Science.gov

Sample records for envelope systems summary

  1. Field Testing of Energy-Efficient Flood-Damage-Resistant Residential Envelope Systems Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Aglan, H.

    2005-08-04

    The primary purpose of the project was to identify materials and methods that will make the envelope of a house flood damage resistant. Flood damage resistant materials and systems are intended to be used to repair houses subsequent to flooding. This project was also intended to develop methods of restoring the envelopes of houses that have been flooded but are repairable and may be subject to future flooding. Then if the house floods again, damage will not be as extensive as in previous flood events and restoration costs and efforts will be minimized. The purpose of the first pair of field tests was to establish a baseline for typical current residential construction practice. The first test modules used materials and systems that were commonly found in residential envelopes throughout the U.S. The purpose of the second pair of field tests was to begin evaluating potential residential envelope materials and systems that were projected to be more flood-damage resistant and restorable than the conventional materials and systems tested in the first pair of tests. The purpose of testing the third slab-on-grade module was to attempt to dry flood proof the module (no floodwater within the structure). If the module could be sealed well enough to prevent water from entering, then this would be an effective method of making the interior materials and systems flood damage resistant. The third crawl space module was tested in the same manner as the previous modules and provided an opportunity to do flood tests of additional residential materials and systems. Another purpose of the project was to develop the methodology to collect representative, measured, reproducible (i.e. scientific) data on how various residential materials and systems respond to flooding conditions so that future recommendations for repairing flood damaged houses could be based on scientific data. An additional benefit of collecting this data is that it will be used in the development of a standard test

  2. The Psp system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis integrates envelope stress sensing and envelope preserving functions

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Pratik; Ravi, Janani; Guerrini, Valentina; Chauhan, Rinki; Neiditch, Matthew B.; Shell, Scarlet S.; Fortune, Sarah M.; Hancioglu, Baris; Igoshin, Oleg; Gennaro, Maria Laura

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial envelope integrates essential stress-sensing and adaptive functions; thus, envelope-preserving functions are important for survival. In Gram-negative bacteria, envelope integrity during stress is maintained by the multi-gene Psp response. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was thought to lack the Psp system, since it encodes only pspA and no other psp ortholog. Intriguingly, pspA maps downstream from clgR, which encodes a transcription factor regulated by the MprAB-σE envelope-stress-signaling system. clgR inactivation lowered ATP concentration during stress and protonophore treatment-induced clgR-pspA expression, suggesting that these genes express Psp-like functions. We identified a four-gene set -- clgR, pspA (rv2744c), rv2743c, rv2742c – that is regulated by clgR and in turn regulates ClgR activity. Regulatory and protein-protein interactions within the set and a requirement of the four genes for functions associated with envelope integrity and surface-stress tolerance indicate that a Psp-like system has evolved in mycobacteria. Among Actinobacteria, the four-gene module occurred only in tuberculous mycobacteria and was required for intra-macrophage growth, suggesting links between its function and mycobacterial virulence. Additionally, the four-gene module was required for MprAB-σE stress-signaling activity. The positive feedback between envelope-stress-sensing and envelope-preserving functions allows sustained responses to multiple, envelope-perturbing signals during chronic infection, making the system uniquely suited to tuberculosis pathogenesis. PMID:25899163

  3. Real-Time Flight Envelope Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerho, Michael; Bragg, Michael B.; Ansell, Phillip J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this effort was to show that real-time aircraft control-surface hinge-moment information could be used to provide a robust and reliable prediction of vehicle performance and control authority degradation. For a given airfoil section with a control surface -- be it a wing with an aileron, rudder, or elevator -- the control-surface hinge moment is sensitive to the aerodynamic characteristics of the section. As a result, changes in the aerodynamics of the section due to angle-of-attack or environmental effects such as icing, heavy rain, surface contaminants, bird strikes, or battle damage will affect the control surface hinge moment. These changes include both the magnitude of the hinge moment and its sign in a time-averaged sense, and the variation of the hinge moment with time. The current program attempts to take the real-time hinge moment information from the aircraft control surfaces and develop a system to predict aircraft envelope boundaries across a range of conditions, alerting the flight crew to reductions in aircraft controllability and flight boundaries.

  4. CLOSE STELLAR BINARY SYSTEMS BY GRAZING ENVELOPE EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Soker, Noam

    2015-02-20

    I suggest a spiral-in process in which a stellar companion grazes the envelope of a giant star while both the orbital separation and the giant radius shrink simultaneously, forming a close binary system. The binary system might be viewed as evolving in a constant state of 'just entering a common envelope (CE) phase.' In cases where this process takes place, it can be an alternative to CE evolution where the secondary star is immersed in the giant's envelope. Grazing envelope evolution (GEE) is made possible only if the companion manages to accrete mass at a high rate and launches jets that remove the outskirts of the giant envelope, hence preventing the formation of a CE. The high accretion rate is made possible by the accretion disk launching jets which efficiently carry the excess angular momentum and energy from the accreted mass. The orbital decay itself is caused by the gravitational interaction of the secondary star with the envelope inward of its orbit, i.e., dynamical friction (gravitational tide). Mass loss through the second Lagrangian point can carry additional angular momentum and envelope mass. The GEE lasts for tens to hundreds of years. The high accretion rate, with peaks lasting from months to years, might lead to a bright object referred to as the intermediate luminosity optical transient (Red Novae; Red Transients). A bipolar nebula and/or equatorial ring are formed around the binary remnant.

  5. Photovoltaic energy systems: Program summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    The DOE Photovoltaic Energy Systems Program is designed to expand as rapidly as possible the commercial use of photovoltaic systems through a program of research, process development in support of the manufacturing industry, tests and applications, and general support of market development. The objective of the Photovoltaic Energy Systems Program is to reduce system costs to a competitive level in both distributed and centralized grid-connected applications. The program is also examining the technical, institutional, legal, environmental and social issues involved in fostering widespread adoption of photovoltaic energy systems. Activities of the program are divided into the following subprograms: advanced research and development; technology development; systems engineering and standards; test and applications; commercialization; and planning, assessment, and integration. Summary sheets for each of the contractors in this program are presented. The summaries include project title, contractor, contract number, funding, principal investigator, and a brief description of the contract.

  6. Full-Envelope Launch Abort System Performance Analysis Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubuchon, Vanessa V.

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of a new dispersion methodology is described, which dis-perses abort initiation altitude or time along with all other Launch Abort System (LAS) parameters during Monte Carlo simulations. In contrast, the standard methodology assumes that an abort initiation condition is held constant (e.g., aborts initiated at altitude for Mach 1, altitude for maximum dynamic pressure, etc.) while dispersing other LAS parameters. The standard method results in large gaps in performance information due to the discrete nature of initiation conditions, while the full-envelope dispersion method provides a significantly more comprehensive assessment of LAS abort performance for the full launch vehicle ascent flight envelope and identifies performance "pinch-points" that may occur at flight conditions outside of those contained in the discrete set. The new method has significantly increased the fidelity of LAS abort simulations and confidence in the results.

  7. Refrigeration systems program summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-12-01

    In addition to saving energy, deploying advanced refrigeration technologies can substantially benefit the environment. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have been identified as a major cause of potential global climate change and about 20 pct. of the CFCs consumed by the U.S. are due to refrigeration systems. As the international Montreal Protocol will phase out CFC compounds no later than 2000, there is tremendous need to develop safe non-CFC refrigerants and working fluids, alternative refrigeration cycles, and non-CFC insulations for appliances. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Refrigeration System Program in 1977 to lead a national effort to accelerate the deployment of cost effective and energy efficient air conditioning and refrigeration technologies. The program primarily conducts research and development on advanced refrigeration technologies. The program, managed by the Office of Building Technologies, which reports to DOE's Assistant Secretary for Conversation and Renewable Energy, encompasses several key activities such as investigating alternative refrigerants and refrigeration cycles, developing advanced technologies for future air conditioning and refrigeration equipment designs, and developing advanced appliance insulations.

  8. Rapid Process to Generate Beam Envelopes for Optical System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph; Seals, Lenward

    2012-01-01

    The task of evaluating obstructions in the optical throughput of an optical system requires the use of two disciplines, and hence, two models: optical models for the details of optical propagation, and mechanical models for determining the actual structure that exists in the optical system. Previous analysis methods for creating beam envelopes (or cones of light) for use in this obstruction analysis were found to be cumbersome to calculate and take significant time and resources to complete. A new process was developed that takes less time to complete beam envelope analysis, is more accurate and less dependent upon manual node tracking to create the beam envelopes, and eases the burden on the mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) designers to form the beam solids. This algorithm allows rapid generation of beam envelopes for optical system obstruction analysis. Ray trace information is taken from optical design software and used to generate CAD objects that represent the boundary of the beam envelopes for detailed analysis in mechanical CAD software. Matlab is used to call ray trace data from the optical model for all fields and entrance pupil points of interest. These are chosen to be the edge of each space, so that these rays produce the bounding volume for the beam. The x and y global coordinate data is collected on the surface planes of interest, typically an image of the field and entrance pupil internal of the optical system. This x and y coordinate data is then evaluated using a convex hull algorithm, which removes any internal points, which are unnecessary to produce the bounding volume of interest. At this point, tolerances can be applied to expand the size of either the field or aperture, depending on the allocations. Once this minimum set of coordinates on the pupil and field is obtained, a new set of rays is generated between the field plane and aperture plane (or vice-versa). These rays are then evaluated at planes between the aperture and field, at a

  9. Design and performance of an integrated envelope/lighting system

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1997-04-01

    Dynamic envelope/lighting systems offer the potential to achieve a near optimum energy-efficient environment meeting occupant needs throughout the year by adapting to dynamic meteorological conditions and changing occupant preferences in real time. With the dramatic increased functionality of the microprocessor, there is an untapped potential to make dynamic envelop/lighting systems easier to use, diagnose, and monitor, and to integrate them as part of a sophisticated building-wide control system. This study addresses the complex relationship between this energy-efficiency technology and many of the non-energy issues related to its potential acceptance by the building industry, architects, owners, and users. The authors demonstrate the concept of integrated dynamic systems with a prototype motorized venetian blind operated in synchronization with electric lighting and daylighting controls via an intelligent control system. Research work conducted with simulation software and reduced-scale and full-scale field tests is summarized. Much of this work is directly relevant to other active shading and daylighting systems on the market today and to state-of-the-art window systems yet to come (i.e., electrochromics).

  10. Scattering theory for the quantum envelope of a classical system

    SciTech Connect

    Sudarshan, E.C.G.

    1993-12-31

    Classical dynamics, reformulated in terms of its quantum envelope is studied for the stationary states of the interacting system. The dynamical variable of ``elapsed time`` plays a crucial role in this study. It is shown that the perturbation series for the elapsed time can be summed in various simple cases even when standard perturbation series diverge. For the special class of systems where the interactions fall off sufficiently fast at infinity one could define ``in`` and ``out`` states; and consequently the wave matrices and scattering matrices. The scattering phase shifts bear a simple relation to the time delay in scattering.

  11. Space station Platform Management System (PMS) replanning using resource envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Joy Lee; Critchfield, Anna; Loomis, Audrey

    1987-01-01

    One of the responsibilities of the Space Station Platform Management System (PMS) is to maintain constraint-free, short-term plans for platform and free-flyer activities. Both the replanning function and the associated constraint-checking function are viewed as potentially requiring expert system assistance. The PMS Resource Envelope Scheduling System (PRESS) expert system, which is currently under development, is described. The PRESS capabilities will include the following: plan, replan, and perform constraint checking using resource envelopes resembling those required for telescience; initialize itself using the results fo a previous run; infer the replanning needs associated with a change in resource availability; allow the user to determine the level of interaction (including an advisory capability) with the system during execution; and generate both a graphic timeline and a report as output. The PRESS is being developed on an IBM PC/AT using TeKnowledge, Inc.'s M.1 expert system shell. The PRESS activity definitions and constraints are based on those defined for the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission scheduled for launch in early 1989.

  12. Residential commissioning to assess envelope and HVAC system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, Craig P.; Sherman, Max H.

    2001-08-31

    Houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict. For example, Walker et al. (1998a) found large variations in thermal distribution system efficiency, as much as a factor of two even between side-by-side houses with the same system design and installation crew. This and other studies (e.g., Jump et al. 1996) indicate that duct leakage testing and sealing can readily achieve a 25 to 30% reduction in installed cooling capacity and energy consumption. As another example, consider that the building industry has recognized for at least 20 years the substantial impact that envelope airtightness has on thermal loads, energy use, comfort, and indoor air quality. However, Walker et al. (1998a) found 50% variances in airtightness for houses with the same design and construction crews, within the same subdivision. A substantial reason for these problems is that few houses are now built or retrofitted using formal design procedures, most are field assembled from a large number of components, and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Solving the problems requires field performance evaluations of houses using appropriate and agreed upon procedures. Many procedural elements already exist in a fragmented environment; some are ready now to be integrated into a new process called residential commissioning (Wray et al. 2000). For example, California's Title 24 energy code already provides some commissioning elements for evaluating the energy performance of new houses. A house consists of components and systems that need to be commissioned, such as building envelopes, air distribution systems, cooling equipment, heat pumps, combustion appliances, controls, and other electrical appliances. For simplicity and practicality, these components and systems are usually evaluated individually, but we need to bear in mind that many of them interact. Therefore, commissioning must not only identify the energy and non-energy benefits

  13. Aerial Photography Summary Record System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    The Aerial Photography Summary Record System (APSRS) describes aerial photography projects that meet specified criteria over a given geographic area of the United States and its territories. Aerial photographs are an important tool in cartography and a number of other professions. Land use planners, real estate developers, lawyers, environmental specialists, and many other professionals rely on detailed and timely aerial photographs. Until 1975, there was no systematic approach to locate an aerial photograph, or series of photographs, quickly and easily. In that year, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) inaugurated the APSRS, which has become a standard reference for users of aerial photographs.

  14. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Program: Summary of Building Envelope Retrofits, Planned HVAC Equipment Upgrades, and Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Wiehagen, J.; Del Bianco, M.; Mallay, D.

    2015-05-01

    In the fall of 2010, a multiyear pilot energy efficiency retrofit project was undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc, (GHI) a 1,566 home cooperative of circa 1930 and 1940 homes in Greenbelt, Maryland. GHI established this pilot project to serve as a basis for decision making for the rollout of a decade-long community-wide upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency improvements to the building envelope and mechanical equipment. It presents a unique opportunity to evaluate and prioritize the wide-range of benefits of high-performance retrofits based on member experience with and acceptance of the retrofit measures implemented during the pilot project. Addressing the complex interactions between benefits, trade-offs, construction methods, project management implications, realistic upfront costs, financing, and other considerations, serves as a case study for energy retrofit projects to include high-performance technologies based on the long-term value to the homeowner. The pilot project focused on identifying the added costs and energy savings benefits of improvements.

  15. Impact assessment and performance targets for lighting and envelope systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.; Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.

    1992-06-01

    Electric lighting loads and cooling from solar heat gains and from lights are the two largest components of peak demand in commercial buildings. The most cost effective demand side management solutions are generally those that directly reduce or eliminate these loads. Existing technologies can provide modest reductions, however they are typically applied an a piecemeal manner that yields less than optimal results. The full potential of existing technologies will be realized when they are commercially available in an integrated package easily specifiable by architects and engineers. Emerging technologies can also be developed to provide even greater savings and extend the savings over a greater portion of the building floor area. This report assesses achievable energy and peak demand performance in California commercial buildings with technologies available today and in the future. We characterize energy performance over a large range of building envelope and lighting conditions, both through computer simulation models and through case study measured data, and subsequently determine reasonable energy targets if building design were further optimized with integrated systems of current or new technologies. Energy targets are derived from the study after consideration of industry priorities, design constraints, market forces, energy code influence, and the state of current building stock.

  16. Wind energy systems: program summary

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    The Federal Wind Energy Program (FWEP) was initiated to provide focus, direction and funds for the development of wind power. Each year a summary is prepared to provide the American public with an overview of government sponsored activities in the FWEP. This program summary describes each of the Department of Energy's (DOE) current wind energy projects initiated or renewed during FY 1979 (October 1, 1978 through September 30, 1979) and reflects their status as of April 30, 1980. The summary highlights on-going research, development and demonstration efforts and serves as a record of progress towards the program objectives. It also provides: the program's general management structure; review of last year's achievements; forecast of expected future trends; documentation of the projects conducted during FY 1979; and list of key wind energy publications.

  17. Biomass energy systems program summary

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    Research programs in biomass which were funded by the US DOE during fiscal year 1978 are listed in this program summary. The conversion technologies and their applications have been grouped into program elements according to the time frame in which they are expected to enter the commercial market. (DMC)

  18. The 5-kwe reactor thermoelectric system summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanosdol, J. H. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    Design of the 5-kwe reactor thermoelectric system was initiated in February 1972 and extended through the conceptual design phase into the preliminary design phase. Design effort was terminated in January, 1973. This report documents the system and component requirements, design approaches, and performance and design characteristics for the 5-kwe system. Included is summary information on the reactor, radiation shields, power conversion systems, thermoelectric pump, radiator/structure, liquid metal components, and the control system.

  19. Renewable Systems Interconnection: Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.; Margolis, R.; Kuswa, G.; Torres, J.; Bower, W.; Key, T.; Ton, D.

    2008-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy launched the Renewable Systems Interconnection (RSI) study in 2007 to address the challenges to high penetrations of distributed renewable energy technologies. The RSI study consists of 14 additional reports.

  20. Fluid management systems technology summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, J. A.; Blatt, M. H.; Bennett, F. O., Jr.; Campbell, B. J.

    1974-01-01

    A summarization and categorization of the pertinent literature associated with fluid management systems technology having potential application to in-orbit fluid transfer and/or associated storage are presented. A literature search was conducted to obtain pertinent documents for review. Reports determined to be of primary significance were summarized in the following manner: (1) report identification, (2) objective(s) of the work, (3) description of pertinent work performed, (4) major results, and (5) comments of the reviewer. Pertinent figures are presented on a single facing page separate from the text. Specific areas covered are: fluid line dynamics and thermodynamics, low-g mass gauging, other instrumentation, stratification/pressurization, low-g vent systems, fluid mixing refrigeration and reliquefaction, and low-g interface control and liquid acquisition systems. Reports which were reviewed and not summarized, along with reasons for not summarizing, are also listed.

  1. A comprehensive approach to integrated envelope and lighting systems for new commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.E.; Rubinstein, F.M.; Klems, J.H.; Beltran, L.O.; DiBartolomeo, D.L.

    1994-05-01

    The authors define a comprehensive approach to integrated envelope and lighting systems design as one that balances energy efficiency with an equal regard to the resultant environmental quality. By integrating envelope components (glazing, shading, and daylighting), lighting components (fixtures and controls) and building HVAC/energy management control systems, they create building systems that have the potential to achieve significant decreases in electricity consumption and peak demand while satisfying occupant physiological and psychological concerns. This paper presents results on the development, implementation, and demonstration of two specific integrated envelope and lighting systems: (1) a system emphasizing dynamic envelope components and responsive electric lighting systems, that offer the potential to achieve energy efficiency goals and a near optimum comfort environment throughout the year by adapting to meteorological conditions and occupant preferences in real time, and (2) perimeter daylighting systems that increase the depth of daylight penetration from sidelight windows and improves visual comfort with the use of a small inlet aperture. The energy performance of the systems was estimated using the DOE-2 building energy simulation program. Field tests with reduced scale models were conducted to determine daylighting and thermal performance in real time under actual weather conditions. Demonstrations of these integrated systems are being planned or are in progress in collaboration with utility programs to resolve real-world implementation issues under complex site, building, and cost constraints. Results indicate that integrated systems offer solutions that not only achieve significant peak demand reductions but also realize consistent energy savings with added occupant comfort and satisfaction.

  2. Integrated envelope and lighting systems for commercial buildings: a retrospective

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    1998-06-01

    Daylighting systems in use world-wide rarely capture the energy-savings predicted by simulation tools and that we believe are achievable in real buildings. One of the primary reasons for this is that window and lighting systems are not designed and operated as an integrated system. Our efforts over the last five years have been targeted toward (1) development and testing of new prototype systems that involve a higher degree of systems integration than has been typical in the past, and (2) addressing current design and technological barriers that are often missed with component-oriented research. We summarize the results from this body of cross-disciplinary research and discuss its effects on the existing and future practice of daylighting in commercial buildings.

  3. Automated Portable Test System (APTS) - A performance envelope assessment tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, R. S.; Dunlap, W. P.; Jones, M. B.; Wilkes, R. L.; Bittner, A. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The reliability and stability of microcomputer-based psychological tests are evaluated. The hardware, test programs, and system control of the Automated Portable Test System, which assesses human performance and subjective status, are described. Subjects were administered 11 pen-and-pencil and microcomputer-based tests for 10 sessions. The data reveal that nine of the 10 tests stabilized by the third administration; inertial correlations were high and consistent. It is noted that the microcomputer-based tests display good psychometric properties in terms of differential stability and reliability.

  4. Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) progress report for DOE Office of Buildings Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Burn, G.

    1990-12-01

    The Monthly Report of the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) Program is a monthly update of both in-house ORNL projects and subcontract activities in the research areas of building materials, wall systems, foundations, roofs, and building diagnostics. Presentations are not stand-alone paragraphs every month. Their principal values are the short-time lapse between accomplishment and reporting and their evolution over a period of several months.

  5. Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) and research utilization/technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Burn, G.

    1990-07-01

    The Monthly Report of the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) Programs is a monthly update of both in-house ORNL projects and subcontract activities in the research areas of building materials, wall systems, foundations, roofs, building diagnostics, and research utilization and technology transfer. Presentations are not stand-alone paragraphs every month. Their principal values are the short-time lapse between accomplishment and reporting and their evolution over a period of several months..

  6. Building thermal envelope systems and materials (BTESM) progress report for DOE Office of Buildings Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Burn, G.

    1990-10-01

    The Monthly Report of the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) Program is a monthly update of both in-house ORNL projects and subcontract activities in the research areas of building materials, wall systems, foundations, roofs, and building diagnostics. Presentations are not stand-alone paragraphs every month. Their principal values are the short-time lapse between accomplishment and reporting and their evolution over a period of several months.

  7. Testing to expand the rotary mode core sampling system operating envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Witwer, K.S.

    1998-01-21

    Rotary sampling using the Rotary Mode Core Sampling System (RMCSS) is constrained by what is referred to as the ``Operating Envelope``. The Operating Envelop defines the maximum downward force, maximum rotational speed and minimum purge gas flow allowed during operation of the RMCSS. The original values of 1170 lb. down force, 55 RPM rotational speed, and 30 SCFM nitrogen purge gas were determined during original envelope testing. This envelope was determined by observing the temperature rise on the bitface while drilling into waste simulants. The maximum temperature in single-shell tanks (SSTS) is considered to be approximately 9O C and the critical drill bit temperature, which is the temperature at which an exothermic reaction could be initiated in the tank waste, was previously determined to be 150 C. Thus, the drill bit temperature increase was limited to 60 C. Thermal properties of these simulants approximated typical properties of waste tank saltcake. Later, more detailed envelope testing which used a pumice block simulant, showed a notably higher temperature rise while drilling. This pumice material, which simulated a ``worst case`` foreign object embedded in the waste, has lower thermal conductivity and lower thermal diffusivity than earlier simulants. These properties caused a slower heat transfer in the pumice than in the previous simulants and consequently a higher temperature rise. The maximum downward force was subsequently reduced to 750 lb (at a maximum 55 RPM and minimum 30 SCFM purge gas flow) which was the maximum value at which the drill bit could be operated and still remain below the 60 C temperature rise.

  8. EFFECTS OF DRAIN ENVELOPE AND SLOPE ON PERFORMANCE OF A DRAINAGE-SUBIRRIGATION SYSTEM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davenport, Marjorie S.; Skaggs, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    A field study was conducted to determine the effect of fabric wrap envelope and drain slope on the performance of a combination drainage and subirrigation system. Data were analyzed by examining relationships between flow rate and midpoint water table elevations. An entry resistance was defined and its value for each pair of 9,100 data points for drain flow rate versus water table elevation midway between the drains. Analyses were conducted to determine if the entry resistance changed with time after the drainage system was installed. Results of the study showed that the effect of slope and envelope on drainage and subirrigation varied somewhat depending on field location. However, an analysis of the data led to conclusions that the paper discusses.

  9. Decision Envelopment Analysis of space and terrestrially-based large scale commercial power systems for earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criswell, David R.; Thompson, Russell G.

    1992-08-01

    Decision Envelopment Analysis (DEA), the detailed quantitative comparison of alternative economic systems, is used to compare the technical efficiency of the large-scale power systems needed to meet the growing energy needs of terrestrial society. The Lunar Power System (LPS) captures sunlight on the moon, converts it to microwaves and beams the power to receivers on earth that output electricity. In terms of benefits versus costs, normalized to the range of 0 to 1, DEA reveals that LPS is at least ten times more efficient than conventional terrestrial solar-thermal and -photovoltaic, fossil, and nuclear systems. LPS is also environmentally benign compared to the conventional systems.

  10. Programmed packaging of multicomponent envelope-type nanoparticle system for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzi, Daniela; Marianecci, Carlotta; Carafa, Maria; Marchini, Cristina; Montani, Maura; Amici, Augusto; Caracciolo, Giulio

    2010-05-01

    A programmed packaging strategy to develop a multicomponent envelope-type nanoparticle system (MENS) is presented. To this end, we took specific advantage of using in-house tailored liposomes that have been recently shown to exhibit intrinsic endosomal rupture properties that allow plasmid DNA to escape from endosomes and to enter the nucleus with extremely high efficiency. Transfection efficiency experiments on NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts indicate that MENS is a promising transfection candidate.

  11. Management summary report. Auditing and financial system

    SciTech Connect

    Feldmiller, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    Increased leasing of Federal lands for energy exploration will add to the regulatory and administrative responsibilities of the USGS's Conservation Division. Similar responsibilities for Indian lands will arise. The objectives of the Conservation Division is to reduce the regulatory burden on industry while effectively and efficiently discharging its responsibility. This Management Summary Report represents the completion of the Preliminary Systems Design of the Auditing and Financial System, and is the first phase of the Improved Royalty Management Program (IRMP). Work reported includes: a Functional Specifications Report; Technical Specifications Report; Installation Plan; and a cost/benefit analysis. The potential benefits to be realized from the IRMP are significant and include: increased royalty receipts; more timely availability of funds; increased productivity of personnel; reduced regulatory burden on private industry; tighter security over information collected; reduced exposure to fraud and abuse; and better control over activities and funds.

  12. Micro-total envelope system with silicon nanowire separator for safe carcinogenic chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajay K.; Ko, Dong-Hyeon; Vishwakarma, Niraj K.; Jang, Seungwook; Min, Kyoung-Ik; Kim, Dong-Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Exploration and expansion of the chemistries involving toxic or carcinogenic reagents are severely limited by the health hazards their presence poses. Here, we present a micro-total envelope system (μ-TES) and an automated total process for the generation of the carcinogenic reagent, its purification and its utilization for a desired synthesis that is totally enveloped from being exposed to the carcinogen. A unique microseparator is developed on the basis of SiNWs structure to replace the usual exposure-prone distillation in separating the generated reagent. Chloromethyl methyl ether chemistry is explored as a carcinogenic model in demonstrating the efficiency of the μ-TES that is fully automated so that feeding the ingredients for the generation is all it takes to produce the desired product. Syntheses taking days can be accomplished safely in minutes with excellent yields, which bodes well for elevating the carcinogenic chemistry to new unexplored dimensions. PMID:26916423

  13. Micro-total envelope system with silicon nanowire separator for safe carcinogenic chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajay K.; Ko, Dong-Hyeon; Vishwakarma, Niraj K.; Jang, Seungwook; Min, Kyoung-Ik; Kim, Dong-Pyo

    2016-02-01

    Exploration and expansion of the chemistries involving toxic or carcinogenic reagents are severely limited by the health hazards their presence poses. Here, we present a micro-total envelope system (μ-TES) and an automated total process for the generation of the carcinogenic reagent, its purification and its utilization for a desired synthesis that is totally enveloped from being exposed to the carcinogen. A unique microseparator is developed on the basis of SiNWs structure to replace the usual exposure-prone distillation in separating the generated reagent. Chloromethyl methyl ether chemistry is explored as a carcinogenic model in demonstrating the efficiency of the μ-TES that is fully automated so that feeding the ingredients for the generation is all it takes to produce the desired product. Syntheses taking days can be accomplished safely in minutes with excellent yields, which bodes well for elevating the carcinogenic chemistry to new unexplored dimensions.

  14. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) privatization contractor samples waste envelope D material 241-C-106

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-04-14

    This report represents the Final Analytical Report on Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Contractor Samples for Waste Envelope D. All work was conducted in accordance with ''Addendum 1 of the Letter of Instruction (LOI) for TWRS Privatization Contractor Samples Addressing Waste Envelope D Materials - Revision 0, Revision 1, and Revision 2.'' (Jones 1996, Wiemers 1996a, Wiemers 1996b) Tank 241-C-1 06 (C-106) was selected by TWRS Privatization for the Part 1A Envelope D high-level waste demonstration. Twenty bottles of Tank C-106 material were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company using a grab sampling technique and transferred to the 325 building for processing by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). At the 325 building, the contents of the twenty bottles were combined into a single Initial Composite Material. This composite was subsampled for the laboratory-scale screening test and characterization testing, and the remainder was transferred to the 324 building for bench-scale preparation of the Privatization Contractor samples.

  15. Environmental management system objectives & targets results summary :

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2014-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexicos (SNL/NM) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each Fiscal Year (FY) SNL/NM performs an analysis to identify environmental aspects, and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are established to mitigate potential impacts of SNL/NMs operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established Sandia Corporation and SNL/NM Site-specific objectives and targets provides a connection to, and rational for, annually revised environmental aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY2013.

  16. Transportation systems analyses: Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-05-01

    The principal objective of this study is to accomplish a systems engineering assessment of the nation's space transportation infrastructure. This analysis addresses the necessary elements to perform man delivery and return, cargo transfer, cargo delivery, payload servicing, and the exploration of the Moon and Mars. Specific elements analyzed, but not limited to, include the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), the National Launch System (NLS), the current expendable launch vehicle (ELV) fleet, ground facilities, the Space Station Freedom (SSF), and other civil, military and commercial payloads. The performance of this study entails maintaining a broad perspective on the large number of transportation elements that could potentially comprise the U.S. space infrastructure over the next several decades. To perform this systems evaluation, top-level trade studies are conducted to enhance our understanding of the relationships between elements of the infrastructure. This broad 'infrastructure-level perspective' permits the identification of preferred infrastructures. Sensitivity analyses are performed to assure the credibility and usefulness of study results. This executive summary of the transportation systems analyses (TSM) semi-annual report addresses the SSF logistics resupply. Our analysis parallels the ongoing NASA SSF redesign effort. Therefore, there could be no SSF design to drive our logistics analysis. Consequently, the analysis attempted to bound the reasonable SSF design possibilities (and the subsequent transportation implications). No other strategy really exists until after a final decision is rendered on the SSF configuration.

  17. Direct carrier-envelope phase control of an amplified laser system.

    PubMed

    Balčiūnas, Tadas; Flöry, Tobias; Baltuška, Andrius; Stanislauskas, Tomas; Antipenkov, Roman; Varanavičius, Arūnas; Steinmeyer, Günter

    2014-03-15

    Direct carrier-envelope phase stabilization of an Yb:KGW MOPA laser system is demonstrated with a residual phase jitter reduced to below 100 mrad, which compares favorably with previous stabilization reports, both of amplified laser systems as well as of ytterbium-based oscillators. This novel stabilization scheme relies on a frequency synthesis scheme and a feed-forward approach. The direct stabilization of a sub-MHz frequency comb from a CPA amplifier not only reduces the phase noise but also greatly simplifies the stabilization setup. PMID:24690865

  18. Twin-arginine Translocation System (tat) Mutants of Salmonella are Attenuated Due to Envelope Defects, not Respiratory Defects

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Maureen; Sadik, Adam Y.; Golubeva, Yekaterina A.; Tidhar, Avital; Slauch, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The twin-arginine translocation system (Tat) transports folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane and is critical to virulence in Salmonella and other pathogens. Experimental and bioinformatic data indicate that 30 proteins are exported via Tat in Salmonella Typhimurium. However, there are no data linking specific Tat substrates with virulence. We inactivated every Tat-exported protein and determined the virulence phenotype of mutant strains. Though a tat mutant is highly attenuated, no single Tat-exported substrate accounts for this virulence phenotype. Rather, the attenuation is due primarily to envelope defects caused by failure to translocate three Tat substrates, the N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidases, AmiA and AmiC, and the cell division protein, SufI. Strikingly, neither the amiA amiC nor the sufI mutations alone conferred any virulence defect. Although AmiC and SufI have previously been localized to the divisome, the synthetic phenotypes observed are the first to suggest functional overlap. Many Tat substrates are involved in anaerobic respiration, but we show that a mutant completely deficient in anaerobic respiration retains full virulence in both the oral and systemic phases of infection. Similarly, an obligately aerobic mutant is fully virulent. These results suggest that in the classic mouse model of infection, S. Typhimurium is replicating only in aerobic environments. PMID:23822642

  19. Automatic Summary Assessment for Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Yulan; Hui, Siu Cheung; Quan, Tho Thanh

    2009-01-01

    Summary writing is an important part of many English Language Examinations. As grading students' summary writings is a very time-consuming task, computer-assisted assessment will help teachers carry out the grading more effectively. Several techniques such as latent semantic analysis (LSA), n-gram co-occurrence and BLEU have been proposed to…

  20. Development and Implementation of a Model-Driven Envelope Protection System for In-Flight Ice Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gingras, David R.; Barnhart, Billy P.; Martos, Borja; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Morelli, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Fatal loss-of-control (LOC) accidents have been directly related to in-flight airframe icing. The prototype system presented in this paper directly addresses the need for real-time onboard envelope protection in icing conditions. The combinations of a-priori information and realtime aerodynamic estimations are shown to provide sufficient input for determining safe limits of the flight envelope during in-flight icing encounters. The Icing Contamination Envelope Protection (ICEPro) system has been designed and implemented to identify degradations in airplane performance and flying qualities resulting from ice contamination and provide safe flight-envelope cues to the pilot. Components of ICEPro are described and results from preliminary tests are presented.

  1. Energy integrated farm system technical summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Breckenridge, R.P.; Price, D.R.; Sherwood, R.K.; Thompson, W.N.

    1987-03-01

    The Energy Integrated Farm System program was established by the Department of Energy in 1980 in response to the hardship imposed on US farmers by high fuel costs and unreliable fuel supplies. The program investigated the feasibility of integrating energy conservation practices with on-farm energy production to reduce farm energy consumption and make farms more energy self-sufficient. Seven farms located in various geographical regions in the US and Puerto Rico participated in the program. Each of these farms developed an energy integrated farm system project that used a unique combination of energy production and energy conservation methods to supply energy to the farm and reduce the farm's dependence on energy produced from nonrenewable sources such as coal and oil. Methods used at these projects included conservation tillage, solar heating, waste heat recovery, methane digestion, electricity production from biogas, alcohol fuel production, fluidized-bed combustion of crop wastes, and computer-aided conservation irrigation. This report is a summary of the seven technical manuals prepared at the conclusion of the projects. It presents highlights and results, provides an overview of successes and problems, and lists recommendations.

  2. Improved modelling of HVAC system/envelope inteactions in residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Modera, M.P.; Treidler, B.

    1995-03-01

    General building energy simulation programs do not typically simulate interactions between HVAC systems and building envelopes. For this reason, a simulation tool which includes interactions between duct systems, building envelopes, and heating and cooling appliances in residential buildings has been developed. The simulation tool uses DOE- 2 (to model space conditioning loads and zone temperatures), COMIS (an airflow network solver), and a model of duct leakage and conduction losses. Three augmentations to the simulation tool are presented herein, along with sample results. These include: (1) modeling of steady-state thermosiphon flows in ducts, (2) improved simplified modeling of duct thermal mass effects, and (3) modeling of multi-speed space conditioning equipment. Multi-speed air conditioners are shown to be more sensitive to duct efficiency than single-speed equipment, because their efficiency decreases with increasing cooling load. Thermosiphon flows through duct systems are estimated to be 5-16% of the total heating load, depending on the duct insulation level. The duct dynamics model indicates that duct thermal mass decreases the energy delivery efficiency of the distribution system by 1-6 percentage points.

  3. Measurement of reach envelopes with a four-camera Selective Spot Recognition (SELSPOT) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stramler, J. H., Jr.; Woolford, B. J.

    1983-01-01

    The basic Selective Spot Recognition (SELSPOT) system is essentially a system which uses infrared LEDs and a 'camera' with an infrared-sensitive photodetector, a focusing lens, and some A/D electronics to produce a digital output representing an X and Y coordinate for each LED for each camera. When the data are synthesized across all cameras with appropriate calibrations, an XYZ set of coordinates is obtained for each LED at a given point in time. Attention is given to the operating modes, a system checkout, and reach envelopes and software. The Video Recording Adapter (VRA) represents the main addition to the basic SELSPOT system. The VRA contains a microprocessor and other electronics which permit user selection of several options and some interaction with the system.

  4. Envelope Emission in Young Stellar Systems: A Subarcsecond Survey of Circumstellar Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Looney, Leslie W.; Mundy, Lee G.; Welch, W. J.

    2003-07-01

    We present modeling results for 6 of the 11 deeply embedded systems from our subarcsecond λ=2.7 mm continuum interferometric survey. The modeling, performed in the u-v plane, assumes dust properties, allows for a power-law density profile, uses a self-consistent, luminosity-conserving temperature profile, and has an embedded point source to represent a circumstellar disk. Even though we have the highest spatial resolution to date at these wavelengths, only the highest signal-to-noise ratio systems can adequately constrain the simple self-similar collapse models. Of the six sources modeled, all were fitted with a density power-law index of 2.0; however, in half of the systems, those with the highest signal-to-noise ratio, a density power-law index of 1.5 can be rejected at the 95% confidence level. Further, we modeled the systems using the pure Larson-Penston (LP) and Shu solutions, with only age and sound speed as parameters. Overall, the LP solution provides a better fit to the data, in both likelihood and providing the observed luminosity, but the ages of the systems required by the fits are surprisingly low (1000-2000 yr). We suggest that either there is some overall time scaling of the self-similar solutions that invalidates the age estimates or, more likely, we are at the limit of the usefulness of these models. With our observations we have begun to reach the stage at which models need to incorporate more of the fundamental physics of the collapse process, probably including magnetic fields and/or turbulence. In addition to constraining collapse solutions, our modeling allows the separation of large-scale emission from compact emission, enabling the probing of the circumstellar disk component embedded within the protostellar envelope. Typically, 85% or more of the total emission is from the extended circumstellar envelope component. Using HL Tauri as a standard candle, the range of circumstellar disk masses allowed in our models is 0.0-0.12 Msolar our Class

  5. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Cortical Processing of Dynamic Sound Envelope Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2012-01-01

    Slow envelope fluctuations in the range of 2-20Hz provide important segmental cues for processing communication sounds. For a successful segmentation, a neural processor must capture envelope features associated with the rise and fall of signal energy, a process that is often challenged by the interference of background noise. This study investigated the neural representations of slowly varying envelopes in quiet and in background noise in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of awake marmoset monkeys. We characterized envelope features based on the local average and rate of change of sound level in envelope waveforms and identified envelope features to which neurons were selective by reverse correlation. Our results showed that envelope feature selectivity of A1 neurons was correlated with the degree of non-monotonicity in their static rate-level functions. Non-monotonic neurons exhibited greater feature selectivity than monotonic neurons in quiet and in background noise. The diverse envelope feature selectivity decreased spike-timing correlation among A1 neurons in response to the same envelope waveforms. As a result, the variability, but not the average, of the ensemble responses of A1 neurons represented more faithfully the dynamic transitions in low-frequency sound envelopes both in quiet and in background noise. PMID:21148013

  6. The cell envelope proteome of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kenneth P.; Fields, Julia G.; Voogt, Richard D.; Deng, Bin; Lam, Ying-Wai; Mintz, Keith P.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria serves a critical role in maintenance of cellular homeostasis, resistance to external stress, and host-pathogen interactions. Envelope protein composition is influenced by the physiological and environmental demands placed on the bacterium. In this study, we report a comprehensive compilation of cell envelope proteins from the periodontal and systemic pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans VT1169, an afimbriated serotype b strain. The urea-extracted membrane proteins were identified by mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics. The membrane proteome, isolated from actively growing bacteria under normal laboratory conditions, included 648 proteins representing 28% of the predicted ORFs in the genome. Bioinformatic analyses were used to annotate and predict the cellular location and function of the proteins. Surface adhesins, porins, lipoproteins, numerous influx and efflux pumps, multiple sugar, amino acid and iron transporters, and components of the type I, II and V secretion systems were identified. Periplasmic space and cytoplasmic proteins with chaperone function were also identified. 107 proteins with unknown function were associated with the cell envelope. Orthologs of a subset of these uncharacterized proteins are present in other bacterial genomes, while others are found exclusively in A. actinomycetemcomitans. This knowledge will contribute to elucidating the role of cell envelope proteins in bacterial growth and survival in the oral cavity. PMID:25055881

  7. Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, Kimitaka

    2009-02-19

    In this presentation, lectures in the school are revisited and a brief summary is given. An emphasis is made to illustrate how the lectures are interconnected so as to constitute the unified basis of knowledge in realizing thermonuclear fusion in ITER.The first message here is the integration of the knowledge. All of conditions (which is imposed by individual characteristic dynamics) must be simultaneously fulfilled. Plasma conditions (density, pressure, current, shape, etc.) set parameter boundaries. Achievement of Q = 10 is expected to be realized near the ridge of boundary, so that exact knowledge of mutual relations between constraints is inevitable. The other message is that, the constraints of plasma, material and design must be subject to a special care. In this regard, the use of tritium in ITER introduces new issue in research. For instance, the containment of tritium in the device leads to a new demand for the system. This issue influences the choice of the wall material. The difference of the wall material (either light element or heavy metal), on the other hand, can have a large impact on confinement. These new features in integration will be explained.The other issue is the need of integration of knowledge to form a law of understanding. The mission of ITER must be realized as fast as possible, considering the fact the necessity for fusion energy will be more keen as time goes on. The operation of ITER has been predicted by extending the empirical scaling relations. More precise prediction and the resolution of possible problems in advance are required. For this urgency, our knowledge must be distilled as a scientific law in which elementary processes are validated.

  8. Definition and means of maintaining the emergency notification and evacuation system portion of the plutonium finishing plant safety envelope

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, W.F.

    1999-05-20

    The Emergency Evacuation and Notification System provides information to the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Building Emergency Director to assist in determining appropriate emergency response, notifies personnel of the required response, and assists in their response. The report identifies the equipment in the Safety Envelope (SE) for this System and the Administrative, Maintenance, and Surveillance Procedures used to maintain the SE Equipment.

  9. Definition and means of maintaining the emergency notification and evacuation system portion of the Plutonium Finishing Plant safety envelope

    SciTech Connect

    White, W.F.

    1997-04-21

    The Emergency Evacuation and Notification System provides information to the PFP Building Emergency Director to assist in determining appropriate emergency response, notifies personnel of the required response, and assists in their response. The report identifies the equipment in the Safety Envelope (SE) for this System and the Administrative, Maintenance, and Surveillance Procedures used to maintain the SE Equipment.

  10. Envelope pulsed ultrasonic distance measurement system based upon amplitude modulation and phase modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. P.; Wang, J. S.; Huang, K. N.; Ho, C. T.; Huang, J. D.; Young, M. S.

    2007-06-01

    A novel microcomputer-based ultrasonic distance measurement system is presented. This study proposes an efficient algorithm which combines both the amplitude modulation (AM) and the phase modulation (PM) of the pulse-echo technique. The proposed system can reduce error caused by inertia delay and amplitude attenuation effect when using the AM and PM envelope square wave form (APESW). The APESW ultrasonic driving wave form causes a phase inversion phenomenon in the relative wave form of the receiver. The phase inversion phenomenon sufficiently identifies the "measurement pulse" in the received wave forms, which can be used for accurate time-of-flight (TOF) measurement. In addition, combining a countertechnique to compute the phase shifts of the last cycle for TOF, the presented system can obtain distance resolution of 0.1% of the wavelength corresponding to the 40kHz frequency of the ultrasonic wave. The standard uncertainty of the proposed distance measurement system is found to be 0.2mm at a range of 50-500mm. The APESW signal generator and phase detector of this measuring system are designed on a complex programmable logic device, which is used to govern the TOF measurement and send the data to a personal computer for distance calibration and examination. The main advantages of this APESW system are high resolution, low cost, narrow bandwidth requirement, and ease of implementation.

  11. [Basic types of respiratory system structure in insect egg envelopes, and genes controlling their formation].

    PubMed

    Omelina, E S; Baricheva, É M; Fedorova, E V

    2012-01-01

    Insects is a taxon surprisingly rich with species and varieties, and its representatives are considered as the most fitted and "evolutionary successful" living things. Insects are distinguished by diversity and abundance of adaptations to environmental conditions, representatives of this class inhabit different ecological niches, they can be found practically in every corner of the Earth and, in particular, in close adjacency to man. Among them are those who man benefits from and those who man struggles against. This determines man's interest in studying peculiarities of their development as well as adaptations formed by them in the course of evolution to become more viable. In the paper, data are presented on morphological structure of respiratory systems in insect egg envelopes that ensure respiration process of developing embryo. Variability of these systems and their dependence on environmental conditions are demonstrated for different insect species. The information about genes controlling development of respiratory systems in fruit fly eggs is brought together, and occurrence of evolutionary conservative genes participating in development of such systems in other insect species is ascertained. PMID:22834166

  12. Definition and Means of Maintaining the Emergency Notification and Evacuation System Portion of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Safety Envelope

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, W.F.

    2000-04-04

    The purpose of this document is to provide the definition and means of maintaining the safety envelope (SE) for the Emergency Notification and Evacuation System (ENES). Together with the appendices, it provides: (1) The system requirements for determining system operability (Section 3.0); (2) Evaluations of equipment to determine the safety boundary for the system (Section 4.0); (3) List of system drawings that are annotated to show the SE boundaries (Appendix A); (4) Identification of the SE equipment by reference to systems and drawings (Appendix B); (5) Requirements for the individual SE equipment (Section 4.0); and (6) A list of the operational and surveillance procedures necessary to operate and maintain the system equipment within the SE (Sections 5.0 and 6.0). The Private Automatic Exchange (PAX) phones and PAX switchers are outside the safety envelope defined in WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010, Section 5.4.10, ''Safety Communication and Alarm Systems,'' Section 5.4.1 0.1, ''Major Components and Operating Characteristics,'' and Section 5.4.10.1.12, ''PAX System.'' The PAX override microphone system maintains the safety envelope, and functions as a backup to the evacuation sirens during an emergency.

  13. Cavity control system: optimization methods for single cavity driving and envelope detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarski, Tomasz; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Simrock, Stefan

    2004-07-01

    The paper is an introduction to the optimization methods of the linear accelerator cavity control system. Three distinct time periods of cavity operation are considered; filling with the EM field energy, field stabilization, and field decay. These periods represent completely different states and behavior of the cavity. The cavity could be operated by several different methods in each work phase: During the filling -- feedback and feed-forward alone, feedback and feed-forward together, self-tuning; During the flattop -- feed-forward and feedback alone or together, During the decay -- detuning and quality factor may be measured. The optimization is understood as a choice of the most efficient way of the cavity control during each period. The control may be done in terms of minimum power consumption from the klystron during whole work cycle and efficient field stabilization in the cavity, during flattop period. The introductory analysis of the cavity operational modes in three mentioned periods is presented in this paper. Additionally the alternative more precise algorithm of the cavity voltage envelope detection is proposed.

  14. Solar thermal power systems. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The work accomplished by the Aerospace Corporation from April 1973 through November 1979 in the mission analysis of solar thermal power systems is summarized. Sponsorship of this effort was initiated by the National Science Foundation, continued by the Energy Research and Development Administration, and most recently directed by the United States Department of Energy, Division of Solar Thermal Systems. Major findings and conclusions are sumarized for large power systems, small power systems, solar total energy systems, and solar irrigation systems, as well as special studies in the areas of energy storage, industrial process heat, and solar fuels and chemicals. The various data bases and computer programs utilized in these studies are described, and tables are provided listing financial and solar cost assumptions for each study. An extensive bibliography is included to facilitate review of specific study results and methodology.

  15. Mobile radio alternative systems study, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. E.; Cromwell, N.; Lester, H. L.

    1983-01-01

    Present day mobile communication technologies, systems and equipment are described from background in evaluating the concepts generated in the study. Average propagation ranges are calculated for terrestrial installations in each of seven physiographic areas of the contiguous states to determine the number of installations that would be required for nationwide coverage. Four system concepts are defined and analyzed to determine how well terrestrial systems can fulfill the requirements at acceptable costs.

  16. Confined Phase Envelope of Gas-Condensate Systems in Shale Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Stanislaw; Siemek, Jakub

    2014-12-01

    Natural gas from shales (NGS) and from tight rocks are one of the most important fossil energy resource in this and next decade. Significant increase in gas consumption, in all world regions, will be marked in the energy sector. The exploration of unconventional natural gas & oil reservoirs has been discussed recently in many conferences. This paper describes the complex phenomena related to the impact of adsorption and capillary condensation of gas-condensate systems in nanopores. New two phase saturation model and new algorithm for search capillary condensation area is discussed. The algorithm is based on the Modified Tangent Plane Criterion for Capillary Condensation (MTPCCC) is presented. The examples of shift of phase envelopes are presented for selected composition of gas-condensate systems. Gaz ziemny z łupków (NGS) oraz z ze złóż niskoprzepuszczalnych (typu `tight') staje się jednym z najważniejszych zasobów paliw kopalnych, w tym i następnym dziesięcioleciu. Znaczący wzrost zużycia gazu we wszystkich regionach świata zaznacza się głównie w sektorze energetycznym. Rozpoznawanie niekonwencjonalnych złóż gazu ziemnego i ropy naftowej w ostatnim czasie jest omawiane w wielu konferencjach. Niniejszy artykuł opisuje złożone zjawiska związane z wpływem adsorpcji i kapilarnej kondensacji w nanoporach w złożach gazowo-kondensatowych. Pokazano nowy dwufazowy model równowagowy dwufazowy i nowy algorytm wyznaczania krzywej nasycenia w obszarze kondensacji kapilarnej. Algorytm bazuje na kryterium zmodyfikowanym płaszczyzny stycznej dla kapilarnej kondensacji (MTPCCC). Przykłady zmiany krzywych nasycenia są przedstawiane w wybranym składzie systemów gazowo- kondensatowych

  17. A Summary Report of Six School Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miami Univ., Coral Gables, FL. South Florida School Desegregation Consulting Center.

    The conclusions and recommendations of a study of 6 Negro-majority school systems located in Georgia, Mississippi, and South Carolina are presented in this report. Dual school systems are operating in the districts studied, but all have started the desegregation process. Important considerations include past achievement differences, salary…

  18. Electrochemical-Storage-Systems Program summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, Q.

    1982-12-01

    A brief description of each contract and subcontract that was a part of the Electrochemical Energy Storage System (ECS) program through FY 1982 is provided. The work described covers electrochemical systems research, supporting research, electrochemical processes, and fuel cells for transportation, aqueous nonflow batteries, nonaqueous batteries, and battery testing. (LEW)

  19. Titan 3E/Centaur D-1T Systems Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A systems and operational summary of the Titan 3E/Centaur D-1T program is presented which describes vehicle assembly facilities, launch facilities, and management responsibilities, and also provides detailed information on the following separate systems: (1) mechanical systems, including structural components, insulation, propulsion units, reaction control, thrust vector control, hydraulic systems, and pneumatic equipment; (2) astrionics systems, such as instrumentation and telemetry, navigation and guidance, C-Band tracking system, and range safety command system; (3) digital computer unit software; (4) flight control systems; (5) electrical/electronic systems; and (6) ground support equipment, including checkout equipment.

  20. Influence of Different Envelope Maskers on Signal Recognition and Neuronal Representation in the Auditory System of a Grasshopper

    PubMed Central

    Neuhofer, Daniela; Ronacher, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Background Animals that communicate by sound face the problem that the signals arriving at the receiver often are degraded and masked by noise. Frequency filters in the receiver's auditory system may improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by excluding parts of the spectrum which are not occupied by the species-specific signals. This solution, however, is hardly amenable to species that produce broad band signals or have ears with broad frequency tuning. In mammals auditory filters exist that work in the temporal domain of amplitude modulations (AM). Do insects also use this type of filtering? Principal Findings Combining behavioural and neurophysiological experiments we investigated whether AM filters may improve the recognition of masked communication signals in grasshoppers. The AM pattern of the sound, its envelope, is crucial for signal recognition in these animals. We degraded the species-specific song by adding random fluctuations to its envelope. Six noise bands were used that differed in their overlap with the spectral content of the song envelope. If AM filters contribute to reduced masking, signal recognition should depend on the degree of overlap between the song envelope spectrum and the noise spectra. Contrary to this prediction, the resistance against signal degradation was the same for five of six masker bands. Most remarkably, the band with the strongest frequency overlap to the natural song envelope (0–100 Hz) impaired acceptance of degraded signals the least. To assess the noise filter capacities of single auditory neurons, the changes of spike trains as a function of the masking level were assessed. Increasing levels of signal degradation in different frequency bands led to similar changes in the spike trains in most neurones. Conclusions There is no indication that auditory neurones of grasshoppers are specialized to improve the SNR with respect to the pattern of amplitude modulations. PMID:22479619

  1. NsaRS is a cell-envelope-stress-sensing two-component system of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Kolar, Stacey L.; Nagarajan, Vijayaraj; Oszmiana, Anna; Rivera, Frances E.; Miller, Halie K.; Davenport, Jessica E.; Riordan, James T.; Potempa, Jan; Barber, David S.; Koziel, Joanna; Elasri, Mohamed O.

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus possesses 16 two-component systems (TCSs), two of which (GraRS and NsaRS) belong to the intramembrane-sensing histidine kinase (IM-HK) family, which is conserved within the firmicutes. NsaRS has recently been documented as being important for nisin resistance in S. aureus. In this study, we present a characterization of NsaRS and reveal that, as with other IM-HK TCSs, it responds to disruptions in the cell envelope. Analysis using a lacZ reporter–gene fusion demonstrated that nsaRS expression is upregulated by a variety of cell-envelope-damaging antibiotics, including phosphomycin, ampicillin, nisin, gramicidin, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and penicillin G. Additionally, we reveal that NsaRS regulates a downstream transporter NsaAB during nisin-induced stress. NsaS mutants also display a 200-fold decreased ability to develop resistance to the cell-wall-targeting antibiotic bacitracin. Microarray analysis reveals that the transcription of 245 genes is altered in an nsaS mutant, with the vast majority being downregulated. Included within this list are genes involved in transport, drug resistance, cell envelope synthesis, transcriptional regulation, amino acid metabolism and virulence. Using inductively coupled plasma-MS we observed a decrease in intracellular divalent metal ions in an nsaS mutant when grown under low abundance conditions. Characterization of cells using electron microscopy reveals that nsaS mutants have alterations in cell envelope structure. Finally, a variety of virulence-related phenotypes are impaired in nsaS mutants, including biofilm formation, resistance to killing by human macrophages and survival in whole human blood. Thus, NsaRS is important in sensing cell damage in S. aureus and functions to reprogram gene expression to modify cell envelope architecture, facilitating adaptation and survival. PMID:21565927

  2. Human Transportation System (HTS) study: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, N.; Geyer, M. S.; Gaunce, M. T.

    1993-01-01

    Work completed under the Human Transportation System Study is summarized. This study was conducted by the New Initiatives Office at JSC with the technical support of Boeing, General Dynamics, Lockheed, McDonnell-Douglas, Martin Marietta, and Rockwell. The study was designed to generate information on determining the appropriate path to follow for new system development to meet the Nation's space transportation needs. The study evaluates 18 transportation architecture options using a parametric set of mission requirements. These options include use of current systems as well as proposed systems to assess the impact of various considerations, such as the cost of alternate access, or the benefit of separating people and cargo. The architecture options are compared to each other with six measurable evaluation criteria or attributes. They are the following: funding profile, human safety, probability of mission success, architecture cost risk, launch schedule confidence, and environmental impact. Values for these attributes are presented for the architecture options, with pertinent conclusions and recommendations.

  3. Transportation systems analyses. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-11-01

    The principal objective is to accomplish a systems engineering assessment of the nation's space transportation infrastructure. This analysis addresses the necessary elements to perform crew delivery and return, cargo transfer, cargo delivery and return, payload servicing, and the exploration of the Moon and Mars. Specific elements analyzed, but not limited to, include: the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), the National Launch System (NLS), the current expendable launch vehicle (ELV) fleet, ground facilities, the Space Station Freedom (SSF), and other civil, military and commercial payloads. The performance of this study entails maintaining a broad perspective on the large number of transportation elements that could potentially comprise the U.S. space infrastructure over the next several decades. To perform this systems evaluation, top-level trade studies are conducted to enhance our understanding of the relationship between elements of the infrastructure. This broad 'infrastructure-level perspective' permits the identification of preferred infrastructures. Sensitivity analyses are performed to assure the credibility and usefulness of study results. Conceptual studies of transportation elements contribute to the systems approach by identifying elements (such as ETO node and transfer/excursion vehicles) needed in current and planned transportation systems. These studies are also a mechanism to integrate the results of relevant parallel studies.

  4. Realization of large systems. Summary talk

    SciTech Connect

    Derrick, M.

    1991-12-31

    We are facing the challenge of building four new detectors for the LHC/SSC of unprecedented size, cost and complexity. What can we learn from the experience of building the recently completed detectors that is relevant to this new challenge? To this end, a session was organized in which talks were given on the calorimeters of the four LEP detectors and on SLD, and on the three recently completed detectors that are not yet operating D0, H1, and ZEUS. In addition, presentations were made about a system study for a liquid argon calorimeter for LHC and on the calorimeter readout system for ZEUS.

  5. Satellite communications systems and technology. Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, Burton I.; Pelton, Joseph N.; Bostian, Charles W.; Brandon, William T.; Chan, Vincent W. S.; Hager, E. Paul; Helm, Neil R.; Jennings, Raymond D.; Kwan, Robert; Mahle, Christoph E.

    1993-01-01

    NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF) commissioned a panel of US experts to study the international status of satellite communications systems and technology. The study covers emerging systems concepts, applications, services, and the attendant technologies. The panel members travelled to Europe, Japan, and Russia to gather information first-hand. They visited 17 sites in Europe, 20 sites in Japan, and four in Russia. These included major manufacturers, government organizations, service providers, and associated R&D facilities. The panel's report was reviewed by the sites visited, by the panel, and by representatives of US industry. The report details the information collected and compares it to US activities.

  6. Pentek concrete scabbling system: Baseline report; Summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek concrete scabbling system consists of the MOOSE{reg_sign} scabbler, the SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-I and SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-III scabblers, and VAC-PAC. The scabblers are designed to scarify concrete floors and slabs using cross section, tungsten carbide tipped bits. The bits are designed to remove concrete in 3/8 inch increments. The bits are either 9-tooth or demolition type. The scabblers are used with a vacuum system designed to collect and filter the concrete dust and contamination that is removed from the surface. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  7. High voltage system: Plasma interaction summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. John

    1986-01-01

    The possible interactions that could exist between a high voltage system and the space plasma environment are reviewed. A solar array is used as an example of such a system. The emphasis in this review is on the discrepancies that exist in this technology in both flight and ground experiment data. It has been found that, in ground testing, there are facility effects, cell size effects and area scaling uncertainties. For space applications there are area scaling and discharge concerns for an array as well as the influence of the large space structures on the collection process. There are still considerable uncertainties in the high voltage-space plasma interaction technology even after several years of effort.

  8. High voltage system: Plasma interaction summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, N. John

    1986-10-01

    The possible interactions that could exist between a high voltage system and the space plasma environment are reviewed. A solar array is used as an example of such a system. The emphasis in this review is on the discrepancies that exist in this technology in both flight and ground experiment data. It has been found that, in ground testing, there are facility effects, cell size effects and area scaling uncertainties. For space applications there are area scaling and discharge concerns for an array as well as the influence of the large space structures on the collection process. There are still considerable uncertainties in the high voltage-space plasma interaction technology even after several years of effort.

  9. Satellite freeze forecast system: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martsolf, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    A satellite-based temperature monitoring and prediction system consisting of a computer controlled acquisition, processing, and display system and the ten automated weather stations called by that computer was developed and transferred to the national weather service. This satellite freeze forecasting system (SFFS) acquires satellite data from either one of two sources, surface data from 10 sites, displays the observed data in the form of color-coded thermal maps and in tables of automated weather station temperatures, computes predicted thermal maps when requested and displays such maps either automatically or manually, archives the data acquired, and makes comparisons with historical data. Except for the last function, SFFS handles these tasks in a highly automated fashion if the user so directs. The predicted thermal maps are the result of two models, one a physical energy budget of the soil and atmosphere interface and the other a statistical relationship between the sites at which the physical model predicts temperatures and each of the pixels of the satellite thermal map.

  10. Design of Training Systems Phase I Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, William H.; And Others

    A summary is provided of the status of Phase I of the three-stage project, "Design of Training Systems" (DOTS). The purpose of the overall project is described as being to introduce the technologies of education, psychology, management and operations research into the management of Navy training. Phase I of the effort is designed to provide a…

  11. Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    An effective risk assessment system is needed to address the threat posed by an active or passive insider who, acting alone or in collusion, could attempt diversion or theft of nuclear material. The material control and accountability (MC&A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) is a self-assessment or inspection tool utilizing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology to calculate the system effectiveness of a nuclear facility's material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system. The MSET process is divided into four distinct and separate parts: (1) Completion of the questionnaire that assembles information about the operations of every aspect of the MPC&A system; (2) Conversion of questionnaire data into numeric values associated with risk; (3) Analysis of the numeric data utilizing the MPC&A fault tree and the SAPHIRE computer software; and (4) Self-assessment using the MSET reports to perform the effectiveness evaluation of the facility's MPC&A system. The process should lead to confirmation that mitigating features of the system effectively minimize the threat, or it could lead to the conclusion that system improvements or upgrades are necessary to achieve acceptable protection against the threat. If the need for system improvements or upgrades is indicated when the system is analyzed, MSET provides the capability to evaluate potential or actual system improvements or upgrades. A facility's MC&A system can be evaluated at a point in time. The system can be reevaluated after upgrades are implemented or after other system changes occur. The total system or specific subareas within the system can be evaluated. Areas of potential system improvement can be assessed to determine where the most beneficial and cost-effective improvements should be made. Analyses of risk importance factors show that sustainability is essential for optimal performance and reveals where performance degradation has the greatest impact on total system risk. The risk

  12. STARPAHC systems report. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A joint NASA and Department of Health, Education, and Welfare/Indian Health Services demonstration project entitled Space Technology Applied to Rural Papago Advanced Health Care (STARPAHC) was conducted to develop a solution for delivering quality health care to people in remote geographical areas. The STARPAHC concept verified the feasibility of telemedicine plus physician assistant - under the direction of a physician as a means of delivering quality health care. The two years of operational evaluation have provided considerable medical and engineering data which will be valuable to the designers and planners of future health care systems on earth and in space.

  13. Innovative technology summary report: Transportable vitrification system

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    At the end of the cold war, many of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) major nuclear weapons facilities refocused their efforts on finding technically sound, economic, regulatory compliant, and stakeholder acceptable treatment solutions for the legacy of mixed wastes they had produced. In particular, an advanced stabilization process that could effectively treat the large volumes of settling pond and treatment sludges was needed. Based on this need, DOE and its contractors initiated in 1993 the EM-50 sponsored development effort required to produce a deployable mixed waste vitrification system. As a consequence, the Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) effort was undertaken with the primary requirement to develop and demonstrate the technology and associated facility to effectively vitrify, for compliant disposal, the applicable mixed waste sludges and solids across the various DOE complex sites. After 4 years of development testing with both crucible and pilot-scale melters, the TVS facility was constructed by Envitco, evaluated and demonstrated with surrogates, and then successfully transported to the ORNL ETTP site and demonstrated with actual mixed wastes in the fall of 1997. This paper describes the technology, its performance, the technology applicability and alternatives, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned.

  14. Summary of photovoltaic system performance models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. H.; Reiter, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed overview of photovoltaics (PV) performance modeling capabilities developed for analyzing PV system and component design and policy issues is provided. A set of 10 performance models are selected which span a representative range of capabilities from generalized first order calculations to highly specialized electrical network simulations. A set of performance modeling topics and characteristics is defined and used to examine some of the major issues associated with photovoltaic performance modeling. Each of the models is described in the context of these topics and characteristics to assess its purpose, approach, and level of detail. The issues are discussed in terms of the range of model capabilities available and summarized in tabular form for quick reference. The models are grouped into categories to illustrate their purposes and perspectives.

  15. Summary of photovoltaic system performance models

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J. H.; Reiter, L. J.

    1984-01-15

    The purpose of this study is to provide a detailed overview of photovoltaics (PV) performance modeling capabilities that have been developed during recent years for analyzing PV system and component design and policy issues. A set of 10 performance models have been selected which span a representative range of capabilities from generalized first-order calculations to highly specialized electrical network simulations. A set of performance modeling topics and characteristics is defined and used to examine some of the major issues associated with photovoltaic performance modeling. Next, each of the models is described in the context of these topics and characteristics to assess its purpose, approach, and level of detail. Then each of the issues is discussed in terms of the range of model capabilities available and summarized in tabular form for quick reference. Finally, the models are grouped into categories to illustrate their purposes and perspectives.

  16. A summary of Michigan program for earth resource information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    A summary and guide to the development of earth resources information systems which employ multispectral remote sensing are reported. Major areas of activities center on improved throughput parallel processing systems, improved processing techniques, practical use of techniques in user applications, and improved sensors. Cost effectiveness considerations point to signature extension, parallel processing all-digital computers, and airborne multispectral imaging radar as some of the improvement technologies.

  17. Extension to distributed annotation system: Summary and summaryplot commands.

    PubMed

    Chrysostomou, Charalambos; Brookes, Anthony J

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, the development of high-throughput sequencing technologies provided an effective way to generate data from entire genomes and test variants from thousands of individuals. The information acquired from analysing the data generated from high-throughput sequencing technologies provided useful insights into applications like whole-exome sequencing and targeted sequencing to discover the genetic cause of complex diseases and drug responses. The Distributed Annotation System (DAS) is one of the proposed solution developed to share and unify biological data from multiple local and remote DAS annotation servers. The researchers can use DAS to request data from federated or centralised databases and integrate them into a unified view. Furthermore, with the use of Reference DAS servers, structural and sequence data can be used to accompany annotation data, for the pursue of new knowledge for a particular feature or region. In this paper, two additional commands, summary and summary-plot commands, to the existing DAS protocol are proposed and implemented. The proposed commands were created in order to give the users the capabilities to request a summary of features for a particular region of interest. The summary command was created in order to extend the capabilities of the current DAS protocol, while the summaryplot command was created to provide a more user-friendly alternative to standard XML DAS responses. Finally, three examples are presented based on the GENCODE annotation data. PMID:26738065

  18. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Feasibility analyses and systems engineering studies for a 20,000 tons per day medium Btu (MBG) coal gasification plant to be built by TVA in Northern Alabama were conducted. Major objectives were as follows: (1) provide design and cost data to support the selection of a gasifier technology and other major plant design parameters, (2) provide design and cost data to support alternate product evaluation, (3) prepare a technology development plan to address areas of high technical risk, and (4) develop schedules, PERT charts, and a work breakdown structure to aid in preliminary project planning. Volume one contains a summary of gasification system characterizations. Five gasification technologies were selected for evaluation: Koppers-Totzek, Texaco, Lurgi Dry Ash, Slagging Lurgi, and Babcock and Wilcox. A summary of the trade studies and cost sensitivity analysis is included.

  19. Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide-Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiozis, A.N.

    2007-05-15

    This document serves as the final report documenting work completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Fraunhofer Institute in Building Physics (Holzkirchen, Germany) under an international CRADA No. 0575 with Fraunhofer Institute of Bauphysics of the Federal Republic of Germany for Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads. This CRADA required a multi-faceted approach to building envelope research that included a moisture engineering approach by blending extensive material property analysis, laboratory system and sub-system thermal and moisture testing, and advanced moisture analysis prediction performance. The Participant's Institute for Building physics (IBP) and the Contractor's Buildings Technology Center (BTC) identified potential research projects and activities capable of accelerating and advancing the development of innovative, low energy and durable building envelope systems in diverse climates. This allowed a major leverage of the limited resources available to ORNL to execute the required Department of Energy (DOE) directives in the area of moisture engineering. A joint working group (ORNL and Fraunhofer IBP) was assembled and a research plan was executed from May 2000 to May 2005. A number of key deliverables were produced such as adoption of North American loading into the WUFI-software. in addition the ORNL Weather File Analyzer was created and this has been used to address environmental loading for a variety of US climates. At least 4 papers have been co-written with the CRADA partners, and a chapter in the ASTM Manual 40 on Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control. All deliverables and goals were met and exceeded making this collaboration a success to all parties involves.

  20. Functional dissection of nuclear envelope mRNA translocation system: effects of phorbol ester and a monoclonal antibody recognizing cytoskeletal structures.

    PubMed

    Schröder, H C; Diehl-Seifert, B; Rottmann, M; Messer, R; Bryson, B A; Agutter, P S; Müller, W E

    1988-03-01

    Unidirectional transport of poly(A)-containing mRNA [poly(A)+ mRNA] through the nuclear envelope pore complex is thought to be an energy (ATP or GTP)-dependent process which involves a nuclear envelope nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase). In the intact envelope, this enzyme is regulatable by poly(A) binding and by poly(A)-dependent phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of other components of the mRNA translocation system, which are as yet unidentified. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were elicited against the poly(A) binding nuclear envelope fraction isolated from rat liver. The mAbs were screened for their modulatory effects on mRNA transport in vitro. One stable clone decreased the efflux of rapidly labeled RNA and of one specific mRNA (ovalbumin) from isolated nuclei. It increased the binding of poly(A) to the envelope and increased the maximal catalytic rate of the NTPase, but it did not alter the apparent Km of the enzyme or the extent of its stimulation by poly(A). The nuclear envelope-associated protein kinase that down-regulates the NTPase was inhibited by the antibody, while other protein kinases were not affected. Because both the NTPase and mRNA efflux were inhibited by the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, the sensitive kinase is probably protein kinase C. Protein kinase C was found to be associated with the isolated nuclear envelope. The antibody reacted with both a Mr 83,000 and a Mr 65,000 nuclear envelope polypeptide from rat liver and other tissues. By immunofluorescence microscopy in CV-1 cells, the antibody localized to the nuclear envelope and, in addition, to cytoplasmic filaments which show some superposition with the microfilament network.

  1. An accurate air temperature measurement system based on an envelope pulsed ultrasonic time-of-flight technique.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y S; Huang, Y P; Huang, K N; Young, M S

    2007-11-01

    A new microcomputer based air temperature measurement system is presented. An accurate temperature measurement is derived from the measurement of sound velocity by using an ultrasonic time-of-flight (TOF) technique. The study proposes a novel algorithm that combines both amplitude modulation (AM) and phase modulation (PM) to get the TOF measurement. The proposed system uses the AM and PM envelope square waveform (APESW) to reduce the error caused by inertia delay. The APESW ultrasonic driving waveform causes an envelope zero and phase inversion phenomenon in the relative waveform of the receiver. To accurately achieve a TOF measurement, the phase inversion phenomenon was used to sufficiently identify the measurement pulse in the received waveform. Additionally, a counter clock technique was combined to compute the phase shifts of the last incomplete cycle for TOF. The presented system can obtain 0.1% TOF resolution for the period corresponding to the 40 kHz frequency ultrasonic wave. Consequently, with the integration of a humidity compensation algorithm, a highly accurate and high resolution temperature measurement can be achieved using the accurate TOF measurement. Experimental results indicate that the combined standard uncertainty of the temperature measurement is approximately 0.39 degrees C. The main advantages of this system are high resolution measurements, narrow bandwidth requirements, and ease of implementation.

  2. Microwave Power Transmission System Studies. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, O. E.; Brown, W. C.; Edwards, A.; Meltz, G.; Haley, J. T.; Howell, J. M.; Nathan, A.

    1975-01-01

    A study of microwave power generation, transmission, reception and control was conducted as a part of a program to demonstrate the feasibility of power transmission from geosynchronous orbit. A summary is presented of results concerning design approaches, estimated costs (ROM), critical technology, associated ground and orbital test programs with emphasis on dc to rf conversion, transmitting antenna, phase control, mechanical systems, flight operations, ground power receiving-rectifying antenna with systems analysis, and evaluation. Recommendations for early further in-depth studies complementing the technology program are included.

  3. SAFEGUARDS ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Duc Cao; Richard Metcalf

    2010-07-01

    The Safeguards Envelope is a strategy to determine a set of specific operating parameters within which nuclear facilities may operate to maximize safeguards effectiveness without sacrificing safety or plant efficiency. This paper details advanced statistical techniques that will be applied to real plant process monitoring (PM) data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). In a simulation based on this data, multi-tank and multi-attribute correlations were tested against synthetic diversion scenarios. Kernel regression smoothing was used to fit a curve to the historical data, and multivariable, residual analysis and cumulative sum techniques set parameters for operating conditions. Diversion scenarios were created and tested, showing improved results when compared with a previous study utilizing only one-variable Z-testing. A brief analysis of the impact of the safeguards optimization on the rest of plant efficiency, criticality concerns, and overall requirements is presented.

  4. Microelectronic Information Processing Systems: Computing Systems. Summary of Awards Fiscal Year 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA. Directorate for Computer and Information Science and Engineering.

    The purpose of this summary of awards is to provide the scientific and engineering communities with a summary of the grants awarded in 1994 by the National Science Foundation's Division of Microelectronic Information Processing Systems. Similar areas of research are grouped together. Grantee institutions and principal investigators are identified…

  5. Targeted supplementation design for improved production and quality of enveloped viral particles in insect cell-baculovirus expression system.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Francisca; Bernal, Vicente; Chaillet, Maxime; Berger, Imre; Alves, Paula M

    2016-09-10

    The recent approval of vaccines and gene therapy products for human use produced in the Insect Cell-Baculovirus Expression Vector System (IC-BEVS) underlines the high potential and versatility of this platform. The interest in developing robust production processes emerges to cope with manufacturing pressure, as well as stringent product quality guidelines. Previously, we addressed the impact of the baculovirus infection on the physiology of insect host cell lines, identifying key cellular pathways enrolled in heterologous gene/protein expression. In the present work, this knowledge was applied to design tailored media supplementation schemes to boost IC-BEVS production yields and quality of enveloped viral particles: influenza VLPs (Inf-VLP) and baculovirus vectors (BV). The addition of reduced glutathione, antioxidants and polyamines increased the cell specific yields of baculovirus particles up to 3 fold. Cholesterol was identified as the most critical system booster, capable of improving 2.5 and 6-fold cell specific yields of BV and Inf-VLPs, respectively. Surprisingly, the combination of polyamines and cholesterol supplementation improved baculovirus stock quality, by preventing the accumulation of non-infectious particles during viral replication while selectively increasing infectious particles production. In addition, the specific yields of both enveloped viral particles, BVs and Inf-VLPs, were also increased. The correlation between supplement addition and systems productivity was extensively analyzed, providing a critical assessment on final product quantity and quality as drivers of bioprocess optimization efforts.

  6. Targeted supplementation design for improved production and quality of enveloped viral particles in insect cell-baculovirus expression system.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Francisca; Bernal, Vicente; Chaillet, Maxime; Berger, Imre; Alves, Paula M

    2016-09-10

    The recent approval of vaccines and gene therapy products for human use produced in the Insect Cell-Baculovirus Expression Vector System (IC-BEVS) underlines the high potential and versatility of this platform. The interest in developing robust production processes emerges to cope with manufacturing pressure, as well as stringent product quality guidelines. Previously, we addressed the impact of the baculovirus infection on the physiology of insect host cell lines, identifying key cellular pathways enrolled in heterologous gene/protein expression. In the present work, this knowledge was applied to design tailored media supplementation schemes to boost IC-BEVS production yields and quality of enveloped viral particles: influenza VLPs (Inf-VLP) and baculovirus vectors (BV). The addition of reduced glutathione, antioxidants and polyamines increased the cell specific yields of baculovirus particles up to 3 fold. Cholesterol was identified as the most critical system booster, capable of improving 2.5 and 6-fold cell specific yields of BV and Inf-VLPs, respectively. Surprisingly, the combination of polyamines and cholesterol supplementation improved baculovirus stock quality, by preventing the accumulation of non-infectious particles during viral replication while selectively increasing infectious particles production. In addition, the specific yields of both enveloped viral particles, BVs and Inf-VLPs, were also increased. The correlation between supplement addition and systems productivity was extensively analyzed, providing a critical assessment on final product quantity and quality as drivers of bioprocess optimization efforts. PMID:27378622

  7. WINDOW-WALL INTERFACE CORRECTION FACTORS: THERMAL MODELING OF INTEGRATED FENESTRATION AND OPAQUE ENVELOPE SYSTEMS FOR IMPROVED PREDICTION OF ENERGY USE

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandari, Mahabir S; Ravi, Dr. Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    The boundary conditions for thermal modeling of fenestration systems assume an adiabatic condition between the fenestration system installed and the opaque envelope system. This theoretical adiabatic boundary condition may not be appropriate owing to heat transfer at the interfaces, particularly for aluminum- framed windows affixed to metal- framed walls. In such scenarios, the heat transfer at the interface may increase the discrepancy between real world thermal indices and laboratory measured or calculated indices based on NFRC Rating System.This paper discusses the development of window-wall Interface Correction Factors (ICF) to improve energy impacts of building envelope systems

  8. The Wasp-Waist Nebula: VLA Ammonia Observations of the Molecular Core Envelope In a Unique Class 0 Protostellar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The Wasp-Waist Nebula was discovered in the IRAC c2d survey of the Ophiuchus starforming clouds. It is powered by a well-isolated, low-luminosity, low-mass Class 0 object. Its weak outflow has been mapped in the CO (3-2) transition with the JCMT, in 2.12 micron H2 emission with WIRC (the Wide-Field Infrared Camera) on the Hale 5-meter, and, most recently, in six H2 mid-infrared lines with the IRS (InfraRed Spectrograph) on-board the Spitzer Space Telescope; possible jet twisting structure may be evidence of unique core dynamics. Here, we report results of recent VLA ammonia mapping observations of the dense gas envelope feeding the central core protostellar system. We describe the morphology, kinematics, and angular momentum characteristics of this unique system. The results are compared with the envelope structure deduced from IRAC 8-micron absorption of the PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) background emission from the cloud.

  9. Determining the life cycle energy efficiency of six biofuel systems in China: a Data Envelopment Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun; Mazzi, Anna; Scipioni, Antonio; Sovacool, Benjamin K

    2014-06-01

    This aim of this study was to use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to assess the life cycle energy efficiency of six biofuels in China. DEA can differentiate efficient and non-efficient scenarios, and it can identify wasteful energy losses in biofuel production. More specifically, the study has examined the efficiency of six approaches for bioethanol production involving a sample of wheat, corn, cassava, and sweet potatoes as feedstocks and "old," "new," "wet," and "dry" processes. For each of these six bioethanol production pathways, the users can determine energy inputs such as the embodied energy for seed, machinery, fertilizer, diesel, chemicals and primary energy utilized for manufacturing, and outputs such as the energy content of the bioethanol and byproducts. The results indicate that DEA is a novel and feasible method for finding efficient bioethanol production scenarios and suggest that sweet potatoes may be the most energy-efficient form of ethanol production for China.

  10. Determining the life cycle energy efficiency of six biofuel systems in China: a Data Envelopment Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun; Mazzi, Anna; Scipioni, Antonio; Sovacool, Benjamin K

    2014-06-01

    This aim of this study was to use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to assess the life cycle energy efficiency of six biofuels in China. DEA can differentiate efficient and non-efficient scenarios, and it can identify wasteful energy losses in biofuel production. More specifically, the study has examined the efficiency of six approaches for bioethanol production involving a sample of wheat, corn, cassava, and sweet potatoes as feedstocks and "old," "new," "wet," and "dry" processes. For each of these six bioethanol production pathways, the users can determine energy inputs such as the embodied energy for seed, machinery, fertilizer, diesel, chemicals and primary energy utilized for manufacturing, and outputs such as the energy content of the bioethanol and byproducts. The results indicate that DEA is a novel and feasible method for finding efficient bioethanol production scenarios and suggest that sweet potatoes may be the most energy-efficient form of ethanol production for China. PMID:24727398

  11. Dynamic window daylighting systems: electropolymeric technology for solar responsive building envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krietemeyer, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Shane I.; Dyson, Anna H.

    2011-04-01

    Human health and energy problems associated with the lack of control of sunlight in contemporary buildings have necessitated research into dynamic windows for energy efficient buildings. Existing window technologies have made moderate progress towards greater energy performance for facades but remain limited in their response to dynamic solar conditions, building energy requirements, and variable user preferences for visual comfort. Recent developments in electropolymeric display technology provide opportunities to transfer electroactive polymers to windows that can achieve high levels of geometric and spectral selectivity through the building envelope in order to meet the lighting, thermal and user requirements of occupied spaces. Experimental simulations that investigate daylight quality, energy performance, and architectural effects of electropolymeric glazing technology are presented.

  12. 2010 Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Science Team Meeting Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Dupont, DL

    2011-05-04

    This document contains the summaries of papers presented in poster format at the March 2010 Atmospheric System Research Science Team Meeting held in Bethesda, Maryland. More than 260 posters were presented during the Science Team Meeting. Posters were sorted into the following subject areas: aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions, aerosol properties, atmospheric state and surface, cloud properties, field campaigns, infrastructure and outreach, instruments, modeling, and radiation. To put these posters in context, the status of ASR at the time of the meeting is provided here.

  13. Foreign technology summary of flight crucial flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, H. A.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of foreign technology in flight crucial flight controls is being conducted to provide a data base for planning future research and technology programs. Only Free World countries were surveyed, and the primary emphasis was on Western Europe because that is where the most advanced technology resides. The survey includes major contemporary systems on operational aircraft, R&D flight programs, advanced aircraft developments, and major research and technology programs. The information was collected from open literature, personal communications, and a tour of several companies, government organizations, and research laboratories in the United Kingdom, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany. A summary of the survey results to date is presented.

  14. Summary of Tactile User Interfaces Techniques and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Lilly

    2004-01-01

    Mental workload can be defined as the ratio of demand to allocated resources. Multiple- resource theory stresses the importance of distribution of tasks and information across various sensory channels of the human to reduce mental workload. One sensory channel that has been of interest since the late 1800s is touch. Unlike the more typical displays that target vision or hearing, tactile displays present information to the user s sense of touch. We present a summary of different methods for tactile display; historic and more recent systems that incorporate tactile display for information presentation; advantages and disadvantages of targeting the tactile channel; and future directions in tactile display research.

  15. Summary of Tactile User Interfaces Techniques and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Lilly

    2005-01-01

    Mental workload can be de.ned as the ratio of demand to allocated resources. Multiple-resource theory stresses the importance of distribution of tasks and information across various human sensory channels to reduce mental workload. One sensory channel that has been of interest since the late 1800s is touch. Unlike the more typical displays that target vision or hearing, tactile displays present information to the user s sense of touch. We present a summary of different methods for tactile display, historic and more recent systems that incorporate tactile display for information presentation, advantages and disadvantages of targeting the tactile channel, and future directions in tactile display research.

  16. Satellite Power System (SPS) FY 79 program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Satellite Power System (SPS) program a joint effort to develop an initial understanding of the technical feasibility, the economic practicality, and the social and environmental acceptability of the SPS concept is discussed. This is being accomplished through implementation of the Concept Development and Evaluation Program Plan which is scheduled for completion by the end of FY 1980. This Program Summary not only covers FY 1979 but includes work completed in FY 1977 and FY 1978 in order to give a comprehensive picture of the DOE involvement in the SPS concept development and evaluation process.

  17. GEOMETRIC AND KINEMATIC STRUCTURE OF THE OUTFLOW/ENVELOPE SYSTEM OF L1527 REVEALED BY SUBARCSECOND-RESOLUTION OBSERVATION OF CS

    SciTech Connect

    Oya, Yoko; López-Sepulcre, Ana; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sakai, Nami; Lefloch, Bertrand; Ceccarelli, Cecilia

    2015-10-10

    Subarcsecond-resolution images of the rotational line emissions of CS and c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2} obtained toward the low-mass protostar IRAS 04368+2557 in L1527 with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array are investigated to constrain the orientation of the outflow/envelope system. The distribution of CS consists of an envelope component extending from north to south and a faint butterfly shaped outflow component. The kinematic structure of the envelope is well reproduced by a simple ballistic model of an infalling rotating envelope. Although the envelope has a nearly edge-on configuration, we find that the western side of the envelope faces the observer. This configuration is opposite to the direction of the large-scale (∼10{sup 4} AU) outflow suggested previously from the {sup 12}CO (J = 3–2) observation, and to the morphology of infrared reflection near the protostar (∼200 AU). The latter discrepancy could originate from high extinction by the outflow cavity of the western side, or may indicate that the outflow axis is not parallel to the rotation axis of the envelope. Position–velocity diagrams show the accelerated outflow cavity wall, and its kinematic structure in the 2000 AU scale is explained by a standard parabolic model with the inclination angle derived from the analysis of the envelope. The different orientation of the outflow between the small and large scale implies a possibility of precession of the outflow axis. The shape and the velocity of the outflow in the vicinity of the protostar are compared with those of other protostars.

  18. Definition and means of maintaining the process vacuum liquid detection interlock systems portion of the PFP safety envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.J.

    1997-01-02

    The Process Vacuum Liquid Detection interlock systems prevent intrusion of process liquids into the HEPA filters downstream of demisters {number_sign}6 and {number_sign}7 during Process Vacuum System operation. This prevents liquid intrusion into the filters which could cause a criticality. The Safety Envelope (SE) includes the equipment which detects the presence of liquids in the vacuum headers; isolates the filters; shuts down the vacuum pumps; and alarms the condition. The presence of liquid in the HC-4, HC-7, and HC-227S glovebox vacuum traps or a high level of liquid in the 236-Z Tank 50 will isolate these portions of the vacuum system from the main headers. This report identifies the equipment in the SE; operating, maintenance, and surveillance procedures needed to maintain the SE equipment; and rationale for exclusion of some equipment and testing from the SE.

  19. Piloted Simulation to Evaluate the Utility of a Real Time Envelope Protection System for Mitigating In-Flight Icing Hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranaudo, Richard J.; Martos, Borja; Norton, Bill W.; Gingras, David R.; Barnhart, Billy P.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Morelli, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    The utility of the Icing Contamination Envelope Protection (ICEPro) system for mitigating a potentially hazardous icing condition was evaluated by 29 pilots using the NASA Ice Contamination Effects Flight Training Device (ICEFTD). ICEPro provides real time envelope protection cues and alerting messages on pilot displays. The pilots participating in this test were divided into two groups; a control group using baseline displays without ICEPro, and an experimental group using ICEPro driven display cueing. Each group flew identical precision approach and missed approach procedures with a simulated failure case icing condition. Pilot performance, workload, and survey questionnaires were collected for both groups of pilots. Results showed that real time assessment cues were effective in reducing the number of potentially hazardous upset events and in lessening exposure to loss of control following an incipient upset condition. Pilot workload with the added ICEPro displays was not measurably affected, but pilot opinion surveys showed that real time cueing greatly improved their situation awareness of a hazardous aircraft state.

  20. Feasibility study of an Integrated Program for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD) system. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrocq, C. A.; Hurley, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    An overview is provided of the Ipad System, including its goals and objectives, organization, capabilities and future usefulness. The systems implementation is also presented with operational cost summaries.

  1. Satellite Power System (SPS) FY 79 Program Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Satellite Power System (SPS) program is a joint effort of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). It is managed by the SPS Project Office within DOE's Office of Energy Research. SPS project organization is shown in Figure 1. The SPS Project Office was established in 1978 and is responsible for the planning, management and integration of SPS research in four areas: systems definition, environmental assessment, societal assessment, and comparative assessment. In fulfilling its responsibilities, the SPS Project Office directs research and assessment efforts to determine the feasibility of the SPS concept, funds organizations supporting the program, and disseminates information developed from project research and assessments. The objective of the SPS program is to develop an initial understanding of the technical feasibility, the economic practicality, and the social and environmental acceptability of the SPS concept. This is being accomplished through implementation of the Concept Development and Evaluation Program Plan which is scheduled for completion by the end of FY 1980. The SPS Project Office annually issues a Program Summary which describes the research undertaken during the preceding fiscal year. This Program Summary covers FY 1979. It includes work completed in FY 1977 and FY 1978 in order to give a comprehensive picture of the DOE involvement in the SPS concept development and evaluation process.

  2. Joint application of audio spectral envelope and tonality index in an e-asthma monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Wiśniewski, Marcin; Zieliński, Tomasz P

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents in detail a recently introduced highly efficient method for automatic detection of asthmatic wheezing in breathing sounds. The fluctuation in the audio spectral envelope (ASE) from the MPEG-7 standard and the value of the tonality index (TI) from the MPEG-2 Audio specification are jointly used as discriminative features for wheezy sounds, while the support vector machine (SVM) with a polynomial kernel serves as a classifier. The advantages of the proposed approach are described in the paper (e.g., detecting weak wheezes, very good ROC characteristics, independence from noise color). Since the method is not computationally complex, it is suitable for remote asthma monitoring using mobile devices (personal medical assistants). The main contribution of this paper consists of presenting all the implementation details concerning the proposed approach for the first time, i.e., the pseudocode of the method and adjusting the values of the ASE and TI parameters after which only one (not two) FFT is required for analysis of a next overlapping signal fragment. The efficiency of the method has also been additionally confirmed by the AdaBoost classifier with a built-in mechanism to feature ranking, as well as a previously performed minimal-redundancy-maximal-relevance test. PMID:25167561

  3. FY07 Summary of System Interface and Support Systems R&D and Technical Issues Map

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Sherman

    2007-09-01

    This document provides a summary of research and development activities in the System Interface and Support Systems area of the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in FY 2007. Project cost and performance data obtained from the PICS system, at least up through July 2007, are presented and analyzed. Brief summaries of accomplishments and references are provided. A mapping of System Interface and Support Systems technical issues versus the work performed is updated and presented. Lastly, near-term research plans are described, and recommendatioins are provided for additional research.

  4. Systems definition space based power conversion systems: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Potential space-located systems for the generation of electrical power for use on earth were investigated. These systems were of three basic types: (1) systems producing electrical power from solar energy; (2) systems producing electrical power from nuclear reactors; (3) systems for augmenting ground-based solar power plants by orbital sunlight reflectors. Configurations implementing these concepts were developed through an optimization process intended to yield the lowest cost for each. A complete program was developed for each concept, identifying required production rates, quantities of launches, required facilities, etc. Each program was costed in order to provide the electric power cost appropriate to each concept.

  5. Lipid envelope-type nanoparticle incorporating a multifunctional peptide for systemic siRNA delivery to the pulmonary endothelium.

    PubMed

    Kusumoto, Kenji; Akita, Hidetaka; Ishitsuka, Taichi; Matsumoto, Yu; Nomoto, Takahiro; Furukawa, Ryo; El-Sayed, Ayman; Hatakeyama, Hiroto; Kajimoto, Kazuaki; Yamada, Yuma; Kataoka, Kazunori; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2013-09-24

    A system that permits the delivery of cargoes to the lung endothelium would be extraordinarily useful in terms of curing a wide variety of lung-related diseases. This study describes the development of a multifunctional envelope-type nanodevice (MEND) that targets the lung endothelium, delivers its encapsulated siRNA to the cytoplasm, and eradicates lung metastasis. The key to the success can be attributed to the presence of a surface-modified GALA peptide that has dual functions: targeting the sialic acid-terminated sugar chains on the pulmonary endothelium and subsequently delivering the encapsulated cargoes to the cytosol via endosomal membrane fusion, analogous to the influenza virus. The active targeting of MENDs without the formation of large aggregates was verified by intravital real-time confocal laser scanning microscopy in living lung tissue. The GALA-modified MEND is a promising carrier that opens a new generation of therapeutic approaches for satisfying unmet medical needs in curing lung diseases.

  6. Fatality Analysis Reporting System, General Estimates System: 2001 Data Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), which became operational in 1975, contains data on a census of fatal traffic crashes within the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The General Estimates System (GES), which began in 1988, provides data from a nationally representative probability sample selected from all…

  7. Environmental Management System (EMS) objectives & targets annual results summary :

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2013-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexicos (SNL/NM) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each Fiscal Year (FY) SNL/NM performs an analysis to identify environmental aspects, and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are established to mitigate potential impacts of SNL/NMs operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established objectives and targets provides a connection to, and rational for, annually revised environmental aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY2012.

  8. Systems definition summary. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A standard spacecraft bus for performing a variety of earth orbit missions in the late 1970's and 1980's is defined. Emphasis is placed on a low-cost, multimission capability, benefitting from the space shuttle system. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) performance requirements, (2) internal interfaces, (3) redundancy and reliability, (4) communications and data handling module design, (5) payload data handling, (6) application of the modular design to various missions, and (7) the verification concept.

  9. Pipe Explorer{trademark} surveying system. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Chicago Operations Office and the DOE`s Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) developed a Large Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) at the Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL). The objective of the LSDP is to demonstrate potentially beneficial decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies in comparison with current baseline technologies. The Pipe Explorer{trademark} system was developed by Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA), Albuquerque, NM as a deployment method for transporting a variety of survey tools into pipes and ducts. Tools available for use with the system include alpha, beta and gamma radiation detectors; video cameras; and pipe locator beacons. Different versions of this technology have been demonstrated at three other sites; results of these demonstrations are provided in an earlier Innovative Technology Summary Report. As part of a D and D project, characterization radiological contamination inside piping systems is necessary before pipes can be recycled, remediated or disposed. This is usually done manually by surveying over the outside of the piping only, with limited effectiveness and risk of worker exposure. The pipe must be accessible to workers, and embedded pipes in concrete or in the ground would have to be excavated at high cost and risk of exposure to workers. The advantage of the Pipe Explorer is its ability to perform in-situ characterization of pipe internals.

  10. Twin-arginine translocation system (tat) mutants of Salmonella are attenuated due to envelope defects, not respiratory defects.

    PubMed

    Craig, Maureen; Sadik, Adam Y; Golubeva, Yekaterina A; Tidhar, Avital; Slauch, James M

    2013-09-01

    The twin-arginine translocation system (Tat) transports folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane and is critical to virulence in Salmonella and other pathogens. Experimental and bioinformatic data indicate that 30 proteins are exported via Tat in Salmonella Typhimurium. However, there are no data linking specific Tat substrates with virulence. We inactivated every Tat-exported protein and determined the virulence phenotype of mutant strains. Although a tat mutant is highly attenuated, no single Tat-exported substrate accounts for this virulence phenotype. Rather, the attenuation is due primarily to envelope defects caused by failure to translocate three Tat substrates, the N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidases, AmiA and AmiC, and the cell division protein, SufI. Strikingly, neither the amiA amiC nor the sufI mutations alone conferred any virulence defect. Although AmiC and SufI have previously been localized to the divisome, the synthetic phenotypes observed are the first to suggest functional overlap. Many Tat substrates are involved in anaerobic respiration, but we show that a mutant completely deficient in anaerobic respiration retains full virulence in both the oral and systemic phases of infection. Similarly, an obligately aerobic mutant is fully virulent. These results suggest that in the classic mouse model of infection, S. Typhimurium is replicating only in aerobic environments.

  11. Gap and out-gap solitons in modulated systems of finite length: exact solutions in the slowly varying envelope limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, M.; Kirr, K.; Kovalev, A. S.; Kroon, L.

    2011-06-01

    We discuss nonlinear excitations in finite-size one-dimensional modulated systems. Considering a binary modulated discrete nonlinear Schrödinger chain of large but finite length with periodic boundary conditions, we obtain exact elliptic-function solutions corresponding to stationary excitations in the slowly varying envelope limit. From these solutions, we analyze how the transformation between (localized) gap and (delocalized) out-gap solitons manifests itself in a system of finite length. The analogue of a localized gap soliton appears through a bifurcation at a critical point, so that gap soliton analogues exist only for chains longer than a critical value, which scales inversely proportional to the modulation depth. The total norm of these gap-out-gap states is found to be a monotonic function of the frequency, always inside a 'nonlinear gap' with edges defined by the main nonlinear modes which approach the linear spectrum gap boundaries in the small-amplitude limit. The transformation from a gap to an out-gap state is associated with a particular frequency, close to the lower boundary of the linear gap; at this point the elliptic functions become trigonometric, corresponding to a finite-size analogue of an algebraic soliton. We compare the scenario with earlier results obtained numerically for purely discrete chains with few degrees of freedom.

  12. A source of glycosylated human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 envelope protein: expression of gp46 by the vaccinia virus/T7 polymerase system.

    PubMed Central

    Arp, J; LeVatte, M; Rowe, J; Perkins, S; King, E; Leystra-Lantz, C; Foung, S K; Dekaban, G A

    1996-01-01

    Heterologous expression of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) envelope surface glycoprotein (gp46) in a vaccinia virus/T7 polymerase system resulted in the production of authentic recombinant gp46. Five differentially glycosylated forms of the surface envelope protein were produced by this mammalian system, as demonstrated by tunicamycin inhibition of N-glycosylation and N-glycan removal with endoglycosidase H and glycopeptidase F. These studies revealed that all four potential N-glycosylation sites in gp46 were used for oligosaccharide modification and that the oligosaccharides were mannose-rich and/or hybrid in composition. Conformational integrity of the recombinant HTLV-1 envelope protein was determined by the ability to bind to various HTLV-1-infected human sera and a panel of conformational-dependent human monoclonal antibodies under nondenaturing conditions. Furthermore, this recombinant gp46 was recognized by a series of HTLV-2-infected human sera and sera from a Pan paniscus chimpanzee infected with the distantly related simian T-cell lymphotropic virus STLVpan-p. Maintenance of highly conserved conformational epitopes in the recombinant HTLV-1 envelope protein structure suggests that it may serve as a useful diagnostic reagent and an effective vaccine candidate. PMID:8892853

  13. Challenges of developing an electro-optical system for measuring man's operational envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, B.

    1985-01-01

    In designing work stations and restraint systems, and in planning tasks to be performed in space, a knowledge of the capabilities of the operator is essential. Answers to such questions as whether a specific control or work surface can be reached from a given restraint and how much force can be applied are of particular interest. A computer-aided design system has been developed for designing and evaluating work stations, etc., and the Anthropometric Measurement Laboratory (AML) has been charged with obtaining the data to be used in design and modeling. Traditional methods of measuring reach and force are very labor intensive and require bulky equipment. The AML has developed a series of electro-optical devices for collecting reach data easily, in computer readable form, with portable systems. The systems developed, their use, and data collected with them are described.

  14. Advanced Initiation Systems Manufacturing Level 2 Milestone Completion Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, R; Schmidt, M

    2009-10-01

    Milestone Description - Advanced Initiation Systems Detonator Design and Prototype. Milestone Grading Criteria - Design new generation chip slapper detonator and manufacture a prototype using advanced manufacturing processes, such as all-dry chip metallization and solvent-less flyer coatings. The advanced processes have been developed for manufacturing detonators with high material compatibility and reliability to support future LEPs, e.g. the B61, and new weapons systems. Perform velocimetry measurements to determine slapper velocity as a function of flight distance. A prototype detonator assembly and stripline was designed for low-energy chip slappers. Pictures of the prototype detonator and stripline are shown. All-dry manufacturing processes were used to address compatibility issues. KCP metallized the chips in a physical vapor deposition system through precision-aligned shadow masks. LLNL deposited a solvent-less polyimide flyer with a processes called SLIP, which stands for solvent-less vapor deposition followed by in-situ polymerization. LANL manufactured the high-surface-area (HSA) high explosive (HE) pellets. Test fires of two chip slapper designs, radius and bowtie, were performed at LLNL in the High Explosives Application Facility (HEAF). Test fires with HE were conducted to establish the threshold firing voltages. pictures of the chip slappers before and after test fires are shown. Velocimetry tests were then performed to obtain slapper velocities at or above the threshold firing voltages. Figure 5 shows the slapper velocity as a function of distance and time at the threshold voltage, for both radius and bowtie bridge designs. Both designs were successful at initiating the HE at low energy levels. Summary of Accomplishments are: (1) All-dry process for chip manufacture developed; (2) Solventless process for slapper materials developed; (3) High-surface area explosive pellets developed; (4) High performance chip slappers developed; (5) Low-energy chip

  15. Definition and means of maintaining the ventilation system confinement portion of the PFP safety envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, J.D.; Grover, G.A.; O`Brien, P.M., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-05

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant Heating Ventilation and Cooling system provides for the confinement of radioactive releases to the environment and provides for the confinement of radioactive contamination within designated zones inside the facility. This document identifies the components and procedures necessary to ensure the HVAC system provides these functions. Appendices E through J provide a snapshot of non-safety class HVAC equipment and need not be updated when the remainder of the document and Appendices A through D are updated.

  16. Establishing a Dynamics Performance Envelope of a Flexible Tethered Satellite System for Planar and Non-Coplanar Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teik Hong, Aaron Aw; Varatharajoo, Renuganth

    A Tethered Satellite System (TSS) can be considered as a flexible in-orbit system. However, TSS is typically modelled as a rigid tethered system due to the complexity of its mathematical treatments. In this paper, mathematical models for a flexible tethered satellite system in both planar and co-planar states are developed. The flexible tethered satellite system consists of three rigid bodies with two flexible tethers each connecting two rigid bodies with one located in the centre serving as the mothership. The TSS motion includes tether deformations, rotational dynamics, and orbital mechanics. Three materials (e.g., tungsten wire, Spectra-2000, and diamond) that are commonly used for the tether are proposed as the reference materials; and it should be noted that the tether will undergo a spinning motion as well in the motorized option. In addition, the air drag perturbation is also considered since the entire TSS is flown around Low Earth Orbit (LEO), whereby the air-drag perturbation is dominant. A comprehensive analysis was performed for planar and non-coplanar models in order to establish a dynamics performance envelope with respect to the tether’s tension at different altitudes and air-drag. Bubnov-Galerkin method was employed in order to linearize the non-linear governing equations of elastic vibrations; and once the modal coordinates were obtained, they were substituted according to the equations corresponding to the energy conservation principle. Further, Lagrangian dynamics was utilized to establish the equations of motion of the entire TSS based on the chosen generalized coordinates. The proposed models were treated numerically and analysed accordingly. Then, a comparison study between the coplanar and non-coplanar models was done and the differences in their performances were observed and discussed. Although all materials have their own safe operation boundaries, the flexible TSS using Diamond shows a better dynamics performance than the other TSS

  17. Developing a dynamic envelope/lighting control system with field measurements

    SciTech Connect

    DiBartolomeo, D.L.; Lee, E.S.; Rubinstein, F.M.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1996-05-01

    The feasibility of an intelligent venetian blind/lighting control system was tested in a 1:3 scale model outdoors under variable sun and sky conditions. The control algorithm, block direct sun and meet the design workplane illuminance level, was implemented using commercially available and custom designed blind and lighting systems hardware. While blocking direct sunlight, the blinds were properly controlled to maintain the design workplane illuminance within a tolerance of -10%, +25% when there was sufficient daylight. When daylight levels alone were inadequate, the electric lighting control system maintained the design workplane illuminance. The electric lighting could be turned off if a user-specified time period at minimum power was exceeded. Lighting energy savings of 51-71% (southwest) and 37-75% (south) was attained for the period from 8:00 to 17:00 on clear sunny days, compared to a fixed, partially closed blind with the same lighting system. Practical details for implementation and commissioning are discussed. The impact of control variations, such as profile angle, time step interval, and control area, on energy demand is investigated.

  18. Technical- and Environmental-Efficiency Analysis of Irrigated Cotton-Cropping Systems in Punjab, Pakistan Using Data Envelopment Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Asmat; Perret, Sylvain R.

    2014-08-01

    Cotton cropping in Pakistan uses substantial quantities of resources and adversely affects the environment with pollutants from the inputs, particularly pesticides. A question remains regarding to what extent the reduction of such environmental impact is possible without compromising the farmers' income. This paper investigates the environmental, technical, and economic performances of selected irrigated cotton-cropping systems in Punjab to quantify the sustainability of cotton farming and reveal options for improvement. Using mostly primary data, our study quantifies the technical, cost, and environmental efficiencies of different farm sizes. A set of indicators has been computed to reflect these three domains of efficiency using the data envelopment analysis technique. The results indicate that farmers are broadly environmentally inefficient; which primarily results from poor technical inefficiency. Based on an improved input mix, the average potential environmental impact reduction for small, medium, and large farms is 9, 13, and 11 %, respectively, without compromising the economic return. Moreover, the differences in technical, cost, and environmental efficiencies between small and medium and small and large farm sizes were statistically significant. The second-stage regression analysis identifies that the entire farm size significantly affects the efficiencies, whereas exposure to extension and training has positive effects, and the sowing methods significantly affect the technical and environmental efficiencies. Paradoxically, the formal education level is determined to affect the efficiencies negatively. This paper discusses policy interventions that can improve the technical efficiency to ultimately increase the environmental efficiency and reduce the farmers' operating costs.

  19. Technical- and environmental-efficiency analysis of irrigated cotton-cropping systems in Punjab, Pakistan using data envelopment analysis.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Asmat; Perret, Sylvain R

    2014-08-01

    Cotton cropping in Pakistan uses substantial quantities of resources and adversely affects the environment with pollutants from the inputs, particularly pesticides. A question remains regarding to what extent the reduction of such environmental impact is possible without compromising the farmers' income. This paper investigates the environmental, technical, and economic performances of selected irrigated cotton-cropping systems in Punjab to quantify the sustainability of cotton farming and reveal options for improvement. Using mostly primary data, our study quantifies the technical, cost, and environmental efficiencies of different farm sizes. A set of indicators has been computed to reflect these three domains of efficiency using the data envelopment analysis technique. The results indicate that farmers are broadly environmentally inefficient; which primarily results from poor technical inefficiency. Based on an improved input mix, the average potential environmental impact reduction for small, medium, and large farms is 9, 13, and 11 %, respectively, without compromising the economic return. Moreover, the differences in technical, cost, and environmental efficiencies between small and medium and small and large farm sizes were statistically significant. The second-stage regression analysis identifies that the entire farm size significantly affects the efficiencies, whereas exposure to extension and training has positive effects, and the sowing methods significantly affect the technical and environmental efficiencies. Paradoxically, the formal education level is determined to affect the efficiencies negatively. This paper discusses policy interventions that can improve the technical efficiency to ultimately increase the environmental efficiency and reduce the farmers' operating costs.

  20. Exploring the envelope. Systematic alteration in the sex-determination system of the nematode caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkin, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    The natural sexes of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans are the self-fertilizing hermaphrodite (XX) and the male (XO). The underlying genetic pathway controlling sexual phenotype has been extensively investigated. Mutations in key regulatory genes have been used to create a series of stable populations in which sex is determined not by X chromosome dosage, but in a variety of other ways, many of which mimic the diverse sex-determination systems found in different animal species. Most of these artificial strains have male and female sexes. Each of seven autosomal genes can be made to adopt a role as the primary determinant of sex, and each of the five autosomes can carry the primary determinant, thereby becoming a sex chromosome. Strains with sex determination by fragment chromosomes, episomes, compound chromosomes, or environmental factors have also been constructed. The creation of these strains demonstrates the ease with which one sex-determination system can be transformed into another. PMID:12399387

  1. Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) and research utilization/technology transfer progress report for DOE (Department of Energy) Office of Buildings Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Burn, G.

    1990-08-01

    The Monthly Report of the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) Program is a monthly update of both in-house ORNL projects and subcontract activities in the research areas of building materials, wall systems, foundations, roofs, building diagnostics, and research utilization and technology transfer. Presentations are not stand-alone paragraphs every month. Their principal values are the short-time lapse between accomplishment and reporting and their evolution over a period of several months.

  2. Centrifuge facility conceptual system study. Volume 2: Facility systems and study summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Synnestvedt, Robert (Editor); Blair, Patricia; Cartledge, Alan; Garces-Porcile, Jorge; Garin, Vladimir; Guerrero, Mike; Haddeland, Peter; Horkachuck, Mike; Kuebler, Ulrich; Nguyen, Frank

    1991-01-01

    The Centrifuge Facility is a major element of the biological research facility for the implementation of NASA's Life Science Research Program on Space Station Freedom using nonhuman species (small primates, rodents, plants, insects, cell tissues, etc.). The Centrifuge Facility consists of a variable gravity Centrifuge to provide artificial gravity up to 2 earth G's' a Holding System to maintain specimens at microgravity levels, a Glovebox, and a Service Unit for servicing specimen chambers. The following subject areas are covered: (1) Holding System; (2) Centrifuge System; (3) Glovebox System; (4) Service System; and (5) system study summary.

  3. Production of dengue virus envelope protein domain III-based antigens in tobacco chloroplasts using inducible and constitutive expression systems.

    PubMed

    Gottschamel, Johanna; Lössl, Andreas; Ruf, Stephanie; Wang, Yanliang; Skaugen, Morten; Bock, Ralph; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2016-07-01

    Dengue fever is a disease in many parts of the tropics and subtropics and about half the world's population is at risk of infection according to the World Health Organization. Dengue is caused by any of the four related dengue virus serotypes DEN-1, -2, -3 and -4, which are transmitted to people by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Currently there is only one vaccine (Dengvaxia(®)) available (limited to a few countries) on the market since 2015 after half a century's intensive efforts. Affordable and accessible vaccines against dengue are hence still urgently needed. The dengue envelop protein domain III (EDIII), which is capable of eliciting serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies, has become the focus for subunit vaccine development. To contribute to the development of an accessible and affordable dengue vaccine, in the current study we have used plant-based vaccine production systems to generate a dengue subunit vaccine candidate in tobacco. Chloroplast genome engineering was applied to express serotype-specific recombinant EDIII proteins in tobacco chloroplasts using both constitutive and ethanol-inducible expression systems. Expression of a tetravalent antigen fusion construct combining EDIII polypeptides from all four serotypes was also attempted. Transplastomic EDIII-expressing tobacco lines were obtained and homoplasmy was verified by Southern blot analysis. Northern blot analyses showed expression of EDIII antigen-encoding genes. EDIII protein accumulation levels varied for the different recombinant EDIII proteins and the different expression systems, and reached between 0.8 and 1.6 % of total cellular protein. Our study demonstrates the suitability of the chloroplast compartment as a production site for an EDIII-based vaccine candidate against dengue fever and presents a Gateway(®) plastid transformation vector for inducible transgene expression. PMID:27116001

  4. Redox-Triggered Gatekeeper-Enveloped Starlike Hollow Silica Nanoparticles for Intelligent Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Nana; Lin, Xinyi; Zhang, Qing; Ji, Zhaoxia; Xu, Fu-Jian

    2015-12-22

    The design and development of multifunctional carriers for drug delivery based on hollow nanoparticles (HNPs) have attracted intense interests. Ordinary spherical HNPs are demonstrated to be promising candidates. However, the application of HNPs with special morphologies has rarely been reported. HNPs with sharp horns are expected to own higher endocytosis efficiencies than spherical counterparts. In this work, novel starlike hollow silica nanoparticles (SHNPs) with different sizes are proposed as platforms for the fabrication of redox-triggered multifunctional systems for synergy of gene therapy and chemotherapy. The CD-PGEA gene vectors (consisting of β-CD cores and ethanolamine-functionalized poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (denoted BUCT-PGEA) arms) are introduced ingeniously onto the surfaces of SHNPs with plentiful disulfide bond-linked adamantine guests. The resulting supramolecular assemblies (SHNP-PGEAs) possess redox-responsive gatekeepers for loaded drugs in the cavities of SHNPs. Meanwhile, they also demonstrate excellent performances to deliver genes. The gene transfection efficiencies, controlled drug release behaviors, and synergistic antitumor effect of hollow silica-based carriers with different morphologies are investigated in detail. Compared with ordinary spherical HNP-based counterparts, SHNP-PGEA carriers with six sharp horns are proven to be superior gene vectors and possess better efficacy for cellular uptake and antitumor effects. The present multifunctional carriers based on SHNPs will have promising applications in drug/gene codelivery and cancer treatment.

  5. Light-Activated Amino Acid Transport Systems in Halobacterium halobium Envelope Vesicles: Role of Chemical and Electrical Gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDonald, Russell E.; Greene, Richard V.; Lanyi, Janos K.

    1977-01-01

    The accumulation of 20 commonly occurring L-amino acids by cell envelope vesicles of Halobacterium halobium, in response to light-induced membrane potential and an artificially created sodium gradient, has been studied. Nineteen of these amino acids are actively accumulated under either or both of these conditions. Glutamate is unique in that its uptake is driven only by a chemical gradient for sodium. Amino acid concentrations at half-maximal uptake rates (Km) and maximal transport rates (V(sub max) have been determined for the uptake of all 19 amino acids. The transport systems have been partially characterized with respect to groups of amino acids transported by common carriers, cation effects, and relative response to the electrical and chemical components of the sodium gradient, the driving forces for uptake. The data presented clearly show that the carrier systems, which are responsible for uptake of individual amino acids, are as variable in their properties as those found in other organisms, i. e., some are highly specific for individual amino acids, some transport several amino acids competitively, some are activated by a chemical gradient of sodium only, and some function also in the complete absence of such a gradient. For all amino acids, Na(+) and K(+) are both required for maximal rate of uptake. The carriers for L-leucine and L-histidine are symmetrical in that these amino acids are transported in both directions across the vesicle membrane. It is suggested that coupling of substrate transport to metabolic energy via transient ionic gradients may be a general phenomenon in procaryotes.

  6. Biomass energy systems program summary. Information current as of September 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    This program summary describes each of the DOE's Biomass Energy System's projects funded or in existence during fiscal year 1979 and reflects their status as of September 30, 1979. The summary provides an overview of the ongoing research, development, and demonstration efforts of the preceding fiscal year as well. (DMC)

  7. "AfterZone:" Outcomes for Youth Participating in Providence's Citywide After-School System. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauh, Tina J.

    2011-01-01

    This executive summary highlights the main findings from our participation and outcomes analysis of the "AfterZone" initiative--a citywide system-building effort in Providence, Rhode Island, that aims to provide high-quality, accessible out-of-school-time services to middle school youth. The summary briefly defines the AfterZone's unique multisite…

  8. Summary of TUTOR Commands and System Variables. Sixth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avner, Elaine

    This summary is intended for the experienced author who needs a quick reference for the form of a tag and for the restrictions on the TUTOR language commands. Each command includes a brief description of its purpose and a description of the tag. The commands are grouped into the following categories: (1) calculating, (2) data keeping, (3) judging,…

  9. Summary of TUTOR Commands and System Variables. Ninth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avner, Elaine

    Intended for the experienced TUTOR author who needs a quick reference for the form of a tag and for some of the restrictions on commands, this summary does not discuss the fine details of the TUTOR language. Brief descriptions of the purpose and the tag are provided for each command. The commands are grouped in nine categories: calculating (C),…

  10. Summary of TUTOR Commands and System Variables. Tenth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avner, Elaine

    Intended for the experienced TUTOR author who needs a quick reference for the form of a tag and for some of the restrictions on commands, this summary does not discuss the fine details of the TUTOR language. Brief descriptions of the purpose and the tag are provided for each command. The commands are grouped in nine categories: calculating (C),…

  11. Tank waste remediation system technical baseline summary description

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, R.E.

    1998-01-08

    This document is one of the tools used to develop and control the mission work as depicted in the included figure. This Technical Baseline Summary Description document is the top-level tool for management of the Technical Baseline for waste storage operations.

  12. Proteins from rat liver cytosol which stimulate mRNA transport. Purification and interactions with the nuclear envelope mRNA translocation system.

    PubMed

    Schröder, H C; Rottmann, M; Bachmann, M; Müller, W E; McDonald, A R; Agutter, P S

    1986-08-15

    Two polysome-associated proteins with particular affinities for poly(A) have been purified from rat liver. These proteins stimulate the efflux of mRNA from isolated nuclei in conditions under which such efflux closely stimulates mRNA transport in vivo, and they are therefore considered as mRNA-transport-stimulatory proteins. Their interaction with the mRNA-translocation system in isolated nuclear envelopes has been studied. The results are generally consistent with the most recently proposed kinetic model of mRNA translocation. One protein, P58, has not been described previously. It inhibits the protein kinase that down-regulates the NTPase, it enhances the NTPase activity in both the presence and the absence of poly(A) and it seems to increase poly(A) binding in unphosphorylated, but not in phosphorylated, envelopes. The other protein, P31, which probably corresponds to the 35,000-Mr factor described by Webb and his colleagues, enhances the binding of poly(A) to the mRNA-binding site in the envelope, thus stimulating the phosphoprotein phosphatase and, in consequence, the NTPase. The possible physiological significance of these two proteins is discussed.

  13. Molecular and proteome analyses highlight the importance of the Cpx envelope stress system for acid stress and cell wall stability in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Surmann, Kristin; Ćudić, Emina; Hammer, Elke; Hunke, Sabine

    2016-08-01

    Two-component systems (TCS) play a pivotal role for bacteria in stress regulation and adaptation. However, it is not well understood how these systems are modulated to meet bacterial demands. Especially, for those TCS using an accessory protein to integrate additional signals, no data concerning the role of the accessory proteins within the coordination of the response is available. The Cpx envelope stress two-component system, composed of the sensor kinase CpxA and the response regulator CpxR, is orchestrated by the periplasmic protein CpxP which detects misfolded envelope proteins and inhibits the Cpx system in unstressed cells. Using selected reaction monitoring, we observed that the amount of CpxA and CpxR, as well as their stoichiometry, are only marginally affected, but that a 10-fold excess of CpxP over CpxA is needed to switch off the Cpx system. Moreover, the relative quantification of the proteome identified not only acid stress response as a new indirect target of the Cpx system, but also suggests a general function of the Cpx system for cell wall stability.

  14. Molecular and proteome analyses highlight the importance of the Cpx envelope stress system for acid stress and cell wall stability in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Surmann, Kristin; Ćudić, Emina; Hammer, Elke; Hunke, Sabine

    2016-08-01

    Two-component systems (TCS) play a pivotal role for bacteria in stress regulation and adaptation. However, it is not well understood how these systems are modulated to meet bacterial demands. Especially, for those TCS using an accessory protein to integrate additional signals, no data concerning the role of the accessory proteins within the coordination of the response is available. The Cpx envelope stress two-component system, composed of the sensor kinase CpxA and the response regulator CpxR, is orchestrated by the periplasmic protein CpxP which detects misfolded envelope proteins and inhibits the Cpx system in unstressed cells. Using selected reaction monitoring, we observed that the amount of CpxA and CpxR, as well as their stoichiometry, are only marginally affected, but that a 10-fold excess of CpxP over CpxA is needed to switch off the Cpx system. Moreover, the relative quantification of the proteome identified not only acid stress response as a new indirect target of the Cpx system, but also suggests a general function of the Cpx system for cell wall stability. PMID:27039284

  15. A worksheet summary system for clinical laboratory management.

    PubMed

    Krieg, A F; Israel, M; Fink, R

    1976-07-01

    This article describes a simple method for summarizing total activity from the worksheets used at each workstation in a clinical laboratory. Monthly reports display day-to-day trends in total workload, as well as changes in the ratio between charged and total tests. Cumulative summaries of the monthly reports display month-to-month trends of total workload, as well as the ratio between charged and total tests. These reports also provide: (1) a simple method to calculate "lost revenue" (difference between total "chargeable" work and credited revenue); (2) more rapid and more uniform calculation of CAP workload units. In the author's laboratory, time required to maintain this data base and calculate CAP workload units has been less than the time previously required for calculation of CAP workload units alone.

  16. Integrated command, control, communication and computation system design study. Summary of tasks performed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A summary of tasks performed on an integrated command, control, communication, and computation system design study is given. The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System command and control system study, an automated real-time operations study, and image processing work are discussed.

  17. Mod-2 wind turbine system development. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The development of the MOD-2 wind turbine through acceptance testing and initial operational evaluation is documented. Pitch control hydraulic system, yaw control system, drive train, electrical power station, control system, operations and maintenance experience, and availability are discussed.

  18. Economic analysis of new space transportation systems: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    An economic analysis of alternative space transportation systems is presented. Results indicate that the expendable systems represent modest investments, but the recurring costs of operation would remain high. The space shuttle and tug system requires a substantial investment, but would substantially reduce the recurring costs of operation. Economic benefits and costs of the different systems are also analyzed. Findings are summarized.

  19. System Summary of University Annual Work Plans, 2014-15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board of Governors, State University System of Florida, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The State University System of Florida has developed three tools that aid in guiding the System's future; (1) The Board of Governors' new Strategic Plan 2012-2025 is driven by goals and associated metrics that stake out where the System is headed; (2) The Board's Annual Accountability Report provides yearly tracking for how the System is…

  20. Cargo/Logistics Airlift System Study (CLASS), Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, J. M.; Henderson, R. D.; Macey, F. C.; Tuttle, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    The current air cargo system is analyzed along with advanced air cargo systems studies. A forecast of advanced air cargo system demand is presented with cost estimates. It is concluded that there is a need for a dedicated advance air cargo system, and with application of advanced technology, reductions of 45% in air freight rates may be achieved.

  1. The Bacterial Cell Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Silhavy, Thomas J.; Kahne, Daniel; Walker, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    The bacteria cell envelope is a complex multilayered structure that serves to protect these organisms from their unpredictable and often hostile environment. The cell envelopes of most bacteria fall into one of two major groups. Gram-negative bacteria are surrounded by a thin peptidoglycan cell wall, which itself is surrounded by an outer membrane containing lipopolysaccharide. Gram-positive bacteria lack an outer membrane but are surrounded by layers of peptidoglycan many times thicker than is found in the Gram-negatives. Threading through these layers of peptidoglycan are long anionic polymers, called teichoic acids. The composition and organization of these envelope layers and recent insights into the mechanisms of cell envelope assembly are discussed. PMID:20452953

  2. The pneumococcal cell envelope stress-sensing system LiaFSR is activated by murein hydrolases and lipid II-interacting antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Eldholm, Vegard; Gutt, Beatrice; Johnsborg, Ola; Brückner, Reinhold; Maurer, Patrick; Hakenbeck, Regine; Mascher, Thorsten; Håvarstein, Leiv Sigve

    2010-04-01

    In the Firmicutes, two-component regulatory systems of the LiaSR type sense and orchestrate the response to various agents that perturb cell envelope functions, in particular lipid II cycle inhibitors. In the current study, we found that the corresponding system in Streptococcus pneumoniae displays similar properties but, in addition, responds to cell envelope stress elicited by murein hydrolases. During competence for genetic transformation, pneumococci attack and lyse noncompetent siblings present in the same environment. This phenomenon, termed fratricide, increases the efficiency of horizontal gene transfer in vitro and is believed to stimulate gene exchange also under natural conditions. Lysis of noncompetent target cells is mediated by the putative murein hydrolase CbpD, the key effector of the fratricide mechanism, and the autolysins LytA and LytC. To avoid succumbing to their own lysins, competent attacker cells must possess a protective mechanism rendering them immune. The most important component of this mechanism is ComM, an integral membrane protein of unknown function that is expressed only in competent cells. Here, we show that a second layer of self-protection is provided by the pneumococcal LiaFSR system, which senses the damage inflicted to the cell wall by CbpD, LytA, and LytC. Two members of the LiaFSR regulon, spr0810 and PcpC (spr0351), were shown to contribute to the LiaFSR-coordinated protection against fratricide-induced self-lysis.

  3. Optical System Critical Design Review (CDR) Flight Software Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mori

    2006-01-01

    The Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI FSW presentation covers: (1) Optical System FSW only and Cooling System FSW is covered at its CDR (2) Requirements & Interfaces (3) Relationship with the ISIM FSW (4) FSW Design Drivers & Solutions.

  4. Disaster warning system study summary. [cost estimates using NOAA satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. F.; Maloy, J. E.; Braley, R. C.; Provencher, C. E.; Schumaker, H. A.; Valgora, M. E.

    1977-01-01

    A conceptual satellite system to replace or complement NOAA's data collection, internal communications, and public information dissemination systems for the mid-1980's was defined. Program cost and cost sensitivity to variations in communications functions are analyzed.

  5. Space shuttle auxiliary propulsion system design study. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, P. J.; Schweickert, T. F.

    1972-01-01

    The development and characteristics of an auxiliary propulsion system for space shuttle applications are presented. The system design data necessary for selection of preferred system concepts and the requirements for complementing component design and test programs are analyzed. The use of cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen as a propellant combination is explained on the basis of high vehicle impulse requirements, safety factors, reuse, and logistics considerations. The final configurations for the alternate propellant system, with primary emphasis on earth storable propellants is described.

  6. Outer planet entry probe system study. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    General mission considerations and science prospectus, which are of a general nature that applies to several or all planetary applications, are presented. Five probe systems are defined: nominal Jupiter probe system, and Jupiter probe-dedicated alternative probe system, Jupiter spacecraft radiation-compatible alternative probe system, Saturn probe system, and Saturn probe applicability for Uranus. Parametric analysis is summarized for mission analysis of a general nature, and then for specific missions to Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The program is also discussed from the hardware availability viewpoint and the aspect of commonality.

  7. Analysis of information systems for hydropower operations: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, R. L.; Becker, L.; Estes, J.; Simonett, D.; Yeh, W.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis was performed of the operations of hydropower systems, with emphasis on water resource management, to determine how aerospace derived information system technologies can effectively increase energy output. Better utilization of water resources was sought through improved reservoir inflow forecasting based on use of hydrometeorologic information systems with new or improved sensors, satellite data relay systems, and use of advanced scheduling techniques for water release. Specific mechanisms for increased energy output were determined, principally the use of more timely and accurate short term (0-7 days) inflow information to reduce spillage caused by unanticipated dynamic high inflow events. The hydrometeorologic models used in predicting inflows were examined in detail to determine the sensitivity of inflow prediction accuracy to the many variables employed in the models, and the results were used to establish information system requirements. Sensor and data handling system capabilities were reviewed and compared to the requirements, and an improved information system concept was outlined.

  8. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission initial updated baseline summary

    SciTech Connect

    Swita, W.R.

    1998-01-05

    This document provides a summary of the proposed Tank Waste Remediation System Retrieval and Disposal Mission Initial Updated Baseline (scope, schedule, and cost) developed to demonstrate the Tank Waste Remediation System contractor`s Readiness-to-Proceed in support of the Phase 1B mission.

  9. Building Management Information Systems to Coordinate Citywide Afterschool Programs: A Toolkit for Cities. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This executive summary describes highlights from the report, "Building Management Information Systems to Coordinate Citywide Afterschool Programs: A Toolkit for Cities." City-led efforts to build coordinated systems of afterschool programming are an important strategy for improving the health, safety and academic preparedness of children and…

  10. Performance 2000-01: System and Institution Summaries and Report Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ. System, Eugene. Office of Academic Affairs.

    Under a legislative mandate, system and institution performance reports are prepared for the Oregon higher education system annually to share descriptive information about the movement institutions are making with respect to the indicators adopted by the state in 1997. Chancellor'us staff prepared Report Cards and Summary Performance Reports for…

  11. High School Symposium for Earth Systems Education (Columbus, Ohio, October 1994). Proceedings and Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W., Ed.; Mayer, Victor J., Ed.

    This volume contains the proceedings and summary for the Earth Systems Education high school symposium conducted in October, 1994. Selected participants were invited to contribute papers for inclusion in this volume so that other teachers can see how Earth Systems Education (ESE) looks in practice. The volume also contains the context for ESE in…

  12. Summary of the recent short-haul systems studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savin, R. C.; Galloway, T. L.; Wilcox, D. E.; Kenyon, G. C.; Ardema, M. D.; Waters, M. H.

    1975-01-01

    The results of several NASA sponsored high density short haul air transportation systems studies are reported as well as analyzed. Included are the total STOL systems analysis approach, a companion STOL composites study conducted in conjunction with STOL systems studies, a STOL economic assessment study, an evaluation of STOL aircraft with and without externally blown flaps, an alternative STOL systems for the San Francisco Bay Area, and the quiet, clean experimental engine studies. Assumptions and results of these studies are summarized, their differences, analyzed, and the results compared with those in-house analyses performed by the Systems Studies Division of the NASA-Ames Research Center. Pertinent conclusions are developed and the more significant technology needs for the evaluation of a viable short haul transportation system are identified.

  13. Satellite power system: Engineering and economic analysis summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A system engineering and economic analysis was conducted to establish typical reference baselines for the photovoltaic, solar thermal, and nuclear satellite power systems. Tentative conclusions indicate that feasibility and economic viability are characteristic of the Satellite Power System. Anticipated technology related to manufacturing, construction, and maintenance operations is described. Fuel consumption, environmental effects, and orbital transfer are investigated. Space shuttles, local space transportation, and the heavy lift launch vehicle required are also discussed.

  14. Systems analysis for the development of small resource recovery systems. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Crnkovich, P G; Helmstetter, A J

    1980-10-01

    In response to the increasing need for small-scale solid waste processing facilities, the US DOE contracted with Systems Technology Corporation (SYSTECH) to identify the technologies that should be developed to make such facilities attractive to and viable for small municipalities with solid waste between 50 and 250 tons per day (TPD). In addition to identifying candidate technologies, SYSTECH applied a set of criteria to them to determine those that could best satisfy the existing market conditions. The criteria included costs of the alternative landfill disposal, material and energy prices, developmental status of the technology, and environmental impact of the systems. The system types studied included those with mechanical separation, thermal and thermochemical energy recovery, and bioconversion processes. For these studies, the performance of each system was simulated by a mathematical model. After the systems were evaluated, the most promising were analyzed to determine which components and operating parameters had the greatest impact on system viability. Accordingly, the research and development (R and D) needs to advance the state-of-the-art for small-scale solid waste processing facilities were identified. The study results are documented in four volumes: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Description of Solid Waste Modular Simulator; (3) Research and Development Needs; and (4) System Performance Data.

  15. Our Solar System at a Glance. Information Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The United States has explored the solar system with automated spacecraft and human-crewed expeditions that have produced a quantum leap in our knowledge and understanding of the solar system. Through the electronic sight and other "senses" of our automated spacecraft, color and complexion have been given to worlds that for centuries appeared to…

  16. Control Systems Security Test Center - FY 2004 Program Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Robert E. Polk; Alen M. Snyder

    2005-04-01

    In May 2004, the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) was established at Idaho National Laboratory to execute assessment activities to reduce the vulnerability of the nation’s critical infrastructure control systems to terrorist attack. The CSSC implements a program to accomplish the five goals presented in the US-CERT National Strategy for Control Systems Security. This report summarizes the first year funding of startup activities and program achievements that took place in FY 2004 and early FY 2005. This document was prepared for the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center of the National Cyber Security Division of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). DHS has been tasked under the Homeland Security Act of 2002 to coordinate the overall national effort to enhance the protection of the national critical infrastructure. Homeland Security Presidential Directive HSPD-7 directs federal departments to identify and prioritize the critical infrastructure and protect it from terrorist attack. The US-CERT National Strategy for Control Systems Security was prepared by the National Cyber Security Division to address the control system security component addressed in the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace and the National Strategy for the Physical Protection of Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets. The US-CERT National Strategy for Control Systems Security identified five high-level strategic goals for improving cyber security of control systems.

  17. Spaceborne power systems preference analyses. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. H.; Feinberg, A.; Miles, R. F., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Sixteen alternative spaceborne nuclear power system concepts were ranked using multiattribute decision analysis to identify promising concepts for further technology development. Four groups interviewed were: safety, systems definition and design, technology assessment, and mission analysis. The ranking results were consistent from group and for different utility function models for individuals.

  18. The Dairy Technology System in Venezuela. Summary of Research 79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Ruben D.; Henderson, Janet L.

    A study examined the agricultural technology system in Venezuela with emphasis on the dairy industry. An analytical framework was used to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the following components of Venezuela's agricultural technology system: policy, technology development, technology transfer, and technology use. Selected government…

  19. Manned Orbital Systems Concepts Study. Book 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Requirements for and definitions of a cost effective orbital facility concept, capable of supporting extended manned operations in earth orbit beyond those visualized for the 7 to 30 day shuttle/spacelab system, were studied. Data are given on requirements derivation, concepts identification, systems analysis and definition, and programmatics.

  20. Comet/Asteroid Protection System: Concept Study Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.

    2005-01-01

    Many of the major issues have been identified for a futuristic capability to protect against impacting comets and asteroids, and a preliminary space-based concept has been envisioned. Some of the basic concept elements, approaches, methodologies, and features have been identified. When contemplating the ability to monitor comets and asteroids continuously, there are many trade-offs between orbiting observatories and detection systems on planetary bodies without an atmosphere. Future orbit modification techniques have the potential for rapid and controlled alteration of NEO orbits, provided that high-power, compatible thermal management systems are developed. Much additional work and analysis are required to identify a final system concept, and many trade studies need to be performed to select the best mix of system capability, reliability, maintainability, and cost. Finally, it is fully appreciated that at the present time space systems are much more costly than terrestrial-based systems. Hopefully, this will change in the future. Regardless, understanding what it would take to defend against a much wider range of the impact threat will foster ideas, innovations, and technologies that could one day enable the development of such a system. This understanding is vital to provide ways of reducing the costs and quantifying the benefits that are achievable with a system like CAPS.

  1. CBTL Design Case Summary Conventional Feedstock Supply System - Herbaceous

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher T. Wright; Erin M. Searcy

    2012-02-01

    A conventional bale feedstock design has been established that represents supply system technologies, costs, and logistics that are achievable today for supplying herbaceous feedstocks as a blendstock with coal for energy production. Efforts are made to identify bottlenecks and optimize the efficiency and capacities of this supply system, within the constraints of existing local feedstock supplies, equipment, and permitting requirements. The feedstock supply system logistics operations encompass all of the activities necessary to move herbaceous biomass feedstock from the production location to the conversion reactor ready for blending and insertion. This supply system includes operations that are currently available such that costs and logistics are reasonable and reliable. The system modeled for this research project includes the uses of field-dried corn stover or switchgrass as a feedstock to annually supply an 800,000 DM ton conversion facility.

  2. CBTL Design Case Summary Conventional Feedstock Supply System - Woody

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher T. Wright; Erin M. Searcy

    2012-02-01

    A conventional woody feedstock design has been developed that represents supply system technologies, costs, and logistics that are achievable today for supplying woody biomass as a blendstock with coal for energy production. Efforts are made to identify bottlenecks and optimize the efficiency and capacities of this supply system, within the constraints and consideration of existing local feedstock supplies, equipment, and permitting requirements. The feedstock supply system logistics operations encompass all of the activities necessary to move woody biomass from the production location to the conversion reactor ready for blending and insertion. This supply system includes operations that are currently available such that costs and logistics are reasonable and reliable. The system modeled for this research project includes the use of the slash stream since it is a more conservative analysis and represents the material actually used in the experimental part of the project.

  3. Summary of Propulsion System Needs in Support of Project Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, Phil; Lorier, Terry; Baine, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In January 2004, the President of the United States established the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) to return man to the moon and ultimately to extend manned space travel to Mars. This paper will summarize the manned space flight liquid propulsion system needs in support of Project Constellation over the next 10 years. It will include all engine needs to return man to the moon. An overview of engines currently under contract, those baselined but not yet under contract, and those engine needs that hav.e yet to be initiated. Project Constellation includes the components as shown Figure 1. Liquid propulsion systems supporting the manned portion of these elements include the following: the Crew Exploration Vehicle named Orion (crew module reaction control system (CMRCS), service module Orion Main Engine (OME), service module auxiliary RCS, and service module reaction control system (SMRCS)), the Crew Launch Vehicle named Ares 1 (J2X upper stage, first stage roll control system, second stage reaction control system, and the Ares I-X roll control system), the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle named Ares V (RS68B first stage booster, J-2X upper stage, roll control systems, and the Earth Departure Stage (EDS) (powered by the same Ares V Upper Stage J-2X), and the Lunar Lander named Altair with both descent and ascent stages (lunar orbit insertion and descent main engine, ascent main engine, and attitude control systems for both stages). In addition, there may be additional engine needs for early demonstrators, but those will not be speculated on as part of this paper. Also, other portions of the VSE architecture, including the planned Orion abort demonstrations and the Lunar Precursor Robotic Program, are not addressed here as they either use solid motors or are focused on unmanned precursor missions.

  4. Space station WP-04 power system. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallinan, G. J.

    1987-01-01

    Major study activities and results of the phase B study contract for the preliminary design of the space station Electrical Power System (EPS) are summarized. The areas addressed include the general system design, man-tended option, automation and robotics, evolutionary growth, software development environment, advanced development, customer accommodations, operations planning, product assurance, and design and development phase planning. The EPS consists of a combination photovoltaic and solar dynamic power generation subsystem and a power management and distribution (PMAD) subsystem. System trade studies and costing activities are also summarized.

  5. Aerial photography summary record system - five years later.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lauterborn, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the APSRS, an automated information system for conventional aerial photography projects, established after the formation of the National Cartographic Information Center in the US Geological Survey in 1974. -after Author

  6. Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) data book. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, George S.

    1990-01-01

    The study was initiated to identify operations problems and cost drivers for current propulsion systems and to identify technology and design approaches to increase the operational efficiency and reduce operations costs for future propulsion systems. To provide readily usable data for the Advanced Launch System (ALS) program, the results of the Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) were organized into a series of OEPSS Data Books as follows: Volume 1, Generic Ground Operations Data; Volume 2, Ground Operations Problems; Volume 3, Operations Technology; Volume 4, OEPSS Design Concepts; and Volume 5, OEPSS Final Review Briefing, which summarizes the activities and results of the study. Summarized here are the salient results of the first year. A synopsis of each volume listed above is presented.

  7. Space Construction System Analysis. Part 2: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A detailed, end-to-end analysis of the activities, techniques, equipment and Shuttle provisions required to construct a reference project system is described. Included are: platform definition; construction analysis; cost and programmatics; and space construction experiments concepts.

  8. A summary of ERTS-1 data collection system applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.

    1975-01-01

    Geographically, applications were made over nearly the entire area where direct readout could be accomplished using the data acquisition stations in the ERTS-1 system. The extreme areas included Iceland, the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, Hawaii and Central America. In the discipline sense the majority of applications were in the water resources area with other applications being formally and informally reported in meteorology, oceanography, volcano surveillance and forestry. Installation and maintenance of the data collection platforms, as is true with nearly all new systems, was not accomplished without difficulty. On the whole, however, it has gone well enough so that it is agreed that it is a system which is amenable to installation in a variety of physical situations and the installation is accomplished with an ease commensurate with eventual use in an operational system.

  9. Solar Power Satellite Microwave Power Transmission System Description Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    The history of the concept of microwave power beaming to Earth is reviewed with emphasis on transmission frequency selection. Constraints on the system power level results from (1) required rejection of waste heat resulting from inefficiencies in the cover conversion of dc electric power to microwave power; (2) the rf power intensity in the ionosphere; and (3) the effect of sidelobe level on aperture illumination factors. Transmitter arrangement, the power distribution system, attitude control, subarrays, waveguides, and alignment are discussed.

  10. Summary of space nuclear reactor power systems, 1983 - 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buden, D.

    1993-08-01

    This report summarizes major developments in the last ten years which have greatly expanded the space nuclear reactor power systems technology base. In the SP-100 program, after a competition between liquid-metal, gas-cooled, thermionic, and heat pipe reactors integrated with various combinations of thermoelectric thermionic, Brayton, Rankine, and Stirling energy conversion systems, three concepts were selected for further evaluation. In 1985, the high-temperature (1,350 K), lithium-cooled reactor with thermoelectric conversion was selected for full scale development. Since then, significant progress has been achieved including the demonstration of a 7-y-life uranium nitride fuel pin. Progress on the lithium-cooled reactor with thermoelectrics has progressed from a concept, through a generic flight system design, to the design, development, and testing of specific components. Meanwhile, the USSR in 1987-88 orbited a new generation of nuclear power systems beyond the, thermoelectric plants on the RORSAT satellites. The US has continued to advance its own thermionic fuel element development, concentrating on a multicell fuel element configuration. Experimental work has demonstrated a single cell operating time of about 1 1/2-y. Technology advances have also been made in the Stirling engine; an advanced engine that operates at 1,050 K is ready for testing. Additional concepts have been studied and experiments have been performed on a variety of systems to meet changing needs; such as powers of tens-to-hundreds of megawatts and highly survivable systems of tens-of-kilowatts power.

  11. [Efficiency of Brazilian States and the Federal District in the public kidney transplant system based on DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) and the Malmquist index].

    PubMed

    Costa, Cassia Kely Favoretto; Balbinotto Neto, Giácomo; Sampaio, Luciano Menezes Bezerra

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of Brazilian States and the Federal District in the public kidney transplant system and their productivity trends from 2006 to 2011. The authors used Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) with slack and the Malmquist index with slack. Inputs included spending on hospital services and health professionals in the system. The output was the number of kidney transplants performed in each State. The data showed a significant discrepancy between States in the number of kidney transplants. The transplant system's inefficiency may result from inadequate management, failure to comply with national guidelines, inactive hospital transplant committees, and overburdened hospital staff. Institutional changes promoted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health (procedures improvement and standardization) failed to increase productivity in most States during this period. PMID:25210907

  12. [Efficiency of Brazilian States and the Federal District in the public kidney transplant system based on DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) and the Malmquist index].

    PubMed

    Costa, Cassia Kely Favoretto; Balbinotto Neto, Giácomo; Sampaio, Luciano Menezes Bezerra

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of Brazilian States and the Federal District in the public kidney transplant system and their productivity trends from 2006 to 2011. The authors used Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) with slack and the Malmquist index with slack. Inputs included spending on hospital services and health professionals in the system. The output was the number of kidney transplants performed in each State. The data showed a significant discrepancy between States in the number of kidney transplants. The transplant system's inefficiency may result from inadequate management, failure to comply with national guidelines, inactive hospital transplant committees, and overburdened hospital staff. Institutional changes promoted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health (procedures improvement and standardization) failed to increase productivity in most States during this period.

  13. Control load envelope shaping by live twist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarzanin, F. J., Jr.; Mirick, P. H.

    1974-01-01

    Rotor control systems experience a rapid load growth resulting from retreating blade stall during flight conditions of high blade loading or airspeeds. An investigation was undertaken to determine the effect of changing blade torsional properties over the rotor flight envelope. The results of this study show that reducing the blade stiffness to introduce more blade live twist significantly reduces the large retreating blade control loads, while expanding the flight envelope and reducing retreating blade stall loads.

  14. In Situ Underwater Gamma Spectroscopy System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    The baseline approach to characterize underwater objects is to use radiation sensors on an extendable pole or the Remote Underwater Characterization System to detect gamma radiation and to collect samples for laboratory analysis to determine concentrations of specific radionuclides. The In-Situ Underwater Gamma Spectroscopy (ISUGS) System is essentially a submersible In-Situ Object Counting System from Canberra that can determine both the total gamma radiation and quantify the specific radionuclides contributing to the radiation. ISUGS was demonstrated to characterize objects in the canal of the Materials Test Reactor in INEEL's Test Reactor Area. Cost analysis based on demonstration data revealed that ISUGS reduced costs by 80% for characterization of ten objects compared to the baseline approach. Frammatome provides ISUGS as part of its characterization services. Based on these promising results, INEEL and other DOE sites plan to use ISUGS to characterize their reactor fuel pools.

  15. Summary of space nuclear reactor power systems, 1983--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1993-08-11

    This report summarizes major developments in the last ten years which have greatly expanded the space nuclear reactor power systems technology base. In the SP-100 program, after a competition between liquid-metal, gas-cooled, thermionic, and heat pipe reactors integrated with various combinations of thermoelectric thermionic, Brayton, Rankine, and Stirling energy conversion systems, three concepts:were selected for further evaluation. In 1985, the high-temperature (1,350 K), lithium-cooled reactor with thermoelectric conversion was selected for full scale development. Since then, significant progress has been achieved including the demonstration of a 7-y-life uranium nitride fuel pin. Progress on the lithium-cooled reactor with thermoelectrics has progressed from a concept, through a generic flight system design, to the design, development, and testing of specific components. Meanwhile, the USSR in 1987--88 orbited a new generation of nuclear power systems beyond the, thermoelectric plants on the RORSAT satellites. The US has continued to advance its own thermionic fuel element development, concentrating on a multicell fuel element configuration. Experimental work has demonstrated a single cell operating time of about 1 1/2-y. Technology advances have also been made in the Stirling engine; an advanced engine that operates at 1,050 K is ready for testing. Additional concepts have been studied and experiments have been performed on a variety of systems to meet changing needs; such as powers of tens-to-hundreds of megawatts and highly survivable systems of tens-of-kilowatts power.

  16. National Study of Vocational Education Systems and Facilities. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Alan; And Others

    A national study was conducted to accomplish three objectives: (1) describe the organization and governance of state and local agencies and delivery systems for vocational education; (2) describe the basic provisions by which the capital and operating costs of vocational education are funded; and (3) describe the status of the nation's vocational…

  17. A summary of spectral synthesis procedures for multivariable systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberty, S. R.; Mielke, R. R.; Maynard, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    A new approach to the eigensystem assignment problem is presented. The approach utilizes a null-space formulation of the eigenvalue/eigenvector assignment problem to simultaneously realize arbitrary eigenvalue specifications, approximate desired modal behavior, and achieve low eigensystem sensitivity with respect to plant parameter variations. The methods are applied to the design of regulator and integral plus proportional servo control systems.

  18. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Ion Propulsion System Information Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pencil, Eirc S.; Benson, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    This document is a guide to New Frontiers mission proposal teams. The document describes the development and status of the NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system (IPS) technology, its application to planetary missions, and the process anticipated to transition NEXT to the first flight mission.

  19. Mission Information and Test Systems Summary of Accomplishments, 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMorrow, Sean E.; Sherrard, Roberta B.

    2013-01-01

    This annual report covers the activities of the NASA DRFC Mission Information and Test Systems, which includes the Western Aeronautical Test Range, the Simulation Engineering Branch, the Information Services and the Dryden Technical Laboratory (Flight Loads Lab). This report contains highlights, current projects and various awards achieved during in 2011

  20. Curriculum Materials Analysis System; A Summary of Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Merle M.; Hodges, James O.

    1970-01-01

    The purposes of this Newsletter are: to summarize the Consortium's recent experience with the Curriculum Materials Analysis System (CMAS); to report the activities of others using CMAS; and to describe available analyses of curriculum materials, including their prices. Most of the analyses were done by teachers and supervisors in work groups…

  1. Mechanical Systems Technology Branch research summary, 1985 - 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    A collection of significant accomplishments from the research of the Mechanical Systems Technology Branch at the NASA Lewis Research Center completed during the years 1985-1992 is included. The publication highlights and accomplishments made in bearing and gearing technology through in-house research, university grants, and industry contracted projects. The publication also includes a complete listing of branch publications for these years.

  2. Heat stress monitoring system. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) program involves the need to decontaminate and decommission buildings expeditiously and cost-effectively. Simultaneously, the health and safety of personnel involved in the D and D activities is of primary concern. Often, D and D workers must perform duties in inclement weather, and because they also frequently work in contaminated areas, they must wear personal protective clothing and/or respirators. Monitoring the health status of workers under these conditions is an important component of ensuring their safety. The MiniMitter VitalSense Telemetry System`s heat stress monitoring system (HSMS) is designed to monitor the vital signs of individual workers as they perform work in conditions that might be conducive to heat exhaustion or heat stress. The HSMS provides real-time data on the physiological condition of workers which can be monitored to prevent heat stress or other adverse health situations. This system is particularly useful when workers are wearing personal protective clothing or respirators that make visual observation of their condition more difficult. The MiniMitter VitalSense Telemetry System can monitor up to four channels (e.g., heart rate, body activity, ear canal, and skin temperature) and ten workers from a single supervisory station. The monitors are interfaced with a portable computer that updates and records information on individual workers. This innovative technology, even though it costs more, is an attractive alternative to the traditional (baseline) technology, which measures environmental statistics and predicts the average worker`s reaction to those environmental conditions without taking the physical condition of the individual worker into consideration. Although use of the improved technology might be justified purely on the basis of improved safety, it has the potential to pay for itself by reducing worker time lost caused by heat

  3. Summary of State-of-the-Art Power Conversion Systems for Energy Storage Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Atcitty, S.; Gray-Fenner, A.; Ranade, S.

    1998-09-01

    The power conversion system (PCS) is a vital part of many energy storage systems. It serves as the interface between the storage device, an energy source, and an AC load. This report summarizes the results of an extensive study of state-of-the-art power conversion systems used for energy storage applications. The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential for cost reduction and performance improvement in these power conversion systems and to provide recommendations for fiture research and development. This report provides an overview of PCS technology, a description of several state-of-the-art power conversion systems and how they are used in specific applications, a summary of four basic configurations for l:he power conversion systems used in energy storage applications, a discussion of PCS costs and potential cost reductions, a summary of the stancku-ds and codes relevant to the technology, and recommendations for future research and development.

  4. Data Base Management Systems Panel. Third workshop summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urena, J. L. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The discussions and results of a review by a panel of data base management system (DRMS) experts of various aspects of the use of DBMSs within NASA/Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications (OSTA) and related organizations are summarized. The topics discussed included the present status of the use of DBMS technology and of the various ongoing DBMS-related efforts within NASA. The report drafts of a study that seeks to determine the functional requirements for a generalized DBMS for the NASA/OSTA and related data bases are examined. Future problems and possibilities with the use of DBMS technology are also considered. A list of recommendations for NASA/OSTA data systems is included.

  5. Intelligent Propulsion System Foundation Technology: Summary of Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this cooperative agreement was to develop a foundation of intelligent propulsion technologies for NASA and industry that will have an impact on safety, noise, emissions, and cost. These intelligent engine technologies included sensors, electronics, communications, control logic, actuators, smart materials and structures, and system studies. Furthermore, this cooperative agreement helped prepare future graduates to develop the revolutionary intelligent propulsion technologies that will be needed to ensure pre-eminence of the U.S. aerospace industry. This Propulsion 21 - Phase 11 program consisted of four primary research areas and associated work elements at Ohio universities: 1.0 Turbine Engine Prognostics, 2.0 Active Controls for Emissions and Noise Reduction, 3.0 Active Structural Controls and Performance, and 4.0 System Studies and Integration. Phase l, which was conducted during the period August 1, 2003, through September 30, 2004, has been reported separately.

  6. Space shuttle food system summary, 1981-1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadler, Connie R.; Rapp, Rita M.; Bourland, Charles T.; Fohey, Michael F.

    1988-01-01

    All food in the Space Shuttle food system was precooked and processed so it required no refrigeration and was either ready-to-eat or could be prepared for consumption by simply adding water and/or heating. A gun-type water dispenser and a portable, suitcase-type heater were used to support this food system during the first four missions. On STS-5, new rehydratable packages were introduced along with a needle-injection water dispenser that measured the water as it was dispensed into the packages. A modular galley was developed to facilitate the meal preparation process aboard the Space Shuttle. The galley initially flew on STS-9. A personal hygiene station, a hot or cold water dispenser, a convection oven, and meal assembly areas were included in the galley.

  7. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Configuration concepts, option sizes, and systems definitions study design evolutions are reviewed. The main features of the present reference design silicon solar cell solar power satellite are described, as well as the provisions for space construction and support systems. The principal study accomplishments and conclusions are summarized according to the following tasks: (1) baseline critique; (2) construction and maintenance; (3) industrial complex needs, cost estimates, and production capacity; (4) launch complex requirements at KSC or at an offshore facility; (5) integration of the SPS/ground power network; (6) technology advancement and development; (7) costs and schedules; and (8) exploratory technology: laser annealing of solar cells degraded by proton irradiation, and a fiber-optic phase distribution link at 980 MHz.

  8. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report; Summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek metal coating removal system consists of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER(R), and VAC-PAC(R). The system is designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M ROTO-PEEN tungsten carbide cutters, while the CORNER-CUTTER(R) uses solid needles for descaling activities. These are used with the VAC-PAC(R) vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure was minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended, since the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place may skew the results. It is feasible that dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment. Other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  9. Development of the Runway Incursion Advisory and Alerting System (RIAAS): Research Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R. (Technical Monitor); Cassell, Rick

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted on an aircraft based Runway Incursion Advisory and Alerting System (RIAAS) developed under a cooperative agreement between Rannoch Corporation and the NASA Langley Research Center. A summary of RIAAS is presented along with results from simulation and flight testing, safety benefits, and key technical issues.

  10. Integrated Utility Systems Feasibility Study and Conceptual Design at the University of Florida. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirmse, Dale W.; Manyimo, Steve B.

    This executive summary presents a brief analysis of findings and recommendations. The concept of the Integrated Utility System (IUS) is to consider the interaction and mutual support of five utility subsystems needed by a campus complex of buildings. The subsystems are: (1) Electric power service; (2) Heating - ventilating - air conditioning and…

  11. Summary of the Oahu, Hawaii, Regional Aquifer-System Analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, William D.; Shade, Patricia J.; Hunt, Charles D.

    1996-01-01

    island. A regional aquifer system composed of the Waianae aquifer in the Waianae Volcanics and the Koolau aquifer in the Koolau Basalt is subdivided into well-defined areas by geohydrologic barriers. The aquifers are separated by the Waianae confining unit formed by weathering along the Waianae-Koolau unconformity. In some coastal areas, a caprock of sedimentary deposits overlies and confines the aquifers. The island of Oahu has been divided into seven major ground-water areas delineated by deep-seated structural geohydrologic barriers; these areas are further subdivided by shallower internal barriers to ground-water flow. The Koolau rift zone along the eastern (windward) side of the island and the Waianae rift zone to the west (Waianae area) constitute two of the major ground-water areas. North-central Oahu is divided into three smaller ground-water areas, Mokuleia, Waialua, and Kawailoa. The Schofield ground-water area encompasses much of the Schofield Plateau of central Oahu. Southern Oahu is divided into six areas, Ewa, Pearl Harbor, Moanalua, Kalihi, Beretania, and Kaimuki. Southeastern Oahu is divided into the Waialae and Wailupe-Hawaii Kai areas. Along the northeast coast of windward Oahu is the Kahuku ground-water area. The aquifers of Oahu contain shallow freshwater and deeper saltwater flow systems. There are five fresh ground-water flow systems: meteoric freshwater flow diverges from ground-water divides that lie somewhere within the Waianae and Koolau rift zones, forming an interior flow system in central Oahu (which is divided into the northern and southern Oahu flow systems) and exterior flow systems in western (Waianae area) Oahu, eastern (windward) Oahu, and southeastern Oahu. Development of the ground-water resources on Oahu began when the first well was drilled near Honouliuli in the summer of 1879. By 1890, 86 wells had been drilled on the island. From about 1891 to about 1910, development increased rapidly with the drilling of a

  12. Wireless remote radiation monitoring system (WRRMS). Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-12-01

    The Science Application International Corporation (SAIC) RadStar{trademark} wireless remote radiation monitoring system (WRRMS) is designed to provide real-time monitoring of the radiation dose to workers as they perform work in radiologically contaminated areas. WRRMS can also monitor dose rates in a room or area. The system uses radio-frequency communications to transmit dose readings from the wireless dosimeters worn by workers to a remote monitoring station that can be located out of the contaminated area. Each base station can monitor up to 16 workers simultaneously. The WRRMS can be preset to trigger both audible and visual alarms at certain dose rates. The alarms are provided to the worker as well as the base station operator. This system is particularly useful when workers are wearing personal protective clothing or respirators that make visual observation of their self-reading dosimeters (SRDs), which are typically used to monitor workers, more difficult. The base station is an IBM-compatible personal computer that updates and records information on individual workers every ten seconds. Although the equipment costs for this improved technology are higher than the SRDs (amortized at $2.54/hr versus $1.02/hr), total operational costs are actually less ($639/day versus $851/day). This is because the WRRMS requires fewer workers to be in the contaminated zone than the traditional (baseline) technology. There are also intangible benefits associated with improved worker safety and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principles, making the WRRMS an attractive alternative to the baseline technology. The baseline technology measures only integrated dose and requires workers to check their own dosimeters manually during the task.

  13. Cargo Logistics Airlift Systems Study (CLASS). Volume 5: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burby, R. J.; Kuhlman, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    Findings and conclusions derived during the study of freighter aircraft requirements to the year 2008 are summarized. These results represent the stepping off point for the much needed coordinated planning efforts by government agencies, the airlines, the users, and the aircraft manufacturers. The methodology utilized in the investigations is shown. The analysis of the current system encompassed evaluations of the past and current cargo markets and on sight surveys of airport and cargo terminals. The findings that resulted provided the basis for formulating the case study procedures, developing the future scenario, and developing the future cargo market demand.

  14. Predictive monitoring research: Summary of the PREMON system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Richard J.; Sellers, Suzanne M.; Atkinson, David J.

    1987-01-01

    Traditional approaches to monitoring are proving inadequate in the face of two important issues: the dynamic adjustment of expectations about sensor values when the behavior of the device is too complex to enumerate beforehand, and the selective but effective interpretation of sensor readings when the number of sensors becomes overwhelming. This system addresses these issues by building an explicit model of a device and applying common-sense theories of physics to model causality in the device. The resulting causal simulation of the device supports planning decisions about how to efficiently yet reliably utilize a limited number of sensors to verify correct operation of the device.

  15. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING DL

    2008-03-19

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions.

  16. PROJECT W-551 SUMMARY INFORMATION FOR EARLY LAW INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM SELECTION

    SciTech Connect

    AR, TEDESCHI

    2008-08-11

    This report provides summary data for use by the decision board to assess and select the final technology for project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This project will provide early pretreated low activity waste feed to the Waste Treatment Plant to allow Waste Treatment Plan Low Activity Waste facility operation prior to construction completion of the Pretreatment and High Level Waste facilities. The candidate solids separations technologies are rotary microfiltration and crossflow filtration, and the candidate cesium separation technologies are fractional crystallization, caustic-side solvent extraction, and ion-exchange using spherical resorcinol-fonnaldebyde resin. This document provides a summary of comparative data against prior weighted criteria to support technology selection. Supporting details and background for this summary are documented in the separate report, RPP-RPT-37741.

  17. Flexible manufacturing system handbook. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-02-01

    Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMSs) represent a relatively new strategy to increase productivity. The technology is especially attractive for manufacturers who produce in the middle ranges of production volumes, neither mass production nor one of a kind. Today's unpredictable market environment demands low-cost solutions that provide quick product start-up, adaptability and responsiveness to changes in demand, and the capacity to easily resurrect out-of-production designs. In many instances, FMSs provide a direct hardware/software solution to this threefold management challenge. The adoption of FMS technology requires that one address many questions beforehand. This handbook provides a methodical approach to answering these questions. But it is not a cookbook; it cannot be. Each application of FMS technology is unique, therefore, the guidelines presented are fairly general.

  18. National petroleum reserve - Alaska: marine transportation system analysis. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Macpherson, M.D.

    1980-10-01

    This report presents a comprehensive parametric analysis of a number of concepts for the marine transportation of crude oil and gas from the national petroleum reserve in the Alaskan Arctic (NPR-A) to the contiguous United States. The analysis provides the transportation costs for icebreaking and ice-strengthened surface tankers and LNG carriers over a range of ship sizes and propulsion power levels and for submarine tankers for each of a number of routes from four loading ports in the Arctic to discharge ports on the East and Gulf Coasts of the United States. The report includes discussions of the technical factors related to Arctic ship construction and operation, ice technology, and the environmental and institutional factors which must be included in an evaluation of an Arctic marine transportation system.

  19. Systems autonomy technology: Executive summary and program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, John S (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The National Space Strategy approved by the President and Congress in 1984 sets for NASA a major goal of conducting effective and productive space applications and technology programs which contribute materially toward United States leadership and security. To contribute to this goal, OAST supports the Nation's civil and defense space programs and overall economic growth. OAST objectives are to ensure timely provision of new concepts and advanced technologies, to support both the development of NASA missions in space and the space activities of industry and other organizations, to utilize the strengths of universities in conducting the NASA space research and technology program, and to maintain the NASA centers in positions of strength in critical space technology areas. In line with these objectives, NASA has established a new program in space automation and robotics that will result in the development and transfer and automation technology to increase the capabilities, productivity, and safety of NASA space programs including the Space Station, automated space platforms, lunar bases, Mars missions, and other deep space ventures. The NASA/OAST Automation and Robotics program is divided into two parts. Ames Research Center has the lead role in developing and demonstrating System Autonomy capabilities for space systems that need to make their own decisions and do their own planning. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has the lead role for Telerobotics (that portion of the program that has a strong human operator component in the control loop and some remote handling requirement in space). This program is intended to be a working document for NASA Headquarters, Program Offices, and implementing Project Management.

  20. UNIVERSITY TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM SUMMARY AND DIRECTORY

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence P. Golan; Richard A. Wenglarz

    2004-07-01

    The South Carolina Institute for Energy Studies (SCIES), administratively housed at Clemson University, has participated in the advancement of combustion turbine technology for over a decade. The University Turbine Systems Research Program, previously referred to as the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program, has been administered by SCIES for the U.S. DOE during the 1992-2003 timeframe. The structure of the program is based on a concept presented to the DOE by Clemson University. Under the supervision of the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the UTSR consortium brings together the engineering departments at leading U.S. universities and U.S. combustion turbine developers to provide a solid base of knowledge for the future generations of land-based gas turbines. In the UTSR program, an Industrial Review Board (IRB) (Appendix C) of gas turbine companies and related organizations defines needed gas turbine research. SCIES prepares yearly requests for university proposals to address the research needs identified by the IRB organizations. IRB technical representatives evaluate the university proposals and review progress reports from the awarded university projects. To accelerate technology transfer technical workshops are held to provide opportunities for university, industry and government officials to share comments and improve quality and relevancy of the research. To provide educational growth at the Universities, in addition to sponsored research, the UTSR provides faculty and student fellowships. The basis for all activities--research, technology transfer, and education--is the DOE Turbine Program Plan and identification, through UTSR consortium group processes, technology needed to meet Program Goals that can be appropriately researched at Performing Member Universities.

  1. Remote Underwater Characterization System - Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, W D

    1999-04-01

    Characterization and inspection of water-cooled and moderated nuclear reactors and fuel storage pools requires equipment capable of operating underwater. Similarly, the deactivation and decommissioning of older nuclear facilities often requires the facility owner to accurately characterize underwater structures and equipment which may have been sitting idle for years. The Remote Underwater Characterization System (RUCS) is a small, remotely operated submersible vehicle intended to serve multiple purposes in underwater nuclear operations. It is based on the commercially-available "Scallop" vehicle 1 , but has been modified by the Department of Energy's Robotics Technology Development Program to add auto-depth control, and vehicle orientation and depth monitoring at the operator control panel. The RUCS is designed to provide visual and gamma radiation characterization, even in confined or limited access areas. It was demonstrated in August 1998 at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) as part of the INEEL Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project. During the demonstration it was compared in a "head-to-head" fashion with the baseline characterization technology. This paper summarizes the results of the demonstration and lessons learned; comparing and contrasting both technologies in the areas of cost, visual characterization, radiological characterization, and overall operations.

  2. Geostationary platform systems concepts definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The results of a geostationary platform concept analysis are summarized. Mission and payloads definition, concept selection, the requirements of an experimental platform, supporting research and technology, and the Space Transportation System interface requirements are addressed. It is concluded that platforms represent a logical extension of current trends toward larger, more complex, multifrequency satellites. Geostationary platforms offer significant cost savings compared to individual satellites, with the majority of these economies being realized with single Shuttle launched platforms. Further cost savings can be realized, however, by having larger platforms. Platforms accommodating communications equipment that operates at multiple frequencies and which provide larger scale frequency reuse through the use of large aperture multibeam antennas and onboard switching maximize the useful capacity of the orbital arc and frequency spectrum. Projections of market demand indicate that such conservation measures are clearly essential if orderly growth is to be provided for. In addition, it is pointed out that a NASA experimental platform is required to demonstrate the technologies necessary for operational geostationary platforms of the 1990's.

  3. Economic development through biomass system integration: Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Alfalfa is a well-known and widely-planted crop that offers environmental and soil conservation advantages when grown as a 4-year segment in a 7-year rotation with corn and soybeans. Alfalfa fixes nitrogen from the air, thereby enhancing soil nitrogen and decreasing the need for manufactured nitrogen fertilizer. With alfalfa yields of 4 dry tons per acre per year and the alfalfa leaf fraction sold as a high-value animal feed the remaining alfalfa stem fraction can be economically viable fuel feedstock for a gasifier combined cycle power plant. This report is a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is the feedstock for a processing plant and a power power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle) in a way that benefits the facility owners. The sale of an animal feed co-product and electricity both help cover the production cost of alfalfa and the feedstock processing cost, thereby requiring neither the electricity or leaf meal to carry the total cost. The power plant provides an important continous demand for the feedstock and results in continous supply of leaf product to provide a reliable supply needed for the leaf meal product.

  4. Remote Underwater Characterization System - Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, Walter David

    1999-04-01

    Characterization and inspection of water-cooled and moderated nuclear reactors and fuel storage pools requires equipment capable of operating underwater. Similarly, the deactivation and decommissioning of older nuclear facilities often requires the facility owner to accurately characterize underwater structures and equipment which may have been sitting idle for years. The underwater characterization equipment is often required to operate at depths exceeding 20 ft (6.1 m) and in relatively confined or congested spaces. The typical baseline approach has been the use of radiation detectors and underwater cameras mounted on long poles, or stationary cameras with pan and tilt features mounted on the sides of the underwater facility. There is a perceived need for an inexpensive, more mobile method of performing close-up inspection and radiation measurements in confined spaces underwater. The Remote Underwater Characterization System (RUCS) is a small, remotely operated submersible vehicle intended to serve multiple purposes in underwater nuclear operations. It is based on the commercially-available “Scallop” vehicle1, but has been modified by Department of Energy’s Robotics Technology Development Program to add auto-depth control, and vehicle orientation and depth monitoring at the operator control panel. The RUCS is designed to provide visual and gamma radiation characterization, even in confined or limited access areas. It was demonstrated in August 1998 at Idaho National Engineering and environmental Laboratory (INEEL) as part of the INEEL Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project. During the demonstration it was compared in a “head-tohead” fashion with the baseline characterization technology. This paper summarizes the results of the demonstration and lessons learned; comparing and contrasting both technologies in the areas of cost, visual characterization, radiological characterization, and overall operations.

  5. Proteolysis of Xenopus laevis egg envelope ZPA triggers envelope hardening.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Leann L; Hedrick, Jerry L

    2004-11-12

    The egg envelope of most animal eggs is modified following fertilization, resulting in the prevention of polyspermy and hardening of the egg envelope. In frogs and mammals a prominent feature of envelope modification is N-terminal proteolysis of the envelope glycoprotein ZPA. We have purified the ZPA protease from Xenopus laevis eggs and characterized it as a zinc metalloprotease. Proteolysis of isolated egg envelopes by the isolated protease resulted in envelope hardening. The N-terminal peptide fragment of ZPA remained disulfide bond linked to the ZPA glycoprotein moiety following proteolysis. We propose a mechanism for egg envelope hardening involving ZPA proteolysis by an egg metalloprotease as a triggering event followed by induction of global conformational changes in egg envelope glycoproteins. PMID:15474476

  6. Jacketed lamp bulb envelope

    DOEpatents

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Gitsevich, Aleksandr; Bass, Gary K.; Dolan, James T.; Kipling, Kent; Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Leng, Yongzhang; Levin, Izrail; Roy, Robert J.; Shanks, Bruce; Smith, Malcolm; Trimble, William C.; Tsai, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a partially closed end, the partially closed end defining an aperture, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material at least partially covering a portion of the bulb not abutting the aperture. The reflective ceramic material may substantially fill an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. The ceramic cup may include a structural feature for aiding in alignment of the jacketed lamp bulb envelope in a lamp. The ceramic cup may include an external flange about a periphery thereof. One example of a jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a closed end, a ceramic washer covering the open end of the ceramic cup, the washer defining an aperture therethrough, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material filling an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. A method of packing a jacketed lamp bulb envelope of the type comprising a ceramic cup with a lamp bulb disposed therein includes the steps of filling the ceramic cup with a flowable slurry of reflective material, and applying centrifugal force to the cup to pack the reflective material therein.

  7. Pushing the endogenous envelope

    PubMed Central

    Henzy, Jamie E.; Johnson, Welkin E.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of retroviral envelope glycoproteins characterized to date are typical of type I viral fusion proteins, having a receptor binding subunit associated with a fusion subunit. The fusion subunits of lentiviruses and alpha-, beta-, delta- and gammaretroviruses have a very conserved domain organization and conserved features of secondary structure, making them suitable for phylogenetic analyses. Such analyses, along with sequence comparisons, reveal evidence of numerous recombination events in which retroviruses have acquired envelope glycoproteins from heterologous sequences. Thus, the envelope gene (env) can have a history separate from that of the polymerase gene (pol), which is the most commonly used gene in phylogenetic analyses of retroviruses. Focusing on the fusion subunits of the genera listed above, we describe three distinct types of retroviral envelope glycoproteins, which we refer to as gamma-type, avian gamma-type and beta-type. By tracing these types within the ‘fossil record’ provided by endogenous retroviruses, we show that they have surprisingly distinct evolutionary histories and dynamics, with important implications for cross-species transmissions and the generation of novel lineages. These findings validate the utility of env sequences in contributing phylogenetic signal that enlarges our understanding of retrovirus evolution. PMID:23938755

  8. Targeting Nuclear Envelope Repair.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Migrating cancer cells undergo repeated rupture of the protective nuclear envelope as they squeeze through small spaces in the surrounding tissue, compromising genomic integrity. Inhibiting both general DNA repair and the mechanism that seals these tears may enhance cell death and curb metastasis. PMID:27130435

  9. COMMON ENVELOPE: ENTHALPY CONSIDERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanova, N.; Chaichenets, S.

    2011-04-20

    In this Letter, we discuss a modification to the criterion for the common envelope (CE) event to result in envelope dispersion. We emphasize that the current energy criterion for the CE phase is not sufficient for an instability of the CE, nor for an ejection. However, in some cases, stellar envelopes undergo stationary mass outflows, which are likely to occur during the slow spiral-in stage of the CE event. We propose the condition for such outflows, in a manner similar to the currently standard {alpha}{sub CE}{lambda}-prescription but with an addition of P/{rho} term in the energy balance equation, accounting therefore for the enthalpy of the envelope rather than merely the gas internal energy. This produces a significant correction, which might help to dispense with an unphysically high value of energy efficiency parameter during the CE phase, currently required in the binary population synthesis studies to make the production of low-mass X-ray binaries with a black hole companion to match the observations.

  10. Relative carrier-envelope phase stabilization of hybridly synchronized ultrafast Yb and Er fiber-laser systems with the feed-forward scheme.

    PubMed

    Fong, Bo-Jyun; Lin, Wei-Ting; Wu, Shang-Ying; Peng, Jin-Long; Hsiang, Wei-Wei; Lai, Yinchieh

    2015-03-15

    Stabilization of the relative carrier-envelope (CE) phase for hybridly synchronized two-color fs Yb and Er fiber-laser systems is demonstrated for the first time by utilizing the feed-forward scheme based on an acousto-optic frequency shifter. The slow drift issues arising from the feed-forward scheme are solved by adding the in-loop relative CE frequency coarse stabilization via modulating the laser pump current. Sub-fs timing locking between the two-color pulses is still maintained due to the fast response and large locking range of hybrid synchronization. The approach provides an alternative way to obtain phase-stable synchronized two-color pulses with higher pulse energies. PMID:25768158

  11. Data envelopment analysis of space and terrestrially-based large scale commercial power systems for earth: A prototype analysis of their relative economic advantages

    SciTech Connect

    Criswell, D.R.; Thompson, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    Society must develop a large new source of electric power to adequately meet human needs in the 21st Century. The Lunar Solar Power system (LSP) is a new option that is independent of the biosphere. LSP captures sunlight on the moon, converts the solar power to microwaves, and beams the power to receivers on Earth that output electricity. The collimated microwave beams are low in intensity (< 20% of sunlight), safe, and environmentally benign. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) enables the detailed quantitative comparison of alternative economic systems. We use DEA methodology to compare the technical efficiency of the large-scale power systems needed to meet the growing energy needs of terrestrial society. This comparison suggests the efficiencies to be gained from LSP are large indeed. Such gains remain even if the resources needed for LSP are 10-fold greater than estimated from United States government studies. In terms of benefits versus costs, normalized to the range of 0-1, DEA reveals that LSP is much more efficient than conventional terrestrial solar-thermal and photovoltaic, fossil, and nuclear systems. LSP is also environmentally benign compared to the conventional systems.. 1 ref., 1 fig., 12 tabs.

  12. Featured Image: Orbiting Stars Share an Envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    This beautiful series of snapshots from a simulation (click for a better look!) shows what happens when two stars in a binary system become enclosed in the same stellar envelope. In this binary system, one of the stars has exhausted its hydrogen fuel and become a red giant, complete with an expanding stellar envelope composed of hydrogen and helium. Eventually, the envelope expands so much that the companion star falls into it, where it releases gravitational potential energy into the common envelope. A team led by Sebastian Ohlmann (Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies and University of Wrzburg) recently performed hydrodynamic simulations of this process. Ohlmann and collaborators discovered that the energy release eventually triggers large-scale flow instabilities, which leads to turbulence within the envelope. This process has important consequences for how these systems next evolve (for instance, determining whether or not a supernova occurs!). You can check out the authors video of their simulated stellar inspiral below, or see their paper for more images and results from their study.CitationSebastian T. Ohlmann et al 2016 ApJ 816 L9. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/816/1/L9

  13. Development, Implementation, and Pilot Evaluation of a Model-Driven Envelope Protection System to Mitigate the Hazard of In-Flight Ice Contamination on a Twin-Engine Commuter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martos, Borja; Ranaudo, Richard; Norton, Billy; Gingras, David; Barnhart, Billy

    2014-01-01

    Fatal loss-of-control accidents have been directly related to in-flight airframe icing. The prototype system presented in this report directly addresses the need for real-time onboard envelope protection in icing conditions. The combination of prior information and real-time aerodynamic parameter estimations are shown to provide sufficient information for determining safe limits of the flight envelope during inflight icing encounters. The Icing Contamination Envelope Protection (ICEPro) system was designed and implemented to identify degradations in airplane performance and flying qualities resulting from ice contamination and provide safe flight-envelope cues to the pilot. The utility of the ICEPro system for mitigating a potentially hazardous icing condition was evaluated by 29 pilots using the NASA Ice Contamination Effects Flight Training Device. Results showed that real time assessment cues were effective in reducing the number of potentially hazardous upset events and in lessening exposure to loss of control following an incipient upset condition. Pilot workload with the added ICEPro displays was not measurably affected, but pilot opinion surveys showed that real time cueing greatly improved their awareness of a hazardous aircraft state. The performance of ICEPro system was further evaluated by various levels of sensor noise and atmospheric turbulence.

  14. HIV-1 tropism for the central nervous system: Brain-derived envelope glycoproteins with lower CD4 dependence and reduced sensitivity to a fusion inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-Garcia, Julio . E-mail: julio.martin-garcia@drexelmed.edu; Cao, Wei; Varela-Rohena, Angel; Plassmeyer, Matthew L.; Gonzalez-Scarano, Francisco

    2006-03-01

    We previously described envelope glycoproteins of an HIV-1 isolate adapted in vitro for growth in microglia that acquired a highly fusogenic phenotype and lower CD4 dependence, as well as resistance to inhibition by anti-CD4 antibodies. Here, we investigated whether similar phenotypic changes are present in vivo. Envelope clones from the brain and spleen of an HIV-1-infected individual with neurological disease were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated clustering of sequences according to the tissue of origin, as expected. Functional clones were then used in cell-to-cell fusion assays to test for CD4 and co-receptor utilization and for sensitivity to various antibodies and inhibitors. Both brain- and spleen-derived envelope clones mediated fusion in cells expressing both CD4 and CCR5 and brain envelopes also used CCR3 as co-receptor. We found that the brain envelopes had a lower CD4 dependence, since they efficiently mediated fusion in the presence of low levels of CD4 on the target cell membrane, and they were significantly more resistant to blocking by anti-CD4 antibodies than the spleen-derived envelopes. In contrast, we observed no difference in sensitivity to the CCR5 antagonist TAK-779. However, brain-derived envelopes were significantly more resistant than those from spleen to the fusion inhibitor T-1249 and concurrently showed slightly greater fusogenicity. Our results suggest an increased affinity for CD4 of brain-derived envelopes that may have originated from in vivo adaptation to replication in microglial cells. Interestingly, we note the presence of envelopes more resistant to a fusion inhibitor in the brain of an untreated, HIV-1-infected individual.

  15. Satellite power system: Concept development and evaluation program. Volume 3: Power transmission and reception. Technical summary and assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, R. H.; Arndt, G. D.; Seyl, J. W.; Leopold, L.; Kelley, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    Efforts in the DOE/NASA concept development and evaluation program are discussed for the solar power satellite power transmission and reception system. A technical summary is provided together with a summary of system assessment activities. System options and system definition drivers are described. Major system assessment activities were in support of the reference system definition, solid state system studies, critical technology supporting investigations, and various system and subsystem tradeoffs. These activities are described together with reference system updates and alternative concepts for each of the subsystem areas. Conclusions reached as a result of the numerous analytical and experimental evaluations are presented. Remaining issues for a possible follow-on program are identified.

  16. Morphologically complex protostellar envelopes : structure and kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, John J.

    I present an in-depth study of protostars and their surrounding envelopes of dense gas and dust, using a multitude of observational methods to reveal new details of the star formation process. I use mid-infrared imaging from the Spitzer Space Telescope, combined with photometry spanning the near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths, to construct a model of the L1527 protostellar system. I modeled both the spectral energy distribution and resolved scattered light images to determine physical properties of the protostellar system. The nature of the apparent central point source in the Spitzer images was uncertain until high-resolution L-band imaging from the Gemini observatory resolved the point source into a disk in scattered light, having a radius of 200 AU. Protostellar envelopes are also often found to cast shadows against the 8 micron Galactic background in Spitzer imaging, enabling direct probes of envelope structure. The shadow images show that the dense envelopes around twenty-two Class 0 protostars are generally morphologically complex from 0.1 pc scales down to ˜1000 AU; they are often filamentary, and frequently non-axisymmetric. The observed envelope structure indicates a likely origin in turbulent cloud structure rather than a quasi-static/equilibrium formation. The complex envelope structure also may indicate an increased likelihood of fragmentation during collapse, forming close binaries. To further characterize these envelopes, I have observed them in the dense molecular gas tracers nthp and nht, both of which closely follow the 8 micron extinction morphology. The magnitude of the velocity gradients and envelope complexity on ˜10000 AU scales indicates that the velocity structure may reflect large-scale infall in addition to the often assumed rotation. Comparisons with three-dimensional filamentary and symmetric rotating collapse models reinforce the interpretation of velocities reflecting large-scale infall, showing that the structure of the envelope

  17. Fixed-bed gasifier and cleanup system engineering summary report through Test Run No. 100

    SciTech Connect

    Pater, K. Jr.; Headley, L.; Kovach, J.; Stopek, D.

    1984-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of high-pressure, fixed-bed gasification has been advanced by the many refinements developed over the last 5 years. A novel full-flow gas cleanup system has been installed and tested to clean coal-derived gases. This report summarizes the results of tests conducted on the gasifier and cleanup system from its inception through 1982. Selected process summary data are presented along with results from complementary programs in the areas of environmental research, process simulation, analytical methods development, and component testing. 20 references, 32 figures, 42 tables.

  18. Space Operations Center system analysis study extension. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The analysis fo Space Operations Center (SOC) systems is summarized. Design considerations, configurations of the manned orbital space station, planned operational and research missions, and subsystem tradeoffs are considered. Integration into the space transportation system is discussed. A modular design concept permitting growth of the SOC as its functions are expanded is described. Additional considerations are special requirements for habitat modules, design modifications needed to operate in geosynchronous orbits, and use of the external tank for cryogenic propellant storage or as a pressurized hangar. A cost summary is presented.

  19. Improving the quality of hospital discharge summaries utilising an electronic prompting system.

    PubMed

    Maurice, Andrew P; Chan, Samuel; Pollard, Clifford W; Kidd, Richard A; Ayre, Stephen J; Ward, Helen E; Walters, Darren L

    2014-01-01

    The discharge summary (DS) is a summary of an inpatient admission, patient's health state, and future treatment plans which is delivered to the patient's primary care provider. The DS is often incomplete, inaccurate, or unclear. The aim of this project was to improve the quality of the DS through the use of an electronic prompting system. The electronic prompting system was implemented in the acute medical and surgical wards of the hospital as an adjunct to a pre-existing, widely used hospital program that documents all the patients in a ward or belonging to a particular treating team. When using the program, a doctor enters information (with the assistance of the treating consultant) from a drop-down menu and is prompted to include common, departmental specific diagnoses, co-morbidities, complications, and procedures that were commonly missed or documented incorrectly in the DS. Fifteen DSs were randomly selected from a two month period immediately prior to the intervention period and were rated by an external, experienced general practitioner (GP) using a scoring system consistent with the Australian Medical Association Guidelines for quality DSs. Fifteen random DSs from a two month period, four months post-implementation were also rated by the same GP. The quality of the DS improved in all categories evaluated. The overall quality improved from mean (± SD) 2.86 ± 1.64 to 4.13 ± 0.92 out of 5 (p = 0.031). Additionally the implementation of the system was associated with improvements in documentation of the diagnosis, co-morbidities and other relevant clinical information. In summary, electronic prompting systems can improve the quality of DSs to ensure the information contained within the DS is more accurate and complete. PMID:27493731

  20. Refrigerated cryogenic envelope

    DOEpatents

    Loudon, John D.

    1976-11-16

    An elongated cryogenic envelope including an outer tube and an inner tube coaxially spaced within said inner tube so that the space therebetween forms a vacuum chamber for holding a vacuum. The inner and outer tubes are provided with means for expanding or contracting during thermal changes. A shield is located in the vacuum chamber intermediate the inner and outer tubes; and, a refrigeration tube for directing refrigeration to the shield is coiled about at least a portion of the inner tube within the vacuum chamber to permit the refrigeration tube to expand or contract along its length during thermal changes within said vacuum chamber.

  1. Advanced-technology space station study: Summary of systems and pacing technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butterfield, A. J.; Garn, P. A.; King, C. B.; Queijo, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    The principal system features defined for the Advanced Technology Space Station are summarized and the 21 pacing technologies identified during the course of the study are described. The descriptions of system configurations were extracted from four previous study reports. The technological areas focus on those systems particular to all large spacecraft which generate artificial gravity by rotation. The summary includes a listing of the functions, crew requirements and electrical power demand that led to the studied configuration. The pacing technologies include the benefits of advanced materials, in-orbit assembly requirements, stationkeeping, evaluations of electrical power generation alternates, and life support systems. The descriptions of systems show the potential for synergies and identifies the beneficial interactions that can result from technological advances.

  2. Compendium of executive summaries from the maglev system concept definition. Final reports. Report for November 1991-September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The report contains the Executive Summaries from the four System Concept Definition (SCD) studies awarded under the National Maglev Initiative. These summaries present the technical feasibility, performance, capital, operating and maintenance costs for a maglev system that would be available by the year 2000. Performance on a hypothetical route, provided to test these concepts in order for the NMI to make performance and cost comparisons, is briefly discussed. This compendium constitutes the principle publication of those SCD reports on technical matters.

  3. The Campylobacter jejuni CprRS two-component regulatory system regulates aspects of the cell envelope

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis, Campylobacter jejuni is a significant human pathogen. C. jejuni lives commensally in the gastrointestinal tract of animals, but tolerates variable environments during transit to a susceptible host. A two-component regulatory system, CprRS, w...

  4. WATER PROCESS SYSTEM FLOW DIAGRAM FOR MTR, TRA603. SUMMARY OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WATER PROCESS SYSTEM FLOW DIAGRAM FOR MTR, TRA-603. SUMMARY OF COOLANT FLOW FROM WORKING RESERVOIR TO INTERIOR OF REACTOR'S THERMAL SHIELD. NAMES TANK SECTIONS. PIPE AND DRAIN-LINE SIZES. SHOWS DIRECTION OF AIR FLOW THROUGH PEBBLE AND GRAPHITE BLOCK ZONE. NEUTRON CURTAIN AND THERMAL COLUMN DOOR. BLAW-KNOX 3150-92-7, 3/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-51-098-100036, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. The use of aqueous two-phase systems to concentrate and purify bovine leukemia virus outer envelope protein gp51.

    PubMed

    Hammar, L; Merza, M; Malm, K; Eriksson, S; Morein, B

    1989-06-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is a chronic lymphoproliferative disease of cattle. The causative agent, bovine leukemia virus (BLV), is related to the human retroviruses HTLV-I and -II. The external env-protein of BLV, a glycoprotein of 51 kDa, carries neutralizing epitopes and should be an essential component in a vaccine against the virus. Problems have been encountered with the concentration and purification of intact virions of BLV and other retroviruses. During centrifugation procedures the external env-proteins are to a great extent detached and consequently poorly recovered with the virion particles. Therefore, other methods are sought to obtain a high yield of the external glycoproteins. The use of two-phase systems based on water soluble polymers is described for the extraction of BLV-gp51 from culture medium. Several polymer systems were tested and the results showed that some were attractive for large scale application. The classical combination dextran-polyethylene glycol gave promising results; a partition coefficient of about 0.02 was obtained for the distribution of the gp51 between the top and combined inter- and bottom phases. In a single extraction step it was possible to obtain 45% of the glycoprotein in a small volume bottom phase and at the same time about 15-fold purified. That should be compared with a recovery of less than 20% with the conventional centrifugation procedures. It is concluded that extraction in phase systems based on water soluble polymers is a methodology well suited for the concentration and purification of BLV-gp51. PMID:2474306

  6. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary, analyses and trades, and system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Jones, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to define reasonable and representative large deployable reflector (LDR) system concepts for the purpose of defining a technology development program aimed at providing the requisite technological capability necessary to start LDR development by the end of 1991. This volume includes the executive summary for the total study, a report of thirteen system analysis and trades tasks (optical configuration, aperture size, reflector material, segmented mirror, optical subsystem, thermal, pointing and control, transportation to orbit, structures, contamination control, orbital parameters, orbital environment, and spacecraft functions), and descriptions of three selected LDR system concepts. Supporting information is contained in appendices.

  7. Ozone Reductions Using Residential Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max; Nazaroff, William W.

    2009-02-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant with that can have significant health effects and a significant source of ozone in some regions of California is outdoor air. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone could lead to improved health for many California residents. Ozone is removed from indoor air by surface reactions and can also be filtered by building envelopes. The magnitude of the envelope impact depends on the specific building materials that the air flows over and the geometry of the air flow paths through the envelope that can be changes by mechanical ventilation operation. The 2008 Residential Building Standards in California include minimum requirements for mechanical ventilation by referencing ASHRAE Standard 62.2. This study examines the changes in indoor ozone depending on the mechanical ventilation system selected to meet these requirements. This study used detailed simulations of ventilation in a house to examine the impacts of different ventilation systems on indoor ozone concentrations. The simulation results showed that staying indoors reduces exposure to ozone by 80percent to 90percent, that exhaust ventilation systems lead to lower indoor ozone concentrations, that opening of windows should be avoided at times of high outdoor ozone, and that changing the time at which mechanical ventilation occurs has the ability to halve exposure to ozone. Future work should focus on the products of ozone reactions in the building envelope and the fate of these products with respect to indoor exposures.

  8. [Characterization of Serial Passage of 1b/2a Chimera Hepatitis C Virus Cell Culture System Carrying Envelope E1E2 Coding Gene from Hebei Strain of China].

    PubMed

    Lu, Sha; Zhang, Ling; Tao, Gesi; Cai, Min; Bao Lili; LI, Lian; Deng, Yao; Shen, Xiaoling; Tan, Wenjie

    2015-11-01

    To character a novel chimera(1b/2a) hepatitis C virus cell culture (HCVcc) system carrying envelope E1E2 coding gene from Hebei strain of China, chimera HCVcc (cHCVcc) was developed from Huh7.5-CD81 cells after transfection with in vitro transcribed full-length 1b/2a chimera RNA, which carrying envelope E1E2 coding gene from Hebei strain of China. Then the replication, expression and infectious titer of serial passage HCVcc were assessed by Real Time RT-PCR, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blotting (WB). In addition, chimeric envelope gene from HCVcc was sequenced after serial passage. We found that the number of HCV positive focus increased gradually in cell post-transfection with chimera HCVcc (1b/2a) RNA and reach a peak platform (80% to 90%) at 41 days post-transfection; the expression of HCV protein was also confirmed by WAB during serial passage. At meantime, HCV RNA copy number in the supernatant peaked at 10(4)-10(7) copies/mL and the highest infectious titer of this 1b/2a cHCVcc reinfection were tested as 10(4) ffu/mL. Sequence analysis indicated 6 of adaptive amino acid substitutes occur among chimeric envelope E1E2 during serial passages. We con:luded that a novel 1b/2a chimera HCVcc carrying envelope E1E2 coding gene from Hebei strain of China was developed and its infectious titer increased after serial passage of HCVcc. This novel cHCVcc will be an effective tool for further evaluation of anti-virus drugs and immune effects against the major genotype from Chinese.

  9. [Characterization of Serial Passage of 1b/2a Chimera Hepatitis C Virus Cell Culture System Carrying Envelope E1E2 Coding Gene from Hebei Strain of China].

    PubMed

    Lu, Sha; Zhang, Ling; Tao, Gesi; Cai, Min; Bao Lili; LI, Lian; Deng, Yao; Shen, Xiaoling; Tan, Wenjie

    2015-11-01

    To character a novel chimera(1b/2a) hepatitis C virus cell culture (HCVcc) system carrying envelope E1E2 coding gene from Hebei strain of China, chimera HCVcc (cHCVcc) was developed from Huh7.5-CD81 cells after transfection with in vitro transcribed full-length 1b/2a chimera RNA, which carrying envelope E1E2 coding gene from Hebei strain of China. Then the replication, expression and infectious titer of serial passage HCVcc were assessed by Real Time RT-PCR, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blotting (WB). In addition, chimeric envelope gene from HCVcc was sequenced after serial passage. We found that the number of HCV positive focus increased gradually in cell post-transfection with chimera HCVcc (1b/2a) RNA and reach a peak platform (80% to 90%) at 41 days post-transfection; the expression of HCV protein was also confirmed by WAB during serial passage. At meantime, HCV RNA copy number in the supernatant peaked at 10(4)-10(7) copies/mL and the highest infectious titer of this 1b/2a cHCVcc reinfection were tested as 10(4) ffu/mL. Sequence analysis indicated 6 of adaptive amino acid substitutes occur among chimeric envelope E1E2 during serial passages. We con:luded that a novel 1b/2a chimera HCVcc carrying envelope E1E2 coding gene from Hebei strain of China was developed and its infectious titer increased after serial passage of HCVcc. This novel cHCVcc will be an effective tool for further evaluation of anti-virus drugs and immune effects against the major genotype from Chinese. PMID:26951010

  10. Anisotropic charged core envelope star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mafa Takisa, P.; Maharaj, S. D.

    2016-08-01

    We study a charged compact object with anisotropic pressures in a core envelope setting. The equation of state is quadratic in the core and linear in the envelope. There is smooth matching between the three regions: the core, envelope and the Reissner-Nordström exterior. We show that the presence of the electric field affects the masses, radii and compactification factors of stellar objects with values which are in agreement with previous studies. We investigate in particular the effect of electric field on the physical features of the pulsar PSR J1614-2230 in the core envelope model. The gravitational potentials and the matter variables are well behaved within the stellar object. We demonstrate that the radius of the core and the envelope can vary by changing the parameters in the speed of sound.

  11. Summary of Current and Future MSFC International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Charles D.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Minton-Summers, Silvia

    1997-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of current work accomplished under technical task agreement (TTA) by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) regarding the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) as well as future planning activities in support of the International Space Station (ISS). Current activities include ECLSS computer model development, component design and development, subsystem integrated system testing, life testing, and government furnished equipment delivered to the ISS program. A long range plan for the MSFC ECLSS test facility is described whereby the current facility would be upgraded to support integrated station ECLSS operations. ECLSS technology development efforts proposed to be performed under the Advanced Engineering Technology Development (AETD) program are also discussed.

  12. Summary of Resources for the International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2003-01-01

    The assembly complete Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) s ystem for the International Space Station (ISS) will consist of compo nents and subsystems in both the U.S. and International partner eleme nts which together will perform the functions of Temperature and Hum idity Control (THC), Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Water Recovery and Management (WRM), Fire Detect ion and Suppression (FDS), and Vacuum System (VS) for the station. D ue to limited resources available on ISS, detailed attention is given to minimizing and tracking all resources associated with all systems , beginning with estimates during the hardware development phase thr ough measured actuals when flight hardware is built and delivered. A summary of resources consumed by the current on-orbit U.S. ECLS syste m hardware is presented, including launch weight, average continuous and peak power loads, on-orbit volume and resupply logistics. ..

  13. Nuclear Envelopes Properties and Physical Interactions with Nucleoplasm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Discher, Dennis; Dahl, Kris; Wilson, Kathy

    2004-03-01

    Given the stresses imposed on a cell and its organelles and the nuclear envelope's important role as a barrier between cytoplasm and nucleoplasm, we sought to measure and model mechanical properties of isolated nuclear envelopes. Xenopus laevis oocyte (XO) nuclei are primarily used since they have been widely studied in many fields as model systems for nuclear structure and function. We manipulate the nuclear envelope by both osmotic swelling and micromanipulation to determine an effective elastic modulus. We show the envelope properties are independent of the effects of the nucleoplasm. Micropipette aspiration of XO nuclei gives an effective elastic modulus of the nuclear envelope of 250 mN/m with similar results obtained from isotropic swelling of XO nuclear envelopes. The results suggest that these nuclear envelopes have relatively homogeneous properties and are highly elastic, sustaining strains of 50-100Square-net simulations and comparisons to polymer network models suggests that XO nuclear envelope physical properties are dominated by the lamin network. If applicable to nuclei in other cells, a "pre-compressed" state envisioned here would allow for significant shear flexibility, especially important for motile cells whose nuclei need to rapidly deform.

  14. Diffusive heat blanketing envelopes of neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beznogov, M. V.; Potekhin, A. Y.; Yakovlev, D. G.

    2016-06-01

    We construct new models of outer heat blanketing envelopes of neutron stars composed of binary ion mixtures (H-He, He-C, C-Fe) in and out of diffusive equilibrium. To this aim, we generalize our previous work on diffusion of ions in isothermal gaseous or Coulomb liquid plasmas to handle non-isothermal systems. We calculate the relations between the effective surface temperature Ts and the temperature Tb at the bottom of heat blanketing envelopes (at a density ρb ˜ 108 - 1010 g cm-3) for diffusively equilibrated and non-equilibrated distributions of ion species at different masses ΔM of lighter ions in the envelope. Our principal result is that the Ts-Tb relations are fairly insensitive to detailed distribution of ion fractions over the envelope (diffusively equilibrated or not) and depend almost solely on ΔM. The obtained relations are approximated by analytic expressions which are convenient for modelling the evolution of neutron stars.

  15. Multifamily Envelope Leakage Model

    SciTech Connect

    Faakye, Omari; Griffiths, Dianne

    2015-05-08

    “The cost for blower testing is high, because it is labor intensive, and it may disrupt occupants in multiple units. This high cost and disruption deter program participants, and dissuade them from pursuing energy improvements that would trigger air leakage testing, such as improvements to the building envelope.” This statement found in a 2012 report by Heschong Mahone Group for several California interests emphasizes the importance of reducing the cost and complexity of blower testing in multifamily buildings. Energy efficiency opportunities are being bypassed. The cost of single blower testing is on the order of $300. The cost for guarded blower door testing—the more appropriate test for assessing energy savings opportunities—could easily be six times that, and that’s only if you have the equipment and simultaneous access to multiple apartments. Thus, the proper test is simply not performed. This research seeks to provide an algorithm for predicting the guarded blower door test result based upon a single, total blower door test.

  16. The Arabidopsis Nuclear Pore and Nuclear Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Iris; Brkljacic, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear envelope is a double membrane structure that separates the eukaryotic cytoplasm from the nucleoplasm. The nuclear pores embedded in the nuclear envelope are the sole gateways for macromolecular trafficking in and out of the nucleus. The nuclear pore complexes assembled at the nuclear pores are large protein conglomerates composed of multiple units of about 30 different nucleoporins. Proteins and RNAs traffic through the nuclear pore complexes, enabled by the interacting activities of nuclear transport receptors, nucleoporins, and elements of the Ran GTPase cycle. In addition to directional and possibly selective protein and RNA nuclear import and export, the nuclear pore gains increasing prominence as a spatial organizer of cellular processes, such as sumoylation and desumoylation. Individual nucleoporins and whole nuclear pore subcomplexes traffic to specific mitotic locations and have mitotic functions, for example at the kinetochores, in spindle assembly, and in conjunction with the checkpoints. Mutants of nucleoporin genes and genes of nuclear transport components lead to a wide array of defects from human diseases to compromised plant defense responses. The nuclear envelope acts as a repository of calcium, and its inner membrane is populated by functionally unique proteins connected to both chromatin and—through the nuclear envelope lumen—the cytoplasmic cytoskeleton. Plant nuclear pore and nuclear envelope research—predominantly focusing on Arabidopsis as a model—is discovering both similarities and surprisingly unique aspects compared to the more mature model systems. This chapter gives an overview of our current knowledge in the field and of exciting areas awaiting further exploration. PMID:22303264

  17. Back from the Brink: How a Bold Vision and a Focus on Resources Can Drive System Improvement. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This executive summary describes a case study that implemented the framework School System 20/20 to examine how Lawrence Public Schools (Massachusetts) is transforming its policies and structures to better align resources with student and teacher needs. Education Resource Strategies' (ERS') School System 20/20 is a set of conditions and practices…

  18. Remote Systems Experience at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory--A Summary of Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Noakes, Mark W; Burgess, Thomas W; Rowe, John C

    2011-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a long history in the development of remote systems to support the nuclear environment. ORNL, working in conjunction with Central Research Laboratories, created what is believed to be the first microcomputer-based implementation of dual-arm master-slave remote manipulation. As part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, ORNL developed the dual-arm advanced servomanipulator focusing on remote maintainability for systems exposed to high radiation fields. ORNL also participated in almost all of the various technical areas of the U.S. Department of Energy s Robotics Technology Development Program, while leading the Decontamination and Decommissioning and Tank Waste Retrieval categories. Over the course of this involvement, ORNL has developed a substantial base of working knowledge as to what works when and under what circumstances for many types of remote systems tasks as well as operator interface modes, control bandwidth, and sensing requirements to name a few. By using a select list of manipulator systems that is not meant to be exhaustive, this paper will discuss history and outcome of development, field-testing, deployment, and operations from a lessons learned perspective. The final outcome is a summary paper outlining ORNL experiences and guidelines for transition of developmental remote systems to real-world hazardous environments.

  19. A summary of porous tube plant nutrient delivery system investigations from 1985 to 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, T. W.; Brown, C. S.; Piastuch, W. C.; Hinkle, C. R.; Sager, J. C.; Wheeler, R. M.; Knott, W. M.

    1992-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program is a research effort to evaluate biological processes at a one person scale to provide air, water, and food for humans in closed environments for space habitation. This program focuses currently on the use of conventional crop plants and the use of hydroponic systems to grow them. Because conventional hydroponic systems are dependent on gravity to conduct solution flow, they cannot be used in the microgravity of space. Thus, there is a need for a system that will deliver water and nutrients to plant roots under microgravity conditions. The Plant Space Biology Program is interested in investigating the effect that the space environment has on the growth and development of plants. Thus, there is also a need to have a standard nutrient delivery method for growing plants in space for research into plant responses to microgravity. The Porous Tube Plant Nutrient Delivery System (PTPNDS) utilizes a hydrophilic, microporous material to control water and nutrient delivery to plant roots. It has been designed and analyzed to support plant growth independent of gravity and plans are progressing to test it in microgravity. It has been used successfully to grow food crops to maturity in an earth-bound laboratory. This document includes a bibliography and summary reports from the growth trials performed utilizing the PTPNDS.

  20. Environmental Management System (EMS) objectives and targets : annual results summary - FY2011.

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2012-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico's (SNL/NM) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each Fiscal Year (FY) SNL/NM performs an analysis to identify environmental aspects, and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are established to mitigate potential impacts of SNL/NM's operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established objectives and targets provides a connection to, and rational for, annually revised environmental aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY2011.

  1. The summary database system for the RFX reversed field pinch experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Innocente, P. ); Klare, K. )

    1995-01-01

    The RFX Summary Database System contains the most important experimental data, and provides tools to collect and insert the data and to interactively study their dependence. It was developed to allow a fast search for shots with given characteristics for follow-up, detailed shot analysis, and study of the scaling laws of the RFX plasmas. The database uses the Rdb/VMS relational database and is accessed using Structured Query Language syntax. A program automatically inserts the most important data for each shot while the users can access the database with their own programs using high-level routines. An Interactive Data Language interface to the database allows the users to interactively insert and extract data from the database, combine, or modify the data as they want, plot and fit the extracted or computed data, and perform general multiple regression analysis.

  2. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Advanced Separations Systems – FY 2010 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh R. Martin; Peter R. Zalupski

    2010-09-01

    This report presents a summary of the work performed in the area of thermodynamics and kinetics of advanced separations systems under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) program during FY 2010. Thermodynamic investigations into metal extraction dependencies on lactate and HDEHP have been performed. These metal distribution studies indicate a substantial deviation from the expected behavior at conditions that are typical of TALSPEAK process operational platform. These studies also identify that no thermodynamically stable mixed complexes exist in the aqueous solutions and increasing the complexity of the organic medium appears to influence the observed deviations. Following on from this, the first calorimetric measurement of the heat of extraction of americium across a liquid-liquid boundary was performed.

  3. Flight envelope protection of aircraft using adaptive neural network and online linearisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hohyun; Kim, Youdan

    2016-03-01

    Flight envelope protection algorithm is proposed to improve the safety of an aircraft. Flight envelope protection systems find the control inputs to prevent an aircraft from exceeding structure/aerodynamic limits and maximum control surface deflections. The future values of state variables are predicted using the current states and control inputs based on linearised aircraft model. To apply the envelope protection algorithm for the wide envelope of the aircraft, online linearisation is adopted. Finally, the flight envelope protection system is designed using adaptive neural network and least-squares method. Numerical simulations are conducted to verify the performance of the proposed scheme.

  4. Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study, Executive Summary, Volume I, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, David; DosSantos, Joseph M.

    1988-06-01

    This Executive Summary, Volume I, of the lower Flathead System Fisheries Study Final Report, was prepared to provide a study overview for persons who are not fisheries scientists. The contents provide an introduction to the study and its objectives, a short description of the study area, a discussion of the major findings and conclusions of the study, and the description of fisheries management alternatives available to managers of the lower Flathead system. Technical reports were prepared for those portions of the study dealing with the lower Flathead River and its tributaries, Volume II, and the South Bay of Flathead Lake, Volume III. The annual hydrographic regime of the Flathead system, consisting of upper rivers, lake and lower river, has been modified by the construction and operation of two major hydroelectric facilities, Hungry Horse Dam on the south fork Flathead River and Kerr Dam at the outlet of Flathead Lake. The modified hydrographic regime has resulted in significant impacts to kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) and several species of trout. Kerr Dam, closed in 1938, controls Flathead Lake levels between 878.7 m (2883 ft) and 881.8 m (2893 ft) and discharges into the lower Flathead River. Kerr Dam is a 63.4 m (208 ft) high concrete arch structure located 7.2 km (4.5 miles) downstream from the outlet of Flathead Lake. The facility is used by Montana Power Company primarily for system frequency load control with some use for low level base load. 77 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Land-use impacts of the Houston Transitway System: Summary report. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, E.J.; Stokes, R.W.

    1989-10-01

    The report provides a summary of a five-year study of the transportation and land use impacts resulting from the implementation of an extensive priority system of busways (transitways) and park-and-ride facilities in Houston, Texas. Over the duration of the study, four high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes with supporting park-and-ride facilities were placed in operation in Houston's North (I-45N), Katy (I-10W), Gulf (I-45S) and Northwest (US 290) freeway corridors. The impacts resulting from three of these HOV treatments, I-45N, I-45S, I-10W, are the object of the study. Preliminary results indicate that while the transportation impacts of those elements of the Houston Transitway system which are operational have been substantial, no substantial land use impacts can be identified at this time. It appears that a more definitive assessment of land use impacts may not be possible until the transitway system is fully operational and more fully integrated into the community's total transportation system.

  6. Personnel occupied woven envelope robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, Francis; Teoh, William; Ziemke, M. Carl

    1988-01-01

    The Personnel Occupied Woven Envelope Robot (POWER) provides an alternative to extravehicular activity (EVA) of space suited astronauts and/or use of long slender manipulator arms such as are used in the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System. POWER provides the capability for a shirt sleeved astronaut to perform such work by entering a control pod through air locks at both ends of an inflated flexible bellows (access tunnel). The exoskeleton of the tunnel is a series of six degrees of freedom (Six-DOF) articulated links compressible to 1/6 of their fully extended length. The operator can maneuver the control pod to almost any location within about 50 m of the base attachment to the space station. POWER can be envisioned as a series of hollow Six-DOF manipulator segments or arms wherein each arm grasps the shoulder of the next arm. Inside the hollow arms ia a bellow-type access tunnel. The control pod is the fist of the series of linked hollow arms. The fingers of the fist are conventional manipulator arms under direct visual control of the nearby operator in the pod. The applications and progress to date of the POWER system is given.

  7. Summary of data reported to CDC's national automated biosurveillance system, 2008

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background BioSense is the US national automated biosurveillance system. Data regarding chief complaints and diagnoses are automatically pre-processed into 11 broader syndromes (e.g., respiratory) and 78 narrower sub-syndromes (e.g., asthma). The objectives of this report are to present the types of illness and injury that can be studied using these data and the frequency of visits for the syndromes and sub-syndromes in the various data types; this information will facilitate use of the system and comparison with other systems. Methods For each major data source, we summarized information on the facilities, timeliness, patient demographics, and rates of visits for each syndrome and sub-syndrome. Results In 2008, the primary data sources were the 333 US Department of Defense, 770 US Veterans Affairs, and 532 civilian hospital emergency department facilities. Median times from patient visit to record receipt at CDC were 2.2 days, 2.0 days, and 4 hours for these sources respectively. Among sub-syndromes, we summarize mean 2008 visit rates in 45 infectious disease categories, 11 injury categories, 7 chronic disease categories, and 15 other categories. Conclusions We present a systematic summary of data that is automatically available to public health departments for monitoring and responding to emergencies. PMID:20500863

  8. Disaster warning system: Satellite feasibility and comparison with terrestrial systems. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spoor, J. H.; Hodge, W. H.; Fluk, M. J.; Bamford, T. F.

    1974-01-01

    The Disaster Warning System (DWS) is a conceptual system which will provide the National Weather Service (NWS) with communication services in the 1980s to help minimize losses caused by natural disasters. The object of this study is a comparative analysis between a terrestrial DWS and a satellite DWS. Baseline systems satisfying the NOAA requirements were synthesized in sufficient detail so that a comparison could be made in terms of performance and cost. The cost of both baseline systems is dominated by the disaster warning and spotter reporting functions. An effort was undertaken to reduce system cost through lower-capacity alternative systems generated by modifying the baseline systems. By reducing the number of required channels and modifying the spotter reporting techniques, alternative satellite systems were synthesized. A terrestrial alternative with the coverage reduced to an estimated 95 percent of the population was considered.

  9. Neural coding of echo-envelope disparities in echolocating bats.

    PubMed

    Borina, Frank; Firzlaff, Uwe; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2011-05-01

    The effective use of echolocation requires not only measuring the delay between the emitted call and returning echo to estimate the distance of an ensonified object. To locate an object in azimuth and elevation, the bat's auditory system must analyze the returning echoes in terms of their binaural properties, i.e., the echoes' interaural intensity and time differences (IIDs and ITDs). The effectiveness of IIDs for echolocation is undisputed, but when bats ensonify complex objects, the temporal structure of echoes may facilitate the analysis of the echo envelope in terms of envelope ITDs. Using extracellular recordings from the auditory midbrain of the bat, Phyllostomus discolor, we found a population of neurons that are sensitive to envelope ITDs of echoes of their sonar calls. Moreover, the envelope-ITD sensitivity improved with increasing temporal fluctuations in the echo envelopes, a sonar parameter related to the spatial statistics of complex natural reflectors like vegetation. The data show that in bats envelope ITDs may be used not only to locate external, prey-generated rustling sounds but also in the context of echolocation. Specifically, the temporal fluctuations in the echo envelope, which are created when the sonar emission is reflected from a complex natural target, support ITD-mediated echolocation.

  10. Network, system, and status software enhancements for the autonomously managed electrical power system breadboard. Volume 1: Project summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckee, James W.

    1990-01-01

    This volume (1 of 4) gives a summary of the original AMPS software system configuration, points out some of the problem areas in the original software design that this project is to address, and in the appendix collects all the bimonthly status reports. The purpose of AMPS is to provide a self reliant system to control the generation and distribution of power in the space station. The software in the AMPS breadboard can be divided into three levels: the operating environment software, the protocol software, and the station specific software. This project deals only with the operating environment software and the protocol software. The present station specific software will not change except as necessary to conform to new data formats.

  11. Beam envelope calculations in general linear coupled lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Moses; Qin, Hong; Groening, Lars; Xiao, Chen; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2015-01-15

    The envelope equations and Twiss parameters (β and α) provide important bases for uncoupled linear beam dynamics. For sophisticated beam manipulations, however, coupling elements between two transverse planes are intentionally introduced. The recently developed generalized Courant-Snyder theory offers an effective way of describing the linear beam dynamics in such coupled systems with a remarkably similar mathematical structure to the original Courant-Snyder theory. In this work, we present numerical solutions to the symmetrized matrix envelope equation for β which removes the gauge freedom in the matrix envelope equation for w. Furthermore, we construct the transfer and beam matrices in terms of the generalized Twiss parameters, which enables calculation of the beam envelopes in arbitrary linear coupled systems.

  12. Beam envelope calculations in general linear coupled lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Moses; Qin, Hong; Groening, Lars; Davidson, Ronald C.; Xiao, Chen

    2015-01-01

    The envelope equations and Twiss parameters (β and α) provide important bases for uncoupled linear beam dynamics. For sophisticated beam manipulations, however, coupling elements between two transverse planes are intentionally introduced. The recently developed generalized Courant-Snyder theory offers an effective way of describing the linear beam dynamics in such coupled systems with a remarkably similar mathematical structure to the original Courant-Snyder theory. In this work, we present numerical solutions to the symmetrized matrix envelope equation for β which removes the gauge freedom in the matrix envelope equation for w. Furthermore, we construct the transfer and beam matrices in terms of the generalized Twiss parameters, which enables calculation of the beam envelopes in arbitrary linear coupled systems.

  13. Envelope Protection for In-Flight Ice Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gingras, David R.; Barnhart, Billy P.; Ranaudo, Richard J.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Morelli, Eugene A.

    2010-01-01

    Fatal loss-of-control (LOC) accidents have been directly related to in-flight airframe icing. The prototype system presented in this paper directly addresses the need for real-time onboard envelope protection in icing conditions. The combinations of a-priori information and realtime aerodynamic estimations are shown to provide sufficient input for determining safe limits of the flight envelope during in-flight icing encounters. The Icing Contamination Envelope Protection (ICEPro) system has been designed and implemented to identify degradations in airplane performance and flying qualities resulting from ice contamination and provide safe flight-envelope cues to the pilot. Components of ICEPro are described and results from preliminary tests are presented.

  14. Summary of comparative results integrated nonthermal treatment and integrated thermal treatment systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    In July 1994, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), under a contract from U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment Management Office of Science and Technology (OST, EM-50) published a report entitled {open_quotes}Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study - Phase 1 Results{close_quotes} (EGG-MS-11211). This report was the culmination of over a year of analysis involving scientists and engineers within the DOE complex and from private industry. The purpose of that study was {open_quotes}to conduct a systematic engineering evaluation of a variety of mixed low level waste (MLLW) treatment system alternatives.{close_quotes} The study also {open_quotes}identified the research and development, demonstrations, and testing and evaluation needed to assure unit operability in the most promising alternative system.{close_quotes} This study evaluated ten primary thermal treatment technologies, organized into complete {open_quotes}cradle-to-grave{close_quotes} systems (including complete engineering flow sheets), to treat DOE MLLW and calculated mass balances and 20-year total life cycle costs (TLCC) for all systems. The waste input used was a representative heterogenous mixture of typical DOE MLLW. An additional study was conducted, and then, based on response to these studies, additional work was started to investigate and evaluate non-thermal treatment options on a footing comparable to the effort devoted to thermal options. This report attempts to present a summary overview of the thermal and non-thermal treatment technologies which were examined in detail in the process of the above mentioned reviews.

  15. Meteorological Monitoring on bikini atoll: system description and data summary (May 2000 - April 2001)

    SciTech Connect

    Gouveia F; Bradsher, R; Brunk, J; Hamilton, T

    2002-01-01

    Meteorological data are continuously collected at three sites on Bikini Atoll in support of radioecological research and monitoring programs conducted by the Health and Ecological Assessments Division at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Weather stations were first established on Bikini Atoll in April 1990, and provide information on rainfall, wind speed and direction, air temperature, humidity, and solar radiation. These data and information are used to interpret results of remediation experiments designed to evaluate the effectiveness of potassium fertilizer on reducing the uptake of {sup 137}Cs into locally grown foods. We have also demonstrated that {sup 137}Cs is slowly leached from surface soil by the action of rain water. Long-term meteorological data are crucial to our efforts of developing an understanding of environmental processes controlling the environment loss of {sup 137}Cs in coral atoll soil. In May 2000, older data collection platforms and the DOS-based system that downloaded data from National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)'s Data Automatic Processing System (DAPS) was decommissioned, and new data loggers, GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) transmitters and antennas were installed. Consequently, new procedures were developed to maintain the field systems, download the data, and reduce and archive the data. This document provides an operational description and status report on the three new meteorological monitoring systems on Bikini Atoll as well as an computational summary of previously recorded data. Included are overviews of procedures for sensor exchange, data recovery and reduction, and specific information about the different sensors. We also provide a description of systems maintenance and trouble shooting activities. This report will be updated on an annual basis.

  16. Solar Effective Envelope Design Advisor (SEEDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaek, Ekkachai

    The lack of effort by mainstream architects in integrating energy-efficient strategies in architectural designing is due to the complexity in a building's energy conscious concepts and theories, the difficulties to visualize and quantify energy consumption, and the late implementing of energy consumption analysis in the conventional design process. This task would be accomplishing by a building system's engineer where results might be determined only after the basic architectural design has been completed. An effective simple tool and method should then be available to assist architects in building's energy-efficient designing at the beginning of the design. The building's energy consumption is directly and mainly influenced by the relationship of the sun, site, and its building configuration. The solar radiations will first impact on the building's envelope, which will have a direct effect on the amount of energy a building will consume. If an architect can define or map the intensity of solar energy on the site's buildable volume, and use this information to determine the levels of solar insolation, a more energy efficient building form can be proposed. This research hypothesis has shared the fundamental techniques of the Solar Envelope projection by Professor Ralph Knowles [Knowles, 1981] of the University of Southern California. However a different approach is taken by including the influence of regional restrictions and the surrounding buildings' shadows when projecting of solar volumes and solar envelope. The research methodology will discuss the development of a computer-based approach to develop a three-dimensional architectural form based on an insolation map related to the design site. The prototype computer program is referred as the Solar Effective Envelope Design Advisor (SEEDA). The solar insolation volume of the site is determined by integrating three types of computer-generated models include the Buildable Volume model based on design constraints

  17. Space station Simulation Computer System (SCS) study for NASA/MSFC. Volume 1: Overview and summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    NASA's Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) planning efforts have identified a need for a payload training simulator system to serve as both a training facility and as a demonstrator to validate operational concepts. The envisioned Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Payload Training Complex (PTC) required to meet this need will train the space station payload scientists, station scientists, and ground controllers to operate the wide variety of experiments that will be onboard the Space Station Freedom. The Simulation Computer System (SCS) is the computer hardware, software, and workstations that will support the Payload Training Complex at MSFC. The purpose of this SCS study is to investigate issues related to the SCS, alternative requirements, simulator approaches, and state-of-the-art technologies to develop candidate concepts and designs. This study was performed August 1988 to October 1989. Thus, the results are based on the SSFP August 1989 baseline, i.e., pre-Langley configuration/budget review (C/BR) baseline. Some terms, e.g., combined trainer, are being redefined. An overview of the study activities and a summary of study results are given here.

  18. Thermal power systems, small power systems application project. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marriott, A. T.

    1979-01-01

    Current small power system technology as applied to power plants up to 10 MWe in size was assessed. Markets for small power systems were characterized and cost goals were established. Candidate power plant system design concepts were selected for evaluation and preliminary performance and cost assessments were made. Economic studies were conducted and breakeven capital costs were determined for leading contenders among the candidate systems. An application study was made of the potential use of small power systems in providing part of the demand for pumping power by the extensive aqueduct system of California, estimated to be 1000 MWe by 1985. Criteria and methodologies were developed for application to the ranking of candidate power plant system design concepts. Experimental power plants concepts of 1 MWe rating were studied leading toward the definition of a power plant configuration for subsequent detail design, construction, testing and evaluation as Engineering Experiment No. 1 (EE No. 1). Site selection criteria and ground rules for the solicitation of EE No. 1 site participation proposals by DOE were developed.

  19. Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems: system development summary

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1980-02-01

    An introduction to district heating systems employing heat pumps to enable use of low-temperature energy sources is presented. These systems operate as thermal utilities to provide space heating and may also supply space cooling, service-water heating, and other thermal services. Otherwise-wasted heat from industrial and commercial processes, natural sources including solar and geothermal heat, and heat stored on an annual cycle from summer cooling may be effectively utilized by the systems described. These sources are abundant, and their use would conserve scarce resources and reduce adverse environmental impacts. More than one-quarter of the energy consumed in the United States is used to heat and cool buildings and to heat service water. Natural gas and oil provide approximately 83% of this energy. The systems described show potential to reduce net energy consumption for these services by 20 to 50% and to allow fuel substitution with less-scarce resources not practical in smaller, individual-building systems. Seven studies performed for the system development phase of the Department of Energy's Heat-Pump-Centered Integrated Community Energy Systems Project and to related studies are summarized. A concluding chapter tabulates data from these separately published studies.

  20. Technology Demonstration Summary: CF Systems Organics Extraction System, New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Site Program demonstration of CF Systems' organics extraction technology was conducted to obtain specific operating and cost information that could be used in evaluating the potential applicability of the technology to Superfund sites. The demonstration was conducted concurr...

  1. Electromagnetic pulse research on electric power systems: Program summary and recommendations. Power Systems Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; McConnell, B.W.; Van Dyke, J.W.; Tesche, F.M.; Vance, E.F.

    1993-01-01

    A single nuclear detonation several hundred kilometers above the central United States will subject much of the nation to a high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (BENT). This pulse consists of an intense steep-front, short-duration transient electromagnetic field, followed by a geomagnetic disturbance with tens of seconds duration. This latter environment is referred to as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (NMENT). Both the early-time transient and the geomagnetic disturbance could impact the operation of the nation`s power systems. Since 1983, the US Department of Energy has been actively pursuing a research program to assess the potential impacts of one or more BENT events on the nation`s electric energy supply. This report summarizes the results of that program and provides recommendations for enhancing power system reliability under HENT conditions. A nominal HENP environment suitable for assessing geographically large systems was developed during the program and is briefly described in this report. This environment was used to provide a realistic indication of BEMP impacts on electric power systems. It was found that a single high-altitude burst, which could significantly disturb the geomagnetic field, may cause the interconnected power network to break up into utility islands with massive power failures in some areas. However, permanent damage would be isolated, and restoration should be possible within a few hours. Multiple bursts would likely increase the blackout areas, component failures, and restoration time. However, a long-term blackout of many months is unlikely because major power system components, such as transformers, are not likely to be damaged by the nominal HEND environment. Moreover, power system reliability, under both HENT and normal operating conditions, can be enhanced by simple, and often low cost, modifications to current utility practices.

  2. Solar System Exploration Division Strategic Plan, volume 1. Executive summary and overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This first document is the first of a six-volume series presenting the Solar System Exploration Division's Strategic Plan for the 10-year period FY 1994 to FY 2003. The overall strategy is characterized by five fundamental precepts: (1) execute the current program; (2) improve the vitality of the program and the planetary science community; (3) initiate innovative, small, low-cost planetary missions; (4) initiate new major and moderate missions; and (5) prepare for the next generation of missions. This Strategic Plan describes in detail our proposed approach to accomplish these goals. Volume 1 provides first an Executive Summary of highlights of each of the six volumes, and then goes on to present an overview of the plan, including a discussion of the planning context and strategic approach. Volumes 2, 3, 4, and 5 describe in detail the initiatives proposed. An integral part of each of these volumes is a set of responses to the mission selection criteria questions developed by the Space and Earth Science Advisory Committee. Volume 2, Mission From Planet Earth, describes a strategy for exploring the Moon and Mars and sets forth proposed moderate missions--Lunar Observer and a Mars lander network. Volume 3, Pluto Flyby/Neptune Orbiter, discusses our proposed major new start candidate for the FY 1994 to FY 1998 time frame. Volume 4, Discovery, describes the Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous, as well as other candidates for this program of low-cost planetary missions. Volume 5, Toward Other Planetary Systems, describes a major research and analysis augmentation that focuses on extrasolar planet detection and the study of planetary system processes. Finally, Volume 6 summarizes the technology program that the division has structured around these four initiatives.

  3. Solar System Exploration Division Strategic Plan, volume 1. Executive summary and overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-07-01

    This first document is the first of a six-volume series presenting the Solar System Exploration Division's Strategic Plan for the 10-year period FY 1994 to FY 2003. The overall strategy is characterized by five fundamental precepts: (1) execute the current program; (2) improve the vitality of the program and the planetary science community; (3) initiate innovative, small, low-cost planetary missions; (4) initiate new major and moderate missions; and (5) prepare for the next generation of missions. This Strategic Plan describes in detail our proposed approach to accomplish these goals. Volume 1 provides first an Executive Summary of highlights of each of the six volumes, and then goes on to present an overview of the plan, including a discussion of the planning context and strategic approach. Volumes 2, 3, 4, and 5 describe in detail the initiatives proposed. An integral part of each of these volumes is a set of responses to the mission selection criteria questions developed by the Space and Earth Science Advisory Committee. Volume 2, Mission From Planet Earth, describes a strategy for exploring the Moon and Mars and sets forth proposed moderate missions--Lunar Observer and a Mars lander network. Volume 3, Pluto Flyby/Neptune Orbiter, discusses our proposed major new start candidate for the FY 1994 to FY 1998 time frame. Volume 4, Discovery, describes the Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous, as well as other candidates for this program of low-cost planetary missions. Volume 5, Toward Other Planetary Systems, describes a major research and analysis augmentation that focuses on extrasolar planet detection and the study of planetary system processes. Finally, Volume 6 summarizes the technology program that the division has structured around these four initiatives.

  4. Testing Common Envelopes on Double White Dwarf Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandez, Jose L. A.; Ivanova, Natalia; Lombardi, James C., Jr.

    2015-06-01

    The formation of a double white dwarf binary likely involves a common envelope (CE) event between a red giant and a white dwarf (WD) during the most recent episode of Roche lobe overflow mass transfer. We study the role of recombination energy with hydrodynamic simulations of such stellar interactions. We find that the recombination energy helps to expel the common envelope entirely, while if recombination energy is not taken into account, a significant fraction of the common envelope remains bound. We apply our numerical methods to constrain the progenitor system for WD 1101+364 - a double WD binary that has well-measured mass ratio of q=0.87±0.03 and an orbital period of 0.145 days. Our best-fit progenitor for the pre-common envelope donor is a 1.5 ⊙ red giant.

  5. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission initial updated baseline summary

    SciTech Connect

    Swita, W.R.

    1998-01-09

    This document provides a summary of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Retrieval and Disposal Mission Initial Updated Baseline (scope, schedule, and cost), developed to demonstrate Readiness-to-Proceed (RTP) in support of the TWRS Phase 1B mission. This Updated Baseline is the proposed TWRS plan to execute and measure the mission work scope. This document and other supporting data demonstrate that the TWRS Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team is prepared to fully support Phase 1B by executing the following scope, schedule, and cost baseline activities: Deliver the specified initial low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) feed batches in a consistent, safe, and reliable manner to support private contractors` operations starting in June 2002; Deliver specified subsequent LAW and HLW feed batches during Phase 1B in a consistent, safe, and reliable manner; Provide for the interim storage of immobilized HLW (IHLW) products and the disposal of immobilized LAW (ILAW) products generated by the private contractors; Provide for disposal of byproduct wastes generated by the private contractors; and Provide the infrastructure to support construction and operations of the private contractors` facilities.

  6. Effects of lyophilization on the infectivity of enveloped and non-enveloped viruses in bone tissue.

    PubMed

    Uhlenhaut, Christine; Dörner, Thomas; Pauli, Georg; Pruss, Axel

    2005-11-01

    Recently reported qualitative experiments proved that retroviral infectivity is not destroyed by lyophilization performed on systemically infected bone and tendon. The now accomplished quantitative determination of residual infectivity for enveloped and non-enveloped viruses allows a validation of the production process regarding viral safety in freeze-dried bone transplants. The lyophilization effect on the infectivity of two non-enveloped viruses (Maus Elberfeld virus, MEV; Porcine parvovirus, PPV) and one enveloped virus (Vesicular Stomatitis virus, VSV) was examined for virus-spiked bone material in comparison to lyophilized viruses, original virus stock, and air-dried viruses. All experiments were carried out with both cell-free and cell-associated virus. Significant differences were observed regarding the reduction of virus titers (TCID50). Infectivity of VSV was reduced by about 3-4 log10 using lyophilization in presence of bone matrix and of MEV by 6-7 log10, while no substantial reduction in virus titers was observed for PPV. Lyophilization of cell-free or cell-associated virus is not sufficient to inactivate viruses completely. However, lyophilization could have an additive effect in line with other production steps used in the manufacturing process.

  7. Envelope as Climate Negotiator: Evaluating adaptive building envelope's capacity to moderate indoor climate and energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, James

    Through manipulation of adaptable opportunities available within a given environment, individuals become active participants in managing personal comfort requirements, by exercising control over their comfort without the assistance of mechanical heating and cooling systems. Similarly, continuous manipulation of a building skin's form, insulation, porosity, and transmissivity qualities exerts control over the energy exchanged between indoor and outdoor environments. This research uses four adaptive response variables in a modified software algorithm to explore an adaptive building skin's potential in reacting to environmental stimuli with the purpose of minimizing energy use without sacrificing occupant comfort. Results illustrate that significant energy savings can be realized with adaptive envelopes over static building envelopes even under extreme summer and winter climate conditions; that the magnitude of these savings are dependent on climate and orientation; and that occupant thermal comfort can be improved consistently over comfort levels achieved by optimized static building envelopes. The resulting adaptive envelope's unique climate-specific behavior could inform designers in creating an intelligent kinetic aesthetic that helps facilitate adaptability and resiliency in architecture.

  8. Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayon, Juan A.

    1992-08-01

    The Astrotech 21 Optical Systems Technology Workshop was held in Pasadena, California on March 6-8, 1991. The purpose of the workshop was to examine the state of Optical Systems Technology at the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA), and in industry and academia, in view of the potential Astrophysics mission set currently being considered for the late 1990's through the first quarter of the 21st century. The principal result of the workshop is this publication, which contains an assessment of the current state of the technology, and specific technology advances in six critical areas of optics, all necessary for the mission set. The workshop was divided into six panels, each of about a dozen experts in specific fields, representing NASA, industry, and academia. In addition, each panel contained expertise that spanned the spectrum from x-ray to submillimeter wavelengths. This executive summary contains the principal recommendations of each panel. The six technology panels and their chairs were: (1) Wavefront Sensing, Control, and Pointing, Thomas Pitts, Itek Optical Systems, A Division of Litton; (2) Fabrication, Roger Angel, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona; (3) Materials and Structures, Theodore Saito, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; (4) Optical Testing, James Wyant, WYKO Corporation; (5) Optical Systems Integrated Modeling, Robert R. Shannon, Optical Sciences Center, University of Arizona; and (6) Advanced Optical Instruments Technology, Michael Shao, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. This Executive Summary contains the principal recommendations of each panel.

  9. Personnel occupied woven envelope robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, F. C.

    1986-01-01

    The use of nonmetallic or fabric structures for space application is considered. The following structures are suggested: (1) unpressurized space hangars; (2) extendable tunnels for soft docking; and (3) manned habitat for space stations, storage facilities, and work structures. The uses of the tunnel as a passageway: for personnel and equipment, eliminating extravehicular activity, for access to a control cabin on a space crane and between free flyers and the space station are outlined. The personnal occupied woven envelope robot (POWER) device is shown. The woven envelope (tunnel) acts as part of the boom of a crane. Potential applications of POWER are outlined. Several possible deflection mechanisms and design criteria are determined.

  10. Carbon chemistry of circumstellar envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bieging, John H.

    1990-01-01

    The chemical composition of envelopes surrounding cool evolved stars, as determined from microwave spectroscopic observations, is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on recent observations with the new large mm-wavelength telescopes and interferometer arrays, and on new theoretical work, especially concerning ion-molecule chemistry of carbon-bearing in these envelopes. Thermal (as opposed to maser) emission lines are discussed. Much progress has been made in the past few years in the theoretical understanding of these objects. It is already clear, however, that observations with the new generation of mm-telescopes will require substantial improvements in the theoretical models to achieve a thorough understanding of the data now becoming available.

  11. A ground based phase control system for the solar power satellite. Executive summary, volume 1, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chie, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Power Satellite (SPS) concept and the reference phase control system investigated in earlier efforts are reviewed. A summary overview of the analysis and selection of the pilot signal and power transponder design is presented along with the SOLARSIM program development and the simulated SPS phase control performance. Evaluations of the ground based phase control system as an alternate phase control concept are summarized.

  12. Liquid Rocket Booster (LRB) for the Space Transportation System (STS) systems study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of replacing the Space Transportation System (STS) Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) with Liquid Rocket Boosters (LRBs) was studied. Feasibility required acceptable technical risk, program costs, and a program plan which supports STS requirements. Three major goals were identified to direct booster design and operation: increased STS safety and reliability; STS/LRB integration with minimum impact; and increased STS performance. Two booster engine designs were studied. The first engine design was a turbopump-fed engine with state-of-the-art design, and the second was a pressure-fed engine which might provide a lower cost alternative to the pump-fed concept. Both booster concepts were carried through to completion of conceptual design and all system impacts and program costs were identified. Applications for LRB use in the Advanced Launch System (ALS) program were studied using the pump-fed LRB baseline concept and variations on the baseline concept. Support for the Pressure-Fed Booster Test Bed (PFBTB) included test program planning and costs and technical support.

  13. Critical Propulsion Components. Volume 1; Summary, Introduction, and Propulsion Systems Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have concluded that a supersonic aircraft, if environmentally acceptable and economically viable, could successfully compete in the 21st century marketplace. However, before industry can commit to what is estimated as a 15 to 20 billion dollar investment, several barrier issues must be resolved. In an effort to address these barrier issues, NASA and Industry teamed to form the High-Speed Research (HSR) program. As part of this program, the Critical Propulsion Components (CPC) element was created and assigned the task of developing those propulsion component technologies necessary to: (1) reduce cruise emissions by a factor of 10 and (2) meet the ever-increasing airport noise restrictions with an economically viable propulsion system. The CPC-identified critical components were ultra-low emission combustors, low-noise/high-performance exhaust nozzles, low-noise fans, and stable/high-performance inlets. Propulsion cycle studies (coordinated with NASA Langley Research Center sponsored airplane studies) were conducted throughout this CPC program to help evaluate candidate components and select the best concepts for the more complex and larger scale research efforts. The propulsion cycle and components ultimately selected were a mixed-flow turbofan (MFTF) engine employing a lean, premixed, prevaporized (LPP) combustor coupled to a two-dimensional mixed compression inlet and a two-dimensional mixer/ejector nozzle. Due to the large amount of material presented in this report, it was prepared in four volumes; Volume 1: Summary, Introduction, and Propulsion System Studies, Volume 2: Combustor, Volume 3: Exhaust Nozzle, and Volume 4: Inlet and Fan/ Inlet Acoustic Team.

  14. Summary of Field Measurement on UF6 Cylinders Using Electro-Mechanically Cooled Systems

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, Brent R; Smith, Steven E; Solodov, Alexander A; Whitaker, J Michael; Morgan, James B; MayerII, Richard L.; Montgomery, J. Brent

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of the enrichment of solid state UF6 stored within large metal cylinders is a task commonly performed by plant operators and inspectors. The measurement technologies typically used range from low-resolution, high-efficiency sodium iodide detectors to high-resolution, moderate-efficiency high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The technology used and methods deployed are dependent upon the material being measured, environmental conditions, time constraints, and measurement-precision requirements. Operators and inspectors typically use specially designed, HPGe detectors that are cooled with liquid nitrogen in situations where high-resolution measurements are required. However, the requirement for periodically refilling the system with liquid nitrogen makes remote usage cumbersome and slow. The task of cooling the detector reduces the available time for the inspector to perform other safeguards activities while on site. If the inspector has to reduce the count time for each selected cylinder to ensure that all preselected cylinders are measured during the inspection, the resulting measurement uncertainties may be increased, making it more difficult to detect and verify potential discrepancies in the operator's declarations. However, recent advances in electromechanically cooled HPGe detectors may provide the inspector with an improved verification tool by eliminating the need for liquid nitrogen. This report provides a summary of test results for field measurements performed using electromechanically cooled HPGe detectors on depleted, natural, and low-enriched uranium cylinders. The results of the study provide valuable information to inspectors and operators regarding the capabilities and limitations of electromechanically cooled systems based on true field-measurement conditions.

  15. Reconceptualization of the Budget Envelope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    This paper reconceptualizes the purposes of education's budget envelope. Citing numerous examples of how policymakers consider resource allocations apart from the main concerns of individual programs, the people reallocations affect, and education's most important programs, it suggests that policymakers and finance officers reemphasize program and…

  16. Preserving Envelope Efficiency in Performance Based Code Compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Brian A.; Sullivan, Greg P.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2015-06-20

    The City of Seattle 2012 Energy Code (Seattle 2014), one of the most progressive in the country, is under revision for its 2015 edition. Additionally, city personnel participate in the development of the next generation of the Washington State Energy Code and the International Energy Code. Seattle has pledged carbon neutrality by 2050 including buildings, transportation and other sectors. The United States Department of Energy (DOE), through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) provided technical assistance to Seattle in order to understand the implications of one potential direction for its code development, limiting trade-offs of long-lived building envelope components less stringent than the prescriptive code envelope requirements by using better-than-code but shorter-lived lighting and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) components through the total building performance modeled energy compliance path. Weaker building envelopes can permanently limit building energy performance even as lighting and HVAC components are upgraded over time, because retrofitting the envelope is less likely and more expensive. Weaker building envelopes may also increase the required size, cost and complexity of HVAC systems and may adversely affect occupant comfort. This report presents the results of this technical assistance. The use of modeled energy code compliance to trade-off envelope components with shorter-lived building components is not unique to Seattle and the lessons and possible solutions described in this report have implications for other jurisdictions and energy codes.

  17. Summary of the stakeholders workshop to develop a National Volcano Early Warning System (NVEWS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guffanti, Marianne; Scott, William E.; Driedger, Carolyn L.; Ewert, John W.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of investing in monitoring, mitigation, and preparedness before natural hazards occur has been amply demonstrated by recent disasters such as the Indian Ocean Tsunami in December 2004 and Hurricane Katrina in August 2005. Playing catch-up with hazardous natural phenomena such as these limits our ability to work with public officials and the public to lessen adverse impacts. With respect to volcanic activity, the starting point of effective pre-event mitigation is monitoring capability sufficient to detect and diagnose precursory unrest so that communities at risk have reliable information and sufficient time to respond to hazards with which they may be confronted. Recognizing that many potentially dangerous U.S. volcanoes have inadequate or no ground-based monitoring, the U.S Geological Survey (USGS) Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) and partners recently evaluated U.S. volcano-monitoring capabilities and published 'An Assessment of Volcanic Threat and Monitoring Capabilities in the United States: Framework for a National Volcano Early Warning System (NVEWS).' Results of the NVEWS volcanic threat and monitoring assessment are being used to guide long-term improvements to the national volcano-monitoring infrastructure operated by the USGS and affiliated groups. The NVEWS report identified the need to convene a workshop of a broad group of stakeholders--such as representatives of emergency- and land-management agencies at the Federal, State, and local levels and the aviation sector--to solicit input about implementation of NVEWS and their specific information requirements. Accordingly, an NVEWS Stakeholders Workshop was held in Portland, Oregon, on 22-23 February 2006. A summary of the workshop is presented in this document.

  18. Summary of the railroad system of Texas: A component of the state and national transportation infrastructure. Project summary report, September 1997--August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Boske, L.B.; Roop, S.; Harrison, R.

    1998-12-01

    Railroads continue to play an important role in moving domestic and international freight through Texas, contributing to economic growth in the state. This study addresses the potential for implementing a rail planning process in the Texas Department of Transportation. In order to accomplish this, successful rail planning processes at other US departments of transportation were evaluated and exemplary programs identified. Three reports were published addressing a variety of findings. The first, published by the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas at Austin, provides an overview and examination of 32 state rail policies, plans, and programs for both passenger and freight traffic. The second report, also published by the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas at Austin, provides information on exemplary state rail programming and planning based on case studies of California, Florida, North Carolina, and the state of Washington. The third report, published by the Texas Transportation Institute at Texas A and M University, provides (1) a framework for rail planning in Texas, (2) identification of current rail issues in Texas, (3) a case study on urban rail rationalization, and (4) a characterization of the rail system in Texas. In each report, detailed appendices are provided to complement the findings and recommendations. In this project summary report, an implementation schedule is recommended to institute rail planning in the Texas Department of Transportation.

  19. Detection and modeling of rough component envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, Matthew; Dluzniak, Richard; Thompson, William

    1995-08-01

    This paper describes an imaging technique for the determination of rough component envelopes of cast and forged components. The paper includes several image acquisition methods currently used in this area but concentrates in detail on the method known as the light stripe method. Results presented show the advantages of the light stripe method to obtain a fast and accurate 3D description of the cast and forged components. The research is part of a larger project on intelligent manufacturing systems and is being conducted at the CIM Centre, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia.

  20. Preliminary analysis of an integrated logistics system for OSSA payloads. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palguta, T.; Bradley, W.; Stockton, T.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose is to describe the logistics study background and approach to providing estimates of of logistics support requirements for Office of Space Science and Applications' payloads in the Space Station era. A concise summary is given of the study results. Future logistics support analysis tasks are identified.

  1. Customer Systems Group 1996 target summaries. Industrial and agricultural technologies and services

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The target summaries give planning information and budgets for EPRI programs, technology development and deployment, member services and partnerships, communication products, and customer technology infrastructure for ten different factions of Industrial and Agricultural Technologies and Services. They are materials fabrication, municipal water and waste water treatment, healthcare, materials production, food, chemicals and petroleum, pulp and paper, textiles, agriculture, and advanced electro-technologies.

  2. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY08

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Bean; Richard Metcalf; Aaron Bevill

    2008-09-01

    The Safeguards Envelope Project met its milestones by creating a rudimentary safeguards envelope, proving the value of the approach on a small scale, and determining the most appropriate path forward. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant’s large cache of reprocessing process monitoring data, dubbed UBER Data, was recovered and used in the analysis. A probabilistic Z test was used on a Markov Monte Carlo simulation of expected diversion data when compared with normal operating data. The data regarding a fully transient event in a tank was used to create a simple requirement, representative of a safeguards envelope, whose impact was a decrease in operating efficiency by 1.3% but an increase in material balance period of 26%. This approach is operator, state, and international safeguards friendly and should be applied to future reprocessing plants. Future requirements include tank-to-tank correlations in reprocessing facilities, detailed operations impact studies, simulation inclusion, automated optimization, advanced statistics analysis, and multi-attribute utility analysis.

  3. Transparent ceramic lamp envelope materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, G. C.

    2005-09-01

    Transparent ceramic materials with optical qualities comparable to single crystals of similar compositions have been developed in recent years, as a result of the improved understanding of powder-processing-fabrication- sintering-property inter-relationships. These high-temperature materials with a range of thermal and mechanical properties are candidate envelopes for focused-beam, short-arc lamps containing various fills operating at temperatures higher than quartz. This paper reviews the composition, structure and properties of transparent ceramic lamp envelope materials including sapphire, small-grained polycrystalline alumina, aluminium oxynitride, yttrium aluminate garnet, magnesium aluminate spinel and yttria-lanthana. A satisfactory thermal shock resistance is required for the ceramic tube to withstand the rapid heating and cooling cycles encountered in lamps. Thermophysical properties, along with the geometry, size and thickness of a transparent ceramic tube, are important parameters in the assessment of its resistance to fracture arising from thermal stresses in lamps during service. The corrosive nature of lamp-fill liquid and vapour at high temperatures requires that all lamp components be carefully chosen to meet the target life. The wide range of new transparent ceramics represents flexibility in pushing the limit of envelope materials for improved beamer lamps.

  4. The Role of the Membrane in the Structure and Biophysical Robustness of the Dengue Virion Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Tyler; Sansom, Mark S.P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The dengue virion is surrounded by an envelope of membrane proteins surrounding a lipid bilayer. We have combined the cryoelectron microscopy structures of the membrane proteins (PDB: 3J27) with a lipid bilayer whose composition is based on lipidomics data for insect cell membranes, to obtain a near-atomic resolution computational model of the envelope of the dengue virion. A coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation on the microsecond timescale enables analysis of key biophysical properties of the dengue outer envelope. Properties analyzed include area per lipid values (for a spherical virion with a mixed lipid composition), bilayer thickness, and lipid diffusion coefficients. Despite the absence of cholesterol from the lipid bilayer, the virion exhibits biophysical robustness (slow lipid diffusion alongside stable bilayer thickness, virion diameter, and shape) that matches the cholesterol-rich membrane of influenza A, with similarly anomalous diffusion of lipids. Biophysical robustness of the envelope may confer resilience to environmental perturbations. PMID:26833387

  5. Employing the FITT Framework to Explore HIV Case Managers’ Perceptions of Two Electronic Clinical Data (ECD) Summary Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schnall, Rebecca; Smith, Ann B.; Sikka, Manik; Gordon, Peter; Camhi, Eli; Kanter, Timothy; Bakken, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Case managers facilitate continuity of care for Persons Living with HIV (PLWH) by coordination of resources and referrals to social services and medical care. The complexity of HIV care and associated comorbidities drives the need for medical and psychosocial care coordination, which may be achieved through health information exchange (HIE) systems. However, the use of HIE has not been well studied in the context of HIV services. The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study is to explore factors influencing case managers adoption of electronic clinical data (ECD) summaries as an HIE strategy in HIV care through application of the “Fit between Individuals, Task and Technology” (FITT) framework. Methods Focus group methodology was used to gather perceptions from 48 participants who provided direct case management services for PLWH in New York City. Questions addressed current quality and efficiency challenges to HIE utilization in the context of case management of PLWH as well as barriers and enablers to use of an ECD summary. Analysis of the data was guided by the FITT framework. Results Major themes by interaction type were: 1) task-technology fit- resources, time and workflow; 2) individual-task fit - training and technical support; and 3) individual-technology fit - ECD summary functionality, technical difficulties and a the need of a computer for each end-user. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence for the applicability of the FITT framework to explore case managers’ perceptions of factors influencing the adoption of ECD summary systems for HIV care prior to actual implementation. Assessment of fit among individual, task, and technology and addressing the concerns identified prior to implementation is critical to successful adoption of health information technology as a strategy to improve quality and efficiency in health care. PMID:22841702

  6. 78 FR 21710 - Proposed Information Collection (Caution to Bidders-Bid Envelopes) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Caution to Bidders--Bid Envelopes) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Office of Acquisition and Logistics, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Office of Acquisition and Logistics (OA&L), Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), is announcing...

  7. 75 FR 13212 - Proposed Information Collection (Caution to Bidders-Bid Envelopes) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Caution to Bidders--Bid Envelopes) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Office of Acquisition and Logistics, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Office of Acquisition and Logistics (OA&L), Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), is announcing...

  8. Excitation of gravity waves in common envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soker, Noam

    1992-01-01

    We study the excitation of gravity waves by a low-mass companion orbiting inside the envelope of a giant star, concentrating on brown dwarfs inside the envelope of asymptotic giant branch stars. Efficient g-wave excitations occur only after the brown dwarf has spiraled-in to the radiative zone, well inside the envelope, of the asymptotic giant branch star. The brown dwarf excites g-waves when its orbital radius is about 3-10 solar radii. At this stage of the evolution the envelope mass is below 0.1 solar mass. The g-waves propagate inward from the secondary orbit, carrying angular momentum and energy. We find that the angular momentum transport leads to an efficient spin-up of the inner envelopes. The differential rotation between the envelope and core and nonlinear wave effects, can cause a mixing of heavy elements from the core to the envelope.

  9. Method and apparatus for controlling carrier envelope phase

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Zenghu; Li, Chengquan; Moon, Eric

    2011-12-06

    A chirped pulse amplification laser system. The system generally comprises a laser source, a pulse modification apparatus including first and second pulse modification elements separated by a separation distance, a positioning element, a measurement device, and a feedback controller. The laser source is operable to generate a laser pulse and the pulse modification apparatus operable to modify at least a portion of the laser pulse. The positioning element is operable to reposition at least a portion of the pulse modification apparatus to vary the separation distance. The measurement device is operable to measure the carrier envelope phase of the generated laser pulse and the feedback controller is operable to control the positioning element based on the measured carrier envelope phase to vary the separation distance of the pulse modification elements and control the carrier envelope phase of laser pulses generated by the laser source.

  10. The Tracking of Speech Envelope in the Human Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kubanek, Jan; Brunner, Peter; Gunduz, Aysegul; Poeppel, David; Schalk, Gerwin

    2013-01-01

    Humans are highly adept at processing speech. Recently, it has been shown that slow temporal information in speech (i.e., the envelope of speech) is critical for speech comprehension. Furthermore, it has been found that evoked electric potentials in human cortex are correlated with the speech envelope. However, it has been unclear whether this essential linguistic feature is encoded differentially in specific regions, or whether it is represented throughout the auditory system. To answer this question, we recorded neural data with high temporal resolution directly from the cortex while human subjects listened to a spoken story. We found that the gamma activity in human auditory cortex robustly tracks the speech envelope. The effect is so marked that it is observed during a single presentation of the spoken story to each subject. The effect is stronger in regions situated relatively early in the auditory pathway (belt areas) compared to other regions involved in speech processing, including the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the posterior inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's region). To further distinguish whether speech envelope is encoded in the auditory system as a phonological (speech-related), or instead as a more general acoustic feature, we also probed the auditory system with a melodic stimulus. We found that belt areas track melody envelope weakly, and as the only region considered. Together, our data provide the first direct electrophysiological evidence that the envelope of speech is robustly tracked in non-primary auditory cortex (belt areas in particular), and suggest that the considered higher-order regions (STG and Broca's region) partake in a more abstract linguistic analysis. PMID:23408924

  11. Cell entry of enveloped viruses.

    PubMed

    Cosset, François-Loic; Lavillette, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    Enveloped viruses penetrate their cell targets following the merging of their membrane with that of the cell. This fusion process is catalyzed by one or several viral glycoproteins incorporated on the membrane of the virus. These envelope glycoproteins (EnvGP) evolved in order to combine two features. First, they acquired a domain to bind to a specific cellular protein, named "receptor." Second, they developed, with the help of cellular proteins, a function of finely controlled fusion to optimize the replication and preserve the integrity of the cell, specific to the genus of the virus. Following the activation of the EnvGP either by binding to their receptors and/or sometimes the acid pH of the endosomes, many changes of conformation permit ultimately the action of a specific hydrophobic domain, the fusion peptide, which destabilizes the cell membrane and leads to the opening of the lipidic membrane. The comprehension of these mechanisms is essential to develop medicines of the therapeutic class of entry inhibitor like enfuvirtide (Fuzeon) against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In this chapter, we will summarize the different envelope glycoprotein structures that viruses develop to achieve membrane fusion and the entry of the virus. We will describe the different entry pathways and cellular proteins that viruses have subverted to allow infection of the cell and the receptors that are used. Finally, we will illustrate more precisely the recent discoveries that have been made within the field of the entry process, with a focus on the use of pseudoparticles. These pseudoparticles are suitable for high-throughput screenings that help in the development of natural or artificial inhibitors as new therapeutics of the class of entry inhibitors.

  12. Flexible Envelope Request Notation (FERN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoch, David R.; Lavallee, David; Weinstein, Stuart

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in view graph form and include the following: scheduling application; the motivation for the Flexible Envelope Request Notation (FERN); characteristics of FERN; types of information needed in requests; where information is stored in requests; FERN structures; generic requests; resource availability for pooled resources; expressive notation; temporal constraints; time formats; changes to FERN; sample FERN requests; the temporal relationship between two steps; maximum activity length to limit step delays; alternative requests; the temporal relationship between two activities; and idle resource usage between steps.

  13. Intermediate luminosity optical transients during the grazing envelope evolution (GEE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soker, Noam

    2016-08-01

    By comparing photon diffusion time with gas outflow time, I argue that a large fraction of the energy carried by the jets during the grazing envelope evolution (GEE) might end in radiation, hence leading to an intermediate luminosity optical transient (ILOT). In the GEE a companion orbiting near the outskirts of the larger primary star accretes mass through an accretion disk, and launches jets that efficiently remove the envelope gas from the vicinity of the secondary star. In cases of high mass accretion rates onto the stellar companion the energy carried by the jets surpass the recombination energy from the ejected mass, and when the primary star is a giant this energy surpasses also the gravitational binding energy of the binary system. Some future ILOTs of giant stars might be better explained by the GEE than by merger and common envelope evolution without jets.

  14. High frequency vibration analysis by the complex envelope vectorization.

    PubMed

    Giannini, O; Carcaterra, A; Sestieri, A

    2007-06-01

    The complex envelope displacement analysis (CEDA) is a procedure to solve high frequency vibration and vibro-acoustic problems, providing the envelope of the physical solution. CEDA is based on a variable transformation mapping the high frequency oscillations into signals of low frequency content and has been successfully applied to one-dimensional systems. However, the extension to plates and vibro-acoustic fields met serious difficulties so that a general revision of the theory was carried out, leading finally to a new method, the complex envelope vectorization (CEV). In this paper the CEV method is described, underlying merits and limits of the procedure, and a set of applications to vibration and vibro-acoustic problems of increasing complexity are presented.

  15. Summary of Resources for the International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System For Core Complete Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2004-01-01

    The Core Complete Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System for the International Space Station (ISS) will consist of components and subsystems in both the United States (U.S.) and International Partner elements which together will perform the functions of Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Water Recovery and Management (WRM), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), and Vacuum System (VS) for the station. Due to limited resources available on ISS, detailed attention is given to minimizing and tracking all resources associated with all systems, beginning with estimates during the hardware development phase through measured actuals when flight hardware is built and delivered. A summary of resources consumed by the addition of future U.S. ECLS system hardware to get to Core Complete is presented, including launch weight, average continuous and peak power loads, on-orbit volume and resupply logistics.

  16. Spatiotemporal dispersion and wave envelopes with relativistic and pseudorelativistic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Christian, J M; McDonald, G S; Hodgkinson, T F; Chamorro-Posada, P

    2012-01-20

    A generic nonparaxial model for pulse envelopes is presented. Classic Schrödinger-type descriptions of wave propagation have their origins in slowly-varying envelopes combined with a Galilean boost to the local time frame. By abandoning these two simplifications, a picture of pulse evolution emerges in which frame-of-reference considerations and space-time transformations take center stage. A wide range of effects, analogous to those in special relativity, then follows for both linear and nonlinear systems. Explicit demonstration is presented through exact bright and dark soliton pulse solutions. PMID:22400744

  17. Spatiotemporal dispersion and wave envelopes with relativistic and pseudorelativistic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Christian, J M; McDonald, G S; Hodgkinson, T F; Chamorro-Posada, P

    2012-01-20

    A generic nonparaxial model for pulse envelopes is presented. Classic Schrödinger-type descriptions of wave propagation have their origins in slowly-varying envelopes combined with a Galilean boost to the local time frame. By abandoning these two simplifications, a picture of pulse evolution emerges in which frame-of-reference considerations and space-time transformations take center stage. A wide range of effects, analogous to those in special relativity, then follows for both linear and nonlinear systems. Explicit demonstration is presented through exact bright and dark soliton pulse solutions.

  18. Structural Arrangement Trade Study. Volume 1: Reusable Hydrogen Composite Tank System (RHCTS) and Graphite Composite Primary Structures (GCPS). Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This volume is the first of a three volume set that discusses the structural arrangement trade study plan that will identify the most suitable configuration for an SSTO winged vehicle capable of delivering 25,000 lbs to a 220 nm circular orbit at 51.6 deg inclination. The Reusable Hydrogen Composite Tank System (RHCTS), and Graphite Composite Primary Structures most suitable for intertank, wing and thrust structures are identified. This executive summary presents the trade study process, the selection process, requirements used, analysis performed and data generated. Conclusions and recommendations are also presented.

  19. Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance executive summary. Volume 7. For Lovington Square Shopping Center, Lovington, NM

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    Performance data are given for a 100 kW grid-connected flat panel photovoltaic power supply at a New Mexico shopping center for the month of January, 1982. Data include the daily and monthly electrical energy produced, daily and monthly solar energy incident on the array plane, average array efficiency, power conditioner efficiency, system efficiency, capacity factor, and monthly average plane-of-array insolation. Also included is the data acquisition mode and recording interval plot and three site event report summaries involving data collection. (LEW)

  20. Environmental Management System (EMS) objectives & targets : annual results summary %3CU%2B2013%3E FY10.

    SciTech Connect

    Waffelaert, Pascale S.; Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2011-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratory/New Mexico's (SNL/NM) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each fiscal year (FY) significant environmental aspects are identified and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are designed to mitigate the impact of SNL/NM's operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established objectives and targets provides a connection to and rational for annually revised significant aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY2010.

  1. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three articles relevant to school crisis response: (1) "Factors Contributing to Posttraumatic Growth," summarized by Steve DeBlois; (2) "Psychological Debriefing in Cross-Cultural Contexts" (Stacey Rice); and (3) "Brain Abnormalities in PTSD" (Sunny Windingstad). The first summary reports the findings of a…

  2. The design and evaluation of integrated envelope and lighting control strategies for commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1994-06-01

    This study investigates control strategies for coordinating the variable solar-optical properties of a dynamic building envelope system with a daylight controlled electric lighting system to reduce electricity consumption and increase comfort in the perimeter zone of commercial buildings. Control strategy design can be based on either simple, instantaneous measured data, or on complex, predictive algorithms that estimate the energy consumption for a selected operating state of the dynamic envelope and lighting system. The potential benefits of optimizing the operation of a dynamic envelope and lighting system are (1) significant reductions in electrical energy end-uses - lighting, and cooling due to solar and lighting heat gains - over that achieved by conventional static envelope and lighting systems, (2) significant reductions in peak demand, and (3) increased occupant visual and thermal comfort. The DOE-2 building energy simulation program was used to model two dynamic envelope and lighting systems, an automated venetian blind and an electrochromic glazing system, and their control strategies under a range of building conditions. The energy performance of simple control strategies are compared to the optimum performance of a theoretical envelope and lighting system to determine the maximum potential benefit of using more complex, predictive control algorithms. Results indicate that (1) predictive control algorithms may significantly increase the energy-efficiency of systems with non-optimal solar-optical properties such as the automated venetian blind, and (2) simpler, non-predictive control strategies may suffice for more advanced envelope systems 1 incorporating spectrally selective, narrow-band electrochromic coatings.

  3. Several Novel Nuclear Envelope Transmembrane Proteins Identified in Skeletal Muscle Have Cytoskeletal Associations*

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, Gavin S.; Korfali, Nadia; Swanson, Selene K.; Malik, Poonam; Srsen, Vlastimil; Batrakou, Dzmitry G.; de las Heras, Jose; Zuleger, Nikolaj; Kerr, Alastair R. W.; Florens, Laurence; Schirmer, Eric C.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear envelopes from liver and a neuroblastoma cell line have previously been analyzed by proteomics; however, most diseases associated with the nuclear envelope affect muscle. To determine whether muscle has unique nuclear envelope proteins, rat skeletal muscle nuclear envelopes were prepared and analyzed by multidimensional protein identification technology. Many novel muscle-specific proteins were identified that did not appear in previous nuclear envelope data sets. Nuclear envelope residence was confirmed for 11 of these by expression of fusion proteins and by antibody staining of muscle tissue cryosections. Moreover, transcript levels for several of the newly identified nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins increased during muscle differentiation using mouse and human in vitro model systems. Some of these proteins tracked with microtubules at the nuclear surface in interphase cells and accumulated at the base of the microtubule spindle in mitotic cells, suggesting they may associate with complexes that connect the nucleus to the cytoskeleton. The finding of tissue-specific proteins in the skeletal muscle nuclear envelope proteome argues the importance of analyzing nuclear envelopes from all tissues linked to disease and suggests that general investigation of tissue differences in organellar proteomes might yield critical insights. PMID:20876400

  4. Several novel nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins identified in skeletal muscle have cytoskeletal associations.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, Gavin S; Korfali, Nadia; Swanson, Selene K; Malik, Poonam; Srsen, Vlastimil; Batrakou, Dzmitry G; de las Heras, Jose; Zuleger, Nikolaj; Kerr, Alastair R W; Florens, Laurence; Schirmer, Eric C

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear envelopes from liver and a neuroblastoma cell line have previously been analyzed by proteomics; however, most diseases associated with the nuclear envelope affect muscle. To determine whether muscle has unique nuclear envelope proteins, rat skeletal muscle nuclear envelopes were prepared and analyzed by multidimensional protein identification technology. Many novel muscle-specific proteins were identified that did not appear in previous nuclear envelope data sets. Nuclear envelope residence was confirmed for 11 of these by expression of fusion proteins and by antibody staining of muscle tissue cryosections. Moreover, transcript levels for several of the newly identified nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins increased during muscle differentiation using mouse and human in vitro model systems. Some of these proteins tracked with microtubules at the nuclear surface in interphase cells and accumulated at the base of the microtubule spindle in mitotic cells, suggesting they may associate with complexes that connect the nucleus to the cytoskeleton. The finding of tissue-specific proteins in the skeletal muscle nuclear envelope proteome argues the importance of analyzing nuclear envelopes from all tissues linked to disease and suggests that general investigation of tissue differences in organellar proteomes might yield critical insights. PMID:20876400

  5. Circumplanetary disc or circumplanetary envelope?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szulágyi, J.; Masset, F.; Lega, E.; Crida, A.; Morbidelli, A.; Guillot, T.

    2016-08-01

    We present three-dimensional simulations with nested meshes of the dynamics of the gas around a Jupiter mass planet with the JUPITER and FARGOCA codes. We implemented a radiative transfer module into the JUPITER code to account for realistic heating and cooling of the gas. We focus on the circumplanetary gas flow, determining its characteristics at very high resolution (80 per cent of Jupiter's diameter). In our nominal simulation where the temperature evolves freely by the radiative module and reaches 13000 K at the planet, a circumplanetary envelope was formed filling the entire Roche lobe. Because of our equation of state is simplified and probably overestimates the temperature, we also performed simulations with limited maximal temperatures in the planet region (1000, 1500, and 2000 K). In these fixed temperature cases circumplanetary discs (CPDs) were formed. This suggests that the capability to form a CPD is not simply linked to the mass of the planet and its ability to open a gap. Instead, the gas temperature at the planet's location, which depends on its accretion history, plays also fundamental role. The CPDs in the simulations are hot and cooling very slowly, they have very steep temperature and density profiles, and are strongly sub-Keplerian. Moreover, the CPDs are fed by a strong vertical influx, which shocks on the CPD surfaces creating a hot and luminous shock-front. In contrast, the pressure supported circumplanetary envelope is characterized by internal convection and almost stalled rotation.

  6. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY10

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Metcalf

    2010-10-01

    The Safeguards Envelope is a strategy to determine a set of specific operating parameters within which nuclear facilities may operate to maximize safeguards effectiveness without sacrificing safety or plant efficiency. This paper details the additions to the advanced operating techniques that will be applied to real plant process monitoring (PM) data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Research this year focused on combining disparate pieces of data together to maximize operating time with minimal downtime due to safeguards. A Chi-Square and Croiser's cumulative sum were both included as part of the new analysis. Because of a major issue with the original data, the implementation of the two new tests did not add to the existing set of tests, though limited one-variable optimization made a small increase in detection probability. Additional analysis was performed to determine if prior analysis would have caused a major security or safety operating envelope issue. It was determined that a safety issue would have resulted from the prior research, but that the security may have been increased under certain conditions.

  7. Multitasking: Making the Most out of the Retroviral Envelope.

    PubMed

    Varela, Mariana; Palmarini, Massimo

    2010-08-01

    Evasion of the host's immune system is a required step for the establishment of viral infection. In this article, we discuss the recent findings of Heidmann and colleagues demonstrating that some retroviruses possess an immune suppressive (IS) domain "encrypted" within their envelope glycoprotein that is required to establish a successful infection in immunocompetent hosts [1].

  8. The nuclear envelope as a chromatin organizer

    PubMed Central

    Zuleger, Nikolaj; Robson, Michael I

    2011-01-01

    In the past 15 years our perception of nuclear envelope function has evolved perhaps nearly as much as the nuclear envelope itself evolved in the last 3 billion years. Historically viewed as little more than a diffusion barrier between the cytoplasm and the nucleoplasm, the nuclear envelope is now known to have roles in the cell cycle, cytoskeletal stability and cell migration, genome architecture, epigenetics, regulation of transcription, splicing and DNA replication. Here we will review both what is known and what is speculated about the role of the nuclear envelope in genome organization, particularly with respect to the positioning and repositioning of genes and chromosomes within the nucleus during differentiation. PMID:21970986

  9. Nonstationary envelope process and first excursion probability.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, J.-N.

    1972-01-01

    The definition of stationary random envelope proposed by Cramer and Leadbetter, is extended to the envelope of nonstationary random process possessing evolutionary power spectral densities. The density function, the joint density function, the moment function, and the crossing rate of a level of the nonstationary envelope process are derived. Based on the envelope statistics, approximate solutions to the first excursion probability of nonstationary random processes are obtained. In particular, applications of the first excursion probability to the earthquake engineering problems are demonstrated in detail.

  10. Public water supplies of North Carolina : a summary of water sources, use, treatment, and capacity of water-supply systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, L.T.

    1978-01-01

    Data were collected during 1970-76 on 224 public water supply systems in North Carolina with 500 or more customers. This report summarizes these data that were previously published in five separate regional reports. The data are presented in order to Council of Government region, county, and water system name and include population served, average and maximum daily use, industrial use, water source, allowable draft of surface-water supplies, raw water pumping capacity, raw and finished water storage, type of water treatment, treatment plant capacity, and a summary of the chemical quality of finished water. Tables and maps provide cross references for system names, counties, Council of Government regions and water source.

  11. Biofuels: Project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The US DOE, through the Biofuels Systems Division (BSD) is addressing the issues surrounding US vulnerability to petroleum supply. The BSD goal is to develop technologies that are competitive with fossil fuels, in both cost and environmental performance, by the end of the decade. This document contains summaries of ongoing research sponsored by the DOE BSD. A summary sheet is presented for each project funded or in existence during FY 1993. Each summary sheet contains and account of project funding, objectives, accomplishments and current status, and significant publications.

  12. Crop yield summary for three wetland reservoir subirrigation systems in northwest Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wetland Reservoir Subirrigation Systems (WRSIS) are innovative agricultural water management and recycling systems comprised of three main components; a constructed wetland, a water storage reservoir, and cropland containing subsurface drainage pipe systems. Surface runoff and subsurface drainage f...

  13. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 1, phase 2: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A review of solar energy conversion and utilization is presented. The solar power satellite system is then described. Overall system definition and integration is discussed. Principal reference system study accomplishments and conclusions are presented.

  14. A computerised out-patient medical records programme based on the Summary Time-Oriented Record (STOR) System.

    PubMed

    Cheong, P Y; Goh, L G; Ong, R; Wong, P K

    1992-12-01

    Advances in microcomputer hardware and software technology have made computerised outpatient medical records practical. We have developed a programme based on the Summary Time-Oriented Record (STOR) system which complements existing paper-based record keeping. The elements of the Problem Oriented Medical Record (POMR) System are displayed in two windows within one screen, namely, the SOAP (Subjective information, Objective information, Assessments and Plans) elements in the Reason For Encounter (RFE) window and the problem list with outcomes in the Problem List (PL) window. Context sensitive child windows display details of plans of management in the RFE window and clinical notes in the PL window. The benefits of such innovations to clinical decision making and practice based research and its medico-legal implications are discussed.

  15. Metal cladding envelope problems, retrofit solutions, and quality control investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colantonio, Antonio

    1992-04-01

    This paper deals with a case study of a building envelope retrofit of an insulated sheet steel and corrugated metal clad building. The building in discussion is a satellite testing facility which requires specific clean room conditions with controlled interior temperature (22 degree(s)C +/- 1 degree(s)C) and high relative humidity conditions (45% +/- 3%) to facilitate satellite testing programs. Preliminary mechanical system inspections indicated substantial increase in air intake to make up for air leakage losses. An infrared inspection along with an approximate air leakage test of the building envelope was requested by the client to determine the magnitude of the building envelope problem. This investigation concluded that significant air leakage was present throughout the building envelope and that existing mechanical systems did not have sufficient capacity to pressurize the building and negate wind and stack effect. Exfiltration particularly through openings on the top sections of the building were causing interior moisture to saturate wall insulation and render it ineffective. Concern for rusting of metal components was indicated. The subsequent envelope analysis discovered a number of typical metal building details that led to poor air tightness and wall insulation ineffectiveness. These were correlated to infrared investigation data. The retrofit solutions produced for this building not only apply to this building but to other similar building types. Further investigations indicated that air leakage and mechanical system performance were significant problems with buildings using metal cladding systems comparable to this building. Quality control before, during and after construction was identified as an important function of the architectural commissioning of the retrofit work and infrared investigations were used to verify locations of air leakage and insulation effectiveness.

  16. New tools for the analysis and design of building envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Papamichael, K.; Winkelmann, F.C.; Buhl, W.F.; Chauvet, H.

    1994-08-01

    We describe the integrated development of PowerDOE, a new version of the DOE-2 building energy analysis program, and the Building Design Advisor (BDA), a multimedia-based design tool that assists building designers with the concurrent consideration of multiple design solutions with respect to multiple design criteria. PowerDOE has a windows-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that makes it easier to use than DOE-2, while retaining DOE-2`s calculation power and accuracy. BDA, with a similar GUI, is designed to link to multiple analytical models and databases. In its first release it is linked to PowerDOE and a Daylighting Analysis Module, as well as to a Case Studies Database and a Schematic Graphic Editor. These allow building designers to set performance goals and address key building envelope parameters from the initial, schematic phases of building design to the detailed specification of building components and systems required by PowerDOE. The consideration of the thermal performance of building envelopes through PowerDOE and BDA is integrated with non-thermal envelope performance aspects, such as daylighting, as well as with the performance of non-envelope building components and systems, such as electric lighting and HVAC. Future versions of BDA will support links to CAD and electronic product catalogs, as well as provide context-dependent design advice to improve performance.

  17. COMMON ENVELOPE EVOLUTION LEADING TO SUPERNOVAE WITH DENSE INTERACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Chevalier, Roger A.

    2012-06-10

    A variety of supernova events, including Type IIn supernovae and ultraluminous supernovae, appear to have lost up to solar masses of their envelopes in tens to hundreds of years leading up to the explosion. In order to explain the close timing of the mass loss and supernova events, we explore the possibility that the mass loss is driven by common envelope evolution of a compact object (neutron star or black hole) in the envelope of a massive star and the supernova is triggered by the inspiral of the compact object to the central core of the companion star. The expected rate of such events is smaller than the observed rate of Type IIn supernovae but the rates may agree within the uncertainties. The mass loss velocity is related to the escape velocity from the common envelope system and is comparable to the observed velocity of hundreds of kilometers per second in Type IIn events. The mass loss is expected to be denser near the equatorial plane of the binary system and there is good evidence that the circumstellar media in Type IIn supernovae are asymmetric. Some of these supernova types show evidence for energies in excess of the canonical 10{sup 51} erg, which might be the result of explosions from rapid accretion onto a compact object through a disk.

  18. The development of a protoplanetary disk from its natal envelope.

    PubMed

    Watson, Dan M; Bohac, C J; Hull, C; Forrest, William J; Furlan, E; Najita, J; Calvet, Nuria; d'Alessio, Paola; Hartmann, Lee; Sargent, B; Green, Joel D; Kim, Kyoung Hee; Houck, J R

    2007-08-30

    Class 0 protostars, the youngest type of young stellar objects, show many signs of rapid development from their initial, spheroidal configurations, and therefore are studied intensively for details of the formation of protoplanetary disks within protostellar envelopes. At millimetre wavelengths, kinematic signatures of collapse have been observed in several such protostars, through observations of molecular lines that probe their outer envelopes. It has been suggested that one or more components of the proto-multiple system NGC 1333-IRAS 4 (refs 1, 2) may display signs of an embedded region that is warmer and denser than the bulk of the envelope. Here we report observations that reveal details of the core on Solar System dimensions. We detect in NGC 1333-IRAS 4B a rich emission spectrum of H2O, at wavelengths 20-37 microm, which indicates an origin in extremely dense, warm gas. We can model the emission as infall from a protostellar envelope onto the surface of a deeply embedded, dense disk, and therefore see the development of a protoplanetary disk. This is the only example of mid-infrared water emission from a sample of 30 class 0 objects, perhaps arising from a favourable orientation; alternatively, this may be an early and short-lived stage in the evolution of a protoplanetary disk. PMID:17728752

  19. Software Development Technologies for Reactive, Real-Time, and Hybrid Systems: Summary of Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manna, Zohar

    1998-01-01

    This research is directed towards the implementation of a comprehensive deductive-algorithmic environment (toolkit) for the development and verification of high assurance reactive systems, especially concurrent, real-time, and hybrid systems. For this, we have designed and implemented the STCP (Stanford Temporal Prover) verification system. Reactive systems have an ongoing interaction with their environment, and their computations are infinite sequences of states. A large number of systems can be seen as reactive systems, including hardware, concurrent programs, network protocols, and embedded systems. Temporal logic provides a convenient language for expressing properties of reactive systems. A temporal verification methodology provides procedures for proving that a given system satisfies a given temporal property. The research covered necessary theoretical foundations as well as implementation and application issues.

  20. Dynamic Flight Envelope Assessment with Flight Safety Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandita, Rohit

    Aircraft have a manufacturer prescribed operating flight envelope for safe operation, exceeding these limits can result in unrecoverable departures or even structural failure. Numerous commercial aircraft accidents in the past have been attributed to loss-of-control (LOC) resulting from exceeding the safe operating flight envelope. Hence, real-time knowledge of the safe operating flight envelope is essential for safe flight operation, a problem known as dynamic flight envelope assessment. This dissertation explores dynamic flight envelope assessment from a control theoretic perspective. Two notions of the flight envelope, namely, the reachable sets and the region-of-attraction analysis are investigated. The NASA generic transport model (GTM) aircraft dynamics is used as an application problem. Linear and nonlinear techniques for flight envelope assessment are formulated in the linear matrix inequality (LMI) and sum-of-squares (SOS) framework, respectively. LMI and SOS problems are computationally tractable convex optimization problems for which many semi-definite programming solvers are available. This thesis also investigated fault detection and isolation strategies. Commercial jet transport aircrafts make extensive use of active controls. Faults or failures in the flight control system (FCS) elements like sensors or control effectors can lead to catastrophic failure. Model-based fault detection and isolation (FDI) filters can provide analytical redundancy by reliably detecting such faults in the system. Practical application of model-based FDI filters is limited so far due to poor performance, false alarms and missed detection arising out of uncertain dynamics of the aircraft, effect of nonlinearities in the system and the influence of closed-loop controllers. An application of closed-loop metrics to assess worst case FDI filter performance in the presence of a controller and uncertain dynamics is presented. Longitudinal GTM dynamics are considered. An Hinfinity

  1. Propagation effects handbook for satellite systems design. A summary of propagation impairments on 10 to 100 GHz satellite links with techniques for system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ippolito, Louis J.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Propagation Effects Handbook for Satellite Systems Design provides a systematic compilation of the major propagation effects experienced on space-Earth paths in the 10 to 100 GHz frequency band region. It provides both a detailed description of the propagation phenomenon and a summary of the impact of the effect on the communications system design and performance. Chapter 2 through 5 describe the propagation effects, prediction models, and available experimental data bases. In Chapter 6, design techniques and prediction methods available for evaluating propagation effects on space-Earth communication systems are presented. Chapter 7 addresses the system design process and how the effects of propagation on system design and performance should be considered and how that can be mitigated. Examples of operational and planned Ku, Ka, and EHF satellite communications systems are given.

  2. Propagation effects handbook for satellite systems design. A summary of propagation impairments on 10 to 100 GHz satellite links with techniques for system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ippolito, Louis J.

    1989-02-01

    The NASA Propagation Effects Handbook for Satellite Systems Design provides a systematic compilation of the major propagation effects experienced on space-Earth paths in the 10 to 100 GHz frequency band region. It provides both a detailed description of the propagation phenomenon and a summary of the impact of the effect on the communications system design and performance. Chapter 2 through 5 describe the propagation effects, prediction models, and available experimental data bases. In Chapter 6, design techniques and prediction methods available for evaluating propagation effects on space-Earth communication systems are presented. Chapter 7 addresses the system design process and how the effects of propagation on system design and performance should be considered and how that can be mitigated. Examples of operational and planned Ku, Ka, and EHF satellite communications systems are given.

  3. Preparation of envelope membrane fractions from Arabidopsis chloroplasts for proteomic analysis and other studies.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Daniel; Moyet, Lucas; Seigneurin-Berny, Daphné; Ferro, Myriam; Joyard, Jacques; Rolland, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    Plastids are semiautonomous organelles restricted to plants and protists. These plastids are surrounded by a double membrane system, or envelope. These envelope membranes contain machineries to import nuclear-encoded proteins, and transporters for ions or metabolites, but are also essential for a range of plastid-specific metabolisms. Targeted semiquantitative proteomic investigations have revealed specific cross-contaminations by other cell or plastid compartments that may occur during chloroplast envelope purification. This article describes procedures developed to recover highly purified envelope fractions starting from Percoll-purified Arabidopsis chloroplasts, gives an overview of possible cross-contaminations, provides some tricks to limit these cross-contaminations, and lists immunological markers and methods that can be used to assess the purity of the envelope fractions.

  4. Aeroelastic Model Structure Computation for Envelope Expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kukreja, Sunil L.

    2007-01-01

    Structure detection is a procedure for selecting a subset of candidate terms, from a full model description, that best describes the observed output. This is a necessary procedure to compute an efficient system description which may afford greater insight into the functionality of the system or a simpler controller design. Structure computation as a tool for black-box modeling may be of critical importance in the development of robust, parsimonious models for the flight-test community. Moreover, this approach may lead to efficient strategies for rapid envelope expansion that may save significant development time and costs. In this study, a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) technique is investigated for computing efficient model descriptions of non-linear aeroelastic systems. The LASSO minimises the residual sum of squares with the addition of an l(Sub 1) penalty term on the parameter vector of the traditional l(sub 2) minimisation problem. Its use for structure detection is a natural extension of this constrained minimisation approach to pseudo-linear regression problems which produces some model parameters that are exactly zero and, therefore, yields a parsimonious system description. Applicability of this technique for model structure computation for the F/A-18 (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) Active Aeroelastic Wing project using flight test data is shown for several flight conditions (Mach numbers) by identifying a parsimonious system description with a high percent fit for cross-validated data.

  5. Aeroelastic Model Structure Computation for Envelope Expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kukreja, Sunil L.

    2007-01-01

    Structure detection is a procedure for selecting a subset of candidate terms, from a full model description, that best describes the observed output. This is a necessary procedure to compute an efficient system description which may afford greater insight into the functionality of the system or a simpler controller design. Structure computation as a tool for black-box modelling may be of critical importance in the development of robust, parsimonious models for the flight-test community. Moreover, this approach may lead to efficient strategies for rapid envelope expansion which may save significant development time and costs. In this study, a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) technique is investigated for computing efficient model descriptions of nonlinear aeroelastic systems. The LASSO minimises the residual sum of squares by the addition of an l(sub 1) penalty term on the parameter vector of the traditional 2 minimisation problem. Its use for structure detection is a natural extension of this constrained minimisation approach to pseudolinear regression problems which produces some model parameters that are exactly zero and, therefore, yields a parsimonious system description. Applicability of this technique for model structure computation for the F/A-18 Active Aeroelastic Wing using flight test data is shown for several flight conditions (Mach numbers) by identifying a parsimonious system description with a high percent fit for cross-validated data.

  6. Utility FGD survey: January--December 1989. Volume 1, Categorical summaries of FGD systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M.

    1992-03-01

    This is Volume 1 of the Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

  7. Future Air Force aircraft propulsion control systems: The extended summary paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skira, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Hydromechanical control technology simply cannot compete against the performance benefits offered by electronics. Future military aircraft propulsion control systems will be full authority, digital electronic, microprocessor base systems. Anticipating the day when microprocessor technology will permit the integration and management of aircraft flight control, fire control and propulsion control systems, the Air Force Aero Propulsion Laboratory is developing control logic algorithms for a real time, adaptive control and diagnostic information system.

  8. Technology requirements for advanced earth orbital transportation systems. Volume 2: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, A. K.; Bangsund, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    The results of efforts to identify the technology requirements for advanced earth orbital transportation systems are reported. Topics discussed include: (1) design and definition of performance potential of vehicle systems, (2) advanced technology assessment, and (3) extended performance. It is concluded that the horizontal take-off concept is the most feasible system considered.

  9. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 1, phase 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A systems definition study of the solar satellite system (SPS) is presented. The technical feasibility of solar power satellites based on forecasts of technical capability in the various applicable technologies is assessed. The performance, cost, operational characteristics, reliability, and the suitability of SPS's as power generators for typical commercial electricity grids are discussed. The uncertainties inherent in the system characteristics forecasts are assessed.

  10. Summary of ACSL Simulations of the MSRE Auxiliary Charcoal Bed Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect

    Damiano, B

    2000-10-26

    The simulation of the Auxiliary Charcoal Bed (ACB) Vacuum System was performed to evaluate the original vacuum system design, detect and identify design deficiencies, investigate the effects of proposed corrections on system performance, and generally aid in refining the system design before construction and mockup testing. The simulation was performed by using the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL). The vacuum system design goals are to provide approximately 20 SCFM of both booster gas and purge gas through the system and maintain a flow of approximately 40 SCFM with a velocity of 50 to 75 f/sec at the entrance to the cyclone separator. The model results showed that the original system design was incapable of meeting the system performance goals. Further simulations showed that the following modifications to the original vacuum system design were required to make the system performance acceptable; (1) Remove valve PCV4. (2) Modify the flow controllers FTC3 and FTC4 from the original flow range of 0-17.6 SCFM (0-500 SLM) to 0-35.3 SCFM (0-1000 SLM). (3) Replace the bellows sealed valves SV-1, SV-3A, SV-3B, SV-4A, and SV-4B with less restrictive ball valves. The simulation results saved considerable time and effort by identifying flaws in the original system design. Early identification of these flaws and the use of the simulation model to investigate possible solutions allowed corrective modifications to be made before construction of the mock up test facility.

  11. Neural Coding of Sound Envelope in Reverberant Environments

    PubMed Central

    Slama, Michaël C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Speech reception depends critically on temporal modulations in the amplitude envelope of the speech signal. Reverberation encountered in everyday environments can substantially attenuate these modulations. To assess the effect of reverberation on the neural coding of amplitude envelope, we recorded from single units in the inferior colliculus (IC) of unanesthetized rabbit using sinusoidally amplitude modulated (AM) broadband noise stimuli presented in simulated anechoic and reverberant environments. Although reverberation degraded both rate and temporal coding of AM in IC neurons, in most neurons, the degradation in temporal coding was smaller than the AM attenuation in the stimulus. This compensation could largely be accounted for by the compressive shape of the modulation input–output function (MIOF), which describes the nonlinear transformation of modulation depth from acoustic stimuli into neural responses. Additionally, in a subset of neurons, the temporal coding of AM was better for reverberant stimuli than for anechoic stimuli having the same modulation depth at the ear. Using hybrid anechoic stimuli that selectively possess certain properties of reverberant sounds, we show that this reverberant advantage is not caused by envelope distortion, static interaural decorrelation, or spectral coloration. Overall, our results suggest that the auditory system may possess dual mechanisms that make the coding of amplitude envelope relatively robust in reverberation: one general mechanism operating for all stimuli with small modulation depths, and another mechanism dependent on very specific properties of reverberant stimuli, possibly the periodic fluctuations in interaural correlation at the modulation frequency. PMID:25762687

  12. Different evolutionary patterns of classical swine fever virus envelope proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Yang, Zexiao; Zhang, Mingwang

    2016-03-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever, which is a highly contagious disease of the domestic pig as well as wild boar. The proteins E(rns), E1, and E2 are components of the viral envelope membrane. They are also implicated in virus attachment and entry, replication, and (or) anti-immune response. Here, we studied the genetic variations of these envelope proteins in the evolution of CSFV. The results reveal that the envelope proteins underwent different evolutionary fates. In E(rns) and E1, but not E2, a number of amino acid sites experienced functional divergence. Furthermore, the diversification in E(rns) and E1 was generally episodic because the divergence-related changes of E1 only occurred with the separation of 2 major groups of CSFV and that of E(rns) took place with the division of 1 major group. The major divergence-related sites of E(rns) are located on one of the substrate-binding regions of the RNase domain and C-terminal extension. These functional domains have been reported to block activation of the innate immune system and attachment and entry into host cells, respectively. Our results may shed some light on the divergent roles of the envelope proteins. PMID:26911308

  13. Neural coding of sound envelope in reverberant environments.

    PubMed

    Slama, Michaël C C; Delgutte, Bertrand

    2015-03-11

    Speech reception depends critically on temporal modulations in the amplitude envelope of the speech signal. Reverberation encountered in everyday environments can substantially attenuate these modulations. To assess the effect of reverberation on the neural coding of amplitude envelope, we recorded from single units in the inferior colliculus (IC) of unanesthetized rabbit using sinusoidally amplitude modulated (AM) broadband noise stimuli presented in simulated anechoic and reverberant environments. Although reverberation degraded both rate and temporal coding of AM in IC neurons, in most neurons, the degradation in temporal coding was smaller than the AM attenuation in the stimulus. This compensation could largely be accounted for by the compressive shape of the modulation input-output function (MIOF), which describes the nonlinear transformation of modulation depth from acoustic stimuli into neural responses. Additionally, in a subset of neurons, the temporal coding of AM was better for reverberant stimuli than for anechoic stimuli having the same modulation depth at the ear. Using hybrid anechoic stimuli that selectively possess certain properties of reverberant sounds, we show that this reverberant advantage is not caused by envelope distortion, static interaural decorrelation, or spectral coloration. Overall, our results suggest that the auditory system may possess dual mechanisms that make the coding of amplitude envelope relatively robust in reverberation: one general mechanism operating for all stimuli with small modulation depths, and another mechanism dependent on very specific properties of reverberant stimuli, possibly the periodic fluctuations in interaural correlation at the modulation frequency.

  14. Summary of the systems prioritization method (SPM) as a decision-aiding tool for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Boak, D.M.; Prindle, N.H.; Lincoln, R.; Mendenhall, F.; Weiner, R.; Bills, R.A

    1996-03-01

    In March 1994, the Department of Energy Carlsbad Area Office (DOE/CAO) implemented a performance-based planning method to assist in programmatic prioritization within the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project with respect to applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) long-term performance requirements stated in 40 CFR 191.13(a) and 40 CFR 268.6. This method, the Systems Prioritization Method (SPM), was designed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to: (1) identify programmatic options (activities) and their costs and durations; (2) analyze potential combinations of activities in terms of predicted contribution to long-term performance; and (3) analyze cost, duration, and performance tradeoffs. SPM results were the basis for recommendations to DOE/CAO in May 1995 for prioritization within the WIPP project. This paper presents a summary of the SPM implementation, key results, and lessons learned.

  15. Requirements for a mobile communications satellite system. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Three types of satellite-aided mobile communications are considered for users in areas not served by (terrestrial) cellular radio systems. In System 1, mobile units are provided a direct satellite link to a gateway station, which serves as the interface to the terrestrial toll network. In System 2, a terrestrial radio link similar to those in cellular systems connects the mobile unit to a translator station; each translator relays the traffic from mobile units in its vicinity, via satellite, to the regional gateway. It is not feasible for System 2 to provide ubiquitous coverage. Therefore, System 3 is introduced, in which the small percentage of users not within range of a translator are provided a direct satellite link as in System 1. While System 2 can operate with leased satellite capacity, Systems 1 and 3 require a dedicated satellite. A major portion of this study is concerned with the design of a satellite for System 1. A weight limit of 10,000 lbs, corresponding to the projected 1990 STS capability, is imposed on the design. Frequency re-use of the allocated spectrum, through multiple satellite beams, is employed to generate the specified system capacity. Both offset-fed and center-fed reflectors are considered. For an assumed 10-MHz allocation and a population of 350,000 subscribers, a two-satellite system is required. The reflector diameters corresponding to offset-fed and center-fed geometries are 46 m and 62 m, respectively. Thus, large-space-structure technology is inherent to the implementation of System 1. In addition to establishing the technical requirements for the three types of satellite systems, the monthly service charge needed to provide a specified return on invested capital is computed. A net present value analysis is used for this purpose.

  16. Envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: profound influences on immune functions.

    PubMed Central

    Chirmule, N; Pahwa, S

    1996-01-01

    Infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) leads to progressive destruction of the CD4+ T-cell subset, resulting in immune deficiency and AIDS. The specific binding of the viral external envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1, gp120, to the CD4 molecules initiates viral entry. In the past few years, several studies have indicated that the interaction of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein with cells and molecules of the immune system leads to pleiotropic biological effects on immune functions, which include effects on differentiation of CD34+ lymphoid progenitor cells and thymocytes, aberrant activation and cytokine secretion patterns of mature T cells, induction of apoptosis, B-cell hyperactivity, inhibition of T-cell dependent B-cell differentiation, modulation of macrophage functions, interactions with components of complement, and effects on neuronal cells. The amino acid sequence homologies of the envelope glycoproteins with several cellular proteins have suggested that molecular mimicry may play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. This review summarizes work done by several investigators demonstrating the profound biological effects of envelope glycoproteins of HIV-1 on immune system cells. Extensive studies have also been done on interactions of the viral envelope proteins with components of the immune system which may be important for eliciting a "protective immune response." Understanding the influences of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins on the immune system may provide valuable insights into HIV-1 disease pathogenesis and carries implications for the trials of HIV-1 envelope protein vaccines and immunotherapeutics. PMID:8801439

  17. A propagation effects handbook for satellite systems design. A summary of propagation impairments on 10-100 GHz satellite links, with techniques for system design. [tropospheric scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, R.; Wallace, R.; Kinal, G.

    1980-01-01

    This handbook provides satellite system engineers with a concise summary of the major propagation effects experienced on Earth-space paths in the 10 to 100 GHz frequency range. The dominant effect, attenuation due to rain, is dealt with in terms of both experimental data from measurements made in the U.S. and Canada, and the mathematical and conceptual models devised to explain the data. Rain systems, rain and attenuation models, depolarization and experimental data are described. The design techniques recommended for predicting propagation effects in Earth-space communications systems are presented. The questions of where in the system design process the effects of propagation should be considered, and what precautions should be taken when applying the propagation results are addressed in order to bridge the gap between the propagation research data and the classical link budget analysis of Earth-space communications system.

  18. A propagation effects handbook for satellite systems design. A summary of propagation impairments on 10-100 GHz satellite links, with techniques for system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaul, R.; Wallace, R.; Kinal, G.

    1980-03-01

    This handbook provides satellite system engineers with a concise summary of the major propagation effects experienced on Earth-space paths in the 10 to 100 GHz frequency range. The dominant effect, attenuation due to rain, is dealt with in terms of both experimental data from measurements made in the U.S. and Canada, and the mathematical and conceptual models devised to explain the data. Rain systems, rain and attenuation models, depolarization and experimental data are described. The design techniques recommended for predicting propagation effects in Earth-space communications systems are presented. The questions of where in the system design process the effects of propagation should be considered, and what precautions should be taken when applying the propagation results are addressed in order to bridge the gap between the propagation research data and the classical link budget analysis of Earth-space communications system.

  19. Satellite power system concept development and evaluation program. Volume 1: Technical assessment summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Candidate satellite power system (SPS) concepts were identified and evaluated in terms of technical and cost factors. A number of alternative technically feasible approaches and system concepts were investigated. A reference system was defined to facilitate economic, environmental, and societal assessments by the Department of Energy. All elements of the reference system were defined including the satellite and all its subsystems, the orbital construction and maintenance bases, all elements of the space transportation system, the ground receiving station, and the associated industrial facilities for manufacturing the required hardware. The reference conclusions and remaining issues are stated for the following topical areas: system definition; energy conversion and power management; power transmission and reception; structures, controls, and materials; construction and operations; and space transportation.

  20. Study of multi-megawatt technology needs for photovoltaic space power systems. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. M.; Pleasant, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Possible missions requiring multimegawatt photovoltaic space power systems in the 1990's time frame and associated power system technology needs are examined. The following concepts for photovoltaic power approaches are considered: planar arrays, concentrating arrays, hybrid systems using Rankine engines, thermophotovoltaic and AC/DC power management approaches, battery, fuel cell, flywheel energy storage, and interactions with the electrical ion engine injection and stationkeeping system. The levels of modularity for efficient, safe, constructable, serviceable, and cost effective system design are analyzed, and the benefits of alternate approaches developed. Both manned low Earth orbit and unmanned geosynchronous Earth orbit applications were examined for technological development. Technology developments applicable to power systems which appear to have benefits independent of the absolute power level are suggested.

  1. Performance of a VME-based parallel processing LIDAR data acquisition system (summary)

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K.; Buttler, B.; Caffrey, M.; Soriano, C.

    1995-05-01

    It may be possible to make accurate real time, autonomous, 2 and 3 dimensional wind measurements remotely with an elastic backscatter Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system by incorporating digital parallel processing hardware into the data acquisition system. In this paper, we report the performance of a commercially available digital parallel processing system in implementing the maximum correlation technique for wind sensing using actual LIDAR data. Timing and numerical accuracy are benchmarked against a standard microprocessor impementation.

  2. Summary of design considerations for airplane spin-recovery parachute systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burk, S. M., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A compilation of design considerations applicable to spin-recovery parachute systems for military airplanes has been made so that the information will be readily available to persons responsible for the design of such systems. This information was obtained from a study of available documents and from discussions with persons in both government and industry experienced in parachute technology, full-scale and model spin testing, and related systems.

  3. Preliminary environmental assessment for the satellite power system (SPS). Revision 1. Volume 1. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed satellite power system (SPS) is summarized here. In this system, satellites would collect solar energy in space, convert it to microwaves, and transmit the microwaves to receiving antennas (rectennas) on earth. At the rectennas, the microwaves would be converted to electricity. The assessment considers microwave and nonmicrowave effects on the terrestrial environment and human health, atmospheric effects, and disruption of communications and other electromagnetic systems.

  4. A summary of the ECAS performance and cost results for MHD systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seikel, G. R.; Sovie, R. J.; Burns, R. K.; Barna, G. J.; Burkhart, J. A.; Nainiger, J. J.; Smith, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The potential is examined of various advanced power plant concepts using coal and coal-derived fuel. The results indicate that open cycle coal fired direct preheat MHD systems have potentially one of the highest coal-pile-to-bus-bar efficiencies and also one of the lowest costs of electricity (COE) of the systems studied. Closed cycle MHD systems may have the potential to approach the efficiency and COE of open cycle MHD. The 1200-1500 F liquid metal MHD systems studied do not appear to have the potential of exceeding the efficiency or competing with the COE of advanced steam plants.

  5. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY09

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Metcalf; Robert Bean

    2009-09-01

    The Safeguards Envelope is a strategy to determine a set of specific operating parameters which nuclear facilities may operate within to maximize safeguards effectiveness without sacrificing safety or plant efficiency. This paper details advanced statistical techniques will be applied to real plant process monitoring (PM) data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). As a result of the U.S. having no operating nuclear chemical reprocessing plants, there has been a strong interest in obtaining process monitoring data from the ICPP. The ICPP was shut down in 1996 and a recent effort has been made to retrieve the PM data from storage in a data mining effort. In a simulation based on this data, multi-tank and multi-attribute correlations were tested against synthetic diversion scenarios. Kernel regression smoothing was used to fit a curve to the historical data, and multivariable, residual analysis and cumulative sum techniques set parameters for operating conditions. Diversion scenarios were created and tested, showing improved results when compared with a previous study utilizing only one-variable Z- testing7.

  6. On the common envelope efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Zhao-Yu; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2014-08-01

    In this work, we try to use the apparent luminosity versus displacement (i.e. LX versus R) correlation of high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) to constrain the common envelope (CE) efficiency αCE, which is a key parameter affecting the evolution of the binary orbit during the CE phase. The major updates that are crucial for the CE evolution include a variable λ parameter and a new CE criterion for Hertzsprung gap donor stars, both of which are recently developed. We find that, within the framework of the standard energy formula for CE and core definition at mass X = 10 per cent, a high value of αCE, i.e. around 0.8-1.0, is more preferable, while αCE < ˜0.4 likely can not reconstruct the observed LX versus R distribution. However, due to an ambiguous definition for the core boundary in the literature, the used λ here still carries almost two order of magnitude uncertainty, which may translate directly to the expected value of αCE. We present the detailed components of current HMXBs and their spatial offsets from star clusters, which may be further testified by future observations of HMXB populations in nearby star-forming galaxies.

  7. Solid Waste Information Management System (SWIMS). Data summary, fiscal year 1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelder, H. M.

    1981-05-01

    The solid waste information management system (SWIMS) maintains computerized records on a master data base. It provides a comprehensive system for cataloging and assembling data into output reports. The SWIMS data base contains information on the transuranic (TRU) and low level waste (LLW) generated, buried, or stored.

  8. Applications study of advanced power generation systems utilizing coal-derived fuels. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1981-03-01

    The technology status of phosphoric acid and molten carbon fuel cells, combined gas and steam turbine cycles, and magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion systems was assessed and the power performance of these systems when operating with medium-Btu fuel gas whether delivered by pipeline to the power plant or in an integrated mode in which the coal gasification process and power system are closely coupled as an overall power plant was evaluated. Commercially available combined-cycle gas turbine systems can reach projected required performance levels for advanced systems using currently available technology. The phosphoric acid fuel cell appears to be the next most likely candidate for commercialization. On pipeline delivery, the systems efficiency ranges from 40.9% for the phosphoric acid fuel cell to 63% for the molten carbonate fuel cell system. The efficiencies of the integrated power plants vary from approximately 39-40% for the combined cycle to 46-47% for the molden carbonate fuel cell systems. Conventional coal-fired steam stations with flue-gas desulfurization have only 33-35% efficiency.

  9. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 5, phase 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of the solar power satellite system is presented. Performance, cost, and operational characteristics are assessed. The photovoltaic system is described and investigated. Alternative construction concepts are discussed. The structural bay configuration is presented along with the antenna structure options.

  10. Methods for the evaluation of alternative disaster warning systems. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, C. E.; Anderson, R. J., Jr.; Lanen, W. N.

    1977-01-01

    Methods for estimating the economic costs and benefits of the transmission-reception and reception-action segments of a disaster warning system (DWS) are described. Methods were identified for the evaluation of the transmission and reception portions of alternative disaster warning systems. Example analyses using the methods identified were performed.

  11. Applications study of advanced power generation systems utilizing coal-derived fuels. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    The technology status of phosphoric acid and molten carbon fuel cells, combined gas and steam turbine cycles, and magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion systems was assessed and the power performance of these systems when operating with medium-Btu fuel gas whether delivered by pipeline to the power plant or in an integrated mode in which the coal gasification process and power system are closely coupled as an overall power plant was evaluated. Commercially available combined-cycle gas turbine systems can reach projected required performance levels for advanced systems using currently available technology. The phosphoric acid fuel cell appears to be the next most likely candidate for commercialization. On pipeline delivery, the systems efficiency ranges from 40.9% for the phosphoric acid fuel cell to 63% for the molten carbonate fuel cell system. The efficiencies of the integrated power plants vary from approximately 39-40% for the combined cycle to 46-47% for the molden carbonate fuel cell systems. Conventional coal-fired steam stations with flue-gas desulfurization have only 33-35% efficiency.

  12. Summary: Experimental validation of real-time fault-tolerant systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyer, R. K.; Choi, G. S.

    1992-01-01

    Testing and validation of real-time systems is always difficult to perform since neither the error generation process nor the fault propagation problem is easy to comprehend. There is no better substitute to results based on actual measurements and experimentation. Such results are essential for developing a rational basis for evaluation and validation of real-time systems. However, with physical experimentation, controllability and observability are limited to external instrumentation that can be hooked-up to the system under test. And this process is quite a difficult, if not impossible, task for a complex system. Also, to set up such experiments for measurements, physical hardware must exist. On the other hand, a simulation approach allows flexibility that is unequaled by any other existing method for system evaluation. A simulation methodology for system evaluation was successfully developed and implemented and the environment was demonstrated using existing real-time avionic systems. The research was oriented toward evaluating the impact of permanent and transient faults in aircraft control computers. Results were obtained for the Bendix BDX 930 system and Hamilton Standard EEC131 jet engine controller. The studies showed that simulated fault injection is valuable, in the design stage, to evaluate the susceptibility of computing sytems to different types of failures.

  13. Low-thrust chemical propulsion system propellant expulsion and thermal conditioning study. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merino, F.; Wakabayashi, I.; Pleasant, R. L.; Hill, M.

    1982-01-01

    Preferred techniques for providing abort pressurization and engine feed system net positive suction pressure (NPSP) for low thrust chemical propulsion systems (LTPS) were determined. A representative LTPS vehicle configuration is presented. Analysis tasks include: propellant heating analysis; pressurant requirements for abort propellant dump; and comparative analysis of pressurization techniques and thermal subcoolers.

  14. Space station systems analysis study. Part 3: Documentation. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The space stations systems analysis study is summarized. A cost efffective system concept capable of meeting a broad spectrum of mission requirements was developed. Candidate objectives were reviewed and implementation requirements were defined. Program options for both low earth and geosynchronous orbits were examined. Space construction concepts were analyzed and defined in detail.

  15. Improved scaling laws for stage inert mass of space propulsion systems. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Summarized is a study which satisfies the need for improved scaling laws for stage inert mass of space propulsion systems. The resulting laws are applicable to current and future vehicle systems and designs for a comprehensive spectrum of anticipated planetary missions.

  16. Decision Support Systems Project. Design Review Conference, October 14-15, 1984. Summary Report of Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetlow, William L.

    Findings of a conference that reviewed and evaluated design decisions concerning the Decision Support System (DSS) Demonstrator are summarized. The DSS Demonstrator was designed by the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems as an example of the way in which microcomputer technology can support and make more effective planning and…

  17. Career Information Delivery Systems: A Summary Status Report. NOICC Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Valorie; Kinnison, Joyce; Morgenthau, Eleanor; Ollis, Harvey

    The National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee/State Occupational Information Coordinating Committees (NOICC/SOICC) Network sponsors numerous occupational information programs and systems, including career information delivery systems (CIDS). CIDS provide useful national, state, and local information for people who are exploring,…

  18. Automated water monitor system field demonstration test report. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. L.; Jeffers, E. L.; Perreira, J.; Poel, J. D.; Nibley, D.; Nuss, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    A system that performs water quality monitoring on-line and in real time much as it would be done in a spacecraft, was developed and demonstrated. The system has the capability to determine conformance to high effluent quality standards and to increase the potential for reclamation and reuse of water.

  19. Waste heat recovery fluids for heavy-duty transportation bottoming cycle systems: a summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Krazinski, J.L.; Uherka, K.L.; Holtz, R.E.; Ash, J.E.

    1984-07-01

    Working fluids used in Rankine bottoming cycle systems for heat recovery from long-haul trucks, marine vessels, and railroad locomotives are examined. Rankine bottoming cycle systems improve fuel economy by converting the exhaust heat from the prime mover into useful power. The report assesses fluid property requirements on the basis of previous experience with bottoming cycle systems. Also, the exhaust gas characteristics for the transportation modes of interest are summarized and compared. Candidate working fluids are discussed with respect to their potential for use in Rankine bottoming cycle systems. Analytical techniques are presented for calculating the thermodynamic properties of single-component working fluids. The resulting equations have been incorporated into a computer code for predicting the performance of Rankine bottoming cycle systems. In evaluating candidate working fluids, the code requires the user to input only a minimal amount of fluid property data.

  20. Tether Transport System Study Summary Performed under Contract to Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderwell, Dan; Bangham, Mike; Dionne, Heather; Fleming, Beth; Klus, Bill; Herring, Karmel; Suggs, Elton; Walker, Larry; Lorenzini, Enrico; Cosmo, Mario L.; Kaiser, Markus; Vestal, Linda; Johnson, Les; Carrington, Connie

    1998-01-01

    The main rationale for this study is to reduce the mission cost of transporting payloads to GEO. A two stage tether transport system was proposed for boosting payloads from LEO to GTO/GEO. The feasibility of the concept is addressed from the point of view of orbital mechanics and other principles of physics. The report presents the results of an engineering analysis that defines the system, major elements and subsystems, and assesses the feasibility (i.e., the technology readiness level) of designing and developing the system. Results indicate that significant cost savings can be realized over traditional upper stages within a few launches. Certain key technical issues, such as payload rendezvous and capture, need to be addressed in future studies. Advancements in certain technology areas, such as power generation and highly efficient propulsion systems, will have significant effects on the overall system design.

  1. Space-based solar power conversion and delivery systems study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazelrigg, G. A., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The technical and economic aspects of satellite solar power systems are presented with a focus on the current configuration 5000 MW system. The technical studies include analyses of the orbital system structures, control and stationkeeping, and the formulation of program plans and costs for input to the economic analyses. The economic analyses centered about the development and use of a risk analysis model for a system cost assessment, identification of critical issues and technologies, and to provide information for programmatic decision making. A preliminary economic examination of some utility interface issues is included. Under the present state-of-knowledge, it is possible to formulate a program plan for the development of a satellite solar power system that can be economically justified. The key area of technological uncertainty is man's ability to fabricate and assemble large structures in space.

  2. Resource envelope concepts for mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibrahim, K. Y.; Weiler, J. D.; Tokaz, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    Seven proposed methods for creating resource envelopes for Space Station Freedom mission planning are detailed. Four reference science activity models are used to illustrate the effect of adding operational flexibility to mission timelines. For each method, a brief explanation is given along with graphs to illustrate the application of the envelopes to the power and crew resources. The benefits and costs of each method are analyzed in terms of resource utilization. In addition to the effect on individual activities, resource envelopes are analyzed at the experiment level.

  3. Autonomous Integrated Receive System (AIRS) requirements definition. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chie, C. M.; Lindsey, W. C.

    1984-08-01

    Distributed processing in the design and operation of the augmented TDRSS and the succeeding TDAS in the 1990's is discussed with the emphasis on the development of the autonomous integrated receive system (AIRS) for the operation of the S-band single access (SSA) return link in the White Sands ground terminal. This receive system has the capability of self configuration, real-time operation, and self diagnostic. The tasks of Doppler correction, demodulation, detection, and decoding are performed in an integrated manner where useful information are shared and used by ALL portions of AIRS performing these tasks. Operating modes, maintenance, system architecture, and performance characteristics are described.

  4. Satellite power systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    System definition studies resulted in a further definition of the reference system using gallium arsenide solar arrays, analysis of alternative subsystem options for the reference concept, preliminary solid state microwave concept studies, and an environmental analysis of laser transmission systems. The special emphasis studies concentrated on satellite construction, satellite construction base definition, satellite construction base construction, and rectenna construction. Major emphasis in the transportation studies was put on definition of a two stage parallel burn, vertical takeoff/horizontal landing concept. The electric orbit transfer vehicle was defined in greater detail. Program definition included cost analyses and schedule definition.

  5. Systems-level study of a nonsurvivable Jupiter turbopause probe. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiltshire, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    The design of a space probe to explore the atmosphere of the planet Jupiter is discussed. Five major areas were considered: (1) definition of science requirements, (2) mission evaluation, (3) definition of probe system, (4) definition of spacecraft support requirements, and (5) nonequilibrium flow field analysis for communications blackout evaluation. The overall mission and system design are emphasized. The integration of the various technologies into complete systems designs is described. Results showed that a nonsurvivable turbopause probe mission to Jupiter with adequate data return to meet the science objectives is feasible and practical.

  6. Survey of individual users of MEDLINE on the NLM system (Summary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Translated By Isao; Kawano, Koreni

    In the past three years the number of individual health professionals who search with MEDLINE on the NLM system has increased dramatically. It is continuing to grow at the rate of over 200 users per month. In order to provide them with an online information retrieval service that individuals can use easily and effectively, NLM surveyed this growing end-user population by the questionnaire including 35 items such as their demographic characteristics, methods of access to the system, frequency of searching, search purpose, number of citations retrieved, use of information retrieved, and level of satisfaction with current system. This paper describes the results of this survey.

  7. Solar thermal power systems point-focusing thermal and electric applications projects. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marriott, A.

    1980-01-01

    The activities of the Point-Focusing Thermal and Electric Applications (PETEA) project for the fiscal year 1979 are summarized. The main thrust of the PFTEA Project, the small community solar thermal power experiment, was completed. Concept definition studies included a small central receiver approach, a point-focusing distributed receiver system with central power generation, and a point-focusing distributed receiver concept with distributed power generation. The first experiment in the Isolated Application Series was initiated. Planning for the third engineering experiment series, which addresses the industrial market sector, was also initiated. In addition to the experiment-related activities, several contracts to industry were let and studies were conducted to explore the market potential for point-focusing distributed receiver (PFDR) systems. System analysis studies were completed that looked at PFDR technology relative to other small power system technology candidates for the utility market sector.

  8. Extended performance solar electric propulsion thrust system study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.; Hawthorne, E. I.

    1977-01-01

    Several thrust system design concepts were evaluated and compared using the specifications of the most advanced 30 cm engineering model thruster as the technology base. The extensions in thruster performance required for the Halley's comet mission were defined and alternative thrust system concepts were designed. Confirmation testing and analysis of thruster and power-processing components were performed, and the feasibility of satisfying extended performance requirements was verified. A baseline design was selected from the alternatives considered, and the design analysis and documentation were refined. A program development plan was formulated that outlines the work structure considered necessary for developing, qualifying, and fabricating the flight hardware for the baseline thrust system within the time frame of a project to rendezvous with Halley's comet. An assessment was made of the costs and risks associated with a baseline thrust system as provided to the mission project under this plan. Critical procurements and interfaces were identified and defined. Results are presented.

  9. Automated water monitor system field demonstration test report. Volume 2: Technical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. L.; Jeffers, E. L.; Perreira, J.; Poel, J. D.; Nibley, D.; Nuss, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The NASA Automatic Water Monitor System was installed in a water reclamation facility to evaluate the technical and cost feasibility of producing high quality reclaimed water. Data gathered during this field demonstration test are reported.

  10. Industry/government seminar on Large Space systems technology: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scala, S. M.

    1978-01-01

    The critical technology developments which the participating experts recommend as being required to support the early generation large space systems envisioned as space missions during the years 1985-2000 are summarized.

  11. Teleoperator Maneuvering System (TMS) benefits assessment study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Teleoperator Maneuvering System (TMS) versus integral spacecraft propulsion, spacecraft maintenance, cost benefits, launch prices, integral propulsion length penalties, remote maintenance versus EVA, potential weight reduction benefits, basing mode, mission models and payload requirements, and program profitability are discussed.

  12. Technology Demonstration Summary: Terra Vac In Situ Vacuum Extraction System, Groveland, Massachusetts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Terra Vac Inc's vacuum extraction system was demonstrated at the Valley Manufactured Products Company, Inc., site in Groveland, Massachusetts. The property is part of the Groveland Wells Superfund site and is contaminated mainly by trichloroethylene (TCE). Vacuum extraction...

  13. United States industrial electric motor systems market opportunities assessment: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1998-12-01

    The Market Assessment is designed to be of value to manufacturers, distributors, engineers, and others in the supply channels for motor systems. It provides a detailed and highly differentiated portrait of their end-use markets.

  14. Developing Secure Power Systems Professional Competence: Alignment and Gaps in Workforce Development Programs—Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, Lori Ross; Assante, Michael; Tobey, D. H.; Conway, T. J.; Vanderhorst, Jr, T. J.; Januszewski, III, J.; Leo, R.; Perman, K.

    2013-07-01

    This document is a summarization of the report, Developing Secure Power Systems Professional Competence: Alignment and Gaps in Workforce Development Programs, the final report for phase 2 of the SPSP (DOE workforce study) project.

  15. Summary of Research on Reliability Criteria-Based Flight System Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, N. Eva; Belcastro, Christine (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents research on the reliability assessment of adaptive flight control systems. The topics include: 1) Overview of Project Focuses; 2) Reliability Analysis; and 3) Design for Reliability. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  16. Concepts for 18/30 GHz satellite communication system study. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, M.; Davies, R.; Cuccia, L.; Mitchell, C.

    1979-01-01

    An examination of a multiplicity of interconnected parameters ranging from specific technology details to total system economic costs for satellite communication systems at the 18/30 GHz transmission bands are presented. It was determined that K sub A band systems can incur a small communications outage during very heavy rainfall periods and that reducing the outage to zero would lead to prohibitive system costs. On the other hand, the economics of scale, ie, one spacecraft accommodating 2.5 GHz of bandwidth coupled with multiple beam frequency reuse, leads to very low costs for those users who can tolerate the 5 to 50 hours per year of downtime. A multiple frequency band satellite network can provide the ultimate optimized match to the consumer performance/economics demands.

  17. A summary of the ECAS performance and cost results for MHD system. [Energy Conversion Alternatives Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seikel, G. R.; Sovie, R. J.; Burns, R. K.; Barna, G. J.; Burkhart, J. A.; Nainiger, J. J.; Smith, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The interagency-funded, NASA-coordinated Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) has studied the potential of various advanced power plant concepts using coal and coal-derived fuel. Principle studies were conducted through prime contracts with the General Electric Company and the Westinghouse Electric Corporation. The results indicate that open-cycle coal-fired direct-preheat MHD systems have potentially one of the highest coal-pile-to-bus-bar efficiencies and also one of the lowest costs of electricity (COE) of the systems studied. Closed-cycle MHD systems may have the potential to approach the efficiency and COE of open-cycle MHD. The 1200-1500 F liquid-metal MHD systems studied do not appear to have the potential of exceeding the efficiency or competing with the COE of advanced steam plants.

  18. Space station automation study. Volume 1: Executive summary. Autonomous systems and assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the Space Station Automation Study (SSAS) was to develop informed technical guidance for NASA personnel in the use of autonomy and autonomous systems to implement space station functions.

  19. The UARS and open data system concept and analysis study. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittal, M.; Nebb, J.; Woodward, H.

    1983-01-01

    Alternative concepts for a common design for the UARS and OPEN Central Data Handling Facility (CDHF) are offered. The designs are consistent with requirements shared by UARS and OPEN and the data storage and data processing demands of these missions. Because more detailed information is available for UARS, the design approach was to size the system and to select components for a UARS CDHF, but in a manner that does not optimize the CDHF at the expense of OPEN. Costs for alternative implementations of the UARS designs are presented showing that the system design does not restrict the implementation to a single manufacturer. Processing demands on the alternative UARS CDHF implementations are discussed. With this information at hand together with estimates for OPEN processing demands, it is shown that any shortfall in system capability for OPEN support can be remedied by either component upgrades or array processing attachments rather than a system redesign.

  20. Technology demonstration summary, Dupont/Oberlin microfiltration system, Palmerton, Pennsylvania. April-May 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    In April and May 1990, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, demonstrated DuPont/Oberlin's microfiltration system at the Palmerton Zinc Superfund (PZS) site in Palmerton, Pennsylvania. The microfiltration system demonstrated at the PZS site was evaluated primarily in terms of its ability to remove metals (mainly zinc) and particulates from the contaminated groundwater on site, while producing a dry filter cake and filtrate that meet applicable disposal requirements.

  1. Summary of gas bearing applications in the field of space electric power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, J. H.; Ream, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    The testing and evaluation of different bearing systems to be used in the turbine-alternator-compressor of a closed Brayton cycle electric power system are described. A specification of each bearing is presented along with the results of the evaluation and a comparison of the merits and limitations of each bearing. The contribution of improved bearings to the power supply reliability, potential life, and ability to accept shock and vibration is examined.

  2. Summary Report of the INL-JISEA Workshop on Nuclear Hybrud Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Antkowiak; Richard Boardman; Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Robert Cherry; Mark Ruth

    2012-07-01

    Hybrid energy systems utilize two or more energy resources as inputs to two or more physically coupled subsystems to produce one or more energy commodities as outputs. Nuclear hybrid energy systems can be used to provide load-following electrical power to match diurnal to seasonal-scale changes in power demand or to compensate for the variability of renewable wind or solar generation. To maintain economical, full rate operation of the nuclear reactor, its thermal energy available when power demand is low could be diverted into making synthetic vehicle fuels of various types. The Institute for Nuclear Energy Science and Technology (INEST) and the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) co-sponsored an international workshop to identify research topics important in advancing the potential use of hybrid systems with a specific focus on nuclear-renewable hybrid systems. The workshop included presentations ranging from energy challenges and research and development (R&D) directions being pursued by nations to multiple options for hybrid systems. Those options include one that is being commercialized to other opportunities and analysis results quantifying them. The workshop also involved two breakout sessions - one focused on thermal energy management issues especially at unit-operation scale and the second focused on system operations issues including system controls, regulatory issues, technical and economic analysis, and market challenges. A discussion involving the full group focused on more general issues such as societal involvement and participation. Key criteria for selecting hybrid energy system projects and metrics for comparing them were also identified by the full group. The workshop's findings are being used initially by INEST to define topics for a research preproposal solicitation.

  3. Development of deployable structures for large space platform systems. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, R. L.; Nelson, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Candidate deployable linear platform system concepts suitable for development to technology readiness by 1986 are reviewed. The systems concepts were based on trades of alternate deployable/retractable structure concepts, integration of utilities, and interface approaches for docking and assembly of payloads and subsystems. The deployable volume studies involved generation of concepts for deployable volumes which could be used as unpressurized or pressurized hangars, habitats and interconnecting tunnels. Concept generation emphasized using flexible materials and deployable truss structure technology.

  4. Utility of space transportation system to space communication community: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bronstein, L. M.

    1975-01-01

    The space transportation system (STS) offers the opportunity for maintaining, and perhaps accelerating, growth of the space communication community. This new launch vehicle service, however, must be obtained at a cost lower than the current expandable launch vehicles cost. A cost competitive STS is defined for geostationary payloads. It is concluded that the STS will be useful to the space communication community, as well as to other geostationary satellite system users, if the proposed recommendations are adapted.

  5. Solar Power Satellite antenna phase control system hardware simulation, phase 4: Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Kantak, A. V.; Chie, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    The phase control system is described. Potential sources of phase error are identified and the performance leading to selection of the allowable phase error for each source is summarized. The pilot transmitter, the effects of ionospheric, the master slave returnable timing system (MSRTS), the SPS receiver, and the high power amplifier for dc to microwave conversion are considered separately. Design parameters of the pilot transmitter and spacetenna transponder are presented.

  6. Phase IA market assessment, Advanced Energy System Program. Summary report, July-December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Burgmeier, L.R.; Trester, K.D.

    1986-02-01

    To assess the market potential of a natural-gas-fired, highly-recuperated Brayton-cycle cogeneration system, the authors conducted surveys to characterize and quantify the cogeneration market and concluded that a substantial market exists for small systems, particularly in the range 40 to 60 kw. The studies also revealed the diversification of the overall market, with many strong specific markets such as fast-food and conventional restaurants, supermarkets, physical fitness centers, hospitals/nursing homes and hotels/motels.

  7. Expression of a Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Type VI Secretion System Is Responsive to Envelope Stresses through the OmpR Transcriptional Activator

    PubMed Central

    Gueguen, Erwan; Durand, Eric; Zhang, Xiang Y.; d’Amalric, Quentin; Journet, Laure; Cascales, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a macromolecular complex widespread in Gram-negative bacteria. Although several T6SS are required for virulence towards host models, most are necessary to eliminate competitor bacteria. Other functions, such as resistance to amoeba predation, biofilm formation or adaptation to environmental conditions have also been reported. This multitude of functions is reflected by the large repertoire of regulatory mechanisms shown to control T6SS expression, production or activation. Here, we demonstrate that one T6SS gene cluster encoded within the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis genome, T6SS-4, is regulated by OmpR, the response regulator of the two-component system EnvZ-OmpR. We first identified OmpR in a transposon mutagenesis screen. OmpR does not control the expression of the four other Y. pseudotuberculosis T6SS gene clusters and of an isolated vgrG gene, and responds to osmotic stresses to bind to and activate the T6SS-4 promoter. Finally, we show that T6SS-4 promotes Y. pseudotuberculosis survival in high osmolarity conditions and resistance to deoxycholate. PMID:23840509

  8. Carboniferous-Rotliegend total petroleum system; description and assessment results summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.

    2003-01-01

    The Anglo-Dutch Basin and the Northwest German Basin are two of the 76 priority basins assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey World Energy Project. The basins were assessed together because most of the resources occur within a single petroleum system (the Carboniferous-Rotliegend Total Petroleum System) that transcends the combined Anglo-Dutch Basin and Northwest German Basin boundary. The juxtaposition of thermally mature coals and carbonaceous shales of the Carboniferous Coal Measures (source rock), sandstones of the Rotliegend sedimentary systems (reservoir rock), and the Zechstein evaporites (seal) define the total petroleum system (TPS). Three assessment units were defined, based upon technological and geographic (rather than geological) criteria, that subdivide the Carboniferous-Rotliegend Total Petroleum System. These assessment units are (1) the Southern Permian Basin-Offshore Europe Assessment Unit, (2) the Southern Permian Basin Onshore Europe Assessment Unit, and (3) the Southern Permian Basin Onshore United Kingdom Assessment Unit. Although the Carboniferous-Rotliegend Total Petroleum System is one of the most intensely explored volumes of rock in the world, potential remains for undiscovered resources. Undiscovered conventional resources associated with the TPS range from 22 to 184 million barrels of oil, and from 3.6 to 14.9 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. Of these amounts, approximately 62 million barrels of oil and 13 trillion cubic feet of gas are expected in offshore areas, and 26 million barrels of oil and 1.9 trillion cubic feet of gas are predicted in onshore areas.

  9. Challenges to modeling the Sun-Earth System: A Workshop Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F.

    2006-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of' Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics is a compilation of 23 papers presented at The 2004 Huntsville Modeling Workshop: Challenges to Modeling thc San-Earth System held in Huntsville, AB on October 18-22, 2004. The title of the workshop appropriately captures the theme of what was presented and discussed by the 120 participants. Currently, end-to-end modeling of the Sun-Earth system is a major goal of the National Space Weather and NASA living with a star (LWS) programs. While profound advances have been made in modeling isolated regions of the Sun-Earth system, minimal progress has been achieved in modeling the end-to-end system. The transfer of mass, energy and momentum through the coupled Sun-Earth system spans a wide range of scales inn time and space. The uncertainty in the underlying physics responsible for coupling contiguous regions of the Sun-Earth system is recognized as a significant barrier to progress

  10. Summary Report of the INL-JISEA Workshop on Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Antkowiak, M.; Ruth, M.; Boardman, R.; Bragg-Sitton, S.; Cherry, R.; Shunn, L.

    2012-07-01

    The Institute for Nuclear Energy Science and Technology (INEST) and the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) co-sponsored an international workshop to identify research topics important in advancing the potential use of hybrid systems with a specific focus on nuclear-renewable hybrid systems. The workshop included presentations ranging from energy challenges and research and development directions being pursued by nations to multiple options for hybrid systems. Those options include one that is being commercialized to other opportunities and analysis results quantifying them. The workshop also involved two breakout sessions--one focused on thermal energy management issues especially at unit-operation scale and the second focused on system operations issues including system controls, regulatory issues, technical and economic analysis, and market challenges. A discussion involving the full group focused on more general issues such as societal involvement and participation. Key criteria for selecting hybrid energy system projects and metrics for comparing them were also identified by the full group.

  11. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Bratica, Robyn; Dempsey, Jack R.; Karle, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of recent crisis management publications. The first article summarized provides a review of research documenting that even when children are not physically proximal to a national disaster (9/11), they may still have negative reactions. The second article summarized is an examination of the PTSD diagnostic criterion…

  12. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of two recent crisis management publications: (1) "Social Validity of the CISM Model for School Crisis Intervention," summarized by Jack R. Dempsey; and (2) "School Violence: Associations With Control, Security/Enforcement, Educational/Therapeutic Approaches, and Demographic Factors," summarized by Ashlee Barton.…

  13. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This column features summaries of research articles from 3 recent crisis management publications. The first, "School Shootings and Counselor Leadership: Four Lessons from the Field" summarized by Kristi Fenning, was conducted as the result of the increased demand for trained crisis personnel on school campuses. Survey participants were leaders…

  14. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three recent crisis management publications: (1) "School Violence: Associations With Control, Security/Enforcement, Educational/Therapeutic Approaches, and Demographic Factors," reviewed by Ashlee Barton; (2) "The Relationship Between Cognitive Coping Styles and PTSD in Survivors of Traffic Accidents," summarized…

  15. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of four recent crisis management publications: (1) "Crisis Intervention for Children/Caregivers Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence," summarized by Donna DeVaughn Kreskey; (2) "Predictors of Trauma Reactions Following the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks," summarized by Kelly O'Connor; (3) "Cognitive Coping Styles and PTSD…

  16. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This column features summaries of five research articles relevant to school crisis response. The first, "High School Teachers' Experiences With Suicidal Students," summarized by Robyn Bratica, offers the results of a study examining high school teachers' experiences with suicidal students and suggests that contact with suicidal students is very…

  17. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three recent crisis management publications: (1) "The Impact of School Violence on School Personnel," summarized by Kimberly de Deaux; (2) "Children Exposed to War/Terrorism," summarized by Jennifer DeFago; and (3) "Suicide Survivors Seeking Mental Health Services," summarized by Kimberly de Deaux. The first…

  18. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    In this column, members of the NASP Crisis Management in the Schools Interest Group provide summaries of three studies relevant to school crisis response. The first study investigated the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among rescue workers. The second article explored the Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention, which is…

  19. Astrometric Telescope Facility preliminary systems definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobeck, Charlie

    1987-03-01

    The Astrometric Telescope Facility (ATF) is a spaceborne observatory proposed for use on the Space Station (SS) as an Initial Operating Capability (IOC) payload. The primary objective of the ATF will be the search for extrasolar planetary systems and a detailed investigation of any discovered systems. In addition, it will have the capability of conducting other astrophysics investigations; e.g., measuring precise distances and motions of stars within our galaxy. The purposes of the study were to: (1) define mission and system requirements; (2) define a strawman system concept for the facility at the Prephase A level; (3) define the need for additional trade studies or technology development; and (4) estimate program cost for the strawman concept. It has been assumed for the study that the ATF will be a SS payload, will use a SS-provided Coarse Pointing System (CPS), will meet SS constraints, and will make maximum use of existing flight qualified designs or designs to be qualified by the SS program for general SS use.

  20. Orbital transfer vehicle concept definition and system analysis study: Volume 1, Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Dickman, G.J.

    1986-02-01

    The NASA sponsored, advanced upper stage studies conducted during the past decade will provide major solutions to help determine the future program for advanced technology orbital transfer vehicles operating both from the ground and from a space base. The space based systems will provide a new era of payload delivery capabilities for a wide variety of users, with space basing advantages and new economics for the users. This study describes the recommended cryogenic Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) operating from the ground to meet mid 1990s user needs. The ground based OTV evolves to a space based system operating from the NASA Space station now being defined. The proposed OTV plan incorporates the best features of a new OTV, the Initial Operational Capability (IOC) and growth Space Station, the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) for support operations, and the Space Transportation System (STS) expanded with the multipurpose external tank Aft Cargo Carrier (ACC) as a logistics system. The ACC provides launch cargo space to augment the Shuttle bay volume and supports an STS propellant scavenging system.

  1. Comprehensively Advance Reform of the Urban Housing System Opinion. [Summary 1991].

    PubMed

    1992-02-27

    On 31 December 1991, the Chinese State Council Housing System Reform Leading Group announced this Opinion, setting out targets, principles, and policies for the reform of the system of provisional housing in urban areas. Section 1 of the Opinion provides that the long-term goal of reform is to convert the distribution of housing from a system based on welfare allocation to one based on commodity exchange either by purchase or rental. Section 2 sets the following targets for reform: a) within the period of the Eighth Five-Year Plan, the system will be converted from one of low rent to one in which the calculation of rent will be based on cost of upkeep, administration costs, and depreciation; b) by 2000, the calculation of rent will be based on the above factors, as well as interest on investment and property taxes; and c) in the long term, the calculation of rent will be based on all of the above factors, as well as land rent, insurance premiums, and profit. Section 4 deals with policies for managing various problems such as rent increases and subsidies, sales of housing, financing for housing, the system of investment in and construction of housing, and administration of housing. This Section provides that a three-level housing investment fund based on municipalities, work units, and individuals will be established.

  2. Astrometric Telescope Facility preliminary systems definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobeck, Charlie

    1987-01-01

    The Astrometric Telescope Facility (ATF) is a spaceborne observatory proposed for use on the Space Station (SS) as an Initial Operating Capability (IOC) payload. The primary objective of the ATF will be the search for extrasolar planetary systems and a detailed investigation of any discovered systems. In addition, it will have the capability of conducting other astrophysics investigations; e.g., measuring precise distances and motions of stars within our galaxy. The purposes of the study were to: (1) define mission and system requirements; (2) define a strawman system concept for the facility at the Prephase A level; (3) define the need for additional trade studies or technology development; and (4) estimate program cost for the strawman concept. It has been assumed for the study that the ATF will be a SS payload, will use a SS-provided Coarse Pointing System (CPS), will meet SS constraints, and will make maximum use of existing flight qualified designs or designs to be qualified by the SS program for general SS use.

  3. A Technology Roadmap for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    2003-03-01

    To meet future energy needs, ten countries--Argentina, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Republic of South Africa, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States--have agreed on a framework for international cooperation in research for an advanced generation of nuclear energy systems, known as Generation IV. These ten countries have joined together to form the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) to develop future-generation nuclear energy systems that can be licensed, constructed, and operated in a manner that will provide competitively priced and reliable energy products while satisfactorily addressing nuclear safety, waste, proliferation, and public perception concerns. The objective for Generation IV nuclear energy systems is to be available for international deployment before the year 2030, when many of the world's currently operating nuclear power plants will be at or near the end of their operating licenses.

  4. BOA II: Asbestos Pipe-Insulation Removal Robot System. Innovative Technology Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect

    2001-09-01

    The objective of this task is to develop and demonstrate a mechanical, asbestos-removal system that can be remotely operated without a containment area. The technology, known as BOA, consists of a pipe-crawler removal head and a boom vehicle system with dual robots. BOA's removal head can be remotely placed on the outside of the pipe and can crawl along the pipe, removing lagging and insulation. The lagging and insulation is cut using a hybrid endmill water-jet cutter and then diced into 2-inch cube sections of ACM. These ACM sections are then removed from the pipe using a set of blasting fan- spray nozzles, vacuumed off through a vacuum hose, and bagged. Careful attention to vacuum and entrapment air flow ensures that the system can operate without a containment area while meeting local and federal standards for fiber count.

  5. Orbital Spacecraft Consumables Resupply System (OSCRS). Volume 4: Extended study results Part 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The objectives consisted of three major tasks. The first was to establish the definition of Space Station and Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) user requirements and interfaces and to evaluate system requirements of a water tanker to be used at the station. The second task is to conduct trade studies of system requirements, hardware/software, and operations to evaluate the effect of automatic operation at the station or remote from the station in consonance with the OMV. The last task is to evaluate automatic refueling concepts and to evaluate the impact to Orbital Spacecraft Consumable Resupply System (OSCRS) concept/design to use expendable launch vehicles (ELV) to place the tank into orbit. Progress in each area is discussed.

  6. SPS susceptible-system cost factors investment summary and mitigation-cost-increment estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, E L

    1980-05-01

    The Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) evaluation program supporting the SPS Concept Development Evaluation Phase has included examinations of the degradation in capability of all susceptible communications and electronic systems that could be exposed to SPS emissions, the development and testing of mitigation techniques to allow operation in the SPS environment, and the development of total investment and mitigation cost data. Mitigation costs relate only to the modification or reconfiguration of susceptible systems; redeployment being a possible consideration for rectenna siting exercises during the SPS Engineering Development Phase. An extensive survey is summarized regarding the current and planned facilities using the equipment categories listed: microwave communications; radar systems; sensors; computers; medical equipment; and research support. Current investment, future plans, and mitigation costs are presented, with geographic distribution in six CONUS areas.

  7. Space Shuttle 2 Advanced Space Transportation System. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adinaro, James N.; Benefield, Philip A.; Johnson, Shelby D.; Knight, Lisa K.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation into the feasibility of establishing a second generation space transportation system is summarized. Incorporating successful systems from the Space Shuttle and technological advances made since its conception, the second generation shuttle was designed to be a lower-cost, reliable system which would guarantee access to space well into the next century. A fully reusable, all-liquid propellant booster/orbiter combination using parallel burn was selected as the base configuration. Vehicle characteristics were determined from NASA ground rules and optimization evaluations. The launch profile was constructed from particulars of the vehicle design and known orbital requirements. A stability and control analysis was performed for the landing phase of the orbiter's flight. Finally, a preliminary safety analysis was performed to indicate possible failure modes and consequences.

  8. Space Station Mission Planning System (MPS) development study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klus, W. J.

    1987-01-01

    The basic objective of the Space Station (SS) Mission Planning System (MPS) Development Study was to define a baseline Space Station mission plan and the associated hardware and software requirements for the system. A detailed definition of the Spacelab (SL) payload mission planning process and SL Mission Integration Planning System (MIPS) software was derived. A baseline concept was developed for performing SS manned base payload mission planning, and it was consistent with current Space Station design/operations concepts and philosophies. The SS MPS software requirements were defined. Also, requirements for new software include candidate programs for the application of artificial intelligence techniques to capture and make more effective use of mission planning expertise. A SS MPS Software Development Plan was developed which phases efforts for the development software to implement the SS mission planning concept.

  9. Technology requirements for advanced earth orbital transportation systems. Volume 3: Summary report - dual mode propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, A. K.; Bangsund, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    The impact of dual-mode propulsion on cost-effective technology requirements for advanced earth-orbital transportation systems is considered. Additional objectives were to determine the advantages of the best dual mode concept relative to the LO2/LH2 concept of the basic study. Normal technology requirements applicable to horizontal take-off and landing single-stage-to-orbit systems utilizing dual mode rocket propulsion were projected to the 1985 time period. These technology projections were then incorporated in a vehicle parametric design analysis for two different operational concepts of a dual mode propulsion system. The resultant performance, weights and costs of each concept were compared. The selected propulsion concept was evaluated to confirm the parametric trending/scaling of weights and to optimize the configuration.

  10. Intelligent vehicle highway systems strategic deployment plan for Metropolitan Boston. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes a strategic plan developed by the Massachusetts Executive Office of Transportation and Construction (EOTC) and the Massachusetts Highway Department (MHD) for implementing an Intelligent Vehicle-Highway System (IVHS) throughout metropolitan Boston during the next decade. The strategic deployment plan covers specific roadway and transit networks; and identifies the user services and functions to be provided, the overall system architecture, the supporting technologies and strategies, the operations and maintenance requirements, the implementation priorities, and the associated costs and benefits. This report is comprised of numerous exhibits, appendices, and the following thirteen chapters: (1) Introduction, (2) Existing Conditions, (3) IVHS Functions, (4) Regional Architecture, (5) Surveillance, (6) Incident Management, (7) Traveler Interface, (8) Demand Management, (9) Communications, (10) Central Hardware and Software, (11) Control Center, (12) Operations and Maintenance, and (13) System Implementation Costs.

  11. Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS) hardware development. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    While, D. M.

    1983-01-01

    Hardware development of the Shuttle Entry Data System (SEADS) is described. The system consists of an array of fourteen pressure ports, installed in an Orbiter nose cap, which, when coupled with existing fuselage mounted static pressure ports permits computation of entry flight parameters. Elements of the system that are described include the following: (1) penetration assemblies to place pressure port openings at the surface of the nose cap; (2) pressure tubes to transmit the surface pressure to transducers; (3) support posts or manifolds to provide support for, and reduce the length of, the individual pressure tubes; (4) insulation for the manifolds; and (5) a SEADS nose cap. Design, analyses, and tests to develop and certify design for flight are described. Specific tests include plasma arc exposure, radiant thermal, vibration, and structural. Volume one summarizes highlights of the program, particularly as they relate to the final design of SEADS. Volume two summarizes all of the Vought responsible activities in essentially a chronological order.

  12. Electromagnetic pulse research on electric power systems: Program summary and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; McConnell, B.W.; Van Dyke, J.W. ); Tesche, F.M. , Dallas, TX ); Vance, E.F. , Fort Worth, TX )

    1993-01-01

    A single nuclear detonation several hundred kilometers above the central United States will subject much of the nation to a high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (BENT). This pulse consists of an intense steep-front, short-duration transient electromagnetic field, followed by a geomagnetic disturbance with tens of seconds duration. This latter environment is referred to as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (NMENT). Both the early-time transient and the geomagnetic disturbance could impact the operation of the nation's power systems. Since 1983, the US Department of Energy has been actively pursuing a research program to assess the potential impacts of one or more BENT events on the nation's electric energy supply. This report summarizes the results of that program and provides recommendations for enhancing power system reliability under HENT conditions. A nominal HENP environment suitable for assessing geographically large systems was developed during the program and is briefly described in this report. This environment was used to provide a realistic indication of BEMP impacts on electric power systems. It was found that a single high-altitude burst, which could significantly disturb the geomagnetic field, may cause the interconnected power network to break up into utility islands with massive power failures in some areas. However, permanent damage would be isolated, and restoration should be possible within a few hours. Multiple bursts would likely increase the blackout areas, component failures, and restoration time. However, a long-term blackout of many months is unlikely because major power system components, such as transformers, are not likely to be damaged by the nominal HEND environment. Moreover, power system reliability, under both HENT and normal operating conditions, can be enhanced by simple, and often low cost, modifications to current utility practices.

  13. Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) System for Horizontal Tanks. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    2001-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleaning and closing over 300 small and large underground tanks across the DOE complex that are used for storing over 1-million gal of high- and low-level radioactive and mixed waste (HLW, LLW, and MLLW). The contents of these aging tanks must be sampled to analyze for contaminants to determine final disposition of the tank and its contents. Access to these tanks is limited to small-diameter risers that allow for sample collection at only one discrete point below this opening. To collect a more representative sample without exposing workers to tank interiors, a remote-controlled retrieval method must be used. Many of the storage tanks have access penetrations that are 18 in. in diameter and, therefore, are not suitable for deployment of large vehicle systems like the Houdini (DOE/EM-0363). Often, the tanks offer minimal headspace and are so cluttered with pipes and other vertical obstructions that deployment of long-reach manipulators becomes an impractical option. A smaller vehicle system is needed that can deploy waste retrieval, sampling, and inspection tools into these tanks. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), along with ROV Technologies, Inc., and The Providence Group, Inc., (Providence) has developed the Scarab III remotely operated vehicle system to meet this need. The system also includes a containment and deployment structure and a jet pump-based, waste-dislodging and conveyance system to use in these limited-access tanks. The Scarab III robot addresses the need for a vehicle-based, rugged, remote-controlled system for collection of representative samples of tank contents. This document contains information on the above-mentioned technology, including description, applicability, cost, and performance data.

  14. Geothermal direct applications hardware systems development and testing. 1979 summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.G.

    1980-03-01

    Activities performed during calendar year 1979 for the hardware system development and testing task are presented. The fluidized bed technology was applied to the drying of potato by-products and to the exchange of heat to air in the space heating experiment. Geothermal water was flashed to steam and also used as the prime energy source in the steam distillation of peppermint oil. Geothermal water temperatures as low as 112.8/sup 0/C were utilized to distill alcohol from sugar beet juice, and lower temperature water provided air conditioning through an absorption air conditioning system. These experiments are discussed.

  15. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Results of a three phase study of the Solar Power Satellite System are summarized. Various options and alternate systems were considered and the following conclusions were reached: antenna mounted solid state transmitters are potentially as cost effective as the klystron approach, althrough limited to 2500 megawatts net output; the free electron laser and optical diode laser appear most promising for laser power transmission; ground antenna siting need not be restricted to below 35 degrees of latitude; and nonrecurring cost reductions attainable by using a smaller Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle are highly attractive.

  16. Summary of results from the testing of three prototype thermal bus systems for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, T. K.

    1990-01-01

    Three Space Station Freedom (SSF) prototype two-phase thermal bus systems, utilizing ammonia as the working fluid, underwent extensive evaluation during 1988 and 1989. All three test articles were exercised in a similar ambient test program to characterize performance under simulated SSF operating conditions. Additionally, thermal buses were integrated with heat pipe radiators and tested in a thermal vacuum (T/V) environment. Testing has shown that two-phase thermal bus performance can be generally bound in an ambient test program; however, integrated T/V testing with heat pipe radiators similar to those that will be used on SSF is required to fully characterize system performance.

  17. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study, exhibit C. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently conducting an evaluation of approaches to provide energy to meet demands in the post-2000 time period. The Satellite Power System (SPS) is a candidate for producing significant quantities of base-load power using solar energy as the source. The SPS concept is illustrated for a solar photovoltaic concept. A satellite, located at geosynchronous orbit, converts solar energy to dc electrical energy using large solar arrays. This study is a continuing effort to provide system definition data to aid in the evaluation of the SPS concept.

  18. Resource Allocation Support System (RASS): Summary report of the 1992 pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Buehring, W.A.; Whitfield, R.G.; Wolsko, T.D.; Kier, P.H.; Absil, M.J.G.; Jusko, M.J.; Sapinski, P.F.

    1993-02-01

    The Resource Allocation Support System (RASS) is a decision-aiding system being developed to assist the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Waste Management in program and budget decision making. Four pilot studies were conducted at DOE field offices in summer 1992 to evaluate and improve the RASS design. This report summarizes the combined results of the individual field office pilot studies. Results are presented from different perspectives to illustrate the type of information that would be available from RASS. Lessons learned and directions for future RASS developments are also presented.

  19. Space station systems technology study (add-on task). Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    System concepts were characterized in order to define cost versus benefits for autonomous functional control and for controls and displays for OMV, OTV, and spacecraft servicing and operation. The attitude control topic focused on characterizing the Space Station attitude control problem through simulation of control system responses to structural disturbances. The first two topics, mentioned above, focused on specific technology items that require advancement in order to support an early 1990s initial launch of a Space Station, while the attitude control study was an exploration of the capability of conventional controller techniques.

  20. Evaluation of laminar flow control systems for subsonic commercial transport aircraft: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearce, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    An evaluation was made of laminar flow control (LFC) system concepts for subsonic commercial transport aircraft. Configuration design studies, performance analyses, fabrication development, structural testing, wind tunnel testing, and contamination-avoidance techniques were included. As a result of trade studies, a configuration with LFC on the upper wing surface only, utilizing an electron beam-perforated suction surface, and employing a retractable high-lift shield for contamination avoidance, was selected as the most practical LFC system. The LFC aircraft was then compared with an advanced turbulent aircraft designed for the same mission. This comparison indicated significant fuel savings.

  1. Waste Crate and Container Imaging Using the Vehicle and Cargo Inspection System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    2000-07-01

    The Vehicle and Cargo Inspection System (VACIS) is a highly penetrating gamma ray imaging system that provides a means to non-invasively image crate contents prior to crate disassembly. The VACIS unit uses a 1.6 Curie collimated source (Cesium-137) aimed at a linear detector to create an image as the unit passes by the crate. In the demonstrated mobile unit, the source and detector were mounted on a boom truck. As the crate passed between the source and detector, a near real-time composite image of the contents was constructed from the linear image of the VACIS unit's on board computer and recorded on disk.

  2. Solar envelope concepts: moderate density building applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, R. L.; Berry, R. D.

    1980-04-01

    The public policy mechanism for guaranteeing solar access is conceptualized as a solar zoning envelope that allows the largest possible building bulk on a land parcel without shadowing neighboring properties during specified times. Step-by-step methods for generating solar envelopes are described with extensive drawings, showing a variety of urban platting and lot configurations. Development and design possibilities are examined on a selected set of Los Angeles sites with typically diverse urban characteristics. Envelope attributes suitable for encouraging moderate-density commercial and residential building are examined in the context of two hypothetical but realistic development programs: one for speculative office buildings and one for condominium housing. Numerous illustrations of envelope forms and prototypical building designs are provided.

  3. Personnel occupied woven envelope robot power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, F. C.

    1988-01-01

    The Personnel Occupied Woven Envelope Robot (POWER) concept has evolved over the course of the study. The goal of the project was the development of methods and algorithms for solid modeling for the flexible robot arm.

  4. Methodologies for Adaptive Flight Envelope Estimation and Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Liang; Roemer, Michael; Ge, Jianhua; Crassidis, Agamemnon; Prasad, J. V. R.; Belcastro, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the latest development of several techniques for adaptive flight envelope estimation and protection system for aircraft under damage upset conditions. Through the integration of advanced fault detection algorithms, real-time system identification of the damage/faulted aircraft and flight envelop estimation, real-time decision support can be executed autonomously for improving damage tolerance and flight recoverability. Particularly, a bank of adaptive nonlinear fault detection and isolation estimators were developed for flight control actuator faults; a real-time system identification method was developed for assessing the dynamics and performance limitation of impaired aircraft; online learning neural networks were used to approximate selected aircraft dynamics which were then inverted to estimate command margins. As off-line training of network weights is not required, the method has the advantage of adapting to varying flight conditions and different vehicle configurations. The key benefit of the envelope estimation and protection system is that it allows the aircraft to fly close to its limit boundary by constantly updating the controller command limits during flight. The developed techniques were demonstrated on NASA s Generic Transport Model (GTM) simulation environments with simulated actuator faults. Simulation results and remarks on future work are presented.

  5. Preliminary winter results in the thermal envelope concept test room

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B.; Hollingsworth, E.; Holmes, W.; Maloney, J.; Pedersen, K.; Sash, R.; Thorp, J.; Wang, M.

    1980-01-01

    Within the passive solar energy field few passive techniques have caught the imagination and the attention of the public as has the continuous thermal envelope (CTE) concept. The Tom Smith residence located in Lake Tahoe has been the center of attention of a number of popular magazines. Yet despite the widespread public interest not a great deal is known concerning the actual technical performance of continuous thermal envelope systems, that is until now. Just such a CTE test room was erected during the spring and summer of 1979 at the Passive Solar Energy Test Facility located on the Omaha campus of the University of Nebraska. The CTE system has been undergoing testing since November of 1979. The CTE test room is heavily instrumented with temperature sensors and air flow meters which are located throughout, around, and under the structure. There are nearly one hundred such sensors. The results of these preliminary experiments are presented.

  6. Orbital transfer vehicle concept definition and system analysis study. Volume 1A: Executive summary. Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ketchum, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the Phase 2 study were to improve the orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) concept definition by focusing on the following issues: the impact of mission requirements on OTV system design; OTV basing concepts on the Space Shuttle, separate platforms, and/or remote locations; cost reduction of an OTV program to improve its economic benefits and support its acquisition. The OTV mission scenario includes a wide range of missions the main drivers of which are manned GEO servicing, mid-inclination/polar DOD, and lunar/planetary projects. A mission model is presented which includes the type and number of missions per year and the estimated propellant requirements. To accomplish the missions, many OTV concepts were defined including ground-based OTVs launched either in the STS orbiter, the aft cargo carrier, or a heavy lift launch vehicle, and a space-based OTV. System and program trade studies were conducted using performance, cost, safety/risk, and operations/growth criteria. The study shows that mission requirements and substantial economic benefits justify a reusable, cryogenic (H2/O2) space-based OTV. Such a system would not be subjected to Earth-to-orbit launch loads and would not be constained in size or weight. Safety is enhanced by the fact that the system components are launched unfueled. Its inherent reusability and ability to be refueled in space make the space-based OTV very economical to operate.

  7. Solar power satellite: System definition study. Part 1, volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A study of the solar power satellite system, which represents a means of tapping baseload electric utility power from the sun on a large scale, was summarized. Study objectives, approach, and planning are presented along with an energy conversion evaluation. Basic requirements were considered in regard to space transportation, construction, and maintainability.

  8. Options for Improving the Military Child Care System. Occasional Paper Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellman, Gail L.; Gates, Susan M.; Cho, Michelle; Shaw, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This document summarizes a report that questions whether the current U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) system of in-kind subsidies for child care is meeting DoD recruitment, readiness, and retention goals or service member needs in an optimal way. DoD appears to be reaping limited benefits from the substantial subsidies provided to families that…

  9. PLATO User's Memo, Number One: Summary of TUTOR Commands and System Variables. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avner, Elaine

    Requiring a knowledge of the PLATO system and a command of the TUTOR language, this manual describes the format and the restrictions for the following TUTOR operations: (1) calculations; (2) data keeping; (3) judging responses; (4) presenting; (5) routing; and (6) sequencing. Within each section, relevant commands are defined, and restrictions are…

  10. Mission Information and Test Systems Summary of Accomplishments, 2012-2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMorrow, Sean; Sherrard, Roberta; Gibbs, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    This annual report covers the activities of the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center's Mission Information and Test Systems directorate, which include the Western Aeronautical Test Range (Range Engineering and Range Operations), the Simulation Engineering Branch, and Information Services. This report contains highlights, current projects, and various awards achieved throughout 2012 and 2013.

  11. Market capture by 30/20 GHz satellite systems. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, R. B.; Saporta, L.

    1981-01-01

    Demand for 30/20 GHz satellite systems over the next two decades is projected. Topics include a profile of the communications market, switched, dedicated, and packet transmission modes, deferred and real-time traffic, quality and reliability considerations, the capacity of competing transmission media, and scenarios for the growth and development of 30/20 GHz satellite communications.

  12. Implementation of the Head Start National Reporting System: Spring 2005 Update. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsell, Diane; Gordon, Anne; Nogales, Renee; Del Grosso, Patricia; Sprachman, Susan; Tarullo, Louisa

    2006-01-01

    In fall 2003, the Head Start Bureau began implementing the Head Start National Reporting System (NRS) to systematically assess the early literacy, language and numeracy skills of all 4- and 5-year-olds enrolled in Head Start. In addition to child progression on a designated set of outcomes during the year preceding kindergarten, the data will…

  13. Technology assessment of future intercity passenger transporation systems. Volume 1: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Technical, economic, environmental, and sociopolitical issues associated with future intercity transportation system options were assured. Technology assessment was used as a tool to assist in the identification of basic research and technology development tasks that should be undertaken. The emphasis was on domestic passenger transportation, but interfaces with freight and international transportation were considered.

  14. ATS-6 engineering performance report. Volume:Program and systems summaries: Mechanical and thermal details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wales, R. O. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The overall mission and spacecraft systems, testing, and operations are summarized. The mechanical subsystems are reviewed, encompassing mechanical design requirements; separation and deployment mechanisms; design and performance evaluation; and the television camera reflector monitor. Thermal control and contamination are discussed in terms of thermal control subsystems, design validation, subsystems performance, the advanced flight experiment, and the quartz-crystal microbalance contamination monitor.

  15. Summary and Final Recommendations of the University System of Georgia's African-American Male Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ. System, Atlanta. Board of Regents.

    In 2000, the University System of Georgia (USG) verified that USG institutions enrolled a low percentage of African American males in comparison with the percentage of African American males in the state's population. In 2001, the USG developed a special funding initiative to conduct a study of barriers to the participation of African American…

  16. School-Based Teacher-Led Assessment and Reporting System: A Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Nebraska's approach to standards, assessment, and accountability: School-based Teacher-led Assessment and Reporting System (STARS) is firmly grounded in the belief that decisions about student learning should be standards-based and should be based upon classroom knowledge of the student. This process relies upon the professional expertise of…

  17. Space station automation study. Volume 1: Executive summary. Autonomous systems and assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The space station automation study (SSAS) was to develop informed technical guidance for NASA personnel in the use of autonomy and autonomous systems to implement space station functions. The initial step taken by NASA in organizing the SSAS was to form and convene a panel of recognized expert technologists in automation, space sciences and aerospace engineering to produce a space station automation plan.

  18. Determining What Works for Girls in the Juvenile Justice System: A Summary of Evaluation Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahn, Margaret A.; Day, Jacob C.; Mihalic, Sharon F.; Tichavsky, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Despite increasing attention on gender-specific programming for girls involved in the juvenile justice system, not much is known about the effectiveness of gender-specific programs. The authors review the evidence base for the effectiveness of programs for girls in custody or under supervision by examining the evaluation evidence for nine…

  19. Usage Patterns and Perceptions of the Achievement Reporting and Innovation System (ARIS). Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Thomas; Lent, Jessica; Cole, Rachel; Kemple, James; Nathanson, Lori; Brand, Janet

    2012-01-01

    The federal government, states, school districts, and private foundations are investing hundreds of millions of dollars in educational data management systems. The hope for these investments is that providing better information to teachers and administrators, particularly student performance data, will support school-wide planning, inform…

  20. Photovoltaic applications definition and photovoltaic system definition study in the agricultural sector. Volume I. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mengel, R.W.; Nadolski, T.P.; Sparks, D.C.; Young, S.K.; Yingst, A.

    1980-05-01

    Study results of identification and characterization of agricultural energy demands that can effectively use photovoltaic power systems, conceptual designs and performance analysis for selected applications, and conclusions and recommendations are presented. This volume presents an overview of the project results, the technical work accomplished, and the approach taken to achieve the project objectives. (WHK)

  1. PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY SELECTION SUMMARY DECISION REPORT AND RECOMMENDATION

    SciTech Connect

    CONRAD EA

    2008-08-12

    This report provides the conclusions of the tank farm interim pretreatment technology decision process. It documents the methodology, data, and results of the selection of cross-flow filtration and ion exchange technologies for implementation in project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This selection resulted from the evaluation of specific scope criteria using quantitative and qualitative analyses, group workshops, and technical expert personnel.

  2. Space Station Systems Analysis Study. Volume 1: Executive summary, part 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The elements of space station programs required to support an operational base theme, a space laboratory theme, and advanced missions relatable to public needs/national interests are defined. Missions satisfying the foregoing requirements are identified, program scenarios/options are established. System options are evaluated for a selected number of program options. Subsystem analysis and programmatic comparisons are performed for selected primary concepts.

  3. The 18/30 GHz fixed communications system service demand assessment. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriszeski, T.; Reiner, P.; Rogers, J.; Terbo, W.

    1979-01-01

    The total demand for voice, video, and data communications services, and satellite transmission services at the 4/6 GHz, 12/14 GHz, and 18/30 GHz frequencies is discussed. Major study objectives, overall methodology, results, and general observations about a satellite systems market characteristics and trends are summarized.

  4. Survival of an Enveloped Virus on Toys.

    PubMed

    Bearden, Richard L; Casanova, Lisa M

    2016-08-01

    Children's toys may carry respiratory viruses. Inactivation of a lipid-enveloped bacteriophage, Φ6, was measured on a nonporous toy at indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH). Inactivation was approximately 2log10 after 24 hours at 60% RH and 6.8log10 at 10 hours at 40% RH. Enveloped viruses can potentially survive on toys long enough to result in exposures. PMID:27144972

  5. Creating a Lunar EVA Work Envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brand N.; Howard, Robert; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Smitherman, David

    2009-01-01

    A work envelope has been defined for weightless Extravehicular Activity (EVA) based on the Space Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), but there is no equivalent for planetary operations. The weightless work envelope is essential for planning all EVA tasks because it determines the location of removable parts, making sure they are within reach and visibility of the suited crew member. In addition, using the envelope positions the structural hard points for foot restraints that allow placing both hands on the job and provides a load path for reacting forces. EVA operations are always constrained by time. Tasks are carefully planned to ensure the crew has enough breathing oxygen, cooling water, and battery power. Planning first involves computers using a virtual work envelope to model tasks, next suited crew members in a simulated environment refine the tasks. For weightless operations, this process is well developed, but planetary EVA is different and no work envelope has been defined. The primary difference between weightless and planetary work envelopes is gravity. It influences anthropometry, horizontal and vertical mobility, and reaction load paths and introduces effort into doing "overhead" work. Additionally, the use of spacesuits other than the EMU, and their impacts on range of motion, must be taken into account. This paper presents the analysis leading to a concept for a planetary EVA work envelope with emphasis on lunar operations. There is some urgency in creating this concept because NASA has begun building and testing development hardware for the lunar surface, including rovers, habitats and cargo off-loading equipment. Just as with microgravity operations, a lunar EVA work envelope is needed to guide designers in the formative stages of the program with the objective of avoiding difficult and costly rework.

  6. Cooling of neutron stars with diffusive envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beznogov, M. V.; Fortin, M.; Haensel, P.; Yakovlev, D. G.; Zdunik, J. L.

    2016-08-01

    We study the effects of heat blanketing envelopes of neutron stars on their cooling. To this aim, we perform cooling simulations using newly constructed models of the envelopes composed of binary ion mixtures (H-He, He-C, C-Fe) varying the mass of lighter ions (H, He or C) in the envelope. The results are compared with those calculated using the standard models of the envelopes which contain the layers of lighter (accreted) elements (H, He and C) on top of the Fe layer, varying the mass of accreted elements. The main effect is that the chemical composition of the envelopes influences their thermal conductivity and, hence, thermal insulation of the star. For illustration, we apply these results to estimate the internal temperature of the Vela pulsar and to study the cooling of neutron stars of ages of 105 - 106 yr at the photon cooling stage. The uncertainties of the cooling models associated with our poor knowledge of chemical composition of the heat insulating envelopes strongly complicate theoretical reconstruction of the internal structure of cooling neutron stars from observations of their thermal surface emission.

  7. Genetic diversity of koala retroviral envelopes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenqin; Gorman, Kristen; Santiago, Jan Clement; Kluska, Kristen; Eiden, Maribeth V

    2015-03-01

    Genetic diversity, attributable to the low fidelity of reverse transcription, recombination and mutation, is an important feature of infectious retroviruses. Under selective pressure, such as that imposed by superinfection interference, gammaretroviruses commonly adapt their envelope proteins to use alternative receptors to overcome this entry block. The first characterized koala retroviruses KoRV subgroup A (KoRV-A) were remarkable in their absence of envelope genetic variability. Once it was determined that KoRV-A was present in all koalas in US zoos, regardless of their disease status, we sought to isolate a KoRV variant whose presence correlated with neoplastic malignancies. More than a decade after the identification of KoRV-A, we isolated a second subgroup of KoRV, KoRV-B from koalas with lymphomas. The envelope proteins of KoRV-A and KoRV-B are sufficiently divergent to confer the ability to bind and employ distinct receptors for infection. We have now obtained a number of additional KoRV envelope variants. In the present studies we report these variants, and show that they differ from KoRV-A and KoRV-B envelopes in their host range and superinfection interference properties. Thus, there appears to be considerable variation among KoRVs envelope genes suggesting genetic diversity is a factor following the KoRV-A infection process.

  8. Genetic diversity of koala retroviral envelopes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenqin; Gorman, Kristen; Santiago, Jan Clement; Kluska, Kristen; Eiden, Maribeth V

    2015-03-01

    Genetic diversity, attributable to the low fidelity of reverse transcription, recombination and mutation, is an important feature of infectious retroviruses. Under selective pressure, such as that imposed by superinfection interference, gammaretroviruses commonly adapt their envelope proteins to use alternative receptors to overcome this entry block. The first characterized koala retroviruses KoRV subgroup A (KoRV-A) were remarkable in their absence of envelope genetic variability. Once it was determined that KoRV-A was present in all koalas in US zoos, regardless of their disease status, we sought to isolate a KoRV variant whose presence correlated with neoplastic malignancies. More than a decade after the identification of KoRV-A, we isolated a second subgroup of KoRV, KoRV-B from koalas with lymphomas. The envelope proteins of KoRV-A and KoRV-B are sufficiently divergent to confer the ability to bind and employ distinct receptors for infection. We have now obtained a number of additional KoRV envelope variants. In the present studies we report these variants, and show that they differ from KoRV-A and KoRV-B envelopes in their host range and superinfection interference properties. Thus, there appears to be considerable variation among KoRVs envelope genes suggesting genetic diversity is a factor following the KoRV-A infection process. PMID:25789509

  9. Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program: Summary of 1983 progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapotosky, J.; Abromovage, M. M.; Enk, J. O.

    1984-07-01

    A long-term program for studying possible effects from operation of the Navy's ELF Communication System is being conducted on biota and ecosystems components in northwestern Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Sixteen general types of organisms from three major ecosystems in the ELF System are being examined. Formulation of an ELF Ecological Monitoring Program was completed in early 1982 by the Department of the Navy. Monitoring studies were selected through a peer-reviewed, competitive bidding process in mid-1982 and studies were initiated in the late summer. Major activities of the program during 1983 consisted of characterization of critical aspects of each study, collection of data to validate assumptions made in proposals, and selection of study sites. Progress is summarized for the 10 projects that comprise the Program.

  10. Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) communications system ecological monitoring program. Summary of 1984 progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapotosky, J. E.

    1985-07-01

    A long-term program is being conducted to monitor for possible effects from the operation of the U.S. Navy's ELF Communications System to resident biota and their ecological relationships. Monitoring studies were selected through a peer-reviewed, competitive bidding process in mid-1982; studies were initiated in late summer of that year. Currently, 16 general types of organisms from three major ecosystems in the ELF Communications System are being examined. During 1984, the Program continued and extended those major activities initiated in 1983, consisting of site selection, the characterization of critical study aspects, and, to a lesser degree, the validation of assumptions made in the original proposals. Progress is summarized for the 11 projects that comprise the Program as well as for the support activities of IIT Research Institute.

  11. Waste-heat research, development, demonstration and commercialization plan: Rankine-cycle bottoming systems. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Organic and binary Rankine cycle (ORC) technology as potentially broad applications in recovering and converting waste heat to the useful energy form of electricity. ORC systems are particularly suited for recovering medium-grade exhaust heat (200 to 1000/sup 0/F), a form of waste energy released primarily in the generation of electricity and in industrial processes. Therefore, a Waste Heat Research, Development, Demonstration and Commercialization Plan (RDD and C Plan) has been formulated. The objective of the plan is to achieve significant market penetration of ORC technology by 1985. To accomplish this commercialization objective, the plan is structured around three key strategic elements: demonstration of technically and economically attractive ORC systems that meet the specific needs of commercial waste heat markets; stimulation of the demand for ORC products in these markets; and promotion of the development of a competitive industry to serve ORC markets efficiently. The development of this plan and ERDA's role in its implementation are discussed.

  12. Program operational summary: Operational 90 day manned test of a regenerative life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, J. K.; Wamsley, J. R.; Bonura, M. S.; Seeman, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    An operational 90-day manned test of a regenerative life support system was successfully completed. This test was performed with a crew of four carefully selected and trained men in a space station simulator (SSS) which had a two gas atmosphere maintained at a total pressure of 68.9, 10 psia, and composed of oxygen at a partial pressure of 3.05 psia with nitrogen as the diluent. The test was planned to provide data on regenerative life support subsystems and on integrated system operations in a closed ecology, similar to that of a space station. All crew equipment and expendables were stored onboard at the start of the mission to eliminate the need for pass-in operations. The significant accomplishments of the test, some of the pertinent test results, some of the problem areas, and conclusions are presented.

  13. Orbital service module systems analysis study documentation. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Potentially feasible system concepts for providing additional power, thermal control, and attitude to the baseline orbiter were investigated in order to support a greater variety of space missions and to extend the orbiter's ability to remain in orbit. Results of these analyses include an incremental growth plan that offers the flexibility of adding capability as, and when, it is needed in order to satisfy emerging user requirements.

  14. Manned Mars System Study (MMSS): Mars transportation and facility study. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to design and analyze systems for conducting human missions to Mars and the moon, with special emphasis on the transportation and facility infrastructure. This study was conducted by Martin Marietta Astronautics Group, with an important teaming role by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). This work included the studies and separate reports of the FY-1988 and 1989 case studies as well as special analyses and parametric studies.

  15. Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system performance summary

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, T.; Muzio, L.J.; Smith, R.; Jones, D.; Hebb, J.L.; Stallings, J.

    1997-12-31

    The Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System was installed at Public Service Company of Colorado`s Arapahoe 4 generating station in 1992 in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). This full-scale 100 MWe demonstration combines low-NO{sub x} burners, overfire, air, and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) for NO{sub x} control and dry sorbent injection (DSI) with or without humidification for SO{sub 2} control. Operation and testing of the Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System began in August 1992 and will continue through 1996. Results of the NO{sub x} control technologies show that the original system goal of 70% NO{sub x} removal has been easily met and the combustion and SNCR systems can achieve NO{sub x} removals of up to 80% at full load. Duct injection of commercial calcium hydroxide has achieved a maximum SO{sub 2} removal of nearly 40% while humidifying the flue gas to a 20 F approach to saturation. Sodium-based dry sorbent injection has provided SO{sub 2} removal of over 70% without the occurrence of a visible NO{sub 2} plume. Recent test work has improved SNCR performance at low loads and has demonstrated that combined dry sodium injection and SNCR yields both lower NO{sub 2} levels and NH{sub 3} slip than either technology alone.

  16. SOFIA: Aircraft system, aft telescope cavity configuration, phase 2. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-02-01

    This volume summarizes the tasks performed by E-Systems during Phase 2 of a study evaluating the structural modifications required to install the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, SOFIA in the Boeing 747 airplane. An optimal structural modification concept for installation of the Infrared telescope is identified, and the concept is validated by analysis of the static and dynamic characteristics of the modified structure.

  17. Extraterrestrial processing and manufacturing of large space systems. Volume 3: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1979-01-01

    Facilities and equipment are defined for refining processes to commercial grade of lunar material that is delivered to a 'space manufacturing facility' in beneficiated, primary processed quality. The manufacturing facilities and the equipment for producing elements of large space systems from these materials and providing programmatic assessments of the concepts are also defined. In-space production processes of solar cells (by vapor deposition) and arrays, structures and joints, conduits, waveguides, RF equipment radiators, wire cables, converters, and others are described.

  18. Final design review summary report for the TN-WHC cask and transportation system

    SciTech Connect

    Kee, A.T.

    1997-01-17

    This document represents comments generated from a review of Transnuclear`s Final Design Package distributed on December 10, 1996 and a review of the Final Design Analysis Report meeting held on December 17 & 18, 1996. The Final design describes desicn features and presents final analyses @j performed to fabricate and operate the system while meeting the Cask/Transportation Functions and Requirements, WHC-SD-SNF-FRD-011, Rev. 0 and specification WHC-S-0396, Rev. 1.

  19. Summary results of an assessment of research projects in the superconductivity for electric power systems program

    SciTech Connect

    1992-10-01

    The Office of Program Analysis undertook an assessment of 37 research projects sponsored by the High Temperature Superconductivity Program. This report summarizes the results of the review. Rating factors included scientific and technical merit, mission relevance, appropriateness and level of innovation, quality of project team, productivity, and probable impact on the program`s mission. Some research needs and opportunities are described that were identified by the reviewers in the areas of wire development, deposited film technology, and systems development.

  20. Advanced Recyclable Media System{reg_sign}. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The objective of the Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory East`s (ANL) Chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Research Reactor. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that using innovative and improved deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources can result in significant benefits, such as decreased cost and increased health and safety, as compared with baseline D and D technologies. This report describes a demonstration of the Advanced Recyclable Media System{reg_sign} technology which was employed by Surface Technology Systems, Inc. to remove coatings from a concrete floor. This demonstration is part of the CP-5 LSDP sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The Advanced Recyclable Media System{reg_sign} (ARMS) technology is an open blast technology which uses a soft recyclable media. The patented ARMS Engineered Blast Media consists of a fiber-reinforced polymer matrix which can be manufactured in various grades of abrasiveness. The fiber media can be remade and/or reused up to 20 times and can clean almost any surface (e.g., metal, wood, concrete, lead) and geometry including corners and the inside of air ducts.

  1. Stanford 3D hyperthermia treatment planning system. Technical review and clinical summary.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, D M; Ben-Yosef, R; Kapp, D S

    1993-01-01

    In the field of deep regional hyperthermia cancer therapy the Sigma 60 applicator of the BSD-2000 Hyperthermia System is one of the most widely used devices. This device employs four independent sources of radiofrequency electromagnetic energy to heat tumour sites deep within the body. The difficulty in determining the input parameters for the four sources has motivated the development of a computer-based three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning system. The Stanford 3D Hyperthermia Treatment Planning System has been in clinical use at Stanford Medical Center for the past 2 years. It utilizes a patient-specific, three-dimensional computer simulation to determine safe and effective power deposition plans. An optimization programme for the selection of the amplitudes, phases and frequency for the sources has been developed and used in the clinic. Examples of the application of the treatment planning for hyperthermia treatment of pulmonary, pelvic, and mediastinal tumours are presented. Methods for quantifying the relative effectiveness of various treatment plans are reviewed.

  2. Summary Report for the Investigation and Performance of the IAAC Bell Jar Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect

    Bohne, William A.; Kramer, Donald C.

    1996-02-26

    Operations associated with the vacuum processing of the F-2 converter during the RTG assembly operation were initiated on February 16 and continued through February 18, 1996. During vacuum processing on February 17, pressures less than 1x10 sub -5 torr could not be attained as required by the procedure. Although pressure readings in the 10 sub -5 torr range were achieved, the pressure could not be sustained, pressure rose and became erratic. By February 18, 1996, no improvement in the vacuum was observed and it was speculated that there might be a leak in the system. A decision was subsequently made to initiate residual gas analyzer (RGA) scans of the bell jar atmosphere to determine whether the difficulties in achieving the required vacuum were the result of a leak in the system or the outgassing of the converter. The scans obtained revealed the presence of nitrogen, oxygen, and moisture, indicating potential air in-leakage, although various troubleshooting efforts did not reveal the location of any such leak. Subsequent troubleshooting and final replacement of the vacuum system are described.

  3. System cost/performance analysis (study 2.3). Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazangey, T.

    1973-01-01

    The relationships between performance, safety, cost, and schedule parameters were identified and quantified in support of an overall effort to generate program models and methodology that provide insight into a total space vehicle program. A specific space vehicle system, the attitude control system (ACS), was used, and a modeling methodology was selected that develops a consistent set of quantitative relationships among performance, safety, cost, and schedule, based on the characteristics of the components utilized in candidate mechanisms. These descriptive equations were developed for a three-axis, earth-pointing, mass expulsion ACS. A data base describing typical candidate ACS components was implemented, along with a computer program to perform sample calculations. This approach, implemented on a computer, is capable of determining the effect of a change in functional requirements to the ACS mechanization and the resulting cost and schedule. By a simple extension of this modeling methodology to the other systems in a space vehicle, a complete space vehicle model can be developed. Study results and recommendations are presented.

  4. Summary of Stirling Convertor Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center in Support of Stirling Radioisotope Power System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schifer, Nicholas A.; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been testing 100 We class, free-piston Stirling convertors for potential use in Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for space science and exploration missions. Free-piston Stirling convertors are capable of achieving a 38% conversion efficiency, making Stirling attractive for meeting future power system needs in light of the shrinking U.S. plutonium fuel supply. Convertors currently on test include four Stirling Technology Demonstration Convertors (TDCs), manufactured by the Stirling Technology Company (STC), and six Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs), manufactured by Sunpower, Inc. Total hours of operation is greater than 514,000 hours (59 years). Several tests have been initiated to demonstrate the functionality of Stirling convertors for space applications, including: in-air extended operation, thermal vacuum extended operation. Other tests have also been conducted to characterize Stirling performance in anticipated mission scenarios. Data collected during testing has been used to support life and reliability estimates, drive design changes and improve quality, and plan for expected mission scenarios. This paper will provide a summary of convertors tested at NASA GRC and discuss lessons learned through extended testing.

  5. Summary of the systems prioritization method as a decision-aiding method for the waste isolation pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Boak, D.M.; Prindle, N.H.; Lincoln, R.

    1996-12-01

    In March 1994, the U.S. Department of Energy Carlsbad Area Office (DOE/CAO) implemented a performance-based decision-aiding method to assist in programmatic prioritization within the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project with respect to applicable U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) long-term performance requirements in 40 CFR 191.13(a) (radionuclide containment requirements) and 40 CFR 268.6 (hazardous constituent concentration requirements). This method, the Systems Prioritization Method (SPM), was designed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to: (1) identify programmatic options (activities) and their costs and durations; (2) analyze combinations of activities (activity sets) in terms of their predicted contribution to long-term performance of the WIPP disposal system; and (3) analyze cost, duration, and performance tradeoffs. The results of the second iteration of SPM (SPM-2) were the basis for recommendations to DOE/CAO in May 1995 for programmatic prioritization within the WIPP project. This paper presents a summary of the SPM implementation, key results, and lessons learned.

  6. Summary of control and data acquisition systems for NOVA experiments (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, E. W.; Campbell, E. M.; Auerbach, J. M.; Montgomery, D. S.; Martin, V. A.; Randolph, J. E.; Shaw, J. G.; Stewart, B. L.; Stone, G. F.

    1986-08-01

    The NOVA laser has completed its first year of operation. During this period, emphasis has been placed on activation of the facility and of the numerous target and beam diagnostics. Two separate target chambers are in use. NOVA operation is separated into two broad functions: laser operations and experiments. The operations group provides the laser system control, operation, and data acquisition and the experiments group provides experiment definition, diagnostic instrumentation, and overall data processing. On the operations side, VAX 11/780 computers are used to set up diagnostic operating parameters and collect data recorded by the CAMAC and CCD modules. These data are delivered in files by electronic link to the Laser Experiments and Analysis Facility (LEAF) VAX 11/785 of the experiments group for processing. Film data are digitized at LEAF and the film data files are also processed on the LEAF VAX. The LEAF provides collection, processing, analysis, and archiving of the experimental data. The many applications software packages written for LEAF provide the experimental physicists and NOVA operations staff with programs and data bases for interpretation of experimental results. This software makes fundamental use of the ORACLE relational data base management system to both access the required data and archive the obtained results. Post-shot data processing produces sets of scalar values, x, y profiles and x, y, z contour data. The scalar data are stored in the ORACLE DB; the more extensive results are stored in binary files on disk. All data forms are accessed by a comprehensive software system, the electronic SHOTBOOK, developed around the ORACLE DBMS. This software also provides the means to archive relevant data about each experimental activity and allows the physicists to annotate displayed experimental results with technical comment.

  7. Comprehensive summary--Predict-IV: A systems toxicology approach to improve pharmaceutical drug safety testing.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Stefan O; Dekant, Wolfgang; Jennings, Paul; Testai, Emanuela; Bois, Frederic

    2015-12-25

    This special issue of Toxicology in Vitro is dedicated to disseminating the results of the EU-funded collaborative project "Profiling the toxicity of new drugs: a non animal-based approach integrating toxicodynamics and biokinetics" (Predict-IV; Grant 202222). The project's overall aim was to develop strategies to improve the assessment of drug safety in the early stage of development and late discovery phase, by an intelligent combination of non animal-based test systems, cell biology, mechanistic toxicology and in silico modeling, in a rapid and cost effective manner. This overview introduces the scope and overall achievements of Predict-IV. PMID:25450741

  8. Comprehensive summary--Predict-IV: A systems toxicology approach to improve pharmaceutical drug safety testing.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Stefan O; Dekant, Wolfgang; Jennings, Paul; Testai, Emanuela; Bois, Frederic

    2015-12-25

    This special issue of Toxicology in Vitro is dedicated to disseminating the results of the EU-funded collaborative project "Profiling the toxicity of new drugs: a non animal-based approach integrating toxicodynamics and biokinetics" (Predict-IV; Grant 202222). The project's overall aim was to develop strategies to improve the assessment of drug safety in the early stage of development and late discovery phase, by an intelligent combination of non animal-based test systems, cell biology, mechanistic toxicology and in silico modeling, in a rapid and cost effective manner. This overview introduces the scope and overall achievements of Predict-IV.

  9. Asymmetrical booster ascent guidance and control system design study. Volume 1: Summary. [space shuttle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, F. E.; Lemon, R. S.; Jaggers, R. F.; Wilson, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    Dynamics and control, stability, and guidance analyses are summarized for the asymmetrical booster ascent guidance and control system design studies, performed in conjunction with space shuttle planning. The mathematical models developed for use in rigid body and flexible body versions of the NASA JSC space shuttle functional simulator are briefly discussed, along with information on the following: (1) space shuttle stability analysis using equations of motion for both pitch and lateral axes; (2) the computer program used to obtain stability margin; and (3) the guidance equations developed for the space shuttle powered flight phases.

  10. Advanced space system concepts and their orbital support needs (1980 - 2000). Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekey, I.; Mayer, H. L.; Wolfe, M. G.

    1976-01-01

    The likely system concepts which might be representative of NASA and DoD space programs in the 1980-2000 time period were studied along with the programs' likely needs for major space transportation vehicles, orbital support vehicles, and technology developments which could be shared by the military and civilian space establishments in that time period. Such needs could then be used by NASA as an input in determining the nature of its long-range development plan. The approach used was to develop a list of possible space system concepts (initiatives) in parallel with a list of needs based on consideration of the likely environments and goals of the future. The two lists thus obtained represented what could be done, regardless of need; and what should be done, regardless of capability, respectively. A set of development program plans for space application concepts was then assembled, matching needs against capabilities, and the requirements of the space concepts for support vehicles, transportation, and technology were extracted. The process was pursued in parallel for likely military and civilian programs, and the common support needs thus identified.

  11. Small-wind-systems application analysis. Technical report and executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-06-01

    A small wind energy conversion systems (SWECS) analysis was conducted to estimate the potential market for SWEC, or wind machines smaller than 100 kW for five selected applications. The goals were to aid manufacturers in attaining financing by convincing venture capital investors of the potential of SWECS and to aid government planners in allocating R and D expenditures that will effectively advance SWECS commercialization. Based on these goals, the study: (1) provides a basis for assisting the DOE in planning R and D programs that will advance the state of SWECS industry; (2) quantifies estimates of market size vs. installed system cost to enable industry to plan expansion of capacity and product lines; (3) identifies marketing strategies for industry to use in attaining financing from investors and in achieving sales goals; and (4) provides DOE with data that will assist in determining actions, incentives, and/or legislation required to achieve a commercially viable SWECS industry. The five applications were selected through an initial screening and priority-ranking analysis. The year of analysis was 1985, but all dollar amounts, such as fuel costs, are expressed in 1980 dollars. The five SWECS applications investigated were farm residences, non-farm residences, rural electric cooperatives, feed grinders, and remote communities.

  12. Study of auxiliary propulsion requirements for large space systems. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. W.; Machles, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    An insight into auxiliary propulsion systems (APS) requirements for large space systems (LSS) launchable by a single shuttle is presented. In an effort to scope the APS requirements for LSS, a set of generic LSSs were defined. For each generic LSS class a specific structural configuration, representative of that most likely to serve the needs of the 1980's and 1990's was defined. The environmental disturbance forces and torques which would be acting on each specific structural configuration in LEO and GEO orbits were then determined. Auxiliary propulsion requirements were determined as a function of: generic class specific configuration, size and openness of structure, orbit, angle of orientation, correction frequency, duty cycle, number and location of thrusters and direction of thrusters and APS/LSS interactions. The results of this analysis were used to define the APS characteristics of: (1) number and distribution of thrusters, (2) thruster modulation, (3) thrust level, (4) mission energy requirements, (5) total APS mass component breakdown, and (6) state of the art adequacy/deficiency.

  13. Development of deployable structures for large space platform systems. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1983-01-01

    The preponderance of study effort was devoted toward the deployable platform systems study which culminated in the detailed design of a ground test article for future development testing. This design is representative of a prototype square-truss, single-fold building-block design that can construct deployable platform structures. This prototype design was selected through a comprehensive and traceable selection process applied to eight competitive designs. The selection process compared the competitive designs according to seven major selection criteria, i.e., design versatility, cost, thermal stability, meteoroid impact significance, reliability, performance predictability, and orbiter integration suitability. In support of the foregoing, a materials data base, and platform systems technology development needs were established. An erectable design of an OTV hangar was selected and recommended for further design development. This design was selected from five study-developed competitive single-fold and double-fold designs including hard-shell and inflatable designs. Also, two deployable manned module configurations, i.e., a hard-shell and an inflatable design were each developed to the same requirements as the composite of two Space station baseline habitat modules.

  14. The 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System: a summary.

    PubMed

    Louis, David N; Perry, Arie; Reifenberger, Guido; von Deimling, Andreas; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Cavenee, Webster K; Ohgaki, Hiroko; Wiestler, Otmar D; Kleihues, Paul; Ellison, David W

    2016-06-01

    The 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System is both a conceptual and practical advance over its 2007 predecessor. For the first time, the WHO classification of CNS tumors uses molecular parameters in addition to histology to define many tumor entities, thus formulating a concept for how CNS tumor diagnoses should be structured in the molecular era. As such, the 2016 CNS WHO presents major restructuring of the diffuse gliomas, medulloblastomas and other embryonal tumors, and incorporates new entities that are defined by both histology and molecular features, including glioblastoma, IDH-wildtype and glioblastoma, IDH-mutant; diffuse midline glioma, H3 K27M-mutant; RELA fusion-positive ependymoma; medulloblastoma, WNT-activated and medulloblastoma, SHH-activated; and embryonal tumour with multilayered rosettes, C19MC-altered. The 2016 edition has added newly recognized neoplasms, and has deleted some entities, variants and patterns that no longer have diagnostic and/or biological relevance. Other notable changes include the addition of brain invasion as a criterion for atypical meningioma and the introduction of a soft tissue-type grading system for the now combined entity of solitary fibrous tumor / hemangiopericytoma-a departure from the manner by which other CNS tumors are graded. Overall, it is hoped that the 2016 CNS WHO will facilitate clinical, experimental and epidemiological studies that will lead to improvements in the lives of patients with brain tumors. PMID:27157931

  15. The 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System: a summary.

    PubMed

    Louis, David N; Perry, Arie; Reifenberger, Guido; von Deimling, Andreas; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Cavenee, Webster K; Ohgaki, Hiroko; Wiestler, Otmar D; Kleihues, Paul; Ellison, David W

    2016-06-01

    The 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System is both a conceptual and practical advance over its 2007 predecessor. For the first time, the WHO classification of CNS tumors uses molecular parameters in addition to histology to define many tumor entities, thus formulating a concept for how CNS tumor diagnoses should be structured in the molecular era. As such, the 2016 CNS WHO presents major restructuring of the diffuse gliomas, medulloblastomas and other embryonal tumors, and incorporates new entities that are defined by both histology and molecular features, including glioblastoma, IDH-wildtype and glioblastoma, IDH-mutant; diffuse midline glioma, H3 K27M-mutant; RELA fusion-positive ependymoma; medulloblastoma, WNT-activated and medulloblastoma, SHH-activated; and embryonal tumour with multilayered rosettes, C19MC-altered. The 2016 edition has added newly recognized neoplasms, and has deleted some entities, variants and patterns that no longer have diagnostic and/or biological relevance. Other notable changes include the addition of brain invasion as a criterion for atypical meningioma and the introduction of a soft tissue-type grading system for the now combined entity of solitary fibrous tumor / hemangiopericytoma-a departure from the manner by which other CNS tumors are graded. Overall, it is hoped that the 2016 CNS WHO will facilitate clinical, experimental and epidemiological studies that will lead to improvements in the lives of patients with brain tumors.

  16. The Coastal Ocean Prediction Systems program: Understanding and managing our coastal ocean. Volume 1: Strategic summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-15

    The proposed COPS (Coastal Ocean Prediction Systems) program is concerned with combining numerical models with observations (through data assimilation) to improve our predictive knowledge of the coastal ocean. It is oriented toward applied research and development and depends upon the continued pursuit of basic research in programs like COOP (Coastal Ocean Processes); i.e., to a significant degree it is involved with ``technology transfer`` from basic knowledge to operational and management applications. This predictive knowledge is intended to address a variety of societal problems: (1) ship routing, (2) trajectories for search and rescue operations, (3) oil spill trajectory simulations, (4) pollution assessments, (5) fisheries management guidance, (6) simulation of the coastal ocean`s response to climate variability, (7) calculation of sediment transport, (8) calculation of forces on structures, and so forth. The initial concern is with physical models and observations in order to provide a capability for the estimation of physical forces and transports in the coastal ocean. For all these applications, there are common needs for physical field estimates: waves, tides, currents, temperature, and salinity, including mixed layers, thermoclines, fronts, jets, etc. However, the intent is to work with biologists, chemists, and geologists in developing integrated multidisciplinary prediction systems as it becomes feasible to do so. From another perspective, by combining observations with models through data assimilation, a modern approach to monitoring is provided through whole-field estimation.

  17. Reusable Rocket Engine Advanced Health Management System. Architecture and Technology Evaluation: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, C. D.; Barkhoudarian, S.; Daumann, A. G., Jr.; Provan, G. M.; ElFattah, Y. M.; Glover, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we proposed an Advanced Health Management System (AHMS) functional architecture and conducted a technology assessment for liquid propellant rocket engine lifecycle health management. The purpose of the AHMS is to improve reusable rocket engine safety and to reduce between-flight maintenance. During the study, past and current reusable rocket engine health management-related projects were reviewed, data structures and health management processes of current rocket engine programs were assessed, and in-depth interviews with rocket engine lifecycle and system experts were conducted. A generic AHMS functional architecture, with primary focus on real-time health monitoring, was developed. Fourteen categories of technology tasks and development needs for implementation of the AHMS were identified, based on the functional architecture and our assessment of current rocket engine programs. Five key technology areas were recommended for immediate development, which (1) would provide immediate benefits to current engine programs, and (2) could be implemented with minimal impact on the current Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) engine controllers.

  18. Comment on the invariant envelope solution in rf photoinjectors.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.-x.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2006-02-01

    The beam envelope equation has been used to address the beam dynamics in rf photoinjectors. A special solution of the envelope equation, known as the invariant envelope, plays a critical role in the theory of emittance compensation. In this comment, I will present a different view of the invariant envelope solution that better delineates its properties and simplifies the picture of beam dynamics.

  19. Can Temporal Fine Structure and Temporal Envelope be Considered Independently for Pitch Perception?

    PubMed

    Grimault, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    In psychoacoustics, works on pitch perception attempt to distinguish between envelope and fine structure cues that are generally viewed as independent and separated using a Hilbert transform. To empirically distinguish between envelope and fine structure cues in pitch perception experiments, a dedicated signal has been proposed. This signal is an unresolved harmonic complex tones with all harmonics shifted by the same amount of Hz. As the frequency distance between adjacent components is regular and identical than in the original harmonic complex tone, such a signal has the same envelope but a different fine structure. So, any perceptual difference between these signals is interpreted as a fine structure based percept. Here, as illustrated by very basic simulations, I suggest that this orthogonal point of view that is generally admitted could be a conceptual error. In fact, neither the fine structure nor the envelope is required to be fully encoded to explain pitch perception. Sufficient information is conveyed by the peaks in the fine structure that are located nearby a maximum of the envelope. Envelope and fine structure could then be in perpetual interaction and the pitch would be conveyed by "the fine structure under envelope". Moreover, as the temporal delay between peaks of interest is rather longer than the delay between two adjacent peaks of the fine structure, such a mechanism would be much less constrained by the phase locking limitation of the auditory system. Several data from the literature are discussed from this new conceptual point of view. PMID:27080676

  20. Low-mass gas envelopes around accreting cores embedded in radiative 3D discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lega, Elena; Lambrechts, Michiel

    2016-10-01

    Planets with a core mass larger than few Earth masses and a gaseous envelope not exceeding about 10% of the total mass budget are common. Such planets are present in the Solar System (Uranus, Neptune) and are frequently observed around other stars.Our knowledge about the evolution of gas envelopes is mainly based on 1D models. However, such models cannot investigate the complex interaction between the forming envelope and the surrounding gas disc.In this work we perform 3D hydrodynamics simulations accounting for energy transfer and radiative cooling using the FARGOCA code (Lega et al., MNRAS 440, 2014). In addition to the usually considered heatingsources, namely viscous and compressional heating, we have modeled the energy deposited by the accretion of solids.We show that the thermal evolution of the envelope of a 5 Earth mass core is mainly dominated by compressional heating for accretion rates lower than 5 Earth masses per 105 years.Additionally, we demonstrate efficient gas circulation through the envelope. Under certain conditions, the competition between gas circulation and cooling of the envelope can efficiently delay the onset of runaway accretion. This could help in explaining the population of planets with low-mass gas envelope.

  1. Rotor systems research aircraft of predesign study. Volume 1: Summary and conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    The results are summarized of a study to develop a versatile research aircraft for flight testing a wide variety of advanced helicopter and compound rotor systems. The aircraft is required to accept these rotors with minimal changes in the basic vehicle. Rotors envisioned for testing include conventional rotors plus variable geometry, variable twist, variable diameter, coaxial, jet flap, circulation control, and slowed rotors. Various disc loadings would be accommodated. The aircraft must be configured to measure performance more accurately than past test vehicles. In addition, the aircraft would have a wing to off load the rotor while measuring performance during lightly loaded conditions. It would have variable drag and propulsive force so that the rotor can be tested while producing different values of horizontal force.

  2. Cyber Security Indications and Warning System (SV): CRADA 1573.94 Project Accomplishments Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Tan Chang; Robinson, David G.

    2011-09-08

    As the national focus on cyber security increases, there is an evolving need for a capability to provide for high-speed sensing of events, correlation of events, and decision-making based on the adverse events seen across multiple independent large-scale network environments. The purpose of this Shared Vision project, Cyber Security Indications and Warning System, was to combine both Sandia's and LMC's expertise to discover new solutions to the challenge of protecting our nation's infrastructure assets. The objectives and scope of the proposal was limited to algorithm and High Performance Computing (HPC) model assessment in the unclassified environment within funding and schedule constraints. The interest is the identification, scalability assessment, and applicability of current utilized cyber security algorithms as applied in an HPC environment.

  3. Concepts and Analyses in the CT Scanning of Root Systems and Leaf Canopies: A Timely Summary.

    PubMed

    Lafond, Jonathan A; Han, Liwen; Dutilleul, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Non-medical applications of computed tomography (CT) scanning have flourished in recent years, including in Plant Science. This Perspective article on CT scanning of root systems and leaf canopies is intended to be of interest to three categories of readers: those who have not yet tried plant CT scanning, and should find inspiration for new research objectives; readers who are on the learning curve with applications-here is helpful advice for them; and researchers with greater experience-the field is evolving quickly and it is easy to miss aspects. Our conclusion is that CT scanning of roots and canopies is highly demanding in terms of technology, multidisciplinarity and big-data analysis, to name a few areas of expertise, but eventually, the reward for researchers is directly proportional! PMID:26734022

  4. Manned geosynchronous mission requirements and systems analysis study extension. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the types of manned missions that will likely be performed in the late 1980's or early 1990's timeframe, to define MOTV configurations which satisfy these missions requirements, and to develop a program plan for its development. Twenty generic missions were originally defined for MOTV but, to simplify the selection process, five of these missions were selected as typical and used as Design Reference Missions. Systems and subsystems requirements were re-examined and sensitivity analyses performed to determine optimum point designs. Turnaround modes were considered to determine the most effective combination of ground based and spaced based activities. A preferred concept for the crew capsule and for the mission mode was developed.

  5. Comparative assessment of five potential sites for hydrothermal-magma systems: summary

    SciTech Connect

    Luth, W.C.; Hardee, H.C.

    1980-11-01

    A comparative assessment of five potential hydrothermal-magma sites for this facet of the Thermal Regimes part of the CSDP has been prepared for the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The five sites are: The Geysers-Clear Lake, CA, Long Valley, CA, Rio Grande Rift, NM, Roosevelt Hot Springs, UT, and Salton Trough, CA. This site assessment study has drawn together background information (geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and energy transport) on the five sites as a preliminary stage to site selection. Criteria for site selection are that potential sites have identifiable, or likely, hydrothermal systems and associated magma sources, and the important scientific questions can be identified and answered by deep scientific holes. Recommendations were made.

  6. Design and systems analysis of a chemical interorbital shuttle. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, W.

    1972-01-01

    An interorbital shuttle that can be utilized to carry payloads between low earth orbit (180 n mi, 37.6 deg) and lunar or geosynchronous orbits, and also to interplanetary trajectories is discussed. After each mission the stage returns to its earth parking orbit where it delivers the inbound payloads, and where it is maintained and refueled for the subsequent missions. The stage can also be utilized to carry large payloads (150 to 200 KLBS) to the Space Station orbit (270 n mi, 55 deg) when it is used as a second or parallel burn stage to the space shuttle booster. The mission and systems analysis, as well as the results of structural, mechanical and propulsion, and avionics subsystems analysis and design are described. A development plan and cost estimates are also included.

  7. Satellite services system analysis study. Volume 1, part 2: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The early mission model was developed through a survey of the potential user market. Service functions were defined and a group of design reference missions were selected which represented needs for each of the service functions. Servicing concepts were developed through mission analysis and STS timeline constraint analysis. The hardware needs for accomplishing the service functions were identified with emphasis being placed on applying equipment in the current NASA inventory and that in advanced stages of planning. A more comprehensive service model was developed based on the NASA and DoD mission models segregated by mission class. The number of service events of each class were estimated based on average revisit and service assumptions. Service Kits were defined as collections of equipment applicable to performing one or more service functions. Preliminary design was carrid out on a selected set of hardware needed for early service missions. The organization and costing of the satellie service systems were addressed.

  8. Third international conference on intelligent systems for molecular biology (ISMB-95): Summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The specific aims of the Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB-95) were to: convene a critical mass of researchers applying advanced computational techniques to problems in molecular biology; promote interchange of problems and solutions between computer scientists and molecular biologists; create education opportunities in this cross-disciplinary field for students and senior researchers wishing to either apply or benefit from these techniques; produce an archival proceedings as a forum for rapid dissemination of new results in a peer-reviewed manner; produce a set of tutorial materials for education and training of researchers interested in this field; maintain the momentum generated by the highly successful previous conferences in the series, and establish a regular event that will help to solidify the field; and foster the involvement of women and minorities in the field.

  9. Space applications of Automation, Robotics And Machine Intelligence Systems (ARAMIS). Volume 3, phase 2: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, D. L.; Minsky, M. L.; Thiel, E. D.; Kurtzman, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    The field of telepresence is defined, and overviews of those capabilities that are now available, and those that will be required to support a NASA telepresence effort are provided. Investigation of NASA's plans and goals with regard to telepresence, extensive literature search for materials relating to relevant technologies, a description of these technologies and their state of the art, and projections for advances in these technologies are included. Several space projects are examined in detail to determine what capabilities are required of a telepresence system in order to accomplish various tasks, such as servicing and assembly. The key operational and technological areas are identified, conclusions and recommendations are made for further research, and an example developmental program leading to an operational telepresence servicer is presented.

  10. Concepts and Analyses in the CT Scanning of Root Systems and Leaf Canopies: A Timely Summary

    PubMed Central

    Lafond, Jonathan A.; Han, Liwen; Dutilleul, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Non-medical applications of computed tomography (CT) scanning have flourished in recent years, including in Plant Science. This Perspective article on CT scanning of root systems and leaf canopies is intended to be of interest to three categories of readers: those who have not yet tried plant CT scanning, and should find inspiration for new research objectives; readers who are on the learning curve with applications—here is helpful advice for them; and researchers with greater experience—the field is evolving quickly and it is easy to miss aspects. Our conclusion is that CT scanning of roots and canopies is highly demanding in terms of technology, multidisciplinarity and big-data analysis, to name a few areas of expertise, but eventually, the reward for researchers is directly proportional! PMID:26734022

  11. Space Applications of Automation, Robotics and Machine Intelligence Systems (ARAMIS). Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.; Minsky, M. L.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1982-01-01

    Potential applications of automation, robotics, and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS) to space activities, and to their related ground support functions are explored. The specific tasks which will be required by future space projects are identified. ARAMIS options which are candidates for those space project tasks and the relative merits of these options are defined and evaluated. Promising applications of ARAMIS and specific areas for further research are identified. The ARAMIS options defined and researched by the study group span the range from fully human to fully machine, including a number of intermediate options (e.g., humans assisted by computers, and various levels of teleoperation). By including this spectrum, the study searches for the optimum mix of humans and machines for space project tasks.

  12. Summary of the transfer of optical processing to systems: optical pattern recognition program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindell, Scott D.

    1995-06-01

    Martin Marietta has successfully completed a TOPS optical pattern recognition program. The program culminated in August 1994 with an automatic target recognition flight demonstration inwhich an M60A2 tank was acquired, identified, and tracked with a visible seeker from a UH-1 helicopter flying a fiber optic guided missile (FOG-M) mission profile. The flight demonstration was conducted by the US Army Missile Command (MICOM) and supported by Martin Marietta. The pattern recognition system performance for acquiring and identifying the M60A2 tank, which was positioned among an array with five other vehicle types, was 90% probability of correct identification and a 4% false identification for over 40,000 frames of imagery processed. Imagery was processed at a 15 Hz input rate with a 1 ft3, 76 W, 4 GFLOP processor performing up to 800 correlations per second.

  13. Expert system verification and validation study. ES V/V guidelines/workshop conference summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, Scott W.; Hamilton, David

    1992-01-01

    The intent of the workshop was to start moving research on the verification and validation (V&V) of knowledge based systems (KBSs) in the direction of providing tangible 'products' that a KBS developer could use. In the near term research will focus on identifying the kinds of experiences encountered during KBS development of 'real' KBSs. These will be stored in a repository and will serve as the foundation for the rest of the activities described here. One specific approach to be pursued is 'benchmarking'. With this approach, a KBS developer can use either 'canned' KBSs with seeded errors or existing KBSs with known errors to evaluate a given tool's ability to satisfactorily identify errors.

  14. Technology requirements for advanced earth-orbital transportation systems: Summary report. [single stage to orbit vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haefeli, R. C.; Littler, E. G.; Hurley, J. B.; Winter, M. G.

    1977-01-01

    Areas of advanced technology that are either critical or offer significant benefits to the development of future Earth-orbit transportation systems were identified. Technology assessment was based on the application of these technologies to fully reusable, single-state-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle concepts with horizontal landing capability. Study guidelines included mission requirements similar to space shuttle, an operational capability beginning in 1995, and main propulsion to be advanced hydrogen-fueled rocket engines. The technical and economic feasibility of this class of SSTO concepts were evaluated as well as the comparative features of three operational take-off modes, which were vertical boost, horizontal sled launch, and horizontal take-off with subsequent inflight fueling. Projections of both normal and accelerated technology growth were made. Figures of merit were derived to provide relative rankings of technology areas. The influence of selected accelerated areas on vehicle design and program costs was analyzed by developing near-optimum point designs.

  15. Concepts and Analyses in the CT Scanning of Root Systems and Leaf Canopies: A Timely Summary.

    PubMed

    Lafond, Jonathan A; Han, Liwen; Dutilleul, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Non-medical applications of computed tomography (CT) scanning have flourished in recent years, including in Plant Science. This Perspective article on CT scanning of root systems and leaf canopies is intended to be of interest to three categories of readers: those who have not yet tried plant CT scanning, and should find inspiration for new research objectives; readers who are on the learning curve with applications-here is helpful advice for them; and researchers with greater experience-the field is evolving quickly and it is easy to miss aspects. Our conclusion is that CT scanning of roots and canopies is highly demanding in terms of technology, multidisciplinarity and big-data analysis, to name a few areas of expertise, but eventually, the reward for researchers is directly proportional!

  16. Little Goose Dam Full Flow PIT-Tag Detection System Project Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Warf, Don; Livingston, Scott

    2009-04-16

    In 2006, the design phase of this project was kicked off and was for the most part modeled after the Full Flow PIT installation installed at Lower Monumental Dam during winter and spring of 2006 and 2007. As the Goose Full Flow design progressed and the project started to move towards construction, issues within contracting occurred and the project was put on delay for 1 year. Starting in mid December of 2008, Harcon Inc. was awarded the contract and construction of the new Goose Full Flow PIT-tag detection system began. The purpose of this document is to summarize the installation of the Little Goose Full Flow project from start to finish and to highlight the notable successes and challenges that the installation presented along with the final results and current status.

  17. Summary of the Snake River plain Regional Aquifer-System Analysis in Idaho and eastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindholm, G.F.

    1993-01-01

    The 15,600 sq mi Snake River Plain in southern Idaho and eastern Oregon was studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis program. Quaternary basalt of the Snake River Group underlies most of the 10,800 square mile eastern plain and constitutes the most productive aquifers. Transmissivity of the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer commonly ranges from 100,000 to 1,000,000 square feet per day. Vertical hydraulic conductivity is several orders of magnitude lower than horizontal hydraulic conductivity and is related to the degree of jointing. Alluvial sand and gravel in the Boise River valley constitutes the most productive aquifers in the 4,800 square mile western plain. Along much of its length, the Snake River gains groundwater. Between Milner and King Hill, the river gained 4.7 million acre-ft in 1980, most as spring flow from the north side. The chemical composition of groundwater in the plain is essentially the same as that in streams and ground- water from tributary drainage basins. The use of surface water for irrigation for 100 years has caused major changes in the hydrologic system on the plain. During that time, recharge on the main part of the eastern plain increased about 70 percent, discharge about 80 percent. In 1980, about 8.9 million acre-ft of Snake River water was diverted and 2.3 million acre-ft of groundwater was pumped from 5,300 wells for irrigation.

  18. Summary of the Snake River plain Regional Aquifer-System Analysis in Idaho and eastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindholm, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Regional aquifers underlying the 15,600-square-mile Snake River Plain in southern Idaho and eastern Oregon was studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis program. The largest and most productive aquifers in the Snake River Plain are composed of Quaternary basalt of the Snake River Group, which underlies most of the 10,8000-square-mile eastern plain. Aquifer tests and simulation indicate that transmissivity of the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer in the eastern plain commonly ranges from about 100,000 to 1,000,000 feet squared per day. However, transmissivity of the total aquifer thickness may be as much as 10 million feet squared per day. Specific yield of the upper 200 feet of the aquifer ranges from about 0.01 to 0.20. Average horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer ranges from less than 100 to 9,000 feet per day. Values may be one to several orders of magnitude higher in parts in individual flows, such as flow tops. Vertical hydraulic conductivity is probably several orders of magnitude lower than horizontal hydraulic conductivity and is generally related to the number of joints. Pillow lava in ancestral Snake River channels has the highest hydraulic conductivity of all rock types. Hydraulic conductivity of the basalt decreases with depth because of secondary filling of voids with calcite and silica. An estimated 80 to 120 million acre-feet of water is believed to be stored in the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer in the eastern plain. The most productive aquifers in the 4,800-square-mile western plain are alluvial sand and gravel in the Boise River valley. Although aquifer tests indicate that transmissivity of alluvium in the Boise River valley ranges from 5,000 to 160,000 feet squared per day, simulation suggests that average transmissivity of the upper 500 feet is generally less than 20,000 feet squared per day. Vertically averaged horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the upper

  19. Simulating Convection in Stellar Envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Joel

    Understanding convection in stellar envelopes, and providing a mathematical description of it, would represent a substantial advance in stellar astrophysics. As one of the largest sources of uncertainty in stellar models, existing treatments of convection fail to account for many of the dynamical effects of convection, such as turbulent pressure and asymmetry in the velocity field. To better understand stellar convection, we must be able to study and examine it in detail, and one of the best tools for doing so is numerical simulation. Near the stellar surface, both convective and radiative process play a critical role in determining the structure and gas dynamics. By following these processes from first principles, convection can be simulated self-consistently and accurately, even in regions of inefficient energy transport where existing descriptions of convection fail. Our simulation code includes two radiative transfer solvers that are based on different assumptions and approximations. By comparing simulations that differ only in their respective radiative transfer methods, we are able to isolate the effect that radiative efficiency has on the structure of the superadiabatic layer. We find the simulations to be in good general agreement, but they show distinct differences in the thermal structure in the superadiabatic layer and atmosphere. Using the code to construct a grid of three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the link between convection and various chemical compositions. The stellar parameters correspond to main-sequence stars at several surface gravities, and span a range in effective temperatures (4500 < Teff < 6400). Different chemical compositions include four metallicities (Z = 0.040, 0.020, 0.010, 0.001), three helium abundances (Y = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) and several levels of alpha-element enhancement. Our grid of simulations shows that various convective properties, such as velocity and the degree of superadiabaticity, are

  20. Evaluation of propellent tank insulation concepts for low-thrust chemical propulsion systems: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, T.; Brogren, E.; Siegel, B.

    1984-01-01

    Cryogenic propellant tank insulations or liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen low-thrust 2224N (500 lbf) propulsion systems (LTPS) were assessed. The insulation studied consisted of combinations of N2-purged foam and multilayer insulation (MLI) as well as He-purged MLI-only. Heat leak and payload performance predictions were made for three shuttle-launched LTPS designed for shuttle bay packaged payload densities of 56 kg cu/m (3.5 lbm/cu ft), 40 kg/cu m (2.5 lbm/cu ft) and 24 kg/cu m (1.5 lbm/cu ft). Foam/MLI insulations were found to increase LTPS payload delivery capability when compared with He-purged MLI-only. An additional benefit of foam/MLI was reduced operational complexity because orbiter cargo bay N2 purge gas could be used for MLI purging. Maximum payload mass benefit occurred when an enhanced convection, rather than natural convection, heat transfer was specified for the insulation purge enclosure. The enhanced convection environment allowed minimum insulation thickness to be used for the foam/MLI interface temperature selected to correspond to the moisture dew point in the N2 purge gas. Experimental verification of foam/MLI benefits was recommended. A conservative program cost estimate for testing a MLI-foam insulated tank was 2.1 million dollars. This cost could be reduced significantly without increasing program risk.