquantitative proteomics approach (spectral count). These data together with an in-depth investigation of the literature were compiled to provide accurate subplastidial localization of previously known and newly identified proteins. A unique knowledge base containing extensive information on the proteins identified in envelope fractions was thus obtained, allowing new insights into this membrane system to be revealed. Altogether, the data we obtained provide unexpected information about plastidial or subplastidial localization of some proteins that were not suspected to be associated to this membrane system. The spectral counting-based strategy was further

  20. Identification and characterization of a prawn white spot syndrome virus gene that encodes an envelope protein VP31

    SciTech Connect

    Li Li; Xie Xixian; Yang Feng . E-mail: mbiotech@public.xm.fj.cn

    2005-09-15

    Based on a combination of SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry, a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 31 kDa (termed as VP31) was identified from purified shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) envelope fraction. The resulting amino acid (aa) sequence matched an open reading frame (WSV340) of the WSSV genome. This ORF contained 783 nucleotides (nt), encoding 261 aa. A fragment of WSV340 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein with a 6His-tag, and then specific antibody was raised. Western blot analysis and the immunoelectron microscope method (IEM) confirmed that VP31 was present exclusively in the viral envelope fraction. The neutralization experiment suggested that VP31 might play an important role in WSSV infectivity.

  1. The transmembrane protein of HIV-1 primary isolates modulates cell surface expression of their envelope glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Lebigot, S; Roingeard, P; Thibault, G; Lemiale, F; Verrier, B; Barin, F; Brand, D

    2001-11-10

    We have recently shown that the level of cell surface expression of envelope glycoproteins derived from various human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) primary isolates (PI) was lower than those of envelope glycoproteins derived from T-cell laboratory-adapted (TCLA) HIV-1 (D. Brand et al., 2000, Virology 271, 350-362). We investigated this phenomenon by comparing the cell surface expression of chimeric envelope glycoproteins constructed by swapping the gp120 surface and gp41 transmembrane glycoproteins of the TCLA HIV-1MN and the PI HIV-1(133), HIV-1G365, or HIV-1EFRA. We found that each chimeric envelope construct had a cell surface-specific pattern of expression similar to that of the parental envelope glycoproteins corresponding to the gp41. Thus, the difference in cell surface expression observed between TCLA viruses and various PI is probably due to a signal located in gp41. Identification of this signal may be important for the design of PI envelope-derived immunogens and may increase our understanding of the mechanisms by which HIV-1 escapes from the immune system.

  2. Equine Tetherin Blocks Retrovirus Release and Its Activity Is Antagonized by Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Envelope Protein

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xin; Hu, Zhe; Gu, Qinyong; Wu, Xingliang; Zheng, Yong-Hui; Wei, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Human tetherin is a host restriction factor that inhibits replication of enveloped viruses by blocking viral release. Tetherin has an unusual topology that includes an N-terminal cytoplasmic tail, a single transmembrane domain, an extracellular domain, and a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. Tetherin is not well conserved across species, so it inhibits viral replication in a species-specific manner. Thus, studies of tetherin activities from different species provide an important tool for understanding its antiviral mechanism. Here, we report cloning of equine tetherin and characterization of its antiviral activity. Equine tetherin shares 53%, 40%, 36%, and 34% amino acid sequence identity with feline, human, simian, and murine tetherins, respectively. Like the feline tetherin, equine tetherin has a shorter N-terminal domain than human tetherin. Equine tetherin is localized on the cell surface and strongly blocks human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) release from virus-producing cells. The antiviral activity of equine tetherin is neutralized by EIAV envelope protein, but not by the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu, which is a human tetherin antagonist, and EIAV envelope protein does not counteract human tetherin. These results shed new light on our understanding of the species-specific tetherin antiviral mechanism. PMID:24227834

  3. Exogenous hepatitis B virus envelope proteins induce endoplasmic reticulum stress: involvement of cannabinoid axis in liver cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Montalbano, Roberta; Honrath, Birgit; Wissniowski, Thaddeus Till; Elxnat, Moritz; Roth, Silvia; Ocker, Matthias; Quint, Karl; Churin, Yuri; Roederfeld, Martin; Schroeder, Dirk; Glebe, Dieter; Roeb, Elke; Fazio, Pietro Di

    2016-01-01

    HBV represents the most common chronic viral infection and major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), although its exact role in liver tumorigenesis is unclear. Massive storage of the small (SHBs), middle (MHBs) and large surface (LHBs) HBV envelope proteins leads to cell stress and sustained inflammatory responses. Cannabinoid (CB) system is involved in the pathogenesis of liver diseases, stimulating acute and chronic inflammation, liver damage and fibrogenesis; it triggers endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. The aim of our work was to investigate the activation of ER stress pathway after ectopic HBV envelope proteins expression, in liver cancer cells, and the role exerted by CB receptors. PCR, immunofluorescence and western blotting showed that exogenous LHBs and MHBs induce a clear ER stress response in Huh-7 cells expressing CB1 receptor. Up-regulation of the chaperone BiP/GRP78 (Binding Immunoglobulin Protein/Glucose-Regulated Protein 78) and of the transcription factor CHOP/GADD153 (C/EBP Homologous Protein/Growth Arrest and DNA Damage inducible gene 153), phosphorylation of PERK (PKR-like ER Kinase) and eIF2α (Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α) and splicing of XBP1 (X-box binding protein 1) was observed. CB1−/− HepG2 cells did not show any ER stress activation. Inhibition of CB1 receptor counteracted BiP expression in transfected Huh-7 and in HBV+ PLC/PRF/5 cells; whereas no effect was observed in HBV− HLF cells. These results suggest that HBV envelope proteins are able to induce the ER stress pathway. CB1 expression is directly correlated with ER stress function. Further investigations are needed to clarify the involvement of cannabinoid in HCC progression after HBV infection. PMID:26967385

  4. Use of vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotypes bearing hantaan or seoul virus envelope proteins in a rapid and safe neutralization test.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Michiko; Ebihara, Hideki; Lee, Byoung-Hee; Araki, Koichi; Lundkvist, Ake; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro

    2003-01-01

    A vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotype bearing hantavirus envelope glycoproteins was produced and used in a neutralization test as a substitute for native hantavirus. The recombinant VSV, in which the enveloped protein gene (G) was replaced by the green fluorescent protein gene and complemented with G protein expressed in trans (VSVDeltaG*G), was kindly provided by M. A. Whitt. 293T cells were transfected with plasmids for the expression of envelope glycoproteins (G1 and G2) of HTNV or SEOV and were then infected with VSVDeltaG*G. Pseudotype VSV with the Hantaan (VSVDeltaG*-HTN) or Seoul (VSVDeltaG*-SEO) envelope glycoproteins were harvested from the culture supernatant. The number of infectious units (IU) of the pseudotype VSVs ranged from 10(5) to 10(6)/ml. The infectivity of VSVDeltaG*-HTN and VSVDeltaG*-SEO was neutralized with monoclonal antibodies, immune rabbit sera, and sera from patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, and the neutralizing titers were similar to those obtained with native hantaviruses. These results show that VSVDeltaG*-HTN and -SEO can be used as a rapid, specific, and safe neutralization test for detecting hantavirus-neutralizing antibodies as an effective substitute for the use of native hantaviruses. Furthermore, the IU of VSVDeltaG*-HTN and -SEO did not decrease by more than 10-fold when stored at 4 degrees C for up to 30 days. The stability of the pseudotype viruses allows distribution of the material to remote areas by using conventional cooling boxes for use as a diagnostic reagent.

  5. ANALYSIS OF TWO MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES REACTIVE WITH ENVELOPE PROTEINS OF MURINE RETROVIRUSES: ONE PAN SPECIFIC ANTIBODY AND ONE SPECIFIC FOR MOLONEY LEUKEMIA VIRUS

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Leonard H.; Boi, Stefano; Malik, Frank; Wehrly, Kathy; Peterson, Karin E.; Chesebro, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Many monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reactive with various proteins of murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) have been developed. In this report two additional MAbs with differing and unusual specificities are described. MAb 573 is reactive with the envelope protein of all MuLVs tested including viruses in the ecotropic, xenotropic, polytropic and amphotropic classes. Notably, MAb 573 is one of only two reported MAbs that react with the envelope protein of amphotropic MuLVs. This MAb appears to recognize a conformational epitope within the envelope protein, as it reacts strongly with live virus and live infected cells, but does not react with formalin-fixed or alcohol-fixed infected cells or denatured viral envelope protein in immunoblots. In contrast, Mab 538 reacts only with an epitope unique to the envelope protein of the Moloney (Mo-) strain of MuLV, a prototypic ecotropic MuLV that is the basis for many retroviral tools used in molecular biology. MAb 538 can react with live cells and viruses, or detergent denatured or fixed envelope protein. The derivation of these antibodies as well as their characterization with regard to their isotype, range of reactivity with different MuLVs and utility in different immunological procedures are described in this study. PMID:24556162

  6. Structural protein 4.1R is integrally involved in nuclear envelope protein localization, centrosome–nucleus association and transcriptional signaling

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Adam J.; Almendrala, Donna K.; Go, Minjoung M.; Krauss, Sharon Wald

    2011-01-01

    The multifunctional structural protein 4.1R is required for assembly and maintenance of functional nuclei but its nuclear roles are unidentified. 4.1R localizes within nuclei, at the nuclear envelope, and in cytoplasm. Here we show that 4.1R, the nuclear envelope protein emerin and the intermediate filament protein lamin A/C co-immunoprecipitate, and that 4.1R-specific depletion in human cells by RNA interference produces nuclear dysmorphology and selective mislocalization of proteins from several nuclear subcompartments. Such 4.1R-deficiency causes emerin to partially redistribute into the cytoplasm, whereas lamin A/C is disorganized at nuclear rims and displaced from nucleoplasmic foci. The nuclear envelope protein MAN1, nuclear pore proteins Tpr and Nup62, and nucleoplasmic proteins NuMA and LAP2α also have aberrant distributions, but lamin B and LAP2β have normal localizations. 4.1R-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts show a similar phenotype. We determined the functional effects of 4.1R-deficiency that reflect disruption of the association of 4.1R with emerin and A-type lamin: increased nucleus–centrosome distances, increased β-catenin signaling, and relocalization of β-catenin from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. Furthermore, emerin- and lamin-A/C-null cells have decreased nuclear 4.1R. Our data provide evidence that 4.1R has important functional interactions with emerin and A-type lamin that impact upon nuclear architecture, centrosome–nuclear envelope association and the regulation of β-catenin transcriptional co-activator activity that is dependent on β-catenin nuclear export. PMID:21486941

  7. Prohibitin Interacts with envelope proteins of white spot syndrome virus and prevents infection in the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii.

    PubMed

    Lan, Jiang-Feng; Li, Xin-Cang; Sun, Jie-Jie; Gong, Jing; Wang, Xian-Wei; Shi, Xiu-Zhen; Shi, Li-Jie; Weng, Yu-Ding; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2013-12-01

    Prohibitins (PHBs) are ubiquitously expressed conserved proteins in eukaryotes that are associated with apoptosis, cancer formation, aging, stress responses, cell proliferation, and immune regulation. However, the function of PHBs in crustacean immunity remains largely unknown. In the present study, we identified a PHB in Procambarus clarkii red swamp crayfish, which was designated PcPHB1. PcPHB1 was widely distributed in several tissues, and its expression was significantly upregulated by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge at the mRNA level and the protein level. These observations prompted us to investigate the role of PcPHB1 in the crayfish antiviral response. Recombinant PcPHB1 (rPcPHB1) significantly reduced the amount of WSSV in crayfish and the mortality of WSSV-infected crayfish. The quantity of WSSV in PcPHB1 knockdown crayfish was increased compared with that in the controls. The effects of RNA silencing were rescued by rPcPHB1 reinjection. We further confirmed the interaction of PcPHB1 with the WSSV envelope proteins VP28, VP26, and VP24 using pulldown and far-Western overlay assays. Finally, we observed that the colloidal gold-labeled PcPHB1 was located on the outer surface of the WSSV, which suggests that PcPHB1 specifically binds to the envelope proteins of WSSV. VP28, VP26, and VP24 are structural envelope proteins and are essential for attachment and entry into crayfish cells. Therefore, PcPHB1 exerts its anti-WSSV effect by binding to VP28, VP26, and VP24, preventing viral infection. This study is the first report on the antiviral function of PHB in the innate immune system of crustaceans.

  8. Refolding, crystallization and preliminary X-ray structural studies of the West Nile virus envelope (E) protein domain III

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Fang; Lou, Zhiyong; Li, Xiaofeng; Chen, Yu Wai; Bell, John I.; Rao, Zihe; Gao, George F.

    2005-04-01

    Domain III of the West Nile virus envelope protein, the putative receptor-binding domain, was reported to be intrinsically unstable and has defied previous crystallization attempts. It has now been purified from inclusion bodies by protein refolding and was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 291 K. Domain III of the West Nile virus envelope protein, the putative receptor-binding domain, is a major virion-surface determinant for virulence. This protein was reported to be intrinsically unstable and has defied previous crystallization attempts. It has now been purified from inclusion bodies by protein refolding and was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 291 K. The crystals belong to space group P222{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 52.6, b = 59.7, c = 95.0 Å. A complete data set was collected to 2.8 Å at 100 K with Cu Kα X-rays from a rotating-anode generator.

  9. Purification and characterization of recombinant envelope protein GP5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from E. coli.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chong; Liu, Chun-Jiang; Yuan, Xi-Gang; Zhang, Chenming

    2013-08-23

    The major envelope protein, GP5, in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) plays critical roles in the assembly, invasion and immune response of PRRSV particle, and is one of the mostly studied candidates in the development of recombinant vaccines. In this research, a purification process including immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) and hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) was developed to prepare recombinant envelope protein GP5 with His-tag from an E. coli strain transformed with pGEM-ORF5. The result of cell culture indicated that His-tagged GP5 protein was expressed mainly in soluble form. After cell disruption, His-tagged GP5 protein was successfully purified by Ni(2+)-chelating Sepharose Fast Flow with a yield and purity of 80.5% and 48%, respectively. Recombinant GP5 protein was further purified by HIC to achieve a purity of 95%. Moreover, the purified rGP5 is shown in monomeric form contrasting the dimeric or tetrameric form when purified by a CEX-HIC process directly from PRRSV virions as reported in a previous study.

  10. Protein-Carbohydrate Interaction between Sperm and the Egg-Coating Envelope and Its Regulation by Dicalcin, a Xenopus laevis Zona Pellucida Protein-Associated Protein.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Naofumi

    2015-05-22

    Protein-carbohydrate interaction regulates multiple important processes during fertilization, an essential biological event where individual gametes undergo intercellular recognition to fuse and generate a zygote. In the mammalian female reproductive tract, sperm temporarily adhere to the oviductal epithelium via the complementary interaction between carbohydrate-binding proteins on the sperm membrane and carbohydrates on the oviductal cells. After detachment from the oviductal epithelium at the appropriate time point following ovulation, sperm migrate and occasionally bind to the extracellular matrix, called the zona pellucida (ZP), which surrounds the egg, thereafter undergoing the exocytotic acrosomal reaction to penetrate the envelope and to reach the egg plasma membrane. This sperm-ZP interaction also involves the direct interaction between sperm carbohydrate-binding proteins and carbohydrates within the ZP, most of which have been conserved across divergent species from mammals to amphibians and echinoderms. This review focuses on the carbohydrate-mediated interaction of sperm with the female reproductive tract, mainly the interaction between sperm and the ZP, and introduces the fertilization-suppressive action of dicalcin, a Xenopus laevis ZP protein-associated protein. The action of dicalcin correlates significantly with a dicalcin-dependent change in the lectin-staining pattern within the ZP, suggesting a unique role of dicalcin as an inherent protein that is capable of regulating the affinity between the lectin and oligosaccharides attached on its target glycoprotein.

  11. Directed Molecular Evolution of an Engineered Gammaretroviral Envelope Protein with Dual Receptor Use Shows Stable Maintenance of Both Receptor Specificities

    PubMed Central

    Friis, Kristina Pagh; Iturrioz, Xavier; Thomsen, Jonas; Alvear-Perez, Rodrigo; Bahrami, Shervin; Llorens-Cortes, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have previously reported the construction of a murine leukemia virus-based replication-competent gammaretrovirus (SL3-AP) capable of utilizing the human G protein-coupled receptor APJ (hAPJ) as its entry receptor and its natural receptor, the murine Xpr1 receptor, with equal affinities. The apelin receptor has previously been shown to function as a coreceptor for HIV-1, and thus, adaptation of the viral vector to this receptor is of significant interest. Here, we report the molecular evolution of the SL3-AP envelope protein when the virus is cultured in cells harboring either the Xpr1 or the hAPJ receptor. Interestingly, the dual receptor affinity is maintained even after 10 passages in these cells. At the same time, the chimeric viral envelope protein evolves in a distinct pattern in the apelin cassette when passaged on D17 cells expressing hAPJ in three separate molecular evolution studies. This pattern reflects selection for reduced ligand-receptor interaction and is compatible with a model in which SL3-AP has evolved not to activate hAPJ receptor internalization. IMPORTANCE Few successful examples of engineered retargeting of a retroviral vector exist. The engineered SL3-AP envelope is capable of utilizing either the murine Xpr1 or the human APJ receptor for entry. In addition, SL3-AP is the first example of an engineered retrovirus retaining its dual tropism after several rounds of passaging on cells expressing only one of its receptors. We demonstrate that the virus evolves toward reduced ligand-receptor affinity, which sheds new light on virus adaptation. We provide indirect evidence that such reduced affinity leads to reduced receptor internalization and propose a novel model in which too rapid receptor internalization may decrease virus entry. PMID:26608314

  12. Conversion of an immunogenic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope synthetic peptide to a tolerogen in chimpanzees by the fusogenic domain of HIV gp41 envelope protein

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    The fusogenic (F) domain of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gp41 envelope (env) protein has sequence similarities to many virus and mediates the fusion of HIV-infected cells. During a survey of the immunogenicity of HIV env peptides in chimpanzees, we have observed that HIV peptide immunogenicity was dramatically altered by the NH2- terminal synthesis of the gp41 F domain to an otherwise immunogenic peptide. We compared two hybrid peptide types comprised of T helper (Th) and B cell epitopes of HIV gp120 env protein for their immunogenicity in chimpanzees. The Th-B epitope hybrid peptides contained the HIV gp120 Th cell determinant, T1 (amino acids [aa] 428- 440)-synthesized NH2 terminal to gp120 V3 loop peptides, which contain B cell epitopes that induce anti-HIV-neutralizing antibodies (SP10IIIB [aa 303-321] and SP10IIIB [A] [aa 303-327]). The F-Th-B peptide contained the HIV gp41 F domain of HIVIIIB gp41 (aa 519-530)- synthesized NH2 terminal to the Th-B peptide. Whereas Th-B peptides were potent immunogens for chimpanzee antibody and T cell-proliferative responses, the F-Th-B peptide induced lower anti-HIV gp120 T and B cell responses. Moreover, immunization of chimpanzees with F-Th-B peptide but not Th-B peptides induced a significant decrease in peripheral blood T lymphocytes (mean decrease during immunization, 52%; p < 0.02). Chimpanzees previously immunized with F-Th-B peptide did not respond well to immunization with Th-B peptide with T or B cell responses to HIV peptides, demonstrating that the F-Th-B peptide induced immune hyporesponsiveness to Th and B HIV gp120 env determinants. These observations raise the hypothesis that the HIV gp41 env F domain may be a biologically active immunoregulatory peptide in vivo, and by an as yet uncharacterized mechanism, promotes primate immune system hyporesponsiveness to otherwise immunogenic peptides. PMID:7679708

  13. Proteomic analysis of the proplastid envelope membrane provides novel insights into small molecule and protein transport across proplastid membranes.

    PubMed

    Bräutigam, Andrea; Weber, Andreas P M

    2009-11-01

    Proplastids are undifferentiated plastids of meristematic tissues that synthesize amino acids for protein synthesis, fatty acids for membrane lipid production, and purines and pyrimidines for DNA and RNA synthesis. Unlike chloroplasts, proplastids depend on supply, with reducing power, energy, and precursor metabolites from the remainder of the cell. Comparing proplastid and chloroplast envelope proteomes and the corresponding transcriptomes of leaves and shoot apex revealed a clearly distinct composition of the proplastid envelope. It is geared towards import of metabolic precursors and export of product metabolites for the rapidly dividing cell. The analysis also suggested a new role for the triosephosphate translocator in meristematic tissues, identified the route of organic nitrogen import into proplastids, and detected an adenine nucleotide exporter. The protein import complex contains the import receptors Toc120 and Toc132 and lacks the redox sensing complex subunits of Tic32, Tic55, and Tic62, which mirrors the expression patterns of the corresponding genes in leaves and the shoot apex. We further show that the protein composition of the internal membrane system is similar to etioplasts, as it is dominated by the ATP synthase complex and thus remarkably differs from that of chloroplast thylakoids.

  14. A recombinant fusion protein containing the domain III of the dengue-2 envelope protein is immunogenic and protective in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Hermida, Lisset; Bernardo, Lídice; Martín, Jorge; Alvarez, Mayling; Prado, Irina; López, Carlos; Sierra, Beatriz de la C; Martínez, Rafael; Rodríguez, Rosmary; Zulueta, Aída; Pérez, Ana B; Lazo, Laura; Rosario, Delfina; Guillén, Gerardo; Guzmán, María G

    2006-04-12

    We have previously reported the construction and evaluation in mice of recombinant fusion proteins formed by a fragment (aa 286-426) of the dengue envelope protein and the P64k protein from Neisseria meningitidis. In this work we describe the immunization of Macaca fascicularis monkeys with two variants of these proteins [PD3 (insertion variant) and PD5 (fusion variant)] corresponding to serotype 2. Four doses of the proteins adjuvated in Freund's adjuvant were administered and the kinetics of antibody induction was monitored by ELISA and neutralization tests. Monkeys receiving PD3 or PD5 developed functional antibodies (Abs) in a dose-dependent manner. Following challenge with 5 log PFU of wild type dengue-2 virus (DEN2), animals immunized with PD5 were protected from developing viremia. These results constitute a proof-of-concept demonstrating that a fragment of the dengue envelope protein, containing the domain III and produced as a recombinant fusion protein in Escherichia coli, induces functional and protective immunity in a nonhuman primate model.

  15. Antigenic regions within the hepatitis C virus envelope 1 and non-structural proteins: identification of an IgG3-restricted recognition site with the envelope 1 protein.

    PubMed Central

    Sällberg, M; Rudén, U; Wahren, B; Magnius, L O

    1993-01-01

    Antibody binding to antigenic regions of hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope 1 (E1; residues 183-380, E2/non-structural (NS) 1 (residues 380-437), NS1 (residues 643-690), and NS4 (1684-1751) proteins were assayed for 50 sera with antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV) and for 46 sera without anti-HCV. Thirty-four peptides, 18 residues long with an eight-amino acid overlap within each HCV region, were synthesized and tested with all 96 sera. Within the E region 183-380, the major binding site was located to residues 203-220, and was recognized by eight sera. Within the E2/NS1 region 380-437, the peptide covering residues 410-427 was recognized by two sera, and within the NS1 region 643-690, peptides covering residues 663-690 were recognized by four sera. Within the NS4 region 1684-1751, 27 sera were reactive to one or more of the NS4 peptides, and 21 out of these were reactive with peptide 1694-1711. One part of the major binding site could be located to residues 1701-1704, with the sequence Leu-Tyr-Arg-Glu. The IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4 subclasses were reactive with the five antigenic regions of HCV core, residues 1-18, 11-28, 21-38, 51-68 and 101-118. Reactivity to the major envelope site consisted almost exclusively of IgG3, and reactivity to the major site of NS4 consisted only of IgG1. Thus, a non-restricted IgG response to linear HCV-encoded binding sites was found to the core protein, whereas IgG subclass-restricted linear binding sites were found within the E1 protein, and within the NS4 protein. PMID:7680297

  16. A flow cytometry-based screen of nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins identifies NET4/Tmem53 as involved in stress-dependent cell cycle withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Korfali, Nadia; Srsen, Vlastimil; Waterfall, Martin; Batrakou, Dzmitry G; Pekovic, Vanja; Hutchison, Christopher J; Schirmer, Eric C

    2011-01-01

    Disruption of cell cycle regulation is one mechanism proposed for how nuclear envelope protein mutation can cause disease. Thus far only a few nuclear envelope proteins have been tested/found to affect cell cycle progression: to identify others, 39 novel nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins were screened for their ability to alter flow cytometry cell cycle/DNA content profiles when exogenously expressed. Eight had notable effects with seven increasing and one decreasing the 4N:2N ratio. We subsequently focused on NET4/Tmem53 that lost its effects in p53(-/-) cells and retinoblastoma protein-deficient cells. NET4/TMEM53 knockdown by siRNA altered flow cytometry cell cycle/DNA content profiles in a similar way as overexpression. NET4/TMEM53 knockdown did not affect total retinoblastoma protein levels, unlike nuclear envelope-associated proteins Lamin A and LAP2α. However, a decrease in phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein was observed along with a doubling of p53 levels and a 7-fold increase in p21. Consequently cells withdrew from the cell cycle, which was confirmed in MRC5 cells by a drop in the percentage of cells expressing Ki-67 antigen and an increase in the number of cells stained for ß-galactosidase. The ß-galactosidase upregulation suggests that cells become prematurely senescent. Finally, the changes in retinoblastoma protein, p53, and p21 resulting from loss of NET4/Tmem53 were dependent upon active p38 MAP kinase. The finding that roughly a fifth of nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins screened yielded alterations in flow cytometry cell cycle/DNA content profiles suggests a much greater influence of the nuclear envelope on the cell cycle than is widely held.

  17. Determining the Secondary Structure of Membrane Proteins and Peptides Via Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation (ESEEM) Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lishan; Mayo, Daniel J.; Sahu, Indra D.; Zhou, Andy; Zhang, Rongfu; McCarrick, Robert M.; Lorigan, Gary A.

    2016-01-01

    Revealing detailed structural and dynamic information of membrane embedded or associated proteins is challenging due to their hydrophobic nature which makes NMR and X-ray crystallographic studies challenging or impossible. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has emerged as a powerful technique to provide essential structural and dynamic information for membrane proteins with no size limitations in membrane systems which mimic their natural lipid bilayer environment. Therefore, tremendous efforts have been devoted toward the development and application of EPR spectroscopic techniques to study the structure of biological systems such as membrane proteins and peptides. This chapter introduces a novel approach established and developed in the Lorigan lab to investigate membrane protein and peptide local secondary structures utilizing the pulsed EPR technique electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy. Detailed sample preparation strategies in model membrane protein systems and the experimental setup are described. Also, the ability of this approach to identify local secondary structure of membrane proteins and peptides with unprecedented efficiency is demonstrated in model systems. Finally, applications and further developments of this ESEEM approach for probing larger size membrane proteins produced by over-expression systems are discussed. PMID:26477255

  18. Potent in vitro antiviral activity of Cistus incanus extract against HIV and Filoviruses targets viral envelope proteins

    PubMed Central

    Rebensburg, Stephanie; Helfer, Markus; Schneider, Martha; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Eberle, Josef; Schindler, Michael; Gürtler, Lutz; Brack-Werner, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Novel therapeutic options are urgently needed to improve global treatment of virus infections. Herbal products with confirmed clinical safety features are attractive starting material for the identification of new antiviral activities. Here we demonstrate that Cistus incanus (Ci) herbal products inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in vitro. Ci extract inhibited clinical HIV-1 and HIV-2 isolates, and, importantly, a virus isolate with multiple drug resistances, confirming broad anti-HIV activity. Antiviral activity was highly selective for virus particles, preventing primary attachment of the virus to the cell surface and viral envelope proteins from binding to heparin. Bioassay-guided fractionation indicated that Ci extract contains numerous antiviral compounds and therefore has favorably low propensity to induce virus resistance. Indeed, no resistant viruses emerged during 24 weeks of continuous propagation of the virus in the presence of Ci extracts. Finally, Ci extracts also inhibited infection by virus particles pseudotyped with Ebola and Marburg virus envelope proteins, indicating that antiviral activity of Ci extract extends to emerging viral pathogens. These results demonstrate that Ci extracts show potent and broad in vitro antiviral activity against viruses that cause life-threatening diseases in humans and are promising sources of agents that target virus particles. PMID:26833261

  19. Purifying selection in Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ORF5a protein influences variation in envelope glycoprotein 5 glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Sally R.; Abrahante, Juan E.; Johnson, Craig R.; Murtaugh, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus ORF5a protein is encoded in an alternate open reading frame upstream of the major envelope glycoprotein (GP5) in subgenomic mRNA5. Bioinformatic analysis of 3,466 Type 2 PRRSV sequences showed that the two proteins have co-evolved through a fine balance of purifying codon usage to maintain a conserved RQ-rich motif in ORF5a protein, while eliciting a variable N-linked glycosylation motif in the alternative GP5 reading frame. Conservation of the ORF5a protein RQ-motif also explains an anomalous uracil desert in GP5 hypervariable glycosylation region. The N-terminus of the mature GP5 protein was confirmed to start with amino acid 32, the hypervariable region of the ectodomain. Since GP5 glycosylation variability is assumed to result from immunological selection against neutralizing antibodies, these findings show that an alternative possibility unrelated to immunological selection not only exists, but provides a foundation for investigating previously unsuspected aspects of PRRSV biology. Understanding functional consequences of subtle nucleotide sequence modifications in the region responsible for critical function in ORF5a protein and GP5 glycosylation is essential for rational design of new vaccines against PRRS. PMID:24084290

  20. The SUN protein UNC-84 is required only in force-bearing cells to maintain nuclear envelope architecture.

    PubMed

    Cain, Natalie E; Tapley, Erin C; McDonald, Kent L; Cain, Benjamin M; Starr, Daniel A

    2014-07-21

    The nuclear envelope (NE) consists of two evenly spaced bilayers, the inner and outer nuclear membranes. The Sad1p and UNC-84 (SUN) proteins and Klarsicht, ANC-1, and Syne homology (KASH) proteins that interact to form LINC (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) complexes connecting the nucleoskeleton to the cytoskeleton have been implicated in maintaining NE spacing. Surprisingly, the NE morphology of most Caenorhabditis elegans nuclei was normal in the absence of functional SUN proteins. Distortions of the perinuclear space observed in unc-84 mutant muscle nuclei resembled those previously observed in HeLa cells, suggesting that SUN proteins are required to maintain NE architecture in cells under high mechanical strain. The UNC-84 protein with large deletions in its luminal domain was able to form functional NE bridges but had no observable effect on NE architecture. Therefore, SUN-KASH bridges are only required to maintain NE spacing in cells subjected to increased mechanical forces. Furthermore, SUN proteins do not dictate the width of the NE.

  1. MCLIP, an effective method to detect interactions of transmembrane proteins of the nuclear envelope in live cells.

    PubMed

    Jafferali, Mohammed Hakim; Vijayaraghavan, Balaje; Figueroa, Ricardo A; Crafoord, Ellinor; Gudise, Santhosh; Larsson, Veronica J; Hallberg, Einar

    2014-10-01

    Investigating interactions of proteins in the nuclear envelope (NE) using co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) has previously been difficult or even impossible due to their inherent resistance to extraction. We have developed a novel method, MCLIP (Membrane protein Cross-Link ImmunoPrecipitation), which takes advantage of a cell permeable crosslinker to enable effective detection and analysis of specific interactions of NE proteins in live cells using Western blot. Using MCLIP we show that, in U2OS cells, the integral inner nuclear membrane protein Samp1 interacts with Lamin B1, the LINC (Linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) complex protein, Sun1 and the soluble small GTPase Ran. The results show that the previously detected in vitro interaction between Samp1 and Emerin also takes place in live cells. In vitro pull down experiments show, that the nucleoplasmic domains of Samp1 and Emerin can bind directly to each other. We also, show that MCLIP is suitable to coprecipitate protein interactions in different stages of the cell cycle.

  2. FlaF is a β-sandwich protein that anchors the archaellum in the archaeal cell envelope by binding the S-layer protein

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Ankan; Tsai, Chi -Lin; Chaudhury, Paushali; Tripp, Patrick; Arvai, Andrew  S.; Ishida, Justin  P.; Tainer, John  A.; Albers, Sonja -Verena

    2015-05-01

    Archaea employ the archaellum, a type IV pilus-like nanomachine, for swimming motility. In the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, the archaellum consists of seven proteins: FlaB/X/G/F/H/I/J. FlaF is conserved and essential for archaellum assembly but no FlaF structures exist. Here, we truncated the FlaF N terminus and solved 1.5-Å and 1.65-Å resolution crystal structures of this monotopic membrane protein. Structures revealed an N-terminal α-helix and an eight-strand β-sandwich, immunoglobulin-like fold with striking similarity to S-layer proteins. Crystal structures, X-ray scattering, and mutational analyses suggest dimer assembly is needed for in vivo function. The sole cell envelope component of S. acidocaldarius is a paracrystalline S-layer, and FlaF specifically bound to S-layer protein, suggesting that its interaction domain is located in the pseudoperiplasm with its N-terminal helix in the membrane. From these data, FlaF may act as the previously unknown archaellum stator protein that anchors the rotating archaellum to the archaeal cell envelope.

  3. FlaF is a β-sandwich protein that anchors the archaellum in the archaeal cell envelope by binding the S-layer protein

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Banerjee, Ankan; Tsai, Chi -Lin; Chaudhury, Paushali; Tripp, Patrick; Arvai, Andrew  S.; Ishida, Justin  P.; Tainer, John  A.; Albers, Sonja -Verena

    2015-05-01

    Archaea employ the archaellum, a type IV pilus-like nanomachine, for swimming motility. In the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, the archaellum consists of seven proteins: FlaB/X/G/F/H/I/J. FlaF is conserved and essential for archaellum assembly but no FlaF structures exist. Here, we truncated the FlaF N terminus and solved 1.5-Å and 1.65-Å resolution crystal structures of this monotopic membrane protein. Structures revealed an N-terminal α-helix and an eight-strand β-sandwich, immunoglobulin-like fold with striking similarity to S-layer proteins. Crystal structures, X-ray scattering, and mutational analyses suggest dimer assembly is needed for in vivo function. The sole cell envelope component of S. acidocaldarius is amore » paracrystalline S-layer, and FlaF specifically bound to S-layer protein, suggesting that its interaction domain is located in the pseudoperiplasm with its N-terminal helix in the membrane. From these data, FlaF may act as the previously unknown archaellum stator protein that anchors the rotating archaellum to the archaeal cell envelope.« less

  4. Rapid purification of recombinant dengue and West Nile virus envelope Domain III proteins by metal affinity membrane chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lik Chern Melvin; Chua, Anthony Jin Shun; Goh, Li Shan Liza; Pua, Shu Min; Cheong, Yuen Kuen; Ng, Mah Lee

    2010-11-01

    Arthropod-borne flaviviruses such as dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV) pose significant health threats to the global community. Due to escalating numbers of DENV and WNV infections worldwide, development of an effective vaccine remains a global health priority. As flavivirus envelope Domain III (DIII) protein is highly immunogenic and capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies against wild-type virus, it is both a potential protein subunit vaccine candidate and a suitable diagnostic reagent. Here, we describe the use of metal affinity membrane chromatography as a rapid and improved alternative for the purification of recombinant DIII (rDIII) antigens from DENV serotypes 1-4 and WNV - New York, Sarafend, Wengler and Kunjin strains. Optimum conditions for the expression, solubilization, renaturation and purification of these proteins were established. The purified proteins were confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and ELISA using antibodies raised against the respective viruses. Biological function of the purified rDIII proteins was confirmed by their ability to generate DIII-specific antibodies in mice that could neutralize the virus.

  5. Saccharomyces cerevisiae MPS2 Encodes a Membrane Protein Localized at the Spindle Pole Body and the Nuclear Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Centeno, María de la Cruz; McBratney, Susan; Monterrosa, Antonio; Byers, Breck; Mann, Carl; Winey, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The MPS2 (monopolar spindle two) gene is one of several genes required for the proper execution of spindle pole body (SPB) duplication in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Winey et al., 1991). We report here that the MPS2 gene encodes an essential 44-kDa protein with two putative coiled-coil regions and a hydrophobic sequence. Although MPS2 is required for normal mitotic growth, some null strains can survive; these survivors exhibit slow growth and abnormal ploidy. The MPS2 protein was tagged with nine copies of the myc epitope, and biochemical fractionation experiments show that it is an integral membrane protein. Visualization of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) Mps2p fusion protein in living cells and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy of 9xmyc-Mps2p revealed a perinuclear localization with one or two brighter foci of staining corresponding to the SPB. Additionally, immunoelectron microscopy shows that GFP-Mps2p localizes to the SPB. Our analysis suggests that Mps2p is required as a component of the SPB for insertion of the nascent SPB into the nuclear envelope. PMID:10397772

  6. Fluctuation Dynamics Analysis of gp120 Envelope Protein Reveals a Topologically Based Communication Network

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Indira; LaLonde, Judith M.

    2012-01-01

    HIV infection is initiated by binding of the viral glycoprotein gp120, to the cellular receptor CD4. Upon CD4 binding, gp120 undergoes conformational change, permitting binding to the chemokine receptor. Crystal structures of gp120 ternary complex reveal the CD4 bound conformation of gp120. We report here the application of Gaussian Network Model (GNM) to the crystal structures of gp120 bound to CD4 or CD4 mimic and 17b, to study the collective motions of the gp120 core and determine the communication propensities of the residue network. The GNM fluctuation profiles identify residues in the inner domain and outer domain that may facilitate conformational change or stability, respectively. Communication propensities delineate a residue network that is topologically suited for signal propagation from the Phe43 cavity throughout the gp120 outer domain. . These results provide a new context for interpreting gp120 core envelope structure-function relationships. PMID:20718047

  7. The plastid outer envelope protein OEP16 affects metabolic fluxes during ABA-controlled seed development and germination

    PubMed Central

    Pudelski, Birgit; Schock, Annette; Hoth, Stefan; Radchuk, Ruslana; Weber, Hans; Hofmann, Jörg; Sonnewald, Uwe; Soll, Jürgen; Philippar, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Previously, the OEP16.1 channel pore in the outer envelope membrane of mature pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplasts in vitro has been characterized to be selective for amino acids. Isolation of OEP16.2, a second OEP16 isoform from pea, in the current study allowed membrane localization and gene expression of OEP16 to be followed throughout seed development and germination of Arabidopsis thaliana and P. sativum. Thereby it can be shown on the transcript and protein level that the isoforms OEP16.1 and OEP16.2 in both plant species are alternating: whereas OEP16.1 is prominent in early embryo development and first leaves of the growing plantlet, OEP16.2 dominates in late seed development stages, which are associated with dormancy and desiccation, as well as early germination events. Further, OEP16.2 expression in seeds is under control of the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), leading to an ABA-hypersensitive phenotype of germinating oep16 knockout mutants. In consequence, the loss of OEP16 causes metabolic imbalance, in particular that of amino acids during seed development and early germination. It is thus concluded that in vivo OEP16 most probably functions in shuttling amino acids across the outer envelope of seed plastids. PMID:22155670

  8. Unusual Reversible Oligomerization of Unfolded Dengue Envelope Protein Domain 3 at High Temperatures and Its Abolition by a Point Mutation.

    PubMed

    Saotome, Tomonori; Nakamura, Shigeyoshi; Islam, Mohammad M; Nakazawa, Akiko; Dellarole, Mariano; Arisaka, Fumio; Kidokoro, Shun-Ichi; Kuroda, Yutaka

    2016-08-16

    We report differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments between 10 and 120 °C of Dengue 4 envelope protein domain 3 (DEN4 ED3), a small 107-residue monomeric globular protein domain. The thermal unfolding of DEN4 ED3 was fully reversible and exhibited two peculiar endothermic peaks. AUC (analytical ultracentrifugation) experiments at 25 °C indicated that DEN4 ED3 was monomeric. Detailed thermodynamic analysis indicated that the two endothermic peaks separated with an increasing protein concentration, and global fitting of the DSC curves strongly suggested the presence of unfolded tetramers at temperatures around 80-90 °C, which dissociated to unfolded monomers at even higher temperatures. To further characterize this rare thermal unfolding process, we designed and constructed a DEN4 ED3 variant that would unfold according to a two-state model, typical of globular proteins. We thus substituted Val 380, the most buried residue at the dimeric interface in the protein crystal, with less hydrophobic amino acids (Ala, Ser, Thr, Asn, and Lys). All variants showed a single heat absorption peak, typical of small globular proteins. In particular, the DSC thermogram of DEN4 V380K indicated a two-state reversible thermal unfolding independent of protein concentration, indicating that the high-temperature oligomeric state was successfully abolished by a single mutation. These observations confirmed the standard view that small monomeric globular proteins undergo a two-state unfolding. However, the reversible formation of unfolded oligomers at high temperatures is a truly new phenomenon, which was fully inhibited by an accurately designed single mutation. PMID:27433922

  9. Identification of peptides that bind hepatitis C virus envelope protein E2 and inhibit viral cellular entry from a phage-display peptide library.

    PubMed

    Lü, Xin; Yao, Min; Zhang, Jian-Min; Yang, Jing; Lei, Ying-Feng; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Jia, Zhan-Sheng; Ma, Li; Lan, Hai-Yun; Xu, Zhi-Kai; Yin, Wen

    2014-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope protein E2 is required for the entry of HCV into cells. Viral envelope proteins interact with cell receptors in a multistep process, which may be a promising target for the development of novel antiviral agents. In this study, a heptapeptide M13 phage-display library was screened for peptides that bind specifically to prokaryotically expressed, purified truncated HCV envelope protein E2. ELISA assay was used to quantify the binding of the peptides to HCV E2 protein. Flow cytometry, quantitative reverse-transcription PCR and western blotting were used to investigate the inhibition effect of one peptide on HCV infection in hepatoma cells (Huh7.5) in vitro. Four peptides capable of binding specifically to HCV E2 protein were obtained after three rounds of biopanning. Peptide C18 (WPWHNHR), with the highest affinity for binding HCV E2 protein, was synthesized. The results showed that peptide C18 inhibited the viral infectivity of both HCV pseudotype particles (HCVpp) harboring HCV envelope glycoproteins and cell-culture produced HCV (HCVcc). Thus, this study demonstrated that peptide C18 is a potential candidate for anti-HCV therapy as a novel viral entry inhibitor.

  10. Do nuclear envelope and intranuclear proteins reorganize during mitosis to form an elastic, hydrogel-like spindle matrix?

    PubMed

    Johansen, Kristen M; Forer, Arthur; Yao, Changfu; Girton, Jack; Johansen, Jørgen

    2011-04-01

    The idea of a spindle matrix has long been proposed in order to account for poorly understood features of mitosis. However, its molecular nature and structural composition have remained elusive. Here, we propose that the spindle matrix may be constituted by mainly nuclear-derived proteins that reorganize during the cell cycle to form an elastic gel-like matrix. We discuss this hypothesis in the context of recent observations from phylogenetically diverse organisms that nuclear envelope and intranuclear proteins form a highly dynamic and malleable structure that contributes to mitotic spindle function. We suggest that the viscoelastic properties of such a matrix may constrain spindle length while at the same time facilitating microtubule growth and dynamics as well as chromosome movement. A corollary to this hypothesis is that a key determinant of spindle size may be the amount of nuclear proteins available to form the spindle matrix. Such a matrix could also serve as a spatial regulator of spindle assembly checkpoint proteins during open and semi-open mitosis. PMID:21274615

  11. A Targeted Mutation within the Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) Envelope Protein Immunosuppressive Domain To Improve a Canarypox Virus-Vectored FeLV Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Schlecht-Louf, Géraldine; Mangeney, Marianne; El-Garch, Hanane; Lacombe, Valérie; Poulet, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    We previously delineated a highly conserved immunosuppressive (IS) domain within murine and primate retroviral envelope proteins that is critical for virus propagation in vivo. The envelope-mediated immunosuppression was assessed by the ability of the proteins, when expressed by allogeneic tumor cells normally rejected by engrafted mice, to allow these cells to escape, at least transiently, immune rejection. Using this approach, we identified key residues whose mutation (i) specifically abolishes immunosuppressive activity without affecting the “mechanical” function of the envelope protein and (ii) significantly enhances humoral and cellular immune responses elicited against the virus. The objective of this work was to study the immunosuppressive activity of the envelope protein (p15E) of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and evaluate the effect of its abolition on the efficacy of a vaccine against FeLV. Here we demonstrate that the FeLV envelope protein is immunosuppressive in vivo and that this immunosuppressive activity can be “switched off” by targeted mutation of a specific amino acid. As a result of the introduction of the mutated envelope sequence into a previously well characterized canarypox virus-vectored vaccine (ALVAC-FeLV), the frequency of vaccine-induced FeLV-specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing cells was increased, whereas conversely, the frequency of vaccine-induced FeLV-specific interleukin-10 (IL-10)-producing cells was reduced. This shift in the IFN-γ/IL-10 response was associated with a higher efficacy of ALVAC-FeLV against FeLV infection. This study demonstrates that FeLV p15E is immunosuppressive in vivo, that the immunosuppressive domain of p15E can modulate the FeLV-specific immune response, and that the efficacy of FeLV vaccines can be enhanced by inhibiting the immunosuppressive activity of the IS domain through an appropriate mutation. PMID:24198407

  12. Prevention of hepatitis B virus infection in vivo by entry inhibitors derived from the large envelope protein.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Joerg; Dandri, Maura; Mier, Walter; Lütgehetmann, Marc; Volz, Tassilo; von Weizsäcker, Fritz; Haberkorn, Uwe; Fischer, Lutz; Pollok, Joerg-Matthias; Erbes, Berit; Seitz, Stefan; Urban, Stephan

    2008-03-01

    360 million people are chronically infected with the human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and are consequently prone to develop liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. As approved therapeutic regimens-which modulate patients' antiviral defenses or inhibit the viral reverse transcriptase-are generally noncurative, strategies interfering with other HBV replication steps are required. Expanding on our demonstration that acylated peptides derived from the large HBV envelope protein block virus entry in vitro, we show their applicability to prevent HBV or woolly monkey hepatitis B virus infection in vivo, using immunodeficient urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) mice repopulated with primary human or Tupaia belangeri hepatocytes. Accumulation of the peptides in the liver, their extraordinary inhibitory potency and specific mode of action permit subcutaneous delivery at very low doses. Inhibition of hepadnavirus entry thus constitutes a therapeutic approach to prevent primary HBV infection, such as after liver transplantation, and might also restrain virus spread in chronically infected patients. PMID:18297057

  13. Recombinant West Nile virus envelope protein E and domain III expressed in insect larvae protects mice against West Nile disease.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Padilla, Julio; de Oya, Nereida Jiménez; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Escribano, José M; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2011-02-17

    In this study, West Nile virus (WNV) envelope (rE) protein and its domain III (rDIII) were efficiently expressed in a cost-effective system based on insect larvae as non-fermentative living biofactories. Mice immunized with the partially purified rE or rDIII elicited high antibodies titers that neutralized viral infectivity in cell culture and in suckling mice. All vaccinated animals were fully protected when challenged with neurovirulent WNV NY99. Passive transfer of protective antibodies from immunized mothers to their offspring occurred both by transplacental and lactation routes. These results indicate that the insect-derived antigens tested may constitute potential vaccine candidates to be further evaluated.

  14. Recombinant envelope protein (rgp90) ELISA for equine infectious anemia virus provides comparable results to the agar gel immunodiffusion.

    PubMed

    Reis, Jenner K P; Diniz, Rejane S; Haddad, João P A; Ferraz, Isabella B F; Carvalho, Alex F; Kroon, Erna G; Ferreira, Paulo C P; Leite, Rômulo C

    2012-03-01

    Equine infectious anemia (EIA) is an important viral infection affecting horses worldwide. The course of infection is accompanied generally by three characteristic stages: acute, chronic and inapparent. There is no effective EIA vaccine or treatment, and the control of the disease is based currently on identification of EIAV inapparent carriers by laboratory tests. Recombinant envelope protein (rgp90) was expressed in Escherichia coli and evaluated via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). There was an excellent agreement (95.42%) between the ELISA results using rgp90 and agar gel immunodiffusion test results. AGID is considered the "gold-standard" serologic test for equine infectious anemia (EIA). After 1160 serum samples were tested, the relative sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA were 96.1% and 96.4%, respectively. Moreover, analysis diagnostic accuracy of the ELISA was performed. The ELISA proved robust. Furthermore, good reproducibility was observed for the negative controls and, positive controls for all plates tested.

  15. Cell- and Protein-Directed Glycosylation of Native Cleaved HIV-1 Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, Laura K.; Harvey, David J.; Bonomelli, Camille

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The gp120/gp41 HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) is highly glycosylated, with up to 50% of its mass consisting of N-linked glycans. This dense carbohydrate coat has emerged as a promising vaccine target, with its glycans acting as epitopes for a number of potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). Characterizing the glycan structures present on native HIV-1 Env is thus a critical goal for the design of Env immunogens. In this study, we used a complementary, multistep approach involving ion mobility mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography to comprehensively characterize the glycan structures present on HIV-1 gp120 produced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The capacity of different expression systems, including pseudoviral particles and recombinant cell surface trimers, to reproduce native-like glycosylation was then assessed. A population of oligomannose glycans on gp120 was reproduced across all expression systems, supporting this as an intrinsic property of Env that can be targeted for vaccine design. In contrast, Env produced in HEK 293T cells failed to accurately reproduce the highly processed complex-type glycan structures observed on PBMC-derived gp120, and in particular the precise linkage of sialic acid residues that cap these glycans. Finally, we show that unlike for gp120, the glycans decorating gp41 are mostly complex-type sugars, consistent with the glycan specificity of bnAbs that target this region. These findings provide insights into the glycosylation of native and recombinant HIV-1 Env and can be used to inform strategies for immunogen design and preparation. IMPORTANCE Development of an HIV vaccine is desperately needed to control new infections, and elicitation of HIV bnAbs will likely be an important component of an effective vaccine. Increasingly, HIV bnAbs are being identified that bind to the N-linked glycans coating the HIV envelope glycoproteins gp120 and gp41, highlighting them as

  16. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant major envelope protein (rH3L) of buffalopox virus in animal models.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Yogisharadhya, Revanaiah; Venkatesan, Gnanavel; Bhanuprakash, Veerakyathappa; Shivachandra, Sathish Bhadravati

    2016-02-01

    Buffalopox virus, a zoonotic Indian vaccinia-like virus, is responsible for contagious disease affecting mainly buffaloes, cattle and humans. H3L gene, encoding for an immunodominant major envelope protein of intracellular mature virion of orthopoxviruses, is highly conserved and found to elicit neutralizing antibodies. Therefore in the present study, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the recombinant H3L protein of buffalopox virus in laboratory animal models has been evaluated. A partial H3L gene encoding for the C-terminal truncated ectodomain of H3L protein (1M to I280) of BPXV-Vij/96 strain was cloned, over-expressed and purified as histidine-tagged fusion protein (50 kDa) from Escherichia coli using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The purified rH3L protein was further used for active immunization of guinea pig (250 μg/dose) and adult mice (10 μg and 50 μg/dose) with or without adjuvants (alum, Freund's Complete Adjuvant and CpG). Subsequently, a gradual increase in antigen specific serum IgG as well as neutralizing antibody titres measured by using indirect-ELISA and serum neutralization test respectively, was noted in both guinea pigs and mouse models. Suckling mice immunized passively with anti-H3L serum showed 80% pre-exposure prophylaxis upon challenge with virulent buffalopox virus strain. An indirect-ELISA based on rH3L protein showed no cross-reactivity with hyperimmune sera against sheeppox virus (SPPV), goatpox virus (GTPV), orf virus (ORFV), foot- and- mouth disease virus (FMDV), peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and bluetongue virus (BTV) during the course of study. The study highlights the potential utility of rH3L protein as a safer prophylactic and diagnostic reagent for buffalopox. PMID:26723250

  17. Nature of Nonfunctional Envelope Proteins on the Surface of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Penny L.; Crooks, Emma T.; Porter, Lauren; Zhu, Ping; Cayanan, Charmagne S.; Grise, Henry; Corcoran, Paul; Zwick, Michael B.; Franti, Michael; Morris, Lynn; Roux, Kenneth H.; Burton, Dennis R.; Binley, James M.

    2006-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) neutralizing antibodies are thought be distinguished from nonneutralizing antibodies by their ability to recognize functional gp120/gp41 envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimers. The antibody responses induced by natural HIV-1 infection or by vaccine candidates tested to date consist largely of nonneutralizing antibodies. One might have expected a more vigorous neutralizing response, particularly against virus particles that bear functional trimers. The recent surprising observation that nonneutralizing antibodies can specifically capture HIV-1 may provide a clue relating to this paradox. Specifically, it was suggested that forms of Env, to which nonneutralizing antibodies can bind, exist on virus surfaces. Here, we present evidence that HIV-1 particles bear nonfunctional gp120/gp41 monomers and gp120-depleted gp41 stumps. Using a native electrophoresis band shift assay, we show that antibody-trimer binding predicts neutralization and that the nonfunctional forms of Env may account for virus capture by nonneutralizing antibodies. We hypothesize that these nonfunctional forms of Env on particle surfaces serve to divert the antibody response, helping the virus to evade neutralization. PMID:16474158

  18. RESPIRATION AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN ESCHERICHIA COLI MEMBRANE-ENVELOPE FRAGMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Hendler, Richard W.; Burgess, Amelia H.; Scharff, Raymond

    1970-01-01

    Fatty acids inhibited the ability of Escherichia coli membrane-envelope fragments to catalyze the oxidation of succinate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced form (NADH) and also inhibited the response of the Clark oxygen electrode to nonenzymatic oxygen uptake. In all cases, unsaturated fatty acids were much more inhibitory than saturated fatty acids. Albumin afforded complete protection from inhibition in the nonenzymatic oxygen-uptake experiments but only partial protection for the respiratory activities of the membrane fragments. The succinoxidase activity was totally inhibited by bovine serum albumin at concentrations that inhibited succinate dehydrogenase only slightly and NADH oxidase not at all. The E. coli acellular preparation showed no dehydrogenase or oxidase activity for any of the fatty acids under a variety of conditions. These conditions included variations of pH, concentration of fatty acids, and the presence or absence of albumin, CoA, ATP, NAD, cysteine, succinate, and carnitine. It thus appears that E. coli grown in the absence of fatty acid can not use fatty acids as an energy source. PMID:4312358

  19. The BRCA1-binding protein BRAP2 can act as a cytoplasmic retention factor for nuclear and nuclear envelope-localizing testicular proteins.

    PubMed

    Davies, Rebecca G; Wagstaff, Kylie M; McLaughlin, Eileen A; Loveland, Kate L; Jans, David A

    2013-12-01

    Regulation of nuclear protein import is central to many cellular processes such as development, with a key mechanism being factors that retain cargoes in the cytoplasm that normally localize in the nucleus. The breast cancer antigen BRCA1-binding protein BRAP2 has been reported as a novel negative regulator of nuclear import of various nuclear localization signal (NLS)-containing viral and cellular proteins, but although implicated in differentiation pathways and highly expressed in tissues including testis, the gamut of targets for BRAP2 action in a developmental context is unknown. As a first step towards defining the BRAP2 interactome, we performed a yeast-2-hybrid screen to identify binding partners of BRAP2 in human testis. Here we report characterization for the first time of three of these: the high mobility group (HMG)-box-domain-containing chromatin component HMG20A, nuclear mitotic apparatus protein NuMA1 and synaptic nuclear envelope protein SYNE2. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicate association of BRAP2 with HMG20A, NuMA1, and SYNE2 in testis, underlining the physiological relevance of the interactions, with immunohistochemistry showing that where BRAP2 is co-expressed with HMG20A and NuMA1, both are present in the cytoplasm, in contrast to their nuclear localization in other testicular cell types. Importantly, quantitative confocal microscopic analysis of cultured cells indicates that ectopic expression of BRAP2 inhibits nuclear localization of HMG20A and NuMA1, and prevents nuclear envelope accumulation of SYNE2, the first report of BRAP2 altering localization of a non-nuclear protein. These results imply for the first time that BRAP2 may have an important role in modulating subcellular localization during testicular development. PMID:23707952

  20. Targeting and assembly of components of the TOC protein import complex at the chloroplast outer envelope membrane.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Lynn G L; Paila, Yamuna D; Siman, Steven R; Chen, Yi; Smith, Matthew D; Schnell, Danny J

    2014-01-01

    The translocon at the outer envelope membrane of chloroplasts (TOC) initiates the import of thousands of nuclear encoded preproteins required for chloroplast biogenesis and function. The multimeric TOC complex contains two GTP-regulated receptors, Toc34 and Toc159, which recognize the transit peptides of preproteins and initiate protein import through a β-barrel membrane channel, Toc75. Different isoforms of Toc34 and Toc159 assemble with Toc75 to form structurally and functionally diverse translocons, and the composition and levels of TOC translocons is required for the import of specific subsets of coordinately expressed proteins during plant growth and development. Consequently, the proper assembly of the TOC complexes is key to ensuring organelle homeostasis. This review will focus on our current knowledge of the targeting and assembly of TOC components to form functional translocons at the outer membrane. Our analyses reveal that the targeting of TOC components involves elements common to the targeting of other outer membrane proteins, but also include unique features that appear to have evolved to specifically facilitate assembly of the import apparatus.

  1. Thermodynamic stability of domain III from the envelope protein of flaviviruses and its improvement by molecular design.

    PubMed

    Zidane, Nora; Dussart, Philippe; Bremand, Laetitia; Villani, Maria Elena; Bedouelle, Hugues

    2013-06-01

    The Flavivirus genus includes widespread and severe human pathogens like the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1 to DENV4), yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus and West Nile virus. Domain III (ED3) of the viral envelope protein interacts with cell receptors and contains epitopes recognized by virus neutralizing antibodies. Its structural, antigenic and immunogenic properties have been thoroughly studied contrary to its physico-chemical properties. Here, the ED3 domains of the above pathogenic flaviviruses were produced in the periplasm of Escherichia coli. Their thermodynamic stabilities were measured and compared in experiments of unfolding equilibriums, induced with chemicals or heat and monitored through protein fluorescence. A designed ED3 domain, with the consensus sequence of DENV strains from all serotypes, was highly stable. The low stability of the ED3 domain from DENV3 was increased by three changes of residues in the protein core without affecting its reactivity towards DENV-infected human serums. Additional changes showed that the stability of ED3 varied with the DENV3 genotype. The T(m) of ED3 was higher than 69°C for all the tested viruses and reached 86°C for the consensus ED3. The latter, deprived of its disulfide bond by mutations, was predominantly unfolded at 20°C. These results will help better understand and design the properties of ED3 for its use as diagnostic, vaccine or therapeutic tools.

  2. Identification of a binding site of the human immunodeficiency virus envelope protein gp120 to neuronal-specific tubulin.

    PubMed

    Avdoshina, Valeria; Taraballi, Francesca; Dedoni, Simona; Corbo, Claudia; Paige, Mikell; Saygideğer Kont, Yasemin; Üren, Aykut; Tasciotti, Ennio; Mocchetti, Italo

    2016-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) promotes synaptic simplification and neuronal apoptosis, and causes neurological impairments termed HIV-associated neurological disorders. HIV-associated neurotoxicity may be brought about by acute and chronic mechanisms that still remain to be fully characterized. The HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 causes neuronal degeneration similar to that observed in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders subjects. This study was undertaken to discover novel mechanisms of gp120 neurotoxicity that could explain how the envelope protein promotes neurite pruning. Gp120 has been shown to associate with various intracellular organelles as well as microtubules in neurons. We then analyzed lysates of neurons exposed to gp120 with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry for potential protein interactors. We found that one of the proteins interacting with gp120 is tubulin β-3 (TUBB3), a major component of neuronal microtubules. We then tested the hypothesis that gp120 binds to neuronal microtubules. Using surface plasmon resonance, we confirmed that gp120 binds with high affinity to neuronal-specific TUBB3. We have also identified the binding site of gp120 to TUBB3. We then designed a small peptide (Helix-A) that displaced gp120 from binding to TUBB3. To determine whether this peptide could prevent gp120-mediated neurotoxicity, we cross-linked Helix-A to mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Helix-A nano) to enhance the intracellular delivery of the peptide. We then tested the neuroprotective property of Helix-A nano against three strains of gp120 in rat cortical neurons. Helix-A nano prevented gp120-mediated neurite simplification as well as neuronal loss. These data propose that gp120 binding to TUBB3 could be another mechanism of gp120 neurotoxicity. We propose a novel direct mechanism of human immunodeficiency virus neurotoxicity. Our data show that the viral protein gp120 binds to neuronal specific tubulin β-3 and blocks microtubule transport

  3. Identification of a binding site of the human immunodeficiency virus envelope protein gp120 to neuronal-specific tubulin.

    PubMed

    Avdoshina, Valeria; Taraballi, Francesca; Dedoni, Simona; Corbo, Claudia; Paige, Mikell; Saygideğer Kont, Yasemin; Üren, Aykut; Tasciotti, Ennio; Mocchetti, Italo

    2016-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) promotes synaptic simplification and neuronal apoptosis, and causes neurological impairments termed HIV-associated neurological disorders. HIV-associated neurotoxicity may be brought about by acute and chronic mechanisms that still remain to be fully characterized. The HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 causes neuronal degeneration similar to that observed in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders subjects. This study was undertaken to discover novel mechanisms of gp120 neurotoxicity that could explain how the envelope protein promotes neurite pruning. Gp120 has been shown to associate with various intracellular organelles as well as microtubules in neurons. We then analyzed lysates of neurons exposed to gp120 with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry for potential protein interactors. We found that one of the proteins interacting with gp120 is tubulin β-3 (TUBB3), a major component of neuronal microtubules. We then tested the hypothesis that gp120 binds to neuronal microtubules. Using surface plasmon resonance, we confirmed that gp120 binds with high affinity to neuronal-specific TUBB3. We have also identified the binding site of gp120 to TUBB3. We then designed a small peptide (Helix-A) that displaced gp120 from binding to TUBB3. To determine whether this peptide could prevent gp120-mediated neurotoxicity, we cross-linked Helix-A to mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Helix-A nano) to enhance the intracellular delivery of the peptide. We then tested the neuroprotective property of Helix-A nano against three strains of gp120 in rat cortical neurons. Helix-A nano prevented gp120-mediated neurite simplification as well as neuronal loss. These data propose that gp120 binding to TUBB3 could be another mechanism of gp120 neurotoxicity. We propose a novel direct mechanism of human immunodeficiency virus neurotoxicity. Our data show that the viral protein gp120 binds to neuronal specific tubulin β-3 and blocks microtubule transport

  4. Human Cytomegalovirus Nuclear Egress Proteins Ectopically Expressed in the Heterologous Environment of Plant Cells are Strictly Targeted to the Nuclear Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Lamm, Christian E.; Link, Katrin; Wagner, Sabrina; Milbradt, Jens; Marschall, Manfred; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    In all eukaryotic cells, the nucleus forms a prominent cellular compartment containing the cell’s nuclear genome. Although structurally similar, animal and plant nuclei differ substantially in details of their architecture. One example is the nuclear lamina, a layer of tightly interconnected filament proteins (lamins) underlying the nuclear envelope of metazoans. So far no orthologous lamin genes could be detected in plant genomes and putative lamin-like proteins are only poorly described in plants. To probe for potentially conserved features of metazoan and plant nuclear envelopes, we ectopically expressed the core nuclear egress proteins of human cytomegalovirus pUL50 and pUL53 in plant cells. pUL50 localizes to the inner envelope of metazoan nuclei and recruits the nuclear localized pUL53 to it, forming heterodimers. Upon expression in plant cells, a very similar localization pattern of both proteins could be determined. Notably, pUL50 is specifically targeted to the plant nuclear envelope in a rim-like fashion, a location to which coexpressed pUL53 becomes strictly corecruited from its initial nucleoplasmic distribution. Using pUL50 as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screening, the cytoplasmic re-initiation supporting protein RISP could be identified. Interaction of pUL50 and RISP could be confirmed by coexpression and coimmunoprecipitation in mammalian cells and by confocal laser scanning microscopy in plant cells, demonstrating partial pUL50-RISP colocalization in areas of the nuclear rim and other intracellular compartments. Thus, our study provides strong evidence for conserved structural features of plant and metazoan nuclear envelops and identifies RISP as a potential pUL50-interacting plant protein. PMID:26978388

  5. Human Cytomegalovirus Nuclear Egress Proteins Ectopically Expressed in the Heterologous Environment of Plant Cells are Strictly Targeted to the Nuclear Envelope.

    PubMed

    Lamm, Christian E; Link, Katrin; Wagner, Sabrina; Milbradt, Jens; Marschall, Manfred; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2016-03-10

    In all eukaryotic cells, the nucleus forms a prominent cellular compartment containing the cell's nuclear genome. Although structurally similar, animal and plant nuclei differ substantially in details of their architecture. One example is the nuclear lamina, a layer of tightly interconnected filament proteins (lamins) underlying the nuclear envelope of metazoans. So far no orthologous lamin genes could be detected in plant genomes and putative lamin-like proteins are only poorly described in plants. To probe for potentially conserved features of metazoan and plant nuclear envelopes, we ectopically expressed the core nuclear egress proteins of human cytomegalovirus pUL50 and pUL53 in plant cells. pUL50 localizes to the inner envelope of metazoan nuclei and recruits the nuclear localized pUL53 to it, forming heterodimers. Upon expression in plant cells, a very similar localization pattern of both proteins could be determined. Notably, pUL50 is specifically targeted to the plant nuclear envelope in a rim-like fashion, a location to which coexpressed pUL53 becomes strictly corecruited from its initial nucleoplasmic distribution. Using pUL50 as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screening, the cytoplasmic re-initiation supporting protein RISP could be identified. Interaction of pUL50 and RISP could be confirmed by coexpression and coimmunoprecipitation in mammalian cells and by confocal laser scanning microscopy in plant cells, demonstrating partial pUL50-RISP colocalization in areas of the nuclear rim and other intracellular compartments. Thus, our study provides strong evidence for conserved structural features of plant and metazoan nuclear envelops and identifies RISP as a potential pUL50-interacting plant protein.

  6. Characterization of Chloroplast Protein Import without Tic56, a Component of the 1-Megadalton Translocon at the Inner Envelope Membrane of Chloroplasts1

    PubMed Central

    Köhler, Daniel; Montandon, Cyril; Hause, Gerd; Majovsky, Petra; Kessler, Felix; Baginsky, Sacha; Agne, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    We report on the characterization of Tic56, a unique component of the recently identified 1-MD translocon at the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts (TIC) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) comprising Tic20, Tic100, and Tic214. We isolated Tic56 by copurification with Tandem Affinity Purification-tagged Toc159 in the absence of precursor protein, indicating spontaneous and translocation-independent formation of the translocon at the outer envelope membrane of chloroplasts (TOC) and TIC supercomplexes. Tic56 mutant plants have an albino phenotype and are unable to grow without an external carbon source. Using specific enrichment of protein amino termini, we analyzed the tic56-1 and plastid protein import2 (toc159) mutants to assess the in vivo import capacity of plastids in mutants of an outer and inner envelope component of the anticipated TOC-TIC supercomplex. In both mutants, we observed processing of several import substrates belonging to various pathways. Our results suggest that despite the severe developmental defects, protein import into Tic56-deficient plastids is functional to a considerable degree, indicating the existence of alternative translocases at the inner envelope membrane. PMID:25588737

  7. Characterization of chloroplast protein import without Tic56, a component of the 1-megadalton translocon at the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Daniel; Montandon, Cyril; Hause, Gerd; Majovsky, Petra; Kessler, Felix; Baginsky, Sacha; Agne, Birgit

    2015-03-01

    We report on the characterization of Tic56, a unique component of the recently identified 1-MD translocon at the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts (TIC) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) comprising Tic20, Tic100, and Tic214. We isolated Tic56 by copurification with Tandem Affinity Purification-tagged Toc159 in the absence of precursor protein, indicating spontaneous and translocation-independent formation of the translocon at the outer envelope membrane of chloroplasts (TOC) and TIC supercomplexes. Tic56 mutant plants have an albino phenotype and are unable to grow without an external carbon source. Using specific enrichment of protein amino termini, we analyzed the tic56-1 and plastid protein import2 (toc159) mutants to assess the in vivo import capacity of plastids in mutants of an outer and inner envelope component of the anticipated TOC-TIC supercomplex. Inboth mutants, we observed processing of several import substrates belonging to various pathways. Our results suggest that despite the severe developmental defects, protein import into Tic56-deficient plastids is functional to a considerable degree, indicating the existence of alternative translocases at the inner envelope membrane.

  8. Recombinant hepatitis C virus-envelope protein 2 interactions with low-density lipoprotein/CD81 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Urbaczek, Ana Carolina; Ximenes, Valdecir Farias; Afonso, Ana; Generoso, Wesley Cardoso; Nogueira, Camila Tita; Tansini, Aline; Cappelini, Luciana Teresa Dias; Malagó, Wilson; da Silva, Flávio Henrique; da Fonseca, Luiz Marcos; da Costa, Paulo Inácio

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope protein 2 (E2) is involved in viral binding to host cells. The aim of this work was to produce recombinant E2B and E2Y HCV proteins in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris, respectively, and to study their interactions with low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) and CD81 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and the ECV304 bladder carcinoma cell line. To investigate the effects of human LDL and differences in protein structure (glycosylated or not) on binding efficiency, the recombinant proteins were either associated or not associated with lipoproteins before being assayed. The immunoreactivity of the recombinant proteins was analysed using pooled serum samples that were either positive or negative for hepatitis C. The cells were immunophenotyped by LDLr and CD81 using flow cytometry. Binding and binding inhibition assays were performed in the presence of LDL, foetal bovine serum (FCS) and specific antibodies. The results revealed that binding was reduced in the absence of FCS, but that the addition of human LDL rescued and increased binding capacity. In HUVEC cells, the use of antibodies to block LDLr led to a significant reduction in the binding of E2B and E2Y. CD81 antibodies did not affect E2B and E2Y binding. In ECV304 cells, blocking LDLr and CD81 produced similar effects, but they were not as marked as those that were observed in HUVEC cells. In conclusion, recombinant HCV E2 is dependent on LDL for its ability to bind to LDLr in HUVEC and ECV304 cells. These findings are relevant because E2 acts to anchor HCV to host cells; therefore, high blood levels of LDL could enhance viral infectivity in chronic hepatitis C patients. PMID:26018451

  9. Production of dengue virus envelope protein domain III-based antigens in tobacco chloroplasts using inducible and constitutive expression systems.

    PubMed

    Gottschamel, Johanna; Lössl, Andreas; Ruf, Stephanie; Wang, Yanliang; Skaugen, Morten; Bock, Ralph; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2016-07-01

    Dengue fever is a disease in many parts of the tropics and subtropics and about half the world's population is at risk of infection according to the World Health Organization. Dengue is caused by any of the four related dengue virus serotypes DEN-1, -2, -3 and -4, which are transmitted to people by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Currently there is only one vaccine (Dengvaxia(®)) available (limited to a few countries) on the market since 2015 after half a century's intensive efforts. Affordable and accessible vaccines against dengue are hence still urgently needed. The dengue envelop protein domain III (EDIII), which is capable of eliciting serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies, has become the focus for subunit vaccine development. To contribute to the development of an accessible and affordable dengue vaccine, in the current study we have used plant-based vaccine production systems to generate a dengue subunit vaccine candidate in tobacco. Chloroplast genome engineering was applied to express serotype-specific recombinant EDIII proteins in tobacco chloroplasts using both constitutive and ethanol-inducible expression systems. Expression of a tetravalent antigen fusion construct combining EDIII polypeptides from all four serotypes was also attempted. Transplastomic EDIII-expressing tobacco lines were obtained and homoplasmy was verified by Southern blot analysis. Northern blot analyses showed expression of EDIII antigen-encoding genes. EDIII protein accumulation levels varied for the different recombinant EDIII proteins and the different expression systems, and reached between 0.8 and 1.6 % of total cellular protein. Our study demonstrates the suitability of the chloroplast compartment as a production site for an EDIII-based vaccine candidate against dengue fever and presents a Gateway(®) plastid transformation vector for inducible transgene expression. PMID:27116001

  10. Immunological evidence for the localization of a 110 kDa poly(A) binding protein from rat liver in nuclear envelopes and its phosphorylation by protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, P; Aitken, S J; Bachmann, M; Agutter, P S; Müller, W E; Prochnow, D

    1993-11-01

    We have purified a 110 kDa poly(A) binding protein (P110) from rat liver which is thought to be involved in mRNA translocation through the nuclear pores and have demonstrated its localisation in the nuclear envelope using polyclonal antibodies and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Although P110 was prepared from highly purified nuclear envelopes, the polyclonal antibodies raised against them bind to nucleo- and cytoplasmic structures to a minor extent, but not to nucleolar structures. P110 decays spontaneously into several fragments which are also recognized by the polyclonal antibodies. The 110 kDa polypeptide and its fragments were phosphorylated by a nuclear envelope kinase and this phosphorylation was inhibited by a monoclonal antibody against protein kinase C and by a specific protein kinase C inhibitor obtained from bovine brain. Scatchard analysis was used to determine the influence of protein kinase C activators and inhibitors on nuclear envelope protein phosphorylation and RNA binding. The data indicate a close association between the RNA translocation machinery (the 110 kDa protein) and protein kinase C within the nuclear envelope. We suggest that the fragmentation of P110 is triggered before or during mRNA export and is not due to nonspecific proteolysis.

  11. Proteins from rat liver cytosol which stimulate mRNA transport. Purification and interactions with the nuclear envelope mRNA translocation system.

    PubMed

    Schröder, H C; Rottmann, M; Bachmann, M; Müller, W E; McDonald, A R; Agutter, P S

    1986-08-15

    Two polysome-associated proteins with particular affinities for poly(A) have been purified from rat liver. These proteins stimulate the efflux of mRNA from isolated nuclei in conditions under which such efflux closely stimulates mRNA transport in vivo, and they are therefore considered as mRNA-transport-stimulatory proteins. Their interaction with the mRNA-translocation system in isolated nuclear envelopes has been studied. The results are generally consistent with the most recently proposed kinetic model of mRNA translocation. One protein, P58, has not been described previously. It inhibits the protein kinase that down-regulates the NTPase, it enhances the NTPase activity in both the presence and the absence of poly(A) and it seems to increase poly(A) binding in unphosphorylated, but not in phosphorylated, envelopes. The other protein, P31, which probably corresponds to the 35,000-Mr factor described by Webb and his colleagues, enhances the binding of poly(A) to the mRNA-binding site in the envelope, thus stimulating the phosphoprotein phosphatase and, in consequence, the NTPase. The possible physiological significance of these two proteins is discussed.

  12. Crystal Structure of Dengue Virus Type 1 Envelope Protein in the Postfusion Conformation and Its Implications for Membrane Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, Vinod; Dessau, Moshe; Kucera, Kaury; Anthony, Karen; Ledizet, Michel; Modis, Yorgo

    2009-07-31

    Dengue virus relies on a conformational change in its envelope protein, E, to fuse the viral lipid membrane with the endosomal membrane and thereby deliver the viral genome into the cytosol. We have determined the crystal structure of a soluble fragment E (sE) of dengue virus type 1 (DEN-1). The protein is in the postfusion conformation even though it was not exposed to a lipid membrane or detergent. At the domain I-domain III interface, 4 polar residues form a tight cluster that is absent in other flaviviral postfusion structures. Two of these residues, His-282 and His-317, are conserved in flaviviruses and are part of the 'pH sensor' that triggers the fusogenic conformational change in E, at the reduced pH of the endosome. In the fusion loop, Phe-108 adopts a distinct conformation, forming additional trimer contacts and filling the bowl-shaped concavity observed at the tip of the DEN-2 sE trimer.

  13. Recombinant Envelope-Proteins with Mutations in the Conserved Fusion Loop Allow Specific Serological Diagnosis of Dengue-Infections.

    PubMed

    Rockstroh, Alexandra; Barzon, Luisa; Pacenti, Monia; Palù, Giorgio; Niedrig, Matthias; Ulbert, Sebastian

    2015-11-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus and a major international public health concern in many tropical and sub-tropical areas worldwide. DENV is divided into four major serotypes, and infection with one serotype leads to immunity against the same, but not the other serotypes. The specific diagnosis of DENV-infections via antibody-detection is problematic due to the high degree of cross-reactivity displayed by antibodies against related flaviviruses, such as West Nile virus (WNV), Yellow Fever virus (YFV) or Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Especially in areas where several flaviviruses co-circulate or in the context of vaccination e.g. against YFV or TBEV, this severely complicates diagnosis and surveillance. Most flavivirus cross-reactive antibodies are produced against the highly conserved fusion loop (FL) domain in the viral envelope (E) protein. We generated insect-cell derived recombinant E-proteins of the four DENV-serotypes which contain point mutations in the FL domain. By using specific mixtures of these mutant antigens, cross-reactivity against heterologous flaviviruses was strongly reduced, enabling sensitive and specific diagnosis of the DENV-infected serum samples in IgG and IgM-measurements. These results have indications for the development of serological DENV-tests with improved specificity. PMID:26565964

  14. Advanced Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopies of Iron-Sulfur Proteins: Electron Nuclear Double Resonance (ENDOR) and Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation (ESEEM)

    PubMed Central

    Cutsail, George E.; Telser, Joshua; Hoffman, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    The advanced electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques, electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopies, provide unique insights into the structure, coordination chemistry, and biochemical mechanism of Nature’s widely distributed iron-sulfur cluster (FeS) proteins. This review describes the ENDOR and ESEEM techniques and then provides a series of case studies on their application to a wide variety of FeS proteins including ferredoxins, nitrogenase, and radical SAM enzymes. PMID:25686535

  15. A source of glycosylated human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 envelope protein: expression of gp46 by the vaccinia virus/T7 polymerase system.

    PubMed Central

    Arp, J; LeVatte, M; Rowe, J; Perkins, S; King, E; Leystra-Lantz, C; Foung, S K; Dekaban, G A

    1996-01-01

    Heterologous expression of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) envelope surface glycoprotein (gp46) in a vaccinia virus/T7 polymerase system resulted in the production of authentic recombinant gp46. Five differentially glycosylated forms of the surface envelope protein were produced by this mammalian system, as demonstrated by tunicamycin inhibition of N-glycosylation and N-glycan removal with endoglycosidase H and glycopeptidase F. These studies revealed that all four potential N-glycosylation sites in gp46 were used for oligosaccharide modification and that the oligosaccharides were mannose-rich and/or hybrid in composition. Conformational integrity of the recombinant HTLV-1 envelope protein was determined by the ability to bind to various HTLV-1-infected human sera and a panel of conformational-dependent human monoclonal antibodies under nondenaturing conditions. Furthermore, this recombinant gp46 was recognized by a series of HTLV-2-infected human sera and sera from a Pan paniscus chimpanzee infected with the distantly related simian T-cell lymphotropic virus STLVpan-p. Maintenance of highly conserved conformational epitopes in the recombinant HTLV-1 envelope protein structure suggests that it may serve as a useful diagnostic reagent and an effective vaccine candidate. PMID:8892853

  16. Contributions of herpes simplex virus type 1 envelope proteins to entry by endocytosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) proteins specifically required for endocytic entry but not direct penetration have not been identified. HSVs deleted of gE, gG, gI, gJ, gM, UL45, or Us9 entered cells via either pH-dependent or pH-independent endocytosis and were inactivated by mildly acidic pH. Thus, the ...

  17. Monoclonal antibody-escape variant of dengue virus serotype 1: Genetic composition and envelope protein expression.

    PubMed

    Chem, Y K; Chua, K B; Malik, Y; Voon, K

    2015-06-01

    Monoclonal antibody-escape variant of dengue virus type 1 (MabEV DEN-1) was discovered and isolated in an outbreak of dengue in Klang Valley, Malaysia from December 2004 to March 2005. This study was done to investigate whether DEN152 (an isolate of MabEV DEN-1) is a product of recombination event or not. In addition, the non-synonymous mutations that correlate with the monoclonal antibody-escape variant were determined in this study. The genomes of DEN152 and two new DEN-1 isolates, DENB04 and DENK154 were completely sequenced, aligned, and compared. Phylogenetic tree was plotted and the recombination event on DEN152 was investigated. DEN152 is sub-grouped under genotype I and is closely related genetically to a DEN-1 isolated in Japan in 2004. DEN152 is not a recombinant product of any parental strains. Four amino acid substitutions were unique only to DEN 152. These amino acid substitutions were (Ser)[326](Leu), (Ser)[340](Leu) at the deduced E protein, (Ile)[250](Thr) at NS1 protein, and (Thr)[41](Ser) at NS5 protein. Thus, DEN152 is an isolate of the emerging monoclonal antibody-escape variant DEN-1 that escaped diagnostic laboratory detection.

  18. Nuclear envelope breakdown induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 involves the activity of viral fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Maric, Martina; Haugo, Alison C; Dauer, William; Johnson, David; Roller, Richard J

    2014-07-01

    Herpesvirus infection reorganizes components of the nuclear lamina usually without loss of integrity of the nuclear membranes. We report that wild-type HSV infection can cause dissolution of the nuclear envelope in transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts that do not express torsinA. Nuclear envelope breakdown is accompanied by an eight-fold inhibition of virus replication. Breakdown of the membrane is much more limited during infection with viruses that lack the gB and gH genes, suggesting that breakdown involves factors that promote fusion at the nuclear membrane. Nuclear envelope breakdown is also inhibited during infection with virus that does not express UL34, but is enhanced when the US3 gene is deleted, suggesting that envelope breakdown may be enhanced by nuclear lamina disruption. Nuclear envelope breakdown cannot compensate for deletion of the UL34 gene suggesting that mixing of nuclear and cytoplasmic contents is insufficient to bypass loss of the normal nuclear egress pathway.

  19. Inhibition of Natural Killer Cells through Engagement of CD81 by the Major Hepatitis C Virus Envelope Protein

    PubMed Central

    Crotta, Stefania; Stilla, Annalisa; Wack, Andreas; D'Andrea, Annalisa; Nuti, Sandra; D'Oro, Ugo; Mosca, Marta; Filliponi, Franco; Brunetto, R. Maurizia; Bonino, Ferruccio; Abrignani, Sergio; Valiante, Nicholas M.

    2002-01-01

    The immune response against hepatitis C virus (HCV) is rarely effective at clearing the virus, resulting in ∼170 million chronic HCV infections worldwide. Here we report that ligation of an HCV receptor (CD81) inhibits natural killer (NK) cells. Cross-linking of CD81 by the major envelope protein of HCV (HCV-E2) or anti-CD81 antibodies blocks NK cell activation, cytokine production, cytotoxic granule release, and proliferation. This inhibitory effect was observed using both activated and resting NK cells. Conversely, on NK-like T cell clones, including those expressing NK cell inhibitory receptors, CD81 ligation delivered a costimulatory signal. Engagement of CD81 on NK cells blocks tyrosine phosphorylation through a mechanism which is distinct from the negative signaling pathways associated with NK cell inhibitory receptors for major histocompatibility complex class I. These results implicate HCV-E2–mediated inhibition of NK cells as an efficient HCV evasion strategy targeting the early antiviral activities of NK cells and allowing the virus to establish itself as a chronic infection. PMID:11781363

  20. Tecovirimat, a p37 envelope protein inhibitor for the treatment of smallpox infection.

    PubMed

    Duraffour, Sophie; Andrei, Graciela; Snoeck, Robert

    2010-03-01

    Since the eradication of naturally occurring smallpox in 1980, the fear that variola virus could be used as a biological weapon has become real. Over the last 10 years, emergency preparedness programs have been launched to protect populations against a smallpox outbreak or the possible emergence in humans of other orthopoxvirus infections, such as monkeypox. Vaccination against smallpox was responsible for its eradication, but was linked with high rates of adverse events and contraindications. In this context, intensive research in the poxvirus field has led to the development of safer vaccines and to an increase in the number of anti-poxvirus agents in the pipeline. SIGA Technologies Inc, under license from ViroPharma Inc, is developing tecovirimat (ST-246). Tecovirimat is a novel antiviral that inhibits the egress of orthopoxviruses by targeting viral p37 protein orthologs. The development of tecovirimat during the last 5 years for the treatment of smallpox and for its potential use as adjunct to smallpox vaccine is reviewed here.

  1. Type- and Subcomplex-Specific Neutralizing Antibodies against Domain III of Dengue Virus Type 2 Envelope Protein Recognize Adjacent Epitopes▿

    PubMed Central

    Sukupolvi-Petty, Soila; Austin, S. Kyle; Purtha, Whitney E.; Oliphant, Theodore; Nybakken, Grant E.; Schlesinger, Jacob J.; Roehrig, John T.; Gromowski, Gregory D.; Barrett, Alan D.; Fremont, Daved H.; Diamond, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    Neutralization of flaviviruses in vivo correlates with the development of an antibody response against the viral envelope (E) protein. Previous studies demonstrated that monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against an epitope on the lateral ridge of domain III (DIII) of the West Nile virus (WNV) E protein strongly protect against infection in animals. Based on X-ray crystallography and sequence analysis, an analogous type-specific neutralizing epitope for individual serotypes of the related flavivirus dengue virus (DENV) was hypothesized. Using yeast surface display of DIII variants, we defined contact residues of a panel of type-specific, subcomplex-specific, and cross-reactive MAbs that recognize DIII of DENV type 2 (DENV-2) and have different neutralizing potentials. Type-specific MAbs with neutralizing activity against DENV-2 localized to a sequence-unique epitope on the lateral ridge of DIII, centered at the FG loop near residues E383 and P384, analogous in position to that observed with WNV-specific strongly neutralizing MAbs. Subcomplex-specific MAbs that bound some but not all DENV serotypes and neutralized DENV-2 infection recognized an adjacent epitope centered on the connecting A strand of DIII at residues K305, K307, and K310. In contrast, several MAbs that had poor neutralizing activity against DENV-2 and cross-reacted with all DENV serotypes and other flaviviruses recognized an epitope with residues in the AB loop of DIII, a conserved region that is predicted to have limited accessibility on the mature virion. Overall, our experiments define adjacent and structurally distinct epitopes on DIII of DENV-2 which elicit type-specific, subcomplex-specific, and cross-reactive antibodies with different neutralizing potentials. PMID:17881453

  2. Type- and subcomplex-specific neutralizing antibodies against domain III of dengue virus type 2 envelope protein recognize adjacent epitopes.

    PubMed

    Sukupolvi-Petty, Soila; Austin, S Kyle; Purtha, Whitney E; Oliphant, Theodore; Nybakken, Grant E; Schlesinger, Jacob J; Roehrig, John T; Gromowski, Gregory D; Barrett, Alan D; Fremont, Daved H; Diamond, Michael S

    2007-12-01

    Neutralization of flaviviruses in vivo correlates with the development of an antibody response against the viral envelope (E) protein. Previous studies demonstrated that monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against an epitope on the lateral ridge of domain III (DIII) of the West Nile virus (WNV) E protein strongly protect against infection in animals. Based on X-ray crystallography and sequence analysis, an analogous type-specific neutralizing epitope for individual serotypes of the related flavivirus dengue virus (DENV) was hypothesized. Using yeast surface display of DIII variants, we defined contact residues of a panel of type-specific, subcomplex-specific, and cross-reactive MAbs that recognize DIII of DENV type 2 (DENV-2) and have different neutralizing potentials. Type-specific MAbs with neutralizing activity against DENV-2 localized to a sequence-unique epitope on the lateral ridge of DIII, centered at the FG loop near residues E383 and P384, analogous in position to that observed with WNV-specific strongly neutralizing MAbs. Subcomplex-specific MAbs that bound some but not all DENV serotypes and neutralized DENV-2 infection recognized an adjacent epitope centered on the connecting A strand of DIII at residues K305, K307, and K310. In contrast, several MAbs that had poor neutralizing activity against DENV-2 and cross-reacted with all DENV serotypes and other flaviviruses recognized an epitope with residues in the AB loop of DIII, a conserved region that is predicted to have limited accessibility on the mature virion. Overall, our experiments define adjacent and structurally distinct epitopes on DIII of DENV-2 which elicit type-specific, subcomplex-specific, and cross-reactive antibodies with different neutralizing potentials.

  3. The nuclear pore complex protein Tpr is a common autoantigen in sera that demonstrate nuclear envelope staining by indirect immunofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Ou, Y; Enarson, P; Rattner, J B; Barr, S G; Fritzler, M J

    2004-05-01

    We studied the autoantigen targets of 75 human sera that had antibodies to the nuclear envelope (NE) as identified by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on HEp-2 cells. Several different IIF staining patterns could be identified when antibodies to different components of the nuclear membrane (NM) and nuclear pore complexes (NuPC) were identified: a smooth membrane pattern characteristic of antibodies to nuclear lamins, a punctate pattern typical of antibodies to the nuclear pore complex and more complex patterns that included antibodies to nuclear and cytoplasmic organelles. Western immunoblotting of isolated nuclear and NE proteins and immunoprecipitation of radiolabelled recombinant proteins prepared by using the full-length cDNAs of the Translocated promoter region (Tpr), gp210 and p62 were used to identify specific autoantibody targets. Fifty-two of the 75 (70%) sera bound to Tpr, 25 (33%) bound to lamins A, B or C, 15 (20%) reacted with gp210 and none reacted with p62. Sixteen (21%) did not react with any of the NE components tested in our assays. The clinical features of 37 patients with anti-NE showed that there were 34 females and three males with an age range of 16-88 years (mean 59 years). The most frequent clinical diagnosis (9/37 = 24%) was autoimmune liver disease (ALD; two with primary biliary cirrhosis), followed by seven (19%) with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), four (11%) with a motor and/or sensory neuropathy, three (8%) with anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS), two with systemic sclerosis (SSc), two with Sjögren's syndrome (SjS), and others with a variety of diagnoses. This report indicates that Tpr, a component of the NuPC, is a common target of human autoantibodies that react with the NE.

  4. Use of envelope domain III protein for detection and differentiation of flaviviruses in the Free State Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mathengtheng, Lehlohonolo; Burt, Felicity J

    2014-04-01

    The presence of the mosquito-borne flavivirus species West Nile virus (WNV) and Wesselsbron virus (WESSV) in southern Africa is well established; however, their true prevalence remains unknown. To date, the presence of tick-borne flaviviruses has not been confirmed in this region. Serological assays using reagents that can be handled in a biosafety level 2 or lower facility were developed and evaluated for the detection and differentiation of tick- and mosquito-borne flaviviruses in the Free State province of South Africa. A total of 2393 serum samples from a variety of species including humans, cattle, and sheep were tested using Kunjin virus (KUNV) cell lysate antigen for the detection of anti-flavivirus antibodies in an indirect immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immonosorbent assay (ELISA). To further differentiate positive reactors on the KUNV assay for antibodies against tick- or mosquito-borne flaviviruses, recombinant envelope domain III (r-EDIII) proteins of Langat virus (LGTV), WNV, and WESSV were expressed in a bacterial expression system and used in ELISA. A total of 722 samples were positive using the KUNV assay, of which 71, 457, and 431 were positive using the r-LGTVEDIII, r-WNVEDIII, and r-WESSVEDIII assays, respectively. A total of 70 samples were reactive using the KUNV assay but not using any of the other assays, suggesting that there are possibly other flaviviruses circulating in the Free State province for which specific r-EDIII assays were not available. Collectively, the results suggest a strong presence of flaviviruses co-circulating in the Free State province with an abundance of mosquito-borne flaviviruses. There is evidence suggesting the presence of tick-borne flaviviruses, but it has yet to be confirmed. The EDIII protein is a useful tool that can be used in the detection and differentiation of flaviviruses in resource-limited laboratories, but virus neutralization assays are suggested for accurate confirmation of results. PMID

  5. Advanced paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies of iron-sulfur proteins: Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM).

    PubMed

    Cutsail, George E; Telser, Joshua; Hoffman, Brian M

    2015-06-01

    The advanced electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques, electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopies, provide unique insights into the structure, coordination chemistry, and biochemical mechanism of nature's widely distributed iron-sulfur cluster (FeS) proteins. This review describes the ENDOR and ESEEM techniques and then provides a series of case studies on their application to a wide variety of FeS proteins including ferredoxins, nitrogenase, and radical SAM enzymes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Fe/S proteins: Analysis, structure, function, biogenesis and diseases.

  6. Expression of the human endogenous retrovirus-K transmembrane envelope, Rec and Np9 proteins in melanomas and melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Büscher, Kristina; Hahn, Silvia; Hofmann, Maja; Trefzer, Uwe; Ozel, Muhsin; Sterry, Wolfram; Löwer, Johannes; Löwer, Roswitha; Kurth, Reinhard; Denner, Joachim

    2006-06-01

    The human endogenous retrovirus-K encodes two potential tumor proteins, Rec and Np9. Rec is related to the Rev protein of HIV-1 and has been shown to be associated with tumor development in nude mice. Having shown the expression of human endogenous retrovirus-K in human melanomas and melanoma cell lines, tools were developed to allow the expression of the transmembrane envelope, Rec and Np9 mRNA and proteins to be studied in more detail. The expression of spliced env, rec and np9 was investigated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using a set of primers developed to discriminate between full-length and spliced mRNA. Env-specific, Rec-specific and Np9-specific antisera were produced, characterized and used to study protein expression in melanomas and melanoma cell lines by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses. Existence of human endogenous retrovirus-K Rec and Np9-specific antibodies in the sera of melanoma patients were analyzed by Western blot of immunofluorescence studies. The expression of both spliced env and rec mRNA was detected in 39% of the melanomas and in 40% of the melanoma cell lines and np9 mRNA was detected in 29 and 21%, respectively. In normal neonatal melanocytes, spliced rec mRNA was detected in the absence of spliced env mRNA. Using antisera specific for Rec and Np9, Rec protein was found in 14% of the melanomas but Np9 in none. In addition, cell surface expression of the putatively immunosuppressive transmembrane envelope protein and release of virus particles were shown. Antibodies specific for neither Rec nor Np9 were detected. The transmembrane envelope protein, Rec and Np9 proteins are expressed in melanoma cells with a pattern similar to that seen in teratocarcinoma cell lines. Additional experiments are needed to determine their involvement, if any, in cell proliferation and tumor progression.

  7. Enhancement of Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation Spectroscopic Methods to Investigate the Secondary Structure of Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lishan; Sahu, Indra D.; Mayo, Daniel J.; McCarrick, Robert M.; Troxel, Kaylee; Zhou, Andy; Shockley, Erin; Lorigan, Gary A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a significant improvement of a new structural biology approach designed to probe the secondary structure of membrane proteins using the pulsed EPR technique of Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy. Previously, we showed that we could characterize an α-helical secondary structure with ESEEM spectroscopy using a 2H-labeled Val side chain coupled with site-directed spin-labeling (SDSL). In order to further develop this new approach, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations were conducted on several different hydrophobic residues that are commonly found in membrane proteins. 2H-SL distance distributions from the MD results indicated that 2H-labeled Leu was a very strong candidate to significantly improve this ESEEM approach. In order to test this hypothesis, the secondary structure of the α-helical M2δ peptide of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) incorporated into a bicelle was investigated with 2H-labeled Leu d10 at position 10 (i) and nitroxide spin labels positioned 1, 2, 3 and 4 residues away (denoted i+1 to i+4) with ESEEM spectroscopy. The ESEEM data reveal a unique pattern that is characteristic of an α-helix (3.6 residues per turn). Strong 2H modulation was detected for the i+3 and i+4 samples, but not for the i+2 sample. The 2H modulation depth observed for 2H-labeled d10 Leu was significantly enhanced (x4) when compared to previous ESEEM measurements that used 2H-labeled d8 Val. Computational studies indicate that deuterium nuclei on the Leu sidechain are closer to the spin label when compared to Val. The enhancement of 2H modulation and the corresponding Fourier Transform (FT) peak intensity for 2H-labeled Leu significantly reduces the ESEEM data acquisition time for Leu when compared to Val. This research demonstrates that a different 2H-labeled amino acid residue can be used as an efficient ESEEM probe further substantiating this important biophysical technique. Finally, this new method can provide pertinent

  8. Structural analysis of the extracellular domain of vaccinia virus envelope protein, A27L, by NMR and CD spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ta-Hsien; Chia, Chih-Ming; Hsiao, Jye-Chian; Chang, Wen; Ku, Chiao-Chu; Hung, Shang-Cheng; Tzou, Der-Lii M

    2002-06-01

    This study presents the molecular structure of the extracellular domain of vaccinia virus envelope protein, A27L, determined by NMR and CD spectroscopy. A recombinant protein, eA27L-aa, containing this domain in which cysteines 71 and 72 were replaced with alanine, was constructed to prevent self-assembly due to intermolecular disulfide bonds between these two cysteines. The soluble eA27L-aa protein forms an oligomer resembling that of A27L on vaccinia virions. Heteronuclear correlation NMR spectroscopy was carried out on eA27L-aa in the presence or absence of urea to determine backbone resonance assignments. Chemical shift index (CSI) propensity analysis showed that eA27L-aa has two distinct structural domains, a relatively flexible 22-amino acid random coil in the N-terminal region and a fairly rigid alpha-helix structure in the remainder of the structure. Binding interaction studies using isothermal titration calorimetry suggest that a 12-amino acid lysine/arginine-rich segment in the N-terminal region is responsible for glycosaminoglycan binding. The rigid alpha-helix portion of eA27L-aa is probably involved in the intrinsic self-assembly, and CSI propensity analysis suggests that region N37-E49, with a residual alpha-helix tendency, is probably the self-assembly core. Self-assembly was ascribed to three hydrophobic leucine residues (Leu(41), Leu(45), and Leu(48)) in this segment. The folding mechanism of eA27L-aa was analyzed by CD spectroscopy, which revealed a two-step transition with a Gibbs free energy of 2.5 kcal/mol in the absence of urea. Based on these NMR and CD studies, a residue-specific molecular model of the extracellular domain of A27L is proposed. These studies on the molecular structure of eA27L-aa will help in understanding how vaccinia virus enters cells.

  9. Characterization of the TolB-Pal trans-envelope complex from Xylella fastidiosa reveals a dynamic and coordinated protein expression profile during the biofilm development process.

    PubMed

    Santos, Clelton A; Janissen, Richard; Toledo, Marcelo A S; Beloti, Lilian L; Azzoni, Adriano R; Cotta, Monica A; Souza, Anete P

    2015-10-01

    The intriguing roles of the bacterial Tol-Pal trans-envelope protein complex range from maintenance of cell envelope integrity to potential participation in the process of cell division. In this study, we report the characterization of the XfTolB and XfPal proteins of the Tol-Pal complex of Xylella fastidiosa. X. fastidiosa is a major plant pathogen that forms biofilms inside xylem vessels, triggering the development of diseases in important cultivable plants around the word. Based on functional complementation experiments in Escherichia coli tolB and pal mutant strains, we confirmed the role of xftolB and xfpal in outer membrane integrity. In addition, we observed a dynamic and coordinated protein expression profile during the X. fastidiosa biofilm development process. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), the low-resolution structure of the isolated XfTolB-XfPal complex in solution was solved for the first time. Finally, the localization of the XfTolB and XfPal polar ends was visualized via immunofluorescence labeling in vivo during bacterial cell growth. Our results highlight the major role of the components of the cell envelope, particularly the TolB-Pal complex, during the different phases of bacterial biofilm development. PMID:26049080

  10. Analyses of inter- and intra-patient variation in the V3 loop of the HIV-1 envelope protein

    SciTech Connect

    Korber, B.; Myers, G. ); Wolinsky, S. . Medical School)

    1991-09-17

    The third hypervariable domain of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope protein (V3) has been the focus of intensive sequencing efforts. To date, nearly one thousand V3 loop sequences have been stored in the HIV sequence database. Studies have revealed that the V3 loop elicits potent type-specific immune responses, and that it plays a significant role in cell tropism and fusion . The immunogenic tip of the loop can serve as a type-specific neutralizing antibody epitope, as well as a cytotoxic T-cell epitope. A helper T-cell epitope that lies within the amino terminal half of the V3 loop has also been characterized. Despite the richness of the immunologic response to this region, its potential for variation makes it an elusive target for vaccine design. Analyses of sibling sequence sets (sets of viral sequences derived from one person) show that multiple forms of the immunogenic tip of the loop are found within most HIV-1 infected individuals. Viral V3 sequences obtained from epidemiologically unlinked individuals from North America and Europe show extensive variation. However, some amino acid positions distributed throughout the V3 loop are highly conserved, and there is also conservation of the charge class of amino acid able to occupy certain positions relative to the tip of the loop. By contrast, the sequences obtained from many countries throughout the African continent reveal that V3 is a remarkably fluid region with few absolute constraints on the nature of the amino acids that can occupy most positions in the loop. The high degree of heterogeneity in this region is particularly striking in view of its contribution to biologically important viral functions.

  11. Generation of Monoclonal Antibodies against Dengue Virus Type 4 and Identification of Enhancing Epitopes on Envelope Protein.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chung-Tao; Liao, Mei-Ying; Chiu, Chien-Yu; Shen, Wen-Fan; Chiu, Chiung-Yi; Cheng, Ping-Chang; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Wu, Han-Chung

    2015-01-01

    The four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4) pose a serious threat to global health. Cross-reactive and non-neutralizing antibodies enhance viral infection, thereby exacerbating the disease via antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). Studying the epitopes targeted by these enhancing antibodies would improve the immune responses against DENV infection. In order to investigate the roles of antibodies in the pathogenesis of dengue, we generated a panel of 16 new monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against DENV4. Using plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), we examined the neutralizing activity of these mAbs. Furthermore, we used the in vitro and in vivo ADE assay to evaluate the enhancement of DENV infection by mAbs. The results indicate that the cross-reactive and poorly neutralizing mAbs, DD11-4 and DD18-5, strongly enhance DENV1-4 infection of K562 cells and increase mortality in AG129 mice. The epitope residues of these enhancing mAbs were identified using virus-like particle (VLP) mutants. W212 and E26 are the epitope residues of DD11-4 and DD18-5, respectively. In conclusion, we generated and characterized 16 new mAbs against DENV4. DD11-4 and D18-5 possessed non-neutralizing activities and enhanced viral infection. Moreover, we identified the epitope residues of enhancing mAbs on envelope protein. These results may provide useful information for development of safe dengue vaccine. PMID:26309127

  12. The TIC complex uncovered: The alternative view on the molecular mechanism of protein translocation across the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Masato

    2015-09-01

    Chloroplasts must import thousands of nuclear-encoded preproteins synthesized in the cytosol through two successive protein translocons at the outer and inner envelope membranes, termed TOC and TIC, respectively, to fulfill their complex physiological roles. The molecular identity of the TIC translocon had long remained controversial; two proteins, namely Tic20 and Tic110, had been proposed to be central to protein translocation across the inner envelope membrane. Tic40 also had long been considered to be another central player in this process. However, recently, a novel 1-megadalton complex consisting of Tic20, Tic56, Tic100, and Tic214 was identified at the chloroplast inner membrane of Arabidopsis and was demonstrated to constitute a general TIC translocon which functions in concert with the well-characterized TOC translocon. On the other hand, direct interaction between this novel TIC transport system and Tic110 or Tic40 was hardly observed. Consequently, the molecular model for protein translocation across the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts might need to be extensively revised. In this review article, I intend to propose such alternative view regarding the TIC transport system in contradistinction to the classical view. I also would emphasize importance of reevaluation of previous works in terms of with what methods these classical Tic proteins such as Tic110 or Tic40 were picked up as TIC constituents at the very beginning as well as what actual evidence there were to support their direct and specific involvement in chloroplast protein import. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chloroplast Biogenesis.

  13. Generation of recombinant monoclonal antibodies to study structure-function of envelope protein VP28 of white spot syndrome virus from shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yuzhen; Zhang Xiaohua; Yuan Li; Xu Tao; Rao Yu; Li Jia; Dai Heping

    2008-08-08

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture. VP28 is one of the most important envelope proteins of WSSV. In this study, a recombinant antibody library, as single-chain fragment variable (scFv) format, displayed on phage was constructed using mRNA from spleen cells of mice immunized with full-length VP28 expressed in Escherichia coli. After several rounds of panning, six scFv antibodies specifically binding to the epitopes in the N-terminal, middle, and C-terminal regions of VP28, respectively, were isolated from the library. Using these scFv antibodies as tools, the epitopes in VP28 were located on the envelope of the virion by immuno-electron microscopy. Neutralization assay with these antibodies in vitro suggested that these epitopes may not be the attachment site of WSSV to host cell receptor. This study provides a new way to investigate the structure and function of the envelope proteins of WSSV.

  14. Depletion of the surface CD4 molecule by the envelope protein of human immunodeficiency virus expressed in a human CD4 sup + monocytoid cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, Ikuo; Koga, Yasuhiro; Oh-Hori, Nobuhira; Kimura, Genki; Nomoto, Kikuo ); Onodera, Kazukiyo )

    1989-09-01

    A CD4{sup +} human monocytoid cell line, U937, was transfected with a constructed plasmid which has the envelope gene of human immunodeficiency virus under the transcriptional control of the human metallothionein IIA promoter and was cloned thereafter. These cloned cell lines (EH and EL cells) expressed the viral gp160 in the cytoplasm. The expression of surface CD4 antigen examined by Leu3a and OKT4 monoclonal antibodies, however, disappeared completely in EH cells, which produce a larger amount of gp160, while diminishing only partly in EL cells, which produce a smaller amount of gp160. These results indicate that the level of expression of surface CD4 antigen correlates inversely with the amount of intracellular gp160. Moreover, immunoprecipitation studies using lysate from EH cells showed that OKT4 monoclonal antibody precipitated a significant number of CD4 molecules even after surface CD4 disappeared. However, Leu3a monoclonal antibody, which recognizes the binding site for envelope protein, could not precipitate any CD4 molecules in the same cell lysate. Taken together, these results suggested that CD4 molecules are still synthesized normally after the augmented production of gp160 in the cells but form a complex with the envelope protein in the cytoplasm and become unable to be transported to the cell surface, resulting in the observed depletion of surface CD4 antigen. This mechanism may explain the decrease or absence of surface CD4 antigens in human lymphocytes infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

  15. Gypsy transposition correlates with the production of a retroviral envelope-like protein under the tissue-specific control of the Drosophila flamenco gene.

    PubMed

    Pélisson, A; Song, S U; Prud'homme, N; Smith, P A; Bucheton, A; Corces, V G

    1994-09-15

    Gypsy displays striking similarities to vertebrate retroviruses, including the presence of a yet uncharacterized additional open reading frame (ORF3) and the recent evidence for infectivity. It is mobilized with high frequency in the germline of the progeny of females homozygous for the flamenco permissive mutation. We report the characterization of a gypsy subgenomic ORF3 RNA encoding typical retroviral envelope proteins. In females, env expression is strongly repressed by one copy of the non-permissive allele of flamenco. A less dramatic reduction in the accumulation of other transcripts and retrotranscripts is also observed. These effects correlate well with the inhibition of gypsy transposition in the progeny of these females, and are therefore likely to be responsible for this phenomenon. The effects of flamenco on gypsy expression are apparently restricted to the somatic follicle cells that surround the maternal germline. Moreover, permissive follicle cells display a typically polarized distribution of gypsy RNAs and envelope proteins, both being mainly accumulated at the apical pole, close to the oocyte. We propose a model suggesting that gypsy germinal transposition might occur only in individuals that have maternally inherited enveloped gypsy particles due to infection of the maternal germline by the soma. PMID:7925283

  16. The surface envelope protein gene region of equine infectious anemia virus is not an important determinant of tropism in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Perry, S T; Flaherty, M T; Kelley, M J; Clabough, D L; Tronick, S R; Coggins, L; Whetter, L; Lengel, C R; Fuller, F

    1992-01-01

    Virulent, wild-type equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is restricted in one or more early steps in replication in equine skin fibroblast cells compared with cell culture-adapted virus, which is fully competent for replication in this cell type. We compared the sequences of wild-type EIAV and a full-length infectious proviral clone of the cell culture-adapted EIAV and found that the genomes were relatively well conserved with the exception of the envelope gene region, which showed extensive sequence differences. We therefore constructed several wild-type and cell culture-adapted virus chimeras to examine the role of the envelope gene in replication in different cell types in vitro. Unlike wild-type virus, which is restricted by an early event(s) for replication in equine dermis cells, the wild-type outer envelope gene chimeras are replication competent in this cell type. We conclude that even though there are extensive sequence differences between wild-type and cell culture-adapted viruses in the surface envelope gene region, this domain is not a determinant of the differing in vitro cell tropisms. Images PMID:1318398

  17. The Use of Two-Photon FRET-FLIM to Study Protein Interactions During Nuclear Envelope Fusion In Vivo and In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Richard D; Larijani, Banafshé; Poccia, Dominic L

    2016-01-01

    FRET-FLIM techniques have wide application in the study of protein and protein-lipid interactions in cells. We have pioneered an imaging platform for accurate detection of functional states of proteins and their interactions in fixed cells. This platform, two-site-amplified Förster resonance energy transfer (a-FRET), allows greater signal generation while retaining minimal noise thus enabling application of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) to be routinely deployed in different types of cells and tissue. We have used the method described here, time-resolved FRET monitored by two-photon FLIM, to demonstrate the direct interaction of Phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) by Src Family Kinase 1 (SFK1) during nuclear envelope formation and during male and female pronuclear membrane fusion in fertilized sea urchin eggs. We describe here a generic method that can be applied to monitor any proteins of interest.

  18. The Use of Two-Photon FRET-FLIM to Study Protein Interactions During Nuclear Envelope Fusion In Vivo and In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Richard D; Larijani, Banafshé; Poccia, Dominic L

    2016-01-01

    FRET-FLIM techniques have wide application in the study of protein and protein-lipid interactions in cells. We have pioneered an imaging platform for accurate detection of functional states of proteins and their interactions in fixed cells. This platform, two-site-amplified Förster resonance energy transfer (a-FRET), allows greater signal generation while retaining minimal noise thus enabling application of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) to be routinely deployed in different types of cells and tissue. We have used the method described here, time-resolved FRET monitored by two-photon FLIM, to demonstrate the direct interaction of Phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) by Src Family Kinase 1 (SFK1) during nuclear envelope formation and during male and female pronuclear membrane fusion in fertilized sea urchin eggs. We describe here a generic method that can be applied to monitor any proteins of interest. PMID:27147038

  19. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody to a novel glycan-dependent epitope in the V1/V2 domain of the HIV-1 envelope protein, gp120.

    PubMed

    Doran, Rachel C; Morales, Javier F; To, Briana; Morin, Trevor J; Theolis, Richard; O'Rourke, Sara M; Yu, Bin; Mesa, Kathryn A; Berman, Phillip W

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies have described several broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bN-mAbs) that recognize glycan-dependent epitopes (GDEs) in the HIV-1 envelope protein, gp120. These were recovered from HIV-1 infected subjects, and several (e.g., PG9, PG16, CH01, CH03) target glycans in the first and second variable (V1/V2) domain of gp120. The V1/V2 domain is thought to play an important role in conformational masking, and antibodies to the V1/V2 domain were recently identified as the only immune response that correlated with protection in the RV144 HIV-1 vaccine trial. While the importance of antibodies to polymeric glycans is well established for vaccines targeting bacterial diseases, the importance of antibodies to glycans in vaccines targeting HIV has only recently been recognized. Antibodies to GDEs may be particularly significant in HIV vaccines based on gp120, where 50% of the molecular mass of the envelope protein is contributed by N-linked carbohydrate. However, few studies have reported antibodies to GDEs in humans or animals immunized with candidate HIV-1 vaccines. In this report, we describe the isolation of a mouse mAb, 4B6, after immunization with the extracellular domain of the HIV-1 envelope protein, gp140. Epitope mapping using glycopeptide fragments and in vitro mutagenesis showed that binding of this antibody depends on N-linked glycosylation at asparagine N130 (HXB2 numbering) in the gp120 V1/V2 domain. Our results demonstrate that, in addition to natural HIV-1 infection, immunization with recombinant proteins can elicit antibodies to the GDEs in the V1/V2 domain of gp120. Although little is known regarding conditions that favor antibody responses to GDEs, our studies demonstrate that these antibodies can arise from a short-term immunization regimen. Our results suggest that antibodies to GDEs are more common than previously suspected, and that further analysis of antibody responses to the HIV-1 envelope protein will lead to the discovery of

  20. Pushing the endogenous envelope

    PubMed Central

    Henzy, Jamie E.; Johnson, Welkin E.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of retroviral envelope glycoproteins characterized to date are typical of type I viral fusion proteins, having a receptor binding subunit associated with a fusion subunit. The fusion subunits of lentiviruses and alpha-, beta-, delta- and gammaretroviruses have a very conserved domain organization and conserved features of secondary structure, making them suitable for phylogenetic analyses. Such analyses, along with sequence comparisons, reveal evidence of numerous recombination events in which retroviruses have acquired envelope glycoproteins from heterologous sequences. Thus, the envelope gene (env) can have a history separate from that of the polymerase gene (pol), which is the most commonly used gene in phylogenetic analyses of retroviruses. Focusing on the fusion subunits of the genera listed above, we describe three distinct types of retroviral envelope glycoproteins, which we refer to as gamma-type, avian gamma-type and beta-type. By tracing these types within the ‘fossil record’ provided by endogenous retroviruses, we show that they have surprisingly distinct evolutionary histories and dynamics, with important implications for cross-species transmissions and the generation of novel lineages. These findings validate the utility of env sequences in contributing phylogenetic signal that enlarges our understanding of retrovirus evolution. PMID:23938755

  1. SASSIM: a method for calculating small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering and the associated molecular envelope from explicit-atom models of solvated proteins.

    PubMed

    Merzel, Franci; Smith, Jeremy C

    2002-02-01

    A method is presented to calculate efficiently small-angle neutron and X-ray solution scattering intensities from explicit-atom models of macromolecules and the surrounding solvent. The method is based on a multipole expansion of the scattering amplitude. It is particularly appropriate for extensive configurational averaging, as is required for calculations based on computer-simulation results. In test calculations, excellent agreement with experiment is found between neutron and X-ray scattering profiles calculated from a molecular-dynamics simulation of lysozyme in water. The question of definition of the protein surface is also addressed. For comparison with the continuum model, an analytical envelope around the protein is defined in terms of spherical harmonics and is calculated using a Lebedev grid. The analytical surface thus defined is shown to reproduce well the scattering profile calculated from the explicit-atom model of the protein.

  2. SAFEGUARDS ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Duc Cao; Richard Metcalf

    2010-07-01

    The Safeguards Envelope is a strategy to determine a set of specific operating parameters within which nuclear facilities may operate to maximize safeguards effectiveness without sacrificing safety or plant efficiency. This paper details advanced statistical techniques that will be applied to real plant process monitoring (PM) data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). In a simulation based on this data, multi-tank and multi-attribute correlations were tested against synthetic diversion scenarios. Kernel regression smoothing was used to fit a curve to the historical data, and multivariable, residual analysis and cumulative sum techniques set parameters for operating conditions. Diversion scenarios were created and tested, showing improved results when compared with a previous study utilizing only one-variable Z-testing. A brief analysis of the impact of the safeguards optimization on the rest of plant efficiency, criticality concerns, and overall requirements is presented.

  3. DNA vaccines expressing soluble CD4-envelope proteins fused to C3d elicit cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, Joseph F.; Green, Thomas D.; Ross, Ted M. . E-mail: tmr15@pitt.edu

    2004-10-25

    DNA vaccines expressing the envelope (Env) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have been relatively ineffective at generating high-titer, long-lasting, neutralizing antibodies in a variety of animal models. In this study, DNA vaccines were constructed to express a fusion protein of the soluble human CD4 (sCD4) and the gp120 subunit of the HIV-1 envelope. To enhance the immunogenicity of the expressed fusion protein, three copies of the murine C3d (mC3d{sub 3}) were added to the carboxyl terminus of the complex. Monoclonal antibodies that recognize CD4-induced epitopes on gp120 efficiently bound to sCD4-gp120 or sCD4-gp120-mC3d{sub 3}. In addition, both sCD4-gp120 and sCD4-gp120-mC3d{sub 3} bound to cells expressing appropriate coreceptors in the absence of cell surface hCD4. Mice (BALB/c) vaccinated with DNA vaccines expressing either gp120-mC3d{sub 3} or sCD4-gp120-mC3d{sub 3} elicited antibodies that neutralized homologous virus infection. However, the use of sCD4-gp120-mC3d{sub 3}-DNA elicited the highest titers of neutralizing antibodies that persisted after depletion of anti-hCD4 antibodies. Interestingly, only mice vaccinated with DNA expressing sCD4-gp120-mC3d{sub 3} had antibodies that elicited cross-protective neutralizing antibodies. The fusion of sCD4 to the HIV-1 envelope exposes neutralizing epitopes that elicit broad protective immunity when the fusion complex is coupled with the molecular adjuvant, C3d.

  4. Hepatitis C Virus Subtype 3a Envelope Protein 1 Binding with Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Types of Pakistani Population: Candidate Epitopes for Synthetic Peptide Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Nawaz-Tipu, Hamid

    2015-10-01

    The object of this cross sectional study was to determine the HCV subtype 3a envelope protein binding affinity with Human Leukocyte Antigen. Envelope 1 (E1) protein is one of the structural proteins responsible for entering the cells through the receptors. The binding affinity of E1 protein epitopes to the selected Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class I alleles was investigated using the computer-based tools. These prediction tools were also used to design the synthetic vaccine's candidate epitopes and to identify the individuals/populations who are likely to be responder to those vaccines.The mean frequency of HLA I antigens in Pakistani population was calculated. Three alleles each from HLA A and B were selected. E1 protein sequence extracted from HCV 3a isolates was retrieved and twenty-four sequences of it were selected. NetMHCcons 1.0 server was used to determine the binding affinities of HLA alleles to the epitope sequences of 10 amino acids in length.A02, A03, A11, A24, A33, B08, B13, B15, B35 and B40 were the first five antigens more prevalent in Pakistan each from HLA A and HLA B.. We did not find any binding affinity between HLA A*201, B*1501 and B*4001 and epitopes from E1 sequences in a threshold of 50 nM. Totally five various epitopes derived from different isolates were characterized.The prediction of HLA-E1 epitope specific bindings and the forthcoming response can be a useful bioinformatics tool to uncover the right synthetic peptides for vaccine design purposes.

  5. Partial nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the envelope and the envelope/nonstructural protein-1 gene junction of four dengue-2 virus strains isolated during the 1981 Cuban epidemic.

    PubMed

    Guzman, M G; Deubel, V; Pelegrino, J L; Rosario, D; Marrero, M; Sariol, C; Kouri, G

    1995-03-01

    In 1981, an epidemic of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) caused by dengue-2 virus occurred in Cuba. This was the first DHF epidemic reported in the Western Hemisphere. In this study, we have analyzed four dengue-2 Cuban strains for two short genomic fragments: one on the envelope (E) glycoprotein and one at the E/nonstructural protein-1 (NS1) gene junction. The E segment of these 1981 Cuban isolates were more closely related to older dengue-2 virus strains such as New Guinea C 1944, Thailand 1964, Sri Lanka 1968, and Burma 1976 than to more recent isolates of this virus from Jamaica and Vietnam. More than 9% of the divergence with strains isolated from Jamaica and Vietnam was observed at the E/NS1 gene junction. One nucleotide change was observed between the first strain isolated during the epidemic and the rest of the Cuban strains. This mutation induced a nonconserved amino acid change from phenylalanine to leucine at position 43 that was not observed in any of the other strains with which it was compared.

  6. A small heat shock protein enables Escherichia coli to grow at a lethal temperature of 50°C conceivably by maintaining cell envelope integrity.

    PubMed

    Ezemaduka, Anastasia N; Yu, Jiayu; Shi, Xiaodong; Zhang, Kaiming; Yin, Chang-Cheng; Fu, Xinmiao; Chang, Zengyi

    2014-06-01

    It is essential for organisms to adapt to fluctuating growth temperatures. Escherichia coli, a model bacterium commonly used in research and industry, has been reported to grow at a temperature lower than 46.5°C. Here we report that the heterologous expression of the 17-kDa small heat shock protein from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, CeHSP17, enables E. coli cells to grow at 50°C, which is their highest growth temperature ever reported. Strikingly, CeHSP17 also rescues the thermal lethality of an E. coli mutant deficient in degP, which encodes a protein quality control factor localized in the periplasmic space. Mechanistically, we show that CeHSP17 is partially localized in the periplasmic space and associated with the inner membrane of E. coli, and it helps to maintain the cell envelope integrity of the E. coli cells at the lethal temperatures. Together, our data indicate that maintaining the cell envelope integrity is crucial for the E. coli cells to grow at high temperatures and also shed new light on the development of thermophilic bacteria for industrial application.

  7. Expression profile of key immune-related genes in Penaeus monodon juveniles after oral administration of recombinant envelope protein VP28 of white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ancy; Sudheer, Naduvilamuriparampu Saidumuhammed; Kiron, Viswanath; Bright Singh, Issac S; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri

    2016-07-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most catastrophic pathogen the shrimp industry has ever encountered. VP28, the abundant envelope protein of WSSV was expressed in bacteria, the purified protein administered orally to Penaeus monodon juveniles and its immune modulatory effects examined. The results indicated significant up-regulation of caspase, penaeidin, crustin, astakine, syntenin, PmRACK, Rab7, STAT and C-type lectin in animals orally administered with this antigen. This revealed the immune modulations in shrimps followed by oral administration of rVP28P which resulted in the reduced transcription of viral gene vp28 and delay in mortality after WSSV challenge. The study suggests the potential of rVP28P to elicit a non-specific immune stimulation in shrimps.

  8. A major facilitator superfamily protein, HepP, is involved in formation of the heterocyst envelope polysaccharide in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    López-Igual, Rocío; Lechno-Yossef, Sigal; Fan, Qing; Herrero, Antonia; Flores, Enrique; Wolk, C Peter

    2012-09-01

    Some filamentous cyanobacteria such as Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 produce cells, termed heterocysts, specialized in nitrogen fixation. Heterocysts bear a thick envelope containing an inner layer of glycolipids and an outer layer of polysaccharide that restrict the diffusion of air (including O(2)) into the heterocyst. Anabaena sp. mutants impaired in production of either of those layers show a Fox(-) phenotype (requiring fixed nitrogen for growth under oxic conditions). We have characterized a set of transposon-induced Fox(-) mutants in which transposon Tn5-1063 was inserted into the Anabaena sp. chromosome open reading frame all1711 which encodes a predicted membrane protein that belongs to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). These mutants showed higher nitrogenase activities under anoxic than under oxic conditions and altered sucrose uptake. Electron microscopy and alcian blue staining showed a lack of the heterocyst envelope polysaccharide (Hep) layer. Northern blot and primer extension analyses showed that, in a manner dependent on the nitrogen-control transcription factor NtcA, all1711 was strongly induced after nitrogen step-down. Confocal microscopy of an Anabaena sp. strain producing an All1711-green fluorescent protein (All1711-GFP) fusion protein showed induction in all cells of the filament but at higher levels in differentiating heterocysts. All1711-GFP was located in the periphery of the cells, consistent with All1711 being a cytoplasmic membrane protein. Expression of all1711 from the P(glnA) promoter in a multicopy plasmid led to production of a presumptive exopolysaccharide by vegetative cells. These results suggest that All1711, which we denote HepP, is involved in transport of glycoside(s), with a specific physiological role in production of Hep.

  9. Nuclear envelope-localized EGF family protein amphiregulin activates breast cancer cell migration in an EGF-like domain independent manner

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Hisae; Nishioka, Yu; Yokoyama, Yuhki; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Matsuura, Nariaki; Matsuura, Shuji; Hieda, Miki

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear envelope-localized proAREG activates cancer cell migration via its cytoplasmic domain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The induction of cell migration does not require the EGF-like domain or EGR function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear envelope-localized proAREG suppresses breast cancer cell growth without EGFR function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study revealed a novel function mediated by the intracellular domain of proAREG. -- Abstract: Amphiregulin (AREG), an EGF family protein, is synthesized as a type I transmembrane precursor (proAREG) and expressed on the cell surface with an extracellular EGF-like domain and an intracellular short cytoplasmic tail. The ectodomain shedding yields a soluble EGF receptor ligand (soluble AREG) which binds to EGF receptor (EGFR) and concomitantly induces migration of unshed proAREG from the plasma membrane to the nuclear envelope (NE). AREG is known to play a potential role in breast cancer and has been intensively investigated as an EGF receptor ligand, while the function of the NE-localized proAREG remains unknown. In this study we used a truncated mutant that mimics NE-localized proAREG without shedding stimuli to discriminate between the functions of NE-localized and plasma membrane-localized proAREG and demonstrate that NE-localized proAREG activates breast cancer cell migration, but suppresses cell growth. Moreover, the present study shows that induction of cell migration by NE-localized proAREG does not require the extracellular growth factor domain or EGF receptor function. Collectively these data demonstrate a novel function mediated by the intracellular domain of proAREG and suggest a significant role for NE-localized proAREG in driving human breast cancer progression.

  10. Definition of novel cell envelope associated proteins in Triton X-114 extracts of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Membrane- and membrane-associated proteins are important for the pathogenicity of bacteria. We have analysed the content of these proteins in virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using Triton X-114 detergent-phase separation for extraction of lipophilic proteins, followed by their identification with high resolution mass spectrometry. Results In total, 1417 different proteins were identified. In silico analysis of the identified proteins revealed that 248 proteins had at least one predicted trans-membrane region. Also, 64 of the identified proteins were predicted lipoproteins, and 54 proteins were predicted as outer membrane proteins. Three-hundred-and-ninety-five of the observed proteins, including 91 integral membrane proteins were described for the first time. Comparison of abundance levels of the identified proteins was performed using the exponentially modified protein abundance index (emPAI) which takes into account the number of the observable peptides to the number of experimentally observed peptide ions for a given protein. The outcome showed that among the membrane-and membrane-associated proteins several proteins are present with high relative abundance. Further, a close examination of the lipoprotein LpqG (Rv3623) which is only detected in the membrane fractions of M. tuberculosis but not in M. bovis, revealed that the homologous gene in M. bovis lack the signal peptide and lipobox motif, suggesting impaired export to the membrane. Conclusions Altogether, we have identified a substantial proportion of membrane- and membrane-associated proteins of M. tuberculosis H37Rv, compared the relative abundance of the identified proteins and also revealed subtle differences between the different members of the M. tuberculosis complex. PMID:20429878

  11. Use of the quartz crystal microbalance to monitor ligand-induced conformational rearrangements in HIV-1 envelope protein gp120

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Su; Contarino, Mark; Umashankara, M.; Schön, Arne; Freire, Ernesto; Smith, Amos B.; Chaiken, Irwin M.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the potential of a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) to provide a sensitive, label-free method for detecting the conformational rearrangement of glycoprotein gp120 upon binding to different ligands. This glycoprotein is normally found on the envelope of the HIV-1 virus and is involved in viral entry into host cells. It was immobilized on the surface of the sensing element of the QCM-D and was exposed to individual solutions of several different small-molecule inhibitors as well as to a solution of soluble form of the host cell receptor to which gp120 binds. Instrument responses to ligand-triggered changes were in qualitative agreement with conformational changes suggested by other biophysical methods. PMID:20016882

  12. HIV-1 viral envelope protein gp41: An NMR investigation of dodecyl phosphocholine embedded gp41 reveals a dynamic pre-fusion intermediate conformation

    PubMed Central

    Lakomek, Nils-Alexander; Kaufman, Joshua D.; Stahl, Stephen J.; Wingfield, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Human immunodeficiency viral (HIV-1) fusion is mediated by the viral envelope gp120/gp41 complex (ENVelope glycoprotein). After gp120 shedding, gp41 is exposed and elicits membrane fusion via a cascade of conformational changes. In contrast to pre-fusion and post-fusion conformation, little is known about any intermediate conformation. We report on a solution NMR investigation of homotrimeric HIV-1 gp4127–194, comprising the transmembrane region and reconstituted in dodecyl phosphocholine (DPC) micelles. The protein is mainly α-helical but experiences internal dynamics on the nanosecond and micro-to millisecond time scale and transient α-helical behavior for certain residues in the N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR). Strong lipid interactions are observed, in particular for C-terminal residues of the NHR and imunodominant loop region connecting NHR and C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR). Our data indicate an extended conformation with features anticipated for a pre-fusion intermediate, presumably in exchange with a lowly populated post-fusion six-helical bundle conformation. PMID:25132083

  13. Small interfering RNAs targeting viral structural envelope protein genes and the 5ʹ-UTR inhibit replication of bovine viral diarrhea virus in MDBK cells.

    PubMed

    Mishra, N; Rajukumar, K; Kalaiyarasu, S; Behera, S P; Nema, R K; Dubey, S C

    2011-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs) are important pathogens of cattle that occur worldwide, and for which no antiviral therapy is available. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of small interfering (si) RNAs on bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1) replication in cultured bovine cells was explored. Four synthetic siRNAs were designed to target structural envelope region genes (Erns, E1, and E2) and one cocktail of siRNA was generated to target the 5ʹ-UTR of the BVDV-1 genome. The inhibitory effects of siRNAs were assessed by determination of infectious viral titer, viral antigen and viral RNA. The siRNA cocktail and three of the synthetic siRNAs produced moderate anti-BVDV-1 effect in vitro as shown by 25%-40% reduction in BVDV-1 antigen production, 7.9-19.9-fold reduction in viral titer and 21-48-fold reduction in BVDV-1 RNA copy number. Our findings suggest that siRNA cocktail targeted at the 5ʹ-UTR is a stronger inhibitor of BVDV-1 replication and the targets for siRNA inhibition can be extended to BVDV-1 structural envelope protein genes.

  14. Dengue virus envelope protein domain I/II hinge determines long-lived serotype-specific dengue immunity.

    PubMed

    Messer, William B; de Alwis, Ruklanthi; Yount, Boyd L; Royal, Scott R; Huynh, Jeremy P; Smith, Scott A; Crowe, James E; Doranz, Benjamin J; Kahle, Kristen M; Pfaff, Jennifer M; White, Laura J; Sariol, Carlos A; de Silva, Aravinda M; Baric, Ralph S

    2014-02-01

    The four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes, DENV-1, -2, -3, and -4, are endemic throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world, with an estimated 390 million acute infections annually. Infection confers long-term protective immunity against the infecting serotype, but secondary infection with a different serotype carries a greater risk of potentially fatal severe dengue disease, including dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. The single most effective measure to control this threat to global health is a tetravalent DENV vaccine. To date, attempts to develop a protective vaccine have progressed slowly, partly because the targets of type-specific human neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), which are critical for long-term protection, remain poorly defined, impeding our understanding of natural immunity and hindering effective vaccine development. Here, we show that the envelope glycoprotein domain I/II hinge of DENV-3 and DENV-4 is the primary target of the long-term type-specific NAb response in humans. Transplantation of a DENV-4 hinge into a recombinant DENV-3 virus showed that the hinge determines the serotype-specific neutralizing potency of primary human and nonhuman primate DENV immune sera and that the hinge region both induces NAbs and is targeted by protective NAbs in rhesus macaques. These results suggest that the success of live dengue vaccines may depend on their ability to stimulate NAbs that target the envelope glycoprotein domain I/II hinge region. More broadly, this study shows that complex conformational antibody epitopes can be transplanted between live viruses, opening up similar possibilities for improving the breadth and specificity of vaccines for influenza, HIV, hepatitis C virus, and other clinically important viral pathogens. PMID:24385585

  15. Clupeiformes' Egg Envelope Proteins characterization: The case of Engraulis encrasicolus as a proxy for stock assessment through a novel molecular tool.

    PubMed

    Miccoli, Andrea; Leonori, Iole; Estonba, Andone; De Felice, Andrea; Piccinetti, Chiara Carla; Carnevali, Oliana

    2016-07-01

    Zona radiata proteins are essential for ensuring bactericidal resistance, oocyte nutrients uptake and functional buoyancy, sperm binding and guidance to the micropyle, and protection to the growing oocyte or embryo from the physical environment. Such glycoproteins have been characterized in terms of molecular structure, protein composition and phylogenetics in several chordate models. Nevertheless, research on teleost has not been extensive. In Clupeiformes, one of the most biologically relevant and commercially important order which accounts for over 400 species and totally contributes to more than a quarter of the world fish catch, Egg Envelope Protein (EEP) information exist only for the Clupea pallasii and Engraulis japonicus species. The European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, the target of a well-consolidated fishery in the Mediterranean Sea, has been ignored until now and the interest on the Otocephala superorder has been fragmentally limited to some Cypriniformes and Gonorynchiformes, as well. The aim of the present study was to fill the ZP protein-wise gap of knowledge afflicting the understanding of the European anchovy's reproductive process and to expand the background on Clupeiformes. We cloned the five Engraulis encrasicolus' zp genes and deduced their products, determined their tissue distribution, quantified their mRNA expression throughout the reproductive cycle and provided an insight into their evolution through phylogenetic tools. Furthermore, we proposed a multivariate statistics-based method to objectively infer and/or confirm the classification of Engraulis encrasicolus' sexual maturity stages by analyzing data of zp mRNAs' relative abundance. PMID:27060425

  16. Nuclear envelope proteins Nesprin2 and LaminA regulate proliferation and apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells in response to shear stress.

    PubMed

    Han, Yue; Wang, Lu; Yao, Qing-Ping; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Bo; Wang, Guo-Liang; Shen, Bao-Rong; Cheng, Binbin; Wang, Yingxiao; Jiang, Zong-Lai; Qi, Ying-Xin

    2015-05-01

    The dysfunction of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) influenced by flow shear stress is crucial for vascular remodeling. However, the roles of nuclear envelope (NE) proteins in shear stress-induced EC dysfunction are still unknown. Our results indicated that, compared with normal shear stress (NSS), low shear stress (LowSS) suppressed the expression of two types of NE proteins, Nesprin2 and LaminA, and increased the proliferation and apoptosis of ECs. Targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) and gene overexpression plasmid transfection revealed that Nesprin2 and LaminA participate in the regulation of EC proliferation and apoptosis. A protein/DNA array was further used to detect the activation of transcription factors in ECs following transfection with target siRNAs and overexpression plasmids. The regulation of AP-2 and TFIID mediated by Nesprin2 and the activation of Stat-1, Stat-3, Stat-5 and Stat-6 by LaminA were verified under shear stress. Furthermore, using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software and real-time RT-PCR, the effects of Nesprin2 or LaminA on the downstream target genes of AP-2, TFIID, and Stat-1, Stat-3, Stat-5 and Stat-6, respectively, were investigated under LowSS. Our study has revealed that NE proteins are novel mechano-sensitive molecules in ECs. LowSS suppresses the expression of Nesprin2 and LaminA, which may subsequently modulate the activation of important transcription factors and eventually lead to EC dysfunction.

  17. ERManI (Endoplasmic Reticulum Class I α-Mannosidase) Is Required for HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Degradation via Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Protein Degradation Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tao; Frabutt, Dylan A; Moremen, Kelley W; Zheng, Yong-Hui

    2015-09-01

    Previously, we reported that the mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO) induces HIV-1 envelope (Env) degradation via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway, but the mechanism was not clear. Here we investigated how the four ER-associated glycoside hydrolase family 47 (GH47) α-mannosidases, ERManI, and ER-degradation enhancing α-mannosidase-like (EDEM) proteins 1, 2, and 3, are involved in the Env degradation process. Ectopic expression of these four α-mannosidases uncovers that only ERManI inhibits HIV-1 Env expression in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, genetic knock-out of the ERManI gene MAN1B1 using CRISPR/Cas9 technology disrupts the TSPO-mediated Env degradation. Biochemical studies show that HIV-1 Env interacts with ERManI, and between the ERManI cytoplasmic, transmembrane, lumenal stem, and lumenal catalytic domains, the catalytic domain plays a critical role in the Env-ERManI interaction. In addition, functional studies show that inactivation of the catalytic sites by site-directed mutagenesis disrupts the ERManI activity. These studies identify ERManI as a critical GH47 α-mannosidase in the ER-associated protein degradation pathway that initiates the Env degradation and suggests that its catalytic domain and enzymatic activity play an important role in this process.

  18. Structural analysis and immunogenicity of recombinant major envelope protein (rA27L) of buffalopox virus, a zoonotic Indian vaccinia-like virus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Yogisharadhya, Revanaiah; Bhanuprakash, Veerakyathappa; Venkatesan, Gnanavel; Shivachandra, Sathish Bhadravati

    2015-10-01

    Buffalopox virus (BPXV), an Indian variant of vaccinia virus (VACV), is a zoonotic agent and affects buffaloes, cattle and humans. A27L is one of the conserved major immuno-dominant envelope proteins of orthopox viruses (OPVs) involved in viral entry/maturation and elicits neutralizing antibodies. In this study, the A27L gene of BPXV-Vij/96 strain encoding recombinant mature A27L (21S to E110) and C-terminal truncated A27L-LZD (21S to N84aa) proteins were cloned and over-expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins. Structurally, A27L of BPXV was similar to that of VACV and found to contain four regions including a potential coiled-coil motif (CCM) in the centre (43 to 84aa). Oligomerization of recombinant A27L fusion protein (∼30 kDa) leads to the formation of dimer/trimers/tetramers under non-reducing conditions. Further, the purified rA27L protein was used for active immunization of rabbit (250 μg/rabbit) and adult mice (10 μg and 50 μg/mice) with or without adjuvants (FCA, alum and CpG). Immune response measured by using indirect-ELISA and SNT revealed a gradual increase in antigen specific serum IgG as well as neutralization antibody titers. Upon challenge with virulent BPXV strain, a protection of 60% was observed in suckling mice passively administered with anti-rA27L sera. No cross-reactivity of rA27L protein with hyperimmune sera against ORFV, GTPV, SPPV, PPRV, FMDV and BTV was noticed in indirect-ELISA. The study indicated that the rA27L protein is a safe and potential prophylactic as well as diagnostic antigen for buffalopox. PMID:26319070

  19. Mutation of the dengue virus type 2 envelope protein heparan sulfate binding sites or the domain III lateral ridge blocks replication in Vero cells prior to membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Roehrig, John T.; Butrapet, Siritorn; Liss, Nathan M.; Bennett, Susan L.; Luy, Betty E.; Childers, Thomas; Boroughs, Karen L.; Stovall, Janae L.; Calvert, Amanda E.; Blair, Carol D.; Huang, Claire Y.-H.

    2013-07-05

    Using an infectious cDNA clone we engineered seven mutations in the putative heparan sulfate- and receptor-binding motifs of the envelope protein of dengue virus serotype 2, strain 16681. Four mutant viruses, KK122/123EE, E202K, G304K, and KKK305/307/310EEE, were recovered following transfection of C6/36 cells. A fifth mutant, KK291/295EE, was recovered from C6/36 cells with a compensatory E295V mutation. All mutants grew in and mediated fusion of virus-infected C6/36 cells, but three of the mutants, KK122/123EE, E202K, G304K, did not grow in Vero cells without further modification. Two Vero cell lethal mutants, KK291/295EV and KKK307/307/310EEE, failed to replicate in DC-SIGN-transformed Raji cells and did not react with monoclonal antibodies known to block DENV attachment to Vero cells. Additionally, both mutants were unable to initiate negative-strand vRNA synthesis in Vero cells by 72 h post-infection, suggesting that the replication block occurred prior to virus-mediated membrane fusion. - Highlights: • Heparan sulfate- and receptor-binding motifs of DENV2 envelope protein were mutated. • Four mutant viruses were isolated—all could fuse C6/36 cells. • Two of these mutants were lethal in Vero cells without further modification. • Lethal mutations were KK291/295EV and KKK305/307/310EEE. • Cell attachment was implicated as the replication block for both mutants.

  20. A mouse monoclonal antibody against dengue virus type 1 Mochizuki strain targeting envelope protein domain II and displaying strongly neutralizing but not enhancing activity.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Konishi, Eiji

    2013-12-01

    Dengue fever and its more severe form, dengue hemorrhagic fever, are major global concerns. Infection-enhancing antibodies are major factors hypothetically contributing to increased disease severity. In this study, we generated 26 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the dengue virus type 1 Mochizuki strain. We selected this strain because a relatively large number of unique and rare amino acids were found on its envelope protein. Although most MAbs showing neutralizing activities exhibited enhancing activities at subneutralizing doses, one MAb (D1-IV-7F4 [7F4]) displayed neutralizing activities without showing enhancing activities at lower concentrations. In contrast, another MAb (D1-V-3H12 [3H12]) exhibited only enhancing activities, which were suppressed by pretreatment of cells with anti-FcγRIIa. Although antibody engineering revealed that antibody subclass significantly affected 7F4 (IgG3) and 3H12 (IgG1) activities, neutralizing/enhancing activities were also dependent on the epitope targeted by the antibody. 7F4 recognized an epitope on the envelope protein containing E118 (domain II) and had a neutralizing activity 10- to 1,000-fold stronger than the neutralizing activity of previously reported human or humanized neutralizing MAbs targeting domain I and/or domain II. An epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) indicated that a dengue virus-immune population possessed antibodies sharing an epitope with 7F4. Our results demonstrating induction of these antibody species (7F4 and 3H12) in Mochizuki-immunized mice may have implications for dengue vaccine strategies designed to minimize induction of enhancing antibodies in vaccinated humans. PMID:24049185

  1. Identification of the origin and localization of chorion (egg envelope) proteins in an ancient fish, the white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kenji; Conte, Fred S; McInnis, Elizabeth; Fong, Tak Hou; Cherr, Gary N

    2014-06-01

    In many modern teleost fish, chorion (egg envelope) glycoproteins are synthesized in the liver of females, and the expression of those genes is controlled by endogenous estrogen released from the ovary during maturation. However, among the classical teleosts, such as salmonid, carp, and zebrafish, the chorion glycoproteins are synthesized in the oocyte, as in higher vertebrates. Sturgeon, which are members of the subclass Chondrostei, represent an ancient lineage of ray-finned fishes that differ from other teleosts in that their sperm possess acrosomes, their eggs have numerous micropyles, and early embryo development is similar to that of amphibians. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms of chorion formation and the phylogenetic relationship between sturgeon and other teleosts, we used specific antibodies directed against the primary components of sturgeon chorion glycoproteins, using immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry approaches. The origin of each chorion glycoprotein was determined through analyses of both liver and ovary, and their localization during ovarian development was investigated. Our data indicate that the origin of the major chorion glycoproteins of sturgeon, ChG1, ChG2, and ChG4, derive not only from the oocyte itself but also from follicle cells in the ovary, as well as from hepatocytes. In the follicle cell layer, granulosa cells were found to be the primary source of ChGs during oogenesis in white sturgeon. The unique origins of chorion glycoproteins in sturgeon suggest that sturgeons are an intermediate form in the evolution of the teleost lineage.

  2. Evaluation of protection induced by a dengue virus serotype 2 envelope domain III protein scaffold/DNA vaccine in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    McBurney, Sean P; Sunshine, Justine E; Gabriel, Sarah; Huynh, Jeremy P; Sutton, William F; Fuller, Deborah H; Haigwood, Nancy L; Messer, William B

    2016-06-24

    We describe the preclinical development of a dengue virus vaccine targeting the dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV2) envelope domain III (EDIII). This study provides proof-of-principle that a dengue EDIII protein scaffold/DNA vaccine can protect against dengue challenge. The dengue vaccine (EDIII-E2) is composed of both a protein particle and a DNA expression plasmid delivered simultaneously via intramuscular injection (protein) and gene gun (DNA) into rhesus macaques. The protein component can contain a maximum of 60 copies of EDIII presented on a multimeric scaffold of Geobacillus stearothermophilus E2 proteins. The DNA component is composed of the EDIII portion of the envelope gene cloned into an expression plasmid. The EDIII-E2 vaccine elicited robust antibody responses to DENV2, with neutralizing antibody responses detectable following the first boost and reaching titers of greater than 1:100,000 following the second and final boost. Vaccinated and naïve groups of macaques were challenged with DENV2. All vaccinated macaques were protected from detectable viremia by infectious assay, while naïve animals had detectable viremia for 2-7 days post-challenge. All naïve macaques had detectable viral RNA from day 2-10 post-challenge. In the EDIII-E2 group, three macaques were negative for viral RNA and three were found to have detectable viral RNA post challenge. Viremia onset was delayed and the duration was shortened relative to naïve controls. The presence of viral RNA post-challenge corresponded to a 10-30-fold boost in neutralization titers 28 days post challenge, whereas no boost was observed in the fully protected animals. Based on these results, we determine that pre-challenge 50% neutralization titers of >1:6000 correlated with sterilizing protection against DENV2 challenge in EDIII-E2 vaccinated macaques. Identification of the critical correlate of protection for the EDIII-E2 platform in the robust non-human primate model lays the groundwork for further

  3. The hemagglutinin envelope protein of canine distemper virus (CDV) confers cell tropism as illustrated by CDV and measles virus complementation analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Stern, L B; Greenberg, M; Gershoni, J M; Rozenblatt, S

    1995-01-01

    Measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) are morbilliviruses that cause acute illnesses and several persistent central nervous system infections in humans and in dogs, respectively. Characteristically, the cytopathic effect of these viruses is the formation of syncytia in permissive cells. In this study, a vaccinia virus expression system was used to express MV and CDV hemagglutinin (HA) and fusion (F) envelope proteins. We found that cotransfecting F and HA genes of MV or F and HA genes of CDV resulted in extensive syncytium formation in permissive cells while transfecting either F or HA alone did not. Similar experiments with heterologous pairs of proteins, CDV-F with MV-HA or MV-F with CDV-HA, caused significant cell fusion in both cases. These results indicate that in this expression system, cell fusion requires both F and HA; however, the functions of these proteins are interchangeable between the two types of morbilliviruses. Human-mouse somatic hybrids were used to determine the human chromosome conferring susceptibility to either MV and CDV. Of the 12 hybrids screened, none were sensitive to MV. Two of the hybrids containing human chromosome 19 formed syncytia following CDV infection. In addition, these two hybrids underwent cell fusion when cotransfected with CDV-F and CDV-HA (but not MV-F and MV-HA) glycoproteins by using the vaccinia virus expression system. To discover the viral component responsible for cell specificity, complementation experiments coexpressing CDV-HA with MV-F or CDV-F with MV-HA in the CDV-sensitive hybrids were performed. We found that syncytia were formed only in the presence of CDV-HA. These results support the idea that the HA protein is responsible for cell tropism. Furthermore, while the F protein is necessary for the fusion process, it is interchangeable with the F protein from other morbilliviruses. PMID:7853502

  4. Lethal 17D yellow fever encephalitis in mice. I. Passive protection by monoclonal antibodies to the envelope proteins of 17D yellow fever and dengue 2 viruses.

    PubMed

    Brandriss, M W; Schlesinger, J J; Walsh, E E; Briselli, M

    1986-02-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to the envelope proteins (E) of the 17D vaccine strain of yellow fever virus (17D YF) and to dengue 2 virus were examined for their ability to confer passive protection against lethal 17D YF encephalitis in mice. All 13 IgG anti-17D YF antibodies, regardless of neutralizing capacity, conferred solid protection when given in a relatively high dose prior to intracerebral inoculation of virus. Three antibodies with high in vitro neutralizing titres were all protective at a low dose as were several non-neutralizing antibodies. One flavivirus group-reactive antibody to dengue 2 virus conferred similar protection at low dose. Protection was also observed when antibodies were given several days after virus inoculation when peak infectious virus titres and histopathological evidence of infection were present in brains. The ability of a non-neutralizing antibody to protect could not be attributed to complement-dependent lysis of virus-infected cells and did not correlate with avidity or with proximity of its binding site to a critical neutralizing epitope of the E protein. Some antibodies, characterized as non-neutralizing by plaque reduction assay on Vero cells, inhibited the growth of virus in a mouse neuroblastoma cell line, suggesting one possible mechanism of protection. These results may be relevant to the design of prospective flavivirus vaccines and support the possibility of conferring broadened protection among flaviviruses by stimulating the antibody response to appropriate epitopes of the E protein.

  5. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a major White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) envelope protein VP24 expressed in Escherichia coli against WSSV.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ancy; Sudheer, Naduvilamuriparampu Saidumuhammed; Viswanathan, Karthik; Kiron, Viswanath; Bright Singh, Issac S; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri

    2014-11-01

    The study reports cloning, expression and characterization of immunogenic activity of VP24, a major envelope protein of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV). His-tagged VP24 was expressed as truncated protein and purified from inclusion bodies by metal affinity chromatography under denaturing conditions. The ability to confer protection from WSSV by oral administration of recombinant viral protein (rVP24) was examined in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (P. monodon) juveniles (advanced post larvae). Animals were fed with rVP24 for 10 days, orally challenged with WSSV and assayed for expression of viral genes and shrimp immune genes on the 2nd, 5th and 8th days of challenge. The survival of juvenile shrimps in the vaccinated and challenged group was significantly higher compared to the unvaccinated and challenged group with lesser viral gene expression (DNA polymerase, latency 1 and vp28). Analysis of immune gene expression showed upregulation of syntenin and down regulation of STAT, Rab 7 and caspase during the experimental period. This study points to the feasibility of using rVP24 as candidate vaccine in P. monodon against WSSV.

  6. Assessment of antibody responses against gp41 in HIV-1-infected patients using soluble gp41 fusion proteins and peptides derived from M group consensus envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Penn-Nicholson, Adam; Han, Dong P.; Kim, Soon J.; Park, Hanna; Ansari, Rais; Montefiori, David C.; Cho, Michael W.

    2008-03-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 is targeted by broadly-reactive neutralizing antibodies 2F5 and 4E10, making it an attractive target for vaccine development. To better assess immunogenic properties of gp41, we generated five soluble glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins encompassing C-terminal 30, 64, 100, 142, or 172 (full-length) amino acids of gp41 ectodomain from M group consensus envelope sequence. Antibody responses in HIV-1-infected patients were evaluated using these proteins and overlapping peptides. We found (i) antibody responses against different regions of gp41 varied tremendously among individual patients, (ii) patients with stronger antibody responses against membrane-proximal external region exhibit broader and more potent neutralizing activity, and (iii) several patients mounted antibodies against epitopes that are near, or overlap with, those targeted by 2F5 or 4E10. These soluble gp41 fusion proteins could be an important source of antigens for future vaccine development efforts.

  7. Computational analysis of perturbations in the post-fusion Dengue virus envelope protein highlights known epitopes and conserved residues in the Zika virus

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    The dramatic transformation of the Zika virus (ZIKV) from a relatively unknown virus to a pathogen generating global-wide panic has exposed the dearth of detailed knowledge about this virus. Decades of research in the related Dengue virus (DENV), finally culminating in a vaccine registered for use in endemic regions (CYD-TDV) in three countries, provides key insights in developing strategies for tackling ZIKV, which has caused global panic to microcephaly and Guillain-Barre Syndrome. Dengue virus (DENV), a member of the family Flaviviridae, the causal agent of the self-limiting Dengue fever and the potentially fatal hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome, has been a scourge in tropical countries for many centuries. The recently solved structure of mature ZIKV (PDB ID:5IRE) has provided key insights into the structure of the envelope (E) and membrane (M) proteins, the primary target of neutralizing antibodies. The previously established MEPP methodology compares two conformations of the same protein and identifies residues with significant spatial and electrostatic perturbations. In the current work, MEPP analyzed the pre-and post-fusion DENV type 2 envelope (E) protein, and identified several known epitopes (His317, Tyr299, Glu26, Arg188, etc.) (MEPPitope). These residues are overwhelmingly conserved in ZIKV and all DENV serotypes, and also enumerates residue pairs that undergo significant polarity reversal. Characterization of α-helices in E-proteins show that α1 is not conserved in the sequence space of ZIKV and DENV. Furthermore, perturbation of α1 in the post-fusion DENV structure includes a known epitope Asp215, a residue absent in the pre-fusion α1. A cationic β-sheet in the GAG-binding domain that is stereochemically equivalent in ZIKV and all DENV serotypes is also highlighted due to a residue pair (Arg286-Arg288) that has a significant electrostatic polarity reversal upon fusion. Finally, two highly conserved residues (Thr32 and Thr40), with little

  8. Natural killer T cell and TLR9 agonists as mucosal adjuvants for sublingual vaccination with clade C HIV-1 envelope protein.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shailbala; Yang, Guojun; Byrareddy, Siddappa N; Barry, Michael A; Sastry, K Jagannadha

    2014-12-01

    The vast majority of HIV-1 infections occur at mucosa during sexual contact. It may therefore be advantageous to provide mucosal barrier protection against this entry by mucosal vaccination. While a number of mucosal routes of vaccination are possible, many like enteric oral vaccines or intranasal vaccines have significant impediments that limit vaccine efficacy or pose safety risks. In contrast, immunogens applied to the sublingual region of the mouth could provide a simple route for mucosal vaccination. While sublingual immunization is appealing, this site does not always drive strong immune responses, particularly when using protein antigens. To address this issue, we have tested the ability of two mucosal adjuvants: alpha-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) that is a potent stimulator of natural killer T cells and CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) a TLR9 agonist for their ability to amplify immune responses against clade C gp140 HIV-1 envelope protein antigen. Immunization with envelope protein alone resulted in a weak T cell and antibody responses. In contrast, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells responses in systemic and mucosal tissues were significantly higher in mice immunized with gp140 in the presence of either αGalCer or CpG-ODN and these responses were further augmented when the two adjuvants were used together. While both the adjuvants effectively increased gp140-specific serum IgG and vaginal IgA antibody levels, combining both significantly improved these responses. Memory T cell responses 60 days after immunization revealed αGalCer to be more potent than CpG-ODN and the combination of the αGalCer and CpG-ODN adjuvants was more effective than either alone. Serum and vaginal washes collected 60 days after immunization with gp140 with both αGalCer and CpG-ODN adjuvants had significant neutralization activity against Tier 1 and Tier 2 SHIVs. These data support the utility of the sublingual route for mucosal vaccination particularly in combination with

  9. Natural Killer T Cell and TLR9 Agonists as Mucosal Adjuvants for Sublingual Vaccination with Clade C HIV-1 Envelope Protein

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shailbala; Yang, Guojun; Byrareddy, Siddappa N.; Barry, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of HIV-1 infections occur at mucosa during sexual contact. It may therefore be advantageous to provide mucosal barrier protection against this entry by mucosal vaccination. While a number of mucosal routes of vaccination are possible, many like enteric oral vaccines or intranasal vaccines have significant impediments that limit vaccine efficacy or pose safety risks. In contrast, immunogens applied to the sublingual region of the mouth could provide a simple route for mucosal vaccination. While sublingual immunization is appealing, this site does not always drive strong immune responses, particularly when using protein antigens. To address this issue, we have tested the ability of two mucosal adjuvants: alpha-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) that is a potent stimulator of natural killer T cells and CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) a TLR9 agonist for their ability to amplify immune responses against clade C gp140 HIV-1 envelope protein antigen. Immunization with envelope protein alone resulted in a weak T cell and antibody responses. In contrast, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells responses in systemic and mucosal tissues were significantly higher in mice immunized with gp140 in the presence of either αGalCer or CpG-ODN and these responses were further augmented when the two adjuvants were used together. While both the adjuvants effectively increased gp140-specific serum IgG and vaginal IgA antibody levels, combining both significantly improved these responses. Memory T cell responses 60 days after immunization revealed αGalCer to be more potent than CpG-ODN and the combination of the αGalCer and CpG-ODN adjuvants was more effective than either alone. Serum and vaginal washes collected 60 days after immunization with gp140 with both αGalCer and CpG-ODN adjuvants had significant neutralization activity against Tier 1 and Tier 2 SHIVs. These data support the utility of the sublingual route for mucosal vaccination particularly in combination with αGalCer and Cp

  10. Crystal Structure of Dengue Type 1 Envelope Protein in the Postfusion Conformation and its Implication for Receptor Binding, Membrane Fusion and Antibody Recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, V.; Dessau, M; Kucera, K; Anthony, K; Ledizet, M; Modis, Y

    2009-01-01

    Dengue virus relies on a conformational change in its envelope protein, E, to fuse the viral lipid membrane with the endosomal membrane and thereby deliver the viral genome into the cytosol. We have determined the crystal structure of a soluble fragment E (sE) of dengue virus type 1 (DEN-1). The protein is in the postfusion conformation even though it was not exposed to a lipid membrane or detergent. At the domain I-domain III interface, 4 polar residues form a tight cluster that is absent in other flaviviral postfusion structures. Two of these residues, His-282 and His-317, are conserved in flaviviruses and are part of the pH sensor that triggers the fusogenic conformational change in E, at the reduced pH of the endosome. In the fusion loop, Phe-108 adopts a distinct conformation, forming additional trimer contacts and filling the bowl-shaped concavity observed at the tip of the DEN-2 sE trimer.

  11. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of West Nile virus infection based on a recombinant envelope protein produced in Trichoplusia ni larvae.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Padilla, Julio; Jiménez de Oya, Nereida; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth; Escribano, José M; Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Escribano-Romero, Estela

    2010-06-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), a Flavivirus distributed most widely, is presenting lately variable epidemiological and ecological patterns, including an increasing virulence that has already caused over 1000 human deaths in USA. Currently, diagnosis of WNV is achieved mainly by enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISAs) based on the use of inactivated whole WNV (iWNV) as antigen, although results have to be confirmed by plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNTs). Expression of WNV envelope recombinant E (rE) protein and its usefulness as ELISA antigen are described. Production of rE was achieved upon infection of Trichoplusia ni insect larvae with a recombinant baculovirus. Once optimized, the rE-based ELISA was validated with a battery of mouse and equine sera characterized previously. Concordance with the iWNV-based ELISA used routinely was good (95%), as it was with the reference PRNT (90%), with specificity of 94.4% and sensitivity of 88.1%. Production of rE protein in insect larvae allows for an easy, low cost and quite large-scale yield of partially purified antigen which is suitable for serological diagnosis of WNV, without the need for manipulation of large quantities of infective virus.

  12. Identification of Estrogen-responsive Vitelline Envelope Protein Fragments from Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Plasma Using Mass Spectrometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plasma protein biomarkers associated with exposure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to 17β-estradiol were isolated and identified using novel sample preparation techniques and state-of-the-art mass spectrometry and bioinformatics approaches. Juvenile male and female trout ...

  13. Fusion proteins of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 with CD4-induced antibodies showed enhanced binding to CD4 and CD4 binding site antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Weizao; Feng, Yang; Wang, Yanping; Zhu, Zhongyu; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some recombinant HIV-1 gp120s do not preserve their conformations on gp140s. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We hypothesize that CD4i antibodies could induce conformational changes in gp120. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CD4i antibodies enhance binding of CD4 and CD4bs antibodies to gp120. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CD4i antibody-gp120 fusion proteins could have potential as vaccine immunogens. -- Abstract: Development of successful AIDS vaccine immunogens continues to be a major challenge. One of the mechanisms by which HIV-1 evades antibody-mediated neutralizing responses is the remarkable conformational flexibility of its envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp120. Some recombinant gp120s do not preserve their conformations on gp140s and functional viral spikes, and exhibit decreased recognition by CD4 and neutralizing antibodies. CD4 binding induces conformational changes in gp120 leading to exposure of the coreceptor-binding site (CoRbs). In this study, we test our hypothesis that CD4-induced (CD4i) antibodies, which target the CoRbs, could also induce conformational changes in gp120 leading to better exposed conserved neutralizing antibody epitopes including the CD4-binding site (CD4bs). We found that a mixture of CD4i antibodies with gp120 only weakly enhanced CD4 binding. However, such interactions in single-chain fusion proteins resulted in gp120 conformations which bound to CD4 and CD4bs antibodies better than the original or mutagenically stabilized gp120s. Moreover, the two molecules in the fusion proteins synergized with each other in neutralizing HIV-1. Therefore, fusion proteins of gp120 with CD4i antibodies could have potential as components of HIV-1 vaccines and inhibitors of HIV-1 entry, and could be used as reagents to explore the conformational flexibility of gp120 and mechanisms of entry and immune evasion.

  14. Escherichia coli strains blocked in Tat-dependent protein export exhibit pleiotropic defects in the cell envelope.

    PubMed

    Stanley, N R; Findlay, K; Berks, B C; Palmer, T

    2001-01-01

    The Tat system is a recently discovered protein export pathway that serves to translocate folded proteins, often containing redox cofactors, across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. Here we report that tat strains are associated with a mutant cell septation phenotype, where chains of up to 10 cells are evident. Mutant strains are also hypersensitive to hydrophobic drugs and to lysis by lysozyme in the absence of EDTA, and they leak periplasmic enzymes, characteristics that are consistent with an outer membrane defect. Both phenotypes are similar to those displayed by strains carrying point mutations in the lpxC (envA) gene. The phenotype was not replicated by mutations affecting synthesis and/or activity of all known or predicted Tat substrates.

  15. Development and evaluation of a DAS-ELISA for rapid detection of Tembusu virus using monoclonal antibodies against the envelope protein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Ou, Quanbin; Tang, Yi; Gao, Xuhui; Wu, Lili; Xue, Cong; Yu, Chunmei; Cui, Jingteng; Diao, Youxiang

    2014-01-01

    Since April 2010, Tembusu virus (TMUV) which is a contagious pathogen of waterfowls, causing symptoms of high fever, loss of appetite and fall in egg production, has been reported in east of China. A double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) which detects for TMUV was developed, using two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the TMUV envelope (E) protein. BALB/c mice were immunized with purified recombinant E protein expressed in E. coli. Three hybridoma cell lines designated as 12B1, 10C6 and 2D2, were screened by cell fusion and indirect ELISA for their ability to recognize different linear epitopes on the E protein, and were characterized subsequently. High-affinity mAbs 12B1 and 2D2 were used as capture and detection antibodies, respectively. The reaction conditions for the DAS-ELISA were optimized for TMUV detection. The cross-reactivity of the DAS-ELISA was determined using TMUV, duck plague virus, avian influenza virus subtype H9, Newcastle disease virus, duck hepatitis A virus type 1 and duck reovirus samples. A total of 191 homogenized tissues of field samples were simultaneously detected by DAS-ELISA and by RT-PCR. The former was found to have a high specificity of 99.1% and a sensitivity of 93.1%. These results reveal a positive coincidence between DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR at a coincidence rate of 95.8%. The method developed in this study can be used for the diagnosis of TMUV infection of duck origin. PMID:24797141

  16. Formalin Inactivation of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Vaccine Alters the Antigenicity and Immunogenicity of a Neutralization Epitope in Envelope Protein Domain III.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yi-Chin; Chiu, Hsien-Chung; Chen, Li-Kuang; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Chiou, Shyan-Song

    2015-10-01

    Formalin-inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) vaccines are widely available, but the effects of formalin inactivation on the antigenic structure of JEV and the profile of antibodies elicited after vaccination are not well understood. We used a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to map the antigenic structure of live JEV virus, untreated control virus (UCV), formalin-inactivated commercial vaccine (FICV), and formalin-inactivated virus (FIV). The binding activity of T16 MAb against Nakayama-derived FICV and several strains of FIV was significantly lower compared to live virus and UCV. T16 MAb, a weakly neutralizing JEV serocomplex antibody, was found to inhibit JEV infection at the post-attachment step. The T16 epitope was mapped to amino acids 329, 331, and 389 within domain III (EDIII) of the envelope (E) glycoprotein. When we explored the effect of formalin inactivation on the immunogenicity of JEV, we found that Nakayama-derived FICV, FIV, and UCV all exhibited similar immunogenicity in a mouse model, inducing anti-JEV and anti-EDII 101/106/107 epitope-specific antibodies. However, the EDIII 329/331/389 epitope-specific IgG antibody and neutralizing antibody titers were significantly lower for FICV-immunized and FIV-immunized mouse serum than for UCV-immunized. Formalin inactivation seems to alter the antigenic structure of the E protein, which may reduce the potency of commercially available JEV vaccines. Virus inactivation by H2O2, but not by UV or by short-duration and higher temperature formalin treatment, is able to maintain the antigenic structure of the JEV E protein. Thus, an alternative inactivation method, such as H2O2, which is able to maintain the integrity of the E protein may be essential to improving the potency of inactivated JEV vaccines. PMID:26495991

  17. MEPPitope: spatial, electrostatic and secondary structure perturbations in the post-fusion Dengue virus envelope protein highlights known epitopes and conserved residues in the Zika virus

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    The dramatic transformation of the Zika virus (ZIKV) from a relatively unknown virus to a pathogen generating global-wide panic has exposed the dearth of detailed knowledge about this virus. Decades of research in the related Dengue virus (DENV), finally culminating in a vaccine registered for use in endemic regions (CYD-TDV), provides key insights in developing strategies for tackling ZIKV. The previously established MEPP methodology compares two conformations of the same protein and identifies residues with significant spatial and electrostatic perturbations. In the current work, MEPP analyzed the pre-and post-fusion DENV type 2 envelope (E) protein, and identified several known epitopes (His317, Tyr299, Glu26, Arg188, etc.) (MEPPitope). These residues are overwhelmingly conserved in ZIKV and all DENV serotypes. Characterization of α-helices in E-proteins show that α1 is not conserved in the sequence space of ZIKV and DENV. Furthermore, perturbation of α1 in the post-fusion DENV structure includes a known epitope Asp215, a residue absent in the pre-fusion α1. A cationic β-sheet in the GAG-binding domain that is stereochemically equivalent in ZIKV and all DENV serotypes is also highlighted due to a residue pair (Arg286-Arg288) that has a significant electrostatic polarity reversal upon fusion. Finally, two highly conserved residues (Thr32 and Thr40), with little emphasis in existing literature, are found to have significant electrostatic perturbation. Thus, a combination of different computational methods enable the rapid and rational detection of critical residues that can be made the target of small drugs, or as epitopes in the search for an elusive therapy or vaccine that neutralizes multiple members of the Flaviviridae family. PMID:27540468

  18. MEPPitope: spatial, electrostatic and secondary structure perturbations in the post-fusion Dengue virus envelope protein highlights known epitopes and conserved residues in the Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    The dramatic transformation of the Zika virus (ZIKV) from a relatively unknown virus to a pathogen generating global-wide panic has exposed the dearth of detailed knowledge about this virus. Decades of research in the related Dengue virus (DENV), finally culminating in a vaccine registered for use in endemic regions (CYD-TDV), provides key insights in developing strategies for tackling ZIKV. The previously established MEPP methodology compares two conformations of the same protein and identifies residues with significant spatial and electrostatic perturbations. In the current work, MEPP analyzed the pre-and post-fusion DENV type 2 envelope (E) protein, and identified several known epitopes (His317, Tyr299, Glu26, Arg188, etc.) (MEPPitope). These residues are overwhelmingly conserved in ZIKV and all DENV serotypes. Characterization of α-helices in E-proteins show that α1 is not conserved in the sequence space of ZIKV and DENV. Furthermore, perturbation of α1 in the post-fusion DENV structure includes a known epitope Asp215, a residue absent in the pre-fusion α1. A cationic β-sheet in the GAG-binding domain that is stereochemically equivalent in ZIKV and all DENV serotypes is also highlighted due to a residue pair (Arg286-Arg288) that has a significant electrostatic polarity reversal upon fusion. Finally, two highly conserved residues (Thr32 and Thr40), with little emphasis in existing literature, are found to have significant electrostatic perturbation. Thus, a combination of different computational methods enable the rapid and rational detection of critical residues that can be made the target of small drugs, or as epitopes in the search for an elusive therapy or vaccine that neutralizes multiple members of the Flaviviridae family. PMID:27540468

  19. Characterization of an antigenic site that contains a dominant, type-specific neutralization determinant on the envelope protein domain III (ED3) of dengue 2 virus

    SciTech Connect

    Gromowski, Gregory D.; Barrett, Alan D.T.

    2007-09-30

    The surface of the mature dengue virus (DENV) particle consists of 90 envelope (E) protein dimers that mediate both receptor binding and fusion. The E protein ectodomain can be divided into three structural domains designated ED1, ED2, and ED3, of which ED3 contains the critical and dominant virus-specific neutralization sites. In this study the ED3 epitopes recognized by seven, murine, IgG1 DENV-2 type-specific, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were determined using site-directed mutagenesis of a recombinant DENV-2 ED3 (rED3) protein. A total of 41 single amino acid substitutions were introduced into the rED3 at 30 different surface accessible residues. The affinity of each MAb with the mutant rED3s was assessed by indirect ELISA and the results indicate that all seven MAbs recognize overlapping epitopes with residues K305 and P384 critical for binding. These residues are conserved among DENV-2 strains and cluster together on the upper lateral face of ED3. A linear relationship was observed between relative occupancy of ED3 on the virion by MAb and neutralization of the majority of virus infectivity ({approx} 90%) for all seven MAbs. Depending on the MAb, it is predicted that between 10% and 50% relative occupancy of ED3 on the virion is necessary for virus neutralization and for all seven MAbs occupancy levels approaching saturation were required for 100% neutralization of virus infectivity. Overall, the conserved antigenic site recognized by all seven MAbs is likely to be a dominant DENV-2 type-specific, neutralization determinant.

  20. MEPPitope: spatial, electrostatic and secondary structure perturbations in the post-fusion Dengue virus envelope protein highlights known epitopes and conserved residues in the Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    The dramatic transformation of the Zika virus (ZIKV) from a relatively unknown virus to a pathogen generating global-wide panic has exposed the dearth of detailed knowledge about this virus. Decades of research in the related Dengue virus (DENV), finally culminating in a vaccine registered for use in endemic regions (CYD-TDV), provides key insights in developing strategies for tackling ZIKV. The previously established MEPP methodology compares two conformations of the same protein and identifies residues with significant spatial and electrostatic perturbations. In the current work, MEPP analyzed the pre-and post-fusion DENV type 2 envelope (E) protein, and identified several known epitopes (His317, Tyr299, Glu26, Arg188, etc.) (MEPPitope). These residues are overwhelmingly conserved in ZIKV and all DENV serotypes. Characterization of α-helices in E-proteins show that α1 is not conserved in the sequence space of ZIKV and DENV. Furthermore, perturbation of α1 in the post-fusion DENV structure includes a known epitope Asp215, a residue absent in the pre-fusion α1. A cationic β-sheet in the GAG-binding domain that is stereochemically equivalent in ZIKV and all DENV serotypes is also highlighted due to a residue pair (Arg286-Arg288) that has a significant electrostatic polarity reversal upon fusion. Finally, two highly conserved residues (Thr32 and Thr40), with little emphasis in existing literature, are found to have significant electrostatic perturbation. Thus, a combination of different computational methods enable the rapid and rational detection of critical residues that can be made the target of small drugs, or as epitopes in the search for an elusive therapy or vaccine that neutralizes multiple members of the Flaviviridae family.

  1. Formalin Inactivation of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Vaccine Alters the Antigenicity and Immunogenicity of a Neutralization Epitope in Envelope Protein Domain III

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yi-Chin; Chiu, Hsien-Chung; Chen, Li-Kuang; Chang, Gwong-Jen J.; Chiou, Shyan-Song

    2015-01-01

    Formalin-inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) vaccines are widely available, but the effects of formalin inactivation on the antigenic structure of JEV and the profile of antibodies elicited after vaccination are not well understood. We used a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to map the antigenic structure of live JEV virus, untreated control virus (UCV), formalin-inactivated commercial vaccine (FICV), and formalin-inactivated virus (FIV). The binding activity of T16 MAb against Nakayama-derived FICV and several strains of FIV was significantly lower compared to live virus and UCV. T16 MAb, a weakly neutralizing JEV serocomplex antibody, was found to inhibit JEV infection at the post-attachment step. The T16 epitope was mapped to amino acids 329, 331, and 389 within domain III (EDIII) of the envelope (E) glycoprotein. When we explored the effect of formalin inactivation on the immunogenicity of JEV, we found that Nakayama-derived FICV, FIV, and UCV all exhibited similar immunogenicity in a mouse model, inducing anti-JEV and anti-EDII 101/106/107 epitope-specific antibodies. However, the EDIII 329/331/389 epitope-specific IgG antibody and neutralizing antibody titers were significantly lower for FICV-immunized and FIV-immunized mouse serum than for UCV-immunized. Formalin inactivation seems to alter the antigenic structure of the E protein, which may reduce the potency of commercially available JEV vaccines. Virus inactivation by H2O2, but not by UV or by short-duration and higher temperature formalin treatment, is able to maintain the antigenic structure of the JEV E protein. Thus, an alternative inactivation method, such as H2O2, which is able to maintain the integrity of the E protein may be essential to improving the potency of inactivated JEV vaccines. PMID:26495991

  2. Identification of a cell envelope protein (MtrF) involved in hydrophobic antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Veal, Wendy L; Shafer, William M

    2003-01-01

    The mtrCDE-encoded efflux pump of Neisseria gonorrhoeae provides gonococci with a mechanism to resist structurally diverse antimicrobial hydrophobic agents (HAs). Strains of N. gonorrhoeae that display hypersusceptibility to HAs often contain mutations in the efflux pump genes, mtrCDE. Such strains frequently contain a phenotypically suppressed mutation in mtrR, a gene that encodes a repressor (MtrR) of mtrCDE gene expression, and one that would normally result in HA resistance. We have recently examined HA-hypersusceptible clinical isolates of gonococci that contain such phenotypically suppressed mtrR mutations, in order to determine whether genes other than mtrCDE are involved in HA resistance. These studies led to the discovery of a gene that we have designated mtrF, located downstream of the mtrR gene, that is predicted to encode a 56.1 kDa cytoplasmic membrane protein containing 12 transmembrane domains. Expression of mtrF was enhanced in a strain deficient in MtrR production, indicating that this gene, together with the closely linked mtrCDE operon, is subject to MtrR-dependent transcriptional control. Orthologues of mtrF were identified in a number of diverse bacteria. Except for the AbgT protein of Escherichia coli, their products have been identified as hypothetical proteins with unknown function(s). Genetic evidence is presented that MtrF is important in the expression of high-level detergent resistance by gonococci. We propose that MtrF acts in conjunction with the MtrC-MtrD-MtrE efflux pump, to confer on gonococci high-level resistance to certain HAs. PMID:12493784

  3. Tissue specificity in the nuclear envelope supports its functional complexity

    PubMed Central

    de las Heras, Jose I; Meinke, Peter; Batrakou, Dzmitry G; Srsen, Vlastimil; Zuleger, Nikolaj; Kerr, Alastair RW; Schirmer, Eric C

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear envelope links to inherited disease gave the conundrum of how mutations in near-ubiquitous proteins can yield many distinct pathologies, each focused in different tissues. One conundrum-resolving hypothesis is that tissue-specific partner proteins mediate these pathologies. Such partner proteins may have now been identified with recent proteome studies determining nuclear envelope composition in different tissues. These studies revealed that the majority of the total nuclear envelope proteins are tissue restricted in their expression. Moreover, functions have been found for a number these tissue-restricted nuclear envelope proteins that fit with mechanisms proposed to explain how the nuclear envelope could mediate disease, including defects in mechanical stability, cell cycle regulation, signaling, genome organization, gene expression, nucleocytoplasmic transport, and differentiation. The wide range of functions to which these proteins contribute is consistent with not only their involvement in tissue-specific nuclear envelope disease pathologies, but also tissue evolution. PMID:24213376

  4. Among all human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 proteins, tax, polymerase, and envelope proteins are predicted as preferential targets for the HLA-A2-restricted cytotoxic T-cell response.

    PubMed Central

    Pique, C; Connan, F; Levilain, J P; Choppin, J; Dokhélar, M C

    1996-01-01

    The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a human retrovirus associated with two diseases for which no successful treatment is yet available; the development of a vaccine is therefore an important issue. Since HTLV-1 is a persistent virus, an efficient vaccine will probably require a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response in addition to the production of antibodies. To identify potential CTL epitopes, we have selected, within all of the HTLV-1 proteins, nonapeptides containing anchor residues required for association with HLA-A2 molecules (residues at positions 2 and 9), which is the most frequently occurring A allele in all human populations. A set of 111 peptides was synthetized and tested in vitro in two assembly assays using processing-defective T2 cells. Anchor motifs selected were those containing two major anchor residues (L2/M2/12-V9/L9/I9) (one letter amino-acid code) and those including tolerated anchor residues (V2/A2/T2 and/or A9/M9/T9). The analysis of the binding capacity of the peptides confirms the high efficiency of the L2-V9 anchor motif and shows that a systematic research of potential binding peptides should exclude peptides containing known detrimental residues rather than select only peptides with known favored residues. We show that 39 peptides representative of all the HTLV-1 proteins are able to bind to HLA-A2 molecules. Strong binder peptides which are very likely good CTL epitopes were identified in three HTLV-1 proteins, Tax, envelope, and polymerase. Three of the strong binder peptides correspond to previously described HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitopes in the Tax protein, and two others are localized in a domain of the viral envelope recognized by natural neutralizing antibodies. This latter result has important implications for the development of an anti-HTLV-1 vaccine. PMID:8763995

  5. The cell envelope proteome of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kenneth P.; Fields, Julia G.; Voogt, Richard D.; Deng, Bin; Lam, Ying-Wai; Mintz, Keith P.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria serves a critical role in maintenance of cellular homeostasis, resistance to external stress, and host-pathogen interactions. Envelope protein composition is influenced by the physiological and environmental demands placed on the bacterium. In this study, we report a comprehensive compilation of cell envelope proteins from the periodontal and systemic pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans VT1169, an afimbriated serotype b strain. The urea-extracted membrane proteins were identified by mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics. The membrane proteome, isolated from actively growing bacteria under normal laboratory conditions, included 648 proteins representing 28% of the predicted ORFs in the genome. Bioinformatic analyses were used to annotate and predict the cellular location and function of the proteins. Surface adhesins, porins, lipoproteins, numerous influx and efflux pumps, multiple sugar, amino acid and iron transporters, and components of the type I, II and V secretion systems were identified. Periplasmic space and cytoplasmic proteins with chaperone function were also identified. 107 proteins with unknown function were associated with the cell envelope. Orthologs of a subset of these uncharacterized proteins are present in other bacterial genomes, while others are found exclusively in A. actinomycetemcomitans. This knowledge will contribute to elucidating the role of cell envelope proteins in bacterial growth and survival in the oral cavity. PMID:25055881

  6. The use of aqueous two-phase systems to concentrate and purify bovine leukemia virus outer envelope protein gp51.

    PubMed

    Hammar, L; Merza, M; Malm, K; Eriksson, S; Morein, B

    1989-06-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is a chronic lymphoproliferative disease of cattle. The causative agent, bovine leukemia virus (BLV), is related to the human retroviruses HTLV-I and -II. The external env-protein of BLV, a glycoprotein of 51 kDa, carries neutralizing epitopes and should be an essential component in a vaccine against the virus. Problems have been encountered with the concentration and purification of intact virions of BLV and other retroviruses. During centrifugation procedures the external env-proteins are to a great extent detached and consequently poorly recovered with the virion particles. Therefore, other methods are sought to obtain a high yield of the external glycoproteins. The use of two-phase systems based on water soluble polymers is described for the extraction of BLV-gp51 from culture medium. Several polymer systems were tested and the results showed that some were attractive for large scale application. The classical combination dextran-polyethylene glycol gave promising results; a partition coefficient of about 0.02 was obtained for the distribution of the gp51 between the top and combined inter- and bottom phases. In a single extraction step it was possible to obtain 45% of the glycoprotein in a small volume bottom phase and at the same time about 15-fold purified. That should be compared with a recovery of less than 20% with the conventional centrifugation procedures. It is concluded that extraction in phase systems based on water soluble polymers is a methodology well suited for the concentration and purification of BLV-gp51. PMID:2474306

  7. The HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 is captured and displayed for B cell recognition by SIGN-R1+ lymph node macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chung; Arthos, James; Cicala, Claudia; Kehrl, John H

    2015-01-01

    The HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 is both the target of neutralizing antibodies and a major focus of vaccine efforts; however how it is delivered to B cells to elicit an antibody response is unknown. Here, we show that following local gp120 injection lymph node (LN) SIGN-R1+ sinus macrophages located in interfollicular pockets and underlying SIGN-R1+ macrophages form a cellular network that rapidly captures gp120 from the afferent lymph. In contrast, two other antigens, phycoerythrin and hen egg lysozyme, were not captured by these cells. Intravital imaging of mouse LNs revealed persistent, but transient interactions between gp120 bearing interfollicular network cells and both trafficking and LN follicle resident gp120 specific B cells. The gp120 specific, but not the control B cells repetitively extracted gp120 from the network cells. Our findings reveal a specialized LN antigen delivery system poised to deliver gp120 and likely other pathogen derived glycoproteins to B cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06467.001 PMID:26258881

  8. Highly Efficient Transfer of Chromosomes to a Broad Range of Target Cells Using Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Expressing Murine Leukemia Virus-Derived Envelope Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Hara, Takahiko

    2016-01-01

    Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT) is an essential step for introducing chromosomes from donor cells to recipient cells. MMCT allows not only for genetic/epigenetic analysis of specific chromosomes, but also for utilization of human and mouse artificial chromosomes (HACs/MACs) as gene delivery vectors. Although the scientific demand for genome scale analyses is increasing, the poor transfer efficiency of the current method has hampered the application of chromosome engineering technology. Here, we developed a highly efficient chromosome transfer method, called retro-MMCT, which is based on Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing envelope proteins derived from ecotropic or amphotropic murine leukemia viruses. Using this method, we transferred MACs to NIH3T3 cells with 26.5 times greater efficiency than that obtained using the conventional MMCT method. Retro-MMCT was applicable to a variety of recipient cells, including embryonic stem cells. Moreover, retro-MMCT enabled efficient transfer of MAC to recipient cells derived from humans, monkeys, mice, rats, and rabbits. These results demonstrate the utility of retro-MMCT for the efficient transfer of chromosomes to various types of target cell. PMID:27271046

  9. Highly Efficient Transfer of Chromosomes to a Broad Range of Target Cells Using Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Expressing Murine Leukemia Virus-Derived Envelope Proteins.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Teruhiko; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Hara, Takahiko

    2016-01-01

    Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT) is an essential step for introducing chromosomes from donor cells to recipient cells. MMCT allows not only for genetic/epigenetic analysis of specific chromosomes, but also for utilization of human and mouse artificial chromosomes (HACs/MACs) as gene delivery vectors. Although the scientific demand for genome scale analyses is increasing, the poor transfer efficiency of the current method has hampered the application of chromosome engineering technology. Here, we developed a highly efficient chromosome transfer method, called retro-MMCT, which is based on Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing envelope proteins derived from ecotropic or amphotropic murine leukemia viruses. Using this method, we transferred MACs to NIH3T3 cells with 26.5 times greater efficiency than that obtained using the conventional MMCT method. Retro-MMCT was applicable to a variety of recipient cells, including embryonic stem cells. Moreover, retro-MMCT enabled efficient transfer of MAC to recipient cells derived from humans, monkeys, mice, rats, and rabbits. These results demonstrate the utility of retro-MMCT for the efficient transfer of chromosomes to various types of target cell. PMID:27271046

  10. Secretion of dengue virus envelope protein ectodomain from mammalian cells is dependent on domain II serotype and affects the immune response upon DNA vaccination.

    PubMed

    Slon Campos, J L; Poggianella, M; Marchese, S; Bestagno, M; Burrone, O R

    2015-11-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is currently among the most important human pathogens and affects millions of people throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Although it has been a World Health Organization priority for several years, there is still no efficient vaccine available to prevent infection. The envelope glycoprotein (E), exposed on the surface on infective viral particles, is the main target of neutralizing antibodies. For this reason it has been used as the antigen of choice for vaccine development efforts. Here we show a detailed analysis of factors involved in the expression, secretion and folding of E ectodomain from all four DENV serotypes in mammalian cells, and how this affects their ability to induce neutralizing antibody responses in DNA-vaccinated mice. Proper folding of E domain II (DII) is essential for efficient E ectodomain secretion, with DIII playing a significant role in stabilizing soluble dimers. We also show that the level of protein secreted from transfected cells determines the strength and efficiency of antibody responses in the context of DNA vaccination and should be considered a pivotal feature for the development of E-based DNA vaccines against DENV. PMID:26358704

  11. Characterization of a Discontinuous Epitope of the HIV Envelope Protein gp120 Recognized by a Human Monoclonal Antibody Using Chemical Modification and Mass Spectrometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hager-Braun, Christine; Hochleitner, Elisabeth O.; Gorny, Miroslaw K.; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Bienstock, Rachelle J.; Tomer, Kenneth B.

    2010-01-01

    A subset of the neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies recognize epitopes on the envelope protein gp120 of the human immunodeficiency virus. These epitopes are exposed during conformational changes when gp120 binds to its primary receptor CD4. Based on chemical modification of lysine and arginine residues followed by mass spectrometric analysis, we determined the epitope on gp120 recognized by the human monoclonal antibody 559/64-D, which was previously found to be specific for the CD4 binding domain. Twenty-four lysine and arginine residues in recombinant full-length glycosylated gp120 were characterized; the relative reactivities of two lysine residues and five arginine residues were affected by the binding of 559/64-D. The data show that the epitope is discontinuous and is located in the proximity of the CD4-binding site. Additionally, the reactivities of a residue that is located in the secondary receptor binding region and several residues distant from the CD4 binding site were also altered by Ab binding. These data suggest that binding of 559/64-D induced conformational changes which result in altered surface exposure of specific amino acids distant from the CD4-binding site. Consequently, binding of 559/64-D to gp120 affects not only the CD4-binding site, which is recognized as the epitope, but appears to have a global effect on surface exposed residues of the full-length glycosylated gp120. PMID:20434359

  12. The HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 is captured and displayed for B cell recognition by SIGN-R1(+) lymph node macrophages.

    PubMed

    Park, Chung; Arthos, James; Cicala, Claudia; Kehrl, John H

    2015-01-01

    The HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 is both the target of neutralizing antibodies and a major focus of vaccine efforts; however how it is delivered to B cells to elicit an antibody response is unknown. Here, we show that following local gp120 injection lymph node (LN) SIGN-R1(+) sinus macrophages located in interfollicular pockets and underlying SIGN-R1(+) macrophages form a cellular network that rapidly captures gp120 from the afferent lymph. In contrast, two other antigens, phycoerythrin and hen egg lysozyme, were not captured by these cells. Intravital imaging of mouse LNs revealed persistent, but transient interactions between gp120 bearing interfollicular network cells and both trafficking and LN follicle resident gp120 specific B cells. The gp120 specific, but not the control B cells repetitively extracted gp120 from the network cells. Our findings reveal a specialized LN antigen delivery system poised to deliver gp120 and likely other pathogen derived glycoproteins to B cells. PMID:26258881

  13. trans-dominant interference with virus infection at two different stages by a mutant envelope protein of Friend murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Matano, T; Odawara, T; Ohshima, M; Yoshikura, H; Iwamoto, A

    1993-01-01

    A dominant negative mutant Friend murine leukemia virus (FMLV) env gene was cloned from an immunoselected Friend erythroleukemia cell. The mutant env had a point mutation which resulted in a Cys-to-Arg substitution at the 361st amino acid in the FMLV envelope protein (Env). The mutant Env was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and accumulated because of its slow degradation. The NIH 3T3 cells expressing the mutant env were resistant to ecotropic Moloney MLV (MoMLV) penetration, suggesting that the mutant Env traps the ecotropic MLV receptors in the ER. When the mutant env gene was transfected into and expressed in the cells persistently infected with MoMLV, the wild-type Env was trapped in the ER, and the MoMLV production was suppressed. Thus, the mutant Env accumulating in the ER trans-dominantly and efficiently interfered with the ecotropic MLV infection at both the early and the late stages. Images PMID:8445721

  14. Dynamic Remodeling of the Plastid Envelope Membranes – A Tool for Chloroplast Envelope in vivo Localizations

    PubMed Central

    Breuers, Frederique K. H.; Bräutigam, Andrea; Geimer, Stefan; Welzel, Ulla Y.; Stefano, Giovanni; Renna, Luciana; Brandizzi, Federica; Weber, Andreas P. M.

    2012-01-01

    Two envelope membranes delimit plastids, the defining organelles of plant cells. The inner and outer envelope membranes are unique in their protein and lipid composition. Several studies have attempted to establish the proteome of these two membranes; however, differentiating between them is difficult due to their close proximity. Here, we describe a novel approach to distinguish the localization of proteins between the two membranes using a straightforward approach based on live cell imaging coupled with transient expression. We base our approach on analyses of the distribution of GFP-fusions, which were aimed to verify outer envelope membrane proteomics data. To distinguish between outer envelope and inner envelope protein localization, we used AtTOC64–GFP and AtTIC40–GFP, as respective controls. During our analyses, we observed membrane proliferations and loss of chloroplast shape in conditions of protein over-expression. The morphology of the proliferations varied in correlation with the suborganellar distribution of the over-expressed proteins. In particular, while layers of membranes built up in the inner envelope membrane, the outer envelope formed long extensions into the cytosol. Using electron microscopy, we showed that these extensions were stromules, a dynamic feature of plastids. Since the behavior of the membranes is different and is related to the protein localization, we propose that in vivo studies based on the analysis of morphological differences of the membranes can be used to distinguish between inner and outer envelope localizations of proteins. To demonstrate the applicability of this approach, we demonstrated the localization of AtLACS9 to the outer envelope membrane. We also discuss protein impact on membrane behavior and regulation of protein insertion into membranes, and provide new hypotheses on the formation of stromules. PMID:22645566

  15. Nuclear envelope breakdown may deliver an inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 which triggers cyclin B translation in starfish oocytes.

    PubMed

    Lapasset, Laure; Pradet-Balade, Bérengère; Lozano, Jean-Claude; Peaucellier, Gérard; Picard, André

    2005-09-01

    In vertebrates, enhanced translation of mRNAs in oocytes and early embryos entering M-phase is thought to occur through polyadenylation, involving binding, hyperphosphorylation and proteolytic degradation of Aurora-activated CPEB. In starfish, an unknown component of the oocyte nucleus is required for cyclin B synthesis following the release of G2/prophase block by hormonal stimulation. We have found that CPEB cannot be hyperphosphorylated following hormonal stimulation in starfish oocytes from which the nucleus has been removed. Activation of Aurora kinase, known to interact with protein phosphatase 1 and its specific inhibitor Inh-2, is also prevented. The microinjection of Inh-2 restores Aurora activation, CPEB hyperphosphorylation and cyclin B translation in enucleated oocytes. Nevertheless, we provide evidence that CPEB is in fact hyperphosphorylated by cdc2, without apparent involvement of Aurora or MAP kinase, and that cyclin B synthesis can be stimulated without previous degradation of phosphorylated CPEB. Thus, the regulation of cyclin B synthesis necessary for progression through meiosis can be explained by an equilibrium between CPEB phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, and both aspects of this control may rely on the sole activation of Cdc2 and subsequent nuclear breakdown.

  16. Nuclear envelope precursor vesicle targeting to chromatin is stimulated by protein phosphatase 1 in Xenopus egg extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Hiromi; Koyama, Yuhei; Takano, Makoto; Ishii, Kohei; Maeno, Mitsugu; Furukawa, Kazuhiro; Horigome, Tsuneyoshi . E-mail: thori@chem.sc.niigata-u.ac.jp

    2007-05-15

    The mechanism underlying targeting of the nuclear membrane to chromatin at the end of mitosis was studied using an in vitro cell-free system comprising Xenopus egg membrane and cytosol fractions, and sperm chromatin. The mitotic phase membrane, which was separated from a mitotic phase extract of Xenopus eggs and could not bind to chromatin, became able to bind to chromatin on pretreatment with a synthetic phase cytosol fraction of Xenopus eggs. When the cytosol fraction was depleted of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) with anti-Xenopus PP1{gamma}1 antibodies, this ability was lost. The addition of recombinant xPP1{gamma}1 to the PP1-depleted cytosol fraction restored the ability. These and other results suggested that dephosphorylation of mitotic phosphorylation sites on membranes by PP1 in the synthetic phase cytosol fraction promoted targeting of the membranes to chromatin. On the other hand, a fragment containing the chromatin-binding domain of lamin B receptor (LBR) but not emerin inhibited targeting of membrane vesicles. It was also shown that PP1 dephosphorylates a phosphate group(s) responsible for regulation of the binding of LBR to chromatin. A possible mechanism involving PP1 and LBR for the regulation of nuclear membrane targeting to chromatin was discussed.

  17. Computational prediction and experimental characterization of a "size switch type repacking" during the evolution of dengue envelope protein domain III (ED3).

    PubMed

    Elahi, Montasir; Islam, Monirul M; Noguchi, Keiichi; Yohda, Masafumi; Toh, Hiroyuki; Kuroda, Yutaka

    2014-03-01

    Dengue viruses (DEN) are classified into four serotypes (DEN1-DEN4) exhibiting high sequence and structural similarities, and infections by multiple serotypes can lead to the deadly dengue hemorrhagic fever. Here, we aim at characterizing the thermodynamic stability of DEN envelope protein domain III (ED3) during its evolution, and we report a structural analysis of DEN4wt ED3 combined with a systematic mutational analysis of residues 310 and 387. Molecular modeling based on our DEN3 and DEN4 ED3 structures indicated that the side-chains of residues 310/387, which are Val(310)/Ile(387) and Met(310)/Leu(387) in DEN3wt and DEN4wt, respectively, could be structurally compensated, and that a "size switch type repacking" might have occurred at these sites during the evolution of DEN into its four serotypes. This was experimentally confirmed by a 10°C and 5°C decrease in the thermal stability of, respectively, DEN3 ED3 variants with Met(310)/Ile(387) and Val(310)/Leu(387), whereas the variant with Met(310)/Leu(387), which contains a double mutation, had the same stability as the wild type DEN3. Namely, the Met310Val mutation should have preceded the Leu387Ile mutation in order to maintain the tight internal packing of ED3 and thus its thermodynamic stability. This view was confirmed by a phylogenetic reconstruction indicating that a common DEN ancestor would have Met(310)/Leu(387), and the intermediate node protein, Val(310)/Leu(387), which then mutated to the Val(310)/Ile(387) pair found in the present DEN3. The hypothesis was further confirmed by the observation that all of the present DEN viruses exhibit only stabilizing amino acid pairs at the 310/387 sites.

  18. Activity of a Bacterial Cell Envelope Stress Response Is Controlled by the Interaction of a Protein Binding Domain with Different Partners*

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Kim, Josué; Darwin, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial phage shock protein (Psp) system is a highly conserved cell envelope stress response required for virulence in Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica. In non-inducing conditions the transcription factor PspF is inhibited by an interaction with PspA. In contrast, PspA associates with the cytoplasmic membrane proteins PspBC during inducing conditions. This has led to the proposal that PspBC exists in an OFF state, which cannot recruit PspA, or an ON state, which can. However, nothing was known about the difference between these two states. Here, we provide evidence that it is the C-terminal domain of Y. enterocolitica PspC (PspCCT) that interacts directly with PspA, both in vivo and in vitro. Site-specific photocross-linking revealed that this interaction occurred only during Psp-inducing conditions in vivo. Importantly, we have also discovered that PspCCT can interact with the C-terminal domain of PspB (PspCCT·PspBCT). However, the PspCCT·PspBCT and PspCCT·PspA interactions were mutually exclusive in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo, PspCCT contacted PspBCT in the OFF state, whereas it contacted PspA in the ON state. These findings provide the first description of the previously proposed PspBC OFF and ON states and reveal that the regulatory switch is centered on a PspCCT partner-switching mechanism. PMID:25802329

  19. Total and Envelope Protein-Specific Antibody-Secreting Cell Response in Pediatric Dengue Is Highly Modulated by Age and Subsequent Infections.

    PubMed

    Toro, Jessica F; Salgado, Doris M; Vega, Rocío; Rodríguez, Jairo A; Rodríguez, Luz-Stella; Angel, Juana; Franco, Manuel A; Greenberg, Harry B; Narváez, Carlos F

    2016-01-01

    The response of antibody-secreting cells (ASC) induced by dengue has only recently started to be characterized. We propose that young age and previous infections could be simple factors that affect this response. Here, we evaluated the primary and secondary responses of circulating ASC in infants (6-12 months old) and children (1-14 years old) infected with dengue showing different degrees of clinical severity. The ASC response was delayed and of lower magnitude in infants, compared with older children. In primary infection (PI), the total and envelope (E) protein-specific IgM ASC were dominant in infants but not in children, and a negative correlation was found between age and the number of IgM ASC (rho = -0.59, P = 0.03). However, infants with plasma dengue-specific IgG detectable in the acute phase developed an intense ASC response largely dominated by IgG and comparable to that of children with secondary infection (SI). IgM and IgG produced by ASC circulating in PI or SI were highly cross-reactive among the four serotypes. Dengue infection caused the disturbance of B cell subsets, particularly a decrease in the relative frequency of naïve B cells. Higher frequencies of total and E protein-specific IgM ASC in the infants and IgG in the children were associated with clinically severe forms of infection. Therefore, the ASC response induced by dengue is highly influenced by the age at which infection occurs and previous immune status, and its magnitude is a relevant element in the clinical outcome. These results are important in the search for correlates of protection and for determining the ideal age for vaccinating against dengue. PMID:27560782

  20. Analysis of cross-reactive antibodies recognizing the fusion loop of envelope protein and correlation with neutralizing antibody titers in Nicaraguan dengue cases.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chih-Yun; Williams, Katherine L; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Knight, Sarah; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva; Wang, Wei-Kung

    2013-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the leading cause of arboviral diseases in humans worldwide. The envelope (E) protein of DENV is the major target of neutralizing antibodies (Abs). Previous studies have shown that a significant proportion of anti-E Abs in human serum after DENV infection recognize the highly conserved fusion loop (FL) of E protein. The role of anti-FL Abs in protection against subsequent DENV infection versus pathogenesis remains unclear. A human anti-E monoclonal Ab was used as a standard in a virion-capture ELISA to measure the concentration of anti-E Abs, [anti-E Abs], in dengue-immune sera from Nicaraguan patients collected 3, 6, 12 and 18 months post-infection. The proportion of anti-FL Abs was determined by capture ELISA using virus-like particles containing mutations in FL, and the concentration of anti-FL Abs, [anti-FL Abs], was calculated. Neutralization titers (NT50) were determined using a previously described flow cytometry-based assay. Analysis of sequential samples from 10 dengue patients revealed [anti-E Abs] and [anti-FL Abs] were higher in secondary than in primary DENV infections. While [anti-FL Abs] did not correlate with NT50 against the current infecting serotype, it correlated with NT50 against the serotypes to which patients had likely not yet been exposed ("non-exposed" serotypes) in 14 secondary DENV3 and 15 secondary DENV2 cases. These findings demonstrate the kinetics of anti-FL Abs and provide evidence that anti-FL Abs play a protective role against "non-exposed" serotypes after secondary DENV infection. PMID:24069496

  1. Total and Envelope Protein-Specific Antibody-Secreting Cell Response in Pediatric Dengue Is Highly Modulated by Age and Subsequent Infections

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Jessica F.; Salgado, Doris M.; Vega, Rocío; Rodríguez, Jairo A.; Rodríguez, Luz-Stella; Angel, Juana; Franco, Manuel A.; Greenberg, Harry B.; Narváez, Carlos F.

    2016-01-01

    The response of antibody-secreting cells (ASC) induced by dengue has only recently started to be characterized. We propose that young age and previous infections could be simple factors that affect this response. Here, we evaluated the primary and secondary responses of circulating ASC in infants (6–12 months old) and children (1–14 years old) infected with dengue showing different degrees of clinical severity. The ASC response was delayed and of lower magnitude in infants, compared with older children. In primary infection (PI), the total and envelope (E) protein-specific IgM ASC were dominant in infants but not in children, and a negative correlation was found between age and the number of IgM ASC (rho = −0.59, P = 0.03). However, infants with plasma dengue-specific IgG detectable in the acute phase developed an intense ASC response largely dominated by IgG and comparable to that of children with secondary infection (SI). IgM and IgG produced by ASC circulating in PI or SI were highly cross-reactive among the four serotypes. Dengue infection caused the disturbance of B cell subsets, particularly a decrease in the relative frequency of naïve B cells. Higher frequencies of total and E protein-specific IgM ASC in the infants and IgG in the children were associated with clinically severe forms of infection. Therefore, the ASC response induced by dengue is highly influenced by the age at which infection occurs and previous immune status, and its magnitude is a relevant element in the clinical outcome. These results are important in the search for correlates of protection and for determining the ideal age for vaccinating against dengue. PMID:27560782

  2. Gamma-Retroviral Vectors Enveloped with an Antibody and an Engineered Fusogenic Protein Achieved Antigen-Specific Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haiguang; Zeigler, Leslie; Joo, Kye-Il; Cho, Taehoon; Lei, Yuning; Wang, Pin

    2008-01-01

    Development of methods to engineer gamma-retroviral vectors capable of transducing target cells in a cell-specific manner could impact the future of the clinical application of gene therapy as well as the understanding of the biology of transfer gene vectors. Two molecular events are critical for controlling the entry of gamma-retroviral vectors to target cells: binding to cell-surface receptors and the subsequent fusion of viral vector membrane and cellular membrane. In this report, we evaluated a method to incorporate a membrane-bound antibody and a fusogenic molecule to provide binding and fusion functions respectively, into gamma-retroviral vectors for targeted gene delivery. An anti-CD20 antibody and a fusogenic protein derived from Sindbis virus glycoprotein could be efficiently co-displayed on the surface of viral vectors. Vectors bearing anti-CD20 antibody conferred their binding specificity to cells expressing CD20. Enhanced in vitro transduction towards CD20-expressing cells was observed for gamma-retroviral vectors displaying both an antibody and a fusogen. We found that the biological activity of the fusogen played an important role on the efficiency of such a targeting strategy and were able to engineer several mutant forms of the fusogen exhibiting elevated fusion function to improve the overall efficiency of targeted transduction. We devised an animal model to show that subcutaneous injection of such engineered vectors to the areas xenografted with target cells could achieve targeted gene delivery in vivo. Taken together, we demonstrated as proof-of-principle a flexible and modular two-molecule strategy for engineering targeting gamma-retroviral vectors. PMID:18435481

  3. Quantitative and phenotypic analyses of lymphocyte-monocyte heterokaryons induced by the HIV envelope proteins: Significant loss of lymphoid markers.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Toledo, Evelyn; Huerta, Leonor; Larralde, Carlos; Lamoyi, Edmundo

    2011-04-01

    Cells infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can fuse with CD4(+) cells leading to the formation of multinucleated cells. The presence of multinucleated cells infected with HIV in tissues of patients has been documented, although their cellular composition and role in AIDS pathogenesis is still under study. Here, we present evidence of in vitro heterotypic lymphocyte-monocyte fusion in cocultures of lymphocytic Jurkat T cells expressing the HIV-1 gp120/gp41 glycoproteins (Env) and CD4(+) monocytic THP-1 cells. Using a previously characterized method that involves differential labeling of fusion partners with fluorescent probes and flow cytometry analysis after coculture, up to 20% of double fluorescent cells were detected in 48h. This double fluorescent cell population was produced by heterotypic lymphocyte-monocyte fusion as it was not observed when Jurkat T cells expressing a mutant non-fusogenic Env protein were used. Heterokaryon formation was inhibited by an anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody and the HIV-fusion inhibitor peptide T-20. About 68% of heterokaryons remained alive and non-apoptotic after 2days of coculture. In heterokaryons, CD4 was barely detectable and the expression of the CD3 and CD28 lymphoid markers was greatly reduced, whereas the expression of CD32 and the intracellular antigen CD68, both markers of monocytic cells, remained unchanged. In contrast with unfused T cells, heterokaryons only expressed very low levels of the lymphoid activation marker CD25 following treatment with PMA plus ionomycin. These studies point to the possible generation of lymphocyte-monocyte heterokaryons with a myeloid phenotype during HIV infection, with unknown consequences for AIDS pathogenesis.

  4. Fine mapping of pre-S sequence requirements for hepatitis B virus large envelope protein-mediated receptor interaction.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Andreas; Schieck, Alexa; Ni, Yi; Mier, Walter; Urban, Stephan

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies showed that the N-terminal 75 amino acids of the pre-S1 domain of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) L protein are essential for HBV and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infectivity. Consistently, synthetic lipopeptides encompassing this sequence or only parts of it efficiently block HBV and HDV infection, presumably through specific interference with a cellular receptor. Crucial for both virus infectivity and the inhibitory activity of the peptides are N-terminal myristoylation and a highly conserved motif within the N-terminal 48 amino acids. To refine the sequence requirements, we synthesized a series of HBV pre-S1 peptides containing deletions, point mutations, d-amino acid exchanges, or genotype-specific sequence permutations. Using the HepaRG cell line and a genotype D-derived virus, we determined the specific inhibitory activities of the peptides and found that (i) lipopeptides with an artificial consensus sequence inhibit HBV genotype D infection more potently than the corresponding genotype D peptides; (ii) point mutations, d-amino acid exchanges, or deletions introduced into the highly conserved part of the pre-S1 domain result in an almost complete loss of activity; and (iii) the flanking sequences comprising amino acids 2 to 8, 16 to 20, and, to a less pronounced extent, 34 to 48 gradually increase the inhibitory activity, while amino acids 21 to 33 behave indifferently. Taken together, our data suggest that HBV pre-S1-mediated receptor interference and, thus, HBV receptor recognition form a highly specific process. It requires an N-terminal acyl moiety and a highly conserved sequence that is present in primate but not rodent or avian hepadnaviruses, indicating different entry pathways for the different family members.

  5. Tol-Pal proteins are critical cell envelope components of Erwinia chrysanthemi affecting cell morphology and virulence.

    PubMed

    Dubuisson, Jean-François; Vianney, Anne; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, Nicole; Lazzaroni, Jean Claude

    2005-10-01

    The tol-pal genes are necessary for maintaining the outer-membrane integrity of Gram-negative bacteria. These genes were first described in Escherichia coli, and more recently in several other species. They are involved in the pathogenesis of E. coli, Haemophilus ducreyi, Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella enterica. The role of the tol-pal genes in bacterial pathogenesis was investigated in the phytopathogenic enterobacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi, assuming that this organism might be a good model for such a study. The whole Er. chrysanthemi tol-pal region was characterized. Tol-Pal proteins, except TolA, showed high identity scores with their E. coli homologues. Er. chrysanthemi mutants were constructed by introducing a uidA-kan cassette in the ybgC, tolQ, tolA, tolB, pal and ybgF genes. All the mutants were hypersensitive to bile salts. Mutations in tolQ, tolA, tolB and pal were deleterious for the bacteria, which required high concentrations of sugars or osmoprotectants for their viability. Consistent with this observation, they were greatly impaired in their cell morphology and division, which was evidenced by observations of cell filaments, spherical forms, membrane blebbing and mislocalized bacterial septa. Moreover, tol-pal mutants showed a reduced virulence in a potato tuber model and on chicory leaves. This could be explained by a combination of impaired phenotypes in the tol-pal mutants, such as reduced growth and motility and a decreased production of pectate lyases, the major virulence factor of Er. chrysanthemi.

  6. Fine Mapping of Pre-S Sequence Requirements for Hepatitis B Virus Large Envelope Protein-Mediated Receptor Interaction▿

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Andreas; Schieck, Alexa; Ni, Yi; Mier, Walter; Urban, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies showed that the N-terminal 75 amino acids of the pre-S1 domain of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) L protein are essential for HBV and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infectivity. Consistently, synthetic lipopeptides encompassing this sequence or only parts of it efficiently block HBV and HDV infection, presumably through specific interference with a cellular receptor. Crucial for both virus infectivity and the inhibitory activity of the peptides are N-terminal myristoylation and a highly conserved motif within the N-terminal 48 amino acids. To refine the sequence requirements, we synthesized a series of HBV pre-S1 peptides containing deletions, point mutations, d-amino acid exchanges, or genotype-specific sequence permutations. Using the HepaRG cell line and a genotype D-derived virus, we determined the specific inhibitory activities of the peptides and found that (i) lipopeptides with an artificial consensus sequence inhibit HBV genotype D infection more potently than the corresponding genotype D peptides; (ii) point mutations, d-amino acid exchanges, or deletions introduced into the highly conserved part of the pre-S1 domain result in an almost complete loss of activity; and (iii) the flanking sequences comprising amino acids 2 to 8, 16 to 20, and, to a less pronounced extent, 34 to 48 gradually increase the inhibitory activity, while amino acids 21 to 33 behave indifferently. Taken together, our data suggest that HBV pre-S1-mediated receptor interference and, thus, HBV receptor recognition form a highly specific process. It requires an N-terminal acyl moiety and a highly conserved sequence that is present in primate but not rodent or avian hepadnaviruses, indicating different entry pathways for the different family members. PMID:20007265

  7. Computer-based comparison of structural features of envelope protein of Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus with the homologous proteins of two closest viruses.

    PubMed

    Mohabatkar, Hassan

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was prediction of epitopes and medically important structural properties of protein E of Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV) and comparing these features with two closely relates viruses, i.e. Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) and Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) by bioinformatics tools. Prediction of evolutionary distance, localization, sequence of signal peptides, C, N O glycosylation sites, transmembrane helices (TMHs), cysteine bond positions and B cell and T cell epitopes of E proteins were performed. 2D-MH, Virus-PLoc, Signal-CF, EnsembleGly, MemBrain, DiANNA, BCPREDS and MHCPred servers were applied for the prediction. According to the results, the evolutionary distance of E protein of AHFV and two other viruses was almost equal. In all three proteins of study, residues 1-35 were predicted as signal sequences and one asparagine was predicted to be glycosylated. Results of prediction of transmembrane helices showed one TMH at position 444-467 and the other one at position 476-490. Twelve cysteines were potentially involved to form six disulfide bridges in the proteins. Four parts were predicted as B cell epitopes in E protein of AHFV. One epitope was conserved between three proteins of study. The only conserved major histocompatibility complex (MHC) binding epitope between three viruses was for DRB0401 allele. As there are not much experimental data available about AHFV, computer-aided study and comparison of E protein of this virus with two closely related flaviviruses can help in better understanding of medical properties of the virus.

  8. Virosomes of hepatitis B virus envelope L proteins containing doxorubicin: synergistic enhancement of human liver-specific antitumor growth activity by radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiushi; Jung, Joohee; Somiya, Masaharu; Iijima, Masumi; Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Niimi, Tomoaki; Maturana, Andrés D; Shin, Seol Hwa; Jeong, Seong-Yun; Choi, Eun Kyung; Kuroda, Shun’ichi

    2015-01-01

    Bionanocapsules (BNCs) are hollow nanoparticles consisting of hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope L proteins and have been shown to deliver drugs and genes specifically to human hepatic tissues by utilizing HBV-derived infection machinery. The complex of BNCs with liposomes (LPs), the BNC–LP complexes (a LP surrounded by BNCs in a rugged spherical form), could also become active targeting nanocarriers by the BNC function. In this study, under acidic conditions and high temperature, BNCs were found to fully fuse with LPs (smooth-surfaced spherical form), deploying L proteins with a membrane topology similar to that of BNCs (ie, virosomes displaying L proteins). Doxorubicin (DOX) was efficiently encapsulated via the remote loading method at 14.2%±1.0% of total lipid weight (mean ± SD, n=3), with a capsule size of 118.2±4.7 nm and a ζ-potential of −51.1±1.0 mV (mean ± SD, n=5). When mammalian cells were exposed to the virosomes, the virosomes showed strong cytotoxicity in human hepatic cells (target cells of BNCs), but not in human colon cancer cells (nontarget cells of BNCs), whereas LPs containing DOX and DOXOVES (structurally stabilized PEGylated LPs containing DOX) did not show strong cytotoxicity in either cell type. Furthermore, the virosomes preferentially delivered DOX to the nuclei of human hepatic cells. Xenograft mice harboring either target or nontarget cell-derived tumors were injected twice intravenously with the virosomes containing DOX at a low dose (2.3 mg/kg as DOX, 5 days interval). The growth of target cell-derived tumors was retarded effectively and specifically. Next, the combination of high dose (10.0 mg/kg as DOX, once) with tumor-specific radiotherapy (3 Gy, once after 2 hours) exhibited the most effective antitumor growth activity in mice harboring target cell-derived tumors. These results demonstrated that the HBV-based virosomes containing DOX could be an effective antitumor nanomedicine specific to human hepatic tissues, especially

  9. The nuclear pore complex protein ALADIN is anchored via NDC1 but not via POM121 and GP210 in the nuclear envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Kind, Barbara; Koehler, Katrin; Lorenz, Mike; Huebner, Angela

    2009-12-11

    The nuclear pore complex (NPC) consists of {approx}30 different proteins and provides the only sites for macromolecular transport between cytoplasm and nucleus. ALADIN was discovered as a new member of the NPC. Mutations in ALADIN are known to cause triple A syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by adrenal insufficiency, alacrima, and achalasia. The function and exact location of the nucleoporin ALADIN within the NPC multiprotein complex is still unclear. Using a siRNA-based approach we downregulated the three known membrane integrated nucleoporins NDC1, GP210, and POM121 in stably expressing GFP-ALADIN HeLa cells. We identified NDC1 but not GP210 and POM121 as the main anchor of ALADIN within the NPC. Solely the depletion of NDC1 caused mislocalization of ALADIN. Vice versa, the depletion of ALADIN led also to disappearance of NDC1 at the NPC. However, the downregulation of two further membrane-integral nucleoporins GP210 and POM121 had no effect on ALADIN localization. Furthermore, we could show a direct association of NDC1 and ALADIN in NPCs by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements. Based on our findings we conclude that ALADIN is anchored in the nuclear envelope via NDC1 and that this interaction gets lost, if ALADIN is mutated. The loss of integration of ALADIN in the NPC is a main pathogenetic aspect for the development of the triple A syndrome and suggests that the interaction between ALADIN and NDC1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  10. Effect of Glycosylation on an Immunodominant Region in the V1V2 Variable Domain of the HIV-1 Envelope gp120 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Derdeyn, Cynthia A.; Jones, Morris S.; Pinter, Abraham; Korber, Bette; Gnanakaran, S.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy glycosylation of the envelope (Env) surface subunit, gp120, is a key adaptation of HIV-1; however, the precise effects of glycosylation on the folding, conformation and dynamics of this protein are poorly understood. Here we explore the patterns of HIV-1 Env gp120 glycosylation, and particularly the enrichment in glycosylation sites proximal to the disulfide linkages at the base of the surface-exposed variable domains. To dissect the influence of glycans on the conformation these regions, we focused on an antigenic peptide fragment from a disulfide bridge-bounded region spanning the V1 and V2 hyper-variable domains of HIV-1 gp120. We used replica exchange molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate how glycosylation influences its conformation and stability. Simulations were performed with and without N-linked glycosylation at two sites that are highly conserved across HIV-1 isolates (N156 and N160); both are contacts for recognition by V1V2-targeted broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. Glycosylation stabilized the pre-existing conformations of this peptide construct, reduced its propensity to adopt other secondary structures, and provided resistance against thermal unfolding. Simulations performed in the context of the Env trimer also indicated that glycosylation reduces flexibility of the V1V2 region, and provided insight into glycan-glycan interactions in this region. These stabilizing effects were influenced by a combination of factors, including the presence of a disulfide bond between the Cysteines at 131 and 157, which increased the formation of beta-strands. Together, these results provide a mechanism for conservation of disulfide linkage proximal glycosylation adjacent to the variable domains of gp120 and begin to explain how this could be exploited to enhance the immunogenicity of those regions. These studies suggest that glycopeptide immunogens can be designed to stabilize the most relevant Env conformations to focus the immune

  11. Comparison of plaque- and enzyme-linked immunospot-based assays to measure the neutralizing activities of monoclonal antibodies specific to domain III of dengue virus envelope protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lidong; Wen, Kun; Li, Jie; Hu, Dongmei; Huang, Yanfen; Qiu, Liwen; Cai, Jianpiao; Che, Xiaoyan

    2012-01-01

    The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) is used widely to measure the neutralization activity of anti-dengue virus (DENV) antibodies, but it is time-consuming and labor-intensive and has low sample throughput. For fast and convenient measurement of neutralizing antibodies, especially in evaluating the efficiency of the DENV vaccines on a large scale, a new method is needed to replace PRNT. In recent decades, several microneutralization assays have been developed to overcome the limitations of PRNT. In the present study, we evaluated one of these, the enzyme-linked immunospot microneutralization test (ELISPOT-MNT), in comparison with PRNT. ELISPOT-MNT is performed in 96-well format, and the plaques are developed after 2 to 4 days using an ELISA to transform them into spots, which are detected automatically with an ELISPOT instrument. The assay is faster than PRNT, has a high throughput, and is more objective. We used 10 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against domain III of the DENV envelope protein (EDIII) to evaluate the two assays; all of these MAbs cross-react with all four serotypes of DENV as measured by immunofluorescence assay. The two neutralization assays were performed simultaneously to measure the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of these MAbs. Using PRNT as the reference and treating IC(50) values higher than 50 μg/ml of MAbs as negative, ELISPOT-MNT showed a sensitivity of 95.6% and specificity of 88.24% when 10 MAbs were tested against four DENV serotype strains. A good correlation (R(2) = 0.672; P = 0.000) was observed between the two assays, making ELISPOT-MNT a potentially valuable method for measure of neutralizing antibodies against DENV.

  12. Comparison of Plaque- and Enzyme-Linked Immunospot-Based Assays To Measure the Neutralizing Activities of Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to Domain III of Dengue Virus Envelope Protein

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lidong; Wen, Kun; Li, Jie; Hu, Dongmei; Huang, Yanfen; Qiu, Liwen; Cai, Jianpiao

    2012-01-01

    The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) is used widely to measure the neutralization activity of anti-dengue virus (DENV) antibodies, but it is time-consuming and labor-intensive and has low sample throughput. For fast and convenient measurement of neutralizing antibodies, especially in evaluating the efficiency of the DENV vaccines on a large scale, a new method is needed to replace PRNT. In recent decades, several microneutralization assays have been developed to overcome the limitations of PRNT. In the present study, we evaluated one of these, the enzyme-linked immunospot microneutralization test (ELISPOT-MNT), in comparison with PRNT. ELISPOT-MNT is performed in 96-well format, and the plaques are developed after 2 to 4 days using an ELISA to transform them into spots, which are detected automatically with an ELISPOT instrument. The assay is faster than PRNT, has a high throughput, and is more objective. We used 10 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against domain III of the DENV envelope protein (EDIII) to evaluate the two assays; all of these MAbs cross-react with all four serotypes of DENV as measured by immunofluorescence assay. The two neutralization assays were performed simultaneously to measure the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of these MAbs. Using PRNT as the reference and treating IC50 values higher than 50 μg/ml of MAbs as negative, ELISPOT-MNT showed a sensitivity of 95.6% and specificity of 88.24% when 10 MAbs were tested against four DENV serotype strains. A good correlation (R2 = 0.672; P = 0.000) was observed between the two assays, making ELISPOT-MNT a potentially valuable method for measure of neutralizing antibodies against DENV. PMID:22116689

  13. Molecular determinants of dengue virus 2 envelope protein important for virus entry in FcγRIIA-mediated antibody-dependent enhancement of infection

    SciTech Connect

    Chotiwan, Nunya; Roehrig, John T.; Schlesinger, Jacob J.; Blair, Carol D.; Huang, Claire Y.-H.

    2014-05-15

    Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection may cause severe illness in patients suffering a secondary infection by a heterologous dengue virus (DENV) serotype. During ADE of infection, cross-reactive non- or poorly-neutralizing antibodies form infectious virus-Ab complexes with the newly infecting serotype and enhance virus infection by binding to the Fcγ receptors (FcγR) on FcγR-bearing cells. In this study, we determined that molecular determinants of DENV2 envelope protein critical for virus entry during non-ADE infection are also required for ADE infection mediated by FcγRIIA, and binding of virus-Ab complexes with FcγRIIA alone is not sufficient for ADE of infection. The FcγRIIA mainly plays an auxiliary role in concentrating the virus–Ab complex to the cell surface, and other primary cellular receptors are required for virus entry. Understanding the viral entry pathway in ADE of DENV infection will greatly facilitate rational designs of anti-viral therapeutics against severe dengue disease associated with ADE. - Highlights: • KKK305/307/310 in DENV2 E-DIII is critical for virus attachment in ADE and non-ADE infection. • Binding of DENV2–Ab complex with FcγRII alone is not sufficient for virus entry in ADE infection. • Other primary receptors were required for DENV2 internalization during FcγRII–mediated ADE. • G104 and L135 of DENV2 E are critical for virus-mediated membrane fusion. • DENV2 virus-mediated membrane fusion is required for both ADE and non-ADE infection.

  14. The V4 and V5 Variable Loops of HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Are Tolerant to Insertion of Green Fluorescent Protein and Are Useful Targets for Labeling.

    PubMed

    Nakane, Shuhei; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Matsuda, Zene

    2015-06-12

    The mature human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) comprises the non-covalently associated gp120 and gp41 subunits generated from the gp160 precursor. Recent structural analyses have provided quaternary structural models for gp120/gp41 trimers, including the variable loops (V1-V5) of gp120. In these models, the V3 loop is located under V1/V2 at the apical center of the Env trimer, and the V4 and V5 loops project outward from the trimeric protomers. In addition, the V4 and V5 loops are predicted to have less movement upon receptor binding during membrane fusion events. We performed insertional mutagenesis using a GFP variant, GFPOPT, placed into the variable loops of HXB2 gp120. This allowed us to evaluate the current structural models and to simultaneously generate a GFP-tagged HIV-1 Env, which was useful for image analyses. All GFP-inserted mutants showed similar levels of whole-cell expression, although certain mutants, particularly V3 mutants, showed lower levels of cell surface expression. Functional evaluation of their fusogenicities in cell-cell and virus-like particle-cell fusion assays revealed that V3 was the most sensitive to the insertion and that the V1/V2 loops were less sensitive than V3. The V4 and V5 loops were the most tolerant to insertion, and certain tag proteins other than GFPOPT could also be inserted without functional consequences. Our results support the current structural models and provide a GFPOPT-tagged Env construct for imaging studies.

  15. Oxidative stress and protein oxidation in the brain of water drinking and alcohol drinking rats administered the HIV envelope protein, gp120.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ashok K; Gupta, Shveta; Jiang, Yin

    2008-03-01

    Possible roles of oxidative stress and protein oxidation on alcohol-induced augmentation of cerebral neuropathy in gp120 administered alcohol preferring rats drinking either pure water (W rats) or a free-choice ethanol and water (E rats) for 90 days. This study showed that peripherally administered gp120 accumulated into the brain, liver, and RBCs samples from water drinking - gp120 administered rats (Wg rats) and ethanol drinking - gp120 administered rats (Eg rats), although gp120 levels in samples from Eg rats were significantly greater than the levels in samples from Wg rats. The brain samples from ethanol drinking-saline administered (EC) and Wg rats exhibited comparable levels of free radicals that were significantly lower than the levels in Eg rats. Peroxiredoxin-I (PrxI) activity in the brain samples exhibited the following pattern: Wg > > WC > EC > Eg. Total protein-carbonyl and carbonylated hippocampal cholinergic neurostimulating peptide precursor protein levels, but not N-acetylaspartate or N-acetyl aspartylglutamate or total protein-thiol levels, paralleled the free radical levels in the brain of all four groups. This suggests PrxI inhibition may be more sensitive indicator of oxidative stress than measuring free radicals or metabolites. As PrxI oxidation in WC, Wg, and EC rats was reversible, while PrxI oxidation in Eg rats was not, we suggest that alcohol drinking and gp120 together hyperoxidized and inactivated PrxI that suppressed free radical neutralization in the brain of Eg rats. In conclusion, chronic alcohol drinking, by carbonylating and hyperoxidizing free radical neutralization proteins, augmented the gp120-induced oxidative stress that may be associated with an increase in severity of the brain neuropathy.

  16. Spectrin repeat containing nuclear envelope 1 and forkhead box protein E1 are promising markers for the detection of colorectal cancer in blood.

    PubMed

    Melotte, Veerle; Yi, Joo Mi; Lentjes, Marjolein H F M; Smits, Kim M; Van Neste, Leander; Niessen, Hanneke E C; Wouters, Kim A D; Louwagie, Joost; Schuebel, Kornel E; Herman, James G; Baylin, Stephen B; van Criekinge, Wim; Meijer, Gerrit A; Ahuja, Nita; van Engeland, Manon

    2015-02-01

    Identifying biomarkers in body fluids may improve the noninvasive detection of colorectal cancer. Previously, we identified N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 4 (NDRG4) and GATA binding protein 5 (GATA5) methylation as promising biomarkers for colorectal cancer in stool DNA. Here, we examined the utility of NDRG4, GATA5, and two additional markers [Forkhead box protein E1 (FOXE1) and spectrin repeat containing nuclear envelope 1 (SYNE1)] promoter methylation as biomarkers in plasma DNA. Quantitative methylation-specific PCR was performed on plasma DNA from 220 patients with colorectal cancer and 684 noncancer controls, divided in a training set and a test set. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to measure the area under the curve of GATA5, NDRG4, SYNE1, and FOXE1 methylation. Functional assays were performed in SYNE1 and FOXE1 stably transfected cell lines. The sensitivity of NDRG4, GATA5, FOXE1, and SYNE1 methylation in all stages of colorectal cancer (154 cases, 444 controls) was 27% [95% confidence interval (CI), 20%-34%), 18% (95% CI, 12%-24%), 46% (95% CI, 38%-54%), and 47% (95% CI, 39%-55%), with a specificity of 95% (95% CI, 93%-97%), 99% (95% CI, 98%-100%), 93% (95% CI, 91%-95%), and 96% (95% CI, 94%-98%), respectively. Combining SYNE1 and FOXE1, increased the sensitivity to 56% (95% CI, 48%-64%), while the specificity decreased to 90% (95% CI, 87%-93%) in the training set and to 58% sensitivity (95% CI, 46%-70%) and 91% specificity (95% CI, 80%-100%) in a test set (66 cases, 240 controls). SYNE1 overexpression showed no major differences in cell proliferation, migration, and invasion compared with controls. Overexpression of FOXE1 significantly decreased the number of colonies in SW480 and HCT116 cell lines. Overall, our data suggest that SYNE1 and FOXE1 are promising markers for colorectal cancer detection. PMID:25538088

  17. Defining the Core Proteome of the Chloroplast Envelope Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Simm, Stefan; Papasotiriou, Dimitrios G.; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Leisegang, Matthias S.; Müller, Bernd; Schorge, Tobias; Karas, Michael; Mirus, Oliver; Sommer, Maik S.; Schleiff, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput protein localization studies require multiple strategies. Mass spectrometric analysis of defined cellular fractions is one of the complementary approaches to a diverse array of cell biological methods. In recent years, the protein content of different cellular (sub-)compartments was approached. Despite of all the efforts made, the analysis of membrane fractions remains difficult, in that the dissection of the proteomes of the envelope membranes of chloroplasts or mitochondria is often not reliable because sample purity is not always warranted. Moreover, proteomic studies are often restricted to single (model) species, and therefore limited in respect to differential individual evolution. In this study we analyzed the chloroplast envelope proteomes of different plant species, namely, the individual proteomes of inner and outer envelope (OE) membrane of Pisum sativum and the mixed envelope proteomes of Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago sativa. The analysis of all three species yielded 341 identified proteins in total, 247 of them being unique. 39 proteins were genuine envelope proteins found in at least two species. Based on this and previous envelope studies we defined the core envelope proteome of chloroplasts. Comparing the general overlap of the available six independent studies (including ours) revealed only a number of 27 envelope proteins. Depending on the stringency of applied selection criteria we found 231 envelope proteins, while less stringent criteria increases this number to 649 putative envelope proteins. Based on the latter we provide a map of the outer and inner envelope core proteome, which includes many yet uncharacterized proteins predicted to be involved in transport, signaling, and response. Furthermore, a foundation for the functional characterization of yet unidentified functions of the inner and OE for further analyses is provided. PMID:23390424

  18. Genetic diversity of koala retroviral envelopes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenqin; Gorman, Kristen; Santiago, Jan Clement; Kluska, Kristen; Eiden, Maribeth V

    2015-03-01

    Genetic diversity, attributable to the low fidelity of reverse transcription, recombination and mutation, is an important feature of infectious retroviruses. Under selective pressure, such as that imposed by superinfection interference, gammaretroviruses commonly adapt their envelope proteins to use alternative receptors to overcome this entry block. The first characterized koala retroviruses KoRV subgroup A (KoRV-A) were remarkable in their absence of envelope genetic variability. Once it was determined that KoRV-A was present in all koalas in US zoos, regardless of their disease status, we sought to isolate a KoRV variant whose presence correlated with neoplastic malignancies. More than a decade after the identification of KoRV-A, we isolated a second subgroup of KoRV, KoRV-B from koalas with lymphomas. The envelope proteins of KoRV-A and KoRV-B are sufficiently divergent to confer the ability to bind and employ distinct receptors for infection. We have now obtained a number of additional KoRV envelope variants. In the present studies we report these variants, and show that they differ from KoRV-A and KoRV-B envelopes in their host range and superinfection interference properties. Thus, there appears to be considerable variation among KoRVs envelope genes suggesting genetic diversity is a factor following the KoRV-A infection process.

  19. Genetic diversity of koala retroviral envelopes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenqin; Gorman, Kristen; Santiago, Jan Clement; Kluska, Kristen; Eiden, Maribeth V

    2015-03-01

    Genetic diversity, attributable to the low fidelity of reverse transcription, recombination and mutation, is an important feature of infectious retroviruses. Under selective pressure, such as that imposed by superinfection interference, gammaretroviruses commonly adapt their envelope proteins to use alternative receptors to overcome this entry block. The first characterized koala retroviruses KoRV subgroup A (KoRV-A) were remarkable in their absence of envelope genetic variability. Once it was determined that KoRV-A was present in all koalas in US zoos, regardless of their disease status, we sought to isolate a KoRV variant whose presence correlated with neoplastic malignancies. More than a decade after the identification of KoRV-A, we isolated a second subgroup of KoRV, KoRV-B from koalas with lymphomas. The envelope proteins of KoRV-A and KoRV-B are sufficiently divergent to confer the ability to bind and employ distinct receptors for infection. We have now obtained a number of additional KoRV envelope variants. In the present studies we report these variants, and show that they differ from KoRV-A and KoRV-B envelopes in their host range and superinfection interference properties. Thus, there appears to be considerable variation among KoRVs envelope genes suggesting genetic diversity is a factor following the KoRV-A infection process. PMID:25789509

  20. Effects of chronic alcohol drinking on receptor-binding, internalization, and degradation of human immunodeficiency virus 1 envelope protein gp120 in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ashok K; Jiang, Yin; Gupta, Shveta

    2007-12-01

    Although alcohol drinking increases susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, possible mechanisms underlying the effects of alcohol are not yet known. Since the HIV envelope protein gp120 plays a key role in progression of HIV infection, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the toxicity and degradation of gp120 in hepatocytes isolated from liver of alcohol-preferring rats drinking either 15% ethanol in water or pure water for 70 days. The hypothesis was that alcohol drinking augmented the toxicity, but suppressed degradation of gp120. Hepatocytes from water-drinking rats (C-cells) or ethanol-drinking rats (Et-cells) were treated with laptacystin, anti-CD4 antibodies, CCR5 antagonist, or mannose, followed by [(125)I]gp120 or native gp120. At predetermined intervals, control (C) and ethanol exposed (Et) cells were analyzed for toxicity and degradation of gp120. In C-cells, [(125)I]gp120 binding and internalization peaked within 5-45 min and remained elevated for up to 10h and then decreased gradually. In Et-cells, [(125)I]gp120 binding peaked comparably to C-cells, but the binding remained to the peak level throughout the experimental period. C-cells exhibited the lysosomal/ubiquitin-mediated degradation of intracellular gp120, resulting in released gp120 fragments into the incubation medium that suppressed gp120-CD4 binding, improved cell viability, and inhibited gp120-induced apoptosis. Ethanol drinking suppressed gp120 degradation in and release of gp120 fragments from hepatocytes. The incubation medium of Et-cells did not suppress gp120-CD4 binding or the gp120-mediated apoptosis in hepatocytes. Thus, chronic alcohol drinking augmented the adverse effects of gp120 possibly by suppressing its degradation in hepatocytes. The present observation also suggests that a number of CCR5 or ubiquitin-based therapeutic drugs may not be effective in suppressing HIV infection in alcohol-drinking subjects.

  1. Differential immune responses to HIV-1 envelope protein induced by liposomal adjuvant formulations containing monophosphoryl lipid A with or without QS21.

    PubMed

    Beck, Zoltan; Matyas, Gary R; Jalah, Rashmi; Rao, Mangala; Polonis, Victoria R; Alving, Carl R

    2015-10-13

    Liposomes have shown promise as constituents of adjuvant formulations in vaccines to parasitic and viral diseases. A particular type of liposomal construct, referred to as Army Liposome Formulation (ALF), containing neutral and anionic saturated phospholipids, cholesterol, and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), has been used as an adjuvant for many years. Here we investigated the effects of physical and chemical changes of ALF liposomes on adjuvanted immune responses to CN54 gp140, a recombinant HIV-1 envelope protein. While holding the total amounts of liposomal MPLA and the gp140 antigen constant, different liposome sizes and liposomal MPLA:phospholipid molar ratios, and the effect of adding QS21 to the liposomes were compared for inducing immune responses to the gp140. For liposomes lacking QS21, higher titers of IgG binding antibodies to gp140 were induced by small unilamellar vesicle (SUV) rather than by large multilamellar vesicle (MLV) liposomes, and the highest titers were obtained with SUV having the MPLA:phospholipid ratio of 1:5.6. ALF plus QS21 (ALFQ) liposomes induced the same maximal binding antibody titers regardless of the MPLA:phospholipid ratio. ALF MLV liposomes induced mainly IgG1 and very low IgG2a antibodies, while ALF SUV liposomes induced IgG1≥IgG2a>IgG2b antibodies. Liposomes containing QS21 induced IgG1>IgG2a>IgG2b>IgG3 antibodies. ELISPOT analysis of splenocytes from immunized mice revealed that ALF liposomes induced low levels of IFN-γ, but ALFQ induced high levels. ALF and ALFQ liposomes each induced approximately equivalent high levels of IL-4. Based on antibody subtypes and cytokine secretion, we conclude that ALF liposomes predominantly stimulate Th2, while ALFQ strongly induces both Th1 and Th2 immunity. When CN54 gp140 was adjuvanted with either ALF or ALFQ liposomes, antibodies were induced that neutralized two HIV-1 tier 1 clade C strain pseudoviruses.

  2. The Bacterial Cell Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Silhavy, Thomas J.; Kahne, Daniel; Walker, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    The bacteria cell envelope is a complex multilayered structure that serves to protect these organisms from their unpredictable and often hostile environment. The cell envelopes of most bacteria fall into one of two major groups. Gram-negative bacteria are surrounded by a thin peptidoglycan cell wall, which itself is surrounded by an outer membrane containing lipopolysaccharide. Gram-positive bacteria lack an outer membrane but are surrounded by layers of peptidoglycan many times thicker than is found in the Gram-negatives. Threading through these layers of peptidoglycan are long anionic polymers, called teichoic acids. The composition and organization of these envelope layers and recent insights into the mechanisms of cell envelope assembly are discussed. PMID:20452953

  3. Cell entry of enveloped viruses.

    PubMed

    Cosset, François-Loic; Lavillette, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    Enveloped viruses penetrate their cell targets following the merging of their membrane with that of the cell. This fusion process is catalyzed by one or several viral glycoproteins incorporated on the membrane of the virus. These envelope glycoproteins (EnvGP) evolved in order to combine two features. First, they acquired a domain to bind to a specific cellular protein, named "receptor." Second, they developed, with the help of cellular proteins, a function of finely controlled fusion to optimize the replication and preserve the integrity of the cell, specific to the genus of the virus. Following the activation of the EnvGP either by binding to their receptors and/or sometimes the acid pH of the endosomes, many changes of conformation permit ultimately the action of a specific hydrophobic domain, the fusion peptide, which destabilizes the cell membrane and leads to the opening of the lipidic membrane. The comprehension of these mechanisms is essential to develop medicines of the therapeutic class of entry inhibitor like enfuvirtide (Fuzeon) against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In this chapter, we will summarize the different envelope glycoprotein structures that viruses develop to achieve membrane fusion and the entry of the virus. We will describe the different entry pathways and cellular proteins that viruses have subverted to allow infection of the cell and the receptors that are used. Finally, we will illustrate more precisely the recent discoveries that have been made within the field of the entry process, with a focus on the use of pseudoparticles. These pseudoparticles are suitable for high-throughput screenings that help in the development of natural or artificial inhibitors as new therapeutics of the class of entry inhibitors.

  4. Tegument Assembly and Secondary Envelopment of Alphaherpesviruses.

    PubMed

    Owen, Danielle J; Crump, Colin M; Graham, Stephen C

    2015-09-01

    Alphaherpesviruses like herpes simplex virus are large DNA viruses characterized by their ability to establish lifelong latent infection in neurons. As for all herpesviruses, alphaherpesvirus virions contain a protein-rich layer called "tegument" that links the DNA-containing capsid to the glycoprotein-studded membrane envelope. Tegument proteins mediate a diverse range of functions during the virus lifecycle, including modulation of the host-cell environment immediately after entry, transport of virus capsids to the nucleus during infection, and wrapping of cytoplasmic capsids with membranes (secondary envelopment) during virion assembly. Eleven tegument proteins that are conserved across alphaherpesviruses have been implicated in the formation of the tegument layer or in secondary envelopment. Tegument is assembled via a dense network of interactions between tegument proteins, with the redundancy of these interactions making it challenging to determine the precise function of any specific tegument protein. However, recent studies have made great headway in defining the interactions between tegument proteins, conserved across alphaherpesviruses, which facilitate tegument assembly and secondary envelopment. We summarize these recent advances and review what remains to be learned about the molecular interactions required to assemble mature alphaherpesvirus virions following the release of capsids from infected cell nuclei. PMID:26393641

  5. Tegument Assembly and Secondary Envelopment of Alphaherpesviruses

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Danielle J.; Crump, Colin M.; Graham, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Alphaherpesviruses like herpes simplex virus are large DNA viruses characterized by their ability to establish lifelong latent infection in neurons. As for all herpesviruses, alphaherpesvirus virions contain a protein-rich layer called “tegument” that links the DNA-containing capsid to the glycoprotein-studded membrane envelope. Tegument proteins mediate a diverse range of functions during the virus lifecycle, including modulation of the host-cell environment immediately after entry, transport of virus capsids to the nucleus during infection, and wrapping of cytoplasmic capsids with membranes (secondary envelopment) during virion assembly. Eleven tegument proteins that are conserved across alphaherpesviruses have been implicated in the formation of the tegument layer or in secondary envelopment. Tegument is assembled via a dense network of interactions between tegument proteins, with the redundancy of these interactions making it challenging to determine the precise function of any specific tegument protein. However, recent studies have made great headway in defining the interactions between tegument proteins, conserved across alphaherpesviruses, which facilitate tegument assembly and secondary envelopment. We summarize these recent advances and review what remains to be learned about the molecular interactions required to assemble mature alphaherpesvirus virions following the release of capsids from infected cell nuclei. PMID:26393641

  6. DNA vaccines encoding the envelope protein of West Nile virus lineages 1 or 2 administered intramuscularly, via electroporation and with recombinant virus protein induce partial protection in large falcons (Falco spp.).

    PubMed

    Fischer, Dominik; Angenvoort, Joke; Ziegler, Ute; Fast, Christine; Maier, Kristina; Chabierski, Stefan; Eiden, Martin; Ulbert, Sebastian; Groschup, Martin H; Lierz, Michael

    2015-08-17

    As West Nile virus (WNV) can cause lethal diseases in raptors, a vaccination prophylaxis of free-living and captive populations is desirable. In the absence of vaccines approved for birds, equine vaccines have been used in falcons, but full protection against WNV infection was not achieved. Therefore, two DNA vaccines encoding the ectodomain of the envelope protein of WNV lineages 1 and 2, respectively, were evaluated in 28 large falcons. Four different vaccination protocols were used, including electroporation and booster-injections of recombinant WNV domain III protein, before challenge with the live WNV lineage 1 strain NY99. Drug safety, plasmid shedding and antibody production were monitored during the vaccination period. Serological, virological, histological, immunohistochemical and molecular biological investigations were performed during the challenge trials. Antibody response following vaccination was low overall and lasted for a maximum of three weeks. Plasmid shedding was not detected at any time. Viremia, mortality and levels, but not duration, of oral virus shedding were reduced in all of the groups during the challenge trial compared to the non-vaccinated control group. Likewise, clinical scoring, levels of cloacal virus shedding and viral load in organs were significantly reduced in three vaccination groups. Histopathological findings associated with WNV infections (meningo-encephalitis, myocarditis, and arteritis) were present in all groups, but immunohistochemical detection of the viral antigen was reduced. In conclusion, the vaccines can be used safely in falcons to reduce mortality and clinical signs and to lower the risk of virus transmission due to decreased levels of virus shedding and viremia, but full protection was not achieved in all groups.

  7. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING DL

    2008-03-19

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions.

  8. Proteolysis of Xenopus laevis egg envelope ZPA triggers envelope hardening.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Leann L; Hedrick, Jerry L

    2004-11-12

    The egg envelope of most animal eggs is modified following fertilization, resulting in the prevention of polyspermy and hardening of the egg envelope. In frogs and mammals a prominent feature of envelope modification is N-terminal proteolysis of the envelope glycoprotein ZPA. We have purified the ZPA protease from Xenopus laevis eggs and characterized it as a zinc metalloprotease. Proteolysis of isolated egg envelopes by the isolated protease resulted in envelope hardening. The N-terminal peptide fragment of ZPA remained disulfide bond linked to the ZPA glycoprotein moiety following proteolysis. We propose a mechanism for egg envelope hardening involving ZPA proteolysis by an egg metalloprotease as a triggering event followed by induction of global conformational changes in egg envelope glycoproteins. PMID:15474476

  9. Jacketed lamp bulb envelope

    DOEpatents

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Gitsevich, Aleksandr; Bass, Gary K.; Dolan, James T.; Kipling, Kent; Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Leng, Yongzhang; Levin, Izrail; Roy, Robert J.; Shanks, Bruce; Smith, Malcolm; Trimble, William C.; Tsai, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a partially closed end, the partially closed end defining an aperture, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material at least partially covering a portion of the bulb not abutting the aperture. The reflective ceramic material may substantially fill an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. The ceramic cup may include a structural feature for aiding in alignment of the jacketed lamp bulb envelope in a lamp. The ceramic cup may include an external flange about a periphery thereof. One example of a jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a closed end, a ceramic washer covering the open end of the ceramic cup, the washer defining an aperture therethrough, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material filling an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. A method of packing a jacketed lamp bulb envelope of the type comprising a ceramic cup with a lamp bulb disposed therein includes the steps of filling the ceramic cup with a flowable slurry of reflective material, and applying centrifugal force to the cup to pack the reflective material therein.

  10. Targeting Nuclear Envelope Repair.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Migrating cancer cells undergo repeated rupture of the protective nuclear envelope as they squeeze through small spaces in the surrounding tissue, compromising genomic integrity. Inhibiting both general DNA repair and the mechanism that seals these tears may enhance cell death and curb metastasis. PMID:27130435

  11. COMMON ENVELOPE: ENTHALPY CONSIDERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanova, N.; Chaichenets, S.

    2011-04-20

    In this Letter, we discuss a modification to the criterion for the common envelope (CE) event to result in envelope dispersion. We emphasize that the current energy criterion for the CE phase is not sufficient for an instability of the CE, nor for an ejection. However, in some cases, stellar envelopes undergo stationary mass outflows, which are likely to occur during the slow spiral-in stage of the CE event. We propose the condition for such outflows, in a manner similar to the currently standard {alpha}{sub CE}{lambda}-prescription but with an addition of P/{rho} term in the energy balance equation, accounting therefore for the enthalpy of the envelope rather than merely the gas internal energy. This produces a significant correction, which might help to dispense with an unphysically high value of energy efficiency parameter during the CE phase, currently required in the binary population synthesis studies to make the production of low-mass X-ray binaries with a black hole companion to match the observations.

  12. The Psp system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis integrates envelope stress sensing and envelope preserving functions

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Pratik; Ravi, Janani; Guerrini, Valentina; Chauhan, Rinki; Neiditch, Matthew B.; Shell, Scarlet S.; Fortune, Sarah M.; Hancioglu, Baris; Igoshin, Oleg; Gennaro, Maria Laura

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial envelope integrates essential stress-sensing and adaptive functions; thus, envelope-preserving functions are important for survival. In Gram-negative bacteria, envelope integrity during stress is maintained by the multi-gene Psp response. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was thought to lack the Psp system, since it encodes only pspA and no other psp ortholog. Intriguingly, pspA maps downstream from clgR, which encodes a transcription factor regulated by the MprAB-σE envelope-stress-signaling system. clgR inactivation lowered ATP concentration during stress and protonophore treatment-induced clgR-pspA expression, suggesting that these genes express Psp-like functions. We identified a four-gene set -- clgR, pspA (rv2744c), rv2743c, rv2742c – that is regulated by clgR and in turn regulates ClgR activity. Regulatory and protein-protein interactions within the set and a requirement of the four genes for functions associated with envelope integrity and surface-stress tolerance indicate that a Psp-like system has evolved in mycobacteria. Among Actinobacteria, the four-gene module occurred only in tuberculous mycobacteria and was required for intra-macrophage growth, suggesting links between its function and mycobacterial virulence. Additionally, the four-gene module was required for MprAB-σE stress-signaling activity. The positive feedback between envelope-stress-sensing and envelope-preserving functions allows sustained responses to multiple, envelope-perturbing signals during chronic infection, making the system uniquely suited to tuberculosis pathogenesis. PMID:25899163

  13. Vaccine Induction of Antibodies Against a Structurally Heterogeneous Site of Immune Pressure within HIV-1 Envelope Protein Variable Regions 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Hua-Xin; Bonsignori, Mattia; Alam, S. Munir; McLellan, Jason S.; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Moody, M. Anthony; Kozink, Daniel M.; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Chen, Xi; Tsao, Chun-Yen; Liu, Pinghuang; Lu, Xiaozhi; Parks, Robert J.; Montefiori, David C.; Ferrari, Guido; Pollara, Justin; Rao, Mangala; Peachman, Kristina K.; Santra, Sampa; Letvin, Norman L.; Karasavvas, Nicos; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Dai, Kaifan; Pancera, Marie; Gorman, Jason; Wiehe, Kevin; Nicely, Nathan I.; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Tartaglia, James; Sinangil, Faruk; Kim, Jerome H.; Michael, Nelson L.; Kepler, Thomas B.; Kwong, Peter D.; Mascola, John R.; Nabel, Gary J.; Pinter, Abraham; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Haynes, Barton F.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The RV144 HIV-1 trial of the canary pox vector (ALVAC-HIV) plus the gp120 AIDSVAX B/E vaccine demonstrated an estimated efficacy of 31%, that correlated directly with antibodies to HIV-1 envelope variable regions 1 and 2 (V1–V2). Genetic analysis of trial viruses revealed increased vaccine efficacy against viruses matching the vaccine strain at V2 residue 169. Here, we isolated four V2 monoclonal antibodies from RV144 vaccinees that recognize residue 169, neutralize laboratory-adapted HIV-1, and mediate killing of field isolate HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells. Crystal structures of two of the V2 antibodies demonstrated residue 169 can exist within divergent helical and loop conformations, which contrasted dramatically with the beta strand conformation previously observed with a broadly neutralizing antibody PG9. Thus, RV144 vaccine-induced immune pressure appears to target a region that may be both sequence variable and structurally polymorphic. Variation may signal sites of HIV-1 envelope vulnerability, providing vaccine designers with new options. PMID:23313589

  14. Drug design from the cryptic inhibitor envelope

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chul-Jin; Liang, Xiaofei; Wu, Qinglin; Najeeb, Javaria; Zhao, Jinshi; Gopalaswamy, Ramesh; Titecat, Marie; Sebbane, Florent; Lemaitre, Nadine; Toone, Eric J.; Zhou, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Conformational dynamics plays an important role in enzyme catalysis, allosteric regulation of protein functions and assembly of macromolecular complexes. Despite these well-established roles, such information has yet to be exploited for drug design. Here we show by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy that inhibitors of LpxC—an essential enzyme of the lipid A biosynthetic pathway in Gram-negative bacteria and a validated novel antibiotic target—access alternative, minor population states in solution in addition to the ligand conformation observed in crystal structures. These conformations collectively delineate an inhibitor envelope that is invisible to crystallography, but is dynamically accessible by small molecules in solution. Drug design exploiting such a hidden inhibitor envelope has led to the development of potent antibiotics with inhibition constants in the single-digit picomolar range. The principle of the cryptic inhibitor envelope approach may be broadly applicable to other lead optimization campaigns to yield improved therapeutics. PMID:26912110

  15. The Arabidopsis Nuclear Pore and Nuclear Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Iris; Brkljacic, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear envelope is a double membrane structure that separates the eukaryotic cytoplasm from the nucleoplasm. The nuclear pores embedded in the nuclear envelope are the sole gateways for macromolecular trafficking in and out of the nucleus. The nuclear pore complexes assembled at the nuclear pores are large protein conglomerates composed of multiple units of about 30 different nucleoporins. Proteins and RNAs traffic through the nuclear pore complexes, enabled by the interacting activities of nuclear transport receptors, nucleoporins, and elements of the Ran GTPase cycle. In addition to directional and possibly selective protein and RNA nuclear import and export, the nuclear pore gains increasing prominence as a spatial organizer of cellular processes, such as sumoylation and desumoylation. Individual nucleoporins and whole nuclear pore subcomplexes traffic to specific mitotic locations and have mitotic functions, for example at the kinetochores, in spindle assembly, and in conjunction with the checkpoints. Mutants of nucleoporin genes and genes of nuclear transport components lead to a wide array of defects from human diseases to compromised plant defense responses. The nuclear envelope acts as a repository of calcium, and its inner membrane is populated by functionally unique proteins connected to both chromatin and—through the nuclear envelope lumen—the cytoplasmic cytoskeleton. Plant nuclear pore and nuclear envelope research—predominantly focusing on Arabidopsis as a model—is discovering both similarities and surprisingly unique aspects compared to the more mature model systems. This chapter gives an overview of our current knowledge in the field and of exciting areas awaiting further exploration. PMID:22303264

  16. Identification of the gC1qR sites for the HIV-1 viral envelope protein gp41 and the HCV core protein: Implications in viral-specific pathogenesis and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pednekar, Lina; Valentino, Alisa; Ji, Yan; Tumma, Nithin; Valentino, Christopher; Kadoor, Adarsh; Hosszu, Kinga K.; Ramadass, Mahalakshmi; Kew, Richard R.; Kishore, Uday; Peerschke, Ellinor I.B.; Ghebrehiwet, Berhane

    2016-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence accumulated over the past 20 years supports the concept that gC1qR is a major pathogen-associated pattern recognition receptor (PRR). This conclusion is based on the fact that, a wide range of bacterial and viral ligands are able to exploit gC1qR to either suppress the host’s immune response and thus enhance their survival, or to gain access into cells to initiate disease. Of the extensive array of viral ligands that have affinity for gC1qR, the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp41, and the core protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) are of major interest as they are known to contribute to the high morbidity and mortality caused by these pathogens. While the HCV core protein binds gC1qR and suppresses T cell proliferation resulting in a significantly diminished immune response, the gp41 employs gC1qR to induce the surface expression of the NK cell ligand, NKp44L, on uninfected CD4+ T cells, thereby rendering them susceptible to autologous destruction by NKp44 receptor expressing NK cells. Because of the potential for the design of peptide-based or antibody-based therapeutic options, the present studies were undertaken to define the gC1qR interaction sites for these pathogen-associated molecular ligands. Employing a solid phase microplate-binding assay, we examined the binding of each viral ligand to wild type gC1qR and 11 gC1qR deletion mutants. The results obtained from these studies have identified two major HCV core protein sites on a domain of gC1qR comprising of residues 144–148 and 196–202. Domain 196–202 in turn, is located in the last half of the larger gC1qR segment encoded by exons IV–VI (residues 159–282), which was proposed previously to contain the site for HCV core protein. The major gC1qR site for gp41 on the other hand, was found to be in a highly conserved region encoded by exon IV and comprises of residues 174–180. Interestingly, gC1qR residues 174–180 also constitute the cell surface-binding site for soluble

  17. The nuclear envelope proteome differs notably between tissues

    PubMed Central

    Korfali, Nadia; Wilkie, Gavin S.; Swanson, Selene K.; Srsen, Vlastimil; de las Heras, Jose; Batrakou, Dzmitry G.; Malik, Poonam; Zuleger, Nikolaj; Kerr, Alastair R.W.; Florens, Laurence; Schirmer, Eric C.

    2012-01-01

    One hypothesis to explain how mutations in the same nuclear envelope proteins yield pathologies focused in distinct tissues is that as yet unidentified tissue-specific partners mediate the disease pathologies. The nuclear envelope proteome was recently determined from leukocytes and muscle. Here the same methodology is applied to liver and a direct comparison of the liver, muscle and leukocyte data sets is presented. At least 74 novel transmembrane proteins identified in these studies have been directly confirmed at the nuclear envelope. Within this set, RT-PCR, western blot and staining of tissue cryosections confirms that the protein complement of the nuclear envelope is clearly distinct from one tissue to another. Bioinformatics reveals similar divergence between tissues across the larger data sets. For proteins acting in complexes according to interactome data, the whole complex often exhibited the same tissue-specificity. Other tissue-specific nuclear envelope proteins identified were known proteins with functions in signaling and gene regulation. The high tissue specificity in the nuclear envelope likely underlies the complex disease pathologies and argues that all organelle proteomes warrant re-examination in multiple tissues. PMID:22990521

  18. Protein of macaques against infection with simian type D retrovirus (SRV-1) by immunization with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the envelope glycoproteins of either SRV-1 or Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (SRV-3).

    PubMed Central

    Brody, B A; Hunter, E; Kluge, J D; Lasarow, R; Gardner, M; Marx, P A

    1992-01-01

    Rhesus macaques were immunized with live vaccinia virus recombinants expressing the envelope glycoproteins (gp70 and gp22) of simian type D retrovirus (SRV), serotype 1 or 3. All of the animals immunized with either the SRV-1 env or the SRV-3 env vaccinia virus recombinant developed neutralizing antibodies against the homologous SRV. In addition, both groups developed cross-reactive antibodies and were protected against an intravenous live-virus challenge with SRV-1. The four control animals immunized with a vaccinia virus recombinant expressing the G protein of respiratory syncytial virus were not protected against the same SRV-1 challenge. Although SRV-1 and SRV-3 immune sera showed cross-neutralization, they failed to neutralize a separate, more distantly related serotype, SRV-2, in an in vitro assay. These findings are consistent with the known degree of serologic and genetic relatedness of these three SRV strains. Images PMID:1316495

  19. Fusion of Enveloped Viruses in Endosomes.

    PubMed

    White, Judith M; Whittaker, Gary R

    2016-06-01

    Ari Helenius launched the field of enveloped virus fusion in endosomes with a seminal paper in the Journal of Cell Biology in 1980. In the intervening years, a great deal has been learned about the structures and mechanisms of viral membrane fusion proteins as well as about the endosomes in which different enveloped viruses fuse and the endosomal cues that trigger fusion. We now recognize three classes of viral membrane fusion proteins based on structural criteria and four mechanisms of fusion triggering. After reviewing general features of viral membrane fusion proteins and viral fusion in endosomes, we delve into three characterized mechanisms for viral fusion triggering in endosomes: by low pH, by receptor binding plus low pH and by receptor binding plus the action of a protease. We end with a discussion of viruses that may employ novel endosomal fusion-triggering mechanisms. A key take-home message is that enveloped viruses that enter cells by fusing in endosomes traverse the endocytic pathway until they reach an endosome that has all of the environmental conditions (pH, proteases, ions, intracellular receptors and lipid composition) to (if needed) prime and (in all cases) trigger the fusion protein and to support membrane fusion.

  20. Enhanced SIV replication and accelerated progression to AIDS in macaques primed to mount a CD4 T cell response to the SIV envelope protein

    PubMed Central

    Staprans, Silvija I.; Barry, Ashley P.; Silvestri, Guido; Safrit, Jeffrey T.; Kozyr, Natalia; Sumpter, Beth; Nguyen, Hanh; McClure, Harold; Montefiori, David; Cohen, Jeffrey I.; Feinberg, Mark B.

    2004-01-01

    Given the dual role of CD4 T cells as both immune effectors and targets for HIV infection, the balance of CD4 versus CD8 T cell-mediated responses induced by candidate AIDS vaccines may be critical in determining postvaccination infection outcomes. An attenuated recombinant varicella-zoster virus vaccine expressing the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) envelope (Env) elicited nonneutralizing Env-binding antibodies and little if any cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). After challenge with SIV, Env vaccinees manifested increased levels of SIV replication, more rapid CD4 depletion, and accelerated progression to AIDS compared with controls. Enhanced SIV replication correlated with increased CD4 T cell proliferation soon after SIV challenge, apparently the result of an anamnestic response to SIV antigens. Thus activation of virus-specific CD4 T cells at the time of exposure to a CD4 T cell-tropic lentivirus, in the absence of an effective CD8 response, may enhance virus replication and disease. These data suggest suggest that candidate AIDS vaccines may not simply be either efficacious or neutral; they may also have the potential to be harmful. PMID:15326293

  1. Refrigerated cryogenic envelope

    DOEpatents

    Loudon, John D.

    1976-11-16

    An elongated cryogenic envelope including an outer tube and an inner tube coaxially spaced within said inner tube so that the space therebetween forms a vacuum chamber for holding a vacuum. The inner and outer tubes are provided with means for expanding or contracting during thermal changes. A shield is located in the vacuum chamber intermediate the inner and outer tubes; and, a refrigeration tube for directing refrigeration to the shield is coiled about at least a portion of the inner tube within the vacuum chamber to permit the refrigeration tube to expand or contract along its length during thermal changes within said vacuum chamber.

  2. Human immunodeficiency virus 1 envelope proteins induce interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and nitric oxide in glial cultures derived from fetal, neonatal, and adult human brain

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Although microglia are the only cells found to be productively infected in the central nervous system of acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome (AIDS) patients, there is extensive white and gray matter disease nonetheless. This neuropathogenesis is believed to be due to indirect mechanisms other than infection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). Cytokines and toxic small molecules have been implicated in the clinical and histopathological findings in CNS AIDS. Previously, we have demonstrated in rodent glial cultures the presence of biologically active epitopes of gp120 and gp41 that are capable of inducing interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha. In this study, we map the HIV-1 envelope epitopes that induce nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin 1, and tumor necrosis factor alpha in human glial cultures. Epitopes in the carboxy terminus of gp120 and the amino terminus of gp41 induce these proinflammatory entities. In addition, we compare HIV-1 infection and pathology in glial cells derived from human brain taken at different states of maturation (fetal, neonatal, and adult brain) in an effort to address some of the clinical and histological differences seen in vivo. This study demonstrates that, in the absence of virus infection and even in the absence of distinct viral tropism, human glia respond like rodent glia to non-CD4-binding epitopes of gp120/gp41 with cytokine and nitric oxide production. Differences among fetal, neonatal, and adult glial cells' infectivity and cytokine production indicate that, in addition to functional differences of glia at different stages of development, cofactors in vitro and in vivo may also be critical in facilitating the biological responses of these cells to HIV-1. PMID:7561697

  3. Identification of two Isoforms of Vitelline Envelope Protein as Complementary Biomarkers to Vitellogenin in the Plasma of Rainbow Trout Exposed to 17beta-estradiol

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the present study, protein markers of estrogenic exposure in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were isolated and identified using innovative sample preparation techniques followed by advanced MS and bioinformatics approaches. Juvenile trout were administered 17ß-estradiol t...

  4. Solubilization and reconstitution of vesicular stomatitis virus envelope using octylglucoside.

    PubMed Central

    Paternostre, M; Viard, M; Meyer, O; Ghanam, M; Ollivon, M; Blumenthal, R

    1997-01-01

    Reconstituted vesicular stomatitis virus envelopes or virosomes are formed by detergent removal from solubilized intact virus. We have monitored the solubilization process of the intact vesicular stomatitis virus by the nonionic surfactant octylglucoside at various initial virus concentrations by employing turbidity measurements. This allowed us to determine the phase boundaries between the membrane and the mixed micelles domains. We have also characterized the lipid and protein content of the solubilized material and of the reconstituted envelope. Both G and M proteins and all of the lipids of the envelope were extracted by octylglucoside and recovered in the reconstituted envelope. Fusion activity of the virosomes tested either on Vero cells or on liposomes showed kinetics and pH dependence similar to those of the intact virus. Images FIGURE 4 PMID:9083672

  5. Viremic HIV Infected Individuals with High CD4 T Cells and Functional Envelope Proteins Show Anti-gp41 Antibodies with Unique Specificity and Function

    PubMed Central

    Curriu, Marta; Fausther-Bovendo, Hughes; Pernas, María; Massanella, Marta; Carrillo, Jorge; Cabrera, Cecilia; López-Galíndez, Cecilio; Clotet, Bonaventura; Debré, Patrice; Vieillard, Vincent; Blanco, Julià

    2012-01-01

    Background CD4 T-cell decay is variable among HIV-infected individuals. In exceptional cases, CD4 T-cell counts remain stable despite high plasma viremia. HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) properties, namely tropism, fusion or the ability to induce the NK ligand NKp44L, or host factors that modulate Env cytopathic mechanisms may be modified in such situation. Methods We identified untreated HIV-infected individuals showing non-cytopathic replication (VL>10,000 copies/mL and CD4 T-cell decay<50 cells/µL/year, Viremic Non Progressors, VNP) or rapid progression (CD4 T-cells<350 cells/µL within three years post-infection, RP). We isolated full-length Env clones and analyzed their functions (tropism, fusion activity and capacity to induce NKp44L expression on CD4 cells). Anti-Env humoral responses were also analyzed. Results Env clones isolated from VNP or RP individuals showed no major phenotypic differences. The percentage of functional clones was similar in both groups. All clones tested were CCR5-tropic and showed comparable expression and fusogenic activity. Moreover, no differences were observed in their capacity to induce NKp44L expression on CD4 T cells from healthy donors through the 3S epitope of gp41. In contrast, anti- Env antibodies showed clear functional differences: plasma from VNPs had significantly higher capacity than RPs to block NKp44L induction by autologous viruses. Consistently, CD4 T-cells isolated from VNPs showed undetectable NKp44L expression and specific antibodies against a variable region flanking the highly conserved 3S epitope were identified in plasma samples from these patients. Conversely, despite continuous antigen stimulation, VNPs were unable to mount a broad neutralizing response against HIV. Conclusions Env functions (fusion and induction of NKp44L) were similar in viremic patients with slow or rapid progression to AIDS. However, differences in humoral responses against gp41 epitopes nearby 3S sequence may contribute to the lack

  6. Effects of Deletion and Overexpression of the Autographa californica Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus FP25K Gene on Synthesis of Two Occlusion-Derived Virus Envelope Proteins and Their Transport into Virus-Induced Intranuclear Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Acosta, Germán; Braunagel, Sharon C.; Summers, Max D.

    2001-01-01

    Partial deletions within Autographa californica open reading frame 61 (FP25K) alter the expression and accumulation profile of several viral proteins and the transport of occlusion-derived virus (ODV)-E66 to intranuclear membranes during infection (S. C. Braunagel et al., J. Virol. 73:8559–8570, 1999). Here we show the effects of a full deletion and overexpression of FP25K on the transport and expression of two ODV envelope proteins, ODV-E66 (E66) and ODV-E25 (E25). Deletion and overexpression of FP25K substantially altered the levels of expression of E66 during infection. Compared with cells infected with wild-type (wt) virus, the levels of E66 were reduced fivefold in cells infected with a viral mutant lacking FP25K (ΔFP25K) and were slightly increased in cells infected with a viral mutant overexpressing FP25K (FP25Kpolh). In contrast, no significant changes were observed in the levels of E25 among wt-, ΔFP25K-, and FP25Kpolh-infected cells. The changes observed in the levels of E66 among the different viral mutants were not accompanied by changes in either the time of synthesis, membrane association, protein turnover, or steady-state transcript abundance. Deletion of FP25K also substantially altered the transport and localization of E66 during infection. In cells infected with the ΔFP25K mutant virus, E66 accumulated in localized regions at the nuclear periphery and the outer nuclear membrane and did not traffic to intranuclear membranes. In contrast, in cells infected with the FP25Kpolh mutant virus E66 trafficked to intranuclear membranes. For comparison, E25 was normally transported to intranuclear membranes in both ΔFP25K- and FP25Kpolh-infected cells. Altogether these studies suggest that FP25K affects the synthesis of E66 at a posttranscriptional level, probably by altering the translation of E66; additionally, the block in transport of E66 at the nuclear envelope in ΔFP25K-infected cells suggests that the pathway of E66 trafficking to the inner

  7. The HtrA-Like Serine Protease PepD Interacts with and Modulates the Mycobacterium tuberculosis 35-kDa Antigen Outer Envelope Protein

    PubMed Central

    White, Mark J.; Savaryn, John P.; Bretl, Daniel J.; He, Hongjun; Penoske, Renee M.; Terhune, Scott S.; Zahrt, Thomas C.

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a significant global health concern largely due to its ability to persist for extended periods within the granuloma of the host. While residing within the granuloma, the tubercle bacilli are likely to be exposed to stress that can result in formation of aberrant proteins with altered structures. Bacteria encode stress responsive determinants such as proteases and chaperones to deal with misfolded or unfolded proteins. pepD encodes an HtrA-like serine protease and is thought to process proteins altered following exposure of M. tuberculosis to extra-cytoplasmic stress. PepD functions both as a protease and chaperone in vitro, and is required for aspects of M. tuberculosis virulence in vivo. pepD is directly regulated by the stress-responsive two-component signal transduction system MprAB and indirectly by extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor SigE. Loss of PepD also impacts expression of other stress-responsive determinants in M. tuberculosis. To further understand the role of PepD in stress adaptation by M. tuberculosis, a proteomics approach was taken to identify binding proteins and possible substrates of this protein. Using subcellular fractionation, the cellular localization of wild-type and PepD variants was determined. Purified fractions as well as whole cell lysates from Mycobacterium smegmatis or M. tuberculosis strains expressing a catalytically compromised PepD variant were immunoprecipitated for PepD and subjected to LC-MS/MS analyses. Using this strategy, the 35-kDa antigen encoding a homolog of the PspA phage shock protein was identified as a predominant binding partner and substrate of PepD. We postulate that proteolytic cleavage of the 35-kDa antigen by PepD helps maintain cell wall homeostasis in Mycobacterium and regulates specific stress response pathways during periods of extracytoplasmic stress. PMID:21445360

  8. The neurovirulence and neuroinvasiveness of chimeric tick-borne encephalitis/dengue virus can be attenuated by introducing defined mutations into the envelope and NS5 protein genes and the 3' non-coding region of the genome

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, Amber R.; Rumyantsev, Alexander A.; Maximova, Olga A.; Speicher, James M.; Heiss, Brian; Murphy, Brian R.; Pletnev, Alexander G.

    2010-09-15

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a severe disease affecting thousands of people throughout Eurasia. Despite the use of formalin-inactivated vaccines in endemic areas, an increasing incidence of TBE emphasizes the need for an alternative vaccine that will induce a more durable immunity against TBE virus (TBEV). The chimeric attenuated virus vaccine candidate containing the structural protein genes of TBEV on a dengue virus genetic background (TBEV/DEN4) retains a high level of neurovirulence in both mice and monkeys. Therefore, attenuating mutations were introduced into the envelope (E{sub 315}) and NS5 (NS5{sub 654,655}) proteins, and into the 3' non-coding region ({Delta}30) of TBEV/DEN4. The variant that contained all three mutations (v{Delta}30/E{sub 315}/NS5{sub 654,655}) was significantly attenuated for neuroinvasiveness and neurovirulence and displayed a reduced level of replication and virus-induced histopathology in the brains of mice. The high level of safety in the central nervous system indicates that v{Delta}30/E{sub 315}/NS5{sub 654,655} should be further evaluated as a TBEV vaccine.

  9. MEASUREMENT OF ESTROGEN-INDUCED VITELLOGENIN AND VITELLINE ENVELOPE PROTEIN MRNA IN SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS) USING QUANTITATIVE REAL-TIME PCR TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many environmentally persistent chemicals found in both European and U.S. waterways can act as estrogens by binding to estrogen receptors and modifying the expression of genes regulated by endogenous estrogens. Synthesis of female-specific proteins (Vitellogenin [VTG], vitelline ...

  10. Increased Pathogenicity of West Nile Virus (WNV) by Glycosylation of Envelope Protein and Seroprevalence of WNV in Wild Birds in Far Eastern Russia

    PubMed Central

    Kariwa, Hiroaki; Murata, Ryo; Totani, Masashi; Yoshii, Kentaro; Takashima, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the possibility that the glycosylation of West Nile (WN) virus E-protein may be associated with enhanced pathogenicity and higher replication of WN virus. The results indicate that E-protein glycosylation allows the virus to multiply in a heat-stable manner and therefore, has a critical role in enhanced viremic levels and virulence of WN virus in young-chick infection model. The effect of the glycosylation of the E protein on the pathogenicity of WN virus in young chicks was further investigated. The results indicate that glycosylation of the WN virus E protein is important for viral multiplication in peripheral organs and that it is associated with the strong pathogenicity of WN virus in birds. The micro-focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT) in which a large number of serum samples can be handled at once with a small volume (15 μL) of serum was useful for differential diagnosis between Japanese encephalitis and WN virus infections in infected chicks. Serological investigation was performed among wild birds in the Far Eastern region of Russia using the FRNT. Antibodies specific to WN virus were detected in 21 samples of resident and migratory birds out of 145 wild bird samples in the region. PMID:24351738

  11. The Lack of the Essential LptC Protein in the Trans-Envelope Lipopolysaccharide Transport Machine Is Circumvented by Suppressor Mutations in LptF, an Inner Membrane Component of the Escherichia coli Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Benedet, Mattia; Falchi, Federica A.; Puccio, Simone; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Peano, Clelia; Polissi, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) transport (Lpt) system is responsible for transferring LPS from the periplasmic surface of the inner membrane (IM) to the outer leaflet of the outer membrane (OM), where it plays a crucial role in OM selective permeability. In E. coli seven essential proteins are assembled in an Lpt trans-envelope complex, which is conserved in γ-Proteobacteria. LptBFG constitute the IM ABC transporter, LptDE form the OM translocon for final LPS delivery, whereas LptC, an IM-anchored protein with a periplasmic domain, interacts with the IM ABC transporter, the periplasmic protein LptA, and LPS. Although essential, LptC can tolerate several mutations and its role in LPS transport is unclear. To get insights into the functional role of LptC in the Lpt machine we searched for viable mutants lacking LptC by applying a strong double selection for lptC deletion mutants. Genome sequencing of viable ΔlptC mutants revealed single amino acid substitutions at a unique position in the predicted large periplasmic domain of the IM component LptF (LptFSupC). In complementation tests, lptFSupC mutants suppress lethality of both ΔlptC and lptC conditional expression mutants. Our data show that mutations in a specific residue of the predicted LptF periplasmic domain can compensate the lack of the essential protein LptC, implicate such LptF domain in the formation of the periplasmic bridge between the IM and OM complexes, and suggest that LptC may have evolved to improve the performance of an ancestral six-component Lpt machine. PMID:27529623

  12. Anisotropic charged core envelope star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mafa Takisa, P.; Maharaj, S. D.

    2016-08-01

    We study a charged compact object with anisotropic pressures in a core envelope setting. The equation of state is quadratic in the core and linear in the envelope. There is smooth matching between the three regions: the core, envelope and the Reissner-Nordström exterior. We show that the presence of the electric field affects the masses, radii and compactification factors of stellar objects with values which are in agreement with previous studies. We investigate in particular the effect of electric field on the physical features of the pulsar PSR J1614-2230 in the core envelope model. The gravitational potentials and the matter variables are well behaved within the stellar object. We demonstrate that the radius of the core and the envelope can vary by changing the parameters in the speed of sound.

  13. A Single Amino Acid Substitution in the Envelope Protein of Chimeric Yellow Fever-Dengue 1 Vaccine Virus Reduces Neurovirulence for Suckling Mice and Viremia/Viscerotropism for Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Guirakhoo, F.; Zhang, Z.; Myers, G.; Johnson, B. W.; Pugachev, K.; Nichols, R.; Brown, N.; Levenbook, I.; Draper, K.; Cyrek, S.; Lang, J.; Fournier, C.; Barrere, B.; Delagrave, S.; Monath, T. P.

    2004-01-01

    A chimeric yellow fever-dengue 1 (ChimeriVax-DEN1) virus was produced by the transfection of Vero cells with chimeric in vitro RNA transcripts. The cell culture supernatant was subjected to plaque purification for the identification of a vaccine candidate without mutations. Of 10 plaque-purified clones, 1 containing no mutation (clone J) was selected for production of the vaccine virus. During subsequent cell culture passaging of this clone for vaccine production, a single amino acid substitution (K to R) occurred in the envelope (E) protein at residue 204 (E204) (F. Guirakhoo, K. Pugachev, Z. Zhang, G. Myers, I. Levenbook, K. Draper, J. Lang, S. Ocran, F. Mitchell, M. Parsons, N. Brown, S. Brandler, C. Fournier, B. Barrere, F. Rizvi, A. Travassos, R. Nichols, D. Trent, and T. Monath, J. Virol. 78:4761-4775, 2004). The same mutation was observed in another clone (clone E). This mutation attenuated the virus in 4-day-old suckling mice inoculated by the intracerebral (i.c.) route and led to reduced viremia in monkeys inoculated by the subcutaneous or i.c. route. The histopathology scores of lesions in the brain tissue of monkeys inoculated with either the E204K or E204R virus were reduced compared to those for monkeys inoculated with the reference virus, a commercial yellow fever 17D vaccine (YF-VAX). Both viruses grew to significantly lower titers than YF-VAX in HepG2, a human hepatoma cell line. After intrathoracic inoculation into mosquitoes, both viruses grew to a similar level as YF-VAX, which was significantly lower than that of their wild-type DEN1 parent virus. A comparison of the E-protein structures of nonmutant and mutant viruses suggested the appearance of new intramolecular bonds between residues 204R, 261H, and 257E in the mutant virus. These changes may be responsible for virus attenuation through a change in the pH threshold for virus envelope fusion with the host cell membrane. PMID:15331733

  14. The Interaction of the Rieske Iron-Sulfur Protein with Occupants of the Q(o)-site of the bc(1) Complex, Probed by Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Samoilova, Rimma I.; Kolling, D; Uzawa, T; Iwasaki, T; Crofts, Antony R.; Dikanov, S A.

    2001-02-15

    The bifurcated reaction at the Q(o)-site of the bc(1) complex provides the mechanistic basis of the proton pumping activity through which the complex conserves redox energy in the proton gradient. Structural information about the binding of quinone at the site is lacking, because the site is vacant in crystals of the native complexes. We now report the first structural characterization of the interaction of the native quinone occupant with the Rieske iron-sulfur protein in the bc(1) complex of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, using high resolution EPR. We have compared the binding configuration in the presence of quinone with the known structures for the complex with stigmatellin and myxothiazol. We have shown by using EPR and orientation-selective electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) measurements of the iron-sulfur protein that when quinone is present in the site, the isotropic hyperfine constant of one of the N(delta) atoms of a liganding histidine of the[2Fe-2S] cluster is similar to that observed when stigmatellin is present and different from the configuration in the presence of myxothiazol. The spectra also show complementary differences in nitrogen quadrupole splittings in some orientations. We suggest that the EPR characteristics, the ESEEM spectra, and the hyperfine couplings reflect a similar interaction between the iron-sulfur protein and the quinone or stigmatellin and that the N(delta) involved is that of a histidine (equivalent to His-161 in the chicken mitochondrial complex) that forms both a ligand to the cluster and a hydrogen bond with a carbonyl oxygen atom of the Q(o)-site occupant

  15. Glycosylation of a Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) cell envelope protein is required for infection by bacteriophage phi C31.

    PubMed

    Cowlishaw, D A; Smith, M C

    2001-08-01

    Mutants of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) J1929 (Delta pglY) were isolated that were resistant to the Streptomyces temperate phage phi C31. These strains could be transfected with phi C31 DNA, but could not act as infective centres after exposure to phage. Thus, it was concluded that infection was blocked at the adsorption/DNA injection step. The mutants fell into three classes. Class I mutants were complemented by a gene, SCE87.05, isolated from the cosmid library of S. coelicolor A3(2). The product of SCE87.05 had good overall homology to a Mycobacterium tuberculosis hypothetical protein and regions with similarity to dolichol phosphate-D-mannose:protein O-D-mannosyltransferases. Concanavalin A (ConA) inhibited phi C31 infection of S. coelicolor J1929, and this could be partially reversed by the addition of the sugar, alpha-D-methyl-pyranoside. Moreover, glycosylated proteins from J1929, but not from the class I mutant DT1017, were detected using ConA as a probe in Western blots. Class I and II mutants were sensitive to phi C31hc, a previously isolated phage exhibiting an extended host range phenotype, conferred by h. A phage with the same phenotype, phi DT4002, was isolated independently, and a missense mutation was found in a putative tail gene. It is proposed that the phi C31 receptor is a cell wall glycoprotein, and that the phi C31h mutation compensates for the lack of glycosylation of the receptor.

  16. Sulfated galactans isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri target the envelope proteins of white spot syndrome virus and protect against viral infection in shrimp haemocytes.

    PubMed

    Rudtanatip, Tawut; Asuvapongpatana, Somluk; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Wongprasert, Kanokpan

    2014-05-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating an underlying mechanism of the antiviral activity of the sulfated galactans (SG) isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in haemocytes of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Primary culture of haemocytes from Penaeus monodon was performed and inoculated with WSSV, after which the cytopathic effect (CPE), cell viability and viral load were determined. Haemocytes treated with WSSV-SG pre-mix showed decreased CPE, viral load and cell mortality from the viral infection. Solid-phase virus-binding assays revealed that SG bound to WSSV in a dose-related manner. Far Western blotting analysis indicated that SG bound to VP 26 and VP 28 proteins of WSSV. In contrast to the native SG, desulfated SG did not reduce CPE and cell mortality, and showed low binding activity with WSSV. The current study suggests that SG from Gracilaria fisheri elicits its anti-WSSV activity by binding to viral proteins that are important for the process of viral attachment to the host cells. It is anticipated that the sulfate groups of SG are important for viral binding.

  17. Multifamily Envelope Leakage Model

    SciTech Connect

    Faakye, Omari; Griffiths, Dianne

    2015-05-08

    “The cost for blower testing is high, because it is labor intensive, and it may disrupt occupants in multiple units. This high cost and disruption deter program participants, and dissuade them from pursuing energy improvements that would trigger air leakage testing, such as improvements to the building envelope.” This statement found in a 2012 report by Heschong Mahone Group for several California interests emphasizes the importance of reducing the cost and complexity of blower testing in multifamily buildings. Energy efficiency opportunities are being bypassed. The cost of single blower testing is on the order of $300. The cost for guarded blower door testing—the more appropriate test for assessing energy savings opportunities—could easily be six times that, and that’s only if you have the equipment and simultaneous access to multiple apartments. Thus, the proper test is simply not performed. This research seeks to provide an algorithm for predicting the guarded blower door test result based upon a single, total blower door test.

  18. The Vaccinia Virus H3 Envelope Protein, a Major Target of Neutralizing Antibodies, Exhibits a Glycosyltransferase Fold and Binds UDP-Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Gittis, Apostolos G.; Gitti, Rossitza K.; Ostazeski, Stanley A.; Su, Hua-Poo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The highly conserved H3 poxvirus protein is a major target of the human antibody response against poxviruses and is likely a key contributor to protection against infection. Here, we present the crystal structure of H3 from vaccinia virus at a 1.9-Å resolution. H3 looks like a glycosyltransferase, a family of enzymes that transfer carbohydrate molecules to a variety of acceptor substrates. Like glycosyltransferases, H3 binds UDP-glucose, as shown by saturation transfer difference (STD) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and this binding requires Mg2+. Mutation of the glycosyltransferase-like metal ion binding motif in H3 greatly diminished its binding to UDP-glucose. We found by flow cytometry that H3 binds to the surface of human cells but does not bind well to cells that are deficient in surface glycosaminoglycans. STD NMR experiments using a heparin sulfate decasaccharide confirmed that H3 binds heparin sulfate. We propose that a surface of H3 with an excess positive charge may be the binding site for heparin. Heparin binding and glycosyltransferase activity may be involved in the function of H3 in the poxvirus life cycle. IMPORTANCE Poxviruses are under intense research because of bioterrorism concerns, zoonotic infections, and the side effects of existing smallpox vaccines. The smallpox vaccine using vaccinia virus has been highly successful, but it is still unclear why the vaccine is so effective. Studying the antigens that the immune system recognizes may allow a better understanding of how the vaccine elicits immunity and how improved vaccines can be developed. Poxvirus protein H3 is a major target of the immune system. The H3 crystal structure shows that it has a glycosyltransferase protein fold. We demonstrate that H3 binds the sugar nucleotide UDP-glucose, as do glycosyltransferases. Our experiments also reveal that H3 binds cell surface molecules that are involved in the attachment of poxviruses to cells. These structural and

  19. Antiretrovirals, Methamphetamine, and HIV-1 Envelope Protein gp120 Compromise Neuronal Energy Homeostasis in Association with Various Degrees of Synaptic and Neuritic Damage

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Ana B.; Varano, Giuseppe P.; de Rozieres, Cyrus M.; Maung, Ricky; Catalan, Irene C.; Dowling, Cari C.; Sejbuk, Natalia E.; Hoefer, Melanie M.

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 infection frequently causes HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Evidence is accumulating that components of cART can themselves be neurotoxic upon long-term exposure. In addition, abuse of psychostimulants, such as methamphetamine, seems to aggravate HAND and compromise antiretroviral therapy. However, the combined effect of virus and recreational and therapeutic drugs on the brain is poorly understood. Therefore, we exposed mixed neuronal-glial cerebrocortical cells to antiretrovirals (ARVs) (zidovudine [AZT], nevirapine [NVP], saquinavir [SQV], and 118-D-24) of four different pharmacological categories and to methamphetamine and, in some experiments, the HIV-1 gp120 protein for 24 h and 7 days. Subsequently, we assessed neuronal injury by fluorescence microscopy, using specific markers for neuronal dendrites and presynaptic terminals. We also analyzed the disturbance of neuronal ATP levels and assessed the involvement of autophagy by using immunofluorescence and Western blotting. ARVs caused alterations of neurites and presynaptic terminals primarily during the 7-day incubation and depending on the specific compounds and their combinations with and without methamphetamine. Similarly, the loss of neuronal ATP was context specific for each of the drugs or combinations thereof, with and without methamphetamine or viral gp120. Loss of ATP was associated with activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and autophagy, which, however, failed to restore normal levels of neuronal ATP. In contrast, boosting autophagy with rapamycin prevented the long-term drop of ATP during exposure to cART in combination with methamphetamine or gp120. Our findings indicate that the overall positive effect of cART on HIV infection is accompanied by detectable neurotoxicity, which in turn may be aggravated by methamphetamine. PMID:26482305

  20. Antiretrovirals, Methamphetamine, and HIV-1 Envelope Protein gp120 Compromise Neuronal Energy Homeostasis in Association with Various Degrees of Synaptic and Neuritic Damage.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Ana B; Varano, Giuseppe P; de Rozieres, Cyrus M; Maung, Ricky; Catalan, Irene C; Dowling, Cari C; Sejbuk, Natalia E; Hoefer, Melanie M; Kaul, Marcus

    2015-10-19

    HIV-1 infection frequently causes HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Evidence is accumulating that components of cART can themselves be neurotoxic upon long-term exposure. In addition, abuse of psychostimulants, such as methamphetamine, seems to aggravate HAND and compromise antiretroviral therapy. However, the combined effect of virus and recreational and therapeutic drugs on the brain is poorly understood. Therefore, we exposed mixed neuronal-glial cerebrocortical cells to antiretrovirals (ARVs) (zidovudine [AZT], nevirapine [NVP], saquinavir [SQV], and 118-D-24) of four different pharmacological categories and to methamphetamine and, in some experiments, the HIV-1 gp120 protein for 24 h and 7 days. Subsequently, we assessed neuronal injury by fluorescence microscopy, using specific markers for neuronal dendrites and presynaptic terminals. We also analyzed the disturbance of neuronal ATP levels and assessed the involvement of autophagy by using immunofluorescence and Western blotting. ARVs caused alterations of neurites and presynaptic terminals primarily during the 7-day incubation and depending on the specific compounds and their combinations with and without methamphetamine. Similarly, the loss of neuronal ATP was context specific for each of the drugs or combinations thereof, with and without methamphetamine or viral gp120. Loss of ATP was associated with activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and autophagy, which, however, failed to restore normal levels of neuronal ATP. In contrast, boosting autophagy with rapamycin prevented the long-term drop of ATP during exposure to cART in combination with methamphetamine or gp120. Our findings indicate that the overall positive effect of cART on HIV infection is accompanied by detectable neurotoxicity, which in turn may be aggravated by methamphetamine.

  1. Comparative genomics in Chlamydomonas and Plasmodium identifies an ancient nuclear envelope protein family essential for sexual reproduction in protists, fungi, plants, and vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Jue; Otto, Thomas D.; Pfander, Claudia; Schwach, Frank; Brochet, Mathieu; Bushell, Ellen; Goulding, David; Sanders, Mandy; Lefebvre, Paul A.; Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick V.; Vanderlaan, Gary; Billker, Oliver; Snell, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Fertilization is a crucial yet poorly characterized event in eukaryotes. Our previous discovery that the broadly conserved protein HAP2 (GCS1) functioned in gamete membrane fusion in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas and the malaria pathogen Plasmodium led us to exploit the rare biological phenomenon of isogamy in Chlamydomonas in a comparative transcriptomics strategy to uncover additional conserved sexual reproduction genes. All previously identified Chlamydomonas fertilization-essential genes fell into related clusters based on their expression patterns. Out of several conserved genes in a minus gamete cluster, we focused on Cre06.g280600, an ortholog of the fertilization-related Arabidopsis GEX1. Gene disruption, cell biological, and immunolocalization studies show that CrGEX1 functions in nuclear fusion in Chlamydomonas. Moreover, CrGEX1 and its Plasmodium ortholog, PBANKA_113980, are essential for production of viable meiotic progeny in both organisms and thus for mosquito transmission of malaria. Remarkably, we discovered that the genes are members of a large, previously unrecognized family whose first-characterized member, KAR5, is essential for nuclear fusion during yeast sexual reproduction. Our comparative transcriptomics approach provides a new resource for studying sexual development and demonstrates that exploiting the data can lead to the discovery of novel biology that is conserved across distant taxa. PMID:23699412

  2. Comparative genomics in Chlamydomonas and Plasmodium identifies an ancient nuclear envelope protein family essential for sexual reproduction in protists, fungi, plants, and vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ning, Jue; Otto, Thomas D; Pfander, Claudia; Schwach, Frank; Brochet, Mathieu; Bushell, Ellen; Goulding, David; Sanders, Mandy; Lefebvre, Paul A; Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick V; Vanderlaan, Gary; Billker, Oliver; Snell, William J

    2013-05-15

    Fertilization is a crucial yet poorly characterized event in eukaryotes. Our previous discovery that the broadly conserved protein HAP2 (GCS1) functioned in gamete membrane fusion in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas and the malaria pathogen Plasmodium led us to exploit the rare biological phenomenon of isogamy in Chlamydomonas in a comparative transcriptomics strategy to uncover additional conserved sexual reproduction genes. All previously identified Chlamydomonas fertilization-essential genes fell into related clusters based on their expression patterns. Out of several conserved genes in a minus gamete cluster, we focused on Cre06.g280600, an ortholog of the fertilization-related Arabidopsis GEX1. Gene disruption, cell biological, and immunolocalization studies show that CrGEX1 functions in nuclear fusion in Chlamydomonas. Moreover, CrGEX1 and its Plasmodium ortholog, PBANKA_113980, are essential for production of viable meiotic progeny in both organisms and thus for mosquito transmission of malaria. Remarkably, we discovered that the genes are members of a large, previously unrecognized family whose first-characterized member, KAR5, is essential for nuclear fusion during yeast sexual reproduction. Our comparative transcriptomics approach provides a new resource for studying sexual development and demonstrates that exploiting the data can lead to the discovery of novel biology that is conserved across distant taxa.

  3. Immunization against HTLV-I with chitosan and tri-methylchitosan nanoparticles loaded with recombinant env23 and env13 antigens of envelope protein gp46.

    PubMed

    Amirnasr, Maryam; Fallah Tafti, Tannan; Sankian, Mojtaba; Rezaei, Abdorrahim; Tafaghodi, Mohsen

    2016-08-01

    To prevent the spread of HTLV-I (Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1), a safe and effective vaccine is required. To increase immune responses against the peptide antigens can be potentiated with polymer-based nanoparticles, like chitosan (CHT) and trimethylchitosan (TMC), as delivery system/adjuvant. CHT and TMC nanoparticles loaded with recombinant proteins (env23 & env13) of gp46 were prepared by direct coating of antigens with positively charged polymers. The size of CHT and TMC nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with each antigen was about 400 nm. The physical stability of NPs was followed for 4 weeks. Both formulations showed to be stable for about 15 days. The immunogenicity of NPs loaded with antigens was studied after nasal and subcutaneous immunization in mice. Three immunizations (7.5 μg antigen) were performed with 2 weeks intervals. Two weeks after the last booster dose, sera IgG subtypes were measured. After subcutaneous administration, for both nanoparticulate antigens, serum IgG1 and IgGtotal levels were higher than antigen solution (P < 0.001). After nasal administration, for env23, IgG2a levels and IgG2a/IgG1 ratio was significantly higher than groups with subcutaneous administration (P < 0.001). Both nanoparticles showed good immunoadjuvant potential. Env23 antigen was a better candidate for vaccination against HTLV-I, as it induced higher cellular immune responses, compared with env13. PMID:27235335

  4. Genetic Diversity and Positive Selection Analysis of Classical Swine Fever Virus Envelope Protein Gene E2 in East China under C-Strain Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dongfang; Lv, Lin; Gu, Jinyuan; Chen, Tongyu; Xiao, Yihong; Liu, Sidang

    2016-01-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes an economically important and highly contagious disease of pigs worldwide. C-strain vaccination is one of the most effective ways to contain this disease. Since 2014, sporadic CSF outbreaks have been occurring in some C-strain vaccinated provinces of China. To decipher the disease etiology, 25 CSFV E2 genes from 169 clinical samples were cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that all 25 isolates belonged to subgenotype 2.1. Twenty-three of the 25 isolates were clustered in a newly defined subgenotype, 2.1d, and shared some consistent molecular characteristics. To determine whether the complete E2 gene was under positive selection pressure, we used a site-by-site analysis to identify specific codons that underwent evolutionary selection, and seven positively selected codons were found. Three positively selected sites (amino acids 17, 34, and 72) were identified in antigenicity-relevant domains B/C of the amino-terminal half of the E2 protein. In addition, another positively selected site (amino acid 200) exhibited a polarity change from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, which may change the antigenicity and virulence of CSFV. The results indicate that the circulating CSFV strains in Shandong province were mostly clustered in subgenotype 2.1d. Moreover, the identification of these positively selected sites could help to reveal molecular determinants of virulence or pathogenesis, and to clarify the driving force of CSFV evolution in East China. PMID:26903966

  5. Genetic Diversity and Positive Selection Analysis of Classical Swine Fever Virus Envelope Protein Gene E2 in East China under C-Strain Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dongfang; Lv, Lin; Gu, Jinyuan; Chen, Tongyu; Xiao, Yihong; Liu, Sidang

    2016-01-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes an economically important and highly contagious disease of pigs worldwide. C-strain vaccination is one of the most effective ways to contain this disease. Since 2014, sporadic CSF outbreaks have been occurring in some C-strain vaccinated provinces of China. To decipher the disease etiology, 25 CSFV E2 genes from 169 clinical samples were cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that all 25 isolates belonged to subgenotype 2.1. Twenty-three of the 25 isolates were clustered in a newly defined subgenotype, 2.1d, and shared some consistent molecular characteristics. To determine whether the complete E2 gene was under positive selection pressure, we used a site-by-site analysis to identify specific codons that underwent evolutionary selection, and seven positively selected codons were found. Three positively selected sites (amino acids 17, 34, and 72) were identified in antigenicity-relevant domains B/C of the amino-terminal half of the E2 protein. In addition, another positively selected site (amino acid 200) exhibited a polarity change from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, which may change the antigenicity and virulence of CSFV. The results indicate that the circulating CSFV strains in Shandong province were mostly clustered in subgenotype 2.1d. Moreover, the identification of these positively selected sites could help to reveal molecular determinants of virulence or pathogenesis, and to clarify the driving force of CSFV evolution in East China. PMID:26903966

  6. Chimeric Measles Viruses with a Foreign Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Spielhofer, Pius; Bächi, Thomas; Fehr, Thomas; Christiansen, Gudrun; Cattaneo, Roberto; Kaelin, Karin; Billeter, Martin A.; Naim, Hussein Y.

    1998-01-01

    Measles virus (MV) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) are both members of the Mononegavirales but are only distantly related. We generated two genetically stable chimeric viruses. In MGV, the reading frames of the MV envelope glycoproteins H and F were substituted by a single reading frame encoding the VSV G glycoprotein; MG/FV is similar but encodes a G/F hybrid in which the VSV G cytoplasmic tail was replaced by that of MV F. In contrast to MG/FV, MGV virions do not contain the MV matrix (M) protein. This demonstrates that virus assembly is possible in the absence of M; conversely, the cytoplasmic domain of F allows incorporation of M and enhances assembly. The formation of chimeric viruses was substantially delayed and the titers obtained were reduced about 50-fold in comparison to standard MV. In the novel chimeras, transcription and replication are mediated by the MV ribonucleoproteins but the envelope glycoproteins dictate the host range. Mice immunized with the chimeric viruses were protected against lethal doses of wild-type VSV. These findings suggest that it is feasible to construct MV variants bearing a variety of different envelopes for use as vaccines or for gene therapeutic purposes. PMID:9499071

  7. Serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction of enveloped virus microcrystals

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lawrence, Robert M.; Conrad, Chelsie E.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Grant, Thomas D.; Liu, Haiguang; James, Daniel; Nelson, Garrett; Subramanian, Ganesh; Aquila, Andrew; Hunter, Mark S.; et al

    2015-08-20

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray free-electron lasers has produced high-resolution, room temperature, time-resolved protein structures. We report preliminary SFX of Sindbis virus, an enveloped icosahedral RNA virus with ~700 Å diameter. Microcrystals delivered in viscous agarose medium diffracted to ~40 Å resolution. Small-angle diffuse X-ray scattering overlaid Bragg peaks and analysis suggests this results from molecular transforms of individual particles. Viral proteins undergo structural changes during entry and infection, which could, in principle, be studied with SFX. This is a pertinent step toward determining room temperature structures from virus microcrystals that may enable time-resolved studies of enveloped viruses.

  8. Arms Race between Enveloped Viruses and the Host ERAD Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Frabutt, Dylan A.; Zheng, Yong-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Enveloped viruses represent a significant category of pathogens that cause serious diseases in animals. These viruses express envelope glycoproteins that are singularly important during the infection of host cells by mediating fusion between the viral envelope and host cell membranes. Despite low homology at protein levels, three classes of viral fusion proteins have, as of yet, been identified based on structural similarities. Their incorporation into viral particles is dependent upon their proper sub-cellular localization after being expressed and folded properly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, viral protein expression can cause stress in the ER, and host cells respond to alleviate the ER stress in the form of the unfolded protein response (UPR); the effects of which have been observed to potentiate or inhibit viral infection. One important arm of UPR is to elevate the capacity of the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway, which is comprised of host quality control machinery that ensures proper protein folding. In this review, we provide relevant details regarding viral envelope glycoproteins, UPR, ERAD, and their interactions in host cells. PMID:27657106

  9. LINCing complex functions at the nuclear envelope

    PubMed Central

    Rothballer, Andrea; Schwartz, Thomas U.; Kutay, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes span the double membrane of the nuclear envelope (NE) and physically connect nuclear structures to cytoskeletal elements. LINC complexes are envisioned as force transducers in the NE, which facilitate processes like nuclear anchorage and migration, or chromosome movements. The complexes are built from members of two evolutionary conserved families of transmembrane (TM) proteins, the SUN (Sad1/UNC-84) domain proteins in the inner nuclear membrane (INM) and the KASH (Klarsicht/ANC-1/SYNE homology) domain proteins in the outer nuclear membrane (ONM). In the lumen of the NE, the SUN and KASH domains engage in an intimate assembly to jointly form a NE bridge. Detailed insights into the molecular architecture and atomic structure of LINC complexes have recently revealed the molecular basis of nucleo-cytoskeletal coupling. They bear important implications for LINC complex function and suggest new potential and as yet unexplored roles, which the complexes may play in the cell. PMID:23324460

  10. A trypsin-sensitive receptor on membrane vesicles is required for nuclear envelope formation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    The reformation of functioning organelles at the end of mitosis presents a problem in vesicle targeting. Using extracts made from Xenopus laevis frog eggs, we have studied in vitro the vesicles that reform the nuclear envelope. In the in vitro assay, nuclear envelope growth is linear with time. Furthermore, the final surface area of the nuclear envelopes formed is directly dependent upon the amount of membrane vesicles added to the assay. Egg membrane vesicles could be fractionated into two populations, only one of which was competent for nuclear envelope assembly. We found that vesicles active in nuclear envelope assembly contained markers (BiP and alpha-glucosidase II) characteristic of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but that the majority of ER-derived vesicles do not contribute to nuclear envelope size. This functional distinction between nuclear vesicles and ER-derived vesicles implies that nuclear vesicles are unique and possess at least one factor required for envelope assembly that is lacking in other vesicles. Consistent with this, treatment of vesicles with trypsin destroyed their ability to form a nuclear envelope; electron microscopic studies indicate that the trypsin-sensitive proteins is required for vesicles to bind to chromatin. However, the protease- sensitive component(s) is resistant to treatments that disrupt protein- protein interactions, such as high salt, EDTA, or low ionic strength solutions. We propose that an integral membrane protein, or protein tightly associated with the membrane, is critical for nuclear vesicle targeting or function. PMID:3392106

  11. Reduction of Influenza Virus Envelope's Fusogenicity by Viral Fusion Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rowse, Michael; Qiu, Shihong; Tsao, Jun; Yamauchi, Yohei; Wang, Guoxin; Luo, Ming

    2016-01-01

    During cell entry of an enveloped virus, the viral membrane must be fused with the cellular membrane. The virus envelope has a unique structure consisting of viral proteins and a virus-specific lipid composition, whereas the host membrane has its own structure with host membrane proteins. Compound 136 was previously found to bind in close proximity to the viral envelope and inhibit influenza virus entry. We showed here that the 136-treated influenza virus still caused hemolysis. When liposomes were used as the target membrane for 136-treated viruses, aberrant fusion occurred; few liposomes fused per virion, and glycoproteins were not distributed evenly across fusion complexes. Additionally, large fusion aggregates did not form, and in some instances, neck-like structures were found. Based on previous results and hemolysis, fusion inhibition by 136 occurs post-scission but prior to lipid mixing. PMID:27622947

  12. Enveloped particles in the serum of chronic hepatitis C patients

    SciTech Connect

    Petit, Marie-Anne . E-mail: petit@lyon.inserm.fr; Lievre, Marjory . E-mail: marjory.lievre@free.fr; Peyrol, Simone . E-mail: peyrol@laennec.univ-lyon1.fr; De Sequeira, Sylvie . E-mail: desequeira@lyon.inserm.fr; Berthillon, Pascale . E-mail: berthillon@lyon.inserm.fr; Ruigrok, Rob W.H. . E-mail: ruigrok@embl-grenoble.fr; Trepo, Christian . E-mail: trepo@lyon.inserm.fr

    2005-06-05

    HCV particles were isolated from the plasma of chronically infected patients. The virus was analysed by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The fractions were tested for viral RNA, core antigen and envelope proteins by using a monoclonal antibody directed against the natural E1E2 complex (D32.10). Two populations of particles containing RNA plus core antigen were separated: the first with a density of 1.06-1.08 g/ml did not contain the envelope proteins; the second with a density between 1.17 and 1.21 g/ml expressed both E1 and E2 glycoproteins. Electron microscopy of the enveloped population after immunoprecipitation with D32.10 showed spherical particles with a rather featureless surface and with a diameter around 40 nm. Immuno-gold staining gave evidence that the E1E2 complex was indeed positioned at the surface of these particles.

  13. Structure of Phage P22 Cell Envelope-Penetrating Needle

    SciTech Connect

    Olia,A.; Casjens, S.; Cingolani, G.

    2007-01-01

    Bacteriophage P22 infects Salmonella enterica by injecting its genetic material through the cell envelope. During infection, a specialized tail needle, gp26, is injected into the host, likely piercing a hole in the host cell envelope. The 2.1-Angstroms crystal structure of gp26 reveals a 240-Angstroms elongated protein fiber formed by two trimeric coiled-coil domains interrupted by a triple beta-helix. The N terminus of gp26 plugs the portal protein channel, retaining the genetic material inside the virion. The C-terminal tip of the fiber exposes beta-hairpins with hydrophobic tips similar to those seen in class II fusion peptides. The alpha-helical core connecting these two functionally polarized tips presents four trimerization octads with consensus sequence IXXLXXXV. The slender conformation of the gp26 fiber minimizes the surface exposed to solvent, which is consistent with the idea that gp26 traverses the cell envelope lipid bilayers.

  14. Structure of Phage P22 Cell Envelope-Penetrating Needle

    SciTech Connect

    Olia, A.S.; Casjens, S.; Cingolani, G.

    2009-06-02

    Bacteriophage P22 infects Salmonella enterica by injecting its genetic material through the cell envelope. During infection, a specialized tail needle, gp26, is injected into the host, likely piercing a hole in the host cell envelope. The 2.1-{angstrom} crystal structure of gp26 reveals a 240-{angstrom} elongated protein fiber formed by two trimeric coiled-coil domains interrupted by a triple {beta}-helix. The N terminus of gp26 plugs the portal protein channel, retaining the genetic material inside the virion. The C-terminal tip of the fiber exposes {beta}-hairpins with hydrophobic tips similar to those seen in class II fusion peptides. The {alpha}-helical core connecting these two functionally polarized tips presents four trimerization octads with consensus sequence IXXLXXXV. The slender conformation of the gp26 fiber minimizes the surface exposed to solvent, which is consistent with the idea that gp26 traverses the cell envelope lipid bilayers.

  15. Personnel occupied woven envelope robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, F. C.

    1986-01-01

    The use of nonmetallic or fabric structures for space application is considered. The following structures are suggested: (1) unpressurized space hangars; (2) extendable tunnels for soft docking; and (3) manned habitat for space stations, storage facilities, and work structures. The uses of the tunnel as a passageway: for personnel and equipment, eliminating extravehicular activity, for access to a control cabin on a space crane and between free flyers and the space station are outlined. The personnal occupied woven envelope robot (POWER) device is shown. The woven envelope (tunnel) acts as part of the boom of a crane. Potential applications of POWER are outlined. Several possible deflection mechanisms and design criteria are determined.

  16. Carbon chemistry of circumstellar envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bieging, John H.

    1990-01-01

    The chemical composition of envelopes surrounding cool evolved stars, as determined from microwave spectroscopic observations, is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on recent observations with the new large mm-wavelength telescopes and interferometer arrays, and on new theoretical work, especially concerning ion-molecule chemistry of carbon-bearing in these envelopes. Thermal (as opposed to maser) emission lines are discussed. Much progress has been made in the past few years in the theoretical understanding of these objects. It is already clear, however, that observations with the new generation of mm-telescopes will require substantial improvements in the theoretical models to achieve a thorough understanding of the data now becoming available.

  17. Reconceptualization of the Budget Envelope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    This paper reconceptualizes the purposes of education's budget envelope. Citing numerous examples of how policymakers consider resource allocations apart from the main concerns of individual programs, the people reallocations affect, and education's most important programs, it suggests that policymakers and finance officers reemphasize program and…

  18. Diversity in the fertilization envelopes of echinoderms.

    PubMed

    Oulhen, Nathalie; Reich, Adrian; Wong, Julian L; Ramos, Isabela; Wessel, Gary M

    2013-01-01

    Cell surface changes in an egg at fertilization are essential to begin development and for protecting the zygote. Most fertilized eggs construct a barrier around themselves by modifying their original extracellular matrix. This construction usually results from calcium-induced exocytosis of cortical granules, the contents of which in sea urchins function to form the fertilization envelope (FE), an extracellular matrix of cortical granule contents built upon a vitelline layer scaffold. Here, we examined the molecular mechanism of this process in sea stars, a close relative of the sea urchins, and analyze the evolutionary changes that likely occurred in the functionality of this structure between these two organisms. We find that the FE of sea stars is more permeable than in sea urchins, allowing diffusion of molecules in excess of 2 megadaltons. Through a proteomic and transcriptomic approach, we find that most, but not all, of the proteins present in the sea urchin envelope are present in sea stars, including SFE9, proteoliaisin, and rendezvin. The mRNAs encoding these FE proteins accumulated most densely in early oocytes, and then beginning with vitellogenesis, these mRNAs decreased in abundance to levels nearly undetectable in eggs. Antibodies to the SFE9 protein of sea stars showed that the cortical granules in sea star also accumulated most significantly in early oocytes, but different from sea urchins, they translocated to the cortex of the oocytes well before meiotic initiation. These results suggest that the preparation for cell surface changes in sea urchins has been shifted to later in oogenesis, and perhaps reflects the meiotic differences among the species-sea star oocytes are stored in prophase of meiosis and fertilized during the meiotic divisions, as in most animals, whereas sea urchins are one of the few taxons in which eggs have completed meiosis prior to fertilization.

  19. Localization of immunogenic domains in the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 envelope.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, M L; Essex, M; Lee, T H

    1991-01-01

    Highly immunogenic domains have not yet been defined in the extracellular protein of the human immunodefiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) envelope. In this study, six contiguous segments covering the entire HIV-2ST envelope were amplified and cloned into a bacterial expression vector to localize the relative immunogenic reactivity of different regions of the molecule by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis. Our results demonstrate that the extracellular protein of the HIV-2 envelope contains highly immunogenic epitopes with potential value as type-specific markers for HIV-2 infection. Images PMID:1714524

  20. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY08

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Bean; Richard Metcalf; Aaron Bevill

    2008-09-01

    The Safeguards Envelope Project met its milestones by creating a rudimentary safeguards envelope, proving the value of the approach on a small scale, and determining the most appropriate path forward. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant’s large cache of reprocessing process monitoring data, dubbed UBER Data, was recovered and used in the analysis. A probabilistic Z test was used on a Markov Monte Carlo simulation of expected diversion data when compared with normal operating data. The data regarding a fully transient event in a tank was used to create a simple requirement, representative of a safeguards envelope, whose impact was a decrease in operating efficiency by 1.3% but an increase in material balance period of 26%. This approach is operator, state, and international safeguards friendly and should be applied to future reprocessing plants. Future requirements include tank-to-tank correlations in reprocessing facilities, detailed operations impact studies, simulation inclusion, automated optimization, advanced statistics analysis, and multi-attribute utility analysis.

  1. Transparent ceramic lamp envelope materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, G. C.

    2005-09-01

    Transparent ceramic materials with optical qualities comparable to single crystals of similar compositions have been developed in recent years, as a result of the improved understanding of powder-processing-fabrication- sintering-property inter-relationships. These high-temperature materials with a range of thermal and mechanical properties are candidate envelopes for focused-beam, short-arc lamps containing various fills operating at temperatures higher than quartz. This paper reviews the composition, structure and properties of transparent ceramic lamp envelope materials including sapphire, small-grained polycrystalline alumina, aluminium oxynitride, yttrium aluminate garnet, magnesium aluminate spinel and yttria-lanthana. A satisfactory thermal shock resistance is required for the ceramic tube to withstand the rapid heating and cooling cycles encountered in lamps. Thermophysical properties, along with the geometry, size and thickness of a transparent ceramic tube, are important parameters in the assessment of its resistance to fracture arising from thermal stresses in lamps during service. The corrosive nature of lamp-fill liquid and vapour at high temperatures requires that all lamp components be carefully chosen to meet the target life. The wide range of new transparent ceramics represents flexibility in pushing the limit of envelope materials for improved beamer lamps.

  2. Survival of Enveloped and Non-Enveloped Viruses on Inanimate Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Firquet, Swan; Beaujard, Sophie; Lobert, Pierre-Emmanuel; Sané, Famara; Caloone, Delphine; Izard, Daniel; Hober, Didier

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the viability of non-enveloped viruses, minute virus of mice (MVM) and coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4), and enveloped-viruses, influenza A virus (H1N1) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), on surfaces. We also investigated the impact of the initial concentration of proteins and sodium chloride on the persistence of infectious CVB4 on surfaces. Viral suspensions (>104.5 TCID50) were applied to petri dish lids and dried under the air flow of a biosafety cabinet. The recovered viral preparations were titered on appropriate cell lines. Enveloped viruses persisted for less than 5 days while CVB4 and MVM persisted for weeks. However, repetitive cycles of drying and resuspension had a stronger virucidal effect on CVB4 than on H1N1 and HSV-1. These repetitive cycles had no effect on the infectious titer of MVM. When exposed to drying, the initial concentrations of bovine serum albumin (from 0 to 90 mg mL−1), fetal calf serum (from 0 to 100%), and sodium chloride (from 0 to 300 mg mL−1) affected the viability of CVB4. CVB4 was more likely to be inactivated by drying in a protein-rich medium, whereas the impact of drying was reduced in the presence of sodium chloride. The results of the present study demonstrated that the resistance of viruses to drying, as suggested by iterative drying, was not due to the heterogeneity of viral subpopulations, but was influenced by media compositions and component concentrations, as illustrated in the model of CVB4. PMID:25843687

  3. Excitation of gravity waves in common envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soker, Noam

    1992-01-01

    We study the excitation of gravity waves by a low-mass companion orbiting inside the envelope of a giant star, concentrating on brown dwarfs inside the envelope of asymptotic giant branch stars. Efficient g-wave excitations occur only after the brown dwarf has spiraled-in to the radiative zone, well inside the envelope, of the asymptotic giant branch star. The brown dwarf excites g-waves when its orbital radius is about 3-10 solar radii. At this stage of the evolution the envelope mass is below 0.1 solar mass. The g-waves propagate inward from the secondary orbit, carrying angular momentum and energy. We find that the angular momentum transport leads to an efficient spin-up of the inner envelopes. The differential rotation between the envelope and core and nonlinear wave effects, can cause a mixing of heavy elements from the core to the envelope.

  4. Envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: profound influences on immune functions.

    PubMed Central

    Chirmule, N; Pahwa, S

    1996-01-01

    Infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) leads to progressive destruction of the CD4+ T-cell subset, resulting in immune deficiency and AIDS. The specific binding of the viral external envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1, gp120, to the CD4 molecules initiates viral entry. In the past few years, several studies have indicated that the interaction of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein with cells and molecules of the immune system leads to pleiotropic biological effects on immune functions, which include effects on differentiation of CD34+ lymphoid progenitor cells and thymocytes, aberrant activation and cytokine secretion patterns of mature T cells, induction of apoptosis, B-cell hyperactivity, inhibition of T-cell dependent B-cell differentiation, modulation of macrophage functions, interactions with components of complement, and effects on neuronal cells. The amino acid sequence homologies of the envelope glycoproteins with several cellular proteins have suggested that molecular mimicry may play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. This review summarizes work done by several investigators demonstrating the profound biological effects of envelope glycoproteins of HIV-1 on immune system cells. Extensive studies have also been done on interactions of the viral envelope proteins with components of the immune system which may be important for eliciting a "protective immune response." Understanding the influences of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins on the immune system may provide valuable insights into HIV-1 disease pathogenesis and carries implications for the trials of HIV-1 envelope protein vaccines and immunotherapeutics. PMID:8801439

  5. Preparation of envelope membrane fractions from Arabidopsis chloroplasts for proteomic analysis and other studies.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Daniel; Moyet, Lucas; Seigneurin-Berny, Daphné; Ferro, Myriam; Joyard, Jacques; Rolland, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    Plastids are semiautonomous organelles restricted to plants and protists. These plastids are surrounded by a double membrane system, or envelope. These envelope membranes contain machineries to import nuclear-encoded proteins, and transporters for ions or metabolites, but are also essential for a range of plastid-specific metabolisms. Targeted semiquantitative proteomic investigations have revealed specific cross-contaminations by other cell or plastid compartments that may occur during chloroplast envelope purification. This article describes procedures developed to recover highly purified envelope fractions starting from Percoll-purified Arabidopsis chloroplasts, gives an overview of possible cross-contaminations, provides some tricks to limit these cross-contaminations, and lists immunological markers and methods that can be used to assess the purity of the envelope fractions.

  6. Flexible Envelope Request Notation (FERN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoch, David R.; Lavallee, David; Weinstein, Stuart

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in view graph form and include the following: scheduling application; the motivation for the Flexible Envelope Request Notation (FERN); characteristics of FERN; types of information needed in requests; where information is stored in requests; FERN structures; generic requests; resource availability for pooled resources; expressive notation; temporal constraints; time formats; changes to FERN; sample FERN requests; the temporal relationship between two steps; maximum activity length to limit step delays; alternative requests; the temporal relationship between two activities; and idle resource usage between steps.

  7. Serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction of enveloped virus microcrystals

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Robert M.; Conrad, Chelsie E.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Grant, Thomas D.; Liu, Haiguang; James, Daniel; Nelson, Garrett; Subramanian, Ganesh; Aquila, Andrew; Hunter, Mark S.; Liang, Mengning; Boutet, Sébastien; Coe, Jesse; Spence, John C. H.; Weierstall, Uwe; Liu, Wei; Fromme, Petra; Cherezov, Vadim; Hogue, Brenda G.

    2015-01-01

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray free-electron lasers has produced high-resolution, room temperature, time-resolved protein structures. We report preliminary SFX of Sindbis virus, an enveloped icosahedral RNA virus with ∼700 Å diameter. Microcrystals delivered in viscous agarose medium diffracted to ∼40 Å resolution. Small-angle diffuse X-ray scattering overlaid Bragg peaks and analysis suggests this results from molecular transforms of individual particles. Viral proteins undergo structural changes during entry and infection, which could, in principle, be studied with SFX. This is an important step toward determining room temperature structures from virus microcrystals that may enable time-resolved studies of enveloped viruses. PMID:26798819

  8. Envoplakin, a novel precursor of the cornified envelope that has homology to desmoplakin

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The cornified envelope is a layer of transglutaminase cross-linked protein that is deposited under the plasma membrane of keratinocytes in the outermost layers of the epidermis. We present the sequence of one of the cornified envelope precursors, a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 210 kD. The 210-kD protein is translated from a 6.5- kb mRNA that is transcribed from a single copy gene. The mRNA was upregulated during suspension-induced terminal differentiation of cultured human keratinocytes. Like other envelope precursors, the 210- kD protein became insoluble in SDS and beta-mercaptoethanol on activation of transglutaminases in cultured keratinocytes. The protein was expressed in keratinizing and nonkeratinizing stratified squamous epithelia, but not in simple epithelia or nonepithelial cells. Immunofluorescence staining showed that in epidermal keratinocytes, both in vivo and in culture, the protein was upregulated during terminal differentiation and partially colocalized with desmosomal proteins. Immunogold EM confirmed the colocalization of the 210-kD protein and desmoplakin at desmosomes and on keratin filaments throughout the differentiated layers of the epidermis. Sequence analysis showed that the 210-kD protein is homologous to the keratin- binding proteins desmoplakin, bullous pemphigoid antigen 1, and plectin. These data suggest that the 210-kD protein may link the cornified envelope to desmosomes and keratin filaments. We propose that the 210-kD protein be named "envoplakin." PMID:8707850

  9. The Metabolite Transporters of the Plastid Envelope: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Facchinelli, Fabio; Weber, Andreas P. M.

    2011-01-01

    The engulfment of a photoautotrophic cyanobacterium by a primitive mitochondria-bearing eukaryote traces back to more than 1.2 billion years ago. This single endosymbiotic event not only provided the early petroalgae with the metabolic capacity to perform oxygenic photosynthesis, but also introduced a plethora of other metabolic routes ranging from fatty acids and amino acids biosynthesis, nitrogen and sulfur assimilation to secondary compounds synthesis. This implicated the integration and coordination of the newly acquired metabolic entity with the host metabolism. The interface between the host cytosol and the plastidic stroma became of crucial importance in sorting precursors and products between the plastid and other cellular compartments. The plastid envelope membranes fulfill different tasks: they perform important metabolic functions, as they are involved in the synthesis of carotenoids, chlorophylls, and galactolipids. In addition, since most genes of cyanobacterial origin have been transferred to the nucleus, plastidial proteins encoded by nuclear genes are post-translationally transported across the envelopes through the TIC–TOC import machinery. Most importantly, chloroplasts supply the photoautotrophic cell with photosynthates in form of reduced carbon. The innermost bilayer of the plastidic envelope represents the permeability barrier for the metabolites involved in the carbon cycle and is literally stuffed with transporter proteins facilitating their transfer. The intracellular metabolite transporters consist of polytopic proteins containing membrane spans usually in the number of four or more α-helices. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that connecting the plastid with the host metabolism was mainly a process driven by the host cell. In Arabidopsis, 58% of the metabolite transporters are of host origin, whereas only 12% are attributable to the cyanobacterial endosymbiont. This review focuses on the metabolite transporters of the inner envelope

  10. Enveloped virus flocculation and removal in osmolyte solutions.

    PubMed

    Gencoglu, Maria F; Heldt, Caryn L

    2015-07-20

    Our ability to reduce infectious disease burden throughout the world has been greatly improved by the creation of vaccines. However, worldwide immunization rates are low. The two most likely reasons are the lack of sufficient distribution in underdeveloped countries and the high cost of vaccine products. The high costs are due to the difficulties of manufacturing individual vaccine products with specialized purification trains. In this study, we propose to use virus flocculation in osmolytes, followed by microfiltration, as an alternative vaccine purification operation. In our previous work, we demonstrated that osmolytes preferentially flocculate a non-enveloped virus, porcine parvovirus (PPV). In this work we show that osmolytes flocculate the enveloped virus, Sindbis virus heat resistant strain (SVHR), and demonstrate a >80% removal with a 0.2 μm microfilter membrane while leaving proteins in solution. The best osmolytes were tested for their ability to flocculate SVHR at different concentrations, pH and ionic strengths. Our best removal was 98% of SVHR in 0.3M mannitol at a pH of 5. We propose that osmolytes are able to flocculate hydrophobic non-enveloped and enveloped virus particles by the reduction of the hydration layer around the particles, which stimulates virus aggregation. Now that we have demonstrated that protecting osmolytes flocculate viruses, this method has the potential to be a future platform purification process for vaccines.

  11. Circumplanetary disc or circumplanetary envelope?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szulágyi, J.; Masset, F.; Lega, E.; Crida, A.; Morbidelli, A.; Guillot, T.

    2016-08-01

    We present three-dimensional simulations with nested meshes of the dynamics of the gas around a Jupiter mass planet with the JUPITER and FARGOCA codes. We implemented a radiative transfer module into the JUPITER code to account for realistic heating and cooling of the gas. We focus on the circumplanetary gas flow, determining its characteristics at very high resolution (80 per cent of Jupiter's diameter). In our nominal simulation where the temperature evolves freely by the radiative module and reaches 13000 K at the planet, a circumplanetary envelope was formed filling the entire Roche lobe. Because of our equation of state is simplified and probably overestimates the temperature, we also performed simulations with limited maximal temperatures in the planet region (1000, 1500, and 2000 K). In these fixed temperature cases circumplanetary discs (CPDs) were formed. This suggests that the capability to form a CPD is not simply linked to the mass of the planet and its ability to open a gap. Instead, the gas temperature at the planet's location, which depends on its accretion history, plays also fundamental role. The CPDs in the simulations are hot and cooling very slowly, they have very steep temperature and density profiles, and are strongly sub-Keplerian. Moreover, the CPDs are fed by a strong vertical influx, which shocks on the CPD surfaces creating a hot and luminous shock-front. In contrast, the pressure supported circumplanetary envelope is characterized by internal convection and almost stalled rotation.

  12. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY10

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Metcalf

    2010-10-01

    The Safeguards Envelope is a strategy to determine a set of specific operating parameters within which nuclear facilities may operate to maximize safeguards effectiveness without sacrificing safety or plant efficiency. This paper details the additions to the advanced operating techniques that will be applied to real plant process monitoring (PM) data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Research this year focused on combining disparate pieces of data together to maximize operating time with minimal downtime due to safeguards. A Chi-Square and Croiser's cumulative sum were both included as part of the new analysis. Because of a major issue with the original data, the implementation of the two new tests did not add to the existing set of tests, though limited one-variable optimization made a small increase in detection probability. Additional analysis was performed to determine if prior analysis would have caused a major security or safety operating envelope issue. It was determined that a safety issue would have resulted from the prior research, but that the security may have been increased under certain conditions.

  13. The nuclear envelope as a chromatin organizer

    PubMed Central

    Zuleger, Nikolaj; Robson, Michael I

    2011-01-01

    In the past 15 years our perception of nuclear envelope function has evolved perhaps nearly as much as the nuclear envelope itself evolved in the last 3 billion years. Historically viewed as little more than a diffusion barrier between the cytoplasm and the nucleoplasm, the nuclear envelope is now known to have roles in the cell cycle, cytoskeletal stability and cell migration, genome architecture, epigenetics, regulation of transcription, splicing and DNA replication. Here we will review both what is known and what is speculated about the role of the nuclear envelope in genome organization, particularly with respect to the positioning and repositioning of genes and chromosomes within the nucleus during differentiation. PMID:21970986

  14. Nonstationary envelope process and first excursion probability.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, J.-N.

    1972-01-01

    The definition of stationary random envelope proposed by Cramer and Leadbetter, is extended to the envelope of nonstationary random process possessing evolutionary power spectral densities. The density function, the joint density function, the moment function, and the crossing rate of a level of the nonstationary envelope process are derived. Based on the envelope statistics, approximate solutions to the first excursion probability of nonstationary random processes are obtained. In particular, applications of the first excursion probability to the earthquake engineering problems are demonstrated in detail.

  15. Regulatory roles of the nuclear envelope.

    PubMed

    Laskey, R A; Görlich, D; Madine, M A; Makkerh, J P; Romanowski, P

    1996-12-15

    Roles of the nuclear envelope are considered in the regulation of nuclear protein import, ribonucleoprotein export, and coupling of DNA replication to the cell cycle. First, evidence is discussed that indicates that neutral and acidic amino acids can be important in nuclear localization signals as well as the widely acknowledged basic amino acids. Second, the recognition of nuclear localization signals by their receptor "importin" is discussed, focusing on the different roles of the two subunits of importin. Third, a role for the alpha subunit of importin in RNP export is considered together with the question of how the direction of traffic through nuclear pores is determined. The final part of this article considers evidence that the nuclear membrane prevents reinitiation of DNA replication in Xenopus eggs, by excluding a "licensing factor" that is essential for DNA replication. Replication licensing in Xenopus appears to involve several proteins including the MCM (minichromosome maintenance) complex and ORC, the origin recognition complex, which must bind before the MCM complex can bind to chromatin. PMID:8986599

  16. Pushing the Envelope: Dengue Viral Membrane Coaxed into Shape by Molecular Simulations.

    PubMed

    Marzinek, Jan K; Holdbrook, Daniel A; Huber, Roland G; Verma, Chandra; Bond, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Dengue virus is a flavivirus responsible for millions of infections per year. Its surface contains a phospholipid bilayer, within which are embedded the envelope (E) and membrane (M) proteins, arranged with icosahedral geometry. Exposure to low pH triggers the E proteins to undergo conformational changes, which precede fusion with the host cell membrane and release of the viral genome. The flavivirus membrane exhibits significant local curvature and deformation, as revealed by cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM), but its precise structure and interactions with envelope components remain unclear. We now report simulations of the dengue viral particle that refine its envelope structure in unprecedented detail. Our final models are morphologically consistent with cryo-EM data, and reveal the structural basis for membrane curvature. Electrostatic interactions increased envelope complex stability; this coupling has potential functional significance in the context of the viral fusion mechanism and infective states. PMID:27396828

  17. The Role of the Membrane in the Structure and Biophysical Robustness of the Dengue Virion Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Tyler; Sansom, Mark S.P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The dengue virion is surrounded by an envelope of membrane proteins surrounding a lipid bilayer. We have combined the cryoelectron microscopy structures of the membrane proteins (PDB: 3J27) with a lipid bilayer whose composition is based on lipidomics data for insect cell membranes, to obtain a near-atomic resolution computational model of the envelope of the dengue virion. A coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation on the microsecond timescale enables analysis of key biophysical properties of the dengue outer envelope. Properties analyzed include area per lipid values (for a spherical virion with a mixed lipid composition), bilayer thickness, and lipid diffusion coefficients. Despite the absence of cholesterol from the lipid bilayer, the virion exhibits biophysical robustness (slow lipid diffusion alongside stable bilayer thickness, virion diameter, and shape) that matches the cholesterol-rich membrane of influenza A, with similarly anomalous diffusion of lipids. Biophysical robustness of the envelope may confer resilience to environmental perturbations. PMID:26833387

  18. The Role of the Membrane in the Structure and Biophysical Robustness of the Dengue Virion Envelope.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Tyler; Sansom, Mark S P

    2016-03-01

    The dengue virion is surrounded by an envelope of membrane proteins surrounding a lipid bilayer. We have combined the cryoelectron microscopy structures of the membrane proteins (PDB: 3J27) with a lipid bilayer whose composition is based on lipidomics data for insect cell membranes, to obtain a near-atomic resolution computational model of the envelope of the dengue virion. A coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation on the microsecond timescale enables analysis of key biophysical properties of the dengue outer envelope. Properties analyzed include area per lipid values (for a spherical virion with a mixed lipid composition), bilayer thickness, and lipid diffusion coefficients. Despite the absence of cholesterol from the lipid bilayer, the virion exhibits biophysical robustness (slow lipid diffusion alongside stable bilayer thickness, virion diameter, and shape) that matches the cholesterol-rich membrane of influenza A, with similarly anomalous diffusion of lipids. Biophysical robustness of the envelope may confer resilience to environmental perturbations.

  19. Inhibition of Enveloped Virus Infection of Cultured Cells by Valproic Acid▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Calvo, Ángela; Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Sobrino, Francisco; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a short-chain fatty acid commonly used for treatment of neurological disorders. As VPA can interfere with cellular lipid metabolism, its effect on the infection of cultured cells by viruses of seven viral families relevant to human and animal health, including eight enveloped and four nonenveloped viruses, was analyzed. VPA drastically inhibited multiplication of all the enveloped viruses tested, including the zoonotic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and West Nile virus (WNV), while it did not affect infection by the nonenveloped viruses assayed. VPA reduced vesicular stomatitis virus infection yield without causing a major blockage of either viral RNA or protein synthesis. In contrast, VPA drastically abolished WNV RNA and protein synthesis, indicating that this drug can interfere the viral cycle at different steps of enveloped virus infection. Thus, VPA can contribute to an understanding of the crucial steps of viral maturation and to the development of future strategies against infections associated with enveloped viruses. PMID:21106740

  20. Efflux of RNA from resealed nuclear envelope ghosts.

    PubMed

    Prochnow, D; Thomson, M; Schröder, H C; Müller, W E; Agutter, P S

    1994-08-01

    mRNA translocation across the nuclear envelope and the appropriate signal-receptor interactions have been studied using resealed rat liver nuclear envelope ghosts (RNEG). We compared export kinetics of nonadenylated (tRNAs, histone-2 poly(A)- mRNA), and adenylated RNAs (poly(A)+ tRNAs, synthetic histone-2 poly(A) +mRNA, albumin mRNA, beta-globin poly(A) +mRNA and a total poly(A) + mRNA extract from rat liver cells). ATP-dependent export of mRNAs and of total poly(A)+ RNA was prevented by inhibitors of a nuclear envelope NTPase. All adenylated RNA species competed with each other for export, but nonadenylated RNAs did not. This indicates the existence of different translocation mechanisms for different RNA species with their appropriate nuclear envelope associated RNA receptors involved in export. The attachment of a poly(A)250 sequence at the 3'-end of tRNA or histone messenger masks the intrinsic RNA export signal of nonadenylated RNAs and results in efflux comparable to that of beta-globin poly(A)+ mRNA. The attachment on oligo(A)5 does not have any comparable effect of nonadenylated RNA translocation. Export of all polyadenylated RNAs from RNEGs is blocked by a monoclonal antibody, which is directed against an intranuclear envelope poly(A) binding protein. The results suggest that the pore complexes do not select RNAs for export to the cytoplasm and are therefore not responsible for nuclear restriction of mRNA precursors.

  1. Mechanism of dissolution of envelopes of the extreme halophile Halobacterium cutirubrum.

    PubMed

    Onishi, H; Kushner, D J

    1966-02-01

    Onishi, H. (National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada), and D. J. Kushner. Mechanism of dissolution of envelopes of the extreme halophile Halobacterium cutirubrum. J. Bacteriol. 91:646-652. 1966.-Envelopes of Halobacterium cutirubrum dissolved rapidly in media of low ionic strength. Heating partially inhibited breakdown, probably because of nonspecific protein coagulation rather than inactivation of a lytic enzyme(s). Dissolution of envelopes in water did not involve splitting of peptide bonds or protein-lipid bonds, or any extensive breakdown of carbohydrate polymers. Dissolution was increased by alcohols and urea, even at high salt concentrations, but was not affected by metabolic inhibitors. Thus, no evidence was found for a dilution-activated lytic enzyme that contributes to envelope breakdown. Cells of H. cutirubrum were stable in 2 m NaCl, but lysis occurred in 2 m KCl or NH(4)Cl. This lysis did not involve an extensive breakdown of the envelope. No evidence for different sites of Na(+), K(+), and NH(4) (+) action was obtained from the pattern of release of envelope constituents in different concentrations of these salts. Ultracentrifugation studies showed that adding salts to envelopes that had been dissolved in water led to a nonspecific reaggregation of envelope material. No difference was seen between the effects of KCl and NaCl, except at 3 to 4 m concentrations where KCl caused more aggregation. The preferential effect of Na(+) on intact cells is probably due to its ability specifically to prevent leakage rather than to an overall effect on envelope integrity.

  2. Structural basis for membrane anchoring of HIV-1 envelope spike.

    PubMed

    Dev, Jyoti; Park, Donghyun; Fu, Qingshan; Chen, Jia; Ha, Heather Jiwon; Ghantous, Fadi; Herrmann, Tobias; Chang, Weiting; Liu, Zhijun; Frey, Gary; Seaman, Michael S; Chen, Bing; Chou, James J

    2016-07-01

    HIV-1 envelope spike (Env) is a type I membrane protein that mediates viral entry. We used nuclear magnetic resonance to determine an atomic structure of the transmembrane (TM) domain of HIV-1 Env reconstituted in bicelles that mimic a lipid bilayer. The TM forms a well-ordered trimer that protects a conserved membrane-embedded arginine. An amino-terminal coiled-coil and a carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic core stabilize the trimer. Individual mutations of conserved residues did not disrupt the TM trimer and minimally affected membrane fusion and infectivity. Major changes in the hydrophilic core, however, altered the antibody sensitivity of Env. These results show how a TM domain anchors, stabilizes, and modulates a viral envelope spike and suggest that its influence on Env conformation is an important consideration for HIV-1 immunogen design. PMID:27338706

  3. Role of HIV-2 envelope in Lv2-mediated restriction

    SciTech Connect

    Reuter, Sandra; Kaumanns, Patrick; Buschhorn, Sabine B.; Dittmar, Matthias T. . E-mail: Matthias_Dittmar@med.uni-heidelberg.de

    2005-02-05

    We have characterized envelope protein pseudotyped HIV-2 particles derived from two HIV-2 isolates termed prCBL23 and CBL23 in order to define the role of the envelope protein for the Lv2-mediated restriction to infection. Previously, it has been described that the primary isolate prCBL23 is restricted to infection of several human cell types, whereas the T cell line adapted isolate CBL23 is not restricted in these cell types. Molecular cloning of the two isolates revealed that the env and the gag gene are responsible for the observed phenotype and that this restriction is mediated by Lv2, which is distinct from Ref1/Lv1 (Schmitz, C., Marchant, D., Neil, S.J., Aubin, K., Reuter, S., Dittmar, M.T., McKnight, A., Kizhatil, K., Albritton, L.M., 2004. Lv2, a novel postentry restriction, is mediated by both capsid and envelope. J. Virol. 78 (4), 2006-2016). We generated pseudotyped viruses consisting of HIV-2 (ROD-A{delta}env-GFP, ROD-A{delta}env-RFP, or ROD-A{delta}env-REN) and the prCBL23 or CBL23 envelope proteins as well as chimeric proteins between these envelopes. We demonstrate that a single amino acid exchange at position 74 in the surface unit of CBL23-Env confers restriction to infection. This single point mutation causes tighter CD4 binding, resulting in a less efficient fusion into the cytosol of the restricted cell line. Prevention of endosome formation and prevention of endosome acidification enhance infectivity of the restricted particles for GHOST/X4 cells indicating a degradative lysosomal pathway as a cause for the reduced cytosolic entry. The described restriction to infection of the primary isolate prCBL23 is therefore largely caused by an entry defect. A remaining restriction to infection (19-fold) is preserved when endosomal acidification is prevented. This restriction to infection is also dependent on the presence of the point mutation at position 74 (G74E)

  4. Cryo-electron microscopy of hepatitis B virions reveals variability in envelope capsid interactions.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Stefan; Urban, Stephan; Antoni, Christoph; Böttcher, Bettina

    2007-09-19

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major human pathogen causing about 750,000 deaths per year. The virion consists of a nucleocapsid and an envelope formed by lipids, and three integral membrane proteins. Although we have detailed structural insights into the organization of the HBV core, the arrangement of the envelope in virions and its interaction with the nucleocapsid is elusive. Here we show the ultrastructure of hepatitis B virions purified from patient serum. We identified two morphological phenotypes, which appear as compact and gapped particles with nucleocapsids in distinguishable conformations. The overall structures of these nucleocapsids resemble recombinant cores with two alpha-helical spikes per asymmetric unit. At the charged tips the spikes are contacted by defined protrusions of the envelope proteins, probably via electrostatic interactions. The HBV envelope in the two morphotypes is to some extent variable, but the surface proteins follow a general packing scheme with up to three surface protein dimers per asymmetric unit. The variability in the structure of the envelope indicates that the nucleocapsid does not firmly constrain the arrangement of the surface proteins, but provides a general template for the packing.

  5. Cryo-electron microscopy of hepatitis B virions reveals variability in envelope capsid interactions

    PubMed Central

    Seitz, Stefan; Urban, Stephan; Antoni, Christoph; Böttcher, Bettina

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major human pathogen causing about 750 000 deaths per year. The virion consists of a nucleocapsid and an envelope formed by lipids, and three integral membrane proteins. Although we have detailed structural insights into the organization of the HBV core, the arrangement of the envelope in virions and its interaction with the nucleocapsid is elusive. Here we show the ultrastructure of hepatitis B virions purified from patient serum. We identified two morphological phenotypes, which appear as compact and gapped particles with nucleocapsids in distinguishable conformations. The overall structures of these nucleocapsids resemble recombinant cores with two α-helical spikes per asymmetric unit. At the charged tips the spikes are contacted by defined protrusions of the envelope proteins, probably via electrostatic interactions. The HBV envelope in the two morphotypes is to some extent variable, but the surface proteins follow a general packing scheme with up to three surface protein dimers per asymmetric unit. The variability in the structure of the envelope indicates that the nucleocapsid does not firmly constrain the arrangement of the surface proteins, but provides a general template for the packing. PMID:17762862

  6. The isolation of nuclear envelopes. Effects of thiol-group oxidation and of calcium ions.

    PubMed

    Comerford, S A; McLuckie, I F; Gorman, M; Scott, K A; Agutter, P S

    1985-02-15

    The effects of (a) oxidative cross-linking of protein thiol groups and (b) the presence or absence of Ca2+ ions on rat liver nuclear-envelope isolation were studied. Two envelope-isolation procedures were compared: a well characterized low-ionic-strength method and a recently developed high-ionic-strength method. The latter method seems preferable to the former in respect of lower intranuclear contamination of the envelopes, suppression of endogenous serine proteinase, and maintenance of high specific activities of envelope-associated enzymes. In both procedures, however, the presence of Ca2+ gave rise to a rapid, apparently irreversible, contamination of the envelopes by intranuclear material. This effect was half-maximal at 20 microM-Ca2+. In addition, the envelopes became contaminated with intranuclear material by a Ca2+-independent mechanism, apparently resulting from N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive intermolecular disulphide-bond formation. This oxidative process seemed to have two major kinetic components (half-life, t1/2, approx. 2 min and 10 min). In view of these findings, it is recommended that (i) for most purposes, nuclear envelopes be isolated by the newly developed high-ionic-strength procedure, (ii) irrespective of the method used, Ca2+-chelators be included in all the buffers, (iii) thiol-group oxidation be prevented or reversed during the procedure.

  7. The isolation of nuclear envelopes. Effects of thiol-group oxidation and of calcium ions.

    PubMed Central

    Comerford, S A; McLuckie, I F; Gorman, M; Scott, K A; Agutter, P S

    1985-01-01

    The effects of (a) oxidative cross-linking of protein thiol groups and (b) the presence or absence of Ca2+ ions on rat liver nuclear-envelope isolation were studied. Two envelope-isolation procedures were compared: a well characterized low-ionic-strength method and a recently developed high-ionic-strength method. The latter method seems preferable to the former in respect of lower intranuclear contamination of the envelopes, suppression of endogenous serine proteinase, and maintenance of high specific activities of envelope-associated enzymes. In both procedures, however, the presence of Ca2+ gave rise to a rapid, apparently irreversible, contamination of the envelopes by intranuclear material. This effect was half-maximal at 20 microM-Ca2+. In addition, the envelopes became contaminated with intranuclear material by a Ca2+-independent mechanism, apparently resulting from N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive intermolecular disulphide-bond formation. This oxidative process seemed to have two major kinetic components (half-life, t1/2, approx. 2 min and 10 min). In view of these findings, it is recommended that (i) for most purposes, nuclear envelopes be isolated by the newly developed high-ionic-strength procedure, (ii) irrespective of the method used, Ca2+-chelators be included in all the buffers, (iii) thiol-group oxidation be prevented or reversed during the procedure. PMID:2983687

  8. Mutagenesis of the palmitoylation site in vaccinia virus envelope glycoprotein B5.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, María M; Sánchez-Puig, Juana M; Blasco, Rafael

    2012-04-01

    The outer envelope of vaccinia virus extracellular virions is derived from intracellular membranes that, at late times in infection, are enriched in several virus-encoded proteins. Although palmitoylation is common in vaccinia virus envelope proteins, little is known about the role of palmitoylation in the biogenesis of the enveloped virus. We have studied the palmitoylation of B5, a 42 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein comprising a large ectodomain and a short (17 aa) cytoplasmic tail. Mutation of two cysteine residues located in the cytoplasmic tail in close proximity to the transmembrane domain abrogated palmitoylation of the protein. Virus mutants expressing non-palmitoylated versions of B5 and/or lacking most of the cytoplasmic tail were isolated and characterized. Cell-to-cell virus transmission and extracellular virus formation were only slightly affected by those mutations. Notably, B5 versions lacking palmitate showed decreased interactions with proteins A33 and F13, but were still incorporated into the virus envelope. Expression of mutated B5 by transfection into uninfected cells showed that both the cytoplasmic tail and palmitate have a role in the intracellular transport of B5. These results indicate that the C-terminal portion of protein B5, while involved in protein transport and in protein-protein interactions, is broadly dispensable for the formation and egress of infectious extracellular virus and for virus transmission.

  9. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY09

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Metcalf; Robert Bean

    2009-09-01

    The Safeguards Envelope is a strategy to determine a set of specific operating parameters which nuclear facilities may operate within to maximize safeguards effectiveness without sacrificing safety or plant efficiency. This paper details advanced statistical techniques will be applied to real plant process monitoring (PM) data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). As a result of the U.S. having no operating nuclear chemical reprocessing plants, there has been a strong interest in obtaining process monitoring data from the ICPP. The ICPP was shut down in 1996 and a recent effort has been made to retrieve the PM data from storage in a data mining effort. In a simulation based on this data, multi-tank and multi-attribute correlations were tested against synthetic diversion scenarios. Kernel regression smoothing was used to fit a curve to the historical data, and multivariable, residual analysis and cumulative sum techniques set parameters for operating conditions. Diversion scenarios were created and tested, showing improved results when compared with a previous study utilizing only one-variable Z- testing7.

  10. Personnel occupied woven envelope robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, Francis; Teoh, William; Ziemke, M. Carl

    1988-01-01

    The Personnel Occupied Woven Envelope Robot (POWER) provides an alternative to extravehicular activity (EVA) of space suited astronauts and/or use of long slender manipulator arms such as are used in the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System. POWER provides the capability for a shirt sleeved astronaut to perform such work by entering a control pod through air locks at both ends of an inflated flexible bellows (access tunnel). The exoskeleton of the tunnel is a series of six degrees of freedom (Six-DOF) articulated links compressible to 1/6 of their fully extended length. The operator can maneuver the control pod to almost any location within about 50 m of the base attachment to the space station. POWER can be envisioned as a series of hollow Six-DOF manipulator segments or arms wherein each arm grasps the shoulder of the next arm. Inside the hollow arms ia a bellow-type access tunnel. The control pod is the fist of the series of linked hollow arms. The fingers of the fist are conventional manipulator arms under direct visual control of the nearby operator in the pod. The applications and progress to date of the POWER system is given.

  11. On the common envelope efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Zhao-Yu; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2014-08-01

    In this work, we try to use the apparent luminosity versus displacement (i.e. LX versus R) correlation of high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) to constrain the common envelope (CE) efficiency αCE, which is a key parameter affecting the evolution of the binary orbit during the CE phase. The major updates that are crucial for the CE evolution include a variable λ parameter and a new CE criterion for Hertzsprung gap donor stars, both of which are recently developed. We find that, within the framework of the standard energy formula for CE and core definition at mass X = 10 per cent, a high value of αCE, i.e. around 0.8-1.0, is more preferable, while αCE < ˜0.4 likely can not reconstruct the observed LX versus R distribution. However, due to an ambiguous definition for the core boundary in the literature, the used λ here still carries almost two order of magnitude uncertainty, which may translate directly to the expected value of αCE. We present the detailed components of current HMXBs and their spatial offsets from star clusters, which may be further testified by future observations of HMXB populations in nearby star-forming galaxies.

  12. Resource envelope concepts for mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibrahim, K. Y.; Weiler, J. D.; Tokaz, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    Seven proposed methods for creating resource envelopes for Space Station Freedom mission planning are detailed. Four reference science activity models are used to illustrate the effect of adding operational flexibility to mission timelines. For each method, a brief explanation is given along with graphs to illustrate the application of the envelopes to the power and crew resources. The benefits and costs of each method are analyzed in terms of resource utilization. In addition to the effect on individual activities, resource envelopes are analyzed at the experiment level.

  13. Retroviral retargeting by envelopes expressing an N-terminal binding domain.

    PubMed Central

    Cosset, F L; Morling, F J; Takeuchi, Y; Weiss, R A; Collins, M K; Russell, S J

    1995-01-01

    We have engineered ecotropic Moloney murine leukemia virus-derived envelopes targeted to cell surface molecules expressed on human cells by the N-terminal insertion of polypeptides able to bind either Ram-1 phosphate transporter (the first 208 amino acids of amphotropic murine leukemia virus surface protein) or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (the 53 amino acids of EGF). Both envelopes were correctly processed and incorporated into viral particles. Virions carrying these envelopes could specifically bind the new cell surface receptors. Virions targeted to Ram-1 could infect human cells, although the efficiency was reduced compared with that of virions carrying wild-type amphotropic murine leukemia virus envelopes. The infectivity of virions targeted to EGFR was blocked at a postbinding step, and our results suggest that EGFR-bound virions were rapidly trafficked to lysosomes. These data suggest that retroviruses require specific properties of cell surface molecules to allow the release of viral cores into the correct cell compartment. PMID:7666532

  14. Isolation, Proteomic Analysis, and Microscopy Confirmation of the Liver Nuclear Envelope Proteome.

    PubMed

    Korfali, Nadia; Florens, Laurence; Schirmer, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    Nuclei can be relatively easily extracted from homogenized liver due to the softness of the tissue and crudely separated from other cellular organelles by low-speed centrifugation due to the comparatively large size of nuclei. However, further purification is complicated by nuclear envelope continuity with the endoplasmic reticulum, invaginations containing mitochondria, and connections to the cytoskeleton. Subsequent purification to nuclear envelopes is additionally confounded by connections of inner nuclear membrane proteins to chromatin. For these reasons, it is necessary to confirm proteomic identification of nuclear envelope proteins by testing targeting of individual proteins. The proteomic identification of nuclear envelope fractions is affected by the tendencies of transmembrane proteins to have extreme isoelectric points, strongly hydrophobic peptides, posttranslational modifications, and a propensity to aggregate, thus making proteolysis inefficient. To circumvent these problems, we have developed a MudPIT approach that uses multiple extractions and sequential proteolysis to increase identifications. Here we describe methods for isolating nuclear envelopes, determining their proteome by MudPIT, and confirming their targeting to the nuclear periphery by microscopy.

  15. Envelope glycoproteins of HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV purified with Galanthus nivalis agglutinin induce strong immune responses.

    PubMed

    Gilljam, G

    1993-05-01

    Lectin affinity chromatography was used to purify in a single step the envelope glycoproteins of HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV. Envelope glycoproteins carry the major determinants essential for protection by the humoral immune response. The purification of these proteins has previously been a laborious procedure. The glycoproteins were purified by a one-step procedure to a high level of purity by using Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA). The purified glycoprotein had CD4-binding and antigenic reactivities. Strong immune responses to envelope proteins and peptides were seen in mice and primates after immunization with these preparations.

  16. The nuclear envelope lamina is reversibly depolymerized during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Gerace, L; Blobel, G

    1980-01-01

    The nuclear envelope lamina is a supramolecular protein assembly associated with the nucleoplasmic surface of the inner nuclear membrane, which contains three predominant polypeptide components in mammalian cells (lamins A, B and C). We previously demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy that the lamina is reversibly disassembled during cell division, coincident with the disassembly and reconstruction of the mitotic nuclear envelope architecture. In this paper, these immunocytochemical observations are extended with cell fractionation and immunoprecipitation studies performed on synchronized populations of tissue culture cells. With these techniques, we have established that during mitosis, lamina A and C occur in a soluble and nonmembrane-associated state. In contrast, the mitotic lamin B may be associated with membrane fragments derived from the disassembled interphase nuclear envelope. From sedimentation analysis on sucrose gradients, we have determined that all three lamins are monomeric at periods of mitotic lamina disassembly. These results, together with quantitative immunoprecipitation studies, demonstrate that the lamina is reversibly depolymerized during cell division. Attendant with the depolymerized state of the lamina, the mitotic lamins (which are phosphoproteins) have a distinctly more acidic isoelectric point and a substantially higher level of phosphorylation compared to their interphase counterparts. This indicates that reversible enzymatic phosphorylations of the lamins may be involved in modulating the state of polymerization of the lamina and its reversible mitotic disassembly. PMID:7357605

  17. Phosphatidylserine receptors: enhancers of enveloped virus entry and infection

    PubMed Central

    Moller-Tank, Sven; Maury, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    A variety of both RNA and DNA viruses envelop their capsids in a lipid bilayer. One of the more recently appreciated benefits this envelope is incorporation of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer). Surface exposure of PtdSer disguises viruses as apoptotic bodies; tricking cells into engulfing virions. This mechanism is termed apoptotic mimicry. Several PtdSer receptors have been identified to enhance virus entry and we have termed this group of proteins PtdSer-mediated virus entry enhancing receptors or PVEERs. These receptors enhance entry of a broad range of enveloped viruses. Internalization of virions by PVEERs provides a broad mechanism of entry with little investment by the virus itself and may allow some viruses to attach to cells, thereby making viral glycoprotein/cellular receptor interactions more probable. Alternatively, other viruses may rely entirely on PVEERs for internalization into endosomes. This review provides an overview of PtdSer receptors that serve as PVEERs and the biology behind virion/PVEER interaction. PMID:25277499

  18. Solar envelope concepts: moderate density building applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, R. L.; Berry, R. D.

    1980-04-01

    The public policy mechanism for guaranteeing solar access is conceptualized as a solar zoning envelope that allows the largest possible building bulk on a land parcel without shadowing neighboring properties during specified times. Step-by-step methods for generating solar envelopes are described with extensive drawings, showing a variety of urban platting and lot configurations. Development and design possibilities are examined on a selected set of Los Angeles sites with typically diverse urban characteristics. Envelope attributes suitable for encouraging moderate-density commercial and residential building are examined in the context of two hypothetical but realistic development programs: one for speculative office buildings and one for condominium housing. Numerous illustrations of envelope forms and prototypical building designs are provided.

  19. Personnel occupied woven envelope robot power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, F. C.

    1988-01-01

    The Personnel Occupied Woven Envelope Robot (POWER) concept has evolved over the course of the study. The goal of the project was the development of methods and algorithms for solid modeling for the flexible robot arm.

  20. African Swine Fever Virus Undergoes Outer Envelope Disruption, Capsid Disassembly and Inner Envelope Fusion before Core Release from Multivesicular Endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Hernáez, Bruno; Guerra, Milagros; Salas, María L.

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) that causes a highly lethal disease in domestic pigs. As other NCLDVs, the extracellular form of ASFV possesses a multilayered structure consisting of a genome-containing nucleoid successively wrapped by a thick protein core shell, an inner lipid membrane, an icosahedral protein capsid and an outer lipid envelope. This structural complexity suggests an intricate mechanism of internalization in order to deliver the virus genome into the cytoplasm. By using flow cytometry in combination with pharmacological entry inhibitors, as well as fluorescence and electron microscopy approaches, we have dissected the entry and uncoating pathway used by ASFV to infect the macrophage, its natural host cell. We found that purified extracellular ASFV is internalized by both constitutive macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Once inside the cell, ASFV particles move from early endosomes or macropinosomes to late, multivesicular endosomes where they become uncoated. Virus uncoating requires acidic pH and involves the disruption of the outer membrane as well as of the protein capsid. As a consequence, the inner viral membrane becomes exposed and fuses with the limiting endosomal membrane to release the viral core into the cytosol. Interestingly, virus fusion is dependent on virus protein pE248R, a transmembrane polypeptide of the inner envelope that shares sequence similarity with some members of the poxviral entry/fusion complex. Collective evidence supports an entry model for ASFV that might also explain the uncoating of other multienveloped icosahedral NCLDVs. PMID:27110717

  1. Survival of an Enveloped Virus on Toys.

    PubMed

    Bearden, Richard L; Casanova, Lisa M

    2016-08-01

    Children's toys may carry respiratory viruses. Inactivation of a lipid-enveloped bacteriophage, Φ6, was measured on a nonporous toy at indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH). Inactivation was approximately 2log10 after 24 hours at 60% RH and 6.8log10 at 10 hours at 40% RH. Enveloped viruses can potentially survive on toys long enough to result in exposures. PMID:27144972

  2. Control load envelope shaping by live twist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarzanin, F. J., Jr.; Mirick, P. H.

    1974-01-01

    Rotor control systems experience a rapid load growth resulting from retreating blade stall during flight conditions of high blade loading or airspeeds. An investigation was undertaken to determine the effect of changing blade torsional properties over the rotor flight envelope. The results of this study show that reducing the blade stiffness to introduce more blade live twist significantly reduces the large retreating blade control loads, while expanding the flight envelope and reducing retreating blade stall loads.

  3. Creating a Lunar EVA Work Envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brand N.; Howard, Robert; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Smitherman, David

    2009-01-01

    A work envelope has been defined for weightless Extravehicular Activity (EVA) based on the Space Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), but there is no equivalent for planetary operations. The weightless work envelope is essential for planning all EVA tasks because it determines the location of removable parts, making sure they are within reach and visibility of the suited crew member. In addition, using the envelope positions the structural hard points for foot restraints that allow placing both hands on the job and provides a load path for reacting forces. EVA operations are always constrained by time. Tasks are carefully planned to ensure the crew has enough breathing oxygen, cooling water, and battery power. Planning first involves computers using a virtual work envelope to model tasks, next suited crew members in a simulated environment refine the tasks. For weightless operations, this process is well developed, but planetary EVA is different and no work envelope has been defined. The primary difference between weightless and planetary work envelopes is gravity. It influences anthropometry, horizontal and vertical mobility, and reaction load paths and introduces effort into doing "overhead" work. Additionally, the use of spacesuits other than the EMU, and their impacts on range of motion, must be taken into account. This paper presents the analysis leading to a concept for a planetary EVA work envelope with emphasis on lunar operations. There is some urgency in creating this concept because NASA has begun building and testing development hardware for the lunar surface, including rovers, habitats and cargo off-loading equipment. Just as with microgravity operations, a lunar EVA work envelope is needed to guide designers in the formative stages of the program with the objective of avoiding difficult and costly rework.

  4. Cooling of neutron stars with diffusive envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beznogov, M. V.; Fortin, M.; Haensel, P.; Yakovlev, D. G.; Zdunik, J. L.

    2016-08-01

    We study the effects of heat blanketing envelopes of neutron stars on their cooling. To this aim, we perform cooling simulations using newly constructed models of the envelopes composed of binary ion mixtures (H-He, He-C, C-Fe) varying the mass of lighter ions (H, He or C) in the envelope. The results are compared with those calculated using the standard models of the envelopes which contain the layers of lighter (accreted) elements (H, He and C) on top of the Fe layer, varying the mass of accreted elements. The main effect is that the chemical composition of the envelopes influences their thermal conductivity and, hence, thermal insulation of the star. For illustration, we apply these results to estimate the internal temperature of the Vela pulsar and to study the cooling of neutron stars of ages of 105 - 106 yr at the photon cooling stage. The uncertainties of the cooling models associated with our poor knowledge of chemical composition of the heat insulating envelopes strongly complicate theoretical reconstruction of the internal structure of cooling neutron stars from observations of their thermal surface emission.

  5. OEP61 is a chaperone receptor at the plastid outer envelope.

    PubMed

    von Loeffelholz, Ottilie; Kriechbaumer, Verena; Ewan, Richard A; Jonczyk, Rafal; Lehmann, Susann; Young, Jason C; Abell, Ben M

    2011-08-15

    Chloroplast precursor proteins encoded in the nucleus depend on their targeting sequences for delivery to chloroplasts. There exist different routes to the chloroplast outer envelope, but a common theme is the involvement of molecular chaperones. Hsp90 (heat-shock protein 90) delivers precursors via its receptor Toc64, which transfers precursors to the core translocase in the outer envelope. In the present paper, we identify an uncharacterized protein in Arabidopsis thaliana OEP61 which shares common features with Toc64, and potentially provides an alternative route to the chloroplasts. Sequence analysis indicates that OEP61 possesses a clamp-type TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat) domain capable of binding molecular chaperones, and a C-terminal TMD (transmembrane domain). Phylogenetic comparisons show sequence similarities between the TPR domain of OEP61 and those of the Toc64 family. Expression of mRNA and protein was detected in all plant tissues, and localization at the chloroplast outer envelope was demonstrated by a combination of microscopy and in vitro import assays. Binding assays show that OEP61 interacts specifically with Hsp70 (heat-shock protein 70) via its TPR clamp domain. Furthermore, OEP61 selectively recognizes chloroplast precursors via their targeting sequences, and a soluble form of OEP61 inhibits chloroplast targeting. We therefore propose that OEP61 is a novel chaperone receptor at the chloroplast outer envelope, mediating Hsp70-dependent protein targeting to chloroplasts. PMID:21612577

  6. Isolation of the envelope of vesicular stomatitis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Taube, S E; Rothfield, L I

    1978-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus was disrupted by a combination of freezing and thawing, osmotic shock, and sonic treatment. Subviral components were separated by isopycnic centrifugation. The low-density, lipid-rich fractions were pooled and shown to contain primarily viral glycoprotein. Further purification of this material resulted in the isolation of a preparation of vesicles which contained only the G protein and the same phospholipids as in the intact virions and exhibited spikelike structures similar to those on intact vesicular stomatitis virions. We conclude that we have isolated fragments of native vesicular stomatitis virus envelopes. Images PMID:209217

  7. HIV Entry and Envelope Glycoprotein-mediated Fusion*

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Robert; Durell, Stewart; Viard, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    HIV entry involves binding of the trimeric viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp120/gp41 to cell surface receptors, which triggers conformational changes in Env that drive the membrane fusion reaction. The conformational landscape that the lipids and Env navigate en route to fusion has been examined by biophysical measurements on the microscale, whereas electron tomography, x-rays, and NMR have provided insights into the process on the nanoscale and atomic scale. However, the coupling between the lipid and protein pathways that give rise to fusion has not been resolved. Here, we discuss the known and unknown about the overall HIV Env-mediated fusion process. PMID:23043104

  8. Comment on the invariant envelope solution in rf photoinjectors.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.-x.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2006-02-01

    The beam envelope equation has been used to address the beam dynamics in rf photoinjectors. A special solution of the envelope equation, known as the invariant envelope, plays a critical role in the theory of emittance compensation. In this comment, I will present a different view of the invariant envelope solution that better delineates its properties and simplifies the picture of beam dynamics.

  9. Simulating Convection in Stellar Envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Joel

    Understanding convection in stellar envelopes, and providing a mathematical description of it, would represent a substantial advance in stellar astrophysics. As one of the largest sources of uncertainty in stellar models, existing treatments of convection fail to account for many of the dynamical effects of convection, such as turbulent pressure and asymmetry in the velocity field. To better understand stellar convection, we must be able to study and examine it in detail, and one of the best tools for doing so is numerical simulation. Near the stellar surface, both convective and radiative process play a critical role in determining the structure and gas dynamics. By following these processes from first principles, convection can be simulated self-consistently and accurately, even in regions of inefficient energy transport where existing descriptions of convection fail. Our simulation code includes two radiative transfer solvers that are based on different assumptions and approximations. By comparing simulations that differ only in their respective radiative transfer methods, we are able to isolate the effect that radiative efficiency has on the structure of the superadiabatic layer. We find the simulations to be in good general agreement, but they show distinct differences in the thermal structure in the superadiabatic layer and atmosphere. Using the code to construct a grid of three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the link between convection and various chemical compositions. The stellar parameters correspond to main-sequence stars at several surface gravities, and span a range in effective temperatures (4500 < Teff < 6400). Different chemical compositions include four metallicities (Z = 0.040, 0.020, 0.010, 0.001), three helium abundances (Y = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) and several levels of alpha-element enhancement. Our grid of simulations shows that various convective properties, such as velocity and the degree of superadiabaticity, are

  10. Comparative analysis of envelope proteomes in Escherichia coli B and K-12 strains.

    PubMed

    Han, Mee-Jung; Lee, Sang Yup; Hong, Soon Ho

    2012-04-01

    Recent genome comparisons of E. coli B and K-12 strains have indicated that the makeup of the cell envelopes in these two strains is quite different. Therefore, we analyzed and compared the envelope proteomes of E. coli BL21(DE3) and MG1655. A total of 165 protein spots, including 62 nonredundant proteins, were unambiguously identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Of these, 43 proteins were conserved between the two strains, whereas 4 and 16 strain-specific proteins were identified only in E. coli BL21(DE3) and MG1655, respectively. Additionally, 24 proteins showed more than 2-fold differences in intensities between the B and K-12 strains. The reference envelope proteome maps showed that E. coli envelope mainly contained channel proteins and lipoproteins. Interesting proteomic observations between the two strains were as follows: (i) B produced more OmpF porin with a larger pore size than K-12, indicating an increase in the membrane permeability; (ii) B produced higher amounts of lipoproteins, which facilitates the assembly of outer membrane beta-barrel proteins; and (iii) motility- (FliC) and chemotaxis-related proteins (CheA and CheW) were detected only in K-12, which showed that E. coli B is restricted with regard to migration under unfavorable conditions. These differences may influence the permeability and integrity of the cell envelope, showing that E. coli B may be more susceptible than K-12 to certain stress conditions. Thus, these findings suggest that E. coli K-12 and its derivatives will be more favorable strains in certain biotechnological applications, such as cell surface display or membrane engineering studies.

  11. Comparative analysis of envelope proteomes in Escherichia coli B and K-12 strains.

    PubMed

    Han, Mee-Jung; Lee, Sang Yup; Hong, Soon Ho

    2012-04-01

    Recent genome comparisons of E. coli B and K-12 strains have indicated that the makeup of the cell envelopes in these two strains is quite different. Therefore, we analyzed and compared the envelope proteomes of E. coli BL21(DE3) and MG1655. A total of 165 protein spots, including 62 nonredundant proteins, were unambiguously identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Of these, 43 proteins were conserved between the two strains, whereas 4 and 16 strain-specific proteins were identified only in E. coli BL21(DE3) and MG1655, respectively. Additionally, 24 proteins showed more than 2-fold differences in intensities between the B and K-12 strains. The reference envelope proteome maps showed that E. coli envelope mainly contained channel proteins and lipoproteins. Interesting proteomic observations between the two strains were as follows: (i) B produced more OmpF porin with a larger pore size than K-12, indicating an increase in the membrane permeability; (ii) B produced higher amounts of lipoproteins, which facilitates the assembly of outer membrane beta-barrel proteins; and (iii) motility- (FliC) and chemotaxis-related proteins (CheA and CheW) were detected only in K-12, which showed that E. coli B is restricted with regard to migration under unfavorable conditions. These differences may influence the permeability and integrity of the cell envelope, showing that E. coli B may be more susceptible than K-12 to certain stress conditions. Thus, these findings suggest that E. coli K-12 and its derivatives will be more favorable strains in certain biotechnological applications, such as cell surface display or membrane engineering studies. PMID:22534293

  12. Morphologically complex protostellar envelopes : structure and kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, John J.

    I present an in-depth study of protostars and their surrounding envelopes of dense gas and dust, using a multitude of observational methods to reveal new details of the star formation process. I use mid-infrared imaging from the Spitzer Space Telescope, combined with photometry spanning the near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths, to construct a model of the L1527 protostellar system. I modeled both the spectral energy distribution and resolved scattered light images to determine physical properties of the protostellar system. The nature of the apparent central point source in the Spitzer images was uncertain until high-resolution L-band imaging from the Gemini observatory resolved the point source into a disk in scattered light, having a radius of 200 AU. Protostellar envelopes are also often found to cast shadows against the 8 micron Galactic background in Spitzer imaging, enabling direct probes of envelope structure. The shadow images show that the dense envelopes around twenty-two Class 0 protostars are generally morphologically complex from 0.1 pc scales down to ˜1000 AU; they are often filamentary, and frequently non-axisymmetric. The observed envelope structure indicates a likely origin in turbulent cloud structure rather than a quasi-static/equilibrium formation. The complex envelope structure also may indicate an increased likelihood of fragmentation during collapse, forming close binaries. To further characterize these envelopes, I have observed them in the dense molecular gas tracers nthp and nht, both of which closely follow the 8 micron extinction morphology. The magnitude of the velocity gradients and envelope complexity on ˜10000 AU scales indicates that the velocity structure may reflect large-scale infall in addition to the often assumed rotation. Comparisons with three-dimensional filamentary and symmetric rotating collapse models reinforce the interpretation of velocities reflecting large-scale infall, showing that the structure of the envelope

  13. Envelope-receptor interactions in Nipah virus pathobiology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Benhur

    2007-04-01

    Nipah (NiV) and Hendra (HeV) viruses are members of the newly defined Henipavirus genus of the Paramyxoviridae. Nipah virus (NiV) is an emergent paramyxovirus that causes fatal encephalitis in up to 70% of infected patients, and there is increasing evidence of human-to-human transmission. NiV is designated a priority pathogen in the NIAID Biodefense Research Agenda, and could be a devastating agent of agrobioterrorism if used against the pig farming industry. Endothelial syncytium is a pathognomonic feature of NiV infections, and is mediated by the fusion (F) and attachment (G) envelope glycoproteins. This review summarizes what is known about the pathophysiology of NiV infections, and documents the identification of the NiV receptor. EphrinB2, the NiV and HeV receptor, is expressed on endothelial cells and neurons, consistent with the known cellular tropism for NiV. We discuss how the identification of the henipahvirus receptor sheds light on the pathobiology of NiV infection, and how it will spur the rational development of effective therapeutics. In addition, ephrinB3, a related protein, can serve as an alternative receptor, and we suggest that differential usage of ephrinB2 versus B3 may explain the variant pathogenic profiles observed between NiV and HeV. Thus, identifying the NiV receptors opens the door for a more comprehensive analysis of the envelope-receptor interactions in NiV pathobiology. Finally, we also describe how galectin-1 (an innate immune defense lectin) can interact with specific N-glycans on the Nipah envelope fusion protein, underscoring the potential role that innate immune defense mechanisms may play against emerging pathogens. PMID:17470911

  14. Featured Image: Orbiting Stars Share an Envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    This beautiful series of snapshots from a simulation (click for a better look!) shows what happens when two stars in a binary system become enclosed in the same stellar envelope. In this binary system, one of the stars has exhausted its hydrogen fuel and become a red giant, complete with an expanding stellar envelope composed of hydrogen and helium. Eventually, the envelope expands so much that the companion star falls into it, where it releases gravitational potential energy into the common envelope. A team led by Sebastian Ohlmann (Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies and University of Wrzburg) recently performed hydrodynamic simulations of this process. Ohlmann and collaborators discovered that the energy release eventually triggers large-scale flow instabilities, which leads to turbulence within the envelope. This process has important consequences for how these systems next evolve (for instance, determining whether or not a supernova occurs!). You can check out the authors video of their simulated stellar inspiral below, or see their paper for more images and results from their study.CitationSebastian T. Ohlmann et al 2016 ApJ 816 L9. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/816/1/L9

  15. Isolation and characterization of the membrane envelope enclosing the bacteroids in soybean root nodules

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    The membrane envelope enclosing the bacteroids in soybean root nodules is shown by ultrastructural and biochemical studies to be derived from, and to retain the characteristics of, the host cell plasma membrane. During the early stages of the infection process, which occurs through an invagination, Rhizobium becomes surrounded by the host cell wall and plasma membrane, forming the infection thread. The cell wall of the infection thread is degraded by cellulolytic enzyme(s), leaving behind the enclosed plasma membrane, the membrane envelope. Cellulase activity in young nodules increases two- to threefold as compared to uninfected roots, and this activity is localized in the cell wall matrix of the infection threads. Membrane envelopes were isolated by first preparing bacteroids enclosed in the envelopes on a discontinuous sucrose gradient followed by passage through a hypodermic needle, which released the bacteroids from the membranes. This membrane then sedimented at the interface of 34--45% sucrose (mean density of 1.14 g/cm3). Membranes were characterized by phosphotungstic acid (PTA)- chromic acid staining. ATPase activity, and localization, sensitivity to nonionic detergent Nonidet P-40 (NP-40) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gel electrophoresis. These analyses revealed a close similarity between plasma membrane and the membrane envelope. Incorporation of radioactive amino acids into the membrane envelope proteins was sensitive to cycloheximide, suggesting that the biosynthesis of these proteins is primarily under host-cell control. No immunoreactive material to leghemoglobin antibodies was found inside or associated with the isolated bacteroids enclosed in the membrane envelope, and its location is confined to the host cell cytoplasmic matrix. PMID:151688

  16. Bioorthogonal Strategy for Bioprocessing of Specific-Site-Functionalized Enveloped Influenza-Virus-Like Particles

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) constitute a promising platform in vaccine development and targeted drug delivery. To date, most applications use simple nonenveloped VLPs as human papillomavirus or hepatitis B vaccines, even though the envelope is known to be critical to retain the native protein folding and biological function. Here, we present tagged enveloped VLPs (TagE-VLPs) as a valuable strategy for the downstream processing and monitoring of the in vivo production of specific-site-functionalized enveloped influenza VLPs. This two-step procedure allows bioorthogonal functionalization of azide-tagged nascent influenza type A hemagglutinin proteins in the envelope of VLPs through a strain-promoted [3 + 2] alkyne–azide cycloaddition reaction. Importantly, labeling does not influence VLP production and allows for construction of functionalized VLPs without deleterious effects on their biological function. Refined discrimination and separation between VLP and baculovirus, the major impurity of the process, is achieved when this technique is combined with flow cytometry analysis, as demonstrated by atomic force microscopy. TagE-VLPs is a versatile tool broadly applicable to the production, monitoring, and purification of functionalized enveloped VLPs for vaccine design trial runs, targeted drug delivery, and molecular imaging. PMID:27652605

  17. Immunological responses to envelope glycoprotein 120 from subtypes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Gilljam, G; Svensson, A; Ekström, A; Wahren, B

    1999-07-01

    The outer envelope glycoprotein (gp120) from subtypes A-E of HIV-1 was purified using a specific high mannose-binding lectin, Galanthus nivalis agglutinin. All isolates were grown in peripheral blood lymphocyte cells in order to avoid selection in cell lines. A comparison of the reactivities of the envelope proteins was made using sera from patients infected with the different subtypes. In this study, the B and C subtype envelope glycoproteins showed the strongest immunological reactivity, when reacted with sera from patients infected with the same subtype of virus. On the other hand, sera of patients infected with subtype A or C virus had the strongest and broadest reactivities, to envelope glycoproteins of many subtypes. The purified gp120 proteins from all five subtypes stimulated mononuclear cells from HIV-1 (subtype B)-infected patients, indicating conserved T cell-activating epitopes. The immunological reactivities indicate that strong antigenicity does not always predict the broadest immunogenicity of an envelope glycoprotein. Glycoprotein 120 from foreign subtypes may serve to induce strong cross-reactive immune responses.

  18. Envelope Solitons in Acoustically Dispersive Vitreous Silica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.; Yost, William T.

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic radiation-induced static strains, displacements, and stresses are manifested as rectified or dc waveforms linked to the energy density of an acoustic wave or vibrational mode via the mode nonlinearity parameter of the material. An analytical model is developed for acoustically dispersive media that predicts the evolution of the energy density of an initial waveform into a series of energy solitons that generates a corresponding series of radiation-induced static strains (envelope solitons). The evolutionary characteristics of the envelope solitons are confirmed experimentally in Suprasil W1 vitreous silica. The value (-11.9 plus or minus 1.43) for the nonlinearity parameter, determined from displacement measurements of the envelope solitons via a capacitive transducer, is in good agreement with the value (-11.6 plus or minus 1.16) obtained independently from acoustic harmonic generation measurements. The agreement provides strong, quantitative evidence for the validity of the model.

  19. Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Mejía, Juan Javier; Babu, Mohan; Emili, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The bacterial cell-envelope consists of a complex arrangement of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates that serves as the interface between a microorganism and its environment or, with pathogens, a human host. Escherichia coli has long been investigated as a leading model system to elucidate the fundamental mechanisms underlying microbial cell-envelope biology. This includes extensive descriptions of the molecular identities, biochemical activities and evolutionary trajectories of integral transmembrane proteins, many of which play critical roles in infectious disease and antibiotic resistance. Strikingly, however, only half of the c. 1200 putative cell-envelope-related proteins of E. coli currently have experimentally attributed functions, indicating an opportunity for discovery. In this review, we summarize the state of the art of computational and proteomic approaches for determining the components of the E. coli cell-envelope proteome, as well as exploring the physical and functional interactions that underlie its biogenesis and functionality. We also provide a comprehensive comparative benchmarking analysis on the performance of different bioinformatic and proteomic methods commonly used to determine the subcellular localization of bacterial proteins. PMID:19054114

  20. Dicalcin Inhibits Fertilization through Its Binding to a Glycoprotein in the Egg Envelope in Xenopus laevis*

    PubMed Central

    Miwa, Naofumi; Ogawa, Motoyuki; Shinmyo, Yukiko; Hiraoka, Yoshiki; Takamatsu, Ken; Kawamura, Satoru

    2010-01-01

    Fertilization comprises oligosaccharide-mediated sperm-egg interactions, including sperm binding to an extracellular egg envelope, sperm penetration through the envelope, and fusion with an egg plasma membrane. We show that Xenopus dicalcin, an S100-like Ca2+-binding protein, present in the extracellular egg envelope (vitelline envelope (VE)), is a suppressive mediator of sperm-egg interaction. Preincubation with specific antibody greatly increased the efficiency of in vitro fertilization, whereas prior application of exogenous dicalcin substantially inhibited fertilization as well as sperm binding to an egg and in vitro sperm penetration through the VE protein layer. Dicalcin showed binding to protein cores of gp41 and gp37, constituents of VE, in a Ca2+-dependent manner and increased in vivo reactivity of VE with a lectin, Ricinus communis agglutinin I, which was accounted for by increased binding ability of gp41 to the lectin and greater exposure of gp41 to an external environment. Our findings strongly suggest that dicalcin regulates the distribution of oligosaccharides within the VE through its binding to the protein core of gp41, probably by modulating configuration of oligosaccharides on gp41 and the three-dimensional structure of VE framework, and thereby plays a pivotal role in sperm-egg interactions during fertilization. PMID:20299459

  1. Hepatitis C Virus E2 Envelope Glycoprotein Core Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Leopold; Giang, Erick; Nieusma, Travis; Kadam, Rameshwar U.; Cogburn, Kristin E.; Hua, Yuanzi; Dai, Xiaoping; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Burton, Dennis R.; Ward, Andrew B.; Wilson, Ian A.; Law, Mansun

    2014-08-26

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a Hepacivirus, is a major cause of viral hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 mediate fusion and entry into host cells and are the primary targets of the humoral immune response. The crystal structure of the E2 core bound to broadly neutralizing antibody AR3C at 2.65 angstroms reveals a compact architecture composed of a central immunoglobulin-fold β sandwich flanked by two additional protein layers. The CD81 receptor binding site was identified by electron microscopy and site-directed mutagenesis and overlaps with the AR3C epitope. The x-ray and electron microscopy E2 structures differ markedly from predictions of an extended, three-domain, class II fusion protein fold and therefore provide valuable information for HCV drug and vaccine design.

  2. Conserved Eukaryotic Fusogens can Fuse Viral Envelopes to Cells

    PubMed Central

    Avinoam, Ori; Fridman, Karen; Valansi, Clari; Abutbul, Inbal; Zeev-Ben-Mordehai, Tzviya; Maurer, Ulrike E.; Sapir, Amir; Danino, Dganit; Grünewald, Kay; White, Judith M.; Podbilewicz, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans AFF-1 and EFF-1 (CeFFs) proteins are essential for developmental cell-to-cell fusion and can merge insect cells. To study the structure and function of AFF-1, we constructed Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) displaying AFF-1 on the viral envelope, substituting the native fusogen VSVG. Electron microscopy and tomography revealed that AFF-1 formed distinct supercomplexes resembling pentameric and hexameric flowers on pseudoviruses. Viruses carrying AFF-1 infected mammalian cells only when CeFFs were on the target cell surface. Furthermore, we identified Fusion Family proteins (FFs) within and beyond nematodes and divergent members from the human parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis and the chordate Branchiostoma floridae could also fuse mammalian cells. Thus FFs comprise an ancient family of cellular fusogens that can promote fusion when expressed on a viral particle. PMID:21436398

  3. SAFEGUARDS ENVELOPE: PREVIOUS WORK AND EXAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Metcalf; Aaron Bevill; William Charlton; Robert Bean

    2008-07-01

    The future expansion of nuclear power will require not just electricity production but fuel cycle facilities such as fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants. As large reprocessing facilities are built in various states, they must be built and operated in a manner to minimize the risk of nuclear proliferation. Process monitoring has returned to the spotlight as an added measure that can increase confidence in the safeguards of special nuclear material (SNM). Process monitoring can be demonstrated to lengthen the allowable inventory period by reducing accountancy requirements, and to reduce the false positive indications. The next logical step is the creation of a Safeguards Envelope, a set of operational parameters and models to maximize anomaly detection and inventory period by process monitoring while minimizing operator impact and false positive rates. A brief example of a rudimentary Safeguards Envelope is presented, and shown to detect synthetic diversions overlaying a measured processing plant data set. This demonstration Safeguards Envelope is shown to increase the confidence that no SNM has been diverted with minimal operator impact, even though it is based on an information sparse environment. While the foundation on which a full Safeguards Envelope can be built has been presented in historical demonstrations of process monitoring, several requirements remain yet unfulfilled. Future work will require reprocessing plant transient models, inclusion of “non-traditional” operating data, and exploration of new methods of identifying subtle events in transient processes.

  4. Discriminating Dysarthria Type from Envelope Modulation Spectra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liss, Julie M.; LeGendre, Sue; Lotto, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research demonstrated the ability of temporally based rhythm metrics to distinguish among dysarthrias with different prosodic deficit profiles (J. M. Liss et al., 2009). The authors examined whether comparable results could be obtained by an automated analysis of speech envelope modulation spectra (EMS), which quantifies the…

  5. Diffusive heat blanketing envelopes of neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beznogov, M. V.; Potekhin, A. Y.; Yakovlev, D. G.

    2016-06-01

    We construct new models of outer heat blanketing envelopes of neutron stars composed of binary ion mixtures (H-He, He-C, C-Fe) in and out of diffusive equilibrium. To this aim, we generalize our previous work on diffusion of ions in isothermal gaseous or Coulomb liquid plasmas to handle non-isothermal systems. We calculate the relations between the effective surface temperature Ts and the temperature Tb at the bottom of heat blanketing envelopes (at a density ρb ˜ 108 - 1010 g cm-3) for diffusively equilibrated and non-equilibrated distributions of ion species at different masses ΔM of lighter ions in the envelope. Our principal result is that the Ts-Tb relations are fairly insensitive to detailed distribution of ion fractions over the envelope (diffusively equilibrated or not) and depend almost solely on ΔM. The obtained relations are approximated by analytic expressions which are convenient for modelling the evolution of neutron stars.

  6. Ozone Reductions Using Residential Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max; Nazaroff, William W.

    2009-02-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant with that can have significant health effects and a significant source of ozone in some regions of California is outdoor air. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone could lead to improved health for many California residents. Ozone is removed from indoor air by surface reactions and can also be filtered by building envelopes. The magnitude of the envelope impact depends on the specific building materials that the air flows over and the geometry of the air flow paths through the envelope that can be changes by mechanical ventilation operation. The 2008 Residential Building Standards in California include minimum requirements for mechanical ventilation by referencing ASHRAE Standard 62.2. This study examines the changes in indoor ozone depending on the mechanical ventilation system selected to meet these requirements. This study used detailed simulations of ventilation in a house to examine the impacts of different ventilation systems on indoor ozone concentrations. The simulation results showed that staying indoors reduces exposure to ozone by 80percent to 90percent, that exhaust ventilation systems lead to lower indoor ozone concentrations, that opening of windows should be avoided at times of high outdoor ozone, and that changing the time at which mechanical ventilation occurs has the ability to halve exposure to ozone. Future work should focus on the products of ozone reactions in the building envelope and the fate of these products with respect to indoor exposures.

  7. Ultraviolet Opacity and Fluorescence in Supernova Envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Hongwei; McCray, Richard

    1996-01-01

    By the time the expanding envelope of a Type 2 supernova becomes transparent in the optical continuum, most of the gamma-ray luminosity produced by radioactive Fe/Co/Ni clumps propagates into the hydrogen/helium envelope and is deposited there, if at all. The resulting fast electrons excite He 1 and H 1, the two- photon continua of which are the dominant internal sources of ultraviolet radiation. The UV radiation is blocked by scattering in thousands of resonance lines of metals and converted by fluorescence into optical and infrared emission lines that escape freely. We describe results of Monte Carlo calculations that simulate non-LTE scattering and fluorescence in more than five million allowed lines of Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni. For a model approximating conditions in the envelope of SN 1987A, the calculated emergent spectrum resembles the observed one. For the first 2 yr after explosion, the ultraviolet radiation (lambda less than or approximately equals 3000) is largely blocked and converted into a quasi continuum of many thousands of weak optical and infrared emission lines and some prominent emission features, such as the Ca 2 lambdalambda8600 triplet. Later, as the envelope cools and expands, it becomes more transparent, and an increasing fraction of the luminosity emerges in the UV band.

  8. The Story of the Red Envelopes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Gordon

    This is one of a series of elementary readers written in Cantonese and English and designed to familiarize children with the traditional major Chinese festivals celebrated by the Chinese in America. This booklet describes in narrative form the meaning of the red envelopes given with money gifts at Chinese New Year and other festivities. A page of…

  9. Functional Analysis of the Hsp93/ClpC Chaperone at the Chloroplast Envelope.

    PubMed

    Flores-Pérez, Úrsula; Bédard, Jocelyn; Tanabe, Noriaki; Lymperopoulos, Panagiotis; Clarke, Adrian K; Jarvis, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The Hsp100-type chaperone Hsp93/ClpC has crucial roles in chloroplast biogenesis. In addition to its role in proteolysis in the stroma, biochemical and genetic evidence led to the hypothesis that this chaperone collaborates with the inner envelope TIC complex to power preprotein import. Recently, it was suggested that Hsp93, working together with the Clp proteolytic core, can confer a protein quality control mechanism at the envelope. Thus, the role of envelope-localized Hsp93, and the mechanism by which it participates in protein import, remain unclear. To analyze the function of Hsp93 in protein import independently of its ClpP association, we created a mutant of Hsp93 affecting its ClpP-binding motif (PBM) (Hsp93[P-]), which is essential for the chaperone's interaction with the Clp proteolytic core. The Hsp93[P-] construct was ineffective at complementing the pale-yellow phenotype of hsp93 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants, indicating that the PBM is essential for Hsp93 function. As expected, the PBM mutation negatively affected the degradation activity of the stromal Clp protease. The mutation also disrupted association of Hsp93 with the Clp proteolytic core at the envelope, without affecting the envelope localization of Hsp93 itself or its association with the TIC machinery, which we demonstrate to be mediated by a direct interaction with Tic110. Nonetheless, Hsp93[P-] expression did not detectably improve the protein import efficiency of hsp93 mutant chloroplasts. Thus, our results do not support the proposed function of Hsp93 in protein import propulsion, but are more consistent with the notion of Hsp93 performing a quality control role at the point of import. PMID:26586836

  10. Functional Analysis of the Hsp93/ClpC Chaperone at the Chloroplast Envelope1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Noriaki; Clarke, Adrian K.

    2016-01-01

    The Hsp100-type chaperone Hsp93/ClpC has crucial roles in chloroplast biogenesis. In addition to its role in proteolysis in the stroma, biochemical and genetic evidence led to the hypothesis that this chaperone collaborates with the inner envelope TIC complex to power preprotein import. Recently, it was suggested that Hsp93, working together with the Clp proteolytic core, can confer a protein quality control mechanism at the envelope. Thus, the role of envelope-localized Hsp93, and the mechanism by which it participates in protein import, remain unclear. To analyze the function of Hsp93 in protein import independently of its ClpP association, we created a mutant of Hsp93 affecting its ClpP-binding motif (PBM) (Hsp93[P-]), which is essential for the chaperone’s interaction with the Clp proteolytic core. The Hsp93[P-] construct was ineffective at complementing the pale-yellow phenotype of hsp93 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants, indicating that the PBM is essential for Hsp93 function. As expected, the PBM mutation negatively affected the degradation activity of the stromal Clp protease. The mutation also disrupted association of Hsp93 with the Clp proteolytic core at the envelope, without affecting the envelope localization of Hsp93 itself or its association with the TIC machinery, which we demonstrate to be mediated by a direct interaction with Tic110. Nonetheless, Hsp93[P-] expression did not detectably improve the protein import efficiency of hsp93 mutant chloroplasts. Thus, our results do not support the proposed function of Hsp93 in protein import propulsion, but are more consistent with the notion of Hsp93 performing a quality control role at the point of import. PMID:26586836

  11. Cytosol-dependent membrane fusion in ER, nuclear envelope and nuclear pore assembly: biological implications.

    PubMed

    Rafikova, Elvira R; Melikov, Kamran; Chernomordik, Leonid V

    2010-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope rearrangements after mitosis are often studied in the reconstitution system based on Xenopus egg extract. In our recent work we partially replaced the membrane vesicles in the reconstitution mix with protein-free liposomes to explore the relative contributions of cytosolic and transmembrane proteins. Here we discuss our finding that cytosolic proteins mediate fusion between membranes lacking functional transmembrane proteins and the role of membrane fusion in endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope reorganization. Cytosol-dependent liposome fusion has allowed us to restore, without adding transmembrane nucleoporins, functionality of nuclear pores, their spatial distribution and chromatin decondensation in nuclei formed at insufficient amounts of membrane material and characterized by only partial decondensation of chromatin and lack of nuclear transport. Both the mechanisms and the biological implications of the discovered coupling between spatial distribution of nuclear pores, chromatin decondensation and nuclear transport are discussed.

  12. Validating predictions from climate envelope models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watling, J.; Bucklin, D.; Speroterra, C.; Brandt, L.; Cabal, C.; Romañach, Stephanie S.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Climate envelope models are a potentially important conservation tool, but their ability to accurately forecast species’ distributional shifts using independent survey data has not been fully evaluated. We created climate envelope models for 12 species of North American breeding birds previously shown to have experienced poleward range shifts. For each species, we evaluated three different approaches to climate envelope modeling that differed in the way they treated climate-induced range expansion and contraction, using random forests and maximum entropy modeling algorithms. All models were calibrated using occurrence data from 1967–1971 (t1) and evaluated using occurrence data from 1998–2002 (t2). Model sensitivity (the ability to correctly classify species presences) was greater using the maximum entropy algorithm than the random forest algorithm. Although sensitivity did not differ significantly among approaches, for many species, sensitivity was maximized using a hybrid approach that assumed range expansion, but not contraction, in t2. Species for which the hybrid approach resulted in the greatest improvement in sensitivity have been reported from more land cover types than species for which there was little difference in sensitivity between hybrid and dynamic approaches, suggesting that habitat generalists may be buffered somewhat against climate-induced range contractions. Specificity (the ability to correctly classify species absences) was maximized using the random forest algorithm and was lowest using the hybrid approach. Overall, our results suggest cautious optimism for the use of climate envelope models to forecast range shifts, but also underscore the importance of considering non-climate drivers of species range limits. The use of alternative climate envelope models that make different assumptions about range expansion and contraction is a new and potentially useful way to help inform our understanding of climate change effects on species.

  13. Validating Predictions from Climate Envelope Models

    PubMed Central

    Watling, James I.; Bucklin, David N.; Speroterra, Carolina; Brandt, Laura A.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Romañach, Stephanie S.

    2013-01-01

    Climate envelope models are a potentially important conservation tool, but their ability to accurately forecast species’ distributional shifts using independent survey data has not been fully evaluated. We created climate envelope models for 12 species of North American breeding birds previously shown to have experienced poleward range shifts. For each species, we evaluated three different approaches to climate envelope modeling that differed in the way they treated climate-induced range expansion and contraction, using random forests and maximum entropy modeling algorithms. All models were calibrated using occurrence data from 1967–1971 (t1) and evaluated using occurrence data from 1998–2002 (t2). Model sensitivity (the ability to correctly classify species presences) was greater using the maximum entropy algorithm than the random forest algorithm. Although sensitivity did not differ significantly among approaches, for many species, sensitivity was maximized using a hybrid approach that assumed range expansion, but not contraction, in t2. Species for which the hybrid approach resulted in the greatest improvement in sensitivity have been reported from more land cover types than species for which there was little difference in sensitivity between hybrid and dynamic approaches, suggesting that habitat generalists may be buffered somewhat against climate-induced range contractions. Specificity (the ability to correctly classify species absences) was maximized using the random forest algorithm and was lowest using the hybrid approach. Overall, our results suggest cautious optimism for the use of climate envelope models to forecast range shifts, but also underscore the importance of considering non-climate drivers of species range limits. The use of alternative climate envelope models that make different assumptions about range expansion and contraction is a new and potentially useful way to help inform our understanding of climate change effects on species. PMID

  14. The envelope-based cyclic periodogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghesani, P.

    2015-06-01

    Cyclostationary analysis has proven effective in identifying signal components for diagnostic purposes. A key descriptor in this framework is the cyclic power spectrum, traditionally estimated by the averaged cyclic periodogram and the smoothed cyclic periodogram. A lengthy debate about the best estimator finally found a solution in a cornerstone work by Antoni, who proposed a unified form for the two families, thus allowing a detailed statistical study of their properties. Since then, the focus of cyclostationary research has shifted towards algorithms, in terms of computational efficiency and simplicity of implementation. Traditional algorithms have proven computationally inefficient and the sophisticated "cyclostationary" definition of these estimators slowed their spread in the industry. The only attempt to increase the computational efficiency of cyclostationary estimators is represented by the cyclic modulation spectrum. This indicator exploits the relationship between cyclostationarity and envelope analysis. The link with envelope analysis allows a leap in computational efficiency and provides a "way in" for the understanding by industrial engineers. However, the new estimator lies outside the unified form described above and an unbiased version of the indicator has not been proposed. This paper will therefore extend the analysis of envelope-based estimators of the cyclic spectrum, proposing a new approach to include them in the unified form of cyclostationary estimators. This will enable the definition of a new envelope-based algorithm and the detailed analysis of the properties of the cyclic modulation spectrum. The computational efficiency of envelope-based algorithms will be also discussed quantitatively for the first time in comparison with the averaged cyclic periodogram. Finally, the algorithms will be validated with numerical and experimental examples.

  15. ZP genes in avian species illustrate the dynamic evolution of the vertebrate egg envelope.

    PubMed

    Hughes, D C

    2007-01-01

    The vertebrate egg envelope is composed of a set of related proteins, encoded by the ZP genes. The apparent simplicity of the egg envelope is in contrast to the number of ZP genes identified by conventional cloning and data mining of genome sequences from a number of vertebrates. The vertebrate ZP genes fall into five classes, ZP1, ZP2, ZP3, ZPD and ZPAX. Analysis of chicken genome and EST sequence data has revealed the presence of seven distinct ZP genes, falling into these classes that are expressed in the female reproductive system. Comparison with the repertoire of ZP genes in other vertebrates suggests a major source of diversity in the composition of the egg envelope is a continual process of amplification, diversification and attrition of ZP gene sequences. PMID:17675848

  16. Rigid amphipathic fusion inhibitors, small molecule antiviral compounds against enveloped viruses

    PubMed Central

    St.Vincent, Mireille R.; Colpitts, Che C.; Ustinov, Alexey V.; Muqadas, Muhammad; Joyce, Michael A.; Barsby, Nicola L.; Epand, Raquel F.; Epand, Richard M.; Khramyshev, Stanislav A.; Valueva, Olga A.; Korshun, Vladimir A.; Tyrrell, D. Lorne J.; Schang, Luis M.

    2010-01-01

    Antiviral drugs targeting viral proteins often result in prompt selection for resistance. Moreover, the number of viral targets is limited. Novel antiviral targets are therefore needed. The unique characteristics of fusion between virion envelopes and cell membranes may provide such targets. Like all fusing bilayers, viral envelopes locally adopt hourglass-shaped stalks during the initial stages of fusion, a process that requires local negative membrane curvature. Unlike cellular vesicles, however, viral envelopes do not redistribute lipids between leaflets, can only use the energy released by virion proteins, and fuse to the extracellular leaflets of cell membranes. Enrichment in phospholipids with hydrophilic heads larger than their hydrophobic tails in the convex outer leaflet of vesicles favors positive curvature, therefore increasing the activation energy barrier for fusion. Such phospholipids can increase the activation barrier beyond the energy provided by virion proteins, thereby inhibiting viral fusion. However, phospholipids are not pharmacologically useful. We show here that a family of synthetic rigid amphiphiles of shape similar to such phospholipids, RAFIs (rigid amphipathic fusion inhibitors), inhibit the infectivity of several otherwise unrelated enveloped viruses, including hepatitis C and HSV-1 and -2 (lowest apparent IC50 48 nM), with no cytotoxic or cytostatic effects (selectivity index > 3,000) by inhibiting the increased negative curvature required for the initial stages of fusion. PMID:20823220

  17. Nesprin-1{alpha} contributes to the targeting of mAKAP to the cardiac myocyte nuclear envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Pare, Genevieve C.; Easlick, Juliet L.; Mislow, John M.; McNally, Elizabeth M.; Kapiloff, Michael S. . E-mail: kapiloff@ohsu.edu

    2005-02-15

    Muscle A-kinase anchoring protein (mAKAP) is a scaffold protein found principally at the nuclear envelope of striated myocytes. mAKAP maintains a complex consisting of multiple signal transduction molecules including the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, the ryanodine receptor calcium release channel, phosphodiesterase type 4D3, and protein phosphatase 2A. By an unknown mechanism, a domain containing spectrin repeats is responsible for targeting mAKAP to the nuclear envelope. We now demonstrate that the integral membrane protein nesprin-1{alpha} serves as a receptor for mAKAP on the nuclear envelope in cardiac myocytes. Nesprin-1{alpha} is inserted into the nuclear envelope by a conserved, C-terminal, klarsicht-related transmembrane domain and forms homodimers by the binding of an amino-terminal spectrin repeat domain. Through the direct binding of the nesprin-1{alpha} amino-terminal dimerization domain to the third mAKAP spectrin repeat, nesprin-1{alpha} targets mAKAP to the nuclear envelope. In turn, overexpression of these spectrin repeat domains in myocytes can displace mAKAP from nesprin-1{alpha}.

  18. Differential localization of 5- and 15-lipoxygenases to the nuclear envelope in RAW macrophages.

    PubMed

    Christmas, P; Fox, J W; Ursino, S R; Soberman, R J

    1999-09-01

    Leukotriene formation is initiated in myeloid cells by an increase in intracellular calcium and translocation of 5-lipoxygenase from the cytoplasm to the nuclear envelope where it can utilize arachidonic acid. Monocyte- macrophages and eosinophils also express 15-lipoxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. Enhanced green fluorescent 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) fusion proteins were expressed in the cytoplasm of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Only 5-lipoxygenase translocated to the nuclear envelope after cell stimulation, suggesting that differential subcellular compartmentalization can regulate the generation of leukotrienes versus 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid in cells that possess both lipoxygenases. A series of truncation mutants of 5-LO were created to identify putative targeting domains; none of these mutants localized to the nuclear envelope. The lack of targeting of 15-LO was then exploited to search for specific targeting motifs in 5-LO, by creating 5-LO/15-LO chimeric molecules. The only chimera that could sustain nuclear envelope translocation was one which involved replacement of the N-terminal 237 amino acids with the corresponding segment of 15-LO. Significantly, no discrete targeting domain could be identified in 5-LO, suggesting that sequences throughout the molecule are required for nuclear envelope localization.

  19. Focal Targeting of the Bacterial Envelope by Antimicrobial Peptides.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Rafi; Veleba, Mark; Kline, Kimberly A

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are utilized by both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. AMPs such as the human beta defensins, human neutrophil peptides, human cathelicidin, and many bacterial bacteriocins are cationic and capable of binding to anionic regions of the bacterial surface. Cationic AMPs (CAMPs) target anionic lipids [e.g., phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and cardiolipins (CL)] in the cell membrane and anionic components [e.g., lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA)] of the cell envelope. Bacteria have evolved mechanisms to modify these same targets in order to resist CAMP killing, e.g., lysinylation of PG to yield cationic lysyl-PG and alanylation of LTA. Since CAMPs offer a promising therapeutic alternative to conventional antibiotics, which are becoming less effective due to rapidly emerging antibiotic resistance, there is a strong need to improve our understanding about the AMP mechanism of action. Recent literature suggests that AMPs often interact with the bacterial cell envelope at discrete foci. Here we review recent AMP literature, with an emphasis on focal interactions with bacteria, including (1) CAMP disruption mechanisms, (2) delocalization of membrane proteins and lipids by CAMPs, and (3) CAMP sensing systems and resistance mechanisms. We conclude with new approaches for studying the bacterial membrane, e.g., lipidomics, high resolution imaging, and non-detergent-based membrane domain extraction. PMID:27376064

  20. LINC'ing form and function at the nuclear envelope.

    PubMed

    Meinke, Peter; Schirmer, Eric C

    2015-09-14

    The nuclear envelope is an amazing piece of engineering. On one hand it is built like a mediaeval fortress with filament systems reinforcing its membrane walls and its double membrane structure forming a lumen like a castle moat. On the other hand its structure can adapt while maintaining its integrity like a reed bending in a river. Like a fortress it has guarded drawbridges in the nuclear pore complexes, but also has other mechanical means of communication. All this is enabled largely because of the LINC complex, a multi-protein structure that connects the intermediate filament nucleoskeleton across the lumen of the double membrane nuclear envelope to multiple cytoplasmic filament systems that themselves could act simultaneously both like mediaeval buttresses and like lines on a suspension bridge. Although many details of the greater LINC structure remain to be discerned, a number of recent findings are giving clues as to how its structural organization can yield such striking dynamic yet stable properties. Combining double- and triple-helical coiled-coils, intrinsic disorder and order, tissue-specific components, and intermediate filaments enables these unique properties. PMID:26096784

  1. Focal Targeting of the Bacterial Envelope by Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Rafi; Veleba, Mark; Kline, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are utilized by both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. AMPs such as the human beta defensins, human neutrophil peptides, human cathelicidin, and many bacterial bacteriocins are cationic and capable of binding to anionic regions of the bacterial surface. Cationic AMPs (CAMPs) target anionic lipids [e.g., phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and cardiolipins (CL)] in the cell membrane and anionic components [e.g., lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA)] of the cell envelope. Bacteria have evolved mechanisms to modify these same targets in order to resist CAMP killing, e.g., lysinylation of PG to yield cationic lysyl-PG and alanylation of LTA. Since CAMPs offer a promising therapeutic alternative to conventional antibiotics, which are becoming less effective due to rapidly emerging antibiotic resistance, there is a strong need to improve our understanding about the AMP mechanism of action. Recent literature suggests that AMPs often interact with the bacterial cell envelope at discrete foci. Here we review recent AMP literature, with an emphasis on focal interactions with bacteria, including (1) CAMP disruption mechanisms, (2) delocalization of membrane proteins and lipids by CAMPs, and (3) CAMP sensing systems and resistance mechanisms. We conclude with new approaches for studying the bacterial membrane, e.g., lipidomics, high resolution imaging, and non-detergent-based membrane domain extraction. PMID:27376064

  2. A New Family of Membrane Electron Transporters and Its Substrates, Including a New Cell Envelope Peroxiredoxin, Reveal a Broadened Reductive Capacity of the Oxidative Bacterial Cell Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seung-Hyun; Parsonage, Derek; Thurston, Casey; Dutton, Rachel J.; Poole, Leslie B.; Collet, Jean-Francois; Beckwith, Jon

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Escherichia coli membrane protein DsbD functions as an electron hub that dispatches electrons received from the cytoplasmic thioredoxin system to periplasmic oxidoreductases involved in protein disulfide isomerization, cytochrome c biogenesis, and sulfenic acid reduction. Here, we describe a new class of DsbD proteins, named ScsB, whose members are found in proteobacteria and Chlamydia. ScsB has a domain organization similar to that of DsbD, but its amino-terminal domain differs significantly. In DsbD, this domain directly interacts with substrates to reduce them, which suggests that ScsB acts on a different array of substrates. Using Caulobacter crescentus as a model organism, we searched for the substrates of ScsB. We discovered that ScsB provides electrons to the first peroxide reduction pathway identified in the bacterial cell envelope. The reduction pathway comprises a thioredoxin-like protein, TlpA, and a peroxiredoxin, PprX. We show that PprX is a thiol-dependent peroxidase that efficiently reduces both hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxides. Moreover, we identified two additional proteins that depend on ScsB for reduction, a peroxiredoxin-like protein, PrxL, and a novel protein disulfide isomerase, ScsC. Altogether, our results reveal that the array of proteins involved in reductive pathways in the oxidative cell envelope is significantly broader than was previously thought. Moreover, the identification of a new periplasmic peroxiredoxin indicates that in some bacteria, it is important to directly scavenge peroxides in the cell envelope even before they reach the cytoplasm. PMID:22493033

  3. Solar Effective Envelope Design Advisor (SEEDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaek, Ekkachai

    The lack of effort by mainstream architects in integrating energy-efficient strategies in architectural designing is due to the complexity in a building's energy conscious concepts and theories, the difficulties to visualize and quantify energy consumption, and the late implementing of energy consumption analysis in the conventional design process. This task would be accomplishing by a building system's engineer where results might be determined only after the basic architectural design has been completed. An effective simple tool and method should then be available to assist architects in building's energy-efficient designing at the beginning of the design. The building's energy consumption is directly and mainly influenced by the relationship of the sun, site, and its building configuration. The solar radiations will first impact on the building's envelope, which will have a direct effect on the amount of energy a building will consume. If an architect can define or map the intensity of solar energy on the site's buildable volume, and use this information to determine the levels of solar insolation, a more energy efficient building form can be proposed. This research hypothesis has shared the fundamental techniques of the Solar Envelope projection by Professor Ralph Knowles [Knowles, 1981] of the University of Southern California. However a different approach is taken by including the influence of regional restrictions and the surrounding buildings' shadows when projecting of solar volumes and solar envelope. The research methodology will discuss the development of a computer-based approach to develop a three-dimensional architectural form based on an insolation map related to the design site. The prototype computer program is referred as the Solar Effective Envelope Design Advisor (SEEDA). The solar insolation volume of the site is determined by integrating three types of computer-generated models include the Buildable Volume model based on design constraints

  4. Analysis of Building Envelope Construction in 2003 CBECS

    SciTech Connect

    Winiarski, David W.; Halverson, Mark A.; Jiang, Wei

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine "typical" building envelope characteristics for buildings built after 1980. We address three envelope components in this paper - roofs, walls, and window area. These typical building envelope characteristics were used in the development of DOE’s Reference Buildings .

  5. Quantitative Proteomics of the Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Cell Envelope and Membrane Vesicles for the Discovery of Potential Therapeutic Targets*

    PubMed Central

    Zielke, Ryszard A.; Wierzbicki, Igor H.; Weber, Jacob V.; Gafken, Philip R.; Sikora, Aleksandra E.

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) is a human-specific pathogen, and the agent of a sexually transmitted disease, gonorrhea. There is a critical need for new approaches to study and treat GC infections because of the growing threat of multidrug-resistant isolates and the lack of a vaccine. Despite the implied role of the GC cell envelope and membrane vesicles in colonization and infection of human tissues and cell lines, comprehensive studies have not been undertaken to elucidate their constituents. Accordingly, in pursuit of novel molecular therapeutic targets, we have applied isobaric tagging for absolute quantification coupled with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry for proteome quantitative analyses. Mining the proteome of cell envelopes and native membrane vesicles revealed 533 and 168 common proteins, respectively, in analyzed GC strains FA1090, F62, MS11, and 1291. A total of 22 differentially abundant proteins were discovered including previously unknown proteins. Among those proteins that displayed similar abundance in four GC strains, 34 were found in both cell envelopes and membrane vesicles fractions. Focusing on one of them, a homolog of an outer membrane protein LptD, we demonstrated that its depletion caused loss of GC viability. In addition, we selected for initial characterization six predicted outer membrane proteins with unknown function, which were identified as ubiquitous in the cell envelopes derived from examined GC isolates. These studies entitled a construction of deletion mutants and analyses of their resistance to different chemical probes. Loss of NGO1985, in particular, resulted in dramatically decreased GC viability upon treatment with detergents, polymyxin B, and chloramphenicol, suggesting that this protein functions in the maintenance of the cell envelope permeability barrier. Together, these findings underscore the concept that the cell envelope and membrane vesicles contain crucial, yet under-explored determinants of GC

  6. Quantitative proteomics of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae cell envelope and membrane vesicles for the discovery of potential therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Zielke, Ryszard A; Wierzbicki, Igor H; Weber, Jacob V; Gafken, Philip R; Sikora, Aleksandra E

    2014-05-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) is a human-specific pathogen, and the agent of a sexually transmitted disease, gonorrhea. There is a critical need for new approaches to study and treat GC infections because of the growing threat of multidrug-resistant isolates and the lack of a vaccine. Despite the implied role of the GC cell envelope and membrane vesicles in colonization and infection of human tissues and cell lines, comprehensive studies have not been undertaken to elucidate their constituents. Accordingly, in pursuit of novel molecular therapeutic targets, we have applied isobaric tagging for absolute quantification coupled with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry for proteome quantitative analyses. Mining the proteome of cell envelopes and native membrane vesicles revealed 533 and 168 common proteins, respectively, in analyzed GC strains FA1090, F62, MS11, and 1291. A total of 22 differentially abundant proteins were discovered including previously unknown proteins. Among those proteins that displayed similar abundance in four GC strains, 34 were found in both cell envelopes and membrane vesicles fractions. Focusing on one of them, a homolog of an outer membrane protein LptD, we demonstrated that its depletion caused loss of GC viability. In addition, we selected for initial characterization six predicted outer membrane proteins with unknown function, which were identified as ubiquitous in the cell envelopes derived from examined GC isolates. These studies entitled a construction of deletion mutants and analyses of their resistance to different chemical probes. Loss of NGO1985, in particular, resulted in dramatically decreased GC viability upon treatment with detergents, polymyxin B, and chloramphenicol, suggesting that this protein functions in the maintenance of the cell envelope permeability barrier. Together, these findings underscore the concept that the cell envelope and membrane vesicles contain crucial, yet under-explored determinants of GC

  7. Transient Wave Envelope Elements for Wave Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astley, R. J.

    1996-04-01

    A novel family of infinite wave envelope elements is described which can be used in conjunction with conventional finite elements to model the transient wave equation in unbounded regions. The elements are obtained by applying an inverse Fourier transformation to a mapped wave envelope formulation in the frequency domain. The discrete transient equations obtained in this way can be applied to two-dimensional and three-dimensional problems without restriction, being valid over a full range of excitation frequencies. The effectiveness and accuracy of the method is demonstrated in application to simple test cases which involve the calculation of transient sound fields generated by pulsating spheres and cylinders excited from rest in an unbounded region. Test solutions are compared to analytic solutions and to finite element solutions obtained by using large computational grids which extend beyond the region influenced by the transient disturbance.

  8. Development of High Specific Strength Envelope Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Keiji; Sano, Masa-Aki; Kakuta, Yoshiaki

    Progress in materials technology has produced a much more durable synthetic fabric envelope for the non-rigid airship. Flexible materials are required to form airship envelopes, ballonets, load curtains, gas bags and covering rigid structures. Polybenzoxazole fiber (Zylon) and polyalirate fiber (Vectran) show high specific tensile strength, so that we developed membrane using these high specific tensile strength fibers as a load carrier. The main material developed is a Zylon or Vectran load carrier sealed internally with a polyurethane bonded inner gas retention film (EVOH). The external surface provides weather protecting with, for instance, a titanium oxide integrated polyurethane or Tedlar film. The mechanical test results show that tensile strength 1,000 N/cm is attained with weight less than 230g/m2. In addition to the mechanical properties, temperature dependence of the joint strength and solar absorptivity and emissivity of the surface are measured. 

  9. Discontinuous envelope function in semiconductor heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouhin, Henri-Jean; Bottegoni, Federico; Nguyen, T. L. Hoai; Wegrowe, Jean-Eric; Fishman, Guy

    2013-09-01

    Based on a proper definition of the current operators for non-quadratic Hamiltonians, we derive the expression for the transport current which involves the derivative of the imaginary part of the free-electron current, highlighting peculiarities of the extra terms. The expression of the probability current, when Spin-Orbit Interaction (SOI) is taken into account, requires a reformulation of the boudary conditions. This is especially important for tunnel heterojunctions made of non-centrosymmetric semiconductors. Therefore, we consider a model case: tunneling of conduction electrons through a [110]-oriented GaAs barrier. The new boundary conditions are reduced to two set of equations: the first one expresses the discontinuity of the envelope function at the interface while the other one expresses the discontinuity of the derivative of the envelope function.

  10. Uses and misuses of bioclimatic envelope modeling.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Miguel B; Peterson, A Townsend

    2012-07-01

    Bioclimatic envelope models use associations between aspects of climate and species' occurrences to estimate the conditions that are suitable to maintain viable populations. Once bioclimatic envelopes are characterized, they can be applied to a variety of questions in ecology, evolution, and conservation. However, some have questioned the usefulness of these models, because they may be based on implausible assumptions or may be contradicted by empirical evidence. We review these areas of contention, and suggest that criticism has often been misplaced, resulting from confusion between what the models actually deliver and what users wish that they would express. Although improvements in data and methods will have some effect, the usefulness of these models is contingent on their appropriate use, and they will improve mainly via better awareness of their conceptual basis, strengths, and limitations.

  11. Digital image envelope: method and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. K.; Cao, Fei; Zhou, Michael Z.; Mogel, Greg T.; Liu, Brent J.; Zhou, Xiaoqiang

    2003-05-01

    Health data security, characterized in terms of data privacy, authenticity, and integrity, is a vital issue when digital images and other patient information are transmitted through public networks in telehealth applications such as teleradiology. Mandates for ensuring health data security have been extensively discussed (for example The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, HIPAA) and health informatics guidelines (such as the DICOM standard) are beginning to focus on issues of data continue to be published by organizing bodies in healthcare; however, there has not been a systematic method developed to ensure data security in medical imaging Because data privacy and authenticity are often managed primarily with firewall and password protection, we have focused our research and development on data integrity. We have developed a systematic method of ensuring medical image data integrity across public networks using the concept of the digital envelope. When a medical image is generated regardless of the modality, three processes are performed: the image signature is obtained, the DICOM image header is encrypted, and a digital envelope is formed by combining the signature and the encrypted header. The envelope is encrypted and embedded in the original image. This assures the security of both the image and the patient ID. The embedded image is encrypted again and transmitted across the network. The reverse process is performed at the receiving site. The result is two digital signatures, one from the original image before transmission, and second from the image after transmission. If the signatures are identical, there has been no alteration of the image. This paper concentrates in the method and evaluation of the digital image envelope.

  12. Dynamic assembly of brambleberry mediates nuclear envelope fusion during early development.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Elliott W; Zhang, Hong; Marlow, Florence L; Kapp, Lee; Lu, Sumei; Mullins, Mary C

    2012-08-01

    To accommodate the large cells following zygote formation, early blastomeres employ modified cell divisions. Karyomeres are one such modification, mitotic intermediates wherein individual chromatin masses are surrounded by nuclear envelope; the karyomeres then fuse to form a single mononucleus. We identified brambleberry, a maternal-effect zebrafish mutant that disrupts karyomere fusion, resulting in formation of multiple micronuclei. As karyomeres form, Brambleberry protein localizes to the nuclear envelope, with prominent puncta evident near karyomere-karyomere interfaces corresponding to membrane fusion sites. brambleberry corresponds to an unannotated gene with similarity to Kar5p, a protein that participates in nuclear fusion in yeast. We also demonstrate that Brambleberry is required for pronuclear fusion following fertilization in zebrafish. Our studies provide insight into the machinery required for karyomere fusion and suggest that specialized proteins are necessary for proper nuclear division in large dividing blastomeres.

  13. Characterizing Functional Domains for TIM-Mediated Enveloped Virus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Moller-Tank, Sven; Albritton, Lorraine M.; Rennert, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) and other TIM family members were recently identified as phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-mediated virus entry-enhancing receptors (PVEERs). These proteins enhance entry of Ebola virus (EBOV) and other viruses by binding PtdSer on the viral envelope, concentrating virus on the cell surface, and promoting subsequent internalization. The PtdSer-binding activity of the immunoglobulin-like variable (IgV) domain is essential for both virus binding and internalization by TIM-1. However, TIM-3, whose IgV domain also binds PtdSer, does not effectively enhance virus entry, indicating that other domains of TIM proteins are functionally important. Here, we investigate the domains supporting enhancement of enveloped virus entry, thereby defining the features necessary for a functional PVEER. Using a variety of chimeras and deletion mutants, we found that in addition to a functional PtdSer-binding domain PVEERs require a stalk domain of sufficient length, containing sequences that promote an extended structure. Neither the cytoplasmic nor the transmembrane domain of TIM-1 is essential for enhancing virus entry, provided the protein is still plasma membrane bound. Based on these defined characteristics, we generated a mimic lacking TIM sequences and composed of annexin V, the mucin-like domain of α-dystroglycan, and a glycophosphatidylinositol anchor that functioned as a PVEER to enhance transduction of virions displaying Ebola, Chikungunya, Ross River, or Sindbis virus glycoproteins. This identification of the key features necessary for PtdSer-mediated enhancement of virus entry provides a basis for more effective recognition of unknown PVEERs. IMPORTANCE T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) and other TIM family members are recently identified phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-mediated virus entry-enhancing receptors (PVEERs). These proteins enhance virus entry by binding the phospholipid, PtdSer, present on the viral

  14. The cell envelope glycoconjugates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Angala, Shiva Kumar; Belardinelli, Juan Manuel; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Wheat, William H.; Jackson, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains the second most common cause of death due to a single infectious agent. The cell envelope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of the disease in humans, is a source of unique glycoconjugates and the most distinctive feature of the biology of this organism. It is the basis of much of Mtb pathogenesis and one of the major causes of its intrinsic resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. At the same time, the unique structures of Mtb cell envelope glycoconjugates, their antigenicity and essentiality for mycobacterial growth provide opportunities for drug, vaccine, diagnostic and biomarker development, as clearly illustrated by recent advances in all of these translational aspects. This review focuses on our current understanding of the structure and biogenesis of Mtb glycoconjugates with particular emphasis on one of most intriguing and least understood aspect of the physiology of mycobacteria: the translocation of these complex macromolecules across the different layers of the cell envelope. It further reviews the rather impressive progress made in the last ten years in the discovery and development of novel inhibitors targeting their biogenesis. PMID:24915502

  15. Respiratory syncytial virus envelope glycoprotein (G) has a novel structure.

    PubMed Central

    Satake, M; Coligan, J E; Elango, N; Norrby, E; Venkatesan, S

    1985-01-01

    Amino acid sequence of human respiratory syncytial virus envelope glycoprotein (G) was deduced from the DNA sequence of a recombinant plasmid and confirmed by limited amino acid microsequencing of purified 90K G protein. The calculated molecular mass of the protein encoded by the only long open reading frame of 298 amino acids was 32,588 daltons and was somewhat smaller than the 36K polypeptide translated in vitro from mRNA selected by this plasmid. Inspection of the sequence revealed a single hydrophobic domain of 23 amino acids capable of membrane insertion at 41 residues from the N-terminus. There was no N-terminal signal sequence and the hydrophilic N-terminal 20 residues probably represent the cytoplasmic tail of the protein. The N-terminally oriented membrane insertion was somewhat analogous to paramyxovirus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and influenza neuraminidase (NA). The protein was moderately hydrophilic and rich in hydroxy-amino acids. It was both N- and O-glycosylated with the latter contributing significantly to the net molecular mass 90K. Images PMID:4069997

  16. Nuclear envelope and genome interactions in cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Talamas, Jessica A.; Capelson, Maya

    2015-01-01

    The eukaryotic cell nucleus houses an organism’s genome and is the location within the cell where all signaling induced and development-driven gene expression programs are ultimately specified. The genome is enclosed and separated from the cytoplasm by the nuclear envelope (NE), a double-lipid membrane bilayer, which contains a large variety of trans-membrane and associated protein complexes. In recent years, research regarding multiple aspects of the cell nucleus points to a highly dynamic and coordinated concert of efforts between chromatin and the NE in regulation of gene expression. Details of how this concert is orchestrated and how it directs cell differentiation and disease are coming to light at a rapid pace. Here we review existing and emerging concepts of how interactions between the genome and the NE may contribute to tissue specific gene expression programs to determine cell fate. PMID:25852741

  17. Cell Envelope of Corynebacteria: Structure and Influence on Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Burkovski, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    To date the genus Corynebacterium comprises 88 species. More than half of these are connected to human and animal infections, with the most prominent member of the pathogenic species being Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which is also the type species of the genus. Corynebacterium species are characterized by a complex cell wall architecture: the plasma membrane of these bacteria is followed by a peptidoglycan layer, which itself is covalently linked to a polymer of arabinogalactan. Bound to this, an outer layer of mycolic acids is found which is functionally equivalent to the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. As final layer, free polysaccharides, glycolipids, and proteins are found. The composition of the different substructures of the corynebacterial cell envelope and their influence on pathogenicity are discussed in this paper. PMID:23724339

  18. Nuclear envelope rupture and repair during cancer cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Denais, Celine M.; Gilbert, Rachel M.; Isermann, Philipp; McGregor, Alexandra L.; te Lindert, Mariska; Weigelin, Bettina; Davidson, Patricia M.; Friedl, Peter; Wolf, Katarina; Lammerding, Jan

    2016-01-01

    During cancer metastasis, tumor cells penetrate tissues through tight interstitial spaces, requiring extensive deformation of the cell and its nucleus. Here, we investigated tumor cell migration in confining microenvironments in vitro and in vivo. Nuclear deformation caused localized loss of nuclear envelope (NE) integrity, which led to the uncontrolled exchange of nucleo-cytoplasmic content, herniation of chromatin across the NE, and DNA damage. The incidence of NE rupture increased with cell confinement and with depletion of nuclear lamins, NE proteins that structurally support the nucleus. Cells restored NE integrity using components of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport-III (ESCRT-III) machinery. Our findings indicate that cell migration incurs substantial physical stress on the NE and its content, requiring efficient NE and DNA damage repair for survival. PMID:27013428

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Envelope Membranes from Nongreen Plastids

    PubMed Central

    Alban, Claude; Joyard, Jacques; Douce, Roland

    1988-01-01

    We have developed a reliable procedure for the purification of envelope membranes from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) bud plastids and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cell amyloplasts. After disruption of purified intact plastids, separation of envelope membranes was achieved by centrifugation on a linear sucrose gradient. A membrane fraction, having a density of 1.122 grams per cubic centimeter and containing carotenoids, was identified as the plastid envelope by the presence of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase. Using antibodies raised against spinach chloroplast envelope polypeptides E24 and E30, we have demonstrated that both the outer and the inner envelope membranes were present in this envelope fraction. The major polypeptide in the envelope fractions from sycamore and cauliflower plastids was identified immunologically as the phosphate translocator. In the envelope membranes from cauliflower and sycamore plastids, the major glycerolipids were monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, digalactosyldiacylglycerol, and phosphatidylcholine. Purified envelope membranes from cauliflower bud plastids and sycamore amyloplasts also contained a galactolipid:galactolipid galactosyltransferase, enzymes for phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol biosynthesis, acyl-coenzyme A thioesterase, and acyl-coenzyme A synthetase. These results demonstrate that envelope membranes from nongreen plastids present a high level of homology with chloroplasts envelope membranes. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:16666372

  20. NET23/STING Promotes Chromatin Compaction from the Nuclear Envelope

    PubMed Central

    de las Heras, Jose I.; Saiz-Ros, Natalia; Makarov, Alexandr A.; Lazou, Vassiliki; Meinke, Peter; Waterfall, Martin; Kelly, David A.; Schirmer, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the peripheral distribution and amount of condensed chromatin are observed in a number of diseases linked to mutations in the lamin A protein of the nuclear envelope. We postulated that lamin A interactions with nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) that affect chromatin structure might be altered in these diseases and so screened thirty-one NETs for those that promote chromatin compaction as determined by an increase in the number of chromatin clusters of high pixel intensity. One of these, NET23 (also called STING, MITA, MPYS, ERIS, Tmem173), strongly promoted chromatin compaction. A correlation between chromatin compaction and endogenous levels of NET23/STING was observed for a number of human cell lines, suggesting that NET23/STING may contribute generally to chromatin condensation. NET23/STING has separately been found to be involved in innate immune response signaling. Upon infection cells make a choice to either apoptose or to alter chromatin architecture to support focused expression of interferon genes and other response factors. We postulate that the chromatin compaction induced by NET23/STING may contribute to this choice because the cells expressing NET23/STING eventually apoptose, but the chromatin compaction effect is separate from this as the condensation was still observed when cells were treated with Z-VAD to block apoptosis. NET23/STING-induced compacted chromatin revealed changes in epigenetic marks including changes in histone methylation and acetylation. This indicates a previously uncharacterized nuclear role for NET23/STING potentially in both innate immune signaling and general chromatin architecture. PMID:25386906

  1. NET23/STING promotes chromatin compaction from the nuclear envelope.

    PubMed

    Malik, Poonam; Zuleger, Nikolaj; de las Heras, Jose I; Saiz-Ros, Natalia; Makarov, Alexandr A; Lazou, Vassiliki; Meinke, Peter; Waterfall, Martin; Kelly, David A; Schirmer, Eric C

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the peripheral distribution and amount of condensed chromatin are observed in a number of diseases linked to mutations in the lamin A protein of the nuclear envelope. We postulated that lamin A interactions with nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) that affect chromatin structure might be altered in these diseases and so screened thirty-one NETs for those that promote chromatin compaction as determined by an increase in the number of chromatin clusters of high pixel intensity. One of these, NET23 (also called STING, MITA, MPYS, ERIS, Tmem173), strongly promoted chromatin compaction. A correlation between chromatin compaction and endogenous levels of NET23/STING was observed for a number of human cell lines, suggesting that NET23/STING may contribute generally to chromatin condensation. NET23/STING has separately been found to be involved in innate immune response signaling. Upon infection cells make a choice to either apoptose or to alter chromatin architecture to support focused expression of interferon genes and other response factors. We postulate that the chromatin compaction induced by NET23/STING may contribute to this choice because the cells expressing NET23/STING eventually apoptose, but the chromatin compaction effect is separate from this as the condensation was still observed when cells were treated with Z-VAD to block apoptosis. NET23/STING-induced compacted chromatin revealed changes in epigenetic marks including changes in histone methylation and acetylation. This indicates a previously uncharacterized nuclear role for NET23/STING potentially in both innate immune signaling and general chromatin architecture. PMID:25386906

  2. NET23/STING promotes chromatin compaction from the nuclear envelope.

    PubMed

    Malik, Poonam; Zuleger, Nikolaj; de las Heras, Jose I; Saiz-Ros, Natalia; Makarov, Alexandr A; Lazou, Vassiliki; Meinke, Peter; Waterfall, Martin; Kelly, David A; Schirmer, Eric C

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the peripheral distribution and amount of condensed chromatin are observed in a number of diseases linked to mutations in the lamin A protein of the nuclear envelope. We postulated that lamin A interactions with nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) that affect chromatin structure might be altered in these diseases and so screened thirty-one NETs for those that promote chromatin compaction as determined by an increase in the number of chromatin clusters of high pixel intensity. One of these, NET23 (also called STING, MITA, MPYS, ERIS, Tmem173), strongly promoted chromatin compaction. A correlation between chromatin compaction and endogenous levels of NET23/STING was observed for a number of human cell lines, suggesting that NET23/STING may contribute generally to chromatin condensation. NET23/STING has separately been found to be involved in innate immune response signaling. Upon infection cells make a choice to either apoptose or to alter chromatin architecture to support focused expression of interferon genes and other response factors. We postulate that the chromatin compaction induced by NET23/STING may contribute to this choice because the cells expressing NET23/STING eventually apoptose, but the chromatin compaction effect is separate from this as the condensation was still observed when cells were treated with Z-VAD to block apoptosis. NET23/STING-induced compacted chromatin revealed changes in epigenetic marks including changes in histone methylation and acetylation. This indicates a previously uncharacterized nuclear role for NET23/STING potentially in both innate immune signaling and general chromatin architecture.

  3. Antiviral Activity of Graphene–Silver Nanocomposites against Non-Enveloped and Enveloped Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Ning; Hsueh, Yi-Huang; Hsieh, Chien-Te; Tzou, Dong-Ying; Chang, Pai-Ling

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of novel antiviral materials is important because many infectious diseases are caused by viruses. Silver nanoparticles have demonstrated strong antiviral activity, and graphene is a potential antimicrobial material due to its large surface area, high carrier mobility, and biocompatibility. No studies on the antiviral activity of nanomaterials on non-enveloped viruses have been reported. To investigate the antiviral activity of graphene oxide (GO) sheets and GO sheets with silver particles (GO-Ag) against enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, feline coronavirus (FCoV) with an envelope and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) without an envelope were chosen. The morphology and sizes of GO and GO-Ag were characterized by transmission, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. A virus inhibition assay was used to identify the antiviral activity of GO and GO-Ag. Go-Ag inhibited 25% of infection by FCoV and 23% by IBDV, whereas GO only inhibited 16% of infection by FCoV but showed no antiviral activity against the infection by IBDV. Further application of GO and GO-Ag can be considered for personal protection equipment to decrease the transmission of viruses. PMID:27104546

  4. Antiviral Activity of Graphene-Silver Nanocomposites against Non-Enveloped and Enveloped Viruses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Ning; Hsueh, Yi-Huang; Hsieh, Chien-Te; Tzou, Dong-Ying; Chang, Pai-Ling

    2016-04-01

    The discovery of novel antiviral materials is important because many infectious diseases are caused by viruses. Silver nanoparticles have demonstrated strong antiviral activity, and graphene is a potential antimicrobial material due to its large surface area, high carrier mobility, and biocompatibility. No studies on the antiviral activity of nanomaterials on non-enveloped viruses have been reported. To investigate the antiviral activity of graphene oxide (GO) sheets and GO sheets with silver particles (GO-Ag) against enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, feline coronavirus (FCoV) with an envelope and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) without an envelope were chosen. The morphology and sizes of GO and GO-Ag were characterized by transmission, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. A virus inhibition assay was used to identify the antiviral activity of GO and GO-Ag. Go-Ag inhibited 25% of infection by FCoV and 23% by IBDV, whereas GO only inhibited 16% of infection by FCoV but showed no antiviral activity against the infection by IBDV. Further application of GO and GO-Ag can be considered for personal protection equipment to decrease the transmission of viruses. PMID:27104546

  5. Envelope Variants Circulating as Initial Neutralization Breadth Developed in Two HIV-Infected Subjects Stimulate Multiclade Neutralizing Antibodies in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Malherbe, Delphine C.; Pissani, Franco; Sather, D. Noah; Guo, Biwei; Pandey, Shilpi; Sutton, William F.; Stuart, Andrew B.; Robins, Harlan; Park, Byung; Krebs, Shelly J.; Schuman, Jason T.; Kalams, Spyros; Hessell, Ann J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Identifying characteristics of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope that are effective in generating broad, protective antibodies remains a hurdle to HIV vaccine design. Emerging evidence of the development of broad and potent neutralizing antibodies in HIV-infected subjects suggests that founder and subsequent progeny viruses may express unique antigenic motifs that contribute to this developmental pathway. We hypothesize that over the course of natural infection, B cells are programmed to develop broad antibodies by exposure to select populations of emerging envelope quasispecies variants. To test this hypothesis, we identified two unrelated subjects whose antibodies demonstrated increasing neutralization breadth against a panel of HIV-1 isolates over time. Full-length functional env genes were cloned longitudinally from these subjects from months after infection through 2.6 to 5.8 years of infection. Motifs associated with the development of breadth in published, cross-sectional studies were found in both subjects. We compared the immunogenicity of envelope vaccines derived from time points obtained during and after broadening of neutralization activity within these subjects. Rabbits were coimmunized four times with selected multiple gp160 DNAs and gp140-trimeric envelope proteins. The affinity of the polyclonal response increased as a function of boosting. The most rapid and persistent neutralization of multiclade tier 1 viruses was elicited by envelopes that were circulating in plasma at time points prior to the development of 50% neutralization breadth in both human subjects. The breadth elicited in rabbits was not improved by exposure to later envelope variants. These data have implications for vaccine development in describing a target time point to identify optimal envelope immunogens. IMPORTANCE Vaccine protection against viral infections correlates with the presence of neutralizing antibodies; thus, vaccine components capable

  6. Structure of a flavivirus envelope glycoprotein in its low-pH-induced membrane fusion conformation

    PubMed Central

    Bressanelli, Stéphane; Stiasny, Karin; Allison, Steven L; Stura, Enrico A; Duquerroy, Stéphane; Lescar, Julien; Heinz, Franz X; Rey, Félix A

    2004-01-01

    Enveloped viruses enter cells via a membrane fusion reaction driven by conformational changes of specific viral envelope proteins. We report here the structure of the ectodomain of the tick-borne encephalitis virus envelope glycoprotein, E, a prototypical class II fusion protein, in its trimeric low-pH-induced conformation. We show that, in the conformational transition, the three domains of the neutral-pH form are maintained but their relative orientation is altered. Similar to the postfusion class I proteins, the subunits rearrange such that the fusion peptide loops cluster at one end of an elongated molecule and the C-terminal segments, connecting to the viral transmembrane region, run along the sides of the trimer pointing toward the fusion peptide loops. Comparison with the low-pH-induced form of the alphavirus class II fusion protein reveals striking differences at the end of the molecule bearing the fusion peptides, suggesting an important conformational effect of the missing membrane connecting segment. PMID:14963486

  7. Visualizing the Spatial Relationship of the Genome with the Nuclear Envelope Using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization.

    PubMed

    Clements, Craig S; Bikkul, Ural; Ahmed, Mai Hassan; Foster, Helen A; Godwin, Lauren S; Bridger, Joanna M

    2016-01-01

    The genome has a special relationship with the nuclear envelope in cells. Much of the genome is anchored at the nuclear periphery, tethered by chromatin binding proteins such nuclear lamins and other integral membrane proteins. Even though there are global assays such as DAM-ID or ChIP to assess what parts of the genome are associated with the nuclear envelope, it is also essential to be able to visualize regions of the genome in order to reveal their individual relationships with nuclear structures in single cells. This is executed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 2-dimensional flattened nuclei (2D-FISH) or 3-dimensionally preserved cells (3D-FISH) in combination with indirect immunofluorescence to reveal structural proteins. This chapter explains the protocols for 2D- and 3D-FISH in combination with indirect immunofluorescence and discusses options for image capture and analysis. Due to the nuclear envelope proteins being part of the non-extractable nucleoskeleton, we also describe how to prepare DNA halos through salt extraction and how they can be used to study genome behavior and association when combined with 2D-FISH. PMID:27147055

  8. Visualizing the Spatial Relationship of the Genome with the Nuclear Envelope Using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization.

    PubMed

    Clements, Craig S; Bikkul, Ural; Ahmed, Mai Hassan; Foster, Helen A; Godwin, Lauren S; Bridger, Joanna M

    2016-01-01

    The genome has a specia