Science.gov

Sample records for environment design requirements

  1. Space Vehicle Terrestrial Environment Design Requirements Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Keller, Vernon W.; Vaughan, William W.

    2006-01-01

    The terrestrial environment is an important driver of space vehicle structural, control, and thermal system design. NASA is currently in the process of producing an update to an earlier Terrestrial Environment Guidelines for Aerospace Vehicle Design and Development Handbook. This paper addresses the contents of this updated handbook, with special emphasis on new material being included in the areas of atmospheric thermodynamic models, wind dynamics, atmospheric composition, atmospheric electricity, cloud phenomena, atmospheric extremes, and sea state. In addition, the respective engineering design elements are discussed relative to terrestrial environment inputs that require consideration. Specific lessons learned that have contributed to the advancements made in the application and awareness of terrestrial environment inputs for aerospace engineering applications are presented.

  2. Natural environment design requirements for the space tug

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, G. S., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The natural environment design requirements for the space tug are presented. Since the Space Tug is carried as cargo to orbital altitudes in the space shuttle bay, orbital environmental impacts and short-period atmospheric density variations are the main concerns. The subjects discussed are: (1) natural environment, (2) neutral environment, (3) charged particles, (4) radiation, and (5) meteoroid hazards.

  3. The Design and Requirements Evolution of a Speech Recognition Technology for Tactical Applications and Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    of our speech recognition technology that while overall sound level adversely affected recognition performance, the effect was not linear with...THE DESIGN AND REQUIREMENTS EVOLUTION OF A SPEECH RECOGNITON TECHNOLOGY FOR TACTICAL APPLICATIONS AND ENVIRONMENTS Mr. Lockwood Reed US Army... speech recognizer. It also presents the tactical advantages of militarized speech recognition technology, as it could be applied in several

  4. A New Handbook for the Development of Space Vehicle Terrestrial Environment Design Requirements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Vaughan, William W.

    2008-01-01

    A new NASA document entitled "Terrestrial Environment (Climatic) Criteria Handbook for Use in Aerospace Vehicle Development (NASA-HDBK-1001A) has been developed. The Handbook provides terrestrial environment information, data bases, models, recommendations, etc. for use in the design, development, trade studies, testing, and mission analyses for space (or launch) .vehicles. This document is organized into fourteen specific natural environment disciplines of which some are winds, atmospheric models, thermal radiation, precipitation-for-icing, cloud cover, atmospheric electricity, geologic hazards, toxic chemical release by propulsion systems, and sea state. Atmospheric phenomena play a significant role in the design and flight of aerospace vehicles and in the integrity of the associated aerospace systems and structures. Environmental design criteria guidelines in this document are based on measurements and observations of atmospheric and climatic phenomena relative to various aerospace development, operational, and vehicle launch locations. The natural environment criteria guidelines data presented in this Handbook were formulated based on discussions with and requests from engineers involved in aerospace vehicle development and operations. Therefore, they represent responses to actual engineering problems and are not just a general compilation of environmental data. The Handbook addresses the basis for the information presented, the interpretations of the terrestrial environment guideline given in the Handbook, and its application to the development of aerospace vehicle design requirements. Specific examples of the Handbook content and associated "lessons lenmed" are given in this paper.

  5. A New Handbook for the Development of Space Vehicle Terrestrial Environment Design Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Vaughan, William W.

    2008-01-01

    A new NASA document entitled "Terrestrial Environment (Climatic) Criteria Handbook for Use in Aerospace Vehicle Development (NASA-HDBK-IOO1A) has been developed. The Handbook provides terrestrial environment information, data bases, models, recommendations, etc. for use in the design, development, trade studies, testing, and mission analyses for space (or launch) vehicles. This document is organized into fourteen specific natural environment disciplines of which some are winds, atmospheric models, thermal radiation, precipitation-for-icing, cloud cover, atmospheric electricity, geologic hazards, toxic chemical release by propulsion systems, and sea state. Atmospheric phenomena play a significant role in the design and flight of aerospace vehicles and in the integrity of the associated aerospace systems and structures. Environmental design criteria guidelines in this document are based on measurements and observations of atmospheric and climatic phenomena relative to various aerospace development, operational, and vehicle launch locations. The natural environment criteria guidelines data presented in this Handbook were formulated based on discussions with and requests from engineers involved in aerospace vehicle development and operations. Therefore, they represent responses to actual engineering problems and are not just a general compilation of environmental data. The Handbook addresses the basis for the information presented, the interpretations of the terrestrial environment guideline given in the Handbook, and its application to the development of aerospace vehicle design requirements. Specific examples of the Handbook content and associated "lessons lenmed" are given in this paper.

  6. Using Activity Theory to Understand Learning Design Requirements of Patient Self-Management Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Scott P.; Reyes, Lisette; Kim, Hannah; Collins, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Learning designs aimed at supporting transformational change could significantly benefit from the adoption of socio-historical and socio-cultural analysis approaches. Such systemic perspectives are gaining more importance in education as they facilitate understanding of complex interactions between learning environments and human activity. The…

  7. Using Activity Theory to Understand Learning Design Requirements of Patient Self-Management Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Scott P.; Reyes, Lisette; Kim, Hannah; Collins, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Learning designs aimed at supporting transformational change could significantly benefit from the adoption of socio-historical and socio-cultural analysis approaches. Such systemic perspectives are gaining more importance in education as they facilitate understanding of complex interactions between learning environments and human activity. The…

  8. Space Station Furnace Facility. Volume 2: Requirements definition and conceptual design study. Appendix 3: Environment analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A Preliminary Safety Analysis (PSA) is being accomplished as part of the Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) contract. This analysis is intended to support SSFF activities by analyzing concepts and designs as they mature to develop essential safety requirements for inclusion in the appropriate specifications, and designs, as early as possible. In addition, the analysis identifies significant safety concerns that may warrant specific trade studies or design definition, etc. The analysis activity to date concentrated on hazard and hazard cause identification and requirements development with the goal of developing a baseline set of detailed requirements to support trade study, specifications development, and preliminary design activities. The analysis activity will continue as the design and concepts mature. Section 2 defines what was analyzed, but it is likely that the SSFF definitions will undergo further changes. The safety analysis activity will reflect these changes as they occur. The analysis provides the foundation for later safety activities. The hazards identified will in most cases have Preliminary Design Review (PDR) applicability. The requirements and recommendations developed for each hazard will be tracked to ensure proper and early resolution of safety concerns.

  9. The physical work environment and end-user requirements: Investigating marine engineering officers' operational demands and ship design.

    PubMed

    Mallam, Steven C; Lundh, Monica

    2016-08-12

    Physical environments influence how individuals perceive a space and behave within it. Previous research has revealed deficiencies in ship engine department work environments, and their impact on crew productivity, health and wellbeing. Connect operational task demands to pragmatic physical design and layout solutions by implementing a user-centric perspective. Three focus groups, each consisting of three marine engineers participated in this study. Focus groups were divided into two sessions: first, to investigate the end-user's operational requirements and their relationship with ship physical design and layout. Second, criteria formulated from group discussions were applied to a ship design case study. All focus group sessions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were analyzed using Grounded Theory. Design choices made in a ships general arrangement were described to inherently influence how individuals and teams are able to function within the system. Participants detailed logistical relationships between key areas, stressing that the work environment and physical linkages must allow for flexibility of work organization and task execution. Traditional engine control paradigms do not allow effective mitigation of traditional engine department challenges. The influence of technology and modernization of ship systems can facilitate improvement of physical environments and work organization if effectively utilized.

  10. Rotorcraft Conceptual Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Sinsay, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Requirements for a rotorcraft conceptual design environment are discussed, from the perspective of a government laboratory. Rotorcraft design work in a government laboratory must support research, by producing technology impact assessments and defining the context for research and development; and must support the acquisition process, including capability assessments and quantitative evaluation of designs, concepts, and alternatives. An information manager that will enable increased fidelity of analysis early in the design effort is described. This manager will be a framework to organize information that describes the aircraft, and enable movement of that information to and from analyses. Finally, a recently developed rotorcraft system analysis tool is described.

  11. Rotorcraft Conceptual Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Sinsay, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Requirements for a rotorcraft conceptual design environment are discussed, from the perspective of a government laboratory. Rotorcraft design work in a government laboratory must support research, by producing technology impact assessments and defining the context for research and development; and must support the acquisition process, including capability assessments and quantitative evaluation of designs, concepts, and alternatives. An information manager that will enable increased fidelity of analysis early in the design effort is described. This manager will be a framework to organize information that describes the aircraft, and enable movement of that information to and from analyses. Finally, a recently developed rotorcraft system analysis tool is described.

  12. Modeling in the quality by design environment: Regulatory requirements and recommendations for design space and control strategy appointment.

    PubMed

    Djuris, Jelena; Djuric, Zorica

    2017-06-01

    Mathematical models can be used as an integral part of the quality by design (QbD) concept throughout the product lifecycle for variety of purposes, including appointment of the design space and control strategy, continual improvement and risk assessment. Examples of different mathematical modeling techniques (mechanistic, empirical and hybrid) in the pharmaceutical development and process monitoring or control are provided in the presented review. In the QbD context, mathematical models are predominantly used to support design space and/or control strategies. Considering their impact to the final product quality, models can be divided into the following categories: high, medium and low impact models. Although there are regulatory guidelines on the topic of modeling applications, review of QbD-based submission containing modeling elements revealed concerns regarding the scale-dependency of design spaces and verification of models predictions at commercial scale of manufacturing, especially regarding real-time release (RTR) models. Authors provide critical overview on the good modeling practices and introduce concepts of multiple-unit, adaptive and dynamic design space, multivariate specifications and methods for process uncertainty analysis. RTR specification with mathematical model and different approaches to multivariate statistical process control supporting process analytical technologies are also presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Visualization Design Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Pomplun, A.R.; Templet, G.J.; Jortner, J.N.; Friesen, J.A.; Schwegel, J.; Hughes, K.R.

    1999-02-01

    Improvements in the performance and capabilities of computer software and hardware system, combined with advances in Internet technologies, have spurred innovative developments in the area of modeling, simulation and visualization. These developments combine to make it possible to create an environment where engineers can design, prototype, analyze, and visualize components in virtual space, saving the time and expenses incurred during numerous design and prototyping iterations. The Visualization Design Centers located at Sandia National Laboratories are facilities built specifically to promote the ''design by team'' concept. This report focuses on designing, developing and deploying this environment by detailing the design of the facility, software infrastructure and hardware systems that comprise this new visualization design environment and describes case studies that document successful application of this environment.

  14. GLobal Integrated Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunkel, Matthew; McGuire, Melissa; Smith, David A.; Gefert, Leon P.

    2011-01-01

    The GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE) is a collaborative engineering application built to resolve the design session issues of real-time passing of data between multiple discipline experts in a collaborative environment. Utilizing Web protocols and multiple programming languages, GLIDE allows engineers to use the applications to which they are accustomed in this case, Excel to send and receive datasets via the Internet to a database-driven Web server. Traditionally, a collaborative design session consists of one or more engineers representing each discipline meeting together in a single location. The discipline leads exchange parameters and iterate through their respective processes to converge on an acceptable dataset. In cases in which the engineers are unable to meet, their parameters are passed via e-mail, telephone, facsimile, or even postal mail. The result of this slow process of data exchange would elongate a design session to weeks or even months. While the iterative process remains in place, software can now exchange parameters securely and efficiently, while at the same time allowing for much more information about a design session to be made available. GLIDE is written in a compilation of several programming languages, including REALbasic, PHP, and Microsoft Visual Basic. GLIDE client installers are available to download for both Microsoft Windows and Macintosh systems. The GLIDE client software is compatible with Microsoft Excel 2000 or later on Windows systems, and with Microsoft Excel X or later on Macintosh systems. GLIDE follows the Client-Server paradigm, transferring encrypted and compressed data via standard Web protocols. Currently, the engineers use Excel as a front end to the GLIDE Client, as many of their custom tools run in Excel.

  15. Siphon breaker design requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Neill, D.T.; Stephens, A.G.

    1993-03-01

    The Siphon Breaker Design Requirements Project was intended to provide experimental data on siphon flow effects. In addition, the experimental system was to be modeled with the RELAP code and the predicted and measured performances compared. This report describes the design and operation of the siphon breaker experimental equipment from 1989 to 1991. In addition the test results for all the experimental runs made in 1990 and 1991 are presented and described. Unfortunately, we have not been able to obtain useful results from a RELAP 5 model of the siphon system; consequently, we are unable to present any predictive calculations for comparison with the data presented. We have had lots of expert advice from several sources on using the RELAP code but to date our efforts have remained unsuccessful. After an extra year of effort, admittedly part-time but a lot of that, we choose to abandon the modeling efforts and produce this report describing the experimental equipment and test results.

  16. 40 CFR 65.82 - Design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Design requirements. 65.82 Section 65...) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Transfer Racks § 65.82 Design requirements. (a) The owner or operator shall equip... shall be designed to collect the regulated material displaced from tank trucks or railcars during...

  17. 40 CFR 65.82 - Design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Design requirements. 65.82 Section 65...) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Transfer Racks § 65.82 Design requirements. (a) The owner or operator shall equip... shall be designed to collect the regulated material displaced from tank trucks or railcars during...

  18. 40 CFR 65.82 - Design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Design requirements. 65.82 Section 65...) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Transfer Racks § 65.82 Design requirements. (a) The owner or operator shall equip... shall be designed to collect the regulated material displaced from tank trucks or railcars during...

  19. 40 CFR 65.82 - Design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Design requirements. 65.82 Section 65...) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Transfer Racks § 65.82 Design requirements. (a) The owner or operator shall equip... shall be designed to collect the regulated material displaced from tank trucks or railcars...

  20. 40 CFR 65.82 - Design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Design requirements. 65.82 Section 65...) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Transfer Racks § 65.82 Design requirements. (a) The owner or operator shall equip... shall be designed to collect the regulated material displaced from tank trucks or railcars...

  1. Design, dimensioning, and performance of a research facility for studies on the requirements of fish in RAS environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) are increasingly being used for Atlantic salmon smolt production. However, knowledge of how the RAS environment affects welfare and performance of Atlantic salmon is limited. For instance, safe limits for chronic exposure to typical compounds in RAS, such as N...

  2. Specification for the Performance, Design, Development and Test Requirements for a Severe Environment Cartridge Recorder. Issue 4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    protruding components shall be recessed beneath the outline formed by extending all planar exterior surfaces to their intersection lines. The only...either machining it from solid blanks of aluminium alloy, or by casting it from aluminium alloy. The finished external surfaces shall be orthogonal. (b...design and construction of a prototype which forms the basis for this specification. The AEL Recorder contained most of the mechanical features described

  3. The Johnson Space Center Management Information Systems (JSCMIS). 1: Requirements Definition and Design Specifications for Versions 2.1 and 2.1.1. 2: Documented Test Scenario Environments. 3: Security Design and Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center Management Information System (JSCMIS) is an interface to computer data bases at NASA Johnson which allows an authorized user to browse and retrieve information from a variety of sources with minimum effort. This issue gives requirements definition and design specifications for versions 2.1 and 2.1.1, along with documented test scenario environments, and security object design and specifications.

  4. Advanced EVA system design requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Design requirements and criteria for the Space Station Advanced Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) including crew enclosures, portable life support systems, maneuvering propulsion systems, and related extravehicular activity (EVA) support equipment were defined and established. The EVA mission requirements, environments, and medical and physiological requirements, as well as opertional, procedures, and training issues were considered.

  5. Designing Productive Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knirk, Frederick G.

    Based on the premise that school facility design should actively encourage efficient and effective learning, this book explores key design decisions that have a crucial impact on the kind of student-teacher-media interactions which take place in all school rooms and open spaces. Topics addressed include learning space specifications; the…

  6. Integrated simulation environment for lighting design

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Vineeta; Papamichael, Konstantinos

    2001-05-24

    Lighting design involves the consideration of multiple performance criteria, from the earliest stages of conceptual design, through various stages of controls and operation in a project's life cycle. These criteria include: (1) the quantitative analysis of illuminance and luminance distribution due to daylighting and electric lighting; (2) qualitative analysis of the lighting design with photometrically accurate renderings of the designed environment; (3) analysis of energy implications of daylighting and electric lighting design and operation;, and (4) analysis of control strategies and sensor placement for maximizing energy savings from lighting control while providing visual comfort. In this paper we describe the development of an integrated decision-making environment that brings together several different tools, and provides the data management and process control required for a multi-criterion support of the design and operation of daylighting and electric lighting systems. The result is a powerful design and decision-making environment to meet the diverse and evolving needs of lighting designers and operators.

  7. Designing for the global environment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This document contains papers which were presented at the symposium entitled Designing for the Global Environment. Session topics included policy and the implementation of energy efficient technologies. Individual papers were processed separately for the Department of Energy databases.

  8. Requirements statement in product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slătineanu, L.; Dodun, O.; Coteaţă, M.; Coman, I.; Manole, V.; Gika, C. V.

    2016-11-01

    One of the activities corresponding to the product design and development refers to clarifying the requirements necessary to be fulfilled by the final product. There are distinct opinions concerning the ways in which these requirements could be formulated and applied. The paper presents the results of a succinct analysis aiming to highlight the developing of product requirements in the case of applying the value analysis method and the axiomatic design method, respectively. The way in which the requirements are formulated in the case of a patent application is also considered. Results of the study were applied in the cases of designing some mechanical products.

  9. Design Standards for Children's Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Linda Cain

    This three-part book addresses the design or maintenance of spaces where children are the primary users, covering both commercial and residential designs and products. Part 1 provides anthropometric data of children from birth to age 18; offers dimensions for typical objects within the child's built environment; synthesizes the Consumer Product…

  10. Designing the Knowledge Integration Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Marcia C.

    2000-01-01

    Explains Knowledge Integration Environment (KIE) activities which are designed to promote lifelong science learning. Describes the partnership process that guided the design as well as the Scaffolded Knowledge Integration (SKI) framework that gave the partnership a head start on creating effective materials. (Contains 52 references.) (Author/YDS)

  11. Designing Electronic Collaborative Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, Paul; Strijbos, Jan-Willem; Kreijns, Karel; Beers, Pieter Jelle

    2004-01-01

    Electronic collaborative learning environments for learning and working are in vogue. Designers design them according to their own constructivist interpretations of what collaborative learning is and what it should achieve. Educators employ them with different educational approaches and in diverse situations to achieve different ends. Students use…

  12. Natural Environments Definition for Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, H. L.; Altino, K. M.; Decker, R. K.; Koehler, H. M.; Leahy, F. B.; Minow, J. I.; Roberts, B. C.; Suggs, R. M.; Suggs, R. J.; White, P. W.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Planning for future National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) missions will encompass a variety of operational and engineering activities that involve a multitude of issues, constraints, and influences derived from the natural environment. This Technical Memorandum (TM) presents a definition of the natural environment, i.e., a description in engineering handbook format of models and data specifically selected to support the architecture development, engineering design, and technology development for NASA's Exploration Systems Development (ESD) initiatives.

  13. Evolution design requirements and design strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monell, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    Space Station Freedom (SSF) has undergone numerous design changes during the rephasing and restructuring activities occurring in 1989 and 1990/91, respectively. One direct result of these changes is that the Station has become more complex and compact which requires that future modifications to the Station be carefully planned and analyzed in conjunction with the baseline design process. This will ensure that the configuration has adequate design features and flexibility to accommodate the future capability and element upgrades. Six critical growth requirements (electrical power, thermal control, pressurized volume, structures, EVA equipment, and data management) have been identified and baselined in the Level I Program Requirements Document (PRD) and the Level II Program Definition and Requirements Document (PDRD). The approach to meeting the growth requirements will be to minimize the impact on the baseline design in the areas of weight, power, and development cost. The specifics of these requirements, with regard to scarring and implementation during the Follow-On and Evolution phases of SSF, are detailed in this paper.

  14. Virtual environments for nuclear power plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; King, R.W.

    1996-03-01

    In the design and operation of nuclear power plants, the visualization process inherent in virtual environments (VE) allows for abstract design concepts to be made concrete and simulated without using a physical mock-up. This helps reduce the time and effort required to design and understand the system, thus providing the design team with a less complicated arrangement. Also, the outcome of human interactions with the components and system can be minimized through various testing of scenarios in real-time without the threat of injury to the user or damage to the equipment. If implemented, this will lead to a minimal total design and construction effort for nuclear power plants (NPP).

  15. RNEDE: Resilient Network Design Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Venkat Venkatasubramanian, Tanu Malik, Arun Giridh; Craig Rieger; Keith Daum; Miles McQueen

    2010-08-01

    Modern living is more and more dependent on the intricate web of critical infrastructure systems. The failure or damage of such systems can cause huge disruptions. Traditional design of this web of critical infrastructure systems was based on the principles of functionality and reliability. However, it is increasingly being realized that such design objectives are not sufficient. Threats, disruptions and faults often compromise the network, taking away the benefits of an efficient and reliable design. Thus, traditional network design parameters must be combined with self-healing mechanisms to obtain a resilient design of the network. In this paper, we present RNEDEa resilient network design environment that that not only optimizes the network for performance but tolerates fluctuations in its structure that result from external threats and disruptions. The environment evaluates a set of remedial actions to bring a compromised network to an optimal level of functionality. The environment includes a visualizer that enables the network administrator to be aware of the current state of the network and the suggested remedial actions at all times.

  16. A synthetic design environment for ship design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipman, Richard R.

    1995-01-01

    Rapid advances in computer science and information system technology have made possible the creation of synthetic design environments (SDE) which use virtual prototypes to increase the efficiency and agility of the design process. This next generation of computer-based design tools will rely heavily on simulation and advanced visualization techniques to enable integrated product and process teams to concurrently conceptualize, design, and test a product and its fabrication processes. This paper summarizes a successful demonstration of the feasibility of using a simulation based design environment in the shipbuilding industry. As computer science and information science technologies have evolved, there have been many attempts to apply and integrate the new capabilities into systems for the improvement of the process of design. We see the benefits of those efforts in the abundance of highly reliable, technologically complex products and services in the modern marketplace. Furthermore, the computer-based technologies have been so cost effective that the improvements embodied in modern products have been accompanied by lowered costs. Today the state-of-the-art in computerized design has advanced so dramatically that the focus is no longer on merely improving design methodology; rather the goal is to revolutionize the entire process by which complex products are conceived, designed, fabricated, tested, deployed, operated, maintained, refurbished and eventually decommissioned. By concurrently addressing all life-cycle issues, the basic decision making process within an enterprise will be improved dramatically, leading to new levels of quality, innovation, efficiency, and customer responsiveness. By integrating functions and people with an enterprise, such systems will change the fundamental way American industries are organized, creating companies that are more competitive, creative, and productive.

  17. Requirements for Reactor Physics Design

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond,D.J.

    2008-04-11

    It has been recognized that there is a need for requirements and guidance for design and operation of nuclear power plants. This is becoming more important as more reactors are being proposed to be built. In parallel with activities in individual countries are norms established by international organizations. This paper discusses requirements/guidance for neutronic design and operation as promulgated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). As an example, details are given for one reactor physics parameter, namely, the moderator temperature reactivity coefficient. The requirements/guidance from the NRC are discussed in the context of those generated for the International Atomic Energy Agency. The requirements/guidance are not identical from the two sources although they are compatible.

  18. Requirements for Space Settlement Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, Anita E.; Edwards, Richard P.

    2004-02-01

    When large space settlements are finally built, inevitably the customers who pay for them will start the process by specifying requirements with a Request for Proposal (RFP). Although we are decades away from seeing the first of these documents, some of their contents can be anticipated now, and provide insight into the variety of elements that must be researched and developed before space settlements can happen. Space Settlement Design Competitions for High School students present design challenges in the form of RFPs, which predict basic requirements for space settlement attributes in the future, including structural features, infrastructure, living conveniences, computers, business areas, and safety. These requirements are generically summarized, and unique requirements are noted for specific space settlement locations and applications.

  19. Hypobaric decompression prebreathe requirements and breathing environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, James T.; Pilmanis, Andrew A.

    1993-01-01

    To reduce incidence of decompression sickness (DCS), prebreathing 100 percent oxygen to denitrogenate is required prior to hypobaric decompressions from a sea level pressure breathing environment to pressures lower than 350 mm Hg (20,000 ft; 6.8 psia). The tissue ratio (TR) of such exposures equals or exceeds 1.7; TR being the tissue nitrogen pressure prior to decompression divided by the total pressure after decompression (((0.781)(14.697))/6.758). Designing pressure suits capable of greater pressure differentials, lower TR's, and procedures which limit the potential for DCS occurrence would enhance operational efficiency. The current 10.2 psia stage decompression prior to extravehicular activity (EVA) from the Shuttle in the 100 percent oxygen, 4.3 psia suit, results in a TR of 1.65 and has proven to be relatively free of DCS. Our recent study of zero-prebreathe decompressions to 6.8 psia breathing 100 percent oxygen (TR = 1.66) also resulted in no DCS (N = 10). The level of severe, Spencer Grades 3 or 4, venous gas emboli (VGE) increased from 0 percent at 9.5 psia to 40 percent at 6.8 psia yielding a Probit curve of VGE risk for the 51 male subjects who participated in these recent studies. Earlier, analogous decompressions using a 50 percent oxygen, 50 percent nitrogen breathing mixture resulted in one case of DCS and significantly higher levels of severe VGE, e.g., at 7.8 psia, the mixed gas breathing environment resulted in a 56 percent incidence of severe VGE versus 10 percent with use of 100 percent oxygen. The report of this study recommended use of 100 percent oxygen during zero-prebreathe exposure to 6.8 psia if such a suit could be developed. For future, long-term missions, we suggest study of the effects of decompression over several days to a breathing environment of 150 mmHg O2 and approximately 52 mmHg He as a means of eliminating DCS and VGE hazards during subsequent excursions. Once physiologically adapted to a 4 psia vehicle, base, or space

  20. Design Synthesis in a Virtual Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    Conference Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, September 9-12, 2001 DETC2001/CIE21267 DESIGN SYNTHESIS IN A VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENT Douglas Maxwell** Louisiana Tech...University PO Box 10348 Ruston, LA 71272 Keywords: virtual reality, design synthesis , immersive environments, CAD...which design synthesis is accomplished in a stereoscopic or immersive environment is called the Design Synthesis Virtual Environment or DSVE

  1. 40 CFR 265.254 - Design and operating requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Design and operating requirements. 265.254 Section 265.254 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 265.254 Design and operating requirements. The owner or operator of each...

  2. Software support environment design knowledge capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollman, Tom

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this task is to assess the potential for using the software support environment (SSE) workstations and associated software for design knowledge capture (DKC) tasks. This assessment will include the identification of required capabilities for DKC and hardware/software modifications needed to support DKC. Several approaches to achieving this objective are discussed and interim results are provided: (1) research into the problem of knowledge engineering in a traditional computer-aided software engineering (CASE) environment, like the SSE; (2) research into the problem of applying SSE CASE tools to develop knowledge based systems; and (3) direct utilization of SSE workstations to support a DKC activity.

  3. Requirements and Designs for Mars Rover RTGs

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred; Shirbacheh, M; Sankarankandath, V

    2012-01-19

    The current-generation RTGs (both GPHS and MOD) are designed for operation in a vacuum environment. The multifoil thermal insulation used in those RTGs only functions well in a good vacuum. Current RTGs are designed to operate with an inert cover gas before launch, and to be vented to space vacuum after launch. Both RTGs are sealed with a large number of metallic C-rings. Those seals are adequate for retaining the inert-gas overpressure during short-term launch operations, but would not be adequate to prevent intrusion of the Martian atmospheric gases during long-term operations there. Therefore, for the Mars Rover application, those RTGs just be modified to prevent the buildup of significant pressures of Mars atmosphere or of helium (from alpha decay of the fuel). In addition, a Mars Rover RTG needs to withstand a long-term dynamic environment that is much more severe than that seen by an RTG on an orbiting spacecraft or on a stationary planetary lander. This paper describes a typical Rover mission, its requirements, the environment it imposes on the RTG, and a design approach for making the RTG operable in such an environment. Specific RTG designs for various thermoelectric element alternatives are presented.; Reference CID #9268 and CID #9276.

  4. Requirements Development for the NASA Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Eric; Hale, Joseph P.; Zook, Keith; Gowda, Sanjay; Salas, Andrea O.

    2003-01-01

    The requirements development process for the Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE) is presented. This environment has been developed to allow NASA to perform independent analysis and design of space transportation architectures and technologies. Given the highly collaborative and distributed nature of AEE, a variety of organizations are involved in the development, operations and management of the system. Furthermore, there are additional organizations involved representing external customers and stakeholders. Thorough coordination and effective communication is essential to translate desired expectations of the system into requirements. Functional, verifiable requirements for this (and indeed any) system are necessary to fulfill several roles. Requirements serve as a contractual tool, configuration management tool, and as an engineering tool, sometimes simultaneously. The role of requirements as an engineering tool is particularly important because a stable set of requirements for a system provides a common framework of system scope and characterization among team members. Furthermore, the requirements provide the basis for checking completion of system elements and form the basis for system verification. Requirements are at the core of systems engineering. The AEE Project has undertaken a thorough process to translate the desires and expectations of external customers and stakeholders into functional system-level requirements that are captured with sufficient rigor to allow development planning, resource allocation and system-level design, development, implementation and verification. These requirements are maintained in an integrated, relational database that provides traceability to governing Program requirements and also to verification methods and subsystem-level requirements.

  5. 40 CFR 265.301 - Design and operating requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Design and operating requirements. 265... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Landfills § 265.301 Design and operating requirements. (a) The owner or operator of... was constructed in compliance with the design standards of section 3004(o)(1)(A)(i) and (o)(5) of the...

  6. Interactive Environment Design in Smart City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, DeXiang; Chen, LanSha; Zhou, Xi

    2017-08-01

    The interactive environment design of smart city is not just an interactive progress or interactive mode design, rather than generate an environment such as the “organic” life entity as human beings through interactive design, forming a smart environment with perception, memory, thinking, and reaction.

  7. A coherent VLSI design environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penfield, Paul, Jr.

    1988-05-01

    The CAD effort is centered on timing analysis and circuit simulation. Advances have been made in tightening the bounds of timing analysis. The superiority of the Gauss-Jacobi technique for matrix solution, over the Gauss-Seidel method, has been proven when the algorithms are implemented on massively parallel machines. In the circuits area, one result of importance is a new technique for calculating the highest frequency of operation of transistors with parasitic elements present. Work on a synthesis technique is under way. In the architecture area, many new results have been derived for parallel algorithms and complexity. One of the most astonishing is that a hypercube with a large number of faulty nodes can be used, with high probability, as another perfectly functioning hypercube of half the size, by using reconfiguration algorithms that are simple, fast, and require only local information. Also, the design of the message-driven processor is continuing, with several advances in architecture, software, communications, and ALU design. Many of these are being implemented in VLSI circuits. The theory work has as a central theme that the cost of communication should be included in complexity analyses. This has led to advances in models for computation, including volume-universal networks, routing, network flow, fault avoidance, queue management, and network simulation.

  8. International space station microgravity environment design & verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Basso, Steve

    1999-01-01

    A broad class of scientific experiments has evolved which utilize extreme low acceleration environments. The International Space Station will provide such a ``microgravity'' environment, in conjunction with an unparalleled combination of quiescent period duration, payload volume and power, and manned or telescience interaction. The International Space Station is the world's first manned space vehicle with microgravity requirements. These place limits on the acceleration levels within the pressurized laboratories and affect everything from flight altitude and attitude to the mechanical and acoustic energies emitted by an air circulation fan. To achieve such performance within the program's resource constraints, a microgravity control approach has been adopted which balances both source and receiver disturbance mitigation. The Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) provides acceleration attenuation at the payload rack level, and dominant sources have been reduced either by isolation or design modifications. Analytical assessments indicate that the vehicle is capable of meeting the challenging microgravity requirements, although some current marginal non-compliances do exist. Assessment refinements will continue through the verification phase with greater reliance on test and on-orbit measured data as part of a long term effort to clearly define and understand the constitution of the acceleration environment. This process will assure that the design and operation of the International Space Station will support significant microgravity science research.

  9. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

  10. Requirements for a Future Astronomical Data Analysis Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosbl, P.; Banse, K.; Tody, D.; Cotton, W.; Cornwell, T. J.; Ponz, D.; Ignatius, J.; Linde, P.; van der Hulst, T.; Burwitz, V.; Giaretta, D.; Pasian, F.; Garilli, B.; Pence, W.; Shaw, D.

    2005-12-01

    Most of the systems currently used to analyze astronomical data were designed and implemented more than a decade ago. Although they still are very useful for analysis, one often would like a better interface to newer concepts like archives, Virtual Observatories and GRID. Further, incompatibilities between most of the current systems with respect to control language and semantics make it cumbersome to mix applications from different origins. An OPTICON Network, funded by the Sixth Framework Programme of the European Commission, started this year to discuss high-level needs for an astronomical data analysis environment which could provide a flexible access to both legacy applications and new astronomical resources. The main objective of the Network is to establish widely accepted requirements and basic design recommendations for such an environment. The hope is that this effort will help other projects, which consider to implement such systems, in collaborating and achieving a common environment.

  11. The Ames Virtual Environment Workstation: Implementation issues and requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Scott S.; Jacoby, R.; Bryson, S.; Stone, P.; Mcdowall, I.; Bolas, M.; Dasaro, D.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Coler, C.; Kerr, D.

    1991-01-01

    This presentation describes recent developments in the implementation of a virtual environment workstation in the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division of NASA's Ames Research Center. Introductory discussions are presented on the primary research objectives and applications of the system and on the system's current hardware and software configuration. Principle attention is then focused on unique issues and problems encountered in the workstation's development with emphasis on its ability to meet original design specifications for computational graphics performance and for associated human factors requirements necessary to provide compelling sense of presence and efficient interaction in the virtual environment.

  12. 49 CFR 229.206 - Design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Design requirements. 229.206 Section 229.206..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.206 Design requirements. Each locomotive used in occupied service must meet the minimum anti...

  13. 49 CFR 229.206 - Design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Design requirements. 229.206 Section 229.206..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.206 Design requirements. Each locomotive used in occupied service must meet the minimum anti...

  14. 49 CFR 229.206 - Design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Design requirements. 229.206 Section 229.206..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.206 Design requirements. Each locomotive used in occupied service must meet the minimum anti...

  15. 49 CFR 229.206 - Design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design requirements. 229.206 Section 229.206..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.206 Design requirements. Each locomotive used in occupied service must meet the minimum...

  16. Advanced EVA system design requirements study, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Design requirements and criteria for the space station advanced Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) including crew enclosures, portable life support systems, maneuvering propulsion systems, and related EVA support equipment were established. The EVA mission requirements, environments, and medical and physiological requirements, as well as operational, procedures and training issues were considered.

  17. 7 CFR 1724.51 - Design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES AND DESIGN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Electric System Design § 1724.51 Design requirements. The provisions of this section apply to all borrower electric... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design requirements. 1724.51 Section 1724.51...

  18. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, J.J.

    1997-09-24

    This release of the Design Requirements Document is a complete restructuring and rewrite to the document previously prepared and released for project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility.

  19. Design of Training Systems Utility Assessment: The Training Process Flow and System Capabilities/Requirements and Resources Models Operating in the TRAPAC Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Larry R.

    The report summarizes the results of a field test conducted for the purpose of determining the utility to Naval training of the Systems Capabilities/Requirements and Resources (SCRR) and the Training Process Flow (TPF) computer-based mathematical models. Basic descriptions of the SCRR and the TPF and their development are given. Training…

  20. Designing Communication and Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayeski, Diane M., Ed.

    Designing and remodeling educational facilities are becoming more complex with options that include computer-based collaboration, classrooms with multimedia podiums, conference centers, and workplaces with desktop communication systems. This book provides a collection of articles that address educational facility design categorized in the…

  1. (Re)Designing Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edutopia, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This 20-page issue explores the opportunity for creating 21st century learning environments that not only focus on different kinds of educational architecture but also emphasize how time is used, teacher-student relationships, collaboration, the benefits of real-world projects, and community involvement. In Minnesota, high school juniors and…

  2. Evolution design requirements and design strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monell, Donald W.

    1991-01-01

    Evolution of Space Station Freedom is justified for reasons which vary from more effectively utilizing the manned base to providing a means for incorporating new technologies as they become available. Increasing or, more importantly, balancing the resources that are provided to the users is very critical to effectively utilizing the station. At permanently manned phases of the program, there will be four crew members that will be supporting and monitoring three laboratories. Accepted user mission databases have shown a demand for more crew, power, and volume than is provided by the baseline. As the work done in space by NASA continues to expand, the station will take a more active role in the missions. New functionalities for its operation and support of other missions will be required. One important driver for growth, particularly in the area of structures, is the inability of the baseline configuration to store all the Orbital Replacement Units (ORU) spares that will be required on orbit. New technologies drive growth by providing a means of streamlining operations and possibly reducing the demand on ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA). They will also ensure that the station does not become plagued with obsolete equipment.

  3. Probability Model for Designing Environment Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubis, Iswar; Nasution Mahyuddin, K. M.

    2017-01-01

    Transport equipment has the potential to contribute to environmental pollution. The pollution impact on the welfare of the environment. Thus, the potential of the environment needs to be raised to block the pollution. A design based on probability models of the determining factors in the environment should be a concern. This paper aims to reveal the scenarios as the beginning to express the clues, and based on surveys have been had the ability to choose a design.

  4. SES cupola interactive display design environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bang Q.; Kirkhoff, Kevin R.

    1989-01-01

    The Systems Engineering Simulator, located at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, is tasked with providing a real-time simulator for developing displays and controls targeted for the Space Station Freedom. These displays and controls will exist inside an enclosed workstation located on the space station. The simulation is currently providing the engineering analysis environment for NASA and contractor personnel to design, prototype, and test alternatives for graphical presentation of data to an astronaut while he performs specified tasks. A highly desirable aspect of this environment is to have the capability to rapidly develop and bring on-line a number of different displays for use in determining the best utilization of graphics techniques in achieving maximum efficiency of the test subject fulfilling his task. The Systems Engineering Simulator now has available a tool which assists in the rapid development of displays for these graphic workstations. The Display Builder was developed in-house to provide an environment which allows easy construction and modification of displays within minutes of receiving requirements for specific tests.

  5. 10 CFR 36.39 - Design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... sources. (b) Foundations. For panoramic irradiators, the licensee shall design the foundation, with... an earthquake by designing to the seismic requirements of an appropriate source such as American... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design requirements. 36.39 Section 36.39 Energy NUCLEAR...

  6. A Coherent VLSI Design Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-31

    In the figure, AminH and Ama.H represent the smallest and largest eigenvalues I of YH and AminAH and AmaAH represent the smallest and largest...Press, Princeton, NJ, 1970. [17] G. Clark and R. Zippel, "Schema: An Architecture for Knowledge Based Design," International Conference on Computer-Aided

  7. Managing consistency in collaborative design environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Chunyan; Yang, Zhonghua; Goh, Angela; Sun, Chengzheng; Sattar, Abdul

    1999-08-01

    In today's global economy, there is a significant paradigm shift to collaborative engineering design environments. One of key issues in the collaborative setting is the consistency model, which governs how to coordinate the activities of collaborators to ensure that they do not make inconsistent changes or updates to the shared objects. In this paper, we present a new consistency model which requires that all update operations will be executed in the casual order (causality) and all participants have the same view on the operations on the shared objects (view synchrony). A simple multicast-based protocol to implement the consistency model is presented. By employing vector time and token mechanisms, the protocol brings the shared objects from one consistent state to another, thus providing collaborators with a consistent view of the shared objects. A CORBA-based on-going prototyping implementation is outlined. Some of the related work are also discussed.

  8. The process road between requirements and design

    SciTech Connect

    Goedicke, M.; Nuseibeh, B.

    1996-12-31

    The software engineering literature contains many examples of methods, tools and techniques that claim to facilitate a variety of requirements engineering and design activities. Guidance on how these activities are related within a coherent software development process is much less apparent. A central problem that makes such guidance difficult to achieve is that requirements engineering addresses problem domains whereas design addresses solution domains. This is in the face of frequent changes in requirements contrasted with the need for stable design solutions.

  9. A Coherent VLSI Design Environment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-31

    recalling what " basic " functionality Schema is providing. It contains a flexible schematic-entry system, capable of dealing with multilevel ...measured O(n), as was shown by Lipton and Tarjan [191. Moreover, by the number of switching components and wires. This any planar interconnection strategy...indeed, it is possible to required for any schedule of Ml can now be reexpressed as build such on -line switches , but these results will be reported d

  10. Stigmergy in the design of social environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghini, S. G.

    2017-01-01

    The paper argues that physical environments are relevant and at time critical elements of the cognitive activities of individual agents and communities, and this should become an important consideration in designing such environments. To this end, the concept of stigmergy can be instrumental to the evaluation and design of environments that facilitate cognitive and information processing activities of human individuals and communities. Stigmergy is here introduced both as an explanatory principle and as the operative mechanism by which structured environments can operate as mediums of shared knowledge and mediators of self-organizing processes of coordination among loosely coupled individuals. The arguments are supported by three case studies.

  11. A coherent VLSI design environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penfield, P., Jr.; Glasser, L. A.; Knight, T. F., Jr.; Leiserson, C. E.; Rivest, R. L.

    1985-09-01

    The research discussed here is described in more detail in several published and unpublished reports cited. The CAD frame Schema has progressed to the point where it is useful for ample chip designs. The interface to CIF is complete, and work has begun on importing layout libraries. An interface to EDIF is being installed. Simulators can now be connected, and thought is going into organization of VLSI libraries. A plan for the distribution of Schema is now being worked out. Previous results on waveform bounding have been generalized to large classes of problems described in canonical control-theory form. Work has begun on models for interconnect taking account of line inductance. This domain is less general than RLC networks, and there is hope that some of the previously derived bounds still apply. During this period a novel device, the UV write-enabled PROM, was reported at a conference. Work continues on developing useful circuits employing this device.

  12. The Exceptional Environment: Strategies for Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivack, Mayer

    1974-01-01

    Author addressed himself to the problem of designing effective environments for exceptional children. He developed essential "polar paradigms" for the observation of children's behavior in relation to their physical setting. (Editor/RK)

  13. Office Design: A Study of Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Peter, Ed.

    Reporting upon a study of environment which was based on the design of office buildings and office space, the study forms part of a continuing program of environmental research sponsored by Pilkington Brothers Limited of St. Helens, England. In this report the word 'environment' is used in the sense of the sum of the physical and emotional…

  14. FPGAs in Space Environment and Design Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard B.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) in the space environment and design techniques. Details are given on the effects of the space radiation environment, total radiation dose, single event upset, single event latchup, single event transient, antifuse technology and gate rupture, proton upsets and sensitivity, and loss of functionality.

  15. The Ecosystem Model: Designing Campus Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO.

    This document stresses the increasing awareness in higher education of the impact student/environment transactions have upon the quality of educational life and details a model and design process for creating a better fit between educational environments and students. The ecosystem model uses an interdisciplinary approach for the make-up of its…

  16. The Space Infrared Telescope Facility structural design requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macneal, Paul D.; Lou, Michael C.; Chen, Gun-Shing

    1991-01-01

    An effort is currently being carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to study mission feasibility and to define functional requirements for various subsystems of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). As a major part of this effort, structural design requirements have been derived based on the stated mission objectives. Design concerns addressed by these requirements include the limits on mass and location of the center of gravity, launch stiffness and dynamic characteristics, design loads and analysis criteria, survivability of the TITAN IV/Centaur launch environment, thermal control for maintaining a near absolute-zero operating temperature, and helium cryogen volume and storage for a five-year mission. To illustrate how the structural design requirements can be met, a point design of the SIRTF flight hardware system was developed, modeled, and analyzed. A description of the key features of this point design, along with pertinent modeling and analysis results, are discussed in this Paper.

  17. 7 CFR 3560.60 - Design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Design requirements. 3560.60 Section 3560.60... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Direct Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.60 Design... design. All MFH must be residential in character, except as provided for in § 3560.58(b), and must meet...

  18. 7 CFR 3560.60 - Design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Design requirements. 3560.60 Section 3560.60... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Direct Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.60 Design... design. All MFH must be residential in character, except as provided for in § 3560.58(b), and must meet...

  19. Deep Space Design Environments for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Tripathi, R. K.; Nealy, J. E.; DeAngelis, G.

    2002-01-01

    Mission scenarios outside the Earth's protective magnetic shield are being studied. Included are high usage assets in the near-Earth environment for casual trips, for research, and for commercial/operational platforms, in which career exposures will be multi-mission determined over the astronaut's lifetime. The operational platforms will serve as launching points for deep space exploration missions, characterized by a single long-duration mission during the astronaut's career. The exploration beyond these operational platforms will include missions to planets, asteroids, and planetary satellites. The interplanetary environment is evaluated using convective diffusion theory. Local environments for each celestial body are modeled by using results from the most recent targeted spacecraft, and integrated into the design environments. Design scenarios are then evaluated for these missions. The underlying assumptions in arriving at the model environments and their impact on mission exposures within various shield materials will be discussed.

  20. Nutrient Requirements for High Stress Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-20

    specific nutrients to prevent stress related performance decrements. NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS *The familiar concept of the biological dose - response curve *"’’ that...depicts a dose - response curve for a hypothet- ical essential nutrient that is related to a physiological function. I would like to emphasize that such...dose-response curves are representative of a population; an individual’s VI. dose - response curve may be broader or steeper, and possess a lower or

  1. Application requirements for Robotic Nursing Assistants in hospital environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Sven; Doelling, Kris; Lundberg, Cody L.; McNair, Mike; Shin, Jeongsik; Popa, Dan

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we report on analysis toward identifying design requirements for an Adaptive Robotic Nursing Assistant (ARNA). Specifically, the paper focuses on application requirements for ARNA, envisioned as a mobile assistive robot that can navigate hospital environments to perform chores in roles such as patient sitter and patient walker. The role of a sitter is primarily related to patient observation from a distance, and fetching objects at the patient's request, while a walker provides physical assistance for ambulation and rehabilitation. The robot will be expected to not only understand nurse and patient intent but also close the decision loop by automating several routine tasks. As a result, the robot will be equipped with sensors such as distributed pressure sensitive skins, 3D range sensors, and so on. Modular sensor and actuator hardware configured in the form of several multi-degree-of-freedom manipulators, and a mobile base are expected to be deployed in reconfigurable platforms for physical assistance tasks. Furthermore, adaptive human-machine interfaces are expected to play a key role, as they directly impact the ability of robots to assist nurses in a dynamic and unstructured environment. This paper discusses required tasks for the ARNA robot, as well as sensors and software infrastructure to carry out those tasks in the aspects of technical resource availability, gaps, and needed experimental studies.

  2. Seal designing of theodolite used in seaside environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Humin; Yan, Xiaoxu; Hao, Wei; Zhou, Sizhong

    2014-08-01

    Based on the environment requirements in seaside there exists static and dynamic seal designing for the photoelectric Theodolite. Static seal designing emphatically includes the designing of o-ring size and mechanical property analysis of o-ring seal, which is difficult to adopt conventional dynamic seal to meet the requirements. According to practical application, the combination of the radial labyrinth seal and high quality felt seal are designed. The combination seal which better solves the seal problem of narrow radial size is a good way of dynamic seal. At the same time, there is engineering practice needing to proof the radial labyrinth seal.

  3. Kapton pyrolysis, the space environment and wiring requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    1994-01-01

    New Low Earth Orbit (LEO) requirements of space environment wiring are compared with traditional requirements. The pyrolysis of Kapton is reviewed for the LeRc vacuum chamber and the 1989 SSF. SEEB modeling of Kapton pyrolysis is also presented.

  4. Design versus manufacturing data base management requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenna, E. G.

    1984-01-01

    Data base management systems are valuable manufacturing and design tools as these disciplines are exceptionally information intensive, requiring precise organization and control of data processing and utilization. One such data base manager is the IPAD* system, which was originally developed to support the design process but was expanded to incorporate the additional needs of manufacturing. To set the stage, an overview of the design and manufacturing process is presented. The different functions of computers in these processes are then discussed. Finally, the design and manufacturing requirements for a data base manager are compared and contrasted.

  5. Programming Not Required: Skills and Knowledge for the Digital Library Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Education for Library and Information professionals in managing the digital environment has been a key topic for discussion within the LIS environment for some time. However, before designing and implementing a program for digital library education, it is prudent to ensure that the skills and knowledge required to work in this environment are…

  6. Fermilab Recycler damper requirements and design

    SciTech Connect

    Crisp, J.; Hu, M.; Tupikov, V.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    The design of transverse dampers for the Fermilab Recycler storage ring is described. An observed instability and analysis of subsequent measurements where used to identify the requirements. The digital approach being implemented is presented.

  7. 49 CFR 229.206 - Design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design requirements. 229.206 Section 229.206 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness...

  8. 10 CFR 36.39 - Design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... concrete and design the walls, wall penetrations, and entranceways to meet the radiation shielding... licensee shall design the reinforced concrete radiation shields to retain their integrity in the event of... Concrete Institute Standard ACI 318-89, “Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete,” Chapter...

  9. 10 CFR 36.39 - Design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... lost for more than 10 seconds. (j) Seismic. For panoramic irradiators to be built in seismic areas, the... an earthquake by designing to the seismic requirements of an appropriate source such as American..., “Special Provisions for Seismic Design,” or local building codes, if current. (k) Wiring. For...

  10. 10 CFR 36.39 - Design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... lost for more than 10 seconds. (j) Seismic. For panoramic irradiators to be built in seismic areas, the... an earthquake by designing to the seismic requirements of an appropriate source such as American..., “Special Provisions for Seismic Design,” or local building codes, if current. (k) Wiring. For...

  11. Requirements for effective use of CFD in aerospace design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, Pradeep

    1995-03-01

    This paper presents a perspective on the requirements that Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technology must meet for its effective use in aerospace design. General observations are made on current aerospace design practices and deficiencies are noted that must be rectified for the U.S. aerospace industry to maintain its leadership position in the global marketplace. In order to rectify deficiencies, industry is transitioning to an integrated product and process development (IPPD) environment and design processes are undergoing radical changes. The role of CFD in producing data that design teams need to support flight vehicle development is briefly discussed. An overview of the current state of the art in CFD is given to provide an assessment of strengths and weaknesses of the variety of methods currently available, or under development, to produce aerodynamic data. Effectiveness requirements are examined from a customer/supplier view point with design team as customer and CFD practitioner as supplier. Partnership between the design team and CFD team is identified as an essential requirement for effective use of CFD. Rapid turnaround, reliable accuracy, and affordability are offered as three key requirements that CFD community must address if CFD is to play its rightful role in supporting the IPPD design environment needed to produce high quality yet affordable designs.

  12. Requirements for effective use of CFD in aerospace design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Pradeep

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a perspective on the requirements that Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technology must meet for its effective use in aerospace design. General observations are made on current aerospace design practices and deficiencies are noted that must be rectified for the U.S. aerospace industry to maintain its leadership position in the global marketplace. In order to rectify deficiencies, industry is transitioning to an integrated product and process development (IPPD) environment and design processes are undergoing radical changes. The role of CFD in producing data that design teams need to support flight vehicle development is briefly discussed. An overview of the current state of the art in CFD is given to provide an assessment of strengths and weaknesses of the variety of methods currently available, or under development, to produce aerodynamic data. Effectiveness requirements are examined from a customer/supplier view point with design team as customer and CFD practitioner as supplier. Partnership between the design team and CFD team is identified as an essential requirement for effective use of CFD. Rapid turnaround, reliable accuracy, and affordability are offered as three key requirements that CFD community must address if CFD is to play its rightful role in supporting the IPPD design environment needed to produce high quality yet affordable designs.

  13. Earth transportation node requirements and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hook, W. Ray; Ayers, J. Kirk; Cirillo, William M.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to establish the requirements for an inhabited earth orbiting transportation node and to develop design concepts for such a facility. The use of an earth orbiting transportation node is required to support many of the space flight projects proposed for the beginning of the 21st century. The requirements for such an orbiting facility are derived from the missions which they support. Future missions investigated include automated and human exploration of the solar system, support of a lunar base, and missions to planet earth. Design concepts are presented for transportation nodes based on a variation of the current Space Station Freedom design. Designs accommodate a variety of earth-to-orbit, orbit-to-orbit, and deep-space probe transportation systems. Finally, the technology needed to develop such a transportation node is summarized.

  14. Computing requirements for S. S. C. accelerator design and studies

    SciTech Connect

    Dragt, A.; Talman, R.; Siemann, R.; Dell, G.F.; Leemann, B.; Leemann, C.; Nauenberg, U.; Peggs, S.; Douglas, D.

    1984-01-01

    We estimate the computational hardware resources that will be required for accelerator physics studies during the design of the Superconducting SuperCollider. It is found that both Class IV and Class VI facilities (1) will be necessary. We describe a user environment for these facilities that is desirable within the context of accelerator studies. An acquisition scenario for these facilities is presented.

  15. 40 CFR 265.254 - Design and operating requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....254 Section 265.254 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 265.254 Design and operating requirements. The owner or operator of...

  16. Predicting the Meaning of Designed Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershberger, Robert G.

    This paper first outlines the several problems encountered by architects in predicting user comprehension of designed environments, establishes the importance of the need to predict accurately, and suggests ways in which research can help improve prediction. Also discussed are the objectives and methodological problems associated with the four…

  17. An Experiential Exercise in Service Environment Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Kendra; Bridges, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    A new experiential exercise affords marketing students the opportunity to learn to design service environments. The exercise is appropriate for a variety of marketing courses and is especially beneficial in teaching services marketing because the proposed activity complements two other exercises widely used in this course. Service journal and…

  18. An Experiential Exercise in Service Environment Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Kendra; Bridges, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    A new experiential exercise affords marketing students the opportunity to learn to design service environments. The exercise is appropriate for a variety of marketing courses and is especially beneficial in teaching services marketing because the proposed activity complements two other exercises widely used in this course. Service journal and…

  19. Translating supportability requirements into design reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buche, J.; Cohen, I.

    1986-10-01

    This paper explores some of the principal issues in the integration of supportability into the design process. Roles of the contractor's design, supportability and management specialists and their government counterparts are discussed as they relate to logistics influence in design. Methods and processes by which weapon system logistics and readiness requirements are established, assessed, allocated to system elements and translated into specific design features are described. Tradeoff consideration, an approach to effective tradeoff criteria, and the progress of supportability issues through the program phases are identified with particular emphasis on the necessity for developing and maintaining an effective audit trail.

  20. Development of Collaborative Engineering Environments for Spacecraft Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleterry, Robert C.; Johns, Bradley D.; Fan, Kwok Y.; Cheatwood, F. Mcneil; Qualls, Garry D.; Wareing, Todd A.; McGhee, John; Pautz, Shawn; Prinja, Anil K.; Gleicher, Frederick; Failla, Greg; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Wilson, John W.

    2003-01-01

    The hazards of ionizing radiation in space continue to be a limiting factor in the design of missions, spacecraft, and habitats. Shielding against such hazards is an enabling technology in the human and robotic exploration and development of space. If the design of the radiation shielding is not optimal for the mission, then excess mass will be launched, mission costs will be higher than necessary, and useful payload will be reduced. This reduced mission capability scenario can be repeated for other technical design disciplines. These other disciplines can also effect each other's requirements. A collaborative engineering environment can optimize ALL design parameters for cost (or another parameter) producing a spacecraft that will meet all mission requirements at the minimum cost. This paper describes two environments that include space radiation analyses and the inclusion within a larger optimization methodology.

  1. IMCS reflight certification requirements and design specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The requirements for reflight certification are established. Software requirements encompass the software programs that are resident in the PCC, DEP, PDSS, EC, or any related GSE. A design approach for the reflight software packages is recommended. These designs will be of sufficient detail to permit the implementation of reflight software. The PDSS/IMC Reflight Certification system provides the tools and mechanisms for the user to perform the reflight certification test procedures, test data capture, test data display, and test data analysis. The system as defined will be structured to permit maximum automation of reflight certification procedures and test data analysis.

  2. Civil helicopter design and operational requirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, K. T.

    1978-01-01

    Design and operational requirements and other factors that have a restraining influence on expansion of the helicopter market are discussed. The needs of operators, users, pilots and the community at large are examined. The impact of future technology developments and other trends such as use, energy shortages, and civil and military helicopter requirements and development is assessed. Areas where research and development are needed to provide opportunities for lowering life cycle costs and removing barriers to further expansion of the industry are analyzed.

  3. The environment workbench: A design tool for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jongeward, Gary A.; Kuharski, Robert A.; Rankin, Thomas V.; Wilcox, Katherine G.; Roche, James C.

    1991-01-01

    The environment workbench (EWB) is being developed for NASA by S-CUBED to provide a standard tool that can be used by the Space Station Freedom (SSF) design and user community for requirements verification. The desktop tool will predict and analyze the interactions of SSF with its natural and self-generated environments. A brief review of the EWB design and capabilities is presented. Calculations using a prototype EWB of the on-orbit floating potentials and contaminant environment of SSF are also presented. Both the positive and negative grounding configurations for the solar arrays are examined to demonstrate the capability of the EWB to provide quick estimates of environments, interactions, and system effects.

  4. 10 CFR 36.39 - Design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Design requirements. 36.39 Section 36.39 Energy NUCLEAR... determine that source rack drops due to loss of power will not damage the source rack and that source rack... means exists to free it with minimal risk to personnel. (g) Access control. For panoramic irradiators...

  5. Robot design for a vacuum environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belinski, S.; Trento, W.; Imani-Shikhabadi, R.; Hackwood, S.

    1987-01-01

    The cleanliness requirements for many processing and manufacturing tasks are becoming ever stricter, resulting in a greater interest in the vacuum environment. Researchers discuss the importance of this special environment, and the development of robots which are physically and functionally suited to vacuum processing tasks. Work is in progress at the Center for robotic Systems in Microelectronics (CRSM) to provide a robot for the manufacture of a revolutionary new gyroscope in high vacuum. The need for vacuum in this and other processes is discussed as well as the requirements for a vacuum-compatible robot. Finally, researchers present details on work done at the CRSM to modify an existing clean-room compatible robot for use at high vacuum.

  6. Cost effective dynamic design and test requirements for Shuttle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahle, C. V.; Gongloff, H. R.; Bangs, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a study examining current spacecraft dynamic design and test requirements for the cost effective design and development of Shuttle payloads are presented. Dynamic environments, payload configurations, design/test requirements, test levels, assembly level of testing, simulation methods, prototype role, load limiting, test facilities, and flight measurements are discussed as they relate to the development of a cost effective design and test philosophy for Shuttle Spacelab payloads. It is concluded that changes to current design/test practices will minimize long range payload costs. However, changes to current practices need be quantitatively evaluated before an orderly progression to more cost effective methods can be achieved without undue risk of mission failures. Of major importance is optimization of test levels and plans for payloads and payload subsystems which will result in minimum project costs.

  7. Designing Assessments and Assessing Designs in Virtual Educational Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Daniel T.; Ingram-Goble, Adam A.; Jameson, Ellen M.

    2009-01-01

    This study used innovative assessment practices to obtain and document broad learning outcomes for a 15-hour game-based curriculum in Quest Atlantis, a multi-user virtual environment that supports school-based participation in socio scientific inquiry in ecological sciences. Design-based methods were used to refine and align the enactment of…

  8. Designing Assessments and Assessing Designs in Virtual Educational Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Daniel T.; Ingram-Goble, Adam A.; Jameson, Ellen M.

    2009-01-01

    This study used innovative assessment practices to obtain and document broad learning outcomes for a 15-hour game-based curriculum in Quest Atlantis, a multi-user virtual environment that supports school-based participation in socio scientific inquiry in ecological sciences. Design-based methods were used to refine and align the enactment of…

  9. Designing Law-Compliant Software Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siena, Alberto; Mylopoulos, John; Perini, Anna; Susi, Angelo

    New laws, such as HIPAA and SOX, are increasingly impacting the design of software systems, as business organisations strive to comply. This paper studies the problem of generating a set of requirements for a new system which comply with a given law. Specifically, the paper proposes a systematic process for generating law-compliant requirements by using a taxonomy of legal concepts and a set of primitives to describe stakeholders and their strategic goals. Given a model of law and a model of stakeholders goals, legal alternatives are identified and explored. Strategic goals that can realise legal prescriptions are systematically analysed, and alternative ways of fulfilling a law are evaluated. The approach is demonstrated by means of a case study. This work is part of the Nomos framework, intended to support the design of law-compliant requirements models.

  10. Design of supply chain in fuzzy environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Kandukuri Narayana; Subbaiah, Kambagowni Venkata; Singh, Ganja Veera Pratap

    2013-05-01

    Nowadays, customer expectations are increasing and organizations are prone to operate in an uncertain environment. Under this uncertain environment, the ultimate success of the firm depends on its ability to integrate business processes among supply chain partners. Supply chain management emphasizes cross-functional links to improve the competitive strategy of organizations. Now, companies are moving from decoupled decision processes towards more integrated design and control of their components to achieve the strategic fit. In this paper, a new approach is developed to design a multi-echelon, multi-facility, and multi-product supply chain in fuzzy environment. In fuzzy environment, mixed integer programming problem is formulated through fuzzy goal programming in strategic level with supply chain cost and volume flexibility as fuzzy goals. These fuzzy goals are aggregated using minimum operator. In tactical level, continuous review policy for controlling raw material inventories in supplier echelon and controlling finished product inventories in plant as well as distribution center echelon is considered as fuzzy goals. A non-linear programming model is formulated through fuzzy goal programming using minimum operator in the tactical level. The proposed approach is illustrated with a numerical example.

  11. Olfactory Environment Design for Human Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, C. S.; Holland, F. J.

    2002-01-01

    Smell is usually deemed the least important of the five senses. To contradict this assertion, however, there is no shortage of scientific literature which concludes that olfaction is of very great significance to humans. Odours have been shown to have a variety of effects on humans, and are capable of changing both behaviour and cognitive processing in ways that we are frequently completely unconscious of. Examples of this include alertness, alteration of mood, capacity for ideation and intellectual performance. To date, the design of human spacecraft has concentrated on making their olfactory environments, where possible, `odour neutral' - that is ensuring that all unpleasant and/or offensive odours are removed. Here it suggested that spacecraft (and other extraterrestrial facilities for human inhabitation) might benefit from having their olfactory environments designed to be `odour positive', that is to use odours and olfaction for the positive benefit of their residents. This paper presents a summary of current olfactory research and considers both its positive and negative implications for humans in space. It then discusses `odour positive' design of spacecraft olfactory environments and the possible benefits accruing from this approach before examining its implications for the architecture of spacecraft environmental control systems.

  12. Advanced Neutron Sources: Plant Design Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new, world class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. At the heart of the facility is a 350-MW{sub th}, heavy water cooled and moderated reactor. The reactor is housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides fans out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Office, laboratory, and shop facilities are included to provide a complete users facility. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the end of the decade. This Plant Design Requirements document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of the ANS. This document also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this Plant Design Requirements document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of the ANS.

  13. Ground Systems Development Environment (GSDE) interface requirements analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Church, Victor E.; Philips, John; Hartenstein, Ray; Bassman, Mitchell; Ruskin, Leslie; Perez-Davila, Alfredo

    1991-01-01

    A set of procedural and functional requirements are presented for the interface between software development environments and software integration and test systems used for space station ground systems software. The requirements focus on the need for centralized configuration management of software as it is transitioned from development to formal, target based testing. This concludes the GSDE Interface Requirements study. A summary is presented of findings concerning the interface itself, possible interface and prototyping directions for further study, and results of the investigation of the Cronus distributed applications environment.

  14. Advanced EVA system design requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, T. G.

    1988-01-01

    The results are presented of a study to identify specific criteria regarding space station extravehicular activity system (EVAS) hardware requirements. Key EVA design issues include maintainability, technology readiness, LSS volume vs. EVA time available, suit pressure/cabin pressure relationship and productivity effects, crew autonomy, integration of EVA as a program resource, and standardization of task interfaces. A variety of DOD EVA systems issues were taken into consideration. Recommendations include: (1) crew limitations, not hardware limitations; (2) capability to perform all of 15 generic missions; (3) 90 days on-orbit maintainability with 50 percent duty cycle as minimum; and (4) use by payload sponsors of JSC document 10615A plus a Generic Tool Kit and Specialized Tool Kit description. EVA baseline design requirements and criteria, including requirements of various subsystems, are outlined. Space station/EVA system interface requirements and EVA accommodations are discussed in the areas of atmosphere composition and pressure, communications, data management, logistics, safe haven, SS exterior and interior requirements, and SS airlock.

  15. Creating Learning Environment Connecting Engineering Design and 3D Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikkarainen, Ari; Salminen, Antti; Piili, Heidi

    Engineering education in modern days require continuous development in didactics, pedagogics and used practical methods. 3D printing provides excellent opportunity to connect different engineering areas into practice and produce learning by doing applications. The 3D-printing technology used in this study is FDM (Fused deposition modeling). FDM is the most used 3D-printing technology by commercial numbers at the moment and the qualities of the technology makes it popular especially in academic environments. For achieving the best result possible, students will incorporate the principles of DFAM (Design for additive manufacturing) into their engineering design studies together with 3D printing. This paper presents a plan for creating learning environment for mechanical engineering students combining the aspects of engineering design, 3D-CAD learning and AM (additive manufacturing). As a result, process charts for carrying out the 3D printing process from technological point of view and design process for AM from engineering design point of view were created. These charts are used in engineering design education. The learning environment is developed to work also as a platform for Bachelor theses, work-training environment for students, prototyping service centre for cooperation partners and source of information for mechanical engineering education in Lapland University of Applied Sciences.

  16. Designing displays for severe environment military fighter applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jukes, Malcolm L.

    1997-07-01

    Smiths Industries is a world class supplier of multi-purpose color displays for severe environment fast-jet and rotary wing applications. In this paper we describe the technical issues, design techniques and qualification experience gained through replacing shadow-mask cathode ray tube with active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) devices in our 5 inch and 6 inch display products. The operational needs for primary flight/mission displays are reviewed from which display brightness, dimming range, contrast, viewing angle and resolution requirements are derived. These requirements when combined with the environment conditions found in a jet fighter cockpit challenge the display designer to find novel cost effective solutions. We shall discuss: the development of an AMLCD for severe environment applications; the development of a backlight to achieve long life, wide luminance range and compatibility with night vision imaging systems; mens to manage the local thermal environment of the AMLCD and the backlight. Practical realization of these solutions are demonstrated in our 5 inch and 6 inch multi- purpose color display products which have been qualified for flight in severe military environments. Operator and engineering evaluations have been made in representative lighting environments and through flight trials to compare the performance of AMLCD against our traditional 'de-facto' standard CRT products.

  17. Scheduler Design Criteria: Requirements and Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hanbong

    2016-01-01

    This presentation covers fundamental requirements and considerations for developing schedulers in airport operations. We first introduce performance and functional requirements for airport surface schedulers. Among various optimization problems in airport operations, we focus on airport surface scheduling problem, including runway and taxiway operations. We then describe a basic methodology for airport surface scheduling such as node-link network model and scheduling algorithms previously developed. Next, we explain how to design a mathematical formulation in more details, which consists of objectives, decision variables, and constraints. Lastly, we review other considerations, including optimization tools, computational performance, and performance metrics for evaluation.

  18. THE DEFINITION AND INTERPRETATION OF TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT DESIGN INPUTS FOR VEHICLE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Keller, Vernon W.; Vaughan, William W.

    2005-01-01

    The description and interpretation of the terrestrial environment (0-90 km altitude) is an important driver of aerospace vehicle structural, control, and thermal system design. NASA is currently in the process of reviewing the meteorological information acquired over the past decade and producing an update to the 1993 Terrestrial Environment Guidelines for Aerospace Vehicle Design and Development handbook. This paper addresses the contents of this updated handbook, with special emphasis on new material being included in the areas of atmospheric thermodynamic models, wind dynamics, atmospheric composition, atmospheric electricity, cloud phenomena, atmospheric extremes, sea state, etc. In addition, the respective engineering design elements will be discussed relative to the importance and influence of terrestrial environment inputs that require consideration and interpretation for design applications. Specific lessons learned that have contributed to the advancements made in the acquisition, interpretation, application and awareness of terrestrial environment inputs for aerospace engineering applications are discussed.

  19. Design for the Environment Products (Online Search)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This dataset contains a list of products that carry the Design for the Environment (DfE) label. This mark enables consumers to quickly identify and choose products that can help protect the environment and are safer for families. When you see the DfE logo on a product it means that the DfE scientific review team has screened each ingredient for potential human health and environmental effects and that-based on currently available information, EPA predictive models, and expert judgment-the product contains only those ingredients that pose the least concern among chemicals in their class. Product manufacturers who become DfE partners, and earn the right to display the DfE logo on recognized products, have invested heavily in research, development and reformulation to ensure that their ingredients and finished product line up on the green end of the health and environmental spectrum while maintaining or improving product performance. EPA's Design for the Environment Program (DfE) has allowed use of their logo on over 2500 products. These products are formulated from the safest possible ingredients and have reduced the use of chemicals of concern by hundreds of millions of pounds.

  20. Design for the Environment Products (Raw Data)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This dataset contains a list of products that carry the Design for the Environment (DfE) label. This mark enables consumers to quickly identify and choose products that can help protect the environment and are safer for families. When you see the DfE logo on a product it means that the DfE scientific review team has screened each ingredient for potential human health and environmental effects and that-based on currently available information, EPA predictive models, and expert judgment-the product contains only those ingredients that pose the least concern among chemicals in their class. Product manufacturers who become DfE partners, and earn the right to display the DfE logo on recognized products, have invested heavily in research, development and reformulation to ensure that their ingredients and finished product line up on the green end of the health and environmental spectrum while maintaining or improving product performance. EPA's Design for the Environment Program (DfE) has allowed use of their logo on over 2500 products. These products are formulated from the safest possible ingredients and have reduced the use of chemicals of concern by hundreds of millions of pounds. A Spanish version of this dataset is available for download at http://www.epa.gov/dfe/pubs/products/list_of_labeled_products.html

  1. ULYSSES - an expert-system-based VLSI design environment

    SciTech Connect

    Bushnell, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Ulysses is a VLSI computer-aided design (CAD) environment which effectively addresses the problems associated with CAD tool integration. Specifically, Ulysses allows the integration of CAD tools into a design automation (DA) system, the codification of a design methodology, and the representation of a design space. Ulysses keeps track of the progress of a design and allows exploration of the design space. The environment employs artificial intelligence techniques, functions as an interactive expert system, and interprets descriptions of design tasks encoded in the scripts language. An integrated-circuit silicon compilation task is presented as an example of the ability of Ulysses to automatically execute CAD tools to solve a problem where inferencing is required to obtain a viable VLSI layout. The inferencing mechanism, in the form of a controlled production system, allows Ulysses to recover when routing channel congestion or over-constrained leaf-cell boundary conditions make it impossible for CAD tools to complete layouts. Also, Ulysses allows the designer to intervene while design activities are being carried out. Consistency-maintenance rules encoded in the scripts language enforce geometric floor-plan consistency when CAD tools fail and when the designer makes adjustments to a VLSI chip layout.

  2. A computer-based building design support environment

    SciTech Connect

    Papamichael, K.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1991-06-01

    Continuously decreasing cost has brought computers into most architectural and engineering offices, most commonly for activities such as drafting, accounting and word processing. Computers are used less often to predict the performance of design solutions. However, most performance simulation software packages are simplified versions of main-frame analytical tools, originally developed for research. Such software packages focus on specific design issues according to the research needs. Also, the data input requirements are complicated and incompatible with each other, and the output data are usually specialized and difficult to interpret. It is yet to be seen how the increasing memory and processing speed of computers, the two main advantages that computers have over the human brain, can be used to assist designers throughout the design process, allowing them to organize design projects electronically. We describe the design and initial implementation of a computer-based Building Design Support Environment whose structure and operation are derived from a detailed theoretical analysis of the design process, into the iterative and interactive activities that contribute towards the formulation of design criteria, the generation of potential solutions, and their evaluation. The identified design activities are characterized with respect to the nature of knowledge requirements and the degree to which they can be specified and delegated to computers. The results are considered as criteria to determine the level of automation and the interaction between designers and computers, to model the delegateable and non-delegateable activities, respectively. We believe this approach, when fully implemented, has a good chance of providing building designers with a powerful environment to enhance building design.

  3. Requirements analysis, domain knowledge, and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potts, Colin

    1988-01-01

    Two improvements to current requirements analysis practices are suggested: domain modeling, and the systematic application of analysis heuristics. Domain modeling is the representation of relevant application knowledge prior to requirements specification. Artificial intelligence techniques may eventually be applicable for domain modeling. In the short term, however, restricted domain modeling techniques, such as that in JSD, will still be of practical benefit. Analysis heuristics are standard patterns of reasoning about the requirements. They usually generate questions of clarification or issues relating to completeness. Analysis heuristics can be represented and therefore systematically applied in an issue-based framework. This is illustrated by an issue-based analysis of JSD's domain modeling and functional specification heuristics. They are discussed in the context of the preliminary design of simple embedded systems.

  4. MarFS-Requirements-Design-Configuration-Admin

    SciTech Connect

    Kettering, Brett Michael; Grider, Gary Alan

    2015-07-08

    This document will be organized into sections that are defined by the requirements for a file system that presents a near-POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface) interface to the user, but whose data is stored in whatever form is most efficient for the type of data being stored. After defining the requirement the design for meeting the requirement will be explained. Finally there will be sections on configuring and administering this file system. More and more, data dominates the computing world. There is a “sea” of data out there in many different formats that needs to be managed and used. “Mar” means “sea” in Spanish. Thus, this product is dubbed MarFS, a file system for a sea of data.

  5. Purple Computational Environment With Mappings to ACE Requirements for the General Availability User Environment Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, B; Shuler, J

    2006-08-21

    Purple is an Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) funded massively parallel supercomputer located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Purple Computational Environment documents the capabilities and the environment provided for the FY06 LLNL Level 1 General Availability Milestone. This document describes specific capabilities, tools, and procedures to support both local and remote users. The model is focused on the needs of the ASC user working in the secure computing environments at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories, but also documents needs of the LLNL and Alliance users working in the unclassified environment. Additionally, the Purple Computational Environment maps the provided capabilities to the Trilab ASC Computing Environment (ACE) Version 8.0 requirements. The ACE requirements reflect the high performance computing requirements for the General Availability user environment capabilities of the ASC community. Appendix A lists these requirements and includes a description of ACE requirements met and those requirements that are not met for each section of this document. The Purple Computing Environment, along with the ACE mappings, has been issued and reviewed throughout the Tri-lab community.

  6. ACIS design compliance with principle accelerator safety interlock design requirements.

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, M.

    2005-02-23

    Prior to and during the design of the APS's Access Control Interlock System (ACIS), an effort was made to insure that the design complied with the relevant DOE and ANL requirements as well as those set forth in other recognized documents then in circulation. A paragraph-by-paragraph listing of the requirements (in some cases, recommended practices) and the corresponding ACIS design features was compiled for use by the review committees then in place. This tabulation was incorporated in the APS Safety Analysis Document (SAD) as Appendix A. With the evolutionary changes that have occurred to the APS and to the documents referenced, some of the details of these compliances have evolved as well. It has been decided to maintain the SAD as a ''living'' document, editing it in close time proximity to the evolving APS. Since Appendix A depicted the ACIS's original design compliance to an also-evolving set of documents, it was decided to remove Appendix A but to retain it as a reference document. This LS Note now contains that set of original design compliances. As the APS and the ACIS continue to evolve, the changes made will be subject to internal review and approval and will always be subject to the requirements set forth by the DOE and ANL.

  7. Requirements for reflection in the critical care environment.

    PubMed

    Filmalter, Celia J; Heyns, Tanya

    2015-03-09

    Reflection is recognised as an important method for practice development. The importance of reflection is well documented in the literature, but the requirements for reflection remain unclear. To explore and describe the requirements for reflection in the critical care environment as viewed by educators of qualified critical care nurses. A focus group interview was conducted to explore and describe the views of educators of qualified critical care nurses regarding requirements for reflection in the critical care environment. The themes that emerged from the focus group were buy-in from stakeholders -management, facilitators and critical care nurses, and the need to create an environment where reflection can occur. Critical care nurses should be allowed time to reflect on their practice and be supported by peers as well as a facilitator in a non-intimidating way to promote emancipatory practice development.

  8. Collaborative virtual reality environments for computational science and design.

    SciTech Connect

    Papka, M. E.

    1998-02-17

    The authors are developing a networked, multi-user, virtual-reality-based collaborative environment coupled to one or more petaFLOPs computers, enabling the interactive simulation of 10{sup 9} atom systems. The purpose of this work is to explore the requirements for this coupling. Through the design, development, and testing of such systems, they hope to gain knowledge that allows computational scientists to discover and analyze their results more quickly and in a more intuitive manner.

  9. Analysis of Indoor Environment in Classroom Based on Hygienic Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javorček, Miroslav; Sternová, Zuzana

    2016-06-01

    The article contains the analysis of experimental ventilation measurement in selected classrooms of the Elementary School Štrba. Mathematical model of selected classroom was prepared according to in-situ measurements and air exchange was calculated. Interior air temperature and quality influences the students ´ comfort. Evaluated data were compared to requirements of standard (STN EN 15251,2008) applicable to classroom indoor environment during lectures, highlighting the difference between required ambiance quality and actually measured values. CO2 concentration refers to one of the parameters indicating indoor environment quality.

  10. Design Environment for Multifidelity and Multidisciplinary Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges when developing propulsion systems is predicting the interacting effects between the fluid loads, thermal loads, and structural deflection. The interactions between technical disciplines often are not fully analyzed, and the analysis in one discipline often uses a simplified representation of other disciplines as an input or boundary condition. For example, the fluid forces in an engine generate static and dynamic rotor deflection, but the forces themselves are dependent on the rotor position and its orbit. It is important to consider the interaction between the physical phenomena where the outcome of each analysis is heavily dependent on the inputs (e.g., changes in flow due to deflection, changes in deflection due to fluid forces). A rigid design process also lacks the flexibility to employ multiple levels of fidelity in the analysis of each of the components. This project developed and validated an innovative design environment that has the flexibility to simultaneously analyze multiple disciplines and multiple components with multiple levels of model fidelity. Using NASA's open-source multidisciplinary design analysis and optimization (OpenMDAO) framework, this multifaceted system will provide substantially superior capabilities to current design tools.

  11. The integrated development of tools and environments for electronic design

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, F.R.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the relationships between the development of design tools and design environments for electronic circuits and systems. It is shown that the development of both the tools and the environment must be performed on an integrated way and depend on a design process to be supported. A methodology for the development of integrated and open design environments is shown. It considers different tool integration approaches and the selection of either environment-independent or dependent design tools.

  12. Ground Systems Development Environment (GSDE) interface requirements and prototyping plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Church, Victor E.; Philips, John; Bassman, Mitchell; Williams, C.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the data collection and requirements analysis effort of the Ground System Development Environment (GSDE) Interface Requirements study. It identifies potential problems in the interfaces among applications and processors in the heterogeneous systems that comprises the GSDE. It describes possible strategies for addressing those problems. It also identifies areas for further research and prototyping to demonstrate the capabilities and feasibility of those strategies and defines a plan for building the necessary software prototypes.

  13. SAR data compression: Application, requirements, and designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curlander, John C.; Chang, C. Y.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of reducing data volume and data rate is evaluated for the Earth Observing System (EOS) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). All elements of data stream from the sensor downlink data stream to electronic delivery of browse data products are explored. The factors influencing design of a data compression system are analyzed, including the signal data characteristics, the image quality requirements, and the throughput requirements. The conclusion is that little or no reduction can be achieved in the raw signal data using traditional data compression techniques (e.g., vector quantization, adaptive discrete cosine transform) due to the induced phase errors in the output image. However, after image formation, a number of techniques are effective for data compression.

  14. Siphon breaker design requirements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Neill, D.T.; Stephens, A.G.

    1993-03-01

    The Siphon Breaker Design Requirements Project was intended to provide experimental data on siphon flow effects. In addition, the experimental system was to be modeled with the RELAP code and the predicted and measured performances compared. This report describes the design and operation of the siphon breaker experimental equipment from 1989 to 1991. In addition the test results for all the experimental runs made in 1990 and 1991 are presented and described. Unfortunately, we have not been able to obtain useful results from a RELAP 5 model of the siphon system; consequently, we are unable to present any predictive calculations for comparison with the data presented. We have had lots of expert advice from several sources on using the RELAP code but to date our efforts have remained unsuccessful. After an extra year of effort, admittedly part-time but a lot of that, we choose to abandon the modeling efforts and produce this report describing the experimental equipment and test results.

  15. Designing Collaborative E-Learning Environments Based upon Semantic Wiki: From Design Models to Application Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yanyan; Dong, Mingkai; Huang, Ronghuai

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge society requires life-long learning and flexible learning environment that enables fast, just-in-time and relevant learning, aiding the development of communities of knowledge, linking learners and practitioners with experts. Based upon semantic wiki, a combination of wiki and Semantic Web technology, this paper designs and develops…

  16. Designing Collaborative E-Learning Environments Based upon Semantic Wiki: From Design Models to Application Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yanyan; Dong, Mingkai; Huang, Ronghuai

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge society requires life-long learning and flexible learning environment that enables fast, just-in-time and relevant learning, aiding the development of communities of knowledge, linking learners and practitioners with experts. Based upon semantic wiki, a combination of wiki and Semantic Web technology, this paper designs and develops…

  17. ALS beamline design requirements: A guide for beamline designers

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This manual is written as a guide for researchers in designing beamlines and endstations acceptable for use at the ALS. It contains guidelines and policies related to personnel safety and equipment and vacuum protection. All equipment and procedures must ultimately satisfy the safety requirements set aside in the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Health and Safety Manual (PUB-3000) which is available from the ALS User Office or on the World WideWeb from the LBNL Homepage (http:// www.lbl.gov).

  18. Cognitive Requirements of Open-Ended Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, William R.

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes a paper by Susan M. Land entitled "Cognitive Requirements for Learning with Open-Ended Learning Environments" in the Journal of Educational Technology Research and Development that discusses the cognitive demands on learners imposed by three important components of computer simulations. (ASK)

  19. Designing Assessments and Assessing Designs in Virtual Educational Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey, Daniel T.; Ingram-Goble, Adam A.; Jameson, Ellen M.

    2009-04-01

    This study used innovative assessment practices to obtain and document broad learning outcomes for a 15-hour game-based curriculum in Quest Atlantis, a multi-user virtual environment that supports school-based participation in socio scientific inquiry in ecological sciences. Design-based methods were used to refine and align the enactment of virtual narrative and scientific investigations to a challenging problem solving assessment and indirectly to achievement test items that were independent of the curriculum. In study one, one-sixth grade teacher used the curriculum in two of his classes and obtained larger gains in understanding and achievement than his two other classes, which used an expository text to learn the same concepts and skills. Further treatment refinements were carried out, and two forms of virtual formative feedback were introduced. In study two, the same teacher used the curriculum in all four of his classes; the revised curriculum resulted in even larger gains in understanding and achievement. Gains averaged 1.1 SD and 0.4 SD, respectively, with greater gains shown for students who engaged more with formative feedback. Principles for assessing designs and designing assessments in virtual environments are presented.

  20. ELISA, a demonstrator environment for information systems architecture design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panem, Chantal

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an approach of reusability of software engineering technology in the area of ground space system design. System engineers have lots of needs similar to software developers: sharing of a common data base, capitalization of knowledge, definition of a common design process, communication between different technical domains. Moreover system designers need to simulate dynamically their system as early as possible. Software development environments, methods and tools now become operational and widely used. Their architecture is based on a unique object base, a set of common management services and they host a family of tools for each life cycle activity. In late '92, CNES decided to develop a demonstrative software environment supporting some system activities. The design of ground space data processing systems was chosen as the application domain. ELISA (Integrated Software Environment for Architectures Specification) was specified as a 'demonstrator', i.e. a sufficient basis for demonstrations, evaluation and future operational enhancements. A process with three phases was implemented: system requirements definition, design of system architectures models, and selection of physical architectures. Each phase is composed of several activities that can be performed in parallel, with the provision of Commercial Off the Shelves Tools. ELISA has been delivered to CNES in January 94, currently used for demonstrations and evaluations on real projects (e.g. SPOT4 Satellite Control Center). It is on the way of new evolutions.

  1. Multiobjective satisfaction within an interactive evolutionary design environment.

    PubMed

    Parmee, I C; Cvetković, D; Watson, A H; Bonham, C R

    2000-01-01

    The paper introduces the concept of an Interactive Evolutionary Design System (IEDS) that supports the engineering designer during the conceptual/preliminary stages of the design process. Requirement during these early stages relates primarily to design search and exploration across a poorly defined space as the designer's knowledge base concerning the problem area develops. Multiobjective satisfaction plays a major role, and objectives are likely to be ill-defined and their relative importance uncertain. Interactive evolutionary search and exploration provides information to the design team that contributes directly to their overall understanding of the problem domain in terms of relevant objectives, constraints, and variable ranges. This paper describes the development of certain elements within an interactive evolutionary conceptual design environment that allows off-line processing of such information leading to a redefinition of the design space. Such redefinition may refer to the inclusion or removal of objectives, changes concerning their relative importance, or the reduction of variable ranges as a better understanding of objective sensitivity is established. The emphasis, therefore, moves from a multiobjective optimization over a preset number of generations to a relatively continuous interactive evolutionary search that results in the optimal definition of both the variable and objective space relating to the design problem at hand. The paper describes those elements of the IEDS relating to such multiobjective information gathering and subsequent design space redefinition.

  2. Conservatism implications of shock test tailoring for multiple design environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baca, Thomas J.; Bell, R. Glenn; Robbins, Susan A.

    1987-01-01

    A method for analyzing shock conservation in test specifications that have been tailored to qualify a structure for multiple design environments is discussed. Shock test conservation is qualified for shock response spectra, shock intensity spectra and ranked peak acceleration data in terms of an Index of Conservation (IOC) and an Overtest Factor (OTF). The multi-environment conservation analysis addresses the issue of both absolute and average conservation. The method is demonstrated in a case where four laboratory tests have been specified to qualify a component which must survive seven different field environments. Final judgment of the tailored test specification is shown to require an understanding of the predominant failure modes of the test item.

  3. Developing operational requirements for the design of law enforcement technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overlin, Trudy K.; Marts, Donna J.

    1995-05-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was awarded a two-year project to design and develop an air bag restraint for use in law enforcement patrol vehicles. The work has successfully proven the concept and is in the final stages of prototype development. The end product will be the design and delivery of one prototype unit to the National Institute of Justice for evaluation. The INEL also assessed possible technologies that could be used to halt suspects in fleeing vehicles and safely put an end to high-speed pursuits. During the assessment of these technologies, a set of operational requirements were developed that were useful in determining the appropriateness of the technologies for the law enforcement application. This paper discusses the importance of operational requirements in their application to the technologies assessment conducted in the laboratory. The paper discusses the law enforcement and pursuit environment in terms of liability, safety of operation, social acceptance, and effectiveness of technology.

  4. Design of a rotary stepped auger for a lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dardet, Eduardo; Hart, Derek; Herod, Chris; Homiller, Stephen; Meeks, Mickey; Platt, Kirsten

    1988-01-01

    A lunar outpost will have need for deep drilling operations for both explorative and practical purposes. As in any drilling operation, the cuttings must be cleared from the hole. The hard vacuum of the lunar environment renders conventional flushing methods of cutting removal unfeasible, and requires a new system of removal. A rotary stepped auger (RSA) is a simple mechanical method of removing dry cuttings from a deep hole, and is ideally suited to the lunar environment. The RSA consists of a helical auger with stepped ramps which allow cuttings to slide up the helix, but will prevent them from sliding back down. The auger is driven in a pulsed manner by applying a periodic function of acceleration to the auger shaft. These pulses will compel the cuttings to slide up the auger's helix while the stepped ramps prevent the cuttings from backsliding while the auger accelerates. A mathematical model of the RSA was developed and experimentally evaluated. The math model produced a good baseline design, but the experimental model required some tuning to account for the approximations made in the math model. This design is suited for lunar drilling because it is mechanically simple, integral to the drill string, requires no fluids, is suited to the dry soil, and has relatively low weight and power requirements.

  5. Advanced Neutron Source: Plant Design Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source will be a new world-class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. The heart of the facility will be a 330-MW (fission), heavy-water cooled and heavy-water moderated reactor. The reactor will be housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides will fan out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Appropriate office, laboratory, and shop facilities will be included to provide a complete facility for users. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory early in the next decade. This PDR document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of ANS. It also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this PDR document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of ANS.

  6. [The forestry work environment and its ergonomic requirements].

    PubMed

    Sever, S

    1995-03-01

    The paper describes chief instruments of forest production and their ergonomic requirements. The level of mechanization in the forestry production differs from high in logging and roadbuilding to a considerably lower one in silviculture, where nursery production stands out with the level of mechanization equalling that of agriculture. Ergonomic requirements greatly depend on the attitude of a particular social environment towards work safety. Some ergonomic requirements take the form of standards, recommendations or agreements. The chain saw is characterized not only by ergonomic-technical properties but also by mass, noise and vibration. Over the past three and a half decades, each of these parameters has come to conform to stricter and stricter requirements. Mass has been reduced to less than 8 kg, noise near the cutter's ear to about 100 dB(A), and the estimated acceleration transfer to the hand/arm system (WAS) below 12.5 m/s2 (frequently even below 10 m/s2).

  7. CAD tool environment for MEMS process design support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, T.; Wagener, A.; Popp, J.; Hahn, K.; Bruck, R.

    2005-07-01

    MEMS fabrication processes are characterized by a numerous useable process steps, materials and effects to fabricate the intended microstructure. Up to now CAD support in this domain concentrates mainly on the structural design (e.g. simulation programs on FEM basis). These tools often assume fixed interfaces to fabrication process like material parameters or design rules. Taking into account that MEMS design requires concurrently structural design (defining the lateral 2-dim shapes) as well as process design (responsible for the third dimension) it turns out that technology interfaces consisting only of sets of static data are no longer sufficient. For successful design flows in these areas it is necessary to incorporate a higher degree of process related data. A broader interface between process configuration on the one side and the application design on the other side seems to be needed. This paper proposes a novel approach. A process management system is introduced. It allows the specification of processes for specific applications. The system is based on a dedicated database environment that is able to store and manage all process related design constraints linked to the fabrication process data itself. The interdependencies between application specific processes and all stages of the design flow will be discussed and the complete software system PRINCE will be introduced meeting the requirements of this new approach. Based on a concurrent design methodology presented in the beginning of this paper, a system is presented that supports application specific process design. The paper will highlight the incorporated tools and the present status of the software system. A complete configuration of an Si-thin film process example will demonstrate the usage of PRINCE.

  8. Autonomous Mission Design in Extreme Orbit Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surovik, David Allen

    An algorithm for autonomous online mission design at asteroids, comets, and small moons is developed to meet the novel challenges of their complex non-Keplerian orbit environments, which render traditional methods inapplicable. The core concept of abstract reachability analysis, in which a set of impulsive maneuvering options is mapped onto a space of high-level mission outcomes, is applied to enable goal-oriented decision-making with robustness to uncertainty. These nuanced analyses are efficiently computed by utilizing a heuristic-based adaptive sampling scheme that either maximizes an objective function for autonomous planning or resolves details of interest for preliminary analysis and general study. Illustrative examples reveal the chaotic nature of small body systems through the structure of various families of reachable orbits, such as those that facilitate close-range observation of targeted surface locations or achieve soft impact upon them. In order to fulfill extensive sets of observation tasks, the single-maneuver design method is implemented in a receding-horizon framework such that a complete mission is constructed on-the-fly one piece at a time. Long-term performance and convergence are assured by augmenting the objective function with a prospect heuristic, which approximates the likelihood that a reachable end-state will benefit the subsequent planning horizon. When state and model uncertainty produce larger trajectory deviations than were anticipated, the next control horizon is advanced to allow for corrective action -- a low-frequency form of feedback control. Through Monte Carlo analysis, the planning algorithm is ultimately demonstrated to produce mission profiles that vary drastically in their physical paths but nonetheless consistently complete all goals, suggesting a high degree of flexibility. It is further shown that the objective function can be tuned to preferentially minimize fuel cost or mission duration, as well as to optimize

  9. IFR fuel cycle process equipment design environment and objectives

    SciTech Connect

    Rigg, R.H.

    1993-03-01

    Argonne National laboratory (ANL) is refurbishing the hot cell facility originally constructed with the EBR-II reactor. When refurbishment is complete, the facility win demonstrate the complete fuel cycle for current generation high burnup metallic fuel elements. These are sodium bonded, stainless steel clad fuel pins of U-Zr or U-Pu-Zr composition typical of the fuel type proposed for a future Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) design. To the extent possible, the process equipment is being built at full commercial scale, and the facility is being modified to incorporate current DOE facility design requirements and modem remote maintenance principles. The current regulatory and safety environment has affected the design of the fuel fabrication equipment, most of which will be described in greater detail in subsequent papers in this session.

  10. IFR fuel cycle process equipment design environment and objectives

    SciTech Connect

    Rigg, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    Argonne National laboratory (ANL) is refurbishing the hot cell facility originally constructed with the EBR-II reactor. When refurbishment is complete, the facility win demonstrate the complete fuel cycle for current generation high burnup metallic fuel elements. These are sodium bonded, stainless steel clad fuel pins of U-Zr or U-Pu-Zr composition typical of the fuel type proposed for a future Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) design. To the extent possible, the process equipment is being built at full commercial scale, and the facility is being modified to incorporate current DOE facility design requirements and modem remote maintenance principles. The current regulatory and safety environment has affected the design of the fuel fabrication equipment, most of which will be described in greater detail in subsequent papers in this session.

  11. Minimum Fuel Trajectory Design in Multiple Dynamical Environments Utilizing Direct Transcription Methods and Particle Swarm Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    MINIMUM-FUEL TRAJECTORY DESIGN IN MULTIPLE DYNAMICAL ENVIRONMENTS UTILIZING DIRECT TRANSCRIPTION METHODS AND PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION THESIS...250 MINIMUM-FUEL TRAJECTORY DESIGN IN MULTIPLE DYNAMICAL ENVIRONMENTS UTILIZING DIRECT TRANSCRIPTION METHODS AND PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION THESIS... Education and Training Command in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Astronautical Engineering Alfredo G

  12. An integrated risk analysis methodology in a multidisciplinary design environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampton, Katrina Renee

    environment consists of the interface between configuration and sizing analysis outputs and aerodynamic parameter computations. Uncertainties are analyzed for both simulation tools and their associated input parameters. Uncertainties are then propagated across the design environment and a robust design optimization is performed over the range of a critical input parameter. The results of this research indicate that including uncertainties into design processes may require modification of design constraints previously considered acceptable in deterministic analyses.

  13. Designing Multimedia Environments for Children: Computers, Creativity, and Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druin, Allison; Solomon, Cynthia

    This book and the accompanying CD-ROM examine the process of designing multimedia learning environments and the results of and the impact on children of these environments. After an introduction, chapter 1 discusses the origins of educational multimedia environments, presenting initial thoughts on being a designer and focusing on the logo…

  14. Designing Multimedia Environments for Children: Computers, Creativity, and Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druin, Allison; Solomon, Cynthia

    This book and the accompanying CD-ROM examine the process of designing multimedia learning environments and the results of and the impact on children of these environments. After an introduction, chapter 1 discusses the origins of educational multimedia environments, presenting initial thoughts on being a designer and focusing on the logo…

  15. COVE: a visual environment for ocean observatory design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grochow, K.; Stoermer, M.; Kelley, D.; Delaney, J.; Lazowska, E.

    2008-07-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological ocean processes play a crucial role in determining Earth's environment. Unfortunately, our knowledge of these processes is limited because oceanography is carried out today largely the way it was a century ago: as expeditionary science, going to sea in ships and measuring a relatively small number of parameters (e.g., temperature, salinity, and pressure) as time and budget allow. The NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative is a US330 million project that will help transform oceanography from a data-poor to a data-rich science. A cornerstone of this project is the deep water Regional Scale Nodes (RSN) that will be installed off the coasts of Washington and Oregon. The RSN will include 1500 km of fiber optic cable providing power and bandwidth to the seafloor and throughout the water column. Thousands of sensors will be deployed to stream data and imagery to shore, where they will be available in real time for ocean scientists and the public at large. The design of the RSN is a complex undertaking, requiring a combination of many different interactive tools and areas of visualization: geographic visualization to see the available seafloor bathymetry, scientific visualization to examine existing geospatially located datasets, layout tools to place the sensors, and collaborative tools to communicate across the team during the design. COVE, the Common Observatory Visualization Environment, is a visualization environment designed to meet all these needs. COVE has been built by computer scientists working closely with the engineering and scientific teams who will build and use the RSN. This paper discusses the data and activities of cabled observatory design, the design of COVE, and results from its use across the team.

  16. Designing Environment for Teaching Internet of Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simic, Konstantin; Vujin, Vladimir; Labus, Aleksandra; Stepanic, Ðorde; Stevanovic, Mladen

    2014-01-01

    One of the new topics taught at technical universities is Internet of Things. In this paper, a workshop for organizing a lab in academic environment for the subject Internet of Things is described. The architecture of the platform, scenario and a description of components used for creating the environment for learning Internet of things are also…

  17. Optimal Living Environments for the Elderly: A Design Simulation Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Stephanie B.; And Others

    PLANNED AGE (Planned Alternatives for Gerontological Environments) is a consumer/advocate-oriented design simulation package that provides: (a) a medium for user-planner interaction in the design of living and service environments for the aged; (b) an educational, planning, design, and evaluation tool that can be used by the elderly, their…

  18. Ground Systems Development Environment (GSDE) interface requirements analysis: Operations scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Church, Victor E.; Phillips, John

    1991-01-01

    This report is a preliminary assessment of the functional and data interface requirements to the link between the GSDE GS/SPF (Amdahl) and the Space Station Control Center (SSCC) and Space Station Training Facility (SSTF) Integration, Verification, and Test Environments (IVTE's). These interfaces will be involved in ground software development of both the control center and the simulation and training systems. Our understanding of the configuration management (CM) interface and the expected functional characteristics of the Amdahl-IVTE interface is described. A set of assumptions and questions that need to be considered and resolved in order to complete the interface functional and data requirements definitions are presented. A listing of information items defined to describe software configuration items in the GSDE CM system is included. It also includes listings of standard reports of CM information and of CM-related tools in the GSDE.

  19. Defining the Natural Atmospheric Environment Requirements for the NASA Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barry C.; Leahy, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration began developing a new vehicle under the Constellation Program to replace the Space Shuttle. The Ares-1 launch vehicle and the Orion capsule will be used to ferry crew and some payloads to the International Space Station and will also be used for new missions to the moon, As development of this new vehicle begins, the Natural Environments Branch at Marshall Space Flight Center has been tasked with defining the natural environments the vehicle will encounter and working with the program to develop natural environmental requirements for the vehicles' elements. An overview of the structure of the program is given, along with a description of the Constellation Design Specification for Natural Environments and the Constellation Natural Environments Definition for Design documents and how they apply to the Ares-I and Orion vehicles.

  20. FLIP II - Concept Designs to Meet Future Scientific Mission Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laible, D. H.

    2002-12-01

    R/P FLIP has successfully operated for 40 years in support of important oceanographic research missions. The simple platform, which has the unique ability to provide a heave-stable operating location in open ocean environments, has over time been modified and upgraded. Its capability has been extended to the physical limits imposed by buoyancy and stability constraints. Nonetheless, there are oceanographic research operations that can use FLIP's unique characteristics, but which exceed its capabilities. Over the years researchers at the Marine Physical Laboratory of Scripps Institution of Oceanography have led investigations into second generation heave-stable ocean platforms with capabilities substantially exceeding those of R/P FLIP. This paper discusses several design concepts that have been developed. The designs are presented in terms of the ability to meet current and future scientific mission requirements.

  1. PROCESS DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENT: A MULTI-OBJECTIVE FRAMEWORK UNDER UNCERTAINTY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Designing chemical processes for environment requires consideration of several indexes of environmental impact including ozone depletion and global warming potentials, human and aquatic toxicity, and photochemical oxidation, and acid rain potentials. Current methodologies like t...

  2. PROCESS DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENT: A MULTI-OBJECTIVE FRAMEWORK UNDER UNCERTAINTY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Designing chemical processes for environment requires consideration of several indexes of environmental impact including ozone depletion and global warming potentials, human and aquatic toxicity, and photochemical oxidation, and acid rain potentials. Current methodologies like t...

  3. AOTV Low L/D Preliminary Aeroheating Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, C. D.

    1983-01-01

    The aerothermal environment to a configuration with a brake face which exhibits a low lift to drag ratio (L/D) of below 0.75 is emphasized. The five times geosynchronous (5 x Geo) orbit entry was selected as the design trajectory. The available data base and math model is discussed. The resulting preliminary design environment is documented. Recommendations as to how the design environment may be improved through technological advances are given.

  4. 49 CFR 173.410 - General design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General design requirements. 173.410 Section 173... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.410 General design requirements... of Class 7 (radioactive) materials must be designed so that— (a) The package can be easily handled...

  5. 49 CFR 173.410 - General design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General design requirements. 173.410 Section 173... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.410 General design requirements... of Class 7 (radioactive) materials must be designed so that— (a) The package can be easily handled...

  6. 7 CFR 3560.559 - Design and construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Design and construction requirements. 3560.559... § 3560.559 Design and construction requirements. (a) General. The requirements established in § 3560.60... encouraged that the design of off-farm labor housing incorporate outdoor shower, boot washing station,...

  7. Superconducting magnets in high radiation environments: Design problems and solutions

    SciTech Connect

    St. Lorant, S.J.; Tillmann, E.

    1989-11-01

    As part of the Stanford Linear Collider Project, three high-field superconducting solenoid magnets are used to rotate the spin direction of a polarized electron beam. The magnets are installed in a high-radiation environment, where they will receive a dose of approximately 10{sup 3} rad per hour, or 10{sup 8} rad over their lifetimes. This level of radiation and the location in which the magnets are installed, some 10 meters below ground in contiguous tunnels, required careful selection of materials for the construction of the solenoids and their ancillary cryogenic equipment, as well as the development of compatible component designs. This paper describes the materials used and the design of the equipment appropriate for the application. Included are summaries of the physical and mechanical properties of the materials and how they behave when irradiated. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. 40 CFR 80.219 - Designation and downstream requirements for GPA gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements for GPA gasoline. 80.219 Section 80.219 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Geographic Phase-in Program § 80.219 Designation and downstream requirements for GPA gasoline. The requirements and...

  9. 40 CFR 80.219 - Designation and downstream requirements for GPA gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements for GPA gasoline. 80.219 Section 80.219 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Geographic Phase-in Program § 80.219 Designation and downstream requirements for GPA gasoline. The requirements and...

  10. 40 CFR 80.219 - Designation and downstream requirements for GPA gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements for GPA gasoline. 80.219 Section 80.219 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Geographic Phase-in Program § 80.219 Designation and downstream requirements for GPA gasoline. The requirements and...

  11. 7 CFR 1724.51 - Design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) The Architectural Barriers Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 4151), which requires that buildings financed with... compliance with all Federal, State, and local requirements. (f) Communications and control. (1) This section covers microwave and powerline carrier communications systems, load control, and supervisory control and...

  12. 7 CFR 801.11 - Related design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Related design requirements. 801.11 Section 801.11... FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.11 Related design requirements. (a) Suitability. The design... used. (b) Durability. The design, construction, and material used in official sampling and inspection...

  13. 7 CFR 801.11 - Related design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Related design requirements. 801.11 Section 801.11... FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.11 Related design requirements. (a) Suitability. The design... used. (b) Durability. The design, construction, and material used in official sampling and...

  14. 7 CFR 1724.51 - Design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... foundation selection. (3) Line design data for uprating transmission lines to higher voltage levels or..., design considerations covering voltage, capacity, shielding, clearances, number of low and high voltage... control house, seismic considerations, corrosion, grounding, protective relaying, and AC and DC auxiliary...

  15. Successful Web Learning Environments: New Design Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Margaret

    The Web offers the perfect technology and environment for precision learning because learners can be uniquely identified, relevant content can be specifically personalized, and subsequent response and progress can be monitored, supported, and assessed. Technologically, researchers are making rapid progress realizing the personalized learning dream…

  16. Design of a Blended Learning Environment: Considerations and Implementation Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedik, Nuray; Kiraz, Ercan; Ozden, M. Yasar

    2013-01-01

    This study identified critical issues in the design of a blended learning environment by examining basic design considerations and implementation issues. Following a design-based research approach with the phenomenological tradition of qualitative research, the study investigated instructor experiences relating to the design, development, and…

  17. Designing Interactive Learning Environments: An Approach from First Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Bernard; Cong, Chunyu

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Today's technology supports the design of more and more sophisticated interactive learning environments. This paper aims to argue that such design should develop from first principles. Design/methodology/approach: In the paper by first principles is meant: learning theory and principles of course design. These principles are briefly…

  18. Architecture and Children: Learning Environments and Design Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Anne, Ed.; Muhlberger, Joe, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This issue addresses (1) growing international interest in learning environments and their effects on behavior, and (2) design education, an integrated model for visual-spatial lifelong learning. It focuses on this new and emerging integrated field which integrates elements in education, new learning environment design, and the use of more two-…

  19. Learning System Design Consideration in Creating an Online Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Scott

    This paper describes the design of a Web-based learning environment for leadership facilitators in a United States military organization. The overall aim of this project was to design a prototype of an online learning environment that supports leadership facilitators' knowledge development in the content area of motivation. The learning…

  20. Adding Intelligence to a Learning Environment: Learner-Centred Design?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brna, Paul; Cox, R.

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of learner-centered design focuses on the development of switchEr, a specific learning environment changed to an intelligent learning environment by switching from one external representation (ER) to another. Topics include user-centered design; the role of artificial intelligence; and the development of effective educational computing…

  1. Grounded Practice and the Design of Constructivist Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannafin, Michael J.; Hannafin, Kathleen M.; Land, Susan M.; Oliver, Kevin

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of constructivist learning environments focuses on the concept of grounded design, a process that involves linking the practices of learning systems design with related theory and research. Topics include directed versus situated learning environments, situated cognition and anchored instruction, social constructivism and problem…

  2. A Well Designed School Environment Facilitates Brain Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Tak Cheung; Petrie, Garth

    2000-01-01

    Examines how school design facilitates learning by complementing how the brain learns. How the brain learns is discussed and how an artistic environment, spaciousness in the learning areas, color and lighting, and optimal thermal and acoustical environments aid student learning. School design suggestions conclude the article. (GR)

  3. Design Milieux for Learning Environments in African Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duveskog, Marcus; Sutinen, Erkki; Cronje, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    During the years 2002 to 2009, five African settings were used as foundation for designing different learning environments. While the content and target group for each learning environment varied, all of their design settings, or milieux, shared one implicit expectation: the milieu should facilitate the production of a change-making learning…

  4. Architecture and Children: Learning Environments and Design Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Anne, Ed.; Muhlberger, Joe, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This issue addresses (1) growing international interest in learning environments and their effects on behavior, and (2) design education, an integrated model for visual-spatial lifelong learning. It focuses on this new and emerging integrated field which integrates elements in education, new learning environment design, and the use of more two-…

  5. Adding Intelligence to a Learning Environment: Learner-Centred Design?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brna, Paul; Cox, R.

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of learner-centered design focuses on the development of switchEr, a specific learning environment changed to an intelligent learning environment by switching from one external representation (ER) to another. Topics include user-centered design; the role of artificial intelligence; and the development of effective educational computing…

  6. Design Milieux for Learning Environments in African Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duveskog, Marcus; Sutinen, Erkki; Cronje, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    During the years 2002 to 2009, five African settings were used as foundation for designing different learning environments. While the content and target group for each learning environment varied, all of their design settings, or milieux, shared one implicit expectation: the milieu should facilitate the production of a change-making learning…

  7. Spectrum analysis on quality requirements consideration in software design documents.

    PubMed

    Kaiya, Haruhiko; Umemura, Masahiro; Ogata, Shinpei; Kaijiri, Kenji

    2013-12-01

    Software quality requirements defined in the requirements analysis stage should be implemented in the final products, such as source codes and system deployment. To guarantee this meta-requirement, quality requirements should be considered in the intermediate stages, such as the design stage or the architectural definition stage. We propose a novel method for checking whether quality requirements are considered in the design stage. In this method, a technique called "spectrum analysis for quality requirements" is applied not only to requirements specifications but also to design documents. The technique enables us to derive the spectrum of a document, and quality requirements considerations in the document are numerically represented in the spectrum. We can thus objectively identify whether the considerations of quality requirements in a requirements document are adapted to its design document. To validate the method, we applied it to commercial software systems with the help of a supporting tool, and we confirmed that the method worked well.

  8. Architectural design and the collaborative research environment.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Roger N

    2006-10-20

    Given that science is a collaborative endeavor, architects are striving to design new research buildings that not only provide a more pleasant work space but also facilitate interactions among researchers.

  9. Palladio: An Exploratory Environment for Circuit Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    been Qpproved Spublic =.jo 3 0o’s; its ditni’buto i-.i•,• --’ 93-15882 THIS DOCUMENT IS BEST QUALITY AVAILABLE. THE COPY FURNISHED TO DTIC CONTAINED...behavior, functional performance, design quality (e.g., testability, understandability, robustness), and physical realizability. Circuit verification...format can accommodate behavior that transcends traditional logic modes for digital design. For example, the rule syntax permits Boolean logic control to

  10. Automated design synthesis of robotic/human workcells for improved manufacturing system design in hazardous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Joshua M.

    2012-06-12

    Manufacturing tasks that are deemed too hazardous for workers require the use of automation, robotics, and/or other remote handling tools. The associated hazards may be radiological or nonradiological, and based on the characteristics of the environment and processing, a design may necessitate robotic labor, human labor, or both. There are also other factors such as cost, ergonomics, maintenance, and efficiency that also effect task allocation and other design choices. Handling the tradeoffs of these factors can be complex, and lack of experience can be an issue when trying to determine if and what feasible automation/robotics options exist. To address this problem, we utilize common engineering design approaches adapted more for manufacturing system design in hazardous environments. We limit our scope to the conceptual and embodiment design stages, specifically a computational algorithm for concept generation and early design evaluation. In regard to concept generation, we first develop the functional model or function structure for the process, using the common 'verb-noun' format for describing function. A common language or functional basis for manufacturing was developed and utilized to formalize function descriptions and guide rules for function decomposition. Potential components for embodiment are also grouped in terms of this functional language and are stored in a database. The properties of each component are given as quantitative and qualitative criteria. Operators are also rated for task-relevant criteria which are used to address task compatibility. Through the gathering of process requirements/constraints, construction of the component database, and development of the manufacturing basis and rule set, design knowledge is stored and available for computer use. Thus, once the higher level process functions are defined, the computer can automate the synthesis of new design concepts through alternating steps of embodiment and function structure updates

  11. 7 CFR 3560.60 - Design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) will be followed. Individual copies of these standards are... accessible units, the 5 percent requirement will apply when making substantial alterations as defined by UFAS. The UFAS defines substantial alteration as “alteration to any building or facility is to be...

  12. 7 CFR 3560.60 - Design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) will be followed. Individual copies of these standards are... accessible units, the 5 percent requirement will apply when making substantial alterations as defined by UFAS. The UFAS defines substantial alteration as “alteration to any building or facility is to be...

  13. 7 CFR 3560.60 - Design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) will be followed. Individual copies of these standards are... accessible units, the 5 percent requirement will apply when making substantial alterations as defined by UFAS. The UFAS defines substantial alteration as “alteration to any building or facility is to be...

  14. Engineering design constraints of the lunar surface environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, D. A.

    1992-02-01

    Living and working on the lunar surface will be difficult. Design of habitats, machines, tools, and operational scenarios in order to allow maximum flexibility in human activity will require paying attention to certain constraints imposed by conditions at the surface and the characteristics of lunar material. Primary design drivers for habitat, crew health and safety, and crew equipment are: ionizing radiation, the meteoroid flux, and the thermal environment. Secondary constraints for engineering derive from: the physical and chemical properties of lunar surface materials, rock distributions and regolith thicknesses, topography, electromagnetic properties, and seismicity. Protection from ionizing radiation is essential for crew health and safety. The total dose acquired by a crew member will be the sum of the dose acquired during EVA time (when shielding will be least) plus the dose acquired during time spent in the habitat (when shielding will be maximum). Minimizing the dose acquired in the habitat extends the time allowable for EVA's before a dose limit is reached. Habitat shielding is enabling, and higher precision in predicting secondary fluxes produced in shielding material would be desirable. Means for minimizing dose during a solar flare event while on extended EVA will be essential. Early warning of the onset of flare activity (at least a half-hour is feasible) will dictate the time available to take mitigating steps. Warning capability affects design of rovers (or rover tools) and site layout. Uncertainty in solar flare timing is a design constraint that points to the need for quickly accessible or constructible safe havens.

  15. Engineering design constraints of the lunar surface environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    Living and working on the lunar surface will be difficult. Design of habitats, machines, tools, and operational scenarios in order to allow maximum flexibility in human activity will require paying attention to certain constraints imposed by conditions at the surface and the characteristics of lunar material. Primary design drivers for habitat, crew health and safety, and crew equipment are: ionizing radiation, the meteoroid flux, and the thermal environment. Secondary constraints for engineering derive from: the physical and chemical properties of lunar surface materials, rock distributions and regolith thicknesses, topography, electromagnetic properties, and seismicity. Protection from ionizing radiation is essential for crew health and safety. The total dose acquired by a crew member will be the sum of the dose acquired during EVA time (when shielding will be least) plus the dose acquired during time spent in the habitat (when shielding will be maximum). Minimizing the dose acquired in the habitat extends the time allowable for EVA's before a dose limit is reached. Habitat shielding is enabling, and higher precision in predicting secondary fluxes produced in shielding material would be desirable. Means for minimizing dose during a solar flare event while on extended EVA will be essential. Early warning of the onset of flare activity (at least a half-hour is feasible) will dictate the time available to take mitigating steps. Warning capability affects design of rovers (or rover tools) and site layout. Uncertainty in solar flare timing is a design constraint that points to the need for quickly accessible or constructible safe havens.

  16. Engineering design constraints of the lunar surface environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    Living and working on the lunar surface will be difficult. Design of habitats, machines, tools, and operational scenarios in order to allow maximum flexibility in human activity will require paying attention to certain constraints imposed by conditions at the surface and the characteristics of lunar material. Primary design drivers for habitat, crew health and safety, and crew equipment are: ionizing radiation, the meteoroid flux, and the thermal environment. Secondary constraints for engineering derive from: the physical and chemical properties of lunar surface materials, rock distributions and regolith thicknesses, topography, electromagnetic properties, and seismicity. Protection from ionizing radiation is essential for crew health and safety. The total dose acquired by a crew member will be the sum of the dose acquired during EVA time (when shielding will be least) plus the dose acquired during time spent in the habitat (when shielding will be maximum). Minimizing the dose acquired in the habitat extends the time allowable for EVA's before a dose limit is reached. Habitat shielding is enabling, and higher precision in predicting secondary fluxes produced in shielding material would be desirable. Means for minimizing dose during a solar flare event while on extended EVA will be essential. Early warning of the onset of flare activity (at least a half-hour is feasible) will dictate the time available to take mitigating steps. Warning capability affects design of rovers (or rover tools) and site layout. Uncertainty in solar flare timing is a design constraint that points to the need for quickly accessible or constructible safe havens.

  17. LISP as an Environment for Software Design: Powerful and Perspicuous

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Robert L.; Walker, Michael G.

    1986-01-01

    The LISP language provides a useful set of features for prototyping knowledge-intensive, clinical applications software that is not found In most other programing environments. Medical computer programs that need large medical knowledge bases, such as programs for diagnosis, therapeutic consultation, education, simulation, and peer review, are hard to design, evolve continually, and often require major revisions. They necessitate an efficient and flexible program development environment. The LISP language and programming environments bullt around it are well suited for program prototyping. The lingua franca of artifical intelligence researchers, LISP facllitates bullding complex systems because it is simple yet powerful. Because of its simplicity, LISP programs can read, execute, modify and even compose other LISP programs at run time. Hence, it has been easy for system developers to create programming tools that greatly speed the program development process, and that may be easily extended by users. This has resulted in the creation of many useful graphical interfaces, editors, and debuggers, which facllitate the development of knowledge-intensive medical applications.

  18. 40 CFR 68.215 - Permit content and air permitting authority or designated agency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Permit content and air permitting authority or designated agency requirements. 68.215 Section 68.215 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Other...

  19. 40 CFR 68.215 - Permit content and air permitting authority or designated agency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permit content and air permitting authority or designated agency requirements. 68.215 Section 68.215 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Other...

  20. 40 CFR 68.215 - Permit content and air permitting authority or designated agency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Permit content and air permitting authority or designated agency requirements. 68.215 Section 68.215 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Other...

  1. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Eeee of... - Requirements for Performance Tests and Design Evaluations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for Performance Tests and Design Evaluations 5 Table 5 to Subpart EEEE of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  2. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Eeee of... - Requirements for Performance Tests and Design Evaluations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Requirements for Performance Tests and Design Evaluations 5 Table 5 to Subpart EEEE of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)...

  3. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Eeee of... - Requirements for Performance Tests and Design Evaluations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requirements for Performance Tests and Design Evaluations 5 Table 5 to Subpart EEEE of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  4. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Eeee of... - Requirements for Performance Tests and Design Evaluations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Requirements for Performance Tests and Design Evaluations 5 Table 5 to Subpart EEEE of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National...

  5. Design Requirements for Amorphous Piezoelectric Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ounaies, Z.; Young, J. A.; Harrison, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the piezoelectric activity in amorphous piezoelectric polymers is presented. The criteria required to render a polymer piezoelectric are discussed. Although piezoelectricity is a coupling between mechanical and electrical properties, most research has concentrated on the electrical properties of potentially piezoelectric polymers. In this work, we present comparative mechanical data as a function of temperature and offer a summary of polarization and electromechanical properties for each of the polymers considered.

  6. An automated calibration laboratory - Requirements and design approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neil-Rood, Nora; Glover, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Facility (Ames-Dryden), operates a diverse fleet of research aircraft which are heavily instrumented to provide both real time data for in-flight monitoring and recorded data for postflight analysis. Ames-Dryden's existing automated calibration (AUTOCAL) laboratory is a computerized facility which tests aircraft sensors to certify accuracy for anticipated harsh flight environments. Recently, a major AUTOCAL lab upgrade was initiated; the goal of this modernization is to enhance productivity and improve configuration management for both software and test data. The new system will have multiple testing stations employing distributed processing linked by a local area network to a centralized database. The baseline requirements for the new AUTOCAL lab and the design approach being taken for its mechanization are described.

  7. 46 CFR 58.30-5 - Design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design requirements. 58.30-5 Section 58.30-5 Shipping... AND RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-5 Design requirements. (a) The.... (b) The system shall be so designed that proper functioning of any unit shall not be affected by the...

  8. 14 CFR 21.99 - Required design changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... experience that changes in type design will contribute to the safety of the product, the holder of the type... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Required design changes. 21.99 Section 21... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Changes to Type Certificates § 21.99 Required design changes. (a...

  9. 14 CFR 21.99 - Required design changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... experience that changes in type design will contribute to the safety of the product, the holder of the type... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Required design changes. 21.99 Section 21... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Changes to Type Certificates § 21.99 Required design changes. (a...

  10. 14 CFR 21.99 - Required design changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required design changes. 21.99 Section 21... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Changes to Type Certificates § 21.99 Required design changes. (a... product concerned must— (1) If the Administrator finds that design changes are necessary to correct...

  11. 49 CFR 192.183 - Vaults: Structural design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vaults: Structural design requirements. 192.183... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.183 Vaults: Structural design requirements. (a) Each underground vault or pit for...

  12. Knowledge management in the engineering design environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Hugh C.

    2006-01-01

    The Aerospace and Defense industry is experiencing an increasing loss of knowledge through workforce reductions associated with business consolidation and retirement of senior personnel. Significant effort is being placed on process definition as part of ISO certification and, more recently, CMMI certification. The process knowledge in these efforts represents the simplest of engineering knowledge and many organizations are trying to get senior engineers to write more significant guidelines, best practices and design manuals. A new generation of design software, known as Product Lifecycle Management systems, has many mechanisms for capturing and deploying a wider variety of engineering knowledge than simple process definitions. These hold the promise of significant improvements through reuse of prior designs, codification of practices in workflows, and placement of detailed how-tos at the point of application.

  13. Knowledge management in the engineering design environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Hugh C.

    2006-01-01

    The Aerospace and Defense industry is experiencing an increasing loss of knowledge through workforce reductions associated with business consolidation and retirement of senior personnel. Significant effort is being placed on process definition as part of ISO certification and, more recently, CMMI certification. The process knowledge in these efforts represents the simplest of engineering knowledge and many organizations are trying to get senior engineers to write more significant guidelines, best practices and design manuals. A new generation of design software, known as Product Lifecycle Management systems, has many mechanisms for capturing and deploying a wider variety of engineering knowledge than simple process definitions. These hold the promise of significant improvements through reuse of prior designs, codification of practices in workflows, and placement of detailed how-tos at the point of application.

  14. EXPERIENCES IN DESIGNING SOLVENTS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvents used throughout industry are chosen to meet specific technological requirements such as solute solubility, cleaning and degreasing, or being a medium for paints and coatings. With the increasing awareness of the human health effects and environmental risks of solvent use...

  15. EXPERIENCES IN DESIGNING SOLVENTS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvents used throughout industry are chosen to meet specific technological requirements such as solute solubility, cleaning and degreasing, or being a medium for paints and coatings. With the increasing awareness of the human health effects and environmental tisks of solvent use...

  16. EXPERIENCES IN DESIGNING SOLVENTS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvents used throughout industry are chosen to meet specific technological requirements such as solute solubility, cleaning and degreasing, or being a medium for paints and coatings. With the increasing awareness of the human health effects and environmental tisks of solvent use...

  17. EXPERIENCES IN DESIGNING SOLVENTS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvents used throughout industry are chosen to meet specific technological requirements such as solute solubility, cleaning and degreasing, or being a medium for paints and coatings. With the increasing awareness of the human health effects and environmental risks of solvent use...

  18. Creative Environment Formation in Design Professional Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakirova, Venera G.; Purik, Elza E.

    2016-01-01

    The current interest to the issue of this work lies in the fact that a professional competence of a designer needs highly developed abilities to create new and different projects of high aesthetic value in compliance with the current regulations. Image visualization abilities development needs special conditions encouraging personal creativity.…

  19. Considerations for Designing Instructional Virtual Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennen, Vanessa Paz; Branch, Robert C.

    Virtual reality is an immersive, interactive medium that manipulates the senses in order provide users with simulated experiences in computer-generated worlds. The visual design of virtual reality is an important issue, but literature has tended to stress the medium's instructional potential rather than setting forth a protocol for designing…

  20. Design Principles of the ESCOT Math Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Jody S.; Hoadley, Chris; DiGiano, Chris; Stohl, Hollylynne; Hollebrands, Karen

    This paper describes the Educational Software Components of Tomorrow (ESCOT) project. The focus of the project was on principles that support problem-solving and learner-centered design issues, and the purpose was to garner lessons from a large educational software development project to share with the learning sciences and other interested…

  1. Operational characterisation of requirements and early validation environment for high demanding space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barro, E.; Delbufalo, A.; Rossi, F.

    1993-01-01

    The definition of some modern high demanding space systems requires a different approach to system definition and design from that adopted for traditional missions. System functionality is strongly coupled to the operational analysis, aimed at characterizing the dynamic interactions of the flight element with its surrounding environment and its ground control segment. Unambiguous functional, operational and performance requirements are to be defined for the system, thus improving also the successive development stages. This paper proposes a Petri Nets based methodology and two related prototype applications (to ARISTOTELES orbit control and to Hermes telemetry generation) for the operational analysis of space systems through the dynamic modeling of their functions and a related computer aided environment (ISIDE) able to make the dynamic model work, thus enabling an early validation of the system functional representation, and to provide a structured system requirements data base, which is the shared knowledge base interconnecting static and dynamic applications, fully traceable with the models and interfaceable with the external world.

  2. Electrical insulation design requirements and reliability goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1983-11-01

    The solar cells in a photovoltaic module which must be electrically isolated from module exterior surfaces to satisfy a variety of safety and operating considerations are discussed. The performance and reliability of the insulation system are examined. Technical requirements involve the capability of withstanding the differential voltage from the solar cells to the module frame. The maximum system voltage includes consideration of maximum open circuit array voltages achieved under low-temperature, high-irradiance conditions, and transient overvoltages due to system feedback of lightning transients. The latter is bounded by the characteristics of incorporated voltage limiting devices such as MOVs.

  3. Flying Qualities Design Requirements for Sidestick Controllers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    consisting of the handgrip from a conventional center (floor-mounted) stick controller usually mounted on a side console, are designed to be flown...adds, "As a general comment, we have under- estimated the strength of the pilot". Therefore, a usable region of .03 lb1 r -i to .08 lb seems...Actual performance as measured by CALCOMP also varied wi,4ely from some of the best tracking in configuration B to some of the worst. With the high

  4. Influence of Natural Environments in Spacecraft Design, Development, and Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.

    2012-01-01

    The natural environment has a great influence on the ability of spacecraft to perform according to mission design specification. Compatibility with the natural environment is a primary factor in determining the functional lifetime of the spacecraft. The spacecraft being designed and developed today are growing in complexity. In many instances, the increased complexity also increases its sensitivity to environmental effects. Sensitivities to the natural environment can be tempered through appropriate design measures, mitigation strategies, and/or the acceptance of known risk. The design engineer must understand the effects of the natural environment on the spacecraft and its components; while having an in-depth knowledge of mitigation strategies. Too much protection incurs unnecessary expense, and often times excessive mass; while too little protection can easily lead to premature mission loss. This presentation will provide a brief overview of both the natural environment and its effects and provide some insight into mitigation strategies.

  5. Space Station electric power system requirements and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teren, Fred

    1987-01-01

    An overview of the conceptual definition and design of the Space Station Electric Power System (EPS) is given. Responsibilities for the design and development of the EPS are defined. The EPS requirements are listed and discussed, including average and peak power requirements, contingency requirements, and fault tolerance. The most significant Phase B trade study results are summarized, and the design selections and rationale are given. Finally, the power management and distribution system architecture is presented.

  6. Space station electric power system requirements and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teren, Fred

    1987-01-01

    An overview of the conceptual definition and design of the space station Electric Power System (EPS) is given. Responsibilities for the design and development of the EPS are defined. The EPS requirements are listed and discussed, including average and peak power requirements, contingency requirements, and fault tolerance. The most significant Phase B trade study results are summarized, and the design selections and rationale are given. Finally, the power management and distribution system architecture is presented.

  7. 49 CFR 192.183 - Vaults: Structural design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY... Components § 192.183 Vaults: Structural design requirements. (a) Each underground vault or pit for valves...

  8. Defining Support Requirements During Conceptual Design of Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, W. D.; White, N. H.; Davis, W. T.; Ebeling, C. E.

    1995-01-01

    Current methods for defining the operational support requirements of new systems are data intensive and require significant design information. Methods are being developed to aid in the analysis process of defining support requirements for new launch vehicles during their conceptual design phase that work with the level of information available during this phase. These methods will provide support assessments based on the vehicle design and the operating scenarios. The results can be used both to define expected support requirements for new launch vehicle designs and to help evaluate the benefits of using new technologies. This paper describes the models, their current status, and provides examples of their use.

  9. Critical requirements for the design of large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The requirements for the design of a large space structure which will be deployed, erected, assembled or fabricated in space are delineated in terms of operational loads, stiffness requirements, structure-control interaction, deformations, precision requirements and member slenderness. Design examples for a truss antenna reflector, interorbit propulsion loads and free-flying solar reflectors are given. It is concluded that the demand for dimensional accuracy and stability form the primary requirements.

  10. Eurofighter: Aerodynamics within a Multi-Discipilinary Design Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    Design and Optimisation of Flight Vehicles in a Concurrent Multi-Disciplinary Environment [la Conception et l’optimisation aerodynamiques des vehicules ...optimising moving to a very much more flexible aircraft, capable of the design or installation, completing the design data and operating autonomously

  11. The Curriculum Design and Development in MOOCs Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Fei; Du, Jing; Li, Bin

    2014-01-01

    The paper selects over 20 online courses and analyses the subjects, organization, the way to show the content of the courses, the use of media, and design of the teaching in the case study of Chinese popular MOOC platform. On this basis, the paper summarizes the principles of curriculum design and design models in MOOC environment, such as…

  12. Choosing the Right Environment. A Study in School Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waropay, V.M.

    1967-01-01

    An environment conducive to learning and it s relation to school design are discussed. The burden to design such a school falls on the architect. Broad inroads of audio and visual teaching aids and vast changes in furniture and equipment influence some design aspects. Aesthetically pleasing surroundings featuring sound control, safety, durability…

  13. Formal Verification Toolkit for Requirements and Early Design Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badger, Julia M.; Miller, Sheena Judson

    2011-01-01

    Efficient flight software development from natural language requirements needs an effective way to test designs earlier in the software design cycle. A method to automatically derive logical safety constraints and the design state space from natural language requirements is described. The constraints can then be checked using a logical consistency checker and also be used in a symbolic model checker to verify the early design of the system. This method was used to verify a hybrid control design for the suit ports on NASA Johnson Space Center's Space Exploration Vehicle against safety requirements.

  14. Design of environment-responsive biomolecular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizawa, Masuo; Niimi, T.; Haruyama, T.; Kobatake, E.

    1996-02-01

    Two different types of biomolecular network systems have been designed to respond to the environmental conditions. One is the calmodulin and enzyme (phosphodiesterase, PDE) that activates phosphodiesterase through the conformational change in responding calcium ion. Calmodulin was genetically engineered to be fused with glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Calmodulin/GST fused protein was self-assembled on the gold surface through glutathione. The calmodulin/GST protein layer exhibited an ability to modulate the PDE activity in a solution phase depending on the calcium ion concentration. The other is the engineered gene structure that produces firefly luciferase in responding environmental pollutants. A TOL plasmid, encoding a binding protein xyl R for xyline and a marker enzyme firefly luciferase, has been implemented in a bacterial cell. The whole cell responded to environmentally hazardous substances such as xylene in emitting light.

  15. UML Profiles for Design Decisions and Non-Functional Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Liming; Gorton, Ian

    2007-06-30

    A software architecture is composed of a collection of design decisions. Each design decision helps or hinders certain Non-Functional Requirements (NFR). Current software architecture views focus on expressing components and connectors in the system. Design decisions and their relationships with non-functional requirements are often captured in separate design documentation, not explicitly expressed in any views. This disassociation makes architecture comprehension and architecture evolution harder. In this paper, we propose a UML profile for modeling design decisions and an associated UML profile for modeling non-functional requirements in a generic way. The two UML profiles treat design decisions and nonfunctional requirements as first-class elements. Modeled design decisions always refer to existing architectural elements and thus maintain traceability between the two. We provide a mechanism for checking consistency over this traceability. An exemplar is given as

  16. Exascale Co-design for Modeling Materials in Extreme Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Germann, Timothy C.

    2014-07-08

    Computational materials science has provided great insight into the response of materials under extreme conditions that are difficult to probe experimentally. For example, shock-induced plasticity and phase transformation processes in single-crystal and nanocrystalline metals have been widely studied via large-scale molecular dynamics simulations, and many of these predictions are beginning to be tested at advanced 4th generation light sources such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) and Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). I will describe our simulation predictions and their recent verification at LCLS, outstanding challenges in modeling the response of materials to extreme mechanical and radiation environments, and our efforts to tackle these as part of the multi-institutional, multi-disciplinary Exascale Co-design Center for Materials in Extreme Environments (ExMatEx). ExMatEx has initiated an early and deep collaboration between domain (computational materials) scientists, applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and hardware architects, in order to establish the relationships between algorithms, software stacks, and architectures needed to enable exascale-ready materials science application codes within the next decade. We anticipate that we will be able to exploit hierarchical, heterogeneous architectures to achieve more realistic large-scale simulations with adaptive physics refinement, and are using tractable application scale-bridging proxy application testbeds to assess new approaches and requirements. Such current scale-bridging strategies accumulate (or recompute) a distributed response database from fine-scale calculations, in a top-down rather than bottom-up multiscale approach.

  17. Designing for Change: Interoperability in a scaling and adapting environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarmey, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth Science cyberinfrastructure landscape is constantly changing. Technologies advance and technical implementations are refined or replaced. Data types, volumes, packaging, and use cases evolve. Scientific requirements emerge and mature. Standards shift while systems scale and adapt. In this complex and dynamic environment, interoperability remains a critical component of successful cyberinfrastructure. Through the resource- and priority-driven iterations on systems, interfaces, and content, questions fundamental to stable and useful Earth Science cyberinfrastructure arise. For instance, how are sociotechnical changes planned, tracked, and communicated? How should operational stability balance against 'new and shiny'? How can ongoing maintenance and mitigation of technical debt be managed in an often short-term resource environment? The Arctic Data Explorer is a metadata brokering application developed to enable discovery of international, interdisciplinary Arctic data across distributed repositories. Completely dependent on interoperable third party systems, the Arctic Data Explorer publicly launched in 2013 with an original 3000+ data records from four Arctic repositories. Since then the search has scaled to 25,000+ data records from thirteen repositories at the time of writing. In the final months of original project funding, priorities shift to lean operations with a strategic eye on the future. Here we present lessons learned from four years of Arctic Data Explorer design, development, communication, and maintenance work along with remaining questions and potential directions.

  18. A Design and Control Environment for Internet-Based Telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oboe, Roberto; Fiorini, Paolo

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes an environment for the design, simulation and control of Internet-based force-relflecting telerobotc systems. We define these systems as using a segment of the computer network to connect the master to the slave.

  19. Smart design requires updated design and analysis guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejovic, S.; Gajic, A.; Zhang, Q.

    2014-03-01

    This paper reviews several cases where there is an obvious and important margin between the ideal of smart design and the practical reality which often makes due with obsolete guidelines, outdated recommendations and leads to expensive maintenance troubles. Stated alternatively, this paper is a plea for an attempt to better integrate high technology, experience, knowledge and economics so that both owner and human interests can be better supported and protected. To this end, several well-known plants (Sayano-Shushenskaya, Grand Coulee, Niagara Falls, Richard B Russell, Iron Gates 2, Jenpeg, Bajina Basta, Zvornik, to name a few) have been briefly analysed to clarify the crucial need for updated approaches. Of course, whether the plant is large or small, designing, constructing, operating and updating hydropower plants is a complex set of tasks. Any hydroelectric installation, as a rule, should be designed in several stages. At each stage, entire project documentation should be reviewed by independent reviewers. Reducing the number of analyses, or limiting their scope, with no clear justification except for an attempt to save a little on cost upfront, or worse yet, neglecting the design procedures, can put a project at risk. For a variety of reasons the continuity of knowledge and experience has been lost nearly everywhere. The paper argues that an organized and multidisciplinary transfer of experience is a priority task to be undertaken by the electricity sector. There is a clear need to plan, finance and implement various long-term initiatives; it is urgent that decisions to address this be made now to preserve the currently available knowledge and the almost 200-years of project experience.

  20. Designing user models in a virtual cave environment

    SciTech Connect

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.; Hudson, R.; Gokhale, N.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, the results of a first study into the use of virtual reality for human factor studies and design of simple and complex models of control systems, components, and processes are described. The objective was to design a model in a virtual environment that would reflect more characteristics of the user`s mental model of a system and fewer of the designer`s. The technology of a CAVE{trademark} virtual environment and the methodology of Neuro Linguistic Programming were employed in this study.

  1. Specification of requirements for the virtual environment for reactor applications simulation environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, S. M.; Pytel, M.

    2012-07-01

    In 2010, the United States Dept. of Energy initiated a research and development effort to develop modern modeling and simulation methods that could utilize high performance computing capabilities to address issues important to nuclear power plant operation, safety and sustainability. To respond to this need, a consortium of national laboratories, academic institutions and industry partners (the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors - CASL) was formed to develop an integrated Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA) modeling and simulation capability. A critical element for the success of the CASL research and development effort was the development of an integrated set of overarching requirements that provides guidance in the planning, development, and management of the VERA modeling and simulation software. These requirements also provide a mechanism from which the needs of a broad array of external CASL stakeholders (e.g. reactor / fuel vendors, plant owner / operators, regulatory personnel, etc.) can be identified and integrated into the VERA development plans. This paper presents an overview of the initial set of requirements contained within the VERA Requirements Document (VRD) that currently is being used to govern development of the VERA software within the CASL program. The complex interdisciplinary nature of these requirements together with a multi-physics coupling approach to realize a core simulator capability pose a challenge to how the VRD should be derived and subsequently revised to accommodate the needs of different stakeholders. Thus, the VRD is viewed as an evolving document that will be updated periodically to reflect the changing needs of identified CASL stakeholders and lessons learned during the progress of the CASL modeling and simulation program. (authors)

  2. 14 CFR 152.607 - Building design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Building design requirements. 152.607... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.607 Building design requirements. Each sponsor shall perform an energy assessment for each federally-assisted building...

  3. National Ignition Facility system design requirements conventional facilities SDR001

    SciTech Connect

    Hands, J.

    1996-04-09

    This System Design Requirements (SDR) document specifies the functions to be performed and the minimum design requirements for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) site infrastructure and conventional facilities. These consist of the physical site and buildings necessary to house the laser, target chamber, target preparation areas, optics support and ancillary functions.

  4. 14 CFR 152.607 - Building design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Building design requirements. 152.607... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.607 Building design requirements. Each sponsor shall perform an energy assessment for each federally-assisted building construction...

  5. 14 CFR 152.607 - Building design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Building design requirements. 152.607... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.607 Building design requirements. Each sponsor shall perform an energy assessment for each federally-assisted building construction...

  6. 14 CFR 152.607 - Building design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Building design requirements. 152.607... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.607 Building design requirements. Each sponsor shall perform an energy assessment for each federally-assisted building construction...

  7. Designing propagation environments in forest and native plant nurseries

    Treesearch

    Thomas D. Landis

    2013-01-01

    Propagation environments are areas that have been modified for plant growth, and can be designed using the law of limiting factors. Identifying critical factors that are most limiting to optimal plant growth is helpful when developing both bareroot and container nurseries. Propagation environments can be categorized into minimally-controlled, semi-controlled, and fully...

  8. Temporal Issues in the Design of Virtual Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Bryan; Obeid, Jihad

    1995-01-01

    Describes design methods used to influence user perception of time in virtual learning environments. Examines the use of temporal cues in medical education and clinical competence testing. Finds that user perceptions of time affects user acceptance, ease of use, and the level of realism of a virtual learning environment. Contains 51 references.…

  9. High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump (HPOTP) inducer dynamic design environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herda, D. A.; Gross, R. S.

    1995-01-01

    The dynamic environment must be known to evaluate high pressure oxidizer turbopump inducer fatigue life. This report sets the dynamic design loads for the alternate turbopump inducer as determined by water-flow rig testing. Also, guidelines are given for estimating the dynamic environment for other inducer and impeller applications.

  10. CASTE Revisited: Principles of Course Design in a Hypertext Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Bernard

    2000-01-01

    Describes CASTE (Course Assembly System and Tutorial Environment) that was developed to help students choose appropriate learning strategies in a hypertext environment. Highlights include the need for principles of course design; resource-based learning and computer-aided learning; conversation theory; and a comparison to other approaches.…

  11. ENVIRONMENT FOR LEARNING, A RESEARCH STUDY IN SECONDARY SCHOOL DESIGN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier Corp., Syracuse, NY.

    A STUDY OF THE SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT AND THE PREPARATION OF A MODEL DESIGN SOLUTION HAS BEEN CONDUCTED BY AN ARCHITECTURAL FIRM. THE SOLUTION USED DATA FROM AN EXISTING COMPARISON SCHOOL IN THE REDESIGN OF THE EDUCATIONAL FACILITY BASED ON THE INDEPENDENT CONTROL OF THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT AND THE ELIMINATION OF CLASSROOM WINDOWS. THIS APPROACH…

  12. A Web Based Collaborative Design Environment for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunphy, Julia

    1998-01-01

    In this era of shrinking federal budgets in the USA we need to dramatically improve our efficiency in the spacecraft engineering design process. We have come up with a method which captures much of the experts' expertise in a dataflow design graph: Seamlessly connectable set of local and remote design tools; Seamlessly connectable web based design tools; and Web browser interface to the developing spacecraft design. We have recently completed our first web browser interface and demonstrated its utility in the design of an aeroshell using design tools located at web sites at three NASA facilities. Multiple design engineers and managers are now able to interrogate the design engine simultaneously and find out what the design looks like at any point in the design cycle, what its parameters are, and how it reacts to adverse space environments.

  13. Exploration Planetary Surface Structural Systems: Design Requirements and Compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, John T.

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Surface Systems Project developed system concepts that would be necessary to establish and maintain a permanent human presence on the Lunar surface. A variety of specific system implementations were generated as a part of the scenarios, some level of system definition was completed, and masses estimated for each system. Because the architecture studies generally spawned a large number of system concepts and the studies were executed in a short amount of time, the resulting system definitions had very low design fidelity. This paper describes the development sequence required to field a particular structural system: 1) Define Requirements, 2) Develop the Design and 3) Demonstrate Compliance of the Design to all Requirements. This paper also outlines and describes in detail the information and data that are required to establish structural design requirements and outlines the information that would comprise a planetary surface system Structures Requirements document.

  14. Project W-441, cold vacuum drying facility design requirements document

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neill, C.T.

    1997-05-08

    This document has been prepared and is being released for Project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. This document sets forth the physical design criteria, Codes and Standards, and functional requirements that were used in the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. This document contains section 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements Document. The remaining sections will be issued at a later date. The purpose of the Facility is to dry, weld, and inspect the Multi-Canister Overpacks before transport to dry storage.

  15. The Evolution of Design Requirements in the Trajectory of Artificiality: A Research Agenda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reymen, Isabelle; Romme, Georges

    Managing design requirements of complex socio-technical designs in heterogeneous and rapidly-changing environments demands new approaches. In this chapter we use the framework described by Krippendorff [1] to describe the evolution of requirements thinking and subsequently develop a research agenda. Krippendorff’s trajectory of artificiality shows an increasing dematerialization and human-centeredness of artifacts. He distinguishes six kinds of artifacts, namely material products; goods, services, and identities; interfaces; multi-user systems and networks; projects; and finally, discourses. Based on a review of the design literature, involving two major design journals, we find that the design of socio-technical systems currently tends to be situated on the level of multi-user systems and networks. Projects and discourses hardly get any attention in requirements thinking. We therefore develop an agenda for future research directed toward advancing requirements thinking at the level of projects and discourses as artifacts of design.

  16. 24 CFR 100.205 - Design and construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Design and construction... Because of Handicap § 100.205 Design and construction requirements. (a) Covered multifamily dwellings for first occupancy after March 13, 1991 shall be designed and constructed to have at least one building...

  17. 7 CFR 3575.42 - Design and construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Design and construction requirements. 3575.42 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL Community Programs Guaranteed Loans § 3575.42 Design and construction... all funds were utilized for authorized purposes. The borrower and the lender will authorize designs...

  18. Design in the Classroom: Exploring the Built Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Arts Commission, Augusta.

    Design and the built environment are subjects of concern to Maine communities. State mandated town planning, new school construction, and the Department of Transportation plans to rebuild roads and bridges elicit public discussion. The study of design encourages elementary students to enter this public forum as informed citizens. The study of…

  19. Designing Prediction Tasks in a Mathematics Software Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunström, Mats; Fahlgren, Maria

    2015-01-01

    There is a recognised need in mathematics teaching for new kinds of tasks which exploit the affordances provided by new technology. This paper focuses on the design of prediction tasks to foster student reasoning about exponential functions in a mathematics software environment. It draws on the first iteration of a design based research study…

  20. AVEC: A Computational Design Environment for Conceptual Innovations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES PAO Case Number: AFRL/WS 06-0535, 23 Feb 2006. Report contains color. 14. ABSTRACT This report summarizes programming techniques ...that aid multidisciplinary design programmers in developing computational designs that measure AFRL technology effectiveness. These techniques have...underlying principles of the AVEC environment. This paper describes a number of software techniques already established in AVEC that will help aerospace

  1. Designing Learning Environments to Teach Interactive Quantum Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puente, Sonia M. Gomez; Swagten, Henk J. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at describing and analysing systematically an interactive learning environment designed to teach Quantum Physics, a second-year physics course. The instructional design of Quantum Physics is a combination of interactive lectures (using audience response systems), tutorials and self-study in unit blocks, carried out with small…

  2. Project Selection in the Design Studio: Absence of Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basa, Inci

    2010-01-01

    Project selection is an essential matter of design teaching. Based on observations of a specific curriculum, the author claims that a wide repertoire of subjects including offices, restaurants, hotels, and other public places are used to prepare design students, but that schools and other "learning environments/ schools" are similarly…

  3. Project Selection in the Design Studio: Absence of Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basa, Inci

    2010-01-01

    Project selection is an essential matter of design teaching. Based on observations of a specific curriculum, the author claims that a wide repertoire of subjects including offices, restaurants, hotels, and other public places are used to prepare design students, but that schools and other "learning environments/ schools" are similarly…

  4. Designing Learning Environments to Teach Interactive Quantum Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puente, Sonia M. Gomez; Swagten, Henk J. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at describing and analysing systematically an interactive learning environment designed to teach Quantum Physics, a second-year physics course. The instructional design of Quantum Physics is a combination of interactive lectures (using audience response systems), tutorials and self-study in unit blocks, carried out with small…

  5. Challenges for Design of Computer-Based Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakkinen, Paivi

    2002-01-01

    Presents a review of the basic foundations and recent challenges of the main instructional design traditions. Topics include learner characteristics; learner-controlled instruction; learning environments; the role of instructional interventions; computer-based instruction and other new technologies; and new theories of learning and design.…

  6. Cost, Design and Climate: Building a Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiden, Jeffrey; Foreman, Bill A.

    1998-01-01

    Research has shown that a school building's condition affects student achievement and behavior and that certain facility design elements can improve the learning climate. An ideal CDC (cost-design-climate) associative environment has a balanced interrelationship among the three elements. Unnecessarily emphasizing one or more elements may seriously…

  7. Comparison of four nonstationary hydrologic design methods for changing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lei; Xiong, Lihua; Guo, Shenglian; Xu, Chong-Yu; Xia, Jun; Du, Tao

    2017-08-01

    The hydrologic design of nonstationary flood extremes is an emerging field that is essential for water resources management and hydrologic engineering design to cope with changing environment. This paper aims to investigate and compare the capability of four nonstationary hydrologic design strategies, including the expected number of exceedances (ENE), design life level (DLL), equivalent reliability (ER), and average design life level (ADLL), with the last three methods taking into consideration the design life of the project. The confidence intervals of the calculated design floods were also estimated using the nonstationary bootstrap approach. A comparison of these four methods was performed using the annual maximum flood series (AMFS) of the Weihe River basin, Jinghe River basin, and Assunpink Creek basin. The results indicated that ENE, ER and ADLL yielded the same or very similar design values and confidence intervals for both increasing and decreasing trends of AMFS considered. DLL also yields similar design values if the relationship between DLL and ER/ADLL return periods is considered. Both ER and ADLL are recommended for practical use as they have associated design floods with the design life period of projects and yield reasonable design quantiles and confidence intervals. Furthermore, by assuming that the design results using either a stationary or nonstationary hydrologic design strategy should have the same reliability, the ER method enables us to solve the nonstationary hydrologic design problems by adopting the stationary design reliability, thus bridging the gap between stationary and nonstationary design criteria.

  8. Computer-aided design development transition for IPAD environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, H. G.; Mock, W. D.; Mitchell, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship of federally sponsored computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) programs to the aircraft life cycle design process, an overview of NAAD'S CAD development program, an evaluation of the CAD design process, a discussion of the current computing environment within which NAAD is developing its CAD system, some of the advantages/disadvantages of the NAAD-IPAD approach, and CAD developments during transition into the IPAD system are discussed.

  9. Computer-aided design development transition for IPAD environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, H. G.; Mock, W. D.; Mitchell, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship of federally sponsored computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) programs to the aircraft life cycle design process, an overview of NAAD'S CAD development program, an evaluation of the CAD design process, a discussion of the current computing environment within which NAAD is developing its CAD system, some of the advantages/disadvantages of the NAAD-IPAD approach, and CAD developments during transition into the IPAD system are discussed.

  10. Using Space Weather Variability in Evaluating the Radiation Environment Design Specifications for NASA's Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, Victoria N.; Blackwell, William C.; Minow, Joseph I.; Bruce, Margaret B.; Howard, James W.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Constellation program, initiated to fulfill the Vision for Space Exploration, will create a new generation of vehicles for servicing low Earth orbit, the Moon, and beyond. Space radiation specifications for space system hardware are necessarily conservative to assure system robustness for a wide range of space environments. Spectral models of solar particle events and trapped radiation belt environments are used to develop the design requirements for estimating total ionizing radiation dose, displacement damage, and single event effects for Constellation hardware. We first describe the rationale using the spectra chosen to establish the total dose and single event design environmental specifications for Constellation systems. We then compare variability of the space environment to the spectral design models to evaluate their applicability as conservative design environments and potential vulnerabilities to extreme space weather events

  11. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 5. Science Applications, Incorporated system requirements definition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report sets forth the system requirements for a Solar Controlled-Environment Agriculture System (SCEAS) Project. In the report a conceptual baseline system description for an engineering test facility is given. This baseline system employs a fluid roof/roof filter in combination with a large storage tank and a ground water heat exchanger in order to provide cooling and heating as needed. Desalination is accomplished by pretreatment followed by reverse osmosis. Energy is provided by means of photovoltaics and wind machines in conjunction with storage batteries. Site and climatic data needed in the design process are given. System performance specifications and integrated system design criteria are set forth. Detailed subsystem design criteria are presented and appropriate references documented.

  12. Supplemental design requirements document, Project W026. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Weidert, J.R.

    1993-10-08

    This document supplements and extends the Functional Design Criteria, SP-W026-FDC-001, for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP), Module 1. It provides additional detailed requirements, summarizes key Westinghouse Hanford Company design guidance, and establishes baseline technical agreements to be used in definitive design of the WRAP-1 facility. Revision 3 of the Supplemental Design Requirements Document has been assigned an Impact Level of 3ESQ based on the content of the entire revision. The actual changes made from Revision 2 have an Impact Level of 3S and the basis for these changes was previously reviewed and approved per WHC correspondence No. 9355770.

  13. Supporting the design of office layout meeting ergonomics requirements.

    PubMed

    Margaritis, Spyros; Marmaras, Nicolas

    2007-11-01

    This paper proposes a method and an information technology tool aiming to support the ergonomics layout design of individual workstations in a given space (building). The proposed method shares common ideas with previous generic methods for office layout. However, it goes a step forward and focuses on the cognitive tasks which have to be carried out by the designer or the design team trying to alleviate them. This is achieved in two ways: (i) by decomposing the layout design problem to six main stages, during which only a limited number of variables and requirements are considered and (ii) by converting the ergonomics requirements to functional design guidelines. The information technology tool (ErgoOffice 0.1) automates certain phases of the layout design process, and supports the design team either by its editing and graphical facilities or by providing adequate memory support.

  14. Design research and the globalization of healthcare environments.

    PubMed

    Shepley, Mardelle McCuskey; Song, Yilin

    2014-01-01

    Global healthcare practice has expanded in the past 20 years. At the same time the incorporation of research into the design process has gained prominence as a best practice among architects. The authors of this study investigated the status of design research in a variety of international settings. We intended to answer the question, "how pervasive is healthcare design research outside of the United States?" The authors reviewed the international literature on the design of healthcare facilities. More than 500 international studies and conference proceedings were incorporated in this literature review. A team of five research assistants searched multiple databases comparing approximately 16 keywords to geographic location. Some of those keywords included: evidence-based design, salutogenic design, design research, and healthcare environment. Additional articles were gathered by contacting prominent researchers and asking for their personal assessment of local health design research studies. While there are design researchers in most parts of the world, the majority of studies focus on the needs of populations in developed countries and generate guidelines that have significant cost and cultural implications that prohibit their implementation in developing countries. Additionally, the body of literature discussing the role of culture in healthcare environments is extremely limited. Design researchers must address the cultural implications of their studies. Additionally, we need to expand our research objectives to address healthcare design in countries that have not been previous considered. © 2014 Vendome Group, LLC.

  15. 49 CFR 192.183 - Vaults: Structural design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Components § 192.183 Vaults: Structural design requirements. (a) Each underground vault or pit for valves... which may be imposed upon it, and to protect installed equipment. (b) There must be enough working...

  16. 49 CFR 192.183 - Vaults: Structural design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Components § 192.183 Vaults: Structural design requirements. (a) Each underground vault or pit for valves... which may be imposed upon it, and to protect installed equipment. (b) There must be enough working...

  17. 49 CFR 192.183 - Vaults: Structural design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Components § 192.183 Vaults: Structural design requirements. (a) Each underground vault or pit for valves... which may be imposed upon it, and to protect installed equipment. (b) There must be enough working...

  18. Transforming Multidisciplinary Customer Requirements to Product Design Specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiao-Jie; Ding, Guo-Fu; Qin, Sheng-Feng; Li, Rong; Yan, Kai-Yin; Xiao, Shou-Ne; Yang, Guang-Wu

    2017-09-01

    With the increasing of complexity of complex mechatronic products, it is necessary to involve multidisciplinary design teams, thus, the traditional customer requirements modeling for a single discipline team becomes difficult to be applied in a multidisciplinary team and project since team members with various disciplinary backgrounds may have different interpretations of the customers' requirements. A new synthesized multidisciplinary customer requirements modeling method is provided for obtaining and describing the common understanding of customer requirements (CRs) and more importantly transferring them into a detailed and accurate product design specifications (PDS) to interact with different team members effectively. A case study of designing a high speed train verifies the rationality and feasibility of the proposed multidisciplinary requirement modeling method for complex mechatronic product development. This proposed research offersthe instruction to realize the customer-driven personalized customization of complex mechatronic product.

  19. Instructional Design Practices in the Design and Development of Digital Humanities Virtual Environments (DH-VEs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Valerie Hunter

    2011-01-01

    Virtual environments, virtual worlds, simulations, 3D models are loaded with potential, promise, and problems. While learning in virtual settings is still being researched, instructional designers are challenged as to which instructional design practices are best suited for virtual environments (VEs). The problem is there is a lack of a conceptual…

  20. Flight Hardware Packaging Design for Stringent EMC Radiated Emission Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lortz, Charlene L.; Huang, Chi-Chien N.; Ravich, Joshua A.; Steiner, Carl N.

    2013-01-01

    This packaging design approach can help heritage hardware meet a flight project's stringent EMC radiated emissions requirement. The approach requires only minor modifications to a hardware's chassis and mainly concentrates on its connector interfaces. The solution is to raise the surface area where the connector is mounted by a few millimeters using a pedestal, and then wrapping with conductive tape from the cable backshell down to the surface-mounted connector. This design approach has been applied to JPL flight project subsystems. The EMC radiated emissions requirements for flight projects can vary from benign to mission critical. If the project's EMC requirements are stringent, the best approach to meet EMC requirements would be to design an EMC control program for the project early on and implement EMC design techniques starting with the circuit board layout. This is the ideal scenario for hardware that is built from scratch. Implementation of EMC radiated emissions mitigation techniques can mature as the design progresses, with minimal impact to the design cycle. The real challenge exists for hardware that is planned to be flown following a built-to-print approach, in which heritage hardware from a past project with a different set of requirements is expected to perform satisfactorily for a new project. With acceptance of heritage, the design would already be established (circuit board layout and components have already been pre-determined), and hence any radiated emissions mitigation techniques would only be applicable at the packaging level. The key is to take a heritage design with its known radiated emissions spectrum and repackage, or modify its chassis design so that it would have a better chance of meeting the new project s radiated emissions requirements.

  1. Interactive design environment transportation channel of relativistic charged particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osadchuk, I. O.; Averyanov, G. P.; Budkin, V. A.

    2017-01-01

    Considered a modern implementation of a computer environment for the design of channels of transportation of high-energy charged particle beams. The environment includes a software package for the simulation of the dynamics of charged particles in the channel, operating means for changing parameters of the channel, the elements channel optimization and processing of the output characteristics of the beam with the graphical output the main output parameters.

  2. Trading Robustness Requirements in Mars Entry Trajectory Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafleur, Jarret M.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important metrics characterizing an atmospheric entry trajectory in preliminary design is the size of its predicted landing ellipse. Often, requirements for this ellipse are set early in design and significantly influence both the expected scientific return from a particular mission and the cost of development. Requirements typically specify a certain probability level (6-level) for the prescribed ellipse, and frequently this latter requirement is taken at 36. However, searches for the justification of 36 as a robustness requirement suggest it is an empirical rule of thumb borrowed from non-aerospace fields. This paper presents an investigation into the sensitivity of trajectory performance to varying robustness (6-level) requirements. The treatment of robustness as a distinct objective is discussed, and an analysis framework is presented involving the manipulation of design variables to effect trades between performance and robustness objectives. The scenario for which this method is illustrated is the ballistic entry of an MSL-class Mars entry vehicle. Here, the design variable is entry flight path angle, and objectives are parachute deploy altitude performance and error ellipse robustness. Resulting plots show the sensitivities between these objectives and trends in the entry flight path angles required to design to these objectives. Relevance to the trajectory designer is discussed, as are potential steps for further development and use of this type of analysis.

  3. Designing a ruggedisation lab to characterise materials for harsh environments.

    PubMed

    Frazzette, Nicholas; Jethva, Janak; Mehta, Khanjan; Stapleton, Joshua J; Randall, Clive

    Designing products for use in developing countries presents a unique set of challenges including harsh operating environments, costly repairs and maintenance, and users with varying degrees of education and device familiarity. For products to be robust, adaptable and durable, they need to be ruggedised for environmental factors such as high temperature and humidity as well as different operational conditions such as shock and chemical exposure. The product characterisation and ruggedisation processes require specific expertise and resources that are seldom available outside of large corporations and elite national research labs. There is no standardised process since product needs strongly depend on the context and user base, making it particularly onerous for underfunded start-ups and academic groups. Standardised protocols that identify essential lab testing regimens for specific contexts and user groups can complement field-testing and accelerate the product development process while reducing costs. This article synthesises current methods and strategies for product testing employed by large corporations as well as defence-related entities. A technological and organisational framework for a service-for-fee product characterisation and ruggedisation lab that reduces costs and shortens the timespan from product invention to commercial launch in harsh settings is presented.

  4. Design for environment for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cantwell, E.; Gobor, K.; Celeste, J.; Cerruti, S.

    1998-05-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national center for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and other research into the physics of high temperatures and high densities, and a vital element of the DOE`s nuclear weapons Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program. It will be used by scientists from a numerous different institutions and disciplines to support research advancements in national security, energy, basic science, and economic development. Multiple powerful laser beams will `ignite` small fusion targets, helping liberate more energy than is required to initiate the fusion reactions. This paper discusses the Design for Environment process for NIF, some of the subsequent activities resulting from the initial study, and a few of the lessons learned from this process. Subsequent activities include the development of a Pollution Prevention and Waste Minimization Plan (P2/WMin) for the facility, which includes Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOAS) on predicted waste streams from NIF, development of construction phase recycling plans, analysis of some of the specialized materials of construction to minimize future demolition and decommissioning (D&D) costs and development of cost assessments for more benign cleaning procedures that meet the stringent cleaning specifications for this facility.

  5. Influence of Natural Environments in Spacecraft Design, Development, and Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Spacecraft are growing in complexity and sensitivity to environmental effects. The spacecraft engineer must understand and take these effects into account in building reliable, survivable, and affordable spacecraft. Too much protections, however, means unnecessary expense while too little will potentially lead to early mission loss. The ability to balance cost and risk necessitates an understanding of how the environment impacts the spacecraft and is a critical factor in its design. This presentation is intended to address both the space environment and its effects with the intent of introducing the influence of the environment on spacecraft performance.

  6. Influence of Natural Environments in Spacecraft Design, Development, and Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Spacecraft are growing in complexity and sensitivity to environmental effects. The spacecraft engineer must understand and take these effects into account in building reliable, survivable, and affordable spacecraft. Too much protections, however, means unnecessary expense while too little will potentially lead to early mission loss. The ability to balance cost and risk necessitates an understanding of how the environment impacts the spacecraft and is a critical factor in its design. This presentation is intended to address both the space environment and its effects with the intent of introducing the influence of the environment on spacecraft performance.

  7. VARED: Verification and Analysis of Requirements and Early Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badger, Julia; Throop, David; Claunch, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Requirements are a part of every project life cycle; everything going forward in a project depends on them. Good requirements are hard to write, there are few useful tools to test, verify, or check them, and it is difficult to properly marry them to the subsequent design, especially if the requirements are written in natural language. In fact, the inconsistencies and errors in the requirements along with the difficulty in finding these errors contribute greatly to the cost of the testing and verification stage of flight software projects [1]. Large projects tend to have several thousand requirements written at various levels by different groups of people. The design process is distributed and a lack of widely accepted standards for requirements often results in a product that varies widely in style and quality. A simple way to improve this would be to standardize the design process using a set of tools and widely accepted requirements design constraints. The difficulty with this approach is finding the appropriate constraints and tools. Common complaints against the tools available include ease of use, functionality, and available features. Also, although preferable, it is rare that these tools are capable of testing the quality of the requirements.

  8. 46 CFR 58.30-5 - Design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-5 Design requirements. (a) The requirements of part 56 are also applicable to piping and fittings in fluid power and control systems listed in... due to hydraulic shock and should also consider the rate of pressure rise caused by hydraulic...

  9. 14 CFR 152.607 - Building design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or major building modification project proposed at the airport. The building design, construction... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Building design requirements. 152.607... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.607 Building...

  10. 7 CFR 1779.42 - Design and construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Design and construction requirements. 1779.42 Section 1779.42 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.42 Design...

  11. Physics design requirements for the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX)

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, G.H.; Goldston, R.J.; Jardin, S.C.; Reiersen, W.T.; Nevins, W.M.; Porkolab, M.; Ulrickson, M.

    1993-11-01

    The design of TPX is driven by physics requirements that follow from its mission. The tokamak and heating systems provide the performance and profile controls needed to study advanced steady state tokamak operating modes. The magnetic control systems provide substantial flexibility for the study of regimes with high beta and bootstrap current. The divertor is designed for high steady state power and particle exhaust.

  12. 42 CFR 486.304 - Requirements for designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....304 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... SUPPLIERS Requirements for Certification and Designation and Conditions for Coverage: Organ Procurement...) Designation is a condition for payment. Payment may be made under the Medicare and Medicaid programs for...

  13. 7 CFR 3575.42 - Design and construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Design and construction requirements. 3575.42 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL Community Programs Guaranteed Loans § 3575.42 Design and construction... all funds were utilized for authorized purposes. The borrower and the lender will authorize...

  14. Training Dismounted Soldiers in Virtual Environments: Task and Research Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    the books Engineering Psychology and Human Performance (Wickens, 1984), Perception ( Matlin , 1983), Human Factors in Engineering and Design (Sanders...Social Sciences. (AD A239 916) Matlin , M. W. (1983). Perception. Newton, MA: Allyn and Bacon, Inc. Meister, D. (1985). Behavioral analysis and...to equipment design (pp. 155- 156). Washington, D.C.: American Institutes for Research.. Matlin , Ma~rgaret W. (1983) . Smell. In Margaret W. Matlin (Ed

  15. Simulation Environment for Orion Launch Abort System Control Design Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMinn, J. Dana; Jackson, E. Bruce; Christhilf, David M.

    2007-01-01

    The development and use of an interactive environment to perform control system design and analysis of the proposed Crew Exploration Vehicle Launch Abort System is described. The environment, built using a commercial dynamic systems design package, includes use of an open-source configuration control software tool and a collaborative wiki to coordinate between the simulation developers, control law developers and users. A method for switching between multiple candidate control laws and vehicle configurations is described. Aerodynamic models, especially in a development program, change rapidly, so a means for automating the implementation of new aerodynamic models is described.

  16. Trajectory Design for the Phobos and Deimos & Mars Environment Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Korsmeyer, David J.; Loucks, Michel E.; Yang, Fan Yang; Lee, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The presented trajectory design and analysis was performed for the Phobos and Deimos & Mars Environment (PADME) mission concept as part of a NASA proposal submission managed by NASA Ames Research Center in the 2014-2015 timeframe. The PADME spacecraft would be a derivative of the successfully flown Lunar Atmosphere & Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft. While LADEE was designed to enter low-lunar orbit, the PADME spacecraft would instead enter an elliptical Mars orbit of 2-week period. This Mars orbit would pass by Phobos near periapsis on successive orbits and then raise periapsis to yield close approaches of Deimos every orbit thereafter.

  17. Empirical studies of design software: Implications for software engineering environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasner, Herb

    1988-01-01

    The empirical studies team of MCC's Design Process Group conducted three studies in 1986-87 in order to gather data on professionals designing software systems in a range of situations. The first study (the Lift Experiment) used thinking aloud protocols in a controlled laboratory setting to study the cognitive processes of individual designers. The second study (the Object Server Project) involved the observation, videotaping, and data collection of a design team of a medium-sized development project over several months in order to study team dynamics. The third study (the Field Study) involved interviews with the personnel from 19 large development projects in the MCC shareholders in order to study how the process of design is affected by organizationl and project behavior. The focus of this report will be on key observations of design process (at several levels) and their implications for the design of environments.

  18. Empirical studies of design software: Implications for software engineering environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasner, Herb

    1988-01-01

    The empirical studies team of MCC's Design Process Group conducted three studies in 1986-87 in order to gather data on professionals designing software systems in a range of situations. The first study (the Lift Experiment) used thinking aloud protocols in a controlled laboratory setting to study the cognitive processes of individual designers. The second study (the Object Server Project) involved the observation, videotaping, and data collection of a design team of a medium-sized development project over several months in order to study team dynamics. The third study (the Field Study) involved interviews with the personnel from 19 large development projects in the MCC shareholders in order to study how the process of design is affected by organizationl and project behavior. The focus of this report will be on key observations of design process (at several levels) and their implications for the design of environments.

  19. Aerospace Systems Design in NASA's Collaborative Engineering Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monell, Donald W.; Piland, William M.

    2000-07-01

    Past designs of complex aerospace systems involved an environment consisting of collocated design teams with project managers, technical discipline experts, and other experts (e.g., manufacturing and systems operations). These experts were generally qualified only on the basis of past design experience and typically had access to a limited set of integrated analysis tools. These environments provided less than desirable design fidelity, often led to the inability of assessing critical programmatic and technical issues (e.g., cost, risk, technical impacts), and generally derived a design that was not necessarily optimized across the entire system. The continually changing, modern aerospace industry demands systems design processes that involve the best talent available (no matter where it resides) and access to the best design and analysis tools. A solution to these demands involves a design environment referred to as collaborative engineering. The collaborative engineering environment evolving within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a capability that enables the Agency's engineering infrastructure to interact and use the best state-of-the-art tools and data across organizational boundaries. Using collaborative engineering, the collocated team is replaced with an interactive team structure where the team members are geographically distributed and the best engineering talent can be applied to the design effort regardless of physical location. In addition, a more efficient, higher quality design product is delivered by bringing together the best engineering talent with more up-to-date design and analysis tools. These tools are focused on interactive, multidisciplinary design and analysis with emphasis on the complete life cycle of the system, and they include nontraditional, integrated tools for life cycle cost estimation and risk assessment. NASA has made substantial progress during the last two years in developing a collaborative

  20. Aerospace Systems Design in NASA's Collaborative Engineering Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monell, Donald W.; Piland, William M.

    2000-01-01

    Past designs of complex aerospace systems involved an environment consisting of collocated design teams with project managers, technical discipline experts, and other experts (e.g., manufacturing and systems operation). These experts were generally qualified only on the basis of past design experience and typically had access to a limited set of integrated analysis tools. These environments provided less than desirable design fidelity, often lead to the inability of assessing critical programmatic and technical issues (e.g., cost, risk, technical impacts), and generally derived a design that was not necessarily optimized across the entire system. The continually changing, modern aerospace industry demands systems design processes that involve the best talent available (no matter where it resides) and access to the the best design and analysis tools. A solution to these demands involves a design environment referred to as collaborative engineering. The collaborative engineering environment evolving within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a capability that enables the Agency's engineering infrastructure to interact and use the best state-of-the-art tools and data across organizational boundaries. Using collaborative engineering, the collocated team is replaced with an interactive team structure where the team members are geographical distributed and the best engineering talent can be applied to the design effort regardless of physical location. In addition, a more efficient, higher quality design product is delivered by bringing together the best engineering talent with more up-to-date design and analysis tools. These tools are focused on interactive, multidisciplinary design and analysis with emphasis on the complete life cycle of the system, and they include nontraditional, integrated tools for life cycle cost estimation and risk assessment. NASA has made substantial progress during the last two years in developing a collaborative

  1. Aerospace Systems Design in NASA's Collaborative Engineering Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monell, Donald W.; Piland, William M.

    1999-01-01

    Past designs of complex aerospace systems involved an environment consisting of collocated design teams with project managers, technical discipline experts, and other experts (e.g. manufacturing and systems operations). These experts were generally qualified only on the basis of past design experience and typically had access to a limited set of integrated analysis tools. These environments provided less than desirable design fidelity, often lead to the inability of assessing critical programmatic and technical issues (e.g., cost risk, technical impacts), and generally derived a design that was not necessarily optimized across the entire system. The continually changing, modern aerospace industry demands systems design processes that involve the best talent available (no matter where it resides) and access to the best design and analysis tools. A solution to these demands involves a design environment referred to as collaborative engineering. The collaborative engineering environment evolving within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a capability that enables the Agency's engineering infrastructure to interact and use the best state-of-the-art tools and data across organizational boundaries. Using collaborative engineering, the collocated team is replaced with an interactive team structure where the team members are geographically distributed and the best engineering talent can be applied to the design effort regardless of physical location. In addition, a more efficient, higher quality design product is delivered by bringing together the best engineering talent with more up-to-date design and analysis tools. These tools are focused on interactive, multidisciplinary design and analysis with emphasis on the complete life cycle of the system, and they include nontraditional, integrated tools for life cycle cost estimation and risk assessment. NASA has made substantial progress during the last two years in developing a collaborative

  2. Aerospace Systems Design in NASA's Collaborative Engineering Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monell, Donald W.; Piland, William M.

    2000-01-01

    Past designs of complex aerospace systems involved an environment consisting of collocated design teams with project managers, technical discipline experts, and other experts (e.g., manufacturing and systems operation). These experts were generally qualified only on the basis of past design experience and typically had access to a limited set of integrated analysis tools. These environments provided less than desirable design fidelity, often lead to the inability of assessing critical programmatic and technical issues (e.g., cost, risk, technical impacts), and generally derived a design that was not necessarily optimized across the entire system. The continually changing, modern aerospace industry demands systems design processes that involve the best talent available (no matter where it resides) and access to the the best design and analysis tools. A solution to these demands involves a design environment referred to as collaborative engineering. The collaborative engineering environment evolving within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a capability that enables the Agency's engineering infrastructure to interact and use the best state-of-the-art tools and data across organizational boundaries. Using collaborative engineering, the collocated team is replaced with an interactive team structure where the team members are geographical distributed and the best engineering talent can be applied to the design effort regardless of physical location. In addition, a more efficient, higher quality design product is delivered by bringing together the best engineering talent with more up-to-date design and analysis tools. These tools are focused on interactive, multidisciplinary design and analysis with emphasis on the complete life cycle of the system, and they include nontraditional, integrated tools for life cycle cost estimation and risk assessment. NASA has made substantial progress during the last two years in developing a collaborative

  3. Requirements controlled design: A method for discovery of discontinuous system boundaries in the requirements hyperspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollingsworth, Peter Michael

    The drive toward robust systems design, especially with respect to system affordability throughout the system life-cycle, has led to the development of several advanced design methods. While these methods have been extremely successful in satisfying the needs for which they have been developed, they inherently leave a critical area unaddressed. None of them fully considers the effect of requirements on the selection of solution systems. The goal of all of current modern design methodologies is to bring knowledge forward in the design process to the regions where more design freedom is available and design changes cost less. Therefore, it seems reasonable to consider the point in the design process where the greatest restrictions are placed on the final design, the point in which the system level requirements are set. Historically the requirements have been treated as something handed down from above. However, neither the customer nor the solution provider completely understood all of the options that are available in the broader requirements space. If a method were developed that provided the ability to understand the full scope of the requirements space, it would allow for a better comparison of potential solution systems with respect to both the current and potential future requirements. The key to a requirements conscious method is to treat requirements differently from the traditional approach. The method proposed herein is known as Requirements Controlled Design (RCD). By treating the requirements as a set of variables that control the behavior of the system, instead of variables that only define the response of the system, it is possible to determine a-priori what portions of the requirements space that any given system is capable of satisfying. Additionally, it should be possible to identify which systems can satisfy a given set of requirements and the locations where a small change in one or more requirements poses a significant risk to a design program

  4. Supplemental design requirements document solid waste operations complex

    SciTech Connect

    Ocampo, V.P.; Boothe, G.F.; Broz, D.R.; Eaton, H.E.; Greager, T.M.; Huckfeldt, R.A.; Kooiker, S.L.; Lamberd, D.L.; Lang, L.L.; Myers, J.B.

    1994-11-01

    This document provides additional and supplemental information to the WHC-SD-W112-FDC-001, WHC-SD-W113-FDC-001, and WHC-SD-W100-FDC-001. It provides additional requirements for the design and summarizes Westinghouse Hanford Company key design guidance and establishes the technical baseline agreements to be used for definitive design common to the Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) Facilities (Project W-112, Project W-113, and WRAP 2A).

  5. Design and Test Requirements for Space Flight Pressurized Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-26

    in death, injury, occupational illness, damage to or loss of equipment or property, or damage to the environment. Hazard Analysis: The analysis of...systems to determine potential hazards and recommended actions to eliminate or control the hazards . Hydrogen Embrittlement: A mechanical...operations, orbital operations, refurbishment, retesting, reentry or recovery from orbit , and reuse that may be required or specified for the flight

  6. [Focus Notified Bodies. New requirements for designation and monitoring].

    PubMed

    Poos, U; Edelhäuser, R

    2014-12-01

    For medical devices with a higher risk, Notified Bodies assess whether the manufacturers and their products fulfill the requirements laid down in the European directives on medical devices. Notified Bodies are designated through a designation procedure by the designating authority, in Germany by ZLG. The requirements for the designation arise from the respective annexes of the directives on medical devices. Since these are only minimal criteria, different documents have been compiled on a European and national level to concretize these minimal criteria regarding the organization, quality management system, resources, and certification procedure. The rules of the ZLG are thereby the essential documents for designation in Germany. Moreover, according to Implementing Regulation (EU) no. 912/2013, the European commission and the other European designating authorities also have to be involved in the designation process. The aim of continuous monitoring of the Notified Bodies with assessments on the bodies' premises as well as with observed audits is to ensure the permanent fulfillment of the requirements. If nonconformities are found in a body's quality management system or in its implementation of the conformity assessment procedures, the body is obliged to provide ZLG with a corrective actions plan. In the case that the nonconformities are not resolved in time or critical nonconformities are found, ZLG may take actions, e.g., restrict the scope of designation, suspend, or - as last resort - withdraw the designation.

  7. Design requirements for orbit maintenance of SPS elements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the design and operational requirements that will be imposed by the need to avoid unplanned reentry of SPS elements. The LEO Staging Base, Electric Orbit Transfer Vehicle, the LEO Construction Base, and SPS Self-Power Module are the SPS elements selected for this analysis. The orbit decay rates and attitude control/orbit maintenance propellant requirements for nominal and worst case conditions are defined. The sequence of events that could cause unplanned reentry are defined. The design and operational requirements that will be used to prevent the various elements from deorbiting are defined.

  8. Sortie laboratory, phase B technical summary. [design and operational requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design and operational requirements which evolved from Sortie Lab (SL) analysis are summarized. A source of requirements for systems is given along with experimental support for the SL, baseline. Basic design data covered include: configuration definition, mission analysis, experimental integration, safety, and logistics. A technical summary outlines characteristics which reflect the influence of the growth in SL capability and the results of the mission and operational analysis. Each of the selected areas is described in terms of objectives, equipment, operational concept, and support requirements.

  9. Design requirements for high-efficiency high concentration ratio space solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauschenbach, H.; Patterson, R.

    1980-01-01

    A miniaturized Cassegrainian concentrator system concept was developed for low cost, multikilowatt space solar arrays. The system imposes some requirements on solar cells which are new and different from those imposed for conventional applications. The solar cells require a circular active area of approximately 4 mm in diameter. High reliability contacts are required on both front and back surfaces. The back area must be metallurgically bonded to a heat sink. The cell should be designed to achieve the highest practical efficiency at 100 AMO suns and at 80 C. The cell design must minimize losses due to nonuniform illumination intensity and nonnormal light incidence. The primary radiation concern is the omnidirectional proton environment.

  10. Towards Requirements in Systems Engineering for Aerospace IVHM Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Lin, Wei; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Health management (HM) technologies have been employed for safety critical system for decades, but a coherent systematic process to integrate HM into the system design is not yet clear. Consequently, in most cases, health management resorts to be an after-thought or 'band-aid' solution. Moreover, limited guidance exists for carrying out systems engineering (SE) on the subject of writing requirements for designs with integrated vehicle health management (IVHM). It is well accepted that requirements are key to developing a successful IVHM system right from the concept stage to development, verification, utilization, and support. However, writing requirements for systems with IVHM capability have unique challenges that require the designers to look beyond their own domains and consider the constraints and specifications of other interlinked systems. In this paper we look at various stages in the SE process and identify activities specific to IVHM design and development. More importantly, several relevant questions are posed that system engineers must address at various design and development stages. Addressing these questions should provide some guidance to systems engineers towards writing IVHM related requirements to ensure that appropriate IVHM functions are built into the system design.

  11. Computer aided design environment for the analysis and design of multi-body flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramakrishnan, Jayant V.; Singh, Ramen P.

    1989-01-01

    A computer aided design environment consisting of the programs NASTRAN, TREETOPS and MATLAB is presented in this paper. With links for data transfer between these programs, the integrated design of multi-body flexible structures is significantly enhanced. The CAD environment is used to model the Space Shuttle/Pinhole Occulater Facility. Then a controller is designed and evaluated in the nonlinear time history sense. Recent enhancements and ongoing research to add more capabilities are also described.

  12. Computer aided design environment for the analysis and design of multi-body flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramakrishnan, Jayant V.; Singh, Ramen P.

    1989-01-01

    A computer aided design environment consisting of the programs NASTRAN, TREETOPS and MATLAB is presented in this paper. With links for data transfer between these programs, the integrated design of multi-body flexible structures is significantly enhanced. The CAD environment is used to model the Space Shuttle/Pinhole Occulater Facility. Then a controller is designed and evaluated in the nonlinear time history sense. Recent enhancements and ongoing research to add more capabilities are also described.

  13. NASA requirements and applications environments for electrical power wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stavnes, Mark W.; Hammoud, Ahmad N.

    1992-01-01

    Serious problems can occur from insulation failures in the wiring harnesses of aerospace vehicles. In most recorded incidents, the failures have been identified to be the result of arc tracking, the propagation of an arc along wiring bundles through degradation of insulation. Propagation of the arc can lead to the loss of the entire wiring harness and the functions which it supports. While an extensive database of testing for arc track resistant wire insulations has been developed for aircraft applications, the counterpart requirements for spacecraft are very limited. The electrical, thermal, mechanical, chemical, and operational requirements for specification and testing of candidate wiring systems for spacecraft applications is presented.

  14. NASA requirements and applications environments for electrical power wiring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavnes, Mark W.; Hammoud, Ahmad N.

    1992-08-01

    Serious problems can occur from insulation failures in the wiring harnesses of aerospace vehicles. In most recorded incidents, the failures have been identified to be the result of arc tracking, the propagation of an arc along wiring bundles through degradation of insulation. Propagation of the arc can lead to the loss of the entire wiring harness and the functions which it supports. While an extensive database of testing for arc track resistant wire insulations has been developed for aircraft applications, the counterpart requirements for spacecraft are very limited. The electrical, thermal, mechanical, chemical, and operational requirements for specification and testing of candidate wiring systems for spacecraft applications is presented.

  15. 40 CFR 80.598 - What are the designation requirements for refiners, importers, and distributors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the designation requirements... (MVNRLM) diesel fuel. (B) Heating oil. (C) Jet fuel. (D) Kerosene. (E) No. 4 fuel. (F) Distillate fuel for... to June 1, 2006, any batch of MVNRLM not containing visible evidence of red dye under §...

  16. 40 CFR 80.598 - What are the designation requirements for refiners, importers, and distributors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the designation requirements... (MVNRLM) diesel fuel. (B) Heating oil. (C) Jet fuel. (D) Kerosene. (E) No. 4 fuel. (F) Distillate fuel for... to June 1, 2006, any batch of MVNRLM not containing visible evidence of red dye under §...

  17. Teacher-Led Design of an Adaptive Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavroudi, Anna; Hadzilacos, Thanasis; Kalles, Dimitris; Gregoriades, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a requirements engineering process that exemplifies teacher-led design in the case of an envisioned system for adaptive learning. Such a design poses various challenges and still remains an open research issue in the field of adaptive learning. Starting from a scenario-based elicitation method, the whole process was highly…

  18. Teacher-Led Design of an Adaptive Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavroudi, Anna; Hadzilacos, Thanasis; Kalles, Dimitris; Gregoriades, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a requirements engineering process that exemplifies teacher-led design in the case of an envisioned system for adaptive learning. Such a design poses various challenges and still remains an open research issue in the field of adaptive learning. Starting from a scenario-based elicitation method, the whole process was highly…

  19. Design requirements for the supercritical water oxidation test bed

    SciTech Connect

    Svoboda, J.M.; Valentich, D.J.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes the design requirements for the supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) test bed that will be located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The test bed will process a maximum of 50 gph of waste plus the required volume of cooling water. The test bed will evaluate the performance of a number of SCWO reactor designs. The goal of the project is to select a reactor that can be scaled up for use in a full-size waste treatment facility to process US Department of Energy mixed wastes. EG&G Idaho, Inc. will design and construct the SCWO test bed at the Water Reactor Research Test Facility (WRRTF), located in the northern region of the INEL. Private industry partners will develop and provide SCWO reactors to interface with the test bed. A number of reactor designs will be tested, including a transpiring wall, tube, and vessel-type reactor. The initial SCWO reactor evaluated will be a transpiring wall design. This design requirements report identifies parameters needed to proceed with preliminary and final design work for the SCWO test bed. A flow sheet and Process and Instrumentation Diagrams define the overall process and conditions of service and delineate equipment, piping, and instrumentation sizes and configuration Codes and standards that govern the safe engineering and design of systems and guidance that locates and interfaces test bed hardware are provided. Detailed technical requirements are addressed for design of piping, valves, instrumentation and control, vessels, tanks, pumps, electrical systems, and structural steel. The approach for conducting the preliminary and final designs and environmental and quality issues influencing the design are provided.

  20. Universalism, universal design and equitable access to the built environment.

    PubMed

    Imrie, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The concept of universal design (UD) has acquired global significance and become orthodoxy of what is presented as the very best of design practice. This is despite limited evaluation of the theoretical content of the concept. This article seeks to redress this shortfall in knowledge by providing a critique of the theoretical and conceptual components that underpin the principles of universal design. Commentary. The content of UD appears to be reductive and functionalist, with an appeal to discourses of technical flexibility, or the notion that the problems confronting disabled people by poorly designed built environments may be redressed by recourse to technical and management solutions. UD is characterized by its advocation of the marketization of access as the primary means to ensure the accessibility of products, including the built environment. This has the potential to reduce the "right to access" to a right to be exercised through a market presence or transaction. There is also lack of clarity about what advocates of UD understand universalism to be, as illustrated by evidence of some ambivalence towards specialist or particular design solutions. UD provides a useful, yet partial, understanding of the interrelationships between disability and design that may limit how far inequalities of access to the built environment can be overcome.

  1. A theory of requirements definition in engineering design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eodice, Michael Thomas

    2000-10-01

    Traditional requirements-definition activities begin with the engineer or design team performing a needs-analysis to identify user requirements. Needs-analysis is generally subjective, and varies according to the composition and experience of the design team. Systematic procedures for defining and ranking requirements are necessary to consolidate the foundation on which the design process is predicated, and to enhance its outcome by providing the designer with a consistent, reliable approach to product development. As a first step towards developing such procedures, research was conducted at Stanford University using empirical data from a NASA spaceflight experiment that flew aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-90 (April 1998). This research was accomplished using ex post facto data analysis. This researcher served in the central role of Experiment Manager for the spaceflight experiment, and acted as a participant-observer while conducting formal research. To better understand requirement structure and evolution, individual requirements were decomposed using AND/OR graphs. The AND/OR graph data structure illustrates requirements evolution, and reveals that the original requirement is often met by fulfilling a series of sub-requirements that are easier to implement. Early in the product life cycle, many hundreds of potential needs were identified; however, it was a smaller subset of these initial needs that were realized in the final product. Based on analysis of a large group of requirements, it was observed that two critical components for any individual requirement were: (1) a stated need, and (2) an advocate to implement the need. Identification of need, or needs-analysis, although a necessary condition, is insufficient to ensure that a stated need evolves into a formal requirement. Equally important to the concept of requirements-definition is the notion of advocacy. Early in the product development cycle of the of the NASA experiment, many potential needs were

  2. Designing robots for industrial environments. [economic factors and vulnerability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Environmental hazards to industrial robots are summarized. The inherent reliability of the design of the Unimate robot is assessed and the data used in a management system to bring the reliability performance up to a level nearing what is theoretically available. The design is shown to be capable of a mean time between failure of 400 hours and an average up time of 98%. Specific design decisions made in view of application requirements are explored.

  3. Designing robots for industrial environments. [economic factors and vulnerability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Environmental hazards to industrial robots are summarized. The inherent reliability of the design of the Unimate robot is assessed and the data used in a management system to bring the reliability performance up to a level nearing what is theoretically available. The design is shown to be capable of a mean time between failure of 400 hours and an average up time of 98%. Specific design decisions made in view of application requirements are explored.

  4. Requirements for Information Professionals in a Digital Environment: Some Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ataman, Bekir Kemal

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to point out the increasing need to provide information professionals with a sound grounding in the technological aspects of their profession. Design/methodology/approach: The paper sets out by describing the sudden increase in volumes of information that confront our society, and then looks at how the younger…

  5. Design and analysis issues in gene and environment studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Both nurture (environmental) and nature (genetic factors) play an important role in human disease etiology. Traditionally, these effects have been thought of as independent. This perspective is ill informed for non-mendelian complex disorders which result as an interaction between genetics and environment. To understand health and disease we must study how nature and nurture interact. Recent advances in human genomics and high-throughput biotechnology make it possible to study large numbers of genetic markers and gene products simultaneously to explore their interactions with environment. The purpose of this review is to discuss design and analytic issues for gene-environment interaction studies in the “-omics” era, with a focus on environmental and genetic epidemiological studies. We present an expanded environmental genomic disease paradigm. We discuss several study design issues for gene-environmental interaction studies, including confounding and selection bias, measurement of exposures and genotypes. We discuss statistical issues in studying gene-environment interactions in different study designs, such as choices of statistical models, assumptions regarding biological factors, and power and sample size considerations, especially in genome-wide gene-environment studies. Future research directions are also discussed. PMID:23253229

  6. Design and analysis issues in gene and environment studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen-yu; Maity, Arnab; Lin, Xihong; Wright, Robert O; Christiani, David C

    2012-12-19

    Both nurture (environmental) and nature (genetic factors) play an important role in human disease etiology. Traditionally, these effects have been thought of as independent. This perspective is ill informed for non-mendelian complex disorders which result as an interaction between genetics and environment. To understand health and disease we must study how nature and nurture interact. Recent advances in human genomics and high-throughput biotechnology make it possible to study large numbers of genetic markers and gene products simultaneously to explore their interactions with environment. The purpose of this review is to discuss design and analytic issues for gene-environment interaction studies in the "-omics" era, with a focus on environmental and genetic epidemiological studies. We present an expanded environmental genomic disease paradigm. We discuss several study design issues for gene-environmental interaction studies, including confounding and selection bias, measurement of exposures and genotypes. We discuss statistical issues in studying gene-environment interactions in different study designs, such as choices of statistical models, assumptions regarding biological factors, and power and sample size considerations, especially in genome-wide gene-environment studies. Future research directions are also discussed.

  7. Designing a Virtual-Reality-Based, Gamelike Math Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xinhao; Ke, Fengfeng

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the design issues related to a virtual-reality-based, gamelike learning environment (VRGLE) developed via OpenSimulator, an open-source virtual reality server. The researchers collected qualitative data to examine the VRGLE's usability, playability, and content integration for math learning. They found it important…

  8. Designing for Learning: Online Social Networks as a Classroom Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Gail; Evans, Terry

    2011-01-01

    This paper deploys notions of emergence, connections, and designs for learning to conceptualize high school students' interactions when using online social media as a learning environment. It makes links to chaos and complexity theories and to fractal patterns as it reports on a part of the first author's action research study, conducted while she…

  9. Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Fuhua, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents" reports on the most recent advances in agent technologies for distributed learning. Chapters are devoted to the various aspects of intelligent software agents in distributed learning, including the methodological and technical issues on where and how intelligent agents…

  10. Designing a Virtual-Reality-Based, Gamelike Math Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xinhao; Ke, Fengfeng

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the design issues related to a virtual-reality-based, gamelike learning environment (VRGLE) developed via OpenSimulator, an open-source virtual reality server. The researchers collected qualitative data to examine the VRGLE's usability, playability, and content integration for math learning. They found it important…

  11. Design and Evaluation of a Collaborative Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qiyun

    2009-01-01

    Collaboration becomes an essential competency in the current knowledge society. In this study, a collaborative learning environment was designed to facilitate students in group collaboration. Instructional support strategies of friendship and meaningful learning tasks were applied to promote collaboration. Scaffolding strategies such as writing…

  12. Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Fuhua, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents" reports on the most recent advances in agent technologies for distributed learning. Chapters are devoted to the various aspects of intelligent software agents in distributed learning, including the methodological and technical issues on where and how intelligent agents…

  13. Designing for Real-World Scientific Inquiry in Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketelhut, Diane Jass; Nelson, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Most policy doctrines promote the use of scientific inquiry in the K-12 classroom, but good inquiry is hard to implement, particularly for schools with fiscal and safety constraints and for teachers struggling with understanding how to do so. Purpose: In this paper, we present the design of a multi-user virtual environment (MUVE)…

  14. Understanding and Designing Military Organizations for a Complex Dynamic Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-25

    recognize and develop an understanding about the relationships between organizational design, organizational processes, and the attributes of leadership...and are associated with evolution, ecological niches, social process, human behavior, and economies.4 In other words, complex systems can be...and the Environment The rational approach to defining environmental conditions was used in detail because it lays the ground work for developing an

  15. A Review of Literacy Frameworks for Learning Environments Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebmann, Kristen Radsliff

    2013-01-01

    This article charts the development of three literacy research frameworks: multiliteracies, new literacies, and popular literacies. By reviewing the literature surrounding three current conceptions of literacy, an attempt is made to form an integrative grouping that captures the most relevant elements of each for learning environments design.…

  16. QUICK - An interactive software environment for engineering design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, David L.

    1989-01-01

    QUICK, an interactive software environment for engineering design, provides a programmable FORTRAN-like calculator interface to a wide range of data structures as well as both built-in and user created functions. QUICK also provides direct access to the operating systems of eight different machine architectures. The evolution of QUICK and a brief overview of the current version are presented.

  17. Designing for Real-World Scientific Inquiry in Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketelhut, Diane Jass; Nelson, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Most policy doctrines promote the use of scientific inquiry in the K-12 classroom, but good inquiry is hard to implement, particularly for schools with fiscal and safety constraints and for teachers struggling with understanding how to do so. Purpose: In this paper, we present the design of a multi-user virtual environment (MUVE)…

  18. Virtual Worlds; Real Learning: Design Principles for Engaging Immersive Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu (u. Sjarpm)

    2012-01-01

    The EMDT master's program at Full Sail University embarked on a small project to use a virtual environment to teach graduate students. The property used for this project has evolved our several iterations and has yielded some basic design principles and pedagogy for virtual spaces. As a result, students are emerging from the program with a better grasp of future possibilities.

  19. Architectural requirements for a multipurpose natural language processor in the clinical environment.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, C.; Johnson, S. B.; Forman, B.; Starren, J.

    1995-01-01

    A considerable amount of research has been concerned with the development of natural language systems to automate the encoding of clinical information that occurs in textual form. The task is very complex, and not many language processors are used routinely within clinical information systems. Those systems that are operational, have been implemented in narrow domains for particular applications. For a system to be truly useful, it should be designed so that it could be widely used within the clinical environment. This paper examines architectural requirements we have identified as being necessary for portability and describes the architecture of the system we developed. Our system was designed so that it could be used in different domains to serve a variety of applications. It has been integrated with the clinical information system at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center where it routinely encodes clinical information from radiological reports of patients. PMID:8563299

  20. Flammability, Odor, Offgassing, and Compatibility Requirements and Test Procedures for Materials in Environments that Support Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This handbook establishes NASA program requirements for evaluation, testing, and selection of materials to preclude unsafe conditions related to flammability, odor, offgassing, and fluid compatibility. Materials intended for use in space vehicles, specified test facilities, and specified ground support equipment (GSE) must meet the requirements of this document. Additional materials performance requirements may be specified in other program or NASA center specific documentation. Responsible NASA centers materials organizations must include applicable requirements of this document in their materials control programs. Materials used in habitable areas of spacecraft, including the materials of the spacecraft, stowed equipment, and experiments, must be evaluated for flammability, odor, and offgassing characteristics. All materials used in other areas must be evaluated for flammability characteristics. In addition, materials that are exposed to liquid oxygen (LOX), gaseous oxygen (GOX), and other reactive fluids' must be evaluated for compatibility with the fluid in their use application. Materials exposed to pressurized breathing gases also must be evaluated for odor and offgassing characteristics. The worst-case anticipated use environment (most hazardous pressure, temperature, material thickness, and fluid exposure conditions) must be used in the evaluation process. Materials that have been shown to meet the criteria of the required tests are acceptable for further consideration in design. Whenever possible, materials should be selected that have already been shown to meet the test criteria in the use environment. Existing test data are compiled in the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS) and published periodically as the latest revision of a joint document with Johnson Space Center (JSC), MSFC-HDBK-527/JSC 09604. MAPTIS can be accessed by computer datalink. Systems containing materials that have not

  1. Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission scientific instrument protective enclosure design requirements and contamination controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Patricia A.; Hughes, David W.; Hedgeland, Randy J.; Chivatero, Craig J.; Studer, Robert J.; Kostos, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    The Scientific Instrument Protective Enclosures were designed for the Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Missions to provide a beginning environment to a Scientific Instrument during ground and on orbit activities. The Scientific Instruments required very stringent surface cleanliness and molecular outgassing levels to maintain ultraviolet performance. Data from the First Servicing Mission verified that both the Scientific Instruments and Scientific Instrument Protective Enclosures met surface cleanliness level requirements during ground and on-orbit activities.

  2. The Functional Requirements and Design Basis for Information Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, James L.

    2012-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Information Barrier Working Group workshop held at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, NM, February 2-4, 1999. This workshop was convened to establish the functional requirements associated with warhead radiation signature information barriers, to identify the major design elements of any such system or approach, and to identify a design basis for each of these major elements. Such information forms the general design basis to be used in designing, fabricating, and evaluating the complete integrated systems developed for specific purposes.

  3. NASA requirements and applications environments for electrical power wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stavnes, Mark W.; Hammond, Ahmad N.

    1992-01-01

    While a large data base for electrical arc track-resistant wire insulation exists for aircraft electrical power systems, comparable spacecraft-pertinent data are in limited supply. Existing insulation systems have been found to arc-track at potentials as low as 28 V dc. An account is presently given of the electrical, thermal, mechanical, and operational requirements for specification and testing of candidate wiring systems for spacecraft applications.

  4. Instructional Design Issues in a Distributed Collaborative Engineering Design (CED) Instructional Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koszalka, Tiffany A.; Wu, Yiyan

    2010-01-01

    Changes in engineering practices have spawned changes in engineering education and prompted the use of distributed learning environments. A distributed collaborative engineering design (CED) course was designed to engage engineering students in learning about and solving engineering design problems. The CED incorporated an advanced interactive…

  5. Making microbiology of the built environment relevant to design.

    PubMed

    Brown, G Z; Kline, Jeff; Mhuireach, Gwynne; Northcutt, Dale; Stenson, Jason

    2016-02-16

    Architects are enthusiastic about "bioinformed design" as occupant well-being is a primary measure of architectural success. However, architects are also under mounting pressure to create more sustainable buildings. Scientists have a critical opportunity to make the emerging field of microbiology of the built environment more relevant and applicable to real-world design problems by addressing health and sustainability in tandem. Practice-based research, which complements evidence-based design, represents a promising approach to advancing knowledge of the indoor microbiome and translating it to architectural practice.

  6. Executive control systems in the engineering design environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, P. W.; Pratt, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    Executive Control Systems (ECSs) are software structures for the unification of various engineering design application programs into comprehensive systems with a central user interface (uniform access) method and a data management facility. Attention is presently given to the most significant determinations of a research program conducted for 24 ECSs, used in government and industry engineering design environments to integrate CAD/CAE applications programs. Characterizations are given for the systems' major architectural components and the alternative design approaches considered in their development. Attention is given to ECS development prospects in the areas of interdisciplinary usage, standardization, knowledge utilization, and computer science technology transfer.

  7. Executive control systems in the engineering design environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, P. W.; Pratt, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    Executive Control Systems (ECSs) are software structures for the unification of various engineering design application programs into comprehensive systems with a central user interface (uniform access) method and a data management facility. Attention is presently given to the most significant determinations of a research program conducted for 24 ECSs, used in government and industry engineering design environments to integrate CAD/CAE applications programs. Characterizations are given for the systems' major architectural components and the alternative design approaches considered in their development. Attention is given to ECS development prospects in the areas of interdisciplinary usage, standardization, knowledge utilization, and computer science technology transfer.

  8. Integration and evaluation of a simulator designed to be used within a dynamic prototyping environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Loretta A.

    1993-01-01

    The human computer interface (HCI) prototyping environment is designed to allow developers to rapidly prototype systems so that the interface and functionality of a system can be evaluated and iteratively refined early in the development process. This keeps development costs down by modifying the interface during the requirements definition phase, thus minimizing changes that need to be made during and after flight code development. Problems occur within a system when the user interface is not adequately developed and when designers and developers have an incomplete understanding of the system requirements. A process has been developed for prototyping on-board payload displays for Space Station Freedom. This prototyping process consists of five phases: identification of known requirements, analysis of the requirements, development of a formal design representation and specification, development of the prototype, and evaluation of the prototype. The actual development of the prototype involves prototyping the displays, developing a low fidelity simulator, building of an interface (or communication) between the displays and the simulator, integration of these components, and testing to ensure that the interface does what the developer expects. This research integrates and evaluates a software tool which has been developed to serve as a simulator within the prototyping environment. The tool is being evaluated to determine whether or not it meets the basic requirements which are needed for a low fidelity simulator within this environment. In order to evaluate the architecture and its components, a human computer interface for and a simulator of an automobile have been developed as a prototype. The individual components (i.e., the interface and simulator) have been developed, and the current research was designed to integrate and test the complete working system within the prototyping environment. The following sections will describe the architecture and components of

  9. Multi-level Expression Design Language: Requirement level (MEDL-R) system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation of the Multi-Level Expression Design Language Requirements Level (MEDL-R) system was conducted to determine whether it would be of use in the Goddard Space Flight Center Code 580 software development environment. The evaluation is based upon a study of the MEDL-R concept of requirement languages, the functions performed by MEDL-R, and the MEDL-R language syntax. Recommendations are made for changes to MEDL-R that would make it useful in the Code 580 environment.

  10. Trajectory Design Tools for Libration and Cis-Lunar Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.; Webster, Cassandra M.; Bosanac, Natasha; Cox, Andrew; Guzzetti, Davide; Howell, Kathleen C.

    2016-01-01

    Innovative trajectory design tools are required to support challenging multi-body regimes with complex dynamics, uncertain perturbations, and the integration of propulsion influences. Two distinctive tools, Adaptive Trajectory Design and the General Mission Analysis Tool have been developed and certified to provide the astrodynamics community with the ability to design multi-body trajectories. In this paper we discuss the multi-body design process and the capabilities of both tools. Demonstrable applications to confirmed missions, the Lunar IceCube Cubesat lunar mission and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Sun-Earth L2 mission, are presented.

  11. Using Design Capability Indices to Satisfy Ranged Sets of Design Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Wei; Allen, Janet K.; Simpson, Timothy W.; Mistree, Farrokh

    1996-01-01

    For robust design it is desirable to allow the design requirements to vary within a certain range rather than setting point targets. This is particularly important during the early stages of design when little is known about the system and its requirements. Toward this end, design capability indices are developed in this paper to assess the capability of a family of designs, represented by a range of top-level design specifications, to satisfy a ranged set of design requirements. Design capability indices are based on process capability indices from statistical process control and provide a single objective, alternate approach to the use of Taguchi's signal-to- noise ratio which is often used for robust design. Successful implementation of design capability indices ensures that a family of designs conforms to a given ranged set of design requirements. To demonstrate an application and the usefulness of design capability indices, the design of a solar powered irrigation system is presented. Our focus in this paper is on the development and implementation of design capability indices as an alternate approach to the use of the signal-to-noise ratio and not on the results of the example problem, per se.

  12. Using Design Capability Indices to Satisfy Ranged Sets of Design Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Wei; Allen, Janet K.; Simpson, Timothy W.; Mistree, Farrokh

    1996-01-01

    For robust design it is desirable to allow the design requirements to vary within a certain range rather than setting point targets. This is particularly important during the early stages of design when little is known about the system and its requirements. Toward this end, design capability indices are developed in this paper to assess the capability of a family of designs, represented by a range of top-level design specifications, to satisfy a ranged set of design requirements. Design capability indices are based on process capability indices from statistical process control and provide a single objective, alternate approach to the use of Taguchi's signal-to- noise ratio which is often used for robust design. Successful implementation of design capability indices ensures that a family of designs conforms to a given ranged set of design requirements. To demonstrate an application and the usefulness of design capability indices, the design of a solar powered irrigation system is presented. Our focus in this paper is on the development and implementation of design capability indices as an alternate approach to the use of the signal-to-noise ratio and not on the results of the example problem, per se.

  13. Current views of health care design and construction: practical implications for safer, cleaner environments.

    PubMed

    Bartley, Judene M; Olmsted, Russell N; Haas, Janet

    2010-06-01

    Infection preventionists (IP) play an increasingly important role in preventing health care-associated infection in the physical environment associated with new construction or renovation of health care facilities. The Guidelines for Design and Construction of Hospital and Healthcare Facilities, 2010, formerly known as "AIA Guidelines" was the origin of the "infection control risk assessment" now required by multiple agencies. These Guidelines represent minimum US health care standards and provide guidance on best practices. They recognize that the built environment has a profound affect on health and the natural environment and require that health care facilities be designed to "first, do no harm." This review uses the Guidelines as a blueprint for IPs' role in design and construction, updating familiar concepts to the 2010 edition with special emphasis on IP input into design given its longer range impact on health care-associated infection prevention while linking to safety and sustainability. Section I provides an overview of disease transmission risks from the built environment and related costs, section II presents a broad view of design and master planning, and section III addresses the detailed design strategies for infection prevention specifically addressed in the 2010 Facility Guidelines Institute edition.

  14. Inclusion of explicit thermal requirements in optimum structural design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, H. M.; Sawyer, P. L.

    1977-01-01

    A finite-element based procedure is described for obtaining minimum mass designs of structures subjected to combined thermal and mechanical loading and both strength and thermal constraints. The procedure is based on a mathematical programming method using the Sequence of Unconstrained Minimizations Technique (SUMT) in which design requirements are incorporated by an exterior penalty function. The procedure is limited to steady-state temperatures which are controlled by structural sizing only. The optimization procedure is demonstrated by the design of a structural wing box with both mechanical loading and external heating, subject to design constraints on stress, minimum gage, and temperature. The final design for these conditions is compared with a corresponding design in which temperature constraints are omitted.

  15. Designing Equipment for Use in Gamma Radiation Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Vandergriff, K.U.

    1990-01-01

    High levels of gamma radiation are known to cause degradation in a variety of materials and components. When designing systems to operate in a high radiation environment, special precautions and procedures should be followed. This report (1) outlines steps that should be followed in designing equipment and (2) explains the general effects of radiation on various engineering materials and components. Much information exists in the literature on radiation effects upon materials. However, very little information is available to give the designer a step-by-step process for designing systems that will be subject to high levels of gamma radiation, such as those found in a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. In this report, many radiation effect references are relied upon to aid in the design of components and systems.

  16. Intelligent redundant actuation system requirements and preliminary system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defeo, P.; Geiger, L. J.; Harris, J.

    1985-01-01

    Several redundant actuation system configurations were designed and demonstrated to satisfy the stringent operational requirements of advanced flight control systems. However, this has been accomplished largely through brute force hardware redundancy, resulting in significantly increased computational requirements on the flight control computers which perform the failure analysis and reconfiguration management. Modern technology now provides powerful, low-cost microprocessors which are effective in performing failure isolation and configuration management at the local actuator level. One such concept, called an Intelligent Redundant Actuation System (IRAS), significantly reduces the flight control computer requirements and performs the local tasks more comprehensively than previously feasible. The requirements and preliminary design of an experimental laboratory system capable of demonstrating the concept and sufficiently flexible to explore a variety of configurations are discussed.

  17. Design Requirements for Communication-Intensive Interactive Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolchini, Davide; Garzotto, Franca; Paolini, Paolo

    Online interactive applications call for new requirements paradigms to capture the growing complexity of computer-mediated communication. Crafting successful interactive applications (such as websites and multimedia) involves modeling the requirements for the user experience, including those leading to content design, usable information architecture and interaction, in profound coordination with the communication goals of all stakeholders involved, ranging from persuasion to social engagement, to call for action. To face this grand challenge, we propose a methodology for modeling communication requirements and provide a set of operational conceptual tools to be used in complex projects with multiple stakeholders. Through examples from real-life projects and lessons-learned from direct experience, we draw on the concepts of brand, value, communication goals, information and persuasion requirements to systematically guide analysts to master the multifaceted connections of these elements as drivers to inform successful communication designs.

  18. Visualization System Requirements for Data Processing Pipeline Design and Optimization.

    PubMed

    von Landesberger, Tatiana; Fellner, Dieter; Ruddle, Roy

    2016-08-25

    The rising quantity and complexity of data creates a need to design and optimize data processing pipelines - the set of data processing steps, parameters and algorithms that perform operations on the data. Visualization can support this process but, although there are many examples of systems for visual parameter analysis, there remains a need to systematically assess users' requirements and match those requirements to exemplar visualization methods. This article presents a new characterization of the requirements for pipeline design and optimization. This characterization is based on both a review of the literature and first-hand assessment of eight application case studies. We also match these requirements with exemplar functionality provided by existing visualization tools. Thus, we provide end-users and visualization developers with a way of identifying functionality that addresses data processing problems in an application. We also identify seven future challenges for visualization research that are not met by the capabilities of today's systems.

  19. Dental Education Required for the Changing Health Care Environment.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Margherita; González-Cabezas, Carlos; de Peralta, Tracy; Johnsen, David C

    2017-08-01

    To be able to meet the demands for care in 2040, dental graduates will need to address challenges resulting from the rapidly changing health care environment with knowledge and sets of skills to build on current standards and adapt to the future. The purposes of this article are to 1) analyze key challenges likely to evolve considerably between now and 2040 that will impact dental education and practice and 2) propose several sets of skills and educational outcomes necessary to address these challenges. The challenges discussed include changes in prevalence of oral diseases, dental practice patterns, materials and technologies, integrated medical-dental care, role of electronic health records, cultural competence, integrated curricula, interprofessional education, specialty-general balance, and web/cloud-based collaborations. To meet these challenges, the dental graduate will need skills such as core knowledge in basic and clinical dentistry, technical proficiency, critical thinking skills for lifelong learning, ethical and professional values, ability to manage a practice, social responsibility, and ability to function in a collegial intra- and interprofessional setting. Beyond the skills of the individual dentist will be the need for leadership in academia and the practice community. Academic and professional leaders will need to engage key constituencies to develop strategic directions and agendas with all parties pointed toward high standards for individual patients and the public at large. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21(st) Century."

  20. SLS-SPEC-159 Cross-Program Design Specification for Natural Environments (DSNE) Revision D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barry C.

    2015-01-01

    This document is derived from the former National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Constellation Program (CxP) document CxP 70023, titled "The Design Specification for Natural Environments (DSNE), Revision C." The original document has been modified to represent updated Design Reference Missions (DRMs) for the NASA Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Programs. The DSNE completes environment-related specifications for architecture, system-level, and lower-tier documents by specifying the ranges of environmental conditions that must be accounted for by NASA ESD Programs. To assure clarity and consistency, and to prevent requirements documents from becoming cluttered with extensive amounts of technical material, natural environment specifications have been compiled into this document. The intent is to keep a unified specification for natural environments that each Program calls out for appropriate application. This document defines the natural environments parameter limits (maximum and minimum values, energy spectra, or precise model inputs, assumptions, model options, etc.), for all ESD Programs. These environments are developed by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Natural Environments Branch (MSFC organization code: EV44). Many of the parameter limits are based on experience with previous programs, such as the Space Shuttle Program. The parameter limits contain no margin and are meant to be evaluated individually to ensure they are reasonable (i.e., do not apply unrealistic extreme-on-extreme conditions). The natural environments specifications in this document should be accounted for by robust design of the flight vehicle and support systems. However, it is understood that in some cases the Programs will find it more effective to account for portions of the environment ranges by operational mitigation or acceptance of risk in accordance with an appropriate program risk management plan and/or hazard analysis process. The DSNE is not intended

  1. Requirements Management System Browser (RMSB) software design description

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, D.D.

    1996-09-30

    The purpose of this document is to provide an ``as-built`` design description for the Requirements Management System Browser (RMSB) application. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) and database structure design are described for the RMSB application, referred to as the ``Browser.`` The RMSB application provides an easy to use PC-based interface to browse systems engineering data stored and managed in a UNIX software application. The system engineering data include functions, requirements, and architectures that make up the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) technical baseline.

  2. Design and "As Flown" Radiation Environments for Materials in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph; McWilliams, Brett; Altstatt, Richard; Koontz, Steven

    2006-01-01

    A conservative design approach was adopted by the International Space Station Program for specifying total ionizing radiation dose requirements for use in selecting and qualifying materials for construction of the International Space Station. The total ionizing dose design environment included in SSP 30512 Space Station Ionizing Radiation Design Environment is based on trapped proton and electron fluence derived from the solar maximum versions of the AE-8 and AP-8 models, respectively, specified for a circular orbit at 500 km altitude and 51.7 degree inclination. Since launch, the range of altitudes utilized for Space Station operations vary from a minimum of approximately 330 km to a maximum of approximately 405 km with a mean operational altitude less than 400 km. The design environment, therefore, overestimates the radiation environment because the particle flux in the South Atlantic Anomaly is the primary contributor to radiation dose in low Earth orbit and flux within the Anomaly is altitude dependent. In addition, a 2X multiplier is often applied to the design environment to cover effects from the contributions of galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particle events, geomagnetic storms, and uncertainties in the trapped radiation models which are not explicitly included in the design environment. Application of this environment may give radiation dose overestimates on the order of 1OX to 30X for materials exposed to the space environment, suggesting that materials originally qualified for ten year exposures on orbit may be used for longer periods without replacement. In this paper we evaluate the "as flown" radiation environments derived from historical records of the ISS flight trajectory since launch and compare the results with the SSP 30512 design environment to document the magnitude of the radiation dose overestimate provided by the design environment. "As flown" environments are obtained from application of the AE-8/AP-8 trapped particle models along

  3. Mission environment simulation for Army rotorcraft development: Requirements and capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, D. L.; Odneal, B. L.; Sinacori, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    The rich and varied detail visible in terrain flight must be presented by a wide field-of-view system with much detail and high resolution. The rotary-wing R&D simulator must have great versatility for easy change of cab configurations and the capability to accommodate a two or three man crew. Basic specifications for an adequate visual display were developed and are compared with current and forecasted techniques for image generation and presentation. Results of a study performed to determine the feasibility of meeting these requirements using the current technology of TV camera-model image generation and projected display are discussed and an assessment of the possibility that computer generated imagery can achieve the desired level of detail is presented.

  4. Intelligent Agents for Design and Synthesis Environments: My Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norvig, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This presentation gives a summary of intelligent agents for design synthesis environments. We'll start with the conclusions, and work backwards to justify them. First, an important assumption is that agents (whatever they are) are good for software engineering. This is especially true for software that operates in an uncertain, changing environment. The "real world" of physical artifacts is like that: uncertain in what we can measure, changing in that things are always breaking down, and we must interact with non-software entities. The second point is that software engineering techniques can contribute to good design. There may have been a time when we wanted to build simple artifacts containing little or no software. But modern aircraft and spacecraft are complex, and rely on a great deal of software. So better software engineering leads to better designed artifacts, especially when we are designing a series of related artifacts and can amortize the costs of software development. The third point is that agents are especially useful for design tasks, above and beyond their general usefulness for software engineering, and the usefulness of software engineering to design.

  5. Intelligent Agents for Design and Synthesis Environments: My Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norvig, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This presentation gives a summary of intelligent agents for design synthesis environments. We'll start with the conclusions, and work backwards to justify them. First, an important assumption is that agents (whatever they are) are good for software engineering. This is especially true for software that operates in an uncertain, changing environment. The "real world" of physical artifacts is like that: uncertain in what we can measure, changing in that things are always breaking down, and we must interact with non-software entities. The second point is that software engineering techniques can contribute to good design. There may have been a time when we wanted to build simple artifacts containing little or no software. But modern aircraft and spacecraft are complex, and rely on a great deal of software. So better software engineering leads to better designed artifacts, especially when we are designing a series of related artifacts and can amortize the costs of software development. The third point is that agents are especially useful for design tasks, above and beyond their general usefulness for software engineering, and the usefulness of software engineering to design.

  6. 77 FR 19030 - Automated Commercial Environment Required for the Transmission of Advance Ocean and Rail Cargo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    .... 12-06] Automated Commercial Environment Required for the Transmission of Advance Ocean and Rail Cargo... Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) for the transmission of advance ocean and rail cargo information... controlled environment.\\3\\ M1 test participants were chosen based on the specific type of software format...

  7. On the Design of Smart Homes: A Framework for Activity Recognition in Home Environment.

    PubMed

    Cicirelli, Franco; Fortino, Giancarlo; Giordano, Andrea; Guerrieri, Antonio; Spezzano, Giandomenico; Vinci, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    A smart home is a home environment enriched with sensing, actuation, communication and computation capabilities which permits to adapt it to inhabitants preferences and requirements. Establishing a proper strategy of actuation on the home environment can require complex computational tasks on the sensed data. This is the case of activity recognition, which consists in retrieving high-level knowledge about what occurs in the home environment and about the behaviour of the inhabitants. The inherent complexity of this application domain asks for tools able to properly support the design and implementation phases. This paper proposes a framework for the design and implementation of smart home applications focused on activity recognition in home environments. The framework mainly relies on the Cloud-assisted Agent-based Smart home Environment (CASE) architecture offering basic abstraction entities which easily allow to design and implement Smart Home applications. CASE is a three layered architecture which exploits the distributed multi-agent paradigm and the cloud technology for offering analytics services. Details about how to implement activity recognition onto the CASE architecture are supplied focusing on the low-level technological issues as well as the algorithms and the methodologies useful for the activity recognition. The effectiveness of the framework is shown through a case study consisting of a daily activity recognition of a person in a home environment.

  8. Maintaining Corrosion Protection by Anticipating Increased Environment, Safety and Health Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Maintaining Corrosion Protection by Anticipating Increased Environment, Safety and Health Requirements 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...responding? Environment, Safety and Health (ESH) Corrosion Prevention and Control (CPC) RDECOM  Often competing requirements  Many CPC...2001, Environmental Protection Agency: “highly likely” to be carcinogenic in humans  2006, National Research Council: “potential human carcinogen

  9. Requirements for psychological models to support design: Towards ecological task analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirlik, Alex

    1991-01-01

    Cognitive engineering is largely concerned with creating environmental designs to support skillful and effective human activity. A set of necessary conditions are proposed for psychological models capable of supporting this enterprise. An analysis of the psychological nature of the design product is used to identify a set of constraints that models must meet if they can usefully guide design. It is concluded that cognitive engineering requires models with resources for describing the integrated human-environment system, and that these models must be capable of describing the activities underlying fluent and effective interaction. These features are required in order to be able to predict the cognitive activity that will be required given various design concepts, and to design systems that promote the acquisition of fluent, skilled behavior. These necessary conditions suggest that an ecological approach can provide valuable resources for psychological modeling to support design. Relying heavily on concepts from Brunswik's and Gibson's ecological theories, ecological task analysis is proposed as a framework in which to predict the types of cognitive activity required to achieve productive behavior, and to suggest how interfaces can be manipulated to alleviate certain types of cognitive demands. The framework is described in terms, and illustrated with an example from the previous research on modeling skilled human-environment interaction.

  10. TWRS privatization Phase I site development design requirements document

    SciTech Connect

    Shord, A.L.

    1997-01-21

    The DOE-RL is pursuing a strategy of hiring private contractors for treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes. This strategy is called privatization and includes design, permitting,construction, operation, and deactivation of facilities for tank waste treatment. The TWRS Privatization Infrastructure Project consists of several sub- projects which will provide key services needed to support the privatization mission. This document identifies the design requirements for the site development sub-project, including construction, power, water, and road modifications. It will be used in development of the project`s conceptual design.

  11. The Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA). Design and architecture☆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, John A.; Clarno, Kevin; Sieger, Matt; Bartlett, Roscoe; Collins, Benjamin; Pawlowski, Roger; Schmidt, Rodney; Summers, Randall

    2016-12-01

    VERA, the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications, is the system of physics capabilities being developed and deployed by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). CASL was established for the modeling and simulation of commercial nuclear reactors. VERA consists of integrating and interfacing software together with a suite of physics components adapted and/or refactored to simulate relevant physical phenomena in a coupled manner. VERA also includes the software development environment and computational infrastructure needed for these components to be effectively used. We describe the architecture of VERA from both software and numerical perspectives, along with the goals and constraints that drove major design decisions, and their implications. We explain why VERA is an environment rather than a framework or toolkit, why these distinctions are relevant (particularly for coupled physics applications), and provide an overview of results that demonstrate the use of VERA tools for a variety of challenging applications within the nuclear industry.

  12. The Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA): Design and architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, John A.; Clarno, Kevin; Sieger, Matt; Bartlett, Roscoe; Collins, Benjamin; Pawlowski, Roger; Schmidt, Rodney; Summers, Randall

    2016-12-01

    VERA, the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications, is the system of physics capabilities being developed and deployed by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). CASL was established for the modeling and simulation of commercial nuclear reactors. VERA consists of integrating and interfacing software together with a suite of physics components adapted and/or refactored to simulate relevant physical phenomena in a coupled manner. VERA also includes the software development environment and computational infrastructure needed for these components to be effectively used. We describe the architecture of VERA from both software and numerical perspectives, along with the goals and constraints that drove major design decisions, and their implications. We explain why VERA is an environment rather than a framework or toolkit, why these distinctions are relevant (particularly for coupled physics applications), and provide an overview of results that demonstrate the use of VERA tools for a variety of challenging applications within the nuclear industry.

  13. 23 CFR 1340.3 - Basic design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... STATE OBSERVATIONAL SURVEYS OF SEAT BELT USE § 1340.3 Basic design requirements. Surveys conducted in... include the following: (1) The sample data shall be collected through direct observation of seat belt use on roadways within the State, conducted completely within the calendar year for which the seat...

  14. 23 CFR 1340.3 - Basic design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... STATE OBSERVATIONAL SURVEYS OF SEAT BELT USE § 1340.3 Basic design requirements. Surveys conducted in... include the following: (1) The sample data shall be collected through direct observation of seat belt use on roadways within the State, conducted completely within the calendar year for which the seat...

  15. 42 CFR 121.9 - Designated transplant program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT ORGAN PROCUREMENT AND TRANSPLANTATION NETWORK § 121.9 Designated transplant program requirements. (a) To receive organs for transplantation, a transplant program in a hospital that is a member of... for reimbursement under Medicare; or (2) Be an organ transplant program which has adequate resources...

  16. NPS CubeSat Launcher Design, Process and Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Lithography (SLA) • Laminated Object Manufacturing • Electron Beam Melting Each of these technologies varies dramatically by materials used, price...Like many engineering projects there are often re-designs or mistakes requiring rework , so it was impractical to plan on building only ten P-POD

  17. 42 CFR 121.9 - Designated transplant program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT ORGAN PROCUREMENT AND TRANSPLANTATION NETWORK § 121.9 Designated transplant program requirements. (a) To receive organs for transplantation, a transplant program in a hospital that is a member of... for reimbursement under Medicare; or (2) Be an organ transplant program which has adequate...

  18. Acoustic attenuation design requirements established through EPNL parametric trades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veldman, H. F.

    1972-01-01

    An optimization procedure for the provision of an acoustic lining configuration that is balanced with respect to engine performance losses and lining attenuation characteristics was established using a method which determined acoustic attenuation design requirements through parametric trade studies using the subjective noise unit of effective perceived noise level (EPNL).

  19. Comparison of JSFR design with EDF requirements for future SFR

    SciTech Connect

    Uematsu, M. M.; Prele, G.; Mariteau, P.; Sauvage, J. F.; Hayafune, H.; Chikazawa, Y.

    2012-07-01

    A comparison of Japan sodium-cooled fast reactor (JSFR) design with future French SFR concept has been done based on the requirement of EDF, the investor-operator of future French SFR, and the French safety baseline, under the framework of EDF-JAEA bilateral agreement of research and development cooperation on future SFR. (authors)

  20. Medical Requirements for Ambulance Design and Equipment. Emergency Health Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Div. of Medical Sciences.

    A vehicle must meet certain specific requirements to be classified as an ambulance if it is to satisfy the demands of the physician in terms of emergency care for which properly trained ambulance attendants can be held responsible. Developed by professional and lay experts for use by automotive designers and manufacturing, this publication would…

  1. 39 CFR 776.6 - Design requirements for construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 776.6 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND PROCEDURES Floodplain Management § 776.6 Design requirements for construction. If structures impact, are located in, or support development in a floodplain, construction must conform, at a minimum, to...

  2. 39 CFR 776.6 - Design requirements for construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 776.6 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND PROCEDURES Floodplain Management § 776.6 Design requirements for construction. If structures impact, are located in, or support development in a floodplain, construction must conform, at a minimum, to...

  3. 39 CFR 776.6 - Design requirements for construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 776.6 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND PROCEDURES Floodplain Management § 776.6 Design requirements for construction. If structures impact, are located in, or support development in a floodplain, construction must conform, at a minimum, to...

  4. 39 CFR 776.6 - Design requirements for construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 776.6 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND PROCEDURES Floodplain Management § 776.6 Design requirements for construction. If structures impact, are located in, or support development in a floodplain, construction must conform, at a minimum, to...

  5. 39 CFR 776.6 - Design requirements for construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 776.6 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND PROCEDURES Floodplain Management § 776.6 Design requirements for construction. If structures impact, are located in, or support development in a floodplain, construction must conform, at a minimum, to...

  6. Design requirements for operational earth resources ground data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, C. J.; Bradford, L. H.; Burnett, E. S.; Hutson, D. E.; Kinsler, B. A.; Kugle, D. R.; Webber, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    Realistic tradeoff data and evaluation techniques were studied that permit conceptual design of operational earth resources ground processing systems. Methodology for determining user requirements that utilize the limited information available from users is presented along with definitions of sensor capabilities projected into the shuttle/station era. A tentative method is presented for synthesizing candidate ground processing concepts.

  7. 24 CFR 100.205 - Design and construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Design and construction requirements. 100.205 Section 100.205 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR EQUAL OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  8. 24 CFR 100.205 - Design and construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Design and construction requirements. 100.205 Section 100.205 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR EQUAL OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  9. Usability Issues of an Augmented Virtuality Environment for Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangyu; Chen, Irene Rui

    This paper presents a usability evaluation of an Augmented Virtuality (AV)-based system dedicated for design. The philosophy behind the concept of the system is discussed based on the dimensions of transportation and artificiality in shared-space technologies. This system is introduced as a method that allows users to experience the real remote environment without the need of physically visiting the actual place. Such experience is realized by using AV technology to enrich the virtual counterparts of the place with captured real images from the real environment. The combination of the physicality reality and virtual reality provides key landmarks or features of the to-be-visited place, live video streams of the remote participants, and 3D virtual design geometry. The focus of this paper describes the implementation and a usability evaluation of the system in its current state and also discusses the limitations, issues and challenges of this AV system.

  10. Ergonomics, gerontechnology, and design for the home-environment.

    PubMed

    Pinto, M R; De Medici, S; Van Sant, C; Bianchi, A; Zlotnicki, A; Napoli, C

    2000-06-01

    An ergonomic approach could improve the quality of life and activities in daily living. Gerontechnology reduces the effects of age-related impairments with technological devices and particular design for the home-environment. Physiological decline with increasing age renders the daily activities at home more difficult. This paper highlights some "common sense" and specific design suggestions in the entrance and kitchen, aimed to increase the self-sufficiency of elderly people. We suggest that gerontechnology may have a particular role in the improvement of comfort and safety for aged people.

  11. The spinning artificial gravity environment: A design project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pignataro, Robert; Crymes, Jeff; Marzec, Tom; Seibert, Joe; Walker, Gary

    1987-01-01

    The SAGE, or Spinning Artificial Gravity Environment, design was carried out to develop an artificial gravity space station which could be used as a platform for the performance of medical research to determine the benefits of various, fractional gravity levels for astronauts normally subject to zero gravity. Desirable both for its medical research mission and a mission for the study of closed loop life-support and other factors in prolonged space flight, SAGE was designed as a low Earth orbiting, solar powered, manned space station.

  12. Using naturalistic driving films as a design tool for investigating driver requirements in HMI design for ADAS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minjuan; Sun, Dong; Chen, Fang

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there are many naturalistic driving projects have been conducted, such as the 100-Car Project (Naturalistic Driving study in United State), EuroFOT(European Large-Scale Field Operational Tests on Vehicle Systems), SeMi- FOT(Sweden Michigan Naturalistic Field Operational Test and etc. However, those valuable naturalistic driving data hasn't been applied into Human-machine Interaction (HMI) design for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), a good HMI design for ADAS requires a deep understanding of drive environment and the interactions between the driving car and other road users in different situations. The results demonstrated the benefits of using naturalistic driving films as a mean for enhancing focus group discussion for better understanding driver's needs and traffic environment constraints. It provided an efficient tool for designers to have inside knowledge about drive and the needs for information presentation; The recommendations for how to apply this method is discussed in the paper.

  13. GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE): A Concurrent Engineering Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Kunkel, Matthew R.; Smith, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE) is a client-server software application purpose-built to mitigate issues associated with real time data sharing in concurrent engineering environments and to facilitate discipline-to-discipline interaction between multiple engineers and researchers. GLIDE is implemented in multiple programming languages utilizing standardized web protocols to enable secure parameter data sharing between engineers and researchers across the Internet in closed and/or widely distributed working environments. A well defined, HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) based Application Programming Interface (API) to the GLIDE client/server environment enables users to interact with GLIDE, and each other, within common and familiar tools. One such common tool, Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation), paired with its add-in API for GLIDE, is discussed in this paper. The top-level examples given demonstrate how this interface improves the efficiency of the design process of a concurrent engineering study while reducing potential errors associated with manually sharing information between study participants.

  14. Design considerations for medical devices in the home environment.

    PubMed

    Kaufman-Rivi, Diana; Collins-Mitchell, Janette; Jetley, Raoul

    2010-01-01

    Patient demographics, economic forces, and technological advancements contribute to the rise in home care services. Advanced medical devices and equipment originally designed for use by trained personnel in hospitals and clinics are increasingly migrating into the home. Unlike the clinical setting, the home is an uncontrolled environment with additional hazards. The compatibility of the device with the recipient's knowledge, abilities, lifestyle, and home environment plays a significant role in their therapy and rehabilitation. The advent of new device technologies such as wireless devices and interoperability of systems lends a new and complex perspective for medical device use in the home that must also be addressed. Adequately assessing and matching the patient and their caregiver with the appropriate device technology while considering the suitability of the home environment for device operation and maintenance is a challenge that relies on good human factors principles. There is a need to address these challenges in the growing home care sector In this article, the authors take a look at some important considerations and design issues for medical devices used in the home care environment.

  15. The HYDROS Mission: Requirements and Baseline System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni; Spencer, Michael; McDonald, Kyle; Smith, Joel; Houser, Paul; Doiron, Terence; O'Neill, Peggy; Girard, Ralph; Entekhabi, Dara

    2003-01-01

    The HYDROS mission is under development by NASA as part of its Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program. HYDROS is designed to provide global maps of the Earth's soil moisture and freezel/thaw state every 2-3 days, for weather and climate prediction, water and carbon cycle studies, natural hazards monitoring, and national security applications. HYDROS uses a unique active and passive L-band microwave system that optimizes measurement accuracy, spatial resolution, and coverage. It provides measurements in nearly all weather conditions, regardless of solar illumination. The designs of the radar and radiometer electronics, antenna feedhorn and reflector, and science data system, are driven by specific mission and science objectives. These objectives impose requirements on the frequencies, polarizations, sampling, spatial resolution, and accuracy of the system. In this paper we describe the HYDROS mission requirements, baseline design, and measurement capabilities.

  16. The HYDROS Mission: Requirements and Baseline System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni; Spencer, Michael; McDonald, Kyle; Smith, Joel; Houser, Paul; Doiron, Terence; O'Neill, Peggy; Girard, Ralph; Entekhabi, Dara

    2003-01-01

    The HYDROS mission is under development by NASA as part of its Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program. HYDROS is designed to provide global maps of the Earth's soil moisture and freezel/thaw state every 2-3 days, for weather and climate prediction, water and carbon cycle studies, natural hazards monitoring, and national security applications. HYDROS uses a unique active and passive L-band microwave system that optimizes measurement accuracy, spatial resolution, and coverage. It provides measurements in nearly all weather conditions, regardless of solar illumination. The designs of the radar and radiometer electronics, antenna feedhorn and reflector, and science data system, are driven by specific mission and science objectives. These objectives impose requirements on the frequencies, polarizations, sampling, spatial resolution, and accuracy of the system. In this paper we describe the HYDROS mission requirements, baseline design, and measurement capabilities.

  17. Design requirements for SRB production control system. Volume 2: System requirements and conceptual description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    In the development of the business system for the SRB automated production control system, special attention had to be paid to the unique environment posed by the space shuttle. The issues posed by this environment, and the means by which they were addressed, are reviewed. The change in management philosphy which will be required as NASA switches from one-of-a-kind launches to multiple launches is discussed. The implications of the assembly process on the business system are described. These issues include multiple missions, multiple locations and facilities, maintenance and refurbishment, multiple sources, and multiple contractors. The implications of these aspects on the automated production control system are reviewed including an assessment of the six major subsystems, as well as four other subsystem. Some general system requirements which flow through the entire business system are described.

  18. Healthy Toronto by Design: Promoting a healthier built environment.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Ronald G; Wood, Linda P; Campbell, Monica E

    2014-07-08

    Chronic diseases, obesity and sedentary lifestyles are some of the health challenges facing Canada today. There is increasing recognition and evidence that the way our cities are planned, designed and built can contribute to these problems. Many of the policy levers to address the built environment exist outside the health sector and at the municipal level in areas such as urban planning, transportation, parks and recreation, and housing. The challenge for the public health sector is to build and sustain partnerships and collaboration across various sectors to ensure that health is considered in built environment policies. As the public health unit for the city of Toronto and part of the municipal government, Toronto Public Health is in a unique position to provide leadership, advocacy and support for healthy municipal public policies related to the built environment. This article provides some examples of CLASP (Coalitions Linking Action and Science for Prevention) initiatives undertaken to help create support for healthy public policies in the built environment and suggests that the "Healthy Cities" approach is a useful framework to promote policy change in the built environment at the municipal level.

  19. Radiation Environment Modeling for Spacecraft Design: New Model Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet; Xapsos, Mike; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Ladbury, Ray

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on various new space radiation environment models for spacecraft design is described. The topics include: 1) The Space Radiatio Environment; 2) Effects of Space Environments on Systems; 3) Space Radiatio Environment Model Use During Space Mission Development and Operations; 4) Space Radiation Hazards for Humans; 5) "Standard" Space Radiation Environment Models; 6) Concerns about Standard Models; 7) Inadequacies of Current Models; 8) Development of New Models; 9) New Model Developments: Proton Belt Models; 10) Coverage of New Proton Models; 11) Comparison of TPM-1, PSB97, AP-8; 12) New Model Developments: Electron Belt Models; 13) Coverage of New Electron Models; 14) Comparison of "Worst Case" POLE, CRESELE, and FLUMIC Models with the AE-8 Model; 15) New Model Developments: Galactic Cosmic Ray Model; 16) Comparison of NASA, MSU, CIT Models with ACE Instrument Data; 17) New Model Developmemts: Solar Proton Model; 18) Comparison of ESP, JPL91, KIng/Stassinopoulos, and PSYCHIC Models; 19) New Model Developments: Solar Heavy Ion Model; 20) Comparison of CREME96 to CREDO Measurements During 2000 and 2002; 21) PSYCHIC Heavy ion Model; 22) Model Standardization; 23) Working Group Meeting on New Standard Radiation Belt and Space Plasma Models; and 24) Summary.

  20. The Requirements and Design of the Rapid Prototyping Capabilities System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, T. A.; Moorhead, R.; O'Hara, C.; Anantharaj, V.

    2006-12-01

    The Rapid Prototyping Capabilities (RPC) system will provide the capability to rapidly evaluate innovative methods of linking science observations. To this end, the RPC will provide the capability to integrate the software components and tools needed to evaluate the use of a wide variety of current and future NASA sensors, numerical models, and research results, model outputs, and knowledge, collectively referred to as "resources". It is assumed that the resources are geographically distributed, and thus RPC will provide the support for the location transparency of the resources. The RPC system requires providing support for: (1) discovery, semantic understanding, secure access and transport mechanisms for data products available from the known data provides; (2) data assimilation and geo- processing tools for all data transformations needed to match given data products to the model input requirements; (3) model management including catalogs of models and model metadata, and mechanisms for creation environments for model execution; and (4) tools for model output analysis and model benchmarking. The challenge involves developing a cyberinfrastructure for a coordinated aggregate of software, hardware and other technologies, necessary to facilitate RPC experiments, as well as human expertise to provide an integrated, "end-to-end" platform to support the RPC objectives. Such aggregation is to be achieved through a horizontal integration of loosely coupled services. The cyberinfrastructure comprises several software layers. At the bottom, the Grid fabric encompasses network protocols, optical networks, computational resources, storage devices, and sensors. At the top, applications use workload managers to coordinate their access to physical resources. Applications are not tightly bounded to a single physical resource. Instead, they bind dynamically to resources (i.e., they are provisioned) via a common grid infrastructure layer. For the RPC system, the

  1. ASC Computational Environment (ACE) requirements version 8.0 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Larzelere, Alex R. (Exagrid Engineering, Alexandria, VA); Sturtevant, Judith E.

    2006-11-01

    A decision was made early in the Tri-Lab Usage Model process, that the collection of the user requirements be separated from the document describing capabilities of the user environment. The purpose in developing the requirements as a separate document was to allow the requirements to take on a higher-level view of user requirements for ASC platforms in general. In other words, a separate ASC user requirement document could capture requirements in a way that was not focused on ''how'' the requirements would be fulfilled. The intent of doing this was to create a set of user requirements that were not linked to any particular computational platform. The idea was that user requirements would endure from one ASC platform user environment to another. The hope was that capturing the requirements in this way would assist in creating stable user environments even though the particular platforms would be evolving and changing. In order to clearly make the separation, the Tri-lab S&CS program decided to create a new title for the requirements. The user requirements became known as the ASC Computational Environment (ACE) Requirements.

  2. Integrated Station Executive requirements and systems design approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Eugene L.; Morris, C. Doug

    1992-01-01

    The Avionics Office of the Space Station Projects Office at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is working to define and integrate end-to-end requirements for the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) space-ground operations. As part of these efforts, the project office has had the MITRE Corporation perform assessments and analyses in areas where they had particular concern. These areas include the changing concepts for test methodologies, the operation and performance of the communication protocols, end-to-end network management, and the Master Objects Data Base (MODB). Since the recent restructure of the space station design, a new software application, the Integrated Station Executive (ISE), has been established. This application is to act as an executive agent along with the crew and ground controllers, while replacing (or absorbing) many of the system management functions that required a home when distributed element management was eliminated. This document summarizes the current state of the ISE requirements and assesses the characteristics of the current design. MITRE's goals in this assessment and analysis is twofold: first, identify any internal inconsistencies in either the requirements or in the current design; and second, to examine the applicability of the Open System Interconnection (OSI) management standards. Inasmuch as the ISE has been defined as the executive or operations manager application within the integrated avionics of the space station, special attention is given to adapting OSI management for the specification of the ISE functions.

  3. Preliminary Design Requirements Document for Project W-314

    SciTech Connect

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-04-27

    This document sets forth functional requirements, performance requirements, and design constraints for the tank farm systems elements identified in Section 3.1 of this document. These requirements shall be used to develop the Design Requirements Baseline for those system elements. System Overview--The tank farm system at Hanford Site currently consists of 149 single shell tanks and 28 double shell tanks with associated facilities and equipment, located in 18 separate groupings. Each grouping is known as a tank farm. They are located in the areas designated as 200 West and 200 East. Table 1-1 shows the number of tanks in each farm. The farms are connected together through a transfer system consisting of piping, diversion boxes, Double Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRT) and other miscellaneous facilities and elements. The tank farm system also connects to a series of processing plants which generate radioactive and hazardous wastes. The primary functions of the tank farm system are to store, transfer, concentrate, and characterize radioactive and hazardous waste generated at Hanford, until the waste can be safely retrieved, processed and dispositioned. The systems provided by Project W-314 support the store and transfer waste functions. The system elements to be upgraded by Project W-314 are identified in Section 3.1.

  4. Thermal insulating concrete wall panel design for sustainable built environment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ao; Wong, Kwun-Wah; Lau, Denvid

    2014-01-01

    Air-conditioning system plays a significant role in providing users a thermally comfortable indoor environment, which is a necessity in modern buildings. In order to save the vast energy consumed by air-conditioning system, the building envelopes in envelope-load dominated buildings should be well designed such that the unwanted heat gain and loss with environment can be minimized. In this paper, a new design of concrete wall panel that enhances thermal insulation of buildings by adding a gypsum layer inside concrete is presented. Experiments have been conducted for monitoring the temperature variation in both proposed sandwich wall panel and conventional concrete wall panel under a heat radiation source. For further understanding the thermal effect of such sandwich wall panel design from building scale, two three-story building models adopting different wall panel designs are constructed for evaluating the temperature distribution of entire buildings using finite element method. Both the experimental and simulation results have shown that the gypsum layer improves the thermal insulation performance by retarding the heat transfer across the building envelopes.

  5. Thermal Insulating Concrete Wall Panel Design for Sustainable Built Environment

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ao; Wong, Kwun-Wah

    2014-01-01

    Air-conditioning system plays a significant role in providing users a thermally comfortable indoor environment, which is a necessity in modern buildings. In order to save the vast energy consumed by air-conditioning system, the building envelopes in envelope-load dominated buildings should be well designed such that the unwanted heat gain and loss with environment can be minimized. In this paper, a new design of concrete wall panel that enhances thermal insulation of buildings by adding a gypsum layer inside concrete is presented. Experiments have been conducted for monitoring the temperature variation in both proposed sandwich wall panel and conventional concrete wall panel under a heat radiation source. For further understanding the thermal effect of such sandwich wall panel design from building scale, two three-story building models adopting different wall panel designs are constructed for evaluating the temperature distribution of entire buildings using finite element method. Both the experimental and simulation results have shown that the gypsum layer improves the thermal insulation performance by retarding the heat transfer across the building envelopes. PMID:25177718

  6. Variations in Party Line Information Requirements for Flight Crew Situation Awareness in the Datalink Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy R.; Hansman, R. John

    1994-01-01

    Current Air Traffic Control communications use shared very high frequency (VHF) voice frequencies from which pilots can obtain 'Party Line' Information (PLI) by overhearing communications addressed to other aircraft. A prior study has shown pilots perceive this PLI to be important. There is concern that some critical PLI may be lost in the proposed datalink environment where communications will be discretely addressed. Different types of flight operations will be, equipped with datalink equipment at different times, generating a 'mixed environment' where some pilots may rely on PLI while others will receive their information by datalink. To research the importance, availability and accuracy of PLI and to query pilots on the information they feel is necessary, a survey was distributed to pilots. The pilots were selected from four flight operation groups to study the variations in PLI requirements in the mixed datalink environment. Pilots perceived PLI to be important overall. Specific information elements pertaining to traffic and weather information were identified as Critical. Most PLI elements followed a pattern of higher perceived importance during terminal area operations, final approach and landing. Pilots from the different flight operation groups identified some elements as particularly important. Pilots perceived PLI to be only moderately available and accurate overall. Several PLI elements received very low availability and accuracy ratings but are perceived as important. In a free response question designed to find the information requirements for global situation awareness, pilots frequently indicated a need for traffic and weather information. These elements were also frequently cited by them as information that could be presented by a datalink system. The results of this survey identify specific concerns to be addressed when implementing datalink communications.

  7. Interaction Design in the Built Environment: Designing for the 'Universal User'.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Concepts of responsive architecture have to date largely involved response to environmental context, in order to mediate ambient environmental factors and modify internal conditions for the comfort of users, with energy efficiency and sustainability as the main impetus. 'Smart' buildings often address little other than technically functional issues, with any ideas of 'design' as a unifying factor being disregarded. At the same time, music and performance art have been in the vanguard of creating digital interaction that intimately involves the user in aesthetic outcomes, in the creation of what Umberto Eco describes as an 'Open Work'. Environments made responsive through embedment of computational technologies can similarly extend usability and user-centred design towards universality, through careful consideration of the relationship between person, context and activity, and of the continuous and ultimately transactional nature of human occupation of built environment. Truly 'smart' environments will learn from and through usage, and can be conceived and designed so as to maximise environmental 'fit' for a wider variety of users, including people described as being 'neurodiverse'. Where user response becomes a significant component in managing a smart environment, the transactional relationship between user and environment is made explicit, and can ultimately be used to drive interaction that favours ease-of-use and personalisation. Inclusion of affective computing in human interaction with built environment offers significant potential for extending the boundaries of Universal Design to include people with autism, people with intellectual disability, and users with acquired cognitive impairment, including that arising from dementia. The same users frequently have issues with sensory-perceptual sensitivity and processing. The resulting mismatch between their individual needs and abilities, and the environments they typically occupy, can give rise to states of

  8. The effect of requirements prioritization on avionics system conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorentz, John

    This dissertation will provide a detailed approach and analysis of a new collaborative requirements prioritization methodology that has been used successfully on four Coast Guard avionics acquisition and development programs valued at $400M+. A statistical representation of participant study results will be discussed and analyzed in detail. Many technically compliant projects fail to deliver levels of performance and capability that the customer desires. Some of these systems completely meet "threshold" levels of performance; however, the distribution of resources in the process devoted to the development and management of the requirements does not always represent the voice of the customer. This is especially true for technically complex projects such as modern avionics systems. A simplified facilitated process for prioritization of system requirements will be described. The collaborative prioritization process, and resulting artifacts, aids the systems engineer during early conceptual design. All requirements are not the same in terms of customer priority. While there is a tendency to have many thresholds inside of a system design, there is usually a subset of requirements and system performance that is of the utmost importance to the design. These critical capabilities and critical levels of performance typically represent the reason the system is being built. The systems engineer needs processes to identify these critical capabilities, the associated desired levels of performance, and the risks associated with the specific requirements that define the critical capability. The facilitated prioritization exercise is designed to collaboratively draw out these critical capabilities and levels of performance so they can be emphasized in system design. Developing the purpose, scheduling and process for prioritization events are key elements of systems engineering and modern project management. The benefits of early collaborative prioritization flow throughout the

  9. SEE Design Guide and Requirements for Electrical Deadfacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berki, Joe M.; Sargent, Noel; Kauffman, W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this design guide is to present information for understanding and mitigating the potential hazards associated with de-mating and mating powered electrical connectors on space flight vehicles. The process of staging is a necessary function in the launching of space vehicles and in the deployment of satellites, and now in manned assembly of systems in space. During this electrical interconnection process, various environments may be encountered that warrant the restriction of the voltage and current present across the pins of an electrical connector prior to separation, mating, or in a static open non-mated configuration. This process is called deadfacing. These potentially hazardous environments encompass the obvious explosive fuel vapors and human shock hazard, to multiple Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI) phenomena related to the rapid rate of change in current as well as exposure to Radio Frequency (RF) fields.

  10. Command & Control in Virtual Environments: Designing a Virtual Environment for Experimentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    code to all this addition. That said, the Python scripting language is supported by Teleplace, which would allow developers to recreate the scripted...Measurements Measurements of dependent variables vary, but many follow variations of a two-factor the scheme (Leweling & Nissen, 2007). For instance...develop a “ pattern language” of virtual environment design. “A pattern is an instruction, which shows how this spatial configuration can be used

  11. Functional Mobility Testing: A Novel Method to Establish Human System Interface Design Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, Scott A.; Benson, Elizabeth A.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2008-01-01

    Across all fields of human-system interface design it is vital to posses a sound methodology dictating the constraints on the system based on the capabilities of the human user. These limitations may be based on strength, mobility, dexterity, cognitive ability, etc. and combinations thereof. Data collected in an isolated environment to determine, for example, maximal strength or maximal range of motion would indeed be adequate for establishing not-to-exceed type design limitations, however these restraints on the system may be excessive over what is basally needed. Resources may potentially be saved by having a technique to determine the minimum measurements a system must accommodate. This paper specifically deals with the creation of a novel methodology for establishing mobility requirements for a new generation of space suit design concepts. Historically, the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station vehicle and space hardware design requirements documents such as the Man-Systems Integration Standards and International Space Station Flight Crew Integration Standard explicitly stated that the designers should strive to provide the maximum joint range of motion capabilities exhibited by a minimally clothed human subject. In the course of developing the Human-Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR) for the new space exploration initiative (Constellation), an effort was made to redefine the mobility requirements in the interest of safety and cost. Systems designed for manned space exploration can receive compounded gains from simplified designs that are both initially less expensive to produce and lighter, thereby, cheaper to launch.

  12. Facility Systems, Ground Support Systems, and Ground Support Equipment General Design Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaxton, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    KSC-DE-512-SM establishes overall requirements and best design practices to be used at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for the development of ground systems (GS) in support of operations at launch, landing, and retrieval sites. These requirements apply to the design and development of hardware and software for ground support equipment (GSE), ground support systems (GSS), and facility ground support systems (F-GSS) used to support the KSC mission for transportation, receiving, handling, assembly, test, checkout, servicing, and launch of space vehicles and payloads and selected flight hardware items for retrieval. This standards manual supplements NASA-STD-5005 by including KSC-site-specific and local environment requirements. These requirements and practices are optional for equipment used at manufacturing, development, and test sites.

  13. Cognitive theories and the design of e-learning environments.

    PubMed

    Gillani, Bijan; O'Guinn, Christina

    2004-01-01

    Cognitive development refers to a mental process by which knowledge is acquired, stored, and retrieved to solve problems. Therefore, cognitive developmental theories attempt to explain cognitive activities that contribute to students' intellectual development and their capacity to learn and solve problems. Cognitive developmental research has had a great impact on the constructivism movement in education and educational technology. In order to appreciate how cognitive developmental theories have contributed to the design, process and development of constructive e-learning environments, we shall first present Piaget's cognitive theory and derive an inquiry training model from it that will support a constructivism approach to teaching and learning. Second, we will discuss an example developed by NASA that used the Web as an appropriate instructional delivery medium to apply Piaget's cognitive theory to create e-learning environments.

  14. Design of the Resources and Environment Monitoring Website in Kashgar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z.; Lin, Q. Z.; Wang, Q. J.

    2014-03-01

    Despite the development of the web geographical information system (web GIS), many useful spatial analysis functions are ignored in the system implementation. As Kashgar is rich in natural resources, it is of great significance to monitor the ample natural resource and environment situation in the region. Therefore, with multiple uses of spatial analysis, resources and environment monitoring website of Kashgar was built. Functions of water, vegetation, ice and snow extraction, task management, change assessment as well as thematic mapping and reports based on TM remote sensing images were implemented in the website. The design of the website was presented based on database management tier, the business logic tier and the top-level presentation tier. The vital operations of the website were introduced and the general performance was evaluated.

  15. Islam and the healthcare environment: designing patient rooms.

    PubMed

    Kopec, D A K; Han, Li

    2008-01-01

    Islam and the Muslim population are often the source of much misunderstanding and media-influenced misconceptions. Muslim patients who enter the healthcare environment are often weak and likely to experience feelings of vulnerability. Because of the complex and interwoven nature of culture and religion in a person's identity, it is important to consider patient belief systems and values when designing a patient's immediate environment. Through an exploration of literature related to culture and diversity and the beliefs and value system of the Muslim population, the authors were able to identify flexible design initiatives that could accommodate an array of cultural and spiritual practices. Islam and the Muslim population were chosen as the points of reference for this study because of the strong influence of the religion on the culture, and because of the many nuances that differ from the dominant culture within the United States. From these points of reference, a hypothetical design was developed for a patient room that considers differing notions of privacy, alternatives for cultural and religious practices, and ways to include symbolic meaning derived from attributes such as color.

  16. The concepts of energy, environment, and cost for process design

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Khader, M.M.; Speight, J.G.

    2004-05-01

    The process industries (specifically, energy and chemicals) are characterized by a variety of reactors and reactions to bring about successful process operations. The design of energy-related and chemical processes and their evolution is a complex process that determines the competitiveness of these industries, as well as their environmental impact. Thus, we have developed an Enviro-Energy Concept designed to facilitate sustainable industrial development. The Complete Onion Model represents a complete methodology for chemical process design and illustrates all of the requirements to achieve the best possible design within the accepted environmental standards. Currently, NOx emissions from industrial processes continue to receive maximum attention, therefore the issue problem of NOx emissions from industrial sources such as power stations and nitric acid plants is considered. The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is one of the most promising and effective commercial technologies. It is considered the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for NOx reduction. The solution of NOx emissions problem is either through modifying the chemical process design and/or installing an end-of-pipe technology. The degree of integration between the process design and the installed technology plays a critical role in the capital cost evaluation. Therefore, integrating process units and then optimizing the design has a vital effect on the total cost. Both the environmental regulations and the cost evaluation are the boundary constraints of the optimum solution.

  17. Advanced EVA system design requirements study: EVAS/space station system interface requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, T. G.

    1985-01-01

    The definition of the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) systems interface requirements and accomodations for effective integration of a production EVA capability into the space station are contained. A description of the EVA systems for which the space station must provide the various interfaces and accomodations are provided. The discussion and analyses of the various space station areas in which the EVA interfaces are required and/or from which implications for EVA system design requirements are derived, are included. The rationale is provided for all EVAS mechanical, fluid, electrical, communications, and data system interfaces as well as exterior and interior requirements necessary to facilitate EVA operations. Results of the studies supporting these discussions are presented in the appendix.

  18. Key design requirements for long-reach manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, D.S.; March-Leuba, S.; Babcock, S.M.; Hamel, W.R.

    1993-09-01

    Long-reach manipulators differ from industrial robots and teleoperators typically used in the nuclear industry in that the aspect ratio (length to diameter) of links is much greater and link flexibility, as well as joint or drive train flexibility, is likely to be significant. Long-reach manipulators will be required for a variety of applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. While each application will present specific functional kinematic, and performance requirements an approach for determining the kinematic applicability and performance characteristics is presented, with a focus on waste storage tank remediation. Requirements are identified, kinematic configurations are considered, and a parametric study of link design parameters and their effects on performance characteristics is presented.

  19. Key Design Requirements for Long-Reach Manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    Long-reach manipulators differ from industrial robots and teleoperators typically used in the nuclear industry in that the aspect ratio (length to diameter) of links is much greater and link flexibility, as well as joint or drive train flexibility, is likely to be significant. Long-reach manipulators will be required for a variety of applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. While each application will present specific functional, kinematic, and performance requirements, an approach for determining the kinematic applicability and performance characteristics is presented, with a focus on waste storage tank remediation. Requirements are identified, kinematic configurations are considered, and a parametric study of link design parameters and their effects on performance characteristics is presented.

  20. Design of a solar controlled environment agriculture system (SCEAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Landstrom, D.K.; Stickford, G.H.; Talbert, S.G.; Wilkinson, W.H.

    1983-06-01

    The overall objective of the SCEAS project was to integrate advanced greenhouse agriculture technology with various energy sources and innovative cooling/ventilation concepts to demonstrate technical and economic feasibility of these facilities in several climatic regions where conventional greenhouse technology will not permit yearround growing of certain crops. The designed facility is capable of high yields of practically any crop, even temperaturesensitive vegetables such as lettuce, in extremely hostile external environments. The recirculation and ventilation system provides considerable flexibility in precise control of temperature and humidity throughout the year and in reducing water and energy consumption.

  1. Advanced Collaborative Environments Supporting Systems Integration and Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    screen, our Mylar mirrors, and four Electrochrome Marquee© projectors (Model 9500/P43). Also required are Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) stereoscopic...shutter glasses (one set for each user), infrared (IR) emitters (needed for stereoscopic glass shuttering), and an Ascension Flock of Birds© electro...collaborative design reviews. The TARDEC PowerWall system (Figure 3) uses two rear- projected Electrochrome Marquee© edge-blended projectors that are used

  2. DICE: An Object Oriented Programming Environment for Cooperative Engineering Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-20

    Figure 13: Creation of Slots 29 Figure 14: Creation of Facets 30 Figure 15: Display of the Object Hierarchy 31 Figure 16: Posting Information to the...Blackboard 32 Figure 17: Retrieving Information From the Blackboard 32 Figure 18: Set up for Simulation of the Hyatt Regency Design Problem 34 Figure 19...drawings, use.: to inform the contractor of the product, lack detail. Shop or fabrication drawings are required from the contractor to document details

  3. Soft qualities in healthcare. Method and tools for soft qualities design in hospitals' built environments.

    PubMed

    Capolongo, S; Bellini, E; Nachiero, D; Rebecchi, A; Buffoli, M

    2014-01-01

    The design of hospital environments is determined by functional requirements and technical regulations, as well as numerous protocols, which define the structure and system characteristics that such environments need to achieve. In order to improve people's well-being and the quality of their experience within public hospitals, design elements (soft qualities) are added to those 'necessary' features. The aim of this research has been to experiment a new design process and also to create health care spaces with high environmental quality and capable to meet users' emotional and perceptual needs. Such needs were investigated with the help of qualitative research tools and the design criteria for one of these soft qualities - colour - were subsequently defined on the basis of the findings. The colour scheme design for the new San Paolo Hospital Emergency Department in Milan was used as case study. Focus groups were fundamental in defining the project's goals and criteria. The issues raised have led to believe that the proper procedure is not the mere consultation of the users in order to define the goals: users should rather be involved in the whole design process and become co-agents of the choices that determine the environment characteristics, so as to meet the quality requirements identified by the users themselves. The case study has shown the possibility of developing a designing methodology made by three steps (or operational tools) in which users' groups are involved in the choices, loading to plan the environments where compliance with expectations is already implied and verified by means of the process itself. Thus, the method leads to the creation of soft qualities in Healthcare.

  4. Applying CBR to machine tool product configuration design oriented to customer requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pengjia; Gong, Yadong; Xie, Hualong; Liu, Yongxian; Nee, Andrew Yehching

    2017-01-01

    Product customization is a trend in the current market-oriented manufacturing environment. However, deduction from customer requirements to design results and evaluation of design alternatives are still heavily reliant on the designer's experience and knowledge. To solve the problem of fuzziness and uncertainty of customer requirements in product configuration, an analysis method based on the grey rough model is presented. The customer requirements can be converted into technical characteristics effectively. In addition, an optimization decision model for product planning is established to help the enterprises select the key technical characteristics under the constraints of cost and time to serve the customer to maximal satisfaction. A new case retrieval approach that combines the self-organizing map and fuzzy similarity priority ratio method is proposed in case-based design. The self-organizing map can reduce the retrieval range and increase the retrieval efficiency, and the fuzzy similarity priority ratio method can evaluate the similarity of cases comprehensively. To ensure that the final case has the best overall performance, an evaluation method of similar cases based on grey correlation analysis is proposed to evaluate similar cases to select the most suitable case. Furthermore, a computer-aided system is developed using MATLAB GUI to assist the product configuration design. The actual example and result on an ETC series machine tool product show that the proposed method is effective, rapid and accurate in the process of product configuration. The proposed methodology provides a detailed instruction for the product configuration design oriented to customer requirements.

  5. Aerodynamic design and optimization of high altitude environment simulation system based on CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Pingchang; Yan, Lutao; Li, Hong

    2017-05-01

    High altitude environment simulation system (HAES) is built to provide a true flight environment for subsonic vehicles, with low density, high speed, and short time characteristics. Normally, wind tunnel experiments are based on similar principal, such as parameters of Re or Ma, in order to shorten test product size. However, the test products in HAES are trim size, so more attention is put on the true flight environment simulation. It includes real flight environment pressure, destiny and real flight velocity, and its type velocity is Ma=0.8. In this paper, the aerodynamic design of HAES is introduced and its rationality is explained according to CFD calculation based on Fluent. Besides, the initial pressure of vacuum tank in HAES is optimized, which is not only to meet the economic requirements, but also to decrease the effect of additional stress on the test product in the process of the establishment of the target flow field.

  6. Design and Verification Guidelines for Vibroacoustic and Transient Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Design and verification guidelines for vibroacoustic and transient environments contain many basic methods that are common throughout the aerospace industry. However, there are some significant differences in methodology between NASA/MSFC and others - both government agencies and contractors. The purpose of this document is to provide the general guidelines used by the Component Analysis Branch, ED23, at MSFC, for the application of the vibroacoustic and transient technology to all launch vehicle and payload components and payload components and experiments managed by NASA/MSFC. This document is intended as a tool to be utilized by the MSFC program management and their contractors as a guide for the design and verification of flight hardware.

  7. Fluorine local environment: from screening to drug design.

    PubMed

    Vulpetti, Anna; Dalvit, Claudio

    2012-08-01

    Fluorine is widely used in the lead optimization phase of drug discovery projects. More recently, fluorine NMR-based spectroscopy has emerged as a versatile, reliable and efficient tool for performing binding and biochemical assays. Different libraries of fluorinated compounds, designed by maximizing the chemical space around the fluorine atom, are screened for identifying binding fragments and for detecting putative fluorophilic hot spots on the desired macromolecular target. A statistical analysis of the fluorine NMR chemical shift, which is a marker of the fluorine local environment, and of the X-ray structures of fluorinated molecules has resulted in the development of the 'rule of shielding'. This method could become a useful tool for lead optimization and for designing novel chemical scaffolds that recognize distinct protein structural motifs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Designing learning environments to teach interactive Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Puente, Sonia M.; Swagten, Henk J. M.

    2012-10-01

    This study aims at describing and analysing systematically an interactive learning environment designed to teach Quantum Physics, a second-year physics course. The instructional design of Quantum Physics is a combination of interactive lectures (using audience response systems), tutorials and self-study in unit blocks, carried out with small groups. Individual formative feedback was introduced as a rapid assessment tool to provide an overview on progress and identify gaps by means of questioning students at three levels: conceptual; prior knowledge; homework exercises. The setup of Quantum Physics has been developed as a result of several loops of adjustments and improvements from a traditional-like type of teaching to an interactive classroom. Results of this particular instructional arrangement indicate significant gains in students' achievements in comparison with the traditional structure of this course, after recent optimisation steps such as the implementation of an individual feedback system.

  9. Unimodular sequence design under frequency hopping communication compatibility requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Peng; Cui, Guolong; Kong, Lingjiang; Yang, Jianyu

    2016-12-01

    The integrated design for both radar and anonymous communication has drawn more attention recently since wireless communication system appeals to enhance security and reliability. Given the frequency hopping (FH) communication system, an effective way to realize integrated design is to meet the spectrum compatibility between these two systems. The paper deals with a unimodular sequence design technique which considers optimizing both the spectrum compatibility and peak sidelobes levels (PSL) of auto-correlation function (ACF). The spectrum compatibility requirement realizes anonymous communication for the FH system and provides this system lower probability of intercept (LPI) since the spectrum of the FH system is hidden in that of the radar system. The proposed algorithm, named generalized fitting template (GFT) technique, converts the sequence optimization design problem to a iterative fitting process. In this process, the power spectrum density (PSD) and PSL behaviors of the generated sequences fit both PSD and PSL templates progressively. Two templates are established based on the spectrum compatibility requirement and the expected PSL. As noted, in order to ensure the communication security and reliability, spectrum compatibility requirement is given a higher priority to achieve in the GFT algorithm. This algorithm realizes this point by adjusting the weight adaptively between these two terms during the iteration process. The simulation results are analyzed in terms of bit error rate (BER), PSD, PSL, and signal-interference rate (SIR) for both the radar and FH systems. The performance of GFT is compared with SCAN, CAN, FRE, CYC, and MAT algorithms in the above aspects, which shows its good effectiveness.

  10. SLS-SPEC-159 Cross-Program Design Specification for Natural Environments (DSNE) Revision E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barry C.

    2017-01-01

    The DSNE completes environment-related specifications for architecture, system-level, and lower-tier documents by specifying the ranges of environmental conditions that must be accounted for by NASA ESD Programs. To assure clarity and consistency, and to prevent requirements documents from becoming cluttered with extensive amounts of technical material, natural environment specifications have been compiled into this document. The intent is to keep a unified specification for natural environments that each Program calls out for appropriate application. This document defines the natural environments parameter limits (maximum and minimum values, energy spectra, or precise model inputs, assumptions, model options, etc.), for all ESD Programs. These environments are developed by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Natural Environments Branch (MSFC organization code: EV44). Many of the parameter limits are based on experience with previous programs, such as the Space Shuttle Program. The parameter limits contain no margin and are meant to be evaluated individually to ensure they are reasonable (i.e., do not apply unrealistic extreme-on-extreme conditions). The natural environments specifications in this document should be accounted for by robust design of the flight vehicle and support systems. However, it is understood that in some cases the Programs will find it more effective to account for portions of the environment ranges by operational mitigation or acceptance of risk in accordance with an appropriate program risk management plan and/or hazard analysis process. The DSNE is not intended as a definition of operational models or operational constraints, nor is it adequate, alone, for ground facilities which may have additional requirements (for example, building codes and local environmental constraints). "Natural environments," as the term is used here, refers to the environments that are not the result of intended human activity or intervention. It

  11. Defining Requirements and Related Methods for Designing Sensorized Garments.

    PubMed

    Andreoni, Giuseppe; Standoli, Carlo Emilio; Perego, Paolo

    2016-05-26

    Designing smart garments has strong interdisciplinary implications, specifically related to user and technical requirements, but also because of the very different applications they have: medicine, sport and fitness, lifestyle monitoring, workplace and job conditions analysis, etc. This paper aims to discuss some user, textile, and technical issues to be faced in sensorized clothes development. In relation to the user, the main requirements are anthropometric, gender-related, and aesthetical. In terms of these requirements, the user's age, the target application, and fashion trends cannot be ignored, because they determine the compliance with the wearable system. Regarding textile requirements, functional factors-also influencing user comfort-are elasticity and washability, while more technical properties are the stability of the chemical agents' effects for preserving the sensors' efficacy and reliability, and assuring the proper duration of the product for the complete life cycle. From the technical side, the physiological issues are the most important: skin conductance, tolerance, irritation, and the effect of sweat and perspiration are key factors for reliable sensing. Other technical features such as battery size and duration, and the form factor of the sensor collector, should be considered, as they affect aesthetical requirements, which have proven to be crucial, as well as comfort and wearability.

  12. Defining Requirements and Related Methods for Designing Sensorized Garments

    PubMed Central

    Andreoni, Giuseppe; Standoli, Carlo Emilio; Perego, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Designing smart garments has strong interdisciplinary implications, specifically related to user and technical requirements, but also because of the very different applications they have: medicine, sport and fitness, lifestyle monitoring, workplace and job conditions analysis, etc. This paper aims to discuss some user, textile, and technical issues to be faced in sensorized clothes development. In relation to the user, the main requirements are anthropometric, gender-related, and aesthetical. In terms of these requirements, the user’s age, the target application, and fashion trends cannot be ignored, because they determine the compliance with the wearable system. Regarding textile requirements, functional factors—also influencing user comfort—are elasticity and washability, while more technical properties are the stability of the chemical agents’ effects for preserving the sensors’ efficacy and reliability, and assuring the proper duration of the product for the complete life cycle. From the technical side, the physiological issues are the most important: skin conductance, tolerance, irritation, and the effect of sweat and perspiration are key factors for reliable sensing. Other technical features such as battery size and duration, and the form factor of the sensor collector, should be considered, as they affect aesthetical requirements, which have proven to be crucial, as well as comfort and wearability. PMID:27240361

  13. 40 CFR 80.601 - What are the reporting requirements for purposes of the designate and track provisions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of all designations, including whether the fuel was taxed or contained red dye (or red dye and the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the reporting requirements... report shall include it under that designation. (iii) Any batch of 500 ppm sulfur diesel fuel...

  14. 40 CFR 80.601 - What are the reporting requirements for purposes of the designate and track provisions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of all designations, including whether the fuel was taxed or contained red dye (or red dye and the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the reporting requirements... report shall include it under that designation. (iii) Any batch of 500 ppm sulfur diesel fuel...

  15. Control Law Design in a Computational Aeroelasticity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, Jerry R.; Robertshaw, Harry H.; Kapania, Rakesh K.

    2003-01-01

    A methodology for designing active control laws in a computational aeroelasticity environment is given. The methodology involves employing a systems identification technique to develop an explicit state-space model for control law design from the output of a computational aeroelasticity code. The particular computational aeroelasticity code employed in this paper solves the transonic small disturbance aerodynamic equation using a time-accurate, finite-difference scheme. Linear structural dynamics equations are integrated simultaneously with the computational fluid dynamics equations to determine the time responses of the structure. These structural responses are employed as the input to a modern systems identification technique that determines the Markov parameters of an "equivalent linear system". The Eigensystem Realization Algorithm is then employed to develop an explicit state-space model of the equivalent linear system. The Linear Quadratic Guassian control law design technique is employed to design a control law. The computational aeroelasticity code is modified to accept control laws and perform closed-loop simulations. Flutter control of a rectangular wing model is chosen to demonstrate the methodology. Various cases are used to illustrate the usefulness of the methodology as the nonlinearity of the aeroelastic system is increased through increased angle-of-attack changes.

  16. The Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA): Design and architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, John A.; Clarno, Kevin; Sieger, Matt; Bartlett, Roscoe; Collins, Benjamin; Pawlowski, Roger; Schmidt, Rodney; Summers, Randall

    2016-09-08

    VERA, the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications, is the system of physics capabilities being developed and deployed by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL), the first DOE Hub, which was established in July 2010 for the modeling and simulation of commercial nuclear reactors. VERA consists of integrating and interfacing software together with a suite of physics components adapted and/or refactored to simulate relevant physical phenomena in a coupled manner. VERA also includes the software development environment and computational infrastructure needed for these components to be effectively used. We describe the architecture of VERA from both a software and a numerical perspective, along with the goals and constraints that drove the major design decisions and their implications. As a result, we explain why VERA is an environment rather than a framework or toolkit, why these distinctions are relevant (particularly for coupled physics applications), and provide an overview of results that demonstrate the application of VERA tools for a variety of challenging problems within the nuclear industry.

  17. The Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA): Design and architecture

    DOE PAGES

    Turner, John A.; Clarno, Kevin; Sieger, Matt; ...

    2016-09-08

    VERA, the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications, is the system of physics capabilities being developed and deployed by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL), the first DOE Hub, which was established in July 2010 for the modeling and simulation of commercial nuclear reactors. VERA consists of integrating and interfacing software together with a suite of physics components adapted and/or refactored to simulate relevant physical phenomena in a coupled manner. VERA also includes the software development environment and computational infrastructure needed for these components to be effectively used. We describe the architecture of VERA from both amore » software and a numerical perspective, along with the goals and constraints that drove the major design decisions and their implications. As a result, we explain why VERA is an environment rather than a framework or toolkit, why these distinctions are relevant (particularly for coupled physics applications), and provide an overview of results that demonstrate the application of VERA tools for a variety of challenging problems within the nuclear industry.« less

  18. The Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA): Design and architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, John A.; Clarno, Kevin; Sieger, Matt; Bartlett, Roscoe; Collins, Benjamin; Pawlowski, Roger; Schmidt, Rodney; Summers, Randall

    2016-09-08

    VERA, the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications, is the system of physics capabilities being developed and deployed by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL), the first DOE Hub, which was established in July 2010 for the modeling and simulation of commercial nuclear reactors. VERA consists of integrating and interfacing software together with a suite of physics components adapted and/or refactored to simulate relevant physical phenomena in a coupled manner. VERA also includes the software development environment and computational infrastructure needed for these components to be effectively used. We describe the architecture of VERA from both a software and a numerical perspective, along with the goals and constraints that drove the major design decisions and their implications. As a result, we explain why VERA is an environment rather than a framework or toolkit, why these distinctions are relevant (particularly for coupled physics applications), and provide an overview of results that demonstrate the application of VERA tools for a variety of challenging problems within the nuclear industry.

  19. Operational requirements for helicopter operations low level in degraded visual environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eger, Thorsten W.

    2013-05-01

    In order to assist the pilot to safely operate helicopters in degraded visual environment (DVE), an integrated system of various technologies that will provide improved situation awareness with minimal interpretation whilst controlling the aircraft appears to be essential. To determine the most effective and affordable solution set to enhance helicopter operations in DVE at low altitudes and to help scope the potential range of solutions, the critical tasks of helicopters with the inherent requirements are to be defined. This paper will provide an overview on the operational environment, today procedures and the resulting general requirements for operating helicopters low level in degraded visual environment.

  20. Addressing Challenges to the Design & Test of Operational Lighting Environments for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Toni A.

    2014-01-01

    In our day to day lives, the availability of light, with which to see our environment, is often taken for granted. The designers of land based lighting systems use sunlight and artificial light as their toolset. The availability of power, quantity of light sources, and variety of design options are often unlimited. The accessibility of most land based lighting systems makes it easy for the architect and engineer to verify and validate their design ideas. Failures with an implementation, while sometimes costly, can easily be addressed by renovation. Consider now, an architectural facility orbiting in space, 260 miles above the surface of the earth. This human rated architectural facility, the International Space Station (ISS) must maintain operations every day, including life support and appropriate human comforts without fail. The facility must also handle logistics of regular shipments of cargo, including new passengers. The ISS requires accommodations necessary for human control of machine systems. Additionally, the ISS is a research facility and supports investigations performed inside and outside its livable volume. Finally, the facility must support remote operations and observations by ground controllers. All of these architectural needs require a functional, safe, and even an aesthetic lighting environment. At Johnson Space Center, our Habitability and Human Factors team assists our diverse customers with their lighting environment challenges, via physical test and computer based analysis. Because of the complexity of ISS operational environment, our team has learned and developed processes that help ISS operate safely. Because of the dynamic exterior lighting environment, uses computational modeling to predict the lighting environment. The ISS' orbit exposes it to a sunrise every 90 minutes, causing work surfaces to quickly change from direct sunlight to earthshine to total darkness. Proper planning of vehicle approaches, robotics operations, and crewed

  1. Universal Design Criteria in Standards and Codes About Accessibility of Built Environments in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Marcelo Pinto

    2016-01-01

    This paper includes some criticism in analysis of the development and implementation of the national standards for accessibility of the built environment in Brazil, i.e., the NBR9050. Currently, the 2015 version of it resembles an encyclopaedia including a variety of exotic contributions gathered historically from different sources; however, that characteristic makes it work like a puzzle that keeps alive prejudices about users' needs and disabilities. Besides, there are conflicts between recommended ideas and previous requirements from older versions. The definition of Universal Design has been published since 2004, but there is still no indication of how to make the principles work in practice. Therefore, it is very hard for city officials to assess quality of environments, and professionals have serious constraints to explore their skills further while addressing users' diversified needs. Certainly, the current NBR9050 requires further editorial work. Nevertheless, an important decision is necessary: it is important to organize information so that readers may identify in each topic whether Universal Design application can be achieved or whether the proposed technical solution may lead to construction of limited spatial adaptation and reach only some poor accommodation of users with uncommon needs. Presenting some examples in context of socially inclusive environments, the newer revised version of NBR9050 is necessary to explain about pitfalls of bad design of accessibility for discriminated disabled users. Readers should be able to establish conceptual links between the best ideas so that Universal Design could be easily understood.

  2. 49 CFR 173.412 - Additional design requirements for Type A packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Additional design requirements for Type A packages. In addition to meeting the general design requirements... gas by chemical reaction and radiolysis. (f) The containment system will retain its...

  3. 49 CFR 173.412 - Additional design requirements for Type A packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Additional design requirements for Type A packages. In addition to meeting the general design requirements... gas by chemical reaction and radiolysis. (f) The containment system will retain its...

  4. 49 CFR 173.412 - Additional design requirements for Type A packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Additional design requirements for Type A packages. In addition to meeting the general design requirements... gas by chemical reaction and radiolysis. (f) The containment system will retain its...

  5. 49 CFR 173.412 - Additional design requirements for Type A packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Additional design requirements for Type A packages. In addition to meeting the general design requirements... gas by chemical reaction and radiolysis. (f) The containment system will retain its...

  6. National Ignition Facility sub-system design requirements ancillary systems SSDR 1.5.6

    SciTech Connect

    Spann, J.; Reed, R.; VanArsdall, P.; Bliss, E.

    1996-09-01

    This System Design Requirement document establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Ancillary Systems, which is part of the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS).

  7. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 4. Saudi Engineering Solar Energy Applications System Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Literature summarizing a study on the Saudi Arabian solar controlled environment agriculture system is presented. Specifications and performance requirements for the system components are revealed. Detailed performance and cost analyses are used to determine the optimum design. A preliminary design of an engineering field test is included. Some weather data are provided for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

  8. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements optics assembly building (OAB) SSDR 1.2.2.3

    SciTech Connect

    Kempel, P.; Hands, J.

    1996-08-22

    This Subsystem Design Requirement (SSDR) document establishes the performance, design, and verification requirements `for the conventional building systems and subsystems of the Optics Assembly Building (OAB). These building system requirements are associated with housing and supporting the operational flow of personnel and materials throughout the OAB for preparing and repairing optical and mechanical components used in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Laser and Target Building (LTAB). This SSDR addresses the following subsystems associated with the OAB: * Structural systems for the building spaces and operational-support equipment and building- support equipment. * Architectural building features associated with housing the space, operational cleanliness, and functional operation of the facility. * Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems for maintaining a clean and thermally stable ambient environment within the facility. * Plumbing systems that provide potable water and sanitary facilities for the occupants and stormwater drainage for transporting rainwater. * Fire Protection systems that guard against fire damage to the facility and its contents. * Material handling equipment for transferring optical assemblies and other materials within building areas and to the LTAB. * Mechanical process piping systems for liquids and gases that provide cooling, cleaning, and other service to optical and mechanical components. * Electrical power and grounding systems that provide service to the building and equipment, including lighting distribution and communications systems for the facilities. * Instrumentation and control systems that ensure the safe operation of conventional facilities systems, such as those listed above. Generic design criteria, such as siting data, seismic requirements, utility availability, and other information that contributes to the OAB design, are not addressed in this document. Rather, such information is provided in SDR 001

  9. INO340 telescope control system: middleware requirements, design, and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalchian, Hengameh; Ravanmehr, Reza

    2016-07-01

    The INO340 Control System (INOCS) is being designed in terms of a distributed real-time architecture. The real-time (soft and firm) nature of many processes inside INOCS causes the communication paradigm between its different components to be time-critical and sensitive. For this purpose, we have chosen the Data Distribution Service (DDS) standard as the communications middleware which is itself based on the publish-subscribe paradigm. In this paper, we review and compare the main middleware types, and then we illustrate the middleware architecture of INOCS and its specific requirements. Finally, we present the experimental results, performed to evaluate our middleware in order to ensure that it meets our requirements.

  10. Designing and Improving a Blended Synchronous Learning Environment: An Educational Design Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qiyun; Lang Quek, Choon; Hu, Xiaoyong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a blended synchronous learning environment (BSLE) was created to support a group of graduate students when they were taking a course. Instruction was delivered to both face-to-face (F2F) and online students simultaneously. The purpose of this paper is to present how this BSLE was gradually designed, implemented, and improved by…

  11. Learning Environments Designed for the Occupants: Three Case Studies of Innovative Elementary School Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrader-Harvey, Erika; Droge, Martha

    This research project examined how educational facilities are perceived and used by the occupants. It sought to inform the design of effective learning environments in elementary schools through a heightened awareness of the needs of the occupants and an understanding of how they use their school facilities. Project objectives included the…

  12. Architectural Design and the Learning Environment: A Framework for School Design Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gislason, Neil

    2010-01-01

    This article develops a theoretical framework for studying how instructional space, teaching and learning are related in practice. It is argued that a school's physical design can contribute to the quality of the learning environment, but several non-architectural factors also determine how well a given facility serves as a setting for teaching…

  13. Architectural Design and the Learning Environment: A Framework for School Design Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gislason, Neil

    2010-01-01

    This article develops a theoretical framework for studying how instructional space, teaching and learning are related in practice. It is argued that a school's physical design can contribute to the quality of the learning environment, but several non-architectural factors also determine how well a given facility serves as a setting for teaching…

  14. Free-flying teleoperator requirements and conceptual design.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onega, G. T.; Clingman, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    A teleoperator, as defined by NASA, is a remotely controlled cybernetic man-machine system designed to augment and extend man's sensory, manipulative, and cognitive capabilities. Teleoperator systems can fulfill an important function in the Space Shuttle program. They can retrieve automated satellites for refurbishment and reuse. Cargo can be transferred over short or large distances and orbital operations can be supported. A requirements analysis is discussed, giving attention to the teleoperator spacecraft, docking and stowage systems, display and controls, propulsion, guidance, navigation, control, the manipulators, the video system, the electrical power, and aspects of communication and data management. Questions of concept definition and evaluation are also examined.

  15. Transitioning from Software Requirements Models to Design Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittle, Jon

    2004-01-01

    The Scenario Creation and Simulation Process (SCASP) includes the following steps: 1) Write Requirements; 2) Write Use Cases; 3) Prioritize Use Cases; 4) Write Nominal Scenarios; 5) Identify Relationships; 6) Refine/Generalize Scenarios; 7) Transform to State Machines. SCASP provides thorough simulation of use cases before design/implementation, resulting in: 1) Reduced cost; 2) Fewer misunderstandings; 3) Reuse of executable form of use cases. SCASP gives systematic guidelines on how to 1) Separate concerns in use case descriptions; 2) Elicit non-nominal scenarios (alternatives, exceptions, concurrent scenarios, etc.); 3) Transform those scenarios automatically into a set of concurrent state machines; 4) Execute those state machines, i.e., scenario simulation.

  16. Solar Probe Plus MAG Sensor Thermal Design for Low Heater Power and Extreme Thermal Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    The heater power available for the Solar Probe Plus FIELDS MAG sensor is less than half of the heritage value for other missions. Nominally the MAG sensors are in the spacecraft's umbra. In the worst hot case, approximately 200 spacecraft communication downlinks, up to 10 hours each, are required at 0.7 AU. These downlinks require the spacecraft to slew 45 deg. about the Y-axis, exposing the MAG sensors and boom to sunlight. This paper presents the thermal design to meet the MAG sensor thermal requirements in the extreme thermal environment and with low heater power. A thermal balance test on the MAG sensor engineering model has verified the thermal design and correlated the thermal model for flight temperature predictions.

  17. Virtual Environment Design for Low/Zero Visibility Tower Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reisman, Ron; Farouk, Ahmed; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes prototype software for three-dimensional display of aircraft movement based on realtime radar and other Air Traffic Control (ATC) information. This prototype can be used to develop operational tools for controllers in ATC Towers who cannot view aircraft in low or zero visibility (LZV) weather conditions. The controller could also use the software to arbitrarily reposition his virtual eyepoint to overcome physical obstructions or increase situation awareness. The LZV Tower tool prototype consists of server and client components. The server interfaces to operational ATC radar and communications systems, sending processed data to a client process written in java. This client process runs under Netscape Communicator to provide an interactive perspective display of aircraft in the airport environment. Prototype VRML airport models were derived from 3-D databases used in FAA-certified high fidelity flight-simulators. The web-based design offers potential efficiency increases and decreased costs in the development and deployment of operational LZV Tower tools.

  18. Virtual Environment Design for Low/Zero Visibility Tower Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reisman, Ron; Farouk, Ahmed; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes prototype software for three-dimensional display of aircraft movement based on realtime radar and other Air Traffic Control (ATC) information. This prototype can be used to develop operational tools for controllers in ATC Towers who cannot view aircraft in low or zero visibility (LZV) weather conditions. The controller could also use the software to arbitrarily reposition his virtual eyepoint to overcome physical obstructions or increase situation awareness. The LZV Tower tool prototype consists of server and client components. The server interfaces to operational ATC radar and communications systems, sending processed data to a client process written in java. This client process runs under Netscape Communicator to provide an interactive perspective display of aircraft in the airport environment. Prototype VRML airport models were derived from 3-D databases used in FAA-certified high fidelity flight-simulators. The web-based design offers potential efficiency increases and decreased costs in the development and deployment of operational LZV Tower tools.

  19. Electrical safety requirements: Implications for the module designer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugimura, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Commercial photovoltaic array installations, which include residential and intermediate applications, are subject to building and electrical codes and to product safety standards. The National Electrical Code (NEC) Article 690, titled Solar Photovoltaic Systems, contains provisions defining acceptable levels of system safety and emphasizes the system design and its installation. The Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. (UL), document titled: Proposed First Edition of the Standard for Flat Plate Photovoltaic Modules and Panels, UL-1703, identifies module and panel construction requirements that ensure product safety. Together these documents describe requirements intended to minimize hazards such as shock and fire. Although initial focus of these requirements is on single crystal silicon modules, they are generic in nature, and are equally applicable to high voltage ( 30 Vdc), multikilowatt, thin film systems. A major safety concern is insulation breakdown within the module or array wiring system, or discontinuities within the electrical conductors. These failures can result in ground faults, in circuit arcs, or exposure to hazardous electrical parts. Safeguards are discussed.

  20. Designing ecological flows to gravely braided rivers in alpine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egozi, R.; Ashmore, P.

    2009-04-01

    Designing ecological flows in gravelly braided streams requires estimating the channel forming discharge in order to maintain the braided reach physical (allocation of flow and bed load) and ecological (maintaining the habitat diversity) functions. At present, compared to single meander streams, there are fewer guiding principles for river practitioners that can be used to manage braided streams. Insight into braiding morphodynamics using braiding intensity indices allows estimation of channel forming discharge. We assess variation in braiding intensity by mapping the total number of channels (BIT) and the number of active (transporting bed load) channels (BIA) at different stages of typical diurnal melt-water hydrographs in a pro-glacial braided river, Sunwapta River, Canada. Results show that both BIA and BIT vary with flow stage but over a limited range of values. Furthermore, maximum BIT occurs below peak discharge. At this stage there is a balance between channel merging from inundation and occupation of new channels as the stage rises. This stage is the channel forming discharge because above this stage the existing braided pattern cannot discharge the volume of water without causing morphological changes (e.g., destruction of bifurcations, channel avulsion). Estimation of the channel forming discharge requires a set of braiding intensity measurements over a range of flow stages. The design of ecological flows must take into consideration flow regime characteristics rather than just the channel forming discharge magnitude.

  1. Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Design Concepts and Performance Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClain, Charles R.; Meister, Gerhard; Monosmith, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    800 nanometers with three additional discrete near infrared (NIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) ocean aerosol correction bands. Also, to avoid drift in sensor sensitivity from being interpreted as environmental change, climate change research requires rigorous monitoring of sensor stability. For SeaWiFS, monthly lunar imaging accurately tracked stability at an accuracy of approximately 0.1% that allowed the data to be used for climate studies [2]. It is now acknowledged by the international community that future missions and sensor designs need to accommodate lunar calibrations. An overview of ocean color remote sensing and a review of the progress made in ocean color remote sensing and the variety of research applications derived from global satellite ocean color data are provided. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the design options for ocean color satellite radiometers, performance and testing criteria, and sensor components (optics, detectors, electronics, etc.) that must be integrated into an instrument concept. These ultimately dictate the quality and quantity of data that can be delivered as a trade against mission cost. Historically, science and sensor technology have advanced in a "leap-frog" manner in that sensor design requirements for a mission are defined many years before a sensor is launched and by the end of the mission, perhaps 15-20 years later, science applications and requirements are well beyond the capabilities of the sensor. Section 3 provides a summary of historical mission science objectives and sensor requirements. This progression is expected to continue in the future as long as sensor costs can be constrained to affordable levels and still allow the incorporation of new technologies without incurring unacceptable risk to mission success. The IOCCG Report Number 13 discusses future ocean biology mission Level-1 requirements in depth.

  2. Young children's perspectives of ideal physical design features for hospital-built environments.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Veronica; Coad, Jane; Hicks, Paula; Glacken, Michele

    2014-03-01

    Recently, increased recognition has been attributed to the requirement to include the views of child patients in the planning of new health care services so that contemporary buildings can be designed to enhance future experience. This is important, especially since the voices of young children are so often under-represented or represented through adult proxies. The purpose of this article is to share young children's perspectives of what constitutes ideal physical design features for hospital-built environments. Using a participatory art-based approach, data were collected from 55 children (aged five-eight years) across three children's hospitals in Ireland. Emergent findings revealed three broad themes: personal space, physical environment and access. This study is important for nurses, clinicians and environmental designers because it outlines what a supportive child health care environment should constitute. Hospital environments need to be constructed not just to be child friendly, but to also respect children's right to dignity, privacy, family support and self-control.

  3. Natural environment application for NASP-X-30 design and mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L.; Hill, C. K.; Brown, S. C.; Batts, G. W.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA/MSFC Mission Analysis Program has recently been utilized in various National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) mission and operational planning scenarios. This paper focuses on presenting various atmospheric constraint statistics based on assumed NASP mission phases using established natural environment design, parametric, threshold values. Probabilities of no-go are calculated using atmospheric parameters such as temperature, humidity, density altitude, peak/steady-state winds, cloud cover/ceiling, thunderstorms, and precipitation. The program although developed to evaluate test or operational missions after flight constraints have been established, can provide valuable information in the design phase of the NASP X-30 program. Inputting the design values as flight constraints the Mission Analysis Program returns the probability of no-go, or launch delay, by hour by month. This output tells the X-30 program manager whether the design values are stringent enough to meet his required test flight schedules.

  4. Review of Opinions of Math Teachers Concerning the Learning Environment That They Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Bünyamin; Yavuz, Ayse

    2016-01-01

    Design of appropriate learning environment has a significant importance in creation of aims of the math teaching. In the design of learning environments, teachers play a significant role. The aim of this study is determination of opinions of the math teachers concerning the learning environment that they design. In accordance with this aim, an…

  5. Identifying Knowledge, Skill, and Ability Requirements for Contracting Officer Representatives in Deployed Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-19

    DEPLOYED ENVIRONMENTS GRADUATE RESEARCH PAPER June 2015 Allen D. Husted, Major, USAF AFIT-ENS-GRP-15-J-012 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR...DISTRIBUTION IS UNLIMITED. The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or...REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTRACTING OFFICER REPRESENTATIVES IN DEPLOYED ENVIRONMENTS GRADUATE RESEARCH PAPER Presented to the Faculty Department

  6. Design of GLP lab environment parameters monitor system based on Schneider PLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Xiaoqin; Xu, Huihui; Duan, Zhengang; Zhang, Yong

    2008-10-01

    According to the technological process and the requirement for system control of the GLP Laboratory, an automatic system is designed to monitor and control over the environment parameters of the GLP laboratory. The system is composed of a programmable controller and touching screen as the processing unit. The Schneider PLC TSX P57303 controller with its counterpart input/output modules is adopted as the hardware platform and the Schneider PL7-MICRO/WIN as the software platform. This paper presents the main flow process design of the control system. The test results show that the control system can run automatically and switch mutually under different modes, and the functions such as monitor and control over the environment parameters of the GLP laboratory are realized.

  7. Programming environment for distributed applications design in artificial intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baujard, Olivier; Pesty, Sylvie; Garbay, Catherine

    1992-03-01

    Complex applications in artificial intelligence need a multiple representation of knowledge and tasks in terms of abstraction levels and points of view. The integration of numerous resources (knowledge-based systems, real-time systems, data bases, etc.), often geographically distributed on different machines connected into a network, is moreover a necessity for the development of real scale systems. The distributed artificial intelligence (DAI) approach is thus becoming important to solve problems in complex situations. There are several currents in DAI research and we are involved in the design of DAI programming platforms for large and complex real-world problem solving systems. Blackboard systems constitute the earlier architecture. It is based on a shared memory which permits the communication among a collection of specialists and an external and unique control structure. Blackboard architectures have been extended, especially to introduce parallelism. Multi-agent architectures are based on coordinated agents (problem-solvers) communicating most of the time via message passing. A solution is found through the cooperation between several agents, each of them being in charge of a specific task, but no one having sufficient resources to obtain a solution. Coordination, cooperation, knowledge, goal, plan, exchanges are then necessary to reach a global solution. Our own research is along this last line. The current presentation describes Multi-Agent Problem Solver (MAPS) which is an agent-oriented language for a DAI system design embedded in a full programming environment. An agent is conceived as an autonomous entity with specific goals, roles, skills, and resources. Knowledge (descriptive and operative) is distributed among agents organized into networks (agents communicate through message sending). Agents are moreover geographically distributed and run in a parallel mode. Our purpose is to build a powerful environment for DAI applications design that not only

  8. Designing for Learning: Multiplayer Digital Game Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chung On

    2010-01-01

    Many people in general think that digital game environment has potential as a learning environment. However, empirical research in digital game environment and education is a still relative young field, so to create a digital learning environment where students are actively engaged in the learning process is a great challenge. In part, it has been…

  9. Designing for Learning: Multiplayer Digital Game Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chung On

    2010-01-01

    Many people in general think that digital game environment has potential as a learning environment. However, empirical research in digital game environment and education is a still relative young field, so to create a digital learning environment where students are actively engaged in the learning process is a great challenge. In part, it has been…

  10. Predicting Material Performance in the Space Environment from Laboratory Test Data, Static Design Environments, and Space Weather Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Josep I.; Edwards, David L.

    2008-01-01

    Qualifying materials for use in the space environment is typically accomplished with laboratory exposures to simulated UV/EUV, atomic oxygen, and charged particle radiation environments with in-situ or subsequent measurements of material properties of interest to the particular application. Choice of environment exposure levels are derived from static design environments intended to represent either mean or extreme conditions that are anticipated to be encountered during a mission. The real space environment however is quite variable. Predictions of the on orbit performance of a material qualified to laboratory environments can be done using information on 'space weather' variations in the real environment. This presentation will first review the variability of space environments of concern for material degradation and then demonstrate techniques for using test data to predict material performance in a variety of space environments from low Earth orbit to interplanetary space using historical measurements and space weather models.

  11. Aerospace energy systems laboratory: Requirements and design approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Richard D.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility at Edwards, California, operates a mixed fleet of research aircraft employing nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries in a variety of flight-critical applications. Dryden's Battery Systems Laboratory (BSL), a computerized facility for battery maintenance servicing, has developed over two decades into one of the most advanced facilities of its kind in the world. Recently a major BSL upgrade was initiated with the goal of modernization to provide flexibility in meeting the needs of future advanced projects. The new facility will be called the Aerospace Energy Systems Laboratory (AESL) and will employ distributed processing linked to a centralized data base. AESL will be both a multistation servicing facility and a research laboratory for the advancement of energy storage system maintenance techniques. This paper describes the baseline requirements for the AESL and the design approach being taken for its mechanization.

  12. Photovoltaic module electrical termination design requirement study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mosna, F.J. Jr.; Donlinger, J.

    1980-07-01

    Motorola Inc., in conjunction with ITT Cannon, has conducted a study to develop information to facilitate the selection of existing, commercial, electrical termination hardware for photovoltaic modules and arrays. Details of the study are presented in this volume. Module and array design parameters were investigated and recommendations were developed for use in surveying, evaluating, and comparing electrical termination hardware. Electrical termination selection criteria factors were developed and applied to nine generic termination types in each of the four application sectors. Remote, residential, intermediate and industrial. Existing terminations best suited for photovoltaic modules and arrays were identified. Cost information was developed to identify cost drivers and/or requirements which might lead to cost reductions. The general conclusion is that there is no single generic termination that is best suited for photovoltaic application, but that the appropriate termination is strongly dependent upon the module construction and its support structure as well as the specific application sector.

  13. Measurements Required to Understand the Lunar Dust Environment and Transport Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F., Jr.; Abbas, Mian

    2006-01-01

    Going back to the lunar surface offers an opportunity to understand the dust environment and associated transport mechanisms. This talk will explore what measurements are required to understand and characterize the dust-plasma environment in which robotic and human activities will be conducted. The understanding gained with the measurements can be used to make informed decisions on engineering solutions and follow-on investigations. Particular focus will be placed on required measurements of the size, spatial and charge distribution of the suspended lunar regolith.

  14. Measurements Required to Understand the Lunar Dust Environment and Transport Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F., Jr.; Abbas, Mian

    2006-01-01

    Going back to the lunar surface offers an opportunity to understand the dust environment and associated transport mechanisms. This talk will explore what measurements are required to understand and characterize the dust-plasma environment in which robotic and human activities will be conducted. The understanding gained with the measurements can be used to make informed decisions on engineering solutions and follow-on investigations. Particular focus will be placed on required measurements of the size, spatial and charge distribution of the suspended lunar regolith.

  15. A Design Problem of Assembly Line Systems using Genetic Algorithm under the BTO Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Kazuaki; Yamada, Tetsuo; Matsui, Masayuki

    Under the BTO environment, stochastic assembly lines require design methods which shorten not only the production lead time but also the ready time for the line design. We propose a design method for Assembly Line Systems (ALS) in Yamada et al. (2001) by using Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Adam-Eve GA, in which all design variables are determined in consideration of constraints such as line length related to the production lead time. First, an ALS model with a line length constraint is introduced, and an optimal design problem is set to maximize the net reward under shorter lead time. Next, a simulation optimization method is developed using Adam-Eve GA and traditional GA. Finally, an optimal design example is shown and discussed by comparing the 2-stage design by Yamada et al. (2001) and both the GA designs. It is shown that the Adam-Eve GA is superior to the traditional GA design in terms of computational time though there is only a slight difference in terms of net reward.

  16. Game Design Narrative for Learning: Appropriating Adventure Game Design Narrative Devices and Techniques for the Design of Interactive Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickey, Michele D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual analysis is to investigate how contemporary video and computer games might inform instructional design by looking at how narrative devices and techniques support problem solving within complex, multimodal environments. Specifically, this analysis presents a brief overview of game genres and the role of narrative in…

  17. Design requirements for a stand alone EUV interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michallon, Ph.; Constancias, C.; Lagrange, A.; Dalzotto, B.

    2008-03-01

    EUV lithography is expected to be inserted for the 32/22 nm nodes with possible extension below. EUV resist availability remains one of the main issues to be resolved. There is an urgent need to provide suitable tools to accelerate resist development and to achieve resolution, LER and sensitivity specifications simultaneously. An interferometer lithography tool offers advantages regarding conventional EUV exposure tool. It allows the evaluation of resists, free from the deficiencies of optics and mask which are limiting the achieved resolution. Traditionally, a dedicated beam line from a synchrotron, with limited access, is used as a light source in EUV interference lithography. This paper identifies the technology locks to develop a stand alone EUV interferometer using a compact EUV source. It will describe the theoretical solutions adopted and especially look at the feasibility according to available technologies. EUV sources available on the market have been evaluated in terms of power level, source size, spatial coherency, dose uniformity, accuracy, stability and reproducibility. According to the EUV source characteristics, several optic designs were studied (simple or double gratings). For each of these solutions, the source and collimation optic specifications have been determined. To reduce the exposure time, a new grating technology will also be presented allowing to significantly increasing the transmission system efficiency. The optical grating designs were studied to allow multi-pitch resolution print on the same exposure without any focus adjustment. Finally micro mechanical system supporting the gratings was studied integrating the issues due to vacuum environment, alignment capability, motion precision, automation and metrology to ensure the needed placement control between gratings and wafer. A similar study was carried out for the collimation-optics mechanical support which depends on the source characteristics.

  18. Advanced Neutron Source: Plant Design Requirements. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source will be a new world-class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. The heart of the facility will be a 330-MW (fission), heavy-water cooled and heavy-water moderated reactor. The reactor will be housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides will fan out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Appropriate office, laboratory, and shop facilities will be included to provide a complete facility for users. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory early in the next decade. This PDR document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of ANS. It also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this PDR document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of ANS.

  19. Wireless medical sensor networks: design requirements and enabling technologies.

    PubMed

    Vallejos de Schatz, Cecilia H; Medeiros, Henry Ponti; Schneider, Fabio K; Abatti, Paulo J

    2012-06-01

    This article analyzes wireless communication protocols that could be used in healthcare environments (e.g., hospitals and small clinics) to transfer real-time medical information obtained from noninvasive sensors. For this purpose the features of the three currently most widely used protocols-namely, Bluetooth(®) (IEEE 802.15.1), ZigBee (IEEE 802.15.4), and Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11)-are evaluated and compared. The important features under consideration include data bandwidth, frequency band, maximum transmission distance, encryption and authentication methods, power consumption, and current applications. In addition, an overview of network requirements with respect to medical sensor features, patient safety and patient data privacy, quality of service, and interoperability between other sensors is briefly presented. Sensor power consumption is also discussed because it is considered one of the main obstacles for wider adoption of wireless networks in medical applications. The outcome of this assessment will be a useful tool in the hands of biomedical engineering researchers. It will provide parameters to select the most effective combination of protocols to implement a specific wireless network of noninvasive medical sensors to monitor patients remotely in the hospital or at home.

  20. Toward domain-specific design environments: Some representation ideas from the telecommunications domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenspan, Sol; Feblowitz, Mark

    1992-01-01

    ACME is an experimental environment for investigating new approaches to modeling and analysis of system requirements and designs. ACME is built on and extends object-oriented conceptual modeling techniques and knowledge representation and reasoning (KRR) tools. The most immediate intended use for ACME is to help represent, understand, and communicate system designs during the early stages of system planning and requirements engineering. While our research is ostensibly aimed at software systems in general, we are particularly motivated to make an impact in the telecommunications domain, especially in the area referred to as Intelligent Networks (IN's). IN systems contain the software to provide services to users of a telecommunications network (e.g., call processing services, information services, etc.) as well as the software that provides the internal infrastructure for providing the services (e.g., resource management, billing, etc.). The software includes not only systems developed by the network proprietors but also by a growing group of independent service software providers.

  1. Data management in an object-oriented distributed aircraft conceptual design environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhijie

    In the competitive global market place, aerospace companies are forced to deliver the right products to the right market, with the right cost, and at the right time. However, the rapid development of technologies and new business opportunities, such as mergers, acquisitions, supply chain management, etc., have dramatically increased the complexity of designing an aircraft. Therefore, the pressure to reduce design cycle time and cost is enormous. One way to solve such a dilemma is to develop and apply advanced engineering environments (AEEs), which are distributed collaborative virtual design environments linking researchers, technologists, designers, etc., together by incorporating application tools and advanced computational, communications, and networking facilities. Aircraft conceptual design, as the first design stage, provides major opportunity to compress design cycle time and is the cheapest place for making design changes. However, traditional aircraft conceptual design programs, which are monolithic programs, cannot provide satisfactory functionality to meet new design requirements due to the lack of domain flexibility and analysis scalability. Therefore, we are in need of the next generation aircraft conceptual design environment (NextADE). To build the NextADE, the framework and the data management problem are two major problems that need to be addressed at the forefront. Solving these two problems, particularly the data management problem, is the focus of this research. In this dissertation, in light of AEEs, a distributed object-oriented framework is firstly formulated and tested for the NextADE. In order to improve interoperability and simplify the integration of heterogeneous application tools, data management is one of the major problems that need to be tackled. To solve this problem, taking into account the characteristics of aircraft conceptual design data, a robust, extensible object-oriented data model is then proposed according to the

  2. Impact of range safety requirements on electronic S and A (Safe and Arming Device) design

    SciTech Connect

    Dell, D.D.; Medina, A.J.

    1989-04-12

    The use of a tactical Safe and Arming Device (S and A) as a flight termination system for range safety creates some conflicting requirements on the design of the unit. The purpose for a flight termination system (FTS) is to detonate the weapon under any unforeseen set of circumstances, while the purpose of a tactical S and A Device is to prevent weapon detonation for all but the intended flight profile. With the advent of the all-electronic S and A, the ramifications of the dual requirements on the design of the system should be examined. As viewed from the S and A design vantage point, the issue of range safety is really a reliability issue and not a safety issue. The purpose of the range safety policies is to ensure that the unit used to terminate the flight of a missile will function under any expected or unforeseen set of circumstances which the missile might encounter during its flight. This calls for a flight termination system which must function with ultra-high reliability and with special design features which allow it to operate even under flight environments beyond the tactical requirements. Henceforth, when the issue of range safety is discussed, it will be done so under the guise of the reliability of the flight termination unit, be it the tactical S and A or not.

  3. 9 CFR 302.2 - Application of requirements in designated States or Territories; and to designated plants...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application of requirements in designated States or Territories; and to designated plants endangering public health. 302.2 Section 302.2... CERTIFICATION APPLICATION OF INSPECTION AND OTHER REQUIREMENTS § 302.2 Application of requirements in designated...

  4. The Competencies Required for Effective Performance in a University e-Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Mitchell; Reading, Christine; Stein, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and rate the importance of the competencies required by students for effective performance in a university e-learning environment mediated by a learning management system. Two expert panels identified 58 e-learning competencies considered to be essential for e-learning. Of these competencies, 22 were related…

  5. The Least Restrictive Environment. A Primer for Parents and Educators. Legal Requirements and Best Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copenhaver, John

    2006-01-01

    Since the Education for All Handicapped Children Act now known as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) 2004 was first passed, states have been required to make available to students with disabilities a free appropriate public education (FAPE) in the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE). The LRE standard that each school district…

  6. The Competencies Required for Effective Performance in a University e-Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Mitchell; Reading, Christine; Stein, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and rate the importance of the competencies required by students for effective performance in a university e-learning environment mediated by a learning management system. Two expert panels identified 58 e-learning competencies considered to be essential for e-learning. Of these competencies, 22 were related…

  7. Considering FERPA Requirements for Library Patron Databases within a Consortial Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Astrid; Prosser, Eric; Chittenden, Lloyd

    2016-01-01

    This case study examines patron record privacy and the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) within a consortial environment. FERPA requirements were examined, as well as college and library policy and procedure. It was determined that information in library patron records is directory information and, under most circumstances, does…

  8. Considering FERPA Requirements for Library Patron Databases within a Consortial Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Astrid; Prosser, Eric; Chittenden, Lloyd

    2016-01-01

    This case study examines patron record privacy and the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) within a consortial environment. FERPA requirements were examined, as well as college and library policy and procedure. It was determined that information in library patron records is directory information and, under most circumstances, does…

  9. Identifying Knowledge, Skill, and Ability Requirements for 33Sx Officers in Deployed Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    First, I would like to express my sincerest appreciation to my thesis committee, Dr . Dennis Strouble , Lieutenant Colonel Brian Hermann, and Major...DEPLOYED ENVIRONMENTS Douglas M. Simmers, BS Capt, USAF Approved: ///SIGNED/// 20 MAR 07 DENNIS D. STROUBLE , PhD, JD...ability, deployment, requirements, training, communications, information 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Dennis

  10. Hospital design of the future--healing environments.

    PubMed

    Mayer, D

    1992-01-01

    Predicting the future of hospital design is hardly a consensus forming art. Crystal ball visions of the 21st-century hospital vary from expert to expert. Perhaps that's simply a sign of the diversity of our health care system. Or perhaps it's a problem inherent in reading the future. For example, some hospital architects and facility planners say tomorrow's hospitals will be smaller due to technological advances. Others say those same advances will create larger hospitals brimming with high-tech equipment. Some say hospitals will be part of medical malls; others see them in a campus setting, perhaps accompanied by satellite facilities in the surrounding community. Yet, despite their often diverse views of the future, architects and planners do share common thoughts about hospital architecture in the decades ahead. Without question, they most commonly agree that hospitals will offer a more patient-friendly environment. Achieving that goal could take many forms, but it is expected to include the use of soothing colors, attractive landscaping, natural lighting, wayfinder lobbies and entrances, private rooms, quieter hallways and accommodations for family and friends.

  11. Using Scenarios to Design Complex Technology-Enhanced Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Ton; Weinberger, Armin; Girault, Isabelle; Kluge, Anders; Lazonder, Ard W.; Pedaste, Margus; Ludvigsen, Sten; Ney, Muriel; Wasson, Barbara; Wichmann, Astrid; Geraedts, Caspar; Giemza, Adam; Hovardas, Tasos; Julien, Rachel; van Joolingen, Wouter R.; Lejeune, Anne; Manoli, Constantinos C.; Matteman, Yuri; Sarapuu, Tago; Verkade, Alex; Vold, Vibeke; Zacharia, Zacharias C.

    2012-01-01

    Science Created by You (SCY) learning environments are computer-based environments in which students learn about science topics in the context of addressing a socio-scientific problem. Along their way to a solution for this problem students produce many types of intermediate products or learning objects. SCY learning environments center the entire…

  12. On public space design for Chinese urban residential area based on integrated architectural physics environment evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J. Y.; Cheng, W.; Ma, C. P.; Tan, Y. T.; Xin, L. S.

    2017-04-01

    The residential public space is an important part in designing the ecological residence, and a proper physics environment of public space is of greater significance to urban residence in China. Actually, the measure to apply computer aided design software into residential design can effectively avoid an inconformity of design intent with actual using condition, and a negative impact on users due to bad architectural physics environment of buildings, etc. The paper largely adopts a design method of analyzing architectural physics environment of residential public space. By analyzing and evaluating various physics environments, a suitability assessment is obtained for residential public space, thereby guiding the space design.

  13. A Methodology for Quantifying Certain Design Requirements During the Design Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Timothy; Rhodes, Russel

    2005-01-01

    A methodology for developing and balancing quantitative design requirements for safety, reliability, and maintainability has been proposed. Conceived as the basis of a more rational approach to the design of spacecraft, the methodology would also be applicable to the design of automobiles, washing machines, television receivers, or almost any other commercial product. Heretofore, it has been common practice to start by determining the requirements for reliability of elements of a spacecraft or other system to ensure a given design life for the system. Next, safety requirements are determined by assessing the total reliability of the system and adding redundant components and subsystems necessary to attain safety goals. As thus described, common practice leaves the maintainability burden to fall to chance; therefore, there is no control of recurring costs or of the responsiveness of the system. The means that have been used in assessing maintainability have been oriented toward determining the logistical sparing of components so that the components are available when needed. The process established for developing and balancing quantitative requirements for safety (S), reliability (R), and maintainability (M) derives and integrates NASA s top-level safety requirements and the controls needed to obtain program key objectives for safety and recurring cost (see figure). Being quantitative, the process conveniently uses common mathematical models. Even though the process is shown as being worked from the top down, it can also be worked from the bottom up. This process uses three math models: (1) the binomial distribution (greaterthan- or-equal-to case), (2) reliability for a series system, and (3) the Poisson distribution (less-than-or-equal-to case). The zero-fail case for the binomial distribution approximates the commonly known exponential distribution or "constant failure rate" distribution. Either model can be used. The binomial distribution was selected for

  14. Cryogenic fiber optic assemblies for spaceflight environments: design, manufacturing, testing, and integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomes, W. Joe; Ott, Melanie N.; Chuska, Richard; Switzer, Robert; Onuma, Eleanya; Blair, Diana; Frese, Erich; Matyseck, Marc

    2016-09-01

    Fiber optic assemblies have been used on spaceflight missions for many years as an enabling technology for routing, transmitting, and detecting optical signals. Due to the overwhelming success of NASA in implementing fiber optic assemblies on spaceflight science-based instruments, system scientists increasingly request fibers that perform in extreme environments while still maintaining very high optical transmission, stability, and reliability. Many new applications require fiber optic assemblies that will operate down to cryogenic temperatures as low as 20 Kelvin. In order for the fiber assemblies to operate with little loss in optical throughput at these extreme temperatures requires a system level approach all the way from how the fiber assembly is manufactured to how it is held, routed, and integrated. The NASA Goddard Code 562 Photonics Group has been designing, manufacturing, testing, and integrating fiber optics for spaceflight and other high reliability applications for nearly 20 years. Design techniques and lessons learned over the years are consistently applied to developing new fiber optic assemblies that meet these demanding environments. System level trades, fiber assembly design methods, manufacturing, testing, and integration will be discussed. Specific recent examples of ground support equipment for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST); the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat- 2); and others will be included.

  15. Cryogenic Fiber Optic Assemblies for Spaceflight Environments: Design, Manufacturing, Testing, and Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomes, W. Joe; Ott, Melanie N.; Chuska, Richard; Switzer, Robert; Onuma, Eleanya; Blair, Diana; Frese, Erich; Matyseck, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Fiber optic assemblies have been used on spaceflight missions for many years as an enabling technology for routing, transmitting, and detecting optical signals. Due to the overwhelming success of NASA in implementing fiber optic assemblies on spaceflight science-based instruments, system scientists increasingly request fibers that perform in extreme environments while still maintaining very high optical transmission, stability, and reliability. Many new applications require fiber optic assemblies that will operate down to cryogenic temperatures as low as 20 Kelvin. In order for the fiber assemblies to operate with little loss in optical throughput at these extreme temperatures requires a system level approach all the way from how the fiber assembly is manufactured to how it is held, routed, and integrated. The NASA Goddard Code 562 Photonics Group has been designing, manufacturing, testing, and integrating fiber optics for spaceflight and other high reliability applications for nearly 20 years. Design techniques and lessons learned over the years are consistently applied to developing new fiber optic assemblies that meet these demanding environments. System level trades, fiber assembly design methods, manufacturing, testing, and integration will be discussed. Specific recent examples of ground support equipment for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST); the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2); and others will be included.

  16. Transition of a Three-Dimensional Unsteady Viscous Flow Analysis from a Research Environment to the Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Suzanne; Dorney, Daniel J.; Huber, Frank; Sheffler, David A.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The advent of advanced computer architectures and parallel computing have led to a revolutionary change in the design process for turbomachinery components. Two- and three-dimensional steady-state computational flow procedures are now routinely used in the early stages of design. Unsteady flow analyses, however, are just beginning to be incorporated into design systems. This paper outlines the transition of a three-dimensional unsteady viscous flow analysis from the research environment into the design environment. The test case used to demonstrate the analysis is the full turbine system (high-pressure turbine, inter-turbine duct and low-pressure turbine) from an advanced turboprop engine.

  17. Design requirements for a metal-smelting facility

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, L.C.; Mack, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Functional requirements for the smelting of metal scrap contaminated with low-enriched uranium in a Metal Smelting Faclity (MSF) have been determined. The process will be designed to smelt ferrous metal scrap that has accumulated at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) into one-ton ingots at a rate of 40 ingots per day (10,000 tons/year). Total scrap inventories at the ORGDP are currently estimated at 28,000 tons. The diffusion plant scrap is primarily contaminated with 100 to 200 ppm U at an enrichment of 0.5 to 1.5% /sup 235/U. The scrap is considered special nuclear material (SNM) and cannot be handled by commercial smelters without specific licensing. Slagging will be performed to remove contaminants from the metal and concentrate them in the slag. Process systems will include scrap handling, size reduction, preheating and charging, melting and slagging, ingot casting and storage, and fume exhaust. The MSF has been proposed for FY 1984 line item funding.

  18. A Computer Environment for Beginners' Learning of Sorting Algorithms: Design and Pilot Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kordaki, M.; Miatidis, M.; Kapsampelis, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the design, features and pilot evaluation study of a web-based environment--the SORTING environment--for the learning of sorting algorithms by secondary level education students. The design of this environment is based on modeling methodology, taking into account modern constructivist and social theories of learning while at…

  19. Parallels in Computer-Aided Design Framework and Software Development Environment Efforts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    University - Software Engineering Institute Parallels In Computer-Aided Design Framework and Software Development Environment Efforts Susan A. Dart DTIC...Parallels in Computer-Aided Design Framework and Software Development Environment Efforts Susan A. Dart Environments Project Approved for public...release. Distribution unlimited. Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 This technical report was

  20. A Computer Environment for Beginners' Learning of Sorting Algorithms: Design and Pilot Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kordaki, M.; Miatidis, M.; Kapsampelis, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the design, features and pilot evaluation study of a web-based environment--the SORTING environment--for the learning of sorting algorithms by secondary level education students. The design of this environment is based on modeling methodology, taking into account modern constructivist and social theories of learning while at…