Science.gov

Sample records for envelope systems summary

  1. Field Testing of Energy-Efficient Flood-Damage-Resistant Residential Envelope Systems Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Aglan, H.

    2005-08-04

    The primary purpose of the project was to identify materials and methods that will make the envelope of a house flood damage resistant. Flood damage resistant materials and systems are intended to be used to repair houses subsequent to flooding. This project was also intended to develop methods of restoring the envelopes of houses that have been flooded but are repairable and may be subject to future flooding. Then if the house floods again, damage will not be as extensive as in previous flood events and restoration costs and efforts will be minimized. The purpose of the first pair of field tests was to establish a baseline for typical current residential construction practice. The first test modules used materials and systems that were commonly found in residential envelopes throughout the U.S. The purpose of the second pair of field tests was to begin evaluating potential residential envelope materials and systems that were projected to be more flood-damage resistant and restorable than the conventional materials and systems tested in the first pair of tests. The purpose of testing the third slab-on-grade module was to attempt to dry flood proof the module (no floodwater within the structure). If the module could be sealed well enough to prevent water from entering, then this would be an effective method of making the interior materials and systems flood damage resistant. The third crawl space module was tested in the same manner as the previous modules and provided an opportunity to do flood tests of additional residential materials and systems. Another purpose of the project was to develop the methodology to collect representative, measured, reproducible (i.e. scientific) data on how various residential materials and systems respond to flooding conditions so that future recommendations for repairing flood damaged houses could be based on scientific data. An additional benefit of collecting this data is that it will be used in the development of a standard test

  2. Aircraft maneuver envelope warning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bivens, Courtland C. (Inventor); Rosado, Joel M. (Inventor); Lee, Burnett (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A maneuver envelope warning system for an aircraft having operating limits, operating condition sensors and an indicator driver. The indicator driver has a plurality of visual indicators. The indicator driver determines a relationship between sensed operating conditions and the operating limits; such as, a ratio therebetween. The indicator driver illuminates a number of the indicators in proportion to the determined relationship. The position of the indicators illuminated represents to a pilot in an easily ascertainable manner whether the operational conditions are approaching operational limits of the aircraft, and the degree to which operational conditions lie within or exceed operational limits.

  3. Bound Cyclic Systems with the Envelope Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien

    2017-09-01

    Approximate but reliable solutions of a quantum system with N identical particles can be easily computed with the envelope theory, also known as the auxiliary field method. This technique has been developed for Hamiltonians with arbitrary kinematics and one- or two-body potentials. It is adapted here for cyclic systems with N identical particles, that is to say systems in which a particle i has only an interaction with particles i-1 and i+1 (with N+1≡1).

  4. The Psp system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis integrates envelope stress-sensing and envelope-preserving functions.

    PubMed

    Datta, Pratik; Ravi, Janani; Guerrini, Valentina; Chauhan, Rinki; Neiditch, Matthew B; Shell, Scarlet S; Fortune, Sarah M; Hancioglu, Baris; Igoshin, Oleg A; Gennaro, Maria Laura

    2015-08-01

    The bacterial envelope integrates essential stress-sensing and adaptive functions; thus, envelope-preserving functions are important for survival. In Gram-negative bacteria, envelope integrity during stress is maintained by the multi-gene Psp response. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was thought to lack the Psp system since it encodes only pspA and no other psp ortholog. Intriguingly, pspA maps downstream from clgR, which encodes a transcription factor regulated by the MprAB-σ(E) envelope-stress-signaling system. clgR inactivation lowered ATP concentration during stress and protonophore treatment-induced clgR-pspA expression, suggesting that these genes express Psp-like functions. We identified a four-gene set - clgR, pspA (rv2744c), rv2743c, rv2742c - that is regulated by clgR and in turn regulates ClgR activity. Regulatory and protein-protein interactions within the set and a requirement of the four genes for functions associated with envelope integrity and surface-stress tolerance indicate that a Psp-like system has evolved in mycobacteria. Among Actinobacteria, the four-gene module occurred only in tuberculous mycobacteria and was required for intramacrophage growth, suggesting links between its function and mycobacterial virulence. Additionally, the four-gene module was required for MprAB-σ(E) stress-signaling activity. The positive feedback between envelope-stress-sensing and envelope-preserving functions allows sustained responses to multiple, envelope-perturbing signals during chronic infection, making the system uniquely suited to tuberculosis pathogenesis.

  5. Real-Time Flight Envelope Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerho, Michael; Bragg, Michael B.; Ansell, Phillip J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this effort was to show that real-time aircraft control-surface hinge-moment information could be used to provide a robust and reliable prediction of vehicle performance and control authority degradation. For a given airfoil section with a control surface -- be it a wing with an aileron, rudder, or elevator -- the control-surface hinge moment is sensitive to the aerodynamic characteristics of the section. As a result, changes in the aerodynamics of the section due to angle-of-attack or environmental effects such as icing, heavy rain, surface contaminants, bird strikes, or battle damage will affect the control surface hinge moment. These changes include both the magnitude of the hinge moment and its sign in a time-averaged sense, and the variation of the hinge moment with time. The current program attempts to take the real-time hinge moment information from the aircraft control surfaces and develop a system to predict aircraft envelope boundaries across a range of conditions, alerting the flight crew to reductions in aircraft controllability and flight boundaries.

  6. Design reference year for development of photovoltaic envelope systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihalka, Peter; Matiasovsky, Peter

    2017-07-01

    An application of photovoltaic cells on external surfaces of building envelope represents a development of new construction element. A mutual coupling between thermal behaviour of photovoltaic layer and the other layers of the structure, with special properties, requires a specific selection of the characteristic outdoor thermal boundary conditions, necessary for optimum design of the envelope from the aspect of structure, material composition and geometry. The main design criteria are the effectiveness and elimination of overheating of photovoltaic module and the optimisation of heat distribution in the envelope structure during particular year seasons. The paper contains the results of the analysis of time courses of climatic elements during a real year as the boundary conditions for simulation of photovoltaic integrated building envelope systems, used in simulations of thermal behaviour of photovoltaics integrated with building envelope systems.

  7. CLOSE STELLAR BINARY SYSTEMS BY GRAZING ENVELOPE EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Soker, Noam

    2015-02-20

    I suggest a spiral-in process in which a stellar companion grazes the envelope of a giant star while both the orbital separation and the giant radius shrink simultaneously, forming a close binary system. The binary system might be viewed as evolving in a constant state of 'just entering a common envelope (CE) phase.' In cases where this process takes place, it can be an alternative to CE evolution where the secondary star is immersed in the giant's envelope. Grazing envelope evolution (GEE) is made possible only if the companion manages to accrete mass at a high rate and launches jets that remove the outskirts of the giant envelope, hence preventing the formation of a CE. The high accretion rate is made possible by the accretion disk launching jets which efficiently carry the excess angular momentum and energy from the accreted mass. The orbital decay itself is caused by the gravitational interaction of the secondary star with the envelope inward of its orbit, i.e., dynamical friction (gravitational tide). Mass loss through the second Lagrangian point can carry additional angular momentum and envelope mass. The GEE lasts for tens to hundreds of years. The high accretion rate, with peaks lasting from months to years, might lead to a bright object referred to as the intermediate luminosity optical transient (Red Novae; Red Transients). A bipolar nebula and/or equatorial ring are formed around the binary remnant.

  8. Microwave system performance summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. D.; Nalos, E. J.

    1980-01-01

    The design of the microwave system for the solar power satellite is described. Design modifications recommended include changes in phase control to the power module level, a reduction in allowable amplitude jitter, the use of metal matrix waveguides, and sequences for startup/shutdown procedures. Investigations into reshaping the beam pattern to improve overall rectenna collection efficiency and improve sidelobe control are surveyed.

  9. Refrigeration systems program summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-12-01

    In addition to saving energy, deploying advanced refrigeration technologies can substantially benefit the environment. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have been identified as a major cause of potential global climate change and about 20 pct. of the CFCs consumed by the U.S. are due to refrigeration systems. As the international Montreal Protocol will phase out CFC compounds no later than 2000, there is tremendous need to develop safe non-CFC refrigerants and working fluids, alternative refrigeration cycles, and non-CFC insulations for appliances. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Refrigeration System Program in 1977 to lead a national effort to accelerate the deployment of cost effective and energy efficient air conditioning and refrigeration technologies. The program primarily conducts research and development on advanced refrigeration technologies. The program, managed by the Office of Building Technologies, which reports to DOE's Assistant Secretary for Conversation and Renewable Energy, encompasses several key activities such as investigating alternative refrigerants and refrigeration cycles, developing advanced technologies for future air conditioning and refrigeration equipment designs, and developing advanced appliance insulations.

  10. Beam envelope matching for beam guidance systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.L.

    1980-08-01

    Ray optics and phase ellipse optics are developed as tools for designing charged particle beam guidance systems. Specific examples of basic optical systems and of phase ellipse matching are presented as illustrations of these mathematical techniques.

  11. Envelope protection systems for piloted and unmanned rotorcraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahani, Nilesh A.

    Performance and agility of rotorcraft can be improved using envelope protection systems (or carefree maneuvering systems), which allow the aircraft to use the full flight envelope without risk of exceeding structural or controllability limits. Implementation of such a system can be divided into two necessary parts: "Limit Prediction" which detects the impending violation of the limit parameter, and "Limit Avoidance" where a preventive action is taken in the form of pilot cueing or autonomous limiting. Depending upon the underlying flight control system, implementation of the envelope limiting system was categorized into two different structures: "Inceptor Constraint Architecture" and "Command Limiting Architecture". The Inceptor Constraint Architecture is applicable to existing rotorcraft with conventional flight control system where control input proportionally affects control surfaces. The relationship between control input and limit parameter is complex which requires advanced algorithms for predicting impending limit violations. This research focuses on limits that exceed in transient response. A new algorithm was developed for predicting transient response using non-linear functions of measured aircraft states. The functions were generated off-line using simulation data from a non-real-time simulation, model to demonstrate the procedure for extracting them from flight test data. Modern rotorcraft flight control systems are designed to accurately track certain aircraft states like roll and pitch attitudes which are either specified as command inputs in unmanned rotorcraft or mapped to control stick in piloted aircrafts. In the Command Limiting Architecture applicable to these systems, performance constraints were generated on the command input corresponding to the envelope limit. To simulate this flight control system, an adaptive model inversion controller was applied to a non-linear, blade element simulation model of a helicopter. The controller generated

  12. Aerial Photography Summary Record System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    The Aerial Photography Summary Record System (APSRS) describes aerial photography projects that meet specified criteria over a given geographic area of the United States and its territories. Aerial photographs are an important tool in cartography and a number of other professions. Land use planners, real estate developers, lawyers, environmental specialists, and many other professionals rely on detailed and timely aerial photographs. Until 1975, there was no systematic approach to locate an aerial photograph, or series of photographs, quickly and easily. In that year, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) inaugurated the APSRS, which has become a standard reference for users of aerial photographs.

  13. Full-Envelope Launch Abort System Performance Analysis Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubuchon, Vanessa V.

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of a new dispersion methodology is described, which dis-perses abort initiation altitude or time along with all other Launch Abort System (LAS) parameters during Monte Carlo simulations. In contrast, the standard methodology assumes that an abort initiation condition is held constant (e.g., aborts initiated at altitude for Mach 1, altitude for maximum dynamic pressure, etc.) while dispersing other LAS parameters. The standard method results in large gaps in performance information due to the discrete nature of initiation conditions, while the full-envelope dispersion method provides a significantly more comprehensive assessment of LAS abort performance for the full launch vehicle ascent flight envelope and identifies performance "pinch-points" that may occur at flight conditions outside of those contained in the discrete set. The new method has significantly increased the fidelity of LAS abort simulations and confidence in the results.

  14. Rapid Process to Generate Beam Envelopes for Optical System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph; Seals, Lenward

    2012-01-01

    The task of evaluating obstructions in the optical throughput of an optical system requires the use of two disciplines, and hence, two models: optical models for the details of optical propagation, and mechanical models for determining the actual structure that exists in the optical system. Previous analysis methods for creating beam envelopes (or cones of light) for use in this obstruction analysis were found to be cumbersome to calculate and take significant time and resources to complete. A new process was developed that takes less time to complete beam envelope analysis, is more accurate and less dependent upon manual node tracking to create the beam envelopes, and eases the burden on the mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) designers to form the beam solids. This algorithm allows rapid generation of beam envelopes for optical system obstruction analysis. Ray trace information is taken from optical design software and used to generate CAD objects that represent the boundary of the beam envelopes for detailed analysis in mechanical CAD software. Matlab is used to call ray trace data from the optical model for all fields and entrance pupil points of interest. These are chosen to be the edge of each space, so that these rays produce the bounding volume for the beam. The x and y global coordinate data is collected on the surface planes of interest, typically an image of the field and entrance pupil internal of the optical system. This x and y coordinate data is then evaluated using a convex hull algorithm, which removes any internal points, which are unnecessary to produce the bounding volume of interest. At this point, tolerances can be applied to expand the size of either the field or aperture, depending on the allocations. Once this minimum set of coordinates on the pupil and field is obtained, a new set of rays is generated between the field plane and aperture plane (or vice-versa). These rays are then evaluated at planes between the aperture and field, at a

  15. Design and performance of an integrated envelope/lighting system

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1997-04-01

    Dynamic envelope/lighting systems offer the potential to achieve a near optimum energy-efficient environment meeting occupant needs throughout the year by adapting to dynamic meteorological conditions and changing occupant preferences in real time. With the dramatic increased functionality of the microprocessor, there is an untapped potential to make dynamic envelop/lighting systems easier to use, diagnose, and monitor, and to integrate them as part of a sophisticated building-wide control system. This study addresses the complex relationship between this energy-efficiency technology and many of the non-energy issues related to its potential acceptance by the building industry, architects, owners, and users. The authors demonstrate the concept of integrated dynamic systems with a prototype motorized venetian blind operated in synchronization with electric lighting and daylighting controls via an intelligent control system. Research work conducted with simulation software and reduced-scale and full-scale field tests is summarized. Much of this work is directly relevant to other active shading and daylighting systems on the market today and to state-of-the-art window systems yet to come (i.e., electrochromics).

  16. Scattering theory for the quantum envelope of a classical system

    SciTech Connect

    Sudarshan, E.C.G.

    1993-12-31

    Classical dynamics, reformulated in terms of its quantum envelope is studied for the stationary states of the interacting system. The dynamical variable of ``elapsed time`` plays a crucial role in this study. It is shown that the perturbation series for the elapsed time can be summed in various simple cases even when standard perturbation series diverge. For the special class of systems where the interactions fall off sufficiently fast at infinity one could define ``in`` and ``out`` states; and consequently the wave matrices and scattering matrices. The scattering phase shifts bear a simple relation to the time delay in scattering.

  17. Space station Platform Management System (PMS) replanning using resource envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Joy Lee; Critchfield, Anna; Loomis, Audrey

    1987-01-01

    One of the responsibilities of the Space Station Platform Management System (PMS) is to maintain constraint-free, short-term plans for platform and free-flyer activities. Both the replanning function and the associated constraint-checking function are viewed as potentially requiring expert system assistance. The PMS Resource Envelope Scheduling System (PRESS) expert system, which is currently under development, is described. The PRESS capabilities will include the following: plan, replan, and perform constraint checking using resource envelopes resembling those required for telescience; initialize itself using the results fo a previous run; infer the replanning needs associated with a change in resource availability; allow the user to determine the level of interaction (including an advisory capability) with the system during execution; and generate both a graphic timeline and a report as output. The PRESS is being developed on an IBM PC/AT using TeKnowledge, Inc.'s M.1 expert system shell. The PRESS activity definitions and constraints are based on those defined for the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission scheduled for launch in early 1989.

  18. Residential commissioning to assess envelope and HVAC system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, Craig P.; Sherman, Max H.

    2001-08-31

    Houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict. For example, Walker et al. (1998a) found large variations in thermal distribution system efficiency, as much as a factor of two even between side-by-side houses with the same system design and installation crew. This and other studies (e.g., Jump et al. 1996) indicate that duct leakage testing and sealing can readily achieve a 25 to 30% reduction in installed cooling capacity and energy consumption. As another example, consider that the building industry has recognized for at least 20 years the substantial impact that envelope airtightness has on thermal loads, energy use, comfort, and indoor air quality. However, Walker et al. (1998a) found 50% variances in airtightness for houses with the same design and construction crews, within the same subdivision. A substantial reason for these problems is that few houses are now built or retrofitted using formal design procedures, most are field assembled from a large number of components, and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Solving the problems requires field performance evaluations of houses using appropriate and agreed upon procedures. Many procedural elements already exist in a fragmented environment; some are ready now to be integrated into a new process called residential commissioning (Wray et al. 2000). For example, California's Title 24 energy code already provides some commissioning elements for evaluating the energy performance of new houses. A house consists of components and systems that need to be commissioned, such as building envelopes, air distribution systems, cooling equipment, heat pumps, combustion appliances, controls, and other electrical appliances. For simplicity and practicality, these components and systems are usually evaluated individually, but we need to bear in mind that many of them interact. Therefore, commissioning must not only identify the energy and non-energy benefits

  19. Quality assessment of a discharge summary system.

    PubMed Central

    van Walraven, C; Weinberg, A L

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the completeness of hospital discharge summaries and the efficiency of the discharge summary system in two urban teaching hospitals. DESIGN: Descriptive study, with follow-up telephone survey. SETTING: General internal medicine services at two urban tertiary care hospitals affiliated with the University of Ottawa. PATIENTS: A total of 135 patient charts, representing 10% of the patients discharged from the services between Aug. 1 and Dec. 31, 1993. Three charts were unavailable for review, and 26 were excluded because of patient death, early patient discharge (within 48 hours after admission) or lack of discharge summary; this left 106 summaries for analysis of completeness and 114 (including the charts without a summary) for analysis of efficiency. OUTCOME MEASURES: Completeness: proportion of summaries in which the following information was reported: admission diagnosis, drug allergies, physical examination, significant laboratory tests and results, discharge diagnosis, discharge medications and medical follow-up. Efficiency: time taken to generate the discharge summary and whether the patient's family physician received it. RESULTS: Of the 106 charts with a discharge summary, information was available from the dictation system database for all but one (99.1% complete). Information was missing on the admission diagnosis in 34.0% (36/106) of the summaries, the discharge diagnosis in 25.5% (27/106) and the discharge medications in 22.8% (23/101). Of the 268 significant laboratory tests and results noted in the charts 115 (42.9%) were not reported in the discharge summary. Of the 94 discharge summaries in charts with the patient's family physician listed on the facesheet, 38 (40.4%) were not received by the family physician. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable deficiencies in the completeness of the discharge summaries and the efficiency of the discharge summary system were found in the participating hospitals. Replication of this study in other settings

  20. Wind energy systems: program summary

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    The Federal Wind Energy Program (FWEP) was initiated to provide focus, direction and funds for the development of wind power. Each year a summary is prepared to provide the American public with an overview of government sponsored activities in the FWEP. This program summary describes each of the Department of Energy's (DOE) current wind energy projects initiated or renewed during FY 1979 (October 1, 1978 through September 30, 1979) and reflects their status as of April 30, 1980. The summary highlights on-going research, development and demonstration efforts and serves as a record of progress towards the program objectives. It also provides: the program's general management structure; review of last year's achievements; forecast of expected future trends; documentation of the projects conducted during FY 1979; and list of key wind energy publications.

  1. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Program: Summary of Building Envelope Retrofits, Planned HVAC Equipment Upgrades, and Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Wiehagen, J.; Del Bianco, M.; Mallay, D.

    2015-05-01

    In the fall of 2010, a multiyear pilot energy efficiency retrofit project was undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc, (GHI) a 1,566 home cooperative of circa 1930 and 1940 homes in Greenbelt, Maryland. GHI established this pilot project to serve as a basis for decision making for the rollout of a decade-long community-wide upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency improvements to the building envelope and mechanical equipment. It presents a unique opportunity to evaluate and prioritize the wide-range of benefits of high-performance retrofits based on member experience with and acceptance of the retrofit measures implemented during the pilot project. Addressing the complex interactions between benefits, trade-offs, construction methods, project management implications, realistic upfront costs, financing, and other considerations, serves as a case study for energy retrofit projects to include high-performance technologies based on the long-term value to the homeowner. The pilot project focused on identifying the added costs and energy savings benefits of improvements.

  2. Biomass energy systems program summary

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    Research programs in biomass which were funded by the US DOE during fiscal year 1978 are listed in this program summary. The conversion technologies and their applications have been grouped into program elements according to the time frame in which they are expected to enter the commercial market. (DMC)

  3. ACCEPTABILITY ENVELOPE FOR METAL HYDRIDE-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, B.; Corgnale, C.; Tamburello, D.; Garrison, S.; Anton, D.

    2011-07-18

    The design and evaluation of media based hydrogen storage systems requires the use of detailed numerical models and experimental studies, with significant amount of time and monetary investment. Thus a scoping tool, referred to as the Acceptability Envelope, was developed to screen preliminary candidate media and storage vessel designs, identifying the range of chemical, physical and geometrical parameters for the coupled media and storage vessel system that allow it to meet performance targets. The model which underpins the analysis allows simplifying the storage system, thus resulting in one input-one output scheme, by grouping of selected quantities. Two cases have been analyzed and results are presented here. In the first application the DOE technical targets (Year 2010, Year 2015 and Ultimate) are used to determine the range of parameters required for the metal hydride media and storage vessel. In the second case the most promising metal hydrides available are compared, highlighting the potential of storage systems, utilizing them, to achieve 40% of the 2010 DOE technical target. Results show that systems based on Li-Mg media have the best potential to attain these performance targets.

  4. Impact assessment and performance targets for lighting and envelope systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.; Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.

    1992-06-01

    Electric lighting loads and cooling from solar heat gains and from lights are the two largest components of peak demand in commercial buildings. The most cost effective demand side management solutions are generally those that directly reduce or eliminate these loads. Existing technologies can provide modest reductions, however they are typically applied an a piecemeal manner that yields less than optimal results. The full potential of existing technologies will be realized when they are commercially available in an integrated package easily specifiable by architects and engineers. Emerging technologies can also be developed to provide even greater savings and extend the savings over a greater portion of the building floor area. This report assesses achievable energy and peak demand performance in California commercial buildings with technologies available today and in the future. We characterize energy performance over a large range of building envelope and lighting conditions, both through computer simulation models and through case study measured data, and subsequently determine reasonable energy targets if building design were further optimized with integrated systems of current or new technologies. Energy targets are derived from the study after consideration of industry priorities, design constraints, market forces, energy code influence, and the state of current building stock.

  5. System Re-engineering Project Executive Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    Management Information System (STAMIS) application. This project involved reverse engineering, evaluation of structured design and object-oriented design, and re- implementation of the system in Ada. This executive summary presents the approach to re-engineering the system, the lessons learned while going through the process, and issues to be considered in future tasks of this nature.... Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE), Distributed Software, Ada, COBOL, Systems Analysis, Systems Design, Life Cycle Development, Functional Decomposition, Object-Oriented

  6. The 5-kwe reactor thermoelectric system summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanosdol, J. H. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    Design of the 5-kwe reactor thermoelectric system was initiated in February 1972 and extended through the conceptual design phase into the preliminary design phase. Design effort was terminated in January, 1973. This report documents the system and component requirements, design approaches, and performance and design characteristics for the 5-kwe system. Included is summary information on the reactor, radiation shields, power conversion systems, thermoelectric pump, radiator/structure, liquid metal components, and the control system.

  7. The resource envelope as a basis for space station management system scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Joy; Critchfield, Anna

    1987-01-01

    The Platform Management System (PMS) Resource Envelope Scheduling System (PRESS) expert system prototype developed for space station scheduling is described. The purpose of developing the prototype was too investigate the resource envelope concept in a practical scheduling application, using a commercially available expert system shell. PRESS is being developed on an IBM PC/AT using Teknowledge, Inc.'s M.1 expert system shell.

  8. Renewable Systems Interconnection: Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.; Margolis, R.; Kuswa, G.; Torres, J.; Bower, W.; Key, T.; Ton, D.

    2008-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy launched the Renewable Systems Interconnection (RSI) study in 2007 to address the challenges to high penetrations of distributed renewable energy technologies. The RSI study consists of 14 additional reports.

  9. Fluid management systems technology summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, J. A.; Blatt, M. H.; Bennett, F. O., Jr.; Campbell, B. J.

    1974-01-01

    A summarization and categorization of the pertinent literature associated with fluid management systems technology having potential application to in-orbit fluid transfer and/or associated storage are presented. A literature search was conducted to obtain pertinent documents for review. Reports determined to be of primary significance were summarized in the following manner: (1) report identification, (2) objective(s) of the work, (3) description of pertinent work performed, (4) major results, and (5) comments of the reviewer. Pertinent figures are presented on a single facing page separate from the text. Specific areas covered are: fluid line dynamics and thermodynamics, low-g mass gauging, other instrumentation, stratification/pressurization, low-g vent systems, fluid mixing refrigeration and reliquefaction, and low-g interface control and liquid acquisition systems. Reports which were reviewed and not summarized, along with reasons for not summarizing, are also listed.

  10. A comprehensive approach to integrated envelope and lighting systems for new commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.E.; Rubinstein, F.M.; Klems, J.H.; Beltran, L.O.; DiBartolomeo, D.L.

    1994-05-01

    The authors define a comprehensive approach to integrated envelope and lighting systems design as one that balances energy efficiency with an equal regard to the resultant environmental quality. By integrating envelope components (glazing, shading, and daylighting), lighting components (fixtures and controls) and building HVAC/energy management control systems, they create building systems that have the potential to achieve significant decreases in electricity consumption and peak demand while satisfying occupant physiological and psychological concerns. This paper presents results on the development, implementation, and demonstration of two specific integrated envelope and lighting systems: (1) a system emphasizing dynamic envelope components and responsive electric lighting systems, that offer the potential to achieve energy efficiency goals and a near optimum comfort environment throughout the year by adapting to meteorological conditions and occupant preferences in real time, and (2) perimeter daylighting systems that increase the depth of daylight penetration from sidelight windows and improves visual comfort with the use of a small inlet aperture. The energy performance of the systems was estimated using the DOE-2 building energy simulation program. Field tests with reduced scale models were conducted to determine daylighting and thermal performance in real time under actual weather conditions. Demonstrations of these integrated systems are being planned or are in progress in collaboration with utility programs to resolve real-world implementation issues under complex site, building, and cost constraints. Results indicate that integrated systems offer solutions that not only achieve significant peak demand reductions but also realize consistent energy savings with added occupant comfort and satisfaction.

  11. MAGNETIC FIELD STRUCTURE IN THE FLATTENED ENVELOPE AND JET IN THE YOUNG PROTOSTELLAR SYSTEM HH 211

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chin-Fei; Rao, Ramprasad; Hirano, Naomi; Ho, Paul T. P.; Hwang, Hsiang-Chih; Ching, Tao-Chung; Lai, Shih-Ping

    2014-12-10

    HH 211 is a young Class 0 protostellar system with a flattened envelope, a possible rotating disk, and a collimated jet. We have mapped it with the Submillimeter Array in the 341.6 GHz continuum and SiO J = 8-7 at ∼0.''6 resolution. The continuum traces the thermal dust emission in the flattened envelope and the possible disk. Linear polarization is detected in the continuum in the flattened envelope. The field lines implied from the polarization have different orientations, but they are not incompatible with current gravitational collapse models, which predict a different orientation depending on the region/distance. Also, we might have detected for the first time polarized SiO line emission in the jet due to the Goldreich-Kylafis effect. Observations at higher sensitivity are needed to determine the field morphology in the jet.

  12. Transportation systems analyses: Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-05-01

    The principal objective of this study is to accomplish a systems engineering assessment of the nation's space transportation infrastructure. This analysis addresses the necessary elements to perform man delivery and return, cargo transfer, cargo delivery, payload servicing, and the exploration of the Moon and Mars. Specific elements analyzed, but not limited to, include the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), the National Launch System (NLS), the current expendable launch vehicle (ELV) fleet, ground facilities, the Space Station Freedom (SSF), and other civil, military and commercial payloads. The performance of this study entails maintaining a broad perspective on the large number of transportation elements that could potentially comprise the U.S. space infrastructure over the next several decades. To perform this systems evaluation, top-level trade studies are conducted to enhance our understanding of the relationships between elements of the infrastructure. This broad 'infrastructure-level perspective' permits the identification of preferred infrastructures. Sensitivity analyses are performed to assure the credibility and usefulness of study results. This executive summary of the transportation systems analyses (TSM) semi-annual report addresses the SSF logistics resupply. Our analysis parallels the ongoing NASA SSF redesign effort. Therefore, there could be no SSF design to drive our logistics analysis. Consequently, the analysis attempted to bound the reasonable SSF design possibilities (and the subsequent transportation implications). No other strategy really exists until after a final decision is rendered on the SSF configuration.

  13. Evaluation of ISO CRS Envelopes Relative to U.S. Vehicles and Child Restraint Systems.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jingwen; Manary, Miriam A; Klinich, Kathleen D; Reed, Matthew P

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to use computer simulation to evaluate the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 13216-3:2006(E) child restraint system (CRS) envelopes relative to rear seat compartments from vehicles and CRSs in the U.S. market, investigate the potential compatibility issues of U.S. vehicles and CRSs, and demonstrate whether necessary modifications can be made to introduce such a system into compatibility evaluations between U.S. vehicles and CRSs. Three-dimensional geometry models for 26 vehicles and 16 convertible CRS designs developed previously were used. Geometry models of 3 forward-facing and 3 rear-facing CRS envelopes provided by the ISO were built in the current study. The virtual fit process closely followed the physical procedures described in the ISO standards. The results showed that the current ISO rear-facing envelopes can provide reasonable classifications for CRSs and vehicles, but the forward-facing envelopes do not represent products currently in the U.S. market. In particular, all of the selected vehicles could accommodate the largest forward-facing CRS envelope at the second-row seat location behind the driver seat. In contrast, half of the selected CRSs could not fit within any of the forward-facing ISO CRS envelopes, mainly due to protrusion at the rear-top corner of the envelope. The results also indicate that the rear seat compartment in U.S. vehicles often cannot accommodate a large portion of convertible CRSs in the rear-facing position. The increased demand for vehicle fuel economy and the recommendation to keep children rear-facing longer may lead to smaller cars and larger CRSs, which may increase the potential for fit problems. The virtual classifications indicated that contact between the forward-facing CRSs and the head restraints in the rear seats as well as that between the rear-facing CRSs and the back of the front seats is a main concern regarding the compatibility between the vehicles and the

  14. Automatic Summary Assessment for Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Yulan; Hui, Siu Cheung; Quan, Tho Thanh

    2009-01-01

    Summary writing is an important part of many English Language Examinations. As grading students' summary writings is a very time-consuming task, computer-assisted assessment will help teachers carry out the grading more effectively. Several techniques such as latent semantic analysis (LSA), n-gram co-occurrence and BLEU have been proposed to…

  15. Automatic Summary Assessment for Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Yulan; Hui, Siu Cheung; Quan, Tho Thanh

    2009-01-01

    Summary writing is an important part of many English Language Examinations. As grading students' summary writings is a very time-consuming task, computer-assisted assessment will help teachers carry out the grading more effectively. Several techniques such as latent semantic analysis (LSA), n-gram co-occurrence and BLEU have been proposed to…

  16. Integrated envelope and lighting systems for commercial buildings: a retrospective

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    1998-06-01

    Daylighting systems in use world-wide rarely capture the energy-savings predicted by simulation tools and that we believe are achievable in real buildings. One of the primary reasons for this is that window and lighting systems are not designed and operated as an integrated system. Our efforts over the last five years have been targeted toward (1) development and testing of new prototype systems that involve a higher degree of systems integration than has been typical in the past, and (2) addressing current design and technological barriers that are often missed with component-oriented research. We summarize the results from this body of cross-disciplinary research and discuss its effects on the existing and future practice of daylighting in commercial buildings.

  17. Artificial Immune System for Flight Envelope Estimation and Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-31

    Figure 1.7. AIS-Based ACM Process 31 Figure 1.8. AIS-Based ACM System Design 32 Figure 1.9. On-Line AC Detection... ACM ) based on the AIS paradigm can be considered to include three main components functionally connected in a closed loop as shown in Figure 1.7...off-line ACM system design and implementation  on-line AC detection, identification, evaluation, and accommodation  post-processing of flight data

  18. Automated Portable Test System (APTS) - A performance envelope assessment tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, R. S.; Dunlap, W. P.; Jones, M. B.; Wilkes, R. L.; Bittner, A. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The reliability and stability of microcomputer-based psychological tests are evaluated. The hardware, test programs, and system control of the Automated Portable Test System, which assesses human performance and subjective status, are described. Subjects were administered 11 pen-and-pencil and microcomputer-based tests for 10 sessions. The data reveal that nine of the 10 tests stabilized by the third administration; inertial correlations were high and consistent. It is noted that the microcomputer-based tests display good psychometric properties in terms of differential stability and reliability.

  19. Building thermal envelope systems and materials (BTESM) progress report for DOE Office of Buildings Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Burn, G.

    1990-10-01

    The Monthly Report of the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) Program is a monthly update of both in-house ORNL projects and subcontract activities in the research areas of building materials, wall systems, foundations, roofs, and building diagnostics. Presentations are not stand-alone paragraphs every month. Their principal values are the short-time lapse between accomplishment and reporting and their evolution over a period of several months.

  20. Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) and research utilization/technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Burn, G.

    1990-07-01

    The Monthly Report of the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) Programs is a monthly update of both in-house ORNL projects and subcontract activities in the research areas of building materials, wall systems, foundations, roofs, building diagnostics, and research utilization and technology transfer. Presentations are not stand-alone paragraphs every month. Their principal values are the short-time lapse between accomplishment and reporting and their evolution over a period of several months..

  1. Building thermal envelope systems and materials (BTESM) monthly progress report for DOE Office Buildings Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Burn, G.

    1990-11-01

    The Monthly Report of the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) Program is a monthly update of both in-house ORNL projects and subcontract activities in the research areas of building materials, wall systems, foundations, roofs, and building diagnostics. Presentations are not stand-alone paragraphs every month. Their principal values are the short-time lapse between accomplishment and reporting and their evolution over a period of several months.

  2. Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) progress report for DOE Office of Buildings Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Burn, G.

    1990-12-01

    The Monthly Report of the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) Program is a monthly update of both in-house ORNL projects and subcontract activities in the research areas of building materials, wall systems, foundations, roofs, and building diagnostics. Presentations are not stand-alone paragraphs every month. Their principal values are the short-time lapse between accomplishment and reporting and their evolution over a period of several months.

  3. Testing to expand the rotary mode core sampling system operating envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Witwer, K.S.

    1998-01-21

    Rotary sampling using the Rotary Mode Core Sampling System (RMCSS) is constrained by what is referred to as the ``Operating Envelope``. The Operating Envelop defines the maximum downward force, maximum rotational speed and minimum purge gas flow allowed during operation of the RMCSS. The original values of 1170 lb. down force, 55 RPM rotational speed, and 30 SCFM nitrogen purge gas were determined during original envelope testing. This envelope was determined by observing the temperature rise on the bitface while drilling into waste simulants. The maximum temperature in single-shell tanks (SSTS) is considered to be approximately 9O C and the critical drill bit temperature, which is the temperature at which an exothermic reaction could be initiated in the tank waste, was previously determined to be 150 C. Thus, the drill bit temperature increase was limited to 60 C. Thermal properties of these simulants approximated typical properties of waste tank saltcake. Later, more detailed envelope testing which used a pumice block simulant, showed a notably higher temperature rise while drilling. This pumice material, which simulated a ``worst case`` foreign object embedded in the waste, has lower thermal conductivity and lower thermal diffusivity than earlier simulants. These properties caused a slower heat transfer in the pumice than in the previous simulants and consequently a higher temperature rise. The maximum downward force was subsequently reduced to 750 lb (at a maximum 55 RPM and minimum 30 SCFM purge gas flow) which was the maximum value at which the drill bit could be operated and still remain below the 60 C temperature rise.

  4. Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Kimitaka

    2009-02-01

    In this presentation, lectures in the school are revisited and a brief summary is given. An emphasis is made to illustrate how the lectures are interconnected so as to constitute the unified basis of knowledge in realizing thermonuclear fusion in ITER. The first message here is the integration of the knowledge. All of conditions (which is imposed by individual characteristic dynamics) must be simultaneously fulfilled. Plasma conditions (density, pressure, current, shape, etc.) set parameter boundaries. Achievement of Q = 10 is expected to be realized near the ridge of boundary, so that exact knowledge of mutual relations between constraints is inevitable. The other message is that, the constraints of plasma, material and design must be subject to a special care. In this regard, the use of tritium in ITER introduces new issue in research. For instance, the containment of tritium in the device leads to a new demand for the system. This issue influences the choice of the wall material. The difference of the wall material (either light element or heavy metal), on the other hand, can have a large impact on confinement. These new features in integration will be explained. The other issue is the need of integration of knowledge to form a law of understanding. The mission of ITER must be realized as fast as possible, considering the fact the necessity for fusion energy will be more keen as time goes on. The operation of ITER has been predicted by extending the empirical scaling relations. More precise prediction and the resolution of possible problems in advance are required. For this urgency, our knowledge must be distilled as a scientific law in which elementary processes are validated.

  5. Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, Kimitaka

    2009-02-19

    In this presentation, lectures in the school are revisited and a brief summary is given. An emphasis is made to illustrate how the lectures are interconnected so as to constitute the unified basis of knowledge in realizing thermonuclear fusion in ITER.The first message here is the integration of the knowledge. All of conditions (which is imposed by individual characteristic dynamics) must be simultaneously fulfilled. Plasma conditions (density, pressure, current, shape, etc.) set parameter boundaries. Achievement of Q = 10 is expected to be realized near the ridge of boundary, so that exact knowledge of mutual relations between constraints is inevitable. The other message is that, the constraints of plasma, material and design must be subject to a special care. In this regard, the use of tritium in ITER introduces new issue in research. For instance, the containment of tritium in the device leads to a new demand for the system. This issue influences the choice of the wall material. The difference of the wall material (either light element or heavy metal), on the other hand, can have a large impact on confinement. These new features in integration will be explained.The other issue is the need of integration of knowledge to form a law of understanding. The mission of ITER must be realized as fast as possible, considering the fact the necessity for fusion energy will be more keen as time goes on. The operation of ITER has been predicted by extending the empirical scaling relations. More precise prediction and the resolution of possible problems in advance are required. For this urgency, our knowledge must be distilled as a scientific law in which elementary processes are validated.

  6. Programmed packaging of multicomponent envelope-type nanoparticle system for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzi, Daniela; Marianecci, Carlotta; Carafa, Maria; Marchini, Cristina; Montani, Maura; Amici, Augusto; Caracciolo, Giulio

    2010-05-01

    A programmed packaging strategy to develop a multicomponent envelope-type nanoparticle system (MENS) is presented. To this end, we took specific advantage of using in-house tailored liposomes that have been recently shown to exhibit intrinsic endosomal rupture properties that allow plasmid DNA to escape from endosomes and to enter the nucleus with extremely high efficiency. Transfection efficiency experiments on NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts indicate that MENS is a promising transfection candidate.

  7. Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habing, H.

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of conferences consist of subjective views of the reviewer, on what he remarked, of what he thought was important. And yet some of these remarks may be of interest to all participants. The event called "inspiration" may happen when scientist A gets an idea because of a brilliant or of stupid remark she heard when scientist B gave a summary. So, what is a good review? A review that broadens the perspective of at least some people in the audience. I hope that my attempt works. Let's see.

  8. Micro-total envelope system with silicon nanowire separator for safe carcinogenic chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajay K.; Ko, Dong-Hyeon; Vishwakarma, Niraj K.; Jang, Seungwook; Min, Kyoung-Ik; Kim, Dong-Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Exploration and expansion of the chemistries involving toxic or carcinogenic reagents are severely limited by the health hazards their presence poses. Here, we present a micro-total envelope system (μ-TES) and an automated total process for the generation of the carcinogenic reagent, its purification and its utilization for a desired synthesis that is totally enveloped from being exposed to the carcinogen. A unique microseparator is developed on the basis of SiNWs structure to replace the usual exposure-prone distillation in separating the generated reagent. Chloromethyl methyl ether chemistry is explored as a carcinogenic model in demonstrating the efficiency of the μ-TES that is fully automated so that feeding the ingredients for the generation is all it takes to produce the desired product. Syntheses taking days can be accomplished safely in minutes with excellent yields, which bodes well for elevating the carcinogenic chemistry to new unexplored dimensions. PMID:26916423

  9. Micro-total envelope system with silicon nanowire separator for safe carcinogenic chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajay K.; Ko, Dong-Hyeon; Vishwakarma, Niraj K.; Jang, Seungwook; Min, Kyoung-Ik; Kim, Dong-Pyo

    2016-02-01

    Exploration and expansion of the chemistries involving toxic or carcinogenic reagents are severely limited by the health hazards their presence poses. Here, we present a micro-total envelope system (μ-TES) and an automated total process for the generation of the carcinogenic reagent, its purification and its utilization for a desired synthesis that is totally enveloped from being exposed to the carcinogen. A unique microseparator is developed on the basis of SiNWs structure to replace the usual exposure-prone distillation in separating the generated reagent. Chloromethyl methyl ether chemistry is explored as a carcinogenic model in demonstrating the efficiency of the μ-TES that is fully automated so that feeding the ingredients for the generation is all it takes to produce the desired product. Syntheses taking days can be accomplished safely in minutes with excellent yields, which bodes well for elevating the carcinogenic chemistry to new unexplored dimensions.

  10. Systems Analysis Directorate Activities Summary, Aug 1976

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    official Department of the Army position. WARMINC Information and data contained in this document are based on input available at the time of...Technical Report No. AFATL-TR-75-74, J11EM, May 75, title: Summary of Electro-optical and Infrared Target Acquisition Field Test Data . d. Mathematical...use intervisibility results for the former situation because of the absence of trustworthy data pertinent to counterfire intervisibility. A number of

  11. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) privatization contractor samples waste envelope D material 241-C-106

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-04-14

    This report represents the Final Analytical Report on Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Contractor Samples for Waste Envelope D. All work was conducted in accordance with ''Addendum 1 of the Letter of Instruction (LOI) for TWRS Privatization Contractor Samples Addressing Waste Envelope D Materials - Revision 0, Revision 1, and Revision 2.'' (Jones 1996, Wiemers 1996a, Wiemers 1996b) Tank 241-C-1 06 (C-106) was selected by TWRS Privatization for the Part 1A Envelope D high-level waste demonstration. Twenty bottles of Tank C-106 material were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company using a grab sampling technique and transferred to the 325 building for processing by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). At the 325 building, the contents of the twenty bottles were combined into a single Initial Composite Material. This composite was subsampled for the laboratory-scale screening test and characterization testing, and the remainder was transferred to the 324 building for bench-scale preparation of the Privatization Contractor samples.

  12. An Envelope Based Feedback Control System for Earthquake Early Warning: Reality Check Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaton, T. H.; Karakus, G.; Beck, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    Earthquake early warning systems are, in general, designed to be open loop control systems in such a way that the output, i.e., the warning messages, only depend on the input, i.e., recorded ground motions, up to the moment when the message is issued in real-time. We propose an algorithm, which is called Reality Check Algorithm (RCA), which would assess the accuracy of issued warning messages, and then feed the outcome of the assessment back into the system. Then, the system would modify its messages if necessary. That is, we are proposing to convert earthquake early warning systems into feedback control systems by integrating them with RCA. RCA works by continuously monitoring and comparing the observed ground motions' envelopes to the predicted envelopes of Virtual Seismologist (Cua 2005). Accuracy of magnitude and location (both spatial and temporal) estimations of the system are assessed separately by probabilistic classification models, which are trained by a Sparse Bayesian Learning technique called Automatic Relevance Determination prior.

  13. Performance evaluation of CO-OFDM systems based on electrical constant-envelope signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Vinicius O. C.; Pereira, Ezequiel da V.; Rocha, Helder R. O.; Segatto, Marcelo E. V.; Silva, Jair A. L.

    2017-09-01

    The influence of the electrical phase modulation index h in the performance of constant-envelope orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CE-OFDM) in coherent detection optical systems is treated analytically and its range of validity examined by simulations. A compromise between h and subcarrier mapping is identified according to differences in sensitivity related to non-linearities inserted by the optical modulator. It is shown that the proposed scheme outperforms conventional coherent detection OFDM systems, which is strongly dependent on both phase and optical modulation indexes.

  14. Space Surveillance System Technical Summary Report No. 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1958-12-31

    CON SPACE SURVEILLAN ( TECHNICAL SUMMARY ARPA Order No. Applications Research December 31, 19 bitTrLaUT170AJ- Ld U. S. NAVAL RESEARCH Li Washinzton...31 DEC 1958 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-12-1958 to 00-12-1958 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Space Surveillance System Technical Summary Report...of what became the Naval Space Surveillance System. The descriptions and data were once classified, but have log since been unclassified. Additionally

  15. Development and Implementation of a Model-Driven Envelope Protection System for In-Flight Ice Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gingras, David R.; Barnhart, Billy P.; Martos, Borja; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Morelli, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Fatal loss-of-control (LOC) accidents have been directly related to in-flight airframe icing. The prototype system presented in this paper directly addresses the need for real-time onboard envelope protection in icing conditions. The combinations of a-priori information and realtime aerodynamic estimations are shown to provide sufficient input for determining safe limits of the flight envelope during in-flight icing encounters. The Icing Contamination Envelope Protection (ICEPro) system has been designed and implemented to identify degradations in airplane performance and flying qualities resulting from ice contamination and provide safe flight-envelope cues to the pilot. Components of ICEPro are described and results from preliminary tests are presented.

  16. A CRISPR-Cas system enhances envelope integrity mediating antibiotic resistance and inflammasome evasion

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Timothy R.; Napier, Brooke A.; Schroeder, Max R.; Louwen, Rogier; Zhao, Jinshi; Chin, Chui-Yoke; Ratner, Hannah K.; Llewellyn, Anna C.; Jones, Crystal L.; Laroui, Hamed; Merlin, Didier; Zhou, Pei; Endtz, Hubert P.; Weiss, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats–CRISPR associated (CRISPR-Cas) systems defend bacteria against foreign nucleic acids, such as during bacteriophage infection and transformation, processes which cause envelope stress. It is unclear if these machineries enhance membrane integrity to combat this stress. Here, we show that the Cas9-dependent CRISPR-Cas system of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Francisella novicida is involved in enhancing envelope integrity through the regulation of a bacterial lipoprotein. This action ultimately provides increased resistance to numerous membrane stressors, including antibiotics. We further find that this previously unappreciated function of Cas9 is critical during infection, as it promotes evasion of the host innate immune absent in melanoma 2/apoptosis associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (AIM2/ASC) inflammasome. Interestingly, the attenuation of the cas9 mutant is complemented only in mice lacking both the AIM2/ASC inflammasome and the bacterial lipoprotein sensor Toll-like receptor 2, but not in single knockout mice, demonstrating that Cas9 is essential for evasion of both pathways. These data represent a paradigm shift in our understanding of the function of CRISPR-Cas systems as regulators of bacterial physiology and provide a framework with which to investigate the roles of these systems in myriad bacteria, including pathogens and commensals. PMID:25024199

  17. A CRISPR-Cas system enhances envelope integrity mediating antibiotic resistance and inflammasome evasion.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Timothy R; Napier, Brooke A; Schroeder, Max R; Louwen, Rogier; Zhao, Jinshi; Chin, Chui-Yoke; Ratner, Hannah K; Llewellyn, Anna C; Jones, Crystal L; Laroui, Hamed; Merlin, Didier; Zhou, Pei; Endtz, Hubert P; Weiss, David S

    2014-07-29

    Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated (CRISPR-Cas) systems defend bacteria against foreign nucleic acids, such as during bacteriophage infection and transformation, processes which cause envelope stress. It is unclear if these machineries enhance membrane integrity to combat this stress. Here, we show that the Cas9-dependent CRISPR-Cas system of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Francisella novicida is involved in enhancing envelope integrity through the regulation of a bacterial lipoprotein. This action ultimately provides increased resistance to numerous membrane stressors, including antibiotics. We further find that this previously unappreciated function of Cas9 is critical during infection, as it promotes evasion of the host innate immune absent in melanoma 2/apoptosis associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (AIM2/ASC) inflammasome. Interestingly, the attenuation of the cas9 mutant is complemented only in mice lacking both the AIM2/ASC inflammasome and the bacterial lipoprotein sensor Toll-like receptor 2, but not in single knockout mice, demonstrating that Cas9 is essential for evasion of both pathways. These data represent a paradigm shift in our understanding of the function of CRISPR-Cas systems as regulators of bacterial physiology and provide a framework with which to investigate the roles of these systems in myriad bacteria, including pathogens and commensals.

  18. Measurement of reach envelopes with a four-camera Selective Spot Recognition (SELSPOT) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stramler, J. H., Jr.; Woolford, B. J.

    1983-01-01

    The basic Selective Spot Recognition (SELSPOT) system is essentially a system which uses infrared LEDs and a 'camera' with an infrared-sensitive photodetector, a focusing lens, and some A/D electronics to produce a digital output representing an X and Y coordinate for each LED for each camera. When the data are synthesized across all cameras with appropriate calibrations, an XYZ set of coordinates is obtained for each LED at a given point in time. Attention is given to the operating modes, a system checkout, and reach envelopes and software. The Video Recording Adapter (VRA) represents the main addition to the basic SELSPOT system. The VRA contains a microprocessor and other electronics which permit user selection of several options and some interaction with the system.

  19. Solar thermal power systems. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The work accomplished by the Aerospace Corporation from April 1973 through November 1979 in the mission analysis of solar thermal power systems is summarized. Sponsorship of this effort was initiated by the National Science Foundation, continued by the Energy Research and Development Administration, and most recently directed by the United States Department of Energy, Division of Solar Thermal Systems. Major findings and conclusions are sumarized for large power systems, small power systems, solar total energy systems, and solar irrigation systems, as well as special studies in the areas of energy storage, industrial process heat, and solar fuels and chemicals. The various data bases and computer programs utilized in these studies are described, and tables are provided listing financial and solar cost assumptions for each study. An extensive bibliography is included to facilitate review of specific study results and methodology.

  20. Mobile radio alternative systems study, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. E.; Cromwell, N.; Lester, H. L.

    1983-01-01

    Present day mobile communication technologies, systems and equipment are described from background in evaluating the concepts generated in the study. Average propagation ranges are calculated for terrestrial installations in each of seven physiographic areas of the contiguous states to determine the number of installations that would be required for nationwide coverage. Four system concepts are defined and analyzed to determine how well terrestrial systems can fulfill the requirements at acceptable costs.

  1. LACIE/ERIPS software system summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The Earth resources interactive processing system (ERIPS) supports LACIE by classifying LANDSAT sensed data on the basis of the statistical similarity to those portions which were identified by analysts. The development and capabilities of the ERIPS software system are described with emphasis on (1) system requirements; (2) LACIE/ERIPS hardware; (3) system functions; (4) pattern recognition concept; and (5) LACIE/ERIPS data bases. Algorithms used in LACIE/ERIPS for statistics, divergence, feature selection, classification, registration, adaptive clustering, iterative clustering, clustering report functions, Sun angle correction, mean level adjustment, and bias correction are appended.

  2. System analysis shows distinct mechanisms and common principles of nuclear envelope protein dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Zuleger, Nikolaj; Kelly, David A.; Richardson, A. Christine; Kerr, Alastair R. W.; Goldberg, Martin W.; Goryachev, Andrew B.

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear envelope contains >100 transmembrane proteins that continuously exchange with the endoplasmic reticulum and move within the nuclear membranes. To better understand the organization and dynamics of this system, we compared the trafficking of 15 integral nuclear envelope proteins using FRAP. A surprising 30-fold range of mobilities was observed. The dynamic behavior of several of these proteins was also analyzed after depletion of ATP and/or Ran, two functions implicated in endoplasmic reticulum–inner nuclear membrane translocation. This revealed that ATP- and Ran-dependent translocation mechanisms are distinct and not used by all inner nuclear membrane proteins. The Ran-dependent mechanism requires the phenylalanine-glycine (FG)-nucleoporin Nup35, which is consistent with use of the nuclear pore complex peripheral channels. Intriguingly, the addition of FGs to membrane proteins reduces FRAP recovery times, and this also depends on Nup35. Modeling of three proteins that were unaffected by either ATP or Ran depletion indicates that the wide range in mobilities could be explained by differences in binding affinities in the inner nuclear membrane. PMID:21444689

  3. Antigenic properties of the envelope of influenza virus rendered soluble by surfactant-solvent systems

    PubMed Central

    Larin, N. M.; Gallimore, P. H.

    1971-01-01

    Dissociating chemical treatments employing surfactant-solvent systems were applied to purified influenza A and B viruses to obtain viral preparations possessing a significantly higher or lower haemagglutinating activity than the intact virus. All preparations, whether with high or low haemagglutinating activity, with the exception of envelope protein solubilized by Triton X-100, were significantly lacking in the ability to excite the formation of haemagglutination-inhibiting and virus-neutralizing antibodies in inoculated ferrets. In contrast to other treatments, Triton X-100 treatment of virus significantly enhanced the antigenicity of viral protein as judged by virus neutralization and haemagglutination inhibition tests. Yet the haemagglutinating activity of the envelope protein solubilized with Triton X-100 was about 1% that of the intact virus. Results suggest that the correlation assumed to exist between the haemagglutinating activity of influenza virus and its ability to excite the formation of humoral antibodies is coincidental. Another important point is that the specific antigenicity of viral protein may be lost or enhanced owing to effects, other than solubilization, by surface-active agents. PMID:5291750

  4. Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    An effective risk assessment system is needed to address the threat posed by an active or passive insider who, acting alone or in collusion, could attempt diversion or theft of nuclear material. The material control and accountability (MC&A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) is a self-assessment or inspection tool utilizing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology to calculate the system effectiveness of a nuclear facility's material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system. The MSET process is divided into four distinct and separate parts: (1) Completion of the questionnaire that assembles information about the operations of every aspect of the MPC&A system; (2) Conversion of questionnaire data into numeric values associated with risk; (3) Analysis of the numeric data utilizing the MPC&A fault tree and the SAPHIRE computer software; and (4) Self-assessment using the MSET reports to perform the effectiveness evaluation of the facility's MPC&A system. The process should lead to confirmation that mitigating features of the system effectively minimize the threat, or it could lead to the conclusion that system improvements or upgrades are necessary to achieve acceptable protection against the threat. If the need for system improvements or upgrades is indicated when the system is analyzed, MSET provides the capability to evaluate potential or actual system improvements or upgrades. A facility's MC&A system can be evaluated at a point in time. The system can be reevaluated after upgrades are implemented or after other system changes occur. The total system or specific subareas within the system can be evaluated. Areas of potential system improvement can be assessed to determine where the most beneficial and cost-effective improvements should be made. Analyses of risk importance factors show that sustainability is essential for optimal performance and reveals where performance degradation has the greatest impact on total system risk. The risk

  5. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Cortical Processing of Dynamic Sound Envelope Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2012-01-01

    Slow envelope fluctuations in the range of 2-20Hz provide important segmental cues for processing communication sounds. For a successful segmentation, a neural processor must capture envelope features associated with the rise and fall of signal energy, a process that is often challenged by the interference of background noise. This study investigated the neural representations of slowly varying envelopes in quiet and in background noise in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of awake marmoset monkeys. We characterized envelope features based on the local average and rate of change of sound level in envelope waveforms and identified envelope features to which neurons were selective by reverse correlation. Our results showed that envelope feature selectivity of A1 neurons was correlated with the degree of non-monotonicity in their static rate-level functions. Non-monotonic neurons exhibited greater feature selectivity than monotonic neurons in quiet and in background noise. The diverse envelope feature selectivity decreased spike-timing correlation among A1 neurons in response to the same envelope waveforms. As a result, the variability, but not the average, of the ensemble responses of A1 neurons represented more faithfully the dynamic transitions in low-frequency sound envelopes both in quiet and in background noise. PMID:21148013

  6. Human Transportation System (HTS) study: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, N.; Geyer, M. S.; Gaunce, M. T.

    1993-01-01

    Work completed under the Human Transportation System Study is summarized. This study was conducted by the New Initiatives Office at JSC with the technical support of Boeing, General Dynamics, Lockheed, McDonnell-Douglas, Martin Marietta, and Rockwell. The study was designed to generate information on determining the appropriate path to follow for new system development to meet the Nation's space transportation needs. The study evaluates 18 transportation architecture options using a parametric set of mission requirements. These options include use of current systems as well as proposed systems to assess the impact of various considerations, such as the cost of alternate access, or the benefit of separating people and cargo. The architecture options are compared to each other with six measurable evaluation criteria or attributes. They are the following: funding profile, human safety, probability of mission success, architecture cost risk, launch schedule confidence, and environmental impact. Values for these attributes are presented for the architecture options, with pertinent conclusions and recommendations.

  7. A summary of systems definition project activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, G. J.; Biringer, K. L.

    1978-01-01

    Design information and subsystem requirement definition to the overall program is presented. Application analysis and conceptual design for the wide variety of systems, system tradeoff studies and engineering design for the more promising application types, and the identification of the technology status and requirements for major subsystems and components are described. The residential design and analysis contracts, hybrid photovoltaic/solar thermal electric conversion contract, and development of prototype combined photovoltaic/thermal flat-plate collectors were studied.

  8. A summary of systems definition project activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, G. J.; Biringer, K. L.

    1978-01-01

    Design information and subsystem requirement definition to the overall program is presented. Application analysis and conceptual design for the wide variety of systems, system tradeoff studies and engineering design for the more promising application types, and the identification of the technology status and requirements for major subsystems and components are described. The residential design and analysis contracts, hybrid photovoltaic/solar thermal electric conversion contract, and development of prototype combined photovoltaic/thermal flat-plate collectors were studied.

  9. Titan 3E/Centaur D-1T Systems Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A systems and operational summary of the Titan 3E/Centaur D-1T program is presented which describes vehicle assembly facilities, launch facilities, and management responsibilities, and also provides detailed information on the following separate systems: (1) mechanical systems, including structural components, insulation, propulsion units, reaction control, thrust vector control, hydraulic systems, and pneumatic equipment; (2) astrionics systems, such as instrumentation and telemetry, navigation and guidance, C-Band tracking system, and range safety command system; (3) digital computer unit software; (4) flight control systems; (5) electrical/electronic systems; and (6) ground support equipment, including checkout equipment.

  10. Pentek concrete scabbling system: Baseline report; Summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek concrete scabbling system consists of the MOOSE{reg_sign} scabbler, the SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-I and SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-III scabblers, and VAC-PAC. The scabblers are designed to scarify concrete floors and slabs using cross section, tungsten carbide tipped bits. The bits are designed to remove concrete in 3/8 inch increments. The bits are either 9-tooth or demolition type. The scabblers are used with a vacuum system designed to collect and filter the concrete dust and contamination that is removed from the surface. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  11. Satellite communications systems and technology. Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, Burton I.; Pelton, Joseph N.; Bostian, Charles W.; Brandon, William T.; Chan, Vincent W. S.; Hager, E. Paul; Helm, Neil R.; Jennings, Raymond D.; Kwan, Robert; Mahle, Christoph E.

    1993-01-01

    NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF) commissioned a panel of US experts to study the international status of satellite communications systems and technology. The study covers emerging systems concepts, applications, services, and the attendant technologies. The panel members travelled to Europe, Japan, and Russia to gather information first-hand. They visited 17 sites in Europe, 20 sites in Japan, and four in Russia. These included major manufacturers, government organizations, service providers, and associated R&D facilities. The panel's report was reviewed by the sites visited, by the panel, and by representatives of US industry. The report details the information collected and compares it to US activities.

  12. Satellite communications systems and technology. Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelson, Burton I.; Pelton, Joseph N.; Bostian, Charles W.; Brandon, William T.; Chan, Vincent W. S.; Hager, E. Paul; Helm, Neil R.; Jennings, Raymond D.; Kwan, Robert; Mahle, Christoph E.

    1993-07-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) commissioned a panel of U.S. experts to study the international status of satellite communications systems and technology. The study covers emerging systems concepts, applications, services, and the attendant technologies. The panel members travelled to Europe, Japan, and Russia to gather information first-hand; they visited 17 sites in Europe, 20 sites in Japan, and four in Russia. These included major manufacturers, government organizations, service providers, and associated R&D facilities. The panel's report was reviewed by the sites visited, by the panel, and by representatives of U.S. industry. The report details the information collected and compares it to U.S. activities.

  13. High voltage system: Plasma interaction summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. John

    1986-01-01

    The possible interactions that could exist between a high voltage system and the space plasma environment are reviewed. A solar array is used as an example of such a system. The emphasis in this review is on the discrepancies that exist in this technology in both flight and ground experiment data. It has been found that, in ground testing, there are facility effects, cell size effects and area scaling uncertainties. For space applications there are area scaling and discharge concerns for an array as well as the influence of the large space structures on the collection process. There are still considerable uncertainties in the high voltage-space plasma interaction technology even after several years of effort.

  14. Communications Processor Operating System Study. Executive Summary,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    responsible for converting the logical address entered by the programmer into the physical address where the data is stored . Most major computer...Thus, the system must act on behalf of the program to locate stored data and, therefore, has the inherent capability of mediating these accesses. A...and data encryption hardware. Since the UDS will include a store -and-forward message switching capa- bility, some secondary storage space will be

  15. Satellite freeze forecast system: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martsolf, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    A satellite-based temperature monitoring and prediction system consisting of a computer controlled acquisition, processing, and display system and the ten automated weather stations called by that computer was developed and transferred to the national weather service. This satellite freeze forecasting system (SFFS) acquires satellite data from either one of two sources, surface data from 10 sites, displays the observed data in the form of color-coded thermal maps and in tables of automated weather station temperatures, computes predicted thermal maps when requested and displays such maps either automatically or manually, archives the data acquired, and makes comparisons with historical data. Except for the last function, SFFS handles these tasks in a highly automated fashion if the user so directs. The predicted thermal maps are the result of two models, one a physical energy budget of the soil and atmosphere interface and the other a statistical relationship between the sites at which the physical model predicts temperatures and each of the pixels of the satellite thermal map.

  16. Definition and means of maintaining the emergency notification and evacuation system portion of the Plutonium Finishing Plant safety envelope

    SciTech Connect

    White, W.F.

    1997-04-21

    The Emergency Evacuation and Notification System provides information to the PFP Building Emergency Director to assist in determining appropriate emergency response, notifies personnel of the required response, and assists in their response. The report identifies the equipment in the Safety Envelope (SE) for this System and the Administrative, Maintenance, and Surveillance Procedures used to maintain the SE Equipment.

  17. Definition and means of maintaining the emergency notification and evacuation system portion of the plutonium finishing plant safety envelope

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, W.F.

    1999-05-20

    The Emergency Evacuation and Notification System provides information to the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Building Emergency Director to assist in determining appropriate emergency response, notifies personnel of the required response, and assists in their response. The report identifies the equipment in the Safety Envelope (SE) for this System and the Administrative, Maintenance, and Surveillance Procedures used to maintain the SE Equipment.

  18. STARPAHC systems report. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A joint NASA and Department of Health, Education, and Welfare/Indian Health Services demonstration project entitled Space Technology Applied to Rural Papago Advanced Health Care (STARPAHC) was conducted to develop a solution for delivering quality health care to people in remote geographical areas. The STARPAHC concept verified the feasibility of telemedicine plus physician assistant - under the direction of a physician as a means of delivering quality health care. The two years of operational evaluation have provided considerable medical and engineering data which will be valuable to the designers and planners of future health care systems on earth and in space.

  19. Innovative technology summary report: Transportable vitrification system

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    At the end of the cold war, many of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) major nuclear weapons facilities refocused their efforts on finding technically sound, economic, regulatory compliant, and stakeholder acceptable treatment solutions for the legacy of mixed wastes they had produced. In particular, an advanced stabilization process that could effectively treat the large volumes of settling pond and treatment sludges was needed. Based on this need, DOE and its contractors initiated in 1993 the EM-50 sponsored development effort required to produce a deployable mixed waste vitrification system. As a consequence, the Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) effort was undertaken with the primary requirement to develop and demonstrate the technology and associated facility to effectively vitrify, for compliant disposal, the applicable mixed waste sludges and solids across the various DOE complex sites. After 4 years of development testing with both crucible and pilot-scale melters, the TVS facility was constructed by Envitco, evaluated and demonstrated with surrogates, and then successfully transported to the ORNL ETTP site and demonstrated with actual mixed wastes in the fall of 1997. This paper describes the technology, its performance, the technology applicability and alternatives, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned.

  20. Summary of photovoltaic system performance models

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J. H.; Reiter, L. J.

    1984-01-15

    The purpose of this study is to provide a detailed overview of photovoltaics (PV) performance modeling capabilities that have been developed during recent years for analyzing PV system and component design and policy issues. A set of 10 performance models have been selected which span a representative range of capabilities from generalized first-order calculations to highly specialized electrical network simulations. A set of performance modeling topics and characteristics is defined and used to examine some of the major issues associated with photovoltaic performance modeling. Next, each of the models is described in the context of these topics and characteristics to assess its purpose, approach, and level of detail. Then each of the issues is discussed in terms of the range of model capabilities available and summarized in tabular form for quick reference. Finally, the models are grouped into categories to illustrate their purposes and perspectives.

  1. Summary of photovoltaic system performance models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. H.; Reiter, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed overview of photovoltaics (PV) performance modeling capabilities developed for analyzing PV system and component design and policy issues is provided. A set of 10 performance models are selected which span a representative range of capabilities from generalized first order calculations to highly specialized electrical network simulations. A set of performance modeling topics and characteristics is defined and used to examine some of the major issues associated with photovoltaic performance modeling. Each of the models is described in the context of these topics and characteristics to assess its purpose, approach, and level of detail. The issues are discussed in terms of the range of model capabilities available and summarized in tabular form for quick reference. The models are grouped into categories to illustrate their purposes and perspectives.

  2. Design of Training Systems Phase I Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, William H.; And Others

    A summary is provided of the status of Phase I of the three-stage project, "Design of Training Systems" (DOTS). The purpose of the overall project is described as being to introduce the technologies of education, psychology, management and operations research into the management of Navy training. Phase I of the effort is designed to…

  3. Envelope pulsed ultrasonic distance measurement system based upon amplitude modulation and phase modulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y P; Wang, J S; Huang, K N; Ho, C T; Huang, J D; Young, M S

    2007-06-01

    A novel microcomputer-based ultrasonic distance measurement system is presented. This study proposes an efficient algorithm which combines both the amplitude modulation (AM) and the phase modulation (PM) of the pulse-echo technique. The proposed system can reduce error caused by inertia delay and amplitude attenuation effect when using the AM and PM envelope square wave form (APESW). The APESW ultrasonic driving wave form causes a phase inversion phenomenon in the relative wave form of the receiver. The phase inversion phenomenon sufficiently identifies the "measurement pulse" in the received wave forms, which can be used for accurate time-of-flight (TOF) measurement. In addition, combining a countertechnique to compute the phase shifts of the last cycle for TOF, the presented system can obtain distance resolution of 0.1% of the wavelength corresponding to the 40 kHz frequency of the ultrasonic wave. The standard uncertainty of the proposed distance measurement system is found to be 0.2 mm at a range of 50-500 mm. The APESW signal generator and phase detector of this measuring system are designed on a complex programmable logic device, which is used to govern the TOF measurement and send the data to a personal computer for distance calibration and examination. The main advantages of this APESW system are high resolution, low cost, narrow bandwidth requirement, and ease of implementation.

  4. Envelope pulsed ultrasonic distance measurement system based upon amplitude modulation and phase modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y. P.; Wang, J. S.; Huang, K. N.; Ho, C. T.; Huang, J. D.; Young, M. S.

    2007-06-15

    A novel microcomputer-based ultrasonic distance measurement system is presented. This study proposes an efficient algorithm which combines both the amplitude modulation (AM) and the phase modulation (PM) of the pulse-echo technique. The proposed system can reduce error caused by inertia delay and amplitude attenuation effect when using the AM and PM envelope square wave form (APESW). The APESW ultrasonic driving wave form causes a phase inversion phenomenon in the relative wave form of the receiver. The phase inversion phenomenon sufficiently identifies the ''measurement pulse'' in the received wave forms, which can be used for accurate time-of-flight (TOF) measurement. In addition, combining a countertechnique to compute the phase shifts of the last cycle for TOF, the presented system can obtain distance resolution of 0.1% of the wavelength corresponding to the 40 kHz frequency of the ultrasonic wave. The standard uncertainty of the proposed distance measurement system is found to be 0.2 mm at a range of 50-500 mm. The APESW signal generator and phase detector of this measuring system are designed on a complex programmable logic device, which is used to govern the TOF measurement and send the data to a personal computer for distance calibration and examination. The main advantages of this APESW system are high resolution, low cost, narrow bandwidth requirement, and ease of implementation.

  5. A summary of Michigan program for earth resource information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    A summary and guide to the development of earth resources information systems which employ multispectral remote sensing are reported. Major areas of activities center on improved throughput parallel processing systems, improved processing techniques, practical use of techniques in user applications, and improved sensors. Cost effectiveness considerations point to signature extension, parallel processing all-digital computers, and airborne multispectral imaging radar as some of the improvement technologies.

  6. [Basic types of respiratory system structure in insect egg envelopes, and genes controlling their formation].

    PubMed

    Omelina, E S; Baricheva, É M; Fedorova, E V

    2012-01-01

    Insects is a taxon surprisingly rich with species and varieties, and its representatives are considered as the most fitted and "evolutionary successful" living things. Insects are distinguished by diversity and abundance of adaptations to environmental conditions, representatives of this class inhabit different ecological niches, they can be found practically in every corner of the Earth and, in particular, in close adjacency to man. Among them are those who man benefits from and those who man struggles against. This determines man's interest in studying peculiarities of their development as well as adaptations formed by them in the course of evolution to become more viable. In the paper, data are presented on morphological structure of respiratory systems in insect egg envelopes that ensure respiration process of developing embryo. Variability of these systems and their dependence on environmental conditions are demonstrated for different insect species. The information about genes controlling development of respiratory systems in fruit fly eggs is brought together, and occurrence of evolutionary conservative genes participating in development of such systems in other insect species is ascertained.

  7. Extension to distributed annotation system: Summary and summaryplot commands.

    PubMed

    Chrysostomou, Charalambos; Brookes, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the development of high-throughput sequencing technologies provided an effective way to generate data from entire genomes and test variants from thousands of individuals. The information acquired from analysing the data generated from high-throughput sequencing technologies provided useful insights into applications like whole-exome sequencing and targeted sequencing to discover the genetic cause of complex diseases and drug responses. The Distributed Annotation System (DAS) is one of the proposed solution developed to share and unify biological data from multiple local and remote DAS annotation servers. The researchers can use DAS to request data from federated or centralised databases and integrate them into a unified view. Furthermore, with the use of Reference DAS servers, structural and sequence data can be used to accompany annotation data, for the pursue of new knowledge for a particular feature or region. In this paper, two additional commands, summary and summary-plot commands, to the existing DAS protocol are proposed and implemented. The proposed commands were created in order to give the users the capabilities to request a summary of features for a particular region of interest. The summary command was created in order to extend the capabilities of the current DAS protocol, while the summaryplot command was created to provide a more user-friendly alternative to standard XML DAS responses. Finally, three examples are presented based on the GENCODE annotation data.

  8. Definition and Means of Maintaining the Emergency Notification and Evacuation System Portion of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Safety Envelope

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, W.F.

    2000-04-04

    The purpose of this document is to provide the definition and means of maintaining the safety envelope (SE) for the Emergency Notification and Evacuation System (ENES). Together with the appendices, it provides: (1) The system requirements for determining system operability (Section 3.0); (2) Evaluations of equipment to determine the safety boundary for the system (Section 4.0); (3) List of system drawings that are annotated to show the SE boundaries (Appendix A); (4) Identification of the SE equipment by reference to systems and drawings (Appendix B); (5) Requirements for the individual SE equipment (Section 4.0); and (6) A list of the operational and surveillance procedures necessary to operate and maintain the system equipment within the SE (Sections 5.0 and 6.0). The Private Automatic Exchange (PAX) phones and PAX switchers are outside the safety envelope defined in WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010, Section 5.4.10, ''Safety Communication and Alarm Systems,'' Section 5.4.1 0.1, ''Major Components and Operating Characteristics,'' and Section 5.4.10.1.12, ''PAX System.'' The PAX override microphone system maintains the safety envelope, and functions as a backup to the evacuation sirens during an emergency.

  9. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Feasibility analyses and systems engineering studies for a 20,000 tons per day medium Btu (MBG) coal gasification plant to be built by TVA in Northern Alabama were conducted. Major objectives were as follows: (1) provide design and cost data to support the selection of a gasifier technology and other major plant design parameters, (2) provide design and cost data to support alternate product evaluation, (3) prepare a technology development plan to address areas of high technical risk, and (4) develop schedules, PERT charts, and a work breakdown structure to aid in preliminary project planning. Volume one contains a summary of gasification system characterizations. Five gasification technologies were selected for evaluation: Koppers-Totzek, Texaco, Lurgi Dry Ash, Slagging Lurgi, and Babcock and Wilcox. A summary of the trade studies and cost sensitivity analysis is included.

  10. The SignOut Discharge Summary System: using workflow byproducts to pre-populate and assemble discharge summaries.

    PubMed

    Kannry, Joseph; Bilumane, Preetham; Goldenberg, Jill

    2011-01-01

    At the time of hospital discharge, communication between inpatient and outpatient physicians is poor. Multiple studies demonstrate that discharge summaries, a means of improving information exchange between inpatient and outpatient providers, are frequently not available to the outpatient provider at the time of the post discharge visit. We have constructed a web-based solution for generating discharge summaries, SignOut Discharge Summary System (SDSS) which uses the workflow byproduct of SignOut data to pre-populate summaries, a post-discharge preparation module to ensure quality, a discharge edit module to designate accurate discharge summary assignment, and integration with HIM. SDSS had 1130 unique users in a recent period and captured signout information for 75% of hospitalized patients. The system has generated 78740 D/C summaries for 17 specialties since going live July 2005. Overall SDSS is responsible for 69% of all hospital discharge summaries and SDSS discharge summaries on average are available 1.91 days after discharge.

  11. Circuitry linking the global Csr and σ(E)-dependent cell envelope stress response systems.

    PubMed

    Yakhnin, Helen; Aichele, Robert; Ades, Sarah E; Romeo, Tony; Babitzke, Paul

    2017-09-18

    CsrA of Escherichia coli is an RNA-binding protein that globally regulates a wide variety of cellular processes and behaviors including carbon metabolism, motility, biofilm formation, and the stringent response. CsrB and CsrC are sRNAs that sequester CsrA, thereby preventing CsrA-mRNA interaction. RpoE (σ(E)) is the extracytoplasmic stress response sigma factor of E. coli Previous RNA-seq studies identified rpoE mRNA as a CsrA target. Here we explored the regulation of rpoE by CsrA and found that CsrA represses rpoE translation. Gel mobility shift, footprint and toeprint studies identified three CsrA binding sites in the rpoE leader transcript, one of which overlaps the rpoE Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence, while another overlaps the rpoE translation initiation codon. Coupled in vitro transcription-translation experiments showed that CsrA represses rpoE translation by binding to these sites. We further demonstrate that σ(E) indirectly activates transcription of csrB and csrC, leading to increased sequestration of CsrA such that repression of rpoE by CsrA is reduced. We propose that the Csr system fine-tunes the σ(E)-dependent cell envelope stress response. We also identified a 51 amino acid coding sequence whose stop codon overlaps the rpoE start codon, and demonstrate that rpoE is translationally coupled with this upstream open reading frame (ORF51). Loss of coupling reduces rpoE translation by more than 50%. Identification of a translationally coupled ORF upstream of rpoE suggests that this previously unannotated protein may participate in the cell envelope stress response. In keeping with existing nomenclature, we name ORF51 as rseD, resulting in an operon arrangement of rseD-rpoE-rseA-rseB-rseCIMPORTANCE CsrA posttranscriptionally represses genes required for bacterial stress responses, including the stringent response, catabolite repression, and the RpoS (σ(S))-mediated general stress response. We show that CsrA represses translation of rpoE, encoding the

  12. Summary of NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle; Odonnell, Patricia

    1994-01-01

    A summary of NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program Activities is presented. The NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program represents a unified NASA wide effort with the overall objective of providing NASA with the policy and posture which will increase the safety, performance, and reliability of space power systems. The specific objectives of the program are to: enhance cell/battery safety and reliability; maintain current battery technology; increase fundamental understanding of primary and secondary cells; provide a means to bring forth advanced technology for flight use; assist flight programs in minimizing battery technology related flight risks; and ensure that safe, reliable batteries are available for NASA's future missions.

  13. Cell Walls and the Convergent Evolution of the Viral Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Buchmann, Jan P.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Why some viruses are enveloped while others lack an outer lipid bilayer is a major question in viral evolution but one that has received relatively little attention. The viral envelope serves several functions, including protecting the RNA or DNA molecule(s), evading recognition by the immune system, and facilitating virus entry. Despite these commonalities, viral envelopes come in a wide variety of shapes and configurations. The evolution of the viral envelope is made more puzzling by the fact that nonenveloped viruses are able to infect a diverse range of hosts across the tree of life. We reviewed the entry, transmission, and exit pathways of all (101) viral families on the 2013 International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) list. By doing this, we revealed a strong association between the lack of a viral envelope and the presence of a cell wall in the hosts these viruses infect. We were able to propose a new hypothesis for the existence of enveloped and nonenveloped viruses, in which the latter represent an adaptation to cells surrounded by a cell wall, while the former are an adaptation to animal cells where cell walls are absent. In particular, cell walls inhibit viral entry and exit, as well as viral transport within an organism, all of which are critical waypoints for successful infection and spread. Finally, we discuss how this new model for the origin of the viral envelope impacts our overall understanding of virus evolution. PMID:26378223

  14. Recommended electromagnetic operating envelopes for safety-related I and C systems in nuclear power plants: Draft report for comment

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, P.D.; Wood, R.T.

    1997-12-01

    This document presents recommendations for electromagnetic operating envelopes to augment test criteria and test methods addressing electromagnetic interference (EMI), radio-frequency interference (RFI), and power surges that are applicable to safety-related instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was engaged by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research to assist in developing the technical basis for regulatory guidance on EMI/RFI immunity and power surge withstand capability (SWC). Previous research has provided recommendations on electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) design and installation practices, endorsement of EMI/RFI immunity and SWC test criteria and test methods, and determination of ambient electromagnetic conditions at nuclear power plants. The present research involves development of recommended electromagnetic envelopes that are applicable to nuclear power plant locations where safety-related I and C systems either are or may be installed. These recommended envelopes establish both emissions criteria and the levels of radiated and conducted interference that I and C systems should be able to withstand without upset or malfunction. The EMI/RFI operating envelopes are derived from conditions in comparable military environments and are confirmed by comparison with the nuclear power plant electromagnetic environment based on measured plant emissions profiles. Detailed information on specific power surge conditions in nuclear power plants is not available, so industrial guidance on representative surge characteristics for susceptibility testing is adopted. An engineering assessment of the power surge environment in nuclear power plants leads to the recommendation of operating envelopes based on location categories and exposure levels defined in IEEE Std C62.41-1991, IEEE Recommended Practice on Surge Voltages in Low-Voltage AC Power Circuits.

  15. A CHANGE OF ROTATION PROFILE IN THE ENVELOPE IN THE HH 111 PROTOSTELLAR SYSTEM: A TRANSITION TO A DISK?

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chin-Fei

    2010-12-10

    The HH 111 protostellar system consists of two Class I sources (VLA 1 and 2) with putative disks deeply embedded in a flattened envelope at a distance of 400 pc. A follow-up study of this system in C{sup 18}O (J = 2-1), SO (N{sub J} = 5{sub 6}-4{sub 5}), and 1.33 mm continuum at {approx}1'' (400 AU) resolution is performed, and it may show for the first time how a rotationally supported disk can be formed inside an infalling envelope. The 1.33 mm continuum emission is seen arising from both sources, likely tracing the dusty putative disks around them. In particular, the emission around the VLA 1 source is elongated in the equatorial plane with a radius of {approx}300 AU. The envelope is well seen in C{sup 18}O, extending to {approx}7000 AU out from the VLA 1 source, with the innermost part overlapping with the dusty disk. It has a differential rotation, with the outer part ({approx}2000-7000 AU) better described by a rotation that has constant specific angular momentum and the inner part ({approx}60-2000 AU) by a Keplerian rotation. The envelope seems to also have some infall motion that is smaller than the rotation motion. Thus, the material in the outer part of the envelope seems to be slowly spiraling inward with its angular momentum and the rotation can indeed become Keplerian in the inner part. A compact SO emission is seen around the VLA 1 source with a radius of {approx}400 AU and it may trace a shock such as an (inner) accretion shock around the disk.

  16. Confined Phase Envelope of Gas-Condensate Systems in Shale Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Stanislaw; Siemek, Jakub

    2014-12-01

    Natural gas from shales (NGS) and from tight rocks are one of the most important fossil energy resource in this and next decade. Significant increase in gas consumption, in all world regions, will be marked in the energy sector. The exploration of unconventional natural gas & oil reservoirs has been discussed recently in many conferences. This paper describes the complex phenomena related to the impact of adsorption and capillary condensation of gas-condensate systems in nanopores. New two phase saturation model and new algorithm for search capillary condensation area is discussed. The algorithm is based on the Modified Tangent Plane Criterion for Capillary Condensation (MTPCCC) is presented. The examples of shift of phase envelopes are presented for selected composition of gas-condensate systems. Gaz ziemny z łupków (NGS) oraz z ze złóż niskoprzepuszczalnych (typu `tight') staje się jednym z najważniejszych zasobów paliw kopalnych, w tym i następnym dziesięcioleciu. Znaczący wzrost zużycia gazu we wszystkich regionach świata zaznacza się głównie w sektorze energetycznym. Rozpoznawanie niekonwencjonalnych złóż gazu ziemnego i ropy naftowej w ostatnim czasie jest omawiane w wielu konferencjach. Niniejszy artykuł opisuje złożone zjawiska związane z wpływem adsorpcji i kapilarnej kondensacji w nanoporach w złożach gazowo-kondensatowych. Pokazano nowy dwufazowy model równowagowy dwufazowy i nowy algorytm wyznaczania krzywej nasycenia w obszarze kondensacji kapilarnej. Algorytm bazuje na kryterium zmodyfikowanym płaszczyzny stycznej dla kapilarnej kondensacji (MTPCCC). Przykłady zmiany krzywych nasycenia są przedstawiane w wybranym składzie systemów gazowo- kondensatowych

  17. Microwave Power Transmission System Studies. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, O. E.; Brown, W. C.; Edwards, A.; Meltz, G.; Haley, J. T.; Howell, J. M.; Nathan, A.

    1975-01-01

    A study of microwave power generation, transmission, reception and control was conducted as a part of a program to demonstrate the feasibility of power transmission from geosynchronous orbit. A summary is presented of results concerning design approaches, estimated costs (ROM), critical technology, associated ground and orbital test programs with emphasis on dc to rf conversion, transmitting antenna, phase control, mechanical systems, flight operations, ground power receiving-rectifying antenna with systems analysis, and evaluation. Recommendations for early further in-depth studies complementing the technology program are included.

  18. Plant operation report and daily operation summary. SSPS monthly data, March 1984. [Small Solar Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Operation and maintenance highlights and test and evaluation highlights are presented for the Small Solar Power Systems (SSPS) Central Receiver System (CRS) and Distributed Collector System (DCS). The major portion of this report consists of the following plant statistics: monthly operation summary for March 1984; CRS daily operation summary; and DCS daily operation summary.

  19. Microelectronic Information Processing Systems: Computing Systems. Summary of Awards Fiscal Year 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA. Directorate for Computer and Information Science and Engineering.

    The purpose of this summary of awards is to provide the scientific and engineering communities with a summary of the grants awarded in 1994 by the National Science Foundation's Division of Microelectronic Information Processing Systems. Similar areas of research are grouped together. Grantee institutions and principal investigators are identified…

  20. TWO POSSIBLE CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS IN THE ECLIPSING POST-COMMON ENVELOPE SYSTEM NSVS 14256825

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, L. A.; Jablonski, F.; Rodrigues, C. V.

    2013-03-20

    We present an analysis of eclipse timings of the post-common envelope binary NSVS 14256825, which is composed of an sdOB star and a dM star in a close orbit (P{sub orb} = 0.110374 days). High-speed photometry of this system was performed between 2010 July and 2012 August. Ten new mid-eclipse times were analyzed together with all available eclipse times in the literature. We revisited the (O - C) diagram using a linear ephemeris and verified a clear orbital period variation. On the assumption that these orbital period variations are caused by light travel time effects, the (O - C) diagram can be explained by the presence of two circumbinary bodies, even though this explanation requires a longer baseline of observations to be fully tested. The orbital periods of the best solution would be P{sub c} {approx} 3.5 years and P{sub d} {approx} 6.9 years. The corresponding projected semi-major axes would be a{sub c} sin i{sub c} {approx} 1.9 AU and a{sub d} sin i{sub d} {approx} 2.9 AU. The masses of the external bodies would be M{sub c} {approx} 2.9 M{sub Jupiter} and M{sub d} {approx} 8.1 M{sub Jupiter}, if we assume their orbits are coplanar with the close binary. Therefore NSVS 14256825 might be composed of a close binary with two circumbinary planets, though the orbital period variations is still open to other interpretations.

  1. Sensorineural hearing loss amplifies neural coding of envelope information in the central auditory system of chinchillas

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Ziwei; Henry, Kenneth S.; Heinz, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    People with sensorineural hearing loss often have substantial difficulty understanding speech under challenging listening conditions. Behavioral studies suggest that reduced sensitivity to the temporal structure of sound may be responsible, but underlying neurophysiological pathologies are incompletely understood. Here, we investigate the effects of noise-induced hearing loss on coding of envelope (ENV) structure in the central auditory system of anesthetized chinchillas. ENV coding was evaluated noninvasively using auditory evoked potentials recorded from the scalp surface in response to sinusoidally amplitude modulated tones with carrier frequencies of 1, 2, 4, and 8 kHz and a modulation frequency of 140 Hz. Stimuli were presented in quiet and in three levels of white background noise. The latency of scalp-recorded ENV responses was consistent with generation in the auditory midbrain. Hearing loss amplified neural coding of ENV at carrier frequencies of 2 kHz and above. This result may reflect enhanced ENV coding from the periphery and/or an increase in the gain of central auditory neurons. In contrast to expectations, hearing loss was not associated with a stronger adverse effect of increasing masker intensity on ENV coding. The exaggerated neural representation of ENV information shown here at the level of the auditory midbrain helps to explain previous findings of enhanced sensitivity to amplitude modulation in people with hearing loss under some conditions. Furthermore, amplified ENV coding may potentially contribute to speech perception problems in people with cochlear hearing loss by acting as a distraction from more salient acoustic cues, particularly in fluctuating backgrounds. PMID:24315815

  2. Sensorineural hearing loss amplifies neural coding of envelope information in the central auditory system of chinchillas.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ziwei; Henry, Kenneth S; Heinz, Michael G

    2014-03-01

    People with sensorineural hearing loss often have substantial difficulty understanding speech under challenging listening conditions. Behavioral studies suggest that reduced sensitivity to the temporal structure of sound may be responsible, but underlying neurophysiological pathologies are incompletely understood. Here, we investigate the effects of noise-induced hearing loss on coding of envelope (ENV) structure in the central auditory system of anesthetized chinchillas. ENV coding was evaluated noninvasively using auditory evoked potentials recorded from the scalp surface in response to sinusoidally amplitude modulated tones with carrier frequencies of 1, 2, 4, and 8 kHz and a modulation frequency of 140 Hz. Stimuli were presented in quiet and in three levels of white background noise. The latency of scalp-recorded ENV responses was consistent with generation in the auditory midbrain. Hearing loss amplified neural coding of ENV at carrier frequencies of 2 kHz and above. This result may reflect enhanced ENV coding from the periphery and/or an increase in the gain of central auditory neurons. In contrast to expectations, hearing loss was not associated with a stronger adverse effect of increasing masker intensity on ENV coding. The exaggerated neural representation of ENV information shown here at the level of the auditory midbrain helps to explain previous findings of enhanced sensitivity to amplitude modulation in people with hearing loss under some conditions. Furthermore, amplified ENV coding may potentially contribute to speech perception problems in people with cochlear hearing loss by acting as a distraction from more salient acoustic cues, particularly in fluctuating backgrounds.

  3. Satellite Power System (SPS) FY 79 program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Satellite Power System (SPS) program a joint effort to develop an initial understanding of the technical feasibility, the economic practicality, and the social and environmental acceptability of the SPS concept is discussed. This is being accomplished through implementation of the Concept Development and Evaluation Program Plan which is scheduled for completion by the end of FY 1980. This Program Summary not only covers FY 1979 but includes work completed in FY 1977 and FY 1978 in order to give a comprehensive picture of the DOE involvement in the SPS concept development and evaluation process.

  4. Summary of Tactile User Interfaces Techniques and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Lilly

    2004-01-01

    Mental workload can be defined as the ratio of demand to allocated resources. Multiple- resource theory stresses the importance of distribution of tasks and information across various sensory channels of the human to reduce mental workload. One sensory channel that has been of interest since the late 1800s is touch. Unlike the more typical displays that target vision or hearing, tactile displays present information to the user s sense of touch. We present a summary of different methods for tactile display; historic and more recent systems that incorporate tactile display for information presentation; advantages and disadvantages of targeting the tactile channel; and future directions in tactile display research.

  5. 2010 Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Science Team Meeting Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Dupont, DL

    2011-05-04

    This document contains the summaries of papers presented in poster format at the March 2010 Atmospheric System Research Science Team Meeting held in Bethesda, Maryland. More than 260 posters were presented during the Science Team Meeting. Posters were sorted into the following subject areas: aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions, aerosol properties, atmospheric state and surface, cloud properties, field campaigns, infrastructure and outreach, instruments, modeling, and radiation. To put these posters in context, the status of ASR at the time of the meeting is provided here.

  6. Foreign technology summary of flight crucial flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, H. A.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of foreign technology in flight crucial flight controls is being conducted to provide a data base for planning future research and technology programs. Only Free World countries were surveyed, and the primary emphasis was on Western Europe because that is where the most advanced technology resides. The survey includes major contemporary systems on operational aircraft, R&D flight programs, advanced aircraft developments, and major research and technology programs. The information was collected from open literature, personal communications, and a tour of several companies, government organizations, and research laboratories in the United Kingdom, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany. A summary of the survey results to date is presented.

  7. Summary of Tactile User Interfaces Techniques and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Lilly

    2005-01-01

    Mental workload can be de.ned as the ratio of demand to allocated resources. Multiple-resource theory stresses the importance of distribution of tasks and information across various human sensory channels to reduce mental workload. One sensory channel that has been of interest since the late 1800s is touch. Unlike the more typical displays that target vision or hearing, tactile displays present information to the user s sense of touch. We present a summary of different methods for tactile display, historic and more recent systems that incorporate tactile display for information presentation, advantages and disadvantages of targeting the tactile channel, and future directions in tactile display research.

  8. Angular Momentum Loss in the Envelope-Disk Transition Region of the HH 111 Protostellar System: Evidence for Magnetic Braking?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chin-Fei; Hwang, Hsiang-Chih; Li, Zhi-Yun

    2016-08-01

    HH 111 is a Class I protostellar system at a distance of ˜400 pc, with the central source VLA 1 associated with a rotating disk deeply embedded in a flattened envelope. Here we present the observations of this system at ˜0.″6 (240 au) resolution in C18O (J = 2 — 1) and a 230 GHz continuum obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array, and in SO ({N}J = {5}6-{4}5) obtained with the Submillimeter Array. The observations show for the first time how a Keplerian rotating disk can be formed inside a flattened envelope. The flattened envelope is detected in C18O, extending out to ≳2400 au from the VLA 1 source. It has a differential rotation, with the outer part (≳2000 au) better described by a rotation that has constant specific angular momentum, and the innermost part (≲160 au) by a Keplerian rotation. The rotationally supported disk is therefore relatively compact in this system, which is consistent with the dust continuum observations. Most interestingly, if the flow is in steady state, there is a substantial drop in specific angular momentum in the envelope-disk transition region from 2000 to 160 au, by a factor of ˜3. Such a decrease is not expected outside a disk formed from simple hydrodynamic core collapse, but can happen naturally if the core is significantly magnetized, because magnetic fields can be trapped in the transition region outside the disk by the ram pressure of the protostellar accretion flow, which can lead to efficient magnetic braking. In addition, SO shock emission is detected around the outer radius of the disk and could trace an accretion shock around the disk.

  9. A Summary of Some Discrete-Event System Control Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudie, Karen

    A summary of the area of control of discrete-event systems is given. In this research area, automata and formal language theory is used as a tool to model physical problems that arise in technological and industrial systems. The key ingredients to discrete-event control problems are a process that can be modeled by an automaton, events in that process that cannot be disabled or prevented from occurring, and a controlling agent that manipulates the events that can be disabled to guarantee that the process under control either generates all the strings in some prescribed language or as many strings as possible in some prescribed language. When multiple controlling agents act on a process, decentralized control problems arise. In decentralized discrete-event systems, it is presumed that the agents effecting control cannot each see all event occurrences. Partial observation leads to some problems that cannot be solved in polynomial time and some others that are not even decidable.

  10. Satellite Power System (SPS) FY 79 Program Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Satellite Power System (SPS) program is a joint effort of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). It is managed by the SPS Project Office within DOE's Office of Energy Research. SPS project organization is shown in Figure 1. The SPS Project Office was established in 1978 and is responsible for the planning, management and integration of SPS research in four areas: systems definition, environmental assessment, societal assessment, and comparative assessment. In fulfilling its responsibilities, the SPS Project Office directs research and assessment efforts to determine the feasibility of the SPS concept, funds organizations supporting the program, and disseminates information developed from project research and assessments. The objective of the SPS program is to develop an initial understanding of the technical feasibility, the economic practicality, and the social and environmental acceptability of the SPS concept. This is being accomplished through implementation of the Concept Development and Evaluation Program Plan which is scheduled for completion by the end of FY 1980. The SPS Project Office annually issues a Program Summary which describes the research undertaken during the preceding fiscal year. This Program Summary covers FY 1979. It includes work completed in FY 1977 and FY 1978 in order to give a comprehensive picture of the DOE involvement in the SPS concept development and evaluation process.

  11. Feasibility study of an Integrated Program for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD) system. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrocq, C. A.; Hurley, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    An overview is provided of the Ipad System, including its goals and objectives, organization, capabilities and future usefulness. The systems implementation is also presented with operational cost summaries.

  12. Tracking system to maximize the engagement envelope of a data linked weapon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, James M.; Ralph, Jason F.; Oxtoby, Neil P.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the results of an integrated target tracking, pursuit and intercept strategy. It is designed to maximize the overlap between the engagement envelope of a data linked weapon and the possible predicted locations of an agile target. Once the target track has been initialized, a Markov Model calculates all possible locations of the target up to the time of intercept, approximately 30 seconds from launch. These locations and associated probabilities are updated during the tracking process. This includes target maneuvers, which are detected using an IMM estimator. The engagement envelope is maximized at fixed points in time. In doing so the intercept decision is delayed until, there is a high probability of a successful interception.

  13. Systems definition space based power conversion systems: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Potential space-located systems for the generation of electrical power for use on earth were investigated. These systems were of three basic types: (1) systems producing electrical power from solar energy; (2) systems producing electrical power from nuclear reactors; (3) systems for augmenting ground-based solar power plants by orbital sunlight reflectors. Configurations implementing these concepts were developed through an optimization process intended to yield the lowest cost for each. A complete program was developed for each concept, identifying required production rates, quantities of launches, required facilities, etc. Each program was costed in order to provide the electric power cost appropriate to each concept.

  14. FY07 Summary of System Interface and Support Systems R&D and Technical Issues Map

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Sherman

    2007-09-01

    This document provides a summary of research and development activities in the System Interface and Support Systems area of the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in FY 2007. Project cost and performance data obtained from the PICS system, at least up through July 2007, are presented and analyzed. Brief summaries of accomplishments and references are provided. A mapping of System Interface and Support Systems technical issues versus the work performed is updated and presented. Lastly, near-term research plans are described, and recommendatioins are provided for additional research.

  15. Fatality Analysis Reporting System, General Estimates System: 2001 Data Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), which became operational in 1975, contains data on a census of fatal traffic crashes within the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The General Estimates System (GES), which began in 1988, provides data from a nationally representative probability sample selected from all…

  16. Environmental management system objectives & targets results summary FY 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2014-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexicos (SNL/NM) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each Fiscal Year (FY) SNL/NM performs an analysis to identify environmental aspects, and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are established to mitigate potential impacts of SNL/NMs operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established Sandia Corporation and SNL/NM Site-specific objectives and targets provides a connection to, and rational for, annually revised environmental aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY2013.

  17. Environmental Management System (EMS) objectives & targets annual results summary :

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2013-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexicos (SNL/NM) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each Fiscal Year (FY) SNL/NM performs an analysis to identify environmental aspects, and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are established to mitigate potential impacts of SNL/NMs operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established objectives and targets provides a connection to, and rational for, annually revised environmental aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY2012.

  18. Environmental Management System Objectives & Targets Results Summary - FY 2015.

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, Douglas W.

    2016-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each Fiscal Year (FY) SNL performs an analysis to identify environmental aspects, and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are established to mitigate potential impacts of SNL's operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established Sandia Corporation and SNL Site-specific objectives and targets provides a connection to, and rational for, annually revised environmental aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY 2015.

  19. Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide-Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiozis, A.N.

    2007-05-15

    This document serves as the final report documenting work completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Fraunhofer Institute in Building Physics (Holzkirchen, Germany) under an international CRADA No. 0575 with Fraunhofer Institute of Bauphysics of the Federal Republic of Germany for Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads. This CRADA required a multi-faceted approach to building envelope research that included a moisture engineering approach by blending extensive material property analysis, laboratory system and sub-system thermal and moisture testing, and advanced moisture analysis prediction performance. The Participant's Institute for Building physics (IBP) and the Contractor's Buildings Technology Center (BTC) identified potential research projects and activities capable of accelerating and advancing the development of innovative, low energy and durable building envelope systems in diverse climates. This allowed a major leverage of the limited resources available to ORNL to execute the required Department of Energy (DOE) directives in the area of moisture engineering. A joint working group (ORNL and Fraunhofer IBP) was assembled and a research plan was executed from May 2000 to May 2005. A number of key deliverables were produced such as adoption of North American loading into the WUFI-software. in addition the ORNL Weather File Analyzer was created and this has been used to address environmental loading for a variety of US climates. At least 4 papers have been co-written with the CRADA partners, and a chapter in the ASTM Manual 40 on Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control. All deliverables and goals were met and exceeded making this collaboration a success to all parties involves.

  20. An accurate air temperature measurement system based on an envelope pulsed ultrasonic time-of-flight technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. S.; Huang, Y. P.; Huang, K. N.; Young, M. S.

    2007-11-01

    A new microcomputer based air temperature measurement system is presented. An accurate temperature measurement is derived from the measurement of sound velocity by using an ultrasonic time-of-flight (TOF) technique. The study proposes a novel algorithm that combines both amplitude modulation (AM) and phase modulation (PM) to get the TOF measurement. The proposed system uses the AM and PM envelope square waveform (APESW) to reduce the error caused by inertia delay. The APESW ultrasonic driving waveform causes an envelope zero and phase inversion phenomenon in the relative waveform of the receiver. To accurately achieve a TOF measurement, the phase inversion phenomenon was used to sufficiently identify the measurement pulse in the received waveform. Additionally, a counter clock technique was combined to compute the phase shifts of the last incomplete cycle for TOF. The presented system can obtain 0.1% TOF resolution for the period corresponding to the 40kHz frequency ultrasonic wave. Consequently, with the integration of a humidity compensation algorithm, a highly accurate and high resolution temperature measurement can be achieved using the accurate TOF measurement. Experimental results indicate that the combined standard uncertainty of the temperature measurement is approximately 0.39°C. The main advantages of this system are high resolution measurements, narrow bandwidth requirements, and ease of implementation.

  1. Systems definition summary. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A standard spacecraft bus for performing a variety of earth orbit missions in the late 1970's and 1980's is defined. Emphasis is placed on a low-cost, multimission capability, benefitting from the space shuttle system. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) performance requirements, (2) internal interfaces, (3) redundancy and reliability, (4) communications and data handling module design, (5) payload data handling, (6) application of the modular design to various missions, and (7) the verification concept.

  2. The Oral Health Care Delivery System in 2040: Executive Summary.

    PubMed

    Bailit, Howard L

    2017-09-01

    This executive summary for Section 4 of the "Advancing Dental Education in the 21(st) Century" project examines the projected oral health care delivery system in 2040 and the likely impact of system changes on dental education. Dental care is at an early stage of major changes with the decline in solo practice and increase in large group practices. These groups are not consolidated at the state level, but further consolidation is expected as they try to increase their negotiating leverage with dental insurers. At this time, there is limited integration of medical and dental care in terms of financing, regulation, education, and delivery. This pattern may change as health maintenance organizations and integrated medical systems begin to offer dental care to their members. By 2040, it is expected that many dentists will be employed in large group practices and working with allied dental staff with expanded duties and other health professionals, and more dental graduates will seek formal postdoctoral training to obtain better positions in group practices.

  3. Pipe Explorer{trademark} surveying system. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Chicago Operations Office and the DOE`s Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) developed a Large Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) at the Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL). The objective of the LSDP is to demonstrate potentially beneficial decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies in comparison with current baseline technologies. The Pipe Explorer{trademark} system was developed by Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA), Albuquerque, NM as a deployment method for transporting a variety of survey tools into pipes and ducts. Tools available for use with the system include alpha, beta and gamma radiation detectors; video cameras; and pipe locator beacons. Different versions of this technology have been demonstrated at three other sites; results of these demonstrations are provided in an earlier Innovative Technology Summary Report. As part of a D and D project, characterization radiological contamination inside piping systems is necessary before pipes can be recycled, remediated or disposed. This is usually done manually by surveying over the outside of the piping only, with limited effectiveness and risk of worker exposure. The pipe must be accessible to workers, and embedded pipes in concrete or in the ground would have to be excavated at high cost and risk of exposure to workers. The advantage of the Pipe Explorer is its ability to perform in-situ characterization of pipe internals.

  4. Two-Component System Cross-Regulation Integrates Bacillus anthracis Response to Heme and Cell Envelope Stress

    PubMed Central

    Mike, Laura A.; Choby, Jacob E.; Brinkman, Paul R.; Olive, Lorenzo Q.; Dutter, Brendan F.; Ivan, Samuel J.; Gibbs, Christopher M.; Sulikowski, Gary A.; Stauff, Devin L.; Skaar, Eric P.

    2014-01-01

    Two-component signaling systems (TCSs) are one of the mechanisms that bacteria employ to sense and adapt to changes in the environment. A prototypical TCS functions as a phosphorelay from a membrane-bound sensor histidine kinase (HK) to a cytoplasmic response regulator (RR) that controls target gene expression. Despite significant homology in the signaling domains of HKs and RRs, TCSs are thought to typically function as linear systems with little to no cross-talk between non-cognate HK-RR pairs. Here we have identified several cell envelope acting compounds that stimulate a previously uncharacterized Bacillus anthracis TCS. Furthermore, this TCS cross-signals with the heme sensing TCS HssRS; therefore, we have named it HssRS interfacing TCS (HitRS). HssRS reciprocates cross-talk to HitRS, suggesting a link between heme toxicity and cell envelope stress. The signaling between HssRS and HitRS occurs in the parental B. anthracis strain; therefore, we classify HssRS-HitRS interactions as cross-regulation. Cross-talk between HssRS and HitRS occurs at both HK-RR and post-RR signaling junctions. Finally, HitRS also regulates a previously unstudied ABC transporter implicating this transporter in the response to cell envelope stress. This chemical biology approach to probing TCS signaling provides a new model for understanding how bacterial signaling networks are integrated to enable adaptation to complex environments such as those encountered during colonization of the vertebrate host. PMID:24675902

  5. ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS: Effect of Carried-Envelope Phase on Transient Process in a Cascade-Type System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Li-Li; Yu, Ling-Yan

    2010-03-01

    This paper investigates the effect of carried-envelope phase on transient process in a cascade-type atomic system, which is driven by two ultrashort laser pulses (probe and signal laser). It is found that the one- and two-photon processes corresponding to pathway |0> → |1> and |0> → |1> → |2> can be enhanced or suppressed by modulating the carried-envelope phases of probe laser pulse. Our numerical results also show that the transient populations of two excited states can be periodically affected by the carried-envelope phase of probe laser pulse. With certain time, the partial population transfer between two exited states can be realized just by adjusting the carried-envelope phase of probe laser pulse.

  6. SAFEGUARDS ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Duc Cao; Richard Metcalf

    2010-07-01

    The Safeguards Envelope is a strategy to determine a set of specific operating parameters within which nuclear facilities may operate to maximize safeguards effectiveness without sacrificing safety or plant efficiency. This paper details advanced statistical techniques that will be applied to real plant process monitoring (PM) data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). In a simulation based on this data, multi-tank and multi-attribute correlations were tested against synthetic diversion scenarios. Kernel regression smoothing was used to fit a curve to the historical data, and multivariable, residual analysis and cumulative sum techniques set parameters for operating conditions. Diversion scenarios were created and tested, showing improved results when compared with a previous study utilizing only one-variable Z-testing. A brief analysis of the impact of the safeguards optimization on the rest of plant efficiency, criticality concerns, and overall requirements is presented.

  7. WINDOW-WALL INTERFACE CORRECTION FACTORS: THERMAL MODELING OF INTEGRATED FENESTRATION AND OPAQUE ENVELOPE SYSTEMS FOR IMPROVED PREDICTION OF ENERGY USE

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandari, Mahabir S; Ravi, Dr. Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    The boundary conditions for thermal modeling of fenestration systems assume an adiabatic condition between the fenestration system installed and the opaque envelope system. This theoretical adiabatic boundary condition may not be appropriate owing to heat transfer at the interfaces, particularly for aluminum- framed windows affixed to metal- framed walls. In such scenarios, the heat transfer at the interface may increase the discrepancy between real world thermal indices and laboratory measured or calculated indices based on NFRC Rating System.This paper discusses the development of window-wall Interface Correction Factors (ICF) to improve energy impacts of building envelope systems

  8. The Wasp-Waist Nebula: VLA Ammonia Observations of the Molecular Core Envelope In a Unique Class 0 Protostellar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The Wasp-Waist Nebula was discovered in the IRAC c2d survey of the Ophiuchus starforming clouds. It is powered by a well-isolated, low-luminosity, low-mass Class 0 object. Its weak outflow has been mapped in the CO (3-2) transition with the JCMT, in 2.12 micron H2 emission with WIRC (the Wide-Field Infrared Camera) on the Hale 5-meter, and, most recently, in six H2 mid-infrared lines with the IRS (InfraRed Spectrograph) on-board the Spitzer Space Telescope; possible jet twisting structure may be evidence of unique core dynamics. Here, we report results of recent VLA ammonia mapping observations of the dense gas envelope feeding the central core protostellar system. We describe the morphology, kinematics, and angular momentum characteristics of this unique system. The results are compared with the envelope structure deduced from IRAC 8-micron absorption of the PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) background emission from the cloud.

  9. The Wasp-Waist Nebula: VLA Ammonia Observations of the Molecular Core Envelope In a Unique Class 0 Protostellar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The Wasp-Waist Nebula was discovered in the IRAC c2d survey of the Ophiuchus starforming clouds. It is powered by a well-isolated, low-luminosity, low-mass Class 0 object. Its weak outflow has been mapped in the CO (3-2) transition with the JCMT, in 2.12 micron H2 emission with WIRC (the Wide-Field Infrared Camera) on the Hale 5-meter, and, most recently, in six H2 mid-infrared lines with the IRS (InfraRed Spectrograph) on-board the Spitzer Space Telescope; possible jet twisting structure may be evidence of unique core dynamics. Here, we report results of recent VLA ammonia mapping observations of the dense gas envelope feeding the central core protostellar system. We describe the morphology, kinematics, and angular momentum characteristics of this unique system. The results are compared with the envelope structure deduced from IRAC 8-micron absorption of the PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) background emission from the cloud.

  10. The Wasp-Waist Nebula: VLA Ammonia Observations of the Molecular Core Envelope In a Unique Class 0 Protostellar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer; Barsony, M.; Sahai, R.

    2010-01-01

    The Wasp-Waist Nebula was discovered in the IRAC c2d survey of the Ophiuchus star-forming clouds. It is powered by a well-isolated, low-luminosity, low-mass Class 0 object. Its weak outflow has been mapped in the CO (3-2) transition with the JCMT, in 2.12 micron H2 emission with WIRC (the Wide-Field Infrared Camera) on the Hale 5-meter, and, most recently, in six H2 mid-infrared lines with the IRS (InfraRed Spectrograph) on-board the Spitzer Space Telescope; possible jet twisting structure may be evidence of unique core dynamics. Here, we report results of recent VLA ammonia mapping observations of the dense gas envelope feeding the central core protostellar system. We describe the morphology, kinematics, and angular momentum characteristics of this unique system. The results are compared with the envelope structure deduced from IRAC 8-micron absorption of the PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) background emission from the cloud.

  11. ALMA view of the circumstellar environment of the post-common-envelope-evolution binary system HD 101584

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olofsson, H.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Maercker, M.; Humphreys, E. M. L.; Lindqvist, M.; Nyman, L.; Ramstedt, S.

    2015-04-01

    Aims: We study the circumstellar evolution of the binary HD 101584, consisting of a post-AGB star and a low-mass companion, which is most likely a post-common-envelope-evolution system. Methods: We used ALMA observations of the 12CO, 13CO, and C18O J = 2-1 lines and the 1.3 mm continuum to determine the morphology, kinematics, masses, and energetics of the circumstellar environment. Results: The circumstellar medium has a bipolar hour-glass structure, seen almost pole-on, formed by an energetic jet, ≈150 km s-1. We conjecture that the circumstellar morphology is related to an event that took place ≈500 yr ago, possibly a capture event where the companion spiraled in towards the AGB star. However, the kinetic energy of the accelerated gas exceeds the released orbital energy, and, taking into account the expected energy transfer efficiency of the process, the observed phenomenon does not match current common-envelope scenarios. This suggests that another process must augment, or even dominate, the ejection process. A significant amount of material resides in an unresolved region, presumably in the equatorial plane of the binary system.

  12. Dynamic window daylighting systems: electropolymeric technology for solar responsive building envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krietemeyer, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Shane I.; Dyson, Anna H.

    2011-04-01

    Human health and energy problems associated with the lack of control of sunlight in contemporary buildings have necessitated research into dynamic windows for energy efficient buildings. Existing window technologies have made moderate progress towards greater energy performance for facades but remain limited in their response to dynamic solar conditions, building energy requirements, and variable user preferences for visual comfort. Recent developments in electropolymeric display technology provide opportunities to transfer electroactive polymers to windows that can achieve high levels of geometric and spectral selectivity through the building envelope in order to meet the lighting, thermal and user requirements of occupied spaces. Experimental simulations that investigate daylight quality, energy performance, and architectural effects of electropolymeric glazing technology are presented.

  13. Determining the life cycle energy efficiency of six biofuel systems in China: a Data Envelopment Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun; Mazzi, Anna; Scipioni, Antonio; Sovacool, Benjamin K

    2014-06-01

    This aim of this study was to use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to assess the life cycle energy efficiency of six biofuels in China. DEA can differentiate efficient and non-efficient scenarios, and it can identify wasteful energy losses in biofuel production. More specifically, the study has examined the efficiency of six approaches for bioethanol production involving a sample of wheat, corn, cassava, and sweet potatoes as feedstocks and "old," "new," "wet," and "dry" processes. For each of these six bioethanol production pathways, the users can determine energy inputs such as the embodied energy for seed, machinery, fertilizer, diesel, chemicals and primary energy utilized for manufacturing, and outputs such as the energy content of the bioethanol and byproducts. The results indicate that DEA is a novel and feasible method for finding efficient bioethanol production scenarios and suggest that sweet potatoes may be the most energy-efficient form of ethanol production for China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Advanced Initiation Systems Manufacturing Level 2 Milestone Completion Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, R; Schmidt, M

    2009-10-01

    Milestone Description - Advanced Initiation Systems Detonator Design and Prototype. Milestone Grading Criteria - Design new generation chip slapper detonator and manufacture a prototype using advanced manufacturing processes, such as all-dry chip metallization and solvent-less flyer coatings. The advanced processes have been developed for manufacturing detonators with high material compatibility and reliability to support future LEPs, e.g. the B61, and new weapons systems. Perform velocimetry measurements to determine slapper velocity as a function of flight distance. A prototype detonator assembly and stripline was designed for low-energy chip slappers. Pictures of the prototype detonator and stripline are shown. All-dry manufacturing processes were used to address compatibility issues. KCP metallized the chips in a physical vapor deposition system through precision-aligned shadow masks. LLNL deposited a solvent-less polyimide flyer with a processes called SLIP, which stands for solvent-less vapor deposition followed by in-situ polymerization. LANL manufactured the high-surface-area (HSA) high explosive (HE) pellets. Test fires of two chip slapper designs, radius and bowtie, were performed at LLNL in the High Explosives Application Facility (HEAF). Test fires with HE were conducted to establish the threshold firing voltages. pictures of the chip slappers before and after test fires are shown. Velocimetry tests were then performed to obtain slapper velocities at or above the threshold firing voltages. Figure 5 shows the slapper velocity as a function of distance and time at the threshold voltage, for both radius and bowtie bridge designs. Both designs were successful at initiating the HE at low energy levels. Summary of Accomplishments are: (1) All-dry process for chip manufacture developed; (2) Solventless process for slapper materials developed; (3) High-surface area explosive pellets developed; (4) High performance chip slappers developed; (5) Low-energy chip

  15. Definition and means of maintaining the process vacuum liquid detection interlock systems portion of the PFP safety envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.J.

    1997-01-02

    The Process Vacuum Liquid Detection interlock systems prevent intrusion of process liquids into the HEPA filters downstream of demisters {number_sign}6 and {number_sign}7 during Process Vacuum System operation. This prevents liquid intrusion into the filters which could cause a criticality. The Safety Envelope (SE) includes the equipment which detects the presence of liquids in the vacuum headers; isolates the filters; shuts down the vacuum pumps; and alarms the condition. The presence of liquid in the HC-4, HC-7, and HC-227S glovebox vacuum traps or a high level of liquid in the 236-Z Tank 50 will isolate these portions of the vacuum system from the main headers. This report identifies the equipment in the SE; operating, maintenance, and surveillance procedures needed to maintain the SE equipment; and rationale for exclusion of some equipment and testing from the SE.

  16. GEOMETRIC AND KINEMATIC STRUCTURE OF THE OUTFLOW/ENVELOPE SYSTEM OF L1527 REVEALED BY SUBARCSECOND-RESOLUTION OBSERVATION OF CS

    SciTech Connect

    Oya, Yoko; López-Sepulcre, Ana; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sakai, Nami; Lefloch, Bertrand; Ceccarelli, Cecilia

    2015-10-10

    Subarcsecond-resolution images of the rotational line emissions of CS and c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2} obtained toward the low-mass protostar IRAS 04368+2557 in L1527 with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array are investigated to constrain the orientation of the outflow/envelope system. The distribution of CS consists of an envelope component extending from north to south and a faint butterfly shaped outflow component. The kinematic structure of the envelope is well reproduced by a simple ballistic model of an infalling rotating envelope. Although the envelope has a nearly edge-on configuration, we find that the western side of the envelope faces the observer. This configuration is opposite to the direction of the large-scale (∼10{sup 4} AU) outflow suggested previously from the {sup 12}CO (J = 3–2) observation, and to the morphology of infrared reflection near the protostar (∼200 AU). The latter discrepancy could originate from high extinction by the outflow cavity of the western side, or may indicate that the outflow axis is not parallel to the rotation axis of the envelope. Position–velocity diagrams show the accelerated outflow cavity wall, and its kinematic structure in the 2000 AU scale is explained by a standard parabolic model with the inclination angle derived from the analysis of the envelope. The different orientation of the outflow between the small and large scale implies a possibility of precession of the outflow axis. The shape and the velocity of the outflow in the vicinity of the protostar are compared with those of other protostars.

  17. Piloted Simulation to Evaluate the Utility of a Real Time Envelope Protection System for Mitigating In-Flight Icing Hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranaudo, Richard J.; Martos, Borja; Norton, Bill W.; Gingras, David R.; Barnhart, Billy P.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Morelli, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    The utility of the Icing Contamination Envelope Protection (ICEPro) system for mitigating a potentially hazardous icing condition was evaluated by 29 pilots using the NASA Ice Contamination Effects Flight Training Device (ICEFTD). ICEPro provides real time envelope protection cues and alerting messages on pilot displays. The pilots participating in this test were divided into two groups; a control group using baseline displays without ICEPro, and an experimental group using ICEPro driven display cueing. Each group flew identical precision approach and missed approach procedures with a simulated failure case icing condition. Pilot performance, workload, and survey questionnaires were collected for both groups of pilots. Results showed that real time assessment cues were effective in reducing the number of potentially hazardous upset events and in lessening exposure to loss of control following an incipient upset condition. Pilot workload with the added ICEPro displays was not measurably affected, but pilot opinion surveys showed that real time cueing greatly improved their situation awareness of a hazardous aircraft state.

  18. The three-component system EsrISR regulates a cell envelope stress response in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Kleine, Britta; Chattopadhyay, Ava; Polen, Tino; Pinto, Daniela; Mascher, Thorsten; Bott, Michael; Brocker, Melanie; Freudl, Roland

    2017-09-18

    When the cell envelope integrity is compromised, bacteria trigger signaling cascades resulting in the production of proteins that counteract these extracytoplasmic stresses. Here, we show that the two-component system EsrSR regulates a cell envelope stress response in the Actinobacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum. The sensor kinase EsrS possesses an amino-terminal phage shock protein C (PspC) domain, a property that sets EsrSR apart from all other two-component systems characterized so far. An integral membrane protein, EsrI, whose gene is divergently transcribed to the esrSR gene locus and which interestingly also possesses a PspC domain, acts as an inhibitor of EsrSR under non-stress conditions. The resulting EsrISR three-component system is activated among others by antibiotics inhibiting the lipid II cycle, such as bacitracin and vancomycin, and it orchestrates a broad regulon including the esrI-esrSR gene locus itself, genes encoding heat shock proteins, ABC transporters, and several putative membrane-associated or secreted proteins of unknown function. Among those, the ABC transporter encoded by cg3322-3320 was shown to be directly involved in bacitracin resistance of C. glutamicum. Since similar esrI-esrSR loci are present in a large number of actinobacterial genomes, EsrISR represents a novel type of stress-responsive system whose components are highly conserved in the phylum Actinobacteria. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Joint application of audio spectral envelope and tonality index in an e-asthma monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Wiśniewski, Marcin; Zieliński, Tomasz P

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents in detail a recently introduced highly efficient method for automatic detection of asthmatic wheezing in breathing sounds. The fluctuation in the audio spectral envelope (ASE) from the MPEG-7 standard and the value of the tonality index (TI) from the MPEG-2 Audio specification are jointly used as discriminative features for wheezy sounds, while the support vector machine (SVM) with a polynomial kernel serves as a classifier. The advantages of the proposed approach are described in the paper (e.g., detecting weak wheezes, very good ROC characteristics, independence from noise color). Since the method is not computationally complex, it is suitable for remote asthma monitoring using mobile devices (personal medical assistants). The main contribution of this paper consists of presenting all the implementation details concerning the proposed approach for the first time, i.e., the pseudocode of the method and adjusting the values of the ASE and TI parameters after which only one (not two) FFT is required for analysis of a next overlapping signal fragment. The efficiency of the method has also been additionally confirmed by the AdaBoost classifier with a built-in mechanism to feature ranking, as well as a previously performed minimal-redundancy-maximal-relevance test.

  20. Centrifuge facility conceptual system study. Volume 2: Facility systems and study summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Synnestvedt, Robert (Editor); Blair, Patricia; Cartledge, Alan; Garces-Porcile, Jorge; Garin, Vladimir; Guerrero, Mike; Haddeland, Peter; Horkachuck, Mike; Kuebler, Ulrich; Nguyen, Frank

    1991-01-01

    The Centrifuge Facility is a major element of the biological research facility for the implementation of NASA's Life Science Research Program on Space Station Freedom using nonhuman species (small primates, rodents, plants, insects, cell tissues, etc.). The Centrifuge Facility consists of a variable gravity Centrifuge to provide artificial gravity up to 2 earth G's' a Holding System to maintain specimens at microgravity levels, a Glovebox, and a Service Unit for servicing specimen chambers. The following subject areas are covered: (1) Holding System; (2) Centrifuge System; (3) Glovebox System; (4) Service System; and (5) system study summary.

  1. Satellite services system analysis study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Service requirements are considered. Topics include development of on-orbit operations scenarios, service equipment summary, crew interaction, and satellite features facilitating servicing. Service equipment concepts are considered. Topics include payload deployment, close proximity retrieval, on-orbit servicing, backup/contingency, delivery/retrieval of high energy payloads, Earth return, optional service, and advanced capabilities. Program requirements are assessed.

  2. Biomass energy systems program summary. Information current as of September 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    This program summary describes each of the DOE's Biomass Energy System's projects funded or in existence during fiscal year 1979 and reflects their status as of September 30, 1979. The summary provides an overview of the ongoing research, development, and demonstration efforts of the preceding fiscal year as well. (DMC)

  3. Elevated temperature envelope forming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burg, Bruce M. (Inventor); Gane, David H. (Inventor); Starowski, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Elevated temperature envelope forming includes enclosing a part blank and form tool within an envelope sealed against the atmosphere, heat treating the combination while forming pressure holds the envelope and part against the form tool, and allowing part cool down to occur in an inert atmosphere with forming pressure removed. The forming pressure is provided by evacuating the envelope and may be aided by differential force applied between the envelope and the form tool.

  4. The structure of common-envelope remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Philip D.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the structure and evolution of the remnants of common-envelope evolution in binary star systems. In a common-envelope phase, two stars become engulfed in a gaseous envelope and, under the influence of drag forces, spiral to smaller separations. They may merge to form a single star or the envelope may be ejected to leave the stars in a shorter period orbit. This process explains the short orbital periods of many observed binary systems, such as cataclysmic variables and low-mass X-ray binary systems. Despite the importance of these systems, and of common-envelope evolution to their formation, it remains poorly understood. Specifically, we are unable to confidently predict the outcome of a common-envelope phase from the properties at its onset. After presenting a review of work on stellar evolution, binary systems, common-envelope evolution and the computer programs used, we describe the results of three computational projects on common-envelope evolution. Our work specifically relates to the methods and prescriptions which are used for predicting the outcome. We use the Cambridge stellar-evolution code STARS to produce detailed models of the structure and evolution of remnants of common-envelope evolution. We compare different assumptions about the uncertain end-of-common envelope structure and envelope mass of remnants which successfully eject their common envelopes. In the first project, we use detailed remnant models to investigate whether planetary nebulae are predicted after common-envelope phases initiated by low-mass red giants. We focus on the requirement that a remnant evolves rapidly enough to photoionize the nebula and compare the predictions for different ideas about the structure at the end of a common-envelope phase. We find that planetary nebulae are possible for some prescriptions for the end-of-common envelope structure. In our second contribution, we compute a large set of single-star models and fit new formulae to the core radii of

  5. Gap and out-gap solitons in modulated systems of finite length: exact solutions in the slowly varying envelope limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, M.; Kirr, K.; Kovalev, A. S.; Kroon, L.

    2011-06-01

    We discuss nonlinear excitations in finite-size one-dimensional modulated systems. Considering a binary modulated discrete nonlinear Schrödinger chain of large but finite length with periodic boundary conditions, we obtain exact elliptic-function solutions corresponding to stationary excitations in the slowly varying envelope limit. From these solutions, we analyze how the transformation between (localized) gap and (delocalized) out-gap solitons manifests itself in a system of finite length. The analogue of a localized gap soliton appears through a bifurcation at a critical point, so that gap soliton analogues exist only for chains longer than a critical value, which scales inversely proportional to the modulation depth. The total norm of these gap-out-gap states is found to be a monotonic function of the frequency, always inside a 'nonlinear gap' with edges defined by the main nonlinear modes which approach the linear spectrum gap boundaries in the small-amplitude limit. The transformation from a gap to an out-gap state is associated with a particular frequency, close to the lower boundary of the linear gap; at this point the elliptic functions become trigonometric, corresponding to a finite-size analogue of an algebraic soliton. We compare the scenario with earlier results obtained numerically for purely discrete chains with few degrees of freedom.

  6. The trans-envelope architecture and function of the type 2 secretion system: new insights raising new questions.

    PubMed

    Thomassin, Jenny-Lee; Santos Moreno, Javier; Guilvout, Ingrid; Tran Van Nhieu, Guy; Francetic, Olivera

    2017-07-01

    Nanomachines belonging to the type IV filament (Tff) superfamily serve a variety of cellular functions in prokaryotes, including motility, adhesion, electrical conductance, competence and secretion. The type 2 secretion system (T2SS) Tff member assembles a short filament called pseudopilus that promotes the secretion of folded proteins from the periplasm across the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. A combination of structural, biochemical, imaging, computational and in vivo approaches had led to a working model for the assembled nanomachine. High-resolution cryo-electron microscopy and tomography provided the first view of several homologous Tff nanomachines in the cell envelope and revealed the structure of the outer membrane secretin channel, challenging current models of the overall stoichiometry of the T2SS. In addition, recent insights into exoprotein substrate features and interactions with the T2SS have led to new questions about the dynamics of the system and the role of the plasma membrane in substrate presentation. This micro-review will highlight recent advances in the field of type 2 secretion and discuss approaches that can be used to reach a mechanistic understanding of exoprotein recognition, integration into the machine and secretion. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A source of glycosylated human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 envelope protein: expression of gp46 by the vaccinia virus/T7 polymerase system.

    PubMed Central

    Arp, J; LeVatte, M; Rowe, J; Perkins, S; King, E; Leystra-Lantz, C; Foung, S K; Dekaban, G A

    1996-01-01

    Heterologous expression of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) envelope surface glycoprotein (gp46) in a vaccinia virus/T7 polymerase system resulted in the production of authentic recombinant gp46. Five differentially glycosylated forms of the surface envelope protein were produced by this mammalian system, as demonstrated by tunicamycin inhibition of N-glycosylation and N-glycan removal with endoglycosidase H and glycopeptidase F. These studies revealed that all four potential N-glycosylation sites in gp46 were used for oligosaccharide modification and that the oligosaccharides were mannose-rich and/or hybrid in composition. Conformational integrity of the recombinant HTLV-1 envelope protein was determined by the ability to bind to various HTLV-1-infected human sera and a panel of conformational-dependent human monoclonal antibodies under nondenaturing conditions. Furthermore, this recombinant gp46 was recognized by a series of HTLV-2-infected human sera and sera from a Pan paniscus chimpanzee infected with the distantly related simian T-cell lymphotropic virus STLVpan-p. Maintenance of highly conserved conformational epitopes in the recombinant HTLV-1 envelope protein structure suggests that it may serve as a useful diagnostic reagent and an effective vaccine candidate. PMID:8892853

  8. Challenges of developing an electro-optical system for measuring man's operational envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, B.

    1985-01-01

    In designing work stations and restraint systems, and in planning tasks to be performed in space, a knowledge of the capabilities of the operator is essential. Answers to such questions as whether a specific control or work surface can be reached from a given restraint and how much force can be applied are of particular interest. A computer-aided design system has been developed for designing and evaluating work stations, etc., and the Anthropometric Measurement Laboratory (AML) has been charged with obtaining the data to be used in design and modeling. Traditional methods of measuring reach and force are very labor intensive and require bulky equipment. The AML has developed a series of electro-optical devices for collecting reach data easily, in computer readable form, with portable systems. The systems developed, their use, and data collected with them are described.

  9. Definition and means of maintaining the ventilation system confinement portion of the PFP safety envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, J.D.; Grover, G.A.; O`Brien, P.M., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-05

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant Heating Ventilation and Cooling system provides for the confinement of radioactive releases to the environment and provides for the confinement of radioactive contamination within designated zones inside the facility. This document identifies the components and procedures necessary to ensure the HVAC system provides these functions. Appendices E through J provide a snapshot of non-safety class HVAC equipment and need not be updated when the remainder of the document and Appendices A through D are updated.

  10. Developing a dynamic envelope/lighting control system with field measurements

    SciTech Connect

    DiBartolomeo, D.L.; Lee, E.S.; Rubinstein, F.M.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1996-05-01

    The feasibility of an intelligent venetian blind/lighting control system was tested in a 1:3 scale model outdoors under variable sun and sky conditions. The control algorithm, block direct sun and meet the design workplane illuminance level, was implemented using commercially available and custom designed blind and lighting systems hardware. While blocking direct sunlight, the blinds were properly controlled to maintain the design workplane illuminance within a tolerance of -10%, +25% when there was sufficient daylight. When daylight levels alone were inadequate, the electric lighting control system maintained the design workplane illuminance. The electric lighting could be turned off if a user-specified time period at minimum power was exceeded. Lighting energy savings of 51-71% (southwest) and 37-75% (south) was attained for the period from 8:00 to 17:00 on clear sunny days, compared to a fixed, partially closed blind with the same lighting system. Practical details for implementation and commissioning are discussed. The impact of control variations, such as profile angle, time step interval, and control area, on energy demand is investigated.

  11. Technical- and Environmental-Efficiency Analysis of Irrigated Cotton-Cropping Systems in Punjab, Pakistan Using Data Envelopment Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Asmat; Perret, Sylvain R.

    2014-08-01

    Cotton cropping in Pakistan uses substantial quantities of resources and adversely affects the environment with pollutants from the inputs, particularly pesticides. A question remains regarding to what extent the reduction of such environmental impact is possible without compromising the farmers' income. This paper investigates the environmental, technical, and economic performances of selected irrigated cotton-cropping systems in Punjab to quantify the sustainability of cotton farming and reveal options for improvement. Using mostly primary data, our study quantifies the technical, cost, and environmental efficiencies of different farm sizes. A set of indicators has been computed to reflect these three domains of efficiency using the data envelopment analysis technique. The results indicate that farmers are broadly environmentally inefficient; which primarily results from poor technical inefficiency. Based on an improved input mix, the average potential environmental impact reduction for small, medium, and large farms is 9, 13, and 11 %, respectively, without compromising the economic return. Moreover, the differences in technical, cost, and environmental efficiencies between small and medium and small and large farm sizes were statistically significant. The second-stage regression analysis identifies that the entire farm size significantly affects the efficiencies, whereas exposure to extension and training has positive effects, and the sowing methods significantly affect the technical and environmental efficiencies. Paradoxically, the formal education level is determined to affect the efficiencies negatively. This paper discusses policy interventions that can improve the technical efficiency to ultimately increase the environmental efficiency and reduce the farmers' operating costs.

  12. Technical- and environmental-efficiency analysis of irrigated cotton-cropping systems in Punjab, Pakistan using data envelopment analysis.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Asmat; Perret, Sylvain R

    2014-08-01

    Cotton cropping in Pakistan uses substantial quantities of resources and adversely affects the environment with pollutants from the inputs, particularly pesticides. A question remains regarding to what extent the reduction of such environmental impact is possible without compromising the farmers' income. This paper investigates the environmental, technical, and economic performances of selected irrigated cotton-cropping systems in Punjab to quantify the sustainability of cotton farming and reveal options for improvement. Using mostly primary data, our study quantifies the technical, cost, and environmental efficiencies of different farm sizes. A set of indicators has been computed to reflect these three domains of efficiency using the data envelopment analysis technique. The results indicate that farmers are broadly environmentally inefficient; which primarily results from poor technical inefficiency. Based on an improved input mix, the average potential environmental impact reduction for small, medium, and large farms is 9, 13, and 11 %, respectively, without compromising the economic return. Moreover, the differences in technical, cost, and environmental efficiencies between small and medium and small and large farm sizes were statistically significant. The second-stage regression analysis identifies that the entire farm size significantly affects the efficiencies, whereas exposure to extension and training has positive effects, and the sowing methods significantly affect the technical and environmental efficiencies. Paradoxically, the formal education level is determined to affect the efficiencies negatively. This paper discusses policy interventions that can improve the technical efficiency to ultimately increase the environmental efficiency and reduce the farmers' operating costs.

  13. 2016 System Summary of University Work Plans. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board of Governors, State University System of Florida, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The State University System of Florida has developed three tools that aid in guiding the System's future: (1) The Board of Governors' 2025 System Strategic Plan is driven by goals and associated metrics that stake out where the System is headed; (2) The Board's Annual Accountability Report provides yearly tracking for how the System is progressing…

  14. Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) and research utilization/technology transfer progress report for DOE (Department of Energy) Office of Buildings Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Burn, G.

    1990-08-01

    The Monthly Report of the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) Program is a monthly update of both in-house ORNL projects and subcontract activities in the research areas of building materials, wall systems, foundations, roofs, building diagnostics, and research utilization and technology transfer. Presentations are not stand-alone paragraphs every month. Their principal values are the short-time lapse between accomplishment and reporting and their evolution over a period of several months.

  15. Envelope Protection and Recovery Guidance for Upset Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lombaerts, Thomas; Schuet, Stefan; Acosta, Diana; Kaneshige, John; Shish, Kim

    2016-01-01

    The slides are an overview and summary of past and current research projects in the field of envelope protection, upset prevention and upset recovery, with the aim to avoid loss of control accidents and improve safety in air transportation.

  16. Mod-2 wind turbine system development. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The development of the MOD-2 wind turbine through acceptance testing and initial operational evaluation is documented. Pitch control hydraulic system, yaw control system, drive train, electrical power station, control system, operations and maintenance experience, and availability are discussed.

  17. Integrated command, control, communication and computation system design study. Summary of tasks performed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A summary of tasks performed on an integrated command, control, communication, and computation system design study is given. The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System command and control system study, an automated real-time operations study, and image processing work are discussed.

  18. Economic analysis of new space transportation systems: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    An economic analysis of alternative space transportation systems is presented. Results indicate that the expendable systems represent modest investments, but the recurring costs of operation would remain high. The space shuttle and tug system requires a substantial investment, but would substantially reduce the recurring costs of operation. Economic benefits and costs of the different systems are also analyzed. Findings are summarized.

  19. System Summary of University Annual Work Plans, 2014-15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board of Governors, State University System of Florida, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The State University System of Florida has developed three tools that aid in guiding the System's future; (1) The Board of Governors' new Strategic Plan 2012-2025 is driven by goals and associated metrics that stake out where the System is headed; (2) The Board's Annual Accountability Report provides yearly tracking for how the System is…

  20. Cargo/Logistics Airlift System Study (CLASS), Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, J. M.; Henderson, R. D.; Macey, F. C.; Tuttle, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    The current air cargo system is analyzed along with advanced air cargo systems studies. A forecast of advanced air cargo system demand is presented with cost estimates. It is concluded that there is a need for a dedicated advance air cargo system, and with application of advanced technology, reductions of 45% in air freight rates may be achieved.

  1. Summary Report: Multigrid for Systems of Elliptic PDEs

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Barry

    2016-11-17

    We are interested in determining if multigrid can be effectively applied to the system. The conclusion that I seem to be drawn to is that it is impossible to develop a blackbox multigrid solver for these general systems. Analysis of the system of PDEs must be conducted first to determine pre-processing procedures on the continuous problem before applying a multigrid method. Determining this pre-processing is currently not incorporated in black-box multigrid strategies. Nevertheless, we characterize some system features that will make the system more amenable to multigrid approaches, techniques that may lead to more amenable systems, and multigrid procedures that are generally more appropriate for these systems.

  2. Thermographic NDT of building envelopes utilizing in-door heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiyama, Tatsuhito; Nakano, Yonezou; Tanigawa, Yasuo

    2002-03-01

    The deterioration of concrete structures due to drastic changes in environment or due to poor workmanship has become very serious in Japan recently. In particular, since buildings are finished with render or tile on their facades in order to improve durability and appearance in many cases, the number of accidents resulting in injury or death caused by the fall of these finishing materials in increasing continuously. As a method of detecting delaminations of finishing materials, the thermographic survey using thermal imager is widely used because of the advantages of easiness, rate of data sampling and safeness. However, since this method is based on the difference of surface temperature between delaminated areas and sound areas generated by solar radiation, the method cannot be used under cloudy weather. It is a big difference between the construction field and other fields like metals, ceramics and plastics, which can do artificial heating or cooling easily. In order to improve the applicability and limitations of the method, a study was carried out. In ths study, instead of exposing an external wall to the sun, a method of heating the rear side of the wall by using the indoor heating system of the building was discussed and tested. As a result, it was proved that below-surface defects of building facades could be located without solar radiation by controlling the room temperature appropriately. This paper outlines the procedure and results of the study.

  3. Redox-Triggered Gatekeeper-Enveloped Starlike Hollow Silica Nanoparticles for Intelligent Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Nana; Lin, Xinyi; Zhang, Qing; Ji, Zhaoxia; Xu, Fu-Jian

    2015-12-22

    The design and development of multifunctional carriers for drug delivery based on hollow nanoparticles (HNPs) have attracted intense interests. Ordinary spherical HNPs are demonstrated to be promising candidates. However, the application of HNPs with special morphologies has rarely been reported. HNPs with sharp horns are expected to own higher endocytosis efficiencies than spherical counterparts. In this work, novel starlike hollow silica nanoparticles (SHNPs) with different sizes are proposed as platforms for the fabrication of redox-triggered multifunctional systems for synergy of gene therapy and chemotherapy. The CD-PGEA gene vectors (consisting of β-CD cores and ethanolamine-functionalized poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (denoted BUCT-PGEA) arms) are introduced ingeniously onto the surfaces of SHNPs with plentiful disulfide bond-linked adamantine guests. The resulting supramolecular assemblies (SHNP-PGEAs) possess redox-responsive gatekeepers for loaded drugs in the cavities of SHNPs. Meanwhile, they also demonstrate excellent performances to deliver genes. The gene transfection efficiencies, controlled drug release behaviors, and synergistic antitumor effect of hollow silica-based carriers with different morphologies are investigated in detail. Compared with ordinary spherical HNP-based counterparts, SHNP-PGEA carriers with six sharp horns are proven to be superior gene vectors and possess better efficacy for cellular uptake and antitumor effects. The present multifunctional carriers based on SHNPs will have promising applications in drug/gene codelivery and cancer treatment.

  4. Recombinant subviral particles from tick-borne encephalitis virus are fusogenic and provide a model system for studying flavivirus envelope glycoprotein functions.

    PubMed Central

    Schalich, J; Allison, S L; Stiasny, K; Mandl, C W; Kunz, C; Heinz, F X

    1996-01-01

    Recombinant subviral particles (RSPs) obtained by coexpression of the envelope (E) and premembrane (prM) proteins of tick-borne encephalitis virus in COS cells (S. L. Allison, K. Stadler, C. W. Mandl, C. Kunz, and F. X. Heinz, J. Virol. 69:5816-5820, 1995) were extensively characterized and shown to be ordered structures containing envelope glycoproteins with structural and functional properties very similar to those in the virion envelope. The particles were spherical, with a diameter of about 30 nm and a buoyant density of 1.14 g/cm3 in sucrose gradients. They contained mature E proteins with endoglycosidase H-resistant glycans as well as fully cleaved mature M proteins. Cleavage of prM, which requires an acidic pH in exocytic compartments, could be inhibited by treatment of transfected cells with ammonium chloride, implying a common maturation pathway for RSPs and virions. RSPs incorporated [14C]choline but not [3H]uridine, demonstrating that they contain lipid but probably lack nucleic acid. The envelope proteins of RSPs exhibited a native antigenic and oligomeric structure compared with virions, and incubation at an acidic pH (pH <6.5) induced identical conformational changes and structural rearrangements, including an irreversible quantitative conversion of dimers to trimers. The RSPs were also shown to be functionally active, inducing membrane fusion in a low-pH-dependent manner and demonstrating the same specific hemagglutination activity as whole virions. Tick-borne encephalitis virus RSPs thus represent an excellent model system for investigating the structural basis of viral envelope glycoprotein functions. PMID:8676481

  5. Photovoltaic systems in remote locations: An experience summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, A. F.

    1985-05-01

    Since 1979, the NASA Lewis Research Center has been responsible for the design, installation and operational support of 58 photovoltaic systems located in 27 countries. Together these systems contain 77.1 kW of photovoltaic modules and provide power for a variety of loads ranging from single low-power street light systems to a utility type power system for a village of over 150 people. Systems installation, reliability, operation, maintenance and repair experience is given and major problem areas are listed. Experience indicates that photovoltaic system technology is a proven technology, but that developing countries need to better posture themselves to acquire and utilize the technology. Recommendations are given.

  6. Light-Activated Amino Acid Transport Systems in Halobacterium halobium Envelope Vesicles: Role of Chemical and Electrical Gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDonald, Russell E.; Greene, Richard V.; Lanyi, Janos K.

    1977-01-01

    The accumulation of 20 commonly occurring L-amino acids by cell envelope vesicles of Halobacterium halobium, in response to light-induced membrane potential and an artificially created sodium gradient, has been studied. Nineteen of these amino acids are actively accumulated under either or both of these conditions. Glutamate is unique in that its uptake is driven only by a chemical gradient for sodium. Amino acid concentrations at half-maximal uptake rates (Km) and maximal transport rates (V(sub max) have been determined for the uptake of all 19 amino acids. The transport systems have been partially characterized with respect to groups of amino acids transported by common carriers, cation effects, and relative response to the electrical and chemical components of the sodium gradient, the driving forces for uptake. The data presented clearly show that the carrier systems, which are responsible for uptake of individual amino acids, are as variable in their properties as those found in other organisms, i. e., some are highly specific for individual amino acids, some transport several amino acids competitively, some are activated by a chemical gradient of sodium only, and some function also in the complete absence of such a gradient. For all amino acids, Na(+) and K(+) are both required for maximal rate of uptake. The carriers for L-leucine and L-histidine are symmetrical in that these amino acids are transported in both directions across the vesicle membrane. It is suggested that coupling of substrate transport to metabolic energy via transient ionic gradients may be a general phenomenon in procaryotes.

  7. Light-Activated Amino Acid Transport Systems in Halobacterium halobium Envelope Vesicles: Role of Chemical and Electrical Gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDonald, Russell E.; Greene, Richard V.; Lanyi, Janos K.

    1977-01-01

    The accumulation of 20 commonly occurring L-amino acids by cell envelope vesicles of Halobacterium halobium, in response to light-induced membrane potential and an artificially created sodium gradient, has been studied. Nineteen of these amino acids are actively accumulated under either or both of these conditions. Glutamate is unique in that its uptake is driven only by a chemical gradient for sodium. Amino acid concentrations at half-maximal uptake rates (Km) and maximal transport rates (V(sub max) have been determined for the uptake of all 19 amino acids. The transport systems have been partially characterized with respect to groups of amino acids transported by common carriers, cation effects, and relative response to the electrical and chemical components of the sodium gradient, the driving forces for uptake. The data presented clearly show that the carrier systems, which are responsible for uptake of individual amino acids, are as variable in their properties as those found in other organisms, i. e., some are highly specific for individual amino acids, some transport several amino acids competitively, some are activated by a chemical gradient of sodium only, and some function also in the complete absence of such a gradient. For all amino acids, Na(+) and K(+) are both required for maximal rate of uptake. The carriers for L-leucine and L-histidine are symmetrical in that these amino acids are transported in both directions across the vesicle membrane. It is suggested that coupling of substrate transport to metabolic energy via transient ionic gradients may be a general phenomenon in procaryotes.

  8. Disaster warning system study summary. [cost estimates using NOAA satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. F.; Maloy, J. E.; Braley, R. C.; Provencher, C. E.; Schumaker, H. A.; Valgora, M. E.

    1977-01-01

    A conceptual satellite system to replace or complement NOAA's data collection, internal communications, and public information dissemination systems for the mid-1980's was defined. Program cost and cost sensitivity to variations in communications functions are analyzed.

  9. In-space propellant systems safety. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Safety problems connected with in-space propellant logistics operations are considered. Safety considerations resulting from the system safety analysis in the trade studies and evaluations of alternate operating concepts in the systems operations analysis are presented.

  10. Summary Report: Audits of Ballast Water Treatment Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    evaluated are primarily related to the means of generating the vortex. In the HMI and VTI systems, the hydrocyclone has no moving parts. The vortex...generate the vortex. 4.2.1 Hyde Marine Incorporated [HMI] System Description Hyde Marine, Incorporated (HMI) developed a hydrocyclone /UV treatment system...HMI’s Basic Test Plan The RP test plan called for the hydrocyclone /UV system to be tested as a single unit, therefore no evaluation of the individual

  11. Space shuttle auxiliary propulsion system design study. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, P. J.; Schweickert, T. F.

    1972-01-01

    The development and characteristics of an auxiliary propulsion system for space shuttle applications are presented. The system design data necessary for selection of preferred system concepts and the requirements for complementing component design and test programs are analyzed. The use of cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen as a propellant combination is explained on the basis of high vehicle impulse requirements, safety factors, reuse, and logistics considerations. The final configurations for the alternate propellant system, with primary emphasis on earth storable propellants is described.

  12. Teacher Retirement Systems: Summary of the 1977 Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernier, Sharon M.

    This report presents basic data collected from 68 retirement systems on major legal provisions of state and local retirement systems to which teachers belong. The overview contains information on: (1) membership in state and local systems; (2) creditable service eligibility from prior service, military service, in-state nonteaching service, and…

  13. Advanced EVA system design requirements study, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Design requirements and criteria for the space station advanced Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) including crew enclosures, portable life support systems, maneuvering propulsion systems, and related EVA support equipment were established. The EVA mission requirements, environments, and medical and physiological requirements, as well as operational, procedures and training issues were considered.

  14. Teacher Retirement Systems: Summary of the 1977 Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernier, Sharon M.

    This report presents basic data collected from 68 retirement systems on major legal provisions of state and local retirement systems to which teachers belong. The overview contains information on: (1) membership in state and local systems; (2) creditable service eligibility from prior service, military service, in-state nonteaching service, and…

  15. Outer planet entry probe system study. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    General mission considerations and science prospectus, which are of a general nature that applies to several or all planetary applications, are presented. Five probe systems are defined: nominal Jupiter probe system, and Jupiter probe-dedicated alternative probe system, Jupiter spacecraft radiation-compatible alternative probe system, Saturn probe system, and Saturn probe applicability for Uranus. Parametric analysis is summarized for mission analysis of a general nature, and then for specific missions to Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The program is also discussed from the hardware availability viewpoint and the aspect of commonality.

  16. Innovative technology summary report: advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) is a liquid-air-based, self-contained breathing and cooling system with a duration of 2 hrs. AWPS employs a patented system developed by Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS), which was supported by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Morgantown Energy Technology Center through a cost sharing research and development contract. The heart of the system is the life-support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack is combined with advanced protective garments, an advanced liquid cooling garment (LCG), a respirator, and communications and support equipment.

  17. Analysis of information systems for hydropower operations: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, R. L.; Becker, L.; Estes, J.; Simonett, D.; Yeh, W.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis was performed of the operations of hydropower systems, with emphasis on water resource management, to determine how aerospace derived information system technologies can effectively increase energy output. Better utilization of water resources was sought through improved reservoir inflow forecasting based on use of hydrometeorologic information systems with new or improved sensors, satellite data relay systems, and use of advanced scheduling techniques for water release. Specific mechanisms for increased energy output were determined, principally the use of more timely and accurate short term (0-7 days) inflow information to reduce spillage caused by unanticipated dynamic high inflow events. The hydrometeorologic models used in predicting inflows were examined in detail to determine the sensitivity of inflow prediction accuracy to the many variables employed in the models, and the results were used to establish information system requirements. Sensor and data handling system capabilities were reviewed and compared to the requirements, and an improved information system concept was outlined.

  18. Regenerative flywheel energy storage system. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-06-01

    The development, fabrication, and test of a regenerative flywheel energy storage and recovery system for a battery/flywheel electric vehicle of the 3000 pound class are described. The vehicle propulsion system was simulated on a digital computer in order to determine the optimum system operating strategies and to establish a calculated range improvement over a nonregenerative, all electric vehicle. Fabrication of the inductor motor, the flywheel, the power conditioner, and the system control are described. Test results of the system operating over the SAE J227a Schedule D driving cycle are given and are compared to the calculated value. The flywheel energy storage system consists of a solid rotor, synchronous, inductor type, flywheel drive machine electrically coupled to a dc battery electric propulsion system through a load commutated inverter. The motor/alternator unit is coupled mechanically to a small steel flywheel which provides a portion of the vehicle's accelerating energy and regenerates the vehicle's braking energy.

  19. Summary of the recent short-haul systems studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savin, R. C.; Galloway, T. L.; Wilcox, D. E.; Kenyon, G. C.; Ardema, M. D.; Waters, M. H.

    1975-01-01

    The results of several NASA sponsored high density short haul air transportation systems studies are reported as well as analyzed. Included are the total STOL systems analysis approach, a companion STOL composites study conducted in conjunction with STOL systems studies, a STOL economic assessment study, an evaluation of STOL aircraft with and without externally blown flaps, an alternative STOL systems for the San Francisco Bay Area, and the quiet, clean experimental engine studies. Assumptions and results of these studies are summarized, their differences, analyzed, and the results compared with those in-house analyses performed by the Systems Studies Division of the NASA-Ames Research Center. Pertinent conclusions are developed and the more significant technology needs for the evaluation of a viable short haul transportation system are identified.

  20. Satellite power system: Engineering and economic analysis summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A system engineering and economic analysis was conducted to establish typical reference baselines for the photovoltaic, solar thermal, and nuclear satellite power systems. Tentative conclusions indicate that feasibility and economic viability are characteristic of the Satellite Power System. Anticipated technology related to manufacturing, construction, and maintenance operations is described. Fuel consumption, environmental effects, and orbital transfer are investigated. Space shuttles, local space transportation, and the heavy lift launch vehicle required are also discussed.

  1. Housing Operations Management System (HOMES). Volume 1. Executive Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT, TASK U.S. ARMY AREA & WORK NIT NUMBERS CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING RESEARCH LABORATORY...Management System (HOMES) is a comprehensive, com- puter-based housing management system designed to support installation and Major Command...Army service members, and reduce the cost of managing the housing system. This volume summarizes the work done by the U.S. Army Construction Engi

  2. High School Symposium for Earth Systems Education (Columbus, Ohio, October 1994). Proceedings and Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W., Ed.; Mayer, Victor J., Ed.

    This volume contains the proceedings and summary for the Earth Systems Education high school symposium conducted in October, 1994. Selected participants were invited to contribute papers for inclusion in this volume so that other teachers can see how Earth Systems Education (ESE) looks in practice. The volume also contains the context for ESE in…

  3. Annual Surveillance Summary: Escherichia coli (E. coli) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-30

    women.5 Screening practices may also contribute to higher rates of E. coli infections among females of reproductive age, as the Infectious Disease...Annual Surveillance Summary: Escherichia coli (E. coli) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS...and prevalence among all beneficiaries seeking care within the Military Health System (MHS). This report describes demographics, clinical

  4. Building Management Information Systems to Coordinate Citywide Afterschool Programs: A Toolkit for Cities. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This executive summary describes highlights from the report, "Building Management Information Systems to Coordinate Citywide Afterschool Programs: A Toolkit for Cities." City-led efforts to build coordinated systems of afterschool programming are an important strategy for improving the health, safety and academic preparedness of children…

  5. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission initial updated baseline summary

    SciTech Connect

    Swita, W.R.

    1998-01-05

    This document provides a summary of the proposed Tank Waste Remediation System Retrieval and Disposal Mission Initial Updated Baseline (scope, schedule, and cost) developed to demonstrate the Tank Waste Remediation System contractor`s Readiness-to-Proceed in support of the Phase 1B mission.

  6. Performance 2000-01: System and Institution Summaries and Report Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ. System, Eugene. Office of Academic Affairs.

    Under a legislative mandate, system and institution performance reports are prepared for the Oregon higher education system annually to share descriptive information about the movement institutions are making with respect to the indicators adopted by the state in 1997. Chancellor'us staff prepared Report Cards and Summary Performance Reports for…

  7. Comet/Asteroid Protection System: Concept Study Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.

    2005-01-01

    Many of the major issues have been identified for a futuristic capability to protect against impacting comets and asteroids, and a preliminary space-based concept has been envisioned. Some of the basic concept elements, approaches, methodologies, and features have been identified. When contemplating the ability to monitor comets and asteroids continuously, there are many trade-offs between orbiting observatories and detection systems on planetary bodies without an atmosphere. Future orbit modification techniques have the potential for rapid and controlled alteration of NEO orbits, provided that high-power, compatible thermal management systems are developed. Much additional work and analysis are required to identify a final system concept, and many trade studies need to be performed to select the best mix of system capability, reliability, maintainability, and cost. Finally, it is fully appreciated that at the present time space systems are much more costly than terrestrial-based systems. Hopefully, this will change in the future. Regardless, understanding what it would take to defend against a much wider range of the impact threat will foster ideas, innovations, and technologies that could one day enable the development of such a system. This understanding is vital to provide ways of reducing the costs and quantifying the benefits that are achievable with a system like CAPS.

  8. Our Solar System at a Glance. Information Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The United States has explored the solar system with automated spacecraft and human-crewed expeditions that have produced a quantum leap in our knowledge and understanding of the solar system. Through the electronic sight and other "senses" of our automated spacecraft, color and complexion have been given to worlds that for centuries…

  9. Manned Orbital Systems Concepts Study. Book 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Requirements for and definitions of a cost effective orbital facility concept, capable of supporting extended manned operations in earth orbit beyond those visualized for the 7 to 30 day shuttle/spacelab system, were studied. Data are given on requirements derivation, concepts identification, systems analysis and definition, and programmatics.

  10. Control Systems Security Test Center - FY 2004 Program Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Robert E. Polk; Alen M. Snyder

    2005-04-01

    In May 2004, the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) was established at Idaho National Laboratory to execute assessment activities to reduce the vulnerability of the nation’s critical infrastructure control systems to terrorist attack. The CSSC implements a program to accomplish the five goals presented in the US-CERT National Strategy for Control Systems Security. This report summarizes the first year funding of startup activities and program achievements that took place in FY 2004 and early FY 2005. This document was prepared for the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center of the National Cyber Security Division of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). DHS has been tasked under the Homeland Security Act of 2002 to coordinate the overall national effort to enhance the protection of the national critical infrastructure. Homeland Security Presidential Directive HSPD-7 directs federal departments to identify and prioritize the critical infrastructure and protect it from terrorist attack. The US-CERT National Strategy for Control Systems Security was prepared by the National Cyber Security Division to address the control system security component addressed in the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace and the National Strategy for the Physical Protection of Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets. The US-CERT National Strategy for Control Systems Security identified five high-level strategic goals for improving cyber security of control systems.

  11. The Dairy Technology System in Venezuela. Summary of Research 79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Ruben D.; Henderson, Janet L.

    A study examined the agricultural technology system in Venezuela with emphasis on the dairy industry. An analytical framework was used to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the following components of Venezuela's agricultural technology system: policy, technology development, technology transfer, and technology use. Selected government…

  12. CBTL Design Case Summary Conventional Feedstock Supply System - Herbaceous

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher T. Wright; Erin M. Searcy

    2012-02-01

    A conventional bale feedstock design has been established that represents supply system technologies, costs, and logistics that are achievable today for supplying herbaceous feedstocks as a blendstock with coal for energy production. Efforts are made to identify bottlenecks and optimize the efficiency and capacities of this supply system, within the constraints of existing local feedstock supplies, equipment, and permitting requirements. The feedstock supply system logistics operations encompass all of the activities necessary to move herbaceous biomass feedstock from the production location to the conversion reactor ready for blending and insertion. This supply system includes operations that are currently available such that costs and logistics are reasonable and reliable. The system modeled for this research project includes the uses of field-dried corn stover or switchgrass as a feedstock to annually supply an 800,000 DM ton conversion facility.

  13. CBTL Design Case Summary Conventional Feedstock Supply System - Woody

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher T. Wright; Erin M. Searcy

    2012-02-01

    A conventional woody feedstock design has been developed that represents supply system technologies, costs, and logistics that are achievable today for supplying woody biomass as a blendstock with coal for energy production. Efforts are made to identify bottlenecks and optimize the efficiency and capacities of this supply system, within the constraints and consideration of existing local feedstock supplies, equipment, and permitting requirements. The feedstock supply system logistics operations encompass all of the activities necessary to move woody biomass from the production location to the conversion reactor ready for blending and insertion. This supply system includes operations that are currently available such that costs and logistics are reasonable and reliable. The system modeled for this research project includes the use of the slash stream since it is a more conservative analysis and represents the material actually used in the experimental part of the project.

  14. Mobile integrated temporary utility system. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The Mobile Integrated Temporary Utility System (MITUS) integrates portable electrical power along with communications and emergency alarm and lighting capabilities to provide safe, centralized power to work areas that need to be de-energized for decommissioning work. MITUS consists of a portable unit substation; up to twenty portable kiosks that house the power receptacles, communications, and emergency alarm and lighting systems; and a central communications unit. This system makes sequential decommissioning efforts efficient and cost-effective by allowing the integrated system to remain intact while being moved to subsequent work sites. Use of the MITUS also eliminates the need to conduct zero-energy tests and implement associated lock-out/tag-out procedures at partially de-energized facilities. Since the MITUS is a designed system, it can be customized to accommodate unique facility conditions simply by varying kiosks and transformer configurations. The MITUS is an attractive alternate to the use of portable generators with stand-alone communications and emergency system. It is more cost-effective than upgrading or reconfiguring existing power distribution systems.

  15. Space station WP-04 power system. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallinan, G. J.

    1987-01-01

    Major study activities and results of the phase B study contract for the preliminary design of the space station Electrical Power System (EPS) are summarized. The areas addressed include the general system design, man-tended option, automation and robotics, evolutionary growth, software development environment, advanced development, customer accommodations, operations planning, product assurance, and design and development phase planning. The EPS consists of a combination photovoltaic and solar dynamic power generation subsystem and a power management and distribution (PMAD) subsystem. System trade studies and costing activities are also summarized.

  16. Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) data book. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, George S.

    1990-01-01

    The study was initiated to identify operations problems and cost drivers for current propulsion systems and to identify technology and design approaches to increase the operational efficiency and reduce operations costs for future propulsion systems. To provide readily usable data for the Advanced Launch System (ALS) program, the results of the Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) were organized into a series of OEPSS Data Books as follows: Volume 1, Generic Ground Operations Data; Volume 2, Ground Operations Problems; Volume 3, Operations Technology; Volume 4, OEPSS Design Concepts; and Volume 5, OEPSS Final Review Briefing, which summarizes the activities and results of the study. Summarized here are the salient results of the first year. A synopsis of each volume listed above is presented.

  17. A summary report on system effectiveness and optimization study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, O. L.; Rydberg, A. J.; Dorris, G.

    1973-01-01

    Report treats optimization and effectiveness separately. Report illustrates example of dynamic programming solution to system optimization. Computer algorithm has been developed to solve effectiveness problem and is included in report.

  18. Space Construction System Analysis. Part 2: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A detailed, end-to-end analysis of the activities, techniques, equipment and Shuttle provisions required to construct a reference project system is described. Included are: platform definition; construction analysis; cost and programmatics; and space construction experiments concepts.

  19. SCWR - Safety Systems and Containment Investigations - Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nils-Olov Jonsson

    2004-09-08

    The design of the Generation IV Supercritical Water Reactor (SCWR) was reviewed. The general design criteria and safety requirements were specified to provide a basis for the design of the safety systems and the containment. A combination of the most stringent requirements applied today is used. The majority of the effort was devoted to developing the preliminary design of a reactor core cooling system that mitigates the consequences of loss of feedwater events.

  20. System Engineering Concept Demonstration, Effort Summary. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    resource directory systems "* U.S. DoD Common APSE Interface Set "* ESPRIT PCTE environment standard "• European Computer Manufacturers Association...coordinating the activities of the subsystem engineers and disseminating a common understanding of the requirements. Once the systems design is complete...considered due to cost and schedule pressures. This leads to stories of design by "the seat of the pants." Negotiation and compromise are common during the

  1. Intermittent/transient faults in computer systems: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of an approach for diagnosing intermittent/transient (I/T) faults is presented. The development of an interrelated theory and experimental methodology to be used in a laboratory situation to measure the capability of a fault tolerant computing system to diagnose I/T faults, is discussed. To the extent that such diagnosing capability is important to reliability in fault tolerant computing systems, this theory and supporting methodology serves as a foundation for validation efforts.

  2. Solar Power Satellite Microwave Power Transmission System Description Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    The history of the concept of microwave power beaming to Earth is reviewed with emphasis on transmission frequency selection. Constraints on the system power level results from (1) required rejection of waste heat resulting from inefficiencies in the cover conversion of dc electric power to microwave power; (2) the rf power intensity in the ionosphere; and (3) the effect of sidelobe level on aperture illumination factors. Transmitter arrangement, the power distribution system, attitude control, subarrays, waveguides, and alignment are discussed.

  3. Systems analysis for the development of small resource recovery systems. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Crnkovich, P G; Helmstetter, A J

    1980-10-01

    In response to the increasing need for small-scale solid waste processing facilities, the US DOE contracted with Systems Technology Corporation (SYSTECH) to identify the technologies that should be developed to make such facilities attractive to and viable for small municipalities with solid waste between 50 and 250 tons per day (TPD). In addition to identifying candidate technologies, SYSTECH applied a set of criteria to them to determine those that could best satisfy the existing market conditions. The criteria included costs of the alternative landfill disposal, material and energy prices, developmental status of the technology, and environmental impact of the systems. The system types studied included those with mechanical separation, thermal and thermochemical energy recovery, and bioconversion processes. For these studies, the performance of each system was simulated by a mathematical model. After the systems were evaluated, the most promising were analyzed to determine which components and operating parameters had the greatest impact on system viability. Accordingly, the research and development (R and D) needs to advance the state-of-the-art for small-scale solid waste processing facilities were identified. The study results are documented in four volumes: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Description of Solid Waste Modular Simulator; (3) Research and Development Needs; and (4) System Performance Data.

  4. The plant nuclear envelope.

    PubMed

    Rose, Annkatrin; Patel, Shalaka; Meier, Iris

    2004-01-01

    This review summarizes our present knowledge about the composition and function of the plant nuclear envelope. Compared with animals or yeast, our molecular understanding of the nuclear envelope in higher plants is in its infancy. However, fundamental differences in the structure and function of the plant and animal nuclear envelope have already been found. Here, we compare and contrast these differences with respect to nuclear pore complexes, targeting of Ran signaling to the nuclear envelope, inner nuclear envelope proteins, and the role and fate of the nuclear envelope during mitosis. Further investigation of the emerging fundamental differences as well as the similarities between kingdoms might illuminate why there appears to be more than one blueprint for building a nucleus.

  5. The California corridor transportation system: A design summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A design group was assembled to find and research criteria relevent to the design of a California Corridor Transportation System. The efforts of this group included defining the problem, conducting a market analysis, formulation of a demand model, identification and evaluation of design drivers, and the systematic development of a solution. The problems of the current system were analyzed and used to determine design drivers, which were divided into the broad categories of cost, convenience, feasibility, environment, safety, and social impact. The relative importance of individual problems was addressed, resulting in a hierarchy of design drivers. Where possible, methods of evaluating the relative merit of proposed systems with respect to each driver were developed. Short takeoff vertical landing aircraft concepts are also discussed for supersonic fighters.

  6. Satellite voice broadcase system study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horstein, M.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of providing Voice of America (VOA) broadcasts by satellite relay was investigated. Satellite voice broadcast systems are described for three different frequency bands: HF, FHV, and L-band. Geostationary satellite configurations are considered for both frequency bands. A system of subsynchronous, circular satellites with an orbit period of 8 hours was developed for the HF band. The VHF broadcasts are provided by a system of Molniya satellites. The satellite designs are limited in size and weight to the capability of the STS/Centaur launch vehicle combination. At L-band, only four geostationary satellites are needed to meet the requirements of the complete broadcast schedule. These satellites are comparable in size and weight to current satellites designed for the direct broadcast of video program material.

  7. Summary of space nuclear reactor power systems, 1983--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1993-08-11

    This report summarizes major developments in the last ten years which have greatly expanded the space nuclear reactor power systems technology base. In the SP-100 program, after a competition between liquid-metal, gas-cooled, thermionic, and heat pipe reactors integrated with various combinations of thermoelectric thermionic, Brayton, Rankine, and Stirling energy conversion systems, three concepts:were selected for further evaluation. In 1985, the high-temperature (1,350 K), lithium-cooled reactor with thermoelectric conversion was selected for full scale development. Since then, significant progress has been achieved including the demonstration of a 7-y-life uranium nitride fuel pin. Progress on the lithium-cooled reactor with thermoelectrics has progressed from a concept, through a generic flight system design, to the design, development, and testing of specific components. Meanwhile, the USSR in 1987--88 orbited a new generation of nuclear power systems beyond the, thermoelectric plants on the RORSAT satellites. The US has continued to advance its own thermionic fuel element development, concentrating on a multicell fuel element configuration. Experimental work has demonstrated a single cell operating time of about 1 1/2-y. Technology advances have also been made in the Stirling engine; an advanced engine that operates at 1,050 K is ready for testing. Additional concepts have been studied and experiments have been performed on a variety of systems to meet changing needs; such as powers of tens-to-hundreds of megawatts and highly survivable systems of tens-of-kilowatts power.

  8. Data Base Management Systems Panel Workshop: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Data base management systems (DBMS) for space acquired and associated data are discussed. The full range of DBMS needs is covered including acquiring, managing, storing, archiving, accessing and dissemination of data for an application. Existing bottlenecks in DBMS operations, expected developments in the field of remote sensing, communications, and computer science are discussed, and an overview of existing conditions and expected problems is presented. The requirements for a proposed spatial information system and characteristics of a comprehensive browse facility for earth observations applications are included.

  9. Thermodynamics and fluid dynamics of the double shell (envelope) house

    SciTech Connect

    Reno, V.

    1980-01-01

    The concepts of the envelope house are summarized and a systems approach to the house heat energy flows is presented. Some basic principles of physics in the area of thermodynamic conduction are discussed in relation to the envelope concept. (MHR)

  10. Mission Information and Test Systems Summary of Accomplishments, 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMorrow, Sean E.; Sherrard, Roberta B.

    2013-01-01

    This annual report covers the activities of the NASA DRFC Mission Information and Test Systems, which includes the Western Aeronautical Test Range, the Simulation Engineering Branch, the Information Services and the Dryden Technical Laboratory (Flight Loads Lab). This report contains highlights, current projects and various awards achieved during in 2011

  11. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Ion Propulsion System Information Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pencil, Eirc S.; Benson, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    This document is a guide to New Frontiers mission proposal teams. The document describes the development and status of the NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system (IPS) technology, its application to planetary missions, and the process anticipated to transition NEXT to the first flight mission.

  12. Concrete Dust Suppression System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The improved technology is a water-based dust suppression system for controlling concrete dust generated by demolition equipment, in this case a demolition ram. This demonstration was performed to assess the effectiveness of this system to (1) minimize the amount of water used to suppress potentially contaminated dust, (2) focus the water spray on the dust-generating source and (3) minimize the dust cloud generated by the demolition activity. The technology successfully reduced the water required by a factor of eight compared to the traditional (baseline) method, controlled the dust generated, and permitted a reduction in the work force. The water spray can be focused at the ram point, but it is affected by wind. Prior to the use of this dust control system, dust generated by the demolition ram was controlled manually by spraying with fire hoses (the baseline technology). The improved technology is 18% less expensive than the baseline technology for the conditions and parameters of this demonstration, however, the automated system can save up to 80% versus the baseline whenever waste water treatment costs are considered. For demolishing one high-walled room and a long slab with a total of 413 m{sup 3} (14,580 ft{sup 3}) of concrete, the savings are $105,000 (waste water treatment included). The improved technology reduced the need for water consumption and treatment by about 88% which results in most of the savings.

  13. Mechanical Systems Technology Branch research summary, 1985 - 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    A collection of significant accomplishments from the research of the Mechanical Systems Technology Branch at the NASA Lewis Research Center completed during the years 1985-1992 is included. The publication highlights and accomplishments made in bearing and gearing technology through in-house research, university grants, and industry contracted projects. The publication also includes a complete listing of branch publications for these years.

  14. A summary of spectral synthesis procedures for multivariable systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberty, S. R.; Mielke, R. R.; Maynard, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    A new approach to the eigensystem assignment problem is presented. The approach utilizes a null-space formulation of the eigenvalue/eigenvector assignment problem to simultaneously realize arbitrary eigenvalue specifications, approximate desired modal behavior, and achieve low eigensystem sensitivity with respect to plant parameter variations. The methods are applied to the design of regulator and integral plus proportional servo control systems.

  15. Heat stress monitoring system. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) program involves the need to decontaminate and decommission buildings expeditiously and cost-effectively. Simultaneously, the health and safety of personnel involved in the D and D activities is of primary concern. Often, D and D workers must perform duties in inclement weather, and because they also frequently work in contaminated areas, they must wear personal protective clothing and/or respirators. Monitoring the health status of workers under these conditions is an important component of ensuring their safety. The MiniMitter VitalSense Telemetry System`s heat stress monitoring system (HSMS) is designed to monitor the vital signs of individual workers as they perform work in conditions that might be conducive to heat exhaustion or heat stress. The HSMS provides real-time data on the physiological condition of workers which can be monitored to prevent heat stress or other adverse health situations. This system is particularly useful when workers are wearing personal protective clothing or respirators that make visual observation of their condition more difficult. The MiniMitter VitalSense Telemetry System can monitor up to four channels (e.g., heart rate, body activity, ear canal, and skin temperature) and ten workers from a single supervisory station. The monitors are interfaced with a portable computer that updates and records information on individual workers. This innovative technology, even though it costs more, is an attractive alternative to the traditional (baseline) technology, which measures environmental statistics and predicts the average worker`s reaction to those environmental conditions without taking the physical condition of the individual worker into consideration. Although use of the improved technology might be justified purely on the basis of improved safety, it has the potential to pay for itself by reducing worker time lost caused by heat

  16. Summary and status of the Horizons ephemeris system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgini, J.

    2011-10-01

    Since 1996, the Horizons system has provided searchable access to JPL ephemerides for all known solar system bodies, several dozen spacecraft, planetary system barycenters, and some libration points. Responding to 18 400 000 requests from 300 000 unique addresses, the system has recently averaged 420 000 ephemeris requests per month. Horizons is accessed and automated using three interfaces: interactive telnet, web-browser form, and e-mail command-file. Asteroid and comet ephemerides are numerically integrated from JPL's database of initial conditions. This small-body database is updated hourly by a separate process as new measurements and discoveries are reported by the Minor Planet Center and automatically incorporated into new JPL orbit solutions. Ephemerides for other objects are derived by interpolating previously developed solutions whose trajectories have been represented in a file. For asteroids and comets, such files may be dynamically created and transferred to users, effectively recording integrator output. These small-body SPK files may then be interpolated by user software to reproduce the trajectory without duplicating the numerically integrated n-body dynamical model or PPN equations of motion. Other Horizons output is numerical and in the form of plain-text observer, vector, osculating element, or close-approach tables, typically expected be read by other software as input. About one hundred quantities can be requested in various time-scales and coordinate systems. For JPL small-body solutions, this includes statistical uncertainties derived from measurement covariance and state transition matrices. With the exception of some natural satellites, Horizons is consistent with DE405/DE406, the IAU 1976 constants, ITRF93, and IAU2009 rotational models.

  17. Space shuttle food system summary, 1981-1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadler, Connie R.; Rapp, Rita M.; Bourland, Charles T.; Fohey, Michael F.

    1988-01-01

    All food in the Space Shuttle food system was precooked and processed so it required no refrigeration and was either ready-to-eat or could be prepared for consumption by simply adding water and/or heating. A gun-type water dispenser and a portable, suitcase-type heater were used to support this food system during the first four missions. On STS-5, new rehydratable packages were introduced along with a needle-injection water dispenser that measured the water as it was dispensed into the packages. A modular galley was developed to facilitate the meal preparation process aboard the Space Shuttle. The galley initially flew on STS-9. A personal hygiene station, a hot or cold water dispenser, a convection oven, and meal assembly areas were included in the galley.

  18. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Configuration concepts, option sizes, and systems definitions study design evolutions are reviewed. The main features of the present reference design silicon solar cell solar power satellite are described, as well as the provisions for space construction and support systems. The principal study accomplishments and conclusions are summarized according to the following tasks: (1) baseline critique; (2) construction and maintenance; (3) industrial complex needs, cost estimates, and production capacity; (4) launch complex requirements at KSC or at an offshore facility; (5) integration of the SPS/ground power network; (6) technology advancement and development; (7) costs and schedules; and (8) exploratory technology: laser annealing of solar cells degraded by proton irradiation, and a fiber-optic phase distribution link at 980 MHz.

  19. Intelligent Propulsion System Foundation Technology: Summary of Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this cooperative agreement was to develop a foundation of intelligent propulsion technologies for NASA and industry that will have an impact on safety, noise, emissions, and cost. These intelligent engine technologies included sensors, electronics, communications, control logic, actuators, smart materials and structures, and system studies. Furthermore, this cooperative agreement helped prepare future graduates to develop the revolutionary intelligent propulsion technologies that will be needed to ensure pre-eminence of the U.S. aerospace industry. This Propulsion 21 - Phase 11 program consisted of four primary research areas and associated work elements at Ohio universities: 1.0 Turbine Engine Prognostics, 2.0 Active Controls for Emissions and Noise Reduction, 3.0 Active Structural Controls and Performance, and 4.0 System Studies and Integration. Phase l, which was conducted during the period August 1, 2003, through September 30, 2004, has been reported separately.

  20. Advanced Waste Retrieval System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    2001-09-01

    At West Valley, following the baseline removal operations, bulk waste retrieval methods may be augmented if required, with the deployment of the Advanced Waste Retrieval System (AWRS). The AWRS is a hydraulic boom mounted on a trolley on the Mast-Mounted Tool Delivery System. The boom is about 15 ft long with a pan and tilt mechanism at the end. On the end is a steam jet with a suction tool that can reach down around the tank internal structure and vacuum up zeolite or sludge off the bottom of the tank from a thirty-foot diameter reach. A grinder is included topside in the discharge path to pulverize the zeolite so it can be readily retrieved from the destination tank.

  1. Data Base Management Systems Panel. Third workshop summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urena, J. L. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The discussions and results of a review by a panel of data base management system (DRMS) experts of various aspects of the use of DBMSs within NASA/Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications (OSTA) and related organizations are summarized. The topics discussed included the present status of the use of DBMS technology and of the various ongoing DBMS-related efforts within NASA. The report drafts of a study that seeks to determine the functional requirements for a generalized DBMS for the NASA/OSTA and related data bases are examined. Future problems and possibilities with the use of DBMS technology are also considered. A list of recommendations for NASA/OSTA data systems is included.

  2. Summary of useful methods for two-component system research.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Birgit E

    2010-04-01

    Since the discovery of protein phosphorylation in bacterial nitrogen assimilation and chemotaxis more than 30 years ago, many biochemical techniques for the analysis of two-component signal transduction systems have been developed. Over time the experimental conditions to follow the flow of phosphate groups from histidine kinases to the cognate response regulators in vitro have been fine tuned. Several approaches were applied to circumvent the instability of the phosphorylated form of response regulator proteins to analyze the structures of their activated forms. Recently, a FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) assay was developed to monitor interactions of chemotaxis proteins in vivo. The availability of bacterial genome sequence databases has facilitated the identification of two-component systems and enabled prediction of interacting kinase-response regulators pairs.

  3. System-Level Experimentation: Executive Summary and Annotated Brief

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    could possibly do. Experiments Learn from campaigns of genuine discovery experiments Experiment with the system, not just the technologyi i , j...Officer, Office of the Secretary of the Air Force • Strategy and Plans • Innovation and Technology Air Mobility Command • Strategic Plans and...Release 64 Air Force Major Commands continued Air Mobility Command • Director, Strategic Plans and Programs Pacific Air Forces U.S. Air Forces in

  4. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report; Summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek metal coating removal system consists of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER(R), and VAC-PAC(R). The system is designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M ROTO-PEEN tungsten carbide cutters, while the CORNER-CUTTER(R) uses solid needles for descaling activities. These are used with the VAC-PAC(R) vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure was minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended, since the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place may skew the results. It is feasible that dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment. Other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  5. Gamma-ray imaging system. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The RadScan 600 gamma-ray imaging system is designed to survey large surface areas for radiological contamination with accuracy and efficiency. The resulting survey data are clear, concise, and precise in describing how much contamination is present at exact locations. Data can be permanently stored electronically and on video tape, making storage and retrieval economical and efficient. This technology can perform accurate measurements in high radiation contamination areas while minimizing worker exposure. The RadScan 600 system is a safe and effective alternative to hand-held radiation detection devices. Performance data of the demonstrated survey area of the RadScan 600 system versus the baseline, which is the hand-held radiation detection devices (RO-2 and RO-7) for a given survey, production rate is 72% of the baseline. It should be noted that the innovative technology provides 100% coverage at a unit cost of $8.64/m{sup 2} versus a static measurement of a unit cost of $1.61/m{sup 2} for the baseline.

  6. PSDE/SAT-2: Communication system architecture study, executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The PSDE/SAT-2 multimission satellite designed to offer a flight opportunity to different experimental communication payloads and verify the feasibility of advanced space technologies is described. It was conceived for expriment in the framework of the European DRS (Data Relay Satellite) program thus providing intersatellite and interorbit communication links, but also experimental and preoperative services. Payloads include optical communication single access payload (LSA); S-Band single access payload; S-Band multiple access payload; land mobile experimental payload; navigation payload; 40/50 GHz communication payload; and millimeter wave propagation payload. The orbital slot and interference analysis identified a limited number of orbital positions for the mission interleaved between Eutelsat satellites (i.e., 14 deg 30 min E and 17 deg 30 min E). A coordination is required in Ku-Band with Eutelsat satellites and in Ka-Band with ITALSAT (Italy) and TOR-12 (USSR) systems. The link budget analysis shows that the feeder link can be correctly dimensioned assuming the ground segment as specified by ESA and the feeder link payload interface compatible with the presently available hardware technology. A feeder link interface payload was designed, matching the overall system specifications. The TT and C system architecture is shown to be adequate.

  7. Summary of the Oahu, Hawaii, Regional Aquifer-System Analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, William D.; Shade, Patricia J.; Hunt, Charles D.

    1996-01-01

    island. A regional aquifer system composed of the Waianae aquifer in the Waianae Volcanics and the Koolau aquifer in the Koolau Basalt is subdivided into well-defined areas by geohydrologic barriers. The aquifers are separated by the Waianae confining unit formed by weathering along the Waianae-Koolau unconformity. In some coastal areas, a caprock of sedimentary deposits overlies and confines the aquifers. The island of Oahu has been divided into seven major ground-water areas delineated by deep-seated structural geohydrologic barriers; these areas are further subdivided by shallower internal barriers to ground-water flow. The Koolau rift zone along the eastern (windward) side of the island and the Waianae rift zone to the west (Waianae area) constitute two of the major ground-water areas. North-central Oahu is divided into three smaller ground-water areas, Mokuleia, Waialua, and Kawailoa. The Schofield ground-water area encompasses much of the Schofield Plateau of central Oahu. Southern Oahu is divided into six areas, Ewa, Pearl Harbor, Moanalua, Kalihi, Beretania, and Kaimuki. Southeastern Oahu is divided into the Waialae and Wailupe-Hawaii Kai areas. Along the northeast coast of windward Oahu is the Kahuku ground-water area. The aquifers of Oahu contain shallow freshwater and deeper saltwater flow systems. There are five fresh ground-water flow systems: meteoric freshwater flow diverges from ground-water divides that lie somewhere within the Waianae and Koolau rift zones, forming an interior flow system in central Oahu (which is divided into the northern and southern Oahu flow systems) and exterior flow systems in western (Waianae area) Oahu, eastern (windward) Oahu, and southeastern Oahu. Development of the ground-water resources on Oahu began when the first well was drilled near Honouliuli in the summer of 1879. By 1890, 86 wells had been drilled on the island. From about 1891 to about 1910, development increased rapidly with the drilling of a

  8. Innovative technology summary report: mobile automated characterization system

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The Mobile Automated Characterization System (MACS) has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Robotics Technology Development Program as an automated floor surface contamination characterization system. MACS was designed for use by Health Physics (HP) personnel in the performance of floor surveys of known or suspected contaminated areas, to be used during any floor characterization task which has significant open areas requiring radiological surveys. MACS was designed to automate the collection, storage and analysis of large, open floor areas, relieving the HP personnel of this portion of the floor characterization task. MACS does not require a dedicated full time operator and can be setup by the normal HP staff to survey the open areas while other techniques are used on the more constrained areas. The HP personnel performing the other characterization activities can monitor the MACS progress and address any problems encountered by MACS during survey operations. MACS is designed for unattended operation and has safety and operational monitoring functions which will safely shut the system down if any difficulties are encountered. During survey operations, MACS generates a map of surveyed areas with color-coding indicating radiation levels. This map is displayed on the control console monitor during operation and can be printed for survey result documentation. MACS produces data files containing data for all sensors used during a survey, providing a complete record of samples taken and contamination levels found for all areas traversed during a survey. This data can be processed to produce tabular output of the survey results.

  9. Wireless remote radiation monitoring system (WRRMS). Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-12-01

    The Science Application International Corporation (SAIC) RadStar{trademark} wireless remote radiation monitoring system (WRRMS) is designed to provide real-time monitoring of the radiation dose to workers as they perform work in radiologically contaminated areas. WRRMS can also monitor dose rates in a room or area. The system uses radio-frequency communications to transmit dose readings from the wireless dosimeters worn by workers to a remote monitoring station that can be located out of the contaminated area. Each base station can monitor up to 16 workers simultaneously. The WRRMS can be preset to trigger both audible and visual alarms at certain dose rates. The alarms are provided to the worker as well as the base station operator. This system is particularly useful when workers are wearing personal protective clothing or respirators that make visual observation of their self-reading dosimeters (SRDs), which are typically used to monitor workers, more difficult. The base station is an IBM-compatible personal computer that updates and records information on individual workers every ten seconds. Although the equipment costs for this improved technology are higher than the SRDs (amortized at $2.54/hr versus $1.02/hr), total operational costs are actually less ($639/day versus $851/day). This is because the WRRMS requires fewer workers to be in the contaminated zone than the traditional (baseline) technology. There are also intangible benefits associated with improved worker safety and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principles, making the WRRMS an attractive alternative to the baseline technology. The baseline technology measures only integrated dose and requires workers to check their own dosimeters manually during the task.

  10. The AMSC mobile satellite system: Design summary and comparative analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noreen, Gary K.

    1989-01-01

    Mobile satellite communications will be provided in the United States by the American Mobile Satellite Consortium (AMSC). Telesat Mobile, Inc. (TMI) and AMSC are jointly developing MSAT, the first regional Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) system. MSAT will provide diverse mobile communications services - including voice, data and position location - to mobiles on land, water, and in the air throughout North America. Described here are the institutional relationships between AMSC, TMI and other organizations participating in MSAT, including the Canadian Department of Communications and NASA. The regulatory status of MSAT in the United States and international allocations to MSS are reviewed. The baseline design is described.

  11. Cargo Logistics Airlift Systems Study (CLASS). Volume 5: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burby, R. J.; Kuhlman, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    Findings and conclusions derived during the study of freighter aircraft requirements to the year 2008 are summarized. These results represent the stepping off point for the much needed coordinated planning efforts by government agencies, the airlines, the users, and the aircraft manufacturers. The methodology utilized in the investigations is shown. The analysis of the current system encompassed evaluations of the past and current cargo markets and on sight surveys of airport and cargo terminals. The findings that resulted provided the basis for formulating the case study procedures, developing the future scenario, and developing the future cargo market demand.

  12. Space shuttle system program definition. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A study for the selection of a low cost shuttle system for design and development was conducted. The objective of the final study was to examine and penetrate the major technical and cost issues affecting the choice of the following: (1) liquid propulsion recoverable or solid propulsion recoverable booster, (2) parallel burn/parallel mount or series burn/tandem mount configurations, and (3) payload weight and payload bay size of the orbiter. The matrix of program options which were considered in the study is developed.

  13. Summary of State-of-the-Art Power Conversion Systems for Energy Storage Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Atcitty, S.; Gray-Fenner, A.; Ranade, S.

    1998-09-01

    The power conversion system (PCS) is a vital part of many energy storage systems. It serves as the interface between the storage device, an energy source, and an AC load. This report summarizes the results of an extensive study of state-of-the-art power conversion systems used for energy storage applications. The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential for cost reduction and performance improvement in these power conversion systems and to provide recommendations for fiture research and development. This report provides an overview of PCS technology, a description of several state-of-the-art power conversion systems and how they are used in specific applications, a summary of four basic configurations for l:he power conversion systems used in energy storage applications, a discussion of PCS costs and potential cost reductions, a summary of the stancku-ds and codes relevant to the technology, and recommendations for future research and development.

  14. Perception and coding of envelopes in weakly electric fishes.

    PubMed

    Stamper, Sarah A; Fortune, Eric S; Chacron, Maurice J

    2013-07-01

    Natural sensory stimuli have a rich spatiotemporal structure and can often be characterized as a high frequency signal that is independently modulated at lower frequencies. This lower frequency modulation is known as the envelope. Envelopes are commonly found in a variety of sensory signals, such as contrast modulations of visual stimuli and amplitude modulations of auditory stimuli. While psychophysical studies have shown that envelopes can carry information that is essential for perception, how envelope information is processed in the brain is poorly understood. Here we review the behavioral salience and neural mechanisms for the processing of envelopes in the electrosensory system of wave-type gymnotiform weakly electric fishes. These fish can generate envelope signals through movement, interactions of their electric fields in social groups or communication signals. The envelopes that result from the first two behavioral contexts differ in their frequency content, with movement envelopes typically being of lower frequency. Recent behavioral evidence has shown that weakly electric fish respond in robust and stereotypical ways to social envelopes to increase the envelope frequency. Finally, neurophysiological results show how envelopes are processed by peripheral and central electrosensory neurons. Peripheral electrosensory neurons respond to both stimulus and envelope signals. Neurons in the primary hindbrain recipient of these afferents, the electrosensory lateral line lobe (ELL), exhibit heterogeneities in their responses to stimulus and envelope signals. Complete segregation of stimulus and envelope information is achieved in neurons in the target of ELL efferents, the midbrain torus semicircularis (Ts).

  15. Annual Surveillance Summary: Clostridium difficile Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-30

    incidence among all beneficiaries seeking care within the Military Health System (MHS). This report is a calendar year (CY) 2016 update to the CY...Department NMCPHC-EDC-TR-364-2017 Appendix A: Acronym and Abbreviation List Acronym/Abbreviation Definition CHCS  Composite  Health   Care  System CO...Annual Surveillance Summary: Clostridium difficile Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

  16. A summary of impacts of wind power integration on power system small-signal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lei; Wang, Kewen

    2017-05-01

    Wind power has been increasingly integrated into power systems over the last few decades because of the global energy crisis and the pressure on environmental protection, and the stability of the system connected with wind power is becoming more prominent. This paper summaries the research status, achievements as well as deficiencies of the research on the impact of wind power integration on power system small-signal stability. In the end, the further research needed are discussed.

  17. Technology requirements for future Earth-to-geosynchronous orbit transportation systems. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caluori, V. A.; Conrad, R. T.; Jenkins, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    Technologies including accelerated technology that are critical to performance and/or provide cost advantages for future space transportation systems are identified. Mission models are scoped and include priority missions, and cargo missions. Summary data, providing primary design concepts and features, are given for the SSTO, HLLV, POTV, and LCOTV vehicles. Significant system costs and total system costs in terms of life cycle costs in both discounted and undiscounted dollars are summarized for each of the vehicles.

  18. Telescience system concept study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-11-01

    A demonstration test for Columbus interactive user operations is defined. The data management system (DMS) test bed and the crew work station (CWS) test bed represent the on-board facilities. A pilot experiment (PE), using the fluid physics module, is physically integrated into DMS/CWS test beds. The data management laboratory (DML), providing the necessary test environment, represents the ground segment and the space/ground links. A scientific user, interfaces the telescience test bed (TB) through a console of the DML. A payload on-board operator, interfaces the telescience test bed through CWS-TB facilities and has direct physical and visual contacts with the PE. Hardware and basic software configurations necessary to run the telescience demonstration tests are defined.

  19. Remote Control Concrete Demolition System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The Remote Control Concrete Demolition System (Brokk BM150) is a remote operated articulated hydraulic boom with various tool head attachments to perform the work. The machine is designed primarily to drive a hammer and has a reach of fifteen feet. The Brokk can be operated by someone 400 feet away or in a different room with a TV monitor. The machine can be operated up to a 30 degree gradient. The unit requires a 480 volt, 50 amp circuit for it's power source. Two attachments were used in this demonstration. The hydraulic hammer and the excavating bucket. The hammer operates at 600 foot pounds and has outputs of 1000 to 1500 beats per minute. The bucket had a capacity of 1/4 cubic yard and had a smooth cutting edge. Other attachments available include a concrete crusher, a La Bounty Shear, and a 1/4 yard clamshell bucket.

  20. Systems autonomy technology: Executive summary and program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, John S (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The National Space Strategy approved by the President and Congress in 1984 sets for NASA a major goal of conducting effective and productive space applications and technology programs which contribute materially toward United States leadership and security. To contribute to this goal, OAST supports the Nation's civil and defense space programs and overall economic growth. OAST objectives are to ensure timely provision of new concepts and advanced technologies, to support both the development of NASA missions in space and the space activities of industry and other organizations, to utilize the strengths of universities in conducting the NASA space research and technology program, and to maintain the NASA centers in positions of strength in critical space technology areas. In line with these objectives, NASA has established a new program in space automation and robotics that will result in the development and transfer and automation technology to increase the capabilities, productivity, and safety of NASA space programs including the Space Station, automated space platforms, lunar bases, Mars missions, and other deep space ventures. The NASA/OAST Automation and Robotics program is divided into two parts. Ames Research Center has the lead role in developing and demonstrating System Autonomy capabilities for space systems that need to make their own decisions and do their own planning. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has the lead role for Telerobotics (that portion of the program that has a strong human operator component in the control loop and some remote handling requirement in space). This program is intended to be a working document for NASA Headquarters, Program Offices, and implementing Project Management.

  1. UNIVERSITY TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM SUMMARY AND DIRECTORY

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence P. Golan; Richard A. Wenglarz

    2004-07-01

    The South Carolina Institute for Energy Studies (SCIES), administratively housed at Clemson University, has participated in the advancement of combustion turbine technology for over a decade. The University Turbine Systems Research Program, previously referred to as the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program, has been administered by SCIES for the U.S. DOE during the 1992-2003 timeframe. The structure of the program is based on a concept presented to the DOE by Clemson University. Under the supervision of the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the UTSR consortium brings together the engineering departments at leading U.S. universities and U.S. combustion turbine developers to provide a solid base of knowledge for the future generations of land-based gas turbines. In the UTSR program, an Industrial Review Board (IRB) (Appendix C) of gas turbine companies and related organizations defines needed gas turbine research. SCIES prepares yearly requests for university proposals to address the research needs identified by the IRB organizations. IRB technical representatives evaluate the university proposals and review progress reports from the awarded university projects. To accelerate technology transfer technical workshops are held to provide opportunities for university, industry and government officials to share comments and improve quality and relevancy of the research. To provide educational growth at the Universities, in addition to sponsored research, the UTSR provides faculty and student fellowships. The basis for all activities--research, technology transfer, and education--is the DOE Turbine Program Plan and identification, through UTSR consortium group processes, technology needed to meet Program Goals that can be appropriately researched at Performing Member Universities.

  2. Integrated Utility Systems Feasibility Study and Conceptual Design at the University of Florida. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirmse, Dale W.; Manyimo, Steve B.

    This executive summary presents a brief analysis of findings and recommendations. The concept of the Integrated Utility System (IUS) is to consider the interaction and mutual support of five utility subsystems needed by a campus complex of buildings. The subsystems are: (1) Electric power service; (2) Heating - ventilating - air conditioning and…

  3. Summary of a Study of Organization and Governance of Alabama State Library Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Administration Service, Washington, DC.

    Findings and recommendations compose the two sections of this summary of A Study of the Organization and Governance of Alabama Library Systems. The findings indicate the need for a central coordinating state library agency with multi-type library concerns that could strengthen the role of other state agencies concerned with library development. In…

  4. Development of the Runway Incursion Advisory and Alerting System (RIAAS): Research Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R. (Technical Monitor); Cassell, Rick

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted on an aircraft based Runway Incursion Advisory and Alerting System (RIAAS) developed under a cooperative agreement between Rannoch Corporation and the NASA Langley Research Center. A summary of RIAAS is presented along with results from simulation and flight testing, safety benefits, and key technical issues.

  5. Integrated Utility Systems Feasibility Study and Conceptual Design at the University of Florida. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirmse, Dale W.; Manyimo, Steve B.

    This executive summary presents a brief analysis of findings and recommendations. The concept of the Integrated Utility System (IUS) is to consider the interaction and mutual support of five utility subsystems needed by a campus complex of buildings. The subsystems are: (1) Electric power service; (2) Heating - ventilating - air conditioning and…

  6. Summary Part of Information Systems in the State of Minnesota 1970-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Analysts International Corp., Minneapolis, Minn.

    This is a summary of the report entitled "Information Systems in the State of Minnesota 1970-1980" (available as LI 002 385). It is reproduced separately for the benefit of those not requiring the full document. It briefly discusses the three major sections of the report: State government, Higher education (available as LI 002 387) and…

  7. Speech Envelope Normalization, a Method to Improve SNR and Suppress Noise in Present and Future Radio Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    without significantly affecting its constant envelope nature. Voiced or vowel sounds are those most dramatically affected by the EN operation. If it is...vibration. The vowel letters are an example of voiced sounds. Unvoiced syllables or 3 FP 0C 0L SCA- - -0 L). * 󈧰 CA~ coI sounds are formed by forcing...unvoiced sounds are more critical to intelligibility than the voiced (especially vowel ) sounds, yet they are weaker. Since all radio links add

  8. Remote Underwater Characterization System - Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, W D

    1999-04-01

    Characterization and inspection of water-cooled and moderated nuclear reactors and fuel storage pools requires equipment capable of operating underwater. Similarly, the deactivation and decommissioning of older nuclear facilities often requires the facility owner to accurately characterize underwater structures and equipment which may have been sitting idle for years. The Remote Underwater Characterization System (RUCS) is a small, remotely operated submersible vehicle intended to serve multiple purposes in underwater nuclear operations. It is based on the commercially-available "Scallop" vehicle 1 , but has been modified by the Department of Energy's Robotics Technology Development Program to add auto-depth control, and vehicle orientation and depth monitoring at the operator control panel. The RUCS is designed to provide visual and gamma radiation characterization, even in confined or limited access areas. It was demonstrated in August 1998 at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) as part of the INEEL Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project. During the demonstration it was compared in a "head-to-head" fashion with the baseline characterization technology. This paper summarizes the results of the demonstration and lessons learned; comparing and contrasting both technologies in the areas of cost, visual characterization, radiological characterization, and overall operations.

  9. Economic development through biomass system integration: Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Alfalfa is a well-known and widely-planted crop that offers environmental and soil conservation advantages when grown as a 4-year segment in a 7-year rotation with corn and soybeans. Alfalfa fixes nitrogen from the air, thereby enhancing soil nitrogen and decreasing the need for manufactured nitrogen fertilizer. With alfalfa yields of 4 dry tons per acre per year and the alfalfa leaf fraction sold as a high-value animal feed the remaining alfalfa stem fraction can be economically viable fuel feedstock for a gasifier combined cycle power plant. This report is a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is the feedstock for a processing plant and a power power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle) in a way that benefits the facility owners. The sale of an animal feed co-product and electricity both help cover the production cost of alfalfa and the feedstock processing cost, thereby requiring neither the electricity or leaf meal to carry the total cost. The power plant provides an important continous demand for the feedstock and results in continous supply of leaf product to provide a reliable supply needed for the leaf meal product.

  10. Geostationary platform systems concepts definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The results of a geostationary platform concept analysis are summarized. Mission and payloads definition, concept selection, the requirements of an experimental platform, supporting research and technology, and the Space Transportation System interface requirements are addressed. It is concluded that platforms represent a logical extension of current trends toward larger, more complex, multifrequency satellites. Geostationary platforms offer significant cost savings compared to individual satellites, with the majority of these economies being realized with single Shuttle launched platforms. Further cost savings can be realized, however, by having larger platforms. Platforms accommodating communications equipment that operates at multiple frequencies and which provide larger scale frequency reuse through the use of large aperture multibeam antennas and onboard switching maximize the useful capacity of the orbital arc and frequency spectrum. Projections of market demand indicate that such conservation measures are clearly essential if orderly growth is to be provided for. In addition, it is pointed out that a NASA experimental platform is required to demonstrate the technologies necessary for operational geostationary platforms of the 1990's.

  11. PROJECT W-551 SUMMARY INFORMATION FOR EARLY LAW INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM SELECTION

    SciTech Connect

    AR, TEDESCHI

    2008-08-11

    This report provides summary data for use by the decision board to assess and select the final technology for project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This project will provide early pretreated low activity waste feed to the Waste Treatment Plant to allow Waste Treatment Plan Low Activity Waste facility operation prior to construction completion of the Pretreatment and High Level Waste facilities. The candidate solids separations technologies are rotary microfiltration and crossflow filtration, and the candidate cesium separation technologies are fractional crystallization, caustic-side solvent extraction, and ion-exchange using spherical resorcinol-fonnaldebyde resin. This document provides a summary of comparative data against prior weighted criteria to support technology selection. Supporting details and background for this summary are documented in the separate report, RPP-RPT-37741.

  12. 2-D linear motion system. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) program requires buildings to be decontaminated, decommissioned, and surveyed for radiological contamination in an expeditious and cost-effective manner. Simultaneously, the health and safety of personnel involved in the D and D activities is of primary concern. D and D workers must perform duties high off the ground, requiring the use of manlifts or scaffolding, often, in radiologically or chemically contaminated areas or in areas with limited access. Survey and decontamination instruments that are used are sometimes heavy or awkward to use, particularly when the worker is operating from a manlift or scaffolding. Finding alternative methods of performing such work on manlifts or scaffolding is important. The 2-D Linear Motion System (2-D LMS), also known as the Wall Walker{trademark}, is designed to remotely position tools and instruments on walls for use in such activities as radiation surveys, decontamination, and painting. Traditional (baseline) methods for operating equipment for these tasks require workers to perform duties on elevated platforms, sometimes several meters above the ground surface and near potential sources of contamination. The Wall Walker 2-D LMS significantly improves health and safety conditions by facilitating remote operation of equipment. The Wall Walker 2-D LMS performed well in a demonstration of its precision, accuracy, maneuverability, payload capacity, and ease of use. Thus, this innovative technology is demonstrated to be a viable alternative to standard methods of performing work on large, high walls, especially those that have potential contamination concerns. The Wall Walker was used to perform a final release radiological survey on over 167 m{sup 2} of walls. In this application, surveying using a traditional (baseline) method that employs an aerial lift for manual access was 64% of the total cost of the improved technology

  13. Document recognition and XML generation of tabular form discharge summaries for analogous case search system.

    PubMed

    Kawanaka, H; Sumida, T; Yamamoto, K; Shinogi, T; Tsuruoka, S

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses and develops a document image recognition, keyword extraction and automatic XML generation system to search analogous cases from paper-based documents. In this paper, we propose the document structure recognition method and automatic XML generation method for the tabular form discharge summary documents. This paper also develops the prototype system using the proposed method. Evaluation experiments using actual documents are done to discuss the effectiveness of the developed system. The developed system consists of the following methods. Paper-based summary documents are scanned by a scanner using 300 dpi first. Noise and tilt of the image are reduced by pre-processing, and the table structures are identified. Characters in the table are recognized and converted to text data by the OCR engine. XML documents are automatically generated using obtained results. In this paper, patient discharge summary documents archived at Mie University Hospital were used. The results show that XML documents can be automatically generated when standard tabular form documents are input into the developed system. In this experiment, it takes about 20 seconds to generate an XML document using the general personal computer. This paper also compares the developed system with a commercial product to discuss the effectiveness of the present system. Experimental results also show that the accuracy of table structure recognition is high and it can be used in a practical situation. This paper showed the effectiveness of the proposed method to recognize the tabular form document images to generate XML documents.

  14. Grazing envelope evolution towards Type IIb supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soker, Noam

    2017-09-01

    I propose a scenario where the majority of the progenitors of Type IIb supernovae (SNe IIb) lose most of their hydrogen-rich envelope during a grazing envelope evolution (GEE). In the GEE, the orbital radius of the binary system is about equal to the radius of the giant star, and the more compact companion accretes mass through an accretion disc. The accretion disc is assumed to launch two opposite jets that efficiently remove gas from the envelope along the orbit of the companion. The efficient envelope removal by jets prevents the binary system from entering a common envelope evolution, at least for part of the time. The GEE might be continuous or intermittent. I crudely estimate the total GEE time period to be in the range of about hundreds of years, for a continuous GEE, and up to few tens of thousands of years for intermittent GEE. The key new point is that the removal of envelope gas by jets during the GEE prevents the system from entering a common envelope evolution, and by that substantially increases the volume of the stellar binary parameter space that leads to SNe IIb, both to lower secondary masses and to closer orbital separations.

  15. Abatement of PAPR for ACO-OFDM deployed in VLC systems by frequency modulation of the baseband signal forming a constant envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Singh, Vinay; Dalal, U. D.

    2017-06-01

    To inhibit the effect of non-linearity of the LEDs leading to a significant increase in the peak to average power ratio (PAPR) of the OFDM signals in the Visible light communication (VLC) we propose a frequency modulated constant envelope OFDM (FM CE-OFDM) technique. The abrupt amplitude variations in the OFDM signal are frequency modulated before being applied to the LED for electro-optical conversion resulting in a constant envelope signal. The LED is maintained in the linear region of operation by this constant envelope signal at sufficient DC bias. The proposed technique reduces the PAPR to the least possible value ≈0 dB. We theoretically analyze and perform numerical simulations to assess the enhancement of the proposed system. The optimal modulation index is found to be 0.3. The metrics pertaining to the evaluation of the phase discontinuity is derived and is found to be lesser for the FM CE-OFDM as compared to the phase modulated (PM) CE-OFDM. The receiver sensitivity is improved by 1.6 dB for a transmission distance of 2 m for the FM CE-OFDM as compared to the PM CE-OFDM at the FEC threshold. We compare the BER performance of the ideal OFDM (without the non linearity of LED), power back-off OFDM, PM CE-OFDM and FM CE-OFDM in an optical wireless channel (OWC) scenario. The FM CE-OFDM has an improvement of 2.1 dB SNR at the FEC threshold as compared to the PM CE-OFDM. It also shows an improvement of 11 dB when compared with the power back-off technique used in the VLC systems for 10 dB power back-off.

  16. Basewide Energy Systems Plan, Fort Knox, Kentucky: Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    This is a summary of the results of the Basewide Energy Systems Plan for Fort Knox, Kentucky. This plan includes analyses and recommendations of energy conservation projects for reduction of the installation`s present energy consumption. The installation should be aware that savings figures presented in this summary can only be realized after all projects have been implemented. Black Veatch has developed projects that would meet the funding requirements for the energy conservation program. Furthermore, the recommended projects provide partial compliance with the energy conservation requirement for the installation as outlined in the Army Facilities Energy Plan. This summary presents data on the following: (1) Existing energy consumption; (2) Source energy reductions due to energy conservation techniques for buildings and their systems; (3) Application of solar energy to reduce fossil fuel consumption; (4) Savings utilizing central energy monitoring and control systems (EMCS); (5) Use of solid waste as an alternate energy source, and (6) Analysis of Total Energy/Selective Energy (TE/SE) systems. Tables 1 and 2 present information pertaining to the physical descriptions and energy consumption of 51 typical buildings used to verify historical energy consumption in the development of the basewide energy use model.

  17. Summary of the 1993 Winter ACP Workshop on Collective Dynamics in Disordered System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-20

    34---Availability Cod••es " ]Avail and /or Dist S ecial SUMMARY OF THE 1993 WINTER ACP WORKSHOP ON COLLECTIVE DYNAMICS IN DISORDERED SYSTEM... disordered medium J. Stokes : Interface structure and dynamics in porous media 5PM: M. Cieplak: Critical phenomena in fluid invasion and magnetic domain...Surface acoustic wave study of the electron solid regime 5PM: X-L Wu : Critical fluctuations of binary liquid mixtures and liquid crystals in disordered

  18. Mount St. Helens Project. Cowlitz River Levee Systems, 2009 Level of Flood Protection Update Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-04

    mountainous region between Mount St. Helens and Mt. Rainier to the Columbia River at Longview, WA. The upstream-most levee is at Castle Rock where a... Mount St. Helens Project Cowlitz River Levee Systems 2009 Level of Flood Protection Update Summary Cowlitz River at Longview...Kelso, Washington February 4, 2010 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the

  19. Chemical/hydrogen energy systems: Annual report summary, January 1, 1987-December 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    The 1987 Annual Report provides background and rationale as well as technical status summaries of investigations into Chemical/Hydrogen Energy Systems. Brookhaven National Laboratory, serving as Program Field Manager on behalf of the US Department of Energy Office of Energy Storage and Distribution, manages and oversees R and D in: Water Vapor Electrolysis; Photochemical Processes for Hydrogen Production; Hydrogen Storage on Activated Carbons; and, Metal Hydride Slurry Applications.

  20. Executive Summary of Systems Analysis to Develop Future Civil Aircraft Noise Reduction Alternatives.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    AD-AIIB 4 PEER CONSULTANTS INC ROCKVILLE NO F/6 1/3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF SYSTEMS ANALYSIS TO DEVELOP FUTURE CIVIL A-ETC(U) MAY B2 L A ROBINSON DTFAOI...Energy Washington, D.C. 20591 Develop Future Civil Aircraft Noise Reduction Alternatives Lilia Abron Robinson, Ph. D. PEER Consultants, Inc. 1160...ORGANIZATION CODE 7. AUTHOR(S) B. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO. PEER Consultants, Inc. 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM

  1. [Efficiency of Brazilian States and the Federal District in the public kidney transplant system based on DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) and the Malmquist index].

    PubMed

    Costa, Cassia Kely Favoretto; Balbinotto Neto, Giácomo; Sampaio, Luciano Menezes Bezerra

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of Brazilian States and the Federal District in the public kidney transplant system and their productivity trends from 2006 to 2011. The authors used Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) with slack and the Malmquist index with slack. Inputs included spending on hospital services and health professionals in the system. The output was the number of kidney transplants performed in each State. The data showed a significant discrepancy between States in the number of kidney transplants. The transplant system's inefficiency may result from inadequate management, failure to comply with national guidelines, inactive hospital transplant committees, and overburdened hospital staff. Institutional changes promoted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health (procedures improvement and standardization) failed to increase productivity in most States during this period.

  2. Basewide energy systems plan, Fort McClellan, Alabama. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1982-11-01

    This is a summary of the results for Increments A, B, C, D and E of the Basewide Energy Systems Plan for Fort McClellan, Alabama. (The results of Increments F and G are summarized on pages 5 and 6). This plan includes analyses and recommendations of energy conservation projects for reduction of the installation`s present energy consumption. The installation should be aware that savings figures presented in this summary can only be realized after all projects have been implemented. Black Veatch has developed projects that would meet the funding requirements for the energy conservation program. Furthermore, the recommended projects provide partial compliance with the energy conservation requirement for the installation as outlined in the Army Facilities Energy Plan.

  3. Satellite power system: Concept development and evaluation program. Volume 3: Power transmission and reception. Technical summary and assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, R. H.; Arndt, G. D.; Seyl, J. W.; Leopold, L.; Kelley, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    Efforts in the DOE/NASA concept development and evaluation program are discussed for the solar power satellite power transmission and reception system. A technical summary is provided together with a summary of system assessment activities. System options and system definition drivers are described. Major system assessment activities were in support of the reference system definition, solid state system studies, critical technology supporting investigations, and various system and subsystem tradeoffs. These activities are described together with reference system updates and alternative concepts for each of the subsystem areas. Conclusions reached as a result of the numerous analytical and experimental evaluations are presented. Remaining issues for a possible follow-on program are identified.

  4. The Evaluation of a Temporal Reasoning System in Processing Clinical Discharge Summaries

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Li; Parsons, Simon; Hripcsak, George

    2008-01-01

    Context TimeText is a temporal reasoning system designed to represent, extract, and reason about temporal information in clinical text. Objective To measure the accuracy of the TimeText for processing clinical discharge summaries. Design Six physicians with biomedical informatics training served as domain experts. Twenty discharge summaries were randomly selected for the evaluation. For each of the first 14 reports, 5 to 8 clinically important medical events were chosen. The temporal reasoning system generated temporal relations about the endpoints (start or finish) of pairs of medical events. Two experts (subjects) manually generated temporal relations for these medical events. The system and expert-generated results were assessed by four other experts (raters). All of the twenty discharge summaries were used to assess the system’s accuracy in answering time-oriented clinical questions. For each report, five to ten clinically plausible temporal questions about events were generated. Two experts generated answers to the questions to serve as the gold standard. We wrote queries to retrieve answers from system’s output. Measurements Correctness of generated temporal relations, recall of clinically important relations, and accuracy in answering temporal questions. Results The raters determined that 97% of subjects’ 295 generated temporal relations were correct and that 96.5% of the system’s 995 generated temporal relations were correct. The system captured 79% of 307 temporal relations determined to be clinically important by the subjects and raters. The system answered 84% of the temporal questions correctly. Conclusion The system encoded the majority of information identified by experts, and was able to answer simple temporal questions. PMID:17947618

  5. Control load envelope shaping by live twist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarzanin, F. J., Jr.; Mirick, P. H.

    1974-01-01

    Rotor control systems experience a rapid load growth resulting from retreating blade stall during flight conditions of high blade loading or airspeeds. An investigation was undertaken to determine the effect of changing blade torsional properties over the rotor flight envelope. The results of this study show that reducing the blade stiffness to introduce more blade live twist significantly reduces the large retreating blade control loads, while expanding the flight envelope and reducing retreating blade stall loads.

  6. Space Operations Center system analysis study extension. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The analysis fo Space Operations Center (SOC) systems is summarized. Design considerations, configurations of the manned orbital space station, planned operational and research missions, and subsystem tradeoffs are considered. Integration into the space transportation system is discussed. A modular design concept permitting growth of the SOC as its functions are expanded is described. Additional considerations are special requirements for habitat modules, design modifications needed to operate in geosynchronous orbits, and use of the external tank for cryogenic propellant storage or as a pressurized hangar. A cost summary is presented.

  7. Fixed-bed gasifier and cleanup system engineering summary report through Test Run No. 100

    SciTech Connect

    Pater, K. Jr.; Headley, L.; Kovach, J.; Stopek, D.

    1984-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of high-pressure, fixed-bed gasification has been advanced by the many refinements developed over the last 5 years. A novel full-flow gas cleanup system has been installed and tested to clean coal-derived gases. This report summarizes the results of tests conducted on the gasifier and cleanup system from its inception through 1982. Selected process summary data are presented along with results from complementary programs in the areas of environmental research, process simulation, analytical methods development, and component testing. 20 references, 32 figures, 42 tables.

  8. The 30/20 GHz flight experiment system, phase 2. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronstein, L.; Kawamoto, Y.; Ribarich, J. J.; Scope, J. R.; Forman, B. J.; Bergman, S. G.; Reisenfeld, S.

    1981-07-01

    Summary information on the final communication system design, communication payload, space vehicle, and development plan for the 30/20 GHz flight experiment will be installed on the LEASAT spacecraft which will be placed into orbit from the space shuttle cargo bay. The communication concept has two parts: a truck service and a customer premise service (CPS). The trucking system serves four spot beams which are interconnected in a satellite switched time division multiple access mode by an IF switch matrix. The CPS covers two large areas of the eastern United States with a pair of scanning beams.

  9. The 30/20 GHz flight experiment system, phase 2. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bronstein, L.; Kawamoto, Y.; Ribarich, J. J.; Scope, J. R.; Forman, B. J.; Bergman, S. G.; Reisenfeld, S.

    1981-01-01

    Summary information on the final communication system design, communication payload, space vehicle, and development plan for the 30/20 GHz flight experiment will be installed on the LEASAT spacecraft which will be placed into orbit from the space shuttle cargo bay. The communication concept has two parts: a truck service and a customer premise service (CPS). The trucking system serves four spot beams which are interconnected in a satellite switched time division multiple access mode by an IF switch matrix. The CPS covers two large areas of the eastern United States with a pair of scanning beams.

  10. Public resource usage in health systems: a data envelopment analysis of the efficiency of health systems of autonomous communities in Spain.

    PubMed

    Campos, M S; Fernández-Montes, A; Gavilan, J M; Velasco, F

    2016-09-01

    The efficiency in the management of public resources is one of the main pillars of the welfare state. The objective of this work is to analyze the efficiency of the public resources that regional governments in Spain (Autonomous Communities (AC)) invest in health systems (HS). A dataset from of the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality of Spain has been used, which contains the most important indicators from the National HS. The following variables have been chosen in this study: the health care expenses per resident, the percentage of this investment that is forwarded to labour expenses, frequency of hospital care services, frequency of specialized external health care services and, primary health care services in medicine and nursing per resident. To this end, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is applied, which enables researchers and managers to obtain measurements of efficiency of the analyzed regions, and to propose corrective steps to achieve efficiency for inefficient HS. Moreover, the super-efficiency measurement is shown for a constant and a variable scale. The results show that there are three groups of AC, first a group composed by six HS that are globally efficient, a second group composed by eight HS that are globally inefficient, and a third group composed by three HS that are efficient in some terms and their efficiency can be improved. It is concluded that DEA is an appropriate method for evaluating efficiencies of health systems and giving the adjustments for the application of economic, social and organizational policies to improve their efficiencies. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Opacities for Stellar Envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaton, M. J.; Yan, Y.; Mihalas, D.; Pradhan, A. K.

    1994-02-01

    We define stellar envelopes to be those regions of stellar interiors in which atoms exist and are not markedly perturbed by the plasma environment. Availability of accurate and extensive atomic data is a prime requirement for the calculation of envelope opacities. For envelopes we adopt the criterion of mass density p < 0.01 ρ≥g cm-3. We present radiative Rosseland mean opacities for envelopes obtained using atomic data calculated in an international collaboration referred to as the Opacity Project, or OP. Equations of state are calculated using an occupation-probability formalism. To a good approximation, ionization equilibria and level populations in envelopes depend only on the temperature T and electron density Ne and are insensitive to chemical mixtures. Monochromatic opacities for all abundant chemical elements are therefore calculated on a grid of (T, Ne) values and are archived. Rosseland mean opacities are then readily calculated for any chemical mixture. Tables of Rosseland means, for any required mixtures and as functions of ρ and T, are available on request in computer-readable form. The present, op, results are compared with those from another recent study, referred to as OPAL, by C. A. Iglesias and F. A. Rogers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The agreement between the OP and OPAL calculations is generally good, although there are some differences. Both calculations give results larger than those obtained in earlier work, by factors of up to 3 or more.

  12. Advanced-technology space station study: Summary of systems and pacing technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butterfield, A. J.; Garn, P. A.; King, C. B.; Queijo, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    The principal system features defined for the Advanced Technology Space Station are summarized and the 21 pacing technologies identified during the course of the study are described. The descriptions of system configurations were extracted from four previous study reports. The technological areas focus on those systems particular to all large spacecraft which generate artificial gravity by rotation. The summary includes a listing of the functions, crew requirements and electrical power demand that led to the studied configuration. The pacing technologies include the benefits of advanced materials, in-orbit assembly requirements, stationkeeping, evaluations of electrical power generation alternates, and life support systems. The descriptions of systems show the potential for synergies and identifies the beneficial interactions that can result from technological advances.

  13. On the balance of envelope and temporal fine structure in the encoding of speech in the early auditory system.

    PubMed

    Shamma, Shihab; Lorenzi, Christian

    2013-05-01

    There is much debate on how the spectrotemporal modulations of speech (or its spectrogram) are encoded in the responses of the auditory nerve, and whether speech intelligibility is best conveyed via the "envelope" (E) or "temporal fine-structure" (TFS) of the neural responses. Wide use of vocoders to resolve this question has commonly assumed that manipulating the amplitude-modulation and frequency-modulation components of the vocoded signal alters the relative importance of E or TFS encoding on the nerve, thus facilitating assessment of their relative importance to intelligibility. Here we argue that this assumption is incorrect, and that the vocoder approach is ineffective in differentially altering the neural E and TFS. In fact, we demonstrate using a simplified model of early auditory processing that both neural E and TFS encode the speech spectrogram with constant and comparable relative effectiveness regardless of the vocoder manipulations. However, we also show that neural TFS cues are less vulnerable than their E counterparts under severe noisy conditions, and hence should play a more prominent role in cochlear stimulation strategies.

  14. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING DL

    2008-03-19

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions.

  15. Future Ground-Based Solar System Research: a Prospective Workshop Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnhardt, H.; Käufl, H. U.

    2009-09-01

    The article tries to provide a perspective summary of the planetary science to be performed with future extremely large telescopes (ELTs) as an outcome of the workshop on ‘Future Ground-based Solar System Research: Synergies between Space Probes and Space Telescopes’ held on 8-12 September 2008 in Portoferraio on Isola d’ Elba, Italy. It addresses science cases on solar system objects that might challenge the capabilities of ELTs and that provide a major step forward in the knowledge and understanding of planetary system objects per se and all populations. We also compile high-level requirements for such telescopes and their instrumentation that should enable successful ELT usage for research on objects in the Solar System, the ‘disturbing foreground to real astronomy’.

  16. WATER PROCESS SYSTEM FLOW DIAGRAM FOR MTR, TRA603. SUMMARY OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WATER PROCESS SYSTEM FLOW DIAGRAM FOR MTR, TRA-603. SUMMARY OF COOLANT FLOW FROM WORKING RESERVOIR TO INTERIOR OF REACTOR'S THERMAL SHIELD. NAMES TANK SECTIONS. PIPE AND DRAIN-LINE SIZES. SHOWS DIRECTION OF AIR FLOW THROUGH PEBBLE AND GRAPHITE BLOCK ZONE. NEUTRON CURTAIN AND THERMAL COLUMN DOOR. BLAW-KNOX 3150-92-7, 3/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-51-098-100036, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. 400-MWe consolidated nuclear steam system (CNSS). Conceptual design. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    There are a number of small nuclear unit concepts under active study. These include the Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) unit and a smaller version of the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). This study has focused on the Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS) plant concept. Studies performed by The Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W) and United Engineers and Constructors (UE and C) starting in 1974 have led to a 400 MW PWR CNSS plant concept of compact design. Recent economic studies for the CNSS plant show that it offers economic advantages for electric power generation in certain situations. This executive summary presents the results of these studies.

  18. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein

    DOEpatents

    Caulfield, Michael; Cupo, Albert; Dean, Hansi; Hoffenberg, Simon; King, C. Richter; Klasse, P. J.; Marozsan, Andre; Moore, John P.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Ward, Andrew; Wilson, Ian; Julien, Jean-Philippe

    2017-08-22

    The present application relates to novel HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, which may be utilized as HIV-1 vaccine immunogens, and antigens for crystallization, electron microscopy and other biophysical, biochemical and immunological studies for the identification of broad neutralizing antibodies. The present invention encompasses the preparation and purification of immunogenic compositions, which are formulated into the vaccines of the present invention.

  19. Jacketed lamp bulb envelope

    DOEpatents

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Gitsevich, Aleksandr; Bass, Gary K.; Dolan, James T.; Kipling, Kent; Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Leng, Yongzhang; Levin, Izrail; Roy, Robert J.; Shanks, Bruce; Smith, Malcolm; Trimble, William C.; Tsai, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a partially closed end, the partially closed end defining an aperture, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material at least partially covering a portion of the bulb not abutting the aperture. The reflective ceramic material may substantially fill an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. The ceramic cup may include a structural feature for aiding in alignment of the jacketed lamp bulb envelope in a lamp. The ceramic cup may include an external flange about a periphery thereof. One example of a jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a closed end, a ceramic washer covering the open end of the ceramic cup, the washer defining an aperture therethrough, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material filling an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. A method of packing a jacketed lamp bulb envelope of the type comprising a ceramic cup with a lamp bulb disposed therein includes the steps of filling the ceramic cup with a flowable slurry of reflective material, and applying centrifugal force to the cup to pack the reflective material therein.

  20. Pushing the endogenous envelope

    PubMed Central

    Henzy, Jamie E.; Johnson, Welkin E.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of retroviral envelope glycoproteins characterized to date are typical of type I viral fusion proteins, having a receptor binding subunit associated with a fusion subunit. The fusion subunits of lentiviruses and alpha-, beta-, delta- and gammaretroviruses have a very conserved domain organization and conserved features of secondary structure, making them suitable for phylogenetic analyses. Such analyses, along with sequence comparisons, reveal evidence of numerous recombination events in which retroviruses have acquired envelope glycoproteins from heterologous sequences. Thus, the envelope gene (env) can have a history separate from that of the polymerase gene (pol), which is the most commonly used gene in phylogenetic analyses of retroviruses. Focusing on the fusion subunits of the genera listed above, we describe three distinct types of retroviral envelope glycoproteins, which we refer to as gamma-type, avian gamma-type and beta-type. By tracing these types within the ‘fossil record’ provided by endogenous retroviruses, we show that they have surprisingly distinct evolutionary histories and dynamics, with important implications for cross-species transmissions and the generation of novel lineages. These findings validate the utility of env sequences in contributing phylogenetic signal that enlarges our understanding of retrovirus evolution. PMID:23938755

  1. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary, analyses and trades, and system concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Jones, Peter A.

    1989-04-01

    A study was conducted to define reasonable and representative large deployable reflector (LDR) system concepts for the purpose of defining a technology development program aimed at providing the requisite technological capability necessary to start LDR development by the end of 1991. This volume includes the executive summary for the total study, a report of thirteen system analysis and trades tasks (optical configuration, aperture size, reflector material, segmented mirror, optical subsystem, thermal, pointing and control, transportation to orbit, structures, contamination control, orbital parameters, orbital environment, and spacecraft functions), and descriptions of three selected LDR system concepts. Supporting information is contained in appendices.

  2. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary, analyses and trades, and system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Jones, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to define reasonable and representative large deployable reflector (LDR) system concepts for the purpose of defining a technology development program aimed at providing the requisite technological capability necessary to start LDR development by the end of 1991. This volume includes the executive summary for the total study, a report of thirteen system analysis and trades tasks (optical configuration, aperture size, reflector material, segmented mirror, optical subsystem, thermal, pointing and control, transportation to orbit, structures, contamination control, orbital parameters, orbital environment, and spacecraft functions), and descriptions of three selected LDR system concepts. Supporting information is contained in appendices.

  3. Shuttle active thermal control system development testing. Volume 1: Overall summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, H. R.

    1974-01-01

    A summary is given of a series of thermal vacuum tests designed to support the development of the orbiter active thermal control system (ATCS) and included testing of a wide heat load range modular radiator system (MRS) configured to the March 1973 orbiter baseline system, a candidate weight reducing radiator/water cooling system, and a smaller radiator system with a high performance radiator coating. The tests verified the performance of the baseline system and obtained detailed design information for application of a wide heat load range modular radiator system to the orbiter. The two candidate ATCS weight reducing designs have undergone extensive concept verification testing and their system operating characteristics have been determined in sufficient detail for application to the orbiter. Design information has been obtained for an integrated radiator/water cooling system that provides for vehicle heat rejection as well as water management of the excess fuel cell water. Processing techniques have been developed and verified for the application of a high performance thermal control coating to large radiator areas subjected to a temperature range of -280 F to +160 F.

  4. Ada (Trade Name) Compiler Validation Summary Report: International Business Machines Corporation. IBM Development System for the Ada Language System, Version 1.1.0, IBM 4381 under MVS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-22

    TITLE (andSubtile) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Ada Compler Validation Summary Report: 22 May 1987 to 22 May 1988 International Business Machines...IBM Development System for the Ada Language System, Version 1.1.0, International Business Machines Corporation, Wright-Patterson AFB. IBM 4381 under...SUMMARY REPORT: International Business Machines Corporation IBM Development System f’or the Ada Language System, Version 1.1.0 IBM 4381 under MVS

  5. Data envelopment analysis of space and terrestrially-based large scale commercial power systems for earth: A prototype analysis of their relative economic advantages

    SciTech Connect

    Criswell, D.R.; Thompson, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    Society must develop a large new source of electric power to adequately meet human needs in the 21st Century. The Lunar Solar Power system (LSP) is a new option that is independent of the biosphere. LSP captures sunlight on the moon, converts the solar power to microwaves, and beams the power to receivers on Earth that output electricity. The collimated microwave beams are low in intensity (< 20% of sunlight), safe, and environmentally benign. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) enables the detailed quantitative comparison of alternative economic systems. We use DEA methodology to compare the technical efficiency of the large-scale power systems needed to meet the growing energy needs of terrestrial society. This comparison suggests the efficiencies to be gained from LSP are large indeed. Such gains remain even if the resources needed for LSP are 10-fold greater than estimated from United States government studies. In terms of benefits versus costs, normalized to the range of 0-1, DEA reveals that LSP is much more efficient than conventional terrestrial solar-thermal and photovoltaic, fossil, and nuclear systems. LSP is also environmentally benign compared to the conventional systems.. 1 ref., 1 fig., 12 tabs.

  6. Summary of Resources for the International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2003-01-01

    The assembly complete Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) s ystem for the International Space Station (ISS) will consist of compo nents and subsystems in both the U.S. and International partner eleme nts which together will perform the functions of Temperature and Hum idity Control (THC), Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Water Recovery and Management (WRM), Fire Detect ion and Suppression (FDS), and Vacuum System (VS) for the station. D ue to limited resources available on ISS, detailed attention is given to minimizing and tracking all resources associated with all systems , beginning with estimates during the hardware development phase thr ough measured actuals when flight hardware is built and delivered. A summary of resources consumed by the current on-orbit U.S. ECLS syste m hardware is presented, including launch weight, average continuous and peak power loads, on-orbit volume and resupply logistics. ..

  7. Summary of Resources for the International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2003-01-01

    The assembly complete Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) s ystem for the International Space Station (ISS) will consist of compo nents and subsystems in both the U.S. and International partner eleme nts which together will perform the functions of Temperature and Hum idity Control (THC), Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Water Recovery and Management (WRM), Fire Detect ion and Suppression (FDS), and Vacuum System (VS) for the station. D ue to limited resources available on ISS, detailed attention is given to minimizing and tracking all resources associated with all systems , beginning with estimates during the hardware development phase thr ough measured actuals when flight hardware is built and delivered. A summary of resources consumed by the current on-orbit U.S. ECLS syste m hardware is presented, including launch weight, average continuous and peak power loads, on-orbit volume and resupply logistics. ..

  8. Summary of Current and Future MSFC International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Charles D.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Minton-Summers, Silvia

    1997-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of current work accomplished under technical task agreement (TTA) by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) regarding the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) as well as future planning activities in support of the International Space Station (ISS). Current activities include ECLSS computer model development, component design and development, subsystem integrated system testing, life testing, and government furnished equipment delivered to the ISS program. A long range plan for the MSFC ECLSS test facility is described whereby the current facility would be upgraded to support integrated station ECLSS operations. ECLSS technology development efforts proposed to be performed under the Advanced Engineering Technology Development (AETD) program are also discussed.

  9. Vibration isolation technology: An executive summary of systems development and demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Logsdon, Kirk A.; Lubomski, Joseph F.

    1993-01-01

    A program was organized to develop the enabling technologies needed for the use of Space Station Freedom as a viable microgravity experimental platform. One of these development programs was the Vibration Isolation Technology (VIT). This technology development program grew because of increased awareness that the acceleration disturbances present on the Space Transportation System (STS) orbiter can and are detrimental to many microgravity experiments proposed for STS, and in the future, Space Station Freedom (SSF). Overall technological organization are covered of the VIT program. Emphasis is given to the results from development and demonstration of enabling technologies to achieve the acceleration requirements perceived as those most likely needed for a variety of microgravity science experiments. In so doing, a brief summary of general theoretical approaches to controlling the acceleration environment of an isolated space based payload and the design and/or performance of two prototype six degree of freedom active magnetic isolation systems is presented.

  10. Featured Image: Orbiting Stars Share an Envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    This beautiful series of snapshots from a simulation (click for a better look!) shows what happens when two stars in a binary system become enclosed in the same stellar envelope. In this binary system, one of the stars has exhausted its hydrogen fuel and become a red giant, complete with an expanding stellar envelope composed of hydrogen and helium. Eventually, the envelope expands so much that the companion star falls into it, where it releases gravitational potential energy into the common envelope. A team led by Sebastian Ohlmann (Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies and University of Wrzburg) recently performed hydrodynamic simulations of this process. Ohlmann and collaborators discovered that the energy release eventually triggers large-scale flow instabilities, which leads to turbulence within the envelope. This process has important consequences for how these systems next evolve (for instance, determining whether or not a supernova occurs!). You can check out the authors video of their simulated stellar inspiral below, or see their paper for more images and results from their study.CitationSebastian T. Ohlmann et al 2016 ApJ 816 L9. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/816/1/L9

  11. Development, Implementation, and Pilot Evaluation of a Model-Driven Envelope Protection System to Mitigate the Hazard of In-Flight Ice Contamination on a Twin-Engine Commuter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martos, Borja; Ranaudo, Richard; Norton, Billy; Gingras, David; Barnhart, Billy

    2014-01-01

    Fatal loss-of-control accidents have been directly related to in-flight airframe icing. The prototype system presented in this report directly addresses the need for real-time onboard envelope protection in icing conditions. The combination of prior information and real-time aerodynamic parameter estimations are shown to provide sufficient information for determining safe limits of the flight envelope during inflight icing encounters. The Icing Contamination Envelope Protection (ICEPro) system was designed and implemented to identify degradations in airplane performance and flying qualities resulting from ice contamination and provide safe flight-envelope cues to the pilot. The utility of the ICEPro system for mitigating a potentially hazardous icing condition was evaluated by 29 pilots using the NASA Ice Contamination Effects Flight Training Device. Results showed that real time assessment cues were effective in reducing the number of potentially hazardous upset events and in lessening exposure to loss of control following an incipient upset condition. Pilot workload with the added ICEPro displays was not measurably affected, but pilot opinion surveys showed that real time cueing greatly improved their awareness of a hazardous aircraft state. The performance of ICEPro system was further evaluated by various levels of sensor noise and atmospheric turbulence.

  12. HIV-1 tropism for the central nervous system: Brain-derived envelope glycoproteins with lower CD4 dependence and reduced sensitivity to a fusion inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-Garcia, Julio . E-mail: julio.martin-garcia@drexelmed.edu; Cao, Wei; Varela-Rohena, Angel; Plassmeyer, Matthew L.; Gonzalez-Scarano, Francisco

    2006-03-01

    We previously described envelope glycoproteins of an HIV-1 isolate adapted in vitro for growth in microglia that acquired a highly fusogenic phenotype and lower CD4 dependence, as well as resistance to inhibition by anti-CD4 antibodies. Here, we investigated whether similar phenotypic changes are present in vivo. Envelope clones from the brain and spleen of an HIV-1-infected individual with neurological disease were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated clustering of sequences according to the tissue of origin, as expected. Functional clones were then used in cell-to-cell fusion assays to test for CD4 and co-receptor utilization and for sensitivity to various antibodies and inhibitors. Both brain- and spleen-derived envelope clones mediated fusion in cells expressing both CD4 and CCR5 and brain envelopes also used CCR3 as co-receptor. We found that the brain envelopes had a lower CD4 dependence, since they efficiently mediated fusion in the presence of low levels of CD4 on the target cell membrane, and they were significantly more resistant to blocking by anti-CD4 antibodies than the spleen-derived envelopes. In contrast, we observed no difference in sensitivity to the CCR5 antagonist TAK-779. However, brain-derived envelopes were significantly more resistant than those from spleen to the fusion inhibitor T-1249 and concurrently showed slightly greater fusogenicity. Our results suggest an increased affinity for CD4 of brain-derived envelopes that may have originated from in vivo adaptation to replication in microglial cells. Interestingly, we note the presence of envelopes more resistant to a fusion inhibitor in the brain of an untreated, HIV-1-infected individual.

  13. Summary of a Competency Based, Field Centered, Systems Approach to Elementary Teacher Education. Summary of the Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    A competency-based, field-centered systems approach to elementary school teacher education was designed to bring about specified, measurable outcomes, to have evidence of its effectiveness continually available, and to be adaptive in the light of that evidence. The model was separated into two interdependent parts, the instructional model and the…

  14. Isolating The Building Thermal Envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrje, D. T.; Dutt, G. S.; Gadsby, K. J.

    1981-01-01

    The evaluation of the thermal integrity of building envelopes by infrared scanning tech-niques is often hampered in mild weather because temperature differentials across the envelope are small. Combining the infrared scanning with positive or negative building pressures, induced by a "blower door" or the building ventilation system, considerably extends the periods during which meaningful diagnostics can be conducted. Although missing or poorly installed insulation may lead to a substantial energy penalty, it is the search for air leakage sites that often has the largest potential for energy savings. Infrared inspection of the attic floor with air forced from the occupied space through ceiling by-passes, and inspecting the interior of the building when outside air is being sucked through the envelope reveals unexpected leakage sites. Portability of the diagnostic equipment is essential in these surveys which may include access into some tight spaces. A catalog of bypass heat losses that have been detected in residential housing using the combined infrared pressure differential technique is included to point out the wide variety of leakage sites which may compromise the benefits of thermal insulation and allow excessive air infiltration. Detection and suppression of such leaks should be key items in any building energy audit program. Where a calibrated blower door is used to pressurize or evacuate the house, the leakage rate can be quantified and an excessively tight house recognized. Houses that are too tight may be improved with a minimal energy penalty by forced ventilation,preferably with a heat recuperator and/or by providing combustion air directly to the furnace.

  15. COMPLEX STRUCTURE IN CLASS 0 PROTOSTELLAR ENVELOPES

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, John J.; Hartmann, Lee; Looney, Leslie W.; Chiang, Hsin-Fang

    2010-04-01

    We use archived Infrared Array Camera images from the Spitzer Space Telescope to show that many Class 0 protostars exhibit complex, irregular, and non-axisymmetric structure within their dusty envelopes. Our 8 {mu}m extinction maps probe some of the densest regions in these protostellar envelopes. Many of the systems are observed to have highly irregular and non-axisymmetric morphologies on scales {approx}>1000 AU, with a quarter of the sample exhibiting filamentary or flattened dense structures. Complex envelope structure is observed in regions spatially distinct from outflow cavities, and the densest structures often show no systematic alignment perpendicular to the cavities. These results indicate that mass ejection is not responsible for much of the irregular morphologies we detect; rather, we suggest that the observed envelope complexity is mostly the result of collapse from protostellar cores with initially non-equilibrium structures. The striking non-axisymmetry in many envelopes could provide favorable conditions for the formation of binary systems. We also note that protostars in the sample appear to be formed preferentially near the edges of clouds or bends in filaments, suggesting formation by gravitational focusing.

  16. The cell envelope proteome of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed

    Smith, K P; Fields, J G; Voogt, R D; Deng, B; Lam, Y-W; Mintz, K P

    2015-04-01

    The cell envelope of gram-negative bacteria serves a critical role in maintenance of cellular homeostasis, resistance to external stress, and host-pathogen interactions. Envelope protein composition is influenced by the physiological and environmental demands placed on the bacterium. In this study, we report a comprehensive compilation of cell envelope proteins from the periodontal and systemic pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans VT1169, an afimbriated serotype b strain. The urea-extracted membrane proteins were identified by mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics. The membrane proteome, isolated from actively growing bacteria under normal laboratory conditions, included 648 proteins representing 27% of the predicted open reading frames in the genome. Bioinformatic analyses were used to annotate and predict the cellular location and function of the proteins. Surface adhesins, porins, lipoproteins, numerous influx and efflux pumps, multiple sugar, amino acid and iron transporters, and components of the type I, II and V secretion systems were identified. Periplasmic space and cytoplasmic proteins with chaperone function were also identified. A total of 107 proteins with unknown function were associated with the cell envelope. Orthologs of a subset of these uncharacterized proteins are present in other bacterial genomes, whereas others are found exclusively in A. actinomycetemcomitans. This knowledge will contribute to elucidating the role of cell envelope proteins in bacterial growth and survival in the oral cavity.

  17. A Fast Hartley Transform based novel optical OFDM system for VLC indoor application with constant envelope PAPR reduction technique using frequency modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vinay Kumar; Dalal, U. D.

    2017-10-01

    In this research literature we present a unique optical OFDM system for Visible Light Communication (VLC) intended for indoor application which uses a non conventional transform-Fast Hartley Transform and an effective method to reduce the peak to average power ratio (PAPR) of the OFDM signal based on frequency modulation leading to a constant envelope (CE) signal. The proposed system is analyzed by a complete mathematical model and verified by the concurrent simulations results. The use of the non conventional transform makes the system computationally more desirable as it does not require the Hermitian symmetry constraint to yield real signals. The frequency modulation of the baseband signal converge random peaks into a CE signal. This leads to alleviation of the non linearity effects of the LED used in the link for electrical to optical conversion. The PAPR is reduced to 2 dB by this technique in this work. The impact of the modulation index on the performance of the system is also investigated. An optimum modulation depth of 30% gives better results. The additional phase discontinuity incurring on the demodulated signal at the receiver is also significantly reduced. A comparison of the improvement in phase discontinuity of the proposed technique of combating the PAPR with the previously known phase modulation technique is also presented in this work. Based on the channel metrics we evaluate the system performance and report an improvement of 1.2 dB at the FEC threshold. The proposed system is simple in design and computationally efficient and this can be incorporated into the present VLC system without much alteration thereby making it a cost effective solution.

  18. A summary of porous tube plant nutrient delivery system investigations from 1985 to 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, T. W.; Brown, C. S.; Piastuch, W. C.; Hinkle, C. R.; Sager, J. C.; Wheeler, R. M.; Knott, W. M.

    1992-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program is a research effort to evaluate biological processes at a one person scale to provide air, water, and food for humans in closed environments for space habitation. This program focuses currently on the use of conventional crop plants and the use of hydroponic systems to grow them. Because conventional hydroponic systems are dependent on gravity to conduct solution flow, they cannot be used in the microgravity of space. Thus, there is a need for a system that will deliver water and nutrients to plant roots under microgravity conditions. The Plant Space Biology Program is interested in investigating the effect that the space environment has on the growth and development of plants. Thus, there is also a need to have a standard nutrient delivery method for growing plants in space for research into plant responses to microgravity. The Porous Tube Plant Nutrient Delivery System (PTPNDS) utilizes a hydrophilic, microporous material to control water and nutrient delivery to plant roots. It has been designed and analyzed to support plant growth independent of gravity and plans are progressing to test it in microgravity. It has been used successfully to grow food crops to maturity in an earth-bound laboratory. This document includes a bibliography and summary reports from the growth trials performed utilizing the PTPNDS.

  19. Remote Systems Experience at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory--A Summary of Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Noakes, Mark W; Burgess, Thomas W; Rowe, John C

    2011-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a long history in the development of remote systems to support the nuclear environment. ORNL, working in conjunction with Central Research Laboratories, created what is believed to be the first microcomputer-based implementation of dual-arm master-slave remote manipulation. As part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, ORNL developed the dual-arm advanced servomanipulator focusing on remote maintainability for systems exposed to high radiation fields. ORNL also participated in almost all of the various technical areas of the U.S. Department of Energy s Robotics Technology Development Program, while leading the Decontamination and Decommissioning and Tank Waste Retrieval categories. Over the course of this involvement, ORNL has developed a substantial base of working knowledge as to what works when and under what circumstances for many types of remote systems tasks as well as operator interface modes, control bandwidth, and sensing requirements to name a few. By using a select list of manipulator systems that is not meant to be exhaustive, this paper will discuss history and outcome of development, field-testing, deployment, and operations from a lessons learned perspective. The final outcome is a summary paper outlining ORNL experiences and guidelines for transition of developmental remote systems to real-world hazardous environments.

  20. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Advanced Separations Systems – FY 2010 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh R. Martin; Peter R. Zalupski

    2010-09-01

    This report presents a summary of the work performed in the area of thermodynamics and kinetics of advanced separations systems under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) program during FY 2010. Thermodynamic investigations into metal extraction dependencies on lactate and HDEHP have been performed. These metal distribution studies indicate a substantial deviation from the expected behavior at conditions that are typical of TALSPEAK process operational platform. These studies also identify that no thermodynamically stable mixed complexes exist in the aqueous solutions and increasing the complexity of the organic medium appears to influence the observed deviations. Following on from this, the first calorimetric measurement of the heat of extraction of americium across a liquid-liquid boundary was performed.

  1. Environmental Management System (EMS) objectives and targets : annual results summary - FY2011.

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2012-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico's (SNL/NM) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each Fiscal Year (FY) SNL/NM performs an analysis to identify environmental aspects, and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are established to mitigate potential impacts of SNL/NM's operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established objectives and targets provides a connection to, and rational for, annually revised environmental aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY2011.

  2. Expert system verification and validation study. Delivery 3A and 3B: Trip summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, Scott

    1991-01-01

    Key results are documented from attending the 4th workshop on verification, validation, and testing. The most interesting part of the workshop was when representatives from the U.S., Japan, and Europe presented surveys of VV&T within their respective regions. Another interesting part focused on current efforts to define industry standards for artificial intelligence and how that might affect approaches to VV&T of expert systems. The next part of the workshop focused on VV&T methods of applying mathematical techniques to verification of rule bases and techniques for capturing information relating to the process of developing software. The final part focused on software tools. A summary is also presented of the EPRI conference on 'Methodologies, Tools, and Standards for Cost Effective Reliable Software Verification and Validation. The conference was divided into discussion sessions on the following issues: development process, automated tools, software reliability, methods, standards, and cost/benefit considerations.

  3. Liquid Rocket Booster (LRB) for the Space Transportation System (STS) Systems Study; Volume 1 - Executive Summary.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    and is a Space Transportation System Booster Engine (STBE) contractor. Honeywell is responsible for STS flight control analysis under contract to...Honeywell, Inc. - Avionics System Design & Analysis - Flight Control Analysis Pioneer Systems, Inc. - Recovery System Design & Analysis Remtech, Inc...Fuel ALS Options 3-13 1) High specific strength aluminum lithium, Weldalite™ 049; 2) Electromechanical Thrust Vector Control (TVC) actuator systems

  4. Morphologically complex protostellar envelopes : structure and kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, John J.

    I present an in-depth study of protostars and their surrounding envelopes of dense gas and dust, using a multitude of observational methods to reveal new details of the star formation process. I use mid-infrared imaging from the Spitzer Space Telescope, combined with photometry spanning the near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths, to construct a model of the L1527 protostellar system. I modeled both the spectral energy distribution and resolved scattered light images to determine physical properties of the protostellar system. The nature of the apparent central point source in the Spitzer images was uncertain until high-resolution L-band imaging from the Gemini observatory resolved the point source into a disk in scattered light, having a radius of 200 AU. Protostellar envelopes are also often found to cast shadows against the 8 micron Galactic background in Spitzer imaging, enabling direct probes of envelope structure. The shadow images show that the dense envelopes around twenty-two Class 0 protostars are generally morphologically complex from 0.1 pc scales down to ˜1000 AU; they are often filamentary, and frequently non-axisymmetric. The observed envelope structure indicates a likely origin in turbulent cloud structure rather than a quasi-static/equilibrium formation. The complex envelope structure also may indicate an increased likelihood of fragmentation during collapse, forming close binaries. To further characterize these envelopes, I have observed them in the dense molecular gas tracers nthp and nht, both of which closely follow the 8 micron extinction morphology. The magnitude of the velocity gradients and envelope complexity on ˜10000 AU scales indicates that the velocity structure may reflect large-scale infall in addition to the often assumed rotation. Comparisons with three-dimensional filamentary and symmetric rotating collapse models reinforce the interpretation of velocities reflecting large-scale infall, showing that the structure of the envelope

  5. Back from the Brink: How a Bold Vision and a Focus on Resources Can Drive System Improvement. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This executive summary describes a case study that implemented the framework School System 20/20 to examine how Lawrence Public Schools (Massachusetts) is transforming its policies and structures to better align resources with student and teacher needs. Education Resource Strategies' (ERS') School System 20/20 is a set of conditions and practices…

  6. Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study, Executive Summary, Volume I, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, David; DosSantos, Joseph M.

    1988-06-01

    This Executive Summary, Volume I, of the lower Flathead System Fisheries Study Final Report, was prepared to provide a study overview for persons who are not fisheries scientists. The contents provide an introduction to the study and its objectives, a short description of the study area, a discussion of the major findings and conclusions of the study, and the description of fisheries management alternatives available to managers of the lower Flathead system. Technical reports were prepared for those portions of the study dealing with the lower Flathead River and its tributaries, Volume II, and the South Bay of Flathead Lake, Volume III. The annual hydrographic regime of the Flathead system, consisting of upper rivers, lake and lower river, has been modified by the construction and operation of two major hydroelectric facilities, Hungry Horse Dam on the south fork Flathead River and Kerr Dam at the outlet of Flathead Lake. The modified hydrographic regime has resulted in significant impacts to kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) and several species of trout. Kerr Dam, closed in 1938, controls Flathead Lake levels between 878.7 m (2883 ft) and 881.8 m (2893 ft) and discharges into the lower Flathead River. Kerr Dam is a 63.4 m (208 ft) high concrete arch structure located 7.2 km (4.5 miles) downstream from the outlet of Flathead Lake. The facility is used by Montana Power Company primarily for system frequency load control with some use for low level base load. 77 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Model scattering envelopes of young stellar objects. II - Infalling envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, Barbara A.; Hartmann, Lee

    1993-01-01

    We present scattered light images for models of young stellar objects surrounded by dusty envelopes. The envelopes are assumed to have finite angular momentum and are falling in steady flow onto a disk. The model envelopes include holes, such as might be created by energetic bipolar flows. We calculate images using the Monte Carlo method to follow the light scattered in the dusty envelope and circumstellar disk, assuming that the photons originate from the central source. Adopting typical interstellar medium dust opacities and expected mass infall rates for protostars of about 10 exp -6 solar mass/yr, we find that detectable amounts of optical radiation can escape from envelopes falling into a disk as small as about 10-100 AU, depending upon the viewing angle and the size of the bipolar flow cavity. We suggest that the extended optical and near-IR light observed around several young stars is scattered by dusty infalling envelopes rather than disks.

  8. Model scattering envelopes of young stellar objects. II - Infalling envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, Barbara A.; Hartmann, Lee

    1993-01-01

    We present scattered light images for models of young stellar objects surrounded by dusty envelopes. The envelopes are assumed to have finite angular momentum and are falling in steady flow onto a disk. The model envelopes include holes, such as might be created by energetic bipolar flows. We calculate images using the Monte Carlo method to follow the light scattered in the dusty envelope and circumstellar disk, assuming that the photons originate from the central source. Adopting typical interstellar medium dust opacities and expected mass infall rates for protostars of about 10 exp -6 solar mass/yr, we find that detectable amounts of optical radiation can escape from envelopes falling into a disk as small as about 10-100 AU, depending upon the viewing angle and the size of the bipolar flow cavity. We suggest that the extended optical and near-IR light observed around several young stars is scattered by dusty infalling envelopes rather than disks.

  9. Refrigerated cryogenic envelope

    DOEpatents

    Loudon, John D.

    1976-11-16

    An elongated cryogenic envelope including an outer tube and an inner tube coaxially spaced within said inner tube so that the space therebetween forms a vacuum chamber for holding a vacuum. The inner and outer tubes are provided with means for expanding or contracting during thermal changes. A shield is located in the vacuum chamber intermediate the inner and outer tubes; and, a refrigeration tube for directing refrigeration to the shield is coiled about at least a portion of the inner tube within the vacuum chamber to permit the refrigeration tube to expand or contract along its length during thermal changes within said vacuum chamber.

  10. Proteomics of the chloroplast envelope membranes from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Myriam; Salvi, Daniel; Brugière, Sabine; Miras, Stéphane; Kowalski, Solène; Louwagie, Mathilde; Garin, Jérôme; Joyard, Jacques; Rolland, Norbert

    2003-05-01

    The development of chloroplasts and the integration of their function within a plant cell rely on the presence of a complex biochemical machinery located within their limiting envelope membranes. To provide the most exhaustive view of the protein repertoire of chloroplast envelope membranes, we analyzed this membrane system using proteomics. To this purpose, we first developed a procedure to prepare highly purified envelope membranes from Arabidopsis chloroplasts. We then extracted envelope proteins using different methods, i.e. chloroform/methanol extraction and alkaline or saline treatments, in order to retrieve as many proteins as possible, from the most to least hydrophobic ones. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analyses were then performed on each envelope membrane subfraction, leading to the identification of more than 100 proteins. About 80% of the identified proteins are known to be, or are very likely, located in the chloroplast envelope. The validation of localization in the envelope of two phosphate transporters exemplifies the need for a combination of strategies to perform the most exhaustive identification of genuine chloroplast envelope proteins. Interestingly, some of the identified proteins are found to be Nalpha-acetylated, which indicates the accurate location of the N terminus of the corresponding mature protein. With regard to function, more than 50% of the identified proteins have functions known or very likely to be associated with the chloroplast envelope. These proteins are a) involved in ion and metabolite transport, b) components of the protein import machinery, and c) involved in chloroplast lipid metabolism. Some soluble proteins, like proteases, proteins involved in carbon metabolism, or proteins involved in responses to oxidative stress, were associated with envelope membranes. Almost one-third of the proteins we identified have no known function. The present work helps understanding chloroplast envelope metabolism at

  11. The Campylobacter jejuni CprRS two-component regulatory system regulates aspects of the cell envelope

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As a leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis, Campylobacter jejuni is a significant human pathogen. C. jejuni lives commensally in the gastrointestinal tract of animals, but tolerates variable environments during transit to a susceptible host. A two-component regulatory system, CprRS, w...

  12. Summary of data reported to CDC's national automated biosurveillance system, 2008

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background BioSense is the US national automated biosurveillance system. Data regarding chief complaints and diagnoses are automatically pre-processed into 11 broader syndromes (e.g., respiratory) and 78 narrower sub-syndromes (e.g., asthma). The objectives of this report are to present the types of illness and injury that can be studied using these data and the frequency of visits for the syndromes and sub-syndromes in the various data types; this information will facilitate use of the system and comparison with other systems. Methods For each major data source, we summarized information on the facilities, timeliness, patient demographics, and rates of visits for each syndrome and sub-syndrome. Results In 2008, the primary data sources were the 333 US Department of Defense, 770 US Veterans Affairs, and 532 civilian hospital emergency department facilities. Median times from patient visit to record receipt at CDC were 2.2 days, 2.0 days, and 4 hours for these sources respectively. Among sub-syndromes, we summarize mean 2008 visit rates in 45 infectious disease categories, 11 injury categories, 7 chronic disease categories, and 15 other categories. Conclusions We present a systematic summary of data that is automatically available to public health departments for monitoring and responding to emergencies. PMID:20500863

  13. Disaster warning system: Satellite feasibility and comparison with terrestrial systems. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spoor, J. H.; Hodge, W. H.; Fluk, M. J.; Bamford, T. F.

    1974-01-01

    The Disaster Warning System (DWS) is a conceptual system which will provide the National Weather Service (NWS) with communication services in the 1980s to help minimize losses caused by natural disasters. The object of this study is a comparative analysis between a terrestrial DWS and a satellite DWS. Baseline systems satisfying the NOAA requirements were synthesized in sufficient detail so that a comparison could be made in terms of performance and cost. The cost of both baseline systems is dominated by the disaster warning and spotter reporting functions. An effort was undertaken to reduce system cost through lower-capacity alternative systems generated by modifying the baseline systems. By reducing the number of required channels and modifying the spotter reporting techniques, alternative satellite systems were synthesized. A terrestrial alternative with the coverage reduced to an estimated 95 percent of the population was considered.

  14. Determination of optical parameters in general film-substrate systems: a reformulation based on the concepts of envelope extremes and local magnitudes.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Antón, J C

    2000-09-01

    We present a reformulation of the determination of optical parameters in general film-substrate systems. Developed for interferential films in terms of photometric magnitudes (R, T), the formalism introduced allows us to establish how many parameters can be extracted from a set of measurements and from which type of sample model. These parameters are the refractive index and the absorption of both film and substrate (i.e., ñ1 = n1-jk1 and ñ2 = n2-jk2), the thickness of the film (d), the inhomogeneity of the film (Deltan1), and the surface roughness of the interfaces (sigma1, sigma2) delimiting the film. The new formalism leads to some new analytical results and confirms others. Among the new results we have the following: (a) The mathematical condition commonly related with extremes (maxima and minima) in an interference pattern defines in fact a condition for envelope extremes. (b) The refractive index of a film can be obtained without prior knowledge of the thickness or the refractive index of the substrate (provided we have an optical interference film). (c) Absorption can be directly extracted from an interference-free magnitude T/(1-R). (d) Roughness at the inner surface, inhomogeneity in the film, and absorption are correlated in reflection spectral measurements.

  15. System-of-Systems Engineering for Air Force Capability Development: Executive Summary and Annotated Brief

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    developer, tester, trainer, sustainer , and researcher) are considered throughout that process. These seven, essentially peer, stakeholders are not...becomes the de facto systems engineer, acquirer, developer, tester, and sustainer for capabilities such as imagery in the cockpit. PUBLIC RELEASE 13...discipline that builds upon traditional Systems Engineering approaches, but involves new approaches and enablers to evolve and sustain a system-of

  16. Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Air Force Systems Command Technical Report Summaries. First Quarter 1986.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    The AFOSR Technical Report Summaries are published quarterly by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) of each calendar year. They...consist of a brief summary of each AFOSR technical report received in the Technical Information Division and submitted to the Defense Technical Information Center for that quarter.

  17. The action of three antiseptics/disinfectants against enveloped and non-enveloped viruses.

    PubMed

    Wood, A; Payne, D

    1998-04-01

    The antiviral action of chloroxylenol, benzalkonium chloride and cetrimide/chlorhexidine was assessed against a range of enveloped and non-enveloped human viruses using a suspension test method. Viral suspensions of 10(6)-10(7) pfu/TCID50 or sfu were prepared in each of the antiseptic/disinfectant solutions in the presence of a bovine serum/yeast extract mixture to simulate 'dirty conditions'. During incubation, aliquots were removed at predetermined timepoints up to 10 min to assess the kinetics of inactivation. Results indicate that all products were effective in inactivating the enveloped viruses herpes simplex virus type 1 and human immunodeficiency virus type 1, whilst being ineffective in inactivating human coronavirus, also enveloped, and the non-enveloped viruses. The exception to this was the benzalkonium chloride-based product (Dettol Hospital Concentrate) which was active against the non-enveloped human coxsackie virus. Four antiseptic/disinfectant solutions with chloroxylenol, benzalkonium chloride, cetrimide/chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine were also assessed for antiviral effect against human immunodeficiency virus in the presence of whole human blood. All four solutions proved to be effective within 1 min despite the cytotoxic nature of the compounds to the detection system.

  18. Network, system, and status software enhancements for the autonomously managed electrical power system breadboard. Volume 1: Project summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckee, James W.

    1990-01-01

    This volume (1 of 4) gives a summary of the original AMPS software system configuration, points out some of the problem areas in the original software design that this project is to address, and in the appendix collects all the bimonthly status reports. The purpose of AMPS is to provide a self reliant system to control the generation and distribution of power in the space station. The software in the AMPS breadboard can be divided into three levels: the operating environment software, the protocol software, and the station specific software. This project deals only with the operating environment software and the protocol software. The present station specific software will not change except as necessary to conform to new data formats.

  19. Meteorological Monitoring on bikini atoll: system description and data summary (May 2000 - April 2001)

    SciTech Connect

    Gouveia F; Bradsher, R; Brunk, J; Hamilton, T

    2002-01-01

    Meteorological data are continuously collected at three sites on Bikini Atoll in support of radioecological research and monitoring programs conducted by the Health and Ecological Assessments Division at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Weather stations were first established on Bikini Atoll in April 1990, and provide information on rainfall, wind speed and direction, air temperature, humidity, and solar radiation. These data and information are used to interpret results of remediation experiments designed to evaluate the effectiveness of potassium fertilizer on reducing the uptake of {sup 137}Cs into locally grown foods. We have also demonstrated that {sup 137}Cs is slowly leached from surface soil by the action of rain water. Long-term meteorological data are crucial to our efforts of developing an understanding of environmental processes controlling the environment loss of {sup 137}Cs in coral atoll soil. In May 2000, older data collection platforms and the DOS-based system that downloaded data from National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)'s Data Automatic Processing System (DAPS) was decommissioned, and new data loggers, GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) transmitters and antennas were installed. Consequently, new procedures were developed to maintain the field systems, download the data, and reduce and archive the data. This document provides an operational description and status report on the three new meteorological monitoring systems on Bikini Atoll as well as an computational summary of previously recorded data. Included are overviews of procedures for sensor exchange, data recovery and reduction, and specific information about the different sensors. We also provide a description of systems maintenance and trouble shooting activities. This report will be updated on an annual basis.

  20. Summary of comparative results integrated nonthermal treatment and integrated thermal treatment systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    In July 1994, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), under a contract from U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment Management Office of Science and Technology (OST, EM-50) published a report entitled {open_quotes}Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study - Phase 1 Results{close_quotes} (EGG-MS-11211). This report was the culmination of over a year of analysis involving scientists and engineers within the DOE complex and from private industry. The purpose of that study was {open_quotes}to conduct a systematic engineering evaluation of a variety of mixed low level waste (MLLW) treatment system alternatives.{close_quotes} The study also {open_quotes}identified the research and development, demonstrations, and testing and evaluation needed to assure unit operability in the most promising alternative system.{close_quotes} This study evaluated ten primary thermal treatment technologies, organized into complete {open_quotes}cradle-to-grave{close_quotes} systems (including complete engineering flow sheets), to treat DOE MLLW and calculated mass balances and 20-year total life cycle costs (TLCC) for all systems. The waste input used was a representative heterogenous mixture of typical DOE MLLW. An additional study was conducted, and then, based on response to these studies, additional work was started to investigate and evaluate non-thermal treatment options on a footing comparable to the effort devoted to thermal options. This report attempts to present a summary overview of the thermal and non-thermal treatment technologies which were examined in detail in the process of the above mentioned reviews.

  1. Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems: System development summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calm, J. M.

    1980-02-01

    An introduction to district heating systems employing heat pumps to enable use of low temperature energy sources is presented. These systems operate as thermal utilities to provide space heating and may also supply space cooling, service water heating, and other thermal services. Otherwise wasted heat from industrial and commercial processes, natural sources including solar and geothermal heat, and heat stored on an annual cycle from summer cooling may be effectively utilized by the systems described. More than one quarter of the energy consumed in the United States is used to heat and cool buildings and to heat service water. Natural gas and oil provide approximately 83% of this energy. The systems described show potential to reduce net energy consumption for these services by 20 to 50% and to allow fuel substitution with less scarce resources not practical in smaller, individual building systems. Seven studies performed for the system development phase are summarized.

  2. Simulation of random envelope processes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, J.-N.

    1972-01-01

    Efficient and practical methods of simulating stationary and nonstationary random envelope processes are presented. The stationary envelope processes are simulated by using the fast Fourier transform while the nonstationary envelope processes are simulated as the square root of the sum of a series of cosine functions and a series of sine functions with random phase angles. Typical applications of the envelope simulation are the simulations of peaks and troughs which play an important role in the analyses of the first excursion probability, fatigue and crack propagation. In particular, applications to the crack propagation under random loadings are demonstrated in detail.

  3. Significant inhibition of Tembusu virus envelope and NS5 gene using an adenovirus-mediated short hairpin RNA delivery system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongzhi; Feng, Qiang; Wei, Lei; Zhuo, Liling; Chen, Hao; Diao, Youxiang; Tang, Yi

    2017-10-01

    Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, which was first isolated in the tropics during the 1970s. Recently, a disease characterized by ovarian haemorrhage and neurological symptoms was observed in ducks in China, which threatens poultry production. However, there is no suitable vaccination strategy or effective antiviral drugs to combat TMUV infections. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop a new anti-TMUV therapy. In this study, we report an efficient short hairpin RNA (shRNA) delivery strategy for the inhibition of TMUV production using an adenovirus vector system. Using specifically designed shRNAs based on the E and NS5 protein genes of TMUV, the vector-expressed viral genes, TMUV RNA replication and infectious virus production were downregulated at different levels in Vero cells, where the shRNA (NS52) was highly effective in inhibiting TMUV. Using the human adenovirus type 5 shRNA delivery system, the recombinant adenovirus (rAd-NS52) inhibited TMUV multiplication with high efficiency. Furthermore, the significant dose-dependent inhibition of viral RNA copies induced by rAd-NS52 was found in TMUV-infected cells, which could last for at least 96h post infection. Our results indicated that the adenovirus-mediated delivery of shRNAs could play an active role in future TMUV antiviral therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Space station Simulation Computer System (SCS) study for NASA/MSFC. Volume 1: Overview and summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    NASA's Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) planning efforts have identified a need for a payload training simulator system to serve as both a training facility and as a demonstrator to validate operational concepts. The envisioned Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Payload Training Complex (PTC) required to meet this need will train the space station payload scientists, station scientists, and ground controllers to operate the wide variety of experiments that will be onboard the Space Station Freedom. The Simulation Computer System (SCS) is the computer hardware, software, and workstations that will support the Payload Training Complex at MSFC. The purpose of this SCS study is to investigate issues related to the SCS, alternative requirements, simulator approaches, and state-of-the-art technologies to develop candidate concepts and designs. This study was performed August 1988 to October 1989. Thus, the results are based on the SSFP August 1989 baseline, i.e., pre-Langley configuration/budget review (C/BR) baseline. Some terms, e.g., combined trainer, are being redefined. An overview of the study activities and a summary of study results are given here.

  5. Comprehensive Planning for an Education System. Report #2, Definition Summary. Fort Lincoln New Town Education System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Learning Corp., Washington, DC.

    Presented are program alternatives for operating an innovative school system for Fort Lincoln New Town (FLNT) in Washington, D.C. General Learning Corp (GLC), retained by the school system, offers this report of the "definition phase" of the planning effort during which community residents, D.C. Schools, Government agencies, GLC, and others…

  6. Ozone Reductions Using Residential Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max; Nazaroff, William W.

    2009-02-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant with that can have significant health effects and a significant source of ozone in some regions of California is outdoor air. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone could lead to improved health for many California residents. Ozone is removed from indoor air by surface reactions and can also be filtered by building envelopes. The magnitude of the envelope impact depends on the specific building materials that the air flows over and the geometry of the air flow paths through the envelope that can be changes by mechanical ventilation operation. The 2008 Residential Building Standards in California include minimum requirements for mechanical ventilation by referencing ASHRAE Standard 62.2. This study examines the changes in indoor ozone depending on the mechanical ventilation system selected to meet these requirements. This study used detailed simulations of ventilation in a house to examine the impacts of different ventilation systems on indoor ozone concentrations. The simulation results showed that staying indoors reduces exposure to ozone by 80percent to 90percent, that exhaust ventilation systems lead to lower indoor ozone concentrations, that opening of windows should be avoided at times of high outdoor ozone, and that changing the time at which mechanical ventilation occurs has the ability to halve exposure to ozone. Future work should focus on the products of ozone reactions in the building envelope and the fate of these products with respect to indoor exposures.

  7. Health System Decision Makers' Feedback on Summaries and Tools Supporting the Use of Systematic Reviews: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellen, Moriah E.; Lavis, John N.; Wilson, Michael G.; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Haynes, R. Brian; Ouimet, Mathieu; Raina, Parminder; Gruen, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Health system managers and policy makers need timely access to high quality, policy-relevant systematic reviews. Our objectives were to obtain managers' and policy makers' feedback about user-friendly summaries of systematic reviews and about tools related to supporting or assessing their use. Our interviews identified that participants prefer key…

  8. Summary Report of November 2015 Stakeholder Workshop on EPA GHG Data on Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the summary report of the stakeholder workshop held on November 19, 2015, on greenhouse gas data on petroleum and natural gas systems from the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program and U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Emissions and Sinks (GHG Inventory).

  9. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayon, Juan A.

    1992-01-01

    The Astrotech 21 Optical Systems Technology Workshop was held in Pasadena, California on March 6-8, 1991. The purpose of the workshop was to examine the state of Optical Systems Technology at the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA), and in industry and academia, in view of the potential Astrophysics mission set currently being considered for the late 1990's through the first quarter of the 21st century. The principal result of the workshop is this publication, which contains an assessment of the current state of the technology, and specific technology advances in six critical areas of optics, all necessary for the mission set. The workshop was divided into six panels, each of about a dozen experts in specific fields, representing NASA, industry, and academia. In addition, each panel contained expertise that spanned the spectrum from x-ray to submillimeter wavelengths. This executive summary contains the principal recommendations of each panel. The six technology panels and their chairs were: (1) Wavefront Sensing, Control, and Pointing, Thomas Pitts, Itek Optical Systems, A Division of Litton; (2) Fabrication, Roger Angel, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona; (3) Materials and Structures, Theodore Saito, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; (4) Optical Testing, James Wyant, WYKO Corporation; (5) Optical Systems Integrated Modeling, Robert R. Shannon, Optical Sciences Center, University of Arizona; and (6) Advanced Optical Instruments Technology, Michael Shao, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. This Executive Summary contains the principal recommendations of each panel.

  10. Thermal power systems, small power systems application project. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marriott, A. T.

    1979-01-01

    Current small power system technology as applied to power plants up to 10 MWe in size was assessed. Markets for small power systems were characterized and cost goals were established. Candidate power plant system design concepts were selected for evaluation and preliminary performance and cost assessments were made. Economic studies were conducted and breakeven capital costs were determined for leading contenders among the candidate systems. An application study was made of the potential use of small power systems in providing part of the demand for pumping power by the extensive aqueduct system of California, estimated to be 1000 MWe by 1985. Criteria and methodologies were developed for application to the ranking of candidate power plant system design concepts. Experimental power plants concepts of 1 MWe rating were studied leading toward the definition of a power plant configuration for subsequent detail design, construction, testing and evaluation as Engineering Experiment No. 1 (EE No. 1). Site selection criteria and ground rules for the solicitation of EE No. 1 site participation proposals by DOE were developed.

  11. Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems: system development summary

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1980-02-01

    An introduction to district heating systems employing heat pumps to enable use of low-temperature energy sources is presented. These systems operate as thermal utilities to provide space heating and may also supply space cooling, service-water heating, and other thermal services. Otherwise-wasted heat from industrial and commercial processes, natural sources including solar and geothermal heat, and heat stored on an annual cycle from summer cooling may be effectively utilized by the systems described. These sources are abundant, and their use would conserve scarce resources and reduce adverse environmental impacts. More than one-quarter of the energy consumed in the United States is used to heat and cool buildings and to heat service water. Natural gas and oil provide approximately 83% of this energy. The systems described show potential to reduce net energy consumption for these services by 20 to 50% and to allow fuel substitution with less-scarce resources not practical in smaller, individual-building systems. Seven studies performed for the system development phase of the Department of Energy's Heat-Pump-Centered Integrated Community Energy Systems Project and to related studies are summarized. A concluding chapter tabulates data from these separately published studies.

  12. [Characterization of Serial Passage of 1b/2a Chimera Hepatitis C Virus Cell Culture System Carrying Envelope E1E2 Coding Gene from Hebei Strain of China].

    PubMed

    Lu, Sha; Zhang, Ling; Tao, Gesi; Cai, Min; Bao Lili; LI, Lian; Deng, Yao; Shen, Xiaoling; Tan, Wenjie

    2015-11-01

    To character a novel chimera(1b/2a) hepatitis C virus cell culture (HCVcc) system carrying envelope E1E2 coding gene from Hebei strain of China, chimera HCVcc (cHCVcc) was developed from Huh7.5-CD81 cells after transfection with in vitro transcribed full-length 1b/2a chimera RNA, which carrying envelope E1E2 coding gene from Hebei strain of China. Then the replication, expression and infectious titer of serial passage HCVcc were assessed by Real Time RT-PCR, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blotting (WB). In addition, chimeric envelope gene from HCVcc was sequenced after serial passage. We found that the number of HCV positive focus increased gradually in cell post-transfection with chimera HCVcc (1b/2a) RNA and reach a peak platform (80% to 90%) at 41 days post-transfection; the expression of HCV protein was also confirmed by WAB during serial passage. At meantime, HCV RNA copy number in the supernatant peaked at 10(4)-10(7) copies/mL and the highest infectious titer of this 1b/2a cHCVcc reinfection were tested as 10(4) ffu/mL. Sequence analysis indicated 6 of adaptive amino acid substitutes occur among chimeric envelope E1E2 during serial passages. We con:luded that a novel 1b/2a chimera HCVcc carrying envelope E1E2 coding gene from Hebei strain of China was developed and its infectious titer increased after serial passage of HCVcc. This novel cHCVcc will be an effective tool for further evaluation of anti-virus drugs and immune effects against the major genotype from Chinese.

  13. Technology Demonstration Summary: CF Systems Organics Extraction System, New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Site Program demonstration of CF Systems' organics extraction technology was conducted to obtain specific operating and cost information that could be used in evaluating the potential applicability of the technology to Superfund sites. The demonstration was conducted concurr...

  14. Technology Demonstration Summary: CF Systems Organics Extraction System, New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Site Program demonstration of CF Systems' organics extraction technology was conducted to obtain specific operating and cost information that could be used in evaluating the potential applicability of the technology to Superfund sites. The demonstration was conducted concurr...

  15. Solar System Exploration Division Strategic Plan, volume 1. Executive summary and overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This first document is the first of a six-volume series presenting the Solar System Exploration Division's Strategic Plan for the 10-year period FY 1994 to FY 2003. The overall strategy is characterized by five fundamental precepts: (1) execute the current program; (2) improve the vitality of the program and the planetary science community; (3) initiate innovative, small, low-cost planetary missions; (4) initiate new major and moderate missions; and (5) prepare for the next generation of missions. This Strategic Plan describes in detail our proposed approach to accomplish these goals. Volume 1 provides first an Executive Summary of highlights of each of the six volumes, and then goes on to present an overview of the plan, including a discussion of the planning context and strategic approach. Volumes 2, 3, 4, and 5 describe in detail the initiatives proposed. An integral part of each of these volumes is a set of responses to the mission selection criteria questions developed by the Space and Earth Science Advisory Committee. Volume 2, Mission From Planet Earth, describes a strategy for exploring the Moon and Mars and sets forth proposed moderate missions--Lunar Observer and a Mars lander network. Volume 3, Pluto Flyby/Neptune Orbiter, discusses our proposed major new start candidate for the FY 1994 to FY 1998 time frame. Volume 4, Discovery, describes the Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous, as well as other candidates for this program of low-cost planetary missions. Volume 5, Toward Other Planetary Systems, describes a major research and analysis augmentation that focuses on extrasolar planet detection and the study of planetary system processes. Finally, Volume 6 summarizes the technology program that the division has structured around these four initiatives.

  16. Adaptive envelope protection methods for aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unnikrishnan, Suraj

    Carefree handling refers to the ability of a pilot to operate an aircraft without the need to continuously monitor aircraft operating limits. At the heart of all carefree handling or maneuvering systems, also referred to as envelope protection systems, are algorithms and methods for predicting future limit violations. Recently, envelope protection methods that have gained more acceptance, translate limit proximity information to its equivalent in the control channel. Envelope protection algorithms either use very small prediction horizon or are static methods with no capability to adapt to changes in system configurations. Adaptive approaches maximizing prediction horizon such as dynamic trim, are only applicable to steady-state-response critical limit parameters. In this thesis, a new adaptive envelope protection method is developed that is applicable to steady-state and transient response critical limit parameters. The approach is based upon devising the most aggressive optimal control profile to the limit boundary and using it to compute control limits. Pilot-in-the-loop evaluations of the proposed approach are conducted at the Georgia Tech Carefree Maneuver lab for transient longitudinal hub moment limit protection. Carefree maneuvering is the dual of carefree handling in the realm of autonomous Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Designing a flight control system to fully and effectively utilize the operational flight envelope is very difficult. With the increasing role and demands for extreme maneuverability there is a need for developing envelope protection methods for autonomous UAVs. In this thesis, a full-authority automatic envelope protection method is proposed for limit protection in UAVs. The approach uses adaptive estimate of limit parameter dynamics and finite-time horizon predictions to detect impending limit boundary violations. Limit violations are prevented by treating the limit boundary as an obstacle and by correcting nominal control

  17. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission initial updated baseline summary

    SciTech Connect

    Swita, W.R.

    1998-01-09

    This document provides a summary of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Retrieval and Disposal Mission Initial Updated Baseline (scope, schedule, and cost), developed to demonstrate Readiness-to-Proceed (RTP) in support of the TWRS Phase 1B mission. This Updated Baseline is the proposed TWRS plan to execute and measure the mission work scope. This document and other supporting data demonstrate that the TWRS Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team is prepared to fully support Phase 1B by executing the following scope, schedule, and cost baseline activities: Deliver the specified initial low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) feed batches in a consistent, safe, and reliable manner to support private contractors` operations starting in June 2002; Deliver specified subsequent LAW and HLW feed batches during Phase 1B in a consistent, safe, and reliable manner; Provide for the interim storage of immobilized HLW (IHLW) products and the disposal of immobilized LAW (ILAW) products generated by the private contractors; Provide for disposal of byproduct wastes generated by the private contractors; and Provide the infrastructure to support construction and operations of the private contractors` facilities.

  18. A system for the extraction and representation of summary of product characteristics content.

    PubMed

    Rubrichi, Stefania; Quaglini, Silvana; Spengler, Alex; Russo, Paola; Gallinari, Patrick

    2013-02-01

    Information about medications is critical in supporting decision-making during the prescription process and thus in improving the safety and quality of care. In this work, we propose a methodology for the automatic recognition of drug-related entities (active ingredient, interaction effects, etc.) in textual drug descriptions, and their further location in a previously developed domain ontology. The summary of product characteristics (SPC) represents the basis of information for health professionals on how to use medicines. However, this information is locked in free-text and, as such, cannot be actively accessed and elaborated by computerized applications. Our approach exploits a combination of machine learning and rule-based methods. It consists of two stages. Initially it learns to classify this information in a structured prediction framework, relying on conditional random fields. The classifier is trained and evaluated using a corpus of about a hundred SPCs. They have been hand-annotated with different semantic labels that have been derived from the domain ontology. At a second stage the extracted entities are added in the domain ontology corresponding concepts as new instances, using a set of rules manually-constructed from the corpus. Our evaluations show that the extraction module exhibits high overall performance, with an average F1-measure of 88% for contraindications and 90% for interactions. SPCs can be exploited to provide structured information for computer-based decision support systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Electromagnetic pulse research on electric power systems: Program summary and recommendations. Power Systems Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; McConnell, B.W.; Van Dyke, J.W.; Tesche, F.M.; Vance, E.F.

    1993-01-01

    A single nuclear detonation several hundred kilometers above the central United States will subject much of the nation to a high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (BENT). This pulse consists of an intense steep-front, short-duration transient electromagnetic field, followed by a geomagnetic disturbance with tens of seconds duration. This latter environment is referred to as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (NMENT). Both the early-time transient and the geomagnetic disturbance could impact the operation of the nation`s power systems. Since 1983, the US Department of Energy has been actively pursuing a research program to assess the potential impacts of one or more BENT events on the nation`s electric energy supply. This report summarizes the results of that program and provides recommendations for enhancing power system reliability under HENT conditions. A nominal HENP environment suitable for assessing geographically large systems was developed during the program and is briefly described in this report. This environment was used to provide a realistic indication of BEMP impacts on electric power systems. It was found that a single high-altitude burst, which could significantly disturb the geomagnetic field, may cause the interconnected power network to break up into utility islands with massive power failures in some areas. However, permanent damage would be isolated, and restoration should be possible within a few hours. Multiple bursts would likely increase the blackout areas, component failures, and restoration time. However, a long-term blackout of many months is unlikely because major power system components, such as transformers, are not likely to be damaged by the nominal HEND environment. Moreover, power system reliability, under both HENT and normal operating conditions, can be enhanced by simple, and often low cost, modifications to current utility practices.

  20. Launch mission summary and terminal countdown, Delta 153 Satellite Business Systems satellite (SBS-A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A brief summary of the launch vehicle, spacecraft, and mission is contained. Information relative to launch windows, vehicle telemetry coverage, realtime data flow, telemetry coverage by station, selected trajectory information, and a brief sequence of flight events is also included.

  1. Fast Moreau envelope computation I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucet, Yves

    2006-11-01

    The present article summarizes the state of the art algorithms to compute the discrete Moreau envelope, and presents a new linear-time algorithm, named NEP for NonExpansive Proximal mapping. Numerical comparisons between the NEP and two existing algorithms: The Linear-time Legendre Transform (LLT) and the Parabolic Envelope (PE) algorithms are performed. Worst-case time complexity, convergence results, and examples are included. The fast Moreau envelope algorithms first factor the Moreau envelope as several one-dimensional transforms and then reduce the brute force quadratic worst-case time complexity to linear time by using either the equivalence with Fast Legendre Transform algorithms, the computation of a lower envelope of parabolas, or, in the convex case, the non expansiveness of the proximal mapping.

  2. Liquid Rocket Booster (LRB) for the Space Transportation System (STS) systems study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of replacing the Space Transportation System (STS) Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) with Liquid Rocket Boosters (LRBs) was studied. Feasibility required acceptable technical risk, program costs, and a program plan which supports STS requirements. Three major goals were identified to direct booster design and operation: increased STS safety and reliability; STS/LRB integration with minimum impact; and increased STS performance. Two booster engine designs were studied. The first engine design was a turbopump-fed engine with state-of-the-art design, and the second was a pressure-fed engine which might provide a lower cost alternative to the pump-fed concept. Both booster concepts were carried through to completion of conceptual design and all system impacts and program costs were identified. Applications for LRB use in the Advanced Launch System (ALS) program were studied using the pump-fed LRB baseline concept and variations on the baseline concept. Support for the Pressure-Fed Booster Test Bed (PFBTB) included test program planning and costs and technical support.

  3. A ground based phase control system for the solar power satellite. Executive summary, volume 1, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chie, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Power Satellite (SPS) concept and the reference phase control system investigated in earlier efforts are reviewed. A summary overview of the analysis and selection of the pilot signal and power transponder design is presented along with the SOLARSIM program development and the simulated SPS phase control performance. Evaluations of the ground based phase control system as an alternate phase control concept are summarized.

  4. A Historical Summary of the Armored Systems Modernization Program and the Lessons Learned from Its Interaction With the Acquisition Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    NO "VORK UNIT ACCESSION NO. 11 TITLE (Include Security Classification) A HISTORICl\\L SUMMARY OF THE ARMORED SYSTEMS IDDERNIZATION PRCGRAM AND·· THE...June 1992 iii DOWNGRADED APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE 9istribauon. is limited to U.S.. GOTlcrnmeftt .Ageneies and their ....·Contraet6fs...MANAGEMENT from the Author: Approved by: NAVAL·POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL June 1992 iii ABSTRACT The Armored Systems Modernization (ASM) Program’s acquisition

  5. Tracking and data relay satellite system configuration and tradeoff study. Volume 3: TDRSS configuration and data summary, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A reference handbook of configuration data and design information is presented. It treats the overall system definition, operations and control, and telecommunication service system including link budgets. A brief description of the user transceiver and ground station is presented. A final section includes a summary description of the TDR spacecraft and all the subsystems. The data presented are largely in tabular form for easy reference.

  6. Critical Propulsion Components. Volume 1; Summary, Introduction, and Propulsion Systems Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have concluded that a supersonic aircraft, if environmentally acceptable and economically viable, could successfully compete in the 21st century marketplace. However, before industry can commit to what is estimated as a 15 to 20 billion dollar investment, several barrier issues must be resolved. In an effort to address these barrier issues, NASA and Industry teamed to form the High-Speed Research (HSR) program. As part of this program, the Critical Propulsion Components (CPC) element was created and assigned the task of developing those propulsion component technologies necessary to: (1) reduce cruise emissions by a factor of 10 and (2) meet the ever-increasing airport noise restrictions with an economically viable propulsion system. The CPC-identified critical components were ultra-low emission combustors, low-noise/high-performance exhaust nozzles, low-noise fans, and stable/high-performance inlets. Propulsion cycle studies (coordinated with NASA Langley Research Center sponsored airplane studies) were conducted throughout this CPC program to help evaluate candidate components and select the best concepts for the more complex and larger scale research efforts. The propulsion cycle and components ultimately selected were a mixed-flow turbofan (MFTF) engine employing a lean, premixed, prevaporized (LPP) combustor coupled to a two-dimensional mixed compression inlet and a two-dimensional mixer/ejector nozzle. Due to the large amount of material presented in this report, it was prepared in four volumes; Volume 1: Summary, Introduction, and Propulsion System Studies, Volume 2: Combustor, Volume 3: Exhaust Nozzle, and Volume 4: Inlet and Fan/ Inlet Acoustic Team.

  7. Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program of the U.S. Geological Survey: Summary of projects, 1978-84

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Ren Jen

    1986-01-01

    The Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program of the U.S. Geological Survey was initiated in 1978 as a result of specifications of the appropriations bill of the 95th Congress, prompted by the 1977 drought. The purpose of this program is to define the regional hydrology and geology and to establish a framework of background information of geology, hydrology, and geochemistry of the Nation's important aquifer systems. This information is critically needed to develop an understanding of ground-water flow systems, and to support better ground-water resources management.As of 1984, investigations of seven regional aquifer systems were completed, nine regional aquifer systems were still being studied, and three new studies were started. This report summarizes the status of each investigation of the regional aquifer systems under the program from 1978 through 1984. The nature of the summaries differs somewhat from study to study. For those studies which either have been completed or are near completion, summaries of results are presented. For projects that are not near completion or have just been started, discussions may be brief and focus on problem issues or hydrogeologic conditions All reports resulting from the study as of 1984 are listed at the end of each summary. A list of project chiefs and their offices is also included in the report for those who are interested in obtaining additional information.

  8. Planet formation with envelope enrichment: new insights on planetary diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturini, Julia; Alibert, Yann; Benz, Willy

    2016-12-01

    Aims: We compute for the first time self-consistent models of planet growth that include the effect of envelope enrichment. The change in envelope metallicity is assumed to be the result of planetesimal disruption or icy pebble sublimation. Methods: We solved internal structure equations taking into account global energy conservation for the envelope to compute in situ planetary growth. We considered different opacities and equations of state suited for a wide range of metallicities. Results: We find that envelope enrichment speeds up the formation of gas giants. It also explains naturally the formation of low- and intermediate-mass objects with large fractions of H-He ( 20-30% in mass). High-opacity models explain the metallicity of the giant planets of the solar system well, while low-opacity models are suited to explain the formation of low-mass objects with thick H-He envelopes and gas giants with sub-solar envelope metallicities. We find good agreement between our models and the estimated water abundance for WASP-43b. For HD 189733b, HD 209458b, and WASP-12b we predict fractions of water higher than what is estimated from observations by at least a factor 2. Conclusions: Envelope enrichment by icy planetesimals is the natural scenario to explain the formation of a wide variety of objects, ranging from mini-Neptunes to gas giants. We predict that the total and envelope metallicity decrease with planetary mass.

  9. Integrated computer control system CORBA-based simulator FY98 LDRD project final summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, R M; Holloway, F W; Van Arsdall, P J

    1999-01-15

    The CORBA-based Simulator was a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that applied simulation techniques to explore critical questions about distributed control architecture. The simulator project used a three-prong approach comprised of a study of object-oriented distribution tools, computer network modeling, and simulation of key control system scenarios. This summary report highlights the findings of the team and provides the architectural context of the study. For the last several years LLNL has been developing the Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS), which is an abstract object-oriented software framework for constructing distributed systems. The framework is capable of implementing large event-driven control systems for mission-critical facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Tools developed in this project were applied to the NIF example architecture in order to gain experience with a complex system and derive immediate benefits from this LDRD. The ICCS integrates data acquisition and control hardware with a supervisory system, and reduces the amount of new coding and testing necessary by providing prebuilt components that can be reused and extended to accommodate specific additional requirements. The framework integrates control point hardware with a supervisory system by providing the services needed for distributed control such as database persistence, system start-up and configuration, graphical user interface, status monitoring, event logging, scripting language, alert management, and access control. The design is interoperable among computers of different kinds and provides plug-in software connections by leveraging a common object request brokering architecture (CORBA) to transparently distribute software objects across the network of computers. Because object broker distribution applied to control systems is relatively new and its inherent performance is roughly threefold less than traditional point

  10. The molecular adsorbent recirculating system as a liver support system: summary of Mexican experience.

    PubMed

    Cisneros-Garza, Laura Esthela; Muñoz-Ramírez, Ma del Rosario; Muñoz-Espinoza, Linda Elsa; Ruiz Velasco, José Antonio Velarde; Moreno-Alcántar, Rosalba; Marín-López, Eduardo; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the molecular absorbent recirculating system (MARS) on patients with acute liver failure (ALF) and liver failure with cirrhosis (AoCLF) as well as in cholestatic patients with intractable pruritus in a Mexican population. From August 2003 to December 2011, MARS was used in 38 patients with ALF, 15 patients with AoCLF, and 17 cholestatic patients with intractable pruritus. The patients were examined using a standard liver function test and for vital signs, presence of ascites and encephalopathy before and after each treatment. The therapeutic response, patient status, follow-up status, and need for liver transplantation were determined. Seventy-nine MARS procedures were performed. MARS was used for ALF in 54.3% of patients, AoCLF in 24.2%, and cholestatic disease in 21.5%. There were significant improvements in serum bilirubin (p = 0.000), aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.000), alanine aminotransferase (p = 0.030), gamma-glytamyl transpeptidase (p = 0.044), alkaline phosphatase (p = 0.006), and encephalopathy grade (p = 0.000). Thirty-eight ALF patients were listed for emergency liver transplantation and treated with MARS; 20 of these patients died on a waiting list, 18 survived. only four underwent liver transplantation and 14 (37%) recovered without transplantation after the MARS procedure. MARS is a safe and effective procedure, especially for ALF patients. Our results suggest that MARS therapy can contribute to native liver recovery in ALF patients.

  11. Summary of the stakeholders workshop to develop a National Volcano Early Warning System (NVEWS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guffanti, Marianne; Scott, William E.; Driedger, Carolyn L.; Ewert, John W.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of investing in monitoring, mitigation, and preparedness before natural hazards occur has been amply demonstrated by recent disasters such as the Indian Ocean Tsunami in December 2004 and Hurricane Katrina in August 2005. Playing catch-up with hazardous natural phenomena such as these limits our ability to work with public officials and the public to lessen adverse impacts. With respect to volcanic activity, the starting point of effective pre-event mitigation is monitoring capability sufficient to detect and diagnose precursory unrest so that communities at risk have reliable information and sufficient time to respond to hazards with which they may be confronted. Recognizing that many potentially dangerous U.S. volcanoes have inadequate or no ground-based monitoring, the U.S Geological Survey (USGS) Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) and partners recently evaluated U.S. volcano-monitoring capabilities and published 'An Assessment of Volcanic Threat and Monitoring Capabilities in the United States: Framework for a National Volcano Early Warning System (NVEWS).' Results of the NVEWS volcanic threat and monitoring assessment are being used to guide long-term improvements to the national volcano-monitoring infrastructure operated by the USGS and affiliated groups. The NVEWS report identified the need to convene a workshop of a broad group of stakeholders--such as representatives of emergency- and land-management agencies at the Federal, State, and local levels and the aviation sector--to solicit input about implementation of NVEWS and their specific information requirements. Accordingly, an NVEWS Stakeholders Workshop was held in Portland, Oregon, on 22-23 February 2006. A summary of the workshop is presented in this document.

  12. Summary of the railroad system of Texas: A component of the state and national transportation infrastructure. Project summary report, September 1997--August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Boske, L.B.; Roop, S.; Harrison, R.

    1998-12-01

    Railroads continue to play an important role in moving domestic and international freight through Texas, contributing to economic growth in the state. This study addresses the potential for implementing a rail planning process in the Texas Department of Transportation. In order to accomplish this, successful rail planning processes at other US departments of transportation were evaluated and exemplary programs identified. Three reports were published addressing a variety of findings. The first, published by the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas at Austin, provides an overview and examination of 32 state rail policies, plans, and programs for both passenger and freight traffic. The second report, also published by the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas at Austin, provides information on exemplary state rail programming and planning based on case studies of California, Florida, North Carolina, and the state of Washington. The third report, published by the Texas Transportation Institute at Texas A and M University, provides (1) a framework for rail planning in Texas, (2) identification of current rail issues in Texas, (3) a case study on urban rail rationalization, and (4) a characterization of the rail system in Texas. In each report, detailed appendices are provided to complement the findings and recommendations. In this project summary report, an implementation schedule is recommended to institute rail planning in the Texas Department of Transportation.

  13. Multifamily Envelope Leakage Model

    SciTech Connect

    Faakye, Omari; Griffiths, Dianne

    2015-05-08

    “The cost for blower testing is high, because it is labor intensive, and it may disrupt occupants in multiple units. This high cost and disruption deter program participants, and dissuade them from pursuing energy improvements that would trigger air leakage testing, such as improvements to the building envelope.” This statement found in a 2012 report by Heschong Mahone Group for several California interests emphasizes the importance of reducing the cost and complexity of blower testing in multifamily buildings. Energy efficiency opportunities are being bypassed. The cost of single blower testing is on the order of $300. The cost for guarded blower door testing—the more appropriate test for assessing energy savings opportunities—could easily be six times that, and that’s only if you have the equipment and simultaneous access to multiple apartments. Thus, the proper test is simply not performed. This research seeks to provide an algorithm for predicting the guarded blower door test result based upon a single, total blower door test.

  14. Masonry building envelope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullan, Phillip C.

    1993-04-01

    Over the past five years, infrared thermography has proven an effective tool to assist in required inspections on new masonry construction. However, with more thermographers providing this inspection service, establishing a standard for conducting these inspections is imperative. To attempt to standardize these inspections, it is important to understand the nature of the inspection as well as the context in which the inspection is typically conducted. The inspection focuses on evaluating masonry construction for compliance with the design specifications with regard to structural components and thermal performance of the building envelope. The thermal performance of the building includes both the thermal resistance of the material as well as infiltration/exfiltration characteristics. Given that the inspections occur in the 'field' rather than the controlled environment of a laboratory, there are numerous variables to be considered when undertaking this type of inspection. Both weather and site conditions at the time of the inspection can vary greatly. In this paper we will look at the variables encountered during recent inspections. Additionally, the author will present the standard which was employed in collecting this field data. This method is being incorporated into a new standard to be included in the revised version of 'Guidelines for Specifying and Performing Infrared Inspections' developed by the Infraspection Institute.

  15. Envelope glycoprotein of arenaviruses.

    PubMed

    Burri, Dominique J; da Palma, Joel Ramos; Kunz, Stefan; Pasquato, Antonella

    2012-10-17

    Arenaviruses include lethal human pathogens which pose serious public health threats. So far, no FDA approved vaccines are available against arenavirus infections, and therapeutic options are limited, making the identification of novel drug targets for the development of efficacious therapeutics an urgent need. Arenaviruses are comprised of two RNA genome segments and four proteins, the polymerase L, the envelope glycoprotein GP, the matrix protein Z, and the nucleoprotein NP. A crucial step in the arenavirus life-cycle is the biosynthesis and maturation of the GP precursor (GPC) by cellular signal peptidases and the cellular enzyme Subtilisin Kexin Isozyme-1 (SKI-1)/Site-1 Protease (S1P) yielding a tripartite mature GP complex formed by GP1/GP2 and a stable signal peptide (SSP). GPC cleavage by SKI-1/S1P is crucial for fusion competence and incorporation of mature GP into nascent budding virion particles. In a first part of our review, we cover basic aspects and newer developments in the biosynthesis of arenavirus GP and its molecular interaction with SKI-1/S1P. A second part will then highlight the potential of SKI-1/S1P-mediated processing of arenavirus GPC as a novel target for therapeutic intervention to combat human pathogenic arenaviruses.

  16. Preliminary analysis of an integrated logistics system for OSSA payloads. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palguta, T.; Bradley, W.; Stockton, T.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose is to describe the logistics study background and approach to providing estimates of of logistics support requirements for Office of Space Science and Applications' payloads in the Space Station era. A concise summary is given of the study results. Future logistics support analysis tasks are identified.

  17. Ada (tradename) Compiler Validation Summary Report. Honeywell Information Systems, GCOS-8, V2.0.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-03

    4-Aio 896 ADA (TRADEMNRE) COMPILER VALIDATION SUMMARY REPORT - 1/1 HONEYWELL INNORMATION (U) NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS GAITHERSBURG MD SOFTWARE ...GRANT NUMBER(s) Software Standards Validation Group Institute for Computer Sciences an Technology National Bureau of Standards 9. PERFORMING...ORGANIZATION AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT, TASK Software Standards Validation Group, National AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS Bureau of Standards, Bldg

  18. Isolation of bacteria envelope proteins.

    PubMed

    Quan, Shu; Hiniker, Annie; Collet, Jean-François; Bardwell, James C A

    2013-01-01

    Proteomic analysis on cell envelope proteins from Gram-negative bacteria requires specific isolation techniques. We found that conventional extraction methods such as osmotic shock cause extracts to be heavily contaminated with soluble cytoplasmic proteins. These cytoplasmic protein contaminants constitute the major signal in proteomic analysis and can overwhelm the signals coming from genuine envelope components. After extensive testing of various protocols for the preparation of envelope contents, we found that a modified version of the method of Oliver and Beckwith consistently produces the cleanest extract of periplasmic and outer membrane proteins.We have designated this very simple method TSE extraction because it uses a Tris-sucrose solution supplemented with EDTA.Cytoplasmic and inner membrane protein contaminants are not evident on 1D SDS polyacrylamide gels and contribute to less than 6% of total signal in very sensitive mass spectrometry analysis. This straightforward method is therefore ideal for -analyzing specific proteomic changes in the cell envelope.

  19. Personnel occupied woven envelope robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, Francis; Teoh, William; Ziemke, M. Carl

    1988-01-01

    The Personnel Occupied Woven Envelope Robot (POWER) provides an alternative to extravehicular activity (EVA) of space suited astronauts and/or use of long slender manipulator arms such as are used in the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System. POWER provides the capability for a shirt sleeved astronaut to perform such work by entering a control pod through air locks at both ends of an inflated flexible bellows (access tunnel). The exoskeleton of the tunnel is a series of six degrees of freedom (Six-DOF) articulated links compressible to 1/6 of their fully extended length. The operator can maneuver the control pod to almost any location within about 50 m of the base attachment to the space station. POWER can be envisioned as a series of hollow Six-DOF manipulator segments or arms wherein each arm grasps the shoulder of the next arm. Inside the hollow arms ia a bellow-type access tunnel. The control pod is the fist of the series of linked hollow arms. The fingers of the fist are conventional manipulator arms under direct visual control of the nearby operator in the pod. The applications and progress to date of the POWER system is given.

  20. Personnel occupied woven envelope robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, Francis; Teoh, William; Ziemke, M. Carl

    1988-01-01

    The Personnel Occupied Woven Envelope Robot (POWER) provides an alternative to extravehicular activity (EVA) of space suited astronauts and/or use of long slender manipulator arms such as are used in the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System. POWER provides the capability for a shirt sleeved astronaut to perform such work by entering a control pod through air locks at both ends of an inflated flexible bellows (access tunnel). The exoskeleton of the tunnel is a series of six degrees of freedom (Six-DOF) articulated links compressible to 1/6 of their fully extended length. The operator can maneuver the control pod to almost any location within about 50 m of the base attachment to the space station. POWER can be envisioned as a series of hollow Six-DOF manipulator segments or arms wherein each arm grasps the shoulder of the next arm. Inside the hollow arms ia a bellow-type access tunnel. The control pod is the fist of the series of linked hollow arms. The fingers of the fist are conventional manipulator arms under direct visual control of the nearby operator in the pod. The applications and progress to date of the POWER system is given.

  1. Neural coding of echo-envelope disparities in echolocating bats.

    PubMed

    Borina, Frank; Firzlaff, Uwe; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2011-05-01

    The effective use of echolocation requires not only measuring the delay between the emitted call and returning echo to estimate the distance of an ensonified object. To locate an object in azimuth and elevation, the bat's auditory system must analyze the returning echoes in terms of their binaural properties, i.e., the echoes' interaural intensity and time differences (IIDs and ITDs). The effectiveness of IIDs for echolocation is undisputed, but when bats ensonify complex objects, the temporal structure of echoes may facilitate the analysis of the echo envelope in terms of envelope ITDs. Using extracellular recordings from the auditory midbrain of the bat, Phyllostomus discolor, we found a population of neurons that are sensitive to envelope ITDs of echoes of their sonar calls. Moreover, the envelope-ITD sensitivity improved with increasing temporal fluctuations in the echo envelopes, a sonar parameter related to the spatial statistics of complex natural reflectors like vegetation. The data show that in bats envelope ITDs may be used not only to locate external, prey-generated rustling sounds but also in the context of echolocation. Specifically, the temporal fluctuations in the echo envelope, which are created when the sonar emission is reflected from a complex natural target, support ITD-mediated echolocation.

  2. Air Force Global Weather Central System Architecture Study. Final System/Subsystem Summary Report. Volume 2. Requirements Compilation and Analysis. Part 2. Functional Description

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-01

    FINAL SYSTEM/SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY REPORT, Z & & ^ $ VOLUME 2. Requirements Compilation and Analysis Part 2, Functional Description « ^N» mvr^1𔃺...Compilation and Analysis Part 2 - Functional Description RKAD INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE COMPLETING KORM 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 7. AUTHORfJj 9...Secret) Volume 4 - Systems Analysis and Trade Studies Volume 5 - System Description Volume 6 - Aerospace Ground Equipment Plan Volume 7

  3. Beam envelope calculations in general linear coupled lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Moses; Qin, Hong; Groening, Lars; Xiao, Chen; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2015-01-15

    The envelope equations and Twiss parameters (β and α) provide important bases for uncoupled linear beam dynamics. For sophisticated beam manipulations, however, coupling elements between two transverse planes are intentionally introduced. The recently developed generalized Courant-Snyder theory offers an effective way of describing the linear beam dynamics in such coupled systems with a remarkably similar mathematical structure to the original Courant-Snyder theory. In this work, we present numerical solutions to the symmetrized matrix envelope equation for β which removes the gauge freedom in the matrix envelope equation for w. Furthermore, we construct the transfer and beam matrices in terms of the generalized Twiss parameters, which enables calculation of the beam envelopes in arbitrary linear coupled systems.

  4. Envelope solitons in three-component degenerate relativistic quantum plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, S.; Sultana, S.; Mamun, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    The criteria for the formation of envelope solitons and their basic features in a three-component degenerate relativistic quantum plasma (DRQP) system (containing relativistically degenerate electrons, non-degenerate inertial light nuclei, and stationary heavy nuclei) are theoretically investigated. The nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived by employing the multi-scale perturbation technique. The envelope solitons are found to be associated with the modified ion-acoustic waves in which the inertia (restoring force) is provided by the mass density of light nuclei (degenerate pressure of cold electrons). The basic features of these envelope solitons, which are found to formed in such a DRQP system, and their modulational instability criteria (on the basis of the plasma parameters associated with the degenerate pressure of electrons, number densities of degenerate electrons, inertial light nuclei, and stationary heavy nuclei) are identified. The numerical simulations are also performed to confirm the stability of the envelope solitons predicted here by analytical analysis.

  5. Envelope Protection for In-Flight Ice Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gingras, David R.; Barnhart, Billy P.; Ranaudo, Richard J.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Morelli, Eugene A.

    2010-01-01

    Fatal loss-of-control (LOC) accidents have been directly related to in-flight airframe icing. The prototype system presented in this paper directly addresses the need for real-time onboard envelope protection in icing conditions. The combinations of a-priori information and realtime aerodynamic estimations are shown to provide sufficient input for determining safe limits of the flight envelope during in-flight icing encounters. The Icing Contamination Envelope Protection (ICEPro) system has been designed and implemented to identify degradations in airplane performance and flying qualities resulting from ice contamination and provide safe flight-envelope cues to the pilot. Components of ICEPro are described and results from preliminary tests are presented.

  6. Hydrogen sulfide in a circumstellar envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ukita, N.; Morris, M.

    1983-01-01

    A search for hydrogen sulfide in the cool circumstellar envelopes of 25 stars was made using the 1(10)-1(01) rotational line at 1.8 mm. It was detected in the bipolar nebula/OH maser OH231.8+4.2, an object having a high rate of mass loss. An approximate analysis indicates that 1/60 of the sulfur in this outflowing envelope is in the form of H2S, a fraction which may be similar to that in the atmosphere of the central star. In addition, the shape of the observed line profile is discussed in terms of a possible variation of the outflow velocity with latitude above the system's equatorial plane.

  7. Solar Effective Envelope Design Advisor (SEEDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaek, Ekkachai

    The lack of effort by mainstream architects in integrating energy-efficient strategies in architectural designing is due to the complexity in a building's energy conscious concepts and theories, the difficulties to visualize and quantify energy consumption, and the late implementing of energy consumption analysis in the conventional design process. This task would be accomplishing by a building system's engineer where results might be determined only after the basic architectural design has been completed. An effective simple tool and method should then be available to assist architects in building's energy-efficient designing at the beginning of the design. The building's energy consumption is directly and mainly influenced by the relationship of the sun, site, and its building configuration. The solar radiations will first impact on the building's envelope, which will have a direct effect on the amount of energy a building will consume. If an architect can define or map the intensity of solar energy on the site's buildable volume, and use this information to determine the levels of solar insolation, a more energy efficient building form can be proposed. This research hypothesis has shared the fundamental techniques of the Solar Envelope projection by Professor Ralph Knowles [Knowles, 1981] of the University of Southern California. However a different approach is taken by including the influence of regional restrictions and the surrounding buildings' shadows when projecting of solar volumes and solar envelope. The research methodology will discuss the development of a computer-based approach to develop a three-dimensional architectural form based on an insolation map related to the design site. The prototype computer program is referred as the Solar Effective Envelope Design Advisor (SEEDA). The solar insolation volume of the site is determined by integrating three types of computer-generated models include the Buildable Volume model based on design constraints

  8. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three articles relevant to school crisis response: (1) "Factors Contributing to Posttraumatic Growth," summarized by Steve DeBlois; (2) "Psychological Debriefing in Cross-Cultural Contexts" (Stacey Rice); and (3) "Brain Abnormalities in PTSD" (Sunny Windingstad). The first summary reports the findings of a…

  9. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three articles relevant to school crisis response: (1) "Factors Contributing to Posttraumatic Growth," summarized by Steve DeBlois; (2) "Psychological Debriefing in Cross-Cultural Contexts" (Stacey Rice); and (3) "Brain Abnormalities in PTSD" (Sunny Windingstad). The first summary reports the findings of a…

  10. RE: Toxicological Review of Inorganic Arsenic: In Support of the Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System -- Comments Submitted for Review by the SAB Workgroup

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Submission of comments by the Organic Arsenical Products Task Force on the draft document Toxicological Review of Inorganic Arsenic: In Support of the Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS).

  11. SF-36 summary and subscale scores are reliable outcomes of neuropsychiatric events in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Hanly, J. G.; Urowitz, M. B.; Jackson, D.; Bae, S.C.; Gordon, C.; Wallace, D.J.; Clarke, A.; Bernatsky, S.; Vasudevan, A.; Isenberg, D.; Rahman, A.; Sanchez-Guerrero, J.; Romero-Diaz, J.; Merrill, J. T.; Fortin, P.R.; Gladman, D.D.; Bruce, I. N.; Steinsson, K.; Khamashta, M.; Alarcón, G.S.; Fessler, B.; Petri, M.; Manzi, S.; Nived, O.; Sturfelt, G.; Ramsey-Goldman, R.; Dooley, M.A.; Aranow, C.; Van Vollenhoven, R.; Ramos-Casals, M.; Zoma, A.; Kalunian, K.; Farewell, V.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine change in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in association with clinical outcomes of neuropsychiatric (NP) events in SLE. Methods An international study evaluated newly diagnosed SLE patients for NP events attributed to SLE and non-SLE causes. Outcome of events was determined by physician-completed 7-point scale and compared to patient-completed SF-36 questionnaires. Statistical analysis used linear mixed-effects regression models with patient specific random effects. Results 274 patients (92% female; 68% Caucasian), from a cohort of 1400, had ≥ 1 NP event where the interval between assessments was 12.3 ± 2 months. The overall difference in change between visits in mental component summary (MCS) scores of the SF-36 was significant (p<0.0001) following adjustments for gender, ethnicity, center and previous score. A consistent improvement in NP status (N=295) was associated with an increase in the mean(SD) adjusted MCS score of 3.66(0.89) in SF-36 scores. Between paired visits where NP status consistently deteriorated (N=30), the adjusted MCS score decreased by 4.00(1.96). For the physical component summary (PCS) scores the corresponding changes were +1.73(0.71) and −0.62(1.58) (p<0.05) respectively. Changes in SF-36 subscales were in the same direction (p<0.05; with the exception of role physical). Sensitivity analyses confirmed these findings. Adjustment for age, education, medications, SLE disease activity, organ damage, disease duration, attribution and characteristics of NP events did not substantially alter the results. Conclusion Changes in SF-36 summary and subscale scores, in particular those related to mental health, are strongly associated with the clinical outcome of NP events in SLE patients. PMID:21342917

  12. Testing Common Envelopes on Double White Dwarf Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandez, Jose L. A.; Ivanova, Natalia; Lombardi, James C., Jr.

    2015-06-01

    The formation of a double white dwarf binary likely involves a common envelope (CE) event between a red giant and a white dwarf (WD) during the most recent episode of Roche lobe overflow mass transfer. We study the role of recombination energy with hydrodynamic simulations of such stellar interactions. We find that the recombination energy helps to expel the common envelope entirely, while if recombination energy is not taken into account, a significant fraction of the common envelope remains bound. We apply our numerical methods to constrain the progenitor system for WD 1101+364 - a double WD binary that has well-measured mass ratio of q=0.87±0.03 and an orbital period of 0.145 days. Our best-fit progenitor for the pre-common envelope donor is a 1.5 ⊙ red giant.

  13. Envelope as Climate Negotiator: Evaluating adaptive building envelope's capacity to moderate indoor climate and energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, James

    Through manipulation of adaptable opportunities available within a given environment, individuals become active participants in managing personal comfort requirements, by exercising control over their comfort without the assistance of mechanical heating and cooling systems. Similarly, continuous manipulation of a building skin's form, insulation, porosity, and transmissivity qualities exerts control over the energy exchanged between indoor and outdoor environments. This research uses four adaptive response variables in a modified software algorithm to explore an adaptive building skin's potential in reacting to environmental stimuli with the purpose of minimizing energy use without sacrificing occupant comfort. Results illustrate that significant energy savings can be realized with adaptive envelopes over static building envelopes even under extreme summer and winter climate conditions; that the magnitude of these savings are dependent on climate and orientation; and that occupant thermal comfort can be improved consistently over comfort levels achieved by optimized static building envelopes. The resulting adaptive envelope's unique climate-specific behavior could inform designers in creating an intelligent kinetic aesthetic that helps facilitate adaptability and resiliency in architecture.

  14. [Does the nutritional care plan and report upon discharge under the health care system substitute the nutrition support team summary at patient discharge?].

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Kumi; Matsuoka, Mio; Kajiwara, Kanako; Hinokiyama, Hiromi; Mito, Saori; Doi, Seiko; Konishi, Eriko; Ibata, Takeshi; Komuro, Ryutaro; lijima, Shohei

    2013-12-01

    Our nutrition support team (NST) designed the NST summary for cooperation among personnel providing medical care for nutritional management of high-need patients in our area. After the introduction of the NST fee under the health care system, the number of summary publications decreased. The requested NST fee is necessary for publication of a nutritional care plan and report upon patient discharge. We hypothesized that the nutritional care plan and discharge report were being substituted for the NST summary at the time of patient discharge. We retrospectively investigated 192 cases with NST fee. There were only 13 cases of overlapping publication, and the NST summary was necessary for 107 of 179 cases in which no NST summary had been prepared. Since the space on the report form is limited, it can provide only limited information. However, the NST summary can convey detailed supplementary information. Therefore, there is a high need for the NST summary, and publication of NST summaries for the appropriate cases must continue.

  15. Envelope Inflation or Stellar Wind?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ro, S.; Matzner, C. D.

    We an optically-thick, transonic, steady wind model for a H-free Wolf-Rayet star. A bifurcation is found across a critical mass loss rate Mb. Slower winds M < Mb extend by several hydrostatic stellar radii, reproduce features of envelope in ation from Petrovic et al. (2006) and Gräfener et al. (2012), and are energetically unbound. This work is of particular interest for extended envelopes and winds, radiative hydrodynamic instabilities (eg. wind stagnation, clumping, etc.), and NLTE atmospheric models.

  16. Personnel occupied woven envelope robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, F. C.

    1986-01-01

    The use of nonmetallic or fabric structures for space application is considered. The following structures are suggested: (1) unpressurized space hangars; (2) extendable tunnels for soft docking; and (3) manned habitat for space stations, storage facilities, and work structures. The uses of the tunnel as a passageway: for personnel and equipment, eliminating extravehicular activity, for access to a control cabin on a space crane and between free flyers and the space station are outlined. The personnal occupied woven envelope robot (POWER) device is shown. The woven envelope (tunnel) acts as part of the boom of a crane. Potential applications of POWER are outlined. Several possible deflection mechanisms and design criteria are determined.

  17. Carbon chemistry of circumstellar envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bieging, John H.

    1990-01-01

    The chemical composition of envelopes surrounding cool evolved stars, as determined from microwave spectroscopic observations, is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on recent observations with the new large mm-wavelength telescopes and interferometer arrays, and on new theoretical work, especially concerning ion-molecule chemistry of carbon-bearing in these envelopes. Thermal (as opposed to maser) emission lines are discussed. Much progress has been made in the past few years in the theoretical understanding of these objects. It is already clear, however, that observations with the new generation of mm-telescopes will require substantial improvements in the theoretical models to achieve a thorough understanding of the data now becoming available.

  18. Summary of Resources for the International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System For Core Complete Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2004-01-01

    The Core Complete Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System for the International Space Station (ISS) will consist of components and subsystems in both the United States (U.S.) and International Partner elements which together will perform the functions of Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Water Recovery and Management (WRM), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), and Vacuum System (VS) for the station. Due to limited resources available on ISS, detailed attention is given to minimizing and tracking all resources associated with all systems, beginning with estimates during the hardware development phase through measured actuals when flight hardware is built and delivered. A summary of resources consumed by the addition of future U.S. ECLS system hardware to get to Core Complete is presented, including launch weight, average continuous and peak power loads, on-orbit volume and resupply logistics.

  19. Summary of Resources for the International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System For Core Complete Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2004-01-01

    The Core Complete Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System for the International Space Station (ISS) will consist of components and subsystems in both the United States (U.S.) and International Partner elements which together will perform the functions of Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Water Recovery and Management (WRM), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), and Vacuum System (VS) for the station. Due to limited resources available on ISS, detailed attention is given to minimizing and tracking all resources associated with all systems, beginning with estimates during the hardware development phase through measured actuals when flight hardware is built and delivered. A summary of resources consumed by the addition of future U.S. ECLS system hardware to get to Core Complete is presented, including launch weight, average continuous and peak power loads, on-orbit volume and resupply logistics.

  20. Structural Arrangement Trade Study. Volume 1: Reusable Hydrogen Composite Tank System (RHCTS) and Graphite Composite Primary Structures (GCPS). Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This volume is the first of a three volume set that discusses the structural arrangement trade study plan that will identify the most suitable configuration for an SSTO winged vehicle capable of delivering 25,000 lbs to a 220 nm circular orbit at 51.6 deg inclination. The Reusable Hydrogen Composite Tank System (RHCTS), and Graphite Composite Primary Structures most suitable for intertank, wing and thrust structures are identified. This executive summary presents the trade study process, the selection process, requirements used, analysis performed and data generated. Conclusions and recommendations are also presented.

  1. Technology demonstration summary: Bio Trol soil-washing system for treatment of a wood-preserving site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program was instituted in 1986 to promote the development and application of innovative technologies to the remediation of Superfund and other sites contaminated with hazardous wastes. The Project Summary highlights the results of an evaluation of a specific arrangement of the three technologies of the BSWS. The system consists of multiple stages of physical abrasion, attrition, flotation, and washing of excavated soil in the BSW. The site selected for the evaluation is a wood preserving facility in New Brighton, MN, where creosote and pentachlorophenol were used for several decades.

  2. Environmental Management System (EMS) objectives & targets : annual results summary %3CU%2B2013%3E FY10.

    SciTech Connect

    Waffelaert, Pascale S.; Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2011-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratory/New Mexico's (SNL/NM) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each fiscal year (FY) significant environmental aspects are identified and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are designed to mitigate the impact of SNL/NM's operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established objectives and targets provides a connection to and rational for annually revised significant aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY2010.

  3. The Development of an On-Line, Partially Automated Discharge Summary and Core Clinical Data-Base in an Existing Hospital Information System

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Mark S.; Zibrak, Joseph D.; Siders, Alice; Zullo, Nan; Peterson, Mark

    1989-01-01

    We describe the development of a hospital-wide computer system that produces on-line, partially automated discharge summaries, assists nursing staff with discharge functions, and stores a core clinical database on all patients. The system was created using only tools and functions contained within the existing order-entry/results reporting hospital information system. Data enters the discharge database in three ways: direct transfer from the information system, on line selection by physicians and nurses of specific data already contained in the system (eg. lab and radiology results), and by typed input of varying amounts of text (eg. chief complaint, hospital course). If completed the night prior to discharge, the system produces several products for residents and nurses, included typed prescriptions, the printed discharge summary, nursing referral or patient care forms, and simple discharge planning information for the patient. During the course of a 9 week pilot program, 428 summaries were completed on the system, 420 of which met JCHAO criteria.

  4. Public water supplies of North Carolina : a summary of water sources, use, treatment, and capacity of water-supply systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, L.T.

    1978-01-01

    Data were collected during 1970-76 on 224 public water supply systems in North Carolina with 500 or more customers. This report summarizes these data that were previously published in five separate regional reports. The data are presented in order to Council of Government region, county, and water system name and include population served, average and maximum daily use, industrial use, water source, allowable draft of surface-water supplies, raw water pumping capacity, raw and finished water storage, type of water treatment, treatment plant capacity, and a summary of the chemical quality of finished water. Tables and maps provide cross references for system names, counties, Council of Government regions and water source.

  5. Biofuels: Project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The US DOE, through the Biofuels Systems Division (BSD) is addressing the issues surrounding US vulnerability to petroleum supply. The BSD goal is to develop technologies that are competitive with fossil fuels, in both cost and environmental performance, by the end of the decade. This document contains summaries of ongoing research sponsored by the DOE BSD. A summary sheet is presented for each project funded or in existence during FY 1993. Each summary sheet contains and account of project funding, objectives, accomplishments and current status, and significant publications.

  6. Episodic mass ejections from common-envelope objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Matthew; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Ivanova, Natasha; Justham, Stephen

    2017-09-01

    After the initial fast spiral-in phase experienced by a common-envelope binary, the system may enter a slow, self-regulated phase, possibly lasting hundreds of years, in which all the energy released by orbital decay can be efficiently transported to the surface, where it is radiated away. If the remaining envelope is to be removed during this phase, this removal must occur through some as-yet-undetermined mechanism. We carried out 1D hydrodynamic simulations of a low-mass red giant undergoing a synthetic common-envelope event in such a slow spiral-in phase, using the stellar evolutionary code mesa. We simulated the heating of the envelope due to frictional dissipation from a binary companion's orbit in multiple configurations and investigated the response of the giant's envelope. We find that our model envelopes become dynamically unstable and develop large-amplitude pulsations, with periods in the range 3-20 yr and very short growth time-scales of similar order. The shocks and associated rebounds that emerge as these pulsations grow are in some cases strong enough to dynamically eject shells of matter of up to 0.1 M⊙, ∼10 per cent of the mass of the envelope, from the stellar surface at above escape velocity. These ejections are seen to repeat within a few decades, leading to a time-averaged mass-loss rate of the order of 10-3 M⊙ yr-1, which is sufficiently high to represent a candidate mechanism for removing the entire envelope over the duration of the slow spiral-in phase.

  7. Preserving Envelope Efficiency in Performance Based Code Compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Brian A.; Sullivan, Greg P.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2015-06-20

    The City of Seattle 2012 Energy Code (Seattle 2014), one of the most progressive in the country, is under revision for its 2015 edition. Additionally, city personnel participate in the development of the next generation of the Washington State Energy Code and the International Energy Code. Seattle has pledged carbon neutrality by 2050 including buildings, transportation and other sectors. The United States Department of Energy (DOE), through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) provided technical assistance to Seattle in order to understand the implications of one potential direction for its code development, limiting trade-offs of long-lived building envelope components less stringent than the prescriptive code envelope requirements by using better-than-code but shorter-lived lighting and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) components through the total building performance modeled energy compliance path. Weaker building envelopes can permanently limit building energy performance even as lighting and HVAC components are upgraded over time, because retrofitting the envelope is less likely and more expensive. Weaker building envelopes may also increase the required size, cost and complexity of HVAC systems and may adversely affect occupant comfort. This report presents the results of this technical assistance. The use of modeled energy code compliance to trade-off envelope components with shorter-lived building components is not unique to Seattle and the lessons and possible solutions described in this report have implications for other jurisdictions and energy codes.

  8. Radiative accelerations in stellar envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaton, M. J.

    1997-08-01

    In stars which are sufficiently quiescent, changes in the relative abundances of the chemical elements can result from gravitational settling and from levitation produced by radiation pressure forces, usually expressed as radiative accelerations g_rad. Those changes can affect the structure of such stars, due to modifications in opacities, and can lead to marked peculiarities in observed atmospheric abundances. It is necessary to consider diffusive movements both in the atmospheres and in much deeper layers of the stellar envelopes. For the envelopes the equation of radiative transfer can be solved in a diffusion approximation and, for an element k in ionization stage j, one obtains expressions for g_rad(j, k) proportional to the total radiative flux, to the Rosseland-mean opacity kappa_R (which may depend on the abundance of k), and to a dimensionless quantity gamma(j, k) which, due to saturation effects, can be sensitive to the abundance of k. The radiative accelerations are required for each ionization stage, because the diffusion coefficients depend on j. Using atomic data obtained in the course of the work of the Opacity Project (OP), we calculate kappa_R and gamma(j, k) for the chemical elements C, N, O, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe and Ni. We start from standard Solar system abundances, and then vary the abundance of one element at a time (element k) by a factor chi. The following results are obtained and are available at the Centre de Donnees astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS). (1) Files stages.zz (where zz specifies the nuclear charge of the selected element k) containing values of kappa_R and gamma(j, k) on a mesh of values of (T, N_e, chi), where T is temperature, and N_e is electron density. We include derivatives of kappa_R and gamma(j, k) with respect to chi, which are used for making interpolations. (2) A code add.f which reads a file stages.zz and writes a file acc.zz containing values of gamma(k) obtained on summing the gamma(j, k

  9. Planet formation from the ejecta of common envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Dreizler, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Context. The close binary system NN Serpentis must have gone through a common envelope phase before the formation of its white dwarf. During this phase, a substantial amount of mass was lost from the envelope. The recently detected orbits of circumbinary planets are probably inconsistent with planet formation before the mass loss. Aims: We explore whether new planets may have formed from the ejecta of the common envelope and derive the expected planetary mass as a function of radius. Methods: We employed the Kashi & Soker model to estimate the amount of mass that is retained during the ejection event and inferred the properties of the resulting disk from the conservation of mass and angular momentum. The resulting planetary masses were estimated from models with and without radiative feedback. Results: We show that the observed planetary masses can be reproduced for appropriate model parameters. Photoheating can stabilize the disks in the interior, potentially explaining the observed planetary orbits on scales of a few AU. We compare the expected mass scale of planets for 11 additional systems with observational results and find hints of two populations, one consistent with planet formation from the ejecta of common envelopes and the other a separate population that may have formed earlier. Conclusions: The formation of the observed planets from the ejecta of common envelopes seems feasible. The model proposed here can be tested through refined observations of additional post-common envelope systems. While it appears observationally challenging to distinguish between the accretion on pre-existing planets and their growth from new fragments, it may be possible to further constrain the properties of the protoplanetary disk through additional observations of current planetary candidates and post-common envelope binary systems.

  10. Spectropolarimetry of stripped-envelope supernovae: observations and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masaomi

    2017-09-01

    Spectropolarimetry is one of the most powerful methods to study the multi-dimensional geometry of supernovae (SNe). We present a brief summary of the spectropolarimetric observations of stripped-envelope core-collapse SNe. Observations indicate that stripped-envelope SNe generally have a non-axisymmetric ion distribution in the ejecta. Three-dimensional clumpy geometry nicely explains the observed properties. A typical size of the clumps deduced from observations is relatively large: 25% of the photosphere. Such a large-scale clumpy structure is similar to that observed in Cassiopeia A, and suggests that large-scale convection or standing accretion shock instability takes place at the onset of the explosion. This article is part of the themed issue 'Bridging the gap: from massive stars to supernovae'.

  11. I can see CRISPR now, even when phage are gone: a view on alternative CRISPR-Cas functions from the prokaryotic envelope

    PubMed Central

    Ratner, Hannah K.; Sampson, Timothy R.; Weiss, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose CRISPR-Cas systems are prokaryotic immune systems against invading nucleic acids that adapt as new environmental threats arise. There are emerging examples of CRISPR-Cas functions in bacterial physiology beyond their role in adaptive immunity. This highlights the poorly understood, but potentially common, moonlighting functions of these abundant systems. We propose that these non-canonical CRISPR-Cas activities have evolved to respond to stresses at the cell envelope. Recent findings Here, we discuss recent literature describing the impact of the extracellular environment on the regulation of CRISPR-Cas systems, and the influence of CRISPR-Cas activity on bacterial physiology. The described non-canonical CRISPR-Cas functions allow the bacterial cell to respond to the extracellular environment, primarily through changes in envelope physiology. Summary This review discusses the expanding non-canonical functions of CRISPR-Cas systems, including their roles in virulence, focusing mainly on their relationship to the cell envelope. We first examine the effects of the extracellular environment on regulation of CRISPR-Cas components, and then discuss the impact of CRISPR-Cas systems on bacterial physiology, focusing on their roles in influencing interactions with the environment including host organisms. PMID:25887612

  12. Crop yield summary for three wetland reservoir subirrigation systems in northwest Ohio

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wetland Reservoir Subirrigation Systems (WRSIS) are innovative agricultural water management and recycling systems comprised of three main components; a constructed wetland, a water storage reservoir, and cropland containing subsurface drainage pipe systems. Surface runoff and subsurface drainage f...

  13. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 1, phase 2: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A review of solar energy conversion and utilization is presented. The solar power satellite system is then described. Overall system definition and integration is discussed. Principal reference system study accomplishments and conclusions are presented.

  14. Panel summary of cyber-physical systems (CPS) and Internet of Things (IoT) opportunities with information fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik; Kadar, Ivan; Grewe, Lynne L.; Brooks, Richard; Yu, Wei; Kwasinski, Andres; Thomopoulos, Stelios; Salerno, John; Qi, Hairong

    2017-05-01

    During the 2016 SPIE DSS conference, nine panelists were invited to highlight the trends and opportunities in cyber-physical systems (CPS) and Internet of Things (IoT) with information fusion. The world will be ubiquitously outfitted with many sensors to support our daily living thorough the Internet of Things (IoT), manage infrastructure developments with cyber-physical systems (CPS), as well as provide communication through networked information fusion technology over the internet (NIFTI). This paper summarizes the panel discussions on opportunities of information fusion to the growing trends in CPS and IoT. The summary includes the concepts and areas where information supports these CPS/IoT which includes situation awareness, transportation, and smart grids.

  15. Software Development Technologies for Reactive, Real-Time, and Hybrid Systems: Summary of Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manna, Zohar

    1998-01-01

    This research is directed towards the implementation of a comprehensive deductive-algorithmic environment (toolkit) for the development and verification of high assurance reactive systems, especially concurrent, real-time, and hybrid systems. For this, we have designed and implemented the STCP (Stanford Temporal Prover) verification system. Reactive systems have an ongoing interaction with their environment, and their computations are infinite sequences of states. A large number of systems can be seen as reactive systems, including hardware, concurrent programs, network protocols, and embedded systems. Temporal logic provides a convenient language for expressing properties of reactive systems. A temporal verification methodology provides procedures for proving that a given system satisfies a given temporal property. The research covered necessary theoretical foundations as well as implementation and application issues.

  16. Envelopes: presidential address.

    PubMed

    Drukker, B H

    1998-12-01

    The fabric of medical care has been altered during the past 2 decades. Initially this alteration was furtive but it rapidly escalated, producing change that will be irrevocable. Physicians, dedicated to caring for their patients, frequently were found struggling in the wake of the changes in the health care system. In most situations they found themselves swept aside from crucial decision making because of timidity, practice obligations, and absence of knowledge related to "medical business." With about 600 managed care operations in the United States, physicians can no longer afford to sit in the stands and just watch the play on the field. Participation is crucial and must be accompanied by additional learning, such as masters degrees in business administration or MBAs. This will allow the new players to read the playbook of business medicine. Although on-the-job training is possible, it usually has a slow learning curve as a result of diluting the new assignment with practice obligations. Despite these formidable challenges, physicians must enter the local, state, and national arenas and participate. Despite change and reaction to change, physicians have an irrevocable trust that cannot be withdrawn or overlooked. It has been earned and pervades every facet of our professional careers. The physician has an uncompromising duty and privilege to care for his or her patient in the highest and most ethical manner, a duty that will remain forever. This will never change!

  17. Different sympathetic pathways control the metabolism of distinct bone envelopes.

    PubMed

    Bataille, Caroline; Mauprivez, Cédric; Haÿ, Eric; Baroukh, Brigitte; Brun, Adrian; Chaussain, Catherine; Marie, Pierre J; Saffar, Jean-Louis; Cherruau, Marc

    2012-05-01

    Bone remodeling, the mechanism that modulates bone mass adaptation, is controlled by the sympathetic nervous system through the catecholaminergic pathway. However, resorption in the mandible periosteum envelope is associated with cholinergic Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP)-positive nerve fibers sensitive to sympathetic neurotoxics, suggesting that different sympathetic pathways may control distinct bone envelopes. In this study, we assessed the role of distinct sympathetic pathways on rat femur and mandible envelopes. To this goal, adult male Wistar rats were chemically sympathectomized or treated with agonists/antagonists of the catecholaminergic and cholinergic pathways; femora and mandibles were sampled. Histomorphometric analysis showed that sympathectomy decreased the number of preosteoclasts and RANKL-expressing osteoblasts in mandible periosteum but had no effect on femur trabecular bone. In contrast, pharmacological stimulation or repression of the catecholaminergic cell receptors impacted the femur trabecular bone and mandible endosteal retromolar zone. VIP treatment of sympathectomized rats rescued the disturbances of the mandible periosteum and alveolar wall whereas the cholinergic pathway had no effect on the catecholaminergic-dependent envelopes. We also found that VIP receptor-1 was weakly expressed in periosteal osteoblasts in the mandible and was increased by VIP treatment, whereas osteoblasts of the retromolar envelope that was innervated only by tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive fibers, constitutively expressed beta-2 adrenergic receptors. These data highlight the complexity of the sympathetic control of bone metabolism. Both the embryological origin of the bone (endochondral for the femur, membranous for the mandibular periosteum and the socket wall) and environmental factors specific to the innervated envelope may influence the phenotype of the sympathetic innervation. We suggest that an origin-dependent imprint of bone cells through

  18. Envelope Modes of Beams with Angular Momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J J; Losic, B

    2000-08-21

    For a particle beam propagating in an alternating gradient focusing system, envelope equations are often employed to describe the evolution of the beam radii in the two directions transverse to the direction of propagation, and aligned with the principle axes of the alternating gradient system. When the beams have zero net angular momentum and when the alternating gradient focusing is approximated by a continuous focusing system, there are two normal modes to the envelope equations: the 'breathing' mode and a 'quadrupole' mode. In the former, the two radii oscillate in phase, and in the latter the radii oscillate 180 degrees out of phase. In this paper, we extend the analysis to include beams that have a finite angular momentum. We perturb the moment equations of ref. [1], wherein it was assumed that space charge is a distributed in a uniform density ellipse. Two additional modes are obtained. The breathing mode remains, but the quadrupole mode is split into two modes, and a new low frequency mode appears. We calculate the frequencies and eigenmodes of these four modes as a function of tune depression and a dimensionless net angular momentum. These modes can be excited by rotational errors of the quadrupoles in an alternating gradient focusing channel.

  19. Bacillus subtilis extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors and defense of the cell envelope

    PubMed Central

    Helmann, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Bacillus subtilis provides a model for investigation of the bacterial cell envelope, the first line of defense against environmental threats. Extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors activate genes that confer resistance to agents that threaten the integrity of the envelope. Although their individual regulons overlap, σW is most closely associated with membrane-active agents, σX with cationic antimicrobial peptide resistance, and σV with resistance to lysozyme. Here, I highlight the role of the σM regulon, which is strongly induced by conditions that impair peptidoglycan synthesis and includes the core pathways of envelope synthesis and cell division, as well as stress-inducible alternative enzymes. Studies of these cell envelope stress responses provide insights into how bacteria acclimate to the presence of antibiotics. PMID:26901131

  20. Utility FGD survey: January--December 1989. Volume 1, Categorical summaries of FGD systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M.

    1992-03-01

    This is Volume 1 of the Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

  1. Air-Mobile Ground Security and Surveillance System (AMGSSS) Project Summary Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-01

    powered , twin-spark-plug ignition system . Engine operation is controlled and monitored by the aircraft flight-control system . 3.1.7 Transmission The... transmission drive system consists of a gearbox and drive shaft connected to the rotary engine . The gearbox has a spiral bevel gear set located between...to verify or revise estimates of their ability to provide the power needed by the AMGSSS for powering the system and restarting the platform engine

  2. Verification analysis of the toroidal accelerator rotor platform wind energy conversion system: Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, R.E.

    1988-09-01

    This report describes research undertaken at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute for the purpose of evaluating the performance, defining the structure and system configurations, and assessing the economic merit of the Toroidal Accelerator Rotor Platform (TARP) wind energy conversion system. The TARP wind energy system is a highly versatile system-design having broad-based application potential ranging from small-kilowatt capacity units to large-megawatt utility-scale power plants. 4 refs., 27 figs., 19 tabs.

  3. Future Air Force aircraft propulsion control systems: The extended summary paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skira, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Hydromechanical control technology simply cannot compete against the performance benefits offered by electronics. Future military aircraft propulsion control systems will be full authority, digital electronic, microprocessor base systems. Anticipating the day when microprocessor technology will permit the integration and management of aircraft flight control, fire control and propulsion control systems, the Air Force Aero Propulsion Laboratory is developing control logic algorithms for a real time, adaptive control and diagnostic information system.

  4. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 1, phase 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A systems definition study of the solar satellite system (SPS) is presented. The technical feasibility of solar power satellites based on forecasts of technical capability in the various applicable technologies is assessed. The performance, cost, operational characteristics, reliability, and the suitability of SPS's as power generators for typical commercial electricity grids are discussed. The uncertainties inherent in the system characteristics forecasts are assessed.

  5. Technology requirements for advanced earth orbital transportation systems. Volume 2: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, A. K.; Bangsund, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    The results of efforts to identify the technology requirements for advanced earth orbital transportation systems are reported. Topics discussed include: (1) design and definition of performance potential of vehicle systems, (2) advanced technology assessment, and (3) extended performance. It is concluded that the horizontal take-off concept is the most feasible system considered.

  6. The effectiveness of evidence summaries on health policymakers and health system managers use of evidence from systematic reviews: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Petkovic, Jennifer; Welch, Vivian; Jacob, Maria Helena; Yoganathan, Manosila; Ayala, Ana Patricia; Cunningham, Heather; Tugwell, Peter

    2016-12-09

    Systematic reviews are important for decision makers. They offer many potential benefits but are often written in technical language, are too long, and do not contain contextual details which make them hard to use for decision-making. There are many organizations that develop and disseminate derivative products, such as evidence summaries, from systematic reviews for different populations or subsets of decision makers. This systematic review aimed to (1) assess the effectiveness of evidence summaries on policymakers' use of the evidence and (2) identify the most effective summary components for increasing policymakers' use of the evidence. We present an overview of the available evidence on systematic review derivative products. We included studies of policymakers at all levels as well as health system managers. We included studies examining any type of "evidence summary," "policy brief," or other products derived from systematic reviews that presented evidence in a summarized form. The primary outcomes were the (1) use of systematic review summaries in decision-making (e.g., self-reported use of the evidence in policymaking and decision-making) and (2) policymakers' understanding, knowledge, and/or beliefs (e.g., changes in knowledge scores about the topic included in the summary). We also assessed perceived relevance, credibility, usefulness, understandability, and desirability (e.g., format) of the summaries. Our database search combined with our gray literature search yielded 10,113 references after removal of duplicates. From these, 54 were reviewed in full text, and we included six studies (reported in seven papers) as well as protocols from two ongoing studies. Two studies assessed the use of evidence summaries in decision-making and found little to no difference in effect. There was also little to no difference in effect for knowledge, understanding or beliefs (four studies), and perceived usefulness or usability (three studies). Summary of findings tables

  7. Summary of ACSL Simulations of the MSRE Auxiliary Charcoal Bed Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect

    Damiano, B

    2000-10-26

    The simulation of the Auxiliary Charcoal Bed (ACB) Vacuum System was performed to evaluate the original vacuum system design, detect and identify design deficiencies, investigate the effects of proposed corrections on system performance, and generally aid in refining the system design before construction and mockup testing. The simulation was performed by using the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL). The vacuum system design goals are to provide approximately 20 SCFM of both booster gas and purge gas through the system and maintain a flow of approximately 40 SCFM with a velocity of 50 to 75 f/sec at the entrance to the cyclone separator. The model results showed that the original system design was incapable of meeting the system performance goals. Further simulations showed that the following modifications to the original vacuum system design were required to make the system performance acceptable; (1) Remove valve PCV4. (2) Modify the flow controllers FTC3 and FTC4 from the original flow range of 0-17.6 SCFM (0-500 SLM) to 0-35.3 SCFM (0-1000 SLM). (3) Replace the bellows sealed valves SV-1, SV-3A, SV-3B, SV-4A, and SV-4B with less restrictive ball valves. The simulation results saved considerable time and effort by identifying flaws in the original system design. Early identification of these flaws and the use of the simulation model to investigate possible solutions allowed corrective modifications to be made before construction of the mock up test facility.

  8. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY08

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Bean; Richard Metcalf; Aaron Bevill

    2008-09-01

    The Safeguards Envelope Project met its milestones by creating a rudimentary safeguards envelope, proving the value of the approach on a small scale, and determining the most appropriate path forward. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant’s large cache of reprocessing process monitoring data, dubbed UBER Data, was recovered and used in the analysis. A probabilistic Z test was used on a Markov Monte Carlo simulation of expected diversion data when compared with normal operating data. The data regarding a fully transient event in a tank was used to create a simple requirement, representative of a safeguards envelope, whose impact was a decrease in operating efficiency by 1.3% but an increase in material balance period of 26%. This approach is operator, state, and international safeguards friendly and should be applied to future reprocessing plants. Future requirements include tank-to-tank correlations in reprocessing facilities, detailed operations impact studies, simulation inclusion, automated optimization, advanced statistics analysis, and multi-attribute utility analysis.

  9. Heat recovery in building envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-08-01

    Infiltration has traditionally been assumed to contribute to the energy load of a building by an amount equal to the product of the infiltration flow rate and the enthalpy difference between inside and outside. Some studies have indicated that application of such a simple formula may produce an unreasonably high contribution because of heat recovery within the building envelope. The major objective of this study was to provide an improved prediction of the energy load due to infiltration by introducing a correction factor that multiplies the expression for the conventional load. This paper discusses simplified analytical modeling and CFD simulations that examine infiltration heat recovery (IHR) in an attempt to quantify the magnitude of this effect for typical building envelopes. For comparison, we will also briefly examine the results of some full-scale field measurements of IHR based on infiltration rates and energy use in real buildings. The results of this work showed that for houses with insulated walls the heat recovery is negligible due to the small fraction of the envelope that participates in heat exchange with the infiltrating air. However; there is the potential for IHR to have a significant effect for higher participation dynamic walls/ceilings or uninsulated walls. This result implies that the existing methods for evaluating infiltration related building loads provide adequate results for typical buildings.

  10. Requirements for a mobile communications satellite system. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Three types of satellite-aided mobile communications are considered for users in areas not served by (terrestrial) cellular radio systems. In System 1, mobile units are provided a direct satellite link to a gateway station, which serves as the interface to the terrestrial toll network. In System 2, a terrestrial radio link similar to those in cellular systems connects the mobile unit to a translator station; each translator relays the traffic from mobile units in its vicinity, via satellite, to the regional gateway. It is not feasible for System 2 to provide ubiquitous coverage. Therefore, System 3 is introduced, in which the small percentage of users not within range of a translator are provided a direct satellite link as in System 1. While System 2 can operate with leased satellite capacity, Systems 1 and 3 require a dedicated satellite. A major portion of this study is concerned with the design of a satellite for System 1. A weight limit of 10,000 lbs, corresponding to the projected 1990 STS capability, is imposed on the design. Frequency re-use of the allocated spectrum, through multiple satellite beams, is employed to generate the specified system capacity. Both offset-fed and center-fed reflectors are considered. For an assumed 10-MHz allocation and a population of 350,000 subscribers, a two-satellite system is required. The reflector diameters corresponding to offset-fed and center-fed geometries are 46 m and 62 m, respectively. Thus, large-space-structure technology is inherent to the implementation of System 1. In addition to establishing the technical requirements for the three types of satellite systems, the monthly service charge needed to provide a specified return on invested capital is computed. A net present value analysis is used for this purpose.

  11. Propagation effects handbook for satellite systems design. A summary of propagation impairments on 10 to 100 GHz satellite links with techniques for system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ippolito, Louis J.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Propagation Effects Handbook for Satellite Systems Design provides a systematic compilation of the major propagation effects experienced on space-Earth paths in the 10 to 100 GHz frequency band region. It provides both a detailed description of the propagation phenomenon and a summary of the impact of the effect on the communications system design and performance. Chapter 2 through 5 describe the propagation effects, prediction models, and available experimental data bases. In Chapter 6, design techniques and prediction methods available for evaluating propagation effects on space-Earth communication systems are presented. Chapter 7 addresses the system design process and how the effects of propagation on system design and performance should be considered and how that can be mitigated. Examples of operational and planned Ku, Ka, and EHF satellite communications systems are given.

  12. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of two recent crisis management publications: (1) "Social Validity of the CISM Model for School Crisis Intervention," summarized by Jack R. Dempsey; and (2) "School Violence: Associations With Control, Security/Enforcement, Educational/Therapeutic Approaches, and Demographic Factors," summarized by Ashlee Barton.…

  13. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three recent crisis management publications: (1) "The Impact of School Violence on School Personnel," summarized by Kimberly de Deaux; (2) "Children Exposed to War/Terrorism," summarized by Jennifer DeFago; and (3) "Suicide Survivors Seeking Mental Health Services," summarized by Kimberly de Deaux. The first…

  14. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This column features summaries of research articles from 3 recent crisis management publications. The first, "School Shootings and Counselor Leadership: Four Lessons from the Field" summarized by Kristi Fenning, was conducted as the result of the increased demand for trained crisis personnel on school campuses. Survey participants were…

  15. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Bratica, Robyn; Dempsey, Jack R.; Karle, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of recent crisis management publications. The first article summarized provides a review of research documenting that even when children are not physically proximal to a national disaster (9/11), they may still have negative reactions. The second article summarized is an examination of the PTSD diagnostic criterion…

  16. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three recent crisis management publications: (1) "The Impact of School Violence on School Personnel," summarized by Kimberly de Deaux; (2) "Children Exposed to War/Terrorism," summarized by Jennifer DeFago; and (3) "Suicide Survivors Seeking Mental Health Services," summarized by Kimberly de Deaux. The first…

  17. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three recent crisis management publications: (1) "School Violence: Associations With Control, Security/Enforcement, Educational/Therapeutic Approaches, and Demographic Factors," reviewed by Ashlee Barton; (2) "The Relationship Between Cognitive Coping Styles and PTSD in Survivors of Traffic Accidents," summarized…

  18. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of four recent crisis management publications: (1) "Crisis Intervention for Children/Caregivers Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence," summarized by Donna DeVaughn Kreskey; (2) "Predictors of Trauma Reactions Following the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks," summarized by Kelly O'Connor; (3) "Cognitive Coping Styles and PTSD…

  19. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of four recent crisis management publications: (1) "Crisis Intervention for Children/Caregivers Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence," summarized by Donna DeVaughn Kreskey; (2) "Predictors of Trauma Reactions Following the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks," summarized by Kelly O'Connor; (3) "Cognitive Coping Styles and PTSD…

  20. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This column features summaries of five research articles relevant to school crisis response. The first, "High School Teachers' Experiences With Suicidal Students," summarized by Robyn Bratica, offers the results of a study examining high school teachers' experiences with suicidal students and suggests that contact with suicidal students is very…

  1. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This column features summaries of research articles from 3 recent crisis management publications. The first, "School Shootings and Counselor Leadership: Four Lessons from the Field" summarized by Kristi Fenning, was conducted as the result of the increased demand for trained crisis personnel on school campuses. Survey participants were…

  2. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This column features summaries of five research articles relevant to school crisis response. The first, "High School Teachers' Experiences With Suicidal Students," summarized by Robyn Bratica, offers the results of a study examining high school teachers' experiences with suicidal students and suggests that contact with suicidal students is very…

  3. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    In this column, members of the NASP Crisis Management in the Schools Interest Group provide summaries of three studies relevant to school crisis response. The first study investigated the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among rescue workers. The second article explored the Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention, which is…

  4. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    In this column, members of the NASP Crisis Management in the Schools Interest Group provide summaries of three studies relevant to school crisis response. The first study investigated the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among rescue workers. The second article explored the Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention, which is…

  5. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three recent crisis management publications: (1) "School Violence: Associations With Control, Security/Enforcement, Educational/Therapeutic Approaches, and Demographic Factors," reviewed by Ashlee Barton; (2) "The Relationship Between Cognitive Coping Styles and PTSD in Survivors of Traffic Accidents," summarized…

  6. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of two recent crisis management publications: (1) "Social Validity of the CISM Model for School Crisis Intervention," summarized by Jack R. Dempsey; and (2) "School Violence: Associations With Control, Security/Enforcement, Educational/Therapeutic Approaches, and Demographic Factors," summarized by Ashlee Barton.…

  7. Satellite power system concept development and evaluation program. Volume 1: Technical assessment summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Candidate satellite power system (SPS) concepts were identified and evaluated in terms of technical and cost factors. A number of alternative technically feasible approaches and system concepts were investigated. A reference system was defined to facilitate economic, environmental, and societal assessments by the Department of Energy. All elements of the reference system were defined including the satellite and all its subsystems, the orbital construction and maintenance bases, all elements of the space transportation system, the ground receiving station, and the associated industrial facilities for manufacturing the required hardware. The reference conclusions and remaining issues are stated for the following topical areas: system definition; energy conversion and power management; power transmission and reception; structures, controls, and materials; construction and operations; and space transportation.

  8. Study of multi-megawatt technology needs for photovoltaic space power systems. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. M.; Pleasant, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Possible missions requiring multimegawatt photovoltaic space power systems in the 1990's time frame and associated power system technology needs are examined. The following concepts for photovoltaic power approaches are considered: planar arrays, concentrating arrays, hybrid systems using Rankine engines, thermophotovoltaic and AC/DC power management approaches, battery, fuel cell, flywheel energy storage, and interactions with the electrical ion engine injection and stationkeeping system. The levels of modularity for efficient, safe, constructable, serviceable, and cost effective system design are analyzed, and the benefits of alternate approaches developed. Both manned low Earth orbit and unmanned geosynchronous Earth orbit applications were examined for technological development. Technology developments applicable to power systems which appear to have benefits independent of the absolute power level are suggested.

  9. Effective retrieval in Hospital Information Systems: the use of context in answering queries to Patient Discharge Summaries.

    PubMed

    Nangle, B; Keane, M T

    1994-06-01

    The move towards the electronic storage of medical records in Hospital Information Systems (HISs) presents significant challenges for AI retrieval techniques. In this paper, we argue that adequate information retrieval in such systems will have to rely on the exploitation of the conceptual knowledge in those records rather than superficial string searches. However, this course of action is dependent on the developments of natural language processing techniques and on retrieval systems that can exploit semantic/conceptual knowledge. We present a retrieval system, which attempts to realise the second of these developments. This system, called CONIR [developed in the context of the European Community project MENELAS (AIM 2023)] operates in the domain of Patient Discharge Summaries on coronary illness. CONIR uses flexible retrieval techniques, that exploit conceptual context information, over a database of elaborated semantic records. In the course of the paper we outline the sorts of knowledge structures that are required to do this type of retrieval and indicate how they are constructed.

  10. Summary of results from an ultrasonic in-flight wing ice detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongerholt, Derrick D.; Willms, Gary; Rose, Joseph L.

    2002-05-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves provide a convenient and reliable method to detect contaminants on the surface of the structure the wave travels in. Classifying the contaminants is possible by selecting the guided wave mode with the appropriate wave structure. An ice detection system, using this technology, designed at Sensor Systems, Goodrich Corporation is described. The system is demonstrated in-flight and is shown to be successful in detecting ice bonded to the aircraft wing leading edge.

  11. Analysis of the Apollo spacecraft operational data management system. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A study was made of Apollo, Skylab, and several other data management systems to determine those techniques which could be applied to the management of operational data for future manned spacecraft programs. The results of the study are presented and include: (1) an analysis of present data management systems, (2) a list of requirements for future operational data management systems, (3) an evaluation of automated data management techniques, and (4) a plan for data management applicable to future space programs.

  12. Annual Surveillance Summary: Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-30

    Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) incidence and prevalence among all beneficiaries seeking care within the Military Health System (MHS). This report...Comparison of community- and health care -associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. JAMA. 2003;290(22):2976-84. 10. Patel...community‐associated CHCS  Composite  Health   Care  System CO  community‐onset CTS  Contingency Tracking System CY  calendar year DMDC  Defense Manpower Data

  13. Shuttle free-flying teleoperator system experiment definition. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The applicability and utility of a free-flying teleoperator system were evaluated to support future earth orbital missions, specific emphasis on the early missions of the space shuttle. In-flight experiments and tests were specified, which will provide sufficient experience and data applicable to the development of future operational systems. The difinition of a useful early experimental system is presented, which will be checked out and used with early shuttle missions.

  14. Performance of a VME-based parallel processing LIDAR data acquisition system (summary)

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K.; Buttler, B.; Caffrey, M.; Soriano, C.

    1995-05-01

    It may be possible to make accurate real time, autonomous, 2 and 3 dimensional wind measurements remotely with an elastic backscatter Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system by incorporating digital parallel processing hardware into the data acquisition system. In this paper, we report the performance of a commercially available digital parallel processing system in implementing the maximum correlation technique for wind sensing using actual LIDAR data. Timing and numerical accuracy are benchmarked against a standard microprocessor impementation.

  15. Preliminary environmental assessment for the satellite power system (SPS). Revision 1. Volume 1. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed satellite power system (SPS) is summarized here. In this system, satellites would collect solar energy in space, convert it to microwaves, and transmit the microwaves to receiving antennas (rectennas) on earth. At the rectennas, the microwaves would be converted to electricity. The assessment considers microwave and nonmicrowave effects on the terrestrial environment and human health, atmospheric effects, and disruption of communications and other electromagnetic systems.

  16. Summary of design considerations for airplane spin-recovery parachute systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burk, S. M., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A compilation of design considerations applicable to spin-recovery parachute systems for military airplanes has been made so that the information will be readily available to persons responsible for the design of such systems. This information was obtained from a study of available documents and from discussions with persons in both government and industry experienced in parachute technology, full-scale and model spin testing, and related systems.

  17. Summary of gas bearing applications in the field of space electric power systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, J. H.; Ream, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    The NASA-Lewis Research Center is investigating the technology of closed Brayton cycle electric power systems for space. The turbine-alternator-compressor power conversion unit for such a system is designated Brayton Rotating Unit (BRU). In parallel to power system testing, a BRU improvement effort was initiated. A major portion of this effort involves the testing and evaluation of different bearing systems. A description of each bearing is presented along with results of the evaluation to date and a comparison of the merits and limitations of each bearing.

  18. A summary of the ECAS performance and cost results for MHD systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seikel, G. R.; Sovie, R. J.; Burns, R. K.; Barna, G. J.; Burkhart, J. A.; Nainiger, J. J.; Smith, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The potential is examined of various advanced power plant concepts using coal and coal-derived fuel. The results indicate that open cycle coal fired direct preheat MHD systems have potentially one of the highest coal-pile-to-bus-bar efficiencies and also one of the lowest costs of electricity (COE) of the systems studied. Closed cycle MHD systems may have the potential to approach the efficiency and COE of open cycle MHD. The 1200-1500 F liquid metal MHD systems studied do not appear to have the potential of exceeding the efficiency or competing with the COE of advanced steam plants.

  19. Summary and evaluation of hydraulic property data available for the Hanford Site upper basalt confined aquifer system

    SciTech Connect

    Spane, F.A. Jr.; Vermeul, V.R.

    1994-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory, as part of the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project, examines the potential for offsite migration of contamination within the upper basalt confined aquifer system. For the past 40 years, hydrologic testing of the upper basalt confined aquifer has been conducted by a number of Hanford Site programs. Hydraulic property estimates are important for evaluating aquifer flow characteristics (i.e., ground-water flow patterns, flow velocity, transport travel time). Presented are the first comprehensive Hanford Site-wide summary of hydraulic properties for the upper basalt confined aquifer system (i.e., the upper Saddle Mountains Basalt). Available hydrologic test data were reevaluated using recently developed diagnostic test analysis methods. A comparison of calculated transmissivity estimates indicates that, for most test results, a general correspondence within a factor of two between reanalysis and previously reported test values was obtained. For a majority of the tests, previously reported values are greater than reanalysis estimates. This overestimation is attributed to a number of factors, including, in many cases, a misapplication of nonleaky confined aquifer analysis methods in previous analysis reports to tests that exhibit leaky confined aquifer response behavior. Results of the test analyses indicate a similar range for transmissivity values for the various hydro-geologic units making up the upper basalt confined aquifer. Approximately 90% of the calculated transmissivity values for upper basalt confined aquifer hydrogeologic units occur within the range of 10{sup 0} to 10{sup 2} m{sup 2}/d, with 65% of the calculated estimate values occurring between 10{sup 1} to 10{sup 2} m{sup 2}d. These summary findings are consistent with the general range of values previously reported for basalt interflow contact zones and sedimentary interbeds within the Saddle Mountains Basalt.

  20. Method and apparatus for controlling carrier envelope phase

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Zenghu [Manhattan, KS; Li, Chengquan [Sunnyvale, CA; Moon, Eric [Manhattan, KS

    2011-12-06

    A chirped pulse amplification laser system. The system generally comprises a laser source, a pulse modification apparatus including first and second pulse modification elements separated by a separation distance, a positioning element, a measurement device, and a feedback controller. The laser source is operable to generate a laser pulse and the pulse modification apparatus operable to modify at least a portion of the laser pulse. The positioning element is operable to reposition at least a portion of the pulse modification apparatus to vary the separation distance. The measurement device is operable to measure the carrier envelope phase of the generated laser pulse and the feedback controller is operable to control the positioning element based on the measured carrier envelope phase to vary the separation distance of the pulse modification elements and control the carrier envelope phase of laser pulses generated by the laser source.

  1. Types of gaseous envelopes of "hot Jupiter" exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisikalo, D. V.; Kaigorodov, P. V.; Ionov, D. E.; Shematovich, V. I.

    2013-10-01

    As a rule, the orbital velocities of "hot Jupiters," i.e., exoplanets with masses comparable to the mass of Jupiter and orbital semi-major axes less than 0.1 AU, are supersonic relative to the stellar wind, resulting in the formation of a bow shock. Gas-dynamical modeling shows that the gaseous envelopes around hot Jupiters can belong to two classes, depending on the position of the collision point. if the collision point is inside the Roche lobe of the planet, the envelopes have the almost spherical shapes of classical atmospheres, slightly distorted by the influence of the star and interactions with the stellar-wind gas; if the collision point is located outside the Roche lobe, outflows from the vicinity of the Lagrangian points L1 and L2 arise, and the envelope becomes substantially asymmetrical. The latter class of objects can also be divided into two types. If the dynamical pressure of the stellar-wind gas is high enough to stop the most powerful outflow from the vicinity of the inner Lagrangian point L1, a closed quasi-spherical envelope with a complex shape forms in the system. If the wind is unable to stop the outflow from L1, an open aspherical envelope forms. The possible existence of atmospheres of these three types is confirmed by 3D numerical modeling. Using the typical hot Jupiter HD 209458b as an example, it is shown that all three types of atmospheres could exist within the range of estimated parameters of this planet. Since different types of envelopes have different observational manifestations, determining the type of envelope in HD 209458b could apply additional constrains on the parameters of this exoplanet.

  2. Determinants of the Bovine Leukemia Virus Envelope Glycoproteins Involved in Infectivity, Replication and Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    de Brogniez, Alix; Mast, Jan; Willems, Luc

    2016-03-24

    Interaction of viral envelope proteins with host cell membranes has been extensively investigated in a number of systems. However, the biological relevance of these interactions in vivo has been hampered by the absence of adequate animal models. Reverse genetics using the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) genome highlighted important functional domains of the envelope protein involved in the viral life cycle. For example, immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAM) of the envelope transmembrane protein (TM) are essential determinants of infection. Although cell fusion directed by the aminoterminal end of TM is postulated to be essential, some proviruses expressing fusion-deficient envelope proteins unexpectedly replicate at wild-type levels. Surprisingly also, a conserved N-linked glycosylation site of the extracellular envelope protein (SU) inhibits cell-to-cell transmission suggesting that infectious potential has been limited during evolution. In this review, we summarize the knowledge pertaining to the BLV envelope protein in the context of viral infection, replication and pathogenesis.

  3. Future space transportation systems analysis study. Phase 1 extension: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Potential future space programs are analyzed beyond the scope of the current shuttle traffic model to determine their transportation needs and alternative ways of evolving future space transportation systems from the baseline space transportation system (space shuttle and upper stage). Objectives of the entire study are summarized along with results to date.

  4. Technical Assistance Model for Long-Term Systems Change: Three State Examples. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasprzak, Christina; Goode, Sue; Hurth, Joicey; Lucas, Anne; Marshall, Jacqueline; Terrell, Adriane; Jones, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The NECTAC Technical Assistance (TA) Model for Long-Term Systems Change (LTSC) recognizes that components of a state system are highly interactive and changes at one level are not likely to be sustained without supportive changes at all related levels. Improved child and family outcomes require: intervention practices that are research-based,…

  5. Space station systems analysis study. Part 3: Documentation. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The space stations systems analysis study is summarized. A cost efffective system concept capable of meeting a broad spectrum of mission requirements was developed. Candidate objectives were reviewed and implementation requirements were defined. Program options for both low earth and geosynchronous orbits were examined. Space construction concepts were analyzed and defined in detail.

  6. Methods for the evaluation of alternative disaster warning systems. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, C. E.; Anderson, R. J., Jr.; Lanen, W. N.

    1977-01-01

    Methods for estimating the economic costs and benefits of the transmission-reception and reception-action segments of a disaster warning system (DWS) are described. Methods were identified for the evaluation of the transmission and reception portions of alternative disaster warning systems. Example analyses using the methods identified were performed.

  7. Summary of the Culture, History and Educational System of Viet Nam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Chinh B., Comp.

    This booklet gives information on the culture, history and educational system of Vietnam as it relates to Vietnamese students in the American educational system. It is intended for use by teachers who have Vietnamese students in their classes. It consists of the following chapters: (1) Vietnamese Geography and History; (2) Vietnamese Family…

  8. Automated water monitor system field demonstration test report. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. L.; Jeffers, E. L.; Perreira, J.; Poel, J. D.; Nibley, D.; Nuss, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    A system that performs water quality monitoring on-line and in real time much as it would be done in a spacecraft, was developed and demonstrated. The system has the capability to determine conformance to high effluent quality standards and to increase the potential for reclamation and reuse of water.

  9. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 5, phase 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of the solar power satellite system is presented. Performance, cost, and operational characteristics are assessed. The photovoltaic system is described and investigated. Alternative construction concepts are discussed. The structural bay configuration is presented along with the antenna structure options.

  10. Career Information Delivery Systems: A Summary Status Report. NOICC Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Valorie; Kinnison, Joyce; Morgenthau, Eleanor; Ollis, Harvey

    The National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee/State Occupational Information Coordinating Committees (NOICC/SOICC) Network sponsors numerous occupational information programs and systems, including career information delivery systems (CIDS). CIDS provide useful national, state, and local information for people who are exploring,…

  11. Solid Waste Information Management System (SWIMS). Data summary, fiscal year 1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelder, H. M.

    1981-05-01

    The solid waste information management system (SWIMS) maintains computerized records on a master data base. It provides a comprehensive system for cataloging and assembling data into output reports. The SWIMS data base contains information on the transuranic (TRU) and low level waste (LLW) generated, buried, or stored.

  12. Low-thrust chemical propulsion system propellant expulsion and thermal conditioning study. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merino, F.; Wakabayashi, I.; Pleasant, R. L.; Hill, M.

    1982-01-01

    Preferred techniques for providing abort pressurization and engine feed system net positive suction pressure (NPSP) for low thrust chemical propulsion systems (LTPS) were determined. A representative LTPS vehicle configuration is presented. Analysis tasks include: propellant heating analysis; pressurant requirements for abort propellant dump; and comparative analysis of pressurization techniques and thermal subcoolers.

  13. Summary: Experimental validation of real-time fault-tolerant systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyer, R. K.; Choi, G. S.

    1992-01-01

    Testing and validation of real-time systems is always difficult to perform since neither the error generation process nor the fault propagation problem is easy to comprehend. There is no better substitute to results based on actual measurements and experimentation. Such results are essential for developing a rational basis for evaluation and validation of real-time systems. However, with physical experimentation, controllability and observability are limited to external instrumentation that can be hooked-up to the system under test. And this process is quite a difficult, if not impossible, task for a complex system. Also, to set up such experiments for measurements, physical hardware must exist. On the other hand, a simulation approach allows flexibility that is unequaled by any other existing method for system evaluation. A simulation methodology for system evaluation was successfully developed and implemented and the environment was demonstrated using existing real-time avionic systems. The research was oriented toward evaluating the impact of permanent and transient faults in aircraft control computers. Results were obtained for the Bendix BDX 930 system and Hamilton Standard EEC131 jet engine controller. The studies showed that simulated fault injection is valuable, in the design stage, to evaluate the susceptibility of computing sytems to different types of failures.

  14. Methods for Evaluating Costs of Automated Hospital Information Systems. Research Summary Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drazen, Erica; Metzger, Jane

    To provide a compendium of methodologies on cost impacts of automated hospital information systems (AHIS), this report sponsored by the National Center for Services Research identifies, reviews, and summarizes ten studies on information systems which manage patient care data. The studies were identified by a literature search and those that…

  15. Improved scaling laws for stage inert mass of space propulsion systems. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Summarized is a study which satisfies the need for improved scaling laws for stage inert mass of space propulsion systems. The resulting laws are applicable to current and future vehicle systems and designs for a comprehensive spectrum of anticipated planetary missions.

  16. Applications study of advanced power generation systems utilizing coal-derived fuels. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    The technology status of phosphoric acid and molten carbon fuel cells, combined gas and steam turbine cycles, and magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion systems was assessed and the power performance of these systems when operating with medium-Btu fuel gas whether delivered by pipeline to the power plant or in an integrated mode in which the coal gasification process and power system are closely coupled as an overall power plant was evaluated. Commercially available combined-cycle gas turbine systems can reach projected required performance levels for advanced systems using currently available technology. The phosphoric acid fuel cell appears to be the next most likely candidate for commercialization. On pipeline delivery, the systems efficiency ranges from 40.9% for the phosphoric acid fuel cell to 63% for the molten carbonate fuel cell system. The efficiencies of the integrated power plants vary from approximately 39-40% for the combined cycle to 46-47% for the molden carbonate fuel cell systems. Conventional coal-fired steam stations with flue-gas desulfurization have only 33-35% efficiency.

  17. TMX-U (Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade) ECRH (Electron Cyclotron Resonant Heating) system operations summary

    SciTech Connect

    Heefner, J.W.; Brooksby, C.A.; Lauze, R.R.; Karsner, P.G.

    1987-10-07

    The TMX-U ECRH System underwent many extensive changes during the last two years of physics operations. These changes included extensive use of fiber optics and computer control to add flexibility to the system and eliminate noise problems, upgrades to Varian Model VGA-8050M long pulse gyrotron tubes, the addition of gyrotron anode-modulation for better control of individual gyrotrons, and the installation of a fifth gyrotron socket that was used to simultaneously heat both the east and west inner 10 KG locations. This paper discusses the different modifications made to the system and their effects on the overall performance of the entire ECRH system. The paper also discusses the system as it presently exists and possible modifications that would be made if the future modifications were to be performed. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Tether Transport System Study Summary Performed under Contract to Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderwell, Dan; Bangham, Mike; Dionne, Heather; Fleming, Beth; Klus, Bill; Herring, Karmel; Suggs, Elton; Walker, Larry; Lorenzini, Enrico; Cosmo, Mario L.; hide

    1998-01-01

    The main rationale for this study is to reduce the mission cost of transporting payloads to GEO. A two stage tether transport system was proposed for boosting payloads from LEO to GTO/GEO. The feasibility of the concept is addressed from the point of view of orbital mechanics and other principles of physics. The report presents the results of an engineering analysis that defines the system, major elements and subsystems, and assesses the feasibility (i.e., the technology readiness level) of designing and developing the system. Results indicate that significant cost savings can be realized over traditional upper stages within a few launches. Certain key technical issues, such as payload rendezvous and capture, need to be addressed in future studies. Advancements in certain technology areas, such as power generation and highly efficient propulsion systems, will have significant effects on the overall system design.

  19. Space-based solar power conversion and delivery systems study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazelrigg, G. A., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The technical and economic aspects of satellite solar power systems are presented with a focus on the current configuration 5000 MW system. The technical studies include analyses of the orbital system structures, control and stationkeeping, and the formulation of program plans and costs for input to the economic analyses. The economic analyses centered about the development and use of a risk analysis model for a system cost assessment, identification of critical issues and technologies, and to provide information for programmatic decision making. A preliminary economic examination of some utility interface issues is included. Under the present state-of-knowledge, it is possible to formulate a program plan for the development of a satellite solar power system that can be economically justified. The key area of technological uncertainty is man's ability to fabricate and assemble large structures in space.

  20. Technology requirements for advanced earth orbital transportation system. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, A. K.; Bangsund, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Normal technology requirements applicable to Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) systems were projected to the 1985 time period. These technology projections were then incorporated in a vehicle design analysis of three different operational concepts resulting in four configurations of a Single Stage to Orbit system. The resultant performance, weights and costs of each concept were then compared and a system concept selected. A figure of merit was developed for advanced technology programs based on a cost/performance basis. The selected advanced technology programs were then used to reassess the vehicle to determine the impact on performance, weight and cost. Based on study results, recommendations are provided in technology areas associated with earth orbit transportation systems. The recommendations address advanced space transportation system design considerations, both hardware and software technolgoy program requirements.

  1. Tether Transport System Study Summary Performed under Contract to Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderwell, Dan; Bangham, Mike; Dionne, Heather; Fleming, Beth; Klus, Bill; Herring, Karmel; Suggs, Elton; Walker, Larry; Lorenzini, Enrico; Cosmo, Mario L.; Kaiser, Markus; Vestal, Linda; Johnson, Les; Carrington, Connie

    1998-01-01

    The main rationale for this study is to reduce the mission cost of transporting payloads to GEO. A two stage tether transport system was proposed for boosting payloads from LEO to GTO/GEO. The feasibility of the concept is addressed from the point of view of orbital mechanics and other principles of physics. The report presents the results of an engineering analysis that defines the system, major elements and subsystems, and assesses the feasibility (i.e., the technology readiness level) of designing and developing the system. Results indicate that significant cost savings can be realized over traditional upper stages within a few launches. Certain key technical issues, such as payload rendezvous and capture, need to be addressed in future studies. Advancements in certain technology areas, such as power generation and highly efficient propulsion systems, will have significant effects on the overall system design.

  2. SCES2016 Summary: Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Joe David

    2016-08-03

    Experimental results presented during the 2016 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SECS2016) not only reflect the breadth of topics being explored in the field of strongly correlated systems but also the remarkable progress in discovery and understanding that is being made from their study. Lastly, this brief summary highlights just a few of the exciting experimental developments discussed at SCES2016.

  3. SCES2016 Summary: Experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Thompson, Joe David

    2016-08-03

    Experimental results presented during the 2016 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SECS2016) not only reflect the breadth of topics being explored in the field of strongly correlated systems but also the remarkable progress in discovery and understanding that is being made from their study. Lastly, this brief summary highlights just a few of the exciting experimental developments discussed at SCES2016.

  4. Car-Parrinello simulation of an O-H stretching envelope and potential of mean force of an intramolecular hydrogen bonded system: application to a Mannich base in solid state and in vacuum.

    PubMed

    Jezierska, Aneta; Panek, Jarosław J; Koll, Aleksander; Mavri, Janez

    2007-05-28

    Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) study was performed for an anharmonic system-an intramolecularly hydrogen bonded Mannich-base-type compound, 4,5-dimethyl-2(N,N-dimethylaminemethyl)phenol, to investigate the vibrational spectrum associated with the O-H stretching. Calculations were carried out for the solid state and for an isolated molecule. The classical CPMD simulation was performed and then the proton potential snapshots were extracted from the trajectory. The vibrational Schrodinger equation for the snapshots was solved numerically, and the (O-H) envelope was calculated as a superposition of the 0-->1 transitions. The potential of mean force for the proton stretching mode was calculated from the proton vibrational eigenfunctions and eigenvalues incorporating statistical sampling, nuclear quantum effects, and effects of the environment. Perspectives for application of the presented methodology in the computational support of biocatalysis are given in the study.

  5. A propagation effects handbook for satellite systems design. A summary of propagation impairments on 10-100 GHz satellite links, with techniques for system design. [tropospheric scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, R.; Wallace, R.; Kinal, G.

    1980-01-01

    This handbook provides satellite system engineers with a concise summary of the major propagation effects experienced on Earth-space paths in the 10 to 100 GHz frequency range. The dominant effect, attenuation due to rain, is dealt with in terms of both experimental data from measurements made in the U.S. and Canada, and the mathematical and conceptual models devised to explain the data. Rain systems, rain and attenuation models, depolarization and experimental data are described. The design techniques recommended for predicting propagation effects in Earth-space communications systems are presented. The questions of where in the system design process the effects of propagation should be considered, and what precautions should be taken when applying the propagation results are addressed in order to bridge the gap between the propagation research data and the classical link budget analysis of Earth-space communications system.

  6. Automatic vehicle monitoring systems study. Report of phase O. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A set of planning guidelines is presented to help law enforcement agencies and vehicle fleet operators decide which automatic vehicle monitoring (AVM) system could best meet their performance requirements. Improvements in emergency response times and resultant cost benefits obtainable with various operational and planned AVM systems may be synthesized and simulated by means of special computer programs for model city parameters applicable to small, medium, and large urban areas. Design characteristics of various AVM systems and the implementation requirements are illustrated and cost estimated for the vehicles, the fixed sites, and the base equipments. Vehicle location accuracies for different RF links and polling intervals are analyzed.

  7. Satellite power systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    System definition studies resulted in a further definition of the reference system using gallium arsenide solar arrays, analysis of alternative subsystem options for the reference concept, preliminary solid state microwave concept studies, and an environmental analysis of laser transmission systems. The special emphasis studies concentrated on satellite construction, satellite construction base definition, satellite construction base construction, and rectenna construction. Major emphasis in the transportation studies was put on definition of a two stage parallel burn, vertical takeoff/horizontal landing concept. The electric orbit transfer vehicle was defined in greater detail. Program definition included cost analyses and schedule definition.

  8. Systems-level study of a nonsurvivable Jupiter turbopause probe. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiltshire, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    The design of a space probe to explore the atmosphere of the planet Jupiter is discussed. Five major areas were considered: (1) definition of science requirements, (2) mission evaluation, (3) definition of probe system, (4) definition of spacecraft support requirements, and (5) nonequilibrium flow field analysis for communications blackout evaluation. The overall mission and system design are emphasized. The integration of the various technologies into complete systems designs is described. Results showed that a nonsurvivable turbopause probe mission to Jupiter with adequate data return to meet the science objectives is feasible and practical.

  9. Autonomous Integrated Receive System (AIRS) requirements definition. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chie, C. M.; Lindsey, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    Distributed processing in the design and operation of the augmented TDRSS and the succeeding TDAS in the 1990's is discussed with the emphasis on the development of the autonomous integrated receive system (AIRS) for the operation of the S-band single access (SSA) return link in the White Sands ground terminal. This receive system has the capability of self configuration, real-time operation, and self diagnostic. The tasks of Doppler correction, demodulation, detection, and decoding are performed in an integrated manner where useful information are shared and used by ALL portions of AIRS performing these tasks. Operating modes, maintenance, system architecture, and performance characteristics are described.

  10. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume I. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long-term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System program is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumption, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. A summary of results of Phase I is given in this volume. (WHK)

  11. Space station automation study. Volume 1: Executive summary. Autonomous systems and assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the Space Station Automation Study (SSAS) was to develop informed technical guidance for NASA personnel in the use of autonomy and autonomous systems to implement space station functions.

  12. Industry/government seminar on Large Space systems technology: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scala, S. M.

    1978-01-01

    The critical technology developments which the participating experts recommend as being required to support the early generation large space systems envisioned as space missions during the years 1985-2000 are summarized.

  13. A summary of the ECAS performance and cost results for MHD system. [Energy Conversion Alternatives Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seikel, G. R.; Sovie, R. J.; Burns, R. K.; Barna, G. J.; Burkhart, J. A.; Nainiger, J. J.; Smith, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The interagency-funded, NASA-coordinated Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) has studied the potential of various advanced power plant concepts using coal and coal-derived fuel. Principle studies were conducted through prime contracts with the General Electric Company and the Westinghouse Electric Corporation. The results indicate that open-cycle coal-fired direct-preheat MHD systems have potentially one of the highest coal-pile-to-bus-bar efficiencies and also one of the lowest costs of electricity (COE) of the systems studied. Closed-cycle MHD systems may have the potential to approach the efficiency and COE of open-cycle MHD. The 1200-1500 F liquid-metal MHD systems studied do not appear to have the potential of exceeding the efficiency or competing with the COE of advanced steam plants.

  14. Teleoperator Maneuvering System (TMS) benefits assessment study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Teleoperator Maneuvering System (TMS) versus integral spacecraft propulsion, spacecraft maintenance, cost benefits, launch prices, integral propulsion length penalties, remote maintenance versus EVA, potential weight reduction benefits, basing mode, mission models and payload requirements, and program profitability are discussed.

  15. Solar thermal power systems point-focusing thermal and electric applications projects. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marriott, A.

    1980-01-01

    The activities of the Point-Focusing Thermal and Electric Applications (PETEA) project for the fiscal year 1979 are summarized. The main thrust of the PFTEA Project, the small community solar thermal power experiment, was completed. Concept definition studies included a small central receiver approach, a point-focusing distributed receiver system with central power generation, and a point-focusing distributed receiver concept with distributed power generation. The first experiment in the Isolated Application Series was initiated. Planning for the third engineering experiment series, which addresses the industrial market sector, was also initiated. In addition to the experiment-related activities, several contracts to industry were let and studies were conducted to explore the market potential for point-focusing distributed receiver (PFDR) systems. System analysis studies were completed that looked at PFDR technology relative to other small power system technology candidates for the utility market sector.

  16. Developing Secure Power Systems Professional Competence: Alignment and Gaps in Workforce Development Programs—Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, Lori Ross; Assante, Michael; Tobey, D. H.; Conway, T. J.; Vanderhorst, Jr, T. J.; Januszewski, III, J.; Leo, R.; Perman, K.

    2013-07-01

    This document is a summarization of the report, Developing Secure Power Systems Professional Competence: Alignment and Gaps in Workforce Development Programs, the final report for phase 2 of the SPSP (DOE workforce study) project.

  17. Technology Demonstration Summary: Terra Vac In Situ Vacuum Extraction System, Groveland, Massachusetts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Terra Vac Inc's vacuum extraction system was demonstrated at the Valley Manufactured Products Company, Inc., site in Groveland, Massachusetts. The property is part of the Groveland Wells Superfund site and is contaminated mainly by trichloroethylene (TCE). Vacuum extraction...

  18. Pilot Project to Optimize Superfund-financed Pump and Treat Systems: Summary Report and Lessons Learned

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report summarizes Phase II (site optimization) of the Nationwide Fund-lead Pump and Treat Optimization Project. This phase included conducting Remediation System Evaluations (RSEs) at each of the 20 sites selected in Phase I.

  19. Concepts for 18/30 GHz satellite communication system study. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, M.; Davies, R.; Cuccia, L.; Mitchell, C.

    1979-01-01

    An examination of a multiplicity of interconnected parameters ranging from specific technology details to total system economic costs for satellite communication systems at the 18/30 GHz transmission bands are presented. It was determined that K sub A band systems can incur a small communications outage during very heavy rainfall periods and that reducing the outage to zero would lead to prohibitive system costs. On the other hand, the economics of scale, ie, one spacecraft accommodating 2.5 GHz of bandwidth coupled with multiple beam frequency reuse, leads to very low costs for those users who can tolerate the 5 to 50 hours per year of downtime. A multiple frequency band satellite network can provide the ultimate optimized match to the consumer performance/economics demands.

  20. Summary of Research on Reliability Criteria-Based Flight System Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, N. Eva; Belcastro, Christine (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents research on the reliability assessment of adaptive flight control systems. The topics include: 1) Overview of Project Focuses; 2) Reliability Analysis; and 3) Design for Reliability. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  1. Space-Based Solar Power Conversion and Delivery Systems Study. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The research concerning space-based solar power conversion and delivery systems is summarized. The potential concepts for a photovoltaic satellite solar power system was studied with emphasis on ground output power levels of 5,000 MW and 10,000 MW. A power relay satellite, and certain aspects of the economics of these systems were also studied. A second study phase examined in greater depth the technical and economic aspects of satellite solar power systems. Throughout this study, the focus was on the economics of satellite solar power. The results indicate technical feasibility of the concept, and provide a preliminary economic justification for the first phase of a substantial development program. A development program containing test satellites is recommended. Also, development of alternative solar cell materials (other than silicon) is recommended.

  2. Extended performance solar electric propulsion thrust system study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.; Hawthorne, E. I.

    1977-01-01

    Several thrust system design concepts were evaluated and compared using the specifications of the most advanced 30 cm engineering model thruster as the technology base. The extensions in thruster performance required for the Halley's comet mission were defined and alternative thrust system concepts were designed. Confirmation testing and analysis of thruster and power-processing components were performed, and the feasibility of satisfying extended performance requirements was verified. A baseline design was selected from the alternatives considered, and the design analysis and documentation were refined. A program development plan was formulated that outlines the work structure considered necessary for developing, qualifying, and fabricating the flight hardware for the baseline thrust system within the time frame of a project to rendezvous with Halley's comet. An assessment was made of the costs and risks associated with a baseline thrust system as provided to the mission project under this plan. Critical procurements and interfaces were identified and defined. Results are presented.

  3. Automated water monitor system field demonstration test report. Volume 2: Technical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. L.; Jeffers, E. L.; Perreira, J.; Poel, J. D.; Nibley, D.; Nuss, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The NASA Automatic Water Monitor System was installed in a water reclamation facility to evaluate the technical and cost feasibility of producing high quality reclaimed water. Data gathered during this field demonstration test are reported.

  4. The UARS and open data system concept and analysis study. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittal, M.; Nebb, J.; Woodward, H.

    1983-01-01

    Alternative concepts for a common design for the UARS and OPEN Central Data Handling Facility (CDHF) are offered. The designs are consistent with requirements shared by UARS and OPEN and the data storage and data processing demands of these missions. Because more detailed information is available for UARS, the design approach was to size the system and to select components for a UARS CDHF, but in a manner that does not optimize the CDHF at the expense of OPEN. Costs for alternative implementations of the UARS designs are presented showing that the system design does not restrict the implementation to a single manufacturer. Processing demands on the alternative UARS CDHF implementations are discussed. With this information at hand together with estimates for OPEN processing demands, it is shown that any shortfall in system capability for OPEN support can be remedied by either component upgrades or array processing attachments rather than a system redesign.

  5. United States industrial electric motor systems market opportunities assessment: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1998-12-01

    The Market Assessment is designed to be of value to manufacturers, distributors, engineers, and others in the supply channels for motor systems. It provides a detailed and highly differentiated portrait of their end-use markets.

  6. Summary Report of the INL-JISEA Workshop on Nuclear Hybrud Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Antkowiak; Richard Boardman; Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Robert Cherry; Mark Ruth

    2012-07-01

    Hybrid energy systems utilize two or more energy resources as inputs to two or more physically coupled subsystems to produce one or more energy commodities as outputs. Nuclear hybrid energy systems can be used to provide load-following electrical power to match diurnal to seasonal-scale changes in power demand or to compensate for the variability of renewable wind or solar generation. To maintain economical, full rate operation of the nuclear reactor, its thermal energy available when power demand is low could be diverted into making synthetic vehicle fuels of various types. The Institute for Nuclear Energy Science and Technology (INEST) and the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) co-sponsored an international workshop to identify research topics important in advancing the potential use of hybrid systems with a specific focus on nuclear-renewable hybrid systems. The workshop included presentations ranging from energy challenges and research and development (R&D) directions being pursued by nations to multiple options for hybrid systems. Those options include one that is being commercialized to other opportunities and analysis results quantifying them. The workshop also involved two breakout sessions - one focused on thermal energy management issues especially at unit-operation scale and the second focused on system operations issues including system controls, regulatory issues, technical and economic analysis, and market challenges. A discussion involving the full group focused on more general issues such as societal involvement and participation. Key criteria for selecting hybrid energy system projects and metrics for comparing them were also identified by the full group. The workshop's findings are being used initially by INEST to define topics for a research preproposal solicitation.

  7. Utility of space transportation system to space communication community: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bronstein, L. M.

    1975-01-01

    The space transportation system (STS) offers the opportunity for maintaining, and perhaps accelerating, growth of the space communication community. This new launch vehicle service, however, must be obtained at a cost lower than the current expandable launch vehicles cost. A cost competitive STS is defined for geostationary payloads. It is concluded that the STS will be useful to the space communication community, as well as to other geostationary satellite system users, if the proposed recommendations are adapted.

  8. Development of deployable structures for large space platform systems. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, R. L.; Nelson, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Candidate deployable linear platform system concepts suitable for development to technology readiness by 1986 are reviewed. The systems concepts were based on trades of alternate deployable/retractable structure concepts, integration of utilities, and interface approaches for docking and assembly of payloads and subsystems. The deployable volume studies involved generation of concepts for deployable volumes which could be used as unpressurized or pressurized hangars, habitats and interconnecting tunnels. Concept generation emphasized using flexible materials and deployable truss structure technology.

  9. Summary of gas bearing applications in the field of space electric power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, J. H.; Ream, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    The testing and evaluation of different bearing systems to be used in the turbine-alternator-compressor of a closed Brayton cycle electric power system are described. A specification of each bearing is presented along with the results of the evaluation and a comparison of the merits and limitations of each bearing. The contribution of improved bearings to the power supply reliability, potential life, and ability to accept shock and vibration is examined.

  10. Development of a toxin knowledge system. Annual summary report, 6 April 1987-5 April 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Trammel, H.L.

    1988-05-15

    The Toxin Knowledge System (TKS) is being developed to provide rapidly accessible, up-to-date knowledge about low molecular weight toxins. This system will integrate facts from published literature into monographs on individual toxins. Development utilizes a relational data-base management system and associated fourth-generation programming language on minicomputer. It uses a standard knowledge structure, structured abstracting processes, standard nomenclature systems, and computer-generated structured monographs. This system exploits the structured style of scientific writing to collect information on low-molecular-weight toxins and store this information in structured form. The application guides the abstractor in this collection process, facilitating the extraction of similar information from different papers. A sophisticated user interface allows the user to readily add, find, delete, and update data in the system. Currently, TKS manages citation data for both journals and books, has keyword access to entered citations, and can collect information on a paper including the study designs, the subjects and exposure regimens used, and the links to connect this data to the clinical findings reported.

  11. Challenges to modeling the Sun-Earth System: A Workshop Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F.

    2006-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of' Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics is a compilation of 23 papers presented at The 2004 Huntsville Modeling Workshop: Challenges to Modeling thc San-Earth System held in Huntsville, AB on October 18-22, 2004. The title of the workshop appropriately captures the theme of what was presented and discussed by the 120 participants. Currently, end-to-end modeling of the Sun-Earth system is a major goal of the National Space Weather and NASA living with a star (LWS) programs. While profound advances have been made in modeling isolated regions of the Sun-Earth system, minimal progress has been achieved in modeling the end-to-end system. The transfer of mass, energy and momentum through the coupled Sun-Earth system spans a wide range of scales inn time and space. The uncertainty in the underlying physics responsible for coupling contiguous regions of the Sun-Earth system is recognized as a significant barrier to progress

  12. Summary Report of the INL-JISEA Workshop on Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Antkowiak, M.; Ruth, M.; Boardman, R.; Bragg-Sitton, S.; Cherry, R.; Shunn, L.

    2012-07-01

    The Institute for Nuclear Energy Science and Technology (INEST) and the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) co-sponsored an international workshop to identify research topics important in advancing the potential use of hybrid systems with a specific focus on nuclear-renewable hybrid systems. The workshop included presentations ranging from energy challenges and research and development directions being pursued by nations to multiple options for hybrid systems. Those options include one that is being commercialized to other opportunities and analysis results quantifying them. The workshop also involved two breakout sessions--one focused on thermal energy management issues especially at unit-operation scale and the second focused on system operations issues including system controls, regulatory issues, technical and economic analysis, and market challenges. A discussion involving the full group focused on more general issues such as societal involvement and participation. Key criteria for selecting hybrid energy system projects and metrics for comparing them were also identified by the full group.

  13. Development of a toxin knowledge system. Final summary report 6 April 1987-1 December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Trammel, H.L.

    1990-11-12

    The development of a Toxin Knowledge System (TKS) was begun in an attempt to meet the needs for readily accessible toxin knowledge. This system was designed to extract facts from published literature using structured abstracting techniques, store these facts in a standard knowledge structure, control the terminology entered through the use of a standard nomenclature system, and subsequently generate standard monographs on individual toxins. The system uses a relational database management system and associated programming language on a microcomputer. Standard nomenclature systems were created for clinical findings, journal abbreviations, study terminology, and book information. The development of a chemical vocabulary was unsuccessful. The current TKS version is of primary value with papers describing in vivo toxicology studies. The TKS application facilitates the extraction of needed information from both journals and books through a sophisticated user interface. The user enters citation data and is then prompted for information about each study design (up to 99 per paper), each subject group (up to 99 per design) and exposure regimen (up to 99 per design) within each design, and how these factors interact to produce clinical effects.

  14. Carboniferous-Rotliegend total petroleum system; description and assessment results summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.

    2003-01-01

    The Anglo-Dutch Basin and the Northwest German Basin are two of the 76 priority basins assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey World Energy Project. The basins were assessed together because most of the resources occur within a single petroleum system (the Carboniferous-Rotliegend Total Petroleum System) that transcends the combined Anglo-Dutch Basin and Northwest German Basin boundary. The juxtaposition of thermally mature coals and carbonaceous shales of the Carboniferous Coal Measures (source rock), sandstones of the Rotliegend sedimentary systems (reservoir rock), and the Zechstein evaporites (seal) define the total petroleum system (TPS). Three assessment units were defined, based upon technological and geographic (rather than geological) criteria, that subdivide the Carboniferous-Rotliegend Total Petroleum System. These assessment units are (1) the Southern Permian Basin-Offshore Europe Assessment Unit, (2) the Southern Permian Basin Onshore Europe Assessment Unit, and (3) the Southern Permian Basin Onshore United Kingdom Assessment Unit. Although the Carboniferous-Rotliegend Total Petroleum System is one of the most intensely explored volumes of rock in the world, potential remains for undiscovered resources. Undiscovered conventional resources associated with the TPS range from 22 to 184 million barrels of oil, and from 3.6 to 14.9 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. Of these amounts, approximately 62 million barrels of oil and 13 trillion cubic feet of gas are expected in offshore areas, and 26 million barrels of oil and 1.9 trillion cubic feet of gas are predicted in onshore areas.

  15. Challenges to modeling the Sun-Earth System: A Workshop Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F.

    2006-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of' Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics is a compilation of 23 papers presented at The 2004 Huntsville Modeling Workshop: Challenges to Modeling thc San-Earth System held in Huntsville, AB on October 18-22, 2004. The title of the workshop appropriately captures the theme of what was presented and discussed by the 120 participants. Currently, end-to-end modeling of the Sun-Earth system is a major goal of the National Space Weather and NASA living with a star (LWS) programs. While profound advances have been made in modeling isolated regions of the Sun-Earth system, minimal progress has been achieved in modeling the end-to-end system. The transfer of mass, energy and momentum through the coupled Sun-Earth system spans a wide range of scales inn time and space. The uncertainty in the underlying physics responsible for coupling contiguous regions of the Sun-Earth system is recognized as a significant barrier to progress

  16. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) optical systems SIG summary and database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohnhoff-Hlavacek, Gail

    1992-01-01

    The main objectives of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Optical Systems Special Investigative Group (SIG) Discipline are to develop a database of experimental findings on LDEF optical systems and elements hardware, and provide an optical system overview. Unlike the electrical and mechanical disciplines, the optics effort relies primarily on the testing of hardware at the various principal investigator's laboratories, since minimal testing of optical hardware was done at Boeing. This is because all space-exposed optics hardware are part of other individual experiments. At this time, all optical systems and elements testing by experiment investigator teams is not complete, and in some cases has hardly begun. Most experiment results to date, document observations and measurements that 'show what happened'. Still to come from many principal investigators is a critical analysis to explain 'why it happened' and future design implications. The original optical system related concerns and the lessons learned at a preliminary stage in the Optical Systems Investigations are summarized. The design of the Optical Experiments Database and how to acquire and use the database to review the LDEF results are described.

  17. AB-180 circulatory support system: summary of development and phase I clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Griffin, W P; Savage, E B; Clark, R E; Pacella, J J; Johnson, G A; Magovern, J A; Magovern, G J

    1998-01-01

    The AB-180 Circulatory Support System (AB-180 CSS; Cardiac Assist Technologies, Pittsburgh, PA) is a left ventricular assist system for investigational use in patients with postcardiotomy cardiogenic shock who are refractory to standard treatment with an intra-aortic balloon pump, pharmacologic treatment, or both. The intent of the AB-180 CSS is to provide temporary (up to 14 days) mechanical circulatory support until the heart recovers adequate mechanical function. The system consists of a small implantable centrifugal pump and a controller. A unique infusion system produces a hydrodynamic bearing between rotational and stationary components of the AB-180 CSS pump. This infusion system also provides a source of heparin for localized anticoagulation. Extensive bench and animal work has illustrated anticoagulation requirements, established operating guidelines, and demonstrated safety and efficacy. An investigational device exemption has been granted for a Phase I, five patient feasibility study at Allegheny General Hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. To date, the pump has been implanted in one patient. The results from this first case are presented here.

  18. Astrometric Telescope Facility preliminary systems definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobeck, Charlie

    1987-01-01

    The Astrometric Telescope Facility (ATF) is a spaceborne observatory proposed for use on the Space Station (SS) as an Initial Operating Capability (IOC) payload. The primary objective of the ATF will be the search for extrasolar planetary systems and a detailed investigation of any discovered systems. In addition, it will have the capability of conducting other astrophysics investigations; e.g., measuring precise distances and motions of stars within our galaxy. The purposes of the study were to: (1) define mission and system requirements; (2) define a strawman system concept for the facility at the Prephase A level; (3) define the need for additional trade studies or technology development; and (4) estimate program cost for the strawman concept. It has been assumed for the study that the ATF will be a SS payload, will use a SS-provided Coarse Pointing System (CPS), will meet SS constraints, and will make maximum use of existing flight qualified designs or designs to be qualified by the SS program for general SS use.

  19. Verification analysis of the toroidal accelerator rotor platform wind energy conversion system. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, R.E.

    1988-09-01

    Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have studied a unique wind energy system, the Toroidal Accelerator Rotor Platform (TARP). The TARP system places the rotors in pairs on either side of a torus-shaped platform, so that the wind is forced to flow into the rotors. As the wind is forced around the form, it picks up velocity and turns the rotors faster, generating more power. By concentrating the wind's power, the TARP system can be constructed in modules using 10-foot-diameter rotor blades. Mounted on a track suspension system, the rotors are able to yaw with the wind to take advantage of breezes from any direction. In this project, the basic TARP design was tested and modified in a wind tunnel. The system was then analyzed for its integration into a farm silo and as a multi-stacked wind power needle. It was determined that the TARP technology would be feasible for applications involving sites with high wind velocities, including some sites in New York State.

  20. Comprehensively Advance Reform of the Urban Housing System Opinion. [Summary 1991].

    PubMed

    1992-02-27

    On 31 December 1991, the Chinese State Council Housing System Reform Leading Group announced this Opinion, setting out targets, principles, and policies for the reform of the system of provisional housing in urban areas. Section 1 of the Opinion provides that the long-term goal of reform is to convert the distribution of housing from a system based on welfare allocation to one based on commodity exchange either by purchase or rental. Section 2 sets the following targets for reform: a) within the period of the Eighth Five-Year Plan, the system will be converted from one of low rent to one in which the calculation of rent will be based on cost of upkeep, administration costs, and depreciation; b) by 2000, the calculation of rent will be based on the above factors, as well as interest on investment and property taxes; and c) in the long term, the calculation of rent will be based on all of the above factors, as well as land rent, insurance premiums, and profit. Section 4 deals with policies for managing various problems such as rent increases and subsidies, sales of housing, financing for housing, the system of investment in and construction of housing, and administration of housing. This Section provides that a three-level housing investment fund based on municipalities, work units, and individuals will be established.