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Sample records for environment migratory tendency

  1. Environment, Migratory Tendency, Phylogeny and Basal Metabolic Rate in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Jetz, Walter; Freckleton, Robert P.; McKechnie, Andrew E.

    2008-01-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) represents the minimum maintenance energy requirement of an endotherm and has far-reaching consequences for interactions between animals and their environments. Avian BMR exhibits considerable variation that is independent of body mass. Some long-distance migrants have been found to exhibit particularly high BMR, traditionally interpreted as being related to the energetic demands of long-distance migration. Here we use a global dataset to evaluate differences in BMR between migrants and non-migrants, and to examine the effects of environmental variables. The BMR of migrant species is significantly higher than that of non-migrants. Intriguingly, while the elevated BMR of migrants on their breeding grounds may reflect the metabolic machinery required for long-distance movements, an alternative (and statistically stronger) explanation is their occupation of predominantly cold high-latitude breeding areas. Among several environmental predictors, average annual temperature has the strongest effect on BMR, with a 50% reduction associated with a 20°C gradient. The negative effects of temperature variables on BMR hold separately for migrants and non-migrants and are not due their different climatic associations. BMR in migrants shows a much lower degree of phylogenetic inertia. Our findings indicate that migratory tendency need not necessarily be invoked to explain the higher BMR of migrants. A weaker phylogenetic signal observed in migrants supports the notion of strong phenotypic flexibility in this group which facilitates migration-related BMR adjustments that occur above and beyond environmental conditions. In contrast to the findings of previous analyses of mammalian BMR, primary productivity, aridity or precipitation variability do not appear to be important environmental correlates of avian BMR. The strong effects of temperature-related variables and varying phylogenetic effects reiterate the importance of addressing both broad-scale and

  2. Geographic variation in survival and migratory tendency among North American Common Mergansers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearce, J.M.; Reed, J.A.; Flint, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    Movement ecology and demographic parameters for the Common Merganser (Mergus merganser americanus) in North America are poorly known. We used band-recovery data from five locations across North America spanning the years 1938-1998 to examine migratory patterns and estimate survival rates. We examined competing time-invariant, age-graduated models with program MARK to study sources of variation in survival and reporting probability. We considered age, sex, geographic location, and the use of nasal saddles on hatching year birds at one location as possible sources of variation. Year-of-banding was included as a covariate in a post-hoc analysis. We found that migratory tendency, defined as the average distance between banding and recovery locations, varied geographically. Similarly, all models accounting for the majority of variation in recovery and survival probabilities included location of banding. Models that included age and sex received less support, but we lacked sufficient data to adequately assess these parameters. Model-averaged estimates of annual survival ranged from 0.21 in Michigan to 0.82 in Oklahoma. Heterogeneity in migration tendency and survival suggests that demographic patterns may vary across geographic scales, with implications for the population dynamics of this species.

  3. Interspecific exchange of avian influenza virus genes in Alaska: the influence of trans-hemispheric migratory tendency and breeding ground sympatry

    PubMed Central

    PEARCE, JOHN M.; REEVES, ANDREW B.; RAMEY, ANDREW M.; HUPP, JERRY W.; IP, HON S.; BERTRAM, MARK; PETRULA, MICHAEL J.; SCOTTON, BRADLEY D.; TRUST, KIMBERLY A.; MEIXELL, BRANDT W.; RUNSTADLER, JONATHAN A.

    2010-01-01

    The movement and transmission of avian influenza viral strains via wild migratory birds may vary by host species as a result of migratory tendency and sympatry with other infected individuals. To examine the roles of host migratory tendency and species sympatry on the movement of Eurasian low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) genes into North America, we characterized migratory patterns and LPAI viral genomic variation in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) of Alaska in comparison to LPAI diversity of northern pintails (Anas acuta). A 50-year band recovery data set suggests that unlike northern pintails, mallards rarely make trans-hemispheric migrations between Alaska and Eurasia. Concordantly, fewer (14.5%) of 62 LPAI isolates from mallards contained Eurasian gene segments compared to those from 97 northern pintails (35%), a species with greater intercontinental migratory tendency. Aerial survey and banding data suggest that mallards and northern pintails are largely sympatric throughout Alaska during the breeding season, promoting opportunities for interspecific transmission. Comparisons of full genome isolates confirmed near-complete genetic homology (>99.5%) of seven viruses between mallards and northern pintails. This study found viral segments of Eurasian lineage at a higher frequency in mallards than previous studies, suggesting transmission from other avian species migrating inter-hemispherically or the common occurrence of endemic Alaskan viruses containing segments of Eurasian origin. We conclude that mallards are unlikely to transfer Asian origin viruses directly to North America via Alaska, but that they are likely infected with Asian origin viruses via interspecific transfer from species with regular migrations to the Eastern Hemisphere. PMID:21073586

  4. Interspecific exchange of avian influenza virus genes in Alaska: the influence of trans-hemispheric migratory tendency and breeding ground sympatry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearce, John M.; Reeves, A.B.; Ramey, A.M.; Hupp, J.W.; Ip, H.S.; Bertram, M.; Petrula, M.J.; Scotton, B.D.; Trust, K.A.; Meixell, B.W.; Runstadler, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The movement and transmission of avian influenza viral strains via wild migratory birds may vary by host species as a result of migratory tendency and sympatry with other infected individuals. To examine the roles of host migratory tendency and species sympatry on the movement of Eurasian low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) genes into North America, we characterized migratory patterns and LPAI viral genomic variation in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) of Alaska in comparison with LPAI diversity of northern pintails (Anas acuta). A 50-year band-recovery data set suggests that unlike northern pintails, mallards rarely make trans-hemispheric migrations between Alaska and Eurasia. Concordantly, fewer (14.5%) of 62 LPAI isolates from mallards contained Eurasian gene segments compared to those from 97 northern pintails (35%), a species with greater inter-continental migratory tendency. Aerial survey and banding data suggest that mallards and northern pintails are largely sympatric throughout Alaska during the breeding season, promoting opportunities for interspecific transmission. Comparisons of full-genome isolates confirmed near-complete genetic homology (>99.5%) of seven viruses between mallards and northern pintails. This study found viral segments of Eurasian lineage at a higher frequency in mallards than previous studies, suggesting transmission from other avian species migrating inter-hemispherically or the common occurrence of endemic Alaskan viruses containing segments of Eurasian origin. We conclude that mallards are unlikely to transfer Asian-origin viruses directly to North America via Alaska but that they are likely infected with Asian-origin viruses via interspecific transfer from species with regular migrations to the Eastern Hemisphere.

  5. Interspecific exchange of avian influenza virus genes in Alaska: The influence of trans-hemispheric migratory tendency and breeding ground sympatry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearce, J.M.; Reeves, A.B.; Ramey, A.M.; Hupp, J.W.; Ip, H.S.; Bertram, M.; Petrula, M.J.; Scotton, B.D.; Trust, K.A.; Meixell, B.W.; Runstadler, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The movement and transmission of avian influenza viral strains via wild migratory birds may vary by host species as a result of migratory tendency and sympatry with other infected individuals. To examine the roles of host migratory tendency and species sympatry on the movement of Eurasian low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) genes into North America, we characterized migratory patterns and LPAI viral genomic variation in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) of Alaska in comparison with LPAI diversity of northern pintails (Anas acuta). A 50-year band-recovery data set suggests that unlike northern pintails, mallards rarely make trans-hemispheric migrations between Alaska and Eurasia. Concordantly, fewer (14.5%) of 62 LPAI isolates from mallards contained Eurasian gene segments compared to those from 97 northern pintails (35%), a species with greater inter-continental migratory tendency. Aerial survey and banding data suggest that mallards and northern pintails are largely sympatric throughout Alaska during the breeding season, promoting opportunities for interspecific transmission. Comparisons of full-genome isolates confirmed near-complete genetic homology (>99.5%) of seven viruses between mallards and northern pintails. This study found viral segments of Eurasian lineage at a higher frequency in mallards than previous studies, suggesting transmission from other avian species migrating inter-hemispherically or the common occurrence of endemic Alaskan viruses containing segments of Eurasian origin. We conclude that mallards are unlikely to transfer Asian-origin viruses directly to North America via Alaska but that they are likely infected with Asian-origin viruses via interspecific transfer from species with regular migrations to the Eastern Hemisphere. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Polysialic acid sustains cancer cell survival and migratory capacity in a hypoxic environment

    PubMed Central

    Elkashef, Sara M.; Allison, Simon J.; Sadiq, Maria; Basheer, Haneen A.; Ribeiro Morais, Goreti; Loadman, Paul M.; Pors, Klaus; Falconer, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Polysialic acid (polySia) is a unique carbohydrate polymer expressed on the surface of NCAM (neuronal cell adhesion molecule) in a number of cancers where it modulates cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, migration, invasion and metastasis and is strongly associated with poor clinical prognosis. We have carried out the first investigation into the effect of polySia expression on the behaviour of cancer cells in hypoxia, a key source of chemoresistance in tumours. The role of polysialylation and associated tumour cell migration and cell adhesion were studied in hypoxia, along with effects on cell survival and the potential role of HIF-1. Our findings provide the first evidence that polySia expression sustains migratory capacity and is associated with tumour cell survival in hypoxia. Initial mechanistic studies indicate a potential role for HIF-1 in sustaining polySia-mediated migratory capacity, but not cell survival. These data add to the growing body of evidence pointing to a crucial role for the polysialyltransferases (polySTs) in neuroendocrine tumour progression and provide the first evidence to suggest that polySia is associated with an aggressive phenotype in tumour hypoxia. These results have significant potential implications for polyST inhibition as an anti-metastatic therapeutic strategy and for targeting hypoxic cancer cells. PMID:27611649

  7. Migratory decisions in birds: Extent of genetic versus environmental control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ogonowski, M.S.; Conway, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    Migration is one of the most spectacular of animal behaviors and is prevalent across a broad array of taxa. In birds, we know much about the physiological basis of how birds migrate, but less about the relative contribution of genetic versus environmental factors in controlling migratory tendency. To evaluate the extent to which migratory decisions are genetically determined, we examined whether individual western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) change their migratory tendency from one year to the next at two sites in southern Arizona. We also evaluated the heritability of migratory decisions by using logistic regression to examine the association between the migratory tendency of burrowing owl parents and their offspring. The probability of migrating decreased with age in both sexes and adult males were less migratory than females. Individual owls sometimes changed their migratory tendency from one year to the next, but changes were one-directional: adults that were residents during winter 2004-2005 remained residents the following winter, but 47% of adults that were migrants in winter 2004-2005 became residents the following winter. We found no evidence for an association between the migratory tendency of hatch-year owls and their male or female parents. Migratory tendency of hatch-year owls did not differ between years, study sites or sexes or vary by hatching date. Experimental provision of supplemental food did not affect these relationships. All of our results suggest that heritability of migratory tendency in burrowing owls is low, and that intraspecific variation in migratory tendency is likely due to: (1) environmental factors, or (2) a combination of environmental factors and non-additive genetic variation. The fact that an individual's migratory tendency can change across years implies that widespread anthropogenic changes (i.e., climate change or changes in land use) could potentially cause widespread changes in the migratory tendency of

  8. Migratory decisions in birds: extent of genetic versus environmental control.

    PubMed

    Ogonowski, Mark S; Conway, Courtney J

    2009-08-01

    Migration is one of the most spectacular of animal behaviors and is prevalent across a broad array of taxa. In birds, we know much about the physiological basis of how birds migrate, but less about the relative contribution of genetic versus environmental factors in controlling migratory tendency. To evaluate the extent to which migratory decisions are genetically determined, we examined whether individual western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) change their migratory tendency from one year to the next at two sites in southern Arizona. We also evaluated the heritability of migratory decisions by using logistic regression to examine the association between the migratory tendency of burrowing owl parents and their offspring. The probability of migrating decreased with age in both sexes and adult males were less migratory than females. Individual owls sometimes changed their migratory tendency from one year to the next, but changes were one-directional: adults that were residents during winter 2004-2005 remained residents the following winter, but 47% of adults that were migrants in winter 2004-2005 became residents the following winter. We found no evidence for an association between the migratory tendency of hatch-year owls and their male or female parents. Migratory tendency of hatch-year owls did not differ between years, study sites or sexes or vary by hatching date. Experimental provision of supplemental food did not affect these relationships. All of our results suggest that heritability of migratory tendency in burrowing owls is low, and that intraspecific variation in migratory tendency is likely due to: (1) environmental factors, or (2) a combination of environmental factors and non-additive genetic variation. The fact that an individual's migratory tendency can change across years implies that widespread anthropogenic changes (i.e., climate change or changes in land use) could potentially cause widespread changes in the migratory tendency of

  9. Pesticide Exposome: Assessing risks to migratory honey bees from pesticide contamination in the hive environment in the Eastern United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To calculate the relative risk associated with exposure to easily quantifiable putative risk factors in honey bee colonies, a cohort study of hives belonging to three migratory beekeepers was previously conducted and reported on. Associated with those studies, live adult bee, wax, and bee bread samp...

  10. Using the WTO/TBT enquiry point to monitor tendencies in the regulation of environment, health, and safety issues affecting the chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Pio Borges Menezes, Rodrigo; Maria de Souza Antunes, Adelaide

    2005-04-01

    The growing importance of technical regulation affecting the use and sale of chemical products is a topic of interest not only for the chemical industry, but also for governments, nongovernmental organizations, consumers, and interested communities. The results of such regulation on behalf of the environment, health and safety of individuals, as well as its economic effects on industrial activity, are well understood in the United States and recently in the European Union. In less developed countries, however, the general level of public understanding of these issues is still minimal. It is common knowledge that the so-called "regulatory asymmetry" between countries at different levels of development contributes to the establishment of technical barriers to trade. Such asymmetries, however, also have other impacts: the displacement of polluting industrial sectors to countries which have less demanding regulations, the concentration of unsafe and harmful environmental conditions in certain parts of the globe, and the competitive disadvantage for industries located in countries where control is more rigid. This study analyses information on a wide range of technical regulations issued by World Trade Organization (WTO) members, and focuses on those regulations that affect the chemical industry. This information is available through the WTO Enquiry Points, organizations created in each country to administrate the Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement (TBT). This article consists of an analysis of 4,301 notifications of technical regulations by WTO member states in the 7-year period following the establishment of the WTO in 1995. Starting from this mass of information, 585 notifications that affect the circulation or use of chemical products were isolated. Of this group, 71% refer to only 15 countries. This group of notifications was further classified according to their motivation (the environment, health, safety), by the type of product affected (medications, fuels

  11. Building Migratory Bridges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Michael; Doss, Laurie K.

    2007-01-01

    The Building Migratory Bridges (BOMB) program--a collaboration between the Marvel wood School and Audubon Sharon in Connecticut and Conservation Research Education Action (CR EA), a U.S. not-for-profit in Panama--uses nontropical migratory bird research in the United States and Panama to demonstrate how negative environmental impacts in one…

  12. Building Migratory Bridges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Michael; Doss, Laurie K.

    2007-01-01

    The Building Migratory Bridges (BOMB) program--a collaboration between the Marvel wood School and Audubon Sharon in Connecticut and Conservation Research Education Action (CR EA), a U.S. not-for-profit in Panama--uses nontropical migratory bird research in the United States and Panama to demonstrate how negative environmental impacts in one…

  13. Measuring preschoolers' superstitious tendencies.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Kelly J; Van Reet, Jennifer; Bloom, Christopher M

    2012-10-01

    Superstitious behaviors have been studied extensively in adults and non-human species, but have not been systematically assessed in children. The purpose of the study is to develop and validate a method of measuring superstitious tendencies in young children based on an established learning paradigm. In two studies, 3-5-year-olds tapped a computer to make a target image appear. On half the trials, a sensory stimulus appeared at a random time before the target. Superstitious tendencies were measured by change in tapping during the presence of the sensory stimulus. Children's proportion of tapping increased during the presence of the sensory stimulus, indicating that children associated the sensory stimulus with the appearance of the target image, even though the two stimuli were not causally related. Implications for the development of superstitious tendencies and children's causal knowledge are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes in the fibronectin-specific integrin expression pattern modify the migratory behavior of sarcoma S180 cells in vitro and in the embryonic environment

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The molecules that mediate cell-matrix recognition, such as fibronectins (FN) and integrins, modulate cell behavior. We have previously demonstrated that FN and the beta 1-integrins are used during neural crest cell (NCC) migration in vitro as well as in vivo, and that the FN cell-binding domains I and II exhibit functional specificity in controlling either NCC attachment, spreading, or motility in vitro. In the present study, we have analyzed the effect of changes in the integrin expression patterns on migratory cell behavior in vivo. We have generated, after stable transfection, S180 cells expressing different levels of alpha 4 beta 1 or alpha 5 beta 1 integrins, two integrins that recognize distinct FN cell-binding domains. Murine S180 cells were chosen because they behave similarly to NCC after they are grafted into the NCC embryonic pathways in the chicken embryo. Thus, they provide a model system with which to investigate the mechanisms controlling in vitro and in vivo migratory cell behavior. We have observed that either the overexpression of alpha 5 beta 1 integrin or the induction of alpha 4 beta 1 expression in transfected S180 cells enhances their motility on FN in vitro. These genetically modified S180 cells also exhibit different migratory properties when grafted into the early trunk NCC migratory pathways. We observe that alpha 5 and low alpha 4 expressors migrate in both the ventral and dorsolateral paths simultaneously, in contrast to the parental S180 cells or the host NCC, which are delayed by 24 h in their invasion of the dorsolateral path. Moreover, the alpha 4 expressors exhibit different migratory properties according to their level of alpha 4 expression at the cell surface. Cells of the low alpha 4 expressor line invade both the ventral and dorsolateral pathways. In contrast, the high expressors remain as an aggregate at the graft site, possibly the result of alpha 4 beta 1-dependent homotypic aggregation. Thus, changes in the repertoire of

  15. Understanding the energetic costs of living in saline environments: effects of salinity on basal metabolic rate, body mass and daily energy consumption of a long-distance migratory shorebird.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Jorge S; Masero, José A; Abad-Gómez, José M; Villegas, Auxiliadora; Sánchez-Guzmán, Juan M

    2011-03-01

    Many migratory vertebrates typically move between habitats with varying salinities during the annual cycle. These organisms clearly exhibit a remarkable phenotypic flexibility in their 'osmoregulatory machinery', but the metabolic consequences of salinity acclimatization are still not well understood. We investigated the effects of salinity on basal metabolic rate (BMR), body mass and daily energy consumption of a long-distance migratory shorebird, the dunlin (Calidris alpina), outside the breeding season. Mass-corrected BMR and daily energy consumption increased significantly by 17 and 20% between freshwater (0.3‰ NaCl) and saltwater (33.0-35.0‰ NaCl), respectively. Body mass in both captive and wild dunlins was lower (9-16%) in saline than in freshwater environments. These changes on BMR and body mass were quickly reversed by returning the birds to freshwater, suggesting that metabolic adjustment to saltwater and metabolic readjustment to freshwater are both processes that occur in a few days. Our findings support empirically that the processes of developing and maintaining an active osmoregulatory machinery are energetically expensive, and they could help to explain diet and/or habitat selection patterns along the flyway. Finally, we discuss whether body mass loss in saltwater may be a strategy to reduce maintenance cost in osmotically stressful conditions such as overwintering in marine habitats, and raise some methodological implications for studies of BMR-related outcomes using captive birds captured in saline environments.

  16. Unraveling navigational strategies in migratory insects

    PubMed Central

    Merlin, Christine; Heinze, Stanley; Reppert, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    Long-distance migration is a strategy some animals use to survive a seasonally changing environment. To reach favorable grounds, migratory animals have evolved sophisticated navigational mechanisms that rely on a map and compasses. In migratory insects, the existence of a map sense (sense of position) remains poorly understood, but recent work has provided new insights into the mechanisms some compasses use for maintaining a constant bearing during long-distance navigation. The best-studied directional strategy relies on a time-compensated sun compass, used by diurnal insects, for which neural circuits have begun to be delineated. Yet, a growing body of evidence suggests that migratory insects may also rely on other compasses that use night sky cues or the Earth's magnetic field. Those mechanisms are ripe for exploration. PMID:22154565

  17. COMPULSIVE BUYING TENDENCIES.

    PubMed

    Spinella, Marcello; Lester, David; Yang, Bijou

    2015-12-01

    Compulsive buying behavior is typically viewed as pathological, but recent research has shown that compulsive buying tendencies are associated with attitudes toward money, personal financial behavior, and having materialistic values, suggesting that compulsive buyers are manifesting an extreme form of habits shown by people in general. In a study of 240 community residents, scores on the Compulsive Buying Scale were associated positively with scores on the Material Values Scale and the Canadian Problem Gambling Index, and negatively with scores on the Executive Personal Finance Scale and Ardelt's wisdom scale. These results suggest that, as is the case for many abnormal behaviors, tendencies toward compulsive buying may not be pathological, but are associated with attitudes toward money in general, financial management behavior, and materialistic values.

  18. Fixed and Flexible: Coexistence of Obligate and Facultative Migratory Strategies in a Freshwater Fish

    PubMed Central

    Brodersen, Jakob; Chapman, Ben B.; Nilsson, P. Anders; Skov, Christian; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Brönmark, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Migration is an important event in many animal life histories, but the degree to which individual animals participate in seasonal migrations often varies within populations. The powerful ecological and evolutionary consequences of such partial migration are now well documented, but the underlying mechanisms are still heavily debated. One potential mechanism of partial migration is between-individual variation in body condition, where animals in poor condition cannot pay the costs of migration and hence adopt a resident strategy. However, underlying intrinsic traits may overrule such environmental influence, dictating individual consistency in migratory patterns. Unfortunately, field tests of individual consistency compared to the importance of individual condition on migratory propensity are rare. Here we analyse 6 years of field data on roach migration, gathered by tagging almost 3000 individual fish and monitoring their seasonal migrations over extended periods of time. Our aims were to provide a field test of the role of condition in wild fish for migratory decisions, and also to assess individual consistency in migratory tendency. Our analyses reveal that (1) migratory strategy, in terms of migration/residency, is highly consistent within individuals over time and (2) there is a positive relationship between condition and the probability of migration, but only in individuals that adopt a migratory strategy at some point during their lives. However, life-long residents do not differ in condition to migrants, hence body condition is only a good predictor of migratory tendency in fish with migratory phenotypes and not a more general determinant of migratory tendency for the population. As resident individuals can achieve very high body condition and still remain resident, we suggest that our data provides some of the first field evidence to show that both facultative and obligate strategies can co-exist within populations of migratory animals. PMID:24594698

  19. Echinoderms Have Bilateral Tendencies

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wenchan; Wang, Sishuo; Lv, Jianhao

    2012-01-01

    Echinoderms take many forms of symmetry. Pentameral symmetry is the major form and the other forms are derived from it. However, the ancestors of echinoderms, which originated from Cambrian period, were believed to be bilaterians. Echinoderm larvae are bilateral during their early development. During embryonic development of starfish and sea urchins, the position and the developmental sequence of each arm are fixed, implying an auxological anterior/posterior axis. Starfish also possess the Hox gene cluster, which controls symmetrical development. Overall, echinoderms are thought to have a bilateral developmental mechanism and process. In this article, we focused on adult starfish behaviors to corroborate its bilateral tendency. We weighed their central disk and each arm to measure the position of the center of gravity. We then studied their turning-over behavior, crawling behavior and fleeing behavior statistically to obtain the center of frequency of each behavior. By joining the center of gravity and each center of frequency, we obtained three behavioral symmetric planes. These behavioral bilateral tendencies might be related to the A/P axis during the embryonic development of the starfish. It is very likely that the adult starfish is, to some extent, bilaterian because it displays some bilateral propensity and has a definite behavioral symmetric plane. The remainder of bilateral symmetry may have benefited echinoderms during their evolution from the Cambrian period to the present. PMID:22247765

  20. Echinoderms have bilateral tendencies.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chengcheng; Wu, Liang; Zhao, Wenchan; Wang, Sishuo; Lv, Jianhao

    2012-01-01

    Echinoderms take many forms of symmetry. Pentameral symmetry is the major form and the other forms are derived from it. However, the ancestors of echinoderms, which originated from Cambrian period, were believed to be bilaterians. Echinoderm larvae are bilateral during their early development. During embryonic development of starfish and sea urchins, the position and the developmental sequence of each arm are fixed, implying an auxological anterior/posterior axis. Starfish also possess the Hox gene cluster, which controls symmetrical development. Overall, echinoderms are thought to have a bilateral developmental mechanism and process. In this article, we focused on adult starfish behaviors to corroborate its bilateral tendency. We weighed their central disk and each arm to measure the position of the center of gravity. We then studied their turning-over behavior, crawling behavior and fleeing behavior statistically to obtain the center of frequency of each behavior. By joining the center of gravity and each center of frequency, we obtained three behavioral symmetric planes. These behavioral bilateral tendencies might be related to the A/P axis during the embryonic development of the starfish. It is very likely that the adult starfish is, to some extent, bilaterian because it displays some bilateral propensity and has a definite behavioral symmetric plane. The remainder of bilateral symmetry may have benefited echinoderms during their evolution from the Cambrian period to the present.

  1. Current selection for lower migratory activity will drive the evolution of residency in a migratory bird population

    PubMed Central

    Pulido, Francisco; Berthold, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Global warming is impacting biodiversity by altering the distribution, abundance, and phenology of a wide range of animal and plant species. One of the best documented responses to recent climate change is alterations in the migratory behavior of birds, but the mechanisms underlying these phenotypic adjustments are largely unknown. This knowledge is still crucial to predict whether populations of migratory birds will adapt to a rapid increase in temperature. We monitored migratory behavior in a population of blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) to test for evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Using a common garden experiment in time and captive breeding we demonstrated a genetic reduction in migratory activity and evolutionary change in phenotypic plasticity of migration onset. An artificial selection experiment further revealed that residency will rapidly evolve in completely migratory bird populations if selection for shorter migration distance persists. Our findings suggest that current alterations of the environment are favoring birds wintering closer to the breeding grounds and that populations of migratory birds have strongly responded to these changes in selection. The reduction of migratory activity is probably an important evolutionary process in the adaptation of migratory birds to climate change, because it reduces migration costs and facilitates the rapid adjustment to the shifts in the timing of food availability during reproduction. PMID:20368446

  2. Optimal Conservation of Migratory Species

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Tara G.; Chadès, Iadine; Arcese, Peter; Marra, Peter P.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2007-01-01

    Background Migratory animals comprise a significant portion of biodiversity worldwide with annual investment for their conservation exceeding several billion dollars. Designing effective conservation plans presents enormous challenges. Migratory species are influenced by multiple events across land and sea–regions that are often separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. To date, conservation strategies for migratory species fail to take into account how migratory animals are spatially connected between different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. migratory connectivity) bringing into question the utility and efficiency of current conservation efforts. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we report the first framework for determining an optimal conservation strategy for a migratory species. Employing a decision theoretic approach using dynamic optimization, we address the problem of how to allocate resources for habitat conservation for a Neotropical-Nearctic migratory bird, the American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, whose winter habitat is under threat. Our first conservation strategy used the acquisition of winter habitat based on land cost, relative bird density, and the rate of habitat loss to maximize the abundance of birds on the wintering grounds. Our second strategy maximized bird abundance across the entire range of the species by adding the constraint of maintaining a minimum percentage of birds within each breeding region in North America using information on migratory connectivity as estimated from stable-hydrogen isotopes in feathers. We show that failure to take into account migratory connectivity may doom some regional populations to extinction, whereas including information on migratory connectivity results in the protection of the species across its entire range. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that conservation strategies for migratory animals depend critically upon two factors: knowledge of migratory

  3. [Necrolytic migratory erythema].

    PubMed

    Dandrifosse, J F; Dandrifosse, A C; Piérard, G; Scheen, A J; Dandrifosse, G

    1998-12-01

    Necrolytic migratory erythema (NME) is generally associated with glucagonoma. It waxes and wanes by successive relapses and remissions. The clinical and microscopical diagnosis is complex. In addition to glucagonoma treatments, the administration of corticoids, aminoacids, zinc or essential fatty acids can be helpful. There exist several etiological hypotheses for NME. These are based on modifications of pancreatic enzyme activities and on variations of aminoacids, fatty acids, zinc or glucagon concentrations.

  4. Variability and trends of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzaki, Maria; Flocas, Helena A.; Simmonds, Ian; Kouroutzoglou, John; keay, Kevin; Rudeva, Irina

    2014-05-01

    A comprehensive climatology of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean was generated with the aid of the University of Melbourne finding and tracking algorithm, applied to 34 years (1979-2012) of ERA-Interim mean sea level pressures. The algorithm is employed for the first time to study anticyclones in this region, thus, its robustness and reliability in efficiently capturing the individual characteristics of the anticyclonic tracks in the Mediterranean were checked and verified. The tracks and the statistical properties of the migratory systems revealed two major anticyclonic routes: over the northern (i.e. from the Iberian towards the Balkan Peninsula) and over the southern (i.e. the North Africa coast) Mediterranean barriers. A transition of the system density and anticyclogenesis maxima is evident throughout the year from solely continental environments in winter and autumn to also maritime in spring and summer. These variations can be attributed to the seasonal variability of the major anticyclonic systems that are involved in this region. The interannual variability of synoptic systems can be attributed to natural low frequency variability. The interannual variations of the system density and strength were linked to the Northern Hemisphere modes of atmospheric variability; e.g. more (less) antiyclonic tracks are observed around the Mediterranean basin during periods of positive (negative) NAO, with a consequent enhancement (decline) of the pressure field. Moreover, possible trends in the frequency and intensity of the anticyclonic systems were explored in an attempt to examine any impacts of recent global warming conditions. Positive trends of system density, genesis and intensity prevail during the cold period over the greater area around the Mediterranean basin. During summer, the general increase in system density is not followed by a corresponding tendency in the number of the generating systems and the intensity. Regarding the depth of the

  5. Distinct migratory and non-migratory ecotypes of an endemic New Zealand eleotrid (Gobiomorphus cotidianus) – implications for incipient speciation in island freshwater fish species

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Many postglacial lakes contain fish species with distinct ecomorphs. Similar evolutionary scenarios might be acting on evolutionarily young fish communities in lakes of remote islands. One process that drives diversification in island freshwater fish species is the colonization of depauperate freshwater environments by diadromous (migratory) taxa, which secondarily lose their migratory behaviour. The loss of migration limits dispersal and gene flow between distant populations, and, therefore, is expected to facilitate local morphological and genetic differentiation. To date, most studies have focused on interspecific relationships among migratory species and their non-migratory sister taxa. We hypothesize that the loss of migration facilitates intraspecific morphological, behavioural, and genetic differentiation between migratory and non-migratory populations of facultatively diadromous taxa, and, hence, incipient speciation of island freshwater fish species. Results Microchemical analyses of otolith isotopes (88Sr, 137Ba and 43Ca) differentiated migratory and non-migratory stocks of the New Zealand endemic Gobiomorphus cotidianus McDowall (Eleotridae). Samples were taken from two rivers, one lake and two geographically-separated outgroup locations. Meristic analyses of oculoscapular lateral line canals documented a gradual reduction of these structures in the non-migratory populations. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints revealed considerable genetic isolation between migratory and non-migratory populations. Temporal differences in reproductive timing (migratory = winter spawners, non-migratory = summer spawners; as inferred from gonadosomatic indices) provide a prezygotic reproductive isolation mechanism between the two ecotypes. Conclusion This study provides a holistic look at the role of diadromy in incipient speciation of island freshwater fish species. All four analytical approaches (otolith microchemistry, morphology

  6. 75 FR 53774 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain...-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain..., Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule prescribes special early-season migratory bird hunting...

  7. The migratory fascia hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Lelean, Peter

    2009-10-01

    its possible implications for lumbo-pelvic function. Although a review of anatomy atlases has failed to reveal mention of migratory fascia, the author respectfully suggests that dissection, specifically aimed at this task, may demonstrate its presence. It is also suggested that a retrospective review of lumbo-pelvic MRI records be initiated to identify the presence of this proposed fascial feature in the general population. Finally, magnetic resonance elastography may be useful in defining areas of increased muscular tension, in order to test the migratory fascia hypothesis.

  8. [Exchanges, transportation, and communication: Turkish circulation and migratory domain].

    PubMed

    De Tapia, S

    1996-01-01

    "In this article, the author first describes and then analyzes how networks of exchange, transportation, and communication function to animate and irrigate the Turkish migratory domain, which currently covers Europe, the Middle East, and the CIS, and which has become transoceanic (North America and Australia).... The author suggests a dynamic vision of the migratory domain, based on the mobility of people and goods, and associated with various means of transportation (air, sea, rail, and road), as a complement to the static vision, which observes the emergence of immigrant communities undergoing a complex process of ethnicization (or assimilation) in highly diversified environments." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  9. Glaciation as a migratory switch

    PubMed Central

    Zink, Robert M.; Gardner, Aubrey S.

    2017-01-01

    Migratory behavior in birds is evolutionarily plastic, but it is unclear how this behavior responded during glacial cycles. One view is that at glacial maxima, species simply shifted their breeding ranges south of glacial ice and remained migratory. To test this hypothesis, we constructed ecological niche models for breeding and wintering ranges of 56 species, finding that 70% of currently long-distance North American migrant species likely lacked suitable breeding habitat in North America at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and we hypothesized that they reverted to the ancestral state of being tropical sedentary residents. A smaller percentage of short-distance migrants (27%) experienced altered migratory behavior at the LGM, although the ranges of all species were shifted southward, as traditionally envisioned. We suggest that many species oscillate between sedentary and migratory strategies with each glacial cycle acting as an adaptive switch. Thus, range shifts occur more frequently than speciation events and are inadequately depicted by phylogenetic reconstructions. We suggest that reconstructing the evolutionary history of traits, such as migratory behavior, is best served by using ranges at glacial maxima. A phylogeny of warblers strongly predicted LGM, but not present distributions, and suggested that migration was re-expressed from three tropical centers of warbler diversity. Understanding of evolutionary history will be improved when reconstructions use distributions relevant to the time of character transitions. PMID:28948216

  10. Colonialist Tendencies in Education Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Erin K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers education abroad (EA) and its relationship to global citizenship and colonialism by describing and analyzing the agitated interactions of one EA course through a post-colonial lens. Rather than claim the EA experience as emancipatory or colonialist, the paper illustrates the ways that colonialist tendencies can manifest in…

  11. Neotropical Migratory Birds of the Southern Appalachians

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb; Ricky A. Phillips

    1996-01-01

    This publication describes Neotropical migratory birds in the Southern Appalachians, their general ecology and habitat associations, population status, possible reasons for declines and management needs. This paper concentrates on migratory landbirds, thus it does not include waterfowl or shorebirds.

  12. 77 FR 23093 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2012-13 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Bird Hunting; Proposed 2012-13 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for... Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2012-13 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests... to establish annual hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds for the 2012-13 hunting...

  13. 76 FR 19875 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for... Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests... to establish annual hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds for the 2011-12 hunting...

  14. 77 FR 58657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded Lands... Part 20 RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal..., Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule prescribes special late-season migratory bird hunting...

  15. 77 FR 54451 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded.... SUMMARY: This rule prescribes special early-season migratory bird hunting regulations for certain tribes...: The Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) of July 3, 1918 (40 Stat. 755; 16 U.S.C. 703 et seq.), authorizes...

  16. 78 FR 47135 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and... 20 RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain...) proposes special migratory bird hunting regulations for certain Tribes on Federal Indian reservations, off...

  17. 76 FR 32224 - Migratory Birds; Take of Migratory Birds by the Armed Forces

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Birds; Take of Migratory Birds by the Armed Forces AGENCY: Fish and... birds during approved military readiness activities without violating the Migratory Bird Treaty Act... the Armed Forces to incidentally take migratory birds. The Authorization Act also stated that the...

  18. 75 FR 47681 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting... INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded Lands for the 2010-11 Season...

  19. 75 FR 59041 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting...; ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded Lands for the 2010-11...

  20. 77 FR 49679 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... August 16, 2012 Part V Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded... 20 RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain...

  1. 77 FR 29515 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for the 2012-13... RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting... in an earlier document to establish annual hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds...

  2. Pennsylvania Migratory Labor Program Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor's Committee on Migratory Labor, Harrisburg, PA.

    Operating for the 18th year, the Pennsylvania Governor's Committee on Migratory Labor, which is charged with coordinating and bringing into focus the activities of various governmental and nongovernmental agencies relating to Pennsylvania's migrant workers, submits the present document as an annual report. Some specific areas reported on by…

  3. Migratory Recovery from Infection as a Selective Pressure for the Evolution of Migration.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Allison K; Binning, Sandra A

    2016-04-01

    Migration, a widespread animal behavior, can influence how individuals acquire and transmit pathogens. Past work has demonstrated that migration can reduce the costs of pathogen or parasite infection through two processes: migratory escape from infected areas or individuals and migratory culling of infected individuals. Here, we propose a third process: migratory recovery, where infected individuals lose their parasites and recover from infection during migration. Recovery can occur when parasites and/or their intermediate hosts cannot support changes in the migratory host's internal or external environment during migration. Thus, parasite mortality increases with migration. Although migratory recovery is likely widespread across species, it remains challenging to empirically test it as a selective force promoting migration. We develop a model and determine the conditions under which migratory recovery theoretically favors the evolution of migration. We show that incorporating migratory recovery into a model of migratory escape increases the range of biologically realistic conditions favoring migration and leads to scenarios where partial migration can evolve. Motivated by empirical estimates of infection costs, our model shows how recovery from infection could drive the evolution of migration. We suggest a number of future directions for both theoretical and empirical research in this area.

  4. Counterintuitive roles of experience and weather on migratory performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rus, Adrian I.; Duerr, Adam E.; Miller, Tricia A.; Belthoff, James R; Katzner, Todd E.

    2017-01-01

    Migration allows animals to live in resource-rich but seasonally variable environments. Because of the costs of migration, there is selective pressure to capitalize on variation in weather to optimize migratory performance. To test the degree to which migratory performance (defined as speed of migration) of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) was determined by age- and season-specific responses to variation in weather, we analyzed 1,863 daily tracks (n = 83 migrant eagles) and 8,047 hourly tracks (n = 83) based on 15 min GPS telemetry data from Golden Eagles and 277 hourly tracks based on 30 s data (n = 37). Spring migrant eagles traveled 139.75 ± 82.19 km day−1 (mean ± SE; n = 57) and 25.59 ± 11.75 km hr−1 (n = 55). Autumn migrant eagles traveled 99.14 ± 59.98 km day−1 (n = 26) and 22.18 ± 9.18 km hr−1 (n = 28). Weather during migration varied by season and by age class. During spring, best-supported daily and hourly models of 15 min data suggested that migratory performance was influenced most strongly by downward solar radiation and that older birds benefited less from flow assistance (tailwinds). During autumn, best-supported daily and hourly models of 15 min data suggested that migratory performance was influenced most strongly by south–north winds and by flow assistance, again less strongly for older birds. In contrast, models for hourly performance based on data collected at 30 s intervals were not well described by a single model, likely reflecting eagles' rapid responses to the many weather conditions they experienced. Although daily speed of travel was similar for all age classes, younger birds traveled at faster hourly speeds than did adults. Our analyses uncovered strong, sometimes counterintuitive, relationships among weather, experience, and migratory flight, and they illustrate the significance of factors other than age in determining migratory performance.

  5. Specialization and evolutionary branching within migratory populations

    PubMed Central

    Torney, Colin J.; Levin, Simon A.; Couzin, Iain D.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that drive specialization and speciation within initially homogeneous populations is a fundamental challenge for evolutionary theory. It is an issue of relevance for significant open questions in biology concerning the generation and maintenance of biodiversity, the origins of reciprocal cooperation, and the efficient division of labor in social or colonial organisms. Several mathematical frameworks have been developed to address this question and models based on evolutionary game theory or the adaptive dynamics of phenotypic mutation have demonstrated the emergence of polymorphic, specialized populations. Here we focus on a ubiquitous biological phenomenon, migration. Individuals in our model may evolve the capacity to detect and follow an environmental cue that indicates a preferred migration route. The strategy space is defined by the level of investment in acquiring personal information about this route or the alternative tendency to follow the direction choice of others. The result is a relation between the migratory process and a game theoretic dynamic that is generally applicable to situations where information may be considered a public good. Through the use of an approximation of social interactions, we demonstrate the emergence of a stable, polymorphic population consisting of an uninformed subpopulation that is dependent upon a specialized group of leaders. The branching process is classified using the techniques of adaptive dynamics. PMID:21059935

  6. Specialization and evolutionary branching within migratory populations.

    PubMed

    Torney, Colin J; Levin, Simon A; Couzin, Iain D

    2010-11-23

    Understanding the mechanisms that drive specialization and speciation within initially homogeneous populations is a fundamental challenge for evolutionary theory. It is an issue of relevance for significant open questions in biology concerning the generation and maintenance of biodiversity, the origins of reciprocal cooperation, and the efficient division of labor in social or colonial organisms. Several mathematical frameworks have been developed to address this question and models based on evolutionary game theory or the adaptive dynamics of phenotypic mutation have demonstrated the emergence of polymorphic, specialized populations. Here we focus on a ubiquitous biological phenomenon, migration. Individuals in our model may evolve the capacity to detect and follow an environmental cue that indicates a preferred migration route. The strategy space is defined by the level of investment in acquiring personal information about this route or the alternative tendency to follow the direction choice of others. The result is a relation between the migratory process and a game theoretic dynamic that is generally applicable to situations where information may be considered a public good. Through the use of an approximation of social interactions, we demonstrate the emergence of a stable, polymorphic population consisting of an uninformed subpopulation that is dependent upon a specialized group of leaders. The branching process is classified using the techniques of adaptive dynamics.

  7. Dynamic conservation for migratory species

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Mark D.; Sullivan, Brian L.; Hallstein, Eric; Matsumoto, Sandra; Kelling, Steve; Merrifield, Matthew; Fink, Daniel; Johnston, Alison; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Bruns, Nicholas E.; Reiter, Matthew E.; Veloz, Sam; Hickey, Catherine; Elliott, Nathan; Martin, Leslie; Fitzpatrick, John W.; Spraycar, Paul; Golet, Gregory H.; McColl, Christopher; Morrison, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    In an era of unprecedented and rapid global change, dynamic conservation strategies that tailor the delivery of habitat to when and where it is most needed can be critical for the persistence of species, especially those with diverse and dispersed habitat requirements. We demonstrate the effectiveness of such a strategy for migratory waterbirds. We analyzed citizen science and satellite data to develop predictive models of bird populations and the availability of wetlands, which we used to determine temporal and spatial gaps in habitat during a vital stage of the annual migration. We then filled those gaps using a reverse auction marketplace to incent qualifying landowners to create temporary wetlands on their properties. This approach is a cost-effective way of adaptively meeting habitat needs for migratory species, optimizes conservation outcomes relative to investment, and can be applied broadly to other conservation challenges. PMID:28845449

  8. Migratory journeys and tuberculosis risk.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ming-Jung

    2003-12-01

    After decades of decline, tuberculosis case rates in New York City more than tripled between 1978 and 1992. While the number of cases of those born in the United States declined after 1992, the proportion of immigrant tuberculosis cases continued to increase and reached 58 percent in 1999. This article questions the biomedical explanation of immigrant tuberculosis as being imported from immigrants' countries of origin. Illness narratives of illegal Chinese immigrants with tuberculosis detailing risks associated with migratory journeys are presented. The social and cultural nature of the concept of risk, as well as the adverse implication of biomedical identification of immigrants as being at higher risk of tuberculosis, are also discussed. The author concludes that the dominant biomedical explanation of immigrant tuberculosis could be modified with the incorporation of the migratory process as a risk factor.

  9. Social learning of migratory performance.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Thomas; O'Hara, Robert B; Converse, Sarah J; Urbanek, Richard P; Fagan, William F

    2013-08-30

    Successful bird migration can depend on individual learning, social learning, and innate navigation programs. Using 8 years of data on migrating whooping cranes, we were able to partition genetic and socially learned aspects of migration. Specifically, we analyzed data from a reintroduced population wherein all birds were captive bred and artificially trained by ultralight aircraft on their first lifetime migration. For subsequent migrations, in which birds fly individually or in groups but without ultralight escort, we found evidence of long-term social learning, but no effect of genetic relatedness on migratory performance. Social learning from older birds reduced deviations from a straight-line path, with 7 years of experience yielding a 38% improvement in migratory accuracy.

  10. Social learning of migratory performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, Thomas; O'Hara, Robert B.; Converse, Sarah J.; Urbanek, Richard P.; Fagan, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Successful bird migration can depend on individual learning, social learning, and innate navigation programs. Using 8 years of data on migrating whooping cranes, we were able to partition genetic and socially learned aspects of migration. Specifically, we analyzed data from a reintroduced population wherein all birds were captive bred and artificially trained by ultralight aircraft on their first lifetime migration. For subsequent migrations, in which birds fly individually or in groups but without ultralight escort, we found evidence of long-term social learning, but no effect of genetic relatedness on migratory performance. Social learning from older birds reduced deviations from a straight-line path, with 7 years of experience yielding a 38% improvement in migratory accuracy.

  11. 78 FR 35844 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for the 2013-14 Hunting Season; Notice of Meetings AGENCY... regulations for certain migratory game birds for the 2013-14 hunting season. This supplement to the proposed...

  12. 75 FR 27143 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2010-11 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2010-11 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian Tribal Proposals and Requests for 2011 Spring and Summer Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest Proposals in Alaska; Proposed Rule...

  13. 76 FR 36508 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for the 2011-12 Hunting Season; Notice of Meetings AGENCY... regulations for certain migratory game birds for the 2011-12 hunting season. This supplement to the proposed..., and other regulations for hunting migratory game birds under Sec. Sec. 20.101 through 20.107, 20.109...

  14. 75 FR 32872 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for the 2010-11 Hunting Season; Notice of Meetings AGENCY... regulations for certain migratory game birds for the 2010-11 hunting season. This supplement to the proposed... addressed the establishment of seasons, limits, and other regulations for hunting migratory game birds under...

  15. 78 FR 21199 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2013-14 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... Hunting; Proposed 2013-14 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian... Bird Hunting; Proposed 2013-14 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for... to establish annual hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds for the 2013-14 hunting...

  16. 75 FR 3888 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 92 RIN 1018-AW67 Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska During the 2010 Season AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... Wildlife Service, are reopening the public comment period on our proposed rule to establish migratory bird...

  17. 76 FR 68263 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 92 Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska During the 2012 Season; Proposed Rule #0;#0...-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AX55 Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for...

  18. 75 FR 29917 - Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Migratory Bird Rehabilitation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AX09 Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Migratory Bird Rehabilitation AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final... on October 27, 2003, to create regulations governing migratory bird rehabilitation in the United...

  19. 77 FR 49867 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Proposed Rule #0... OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service...

  20. 78 FR 58123 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal... INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION...

  1. 75 FR 44855 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Notice of Meetings; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season...

  2. 75 FR 52873 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... migratory bird hunting seasons. Early seasons are those that generally open prior to October 1, and include...

  3. Genetic consequences of breaking migratory traditions in barnacle geese Branta leucopsis.

    PubMed

    Jonker, R M; Kraus, R H S; Zhang, Q; van Hooft, P; Larsson, K; van der Jeugd, H P; Kurvers, R H J M; van Wieren, S E; Loonen, M J J E; Crooijmans, R P M A; Ydenberg, R C; Groenen, M A M; Prins, H H T

    2013-12-01

    Cultural transmission of migratory traditions enables species to deal with their environment based on experiences from earlier generations. Also, it allows a more adequate and rapid response to rapidly changing environments. When individuals break with their migratory traditions, new population structures can emerge that may affect gene flow. Recently, the migratory traditions of the Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis changed, and new populations differing in migratory distance emerged. Here, we investigate the population genetic structure of the Barnacle Goose to evaluate the consequences of altered migratory traditions. We used a set of 358 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to genotype 418 individuals from breeding populations in Greenland, Spitsbergen, Russia, Sweden and the Netherlands, the latter two being newly emerged populations. We used discriminant analysis of principal components, FST , linkage disequilibrium and a comparison of geneflow models using migrate-n to show that there is significant population structure, but that relatively many pairs of SNPs are in linkage disequilibrium, suggesting recent admixture between these populations. Despite the assumed traditions of migration within populations, we also show that genetic exchange occurs between all populations. The newly established nonmigratory population in the Netherlands is characterized by high emigration into other populations, which suggests more exploratory behaviour, possibly as a result of shortened parental care. These results suggest that migratory traditions in populations are subject to change in geese and that such changes have population genetic consequences. We argue that the emergence of nonmigration probably resulted from developmental plasticity.

  4. Ten years of International Migratory Bird Day

    Treesearch

    Jennifer Wheeler; Susan Bonfield

    2005-01-01

    Public awareness and concern are crucial components of migratory bird conservation. Citizens who are enthusiastic about birds, informed about threats, and empowered to become involved in addressing those threats can make a tremendous contribution to maintaining healthy bird populations. One of the most successful vehicles for public education on migratory birds is...

  5. Mapping global diversity patterns for migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Somveille, Marius; Manica, Andrea; Butchart, Stuart H M; Rodrigues, Ana S L

    2013-01-01

    Nearly one in five bird species has separate breeding and overwintering distributions, and the regular migrations of these species cause a substantial seasonal redistribution of avian diversity across the world. However, despite its ecological importance, bird migration has been largely ignored in studies of global avian biodiversity, with few studies having addressed it from a macroecological perspective. Here, we analyse a dataset on the global distribution of the world's birds in order to examine global spatial patterns in the diversity of migratory species, including: the seasonal variation in overall species diversity due to migration; the contribution of migratory birds to local bird diversity; and the distribution of narrow-range and threatened migratory birds. Our analyses reveal a striking asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, evident in all of the patterns investigated. The highest migratory bird diversity was found in the Northern Hemisphere, with high inter-continental turnover in species composition between breeding and non-breeding seasons, and extensive regions (at high latitudes) where migratory birds constitute the majority of the local avifauna. Threatened migratory birds are concentrated mainly in Central and Southern Asia, whereas narrow-range migratory species are mainly found in Central America, the Himalayas and Patagonia. Overall, global patterns in the diversity of migratory birds indicate that bird migration is mainly a Northern Hemisphere phenomenon. The asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres could not have easily been predicted from the combined results of regional scale studies, highlighting the importance of a global perspective.

  6. Mapping Global Diversity Patterns for Migratory Birds

    PubMed Central

    Somveille, Marius; Manica, Andrea; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Rodrigues, Ana S. L.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly one in five bird species has separate breeding and overwintering distributions, and the regular migrations of these species cause a substantial seasonal redistribution of avian diversity across the world. However, despite its ecological importance, bird migration has been largely ignored in studies of global avian biodiversity, with few studies having addressed it from a macroecological perspective. Here, we analyse a dataset on the global distribution of the world’s birds in order to examine global spatial patterns in the diversity of migratory species, including: the seasonal variation in overall species diversity due to migration; the contribution of migratory birds to local bird diversity; and the distribution of narrow-range and threatened migratory birds. Our analyses reveal a striking asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, evident in all of the patterns investigated. The highest migratory bird diversity was found in the Northern Hemisphere, with high inter-continental turnover in species composition between breeding and non-breeding seasons, and extensive regions (at high latitudes) where migratory birds constitute the majority of the local avifauna. Threatened migratory birds are concentrated mainly in Central and Southern Asia, whereas narrow-range migratory species are mainly found in Central America, the Himalayas and Patagonia. Overall, global patterns in the diversity of migratory birds indicate that bird migration is mainly a Northern Hemisphere phenomenon. The asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres could not have easily been predicted from the combined results of regional scale studies, highlighting the importance of a global perspective. PMID:23951037

  7. [THE CERTAIN TENDENCIES OF MODERN MEDICAL ETHICS].

    PubMed

    Jiliaeva, E P; Nechaev, V S

    2015-01-01

    The article analyses such tendency in modern foreign medical ethics as paying particular attention to relationship physician-society. The modern tendency to entrust physicians with main responsibility for expenses control and economical expenditure of health care resources is considered The analysis is founded on publications of World medical association and codes of medical ethics of the USA and Canada.

  8. 50 CFR 20.20 - Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.20 Migratory Bird Harvest... information will be used to provide a sampling frame for the national Migratory Bird Harvest Survey. Response...

  9. 50 CFR 20.20 - Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.20 Migratory Bird Harvest... information will be used to provide a sampling frame for the national Migratory Bird Harvest Survey. Response...

  10. 50 CFR 20.40 - Gift of migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gift of migratory game birds. 20.40... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.40 Gift of migratory game birds. No person may receive, possess, or give to another, any freshly killed migratory game birds as a gift...

  11. 50 CFR 20.40 - Gift of migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gift of migratory game birds. 20.40... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.40 Gift of migratory game birds. No person may receive, possess, or give to another, any freshly killed migratory game birds as a gift...

  12. 50 CFR 20.40 - Gift of migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gift of migratory game birds. 20.40... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.40 Gift of migratory game birds. No person may receive, possess, or give to another, any freshly killed migratory game birds as a gift...

  13. 50 CFR 20.40 - Gift of migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gift of migratory game birds. 20.40... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.40 Gift of migratory game birds. No person may receive, possess, or give to another, any freshly killed migratory game birds as a gift...

  14. Remarkable spatial memory in a migratory cardinalfish.

    PubMed

    Fukumori, Kayoko; Okuda, Noboru; Yamaoka, Kosaku; Yanagisawa, Yasunobu

    2010-03-01

    The ability to orient and navigate within a certain environment is essential for all animals, and spatial memory enables animals to remember the locations of such markers as predators, home, and food. Here we report that the migratory marine cardinalfish Apogon notatus has the potential to retain long-term spatial memory comparable to that of other animals. Female A. notatus establish a small territory on a shallow boulder bottom to pair and spawn with males. We carried out field research in two consecutive breeding seasons on territory settlement by individually marked females. Females maintained a territory at the same site throughout one breeding season. After overwintering in deep water, many of them (82.1%) returned to their breeding ground next spring and most occupied the same site as in the previous season, with only a 0.56 m shift on average. Our results suggest that female A. notatus have long-distance homing ability to pinpoint the exact location of their previous territory, and retain spatial memory for as long as 6 months.

  15. Modeling and the management of migratory birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.; Nichols, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of migratory bird populations is reviewed in the context of migratory bird management. We focus on dynamic models of waterfowl, since most management-oriented migratory bird models concern waterfowl species. We describe the management context for these modeling efforts, with a focus on large-scale operational data collection programs and on processes by which waterfowl harvest is regulated and waterfowl habitats are protected and managed. Through their impacts on key population parameters such as recruitment and survival rate, these activities can influence population dynamics, thereby providing managers some measure of control over the status of populations. Recent applications of the modeling of waterfowl are described in terms of objectives, mathematical structures, and contributions to management. Finally, we discuss research needs and data limitations in migratory bird modeling, and offer suggestions to increase the value to managers of future modeling efforts.

  16. Migratory diversity predicts population declines in birds.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, James J; Gill, Jennifer A; Butchart, Stuart H M; Jones, Victoria R; Franco, Aldina M A

    2016-03-01

    Declines in migratory species are a pressing concern worldwide, but the mechanisms underpinning these declines are not fully understood. We hypothesised that species with greater within-population variability in migratory movements and destinations, here termed 'migratory diversity', might be more resilient to environmental change. To test this, we related map-based metrics of migratory diversity to recent population trends for 340 European breeding birds. Species that occupy larger non-breeding ranges relative to breeding, a characteristic we term 'migratory dispersion', were less likely to be declining than those with more restricted non-breeding ranges. Species with partial migration strategies (i.e. overlapping breeding and non-breeding ranges) were also less likely to be declining than full migrants or full residents, an effect that was independent of migration distance. Recent rates of advancement in Europe-wide spring arrival date were greater for partial migrants than full migrants, suggesting that migratory diversity may also help facilitate species responses to climate change. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  17. 76 FR 58681 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... development of a harvest strategy for redheads is a priority for the Flyways, a conceptual framework for a... Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Final Rule #0;#0...; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...

  18. 76 FR 53535 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... development of a harvest strategy for redheads is a priority for the Flyways, a conceptual framework for a... Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Proposed Rule #0...; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...

  19. 78 FR 65955 - Migratory Bird Permits; Control Order for Introduced Migratory Bird Species in Hawaii

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... Introduced Migratory Bird Species in Hawaii AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: Nonnative species in Hawaii displace, compete with, and consume native species, some of... alba), two introduced migratory bird species in Hawaii. We also make the supporting draft environmental...

  20. 78 FR 65578 - Migratory Bird Permits; Depredation Order for Migratory Birds in California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AY65 Migratory Bird Permits; Depredation Order for Migratory Birds in California AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We revise the regulations that allow control of depredating birds in California. We specify the counties in...

  1. 78 FR 67183 - Proposed Information Collection; Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program and Migratory Bird...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Information Collection; Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program and Migratory Bird Surveys AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for... Bird Treaty Act (16 U.S.C. 703-711) and the Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956 (16 U.S.C. 742d) designate...

  2. 78 FR 27927 - Migratory Bird Permits; Depredation Order for Migratory Birds in California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AY65 Migratory Bird Permits; Depredation Order for Migratory Birds in California AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: We propose to revise the regulations that allow control of depredating birds in some counties...

  3. Distribution study on migratory bird (Scolopacidae: Numenius) in Surabaya, Indonesia: Estimating the effect of habitat and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmawati, Iska; Indah Trisnawati D., T.; Kurnia, Ory; Hamdani, Albi; Fahmi, Mahsun; Fahmi, Mirza

    2017-06-01

    Migratory Birds are responding to recent climate change in variety of ways. Distribution study of migratory birds will help to understand climate change effect in ecosystem area. Its supported by natural resources all around Indonesia. One of this place is Surabaya city specially Wonorejo area. Wonorejo is one of the Important Bird Area (IBA), specifically for bird conserved by Indonesian law and migratory birds. This research aims to know that distribution study on migratory bird enhances the knowledge of climate change effect. The distribution study use mapping method and the environment variables study analyzed by multivariate analysis. The description about how to analize the climate change effect in this area will be described by map and ilustration model. The result show that migratory bird (Scolopacidae) use different area of preference habitat in Wonorejo during migratory season on 2010-2016. In particular, the details of population and scale is likely to characterize global change biodiversity of migratory birds research need to improve in future.

  4. Anatomical correlates of self-handicapping tendency.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nouchi, Rui; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos M; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-04-01

    Self-handicaps are obstacles created (or claimed) by individuals in anticipation of failure. Despite the vast amount of psychological research on self-handicapping tendency, the neural mechanisms underlying individual differences in self-handicapping tendency in young and healthy subjects are unknown. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and a questionnaire to measure individual self-handicapping tendency, and we investigated the association between regional gray matter volume (rGMV) and self-handicapping tendency across the brain in healthy young adult (mean age, 21.3 years; standard deviation - SD = 1.9) men (n = 94) and women (n = 91). We discovered that higher individual self-handicapping tendency was associated with larger rGMV in the subgenual cingulate gyrus (sgCG). A wide range of previous studies showed (a) the opposite pattern is seen in the association between rGMV in the sgCG and depression and (b) this area is active when negative emotions are suppressed. The present results suggest that the sgCG is also involved in self-handicapping, which is a behavior thought to be engaged in the protection of self-esteem. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Measuring Preschoolers’ Superstitious Tendencies Behavioural Processes

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Kelly J.

    2012-01-01

    Superstitious behaviors have been studied extensively in adults and non-human species, but have not been systematically assessed in children. The purpose of the study is to develop and validate a method of measuring superstitious tendencies in young children based on an established learning paradigm. In two studies, 3- to 5-year-olds tapped a computer to make a target image appear. On half the trials, a sensory stimulus appeared at a random time before the target. Superstitious tendencies were measured by change in tapping during the presence of the sensory stimulus. Children’s proportion of tapping increased during the presence of the sensory stimulus, indicating that children associated the sensory stimulus with the appearance of the target image, even though the two stimuli were not causally related. Implications for the development of superstitious tendencies and children’s causal knowledge are discussed. PMID:22827908

  6. Migratory and resident blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus differ in their reaction to a novel object.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Anna L K; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Alerstam, Thomas; Bäckman, Johan

    2010-11-01

    Individuals differ consistently in their behavioural reactions towards novel objects and new situations. Reaction to novelty is one part of a suit of individually consistent behaviours called coping strategies or personalities and is often summarised as bold or shy behaviour. Coping strategies could be particularly important for migrating birds exposed to novel environments on their journeys. We compared the average approach latencies to a novel object among migrants and residents in partially migratory blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus. In this test, we found migrating blue tits to have shorter approach latencies than had resident ones. Behavioural reactions to novelty can affect the readiness to migrate and short approach latency may have an adaptive value during migration. Individual behaviour towards novelty might be incorporated among the factors associated with migratory or resident behaviour in a partially migratory population.

  7. Migratory and resident blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus differ in their reaction to a novel object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Anna L. K.; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Alerstam, Thomas; Bäckman, Johan

    2010-11-01

    Individuals differ consistently in their behavioural reactions towards novel objects and new situations. Reaction to novelty is one part of a suit of individually consistent behaviours called coping strategies or personalities and is often summarised as bold or shy behaviour. Coping strategies could be particularly important for migrating birds exposed to novel environments on their journeys. We compared the average approach latencies to a novel object among migrants and residents in partially migratory blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus. In this test, we found migrating blue tits to have shorter approach latencies than had resident ones. Behavioural reactions to novelty can affect the readiness to migrate and short approach latency may have an adaptive value during migration. Individual behaviour towards novelty might be incorporated among the factors associated with migratory or resident behaviour in a partially migratory population.

  8. [France, the European migratory system, and globalization].

    PubMed

    Simon, G

    1996-01-01

    "The overwhelming trend of migratory flows to become globalized, which is manifesting itself in all the major immigrant countries and the planet's main pools of employment, henceforth concerns France and Europe. One of the main challenges confronting these two entities is related to the spatial expansion and rising diversity of their recruitment spaces, and the great difficulty involved in controlling mobility which increasingly tends to function on a global scale. It is essential to revise analytic paradigms based on a strictly national vision which is blind to and repressive of phenomena that are more planetary every day. The global approach will have to combine national management, the functioning of the community's migratory space, relations with increasingly distant and increasingly ¿foreign' lands of origin, and the globalization of migratory dynamics." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  9. 50 CFR 20.40 - Gift of migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.40 Gift of migratory game birds. No... hunter who took the birds, stating such hunter's address, the total number and species of birds and the...

  10. Factors Affecting Smoking Tendency and Smoking Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Nissim Ben; Zion, Uri Ben

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to measure the relative effect of relevant explanatory variable on smoking tendency and smoking intensity. Design/methodology/approach: Using survey data collected by the Israeli Bureau of Statistics in 2003-2004, a probit procedure is estimated for analyzing factors that affect the probability of being a…

  11. Suicidal Tendency Among Adolescents With Adjustment Disorder.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Laia; Kirchner, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with adjustment disorder (AD) are at risk of presenting suicidal symptoms. Certain personality traits are linked to suicidal tendencies. There is a lack of information about the link between suicide and personality patterns in adolescents with AD. To identify the personality characteristics that predispose to or prevent the development of suicidal ideation and behavior among adolescents with AD. We recruited 108 adolescents with AD at a public mental health center near Barcelona (Spain). They were administered the Inventario de Riesgo Suicida para Adolescentes (IRIS) to assess suicidal symptoms, as well as the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) and the 16PF Adolescent Personality Questionnaire (16PF-APQ) to appraise personality features. Doleful personality emerged as the principal risk for suicidal symptoms. The conforming personality pattern exerted a protective effect, and emotional stability was associated with low levels of suicidal tendencies. Among the Big Five factors, anxiety had the highest explanatory power for suicidal tendencies. Certain personality characteristics are associated with heightened or reduced risk of suicidal tendencies in adolescents with AD. Their identification is important for clinicians designing treatment programs for these patients.

  12. Critical Thinking Tendencies among Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genc, Salih Zeki

    2008-01-01

    The study aims to determine critical thinking tendencies among teacher candidates. 720 students from primary school teaching department (Primary School Teaching Programme, Science Teaching Programme and Pre-School Teaching Programme) form the sample of the study. When the gender and age distributions were investigated, 253 candidates are males and…

  13. 50 CFR 20.20 - Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.20 Migratory Bird Harvest... is required from licensed hunters to obtain the benefit of hunting migratory game birds. Public... hunter and given his or her name, address, and date of birth to the respective State hunting licensing...

  14. Stopover ecology and habitat use of migratory Wilson's Warblers

    Treesearch

    Wang Yong; Deborah M. Finch; Frank R. Moore; Jeffrey F. Kelly

    1998-01-01

    The conservation of long-distance migratory songbirds is complicated by their life-history characteristics and the spatial scales that they traverse. Events during migratory stopovers may have significant consequences in determining the population status of migratory songbirds. Using Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla) as a focal species, we investigated effects...

  15. 77 FR 60381 - Migratory Bird Conservation; Executive Order 13186

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC148 Migratory Bird Conservation; Executive Order... the U.S. Fish and ] Wildlife Service (FWS) to promote the conservation of migratory birds. DATES: This... Migratory Birds''. One of the requirements of E.O. 13186 is that each Federal agency taking actions that...

  16. 78 FR 3446 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting AGENCY: Fish... issues concerning the 2013-14 migratory bird hunting regulations. DATES: The meeting will be held..., Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, ms-4107...

  17. 77 FR 1718 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting AGENCY: Fish... issues concerning the 2012-13 migratory bird hunting regulations. DATES: The meeting will be held... CONTACT: Chief, Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the...

  18. 78 FR 78377 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service RIN 1018-AZ80 Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting... preliminary issues concerning the 2014-15 migratory bird hunting regulations. DATES: The meeting will be held..., Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior,...

  19. Suggestions for Teaching the Migratory Pupil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Dolly; And Others

    Suggestions for teachers of migrant children are offered in seven individual teaching guides which were developed as part of a research and curriculum development project to improve the teaching of migratory pupils. Levels of study include grades four, five, six, and seven, and one general unit deals with providing an effective learning…

  20. STOPOVER ECOLOGY OF NEOTROPICAL MIGRATORY BIRDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The distribution of intact stopovers may be as important as the condition of individual stopover. We modeled migratory flights based on flight distance and direction to examine how nightly flights link stopovers into flyways. The resulting maps highlight portions of the landsca...

  1. MIGRATORY AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JORGENSON, JANET M.; AND OTHERS

    FIELD STUDIES WERE CONDUCTED IN 1960 IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY OF TEXAS AND IN IOWA TO AUGMENT INFORMATION ON MIGRATORY WORKERS. FACULTY-STUDENT TEAM FIELD TRIPS FOUND MANY FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN PROVIDING A CONSTRUCTIVE APPROACH TO THE PROBLEMS OF THE MIGRANT WORKER. CHILDREN OF THE MIGRANTS ARE NOT GETTING THE EDUCATION THEY NEED TO BREAK…

  2. MIGRATORY WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1965

    THE NEED FOR LARGE NUMBERS OF FARM WORKERS FOR SHORT PERIODS DURING THE CULTIVATION AND HARVESTING OF CROPS IN WIDELY SEPARATED AREAS RESULTS IN A MIGRATORY WORK FORCE OF APPROXIMATELY 400,000 PERSONS EACH YEAR. MIGRANTS ARE EMPLOYED TO AVOID LOSSES OF PERISHABLE CROPS IN THE FIELDS, TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF GOOD WEATHER OR TO FORESTALL LOSSES DUE TO…

  3. MIGRATORY AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JORGENSON, JANET M.; AND OTHERS

    FIELD STUDIES WERE CONDUCTED IN 1960 IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY OF TEXAS AND IN IOWA TO AUGMENT INFORMATION ON MIGRATORY WORKERS. FACULTY-STUDENT TEAM FIELD TRIPS FOUND MANY FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN PROVIDING A CONSTRUCTIVE APPROACH TO THE PROBLEMS OF THE MIGRANT WORKER. CHILDREN OF THE MIGRANTS ARE NOT GETTING THE EDUCATION THEY NEED TO BREAK…

  4. MIGRATORY LABOR IN COLORADO. PROGRESS REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SIMPSON, RAY; AND OTHERS

    DEVELOPMENTS, FROM 1950 THROUGH 1960, ARE TRACED CONCERNING MIGRATORY LABOR IN COLORADO IN THE AREAS OF EMPLOYMENT, WAGE RATES, MINIMUM WAGE LEGISLATION, EMPLOYMENT OF MEXICAN NATIONALS, EDUCATION, HEALTH, HOUSING, SANITATION, WELFARE, UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION, WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION COVERAGE, AND THE LICENSING AND REGULATION OF LABOR CONTRACTORS…

  5. Silvicultural options for neotropical migratory birds

    Treesearch

    Frank R. Thompson; John R. Probst; Martin G. Raphael

    1993-01-01

    We review: factors that affect forest bird populations; basic concepts of silvicultural systems; potential impacts of these systems on neotropical migratory birds (NTMBs); and conclude with management recommendations for integrating NTMB conservation with forest management. We approach this topic from a regional-landscape scale to a forest stand-habitat scale, rather...

  6. MIGRATORY LABOR IN COLORADO. PROGRESS REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SIMPSON, RAY; AND OTHERS

    DEVELOPMENTS, FROM 1950 THROUGH 1960, ARE TRACED CONCERNING MIGRATORY LABOR IN COLORADO IN THE AREAS OF EMPLOYMENT, WAGE RATES, MINIMUM WAGE LEGISLATION, EMPLOYMENT OF MEXICAN NATIONALS, EDUCATION, HEALTH, HOUSING, SANITATION, WELFARE, UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION, WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION COVERAGE, AND THE LICENSING AND REGULATION OF LABOR CONTRACTORS…

  7. 76 FR 54657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the Contiguous... Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the Contiguous United States, Alaska...; migratory game birds in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands; and some extended falconry...

  8. Cryptochrome expression in the eye of migratory birds depends on their migratory status.

    PubMed

    Fusani, Leonida; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Frigato, Elena; Foà, Augusto

    2014-03-15

    Most passerine birds are nocturnal migrants. When kept in captivity during the migratory periods, these species show a migratory restlessness, or Zugunruhe. Recent studies on Sylvia warblers have shown that Zugunruhe is an excellent proxy of migratory disposition. Passerine birds can use the Earth's geomagnetic field as a compass to keep their course during their migratory flight. Among the candidate magnetoreceptive mechanisms are the cryptochromes, flavoproteins located in the retina that are supposed to perceive the magnetic field through a light-mediated process. Previous work has suggested that expression of Cryptochrome 1 (Cry1) is increased in migratory birds compared with non-migratory species. Here we tested the hypothesis that Cry1 expression depends on migratory status. Blackcaps Sylvia atricapilla were caught before fall migration and held in registration cages. When the birds were showing robust Zugunruhe, we applied a food deprivation protocol that simulates a long migratory flight. When the birds were refed after 2 days, their Zugunruhe decreased substantially, as is expected from birds that would interrupt migration for a refuelling stopover. We found that Cry1 expression was higher at night than during daytime in birds showing Zugunruhe, whereas in birds that underwent the fasting-and-refeeding protocol and reduced their levels of Zugunruhe, night Cry1 expression decreased to daytime levels. Our work shows that Cry1 expression is dependent on the presence of Zugunruhe and not on species-specific or seasonal factors, or on the birds being active versus inactive. These results support the hypothesis that cryptochromes underlie magnetoreceptive mechanisms in birds.

  9. The response of migratory populations to phenological change: a Migratory Flow Network modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Caz M; Laughlin, Andrew J; Hall, Richard J

    2016-05-01

    Declines in migratory species have been linked to anthropogenic climate change through phenological mismatch, which arises due to asynchronies between the timing of life-history events (such as migration) and the phenology of available resources. Long-distance migratory species may be particularly vulnerable to phenological change in their breeding ranges, since the timing of migration departure is based on environmental cues at distant non-breeding sites. Migrants may, however, be able to adjust migration speed en route to the breeding grounds, and thus, ability of migrants to update their timing of migration may depend critically on stopover frequency during migration; however, understanding how migratory strategy influences population dynamics is hindered by a lack of predictive models explicitly linking habitat quality to demography and movement patterns throughout the migratory cycle. Here, we present a novel modelling framework, the Migratory Flow Network (MFN), in which the seasonally varying attractiveness of breeding, winter and stopover regions drives the direction and timing of migration based on a simple general flux law. We use the MFN to investigate how populations respond to shifts in breeding site phenology based on their frequency of stopover and ability to detect and adapt to these changes. With perfect knowledge of advancing phenology, 'jump' migrants (low-frequency stopover) require more adaptation for populations to recover than 'hop' and 'skip' (high or medium frequency stopover) migrants. If adaptation depends on proximity, hop and skip migrants' populations can recover but jump migrants cannot adjust and decline severely. These results highlight the importance of understanding migratory strategies and maintaining high-quality stopover habitat to buffer migratory populations from climate-induced mismatch. We discuss how MFNs could be applied to diverse migratory taxa and highlight the potential of MFNs as a tool for exploring how migrants

  10. Climate change and the optimal arrival of migratory birds

    PubMed Central

    Jonzén, Niclas; Hedenström, Anders; Lundberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    Recent climate change has sparked an interest in the timing of biological events, which is a general problem in life-history evolution. Reproduction in many organisms breeding in seasonal environments, e.g. migratory birds, is dependent on the exploitation of a short but rich food supply. If the seasonal timing of the food peak advances owing to climate change, then one would expect the bird to track those changes, hence, initiate migration and breeding earlier. However, when there is competition for territories and a risk of pre-breeding mortality, the optimal response to a shifting food distribution is no longer obvious. We develop a theoretical model to study how the optimal arrival time depends on the mean and variance of the food distribution, the degree of competition for territories and the risk of mortality. In general, the optimal shift in arrival date should never be as extreme as the shift in food peak date. Our results also show that we should expect the high variation of trends in arrival date observed among migratory birds, even if migration and information about climate change were unconstrained. PMID:17148256

  11. North American migratory bird management issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, M.H.; Ryan, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    As human population and industry have grown in North America, land-use practices have greatly altered the landscape. As a result of this changed landscape, several migratory bird populations have declined in recent years. For waterbirds, there have been several milestones: the 1986 North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP) and the 1989 North American Wetlands Conservation Act. As a result, the United States and Canada have established 12 habitat and 2 species joint ventures. The primary emphasis of waterfowl management in Canada-U.S. has been land purchase and lease, wetland restoration, and coordination of harvest rates. Because of its different biological and cultural context, Mexico has established other conservation priorities. Mexico has had a long-standing concern to conserve its biodiversity and, in addition, conservation of Mexican resources goes hand in hand with human community development. Unlike Canada-U.S., wetland conservation projects in'Mexico include information gathering, environmental education, and management planning for its 32 priority wetlands. For migratory landbirds' scientists attribute declines in several migrant populations to forest fragmentation on the breeding grounds, deforestation on the wintering grounds, pesticide poisoning, or the cumulative effects of habitat changes. In 1990, the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Program, commonly known as Partners in Flight-Aves de las Americas-was initiated. The next step that is being proposed is the formation of a habitat conservation plan for landbirds modeled after the NAWMP. Management of migratory birds requires a strong international approach in order to coordinate actions for the benefit of migratory birds, their habitats, and the uses they provide.

  12. Patterns in diurnal airspace use by migratory landbirds along an ecological barrier

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Anna C.; Niemi, Gerald J.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    Migratory bird populations and survival are affected by conditions experienced during migration. While many studies and conservation and management efforts focus on terrestrial stoppage and staging areas, the aerial environment through which migrants move also is subjected to anthropogenic impacts with potential consequences to migratory movement and survival. During autumn migration, the northern coastline of Lake Superior acts as an ecological barrier for many landbirds migrating out of the boreal forests of North America. From 24 observation points, we assessed the diurnal movements of birds throughout autumn migration, 2008-2010, within a 210 km by 10 km coastal region along the northern coast of Lake Superior. Several raptor species showed patterns in airspace associated with topographic features such as proximity to the coastline and presence of ridgelines. Funneling movement, commonly used to describe the concentration of raptors along a migratory diversion line that either prevents or enhances migration progress, occurred only for Bald and Golden Eagles. This suggests a "leaky" migration funnel for most migratory raptors (e.g., migrating birds exiting the purported migration corridor). Passerines migrating during the late season showed more spatial and temporal structure in airspace distribution than raptors, including funneling and an association with airspace near the coast. We conclude that a) the diurnal use of airspace by many migratory landbirds is patterned in space and time, b) autumn count sites situated along ecological barriers substantially underestimate the number of raptors due to 'leakage' out of these concentration areas, and c) the magnitude and structure of diurnal passerine movements in airspace have been overlooked. The heavy and structured use of airspace by migratory landbirds, especially the airspace associated with anthropogenic development (e.g., buildings, towers, turbines) necessitates a shift in focus to airspace management and

  13. Agglomeration tendency in dry pharmaceutical granular systems.

    PubMed

    Lachiver, Emilie DesRosiers; Abatzoglou, Nicolas; Cartilier, Louis; Simard, Jean-Sébastien

    2006-10-01

    The agglomeration tendency of dry pharmaceutical mixtures containing various concentrations of Xylitab 100 (Xylitol), calcium carbonate precipitated (CCP) and magnesium stearate (MgSt) was evaluated statistically as a function of mixing time. A Ro-Tap tester was employed to mix the three pharmaceutical components, and the agglomerates formed were measured with respect to their weight and size. An experimental design was devised and applied to structure and then statistically analyze the results. Xylitab was found not to be influential in the formation of agglomerates, but aided in deagglomeration when mixed with other components. CCP and MgSt formed agglomerates over time and showed positive interactions favouring agglomeration. The agglomerates started to fracture when they reached a critical size, at which stage the particles' attraction forces (cohesion forces) were weaker than both gravity and inertia. It has been shown and quantitatively demonstrated that the mixing time and ingredient concentrations of a three-component pharmaceutical mixture can affect agglomeration tendency.

  14. Compulsive buying tendencies and personal finances.

    PubMed

    Spinella, Marcello; Lester, David; Yang, Bijou

    2014-12-01

    In a community sample of 225 adults, scores on the Compulsive Buying Scale were associated with scores on the subscales of the Executive Personal Finance Scale (rs = -.35 to -.70) and the Money Attitudes Scale (positively with using money for impressing others, and negatively with saving and planning). The results suggested that common tendencies toward compulsive buying may not be pathological, but merely associated with attitudes toward money in general and financial management habits.

  15. Freshwater to seawater transitions in migratory fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, Joseph; Michael P. Wilkie,

    2012-01-01

    The transition from freshwater to seawater is integral to the life history of many fishes. Diverse migratory fishes express anadromous, catadromous, and amphidromous life histories, while others make incomplete transits between freshwater and seawater. The physiological mechanisms of osmoregulation are widely conserved among phylogenetically diverse species. Diadromous fishes moving between freshwater and seawater develop osmoregulatory mechanisms for different environmental salinities. Freshwater to seawater transition involves hormonally mediated changes in gill ionocytes and the transport proteins associated with hypoosmoregulation, increased seawater ingestion and water absorption in the intestine, and reduced urinary water losses. Fishes attain salinity tolerance through early development, gradual acclimation, or environmentally or developmentally cued adaptations. This chapter describes adaptations in diverse taxa and the effects of salinity on growth. Identifying common strategies in diadromous fishes moving between freshwater and seawater will reveal the ecological and physiological basis for maintaining homeostasis in different salinities, and inform efforts to conserve and manage migratory euryhaline fishes.

  16. Migratory Birds as Global Dispersal Vectors.

    PubMed

    Viana, Duarte S; Santamaría, Luis; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-10-01

    Propagule dispersal beyond local scales has been considered rare and unpredictable. However, for many plants, invertebrates, and microbes dispersed by birds, long-distance dispersal (LDD) might be regularly achieved when mediated by migratory movements. Because LDD operates over spatial extents spanning hundreds to thousands of kilometers, it can promote rapid range shifts and determine species distributions. We review evidence supporting this widespread LDD service and propose a conceptual framework for estimating LDD by migratory birds. Although further research and validation efforts are still needed, we show that current knowledge can be used to make more realistic estimations of LDD mediated by regular bird migrations, thus refining current predictions of its ecological and evolutionary consequences.

  17. Catalytic migratory oxidative coupling of nitrones.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Shogo; Oisaki, Kounosuke; Kanai, Motomu

    2011-08-19

    A Cu(I)-catalyzed migratory oxidative coupling between nitrones and heterocycles or a methylamine is described. Selective C-C bond-formation proceeds through cleavage of two C(sp(3))-H bonds concomitant with C═N double bond-migration. The reaction provides an alternating nitrone moiety, allowing for further synthetically useful transformations. Radical clock studies suggest that the nucleophilic addition of nitrones to an oxidatively generated carbocation is a key step.

  18. Overseas seed dispersal by migratory birds

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Long-distance dispersal (LDD) promotes the colonization of isolated and remote habitats, and thus it has been proposed as a mechanism for explaining the distributions of many species. Birds are key LDD vectors for many sessile organisms such as plants, yet LDD beyond local and regional scales has never been directly observed nor quantified. By sampling birds caught while in migratory flight by GPS-tracked wild falcons, we show that migratory birds transport seeds over hundreds of kilometres and mediate dispersal from mainland to oceanic islands. Up to 1.2% of birds that reached a small island of the Canary Archipelago (Alegranza) during their migration from Europe to Sub-Saharan Africa carried seeds in their guts. The billions of birds making seasonal migrations each year may then transport millions of seeds. None of the plant species transported by the birds occurs in Alegranza and most do not occur on nearby Canary Islands, providing a direct example of the importance of environmental filters in hampering successful colonization by immigrant species. The constant propagule pressure generated by these LDD events might, nevertheless, explain the colonization of some islands. Hence, migratory birds can mediate rapid range expansion or shifts of many plant taxa and determine their distribution. PMID:26740610

  19. Necrolytic migratory erythema and pancreatic glucagonoma.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Gerzaín; Vargas, Elga; Abaúnza, Claudia; Cáceres, Sergio

    2016-06-03

    Necrolytic migratory erythema is a rare paraneoplastic dermatosis that may be the first clinical manifestation of the glucagonoma syndrome, a disorder characterized by mucocutaneous rash, glucose intolerance, hypoaminoacidemia, hyperglucagonaemia and pancreatic glucagonoma. The clinical case of a 45-year-old woman is presented. She had been experiencing weight loss, polydipsia, polyphagia, postprandial emesis, excessive hair loss and abdominal pain for two months. Erythematous, scaly and migratory plaques with 20 days of evolution were found on her trunk, perineum, elbows, hands, feet, inframammary and antecubital folds. The skin biopsy revealed noticeable vacuolar changes in high epidermal cells, extensive necrosis and thin orthokeratotic cornified layer. These findings pointed to a diagnosis of necrolytic migratory erythema. A suggestion was made to investigate a pancreatic glucagonoma. Laboratory tests showed moderate anemia, hyperglycemia and marked hyperglucagonaemia. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a mass in the tail of the pancreas measuring 6 x 5 x 5 cm which was resected. The histopathological findings were compatible with a diagnosis of glucagonoma, as confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Skin symptoms disappeared 10 days after the tumor resection. We can conclude that the histological changes defined may be clues that can lead the search for a distant skin disease and allow for its diagnosis. The histological pattern of vacuolation and epidermal necrosis should arouse suspicion of pancreatic glucagonoma.

  20. Overseas seed dispersal by migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Viana, Duarte S; Gangoso, Laura; Bouten, Willem; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-01-13

    Long-distance dispersal (LDD) promotes the colonization of isolated and remote habitats, and thus it has been proposed as a mechanism for explaining the distributions of many species. Birds are key LDD vectors for many sessile organisms such as plants, yet LDD beyond local and regional scales has never been directly observed nor quantified. By sampling birds caught while in migratory flight by GPS-tracked wild falcons, we show that migratory birds transport seeds over hundreds of kilometres and mediate dispersal from mainland to oceanic islands. Up to 1.2% of birds that reached a small island of the Canary Archipelago (Alegranza) during their migration from Europe to Sub-Saharan Africa carried seeds in their guts. The billions of birds making seasonal migrations each year may then transport millions of seeds. None of the plant species transported by the birds occurs in Alegranza and most do not occur on nearby Canary Islands, providing a direct example of the importance of environmental filters in hampering successful colonization by immigrant species. The constant propagule pressure generated by these LDD events might, nevertheless, explain the colonization of some islands. Hence, migratory birds can mediate rapid range expansion or shifts of many plant taxa and determine their distribution.

  1. Screening of pesticides for environmental partitioning tendency.

    PubMed

    Gramatica, Paola; Di Guardo, Antonio

    2002-06-01

    The partitioning tendency of chemicals, in this study pesticides in particular, into different environmental compartments depends mainly on the concurrent relevance of the physico-chemical properties of the chemical itself. To rank the pesticides according to their distribution tendencies in the different environmental compartments we propose a multivariate approach: the combination, by principal component analysis, of those physico-chemical properties like organic carbon partition coefficient (Koc), n-octanol/water partition coefficient (Kow), water solubility (Sw), vapour pressure and Henry's law constant (H) that are more relevant to the determination of environmental partitioning. The resultant macrovariables, the PC1 and PC2 scores here named leaching index (LIN) and volatality index (VIN), are proposed as preliminary environmental partitioning indexes in different media. These two indexes are modeled by theoretical molecular descriptors with satisfactory predictive power. Such an approach allows a rapid pre-determination and screening of the environmental distribution of pesticides starting only from the molecular structure of the pesticide, without any a priori knowledge of the physico-chemical properties.

  2. Abrupt switch to migratory night flight in a wild migratory songbird

    PubMed Central

    Zúñiga, Daniel; Falconer, Jade; Fudickar, Adam M.; Jensen, Willi; Schmidt, Andreas; Wikelski, Martin; Partecke, Jesko

    2016-01-01

    Every year, billions of wild diurnal songbirds migrate at night. To do so, they shift their daily rhythm from diurnality to nocturnality. In captivity this is observed as a gradual transition of daytime activity developing into nocturnal activity, but how wild birds prepare their daily rhythms for migration remains largely unknown. Using an automated radio-telemetry system, we compared activity patterns of free-living migrant and resident European blackbirds (Turdus merula) in a partially migratory population during the pre-migratory season. We found that activity patterns between migrant and resident birds did not differ during day and night. Migrants did not change their daily rhythm in a progressive manner as has been observed in captivity, but instead abruptly became active during the night of departure. The rapid shift in rhythmicity might be more common across migratory songbird species, but may not have been observed before in wild animals due to a lack of technology. PMID:27666200

  3. Stabilization of Regional Column Models by Parameterized Dynamical Tendencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, J. W.

    2002-12-01

    Atmospheric Single Column Models (SCMs) provide an efficient modeling framework for regional studies. In these models, vertical profiles of temperature and humidity evolve in response to diabatic interactions within the column and adiabatic tendencies produced by by the large scale circulation. The adiabatic tendencies are either prescribed or neglected and,thus, decoupled from the diabatic tendencies. This decoupling can lead to the rapid development of unrealistic atmospheric states. In particular, the temperature profiles from a SCM can become unrealistic enough within just a few hours to render any meaningful diagnosis difficult, if not impossible. We have implemented an SCM framework in which the adiabatic tendencies are coupled to the column physics through a formula that links vertical temperature advection to the time-history of diabatic heating rates. The parameters in any such coupling formula should depend in principle depend upon the zonal, meridional, vertical and temporal scales of the heating. In practice, however, we find that the dependence is weak over a wide range of zonal and meridional scales; the vertical dependence is accounted for in the formula itself, as is also the temporal dependence by considering the time history of the diabatic forcing rather than just instantaneous values. The effect of this dynamical coupling on the behavior of an SCM extracted from the NCAR CCM is investigated here. Because of the coupling, only the mean temperature and humidity profiles for the environment in which the column is embedded need to be explicitly specified; all other quantities are generated by the model. The coupled SCM is tested in tropical conditions during the TOGA COARE period. Control runs and 100-member ensembles, in which initial temperature and humidity profiles are perturbed, are run for environmental conditions taken from 85 sets of observed temperature and humidity profiles. The same data are also used to force the original, dynamically

  4. Polarized light cues underlie compass calibration in migratory songbirds.

    PubMed

    Muheim, Rachel; Phillips, John B; Akesson, Susanne

    2006-08-11

    Migratory songbirds use the geomagnetic field, stars, the Sun, and polarized light patterns to determine their migratory direction. To prevent navigational errors, it is necessary to calibrate all of these compass systems to a common reference. We show that migratory Savannah sparrows use polarized light cues from the region of sky near the horizon to recalibrate the magnetic compass at both sunrise and sunset. We suggest that skylight polarization patterns are used to derive an absolute (i.e., geographic) directional system that provides the primary calibration reference for all of the compasses of migratory songbirds.

  5. 76 FR 38598 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Vessel Monitoring Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Species; Vessel Monitoring Systems AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... modifications to vessel monitoring system (VMS) requirements in Atlantic Highly Migratory Species...

  6. Escaping peril: perceived predation risk affects migratory propensity

    PubMed Central

    Hulthén, Kaj; Chapman, Ben B.; Nilsson, P. Anders; Vinterstare, Jerker; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Skov, Christian; Brodersen, Jakob; Baktoft, Henrik; Brönmark, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Although migratory plasticity is increasingly documented, the ecological drivers of plasticity are not well understood. Predation risk can influence migratory dynamics, but whether seasonal migrants can adjust their migratory behaviour according to perceived risk is unknown. We used electronic tags to record the migration of individual roach (Rutilus rutilus), a partially migratory fish, in the wild following exposure to manipulation of direct (predator presence/absence) and indirect (high/low roach density) perceived predation risk in experimental mesocosms. Following exposure, we released fish in their lake summer habitat and monitored individual migration to connected streams over an entire season. Individuals exposed to increased perceived direct predation risk (i.e. a live predator) showed a higher migratory propensity but no change in migratory timing, while indirect risk (i.e. roach density) affected timing but not propensity showing that elevated risk carried over to alter migratory behaviour in the wild. Our key finding demonstrates predator-driven migratory plasticity, highlighting the powerful role of predation risk for migratory decision-making and dynamics. PMID:26311158

  7. Virus investigation in ticks from migratory birds in Italy.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Fabiola; Toma, Luciano; Ciervo, Alessandra; Di Luca, Marco; Faggioni, Giovanni; Lista, Forigio; Rezza, Giovanni

    2013-10-01

    The role of migratory birds in circulation tick-borne viruses needs to be better defined. In order to assess the potential role of migratory birds in exotic virus spread, we conducted a study to identify ticks collected from migratory birds in the Central Region of Italy, and performed molecular investigation for Crimea-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHFV), West Nile fever (WNFV) and Usutu (USUV) in the vectors. A total of 137 competent ticks were collected with predominance of Hyalomma species. Although, negative results were obtained for all viruses considered, the high proportion of Hyalomma ticks highlights the potential risk for the dissemination of tick-borne viruses through infested migratory birds.

  8. Variation in migratory behavior influences regional genetic diversity and structure among American kestrel populations (Falco sparverius) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mark P.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Parrish, John G.; Walters, Jeffrey R.; Haig, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Birds employ numerous strategies to cope with seasonal fluctuations in high-quality habitat availability. Long distance migration is a common tactic; however, partial migration is especially common among broadly distributed species. Under partial migration systems, a portion of a species migrates, whereas the remainder inhabits breeding grounds year round. In this study, we identified effects of migratory behavior variation on genetic structure and diversity of American Kestrels (Falco sparverius), a widespread partial migrant in North America. American Kestrels generally migrate; however, a resident group inhabits the southeastern United States year round. The southeastern group is designated as a separate subspecies (F. s. paulus) from the migratory group (F. s. sparverius). Using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites from 183 and 211 individuals, respectively, we illustrate that genetic structure is stronger among nonmigratory populations, with differentiation measures ranging from 0.060 to 0.189 depending on genetic marker and analysis approach. In contrast, measures from western North American populations ranged from 0 to 0.032. These findings suggest that seasonal migratory behavior is also associated with natal and breeding dispersal tendencies. We likewise detected significantly lower genetic diversity within nonmigratory populations, reflecting the greater influence of genetic drift in small populations. We identified the signal of population expansion among nonmigratory populations, consistent with the recent establishment of higher latitude breeding locations following Pleistocene glacial retreat. Differentiation of F. s. paulus and F. s. sparverius reflected subtle differences in allele frequencies. Because migratory behavior can evolve quickly, our analyses suggest recent origins of migratory American Kestrel populations in North America.

  9. Electrostatic charging tendency of aged transformer oils

    SciTech Connect

    Rungis, J.; Heydon, R.G.; Sierota, A.

    1995-05-01

    The accumulated data on Electrostatic Charging Tendency (ECT) in transformer oils is still not sufficiently large to make it clear if it can be used as a diagnostic method of reasonable reliability. In this work at CSIRO in Australia, the ECT levels of various new and aged transformer oils were measured with spinning disc apparatus (SDA) and with a filter method using the rapid charge tester (RCT). The SDA was adapted from the CIGRE design. The measured levels of both leakage current (SDA) and charge density (RCT) varied with oil type and condition. They were less distinct for new oils, however, clear differentiation appeared for aged oils. The results showed that both instruments can discriminate ECT levels in transformer oils and that these levels could be used for diagnostic measurements of the oils. Some preliminary results are presented for ECT levels in oils aged in the laboratory.

  10. 78 FR 65576 - Migratory Bird Permits; Definition of “Hybrid” Migratory Bird

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... and Wildlife Service (FWS), revise the definition of ``hybrid'' as it relates to birds protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. We revise the definition to make it clear that it applies to all... created difficulties because it differs from the longstanding Service interpretation of ``hybrid'' as...

  11. A SCHOOL AND HEALTH RECORD TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR MIGRATORY CHILDREN OF MIGRATORY AGRICULTURAL WORKERS (CALIFORNIA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    THE CALIFORNIA STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION HAS ADOPTED A UNIFORM TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR CHILDREN OF MIGRATORY AGRICULTURAL WORKERS. EACH SCHOOL DISTRICT ENROLLING MIGRANT CHILDREN MUST COMPLETE A STANDARDIZED FORM FOR EACH MIGRANT CHILD AND FORWARD IT WITH THE PUPIL WHEN HE WITHDRAWS FROM SCHOOL. A COPY ALSO MUST BE FORWARDED TO THE STATE…

  12. 78 FR 78322 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2006 Consolidated Highly Migratory Species Fishery Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ...On August 22, 2013, NMFS published a notice of public hearings for Draft Amendment 7 to the 2006 Consolidated Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Fishery Management Plan (2006 Consolidated HMS FMP), which included 10 public hearings. Due to the government shut down and NMFS' inability to respond to constituents on this complex rule during that time frame and based on the comments received to date......

  13. 75 FR 19369 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ...: NMFS will hold a 3-day Atlantic Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Advisory Panel (AP) meeting in May 2010.... The meeting is open to the public. DATES: The AP meeting will be held from 1 p.m. to 6 p.m. on Tuesday... establishment of an AP to assist in the collection and evaluation of information relevant to the development...

  14. 76 FR 7547 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... meeting. SUMMARY: NMFS will hold a 3-day Atlantic Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Advisory Panel (AP... management of Atlantic HMS. The meeting is open to the public. DATES: The AP meeting will be held on April 5... by the Sustainable Fisheries Act, Public Law 104-297, provided for the establishment of an AP...

  15. 76 FR 45781 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... meeting. SUMMARY: NMFS will hold a 3-day Atlantic Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Advisory Panel (AP... management of Atlantic HMS. The meeting is open to the public. DATES: The AP meeting will be held Sept. 20... by the Sustainable Fisheries Act, Public Law 104-297, provided for the establishment of an AP...

  16. 75 FR 43928 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ...: NMFS will hold a 3-day Atlantic Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Advisory Panel (AP) meeting in September... HMS. The meeting is open to the public. DATES: The AP meeting will be held on September 21, 2010... Sustainable Fisheries Act, Public Law 104 297, provided for the establishment of an AP to assist in...

  17. Migratory connectivity and population-specific migration routes in a long-distance migratory bird.

    PubMed

    Trierweiler, Christiane; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Drent, Rudi H; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Komdeur, Jan; Bairlein, Franz; Koks, Ben J

    2014-03-07

    Knowledge about migratory connectivity, the degree to which individuals from the same breeding site migrate to the same wintering site, is essential to understand processes affecting populations of migrants throughout the annual cycle. Here, we study the migration system of a long-distance migratory bird, the Montagu's harrier Circus pygargus, by tracking individuals from different breeding populations throughout northern Europe. We identified three main migration routes towards wintering areas in sub-Saharan Africa. Wintering areas and migration routes of different breeding populations overlapped, a pattern best described by 'weak (diffuse) connectivity'. Migratory performance, i.e. timing, duration, distance and speed of migration, was surprisingly similar for the three routes despite differences in habitat characteristics. This study provides, to our knowledge, a first comprehensive overview of the migration system of a Palaearctic-African long-distance migrant. We emphasize the importance of spatial scale (e.g. distances between breeding populations) in defining patterns of connectivity and suggest that knowledge about fundamental aspects determining distribution patterns, such as the among-individual variation in mean migration directions, is required to ultimately understand migratory connectivity. Furthermore, we stress that for conservation purposes it is pivotal to consider wintering areas as well as migration routes and in particular stopover sites.

  18. 77 FR 24161 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Amendment 7 to the 2006 Consolidated Atlantic Highly Migratory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... Species; Amendment 7 to the 2006 Consolidated Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Fishery Management Plan... the development of a proposed Amendment 7. The types of management measures under consideration for Amendment 7 will include those described in the scoping document, as well as alternative measures that...

  19. Migratory connectivity and population-specific migration routes in a long-distance migratory bird

    PubMed Central

    Trierweiler, Christiane; Klaassen, Raymond H. G.; Drent, Rudi H.; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Komdeur, Jan; Bairlein, Franz; Koks, Ben J.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge about migratory connectivity, the degree to which individuals from the same breeding site migrate to the same wintering site, is essential to understand processes affecting populations of migrants throughout the annual cycle. Here, we study the migration system of a long-distance migratory bird, the Montagu's harrier Circus pygargus, by tracking individuals from different breeding populations throughout northern Europe. We identified three main migration routes towards wintering areas in sub-Saharan Africa. Wintering areas and migration routes of different breeding populations overlapped, a pattern best described by ‘weak (diffuse) connectivity’. Migratory performance, i.e. timing, duration, distance and speed of migration, was surprisingly similar for the three routes despite differences in habitat characteristics. This study provides, to our knowledge, a first comprehensive overview of the migration system of a Palaearctic-African long-distance migrant. We emphasize the importance of spatial scale (e.g. distances between breeding populations) in defining patterns of connectivity and suggest that knowledge about fundamental aspects determining distribution patterns, such as the among-individual variation in mean migration directions, is required to ultimately understand migratory connectivity. Furthermore, we stress that for conservation purposes it is pivotal to consider wintering areas as well as migration routes and in particular stopover sites. PMID:24430850

  20. MIGRATORY LABOR IN THE WEST, BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR THE WESTERN INTERSTATE CONFERENCE ON MIGRATORY LABOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of State Governments, Chicago, IL.

    THE MIGRATORY FARM LABOR FORCE IN THE UNITED STATES IS GENERALLY COMPOSED OF UNDEREMPLOYED WORKERS WHO ARE PRIMARILY FROM THE NEGRO, SPANISH-AMERICAN, AND INDIAN MINORITY GROUPS OF RURAL AREAS. THESE WORKERS MIGRATE IN SEARCH OF EMPLOYMENT BECAUSE OF THEIR LOW EARNING POTENTIAL IN THEIR HOME AREAS. ALTHOUGH THEY HELP SATISFY THE CRITICAL DEMAND…

  1. Assessing allowable take of migratory birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, M.C.; Sauer, J.R.; Avery, M.L.; Blackwell, B.F.; Koneff, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Legal removal of migratory birds from the wild occurs for several reasons, including subsistence, sport harvest, damage control, and the pet trade. We argue that harvest theory provides the basis for assessing the impact of authorized take, advance a simplified rendering of harvest theory known as potential biological removal as a useful starting point for assessing take, and demonstrate this approach with a case study of depredation control of black vultures (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia, USA. Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and other sources, we estimated that the black vulture population in Virginia was 91,190 (95% credible interval = 44,520?212,100) in 2006. Using a simple population model and available estimates of life-history parameters, we estimated the intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) to be in the range 7?14%, with 10.6% a plausible point estimate. For a take program to seek an equilibrium population size on the conservative side of the yield curve, the rate of take needs to be less than that which achieves a maximum sustained yield (0.5 x rmax). Based on the point estimate for rmax and using the lower 60% credible interval for population size to account for uncertainty, these conditions would be met if the take of black vultures in Virginia in 2006 was < 3,533 birds. Based on regular monitoring data, allowable harvest should be adjusted annually to reflect changes in population size. To initiate discussion about how this assessment framework could be related to the laws and regulations that govern authorization of such take, we suggest that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act requires only that take of native migratory birds be sustainable in the long-term, that is, sustained harvest rate should be < rmax. Further, the ratio of desired harvest rate to 0.5 x rmax may be a useful metric for ascertaining the applicability of specific requirements of the National Environmental Protection Act.

  2. Assessing allowable take of migratory birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, M.C.; Sauer, J.R.; Avery, M.L.; Blackwell, B.F.; Koneff, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Legal removal of migratory birds from the wild occurs for several reasons, including subsistence, sport harvest, damage control, and the pet trade. We argue that harvest theory provides the basis for assessing the impact of authorized take, advance a simplified rendering of harvest theory known as potential biological removal as a useful starting point for assessing take, and demonstrate this approach with a case study of depredation control of black vultures (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia, USA. Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and other sources, we estimated that the black vulture population in Virginia was 91,190 (95% credible interval = 44,520?212,100) in 2006. Using a simple population model and available estimates of life-history parameters, we estimated the intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) to be in the range 7?14%, with 10.6% a plausible point estimate. For a take program to seek an equilibrium population size on the conservative side of the yield curve, the rate of take needs to be less than that which achieves a maximum sustained yield (0.5 x rmax). Based on the point estimate for rmax and using the lower 60% credible interval for population size to account for uncertainty, these conditions would be met if the take of black vultures in Virginia in 2006 was <3,533 birds. Based on regular monitoring data, allowable harvest should be adjusted annually to reflect changes in population size. To initiate discussion about how this assessment framework could be related to the laws and regulations that govern authorization of such take, we suggest that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act requires only that take of native migratory birds be sustainable in the long-term, that is, sustained harvest rate should be

  3. Are Migratory Animals Superspreaders of Infection?

    PubMed

    Fritzsche McKay, Alexa; Hoye, Bethany J

    2016-08-01

    Migratory animals are simultaneously challenged by the physiological demands of long-distance movements and the need to avoid natural enemies including parasites and pathogens. The potential for animal migrations to disperse pathogens across large geographic areas has prompted a growing body of research investigating the interactions between migration and infection. However, the phenomenon of animal migration is yet to be incorporated into broader theories in disease ecology. Because migrations may expose animals to a greater number and diversity of pathogens, increase contact rates between hosts, and render them more susceptible to infection via changes to immune function, migration has the potential to generate both "superspreader species" and infection "hotspots". However, migration has also been shown to reduce transmission in some species, by facilitating parasite avoidance ("migratory escape") and weeding out infected individuals ("migratory culling"). This symposium was convened in an effort to characterize more broadly the role that animal migrations play in the dynamics of infectious disease, by integrating a range of approaches and scales across host taxa. We began with questions related to within-host processes, focusing on the consequences of nutritional constraints and strenuous movement for individual immune capability, and of parasite infection for movement capacity. We then scaled-up to between-host processes to identify what types, distances, or patterns of host movements are associated with the spread of infectious agents. Finally, we discussed landscape-scale relationships between migration and infectious disease, and how these may be altered as a result of anthropogenic changes to climate and land use. We are just beginning to scratch the surface of the interactions between infection and animal migrations; yet, with so many migrations now under threat, there is an urgent need to develop a holistic understanding of the potential for migrations to

  4. Links between worlds: Unraveling migratory connectivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webster, M.; Marra, P.P.; Haig, Susan M.; Bensch, S.; Holmes, Richard T.

    2002-01-01

    Migration is the regular seasonal movement of animals from one place to another, often from a breeding site to a nonbreeding site and back. Because the act of migration makes it difficult to follow individuals and populations year round, our understanding of the ecology and evolution of migrating organisms, particularly birds, has been severely impeded. Exciting new advances in satellite telemetry, genetic analyses and stable isotope chemistry are now making it possible to determine the population and geographical origin of individual birds. Here, we review these new approaches and consider the relevance of understanding migratory connectivity to ecological, evolutionary and conservation issues.

  5. [New migratory flows of the Brazilian population].

    PubMed

    Sales, T

    1991-01-01

    "This article focuses [on] the recent emigration of Brazilians abroad. In the post World War II period, a new type of international migration was observed, caused by demands for labor in the receiving countries, where immigrants are integrated into the secondary labor market. The programs created to stimulate temporary foreign migrations resulted in the recent illegal migrations of Brazilians, most of them working in unskilled jobs. The study is based on data from a preliminary survey on the migratory flow from the city of Governador Valadares in the State of Minas Gerais, to Boston, in the U.S." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  6. Migratory connectivity of a Neotropical migratory songbird revealed by archival light-level geolocators.

    PubMed

    Hallworth, Michael T; Sillett, T Scott; Van Wilgenburg, Steven L; Hobson, Keith A; Marra, Peter P

    2015-03-01

    Understanding migratory connectivity is critical for interpreting population dynamics, seasonal interactions, and for the implementation of conservation strategies of migratory species. We evaluated the migratory connectivity of a Neotropical migratory songbird, the Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla) using archival light-level geolocators deployed at two breeding and four nonbreeding locations while incorporating Ovenbird abundance as prior information using Bayes' Rule. We also included band recoveries submitted to the United States Geological Survey's Bird Banding Laboratory to assess connectivity of areas where geolocators were not deployed. We created a probabilistic map of origin for each capture site and mapped spring migration routes between nonbreeding and breeding locations. We found a complete separation of eastern and western populations of Ovenbirds throughout the annual cycle. Breeding Ovenbirds from western Canada spent the nonbreeding season throughout Central America and migrated through central North America during spring migration. Birds breeding in the northeastern United States were distributed throughout the central Greater Antilles in the Caribbean and migrated through eastern North America during spring migration. Fall migration routes were not included because the timing of migration coincided with fall equinox when latitudinal estimates are unreliable. However, longitudinal estimates suggest no overlap between eastern and western populations during fall migration. Ovenbirds with geolocators attached in Jamaica bred in the northeastern United States with the highest posterior probability of origin found in Massachusetts, while Ovenbirds captured in Florida and Puerto Rico bred primarily in the mid-Atlantic. Incorporating Ovenbird abundance as a prior into geolocator estimates decreased the area of origin by 90.37% ± 1.05% (mean ± SE) for the breeding season and 62.30% ± 1.69% for the nonbreeding season, compared to geolocator estimates alone

  7. Climate and the complexity of migratory phenology: sexes, migratory distance, and arrival distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macmynowski, Dena P.; Root, Terry L.

    2007-05-01

    The intra- and inter-season complexity of bird migration has received limited attention in climatic change research. Our phenological analysis of 22 species collected in Chicago, USA, (1979 2002) evaluates the relationship between multi-scalar climate variables and differences (1) in arrival timing between sexes, (2) in arrival distributions among species, and (3) between spring and fall migration. The early migratory period for earliest arriving species (i.e., short-distance migrants) and earliest arriving individuals of a species (i.e., males) most frequently correlate with climate variables. Compared to long-distance migrant species, four times as many short-distance migrants correlate with spring temperature, while 8 of 11 (73%) of long-distance migrant species’ arrival is correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). While migratory phenology has been correlated with NAO in Europe, we believe that this is the first documentation of a significant association in North America. Geographically proximate conditions apparently influence migratory timing for short-distance migrants while continental-scale climate (e.g., NAO) seemingly influences the phenology of Neotropical migrants. The preponderance of climate correlations is with the early migratory period, not the median of arrival, suggesting that early spring conditions constrain the onset or rate of migration for some species. The seasonal arrival distribution provides considerable information about migratory passage beyond what is apparent from statistical analyses of phenology. A relationship between climate and fall phenology is not detected at this location. Analysis of the within-season complexity of migration, including multiple metrics of arrival, is essential to detect species’ responses to changing climate as well as evaluate the underlying biological mechanisms.

  8. Climate and the complexity of migratory phenology: sexes, migratory distance, and arrival distributions.

    PubMed

    MacMynowski, Dena P; Root, Terry L

    2007-05-01

    The intra- and inter-season complexity of bird migration has received limited attention in climatic change research. Our phenological analysis of 22 species collected in Chicago, USA, (1979-2002) evaluates the relationship between multi-scalar climate variables and differences (1) in arrival timing between sexes, (2) in arrival distributions among species, and (3) between spring and fall migration. The early migratory period for earliest arriving species (i.e., short-distance migrants) and earliest arriving individuals of a species (i.e., males) most frequently correlate with climate variables. Compared to long-distance migrant species, four times as many short-distance migrants correlate with spring temperature, while 8 of 11 (73%) of long-distance migrant species' arrival is correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). While migratory phenology has been correlated with NAO in Europe, we believe that this is the first documentation of a significant association in North America. Geographically proximate conditions apparently influence migratory timing for short-distance migrants while continental-scale climate (e.g., NAO) seemingly influences the phenology of Neotropical migrants. The preponderance of climate correlations is with the early migratory period, not the median of arrival, suggesting that early spring conditions constrain the onset or rate of migration for some species. The seasonal arrival distribution provides considerable information about migratory passage beyond what is apparent from statistical analyses of phenology. A relationship between climate and fall phenology is not detected at this location. Analysis of the within-season complexity of migration, including multiple metrics of arrival, is essential to detect species' responses to changing climate as well as evaluate the underlying biological mechanisms.

  9. Limitations and mechanisms influencing the migratory performance of soaring birds

    Treesearch

    Tricia A. Miller; Brooks Robert P.; Michael J. Lanzone; David Brandes; Jeff Cooper; Junior A. Tremblay; Jay Wilhelm; Adam Duerr; Todd E. Katzner

    2016-01-01

    Migration is costly in terms of time, energy and safety. Optimal migration theory suggests that individual migratory birds will choose between these three costs depending on their motivation and available resources. To test hypotheses about use of migratory strategies by large soaring birds, we used GPS telemetry to track 18 adult, 13 sub-adult and 15 juvenile Golden...

  10. The Migratory Farm Labor Problem in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    Migratory farm workers employed in 688 countries in 46 states in 1965 represent a 9 percent increase over 1964. Average earnings for the migratory farm worker in 1965 were $1,737. In spite of the new legislation, which is described, there are additional needs in the areas of wages, child labor, health, education, day care, housing, sanitation, and…

  11. REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT ON DOMESTIC MIGRATORY FARM LABOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MITCHELL, JAMES P.

    THE OBJECTIVES OF THE PRESIDENT'S COMMITTEE ON MIGRATORY LABOR ARE TO BRING ABOUT IMPROVED CONDITIONS FOR MIGRATORY WORKERS TO MIGRATE BY STABILIZING AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT. EFFORTS HAVE BEEN DIRECTED TOWARD RESOLVING PROBLEMS OF CAMP HOUSING, SAFE TRANSPORTATION, ADEQUATE EDUCATION AND HEALTH SERVICES, EXTENSION OF LABOR LAWS TO AGRICULTURAL…

  12. 76 FR 67650 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AW75 Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations... and suggestions on migratory bird permit regulations for a permit to use raptors (birds of prey) in abatement activities. Abatement means the use of trained raptors to flush, scare (haze), or take birds or...

  13. 76 FR 39368 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AW75 Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations... are considering promulgating migratory bird permit regulations for a permit to use raptors (birds of... take birds or other wildlife to mitigate damage or other problems, including risks to human health and...

  14. Non-breeding habitat preference affects ecological speciation in migratory waders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraaijeveld, Ken

    2008-04-01

    Models of ecological speciation predict that certain types of habitat should be more conducive to species diversification than others. In this study, I test this hypothesis in waders of the sub-order Charadrii using the number of morphological sub-species per species as an index of diversity. I classified all members of this clade as spending the non-breeding season either coastally or inland and argue that these represent fundamentally different environments. Coastal mudflats are characterised by high predictability and patchy worldwide distribution, whilst inland wetlands are widespread but unpredictable. The results show that migratory species that winter coastally are sub-divided into more sub-species than those that winter inland. This was not the case for non-migratory species. I argue that coastal environments select for more rigid migratory pathways, whilst inland wetlands favour more flexible movement patterns. Population sub-division could then result from the passive segregation of breeding sites or from the active selection for assortative mating of ecomorphs.

  15. Totipotent migratory stem cells in a hydroid.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner A; Teo, Regina; Frank, Uri

    2004-11-01

    Hydroids, members of the most ancient eumetazoan phylum, the Cnidaria, harbor multipotent, migratory stem cells lodged in interstitial spaces of epithelial cells and are therefore referred to as interstitial cells or i-cells. According to traditional understanding, based on studies in Hydra, these i-cells give rise to several cell types such as stinging cells, nerve cells, and germ cells, but not to ectodermal and endodermal epithelial cells; these are considered to constitute separate cell lineages. We show here that, in Hydractinia, the developmental potential of these migratory stem cells is wider than previously anticipated. We eliminated the i-cells from subcloned wild-type animals and subsequently introduced i-cells from mutant clones and vice versa. The mutant donors and the wild-type recipients differed in their sex, growth pattern, and morphology. With time, the recipient underwent a complete conversion into the phenotype and genotype of the donor. Thus, under these experimental conditions the interstitial stem cells of Hydractinia exhibit totipotency.

  16. Experience overrides personality differences in the tendency to follow but not in the tendency to lead

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Shinnosuke; Stumpe, Martin C.; Manica, Andrea; Johnstone, Rufus A.

    2013-01-01

    In many animal groups, coordinated activity is facilitated by the emergence of leaders and followers. Although the identity of leaders is to some extent predictable, most groups experience frequent changes of leadership. How do group members cope with such changes in their social role? Here, we compared the foraging behaviour of pairs of stickleback fish after a period of either (i) role reinforcement, which involved rewarding the shyer follower for following, and the bolder leader for leading, or (ii) role reversal, which involved rewarding the shyer follower for leading, and the bolder leader for following. We found that, irrespective of an individual's temperament, its tendency to follow is malleable, whereas the tendency to initiate collective movement is much more resistant to change. As a consequence of this lack of flexibility in initiative, greater temperamental differences within a pair led to improved performance when typical roles were reinforced, but to impaired performance when typical roles were reversed. PMID:23986110

  17. Understanding Our Environment: Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arndt, Laura M. Sanders

    This unit is part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience. Students begin by researching the migratory songbirds that live in their community. They determine the bird's roles in the ecosystems and their…

  18. Understanding Our Environment: Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arndt, Laura M. Sanders

    This unit is part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience. Students begin by researching the migratory songbirds that live in their community. They determine the bird's roles in the ecosystems and their…

  19. Vagal neural crest cell migratory behavior: A transition between the cranial and trunk crest

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Bryan R.; Erickson, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Migration and differentiation of cranial neural crest cells are largely controlled by environmental cues, whereas pathfinding at the trunk level is dictated by cell-autonomous molecular changes owing to early specification of the premigratory crest. Here, we investigated the migration and patterning of vagal neural crest cells. We show that: 1) vagal neural crest cells exhibit some developmental bias and 2) they take separate pathways to the heart and to the gut. Together these observations suggest that prior specification dictates initial pathway choice. However, when we challenged the vagal neural crest cells with different migratory environments, we observed that the behavior of the anterior vagal neural crest cells (somite-level 1-3) exhibit considerable migratory plasticity whereas the posterior vagal neural crest cells (somite-level 5-7) are more restricted in their behavior. We conclude that the vagal neural crest is a transitional population that has evolved between the head and the trunk. PMID:22016183

  20. 75 FR 53226 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ..., or from the Division of Migratory Bird Management's Web site at http://www.fws.gov/migratorybirds/ or...: Robert Blohm, Chief, or Ron W. Kokel, Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife.... Executive Order 12866 The Office of Management and Budget has determined that this rule is significant...

  1. 77 FR 58627 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds; Final Rule...; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife..., and daily bag and possession limits for general waterfowl seasons and those early seasons for which...

  2. 78 FR 58204 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final... limits for general waterfowl seasons and those early seasons for which States previously deferred... the migratory bird hunting regulations process, and addressed the establishment of seasons, limits...

  3. 75 FR 58993 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 185... Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits.... SUMMARY: This rule prescribes the hunting seasons, hours, areas, and daily bag and possession limits for...

  4. Migratory Fish as Sensors of Anthropogenic Contamination in Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogstad, E. J.; Linley, T. J.; Nims, M. K.; Janak, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Migratory fish take up metals in their stream environments, with the magnitude of uptake being dependent on the local concentration and biological pathway of the element. Some metals have long biological half-lives, and are present within fish for long periods after the fish leave the environments in which those signatures were attained. Within the Columbia River basin of western USA and Canada, tributaries have various elemental signatures of mining and industrial activity, which combined with isotopic signature of industrial elements (Hg, Cd, Pb, etc.) and natural geological isotopic variations of, e.g., Sr, allow life histories of fish to be delineated. Tributaries of the Columbia River flowing into the impounded waters above Grand Coulee Dam offer a record of contamination in fish tissues, which may be correlated with habitat signatures. Point sources, such as sulfide smelters and mining districts, allow particular streams and parts of streams to be identified from their Pb, Sr, and Cd isotopic and trace element concentration signatures. A greater number of elemental and isotopic methods employed in such studies increases the source habitat specificity of this method.

  5. The Analysis Of Climatic Tendencies In Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panin, G. N.; Dzuba, A. V.; Vyruchalkina, T. Y.; Solomonova, I. V.

    2007-12-01

    Numerous researches indicate to the probability of the future climate warming, caused by the antropogeneously produced increase of the greenhouse gases. But there is a certain vagueness as to the regional specifics and, particularly, concerning the frequency of the irregular regimes' occurrence and degree of its extremality (e.g. the winter of 2006-07 in Europe and Russia). There is no an adequate physical explanation to such variation of the global and, particularly, regional temperature's secular course. At least, by modeling the Arctic climate, the acknowledged models do not reproduce the trice-changed sign of the temperature tendencies (for instance, the Hamburg model, see Wang et al., 2007). As to the other main thermodynamic parameters of the climate system there is no global archival data of proper quality and sufficient range. Though, the main distrust to results obtained by the forecasting is related to the fact that the modern climate models present only linear or logarithmical dependence between the air temperature changes and change of the greenhouse gases concentration in the atmosphere. We have developed the first version for description of the climate system dynamical and radiation reactions to the periodical irregularity of the Earth rotation (rotational mechanism). New approach based on composition of the "greenhouse" and "rotational" effects allows to make an explanation for not only growth of temperature caused by emission of the greenhouse gases but also for variations of the regional and global climate (in particular, cooling observed during 1940-1970). Using composition of the "greenhouse" and "rotational" effects there are given estimations of probable changes of climate in XXI century, including the nearest 5-10 - years.

  6. Information-sharing tendency on Twitter and time evolution of tweeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, H. W.; Kim, H. S.; Lee, K.; Choi, M. Y.

    2013-03-01

    While topics on Twitter may be categorized according to their predictability and sustainability, some topics have characteristics depending on the time scale. Here we propose a good measure for the transition of sustainability, which we call the information-sharing tendency, and find that the unpredictability on Twitter is provoked by the exposure of Twitter users to external environments, e.g., mass media and other social network services. In addition, it is demonstrated that the numbers of articles and comments on on-line newspapers serve as plausible measures of exposure. From such measures of exposure, the time evolution of tweeting can be described, when the information-sharing tendency is known.

  7. The Flight Apparatus of Migratory and Sedentary Individuals of a Partially Migratory Songbird Species

    PubMed Central

    Fudickar, Adam M.; Partecke, Jesko

    2012-01-01

    Variations in the geometry of the external flight apparatus of birds are beneficial for different behaviors. Long-distance flight is less costly with more pointed wings and shorter tails; however these traits decrease maneuverability at low speeds. Selection has led to interspecific differences in these and other flight apparatuses in relation to migration distance. If these principles are general, how are the external flight apparatus within a partially migratory bird species shaped in which individuals either migrate or stay at their breeding grounds? We resolved this question by comparing the wing pointedness and tail length (relative to wing length) of migrant and resident European blackbirds (Turdus merula) breeding in the same population. We predicted that migrant blackbirds would have more pointed wings and shorter tails than residents. Contrary to our predictions, there were no differences between migrants and residents in either measure. Our results indicate that morphological differences between migrants and residents in this partially migratory population may be constrained. PMID:23284817

  8. 77 FR 58443 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ...The Fish and Wildlife Service (Service or we) prescribes final late-season frameworks from which States may select season dates, limits, and other options for the 2012-13 migratory bird hunting seasons. These late seasons include most waterfowl seasons, the earliest of which commences on September 22, 2012. The effect of this final rule is to facilitate the States' selection of hunting seasons......

  9. 78 FR 52337 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ...The Fish and Wildlife Service (hereinafter Service or we) is proposing to establish the 2013-14 late-season hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds. We annually prescribe frameworks, or outer limits, for dates and times when hunting may occur and the number of birds that may be taken and possessed in late seasons. These frameworks are necessary to allow State selections of seasons......

  10. 75 FR 58249 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ...The Fish and Wildlife Service (Service or we) prescribes final late-season frameworks from which States may select season dates, limits, and other options for the 2010-11 migratory bird hunting seasons. These late seasons include most waterfowl seasons, the earliest of which commences on September 25, 2010. The effect of this final rule is to facilitate the States' selection of hunting seasons......

  11. 77 FR 53117 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ...This rule prescribes final early-season frameworks from which the States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands may select season dates, limits, and other options for the 2012-13 migratory bird hunting seasons. Early seasons are those that generally open prior to October 1, and include seasons in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The effect of this final rule is to facilitate......

  12. 78 FR 52657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ...This rule prescribes final early-season frameworks from which the States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands may select season dates, limits, and other options for the 2013-14 migratory bird hunting seasons. Early seasons are those that generally open prior to October 1, and include seasons in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The effect of this final rule is to facilitate......

  13. 77 FR 42919 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ...The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (hereinafter Service or we) is proposing to establish the 2012-13 early-season hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds. We annually prescribe frameworks, or outer limits, for dates and times when hunting may occur and the maximum number of birds that may be taken and possessed in early seasons. Early seasons may open as early as September 1, and......

  14. Migratory double breeding in Neotropical migrant birds

    PubMed Central

    Rohwer, Sievert; Hobson, Keith A.; Rohwer, Vanya G.

    2009-01-01

    Neotropical migratory songbirds typically breed in temperate regions and then travel long distances to spend the majority of the annual cycle in tropical wintering areas. Using stable-isotope methodology, we provide quantitative evidence of dual breeding ranges for 5 species of Neotropical migrants. Each is well known to have a Neotropical winter range and a breeding range in the United States and Canada. However, after their first bout of breeding in the north, many individuals migrate hundreds to thousands of kilometers south in midsummer to breed a second time during the same summer in coastal west Mexico or Baja California Sur. They then migrate further south to their final wintering areas in the Neotropics. Our discovery of dual breeding ranges in Neotropical migrants reveals a hitherto unrealized flexibility in life-history strategies for these species and underscores that demographic models and conservation plans must consider dual breeding for these migrants. PMID:19858484

  15. Science support for managing migratory waterfowl.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Miller, Michael R.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2003-01-01

    Migratory birds in North America are an international resource shared by Canada, the United States, and Mexico. Ultimate population management authority in the U.S. lies with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), but states participate in development of management decisions through the Flyway system. The FWS, state wildlife agencies, and nongovernmental organizations participate through independent actions and cooperative Joint Ventures under the North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP) to acquire, protect, restore, and enhance wetlands and other habitats critical to the long-term conservation of breeding, migrating, and wintering waterfowl. A thorough base of scientific information is required to support and evaluate waterfowl populations and habitat management in North America.

  16. Migratory double breeding in Neotropical migrant birds.

    PubMed

    Rohwer, Sievert; Hobson, Keith A; Rohwer, Vanya G

    2009-11-10

    Neotropical migratory songbirds typically breed in temperate regions and then travel long distances to spend the majority of the annual cycle in tropical wintering areas. Using stable-isotope methodology, we provide quantitative evidence of dual breeding ranges for 5 species of Neotropical migrants. Each is well known to have a Neotropical winter range and a breeding range in the United States and Canada. However, after their first bout of breeding in the north, many individuals migrate hundreds to thousands of kilometers south in midsummer to breed a second time during the same summer in coastal west Mexico or Baja California Sur. They then migrate further south to their final wintering areas in the Neotropics. Our discovery of dual breeding ranges in Neotropical migrants reveals a hitherto unrealized flexibility in life-history strategies for these species and underscores that demographic models and conservation plans must consider dual breeding for these migrants.

  17. Development of migratory behavior in northern white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    I examined the development of migratory behavior in northern white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 1975 to 1996 by radio-tracking adult females and their fawns. Of 40 migratory fawns with radio-collared mothers, all returned from winter ranges to their mothers' summer ranges, as did 36 fawns with unknown mothers. Of 1.5- to 3.0-year-old daughters with radio-collared mothers, 67-80% continued migrating with mothers to their traditional summer ranges. Eighty-four percent (16/19) of yearling dispersers continued migratory behavior after replacing their natal summer ranges with their dispersal ranges, and 88% (14/16) of these continued migrating to their natal winter ranges, some through at least 6.5 years of age. Twenty percent (4/20) of nonmigratory fawns dispersed as yearlings, and two became migratory between their dispersal summer ranges and new winter ranges, one through 4.9 years of age and another through 6.5 years. Seven fawns changed their movement behavior from migratory to nonmigratory or vice versa as yearlings or when older, indicating that migratory behavior is not under rigid genetic control. Thus, the adaptiveness of migration must depend upon natural selection operating upon varying capacities and propensities to learn and mimic long-distance movements and not upon migratory behavior directly.

  18. Migratory Prostitution with Emphasis on Europe.

    PubMed

    M&oring;rdh; Genç

    1995-03-01

    In many European countries, foreigners constitute the majority of certain groups of prostitutes, e.g., approximately 90% of the window prostitutes in the red light district of Amsterdam are not native to the Netherlands. The same is true for prostitutes working in bars in Vienna. In cities where registered prostitution is legal, unregistered prostitutes, most of whom are foreigners, often outnumber the registered ones. Central European countries often receive "sex workers" from eastern Europe, e.g., from Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, and Romania, whereas the majority of migratory prostitutes in Great Britain and continental western Europe come from Africa, the Caribbean, and South America. In northern Europe, women from Russia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, and the Baltic states are prostituting themselves in increasing numbers. Scandinavia has so far been affected relatively less by this mobility. In Spain, France, and Italy, women from Arabic and subSaharan countries are common among prostitutes. Foreign prostitutes move into Turkey along two main routes: women from the Balkan countries come to the western part of the country, whereas those from the former Soviet Union cross the border from Georgia, where they usually operate at resorts along the eastern Black Sea coast. Prostitutes are also mobile within the former communist bloc. For instance, women from Russia prostitute themselves in Lithuania, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. the customers are locals, particularly those with "hard currency", such as businessmen and "sex tourists" from the West. Following the outbreak of civil war in the former Yugoslavia, women from that country are now more frequently seen among the population of migratory prostitutes in Europe.

  19. 78 FR 907 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coastal Migratory Pelagic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... reduces the commercial trip limit of Atlantic migratory group Spanish mackerel in or from the exclusive... coastal migratory pelagic fish (king mackerel, Spanish mackerel, and cobia) is managed under the Fishery... million lb (1.42 million kg) for the Atlantic migratory group of Spanish mackerel. Atlantic migratory...

  20. 76 FR 39367 - Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Raptor Propagation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AX78 Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the... primary responsibility for managing migratory birds. Our authority is based on the Migratory Bird Treaty... take and possession of migratory birds for many purposes. The BGEPA allows bald eagles and golden...

  1. 50 CFR 20.25 - Wanton waste of migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wanton waste of migratory game birds. 20... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.25 Wanton waste of migratory game birds. No person shall kill or cripple any migratory game bird pursuant to this part without...

  2. 50 CFR 20.25 - Wanton waste of migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wanton waste of migratory game birds. 20... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.25 Wanton waste of migratory game birds. No person shall kill or cripple any migratory game bird pursuant to this part without...

  3. 50 CFR 20.25 - Wanton waste of migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wanton waste of migratory game birds. 20... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.25 Wanton waste of migratory game birds. No person shall kill or cripple any migratory game bird pursuant to this part without...

  4. 50 CFR 20.25 - Wanton waste of migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wanton waste of migratory game birds. 20... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.25 Wanton waste of migratory game birds. No person shall kill or cripple any migratory game bird pursuant to this part without...

  5. Using radar to advance migratory bird management: An interagency collaboration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sojda, R.; Ruth, J.M.; Barrow, W.C.; Dawson, D.K.; Diehl, R.H.; Manville, A.; Green, M.T.; Krueper, D.J.; Johnston, S.

    2005-01-01

    Migratory birds face many changes to the landscapes they traverse and the habitats they use. Wind turbines and communications towers, which pose hazards to birds and bats in flight, are being erected across the United States and offshore. Human activities can also destroy or threaten habitats critical to birds during migratory passage, and climate change appears to be altering migratory patterns. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and other agencies are under increasing pressure to identify and evaluate movement patterns and habitats used during migration and other times.

  6. Populations of Monarch butterflies with different migratory behaviors show divergence in wing morphology.

    PubMed

    Altizer, Sonia; Davis, Andrew K

    2010-04-01

    The demands of long-distance flight represent an important evolutionary force operating on the traits of migratory species. Monarchs are widespread butterflies known for their annual migrations in North America. We examined divergence in wing morphology among migratory monarchs from eastern and western N. America, and nonmigratory monarchs in S. Florida, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, and Hawaii. For the three N. American populations, we also examined monarchs reared in four common environment experiments. We used image analysis to measure multiple traits including forewing area and aspect ratio; for laboratory-reared monarchs we also quantified body area and wing loading. Results showed wild monarchs from all nonmigratory populations were smaller than those from migratory populations. Wild and captive-reared eastern monarchs had the largest and most elongated forewings, whereas monarchs from Puerto Rico and Costa Rica had the smallest and roundest forewings. Eastern monarchs also had the largest bodies and high measures of wing loading, whereas western and S. Florida monarchs had less elongated forewings and smaller bodies. Among captive-reared butterflies, family-level effects provided evidence that genetic factors contributed to variation in wing traits. Collectively, these results support evolutionary responses to long-distance flight in monarchs, with implications for the conservation of phenotypically distinct wild populations.

  7. Climate effects on the distribution of wetland habitats and connectivity in networks of migratory waterbirds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellisario, Bruno; Cerfolli, Fulvio; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2014-07-01

    The establishment and maintenance of conservation areas are among the most common measures to mitigate the loss of biodiversity. However, recent advances in conservation biology have challenged the reliability of such areas to cope with variation in climate conditions. Climate change can reshuffle the geographic distribution of species, but in many cases suitable habitats become scarce or unavailable, limiting the ability to migrate or adapt in response to modified environments. In this respect, the extent to which existing protected areas are able to compensate changes in habitat conditions to ensure the persistence of species still remains unclear. We used a spatially explicit model to measure the effects of climate change on the potential distribution of wetland habitats and connectivity of Natura 2000 sites in Italy. The effects of climate change were measured on the potential for water accumulation in a given site, as a surrogate measure for the persistence of aquatic ecosystems and their associated migratory waterbirds. Climate impacts followed a geographic trend, changing the distribution of suitable habitats for migrants and highlighting a latitudinal threshold beyond which the connectivity reaches a sudden collapse. Our findings show the relative poor reliability of most sites in dealing with changing habitat conditions and ensure the long-term connectivity, with possible consequences for the persistence of species. Although alterations of climate suitability and habitat destruction could impact critical areas for migratory waterbirds, more research is needed to evaluate all possible long-term effects on the connectivity of migratory networks.

  8. Migratory New World Blackbirds (Icterids) Are More Neophobic than Closely Related Resident Icterids

    PubMed Central

    Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Winkler, Hans; Hamel, Paul B.; Greenberg, Russell

    2013-01-01

    Environments undergo short-term and long-term changes due to natural or human-induced events. Animals differ in their ability to cope with such changes which can be related to their ecology. Changes in the environment often elicit avoidance reactions (neophobia) which protect animals from dangerous situations but can also inhibit exploration and familiarization with novel situations and thus, learning about new resources. Studies investigating the relationship between a species’ ecology and its neophobia have so far been restricted to comparing only a few species and mainly in captivity. The current study investigated neophobia reactions to experimentally-induced changes in the natural environment of six closely-related blackbird species (Icteridae), including two species represented by two distinct populations. For analyses, neophobic reactions (difference in number of birds feeding and time spent feeding with and without novel objects) were related to several measures of ecological plasticity and the migratory strategy (resident or migratory) of the population. Phylogenetic relationships were incorporated into the analysis. The degree of neophobia was related to migratory strategy with migrants expressing much higher neophobia (fewer birds feeding and for a shorter time with objects present) than residents. Furthermore, neophobia showed a relationship to diet breadth with fewer individuals of diet generalists than specialists returning when objects were present supporting the dangerous niche hypothesis. Residents may have evolved lower neophobia as costs of missing out on opportunities may be higher for residents than migrants as the former are restricted to a smaller area. Lower neophobia allows them approaching changes in the environment (e.g. novel objects) quickly, thereby securing access to resources. Additionally, residents have a greater familiarity with similar situations in the area than migrants and the latter may, therefore, initially stay behind

  9. Migratory New World blackbirds (icterids) are more neophobic than closely related resident icterids.

    PubMed

    Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Winkler, Hans; Hamel, Paul B; Greenberg, Russell

    2013-01-01

    Environments undergo short-term and long-term changes due to natural or human-induced events. Animals differ in their ability to cope with such changes which can be related to their ecology. Changes in the environment often elicit avoidance reactions (neophobia) which protect animals from dangerous situations but can also inhibit exploration and familiarization with novel situations and thus, learning about new resources. Studies investigating the relationship between a species' ecology and its neophobia have so far been restricted to comparing only a few species and mainly in captivity. The current study investigated neophobia reactions to experimentally-induced changes in the natural environment of six closely-related blackbird species (Icteridae), including two species represented by two distinct populations. For analyses, neophobic reactions (difference in number of birds feeding and time spent feeding with and without novel objects) were related to several measures of ecological plasticity and the migratory strategy (resident or migratory) of the population. Phylogenetic relationships were incorporated into the analysis. The degree of neophobia was related to migratory strategy with migrants expressing much higher neophobia (fewer birds feeding and for a shorter time with objects present) than residents. Furthermore, neophobia showed a relationship to diet breadth with fewer individuals of diet generalists than specialists returning when objects were present supporting the dangerous niche hypothesis. Residents may have evolved lower neophobia as costs of missing out on opportunities may be higher for residents than migrants as the former are restricted to a smaller area. Lower neophobia allows them approaching changes in the environment (e.g. novel objects) quickly, thereby securing access to resources. Additionally, residents have a greater familiarity with similar situations in the area than migrants and the latter may, therefore, initially stay behind

  10. Identity Functions and Empathetic Tendencies of Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ay, Alpaslan; Kadi, Aysegul

    2016-01-01

    Objective of this research is to investigate identity functions and empathetic tendencies of teacher candidates. Sample consists of 232 teacher candidates in social studies teacher education. Survey model is preferred to investigate the difference between identity functions and empathetic tendencies of teacher candidates. And also correlational…

  11. Prosocial Tendencies Predict Friendship Quality, But Not for Popular Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poorthuis, Astrid M. G.; Thomaes, Sander; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; de Castro, Bram Orobio

    2012-01-01

    Is prosocial behavior a prerequisite for having good-quality friendships? This study (N=477, mean age=12.2 years) examined whether the link between children's prosocial tendencies and their perceived friendship quality was dependent on children's level of popularity in the peer group. Children's prosocial tendencies were assessed both as observed…

  12. Emphatic Tendency Scale for Student Teachers: Validity and Reliability Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocak, Canan; Onen, Aysem Seda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the validity and reliability of the Empathic Tendency Scale, which was developed in order to identify student teachers' empathic tendencies. The sampling of the study consisted of 730 student teachers studying at Hacettepe University Faculty of Education. To determine the factor pattern of Empathic Tendency…

  13. Prosocial Tendencies Predict Friendship Quality, But Not for Popular Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poorthuis, Astrid M. G.; Thomaes, Sander; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; de Castro, Bram Orobio

    2012-01-01

    Is prosocial behavior a prerequisite for having good-quality friendships? This study (N=477, mean age=12.2 years) examined whether the link between children's prosocial tendencies and their perceived friendship quality was dependent on children's level of popularity in the peer group. Children's prosocial tendencies were assessed both as observed…

  14. Central tendency effects in time interval reproduction in autism

    PubMed Central

    Karaminis, Themelis; Cicchini, Guido Marco; Neil, Louise; Cappagli, Giulia; Aagten-Murphy, David; Burr, David; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Central tendency, the tendency of judgements of quantities (lengths, durations etc.) to gravitate towards their mean, is one of the most robust perceptual effects. A Bayesian account has recently suggested that central tendency reflects the integration of noisy sensory estimates with prior knowledge representations of a mean stimulus, serving to improve performance. The process is flexible, so prior knowledge is weighted more heavily when sensory estimates are imprecise, requiring more integration to reduce noise. In this study we measure central tendency in autism to evaluate a recent theoretical hypothesis suggesting that autistic perception relies less on prior knowledge representations than typical perception. If true, autistic children should show reduced central tendency than theoretically predicted from their temporal resolution. We tested autistic and age- and ability-matched typical children in two child-friendly tasks: (1) a time interval reproduction task, measuring central tendency in the temporal domain; and (2) a time discrimination task, assessing temporal resolution. Central tendency reduced with age in typical development, while temporal resolution improved. Autistic children performed far worse in temporal discrimination than the matched controls. Computational simulations suggested that central tendency was much less in autistic children than predicted by theoretical modelling, given their poor temporal resolution. PMID:27349722

  15. Tracking Migratory Animals: Going Online for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Bob

    1997-01-01

    Describes a project in which students pick a migratory animal and track it during migration using internet resources. Employs background readings, authentic research data, and questions to experts to enable students to have meaningful learning experiences. (DDR)

  16. Tracking Migratory Animals: Going Online for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Bob

    1997-01-01

    Describes a project in which students pick a migratory animal and track it during migration using internet resources. Employs background readings, authentic research data, and questions to experts to enable students to have meaningful learning experiences. (DDR)

  17. 78 FR 53397 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Vessel Monitoring Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 RIN 0648-BD24 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Vessel Monitoring Systems AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Proposed rule; request for comments. SUMMARY:...

  18. Religiosity, Meaning in Life and Suicidal Tendency Among Jews.

    PubMed

    Wilchek-Aviad, Yael; Malka, Michal

    2016-04-01

    The study examines the impact that meaning in life, or lack thereof, has on suicidal tendencies among youth, as well as the nexus between level of religiosity, meaning in life and suicidal tendencies. Subjects were 450 students from both Jewish religious and Jewish secular schools aged 15-18. a significant and negative correlation was found between a sense of meaning in life and suicidal tendencies, beyond gender or level of religiosity. In addition, no difference was found in level of suicidal tendency between Jewish religious and Jewish secular youth; however, among Jewish religious teens, a lower level of depression was reported in comparison with their secular peers. The study therefore concludes that meaning in life is the dominant variable in minimizing suicidal tendencies among youth. The results of this study may promote the establishment of prevention, intervention and therapy plans, especially in the age range that is crucial for suicide. Such programs should be based upon finding meaning in life.

  19. State-level moderation of genetic tendencies to smoke.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Jason D

    2009-03-01

    I examined genetic influences on smoking among adolescents and differences in the heritability of smoking across states in the United States. With data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (participants aged 12-21 years), I used a multilevel twin- and sibling-pair (N = 2060 pairs) regression model. Daily smoking (hereditability estimate [h(2)] = 0.54) and smoking onset (h(2) = 0.42) were both highly heritable. Whereas the genetic influences on smoking onset were consistent across states, there was significant variation in these influences on daily smoking. Genetic influences on daily smoking were lower in states with relatively high taxes on cigarettes and in those with greater controls on the vending machines and cigarette advertising. Genetic influences were also negatively associated with rates of smoking among youths. At the state level, gene-environment interaction models are best characterized by the model of social control. State policies may influence genetic tendencies to smoke regularly, but they have not affected the genetic contributions to cigarette onset or experimentation. Future tobacco-control policies may emphasize the heritable endophenotypes that increase the likelihood that adolescents will initiate smoking.

  20. Life history correlates of alternative migratory strategies in American Dippers.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Elizabeth A; Green, David J; Middleton, Holly A; Morrissey, Christy A

    2008-06-01

    Partial migration is thought to be a critical step in the evolution of avian migration, but data on the life history correlates of alternative migratory strategies are extremely limited. We have studied a partially migratory population of American Dippers since 1999. This population is composed of sedentary individuals (residents) that maintain the same territory year round and altitudinal migrants that share winter grounds with residents, but move to higher elevations to breed. We used seven years of data on individually marked birds to (1) determine if individuals consistently use the same migratory strategy, (2) determine if offspring have the same strategy as their parents, and (3) estimate reproductive and survival rates of the two migratory strategies. We evaluate hypotheses for the persistence of partial migration and discuss their implication for the evolution of migration in sedentary populations. Individual American Dippers rarely switched migratory strategy (4/169 monitored more than one year). An individual's strategy, however, was not always that of its parents, indicating that, while migratory behavior may have a genetic component, environmental or social conditions probably influence the migratory strategy that an individual adopts. Sedentary dippers consistently had higher annual productivity (approximately 1.4 more fledglings/year) than migratory dippers, but mark-recapture models suggested that migratory dippers may have slightly higher survival than residents (approximately 3.4%). Migrants were estimated to have lower lifetime reproductive success than residents because their higher survival was insufficient to offset their lower productivity. Our data suggest that alternative migratory strategies in American Dippers are unlikely to be a fixed genetic dimorphism that persists because the two strategies have equal fitness, or because the relative fitness of the two strategies fluctuates over time. Migratory strategies in American Dippers are more

  1. Applying metapopulation theory to conservation of migratory birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esler, Daniel N.

    2000-01-01

    Metapopulation theory has proven useful for understanding the population structure and dynamics of many species of conservation concern. The metapopulation concept has been applied almost exclusively to nonmigratory species, however, for which subpopulation demographic independence—a requirement for a classically defined metapopulation - is explicitly related to geographic distribution and dispersal probabilities. Defining the degree of demographic independence among subpopulations of migratory animals, and thus the applicability of metapopulation theory as a conceptual framework for understanding population dynamics, is much more difficult. Unlike nonmigratory species, subpopulations of migratory animals cannot be defined as synonymous with geographic areas. Groups of migratory birds that are geographically separate at one part of the annual cycle may occur together at others, but co-occurrence in time and space does not preclude the demographic independence of subpopulations. I suggest that metapopulation theory can be applied to migratory species but that understanding the degree of subpopulation independence may require information about both spatial distribution throughout the annual cycle and behavioral mechanisms that may lead to subpopulation demographic independence. The key for applying metapopulation theory to migratory animals lies in identifying demographically independent subpopulations, even as they move during the annual cycle and potentially co-occur with other subpopulations. Using examples of migratory bird species, I demonstrate that spatial and temporal modes of subpopulation independence can interact with behavioral mechanisms to create demographically independent subpopulations, including cases in which subpopulations are not spatially distinct in some parts of the annual cycle.

  2. Comparison of Navigation-Related Brain Regions in Migratory versus Non-Migratory Noctuid Moths.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Liv; Pfeiffer, Keram; Trebels, Björn; Adden, Andrea K; Green, Ken; Warrant, Eric; Heinze, Stanley

    2017-01-01

    Brain structure and function are tightly correlated across all animals. While these relations are ultimately manifestations of differently wired neurons, many changes in neural circuit architecture lead to larger-scale alterations visible already at the level of brain regions. Locating such differences has served as a beacon for identifying brain areas that are strongly associated with the ecological needs of a species-thus guiding the way towards more detailed investigations of how brains underlie species-specific behaviors. Particularly in relation to sensory requirements, volume-differences in neural tissue between closely related species reflect evolutionary investments that correspond to sensory abilities. Likewise, memory-demands imposed by lifestyle have revealed similar adaptations in regions associated with learning. Whether this is also the case for species that differ in their navigational strategy is currently unknown. While the brain regions associated with navigational control in insects have been identified (central complex (CX), lateral complex (LX) and anterior optic tubercles (AOTU)), it remains unknown in what way evolutionary investments have been made to accommodate particularly demanding navigational strategies. We have thus generated average-shape atlases of navigation-related brain regions of a migratory and a non-migratory noctuid moth and used volumetric analysis to identify differences. We further compared the results to identical data from Monarch butterflies. Whereas we found differences in the size of the nodular unit of the AOTU, the LX and the protocerebral bridge (PB) between the two moths, these did not unambiguously reflect migratory behavior across all three species. We conclude that navigational strategy, at least in the case of long-distance migration in lepidopteran insects, is not easily deductible from overall neuropil anatomy. This suggests that the adaptations needed to ensure successful migratory behavior are found in the

  3. Comparison of Navigation-Related Brain Regions in Migratory versus Non-Migratory Noctuid Moths

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Liv; Pfeiffer, Keram; Trebels, Björn; Adden, Andrea K.; Green, Ken; Warrant, Eric; Heinze, Stanley

    2017-01-01

    Brain structure and function are tightly correlated across all animals. While these relations are ultimately manifestations of differently wired neurons, many changes in neural circuit architecture lead to larger-scale alterations visible already at the level of brain regions. Locating such differences has served as a beacon for identifying brain areas that are strongly associated with the ecological needs of a species—thus guiding the way towards more detailed investigations of how brains underlie species-specific behaviors. Particularly in relation to sensory requirements, volume-differences in neural tissue between closely related species reflect evolutionary investments that correspond to sensory abilities. Likewise, memory-demands imposed by lifestyle have revealed similar adaptations in regions associated with learning. Whether this is also the case for species that differ in their navigational strategy is currently unknown. While the brain regions associated with navigational control in insects have been identified (central complex (CX), lateral complex (LX) and anterior optic tubercles (AOTU)), it remains unknown in what way evolutionary investments have been made to accommodate particularly demanding navigational strategies. We have thus generated average-shape atlases of navigation-related brain regions of a migratory and a non-migratory noctuid moth and used volumetric analysis to identify differences. We further compared the results to identical data from Monarch butterflies. Whereas we found differences in the size of the nodular unit of the AOTU, the LX and the protocerebral bridge (PB) between the two moths, these did not unambiguously reflect migratory behavior across all three species. We conclude that navigational strategy, at least in the case of long-distance migration in lepidopteran insects, is not easily deductible from overall neuropil anatomy. This suggests that the adaptations needed to ensure successful migratory behavior are found in

  4. The tendency to trust is reflected in human brain structure.

    PubMed

    Haas, Brian W; Ishak, Alexandra; Anderson, Ian W; Filkowski, Megan M

    2015-02-15

    Trust is an important component of human social life. Within the brain, the function within a neural network implicated in interpersonal and social-cognitive processing is associated with the way trust-based decisions are made. However, it is currently unknown how localized structure within the healthy human brain is associated with the tendency to trust other people. This study was designed to test the prediction that individual differences in the tendency to trust are associated with regional gray matter volume within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), amygdala and anterior insula. Behavioral and neuroimaging data were collected from a sample of 82 healthy participants. Individual differences in the tendency to trust were measured in two ways (self-report and behaviorally: trustworthiness evaluation of faces task). Voxel based morphometry analyses of high-resolution structural images (VBM8-DARTEL) were conducted to test for the association between the tendency to trust and regional gray matter volume. The results provide converging evidence that individuals characterized as trusting others more exhibit increased gray matter volume within the bilateral vmPFC and bilateral anterior insula. Greater right amygdala volume is associated with the tendency to rate faces as more trustworthy and distrustworthy (U-shaped function). A whole brain analysis also shows that the tendency to trust is reflected in the structure of dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. These findings advance neural models that associate the structure and function of the human brain with social decision-making and the tendency trust other people.

  5. Orientation of migratory birds under ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Wiltschko, Roswitha; Munro, Ursula; Ford, Hugh; Stapput, Katrin; Thalau, Peter; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    In view of the finding that cryptochrome 1a, the putative receptor molecule for the avian magnetic compass, is restricted to the ultraviolet single cones in European Robins, we studied the orientation behaviour of robins and Australian Silvereyes under monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) light. At low intensity UV light of 0.3 mW/m(2), birds showed normal migratory orientation by their inclination compass, with the directional information originating in radical pair processes in the eye. At 2.8 mW/m(2), robins showed an axial preference in the east-west axis, whereas silvereyes preferred an easterly direction. At 5.7 mW/m(2), robins changed direction to a north-south axis. When UV light was combined with yellow light, robins showed easterly 'fixed direction' responses, which changed to disorientation when their upper beak was locally anaesthetised with xylocaine, indicating that they were controlled by the magnetite-based receptors in the beak. Orientation under UV light thus appears to be similar to that observed under blue, turquoise and green light, albeit the UV responses occur at lower light levels, probably because of the greater light sensitivity of the UV cones. The orientation under UV light and green light suggests that at least at the level of the retina, magnetoreception and vision are largely independent of each other.

  6. Fishing out collective memory of migratory schools

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Giancarlo; Mariani, Patrizio; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Marsili, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Animals form groups for many reasons, but there are costs and benefits associated with group formation. One of the benefits is collective memory. In groups on the move, social interactions play a crucial role in the cohesion and the ability to make consensus decisions. When migrating from spawning to feeding areas, fish schools need to retain a collective memory of the destination site over thousands of kilometres, and changes in group formation or individual preference can produce sudden changes in migration pathways. We propose a modelling framework, based on stochastic adaptive networks, that can reproduce this collective behaviour. We assume that three factors control group formation and school migration behaviour: the intensity of social interaction, the relative number of informed individuals and the strength of preference that informed individuals have for a particular migration area. We treat these factors independently and relate the individuals’ preferences to the experience and memory for certain migration sites. We demonstrate that removal of knowledgeable individuals or alteration of individual preference can produce rapid changes in group formation and collective behaviour. For example, intensive fishing targeting the migratory species and also their preferred prey can reduce both terms to a point at which migration to the destination sites is suddenly stopped. The conceptual approaches represented by our modelling framework may therefore be able to explain large-scale changes in fish migration and spatial distribution. PMID:24647905

  7. Fishing out collective memory of migratory schools.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Giancarlo; Mariani, Patrizio; MacKenzie, Brian R; Marsili, Matteo

    2014-06-06

    Animals form groups for many reasons, but there are costs and benefits associated with group formation. One of the benefits is collective memory. In groups on the move, social interactions play a crucial role in the cohesion and the ability to make consensus decisions. When migrating from spawning to feeding areas, fish schools need to retain a collective memory of the destination site over thousands of kilometres, and changes in group formation or individual preference can produce sudden changes in migration pathways. We propose a modelling framework, based on stochastic adaptive networks, that can reproduce this collective behaviour. We assume that three factors control group formation and school migration behaviour: the intensity of social interaction, the relative number of informed individuals and the strength of preference that informed individuals have for a particular migration area. We treat these factors independently and relate the individuals' preferences to the experience and memory for certain migration sites. We demonstrate that removal of knowledgeable individuals or alteration of individual preference can produce rapid changes in group formation and collective behaviour. For example, intensive fishing targeting the migratory species and also their preferred prey can reduce both terms to a point at which migration to the destination sites is suddenly stopped. The conceptual approaches represented by our modelling framework may therefore be able to explain large-scale changes in fish migration and spatial distribution.

  8. Surveillance of avian influenza viruses in migratory birds in Egypt, 2003-09.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Atef; Saad, Magdi; Elassal, Emad; Amir, Ehab; Plathonoff, Chantal; Bahgat, Verina; El-Badry, Maha; Ahmed, Lu'ay S; Fouda, Mostafa; Gamaleldin, Mohammed; Mohamed, Nahed Abd-Elal; Salyer, Stephanie; Cornelius, Claire; Barthel, Robert

    2012-07-01

    Migratory (particularly aquatic) birds are the major natural reservoirs for type A influenza viruses. However, their role in transmitting highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses is unclear. Egypt is a "funnel" zone of wild bird migration pathways from Central Asia and Europe to Eastern and Central Africa ending in South Africa. We sought to detect and isolate avian influenza viruses in migratory birds in Egypt. During September 2003-February 2009, the US Naval Medical Research Unit Number 3, Cairo, Egypt, in collaboration with the Egyptian Ministry of Environment, obtained cloacal swabs from 7,894 migratory birds captured or shot by hunters in different geographic areas in Egypt. Samples were processed by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR for detection of the influenza A matrix gene. Positive samples were processed for virus isolation in specific-pathogen-free embryonated eggs and isolates were subtyped by PCR and partial sequencing. Ninety-five species of birds were collected. Predominant species were Green-Winged Teal (Anas carolinensis; 32.0%, n=2,528), Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata; 21.4%, n=1,686), and Northern Pintail (Anas acuta; 11.1%, n=877). Of the 7,894 samples, 745 (9.4%) were positive for the influenza A matrix gene (mainly from the above predominant species). Thirteen of the 745 (1.7%) were H5-positive by PCR (11 were low-pathogenic avian influenza and two were HPAI H5N1). The prevalences of influenza A was among regions were 10-15%, except in Middle Egypt (4%). Thirty-nine influenza isolates were obtained from PCR-positive samples. Seventeen subtypes of avian influenza viruses (including H5N1 and H7N7) were classified from 39 isolates using PCR and partial sequencing. Only one HPAI H5N1 was isolated in February 2006, from a wild resident Great Egret (Ardea alba). No major die-offs or sick migratory birds were detected during the study. We identified avian influenza virus subtypes not previously reported in Egypt. The HPAI H5N1 isolated

  9. Trophic matches in Northern Alaska: Existing synchrony among climate, vegetation, arthropods and migratory songbirds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boelman, N.; Gough, L.; Wingfield, J. C.; Team Bird

    2011-12-01

    Climate change in the Arctic is altering patterns of seasonality while also altering the composition and structure of vegetation. In contrast to plants, energy balance, and carbon and nitrogen cycling, the responses of animal populations to these changes have been drastically understudied in the Alaskan interior and much of the Arctic. Investigations are therefore needed to better understand trophic dynamics involving vertebrates under current conditions, and to predict how this group may be impacted by both the direct and indirect effects of changing seasonality and vegetation cover. This is particularly important for migratory animals that breed annually on the arctic tundra because they provide a direct connection between the rapidly changing arctic environment and their more southern staging and over-wintering habitats. In a five year observational study, we are exploring how both shifts towards earlier spring snow melt and the ongoing increase in regional deciduous shrub dominance may affect migratory songbird communities that depend on the tundra for food and shelter during their breeding season. Here we present early results from sites in northern Alaska that differ in shrub height and abundance that reveal: (1) strong existing synchrony among the timing of spring snow melt, spring air temperatures, vegetation phenology, arthropod phenology and the timing of breeding stages of migratory songbirds, and; (2) significant differences in the types and abundance of vegetative and arthropod food sources, as well as environmental and biophysical micro-habitat conditions, between non-shrub dominated tundra plots and deciduous shrub dominated tundra. The arrival time of migratory songbirds on the tundra, and thus the onset of their breeding cycle, is cued by day length, while snow melt, plant growth and arthropod emergence are temperature sensitive. We therefore hypothesize that warmer spring time temperatures could cause a mismatch between the arrival time and onset

  10. Deforestation in Brazil: motivations, journeys and tendencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, J. C.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Esteves, T. C. J.; Bento, C. P. M.

    2012-04-01

    José Carlos Leite1; António José Dinis Ferreira2; Tanya Cristina de Jesus Esteves2; Célia Patrícia Martins Bento2 1Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Brazil; 2IPC - Escola Superior Agrária de Coimbra, Portugal Over the last three decades, deforestation in Brazil occurred systematically in the area known as the "arc of deforestation", an extensive geographical area located in the interface of the Cerrado and the Amazon biomes. This work encompasses the reasons, causes and/or motivations of that recent deforestation, focusing on the Central-West and Northern regions. A number of reasons will be presented, seeking to build an approach able to identify the deepest roots of deforestation of those regions. Our actions over the environment are framed by our cultural matrix that stream from a western philosophic attitude. This way, to understand the framework where the deforestation actions are justified requires a multidisciplinary approach to understand the deforestation of the Cerrado and Amazon biomes, since the motivations for forest destruction in Brazil are complex and not entirely understood within the domains of a single disciplinary area. To search for an isolated cause to understand the recent deforestation can only be plausible if we ignore information on what actually happens. The methodology used in this work is based on a bibliographical revision, analysis of georeferrenced information, participative processes implementation and observation of stakeholder behavior, and field research. It departs from a general vision on deforestation that initially occurred at the littoral region, by the Atlantic Rainforest, right after the arrival of the Europeans, and throughout the centuries penetrates towards the interior, hitting the Cerrado and Amazon biomes. In this last case, we focused on the Vale do Alto Guaporé region, near Bolivia, where the intensity of the deforestation was verified from 1970 to 1990. Ultimately, the final result is a mosaic of reasons

  11. Brain size, innovative propensity and migratory behaviour in temperate Palaearctic birds

    PubMed Central

    Sol, Daniel; Lefebvre, Louis; Rodríguez-Teijeiro, J. Domingo

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of migration in birds remains an outstanding, unresolved question in evolutionary ecology. A particularly intriguing question is why individuals in some species have been selected to migrate, whereas in other species they have been selected to be sedentary. In this paper, we suggest that this diverging selection might partially result from differences among species in the behavioural flexibility of their responses to seasonal changes in the environment. This hypothesis is supported in a comparative analysis of Palaearctic passerines. First, resident species tend to rely more on innovative feeding behaviours in winter, when food is harder to find, than in other seasons. Second, species with larger brains, relative to their body size, and a higher propensity for innovative behaviours tend to be resident, while less flexible species tend to be migratory. Residence also appears to be less likely in species that occur in more northerly regions, exploit temporally available food sources, inhabit non-buffered habitats and have smaller bodies. Yet, the role of behavioural flexibility as a response to seasonal environments is largely independent of these other factors. Therefore, species with greater foraging flexibility seem to be able to cope with seasonal environments better, while less flexible species are forced to become migratory. PMID:16011917

  12. Development of Matched (migratory Analytical Time Change Easy Detection) Method for Satellite-Tracked Migratory Birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doko, Tomoko; Chen, Wenbo; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2016-06-01

    Satellite tracking technology has been used to reveal the migration patterns and flyways of migratory birds. In general, bird migration can be classified according to migration status. These statuses include the wintering period, spring migration, breeding period, and autumn migration. To determine the migration status, periods of these statuses should be individually determined, but there is no objective method to define 'a threshold date' for when an individual bird changes its status. The research objective is to develop an effective and objective method to determine threshold dates of migration status based on satellite-tracked data. The developed method was named the "MATCHED (Migratory Analytical Time Change Easy Detection) method". In order to demonstrate the method, data acquired from satellite-tracked Tundra Swans were used. MATCHED method is composed by six steps: 1) dataset preparation, 2) time frame creation, 3) automatic identification, 4) visualization of change points, 5) interpretation, and 6) manual correction. Accuracy was tested. In general, MATCHED method was proved powerful to identify the change points between migration status as well as stopovers. Nevertheless, identifying "exact" threshold dates is still challenging. Limitation and application of this method was discussed.

  13. Giardia sp. Cysts and Infectious Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts in the Feces of Migratory Canada Geese (Branta canadensis)

    PubMed Central

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K.; Fayer, Ronald; Trout, James M.; Lewis, Earl J.; Farley, C. Austin; Sulaiman, Irshad; Lal, Altaf A.

    1998-01-01

    Fecal droppings of migratory Canada geese, Branta canadensis, collected from nine sites near the Chesapeake Bay (Maryland), were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia spp. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were found in feces at seven of nine sites, and Giardia cysts were found at all nine sites. The oocysts from three sites were infectious for mice and molecularly identified as the zoonotic genotype of Cryptosporidium parvum. Waterfowl can disseminate infectious C. parvum oocysts in the environment. PMID:9647860

  14. Moving across the border: Modeling migratory bat populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruscena, Wiederholt; López-Hoffman, Laura; Cline, Jon; Medellin, Rodrigo; Cryan, Paul M.; Russell, Amy; McCracken, Gary; Diffendorfer, Jay; Semmens, Darius J.

    2013-01-01

    The migration of animals across long distances and between multiple habitats presents a major challenge for conservation. For the migratory Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana), these challenges include identifying and protecting migratory routes and critical roosts in two countries, the United States and Mexico. Knowledge and conservation of bat migratory routes is critical in the face of increasing threats from climate change and wind turbines that might decrease migratory survival. We employ a new modeling approach for bat migration, network modeling, to simulate migratory routes between winter habitat in southern Mexico and summer breeding habitat in northern Mexico and the southwestern United States. We use the model to identify key migratory routes and the roosts of greatest conservation value to the overall population. We measure roost importance by the degree to which the overall bat population declined when the roost was removed from the model. The major migratory routes—those with the greatest number of migrants—were between winter habitat in southern Mexico and summer breeding roosts in Texas and the northern Mexican states of Sonora and Nuevo Leon. The summer breeding roosts in Texas, Sonora, and Nuevo Leon were the most important for maintaining population numbers and network structure – these are also the largest roosts. This modeling approach contributes to conservation efforts by identifying the most influential areas for bat populations, and can be used as a tool to improve our understanding of bat migration for other species. We anticipate this approach will help direct coordination of habitat protection across borders.

  15. Stopover ecology of a migratory ungulate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sawyer, Hall; Kauffman, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    1. Birds that migrate long distances use stopover sites to optimize fuel loads and complete migration as quickly as possible. Stopover use has been predicted to facilitate a time-minimization strategy in land migrants as well, but empirical tests have been lacking, and alternative migration strategies have not been considered. 2. We used fine-scale movement data to evaluate the ecological role of stopovers in migratory mule deer Odocoileus hemionus— a land migrant whose fitness is strongly influenced by energy intake rather than migration speed. 3. Although deer could easily complete migrations (range 18–144 km) in several days, they took an average of 3 weeks and spent 95% of that time in a series of stopover sites that had higher forage quality than movement corridors. Forage quality of stopovers increased with elevation and distance from winter range. Mule deer use of stopovers corresponded with a narrow phenological range, such that deer occupied stopovers 44 days prior to peak green-up, when forage quality was presumed to be highest. Mule deer used one stopover for every 5∙3 and 6∙7 km travelled during spring and autumn migrations, respectively, and used the same stopovers in consecutive years. 4. Study findings indicate that stopovers play a key role in the migration strategy of mule deer by allowing individuals to migrate in concert with plant phenology and maximize energy intake rather than speed. Our results suggest that stopover use may be more common among non-avian taxa than previously thought and, although the underlying migration strategies of temperate ungulates and birds are quite different, stopover use is important to both. 5. Exploring the role of stopovers in land migrants broadens the scope of stopover ecology and recognizes that the applied and theoretical benefits of stopover ecology need not be limited to avian taxa.

  16. Stopover ecology of a migratory ungulate.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Hall; Kauffman, Matthew J

    2011-09-01

    1. Birds that migrate long distances use stopover sites to optimize fuel loads and complete migration as quickly as possible. Stopover use has been predicted to facilitate a time-minimization strategy in land migrants as well, but empirical tests have been lacking, and alternative migration strategies have not been considered. 2. We used fine-scale movement data to evaluate the ecological role of stopovers in migratory mule deer Odocoileus hemionus- a land migrant whose fitness is strongly influenced by energy intake rather than migration speed. 3. Although deer could easily complete migrations (range 18-144 km) in several days, they took an average of 3 weeks and spent 95% of that time in a series of stopover sites that had higher forage quality than movement corridors. Forage quality of stopovers increased with elevation and distance from winter range. Mule deer use of stopovers corresponded with a narrow phenological range, such that deer occupied stopovers 44 days prior to peak green-up, when forage quality was presumed to be highest. Mule deer used one stopover for every 5·3 and 6·7 km travelled during spring and autumn migrations, respectively, and used the same stopovers in consecutive years. 4. Study findings indicate that stopovers play a key role in the migration strategy of mule deer by allowing individuals to migrate in concert with plant phenology and maximize energy intake rather than speed. Our results suggest that stopover use may be more common among non-avian taxa than previously thought and, although the underlying migration strategies of temperate ungulates and birds are quite different, stopover use is important to both. 5. Exploring the role of stopovers in land migrants broadens the scope of stopover ecology and recognizes that the applied and theoretical benefits of stopover ecology need not be limited to avian taxa. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2011 British Ecological Society.

  17. Modeling seasonal interactions in the population dynamics of migratory birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, M.C.; Marra, P.P.; Greenberg, Russell; Marra, Peter P.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the population dynamics of migratory birds requires understanding the relevant biological events that occur during breeding, migratory, and overwintering periods. The few available population models for passerine birds focus on breeding-season events, disregard or oversimplify events during nonbreeding periods, and ignore interactions that occur between periods of the annual cycle. Identifying and explicitly incorporating seasonal interactions into population models for migratory birds could provide important insights about when population limitation actually occurs in the annual cycle. We present a population model for the annual cycle of a migratory bird, based on the American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) but more generally applicable, that examines the importance of seasonal interactions by incorporating: (1) density dependence during the breeding and winter seasons, (2) a carry-over effect of winter habitat on breeding-season productivity, and (3) the effects of behavioral dominance on seasonal and habitat specific demographic rates. First, we show that habitat availability on both the wintering and breeding grounds can strongly affect equilibrium population size and sex ratio. Second, sex ratio dynamics, as mediated by behavioral dominance, can affect all other aspects of population dynamics. Third, carry-over effects can be strong, especially when winter events are limiting. These results suggest that understanding the population dynamics of migratory birds may require more consideration of the seasonal interactions induced by carry-over effects and density dependence in multiple seasons. This model provides a framework in which to explore more fully these seasonal dynamics and a context for estimation of life history parameters.

  18. Evolutionary Divergence in Brain Size between Migratory and Resident Birds

    PubMed Central

    Sol, Daniel; Garcia, Núria; Iwaniuk, Andrew; Davis, Katie; Meade, Andrew; Boyle, W. Alice; Székely, Tamás

    2010-01-01

    Despite important recent progress in our understanding of brain evolution, controversy remains regarding the evolutionary forces that have driven its enormous diversification in size. Here, we report that in passerine birds, migratory species tend to have brains that are substantially smaller (relative to body size) than those of resident species, confirming and generalizing previous studies. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on Bayesian Markov chain methods suggest an evolutionary scenario in which some large brained tropical passerines that invaded more seasonal regions evolved migratory behavior and migration itself selected for smaller brain size. Selection for smaller brains in migratory birds may arise from the energetic and developmental costs associated with a highly mobile life cycle, a possibility that is supported by a path analysis. Nevertheless, an important fraction (over 68%) of the correlation between brain mass and migratory distance comes from a direct effect of migration on brain size, perhaps reflecting costs associated with cognitive functions that have become less necessary in migratory species. Overall, our results highlight the importance of retrospective analyses in identifying selective pressures that have shaped brain evolution, and indicate that when it comes to the brain, larger is not always better. PMID:20224776

  19. Evolutionary divergence in brain size between migratory and resident birds.

    PubMed

    Sol, Daniel; Garcia, Núria; Iwaniuk, Andrew; Davis, Katie; Meade, Andrew; Boyle, W Alice; Székely, Tamás

    2010-03-10

    Despite important recent progress in our understanding of brain evolution, controversy remains regarding the evolutionary forces that have driven its enormous diversification in size. Here, we report that in passerine birds, migratory species tend to have brains that are substantially smaller (relative to body size) than those of resident species, confirming and generalizing previous studies. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on Bayesian Markov chain methods suggest an evolutionary scenario in which some large brained tropical passerines that invaded more seasonal regions evolved migratory behavior and migration itself selected for smaller brain size. Selection for smaller brains in migratory birds may arise from the energetic and developmental costs associated with a highly mobile life cycle, a possibility that is supported by a path analysis. Nevertheless, an important fraction (over 68%) of the correlation between brain mass and migratory distance comes from a direct effect of migration on brain size, perhaps reflecting costs associated with cognitive functions that have become less necessary in migratory species. Overall, our results highlight the importance of retrospective analyses in identifying selective pressures that have shaped brain evolution, and indicate that when it comes to the brain, larger is not always better.

  20. Is there a "migratory syndrome" common to all migrant birds?

    PubMed

    Piersma, Theunis; Pérez-Tris, Javier; Mouritsen, Henrik; Bauchinger, Ulf; Bairlein, Franz

    2005-06-01

    Bird migration has been assumed, mostly implicitly, to represent a distinct class of animal behavior, with deep and strong homologies in the various phenotypic expressions of migratory behavior between different taxa. Here the evidence for the existence of what could be called a "migratory syndrome," a tightly integrated, old group of adaptive traits that enables birds to commit themselves to highly organized seasonal migrations, is assessed. A list of problems faced by migratory birds is listed first and the traits that migratory birds have evolved to deal with these problems are discussed. The usefulness of comparative approaches to investigate which traits are unique to migrants is then discussed. A provisional conclusion that, perhaps apart from a capacity for night-time compass orientation, there is little evidence for deeply rooted coadapted trait complexes that could make up such a migratory syndrome, is suggested. Detailed analyses of the genetic and physiological architecture of potential adaptations to migration, combined with a comparative approach to further identify the phylogenetic levels at which different adaptive traits for migration have evolved, are recommended.

  1. Do artisanal fishers perceive declining migratory shorebird populations?

    PubMed

    Andrade, Luciano Pires; Silva-Andrade, Horasa Maria Lima; Lyra-Neves, Rachel Maria; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Telino-Júnior, Wallace Rodrigues

    2016-03-03

    This paper discusses the results of ethno-ornithological research conducted on the local ecological knowledge (LEK) of artisanal fishers in northeast Brazil between August 2013 and October 2014. The present study analyzed the LEK of 240 artisanal fishermen in relation to Nearctic shorebirds and the factors that may be affecting their populations. We examined whether differences occurred according to the gender and age of the local population. The research instruments included semi-structured and check-list interviews. We found that greater knowledge of migratory birds and the areas where they occur was retained by the local men compared with the local women. Half of the male respondents stated that the birds are always in the same locations, and most of the respondents believed that changes in certain populations were caused by factors related to habitat disturbance, particularly to increases in housing construction and visitors to the island. The main practices affecting the presence of migratory birds mentioned by the locals were boat traffic and noise from bars and vessels. According to the artisanal fishermen, the population of migratory birds that use the area for foraging and resting has been reduced over time. Changes in the local landscape related to urbanization and tourism are most likely the primary causes underlying the reduced migratory shorebird populations as reported by local inhabitants. Thus, managing and monitoring urbanization and tourism are fundamental to increasing the success of the migration process and improving the conservation of migratory shorebird species.

  2. Marsh frogs, Pelophylax ridibundus, determine migratory direction by magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Shakhparonov, Vladimir V; Ogurtsov, Sergei V

    2017-01-01

    Orientation by magnetic cues appears to be adaptive during animal migrations. Whereas the magnetic orientation in birds, mammals, and urodele amphibians is being investigated intensively, the data about anurans are still scarce. This study tests whether marsh frogs could determine migratory direction between the breeding pond and the wintering site by magnetic cues in the laboratory. Adult frogs (N = 32) were individually tested in the T-maze 127 cm long inside the three-axis Helmholtz coil system (diameter 3 m). The arms of the maze were positioned parallel to the natural migratory route of this population when measured in accordance with magnetic field. The frogs were tested under two-motivational conditions mediated by temperature/light regime: the breeding migratory state and the wintering state. The frogs' choice in a T-maze was evident only when analyzed in accordance with the direction of the magnetic field: they moved along the migratory route to the breeding pond and followed the reversion of the horizontal component of the magnetic field. This preference has been detected in both sexes only in the breeding migratory state. This suggests that adult ranid frogs can obtain directional information from the Earth's magnetic field as was shown earlier in urodeles and anuran larvae.

  3. Setting conservation priorities for migratory networks under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Dhanjal-Adams, Kiran L; Klaassen, Marcel; Nicol, Sam; Possingham, Hugh P; Chadès, Iadine; Fuller, Richard A

    2017-06-01

    Conserving migratory species requires protecting connected habitat along the pathways they travel. Despite recent improvements in tracking animal movements, migratory connectivity remains poorly resolved at a population level for the vast majority of species, thus conservation prioritization is hampered. To address this data limitation, we developed a novel approach to spatial prioritization based on a model of potential connectivity derived from empirical data on species abundance and distance traveled between sites during migration. We applied the approach to migratory shorebirds of the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. Conservation strategies that prioritized sites based on connectivity and abundance metrics together maintained larger populations of birds than strategies that prioritized sites based only on abundance metrics. The conservation value of a site therefore depended on both its capacity to support migratory animals and its position within the migratory pathway; the loss of crucial sites led to partial or total population collapse. We suggest that conservation approaches that prioritize sites supporting large populations of migrants should, where possible, also include data on the spatial arrangement of sites. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Alexithymia and childhood family environment.

    PubMed

    Kench, S; Irwin, H J

    2000-06-01

    Little research has been conducted on the contribution of environmental factors to the development of alexithymic tendencies. Ninety-two university students were surveyed to determine if features of the childhood family environment could predict the level of alexithymic tendencies. The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale was used to measure alexithymic tendencies. Also surveyed retrospectively were dimensions of the childhood family environment such as the family's level of cohesion, expressiveness, conflict, disengagement, sociability, enmeshment, organization, and parenting style. Multiple-regression analysis showed that the set of family-environment variables did predict alexithymia scores. The sole family variable independently predictive of global alexithymic tendencies was expressiveness, although other family variables were predictive of individual components of alexithymia. The findings are consistent with the view that the childhood family environment has a bearing on the development of alexithymic tendencies, although other explanations by no means are excluded.

  5. Chemical processes related to net ozone tendencies in the free troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozem, Heiko; Butler, Tim M.; Lawrence, Mark G.; Harder, Hartwig; Martinez, Monica; Kubistin, Dagmar; Lelieveld, Jos; Fischer, Horst

    2017-09-01

    Ozone (O3) is an important atmospheric oxidant, a greenhouse gas, and a hazard to human health and agriculture. Here we describe airborne in situ measurements and model simulations of O3 and its precursors during tropical and extratropical field campaigns over South America and Europe, respectively. Using the measurements, net ozone formation/destruction tendencies are calculated and compared to 3-D chemistry-transport model simulations. In general, observation-based net ozone tendencies are positive in the continental boundary layer and the upper troposphere at altitudes above ˜ 6 km in both environments. On the other hand, in the marine boundary layer and the middle troposphere, from the top of the boundary layer to about 6-8 km altitude, net O3 destruction prevails. The ozone tendencies are controlled by ambient concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx). In regions with net ozone destruction the available NOx is below the threshold value at which production and destruction of O3 balance. While threshold NO values increase with altitude, in the upper troposphere NOx concentrations are generally higher due to the integral effect of convective precursor transport from the boundary layer, downward transport from the stratosphere and NOx produced by lightning. Two case studies indicate that in fresh convective outflow of electrified thunderstorms net ozone production is enhanced by a factor 5-6 compared to the undisturbed upper tropospheric background. The chemistry-transport model MATCH-MPIC generally reproduces the pattern of observation-based net ozone tendencies but mostly underestimates the magnitude of the net tendency (for both net ozone production and destruction).

  6. Water requirements and drinking rates of homing pigeons: A consideration for exposure risk of migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Perez, Cristina R; Moye, John K; Pritsos, Chris A

    2017-02-13

    Access to water along a bird's migratory flyway is essential during the vital process of migration. Because of the scarcity of water in some environments, there is potential for migratory birds to encounter and drink from contaminated bodies of water. Ingestion of contaminated water may cause injury and compromise flying ability, leading to a disruption of migration. To determine injury to birds from potential exposure, it is essential to know not only the concentration of a given contaminant in the water but also the quantity and rate of water consumption by the birds. Homing pigeons (Columba livia) were used in a series of experiments to determine differences in drinking behavior after various flights and after periods of resting. Results from the present study demonstrate that homing pigeons' water consumption is dramatically different when assessed according to activity, flight distance, and time elapsed after flight. This suggests that the drinking rates of birds during migration are extremely important and much greater than estimated using traditional exposure assessment procedures. Thus, exposure to contaminants via drinking water may be greatly underestimated, and the rate of water consumption should be considered when estimating potential exposure risk to avian species. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;00:000-000. ©2017 SETAC.

  7. Culture-bound syndromes in migratory contexts: the case of Bolivian immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Roldán-Chicano, María Teresa; Fernández-Rufete, José; Hueso-Montoro, César; García-López, María del Mar; Rodríguez-Tello, Javier; Flores-Bienert, María Dolores

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to describe the culture-bound syndromes maintained by Bolivian immigrants in the new migratory context and analyze the care processes of these health problems. Method: qualitative research with an ethnographic methodological approach. Sample: 27 Bolivian immigrants. In-depth interviews and participatory observation were the strategies used for data collection. Data were classified and categorized into logical schemes manually and using the ATLAS-ti program v.5. Results: susto, “wayras”, amartelo, pasmo de sol, pasmo de luna and pasmo de sereno are some of the folk illnesses that affect the Bolivian immigrants and that they have to treat in the new migratory context. Conclusions: in the new environment, the group under study preserves culture-bound syndromes that are common in their country of origin. The care strategies used for these health problems are adapted to the resources of the new context and based on interactions with the domestic environment, biomedicine and traditional medicine. It was observed the need for the health professionals to realize that the efficacy of certain therapies occurs within the scope of cultural beliefs and not in that of the scientific evidence. PMID:28699998

  8. Hybrid songbirds employ intermediate routes in a migratory divide.

    PubMed

    Delmore, Kira E; Irwin, Darren E

    2014-10-01

    Migratory divides are contact zones between populations that use different routes to navigate around unsuitable areas on seasonal migration. Hybrids in divides have been predicted to employ intermediate and potentially inferior routes. We provide the first direct test of this hypothesis, using light-level geolocators to track birds breeding in a hybrid zone between Swainson's thrushes in western Canada. Compared to parental forms, hybrids exhibited increased variability in their migratory routes, with some using intermediate routes that crossed arid and mountainous regions, and some using the same routes as one parental group on fall migration and the other on spring migration. Hybrids also tended to use geographically intermediate wintering sites. Analysis of genetic variation across the hybrid zone suggests moderately strong selection against hybrids. These results indicate that seasonal migratory behaviour might be a source of selection against hybrids, supporting a possible role for migration in speciation.

  9. Migratory Passerine Birds as Reservoirs of Lyme Borreliosis in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Comstedt, Pär; Bergström, Sven; Olsen, Björn; Garpmo, Ulf; Marjavaara, Lisette; Mejlon, Hans; Barbour, Alan G.

    2006-01-01

    To define the role of birds as reservoirs and disseminators of Borrelia spirochetes, we characterized tick infestation and reservoir competence of migratory passerine birds in Sweden. A total of 1,120 immature Ixodes ricinus ticks were removed from 13,260 birds and assayed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Borrelia, followed by DNA sequencing for species and genotype identification. Distributions of ticks on birds were aggregated, presumably because of varying encounters with ticks along migratory routes. Lyme borreliosis spirochetes were detected in 160 (14%) ticks. Borrelia garinii was the most common species in PCR-positive samples and included genotypes associated with human infections. Infestation prevalence with infected ticks was 5 times greater among ground-foraging birds than other bird species, but the 2 groups were equally competent in transmitting Borrelia. Migratory passerine birds host epidemiologically important vector ticks and Borrelia species and vary in effectiveness as reservoirs on the basis of their feeding behavior. PMID:16836825

  10. Migration costs drive convergence of threshold traits for migratory tactics.

    PubMed

    Sahashi, Genki; Morita, Kentaro

    2013-12-22

    Partial migration of some, but not all, members of a population is a common form of migration. We evaluated how migration costs influence which members migrate in 10 populations of two salmonid species. The migratory patterns of both species were evaluated based on the size at maturity for resident males, which is the threshold trait that determines the migratory tactics used within a population. In both species, this size was smaller in males located further from the sea, where migration costs are presumably higher. Moreover, the threshold sizes at maturity in males were correlated between both species. Our results suggest that migration costs are a significant convergent selective force on migratory tactics and life-history traits in nature.

  11. Food availability during migratory stopover affects testis growth and reproductive behaviour in a migratory passerine.

    PubMed

    Bauchinger, Ulf; Van't Hof, Thomas; Biebach, Herbert

    2009-03-01

    Long-distance migratory passerines initiate testicular recrudescence during spring migration to meet the demands of timely reproduction upon immediate arrival on the breeding grounds. The degree of testicular development is known to depend on environmental factors like stopover habitat quality; reproductive performance may be strongly impacted by testicular maturation upon arrival on the breeding grounds. We investigated the effect of stopover food availability on subsequent reproductive performance in garden warblers (Sylvia borin). Spring migration was simulated by repeated food deprivation and re-feeding to imitate the alternation of flight and stopover periods. During the two final stopover periods, males were either kept under ad libitum food (ad libitum males) or under limited food conditions (limited males). After simulated arrival in the breeding area, manipulation of previous stopover food availability resulted in significantly slower testicular recrudescence (p<0.001) and decreased plasma testosterone (p<0.01) in limited males compared to ad libitum males. Body mass change was not significantly different between the two groups (p=0.38). Limited males also exhibited reduced performance in reproductive behaviours employed in territorial and sexual contexts. Limited males had a longer 'freezing' interval (p<0.05) and decreased activity (p<0.01) when challenged with a live male decoy. In direct confrontation between limited and ad libitum males in the presence of a female, limited males exhibited significantly fewer behavioural traits in sexual context, i.e. directed to the female (p<0.001). Therefore, we suggest that conditions encountered during previous migratory stopover may affect subsequent annual reproductive success by influencing key reproductive behaviours.

  12. Acephate affects migratory orientation of the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Kuenzel, W.J.; Hill, E.F.; Sauer, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Migratory white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) were exposed to acephate (acetylphosphoramidothioic acid O,S-dimethyl ester), an organophosphorus pesticide, to determine its effects on migratory orientation and behavior. Birds were also exposed to polarizer sheets to determine the mechanism by which acephate may affect migratory orientation. Adult birds exposed to 256 ppm acephate a.i. were not able to establish a preferred migratory orientation and exhibited random activity. All juvenile treatment groups displayed a seasonally correct southward migratory orientation. We hypothesize that acephate may have produced aberrant migratory behavior by affecting the memory of the migratory route and wintering ground. This experiment reveals that an environmentally relevant concentration of a common organophosphorus pesticide can alter migratory orientation, but its effect is markedly different between adult and juvenile sparrows. Results suggest that the survival of free-flying adult passerine migrants may be compromised following organophosphorus pesticide exposure.

  13. Human mesostriatal response tracks motivational tendencies under naturalistic goal conflict

    PubMed Central

    Gonen, Tal; Soreq, Eyal; Eldar, Eran; Ben-Simon, Eti; Raz, Gal

    2016-01-01

    Goal conflict situations, involving the simultaneous presence of reward and punishment, occur commonly in real life, and reflect well-known individual differences in the behavioral tendency to approach or avoid. However, despite accumulating neural depiction of motivational processing, the investigation of naturalistic approach behavior and its interplay with individual tendencies is remarkably lacking. We developed a novel ecological interactive scenario which triggers motivational behavior under high or low goal conflict conditions. Fifty-five healthy subjects played the game during a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. A machine-learning approach was applied to classify approach/avoidance behaviors during the game. To achieve an independent measure of individual tendencies, an integrative profile was composed from three established theoretical models. Results demonstrated that approach under high relative to low conflict involved increased activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), peri-aquaductal gray, ventral striatum (VS) and precuneus. Notably, only VS and VTA activations during high conflict discriminated between approach/avoidance personality profiles, suggesting that the relationship between individual personality and naturalistic motivational tendencies is uniquely associated with the mesostriatal pathway. VTA–VS further demonstrated stronger coupling during high vs low conflict. These findings are the first to unravel the multilevel relationship among personality profile, approach tendencies in naturalistic set-up and their underlying neural manifestation, thus enabling new avenues for investigating approach-related psychopathologies. PMID:26833917

  14. Socially anxious tendencies affect neural processing of gaze perception.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yuki; Shimada, Sotaro

    2017-11-01

    The gaze of others is known to be a particularly common cause of social anxiety. In the current study, we measured event-related potentials (ERPs) during gaze perception among people with or without high socially anxious tendencies (HSA). The experimental stimuli were grayscale images of the eye region of a face, showing direct or averted eye gaze (leftward gaze or rightward gaze) or closed eyes. We found that negative ERPs at a right occipito-temporal site (N170) and positive ERPs at the fronto-central region (P2) were evoked by eye gaze stimuli. While the N170 was not affected by socially anxious tendencies, the amplitude of the P2 was significantly greater in the HSA group than in the low socially anxious tendencies (LSA) group. Furthermore, P2 latency showed a significant interaction between groups and conditions: the HSA group exhibited shorter P2 latencies in response to direct gaze than averted gaze, while the LSA group did not. These results indicate that the neural processing of eye gaze is strongly influenced by socially anxious tendencies. In particular, the attentional processing of direct gaze is more prominent in individuals with HSA tendencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Migratory pathways of GABAergic interneurons when they enter the neocortex.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Daisuke H; Nakajima, Kazunori

    2012-06-01

    Inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric-acid-containing interneurons play important roles in the functions of the neocortex. During rodent development, most neocortical interneurons are generated in the subpallium and migrate tangentially toward the neocortex. They migrate through multiple pathways to enter the neocortex. Failure of interneuron migration through these pathways during development leads to an abnormal distribution and abnormal functions of interneurons in the postnatal brain. Because of recent discoveries regarding the novel origins and migratory pathways of neocortical interneurons, in this article we review the literature on the migratory pathways of interneurons when they enter the neocortex.

  16. Modeling migratory energetics of Connecticut River American shad (Alosa sapidissima): implications for the conservation of an iteroparous anadromous fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castro-Santos, Theodore; Letcher, Benjamin H.

    2010-01-01

    We present a simulation model in which individual adult migrant American shad (Alosa sapidissima) ascend the Connecticut River and spawn, and survivors return to the marine environment. Our approach synthesizes bioenergetics, reproductive biology, and behavior to estimate the effects of migratory distance and delays incurred at dams on spawning success and survival. We quantified both the magnitude of effects and the consequences of uncertainty in the estimates of input variables. Behavior, physiology, and energetics strongly affected both the distribution of spawning effort and survival to the marine environment. Delays to both upstream and downstream movements had dramatic effects on spawning success, determining total fecundity and spatial extent of spawning. Delays, combined with cues for migratory reversal, also determined the likelihood of survival. Spawning was concentrated in the immediate vicinity of dams and increased with greater migratory distance and delays to downstream migration. More research is needed on reproductive biology, behavior, energetics, and barrier effects to adequately understand the interplay of the various components of this model; it does provide a framework, however, that suggests that provision of upstream passage at dams in the absence of expeditious downstream passage may increase spawning success — but at the expense of reduced iteroparity. 

  17. Trace elements have limited utility for studying migratory connectivity in shorebirds that winter in Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres-Dowdall, J.; Farmer, A.H.; Abril, M.; Bucher, E.H.; Ridley, I.

    2010-01-01

    Trace-element analysis has been suggested as a tool for the study of migratory connectivity because (1) trace-element abundance varies spatially in the environment, (2) trace elements are assimilated into animals' tissues through the diet, and (3) current technology permits the analysis of multiple trace elements in a small tissue sample, allowing the simultaneous exploration of several elements. We explored the potential of trace elements (B, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cs, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, and U) to clarify the migratory connectivity of shorebirds that breed in North America and winter in southern South America. We collected 66 recently replaced secondary feathers from Red Knots (Calidris canutus) at three sites in Patagonia and 76 from White-rumped Sandpipers (C. fuscicollis) at nine sites across Argentina. There were significant differences in trace-element abundance in shorebird feathers grown at different nonbreeding sites, and annual variability within a site was small compared to variability among sites. Across Argentina, there was no large-scale gradient in trace elements. The lack of such a gradient restricts the application of this technique to questions concerning the origin of shorebirds to a small number of discrete sites. Furthermore, our results including three additional species, the Pectoral Sandpiper (C. melanotos), Wilson's Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), and Collared Plover (Charadrius collaris), suggest that trace-element profiles change as feathers age. Temporal instability of trace-element values could undermine their application to the study of migratory connectivity in shorebirds. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.

  18. Site fidelity and individual variation in winter location in partially migratory European shags.

    PubMed

    Grist, Hannah; Daunt, Francis; Wanless, Sarah; Nelson, Emily J; Harris, Mike P; Newell, Mark; Burthe, Sarah; Reid, Jane M

    2014-01-01

    In partially migratory populations, individuals from a single breeding area experience a range of environments during the non-breeding season. If individuals show high within- and among- year fidelity to specific locations, any annual environmental effect on individual life histories could be reinforced, causing substantial demographic heterogeneity. Quantifying within- and among- individual variation and repeatability in non-breeding season location is therefore key to predicting broad-scale environmental impacts on the dynamics of partially migratory populations. We used field resightings of colour-ringed adult European shags known to have bred on the Isle of May, Scotland, to quantify individual variation and repeatability in winter location within and among three consecutive winters. In total, 3797 resightings of 882 individuals were recorded over 622 km of coastline, including the Isle of May. These individuals comprised over 50% of the known breeding population, and encompassed representative distributions of ages and sexes. The distances from the Isle of May at which individuals were resighted during winter varied substantially, up to 486 km and 136 km north and south respectively and including the breeding colony on the Isle of May. However, resighting distances were highly repeatable within individuals; within- and among-winter repeatabilities were >0.72 and >0.59 respectively across the full September-March observation period, and >0.95 and >0.79 respectively across more restricted mid-winter periods. Repeatability did not differ significantly between males and females or among different age classes, either within or among winters. These data demonstrate that the focal shag population is partially migratory, and moreover that individuals show highly repeatable variation in winter location and hence migration strategy across consecutive winters. Such high among-individual variation and within-individual repeatability, both within and among winters, could

  19. Site Fidelity and Individual Variation in Winter Location in Partially Migratory European Shags

    PubMed Central

    Grist, Hannah; Daunt, Francis; Wanless, Sarah; Nelson, Emily J.; Harris, Mike P.; Newell, Mark; Burthe, Sarah; Reid, Jane M.

    2014-01-01

    In partially migratory populations, individuals from a single breeding area experience a range of environments during the non-breeding season. If individuals show high within- and among- year fidelity to specific locations, any annual environmental effect on individual life histories could be reinforced, causing substantial demographic heterogeneity. Quantifying within- and among- individual variation and repeatability in non-breeding season location is therefore key to predicting broad-scale environmental impacts on the dynamics of partially migratory populations. We used field resightings of colour-ringed adult European shags known to have bred on the Isle of May, Scotland, to quantify individual variation and repeatability in winter location within and among three consecutive winters. In total, 3797 resightings of 882 individuals were recorded over 622 km of coastline, including the Isle of May. These individuals comprised over 50% of the known breeding population, and encompassed representative distributions of ages and sexes. The distances from the Isle of May at which individuals were resighted during winter varied substantially, up to 486 km and 136 km north and south respectively and including the breeding colony on the Isle of May. However, resighting distances were highly repeatable within individuals; within- and among-winter repeatabilities were >0.72 and >0.59 respectively across the full September-March observation period, and >0.95 and >0.79 respectively across more restricted mid-winter periods. Repeatability did not differ significantly between males and females or among different age classes, either within or among winters. These data demonstrate that the focal shag population is partially migratory, and moreover that individuals show highly repeatable variation in winter location and hence migration strategy across consecutive winters. Such high among-individual variation and within-individual repeatability, both within and among winters, could

  20. Responses to alternative rainfall regimes and antipoaching in a migratory system.

    PubMed

    Holdo, Ricardo M; Galvin, Kathleen A; Knapp, Eli; Polasky, Stephen; Hilborn, Ray; Holt, Robert D

    2010-03-01

    Migratory ungulates may be particularly vulnerable to the challenges imposed by growing human populations and climate change. These species depend on vast areas to sustain their migratory behavior, and in many cases come into frequent contact with human populations outside protected areas. They may also act as spatial coupling agents allowing feedbacks between ecological systems and local economies, particularly in the agropastoral subsistence economies found in the African savanna biome. We used HUMENTS, a spatially realistic socioecological model of the Greater Serengeti Ecosystem in East Africa, to explore the potential impacts of changing climate and poaching on the migratory wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) population, the fire regime, and habitat structure in the ecosystem, as well as changes in the size and economic activities of the human population outside the protected area. Unlike earlier models, the HUMENTS model predicted only moderate declines in the wildebeest population associated with an increasing human population over the next century, with a gradual expansion of agriculture, more poaching, and increases in fire frequency and reduced tree density. Changes in rainfall were predicted to have strong asymmetric effects on the size and economic activity of the human population and on livestock, and more moderate effects on wildlife and other ecological indicators. Conversely, antipoaching had a stronger effect on the ecological portion of the system because of its effect on wildebeest (and therefore on fire and habitat structure), and a weaker effect on the socioeconomic component, except in areas directly adjacent to the protected-area boundary, which were affected by crop-raiding and the availability of wildlife as a source of income. The results highlight the strong direct and indirect effects of rainfall on the various components of socioecological systems in semiarid environments, and the key role of mobile wildlife populations as agents of

  1. Prosocial tendencies predict friendship quality, but not for popular children.

    PubMed

    Poorthuis, Astrid M G; Thomaes, Sander; Denissen, Jaap J A; van Aken, Marcel A G; Orobio de Castro, Bram

    2012-08-01

    Is prosocial behavior a prerequisite for having good-quality friendships? This study (N = 477, mean age = 12.2 years) examined whether the link between children's prosocial tendencies and their perceived friendship quality was dependent on children's level of popularity in the peer group. Children's prosocial tendencies were assessed both as observed behavior in a standardized setting and as a self-reported predisposition to act in prosocial ways. Across measures, the results showed that prosocial tendencies are associated with higher perceived friendship quality among nonpopular children (i.e., children holding average or lower levels of popularity), but not among popular children. Thus, even if they lack prosocial qualities, popular children are still able to hold good-quality friendships. Popular children may have other compensating characteristics, such as popularity by association, that make them attractive for peers to be friends with. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Conditioned craving cues elicit an automatic approach tendency.

    PubMed

    Van Gucht, Dinska; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Van den Bergh, Omer; Beckers, Tom

    2008-10-01

    In two experiments, we used a Pavlovian differential conditioning procedure to induce craving for chocolate. As a result of repeated pairing with chocolate intake, initially neutral cues came to elicit an automatic approach tendency in a speeded stimulus-response compatibility reaction time task. This automatic approach tendency, moreover, seemed to be sensitive to manipulations of extinction and renewal in the Pavlovian conditioning procedure. These findings corroborate and extend previous reports of automatic approach tendencies elicited by substance-relevant cues in addiction, while controlling for alternative accounts for such observations. Moreover, our data lend support to and extend learning models of cue-induced craving and addiction. Finally, we argue that the procedure we present here provides an ecologically valid behavioural tool that allows studying processes involved in cue-induced craving, addiction and relapse without relying on verbal report.

  3. Regional Slip Tendency Analysis of the Great Basin Region

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-09-30

    Slip and dilation tendency on the Great Basin fault surfaces (from the USGS Quaternary Fault Database) were calculated using 3DStress (software produced by Southwest Research Institute). Slip and dilation tendency are both unitless ratios of the resolved stresses applied to the fault plane by the measured ambient stress field. - Values range from a maximum of 1 (a fault plane ideally oriented to slip or dilate under ambient stress conditions) to zero (a fault plane with no potential to slip or dilate). - Slip and dilation tendency values were calculated for each fault in the Great Basin. As dip is unknown for many faults in the USGS Quaternary Fault Database, we made these calculations using the dip for each fault that would yield the maximum slip or dilation tendency. As such, these results should be viewed as maximum slip and dilation tendency. - The resulting along‐fault and fault‐to‐fault variation in slip or dilation potential is a proxy for along fault and fault‐to‐fault variation in fluid flow conduit potential. Stress Magnitudes and directions were calculated across the entire Great Basin. Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson‐Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes, 2010; Davatzes and Hickman, 2006; Blake and Davatzes 2011; Blake and Davatzes, 2012; Moeck et al., 2010; Moos and Ronne, 2010 and Reinecker et al., 2005). The minimum horizontal stress direction (Shmin) was contoured, and spatial bins with common Shmin directions were calculated. Based on this technique, we subdivided the Great Basin into nine regions (Shmin <070, 070140). Slip and dilation tendency were calculated using 3DStress for the faults within each region using the mean Shmin for the region. Shmin variation throughout Great Basin

  4. 77 FR 34931 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Meeting Regarding Regulations for the 2012-13 Hunting Season

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... earlier document to establish annual hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds for the 2012-13... hunting migratory game birds under Sec. Sec. 20.101 through 20.107, 20.109, and 20.110 of subpart K. On... migratory game bird hunting regulations (77 FR 29516). In that document, we announced a meeting of the...

  5. Migratory divides and their consequences for dispersal, population size and parasite-host interactions.

    PubMed

    Møller, A P; Garamszegi, L Z; Peralta-Sánchez, J M; Soler, J J

    2011-08-01

    Populations of migratory birds differ in their direction of migration with neighbouring populations often migrating in divergent directions separated by migratory divides. A total of 26% of 103 passerine bird species in Europe had migratory divides that were located disproportionately often along a longitudinal gradient in Central Europe, consistent with the assumption of a Quaternary glacial origin of such divides in the Iberian and Balkan peninsulas followed by recolonization. Given that studies have shown significant genetic differentiation and reduced gene flow across migratory divides, we hypothesized that an absence of migratory divides would result in elevated rates of gene flow and hence a reduced level of local adaptation. In a comparative study, species with migratory divides had larger population sizes and population densities and longer dispersal distances than species without migratory divides. Species with migratory divides tended to be habitat generalists. Bird species with migratory divides had higher richness of blood parasites and higher growth rates of Staphylococcus on their eggs during the incubation period. There was weaker cell-mediated immunity in adults and stronger cell lysis in species with migratory divides. These findings may suggest that migratory divides constitute barriers to dispersal with consequences for ecology and evolution of distributions, population sizes, habitats and parasite-host interactions. They also suggest that migratory divides may play a role in local adaptation in host-parasite interactions.

  6. 50 CFR 92.6 - Use and possession of migratory birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use and possession of migratory birds. 92... INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA General Provisions § 92.6 Use and possession of migratory birds. You may not sell, offer for sale, purchase, or offer...

  7. 50 CFR 92.10 - Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management... THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Program Structure § 92.10 Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management Council. (a) Establishment. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  8. 77 FR 39983 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Fluoropolymeric Shot Coatings as Nontoxic for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY66 Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval... INFORMATION CONTACT: George Allen, at 703-358-1825. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 (Act) (16 U.S.C. 703-712 and 16 U.S.C. 742 a-j) implements migratory bird treaties...

  9. 50 CFR 92.6 - Use and possession of migratory birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use and possession of migratory birds. 92... INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA General Provisions § 92.6 Use and possession of migratory birds. You may not sell, offer for sale, purchase, or offer...

  10. 77 FR 66406 - Migratory Bird Permits; Delegating Falconry Permitting Authority to Seven States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AZ16 Migratory Bird Permits; Delegating Falconry... Reduction Act of 1995. OMB has approved the information collection requirements of the Migratory Bird..., as follows: PART 21--MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS 0 1. The authority citation for part 21 continues to read...

  11. 75 FR 56555 - Migratory Birds; Take of Migrant Peregrine Falcons for Use in Falconry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Birds; Take of Migrant Peregrine Falcons for Use in Falconry AGENCY... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. George Allen, Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and... derived from the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (16 U.S.C. 703-712), which prohibits any person from taking...

  12. 50 CFR 92.6 - Use and possession of migratory birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use and possession of migratory birds. 92... INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA General Provisions § 92.6 Use and possession of migratory birds. You may not sell, offer for sale, purchase, or offer...

  13. 50 CFR 92.10 - Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management... THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Program Structure § 92.10 Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management Council. (a) Establishment. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  14. 50 CFR 92.10 - Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management... THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Program Structure § 92.10 Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management Council. (a) Establishment. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  15. 77 FR 65201 - Proposed Information Collection; Alaska Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest Household Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Information Collection; Alaska Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest... 703-358- 2482 (telephone). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Migratory Bird Treaty Act of... Department of the Interior as the key agency responsible for managing migratory bird populations that...

  16. 50 CFR 92.10 - Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management... THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Program Structure § 92.10 Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management Council. (a) Establishment. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  17. 50 CFR 92.6 - Use and possession of migratory birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use and possession of migratory birds. 92... INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA General Provisions § 92.6 Use and possession of migratory birds. You may not sell, offer for sale, purchase, or offer...

  18. 78 FR 72830 - Migratory Bird Permits; Delegating Falconry Permitting Authority to 17 States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-BA01 Migratory Bird Permits; Delegating Falconry... Migratory Bird Permits Program and assigned OMB control number 1018-0022, which expires February 28, 2014..., as follows: PART 21--MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS 0 1. The authority citation for part 21 continues to read...

  19. 50 CFR 92.10 - Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management... THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Program Structure § 92.10 Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management Council. (a) Establishment. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  20. 50 CFR 92.6 - Use and possession of migratory birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use and possession of migratory birds. 92... INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA General Provisions § 92.6 Use and possession of migratory birds. You may not sell, offer for sale, purchase, or offer...

  1. Correlating bilayer tablet delamination tendencies to micro-environmental thermodynamic conditions during pan coating.

    PubMed

    Zacour, Brian M; Pandey, Preetanshu; Subramanian, Ganeshkumar; Gao, Julia Z; Nikfar, Faranak

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact that the micro-environment, as measured by PyroButton data loggers, experienced by tablets during the pan coating unit operation had on the layer adhesion of bilayer tablets in open storage conditions. A full factorial design of experiments (DOE) with three center points was conducted to study the impact of final tablet hardness, film coating spray rate and film coating exhaust temperature on the delamination tendencies of bilayer tablets. PyroButton data loggers were placed (fixed) at various locations in a pan coater and were also allowed to freely move with the tablet bed to measure the micro-environmental temperature and humidity conditions of the tablet bed. The variance in the measured micro-environment via PyroButton data loggers accounted for 75% of the variance in the delamination tendencies of bilayer tablets on storage (R(2 )= 0.75). A survival analysis suggested that tablet hardness and coating spray rate significantly impacted the delamination tendencies of the bilayer tablets under open storage conditions. The coating exhaust temperature did not show good correlation with the tablets' propensity to crack indicating that it was not representative of the coating micro-environment. Models created using data obtained from the PyroButton data loggers outperformed models created using primary DOE factors in the prediction of bilayer tablet strength, especially upon equipment or scale transfers. The coating micro-environment experienced by tablets during the pan coating unit operation significantly impacts the strength of the bilayer interface of tablets on storage.

  2. Electrochemical characterization of the tendency of coals to undergo autooxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Spitsyna, N.G.; Kamneva, A.I.; Nikitin, K.N.

    1984-01-01

    Questions of the rate of the electrochemical generation of hydrogen peroxide and its decomposition in coals during their autooxidation are considered. A correlation has been found between the results obtained by the traditional methods of determining the tendency of coals to undergo autooxidation, on the one hand, and the results of a determination of the electrochemical activities of coals in the process of oxygen ionization and the rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, on the other hand. This permits a recommendation of the use of electrochemical methods for characterizing the tendency of coals to undergo autooxidation.

  3. Trace metals in tissues of resident and migratory birds from a lagoon associated with an agricultural drainage basin (SE Gulf of California).

    PubMed

    Ruelas-Inzunza, Jorge; Páez-Osuna, Federico

    2004-07-01

    With the aim of knowing Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn concentrations in selected tissues of birds from two places at Altata-Ensenada del Pabellón lagoon in the SE Gulf of California, 39 specimens of 14 species were analyzed. Migratory birds in this study showed the highest values of Cd, Cu, and Pb in liver; Fe and Mn, in viscera; and Zn, in feathers. Concerning the resident avifauna, the highest levels of Cd, Cu, and Fe were detected in the liver, Mn in viscera; and Pb and Zn, in feathers. Regarding Cu and Fe, higher concentrations were detected in migratory avifauna, while Mn and Zn were more accumulated in resident waterfowl. In the case of Cd and Pb, both elements showed a tendency to be more accumulated in resident seabirds. Statistical comparisons showed that in carnivorous and omnivorous birds the resident component was the group with higher levels in more comparisons where mainly Cu and Fe were involved. In the rest of the metals the differences in the concentrations in the distinct tissues of migratory versus resident species were not clearly evident in one group in particular. In a few cases, carnivorous birds had higher levels of Cd than herbivorous and omnivorous birds; for the rest of the metals there was not a clear trend of metal accumulation.

  4. Management and conservation of migratory landbirds overwintering in the neotropics

    Treesearch

    Daniel R. Petit; James F. Lynch; Richard L. Hutto; John G. Blake; Robert B. Waide

    1993-01-01

    Loss of tropical broadleaved forests and concurrent population declines of long-distance migratory birds in temperate breeding areas have been closely linked in both scientific and popular literature; however, little evidence of a causal association currently exists. We review the current land use situation in the neotropics, the projected outcome of deforestation...

  5. Migratory Waterfowl Habitat Selection in Relation to Aquatic Vegetation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    composition. Aquatic vegetation is a critical food source for many migratory waterfowl, and numerous studies have shown that water bodies with abundant...also provide better habitat for invertebrate recruitment, an important supplemental food source for many waterfowl species (Keast 1984). Conversely

  6. 75 FR 9314 - Migratory Bird Permits; Control of Purple Swamphens

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... gallinules without a permit on rice-producing property in Louisiana according to the terms of a separate... Migratory Bird Treaty Act, or the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act, that person must immediately report... threatened or endangered species or any bird species protected by the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act or...

  7. Shared wilderness, shared responsibility, shared vision: Protecting migratory wildlife

    Treesearch

    Will Meeks; Jimmy Fox; Nancy Roeper

    2011-01-01

    Wilderness plays a vital role in global and landscape-level conservation of wildlife. Millions of migratory birds and mammals rely on wilderness lands and waters during critical parts of their life. As large, ecologically intact landscapes, wilderness areas also play a vital role in addressing global climate change by increasing carbon sequestration, reducing...

  8. A neotropical migratory bird prioritization for National Forests and Grasslands

    Treesearch

    Dick Roth; Richard Peterson

    1997-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Region of the USDA Forest Service provides nesting habitat for 146 species of neotropical migratory birds. Interactive, prioritization databases were developed for each National Forest and National Grassland in the Region to assist land managers in making informed decisions about resource allocations. The data was processed using Paradox software....

  9. 75 FR 64994 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Advisory Panel (AP). NMFS consults with and considers the comments and views of the HMS AP when preparing and implementing Fishery Management Plans (FMPs) or FMP...-third (11) of the seats on the HMS AP for a 3-year appointment. Individuals with definable interests...

  10. 77 FR 64318 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Advisory Panel (AP). NMFS consults with and considers the comments and views of the HMS AP when preparing and implementing Fishery Management Plans (FMPs) or FMP... approximately one-third (10) of the seats on the HMS AP for a 3-year appointment. Individuals with...

  11. Desired Mobility or Satisfied Immobility? Migratory Aspirations among Knowledge Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferro, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Among the aspects discussed within the globalisation process, the international mobility of professional workers assumes considerable relevance. This paper focuses on migratory aspirations among knowledge workers within the context of economic globalisation and market restructuring in Romania. Due to a lack of literature dealing with these issues,…

  12. Otolith microchemistry of tropical diadromous fishes: spatial and migratory dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, William E.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Otolith microchemistry was applied to quantify migratory variation and the proportion of native Caribbean stream fishes that undergo full or partial marine migration. Strontium and barium water chemistry in four Puerto Rico, U.S.A., rivers was clearly related to a salinity gradient; however, variation in water barium, and thus fish otoliths, was also dependent on river basin. Strontium was the most accurate index of longitudinal migration in tropical diadromous fish otoliths. Among the four species examined, bigmouth sleeper Gobiomorus dormitor, mountain mullet Agonostomus monticola, sirajo goby Sicydium spp. and river goby Awaous banana, most individuals were fully amphidromous, but 9-12% were semi-amphidromous as recruits, having never experienced marine or estuarine conditions in early life stages and showing no evidence of marine elemental signatures in their otolith core. Populations of one species, G. dormitor, may have contained a small contingent of semi-amphidromous adults, migratory individuals that periodically occupied marine or estuarine habitats (4%); however, adult migratory elemental signatures may have been confounded with those related to diet and physiology. These findings indicate the plasticity of migratory strategies of tropical diadromous fishes, which may be more variable than simple categorization might suggest.

  13. Population ecology, habitat requirements, and conservation of neotropical migratory birds

    Treesearch

    Deborah M. Finch

    1991-01-01

    This report was prepared in support of the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation's Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Program and the USDA Forest Service's role in the program. Recent analyses of data on forest-dwelling species, many of which are neotropical migrants, show population declines in many North American areas. The literature review summarizes...

  14. 78 FR 66684 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... are no Academic terms expiring, so no nominations for that sector will be considered at this time... comments and views of the HMS AP when preparing and implementing Fishery Management Plans (FMPs) or FMP...: ``HMS AP Nominations.'' Mail: Jenni Wallace, Highly Migratory Species Management Division, NMFS,...

  15. Do monarch butterflies use polarized skylight for migratory orientation?

    PubMed

    Stalleicken, Julia; Mukhida, Maya; Labhart, Thomas; Wehner, Rüdiger; Frost, Barrie; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2005-06-01

    To test if migratory monarch butterflies use polarized light patterns as part of their time-compensated sun compass, we recorded their virtual flight paths in a flight simulator while the butterflies were exposed to patches of naturally polarized blue sky, artificial polarizers or a sunny sky. In addition, we tested butterflies with and without the polarized light detectors of their compound eye being occluded. The monarchs' orientation responses suggested that the butterflies did not use the polarized light patterns as a compass cue, nor did they exhibit a specific alignment response towards the axis of polarized light. When given direct view of the sun, migratory monarchs with their polarized light detectors painted out were still able to use their time-compensated compass: non-clockshifted butterflies, with their dorsal rim area occluded, oriented in their typical south-southwesterly migratory direction. Furthermore, they shifted their flight course clockwise by the predicted approximately 90 degrees after being advance clockshifted 6 h. We conclude that in migratory monarch butterflies, polarized light cues are not necessary for a time-compensated celestial compass to work and that the azimuthal position of the sun disc and/or the associated light-intensity and spectral gradients seem to be the migrants' major compass cue.

  16. Status and management of neotropical migratory birds: Introduction

    Treesearch

    Deborah M.; Peter W. Stangel

    1993-01-01

    The future for neotropical migratory birds rests with our commitment and ability to provide them adequate habitat during all periods of their life cycle. Our commitment to this cause is apparent in the groundswell of interest in neotropical migrants and the many proactive and coopemtive partnerships resulting from the Partners in Flight - Aves de las Americas...

  17. Desired Mobility or Satisfied Immobility? Migratory Aspirations among Knowledge Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferro, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Among the aspects discussed within the globalisation process, the international mobility of professional workers assumes considerable relevance. This paper focuses on migratory aspirations among knowledge workers within the context of economic globalisation and market restructuring in Romania. Due to a lack of literature dealing with these issues,…

  18. Partial migration: growth varies between resident and migratory fish.

    PubMed

    Gillanders, Bronwyn M; Izzo, Christopher; Doubleday, Zoë A; Ye, Qifeng

    2015-03-01

    Partial migration occurs in many taxa and ecosystems and may confer survival benefits. Here, we use otolith chemistry data to determine whether fish from a large estuarine system were resident or migratory, and then examine whether contingents display differences in modelled growth based on changes in width of otolith growth increments. Sixty-three per cent of fish were resident based on Ba : Ca of otoliths, with the remainder categorized as migratory, with both contingents distributed across most age/size classes and both sexes, suggesting population-level bet hedging. Migrant fish were in slightly better condition than resident fish based on Fulton's K condition index. Migration type (resident versus migratory) was 56 times more likely to explain variation in growth than a model just incorporating year- and age-related growth trends. While average growth only varied slightly between resident and migratory fish, year-to-year variation was significant. Such dynamism in growth rates likely drives persistence of both life-history types. The complex relationships in growth between contingents suggest that management of species exhibiting partial migration is challenging, especially in a world subject to a changing climate. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Leadership, collective motion and the evolution of migratory strategies.

    PubMed

    Guttal, Vishwesha; Couzin, Iain D

    2011-05-01

    Migration is a hallmark life history strategy of a diverse range of organisms, and also ubiquitous in ontogenic processes including normal embryonic development as well as tumor progression. In such scenarios, individual organisms/cells typically respond to long range (and often noisy) environmental cues. In addition, individuals may interact socially with one another leading to emergent group-level navigational abilities. Although much progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of taxis, there is a lack of theoretical and quantitative understanding of how individuals trade-off information obtained through their own migratory ability and that via social interactions. Here, we discuss results and insights from a recent computational model developed to investigate the evolution of leadership and collective motion in migratory populations. It is shown that, for a broad range of parameter values, only a small proportion of the population gather directional information while the majority employ social cues alone. More generally, ecological conditions for the evolution of resident, solitary and collective migratory strategies are obtained. We discuss how consideration of both proximate and ultimate factors within the same framework may provide insights into preserving migratory patterns that are in grave danger due to anthropogenic pressures.

  20. Links between scale and neotropical migratory bird populations

    Treesearch

    Deborah M. Finch

    1994-01-01

    Recent concerns about the future for migratory birds, particularly those that migrate to the Tropics, have led to the development of a variety of new research and education initiatives addressing avian population ecology and conservation. Research that focuses on the relationships between migrant population trends, geographical patterns, and spatial and temporal scales...

  1. Genetics of migratory and invasive pests in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Overview of genetic research on migratory and invasive pests being performed at CMAVE. Emphasis will be on efforts to monitor the movements of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during its annual migration, model the behavior in order to predict the effect of r...

  2. Understanding the stopover of migratory birds: a scale dependent approach

    Treesearch

    Frank R. Moore; Mark S. Woodrey; Jeffrey J. Buler; Stefan Woltmann; Ted R. Simons

    2005-01-01

    The development of comprehensive conservation strategies and management plans for migratory birds depends on understanding migrant-habitat relations throughout the annual cycle, including the time when migrants stopover en route. Yet, the complexity of migration makes the assessment of habitat requirements and development of a comprehensive...

  3. Diverse Early Life-History Strategies in Migratory Amazonian Catfish: Implications for Conservation and Management.

    PubMed

    Hegg, Jens C; Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Kennedy, Brian P

    2015-01-01

    of the upstream watershed to the Sr isotope ratio. Our results provide the first reported otolith microchemical reconstruction of Brachyplatystoma migratory movements in the Amazon Basin. Our results indicate that juveniles exhibit diverse rearing strategies, rearing in both upstream and estuary environments. This contrasts with the prevailing understanding that juveniles rear in the estuary before migrating upstream; however, it is supported by some fisheries data that has indicated the presence of alternate spawning and rearing life-histories. The presence of alternate juvenile rearing strategies may have important implications for conservation and management of the fisheries in the region.

  4. Diverse Early Life-History Strategies in Migratory Amazonian Catfish: Implications for Conservation and Management

    PubMed Central

    Hegg, Jens C.; Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Kennedy, Brian P.

    2015-01-01

    the upstream watershed to the Sr isotope ratio. Our results provide the first reported otolith microchemical reconstruction of Brachyplatystoma migratory movements in the Amazon Basin. Our results indicate that juveniles exhibit diverse rearing strategies, rearing in both upstream and estuary environments. This contrasts with the prevailing understanding that juveniles rear in the estuary before migrating upstream; however, it is supported by some fisheries data that has indicated the presence of alternate spawning and rearing life-histories. The presence of alternate juvenile rearing strategies may have important implications for conservation and management of the fisheries in the region. PMID:26153984

  5. Meeting migratory bird management needs by integrated disease control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, M.

    1984-01-01

    The need to combat diseases of migratory birds more effectively will intensify because of need to counteract effects of continual habitat losses. Degradation of habitat will increase potential for disease transmission and the emergence of new disease problems. Migratory bird mobility provides a ready mechanism for spread of disease to locations greatly removed from the site of initial outbreaks. Disease control and management on a flyway basis is needed to combat disease problems of migratory birds more effectively. Modifications in the flyway council system are suggested for implementation of an integrated approach to disease control. Flyway management of disease problems is not a new concept and has been used for addressing lead poisoning in waterfowl (Greenwalt 1976). However, integration of disease concepts in the management of migratory birds on a flyway basis has not been attempted to the extent identified in this paper. Information and communication needs to achieve the goal of minimizing losses of migratory birds to disease are also identified. The limited resources available for disease investigations dictate that sound planning efforts serve as the foundation for program development, priority assessment, and coordination of efforts. Effective disease control in migratory birds is achievable. However, disease control will not happen without adjustments in current perspectives and approaches to disease problems. 'A prime requisite of long range planning for animal disease control or eradication is an attitude of mind that sustains an unflagging optimism toward the ultimate accomplishment of desired results, coupled with an equally persistent skepticism toward dogmatic formulae promising either certain success or certain failure. A long range plan cannot remain inviolate. It must undergo constant critical review and modification as necessary to: accommodate newly acquired scientific or practical information; meet changing economic conditions; account for

  6. Reducing barriers associated with delivering health care services to migratory agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Schmalzried, Hans D; Fallon, L Fleming

    2012-01-01

    Between one and two million migratory agricultural workers (MAWs), primarily from Mexico and Central America, leave their homes each year to plant, cultivate, harvest and pack fruits, vegetables, and nuts in the USA. While in the USA, most lack health insurance, a permanent residence, and a regular healthcare provider. Publications over the past two decades in the USA have reported that a majority of MAWs encounter barriers to receiving medical services. Migratory agricultural workers experience high rates of occupational illness and injury. Poor access to medical care continues to exacerbate health problems among members of this population related to their working environments. In most studies concerning healthcare access issues for this population, researchers collected their information from healthcare service providers; rarely have they included input from migratory agricultural workers. This study was different in that opinions about healthcare access issues were collected directly from MAWs. The primary purpose of this study was to describe issues related to barriers associated with the delivery of healthcare services to migratory agricultural workers. A secondary purpose was to suggest strategies for reducing these barriers. In this study, data from focus group sessions were used to develop a survey questionnaire. Four certified bilingual interpreters were trained to administer the questionnaire. A total of 157 usable questionnaires were returned from MAWs living in employer-provided camps in Northwest Ohio. The statistical analyses were primarily descriptive. The most significant barriers hampering access to medical services among the 157 respondents were cost (n=113; 72.0%), crop demands (n=102; 65.0%), the lack of an interpreter (n=98; 62.4%), travel distance (n=88; 56.1%) and transportation (n=82; 52.2%). Approximately half (n=82; 52.2%) said that they had access to transportation for traveling to a medical clinic. As a group, respondents were willing to

  7. Preschool children's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Kato-Shimizu, Mayuko; Onishi, Kenji; Kanazawa, Tadahiro; Hinobayashi, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Social indirect reciprocity seems to be crucial in enabling large-scale cooperative networks among genetically unrelated individuals in humans. However, there are relatively few studies on social indirect reciprocity in children compared to adults. Investigating whether young children have a behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity will help us understand how and when the fundamental ability to form cooperative relationships among adults is acquired. Using naturalistic observation at a nursery school, this study examined whether 5- to 6-year-olds show a behavioral tendency to engage in social indirect reciprocity in response to their peers' prosocial behavior toward a third party. The results revealed that bystander children tended to display prosocial behavior toward their peers more frequently after observing these peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers, compared with control situations; this suggests that 5- to 6-year-olds may have an essential behavioral tendency to establish social indirect reciprocity when interacting with peers in their daily lives. In addition, bystanders tended to display affiliative behavior after observing focal children's prosocial behavior. In other words, observing peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers evoked bystanders' positive emotions toward the helpers. Considering both the present results and previous findings, we speculate that in preschoolers, such positive emotions might mediate the increase in the bystander's prosocial behavior toward the helper. In addition, an intuitional emotional process plays an important role in the preschooler's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity in natural interactions with peers.

  8. Deafness to Fear in Boys with Psychopathic Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, R. J. R.; Budhani, S.; Colledge, E.; Scott, S.

    2005-01-01

    The processing of the emotional signals of others is fundamental for normal socialization and interaction. Reduced responsiveness to the expressions of sadness and fear has been implicated in the development of psychopathy (Blair, 1995). The current study investigates the ability of boys with psychopathic tendencies to process auditory affect…

  9. The Comparison of Emphatic Tendencies of the Management Department Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belli, Emre; Yildirim, Fatih; Naktiyok, Serkan; Gurbuz, Ali; Aydin, Ali Dursun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to make a comparison between the university students majoring at the department of sport management at Kafkas University and Atatürk University in terms of empathy level. For data collection, "Emphatic Tendency Scale", which was developed by Dökmen (1994) and which included 20 items, was administered to…

  10. Duration of Sleep and ADHD Tendency among Adolescents in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Lawrence T.; Yang, L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the association between duration of sleep and ADHD tendency among adolescents. Method: This population-based health survey uses a two-stage random cluster sampling design. Participants ages 13 to 17 are recruited from the total population of adolescents attending high school in one city of China. Duration of…

  11. Using Experimental Methods to Investigate Discriminatory Tendencies: A Lesson Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Masch, Lena; Finze, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Using dictator games in experimental analysis, this lesson report demonstrates the process and results of a postgraduate class project in which university students were instructed to scientifically investigate and explore one of German society's most hotly-contested issues: the level of discriminatory tendencies of non-Muslims towards Muslims. The…

  12. Duration of Sleep and ADHD Tendency among Adolescents in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Lawrence T.; Yang, L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the association between duration of sleep and ADHD tendency among adolescents. Method: This population-based health survey uses a two-stage random cluster sampling design. Participants ages 13 to 17 are recruited from the total population of adolescents attending high school in one city of China. Duration of…

  13. A Construction Method for Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazli, K.; Behboodian, J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to give a construction method for measures of central tendency and dispersion of a set of data on the basis of some symmetric multivariate functions and distance functions. Several examples regarding the known and new measures are presented. (Author/MM)

  14. Professional Training of the Unemployed: Foreign and Native Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voliarska, Olena

    2015-01-01

    The article summarizes foreign and native tendencies in modern adult education. Their impact on the renovation of training the unemployed in Ukraine has been analyzed. It has been established that the system of adult training must meet the socio-economic, political and cultural changes in Ukraine. It has been indicated that defined tendencies…

  15. Enabling Students to Understand Measures of Central Tendency and Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suco, Erika; Samere, Marie; Hong, Siu Lun

    2012-01-01

    Somewhere in a programme of study for mathematics in Key Stages 3 and 4 you would expect to find the terms mean, mode, median, and range. You might even find the terms central tendency, and variation. Many students following such a programme will be able to calculate the mean, most will be able to quote the mode, and some students will be able to…

  16. Value Acculturation and Response Tendencies of Biethnic Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgas, James; Kalantzi-Azizi, Anastasia

    1992-01-01

    Investigates the modes of acculturation and response tendencies of 133 adolescents from biethnic families in Athens (Greece) compared to 113 homoethnic Greek adolescents in Athens and 80 homoethnic Greek adolescents living in Germany and The Netherlands. Patterns of acculturation of values differ for adolescents from biethnic and homoethnic…

  17. Professional Training of the Unemployed: Foreign and Native Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voliarska, Olena

    2015-01-01

    The article summarizes foreign and native tendencies in modern adult education. Their impact on the renovation of training the unemployed in Ukraine has been analyzed. It has been established that the system of adult training must meet the socio-economic, political and cultural changes in Ukraine. It has been indicated that defined tendencies…

  18. A Bayesian perspective on Likert scales and central tendency.

    PubMed

    Douven, Igor

    2017-07-27

    The central tendency bias is a robust finding in data from experiments using Likert scales to elicit responses. The present paper offers a Bayesian perspective on this bias, explaining it as a natural outcome of how participants provide point estimates of probability distributions over the items on a Likert scale. Two studies are reported that support this Bayesian explanation.

  19. Deafness to Fear in Boys with Psychopathic Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, R. J. R.; Budhani, S.; Colledge, E.; Scott, S.

    2005-01-01

    The processing of the emotional signals of others is fundamental for normal socialization and interaction. Reduced responsiveness to the expressions of sadness and fear has been implicated in the development of psychopathy (Blair, 1995). The current study investigates the ability of boys with psychopathic tendencies to process auditory affect…

  20. Relationship between Power Distance and Autocratic-Democratic Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzi, Ali Riza

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between power distance and autocratic and democratic tendencies. Participants in the study were research assistants pursuing graduate degrees in the Sciences and Social Sciences Institutes of Balikesir University and prospective teachers pursuing undergraduate teaching degrees at Necatibey Education…

  1. EARLY LIFE RISKS, ANTISOCIAL TENDENCIES, AND PRETEEN DELINQUENCY.

    PubMed

    Staff, Jeremy; Whichard, Corey; Siennick, Sonja; Maggs, Jennifer

    2015-11-01

    Early age-of-onset delinquency and substance use confer a major risk for continued criminality, alcohol and drug abuse, and other serious difficulties throughout the life course. Our objective is to examine the developmental roots of preteen delinquency and substance use. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (n = 13,221), we examine the influence of early childhood developmental and family risks on latent pathways of antisocial tendencies from ages 3 to 7, and the influence of those pathways on property crime and substance use by age 11. We identified a normative, non-antisocial pathway; a pathway marked by oppositional behavior and fighting; a pathway marked by impulsivity and inattention; and a rare pathway characterized by a wide range of antisocial tendencies. Children with developmental and family risks that emerged by age 3-specifically difficult infant temperament, low cognitive ability, weak parental closeness, and disadvantaged family background-face increased odds of antisocial tendencies. There is minimal overlap between the risk factors for early antisocial tendencies and those for preteen delinquency. Children on an antisocial pathway are more likely to engage in preteen delinquency and substance use by age 11, even after accounting for early life risk factors.

  2. EARLY LIFE RISKS, ANTISOCIAL TENDENCIES, AND PRETEEN DELINQUENCY*

    PubMed Central

    Staff, Jeremy; Whichard, Corey; Siennick, Sonja; Maggs, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Early age-of-onset delinquency and substance use confer a major risk for continued criminality, alcohol and drug abuse, and other serious difficulties throughout the life course. Our objective is to examine the developmental roots of preteen delinquency and substance use. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (n = 13,221), we examine the influence of early childhood developmental and family risks on latent pathways of antisocial tendencies from ages 3 to 7, and the influence of those pathways on property crime and substance use by age 11. We identified a normative, non-antisocial pathway; a pathway marked by oppositional behavior and fighting; a pathway marked by impulsivity and inattention; and a rare pathway characterized by a wide range of antisocial tendencies. Children with developmental and family risks that emerged by age 3—specifically difficult infant temperament, low cognitive ability, weak parental closeness, and disadvantaged family background—face increased odds of antisocial tendencies. There is minimal overlap between the risk factors for early antisocial tendencies and those for preteen delinquency. Children on an antisocial pathway are more likely to engage in preteen delinquency and substance use by age 11, even after accounting for early life risk factors. PMID:26900167

  3. Enabling Students to Understand Measures of Central Tendency and Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suco, Erika; Samere, Marie; Hong, Siu Lun

    2012-01-01

    Somewhere in a programme of study for mathematics in Key Stages 3 and 4 you would expect to find the terms mean, mode, median, and range. You might even find the terms central tendency, and variation. Many students following such a programme will be able to calculate the mean, most will be able to quote the mode, and some students will be able to…

  4. Vagal neural crest cell migratory behavior: a transition between the cranial and trunk crest.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Bryan R; Erickson, Carol A

    2011-09-01

    Migration and differentiation of cranial neural crest cells are largely controlled by environmental cues, whereas pathfinding at the trunk level is dictated by cell-autonomous molecular changes owing to early specification of the premigratory crest. Here, we investigated the migration and patterning of vagal neural crest cells. We show that (1) vagal neural crest cells exhibit some developmental bias, and (2) they take separate pathways to the heart and to the gut. Together these observations suggest that prior specification dictates initial pathway choice. However, when we challenged the vagal neural crest cells with different migratory environments, we observed that the behavior of the anterior vagal neural crest cells (somite-level 1-3) exhibit considerable migratory plasticity, whereas the posterior vagal neural crest cells (somite-level 5-7) are more restricted in their behavior. We conclude that the vagal neural crest is a transitional population that has evolved between the head and the trunk. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Strontium isotopes in otoliths of a non-migratory fish (slimy sculpin): Implications for provenance studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Sean R.; Fernandez, Diego P.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Cerling, Thure E.; Brown, Randy J.; Wooller, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneity in 87Sr/86Sr ratios of river-dissolved strontium (Sr) across geologically diverse environments provides a useful tool for investigating provenance, connectivity and movement patterns of various organisms and materials. Evaluation of site-specific 87Sr/86Sr temporal variability throughout study regions is a prerequisite for provenance research, but the dynamics driving temporal variability are generally system-dependent and not accurately predictable. We used the time-keeping properties of otoliths from non-migratory slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) to evaluate multi-scale 87Sr/86Sr temporal variability of river waters throughout the Nushagak River, a large (34,700 km2) remote watershed in Alaska, USA. Slimy sculpin otoliths incorporated site-specific temporal variation at sub-annual resolution and were able to record on the order of 0.0001 changes in the 87Sr/86Sr ratio. 87Sr/86Sr profiles of slimy sculpin collected in tributaries and main-stem channels of the upper watershed indicated that these regions were temporally stable, whereas the Lower Nushagak River exhibited some spatio-temporal variability. This study illustrates how the behavioral ecology of a non-migratory organism can be used to evaluate sub-annual 87Sr/86Sr temporal variability and has broad implications for provenance studies employing this tracer.

  6. Strontium isotopes in otoliths of a non-migratory fish (slimy sculpin): Implications for provenance studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brennan, Sean R.; Fernandez, Diego P.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Cerling, Thure E.; Brown, Randy J.; Wooller, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneity in 87Sr/86Sr ratios of river-dissolved strontium (Sr) across geologically diverse environments provides a useful tool for investigating provenance, connectivity and movement patterns of various organisms and materials. Evaluation of site-specific 87Sr/86Sr temporal variability throughout study regions is a prerequisite for provenance research, but the dynamics driving temporal variability are generally system-dependent and not accurately predictable. We used the time-keeping properties of otoliths from non-migratory slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) to evaluate multi-scale 87Sr/86Sr temporal variability of river waters throughout the Nushagak River, a large (34,700 km2) remote watershed in Alaska, USA. Slimy sculpin otoliths incorporated site-specific temporal variation at sub-annual resolution and were able to record on the order of 0.0001 changes in the 87Sr/86Sr ratio. 87Sr/86Sr profiles of slimy sculpin collected in tributaries and main-stem channels of the upper watershed indicated that these regions were temporally stable, whereas the Lower Nushagak River exhibited some spatio-teporal variability. This study illustrates how the behavioral ecology of a non-migratory organism can be used to evaluate sub-annual 87Sr/86Sr temporal variability and has broad implications for provenance studies employing this tracer.

  7. Light-dependent magnetoreception: orientation behaviour of migratory birds under dim red light.

    PubMed

    Wiltschko, Roswitha; Munro, Ursula; Ford, Hugh; Stapput, Katrin; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2008-10-01

    Magnetic compass orientation in migratory birds has been shown to be based on radical pair processes and to require light from the short wavelength part of the spectrum up to 565 nm Green. Under dim red light of 645 nm wavelength and 1 mW m(-2) intensity, Australian silvereyes and European robins showed a westerly tendency that did not change between spring and autumn, identifying it as a 'fixed direction' response. A thorough analysis revealed that this orientation did not involve the inclination compass, but was a response based on the polarity of the magnetic field. Furthermore, in contrast to the orientation under short-wavelength light, it could be disrupted by local anaesthesia of the upper beak where iron-containing receptors are located, indicating that it is controlled by these receptors. The similarity of the response under dim red light to the response in total darkness suggests that the two responses may be identical. These findings indicate that the observed 'fixed direction' response under dim red light is fundamentally different from the normal compass orientation, which is based on radical pair processes.

  8. Descriptive Epidemiology of Somatising Tendency: Findings from the CUPID Study

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Walker-Bone, Karen; Palmer, Keith T.; Felli, Vanda E.; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H.; Felknor, Sarah A.; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R.; Sadeghian, Farideh; Kadir, M. Masood; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath S. P.; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R.; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Sarquis, Leila M. M.; Marziale, Maria H.; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V.; Quintana, Leonardo A.; Rojas, Marianela; Harris, E. Clare; Serra, Consol; Martinez, J. Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G.; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M.; Pesatori, Angela C.; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Freimann, Tiina; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J.; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A. Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kelsall, Helen L.; Hoe, Victor C. W.; Urquhart, Donna M.; Derrett, Sarah; McBride, David; Herbison, Peter; Gray, Andrew; Vega, Eduardo J. Salazar

    2016-01-01

    Somatising tendency, defined as a predisposition to worry about common somatic symptoms, is importantly associated with various aspects of health and health-related behaviour, including musculoskeletal pain and associated disability. To explore its epidemiological characteristics, and how it can be specified most efficiently, we analysed data from an international longitudinal study. A baseline questionnaire, which included questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory about seven common symptoms, was completed by 12,072 participants aged 20–59 from 46 occupational groups in 18 countries (response rate 70%). The seven symptoms were all mutually associated (odds ratios for pairwise associations 3.4 to 9.3), and each contributed to a measure of somatising tendency that exhibited an exposure-response relationship both with multi-site pain (prevalence rate ratios up to six), and also with sickness absence for non-musculoskeletal reasons. In most participants, the level of somatising tendency was little changed when reassessed after a mean interval of 14 months (75% having a change of 0 or 1 in their symptom count), although the specific symptoms reported at follow-up often differed from those at baseline. Somatising tendency was more common in women than men, especially at older ages, and varied markedly across the 46 occupational groups studied, with higher rates in South and Central America. It was weakly associated with smoking, but not with level of education. Our study supports the use of questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory as a method for measuring somatising tendency, and suggests that in adults of working age, it is a fairly stable trait. PMID:27128094

  9. Scaling Tendency of Geothermal Waters Armutlu Peninsula, Northwestern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertekin, Can

    2015-04-01

    Prediction of scaling tendencies from geothermal waters is important for taking necessary precautions to prevent or control the scale formation. This study contains scaling tendency of geothermal outlets occurring through Armutlu Peninsula in Northwestern Turkey. The E-W trending region stretches into the Marmara Sea (ca. 117 km E-W by 45 km N-S) and is bounded to the north and the south by North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). The two branches of NAFZ traversing the peninsula control not only active seismicity but also geothermal discharges of the region. Widespread basement rocks across the peninsula including metamorphic assemblage of granitic and volcanic rocks host geothermal fluids. The two distinctive geothermal discharges (Armutlu and Yalova) take place through lineaments appurtenant to the northern branch of NAFZ. Their discharge temperatures of 65 ° C (Yalova) and 70 ° C (Armutlu) are the highest of the region. According to their water chemical results, scaling tendency were computed by using WATCH for different temperature steps under the assumptions of single-stage adiabatic boiling and equilibrium degassing. To evaluate their scaling tendencies, mean geothermal reservoir temperatures were computed by using chemical geothermometers. Scaling tendencies were plotted for calcite, amorphous silica and quartz minerals for different temperature values including reservoir temperatures. Their scaling behavior reveals that oversaturation with calcite and quartz minerals are rapidly attained for the geothermal fluids (Yalova and Armutlu) at relatively lower temperatures. Regarding amorphous silica, they are completely undersaturated. Besides, Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) and Ryznar Stability Index (RSI) were calculated. Their results depict scale formation due to being positive LSI and less than 6.0 of RSI values.

  10. Descriptive Epidemiology of Somatising Tendency: Findings from the CUPID Study.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Walker-Bone, Karen; Palmer, Keith T; Felli, Vanda E; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H; Felknor, Sarah A; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R; Sadeghian, Farideh; Kadir, M Masood; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath S P; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Sarquis, Leila M M; Marziale, Maria H; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V; Quintana, Leonardo A; Rojas, Marianela; Harris, E Clare; Serra, Consol; Martinez, J Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M; Pesatori, Angela C; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Freimann, Tiina; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kelsall, Helen L; Hoe, Victor C W; Urquhart, Donna M; Derrett, Sarah; McBride, David; Herbison, Peter; Gray, Andrew; Vega, Eduardo J Salazar

    2016-01-01

    Somatising tendency, defined as a predisposition to worry about common somatic symptoms, is importantly associated with various aspects of health and health-related behaviour, including musculoskeletal pain and associated disability. To explore its epidemiological characteristics, and how it can be specified most efficiently, we analysed data from an international longitudinal study. A baseline questionnaire, which included questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory about seven common symptoms, was completed by 12,072 participants aged 20-59 from 46 occupational groups in 18 countries (response rate 70%). The seven symptoms were all mutually associated (odds ratios for pairwise associations 3.4 to 9.3), and each contributed to a measure of somatising tendency that exhibited an exposure-response relationship both with multi-site pain (prevalence rate ratios up to six), and also with sickness absence for non-musculoskeletal reasons. In most participants, the level of somatising tendency was little changed when reassessed after a mean interval of 14 months (75% having a change of 0 or 1 in their symptom count), although the specific symptoms reported at follow-up often differed from those at baseline. Somatising tendency was more common in women than men, especially at older ages, and varied markedly across the 46 occupational groups studied, with higher rates in South and Central America. It was weakly associated with smoking, but not with level of education. Our study supports the use of questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory as a method for measuring somatising tendency, and suggests that in adults of working age, it is a fairly stable trait.

  11. 76 FR 59271 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ...This rule prescribes the hunting seasons, hours, areas, and daily bag and possession limits for general waterfowl seasons and those early seasons for which States previously deferred selection. Taking of migratory birds is prohibited unless specifically provided for by annual regulations. This rule permits the taking of designated species during the 2011-12...

  12. Full annual cycle climate change vulnerability assessment for migratory birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Culp, Leah A.; Cohen, Emily B.; Scarpignato, Amy L.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Marra, Peter P.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is a serious challenge faced by all plant and animal species. Climate change vulnerability assessments (CCVAs) are one method to assess risk and are increasingly used as a tool to inform management plans. Migratory animals move across regions and continents during their annual cycles where they are exposed to diverse climatic conditions. Climate change during any period and in any region of the annual cycle could influence survival, reproduction, or the cues used to optimize timing of migration. Therefore, CCVAs for migratory animals best estimate risk when they include climate exposure during the entire annual cycle. We developed a CCVA incorporating the full annual cycle and applied this method to 46 species of migratory birds breeding in the Upper Midwest and Great Lakes (UMGL) region of the United States. Our methodology included background risk, climate change exposure × climate sensitivity, adaptive capacity to climate change, and indirect effects of climate change. We compiled information about migratory connectivity between breeding and stationary non-breeding areas using literature searches and U.S. Geological Survey banding and re-encounter data. Climate change exposure (temperature and moisture) was assessed using UMGL breeding season climate and winter climate from non-breeding regions for each species. Where possible, we focused on non-breeding regions known to be linked through migratory connectivity. We ranked 10 species as highly vulnerable to climate change and two as having low vulnerability. The remaining 34 species were ranked as moderately vulnerable. In general, including non-breeding data provided more robust results that were highly individualistic by species. Two species were found to be highly vulnerable throughout their annual cycle. Projected drying will have the greatest effect during the non-breeding season for species overwintering in Mexico and the Caribbean. Projected temperature increases will have the greatest

  13. Slip and Dilation Tendency Analysis of the Tuscarora Geothermal Area

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-12-31

    Critically stressed fault segments have a relatively high likelihood of acting as fluid flow conduits (Sibson, 1994). As such, the tendency of a fault segment to slip (slip tendency; Ts; Morris et al., 1996) or to dilate (dilation tendency; Td; Ferrill et al., 1999) provides an indication of which faults or fault segments within a geothermal system are critically stressed and therefore likely to transmit geothermal fluids. The slip tendency of a surface is defined by the ratio of shear stress to normal stress on that surface: Ts = τ / σn (Morris et al., 1996). Dilation tendency is defined by the stress acting normal to a given surface: Td = (σ1-σn) / (σ1-σ3) (Ferrill et al., 1999). Slip and dilation were calculated using 3DStress (Southwest Research Institute). Slip and dilation tendency are both unitless ratios of the resolved stresses applied to the fault plane by ambient stress conditions. Values range from a maximum of 1, a fault plane ideally oriented to slip or dilate under ambient stress conditions to zero, a fault plane with no potential to slip or dilate. Slip and dilation tendency values were calculated for each fault in the focus study areas at, McGinness Hills, Neal Hot Springs, Patua, Salt Wells, San Emidio, and Tuscarora on fault traces. As dip is not well constrained or unknown for many faults mapped in within these we made these calculations using the dip for each fault that would yield the maximum slip tendency or dilation tendency. As such, these results should be viewed as maximum tendency of each fault to slip or dilate. The resulting along-fault and fault-to-fault variation in slip or dilation potential is a proxy for along fault and fault-to-fault variation in fluid flow conduit potential. Stress Magnitudes and directions Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson-Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes

  14. Natural Tendency towards Beauty in Humans: Evidence from Binocular Rivalry.

    PubMed

    Mo, Ce; Xia, Tiansheng; Qin, Kaixin; Mo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Although human preference for beauty is common and compelling in daily life, it remains unknown whether such preference is essentially subserved by social cognitive demands or natural tendency towards beauty encoded in the human mind intrinsically. Here we demonstrate experimentally that humans automatically exhibit preference for visual and moral beauty without explicit cognitive efforts. Using a binocular rivalry paradigm, we identified enhanced gender-independent perceptual dominance for physically attractive persons, and the results suggested universal preference for visual beauty based on perceivable forms. Moreover, we also identified perceptual dominance enhancement for characters associated with virtuous descriptions after controlling for facial attractiveness and vigilance-related attention effects, which suggested a similar implicit preference for moral beauty conveyed in prosocial behaviours. Our findings show that behavioural preference for beauty is driven by an inherent natural tendency towards beauty in humans rather than explicit social cognitive processes.

  15. Natural Tendency towards Beauty in Humans: Evidence from Binocular Rivalry

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Although human preference for beauty is common and compelling in daily life, it remains unknown whether such preference is essentially subserved by social cognitive demands or natural tendency towards beauty encoded in the human mind intrinsically. Here we demonstrate experimentally that humans automatically exhibit preference for visual and moral beauty without explicit cognitive efforts. Using a binocular rivalry paradigm, we identified enhanced gender-independent perceptual dominance for physically attractive persons, and the results suggested universal preference for visual beauty based on perceivable forms. Moreover, we also identified perceptual dominance enhancement for characters associated with virtuous descriptions after controlling for facial attractiveness and vigilance-related attention effects, which suggested a similar implicit preference for moral beauty conveyed in prosocial behaviours. Our findings show that behavioural preference for beauty is driven by an inherent natural tendency towards beauty in humans rather than explicit social cognitive processes. PMID:26930202

  16. Heritability of sex tendency in a harpacticoid copepod, Tigriopus californicus.

    PubMed

    Voordouw, Maarten J; Anholt, Bradley R

    2002-09-01

    Systems with genetic variation for the primary sex ratio are important for testing sex-ratio theory and for understanding how this variation is maintained. Evidence is presented for heritable variation of the primary sex ratio in the harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus californicus. Variation in the primary sex ratio among families cannot be accounted for by Mendelian segregation of sex chromosomes. The covariance in sex phenotype between full-sibling clutches and between mothers and offspring suggests that this variation has a polygenic basis. Averaged over four replicates, the full-sibling heritability of sex tendency is 0.13 +/- 0.040; and the mother-offspring heritability of sex tendency is 0.31 +/- 0.216. Genetic correlations in the sex phenotype across two temperature treatments indicate large genotype-by-temperature interactions. Future experiments need to distinguish between zygotic, parental, or cytoplasmic mechanisms of sex determination in T. californicus.

  17. Development and validation of the Impulse Buying Tendency Scale.

    PubMed

    Weun, S; Jones, M A; Beatty, S E

    1998-06-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals vary in their proclivity to purchase products on impulse. This paper presents the results of four studies (Study 1, n = 212; Study 2, n = 152; Study 3, n = 124; and Study 4, n = 550) designed to develop and validate the Impulse Buying Tendency Scale. Data from the first three studies indicate that the scale is unidimensional and internally consistent. The third study provides evidence supporting convergent validity and discriminant validity and the fourth of predictive validity.

  18. An exploration of Taiwanese adolescents' impulsive buying tendency.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Huang; Lin, Hung-Ming

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine via a questionnaire the personal characteristics and impulsive buying tendencies of 15- to 19-year-old Taiwanese adolescents. Results indicated that the impulsive buying was significantly associated with gender, age, and amount of pocket money available. Females indicated more impulsive buying than did males, and gradually increased with age. Impulsive buying significantly increased with the increase in the amount of pocket money available. Possible extensions of the research in this area are offered.

  19. Development and Validation of the Behavioral Tendencies Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Van Dam, Nicholas T.; Brown, Anna; Mole, Tom B.; Davis, Jake H.; Britton, Willoughby B.; Brewer, Judson A.

    2015-01-01

    At a fundamental level, taxonomy of behavior and behavioral tendencies can be described in terms of approach, avoid, or equivocate (i.e., neither approach nor avoid). While there are numerous theories of personality, temperament, and character, few seem to take advantage of parsimonious taxonomy. The present study sought to implement this taxonomy by creating a questionnaire based on a categorization of behavioral temperaments/tendencies first identified in Buddhist accounts over fifteen hundred years ago. Items were developed using historical and contemporary texts of the behavioral temperaments, described as “Greedy/Faithful”, “Aversive/Discerning”, and “Deluded/Speculative”. To both maintain this categorical typology and benefit from the advantageous properties of forced-choice response format (e.g., reduction of response biases), binary pairwise preferences for items were modeled using Latent Class Analysis (LCA). One sample (n1 = 394) was used to estimate the item parameters, and the second sample (n2 = 504) was used to classify the participants using the established parameters and cross-validate the classification against multiple other measures. The cross-validated measure exhibited good nomothetic span (construct-consistent relationships with related measures) that seemed to corroborate the ideas present in the original Buddhist source documents. The final 13-block questionnaire created from the best performing items (the Behavioral Tendencies Questionnaire or BTQ) is a psychometrically valid questionnaire that is historically consistent, based in behavioral tendencies, and promises practical and clinical utility particularly in settings that teach and study meditation practices such as Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR). PMID:26535904

  20. Using fault displacement and slip tendency to estimate stress states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Alan P.; Ferrill, David A.; McGinnis, Ronald N.

    2016-02-01

    We suggest that faults in high slip tendency orientations tend to develop larger displacements than other faults. Consequently, faults that accumulate larger displacements are more likely to be reliable indicators of the longer term stress field and should be weighted accordingly in paleostress estimation. Application of a stress inversion technique that uses slip tendency analyses and fault displacements to interpret populations of coherent normal faults within the Balcones Fault System of south-central Texas provides stress estimates that are consistent with established regional stress analyses. Although the method does not require measurement of slip directions, these data, where available, and sensitivity analyses of the angular mismatch between measured slip directions and those predicted by inverted stress states provide high confidence in the stress estimates generated using slip tendency analyses. Close inspection of the fault orientation and displacement data further indicates that subpopulations of faults with orientations different from the regional pattern have formed in response to stress perturbations generated by displacement gradients on an adjacent seismic scale fault.

  1. Slip and Dilation Tendency Analysis of the Patua Geothermal Area

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-12-31

    Critically stressed fault segments have a relatively high likelihood of acting as fluid flow conduits (Sibson, 1994). As such, the tendency of a fault segment to slip (slip tendency; Ts; Morris et al., 1996) or to dilate (dilation tendency; Td; Ferrill et al., 1999) provides an indication of which faults or fault segments within a geothermal system are critically stressed and therefore likely to transmit geothermal fluids. The slip tendency of a surface is defined by the ratio of shear stress to normal stress on that surface: Ts = τ / σn (Morris et al., 1996). Dilation tendency is defined by the stress acting normal to a given surface: Td = (σ1-σn) / (σ1-σ3) (Ferrill et al., 1999). Slip and dilation were calculated using 3DStress (Southwest Research Institute). Slip and dilation tendency are both unitless ratios of the resolved stresses applied to the fault plane by ambient stress conditions. Values range from a maximum of 1, a fault plane ideally oriented to slip or dilate under ambient stress conditions to zero, a fault plane with no potential to slip or dilate. Slip and dilation tendency values were calculated for each fault in the focus study areas at, McGinness Hills, Neal Hot Springs, Patua, Salt Wells, San Emidio, and Tuscarora on fault traces. As dip is not well constrained or unknown for many faults mapped in within these we made these calculations using the dip for each fault that would yield the maximum slip tendency or dilation tendency. As such, these results should be viewed as maximum tendency of each fault to slip or dilate. The resulting along-fault and fault-to-fault variation in slip or dilation potential is a proxy for along fault and fault-to-fault variation in fluid flow conduit potential. Stress Magnitudes and directions Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson-Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes

  2. Individual differences in Zhong-Yong tendency and processing capacity

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ting-Yun; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated how an individual's Zhong-Yong tendency is related to his/her perceptual processing capacity. In two experiments, participants completed a Zhong-Yong Thinking Style Scale and performed a redundant-target detection task. Processing capacity was assessed with a non-parametric approach (systems factorial technology, SFT) and a parametric (linear ballistic accumulator model, LBA) approach. Results converged to suggest a positive correlation between Zhong-Yong tendency and processing capacity. High middle-way thinkers had larger processing capacity in multiple-signal processing compared with low middle-way thinkers, indicating that they processed information more efficiently and in an integrated fashion. Zhong-Yong tendency positively correlates with the processing capacity. These findings suggest that the individual differences in processing capacity can account for the reasons why high middle-way thinkers tend to adopt a global and flexible processing strategy to deal with the external world. Furthermore, the influence of culturally dictated thinking style on cognition can be revealed in a perception task. PMID:25477842

  3. Reporting central tendencies of chamber measured surface emission and oxidation.

    PubMed

    Abichou, Tarek; Clark, Jeremy; Chanton, Jeffery

    2011-05-01

    Methane emissions, concentrations, and oxidation were measured on eleven MSW landfills in eleven states spanning from California to Pennsylvania during the three year study. The flux measurements were performed using a static chamber technique. Initial concentration samples were collected immediately after placement of the flux chamber. Oxidation of the emitted methane was evaluated using stable isotope techniques. When reporting overall surface emissions and percent oxidation for a landfill cover, central tendencies are typically used to report "averages" of the collected data. The objective of this study was to determine the best way to determine and report central tendencies. Results showed that 89% of the data sets of collected surface flux have lognormal distributions, 83% of the surface concentration data sets are also lognormal. Sixty seven percent (67%) of the isotope measured percent oxidation data sets are normally distributed. The distribution of data for all eleven landfills provides insight of the central tendencies of emissions, concentrations, and percent oxidation. When reporting the "average" measurement for both flux and concentration data collected at the surface of a landfill, statistical analyses provided insight supporting the use of the geometric mean. But the arithmetic mean can accurately represent the percent oxidation, as measured with the stable isotope technique. We examined correlations between surface CH(4) emissions and surface air CH(4) concentrations. Correlation of the concentration and flux values using the geometric mean proved to be a good fit (R(2)=0.86), indicating that surface scans are a good way of identifying locations of high emissions.

  4. Individual variability in behavioral flexibility predicts sign-tracking tendency

    PubMed Central

    Nasser, Helen M.; Chen, Yu-Wei; Fiscella, Kimberly; Calu, Donna J.

    2015-01-01

    Sign-tracking rats show heightened sensitivity to food- and drug-associated cues, which serve as strong incentives for driving reward seeking. We hypothesized that this enhanced incentive drive is accompanied by an inflexibility when incentive value changes. To examine this we tested rats in Pavlovian outcome devaluation or second-order conditioning prior to the assessment of sign-tracking tendency. To assess behavioral flexibility we trained rats to associate a light with a food outcome. After the food was devalued by pairing with illness, we measured conditioned responding (CR) to the light during an outcome devaluation probe test. The level of CR during outcome devaluation probe test correlated with the rats' subsequent tracking tendency, with sign-tracking rats failing to suppress CR to the light after outcome devaluation. To assess Pavlovian incentive learning, we trained rats on first-order (CS+, CS−) and second-order (SOCS+, SOCS−) discriminations. After second-order conditioning, we measured CR to the second-order cues during a probe test. Second-order conditioning was observed across all rats regardless of tracking tendency. The behavioral inflexibility of sign-trackers has potential relevance for understanding individual variation in vulnerability to drug addiction. PMID:26578917

  5. New Mexico Title I, ESEA Migrant Program: Projects for Migratory Children of Migratory Agricultural Workers. State Annual Evaluation Report for Fiscal Year 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caperton, Bill; And Others

    Prepared by the Title I, Elementary and Secondary Education Act, (ESEA) Migrant Program director, this State annual evaluation report for fiscal year 1967 includes projects for migratory children of migratory agricultural workers in New Mexico. The material in this report represents a comprehensive analysis of Title I Migrant Program activity…

  6. New Mexico Title I, ESEA Migrant Program: Projects for Migratory Children of Migratory Agricultural Workers. State Annual Evaluation Report for Fiscal Year 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caperton, Bill; And Others

    Prepared by the Title I, Elementary and Secondary Education Act, (ESEA) Migrant Program director, this State annual evaluation report for fiscal year 1967 includes projects for migratory children of migratory agricultural workers in New Mexico. The material in this report represents a comprehensive analysis of Title I Migrant Program activity…

  7. Winter temperatures limit population growth rate of a migratory songbird

    PubMed Central

    Woodworth, Bradley K.; Wheelwright, Nathaniel T.; Newman, Amy E.; Schaub, Michael; Norris, D. Ryan

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the factors that limit and regulate wildlife populations requires insight into demographic and environmental processes acting throughout the annual cycle. Here, we combine multi-year tracking data of individual birds with a 26-year demographic study of a migratory songbird to evaluate the relative effects of density and weather at the breeding and wintering grounds on population growth rate. Our results reveal clear support for opposing forces of winter temperature and breeding density driving population dynamics. Above-average temperatures at the wintering grounds lead to higher population growth, primarily through their strong positive effects on survival. However, population growth is regulated over the long term by strong negative effects of breeding density on both fecundity and adult male survival. Such knowledge of how year-round factors influence population growth, and the demographic mechanisms through which they act, will vastly improve our ability to predict species responses to environmental change and develop effective conservation strategies for migratory animals. PMID:28317843

  8. Possibly drug-induced palpable migratory arciform erythema*

    PubMed Central

    Dantas, Fernando Luiz Teixeira; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai; Veronez, Isis Suga; Kakizaki, Priscila; Leitão, Juliana Ribeiro; Fraga, Rafael Cavanellas

    2015-01-01

    Palpable migratory arciform erythema is an entity of unknown etiology, with few published cases in the literature. The clinical and histopathological features of this disease are difficult to be distinguished from those of Jessner’s lymphocytic infiltration of the skin, lupus erythematous tumidus and the deep erythema annulare centrifugum. We describe here the first two Brazilian cases of palpable migratory arciform erythema. The patients presented with infiltrated annular plaques and erythematous arcs without scales. These showed centrifugal growth before disappearing without scarring or residual lesions after a few days. They had a chronic course with repeated episodes for years. In addition, these cases provide evidence of a drug-induced etiology. PMID:26312680

  9. On fuel choice and water balance during migratory bird flights.

    PubMed

    Giulivi, Cecilia; Ramsey, Jon

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that water loss during flight in migratory birds under high evaporative conditions can be offset by the production of water through increased protein catabolism. Indeed, oxidation of protein may supply 7-times more water/kJ than fat. However, the lack of a relative increase in protein catabolism over that of fat during long flights indicates that processes other than water balance may be the primary drivers of protein catabolism during long and strenuous flights. These processes include the release of stress hormones (which increase both protein and fat catabolism) and protein catabolism triggered by increased oxidative damage to muscle proteins from reactive oxygen species produced by mitochondria. Protein catabolism is an important source of water for birds during migratory flight, but it remains to be determined if this process is directly regulated by hydration status.

  10. A Fragmentary Archive: Migratory Feelings in Early Anglo-Saxon Women's Letters.

    PubMed

    Watt, Diane

    2017-01-01

    The letters by Anglo-Saxon women in the Boniface correspondence are connected by cultural practices and emotions centered on the conversion mission that functioned to maintain connections between the Anglo-Saxon diaspora. A striking recurring focus of these letters is on loss and isolation, which connects them to the Old English elegies. Many of the letters describe the writers' traumatic experiences that result from the death or absence of kin. These are women who endured the trauma of being left behind when others migrated overseas or who, in traveling away from their homeland, found themselves isolated in an alien environment, displaced in time as well as space. This article offers an analysis of the letters, focusing on the queer temporalities they explore, the queer emotions they evoke, and the queer kinships that they forge. It argues that the women's letters represent fragments of an early queer archive of migratory feelings.

  11. Migratory bats respond to artificial green light with positive phototaxis.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Christian C; Roeleke, Manuel; Marggraf, Lara; Pētersons, Gunārs; Voigt-Heucke, Silke L

    2017-01-01

    Artificial light at night is spreading worldwide at unprecedented rates, exposing strictly nocturnal animals such as bats to a novel anthropogenic stressor. Previous studies about the effect of artificial light on bats focused almost exclusively on non-migratory species, yet migratory animals such as birds are known to be largely affected by light pollution. Thus, we conducted a field experiment to evaluate if bat migration is affected by artificial light at night. In late summer, we presented artificial green light of 520 nm wavelength to bats that were migrating south along the shoreline of the Baltic Sea. Using a light on-off treatment, we observed that the activity of Pipistrellus nathusii and P. pygmaeus, the two most abundant migratory species at our site, increased by more than 50% in the light-on compared to the light-off treatment. We observed an increased number of feeding buzzes during the light-on compared to the light-off treatment for P. nathusii. However, feeding activity was low in general and did not increase disproportionately during the light-on treatment in relation to the overall echolocation call activity of bats. Further, P. nathusii were attracted towards the green light at a distance of about 23 m, which is way beyond the echolocation detection range for insects of Nathusius' bats. We therefore infer that migratory bats were not attracted to artificial green light because of high insect densities, but instead by positive phototaxis. We conclude that artificial light at night may potentially impact bat migration in a yet unrecognized way.

  12. Norepinephrine inhibits the migratory activity of pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Stock, Anna-Maria; Powe, Desmond G; Hahn, Stephan A; Troost, Gabriele; Niggemann, Bernd; Zänker, Kurt S; Entschladen, Frank

    2013-07-15

    We have shown previously that norepinephrine induces migratory activity of tumour cells from breast, colon and prostate tissue via activation of beta-2 adrenergic receptors. Consequently, this effect can be inhibited pharmacologically by clinically established beta-blockers. Tumour cell migration is a prerequisite for metastasis formation, and accordingly we and others have shown that breast cancer patients, which take beta-blockers due to hypertension, have reduced metastasis formation and increased survival probability as compared to patients without hypertension or using other anti-hypertensive medication. Unlike the aforementioned tumour cells, pancreatic cancer cells show a reduced migratory activity upon norepinephrine treatment. By means of our three-dimensional, collagen-based cell migration assay, we have investigated the signal transduction pathways involved in this phenomenon. We have found that this conflicting effect of norepinephrine on pancreatic cancer cells is due to an imbalanced activation of the two pathways that usually mediate a pro-migratory effect of norepinephrine in other tumour cell types. Firstly, the inhibitory effect results from activation of a pathway which causes a strong increase of the secondary cell signalling molecule, cAMP. In addition, activation of phospholipase C gamma and the downstream protein kinase C alpha were shown to be already activated in pancreatic cancer cells and cannot be further activated by norepinephrine. We hypothesize that this constitutive activation of the phospholipase C gamma pathway is due to a cross-talk with receptor tyrosine kinase signalling, and this might also deliver an explanation for the unusual high spontaneous migratory activity of pancreatic cancer cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Biocomplexity in a highly migratory pelagic marine fish, Atlantic herring

    PubMed Central

    Ruzzante, Daniel E; Mariani, Stefano; Bekkevold, Dorte; André, Carl; Mosegaard, Henrik; Clausen, Lotte A.W; Dahlgren, Thomas G; Hutchinson, William F; Hatfield, Emma M.C; Torstensen, Else; Brigham, Jennifer; Simmonds, E. John; Laikre, Linda; Larsson, Lena C; Stet, René J.M; Ryman, Nils; Carvalho, Gary R

    2006-01-01

    The existence of biologically differentiated populations has been credited with a major role in conferring sustainability and in buffering overall productivity of anadromous fish population complexes where evidence for spatial structure is uncontroversial. Here, we describe evidence of correlated genetic and life history (spawning season linked to spawning location) differentiation in an abundant and highly migratory pelagic fish, Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, in the North Sea (NS) and adjacent areas. The existence of genetically and phenotypically diverse stocks in this region despite intense seasonal mixing strongly implicates natal homing in this species. Based on information from genetic markers and otolith morphology, we estimate the proportional contribution by NS, Skagerrak (SKG) and Kattegat and western Baltic (WBS) fish to mixed aggregations targeted by the NS fishery. We use these estimates to identify spatial and temporal differences in life history (migratory behaviour) and habitat use among genetically differentiated migratory populations that mix seasonally. Our study suggests the existence of more complex patterns of intraspecific diversity than was previously recognized. Sustainability may be compromised if such complex patterns are reduced through generalized management (e.g. area closures) that overlooks population differences in spatial use throughout the life cycle. PMID:16777738

  14. Night-vision brain area in migratory songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Mouritsen, Henrik; Feenders, Gesa; Liedvogel, Miriam; Wada, Kazuhiro; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2005-01-01

    Twice each year, millions of night-migratory songbirds migrate thousands of kilometers. To find their way, they must process and integrate spatiotemporal information from a variety of cues including the Earth's magnetic field and the night-time starry sky. By using sensory-driven gene expression, we discovered that night-migratory songbirds possess a tight cluster of brain regions highly active only during night vision. This cluster, here named “cluster N,” is located at the dorsal surface of the brain and is adjacent to a known visual pathway. In contrast, neuronal activation of cluster N was not increased in nonmigratory birds during the night, and it disappeared in migrants when both eyes were covered. We suggest that in night-migratory songbirds cluster N is involved in enhanced night vision, and that it could be integrating vision-mediated magnetic and/or star compass information for night-time navigation. Our findings thus represent an anatomical and functional demonstration of a specific night-vision brain area. PMID:15928090

  15. Angioplastic necrolytic migratory erythema. Unique association of necrolytic migratory erythema, extensive angioplasia, and high molecular weight glucagon-like polypeptide

    SciTech Connect

    Franchimont, C.; Pierard, G.E.; Luyckx, A.S.; Gerard, J.; Lapiere, C.M.

    1982-12-01

    A diabetic patient developed necrolytic migratory erythema with extensive angioplasia and high molecular weight glucagon-like polypeptide. There was no associated neoplasm such as glucagonoma. Lesions in the skin were studied by standard optical microscopy and by radioautography after incorporation of tritiated thymidine. Alterations in the skin begin as focal necrosis in the epidermis and in epithelial structures of adnexa, followed by marked angioplasia and a superficial and deep perivascular dermatitis.

  16. Reporting central tendencies of chamber measured surface emission and oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Abichou, Tarek; Clark, Jeremy; Chanton, Jeffery

    2011-05-15

    Methane emissions, concentrations, and oxidation were measured on eleven MSW landfills in eleven states spanning from California to Pennsylvania during the three year study. The flux measurements were performed using a static chamber technique. Initial concentration samples were collected immediately after placement of the flux chamber. Oxidation of the emitted methane was evaluated using stable isotope techniques. When reporting overall surface emissions and percent oxidation for a landfill cover, central tendencies are typically used to report 'averages' of the collected data. The objective of this study was to determine the best way to determine and report central tendencies. Results showed that 89% of the data sets of collected surface flux have lognormal distributions, 83% of the surface concentration data sets are also lognormal. Sixty seven percent (67%) of the isotope measured percent oxidation data sets are normally distributed. The distribution of data for all eleven landfills provides insight of the central tendencies of emissions, concentrations, and percent oxidation. When reporting the 'average' measurement for both flux and concentration data collected at the surface of a landfill, statistical analyses provided insight supporting the use of the geometric mean. But the arithmetic mean can accurately represent the percent oxidation, as measured with the stable isotope technique. We examined correlations between surface CH{sub 4} emissions and surface air CH{sub 4} concentrations. Correlation of the concentration and flux values using the geometric mean proved to be a good fit (R{sup 2} = 0.86), indicating that surface scans are a good way of identifying locations of high emissions.

  17. Developmental tendency of hearing aid semi-auto-manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarng, Soon Suck; Lee, Yanbo

    2010-01-01

    What's the developmental tendency of the hearing aid manufacturing in the future? The answer is a rapid production or/and CAD/CAM technology. The new technology is quite different from the conventional manufacturing method. This article shows the differences between the 2 types of approach in detail, and analyzes these differences. The authors figure out where and how to cut an ear shell impression that will give help to the hearing aid manufacturing process, and make the CAD/CAM method to fit for the Asians' ears.

  18. Extrinsic rewards undermine altruistic tendencies in 20-month-olds.

    PubMed

    Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

    2008-11-01

    The current study investigated the influence of rewards on very young children's helping behavior. After 20-month-old infants received a material reward during a treatment phase, they subsequently were less likely to engage in further helping during a test phase as compared with infants who had previously received social praise or no reward at all. This so-called overjustification effect suggests that even the earliest helping behaviors of young children are intrinsically motivated and that socialization practices involving extrinsic rewards can undermine this tendency.

  19. Developmental tendency of hearing aid semi-auto-manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarng, Soon Suck; Lee, Yanbo

    2009-12-01

    What's the developmental tendency of the hearing aid manufacturing in the future? The answer is a rapid production or/and CAD/CAM technology. The new technology is quite different from the conventional manufacturing method. This article shows the differences between the 2 types of approach in detail, and analyzes these differences. The authors figure out where and how to cut an ear shell impression that will give help to the hearing aid manufacturing process, and make the CAD/CAM method to fit for the Asians' ears.

  20. [Appearance of psychopathic tendencies among children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Pataky, Nóra; Körmendi, Attila

    2010-01-01

    There has been a growing body of researches about psychopathic tendencies appearing among children and adolescents. First generation studies differentiated psychopathic constellation from conduct problems in childhood and pointed out that the presence of these traits predict unpleasant therapeutic prognosis and is partly independent from quality of parenting. The factor structure of constellation is similar to the factor structure of adult psychopaths. Surveying the structure became clear that C/U traits are the core of the child and adolescent psychopathic constellation. This paper summarize results of empirical studies connected to C/U traits among children and adolescents. We introduce debatable questions about child and adolescent psychopathic traits and connected empirical studies.

  1. Experimental warming alters migratory caribou forage quality.

    PubMed

    Zamin, Tara J; Côté, Steeve D; Tremblay, Jean-Pierre; Grogan, Paul

    2017-10-01

    sufficient appropriate habitat to support adaptability in forage selection in a rapidly changing environment. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  2. Modeling vector-borne disease risk in migratory animals under climate change.

    PubMed

    Hall, Richard J; Brown, Leone M; Altizer, Sonia

    2016-08-01

    Recent theory suggests that animals that migrate to breed at higher latitudes may benefit from reduced pressure from natural enemies, including pathogens ("migratory escape"), and that migration itself weeds out infected individuals and lowers infection prevalence ("migratory culling"). The distribution and activity period of arthropod disease vectors in temperate regions is expected to respond rapidly to climate change, which could reduce the potential for migratory escape. However, climate change could have the opposite effect of reducing transmission if differential responses in the phenology and distribution of migrants and disease vectors reduce their overlap in space and time. Here we outline a simple modeling framework for exploring the influence of climate change on vector-borne disease dynamics in a migratory host. We investigate two scenarios under which pathogen transmission dynamics might be mediated by climate change: (1) vectors respond more rapidly than migrants to advancing phenology at temperate breeding sites, causing peak susceptible host density and vector emergence to diverge ("migratory mismatch") and (2) reduced migratory propensity allows increased nonbreeding survival of infected hosts and larger breeding-site epidemics (loss of migratory culling, here referred to as "sedentary amplification"). Our results highlight the need for continued surveillance of climate-induced changes to migratory behavior and vector activity to predict pathogen prevalence and its impacts on migratory animals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Hippocampal lesions do not impair the geomagnetic orientation of migratory savannah sparrows.

    PubMed

    Bingman, V P; Able, K P; Siegel, J J

    1999-12-01

    The avian hippocampal formation is known to participate in naturally occurring spatial behavior such as homing in pigeons and cache recovery in food storing passerines, but its participation in the often spectacular migrations of birds remains uncertain. As a first investigation into the possible role of hippocampal formation in migration, the effect of hippocampal formation lesions on the geomagnetic migratory orientation of Savannah sparrows was examined. When tested indoors, hippocampal formation-lesioned sparrows were able to orient in an appropriate migratory direction indicating no necessary role for hippocampal formation in geomagnetic migratory orientation. However, hippocampal formation-lesioned birds displayed significantly less migratory (nocturnal) activity, a result that inspires further study.

  4. Annual life-history dependent seasonal differences in neural activity of the olfactory system between non-migratory and migratory songbirds.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Ashutosh; Surbhi; Malik, Shalie; Rani, Sangeeta; Kumar, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Present study investigated seasonal plasticity in neural activity of the olfactory system, and assessed whether this was influenced by differences in seasonal life-history states (LHSs) between the non-migratory and migratory birds. Brains of non-migratory Indian weaver birds and migratory redheaded buntings were processed for ZENK immunohistochemistry, a marker of neuronal activation, at the times of equinoxes (March, September) and solstices (June, December), which correspond with the periods of different seasonal LHSs during the year. Immunoreactivity was quantified in brain regions comprising the olfactory system viz. olfactory bulb (OB), anterior olfactory nucleus (AON), prepiriform cortex (CPP), lateral olfactory tract (LOT) and olfactory cortex (piriform cortex, CPI; lateral olfactory cortex, LOC). In weaver birds, ZENK-like immunoreactive (ZENK-lir) cells were significantly higher in all the brain areas during post-breeding season (September) than during the other seasons; OBs had higher neuronal activity in the breeding season (June), however. A similar neural activity pattern but at enhanced levels was found in migratory buntings almost all the year. These results for the first time show LHS-associated differences in the seasonal plasticity of a sensory system between the non-migratory and migratory songbirds.

  5. Energy Reserves, Information Need and a Pinch of Personality Determine Decision-Making on Route in Partially Migratory Blue Tits

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    In facultative partial migrants some individuals in a population are migratory and others are resident and individuals decide each year anew which strategy to choose. While the proportion of birds migrating is in part determined by environmental conditions and competitive abilities, the timing of individual departure and behaviours on route are little understood. Individuals encounter different environmental conditions when migrating earlier or later. Based on cost/ benefit considerations we tested whether behaviours on route were affected by time constraints, personality and/or age in a partially migrating population of Blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). We captured female Blue tits on migration at the Southern tip of Sweden during early, peak and late migration and measured latency to feed in an unfamiliar environment, exploration of a novel object and hesitation to feed beside a novel object (neophobia). Lean birds and birds with long wings started feeding earlier when released into the cage indicating that foraging decisions were mainly determined by energetic needs (lean and large birds). However, juveniles commenced feeding later with progression of the migratory season in concordance with predictions about personality effects. Furthermore, lean birds started to explore earlier than birds with larger fat reserves again indicating an effect of maintaining threshold energy reserves. Moreover, late migrating juveniles, started to explore earlier than early migrating juveniles possibly due to time constraints to find high-quality foraging patches or a suitable winter home. Finally, neophobia did not change over the migratory season indicating that this behaviour is not compromised by time constraints. The results overall indicate that decisions on route are mainly governed by energetic requirements and current needs to learn about the environment and only to a small extent by differences in personality. PMID:27732602

  6. Energy Reserves, Information Need and a Pinch of Personality Determine Decision-Making on Route in Partially Migratory Blue Tits.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Anna L K; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    In facultative partial migrants some individuals in a population are migratory and others are resident and individuals decide each year anew which strategy to choose. While the proportion of birds migrating is in part determined by environmental conditions and competitive abilities, the timing of individual departure and behaviours on route are little understood. Individuals encounter different environmental conditions when migrating earlier or later. Based on cost/ benefit considerations we tested whether behaviours on route were affected by time constraints, personality and/or age in a partially migrating population of Blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). We captured female Blue tits on migration at the Southern tip of Sweden during early, peak and late migration and measured latency to feed in an unfamiliar environment, exploration of a novel object and hesitation to feed beside a novel object (neophobia). Lean birds and birds with long wings started feeding earlier when released into the cage indicating that foraging decisions were mainly determined by energetic needs (lean and large birds). However, juveniles commenced feeding later with progression of the migratory season in concordance with predictions about personality effects. Furthermore, lean birds started to explore earlier than birds with larger fat reserves again indicating an effect of maintaining threshold energy reserves. Moreover, late migrating juveniles, started to explore earlier than early migrating juveniles possibly due to time constraints to find high-quality foraging patches or a suitable winter home. Finally, neophobia did not change over the migratory season indicating that this behaviour is not compromised by time constraints. The results overall indicate that decisions on route are mainly governed by energetic requirements and current needs to learn about the environment and only to a small extent by differences in personality.

  7. 78 FR 12273 - Highly Migratory Species; 2006 Consolidated Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Fishery Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... deployed in the water column and rarely interact with ocean bottom substrate. Some handgears such as rod...-water environments, the substrate, and most sensitive benthic habitats. For this reason, Alternative...

  8. First-principles prediction of disordering tendencies in complex oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Chao; Stanek, Christopher R; Sickafus, Kurt E; Uberuaga, Blas P

    2008-01-01

    The disordering tendencies of a series of zirconate (A{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}) , hafnate (A{sub 2}Hf{sub 2}O{sub 7}), titanate (A{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}), and stannate (A{sub 2} Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7}) pyrochlores are predicted in this study using first-principles total energy calculations. To model the disordered (A{sub 1/2}B{sub 1/2})(O{sub 7/8}/V{sub 1/8}){sub 2} fluorite structure, we have developed an 88-atom two-sublattice special quasirandom structure (SQS) that closely reproduces the most important near-neighbor intra-sublattice and inter-sublattice pair correlation functions of the random alloy. From the calculated disordering energies, the order-disorder transition temperatures of those pyrochlores are further predicted and our results agree well with the existing experimental phase diagrams. It is clearly demonstrated that both size and electronic effects play an important role in determining the disordering tendencies of pyrochlore compounds.

  9. Influence of muscle groups' activation on proximal femoral growth tendency.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Priti; Shefelbine, Sandra J; Pontén, Eva; Gutierrez-Farewik, Elena M

    2017-06-22

    Muscle and joint contact force influence stresses at the proximal growth plate of the femur and thus bone growth, affecting the neck shaft angle (NSA) and femoral anteversion (FA). This study aims to illustrate how different muscle groups' activation during gait affects NSA and FA development in able-bodied children. Subject-specific femur models were developed for three able-bodied children (ages 6, 7, and 11 years) using magnetic resonance images. Contributions of different muscle groups-hip flexors, hip extensors, hip adductors, hip abductors, and knee extensors-to overall hip contact force were computed. Specific growth rate for the growth plate was computed, and the growth was simulated in the principal stress direction at each element in the growth front. The predicted growth indicated decreased NSA and FA (of about [Formula: see text] over a four-month period) for able-bodied children. Hip abductors contributed the most, and hip adductors, the least, to growth rate. All muscles groups contributed to a decrease in predicted NSA ([Formula: see text]0.01[Formula: see text]-0.04[Formula: see text] and FA ([Formula: see text]0.004[Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text]), except hip extensors and hip adductors, which showed a tendency to increase the FA ([Formula: see text]0.004[Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text]). Understanding influences of different muscle groups on long bone growth tendency can help in treatment planning for growing children with affected gait.

  10. Is There a Tendency for Thrombosis in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus?

    PubMed

    Gorar, Suheyla; Alioglu, Bulent; Ademoglu, Esranur; Uyar, Seyit; Bekdemir, Handan; Candan, Zehra; Saglam, Beylan; Koc, Gonul; Culha, Cavit; Aral, Yalcin

    2016-01-01

    Impact of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on the coagulation system, dynamics involved at a pathophysiological level and the exact mechanism remain unclear. To evaluate the association between diabetes-related parameters and hemostatic factors to search for a tendency of thrombosis in GDM. Nineteen pregnant women who had GDM, 16 healthy pregnant and 13 healthy nonpregnant controls admitted to the Endocrinology outpatient clinics were enrolled in the study. Fasting and postprandial glucose, hemoglobin A1c and insulin levels, and insulin resistance; fructosamine, thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), plasminogen activator inhibitor Type-1 (PAI-1), tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), fibrinogen, plasminogen and hemoglobin levels, platelet counts, prothrombin time (PT), and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were studied. One-way analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis, and post hoc Tukey honestly significant difference or Conover's nonparametric multiple comparison tests for comparison of the study groups. PT and aPTT were significantly lower in GDM patients compared to controls (P < 0.05), whereas fibrinogen and plasminogen levels were significantly higher in this group compared to both nonpregnant and healthy pregnant controls (P < 0.05 for each). TAFI, TFPI, PAI-1, and tissue t-PA levels were not significantly different among groups. Our findings indicate tendency to develop thrombosis in GDM similar to diabetes mellitus; but more comprehensive studies with larger sample size are needed to determine the relationship between GDM and hemostasis.

  11. The Roles of Innate Information, Learning Rules and Plasticity in Migratory Bird Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Able, Kenneth P.; Able, Mary A.

    This paper and the following three papers were presented at the RIN97 Conference held in Oxford under the auspices of the Animal Navigation Special Interest Group, April 1997. The full proceedings, under the title Orientation and Navigation - Birds, Humans and Other Animals, can be obtained from the Director (£30 to Members, £50 to non-Members).Studies of the compass mechanisms involved in the migratory orientation of birds have revealed a complex web of interactions, both during the development of orientation behaviour in young birds and in mature individuals exhibiting migratory activity. In young birds, the acquisition of compass orientation capabilities involves the interplay of apparently genetically programmed information with a suite of innate learning rules. The latter canalise the ways in which experience with relevant orientation information from the environment impinges on development. There are many general similarities with the development of singing behaviour in songbirds, although that system is more thoroughly understood, especially at the neuronal level.Here we shall attempt to synthesise what is known about the development of compass mechanisms in a framework of innate information and learning rules. The way in which orientation behaviour develops leaves open the possibility for plasticity that enables birds to compensate for variability in the environmental cues that form the basis of their compasses. For at least some components of the system, behavioural plasticity remains into adulthood, allowing the bird on migration to respond in apparently adaptive ways to spatial and temporal variability in orientation information that it may encounter while enroute. We have studied these questions in the Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), a medium-distance North American emberizine nocturnal migrant. We will focus on that species, relating the results of our work to relevant studies on others.

  12. Diffuse migratory connectivity in two species of shrubland birds: evidence from stable isotopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knick, Steven T.; Leu, Matthias; Rotenberry, John T.; Hanser, Steven E.; Fesenmyer, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Connecting seasonal ranges of migratory birds is important for understanding the annual template of stressors that influence their populations. Brewer’s sparrows (Spizella breweri) and sagebrush sparrows (Artemisiospiza nevadensis) share similar sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitats for breeding but have different population trends that might be related to winter location. To link breeding and winter ranges, we created isoscapes of deuterium [stable isotope ratio (δ) of deuterium; δ2H] and nitrogen (δ15N) for each species modeled from isotope ratios measured in feathers of 264 Brewer’s and 82 sagebrush sparrows and environmental characteristics at capture locations across their breeding range. We then used feather δ2Hf and δ15Nf measured in 1,029 Brewer’s and 527 sagebrush sparrows captured on winter locations in southwestern United States to assign probable breeding ranges. Intraspecies population mixing from across the breeding range was strong for both Brewer’s and sagebrush sparrows on winter ranges. Brewer’s sparrows but not sagebrush sparrows were linked to more northerly breeding locations in the eastern part of their winter range. Winter location was not related to breeding population trends estimated from US Geological Survey Breeding Bird Survey routes for either Brewer’s or sagebrush sparrows. Primary drivers of population dynamics are likely independent for each species; Brewer’s and sagebrush sparrows captured at the same winter location did not share predicted breeding locations or population trends. The diffuse migratory connectivity displayed by Brewer’s and sagebrush sparrows measured at the coarse spatial resolution in our analysis also suggests that local environments rather than broad regional characteristics are primary drivers of annual population trends.

  13. Zebra finches have a light-dependent magnetic compass similar to migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Pinzon-Rodriguez, Atticus; Muheim, Rachel

    2017-04-01

    Birds have a light-dependent magnetic compass that provides information about the spatial alignment of the geomagnetic field. It is proposed to be located in the avian retina and mediated by a light-induced, radical-pair mechanism involving cryptochromes as sensory receptor molecules. To investigate how the behavioural responses of birds under different light spectra match with cryptochromes as the primary magnetoreceptor, we examined the spectral properties of the magnetic compass in zebra finches. We trained birds to relocate a food reward in a spatial orientation task using magnetic compass cues. The birds were well oriented along the trained magnetic compass axis when trained and tested under low-irradiance 521 nm green light. In the presence of a 1.4 MHz radio-frequency electromagnetic (RF)-field, the birds were disoriented, which supports the involvement of radical-pair reactions in the primary magnetoreception process. Birds trained and tested under 638 nm red light showed a weak tendency to orient ∼45 deg clockwise of the trained magnetic direction. Under low-irradiance 460 nm blue light, they tended to orient along the trained magnetic compass axis, but were disoriented under higher irradiance light. Zebra finches trained and tested under high-irradiance 430 nm indigo light were well oriented along the trained magnetic compass axis, but disoriented in the presence of a RF-field. We conclude that magnetic compass responses of zebra finches are similar to those observed in nocturnally migrating birds and agree with cryptochromes as the primary magnetoreceptor, suggesting that light-dependent, radical-pair-mediated magnetoreception is a common property for all birds, including non-migratory species. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Bodies obliged and unbound: differentiated response tendencies for injunctive and descriptive social norms.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Ryan P; Mortensen, Chad R; Cialdini, Robert B

    2011-03-01

    The authors suggest that injunctive and descriptive social norms engage different psychological response tendencies when made selectively salient. On the basis of suggestions derived from the focus theory of normative conduct and from consideration of the norms' functions in social life, the authors hypothesized that the 2 norms would be cognitively associated with different goals, would lead individuals to focus on different aspects of self, and would stimulate different levels of conflict over conformity decisions. Additionally, a unique role for effortful self-regulation was hypothesized for each type of norm-used as a means to resist conformity to descriptive norms but as a means to facilitate conformity for injunctive norms. Four experiments supported these hypotheses. Experiment 1 demonstrated differences in the norms' associations to the goals of making accurate/efficient decisions and gaining/maintaining social approval. Experiment 2 provided evidence that injunctive norms lead to a more interpersonally oriented form of self-awareness and to a greater feeling of conflict about conformity decisions than descriptive norms. In the final 2 experiments, conducted in the lab (Experiment 3) and in a naturalistic environment (Experiment 4), self-regulatory depletion decreased conformity to an injunctive norm (Experiments 3 and 4) and increased conformity to a descriptive norm (Experiment 4)-even though the norms advocated identical behaviors. By illustrating differentiated response tendencies for each type of social norm, this research provides new and converging support for the focus theory of normative conduct. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Wetland Suitability and Connectivity for Trans-Saharan Migratory Waterbirds

    PubMed Central

    Teunen, Joachim; Saura, Santiago; Koedam, Nico

    2015-01-01

    To complete their life cycle waterbirds rely on patchily distributed and often ephemeral wetlands along their migration route in a vast unsuitable matrix. However, further loss and degradation of remaining wetland habitats might lead to a configuration and size of stopovers that is no longer sufficient to ensure long-term survival of waterbird populations. By identifying optimal conservation targets to maintain overall habitat availability en route, we can accommodate an as yet absent functional connectivity component in larger management frameworks for migratory waterbirds, such as the Ramsar Convention and the EU Natura 2000 Network. Using a graph-based habitat availability metric (Equivalent Connected Area) we determine the functional connectivity of wetland networks for seven migratory waterbirds with divergent habitat requirements. Analyses are performed at two spatial extents both spanning the Mediterranean Sea and centered around Greece (Balkan-Cyrenaica and Greece-Cyrenaica). We create species-specific suitable habitat maps and account for human disturbance by species-specific disturbance buffers, based on expert estimates of Flight Initiation Distances. At both spatial extents we quantitatively determine the habitat networks’ overall functional connectivity and identify wetland sites that are crucial for maintaining a well-connected network. We show that the wetland networks for both spatial extents are relatively well connected and identify several wetland sites in Greece and Libya as important for maintaining connectivity. The application of disturbance buffers results in wetland site-specific reduction of suitable habitat area (0.90–7.36%) and an overall decrease of the network’s connectivity (0.65–6.82%). In addition, we show that the habitat networks of a limited set of species can be combined into a single network which accounts for their autoecological requirements. We conclude that targeted management in few but specific wetland complexes

  16. Key Features of Intertidal Food Webs That Support Migratory Shorebirds

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Béat, Blanche; Dupuy, Christine; Bocher, Pierrick; Chalumeau, Julien; De Crignis, Margot; Fontaine, Camille; Guizien, Katell; Lavaud, Johann; Lefebvre, Sébastien; Montanié, Hélène; Mouget, Jean-Luc; Orvain, Francis; Pascal, Pierre-Yves; Quaintenne, Gwenaël; Radenac, Gilles; Richard, Pierre; Robin, Frédéric; Vézina, Alain F.; Niquil, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The migratory shorebirds of the East Atlantic flyway land in huge numbers during a migratory stopover or wintering on the French Atlantic coast. The Brouage bare mudflat (Marennes-Oléron Bay, NE Atlantic) is one of the major stopover sites in France. The particular structure and function of a food web affects the efficiency of carbon transfer. The structure and functioning of the Brouage food web is crucial for the conservation of species landing within this area because it provides sufficient food, which allows shorebirds to reach the north of Europe where they nest. The aim of this study was to describe and understand which food web characteristics support nutritional needs of birds. Two food-web models were constructed, based on in situ measurements that were made in February 2008 (the presence of birds) and July 2008 (absence of birds). To complete the models, allometric relationships and additional data from the literature were used. The missing flow values of the food web models were estimated by Monte Carlo Markov Chain – Linear Inverse Modelling. The flow solutions obtained were used to calculate the ecological network analysis indices, which estimate the emergent properties of the functioning of a food-web. The total activities of the Brouage ecosystem in February and July are significantly different. The specialisation of the trophic links within the ecosystem does not appear to differ between the two models. In spite of a large export of carbon from the primary producer and detritus in winter, the higher recycling leads to a similar retention of carbon for the two seasons. It can be concluded that in February, the higher activity of the ecosystem coupled with a higher cycling and a mean internal organization, ensure the sufficient feeding of the migratory shorebirds. PMID:24204666

  17. Key features of intertidal food webs that support migratory shorebirds.

    PubMed

    Saint-Béat, Blanche; Dupuy, Christine; Bocher, Pierrick; Chalumeau, Julien; De Crignis, Margot; Fontaine, Camille; Guizien, Katell; Lavaud, Johann; Lefebvre, Sébastien; Montanié, Hélène; Mouget, Jean-Luc; Orvain, Francis; Pascal, Pierre-Yves; Quaintenne, Gwenaël; Radenac, Gilles; Richard, Pierre; Robin, Frédéric; Vézina, Alain F; Niquil, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The migratory shorebirds of the East Atlantic flyway land in huge numbers during a migratory stopover or wintering on the French Atlantic coast. The Brouage bare mudflat (Marennes-Oléron Bay, NE Atlantic) is one of the major stopover sites in France. The particular structure and function of a food web affects the efficiency of carbon transfer. The structure and functioning of the Brouage food web is crucial for the conservation of species landing within this area because it provides sufficient food, which allows shorebirds to reach the north of Europe where they nest. The aim of this study was to describe and understand which food web characteristics support nutritional needs of birds. Two food-web models were constructed, based on in situ measurements that were made in February 2008 (the presence of birds) and July 2008 (absence of birds). To complete the models, allometric relationships and additional data from the literature were used. The missing flow values of the food web models were estimated by Monte Carlo Markov Chain--Linear Inverse Modelling. The flow solutions obtained were used to calculate the ecological network analysis indices, which estimate the emergent properties of the functioning of a food-web. The total activities of the Brouage ecosystem in February and July are significantly different. The specialisation of the trophic links within the ecosystem does not appear to differ between the two models. In spite of a large export of carbon from the primary producer and detritus in winter, the higher recycling leads to a similar retention of carbon for the two seasons. It can be concluded that in February, the higher activity of the ecosystem coupled with a higher cycling and a mean internal organization, ensure the sufficient feeding of the migratory shorebirds.

  18. Wetland suitability and connectivity for trans-Saharan migratory waterbirds.

    PubMed

    Merken, Ronny; Deboelpaep, Evelien; Teunen, Joachim; Saura, Santiago; Koedam, Nico

    2015-01-01

    To complete their life cycle waterbirds rely on patchily distributed and often ephemeral wetlands along their migration route in a vast unsuitable matrix. However, further loss and degradation of remaining wetland habitats might lead to a configuration and size of stopovers that is no longer sufficient to ensure long-term survival of waterbird populations. By identifying optimal conservation targets to maintain overall habitat availability en route, we can accommodate an as yet absent functional connectivity component in larger management frameworks for migratory waterbirds, such as the Ramsar Convention and the EU Natura 2000 Network. Using a graph-based habitat availability metric (Equivalent Connected Area) we determine the functional connectivity of wetland networks for seven migratory waterbirds with divergent habitat requirements. Analyses are performed at two spatial extents both spanning the Mediterranean Sea and centered around Greece (Balkan-Cyrenaica and Greece-Cyrenaica). We create species-specific suitable habitat maps and account for human disturbance by species-specific disturbance buffers, based on expert estimates of Flight Initiation Distances. At both spatial extents we quantitatively determine the habitat networks' overall functional connectivity and identify wetland sites that are crucial for maintaining a well-connected network. We show that the wetland networks for both spatial extents are relatively well connected and identify several wetland sites in Greece and Libya as important for maintaining connectivity. The application of disturbance buffers results in wetland site-specific reduction of suitable habitat area (0.90-7.36%) and an overall decrease of the network's connectivity (0.65-6.82%). In addition, we show that the habitat networks of a limited set of species can be combined into a single network which accounts for their autoecological requirements. We conclude that targeted management in few but specific wetland complexes could

  19. Atlantic Leatherback Migratory Paths and Temporary Residence Areas

    PubMed Central

    López-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; Miller, Philip; Domingo, Andrés; Evans, Daniel; Kelle, Laurent; Plot, Virginie; Prosdocimi, Laura; Verhage, Sebastian; Gaspar, Philippe; Georges, Jean-Yves

    2010-01-01

    Background Sea turtles are long-distance migrants with considerable behavioural plasticity in terms of migratory patterns, habitat use and foraging sites within and among populations. However, for the most widely migrating turtle, the leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea, studies combining data from individuals of different populations are uncommon. Such studies are however critical to better understand intra- and inter-population variability and take it into account in the implementation of conservation strategies of this critically endangered species. Here, we investigated the movements and diving behaviour of 16 Atlantic leatherback turtles from three different nesting sites and one foraging site during their post-breeding migration to assess the potential determinants of intra- and inter-population variability in migratory patterns. Methodology/Principal Findings Using satellite-derived behavioural and oceanographic data, we show that turtles used Temporary Residence Areas (TRAs) distributed all around the Atlantic Ocean: 9 in the neritic domain and 13 in the oceanic domain. These TRAs did not share a common oceanographic determinant but on the contrary were associated with mesoscale surface oceanographic features of different types (i.e., altimetric features and/or surface chlorophyll a concentration). Conversely, turtles exhibited relatively similar horizontal and vertical behaviours when in TRAs (i.e., slow swimming velocity/sinuous path/shallow dives) suggesting foraging activity in these productive regions. Migratory paths and TRAs distribution showed interesting similarities with the trajectories of passive satellite-tracked drifters, suggesting that the general dispersion pattern of adults from the nesting sites may reflect the extent of passive dispersion initially experienced by hatchlings. Conclusions/Significance Intra- and inter-population behavioural variability may therefore be linked with initial hatchling drift scenarios and be highly

  20. Atlantic leatherback migratory paths and temporary residence areas.

    PubMed

    Fossette, Sabrina; Girard, Charlotte; López-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; Miller, Philip; Domingo, Andrés; Evans, Daniel; Kelle, Laurent; Plot, Virginie; Prosdocimi, Laura; Verhage, Sebastian; Gaspar, Philippe; Georges, Jean-Yves

    2010-11-09

    Sea turtles are long-distance migrants with considerable behavioural plasticity in terms of migratory patterns, habitat use and foraging sites within and among populations. However, for the most widely migrating turtle, the leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea, studies combining data from individuals of different populations are uncommon. Such studies are however critical to better understand intra- and inter-population variability and take it into account in the implementation of conservation strategies of this critically endangered species. Here, we investigated the movements and diving behaviour of 16 Atlantic leatherback turtles from three different nesting sites and one foraging site during their post-breeding migration to assess the potential determinants of intra- and inter-population variability in migratory patterns. Using satellite-derived behavioural and oceanographic data, we show that turtles used Temporary Residence Areas (TRAs) distributed all around the Atlantic Ocean: 9 in the neritic domain and 13 in the oceanic domain. These TRAs did not share a common oceanographic determinant but on the contrary were associated with mesoscale surface oceanographic features of different types (i.e., altimetric features and/or surface chlorophyll a concentration). Conversely, turtles exhibited relatively similar horizontal and vertical behaviours when in TRAs (i.e., slow swimming velocity/sinuous path/shallow dives) suggesting foraging activity in these productive regions. Migratory paths and TRAs distribution showed interesting similarities with the trajectories of passive satellite-tracked drifters, suggesting that the general dispersion pattern of adults from the nesting sites may reflect the extent of passive dispersion initially experienced by hatchlings. Intra- and inter-population behavioural variability may therefore be linked with initial hatchling drift scenarios and be highly influenced by environmental conditions. This high degree of behavioural

  1. On the evolution of brain size in relation to migratory behaviour in birds

    PubMed Central

    PRAVOSUDOV, VLADIMIR V.; SANFORD, KIRSTEN; HAHN, THOMAS P.

    2007-01-01

    Migratory birds appear to have relatively smaller brain size compared to sedentary species. It has been hypothesized that initial differences in brain size underlying behavioural flexibility drove the evolution of migratory behaviour; birds with relatively large brains evolved sedentary habits and those with relatively small brains evolved migratory behaviour (migratory precursor hypothesis). Alternative hypotheses suggest that changes in brain size might follow different behavioural strategies and that sedentary species might have evolved larger brains because of differences in selection pressures on brain size in migratory and nonmigratory species. Here we present the first evidence arguing against the migratory precursor hypothesis. We compared relative brain volume of three subspecies of the white-crowned sparrow: sedentary Zonotrichia leucophrys nuttalli and migratory Z. l. gambelii and Z. l. oriantha. Within the five subspecies of the white-crowned sparrow, only Z. l. nuttalli is strictly sedentary. The sedentary behaviour of Z. l. nuttalli is probably a derived trait, because Z. l. nuttalli appears to be the most recent subspecies and because all species ancestral to Zonotrichia as well as all older subspecies of Z. leucophrys are migratory. Compared to migratory Z. l. gambelii and Z. l. oriantha, we found that sedentary Z. l. nuttalli had a significantly larger relative brain volume, suggesting that the larger brain of Z. l. nuttalli evolved after a switch to sedentary behaviour. Thus, in this group, brain size does not appear to be a precursor to the evolution of migratory or sedentary behaviour but rather an evolutionary consequence of a change in migratory strategy. PMID:18311316

  2. Bender Gestalt Signs and Anti-Social Acting Out Tendencies in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannigan, Gary G.; Benowity, Martin L.

    1975-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between performance on the Bender-Gestalt test and antisocial acting out tendencies in adolescents. Results indicate that uneven figure size and exaggerated curvature are the best indicators of antisocial acting out tendencies. (Author)

  3. Bender Gestalt Signs and Anti-Social Acting Out Tendencies in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannigan, Gary G.; Benowity, Martin L.

    1975-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between performance on the Bender-Gestalt test and antisocial acting out tendencies in adolescents. Results indicate that uneven figure size and exaggerated curvature are the best indicators of antisocial acting out tendencies. (Author)

  4. Influence of supercontinent cyclicity on global metallogenic processes: Main tendencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachev, A. V.; Rundquist, D. V.

    2016-08-01

    The distribution of large and superlarge mineral deposits (LSMD) of the most important raw materials is correlated with supercontinent cycles in the geological history of the Earth. The latter displays the distinct correlation between metallogenic activity and cyclic global endogenous processes reflected in quasi-regular cycles, which result eventually in the assembly and breakup of supercontinents. In the framework of these cycles, the maximums in the LSMD assembly coincide with periods of intense growth of the subcontinent crust owing to growth of the matter originated from juvenile sources (Kenoran, Columbian cycles) or with epochs of intense recycling of the mature crust (Pangean, Amasian cycles). The Rodinian cycle with minimum activity of these both endogenous processes demonstrates simultaneously minimum metallogenic activity. The distribution of most LSMD types generally follows these main tendencies.

  5. NONCONSCIOUS EFFECTS OF POWER ON BASIC APPROACH AND AVOIDANCE TENDENCIES.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pamela K; Bargh, John A

    2008-02-01

    According to the approach/inhibition theory of power (Keltner, Gruenfeld, & Anderson, 2003), having power should be associated with the approach system, and lacking power with the avoidance system. However, to this point research has focused solely on whether power leads to more action, particularly approach-related action, or not. In three experiments, we extend this research by exploring the direct, unintentional relation between power and both approach and avoidance tendencies. Priming high power led to greater relative BAS strength than priming low power, but did not affect the BIS (Exp. 1). High-power priming also facilitated both simple and complex approach behavior, but did not affect avoidance behavior (Exp. 2-3). These effects of power occurred even in power-irrelevant situations. They also cannot be explained by priming of general positive versus negative constructs, nor by changes in positive, negative, approach-related, or avoidance-related affect.

  6. First-principles prediction of disordering tendencies in pyrochlore oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chao; Stanek, C. R.; Sickafus, K. E.; Uberuaga, B. P.

    2009-03-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we systematically predict the order-disorder energetics of series of zirconate (A2Zr2O7) , hafnate (A2Hf2O7) , titanate (A2Ti2O7) , and stannate (A2Sn2O7) pyrochlores. The disordered defect-fluorite structure is modeled using an 88-atom two-sublattice special quasirandom structure (SQS) that closely reproduces the most relevant near-neighbor intrasublattice and intersublattice pair-correlation functions of the random mixture. The order-disorder transition temperatures of these pyrochlores estimated from our SQS calculations show overall good agreement with existing experiments. We confirm previous studies suggesting that the bonding in pyrochlores is not purely ionic and thus electronic effects also play a role in determining their disordering tendencies. Our results have important consequences for numerous applications, including nuclear waste forms and fast ion conductors.

  7. A common tendency for phylogenetic overdispersion in mammalian assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Natalie; Rodríguez, Jesús; Purvis, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Competition has long been proposed as an important force in structuring mammalian communities. Although early work recognized that competition has a phylogenetic dimension, only with recent increases in the availability of phylogenies have true phylogenetic investigations of mammalian community structure become possible. We test whether the phylogenetic structure of 142 assemblages from three mammalian clades (New World monkeys, North American ground squirrels and Australasian possums) shows the imprint of competition. The full set of assemblages display a highly significant tendency for members to be more distantly related than expected by chance (phylogenetic overdispersion). The overdispersion is also significant within two of the clades (monkeys and squirrels) separately. This is the first demonstration of widespread overdispersion in mammal assemblages and implies an important role for either competition between close relatives where traits are conserved, habitat filtering where distant relatives share convergent traits, or both. PMID:18508747

  8. Intermixing tendencies in garnets: Pyrope and grossular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluiter, Marcel H. F.; Vinograd, Victor; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2004-11-01

    The composition-temperature-pressure phase diagram of pyrope-grossular solid solutions, in which Mg and Ca are guest species in a highly rigid aluminosilicate framework, is predicted using simple models for the mixing enthalpy and the vibrational excitations. The models are expected to elucidate general phase separation tendencies in mixtures of guest species. Size mismatch of guest species is shown to give a positive enthalpy of mixing, and vibrational effects are shown to favor phase separation at the side of the smaller guest species, while at the side of the larger guest species mixing is favored. This gives rise to asymmetrical miscibility gaps that are displaced toward the side of the smaller species; in the case of pyrope-grossular, toward pyrope. It is shown that a realistic description of phase stability can be obtained using very few electronic density functional total energy calculations, making it of particular relevance for large unit-cell systems.

  9. Latest tendency in the Antarctic ozone longitudinal distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milinevsky, Gennadi; Grytsai, Asen; Klekociuk, Andrew; Evtushevsky, Olexander

    2014-05-01

    Significant ozone depletion was observed within the southern polar vortex during spring in the 1980s - early 1990s. Later, a stabilization in total ozone levels and ozone hole area has been observed. Atmosphere models predict a consequent recovery of the Antarctic ozone. Nevertheless, identification of the long-term processes is complicated by high interannual variability hiding their general regularities. In particular, a large stratosphere warming in 2002 resulted in significant increase in total ozone levels. The Antarctic ozone hole is formed inside polar stratospheric vortex, which is under influence of large-scale planetary waves. The components of the quasi-stationary wave (QSW) in the spring Southern Hemisphere (SH) stratosphere is mainly contributed by zonal wave number 1 which in turn determines the location of the total ozone extremes in spring: QSW minimum (maximum) is located in the South Atlantic (Australian) sector. In our work the satellite data of TOMS/Nimbus-7, TOMS/Earth Probe and OMI/Aura (http://ozoneaq.gsfc.nasa.gov/) have been used to investigate longitudinal distribution of the total ozone in Antarctic region. The gap in these satellite observations (1993-1995) was filled by the Multi-Sensor Reanalysis data (http://www.temis.nl/). Ozone distribution in the SH high and mid latitudes 80-50S were analyzed for southern spring season including months from September to November. The zonal distribution is considered along seven latitude circles from 80S to 50S with step of five degrees. To distinguish long-term processes and to obtain a quasi-stationary pattern, daily September - November ozone was averaged. Our previous study demonstrated a systematic eastward shift of the QSW minimum region. In this study, we extended the analysis to 2013 and obtained new results that exhibited a probable cessation in that eastward shift. Polynomial fit for all chosen latitudes is even evidence of a change in the tendency to opposite. It more time needs to

  10. Procrastination tendencies among obsessive-compulsives and their relatives.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, J R; McCown, W

    1994-03-01

    Participants diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; 39 women, 26 men; M age = 40) and their family relatives (11 women, 7 men; M age = 45) completed standardized measures of obsessions, compulsions, decisional procrastination (indecision), and avoidant procrastination. Among the OCDs, obsessions were related significantly to decisional procrastination, and compulsions were related significantly to decisional and avoidant procrastination. In comparison to family members of obsessive compulsives, the OCDs reported significantly greater obsessions, compulsions, and indecisions, but not procrastination motivated by avoidance. Results suggest that individuals with clinical obsessive-compulsive tendencies do, in fact, report states of indecision, as claimed by DSM-III-R. However, these clinical individuals may not differ significantly from nonclinical samples (e.g., family members) in avoidant procrastination.

  11. A common tendency for phylogenetic overdispersion in mammalian assemblages.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Natalie; Rodríguez, Jesús; Purvis, Andy

    2008-09-07

    Competition has long been proposed as an important force in structuring mammalian communities. Although early work recognized that competition has a phylogenetic dimension, only with recent increases in the availability of phylogenies have true phylogenetic investigations of mammalian community structure become possible. We test whether the phylogenetic structure of 142 assemblages from three mammalian clades (New World monkeys, North American ground squirrels and Australasian possums) shows the imprint of competition. The full set of assemblages display a highly significant tendency for members to be more distantly related than expected by chance (phylogenetic overdispersion). The overdispersion is also significant within two of the clades (monkeys and squirrels) separately. This is the first demonstration of widespread overdispersion in mammal assemblages and implies an important role for either competition between close relatives where traits are conserved, habitat filtering where distant relatives share convergent traits, or both.

  12. Down-regulating narcissistic tendencies: communal focus reduces state narcissism.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, Miranda; Jordan, Christian H

    2014-04-01

    Narcissism has been conceptualized as a set of coherent, mutually reinforcing attributes that orients individuals toward self-enhancement and positive self-feelings. In this view, reducing one element of narcissism--such as a greater concern for agency than communion--may situationally reduce narcissism in a state-like manner. Across five studies, we found that increasing communal focus toward others decreases state narcissism. In Study 1, participants induced to feel empathy reported less state narcissism. In Studies 2 to 4, participants primed with interdependent self-construal reported less state narcissism than control participants and those primed with independent self-construal. Furthermore, in Study 4, changes in state narcissism mediated changes in desire for fame and perceptions that others deserve help. Thus, changes in one element of narcissism may situationally reduce narcissistic tendencies. These findings suggest that narcissism is more state-like and context-dependent than previously assumed.

  13. NONCONSCIOUS EFFECTS OF POWER ON BASIC APPROACH AND AVOIDANCE TENDENCIES

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Pamela K.; Bargh, John A.

    2008-01-01

    According to the approach/inhibition theory of power (Keltner, Gruenfeld, & Anderson, 2003), having power should be associated with the approach system, and lacking power with the avoidance system. However, to this point research has focused solely on whether power leads to more action, particularly approach-related action, or not. In three experiments, we extend this research by exploring the direct, unintentional relation between power and both approach and avoidance tendencies. Priming high power led to greater relative BAS strength than priming low power, but did not affect the BIS (Exp. 1). High-power priming also facilitated both simple and complex approach behavior, but did not affect avoidance behavior (Exp. 2−3). These effects of power occurred even in power-irrelevant situations. They also cannot be explained by priming of general positive versus negative constructs, nor by changes in positive, negative, approach-related, or avoidance-related affect. PMID:18568085

  14. Levels and profiles of persistent organic pollutants in resident and migratory birds from an urbanized coastal region of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sang Hee; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Ha, Sung Yong; Jang, Mi; Rani, Manviri; Hong, Sunwook; Yeo, Gwang Yeong

    2014-02-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) levels in resident and migratory birds collected from an urbanized coastal region of South Korea were investigated. As target species, resident birds that reside in different habitats-such as inland and coastal regions-were selected and their POP contamination status and accumulation features evaluated. Additionally, winter and summer migratory species were analysed for comparison with resident birds. Black-tailed gull and domestic pigeon were selected as the coastal and inland resident birds, respectively, and pacific loon and heron/egret were selected as the winter and summer migratory birds, respectively. The overall POP concentrations (unit: ng/g lipid) in resident birds were 14-131,000 (median: 13,400) for PCBs, 40-284,000 (11,200) for DDTs, <1.0-2850 (275) for CHLs, 23-2020 (406) for HCHs, 2-1520 (261) for HCB, <0.2-48 (5) for pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), 71-7120 (1840) for PBDEs, and <1.8-2300 (408) for HBCDs. In resident birds, the overall level of POPs was higher in seagull compared to pigeon. The stable isotope ratio of nitrogen and carbon indicates that seagull occupies a higher trophic position in the environment than pigeon. However, the POP accumulation profiles in these species differed. Pigeon tends to accumulate more recently used POPs such as PBDEs than seagull. The high-brominated BDE congeners, γ-HBCDs and γ-HCH (also called lindane) were enriched in pigeon compared to seagull, implying the widespread use of Deca-BDE, technical HBCDs, and lindane in the terrestrial environment of South Korea. The different accumulation profile of POPs in both resident species would be related to their habitat difference and trophic positions. For urban resident bird such as pigeon, an intentional intake of dust or soils during feeding is likely to be an additional route of exposure to POPs. Resident birds generally accumulated higher POPs concentrations than migratory birds, the exceptions being relatively volatile compounds

  15. Role of Migratory Birds in Spreading Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Eroglu, Cafer; Erciyas-Yavuz, Kiraz; Hokelek, Murat; Acici, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Hava

    2014-01-01

    We investigated migratory birds’ role in spreading Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) through attached ticks. We detected CCHFV RNA in ticks on migratory birds in Turkey. Two isolates showed similarity with CCHFV genotype 4, suggesting a role for ticks in CCHFV epidemics in Turkey and spread of CCHFV by birds. PMID:25062428

  16. Important Bird Areas and international Migratory Bird Day - a beneficial convergence in 2002

    Treesearch

    Jennifer Wheeler; Susan Bonfield

    2005-01-01

    International Migratory Bird Day (IMBD) was created in 1993 to increase public awareness, education, and concern for migratory birds and their habitats. As a day of recognition, it serves as both a celebration and a call to conservation action.4 Programmatically, IMBD offers resources to celebrants in the form of a suite of promotional and educational products as well...

  17. Opportunities and goals of the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Program - Partners in Flight

    Treesearch

    Deborah M. Finch

    1992-01-01

    In the fall of 1990, a major program for the conservation of migratory landbirds that breed in North America and winter in Latin America and the Caribbean Basin was initiated. Numerous federal, state. and private organizations in the United States endorsed the initiative by signing an official agreement to cooperatively conserve populations of neotropical migratory...

  18. Seasonal survival estimation for a long-distance migratory bird and the influence of winter precipitation

    Treesearch

    Sarah M. Rockwell; Joseph M. Wunderle; T. Scott Sillett; Carol I. Bocetti; David N. Ewert; Dave Currie; Jennifer D. White; Peter P. Marra

    2017-01-01

    Conservation of migratory animals requires information about seasonal survival rates. Identifying factors that limit populations, and the portions of the annual cycle in which they occur, are critical for recognizing and reducing potential threats. However, such data are lacking for virtually all migratory taxa. We investigated patterns and environmental correlates of...

  19. Role of migratory birds in spreading Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Eroglu, Cafer; Erciyas-Yavuz, Kiraz; Hokelek, Murat; Acici, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Hava

    2014-08-01

    We investigated migratory birds' role in spreading Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) through attached ticks. We detected CCHFV RNA in ticks on migratory birds in Turkey. Two isolates showed similarity with CCHFV genotype 4, suggesting a role for ticks in CCHFV epidemics in Turkey and spread of CCHFV by birds.

  20. 77 FR 4272 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coastal Migratory Pelagic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... reduces the commercial trip limit of Atlantic migratory group Spanish mackerel in or from the exclusive... mackerel, Spanish mackerel, cero, cobia, little tunny, dolphin, and, in the Gulf of Mexico only, bluefish... 3.87 million lb (1.76 million kg) for the Atlantic migratory group of Spanish mackerel (65 FR 41015...

  1. 76 FR 9692 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coastal Migratory Pelagic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... reduces the commercial trip limit of Atlantic migratory group Spanish mackerel in or from the exclusive... mackerel, Spanish mackerel, cero, cobia, little tunny, dolphin, and, in the Gulf of Mexico only, bluefish... Spanish mackerel. Atlantic migratory group Spanish mackerel are divided into a northern and southern zone...

  2. 76 FR 60444 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coastal Migratory Pelagic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... accountability measures (AMs) for king mackerel, Spanish mackerel, and cobia. In addition, Amendment 18 proposes... allowable biological catch (ABC). Currently two migratory groups of king mackerel and Spanish mackerel are... for cobia; and establish ACLs, ACTs, and AMs for each migratory group of king mackerel, Spanish...

  3. 50 CFR 20.25 - Wanton waste of migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wanton waste of migratory game birds. 20.25 Section 20.25 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... game birds. No person shall kill or cripple any migratory game bird pursuant to this part without...

  4. Noninvasive In Toto Imaging of the Thymus Reveals Heterogeneous Migratory Behavior of Developing T Cells.

    PubMed

    Bajoghli, Baubak; Kuri, Paola; Inoue, Daigo; Aghaallaei, Narges; Hanelt, Marleen; Thumberger, Thomas; Rauzi, Matteo; Wittbrodt, Joachim; Leptin, Maria

    2015-09-01

    The migration of developing T cells (thymocytes) between distinct thymic microenvironments is crucial for their development. Ex vivo studies of thymus tissue explants suggest two distinct migratory behaviors of thymocytes in the thymus. In the cortex, thymocytes exhibit a stochastic migration, whereas medullary thymocytes show confined migratory behavior. Thus far, it has been difficult to follow all thymocytes in an entire thymus and relate their differentiation steps to their migratory dynamics. To understand the spatial organization of the migratory behavior and development of thymocytes in a fully functional thymus, we developed transgenic reporter lines for the chemokine receptors ccr9a and ccr9b, as well as for rag2, and used them for noninvasive live imaging of the entire thymus in medaka (Oryzias latipes). We found that the expression of these two chemokine receptors in the medaka juvenile thymus defined two spatially distinct subpopulations of thymocytes. Landmark events of T cell development including proliferation, somatic recombination, and thymic selection can be mapped to subregions of the thymus. The migratory behavior of thymocytes within each of the subpopulations is equally heterogeneous, and specific migratory behaviors are not associated with particular domains in the thymus. During the period when thymocytes express rag2 their migratory behavior was more homogeneous. Therefore, the migratory behavior of thymocytes is partly correlated with their developmental stage rather than being defined by their spatial localization. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  5. Decline of the migratory form in bull charr, Salvelinus confluentus, and implications for conservation

    Treesearch

    M. Lee Nelson; Thomas E. McMahon; Russell F. Thurow

    2002-01-01

    Large-bodied, migratory life history forms of bull charr, Salvelinus confluentus, were historically abundant in northwestern North America, but many remaining populations of this now-threatened species presently persist as small-bodied residents isolated in headwater streams.We examined whether the migratory form has been lost from headwater...

  6. Fatalities at wind turbines may threaten population viability of a migratory bat

    Treesearch

    W.F. Frick; E.F. Baerwald; J.F. Pollock; R.M.R. Barclay; J.A. Szymanski; Ted Weller; A.L. Russell; Susan Loeb; R.A. Medellin; L.P. McGuire

    2017-01-01

    Large numbers of migratory bats are killed every year at wind energy facilities. However, population-level impacts are unknown as we lack basic demographic information about these species. We investigated whether fatalities at wind turbines could impact population viability of migratory bats, focusing on the hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus),...

  7. 78 FR 65953 - Migratory Bird Permits; Removal of Regulations Concerning Certain Depredation Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AX92 Migratory Bird Permits; Removal of Regulations.... SUMMARY: We propose to remove regulations that set forth certain depredation orders for migratory birds... these regulations apparently are unused, we propose to remove them. Control of depredating birds could...

  8. 77 FR 15284 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coastal Migratory Pelagic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... the coastal migratory pelagic fishery for king mackerel in the Florida east coast subzone. This closure is necessary to protect the Gulf king mackerel resource. DATES: This rule is effective 12:01 a.m...: The fishery for coastal migratory pelagic fish (king mackerel, Spanish mackerel, and cobia) is...

  9. 77 FR 11411 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coastal Migratory Pelagic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... component of the commercial sector of the coastal migratory pelagic fishery for king mackerel in the southern Florida west coast subzone. This closure is necessary to protect the Gulf king mackerel resource... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The fishery for coastal migratory pelagic fish ] (king mackerel, Spanish...

  10. USDA Forest Service goals and programs for monitoring neotropical migratory birds

    Treesearch

    Patricia Manley

    1993-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service (USFS) developed goals, objectives, and guidelines for monitoring neotropical migratory birds (NTMB) on National Forest System lands in response to the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Program Partners in Flight. A USFS task group developed a hierarchical monitoring framework designed to define priorities for type of monitoring data....

  11. 34 CFR 300.213 - Records regarding migratory children with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Records regarding migratory children with disabilities... THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.213 Records regarding migratory children with disabilities. The LEA must cooperate in the Secretary's efforts...

  12. Management of midwestern landscapes for the conservation of neotropical migratory birds; 1995 December 5; Detroit, MI.

    Treesearch

    Frank R. III Thompson

    1996-01-01

    Reviews status of Neotropical migratory landbirds, and effects of land-use practices in the Midwestern United States, from a landscape perspective, through a series of papers authored by regional experts. Includes recommendations for the conservation of Midwestern Neotropical migratory landbirds.

  13. Guilt by dissociation: guilt primes augment the relationship between dissociative tendencies and state dissociation.

    PubMed

    Rugens, Alex; Terhune, Devin Blair

    2013-03-30

    We examined the influence of guilt on the relationship between dissociative tendencies and state dissociation during mirror-gazing in a non-clinical sample. Dissociative tendencies correlated with state dissociation following guilt primes, but not after negative or neutral primes. This suggests that guilt augments the relationship between dissociative tendencies and state dissociation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Navigation and seasonal migratory orientation in juvenile sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Avens, Larisa; Lohmann, Kenneth J

    2004-05-01

    Juvenile loggerhead and green turtles that inhabit inshore waters of North Carolina, USA undertake long seasonal migrations, after which they often return to specific feeding areas. In addition, juvenile turtles are capable of homing to specific sites after being displaced. As a first step towards investigating the navigational mechanisms that underlie these movements, juvenile turtles were captured in coastal waters of North Carolina and displaced 30-167 km along circuitous routes while deprived of visual cues. At the testing location, turtles were tethered in a circular arena and permitted to swim while their orientation was monitored. Between May and September, when juvenile loggerhead and green turtles inhabit feeding areas along the North Carolina coast, turtles oriented in directions that corresponded closely with the most direct route back to their capture locations. During October and November, however, both loggerhead and green turtles oriented southward, a direction consistent with the migratory paths of turtles beginning their autumn migration. The results demonstrate for the first time that both homing and migratory orientation can be elicited in juvenile turtles under laboratory conditions in which orientation cues can be readily manipulated. In addition, the results provide evidence that juvenile loggerheads can assess their position relative to a goal using local cues available at the test site and are therefore capable of map-based navigation.

  15. Endocrine regulation of fueling by hyperphagia in migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Eikenaar, Cas

    2017-02-17

    To support migratory endurance flight, birds accumulate large amounts of fat by hyperphagia (fueling). Whereas the factors influencing migrants' motivation to fuel are well described, the physiological mechanism regulating fueling is largely unknown. Hormones are likely involved and arguably the best studied with respect to food intake and fueling is corticosterone. Corticosterone has a permissive effect, as blocking the hormone's actions prohibits efficient fueling. There are no indications, though that corticosterone stimulates fueling, and some studies even observed negative correlations between corticosterone level and food intake and speed of fueling. The latter is unexpected as slow fueling could reduce the overall speed of migration. To test the causality of these negative correlations, I non-invasively increased circulating corticosterone levels in captive migrants and determined its effect on food intake and fuel accumulation. Neither food intake nor fuel accumulation differed between corticosterone-treated and control-treated individuals. This indicates that corticosterone does not hamper food intake and fueling during stopovers, nor does it stimulate these processes. Promising alternative candidates for the regulation of migratory hyperphagia are 'appetite regulating' hormones secreted by the adipose tissue, gut, or gastro-intestinal tract. The advance of next-generation sequencing will facilitate a bottom-up approach when investigating these.

  16. Surveillance of Influenza A Virus and Its Subtypes in Migratory Wild Birds of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Karmacharya, Dibesh; Manandhar, Sulochana; Sharma, Ajay; Bhatta, Tarka; Adhikari, Pratikshya; Sherchan, Adarsh Man; Shrestha, Bishwo; Bista, Manisha; Rajbhandari, Rajesh; Oberoi, Mohinder; Bisht, Khadak; Hero, Jean-Marc; Dissanayake, Ravi; Dhakal, Maheshwar; Hughes, Jane; Debnath, Nitish

    2015-01-01

    Nepal boarders India and China and all three countries lie within the Central Asian Flyway for migratory birds. Novel influenza A H7N9 caused human fatalities in China in 2013. Subclinical infections of influenza A H7N9 in birds and the potential for virus dispersal by migratory birds prompted this study to assess avian H7N9 viral intrusion into Nepal. Surveillance of influenza A virus in migratory birds was implemented in early 2014 with assistance from the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Of 1811 environmental fecal samples collected from seven wetland migratory bird roosting areas, influenza A H9N2 was found in one sample from a ruddy shelduck in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve located in southern Nepal. Avian H7N9 and other highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses were not detected. This study provides baseline data on the status of avian influenza virus in migratory bird populations in Nepal.

  17. Surveillance of Influenza A Virus and Its Subtypes in Migratory Wild Birds of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ajay; Bhatta, Tarka; Adhikari, Pratikshya; Sherchan, Adarsh Man; Shrestha, Bishwo; Bista, Manisha; Rajbhandari, Rajesh; Oberoi, Mohinder; Bisht, Khadak; Hero, Jean-Marc; Dissanayake, Ravi; Dhakal, Maheshwar; Hughes, Jane; Debnath, Nitish

    2015-01-01

    Nepal boarders India and China and all three countries lie within the Central Asian Flyway for migratory birds. Novel influenza A H7N9 caused human fatalities in China in 2013. Subclinical infections of influenza A H7N9 in birds and the potential for virus dispersal by migratory birds prompted this study to assess avian H7N9 viral intrusion into Nepal. Surveillance of influenza A virus in migratory birds was implemented in early 2014 with assistance from the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Of 1811 environmental fecal samples collected from seven wetland migratory bird roosting areas, influenza A H9N2 was found in one sample from a ruddy shelduck in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve located in southern Nepal. Avian H7N9 and other highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses were not detected. This study provides baseline data on the status of avian influenza virus in migratory bird populations in Nepal. PMID:26176773

  18. 50 CFR 20.109 - Extended seasons, limits, and hours for taking migratory game birds by falconry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... taking migratory game birds by falconry. 20.109 Section 20.109 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH... taking migratory game birds by falconry. This section provides annual regulations by which falconers may take permitted migratory game birds. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting annual...

  19. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed annual... published in the Federal Register for public review and comment, similar to the annual migratory game bird...

  20. 50 CFR 20.109 - Extended seasons, limits, and hours for taking migratory game birds by falconry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... taking migratory game birds by falconry. 20.109 Section 20.109 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH..., PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING... taking migratory game birds by falconry. This section provides annual regulations by which falconers may...

  1. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Program Structure § 92.12 Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed annual...

  2. 50 CFR 20.109 - Extended seasons, limits, and hours for taking migratory game birds by falconry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... taking migratory game birds by falconry. 20.109 Section 20.109 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH..., PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING... taking migratory game birds by falconry. This section provides annual regulations by which falconers may...

  3. 50 CFR 20.109 - Extended seasons, limits, and hours for taking migratory game birds by falconry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... taking migratory game birds by falconry. 20.109 Section 20.109 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH..., PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING... taking migratory game birds by falconry. This section provides annual regulations by which falconers may...

  4. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Program Structure § 92.12 Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed annual...

  5. 50 CFR 20.109 - Extended seasons, limits, and hours for taking migratory game birds by falconry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... taking migratory game birds by falconry. 20.109 Section 20.109 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH..., PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING... taking migratory game birds by falconry. This section provides annual regulations by which falconers may...

  6. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Program Structure § 92.12 Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed annual...

  7. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Program Structure § 92.12 Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed annual...

  8. The Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Act: A Workshop to Discuss Improvements and a Brief Summary of First Year Results

    Treesearch

    David Mehlman; Heather Johnson; Bob Ford

    2005-01-01

    The Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Act (NMBCA; Public Law 106-247), passed by the U.S. Congress in 2000, establishes a matching grants program to fund projects that promote the conservation of migratory birds in the United States, Latin America, and the Caribbean. During its deliberations, the U.S. Congress recognized that migratory birds provide significant...

  9. 50 CFR 622.373 - Limited access system for charter vessel/headboat permits for Gulf coastal migratory pelagic fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .../headboat permits for Gulf coastal migratory pelagic fish. 622.373 Section 622.373 Wildlife and Fisheries... for Gulf coastal migratory pelagic fish. (a) No applications for additional charter vessel/headboat permits for Gulf coastal migratory pelagic fish will be accepted. Existing permits may be renewed, are...

  10. 50 CFR 622.373 - Limited access system for charter vessel/headboat permits for Gulf coastal migratory pelagic fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .../headboat permits for Gulf coastal migratory pelagic fish. 622.373 Section 622.373 Wildlife and Fisheries... for Gulf coastal migratory pelagic fish. (a) No applications for additional charter vessel/headboat permits for Gulf coastal migratory pelagic fish will be accepted. Existing permits may be renewed, are...

  11. Management of New England northern hardwoods, spruce-fir, and eastern white pine for neotropical migratory birds

    Treesearch

    Richard M. DeGraaf; Mariko Yamasaki; William B. Leak

    1993-01-01

    Habitat management for neotropical migratory birds must be based upon land capability, vegetation, successional patterns, response to treatments, landscape diversity, and speciedhabitat relationships. Neotropical migratory birds use diverse arrays of aquatic, early successional, and forest habitats. Management of neotropical migratory birds involves enhancement of...

  12. A Study on the Development of the Tendency to Tolerance Scale and an Analysis of the Tendencies of Primary School Students to Tolerance through Certain Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliskan, Huseyin; Saglam, Halil Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the Tendency to Tolerance Scale and to analyze the tendencies of primary school students to tolerance through certain variables. The population of the study was comprised of 899 students who studied at five different primary schools located in Sakarya. The exploratory factor analysis yielded an 18-item…

  13. Does Religiosity Mediate Suicidal Tendencies? A South African Study of Muslim Tertiary Students.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Tasnim Bibi; Naidoo, Sarojini

    2016-06-01

    Despite international studies into religion's protective mechanism against suicidal tendencies, within South Africa there is a paucity of research investigating this relationship. This quantitative study investigates the relationship between religiosity and suicidal tendencies in a sample of Muslim students (N = 111). Two scales were used to test the hypothesis that religion mediates suicidal tendency: the Religious Orientation Test and the Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale. The findings confirmed this hypothesis but disconfirmed our second hypothesis that there would be gender differences between the variables. We concluded that a high degree of religiosity acts as a protective mechanism against suicidal tendencies and discuss the implications of our findings.

  14. Carbon isotope turnover as a measure of arrival time in migratory birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N.

    2009-01-01

    Arrival time on breeding or non-breeding areas is of interest in many ecological studies exploring fitness consequences of migratory schedules. However, in most field studies, it is difficult to precisely assess arrival time of individuals. Here, we use carbon isotope turnover in avian blood as a technique to estimate arrival time for birds switching from one habitat or environment to another. Stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) in blood assimilate to a new equilibrium following a diet switch according to an exponential decay function. This relationship can be used to determine the time a diet switch occurred if δ13C of both the old and new diet are known. We used published data of captive birds to validate that this approach provides reliable estimates of the time since a diet switch within 1–3 weeks after the diet switch. We then explored the utility of this technique for King Eiders (Somateria spectabilis) arriving on terrestrial breeding grounds after wintering and migration at sea. We estimated arrival time on breeding grounds in northern Alaska (95% CI) from red blood cell δ13C turnover to be 4–9 June. This estimate overlapped with arrival time of birds from the same study site tracked with satellite transmitters (5–12 June). Therefore, we conclude that this method provides a simple yet reliable way to assess arrival time of birds moving between isotopically distinct environments.

  15. Experimental reduction of winter food decreases body condition and delays migration in a long-distance migratory bird.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Nathan W; Sherry, Thomas W; Marra, Peter P

    2015-07-01

    Many tropical habitats experience pronounced dry seasons, during which arthropod food availability declines, potentially limiting resident and migratory animal populations. In response to declines in food, individuals may attempt to alter their space use to enhance access to food resources, but may be socially constrained from doing so by con- and heterospecifics. If social constraints exist, food declines should result in decreased body condition. In migratory birds, correlational evidence suggests a link between body condition and migration timing. Poor body condition and delayed migration may, in turn, impact fitness in subsequent seasons via carry-over effects. To determine if winter food availability affects space use, inter- and intraspecific competition, body composition (i.e., mass, fat, and pectoral muscle), and migration timing, we experimentally decreased food availability on individual American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) territories in high-quality mangrove habitat. Redstarts on control territories experienced -40% loss of food due to the seasonal nature of the environment. Redstarts on experimental territories experienced -80% declines in food, which closely mimicked natural declines in nearby, low-quality, scrub habitat. Individuals on food-reduced territories did not expand their territories locally, but instead either became non-territorial "floaters" or remained on territory. Regardless of territorial status, food-reduced American Redstarts all deposited fat compared to control birds. Fat deposits provide insurance against the risk of starvation, but, for American Redstarts, came at the expense of maintaining pectoral muscle. Subsequently, food-reduced American Redstarts experienced, on average, a one-week delay in departure on spring migration, likely due to the loss of pectoral muscle. Thus, our results demonstrate experimentally, for the first time, that declines in winter food availability can result in a fat-muscle trade-off, which, in

  16. First-principles prediction of disordering tendencies in pyrochlore oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Chao; Stanek, C. R.; Sickafus, K. E.; Uberuaga, B. P.

    2009-03-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we systematically predict the order-disorder energetics of series of zirconate (A{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}), hafnate (A{sub 2}Hf{sub 2}O{sub 7}), titanate (A{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}), and stannate (A{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7}) pyrochlores. The disordered defect-fluorite structure is modeled using an 88-atom two-sublattice special quasirandom structure (SQS) that closely reproduces the most relevant near-neighbor intrasublattice and intersublattice pair-correlation functions of the random mixture. The order-disorder transition temperatures of these pyrochlores estimated from our SQS calculations show overall good agreement with existing experiments. We confirm previous studies suggesting that the bonding in pyrochlores is not purely ionic and thus electronic effects also play a role in determining their disordering tendencies. Our results have important consequences for numerous applications, including nuclear waste forms and fast ion conductors.

  17. Advanced tendencies in development of photovoltaic cells for power engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strebkov, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Development of solar power engineering must be based on original innovative Russian and world technologies. It is necessary to develop promising Russian technologies of manufacturing of photovoltaic cells and semiconductor materials: chlorine-free technology for obtaining solar silicon; matrix solar cell technology with an efficiency of 25-30% upon the conversion of concentrated solar, thermal, and laser radiation; encapsulation technology for high-voltage silicon solar modules with a voltage up to 1000 V and a service life up to 50 years; new methods of concentration of solar radiation with the balancing illumination of photovoltaic cells at 50-100-fold concentration; and solar power systems with round-the-clock production of electrical energy that do not require energy storage devices and reserve sources of energy. The advanced tendency in silicon power engineering is the use of high-temperature reactions in heterogeneous modular silicate solutions for long-term (over one year) production of heat and electricity in the autonomous mode.

  18. "Bipolar groupthink": assessing groupthink tendencies in authentic work groups.

    PubMed

    Rosander, M; Stiwne, D; Granström, K

    1998-06-01

    Research on regressive group processes such as Janis' (1982) "groupthink" phenomenon has rarely focused on work groups in authentic settings. In this study, teams from six different organisations (n = 308) were studied by using a groupthink questionnaire constructed in accordance with the symptoms of groupthink described by Janis. It was hypothesised that groupthink could be described as a bipolar construct identifying either an omnipotent or a depressive variant of a group's delusions about its own and other groups' features. The questionnaire showed reasonably good reliability as a whole and a factor analysis identified three factors in line with the proposed theoretical model in which the two different types of groupthink can be distinguished. We propose that any group might have a tendency or predisposition to react in either of the two directions during provocative circumstances. The six different organisations exhibited different types of groupthink to a varying degree. A religious sect was the one most characterised by omnipotent groupthink, while a technological company and a psychiatric team seemed to be the ones with most features of depressive groupthink.

  19. Oscillatory tendency of interevent direction in earthquake sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yu; Leung, Yee; Chan, Lung Sang

    2017-07-01

    The epicenter motion direction carries important information about the seismogenic dynamics but, to our knowledge, lacks systematic study. In this work, we studied the earthquake process from this perspective. To grasp the feature in directional information, we proposed a new descriptor, i.e., the direction of motion change defined as the difference in azimuths between two consecutive earthquake events. For the aftershock sequences of the Landers and the Northridge Earthquakes, the regional earthquake catalogs of south China, southern California, and New Zealand, and the corresponding aftershock depleted catalogs, we studied the distribution and long-range correlation of the direction of motion change. Similar results are found for the aftershock and regional earthquake process even if aftershocks depleted from the catalogs: Both of them hold a tendency for successive events to migrate in opposite directions along fault zones and show no long-range correlation, rendering plausibly a fundamental characteristic governed by seismogenic dynamics. For aftershocks, the phenomenon is conjectured to be the alternate release of residual stress at both ends of the fissures. With regard to regional earthquakes, the underlying physics and mechanisms are not very clear. It should be something related to the seismodynamic process, such as stress configuration modified by earthquakes. The study from this new perspective of directional information is believed to benefit a better understanding of the earthquake process.

  20. Shyness: anxious social sensitivity and self-isolating tendency.

    PubMed

    Ishiyama, F I

    1984-01-01

    Based on shyness self-rating, 96 students in grade 10 were divided into shy and non-shy groups to study commonalities and differences between the groups on various aspects of the shyness experience. The shy group had significantly more negative self-ratings on the following items: loneliness, interference of shyness with academic success and with developing friendships, shyness around the opposite sex, and belief in the noticeability of shyness reactions by others. There were no significant group differences in the levels of self-liking and being liked by others. Compared to the non-shy, the shy group reported more negative cognitive reactions during the shyness experience, such as loss of concentration, speech problems, self-consciousness, and self-punitive self-talk. In spite of the shy group's cognitive problems, both groups identified many similar shyness-inducing social situations and physiological and non-verbal reactions. These similarities and differences between the shy and the non-shy seemed to point to their different ways of processing the same shyness experience. A self-alienating tendency at three levels (cognitive, affective, and behavioral), and two phases (primary and secondary) of the shyness experience are discussed as possible contributing factors. Shy students appeared to regard normal shyness as an unacceptable and shameful experience. Implications for therapeutic intervention and future research are discussed, and a new definition is given.

  1. Relationship between the migratory, metabolic and proliferative ability of fibrochondrocytes and the meniscal fragment size: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhu; Li, Kang-Hua; Chen, Zhi-Wei; Hou, Zi-Xin; Deng, Yan

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the migratory, metabolic and proliferative ability of rabbit fibrochondrocytes in meniscal fragments of different sizes under an in vivo subcutaneous environment. Adult, male, New Zealand white rabbit menisci were harvested and the inner two-thirds of each were minced into different sizes: 0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 mm (group A); 1.0 × 1.0 × 1.0 mm (group B); 2.0 × 2.0 × 2.0 mm (group C). Meniscal fragments were packed into a fascia sheath, then implanted subcutaneously. At weeks 1, 2 and 3 postimplantation, meniscal fragments were harvested; cell migration and viability were then evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy and haematoxylin and eosin staining. Aggrecan was detected using Safranin O and Fast Green staining, and protein levels of types I and II collagen, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Protein levels of types I and II collagen and PCNA, and fibrochondrocyte migration, were highest in group A compared with groups B and C, but aggrecan staining remained the same across the groups. There was an inverse relationship between the migratory, metabolic and proliferative abilities of rabbit fibrochondrocytes and meniscal fragment size.

  2. Light-level geolocators reveal covariation between winter plumage molt and phenology in a trans-Saharan migratory bird.

    PubMed

    Saino, Nicola; Rubolini, Diego; Ambrosini, Roberto; Romano, Maria; Scandolara, Chiara; Fairhurst, Graham D; Caprioli, Manuela; Romano, Andrea; Sicurella, Beatrice; Liechti, Felix

    2015-08-01

    Contingent individual performance can depend on the environment experienced at previous life-stages. Migratory birds are especially susceptible to such carry-over effects as they periodically travel between breeding ranges and 'wintering' areas where they may experience broadly different ecological conditions. However, the study of carry-over effects is hampered by the difficulty of tracking vagile organisms throughout their annual life-cycle. Using information from light-level geolocators on the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica), we tested if feather growth bar width (GBW), a proxy of feather growth rate which depends on individual condition, and wing isometric size and shape predict the phenology of subsequent migration. GBW did not predict duration of wintering but negatively predicted the duration of spring migration and arrival date to the breeding sites, suggesting that migration phenology is not constrained by molt, and individuals in prime condition achieve both faster molt and earlier arrival. Wing morphology did not predict migration duration, as expected if wing shape were optimized for foraging, rather than migration performance, in this aerially foraging, insectivorous bird. Thus, we showed for the first time that migration phenology in a long-distance migratory bird covaries with body condition during wintering, as reflected by the growth rate of feathers.

  3. [New international migrations and migratory models in South European countries].

    PubMed

    De Filippo, E; Pugliese, E

    1996-01-01

    Trends in international migration in the Mediterranean European countries over the course of the 1980s are reviewed. "Particular attention is paid to the different factors that explain the arrival of these migratory fluxes during a period of economic recession and in areas where there is a co-presence of immigration, emigration and unemployment. The involvement of southern European countries as target countries for immigration is not seen as a simple consequence of the [restrictive policies] practiced in the Seventies by European countries with traditional immigration; the push towards these countries as well as the pull to the same are also considered, particularly the acceleration of the internationalization process of the labor markets, the characteristics of the labor markets, and processes of segmentation and tertiarization." (EXCERPT)

  4. Lateralization of magnetic compass orientation in a migratory bird.

    PubMed

    Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Traudt, Joachim; Güntürkün, Onur; Prior, Helmut; Wiltschko, Roswitha

    2002-10-03

    Lateralization of brain functions, once believed to be a human characteristic, has now been found to be widespread among vertebrates. In birds, asymmetries of visual functions are well studied, with each hemisphere being specialized for different tasks. Here we report lateralized functions of the birds' visual system associated with magnetoperception, resulting in an extreme asymmetry of sensing the direction of the magnetic field. We found that captive migrants tested in cages with the magnetic field as the only available orientation cue were well oriented in their appropriate migratory direction when using their right eye only, but failed to show a significant directional preference when using their left eye. This implies that magnetoreception for compass orientation, assumed to take place in the eyes alongside the visual processes, is strongly lateralized, with a marked dominance of the right eye/left brain hemisphere.

  5. Migratory gold resistive shorts - Chemical aspects of a failure mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunthaner, F. J.; Griswold, T. W.; Clendening, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    Integrated-circuit devices using the Ti/W/Au metal system are subject to failure mechanisms based on electrolytic corrosion. The migratory gold resistive short (MGRS) failure mode is one example of this mechanism and results in the formation of filamentary or dendritic deposits of gold between adjacent stripes on the IC chip. This reaction requires the presence of a sufficient amount of water, a bias voltage between adjacent stripes, and the activation of the cathodic (-) stripe. Gold ions are transported from anode to cathode through a film of moisture adsorbed on the surface of the chip; halide ions are probably involved in the transfer. Their presence is verified experimentally by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Some of the chemical and electrostatic factors involved in the MGRS mechanism are discussed in this paper, including the questions of a threshold level of moisture and contamination.

  6. A migratory mantle plume on Venus: Implications for Earth?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, M.G.; Kirk, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    A spatially fixed or at least internally rigid hotspot reference frame has been assumed for determining relative plate motions on Earth. Recent 1:5,000,000 scale mapping of Venus, a planet without terrestrial-style plate tectonics and ocean cover, reveals a systematic age and dimensional progression of corona-like arachnoids occurring in an uncinate chain. The nonrandom associations between arachnoids indicate they likely formed from a deep-seated mantle plume in a manner similar to terrestrial hotspot features. However, absence of expected convergent "plate" margin deformation suggests that the arachnoids are the surface expression of a migratory mantle plume beneath a stationary surface. If mantle plumes are not stationary on Venus, what if any are the implications for Earth?

  7. [Health risks linked to recent migratory patterns: myth or reality?].

    PubMed

    Durieux-Paillard, Sophie

    2016-05-04

    The migratory crisis currently faced by Europe is of exceptional magnitude since the Second World War. It is mainly related to the conflict in Syria, as well as recurring violations of human rights in other regions of the world. Widely relayed by the media, the unusual number of refugee applicants and the precariousness of their migration routes raise the question of the health risk. From the old concept of quarantine to the new paradigm of migrants' health, it is important to contextualize the screening measures, taking into account the epidemiology of communicable diseases in the countries of origin and of the regions crossed, the ruptures of access to treatments for chronic diseases, but also the impact of multiple trauma (war, violence) on the mental health of refugees.

  8. Passive internal dispersal of insect larvae by migratory birds

    PubMed Central

    Green, Andy J; Sánchez, Marta I

    2005-01-01

    It has long been assumed that the resistant eggs of many zooplankton are able to survive passage through the gut of migratory waterbirds, thus facilitating their dispersal between isolated aquatic habitats. We present the first evidence that such passive internal transport within birds may be relevant for insect populations. In three out of six faecal samples from black-tailed Godwits on autumn migration in southwest Spain, we found larvae of the chironomid Chironomus salinarius which had survived gut passage. Although adult chironomids can fly, they are likely to disperse greater distances when transported as larvae via birds. In insects with discrete generations, such passive transport also enables colonization of new habitats at times when flight by adults is not an option. PMID:17148325

  9. Animal tracking meets migration genomics: transcriptomic analysis of a partially migratory bird species.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Paolo; Irisarri, Iker; Fudickar, Adam; Schmidt, Andreas; Meyer, Axel; Wikelski, Martin; Partecke, Jesko

    2017-03-17

    Seasonal migration is a widespread phenomenon, which is found in many different lineages of animals. This spectacular behaviour allows animals to avoid seasonally adverse environmental conditions to exploit more favourable habitats. Migration has been intensively studied in birds, which display astonishing variation in migration strategies, thus providing a powerful system for studying the ecological and evolutionary processes that shape migratory behaviour. Despite intensive research, the genetic basis of migration remains largely unknown. Here we used state-of-the-art radio-tracking technology to characterize the migratory behaviour of a partially migratory population of European blackbirds (Turdus merula) in southern Germany. We compared gene expression of resident and migrant individuals using high-throughput transcriptomics in blood samples. Analyses of sequence variation revealed a non-significant genetic structure between blackbirds differing by their migratory phenotype. We detected only four differentially expressed genes between migrants and residents, which might be associated with hyperphagia, moulting, and enhanced DNA replication and transcription. The most pronounced changes in gene expression occurred between migratory birds depending on when, in relation to their date of departure, blood was collected. Overall, the differentially expressed genes detected in this analysis may play crucial roles in determining the decision to migrate, or in controlling the physiological processes required for the onset of migration. These results provide new insights into, and testable hypotheses for, the molecular mechanisms controlling the migratory phenotype and its underlying physiological mechanisms in blackbirds and other migratory bird species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Loss of migratory behaviour increases infection risk for a butterfly host

    PubMed Central

    Satterfield, Dara A.; Maerz, John C.; Altizer, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Long-distance animal migrations have important consequences for infectious disease dynamics. In some cases, migration lowers pathogen transmission by removing infected individuals during strenuous journeys and allowing animals to periodically escape contaminated habitats. Human activities are now causing some migratory animals to travel shorter distances or form sedentary (non-migratory) populations. We focused on North American monarch butterflies and a specialist protozoan parasite to investigate how the loss of migratory behaviours affects pathogen spread and evolution. Each autumn, monarchs migrate from breeding grounds in the eastern US and Canada to wintering sites in central Mexico. However, some monarchs have become non-migratory and breed year-round on exotic milkweed in the southern US. We used field sampling, citizen science data and experimental inoculations to quantify infection prevalence and parasite virulence among migratory and sedentary populations. Infection prevalence was markedly higher among sedentary monarchs compared with migratory monarchs, indicating that diminished migration increases infection risk. Virulence differed among parasite strains but was similar between migratory and sedentary populations, potentially owing to high gene flow or insufficient time for evolutionary divergence. More broadly, our findings suggest that human activities that alter animal migrations can influence pathogen dynamics, with implications for wildlife conservation and future disease risks. PMID:25589600

  11. Loss of migratory behaviour increases infection risk for a butterfly host.

    PubMed

    Satterfield, Dara A; Maerz, John C; Altizer, Sonia

    2015-02-22

    Long-distance animal migrations have important consequences for infectious disease dynamics. In some cases, migration lowers pathogen transmission by removing infected individuals during strenuous journeys and allowing animals to periodically escape contaminated habitats. Human activities are now causing some migratory animals to travel shorter distances or form sedentary (non-migratory) populations. We focused on North American monarch butterflies and a specialist protozoan parasite to investigate how the loss of migratory behaviours affects pathogen spread and evolution. Each autumn, monarchs migrate from breeding grounds in the eastern US and Canada to wintering sites in central Mexico. However, some monarchs have become non-migratory and breed year-round on exotic milkweed in the southern US. We used field sampling, citizen science data and experimental inoculations to quantify infection prevalence and parasite virulence among migratory and sedentary populations. Infection prevalence was markedly higher among sedentary monarchs compared with migratory monarchs, indicating that diminished migration increases infection risk. Virulence differed among parasite strains but was similar between migratory and sedentary populations, potentially owing to high gene flow or insufficient time for evolutionary divergence. More broadly, our findings suggest that human activities that alter animal migrations can influence pathogen dynamics, with implications for wildlife conservation and future disease risks. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Changing migratory patterns in the Jackson elk herd

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Eric K.; Foley, Aaron M.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Smith, Bruce L.; Dewey, Sarah R.; Brimeyer, Douglas G.; Fairbanks, W. Sue; Sawyer, Hall; Cross, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Migratory behavior in ungulates has declined globally and understanding the causative factors (environmental change vs. human mediated) is needed to formulate effective management strategies. In the Jackson elk herd of northwest Wyoming, demographic differences between summer elk (Cervus elaphus) population segments have led to changes in migratory patterns over a 35-year time period. The proportion of short-distance migrants (SDM) has increased and the proportion of long-distance migrants (LDM) has concurrently declined. The probability of winter-captured elk on the National Elk Refuge being LDM decreased from 0.99 (95% CI = 0.97–1.00) to 0.59 (95% CI = 0.47–0.70) from 1978 to 2012. We tested 4 hypotheses that could contribute toward the decline in the LDM segment: behavioral switching from LDM to SDM, differential survival, harvest availability, and calf recruitment. Switching rates from LDM to SDM were very low (0.2% each elk-year). Survival rates were similar between LDM and SDM, although harvest availability was relatively low for SDM that tended to use areas close to human development during the hunting season. Average summer calf/cow ratios of LDM declined from 42 to 23 calves per 100 cows from 1978–1984 to 2006–2012. Further, during 2006–2012, LDM summer calf/cow ratios were less than half of SDM (23 vs. 47 calves per 100 cows). Our data suggest recruitment is the driving factor behind the declining proportion of LDM in this region. Effectiveness of altering harvest management strategies to conserve the LDM portion of the Jackson elk herd may be limited.

  13. Tracking climate impacts on the migratory monarch butterfly

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zipkin, Elise F.; Ries, Leslie; Reeves, Rick; Regetz, James; Oberhauser, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the impacts of climate on migratory species is complicated by the fact that these species travel through several climates that may be changing in diverse ways throughout their complete migratory cycle. Most studies are not designed to tease out the direct and indirect effects of climate at various stages along the migration route. We assess the impacts of spring and summer climate conditions on breeding monarch butterflies, a species that completes its annual migration cycle over several generations. No single, broad-scale climate metric can explain summer breeding phenology or the substantial year-to-year fluctuations observed in population abundances. As such, we built a Poisson regression model to help explain annual arrival times and abundances in the Midwestern United States. We incorporated the climate conditions experienced both during a spring migration/breeding phase in Texas as well as during subsequent arrival and breeding during the main recruitment period in Ohio. Using data from a state-wide butterfly monitoring network in Ohio, our results suggest that climate acts in conflicting ways during the spring and summer seasons. High spring precipitation in Texas is associated with the largest annual population growth in Ohio and the earliest arrival to the summer breeding ground, as are intermediate spring temperatures in Texas. On the other hand, the timing of monarch arrivals to the summer breeding grounds is not affected by climate conditions within Ohio. Once in Ohio for summer breeding, precipitation has minimal impacts on overall abundances, whereas warmer summer temperatures are generally associated with the highest expected abundances, yet this effect is mitigated by the average seasonal temperature of each location in that the warmest sites receive no benefit of above average summer temperatures. Our results highlight the complex relationship between climate and performance for a migrating species and suggest that attempts to

  14. Contrasting patterns of genetic differentiation among Blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) with divergent migratory orientations in Europe.

    PubMed

    Mettler, Raeann; Schaefer, H Martin; Chernetsov, Nikita; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Hobson, Keith A; Ilieva, Mihaela; Imhof, Elisabeth; Johnsen, Arild; Renner, Swen C; Rolshausen, Gregor; Serrano, David; Wesołowski, Tomasz; Segelbacher, Gernot

    2013-01-01

    Migratory divides are thought to facilitate behavioral, ecological, and genetic divergence among populations with different migratory routes. However, it is currently contentious how much genetic divergence is needed to maintain distinct migratory behavior across migratory divides. Here we investigate patterns of neutral genetic differentiation among Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla) populations with different migratory strategies across Europe. We compare the level of genetic divergence of populations migrating to southwestern (SW) or southeastern (SE) wintering areas with birds wintering in the British Isles following a recently established northwesterly (NW) migration route. The migratory divide between SW and SE wintering areas can be interpreted as a result of a re-colonization process after the last glaciation. Thus we predicted greater levels of genetic differentiation among the SW/SE populations. However, a lack of genetic differentiation was found between SW and SE populations, suggesting that interbreeding likely occurs among Blackcaps with different migratory orientations across a large area; therefore the SW/SE migratory divide can be seen as diffuse, broad band and is, at best, a weak isolating barrier. Conversely, weak, albeit significant genetic differentiation was evident between NW and SW migrants breeding sympatrically in southern Germany, suggesting a stronger isolating mechanism may be acting in this population. Populations located within/near the SW/SE contact zone were the least genetically divergent from NW migrants, confirming NW migrants likely originated from within the contact zone. Significant isolation-by-distance was found among eastern Blackcap populations (i.e. SE migrants), but not among western populations (i.e. NW and SW migrants), revealing different patterns of genetic divergence among Blackcap populations in Europe. We discuss possible explanations for the genetic structure of European Blackcaps and how gene flow influences the

  15. Migratory corridors of adult female Kemp’s ridley turtles in the Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaver, Donna J.; Hart, Kristen M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Rubio, Cynthia; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Pena, Jaime; Gamez, Daniel Gomez; Gonzales Diaz Miron, Raul de Jesus; Burchfield, Patrick M.; Martinez, Hector J.; Ortiz, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    For many marine species, locations of migratory pathways are not well defined. We used satellite telemetry and switching state-space modeling (SSM) to define the migratory corridor used by Kemp's ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) in the Gulf of Mexico. The turtles were tagged after nesting at Padre Island National Seashore, Texas, USA from 1997 to 2014 (PAIS; n = 80); Rancho Nuevo, Tamaulipas, Mexico from 2010 to 2011 (RN; n = 14); Tecolutla, Veracruz, Mexico from 2012 to 2013 (VC; n = 13); and Gulf Shores, Alabama, USA during 2012 (GS; n = 1). The migratory corridor lies in nearshore Gulf of Mexico waters in the USA and Mexico with mean water depth of 26 m and a mean distance of 20 km from the nearest mainland coast. Migration from the nesting beach is a short phenomenon that occurs from late-May through August, with a peak in June. There was spatial similarity of post-nesting migratory pathways for different turtles over a 16 year period. Thus, our results indicate that these nearshore Gulf waters represent a critical migratory habitat for this species. However, there is a gap in our understanding of the migratory pathways used by this and other species to return from foraging grounds to nesting beaches. Therefore, our results highlight the need for tracking reproductive individuals from foraging grounds to nesting beaches. Continued tracking of adult females from PAIS, RN, and VC nesting beaches will allow further study of environmental and bathymetric components of migratory habitat and threats occurring within our defined corridor. Furthermore, the existence of this migratory corridor in nearshore waters of both the USA and Mexico demonstrates that international cooperation is necessary to protect essential migratory habitat for this imperiled species.

  16. Contrasting Patterns of Genetic Differentiation among Blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) with Divergent Migratory Orientations in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Mettler, Raeann; Schaefer, H. Martin; Chernetsov, Nikita; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Hobson, Keith A.; Ilieva, Mihaela; Imhof, Elisabeth; Johnsen, Arild; Renner, Swen C.; Rolshausen, Gregor; Serrano, David; Wesołowski, Tomasz; Segelbacher, Gernot

    2013-01-01

    Migratory divides are thought to facilitate behavioral, ecological, and genetic divergence among populations with different migratory routes. However, it is currently contentious how much genetic divergence is needed to maintain distinct migratory behavior across migratory divides. Here we investigate patterns of neutral genetic differentiation among Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla) populations with different migratory strategies across Europe. We compare the level of genetic divergence of populations migrating to southwestern (SW) or southeastern (SE) wintering areas with birds wintering in the British Isles following a recently established northwesterly (NW) migration route. The migratory divide between SW and SE wintering areas can be interpreted as a result of a re-colonization process after the last glaciation. Thus we predicted greater levels of genetic differentiation among the SW/SE populations. However, a lack of genetic differentiation was found between SW and SE populations, suggesting that interbreeding likely occurs among Blackcaps with different migratory orientations across a large area; therefore the SW/SE migratory divide can be seen as diffuse, broad band and is, at best, a weak isolating barrier. Conversely, weak, albeit significant genetic differentiation was evident between NW and SW migrants breeding sympatrically in southern Germany, suggesting a stronger isolating mechanism may be acting in this population. Populations located within/near the SW/SE contact zone were the least genetically divergent from NW migrants, confirming NW migrants likely originated from within the contact zone. Significant isolation-by-distance was found among eastern Blackcap populations (i.e. SE migrants), but not among western populations (i.e. NW and SW migrants), revealing different patterns of genetic divergence among Blackcap populations in Europe. We discuss possible explanations for the genetic structure of European Blackcaps and how gene flow influences the

  17. Ancestral reconstruction of reproductive traits shows no tendency toward terrestriality in leptodactyline frogs.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elisa Barreto; Collevatti, Rosane Garcia; Kokubum, Marcelo Nogueira de Carvalho; Miranda, Núbia Esther de Oliveira; Maciel, Natan Medeiros

    2015-05-20

    Traditionally, the evolution of terrestrial reproduction in anurans from ancestors that bred in water has been accepted in the literature. Still, the existence of intermediate stages of water dependency, such as species that lay eggs close to water (e.g., in burrows) instead of in bodies of water, supports the hypothesis of an ordered and gradual evolution in the direction of a more terrestrial form of reproduction. However, this conventional view has recently been challenged for some anurans groups. Leptodactylinae frogs are a remarkable example of anurans with an outstanding diversity in terms of reproductive features, with distinct water dependency among lineages. Here, we tested the hypothesis of a gradual and ordered tendency towards terrestriality in Leptodactylinae, including the existence of obligatory intermediate stages, such as semi-terrestrial reproductive strategies. We also addressed the association between reproductive modes and the morphological and ecological features. An ancestral reconstruction analysis indicated that even though shifts from aquatic to terrestrial breeding occurred throughout the history of Leptodactylus and Adenomera, shifts from terrestrial to aquatic reproduction happened at almost the same frequency. Our results also demonstrated that reproductive modes for semi-terrestrial tadpoles were not necessarily an intermediate form between aquatic and terrestrial breeds. Correlations among reproductive modes and other life-history traits suggested that tadpole environment, clutch size, nuptial spines, and egg pigmentation were co-evolving and driven by water dependency. Our results found no evidence of evolutionary tendencies toward terrestriality in Leptodactylinae. We found reversals from terrestrial to aquatic tadpole development and no evidence of obligatory intermediate stages, such as semi-terrestrial reproductive strategies. We also found correlations between reproductive modes and other life-history traits driven by water

  18. Contributions of circadian tendencies and behavioral problems to sleep onset problems of children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two to three times more likely to experience sleep problems. The purpose of this study is to determine the relative contributions of circadian preferences and behavioral problems to sleep onset problems experienced by children with ADHD and to test for a moderation effect of ADHD diagnosis on the impact of circadian preferences and externalizing problems on sleep onset problems. Methods After initial screening, parents of children meeting inclusion criteria documented child bedtime over 4 nights, using a sleep log, and completed questionnaires regarding sleep, ADHD and demographics to assess bedtime routine prior to PSG. On the fifth night of the study, sleep was recorded via ambulatory assessment of sleep architecture in the child’s natural sleep environment employing portable polysomnography equipment. Seventy-five children (26 with ADHD and 49 controls) aged 7–11 years (mean age 8.61 years, SD 1.27 years) participated in the present study. Results In both groups of children, externalizing problems yielded significant independent contributions to the explained variance in parental reports of bedtime resistance, whereas an evening circadian tendency contributed both to parental reports of sleep onset delay and to PSG-measured sleep-onset latency. No significant interaction effect of behavioral/circadian tendency with ADHD status was evident. Conclusions Sleep onset problems in ADHD are related to different etiologies that might require different interventional strategies and can be distinguished using the parental reports on the CSHQ. PMID:23186226

  19. Cerebral Lateralization of Pro- and Anti-Social Tendencies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggest that the right-hemisphere (RH) has a relative advantage, over the left-hemisphere (LH), in mediating social intelligence - identifying social stimuli, understanding the intentions of other people, awareness of the dynamics in social relationships, and successful handling of social interactions. Furthermore, a review and synthesis of the literature suggest that pro-social attitudes and behaviors are associated with physiological activity in the RH, whereas unsocial and anti-social tendencies are mediated primarily by the LH. This hemispheric asymmetry is rooted in several neurobiological and functional differences between the two hemispheres. (I) Positive social interactions often require inhibiting one's immediate desires and considering the perspectives and needs of others. Given that self-control is mediated by the RH, pro-social emotions and behaviors are, therefore, inherently associated with the RH as it subserves the brain's self-restraint mechanisms. (II) The RH mediates experiences of vulnerability. It registers the relative clumsiness and motor weakness of the left limbs, and it is involved, more than the LH, in processing threats and mediating fear. Emotional states of vulnerability trigger the need for affiliation and sociality, therefore the RH has a greater role in mediating pro-social attitudes and behaviors. (III) The RH mediates a holistic mode of representing the world. Holistic perception emphasizes similarities rather than differences, takes a long-term perspective, is associated with divergent thinking and seeing other points-of-view, and it mediates a personal mode of relating to people. All these features of holistic perception facilitate a more empathetic attitude toward others and pro-social behaviors. PMID:24737936

  20. Tendency toward eveningness is associated with unhealthy dietary habits.

    PubMed

    Kanerva, Noora; Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Ovaskainen, Marja-Leena; Kaartinen, Niina E; Konttinen, Hanna; Broms, Ulla; Männistö, Satu

    2012-08-01

    unfavorable dietary habits, than those with tendency toward morningness, which could put them at higher risk of several chronic diseases.

  1. Cerebral lateralization of pro- and anti-social tendencies.

    PubMed

    Hecht, David

    2014-03-01

    Mounting evidence suggest that the right-hemisphere (RH) has a relative advantage, over the left-hemisphere (LH), in mediating social intelligence - identifying social stimuli, understanding the intentions of other people, awareness of the dynamics in social relationships, and successful handling of social interactions. Furthermore, a review and synthesis of the literature suggest that pro-social attitudes and behaviors are associated with physiological activity in the RH, whereas unsocial and anti-social tendencies are mediated primarily by the LH. This hemispheric asymmetry is rooted in several neurobiological and functional differences between the two hemispheres. (I) Positive social interactions often require inhibiting one's immediate desires and considering the perspectives and needs of others. Given that self-control is mediated by the RH, pro-social emotions and behaviors are, therefore, inherently associated with the RH as it subserves the brain's self-restraint mechanisms. (II) The RH mediates experiences of vulnerability. It registers the relative clumsiness and motor weakness of the left limbs, and it is involved, more than the LH, in processing threats and mediating fear. Emotional states of vulnerability trigger the need for affiliation and sociality, therefore the RH has a greater role in mediating pro-social attitudes and behaviors. (III) The RH mediates a holistic mode of representing the world. Holistic perception emphasizes similarities rather than differences, takes a long-term perspective, is associated with divergent thinking and seeing other points-of-view, and it mediates a personal mode of relating to people. All these features of holistic perception facilitate a more empathetic attitude toward others and pro-social behaviors.

  2. An involuntary stereotypical grasp tendency pervades voluntary dynamic multifinger manipulation.

    PubMed

    Rácz, Kornelius; Brown, Daniel; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J

    2012-12-01

    We used a novel apparatus with three hinged finger pads to characterize collaborative multifinger interactions during dynamic manipulation requiring individuated control of fingertip motions and forces. Subjects placed the thumb, index, and middle fingertips on each hinged finger pad and held it-unsupported-with constant total grasp force while voluntarily oscillating the thumb's pad. This task combines the need to 1) hold the object against gravity while 2) dynamically reconfiguring the grasp. Fingertip force variability in this combined motion and force task exhibited strong synchrony among normal (i.e., grasp) forces. Mechanical analysis and simulation show that such synchronous variability is unnecessary and cannot be explained solely by signal-dependent noise. Surprisingly, such variability also pervaded control tasks requiring different individuated fingertip motions and forces, but not tasks without finger individuation such as static grasp. These results critically extend notions of finger force variability by exposing and quantifying a pervasive challenge to dynamic multifinger manipulation: the need for the neural controller to carefully and continuously overlay individuated finger actions over mechanically unnecessary synchronous interactions. This is compatible with-and may explain-the phenomenology of strong coupling of hand muscles when this delicate balance is not yet developed, as in early childhood, or when disrupted, as in brain injury. We conclude that the control of healthy multifinger dynamic manipulation has barely enough neuromechanical degrees of freedom to meet the multiple demands of ecological tasks and critically depends on the continuous inhibition of synchronous grasp tendencies, which we speculate may be of vestigial evolutionary origin.

  3. [The evolution of the migratory flows in South Catalonia, 1950-1975].

    PubMed

    Miret, N

    1997-01-01

    "This paper retraces the history and the geography of the substitution in the migratory flows to Catalonia...during the last 30 years. After the huge movement of internal migration during the first half of the twentieth century, the first flow of foreign migrants appeared in the [1970s]. This substitution of migratory origin is related to a reconfiguration of the immigrants' geographic polarity of settlements and in their economic role. Based on various statistical indicators and bibliographic references, this paper provides some essential elements for the understanding of the migratory complexity of this space." (EXCERPT)

  4. Magnetic direction finding: evidence for its use in migratory indigo buntings.

    PubMed

    Emlen, S T; Wiltschko, W; Demong, N J; Wiltschko, R; Bergman, S

    1976-08-06

    The orientational capabilities of caged migratory indigo buntings were studied under differing magnetic field conditions. When tested in a situation allowing minimal exposure to visual cues but in the presence of the normal geomagnetic field, the birds demonstrated a significant orientation in the appropriate migratory direction (to the north). When the horizontal component of the magnetic field was deflected clockwise 120 degrees by activation of Helmholtz coils surrounding the cage, the orientation of the buntings shifted accordingly (clockwise to geographic east-southeast). These results suggest that indigo buntings are not only able to detect the geomagnetic field, but also can use this information in the finalization of their migratory direction.

  5. Correlates of prolonged swimming performance in F2 hybrids of migratory and non-migratory threespine stickleback.

    PubMed

    Dalziel, Anne C; Schulte, Patricia M

    2012-10-15

    Determining which underlying traits contribute to differences in whole-animal performance can be difficult when many traits differ between individuals with high and low capacities. We have previously found that migratory (anadromous marine) and non-migratory (stream-resident) threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations have genetically based differences in prolonged swimming performance (U(crit)) that are associated with divergence of a number of candidate morphological and physiological traits (pectoral fin size and shape, body shape, pectoral muscle and heart size, and pectoral muscle metabolic enzyme activities). Here, we use F2 hybrid crosses to determine which traits are correlated with U(crit) when expressed in a largely randomized genetic background and a range of trait values for other divergent traits. We found that four of our 12 candidate traits were positively correlated with U(crit) in F2 hybrids and that the combined effects of ventricle mass, pectoral adductor mass and adductor citrate synthase activity accounted for 17.9% of the variation in U(crit). These data provide additional support for a causal role of muscle and heart size in mediating intraspecific differences in U(crit), but indicate that many candidate morphological and biochemical traits do not have a strong effect on U(crit) when disassociated from other divergent traits. However, the limited variation in U(crit) in our F2 hybrid families may have decreased our ability to detect correlations among these candidate traits and U(crit). These data suggest that many traits, interactions among traits and traits not measured in this study affect prolonged swimming performance in threespine stickleback.

  6. Salmon Migration Patterns Revealed the Temporal and Spatial Fluctuations of the Radiocesium Levels in Terrestrial and Ocean Environments

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Takaomi

    2014-01-01

    The disabling of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) resulted in the release of radionuclides, including 134Cs and 137Cs, into the air and the ocean. The unpredicted nuclear accident is of global concern for human health and the ecosystem. Although investigations of radionuclides in environments were performed shortly after the accident started, the temporal and spatial impacts and fluctuations on the releasing radionuclides to natural environment remain unclear. I focused on salmon, which migrate from inland to the open ocean globally, to reveal the three-year (May 2011 to February 2014) fluctuations and accumulations of 134Cs and 137Cs from terrestrial to open ocean environments after the F1NPP accident. The 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations in six salmonids exhibited lower temporal variations for three years after the F1NPP accident, suggesting that these radionuclides are widely distributed and these radionuclides remain in the natural environment globally with less convergence. The accumulation patterns were significantly different among the different salmon species. Fluvial (freshwater residence) type salmons exhibited significantly higher accumulation in 134Cs (25.3–40.2 Bq kg−1 in mean) and 137Cs (41.4–51.7 Bq kg−1 in mean) than did the anadromous (sea-run) type salmons (0.64–8.03 Bq kg−1 in mean 134Cs and 0.42–10.2 Bq kg−1 in mean 137Cs) suggesting widespread contamination in terrestrial environments versus the coastal and open ocean environments. Salmonids are the most highly migratory animals and are characterised by their strong tendency to return home to their natal site for reproduction. Salmonids have a potential to be a good indicator as an effective monitoring animal. PMID:24964195

  7. Salmon migration patterns revealed the temporal and spatial fluctuations of the radiocesium levels in terrestrial and ocean environments.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takaomi

    2014-01-01

    The disabling of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) resulted in the release of radionuclides, including 134Cs and 137Cs, into the air and the ocean. The unpredicted nuclear accident is of global concern for human health and the ecosystem. Although investigations of radionuclides in environments were performed shortly after the accident started, the temporal and spatial impacts and fluctuations on the releasing radionuclides to natural environment remain unclear. I focused on salmon, which migrate from inland to the open ocean globally, to reveal the three-year (May 2011 to February 2014) fluctuations and accumulations of 134Cs and 137Cs from terrestrial to open ocean environments after the F1NPP accident. The 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations in six salmonids exhibited lower temporal variations for three years after the F1NPP accident, suggesting that these radionuclides are widely distributed and these radionuclides remain in the natural environment globally with less convergence. The accumulation patterns were significantly different among the different salmon species. Fluvial (freshwater residence) type salmons exhibited significantly higher accumulation in 134Cs (25.3-40.2 Bq kg(-1) in mean) and 137Cs (41.4-51.7 Bq kg(-1) in mean) than did the anadromous (sea-run) type salmons (0.64-8.03 Bq kg(-1) in mean 134Cs and 0.42-10.2 Bq kg(-1) in mean 137Cs) suggesting widespread contamination in terrestrial environments versus the coastal and open ocean environments. Salmonids are the most highly migratory animals and are characterised by their strong tendency to return home to their natal site for reproduction. Salmonids have a potential to be a good indicator as an effective monitoring animal.

  8. Stressed and helping: the relations among acculturative stress, gender, and prosocial tendencies in Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    McGinley, Meredith; Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J; Raffaelli, Marcela; Stone, Rosalie A Torres; Iturbide, Maria I

    2010-01-01

    Available evidence suggests that stress is not necessarily linked to negative outcomes and, in fact, may lead to increases in sympathy and helping. In this study, we examined whether acculturative stress was associated with prosocial tendencies in a sample of 148 Mexican American college students (M age = 23.05 years; 99 women). Participants completed measures of acculturative stress, sympathy, and prosocial tendencies. The relations between acculturative stress and prosocial tendencies were generally positive but varied by the type of helping and gender. Higher levels of acculturative stress were linked to greater emotional, dire, compliant, and anonymous prosocial tendencies, as well as with fewer costly (altruistic) prosocial tendencies. Sympathy mediated the relations between acculturative stress and prosocial tendencies for men only.

  9. The socialization of prosocial behavioral tendencies among Mexican American adolescents: The role of familism values.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Tena, Carlos O; Knight, George P; Carlo, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the role of familism values in fostering socialization experiences that promote prosocial behavioral tendencies among Mexican American adolescents. Two hundred and four Mexican American mothers and their adolescent children (104 girls, age M = 10.91 years) completed measures of familism values, prosocial parenting practices, and prosocial behavioral tendencies. Structural equation modeling tests indicated that mothers' familism values are related to parenting behaviors that promote prosocial behavioral tendencies, which in turn are related to adolescents' perception of prosocial parenting practices. Furthermore, adolescents' perception of prosocial parenting practices is related to familism values and prosocial behavior tendencies. Last, the relation between adolescents' perception of prosocial parenting practices and prosocial behavioral tendencies is partially mediated by familism values. These findings are consistent with the theoretical suggestion that the transmission of traditional familism values may serve as a social medium through which prosocial behavioral tendencies are fostered among Mexican American adolescents.

  10. Microarray-based annotation of the gut transcriptome of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Spit, J; Badisco, L; Vergauwen, L; Knapen, D; Vanden Broeck, J

    2016-12-01

    The migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, is a serious agricultural pest and important insect model in the study of insect digestion and feeding behaviour. The gut is one of the primary interfaces between the insect and its environment. Nevertheless, knowledge on the gut transcriptome of L. migratoria is still very limited. Here, 48 802 expressed sequence tags were extracted from publicly available databases and their expression in larval gut and/or brain tissue was determined using microarray hybridization. Our data show 2765 transcripts predominantly or exclusively expressed in the gut. Many transcripts had putative functions closely related to the physiological functions of the gut as a muscular digestive organ and as the first barrier against microorganisms and a wide range of toxins. By means of a ranking procedure based on the relative signal intensity, we estimated 15% of the transcripts to show high expression levels, the highest belonging to diverse digestive enzymes and muscle-related proteins. We also found evidence for very high expression of an allergen protein, which could have important implications, as locusts form a traditional food source in various parts of the world, and were also recently added to the list of insects fit for human consumption in Europe. Interestingly, many highly expressed sequences have as yet unknown functions. Taken together, the present data provide significant insight into locust larval gut physiology, and will be valuable for future studies on the insect gut.

  11. Tumor-Activated Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Promote Osteosarcoma Stemness and Migratory Potential via IL-6 Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Cortini, Margherita; Massa, Annamaria; Avnet, Sofia; Bonuccelli, Gloria; Baldini, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is an aggressive bone malignancy with a high relapse rate despite combined treatment with surgery and multiagent chemotherapy. As for other cancers, OS-associated microenvironment may contribute to tumor initiation, growth, and metastasis. We consider mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) as a relevant cellular component of OS microenvironment, and have previously found that the interaction between MSC and tumor cells is bidirectional: tumor cells can modulate their peripheral environment that in turn becomes more favorable to tumor growth through metabolic reprogramming. Here, we determined the effects of MSC on OS stemness and migration, two major features associated with recurrence and chemoresistance. The presence of stromal cells enhanced the number of floating spheres enriched in cancer stem cells (CSC) of the OS cell population. Furthermore, the co-culturing with MSC stimulated the migratory capacity of OS via TGFβ1 and IL-6 secretion, and the neutralizing antibody anti-IL-6 impaired this effect. Thus, stromal cells in combination with OS spheres exploit a vicious cycle where the presence of CSC stimulates mesenchymal cytokine secretion, which in turn increases stemness, proliferation, migration, and metastatic potential of CSC, also through the increase of expression of adhesion molecules like ICAM-1. Altogether, our data corroborate the concept that a comprehensive knowledge of the interplay between tumor and stroma that also includes the stem-like fraction of tumor cells is needed to develop novel and effective anti-cancer therapies. PMID:27851822

  12. Do intracoelomic telemetry transmitters alter the post-release behaviour of migratory fish?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Alexander D.M.; Hayden, Todd A.; Vandergoot, Christopher S.; Kraus, Richard T.; Dettmers, John M.; Cooke, Steven J.; Charles C. Krueger,

    2016-01-01

    Electronic tags have become a common tool in fish research, enhancing our understanding of how fish interact with their environment and move among different habitats, for estimating mortality and recording internal physiological states. An often-untested assumption of electronic tagging studies is that tagged fish are representative of untagged conspecifics and thus show ‘normal’ behaviour (e.g. movement rates, swimming activity, feeding). Here, we use a unique data set for potamadromous walleye (Sander vitreus) in Lake Huron and Lake Erie tributaries to assess whether the lack of appropriate controls in electronic tagging could seriously affect behavioural data. We used fish tagged in previous years and compared their migratory behaviour during the spawning season to fish tagged in a current year at the same location. The objective of the study was to determine whether intracoelomic acoustic tag implantation altered downstream movement of walleye after spawning. Fish tagged in a given season travelled slower downstream from two river spawning sites than fish tagged in previous years. Fish tagged one or two years earlier showed no differences between each other in downstream travel time, in contrast to fish tagged in a given year. Our results support notions that standard collection and intracoelomic tagging procedures can alter short-term behaviour (i.e. days, weeks, months), and as such, researchers should use caution when interpreting data collected over such time periods. Further, whenever possible, researchers should also explicitly evaluate post-tagging effects on behaviour as part of their experimental objectives.

  13. Possible linkage between neuronal recruitment and flight distance in migratory birds

    PubMed Central

    Barkan, Shay; Roll, Uri; Yom-Tov, Yoram; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Barnea, Anat

    2016-01-01

    New neuronal recruitment in an adult animal’s brain is presumed to contribute to brain plasticity and increase the animal’s ability to contend with new and changing environments. During long-distance migration, birds migrating greater distances are exposed to more diverse spatial information. Thus, we hypothesized that greater migration distance in birds would correlate with the recruitment of new neurons into the brain regions involved with migratory navigation. We tested this hypothesis on two Palearctic migrants - reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) and turtle doves (Streptopelia turtur), caught in Israel while returning from Africa in spring and summer. Birds were injected with a neuronal birth marker and later inspected for new neurons in brain regions known to play a role in navigation - the hippocampus and nidopallium caudolateral. We calculated the migration distance of each individual by matching feather isotopic values (δ2H and δ13C) to winter base-maps of these isotopes in Africa. Our findings suggest a positive correlation between migration distance and new neuronal recruitment in two brain regions - the hippocampus in reed warblers and nidopallium caudolateral in turtle doves. This multidisciplinary approach provides new insights into the ability of the avian brain to adapt to different migration challenges. PMID:26905978

  14. Energetic Physiology Mediates Individual Optimization of Breeding Phenology in a Migratory Arctic Seabird.

    PubMed

    Hennin, Holly L; Bêty, Jöel; Legagneux, Pierre; Gilchrist, H Grant; Williams, Tony D; Love, Oliver P

    2016-10-01

    The influence of variation in individual state on key reproductive decisions impacting fitness is well appreciated in evolutionary ecology. Rowe et al. (1994) developed a condition-dependent individual optimization model predicting that three key factors impact the ability of migratory female birds to individually optimize breeding phenology to maximize fitness in seasonal environments: arrival condition, arrival date, and ability to gain in condition on the breeding grounds. While empirical studies have confirmed that greater arrival body mass and earlier arrival dates result in earlier laying, no study has assessed whether individual variation in energetic management of condition gain effects this key fitness-related decision. Using an 8-year data set from over 350 prebreeding female Arctic common eiders (Somateria mollissima), we tested this component of the model by examining whether individual variation in two physiological traits influencing energetic management (plasma triglycerides: physiological fattening rate; baseline corticosterone: energetic demand) predicted individual variation in breeding phenology after controlling for arrival date and body mass. As predicted by the optimization model, individuals with higher fattening rates and lower energetic demand had the earliest breeding phenology (shortest delays between arrival and laying; earliest laying dates). Our results are the first to empirically determine that individual flexibility in prebreeding energetic management influences key fitness-related reproductive decisions, suggesting that individuals have the capacity to optimally manage reproductive investment.

  15. Fat content in migratory central Arizona Brazilian free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensis (Molossidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas J.

    1976-01-01

    Fat content of migratory Tadarida brasiliensis was determined during the spring, summer and fall of 1972 in the Verde Valley of Arizona. Fat indices were highest in March arrivals, generally declined throughout the summer, and were lowest in September. In both 1972 and 1973 bats had arrived at the study area by mid-March. In 1971 bats were last noted at the area in mid-October while in 1972 they had disappeared by late September. On the basis on physiological calculations it is estimated that bats collected in March 1972 possessed sufficient fat reserves to carry them a mean distance of 716 km north of the study area while September bats had only enough reserves to fly 386 km southward, about 160 km short of the nearest known Sonora wintering locality. It is suggested that in spring the bats may have a more rigidly timed migration and so put on excess fat to counter an uncertain environment to the north. The fall migration may be triggered by more unpredictable events, such as the passage of cold fronts, and less fat reserves may be required for movements into more favorable southern locales.

  16. Increasing phenological asynchrony between spring green-up and arrival of migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Stephen J; Guralnick, Robert P; Tingley, Morgan W; Otegui, Javier; Withey, John C; Elmendorf, Sarah C; Andrew, Margaret E; Leyk, Stefan; Pearse, Ian S; Schneider, David C

    2017-05-15

    Consistent with a warming climate, birds are shifting the timing of their migrations, but it remains unclear to what extent these shifts have kept pace with the changing environment. Because bird migration is primarily cued by annually consistent physiological responses to photoperiod, but conditions at their breeding grounds depend on annually variable climate, bird arrival and climate-driven spring events would diverge. We combined satellite and citizen science data to estimate rates of change in phenological interval between spring green-up and migratory arrival for 48 breeding passerine species across North America. Both arrival and green-up changed over time, usually in the same direction (earlier or later). Although birds adjusted their arrival dates, 9 of 48 species did not keep pace with rapidly changing green-up and across all species the interval between arrival and green-up increased by over half a day per year. As green-up became earlier in the east, arrival of eastern breeding species increasingly lagged behind green-up, whereas in the west-where green-up typically became later-birds arrived increasingly earlier relative to green-up. Our results highlight that phenologies of species and trophic levels can shift at different rates, potentially leading to phenological mismatches with negative fitness consequences.

  17. A survey of North American migratory waterfowl for duck plague (duck virus enteritis) virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, Christopher J.; Docherty, Douglas E.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of migratory waterfowl for duck plague (DP) virus was conducted in the Mississippi and Central flyways during 1982 and in the Atlantic and Pacific flyways during 1983. Cloacal and pharyngeal swabs were collected from 3,169 migratory waterfowl in these four flyways, principally mallards (Anas platyrhynchos L.), black ducks (Anas rubripes Brewster), and pintails (Anas acuta L). In addition 1,033 birds were sampled from areas of recurrent DP outbreaks among nonmigratory and captive waterfowl, and 590 from Lake Andes National Wildlife Refuge, the site of the only known major DP outbreak in migratory waterfowl. Duck plague virus was not found in any of the samples. Results support the hypothesis that DP is not established in North American migratory waterfowl as an enzootic disease.

  18. 76 FR 65500 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Highly Migratory Species Permit Family of Forms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Highly Migratory Species Permit Family of Forms AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  19. Migratory beekeeping practices contribute insignificantly to transgenic pollen flow among fields of alfalfa produced for seed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increased use of genetically engineered crops in agriculture has raised concerns over pollinator-mediated gene flow between transgenic and conventional agricultural varieties. This study evaluated whether contracted migratory beekeeping practices influence transgenic pollen flow among spatially iso...

  20. A visual pathway links brain structures active during magnetic compass orientation in migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Heyers, Dominik; Manns, Martina; Luksch, Harald; Güntürkün, Onur; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2007-09-26

    The magnetic compass of migratory birds has been suggested to be light-dependent. Retinal cryptochrome-expressing neurons and a forebrain region, "Cluster N", show high neuronal activity when night-migratory songbirds perform magnetic compass orientation. By combining neuronal tracing with behavioral experiments leading to sensory-driven gene expression of the neuronal activity marker ZENK during magnetic compass orientation, we demonstrate a functional neuronal connection between the retinal neurons and Cluster N via the visual thalamus. Thus, the two areas of the central nervous system being most active during magnetic compass orientation are part of an ascending visual processing stream, the thalamofugal pathway. Furthermore, Cluster N seems to be a specialized part of the visual wulst. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that migratory birds use their visual system to perceive the reference compass direction of the geomagnetic field and that migratory birds "see" the reference compass direction provided by the geomagnetic field.

  1. A Visual Pathway Links Brain Structures Active during Magnetic Compass Orientation in Migratory Birds

    PubMed Central

    Heyers, Dominik; Manns, Martina; Luksch, Harald; Güntürkün, Onur; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic compass of migratory birds has been suggested to be light-dependent. Retinal cryptochrome-expressing neurons and a forebrain region, “Cluster N”, show high neuronal activity when night-migratory songbirds perform magnetic compass orientation. By combining neuronal tracing with behavioral experiments leading to sensory-driven gene expression of the neuronal activity marker ZENK during magnetic compass orientation, we demonstrate a functional neuronal connection between the retinal neurons and Cluster N via the visual thalamus. Thus, the two areas of the central nervous system being most active during magnetic compass orientation are part of an ascending visual processing stream, the thalamofugal pathway. Furthermore, Cluster N seems to be a specialized part of the visual wulst. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that migratory birds use their visual system to perceive the reference compass direction of the geomagnetic field and that migratory birds “see” the reference compass direction provided by the geomagnetic field. PMID:17895978

  2. 78 FR 33857 - Meeting Announcements: North American Wetlands Conservation Council; Neotropical Migratory Bird...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ...; 91100-3740-GRNT 7C] Meeting Announcements: North American Wetlands Conservation Council; Neotropical... meetings. SUMMARY: The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Council) will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA) grant proposals for recommendation to the Migratory...

  3. Prevalence of West Nile virus in migratory birds during spring and fall migration.

    PubMed

    Dusek, Robert J; McLean, Robert G; Kramer, Laura D; Ubico, Sonya R; Dupuis, Alan P; Ebel, Gregory D; Guptill, Stephen C

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the role of migratory birds in the dissemination of West Nile virus (WNV), we measured the prevalence of infectious WNV and specific WNV neutralizing antibodies in birds, principally Passeriformes, during spring and fall migrations in the Atlantic and Mississippi flyways from 2001-2003. Blood samples were obtained from 13,403 birds, representing 133 species. Specific WNV neutralizing antibody was detected in 254 resident and migratory birds, representing 39 species, and was most commonly detected in northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) (9.8%, N = 762) and gray catbirds (Dumetella carolinensis) (3.2%, N = 3188). West Nile virus viremias were detected in 19 birds, including 8 gray catbirds, and only during the fall migratory period. These results provide additional evidence that migratory birds may have been a principal agent for the spread of WNV in North America and provide data on the occurrence of WNV in a variety of bird species.

  4. 76 FR 23962 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Highly Migratory Species Fisheries; Annual Catch Limits and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... States; Highly Migratory Species Fisheries; Annual Catch Limits and Accountability Measures AGENCY... annual catch limits (ACLs) and accountability measures (AMs). This proposed rule to implement Amendment 2... have any direct or indirect socioeconomic impacts, because harvest limits and management measures...

  5. Estimating migratory connectivity of birds when re-encounter probabilities are heterogeneous.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Emily B; Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Royle, J Andrew; Marra, Peter P

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the biology and conducting effective conservation of migratory species requires an understanding of migratory connectivity - the geographic linkages of populations between stages of the annual cycle. Unfortunately, for most species, we are lacking such information. The North American Bird Banding Laboratory (BBL) houses an extensive database of marking, recaptures and recoveries, and such data could provide migratory connectivity information for many species. To date, however, few species have been analyzed for migratory connectivity largely because heterogeneous re-encounter probabilities make interpretation problematic. We accounted for regional variation in re-encounter probabilities by borrowing information across species and by using effort covariates on recapture and recovery probabilities in a multistate capture-recapture and recovery model. The effort covariates were derived from recaptures and recoveries of species within the same regions. We estimated the migratory connectivity for three tern species breeding in North America and over-wintering in the tropics, common (Sterna hirundo), roseate (Sterna dougallii), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia). For western breeding terns, model-derived estimates of migratory connectivity differed considerably from those derived directly from the proportions of re-encounters. Conversely, for eastern breeding terns, estimates were merely refined by the inclusion of re-encounter probabilities. In general, eastern breeding terns were strongly connected to eastern South America, and western breeding terns were strongly linked to the more western parts of the nonbreeding range under both models. Through simulation, we found this approach is likely useful for many species in the BBL database, although precision improved with higher re-encounter probabilities and stronger migratory connectivity. We describe an approach to deal with the inherent biases in BBL banding and re-encounter data to demonstrate that

  6. Estimating migratory connectivity of birds when re-encounter probabilities are heterogeneous

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Emily B; Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Royle, J Andrew; Marra, Peter P

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the biology and conducting effective conservation of migratory species requires an understanding of migratory connectivity – the geographic linkages of populations between stages of the annual cycle. Unfortunately, for most species, we are lacking such information. The North American Bird Banding Laboratory (BBL) houses an extensive database of marking, recaptures and recoveries, and such data could provide migratory connectivity information for many species. To date, however, few species have been analyzed for migratory connectivity largely because heterogeneous re-encounter probabilities make interpretation problematic. We accounted for regional variation in re-encounter probabilities by borrowing information across species and by using effort covariates on recapture and recovery probabilities in a multistate capture–recapture and recovery model. The effort covariates were derived from recaptures and recoveries of species within the same regions. We estimated the migratory connectivity for three tern species breeding in North America and over-wintering in the tropics, common (Sterna hirundo), roseate (Sterna dougallii), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia). For western breeding terns, model-derived estimates of migratory connectivity differed considerably from those derived directly from the proportions of re-encounters. Conversely, for eastern breeding terns, estimates were merely refined by the inclusion of re-encounter probabilities. In general, eastern breeding terns were strongly connected to eastern South America, and western breeding terns were strongly linked to the more western parts of the nonbreeding range under both models. Through simulation, we found this approach is likely useful for many species in the BBL database, although precision improved with higher re-encounter probabilities and stronger migratory connectivity. We describe an approach to deal with the inherent biases in BBL banding and re-encounter data to demonstrate

  7. Modeling the Distribution of Migratory Bird Stopovers to Inform Landscape-Scale Siting of Wind Development

    PubMed Central

    Pocewicz, Amy; Estes-Zumpf, Wendy A.; Andersen, Mark D.; Copeland, Holly E.; Keinath, Douglas A.; Griscom, Hannah R.

    2013-01-01

    Conservation of migratory birds requires understanding the distribution of and potential threats to their migratory habitats. However, although migratory birds are protected under international treaties, few maps have been available to represent migration at a landscape scale useful to target conservation efforts or inform the siting of wind energy developments that may affect migratory birds. To fill this gap, we developed models that predict where four groups of birds concentrate or stopover during their migration through the state of Wyoming, USA: raptors, wetland, riparian and sparse grassland birds. The models were based on existing literature and expert knowledge concerning bird migration behavior and ecology and validated using expert ratings and known occurrences. There was significant agreement between migratory occurrence data and migration models for all groups except raptors, and all models ranked well with experts. We measured the overlap between the migration concentration models and a predictive model of wind energy development to assess the potential exposure of migratory birds to wind development and illustrate the utility of migratory concentration models for landscape-scale planning. Wind development potential is high across 15% of Wyoming, and 73% of this high potential area intersects important migration concentration areas. From 5.2% to 18.8% of each group’s important migration areas was represented within this high wind potential area, with the highest exposures for sparse grassland birds and the lowest for riparian birds. Our approach could be replicated elsewhere to fill critical data gaps and better inform conservation priorities and landscape-scale planning for migratory birds. PMID:24098379

  8. Modeling the distribution of migratory bird stopovers to inform landscape-scale siting of wind development.

    PubMed

    Pocewicz, Amy; Estes-Zumpf, Wendy A; Andersen, Mark D; Copeland, Holly E; Keinath, Douglas A; Griscom, Hannah R

    2013-01-01

    Conservation of migratory birds requires understanding the distribution of and potential threats to their migratory habitats. However, although migratory birds are protected under international treaties, few maps have been available to represent migration at a landscape scale useful to target conservation efforts or inform the siting of wind energy developments that may affect migratory birds. To fill this gap, we developed models that predict where four groups of birds concentrate or stopover during their migration through the state of Wyoming, USA: raptors, wetland, riparian and sparse grassland birds. The models were based on existing literature and expert knowledge concerning bird migration behavior and ecology and validated using expert ratings and known occurrences. There was significant agreement between migratory occurrence data and migration models for all groups except raptors, and all models ranked well with experts. We measured the overlap between the migration concentration models and a predictive model of wind energy development to assess the potential exposure of migratory birds to wind development and illustrate the utility of migratory concentration models for landscape-scale planning. Wind development potential is high across 15% of Wyoming, and 73% of this high potential area intersects important migration concentration areas. From 5.2% to 18.8% of each group's important migration areas was represented within this high wind potential area, with the highest exposures for sparse grassland birds and the lowest for riparian birds. Our approach could be replicated elsewhere to fill critical data gaps and better inform conservation priorities and landscape-scale planning for migratory birds.

  9. Estimating migratory connectivity of birds when re-encounter probabilities are heterogeneous

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, Emily B.; Hostelter, Jeffrey A.; Royle, J. Andrew; Marra, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the biology and conducting effective conservation of migratory species requires an understanding of migratory connectivity – the geographic linkages of populations between stages of the annual cycle. Unfortunately, for most species, we are lacking such information. The North American Bird Banding Laboratory (BBL) houses an extensive database of marking, recaptures and recoveries, and such data could provide migratory connectivity information for many species. To date, however, few species have been analyzed for migratory connectivity largely because heterogeneous re-encounter probabilities make interpretation problematic. We accounted for regional variation in re-encounter probabilities by borrowing information across species and by using effort covariates on recapture and recovery probabilities in a multistate capture–recapture and recovery model. The effort covariates were derived from recaptures and recoveries of species within the same regions. We estimated the migratory connectivity for three tern species breeding in North America and over-wintering in the tropics, common (Sterna hirundo), roseate (Sterna dougallii), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia). For western breeding terns, model-derived estimates of migratory connectivity differed considerably from those derived directly from the proportions of re-encounters. Conversely, for eastern breeding terns, estimates were merely refined by the inclusion of re-encounter probabilities. In general, eastern breeding terns were strongly connected to eastern South America, and western breeding terns were strongly linked to the more western parts of the nonbreeding range under both models. Through simulation, we found this approach is likely useful for many species in the BBL database, although precision improved with higher re-encounter probabilities and stronger migratory connectivity. We describe an approach to deal with the inherent biases in BBL banding and re-encounter data to demonstrate

  10. Integrative modelling of animal movement: incorporating in situ habitat and behavioural information for a migratory marine predator.

    PubMed

    Bestley, Sophie; Jonsen, Ian D; Hindell, Mark A; Guinet, Christophe; Charrassin, Jean-Benoît

    2013-01-07

    A fundamental goal in animal ecology is to quantify how environmental (and other) factors influence individual movement, as this is key to understanding responsiveness of populations to future change. However, quantitative interpretation of individual-based telemetry data is hampered by the complexity of, and error within, these multi-dimensional data. Here, we present an integrative hierarchical Bayesian state-space modelling approach where, for the first time, the mechanistic process model for the movement state of animals directly incorporates both environmental and other behavioural information, and observation and process model parameters are estimated within a single model. When applied to a migratory marine predator, the southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina), we find the switch from directed to resident movement state was associated with colder water temperatures, relatively short dive bottom time and rapid descent rates. The approach presented here can have widespread utility for quantifying movement-behaviour (diving or other)-environment relationships across species and systems.

  11. Experimental Cerebral Malaria Spreads along the Rostral Migratory Stream.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Angelika; Pfeil, Johannes; Alfonso, Julieta; Kurz, Felix T; Sahm, Felix; Heiland, Sabine; Monyer, Hannah; Bendszus, Martin; Mueller, Ann-Kristin; Helluy, Xavier; Pham, Mirko

    2016-03-01

    It is poorly understood how progressive brain swelling in experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) evolves in space and over time, and whether mechanisms of inflammation or microvascular sequestration/obstruction dominate the underlying pathophysiology. We therefore monitored in the Plasmodium berghei ANKA-C57BL/6 murine ECM model, disease manifestation and progression clinically, assessed by the Rapid-Murine-Coma-and-Behavioral-Scale (RMCBS), and by high-resolution in vivo MRI, including sensitive assessment of early blood-brain-barrier-disruption (BBBD), brain edema and microvascular pathology. For histological correlation HE and immunohistochemical staining for microglia and neuroblasts were obtained. Our results demonstrate that BBBD and edema initiated in the olfactory bulb (OB) and spread along the rostral-migratory-stream (RMS) to the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles, the dorsal-migratory-stream (DMS), and finally to the external capsule (EC) and brainstem (BS). Before clinical symptoms (mean RMCBS = 18.5±1) became evident, a slight, non-significant increase of quantitative T2 and ADC values was observed in OB+RMS. With clinical manifestation (mean RMCBS = 14.2±0.4), T2 and ADC values significantly increased along the OB+RMS (p = 0.049/p = 0.01). Severe ECM (mean RMCBS = 5±2.9) was defined by further spread into more posterior and deeper brain structures until reaching the BS (significant T2 elevation in DMS+EC+BS (p = 0.034)). Quantitative automated histological analyses confirmed microglial activation in areas of BBBD and edema. Activated microglia were closely associated with the RMS and neuroblasts within the RMS were severely misaligned with respect to their physiological linear migration pattern. Microvascular pathology and ischemic brain injury occurred only secondarily, after vasogenic edema formation and were both associated less with clinical severity and the temporal course of ECM. Altogether, we identified a distinct spatiotemporal

  12. Predicting effects of environmental change on a migratory herbivore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stillman, R A; Wood, K A; Gilkerson, Whelan; Elkinton, E; Black, J. M.; Ward, David H.; Petrie, M.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in climate, food abundance and disturbance from humans threaten the ability of species to successfully use stopover sites and migrate between non-breeding and breeding areas. To devise successful conservation strategies for migratory species we need to be able to predict how such changes will affect both individuals and populations. Such predictions should ideally be process-based, focusing on the mechanisms through which changes alter individual physiological state and behavior. In this study we use a process-based model to evaluate how Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) foraging on common eelgrass (Zostera marina) at a stopover site (Humboldt Bay, USA), may be affected by changes in sea level, food abundance and disturbance. The model is individual-based, with empirically based parameters, and incorporates the immigration of birds into the site, tidal changes in availability of eelgrass, seasonal and depth-related changes in eelgrass biomass, foraging behavior and energetics of the birds, and their mass-dependent decisions to emigrate. The model is validated by comparing predictions to observations across a range of system properties including the time birds spent foraging, probability of birds emigrating, mean stopover duration, peak bird numbers, rates of mass gain and distribution of birds within the site: all 11 predictions were within 35% of the observed value, and 8 within 20%. The model predicted that the eelgrass within the site could potentially support up to five times as many birds as currently use the site. Future predictions indicated that the rate of mass gain and mean stopover duration were relatively insensitive to sea level rise over the next 100 years, primarily because eelgrass habitat could redistribute shoreward into intertidal mudflats within the site to compensate for higher sea levels. In contrast, the rate of mass gain and mean stopover duration were sensitive to changes in total eelgrass biomass and the percentage of time

  13. Tracking climate impacts on the migratory monarch butterfly.

    PubMed

    Zipkin, Elise F; Ries, Leslie; Reeves, Rick; Regetz, James; Oberhauser, Karen S

    2012-10-01

    Understanding the impacts of climate on migratory species is complicated by the fact that these species travel through several climates that may be changing in diverse ways throughout their complete migratory cycle. Most studies are not designed to tease out the direct and indirect effects of climate at various stages along the migration route. We assess the impacts of spring and summer climate conditions on breeding monarch butterflies, a species that completes its annual migration cycle over several generations. No single, broad-scale climate metric can explain summer breeding phenology or the substantial year-to-year fluctuations observed in population abundances. As such, we built a Poisson regression model to help explain annual arrival times and abundances in the Midwestern United States. We incorporated the climate conditions experienced both during a spring migration/breeding phase in Texas as well as during subsequent arrival and breeding during the main recruitment period in Ohio. Using data from a state-wide butterfly monitoring network in Ohio, our results suggest that climate acts in conflicting ways during the spring and summer seasons. High spring precipitation in Texas is associated with the largest annual population growth in Ohio and the earliest arrival to the summer breeding ground, as are intermediate spring temperatures in Texas. On the other hand, the timing of monarch arrivals to the summer breeding grounds is not affected by climate conditions within Ohio. Once in Ohio for summer breeding, precipitation has minimal impacts on overall abundances, whereas warmer summer temperatures are generally associated with the highest expected abundances, yet this effect is mitigated by the average seasonal temperature of each location in that the warmest sites receive no benefit of above average summer temperatures. Our results highlight the complex relationship between climate and performance for a migrating species and suggest that attempts to

  14. Experimental Cerebral Malaria Spreads along the Rostral Migratory Stream

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Angelika; Pfeil, Johannes; Alfonso, Julieta; Kurz, Felix T.; Sahm, Felix; Heiland, Sabine; Monyer, Hannah; Bendszus, Martin; Mueller, Ann-Kristin; Helluy, Xavier; Pham, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    It is poorly understood how progressive brain swelling in experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) evolves in space and over time, and whether mechanisms of inflammation or microvascular sequestration/obstruction dominate the underlying pathophysiology. We therefore monitored in the Plasmodium berghei ANKA-C57BL/6 murine ECM model, disease manifestation and progression clinically, assessed by the Rapid-Murine-Coma-and-Behavioral-Scale (RMCBS), and by high-resolution in vivo MRI, including sensitive assessment of early blood-brain-barrier-disruption (BBBD), brain edema and microvascular pathology. For histological correlation HE and immunohistochemical staining for microglia and neuroblasts were obtained. Our results demonstrate that BBBD and edema initiated in the olfactory bulb (OB) and spread along the rostral-migratory-stream (RMS) to the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles, the dorsal-migratory-stream (DMS), and finally to the external capsule (EC) and brainstem (BS). Before clinical symptoms (mean RMCBS = 18.5±1) became evident, a slight, non-significant increase of quantitative T2 and ADC values was observed in OB+RMS. With clinical manifestation (mean RMCBS = 14.2±0.4), T2 and ADC values significantly increased along the OB+RMS (p = 0.049/p = 0.01). Severe ECM (mean RMCBS = 5±2.9) was defined by further spread into more posterior and deeper brain structures until reaching the BS (significant T2 elevation in DMS+EC+BS (p = 0.034)). Quantitative automated histological analyses confirmed microglial activation in areas of BBBD and edema. Activated microglia were closely associated with the RMS and neuroblasts within the RMS were severely misaligned with respect to their physiological linear migration pattern. Microvascular pathology and ischemic brain injury occurred only secondarily, after vasogenic edema formation and were both associated less with clinical severity and the temporal course of ECM. Altogether, we identified a distinct spatiotemporal

  15. Migratory restlessness in captive individuals predicts actual departure in the wild

    PubMed Central

    Eikenaar, Cas; Klinner, Thomas; Szostek, K. Lesley; Bairlein, Franz

    2014-01-01

    In captivity, migratory birds show increased activity during the time that they would normally migrate. The phenology and intensity of such ‘migratory restlessness’ has been shown to mirror species- and population-specific migration patterns observed in the wild and has consequently been used as a proxy for the motivation to migrate. Many studies doing so, however, were aiming to explain among-individual variation in migratory behaviour or traits, and not species- or population-specific traits. These studies thus assumed that, also at the level of the individual, migratory restlessness is an accurate proxy for the motivation to migrate. We tested this assumption for the first time and found that it holds; individuals showing very little migratory restlessness remained at stopover for longer than one night, whereas most individuals showing more restlessness departed sooner. This finding validates the use of migratory restlessness as a proxy for the motivation to migrate, thereby justifying the conclusions made in a large body of research on avian migration. PMID:24718095

  16. Migratory restlessness in captive individuals predicts actual departure in the wild.

    PubMed

    Eikenaar, Cas; Klinner, Thomas; Szostek, K Lesley; Bairlein, Franz

    2014-01-01

    In captivity, migratory birds show increased activity during the time that they would normally migrate. The phenology and intensity of such 'migratory restlessness' has been shown to mirror species- and population-specific migration patterns observed in the wild and has consequently been used as a proxy for the motivation to migrate. Many studies doing so, however, were aiming to explain among-individual variation in migratory behaviour or traits, and not species- or population-specific traits. These studies thus assumed that, also at the level of the individual, migratory restlessness is an accurate proxy for the motivation to migrate. We tested this assumption for the first time and found that it holds; individuals showing very little migratory restlessness remained at stopover for longer than one night, whereas most individuals showing more restlessness departed sooner. This finding validates the use of migratory restlessness as a proxy for the motivation to migrate, thereby justifying the conclusions made in a large body of research on avian migration.

  17. Cryptochromes and neuronal-activity markers colocalize in the retina of migratory birds during magnetic orientation

    PubMed Central

    Mouritsen, Henrik; Janssen-Bienhold, Ulrike; Liedvogel, Miriam; Feenders, Gesa; Stalleicken, Julia; Dirks, Petra; Weiler, Reto

    2004-01-01

    Migratory birds can use a magnetic compass for orientation during their migratory journeys covering thousands of kilometers. But how do they sense the reference direction provided by the Earth's magnetic field? Behavioral evidence and theoretical considerations have suggested that radical-pair processes in differently oriented, light-sensitive molecules of the retina could enable migratory birds to perceive the magnetic field as visual patterns. The cryptochromes (CRYs) have been suggested as the most likely candidate class of molecules, but do CRYs exist in the retina of migratory birds? Here, we show that at least one CRY1 and one CRY2 exist in the retina of migratory garden warblers and that garden-warbler CRY1 (gwCRY1) is cytosolic. We also show that gwCRY1 is concentrated in specific cells, particularly in ganglion cells and in large displaced ganglion cells, which also showed high levels of neuronal activity at night, when our garden warblers performed magnetic orientation. In addition, there seem to be striking differences in CRY1 expression between migratory and nonmigratory songbirds at night. The difference in CRY1 expression between migrants and nonmigrants is particularly pronounced in the large displaced ganglion cells known to project exclusively to a brain area where magnetically sensitive neurons have been reported. Consequently, cytosolic gwCRY1 is well placed to possibly be the primary magnetic-sensory molecule required for light-mediated magnetoreception. PMID:15381765

  18. Cryptochromes and neuronal-activity markers colocalize in the retina of migratory birds during magnetic orientation.

    PubMed

    Mouritsen, Henrik; Janssen-Bienhold, Ulrike; Liedvogel, Miriam; Feenders, Gesa; Stalleicken, Julia; Dirks, Petra; Weiler, Reto

    2004-09-28

    Migratory birds can use a magnetic compass for orientation during their migratory journeys covering thousands of kilometers. But how do they sense the reference direction provided by the Earth's magnetic field? Behavioral evidence and theoretical considerations have suggested that radical-pair processes in differently oriented, light-sensitive molecules of the retina could enable migratory birds to perceive the magnetic field as visual patterns. The cryptochromes (CRYs) have been suggested as the most likely candidate class of molecules, but do CRYs exist in the retina of migratory birds? Here, we show that at least one CRY1 and one CRY2 exist in the retina of migratory garden warblers and that garden-warbler CRY1 (gwCRY1) is cytosolic. We also show that gwCRY1 is concentrated in specific cells, particularly in ganglion cells and in large displaced ganglion cells, which also showed high levels of neuronal activity at night, when our garden warblers performed magnetic orientation. In addition, there seem to be striking differences in CRY1 expression between migratory and nonmigratory songbirds at night. The difference in CRY1 expression between migrants and nonmigrants is particularly pronounced in the large displaced ganglion cells known to project exclusively to a brain area where magnetically sensitive neurons have been reported. Consequently, cytosolic gwCRY1 is well placed to possibly be the primary magnetic-sensory molecule required for light-mediated magnetoreception.

  19. Wind Turbines as Landscape Impediments to the Migratory Connectivity of Bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cryan, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Unprecedented numbers of migratory bats are found dead beneath industrial-scale wind turbines during late summer and autumn in both North America and Europe. Prior to the wide-scale deployment of wind turbines, fatal collisions of migratory bats with anthropogenic structures were rarely reported and likely occurred very infrequently. There are no other well-documented threats to populations of migratory tree bats that cause mortality of similar magnitude to that observed at wind turbines. Just three migratory species comprise the vast majority of bat kills at turbines in North America and there are indications that turbines may actually attract migrating individuals toward their blades. Although fatality of certain migratory species is consistent in occurrence across large geographic regions, fatality rates differ across sites for reasons mostly unknown. Cumulative fatality for turbines in North America might already range into the hundreds of thousands of bats per year. Research into the causes of bat fatalities at wind turbines can ascertain the scale of the problem and help identify solutions. None of the migratory bats known to be most affected by wind turbines are protected by conservation laws, nor is there a legal mandate driving research into the problem or implementation of potential solutions.

  20. The eastern migratory caribou: the role of genetic introgression in ecotype evolution.

    PubMed

    Klütsch, Cornelya F C; Manseau, Micheline; Trim, Vicki; Polfus, Jean; Wilson, Paul J

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the evolutionary history of contemporary animal groups is essential for conservation and management of endangered species like caribou (Rangifer tarandus). In central Canada, the ranges of two caribou subspecies (barren-ground/woodland caribou) and two woodland caribou ecotypes (boreal/eastern migratory) overlap. Our objectives were to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the eastern migratory ecotype and to assess the potential role of introgression in ecotype evolution. STRUCTURE analyses identified five higher order groups (i.e. three boreal caribou populations, eastern migratory ecotype and barren-ground). The evolutionary history of the eastern migratory ecotype was best explained by an early genetic introgression from barren-ground into a woodland caribou lineage during the Late Pleistocene and subsequent divergence of the eastern migratory ecotype during the Holocene. These results are consistent with the retreat of the Laurentide ice sheet and the colonization of the Hudson Bay coastal areas subsequent to the establishment of forest tundra vegetation approximately 7000 years ago. This historical reconstruction of the eastern migratory ecotype further supports its current classification as a conservation unit, specifically a Designatable Unit, under Canada's Species at Risk Act. These findings have implications for other sub-specific contact zones for caribou and other North American species in conservation unit delineation.

  1. Accounting for the ecosystem services of migratory species: Quantifying migration support and spatial subsidies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Semmens, Darius J.; Diffendorfer, James E.; López-Hoffman, Laura; Shapiro, Carl D.

    2011-01-01

    Migratory species support ecosystem process and function in multiple areas, establishing ecological linkages between their different habitats. As they travel, migratory species also provide ecosystem services to people in many different locations. Previous research suggests there may be spatial mismatches between locations where humans use services and the ecosystems that produce them. This occurs with migratory species, between the areas that most support the species' population viability – and hence their long-term ability to provide services – and the locations where species provide the most ecosystem services. This paper presents a conceptual framework for estimating how much a particular location supports the provision of ecosystem services in other locations, and for estimating the extent to which local benefits are dependent upon other locations. We also describe a method for estimating the net payment, or subsidy, owed by or to a location that balances benefits received and support provided by locations throughout the migratory range of multiple species. The ability to quantify these spatial subsidies could provide a foundation for the establishment of markets that incentivize cross-jurisdictional cooperative management of migratory species. It could also provide a mechanism for resolving conflicts over the sustainable and equitable allocation of exploited migratory species.

  2. The eastern migratory caribou: the role of genetic introgression in ecotype evolution

    PubMed Central

    Klütsch, Cornelya F. C.; Manseau, Micheline; Trim, Vicki; Polfus, Jean; Wilson, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the evolutionary history of contemporary animal groups is essential for conservation and management of endangered species like caribou (Rangifer tarandus). In central Canada, the ranges of two caribou subspecies (barren-ground/woodland caribou) and two woodland caribou ecotypes (boreal/eastern migratory) overlap. Our objectives were to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the eastern migratory ecotype and to assess the potential role of introgression in ecotype evolution. STRUCTURE analyses identified five higher order groups (i.e. three boreal caribou populations, eastern migratory ecotype and barren-ground). The evolutionary history of the eastern migratory ecotype was best explained by an early genetic introgression from barren-ground into a woodland caribou lineage during the Late Pleistocene and subsequent divergence of the eastern migratory ecotype during the Holocene. These results are consistent with the retreat of the Laurentide ice sheet and the colonization of the Hudson Bay coastal areas subsequent to the establishment of forest tundra vegetation approximately 7000 years ago. This historical reconstruction of the eastern migratory ecotype further supports its current classification as a conservation unit, specifically a Designatable Unit, under Canada’s Species at Risk Act. These findings have implications for other sub-specific contact zones for caribou and other North American species in conservation unit delineation. PMID:26998320

  3. Radiotelemetric analysis of the effects of prevailing wind direction on Mormon cricket migratory band movement.

    PubMed

    Sword, G A; Lorch, P D; Gwynne, D T

    2008-08-01

    During outbreaks, flightless Mormon crickets [Anabrus simplex Haldeman (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae)] form large mobile groups known as migratory bands. These bands can contain millions of individuals that march en masse across the landscape. The role of environmental cues in influencing the movement direction of migratory bands is poorly understood and has been the subject of little empirical study. We examined the effect of wind direction on Mormon cricket migratory band movement direction by monitoring the local weather conditions and daily movement patterns of individual insects traveling in bands over the same time course at three close, but spatially distinct sites. Although weather conditions were relatively homogeneous across sites, wind directions tended to be more variable across sites during the morning hours, the period during which directional movement begins. Migratory bands at different sites traveled in distinctly different directions. However, we failed to find any evidence to suggest that the observed variation in migratory band movement direction was correlated with local wind direction at any time during the day. These results support the notion that the cues mediating migratory band directionality are likely to be group specific and that a role for landscape-scale environmental cues such as wind direction is unlikely.

  4. Automated telemetry reveals age specific differences in flight duration and speed are driven by wind conditions in a migratory songbird.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Greg W; Woodworth, Bradley K; Taylor, Philip D; Norris, D Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Given that winds encountered on migration could theoretically double or half the energy expenditure of aerial migrants, there should be strong selection on behaviour in relation to wind conditions aloft. However, evidence suggests that juvenile songbirds are less choosy about wind conditions at departure relative to adults, potentially increasing energy expenditure during flight. To date, there has yet to be a direct comparison of flight efficiency between free-living adult and juvenile songbirds during migration in relation to wind conditions aloft, likely because of the challenges of following known aged individual songbirds during flight. We used an automated digital telemetry array to compare the flight efficiency of adult and juvenile Savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis) as they flew nearly 100 km during two successive stages of their fall migration; a departure flight from their breeding grounds out over the ocean and then a migratory flight along a coast. Using a multilevel path modelling framework, we evaluated the effects of age, flight stage, tailwind component, and crosswind component on flight duration and groundspeed. We found that juveniles departed under wind conditions that were less supportive relative to adults and that this resulted in juveniles taking 1.4 times longer to complete the same flight trajectories as adults. We did not find an effect of age on flight duration or groundspeed after controlling for wind conditions aloft, suggesting that both age groups were flying at similar airspeeds. We also found that groundspeeds were 1.7 times faster along the coast than over the ocean given more favourable tailwinds along the coast and because birds appeared to be climbing in altitude over the ocean, diverting some energy from horizontal to vertical movement. Our results provide the first evidence that adult songbirds have considerably more efficient migratory flights than juveniles, and that this efficiency is driven by the selection of

  5. Selection and evolutionary potential of spring arrival phenology in males and females of a migratory songbird.

    PubMed

    Tarka, M; Hansson, B; Hasselquist, D

    2015-05-01

    The timing of annual life-history events affects survival and reproduction of all organisms. A changing environment can perturb phenological adaptations and an important question is if populations can evolve fast enough to track the environmental changes. Yet, little is known about selection and evolutionary potential of traits determining the timing of crucial annual events. Migratory species, which travel between different climatic regions, are particularly affected by global environmental changes. To increase our understanding of evolutionary potential and selection of timing traits, we investigated the quantitative genetics of arrival date at the breeding ground using a multigenerational pedigree of a natural great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) population. We found significant heritability of 16.4% for arrival date and directional selection for earlier arrival in both sexes acting through reproductive success, but not through lifespan. Mean arrival date advanced with 6 days over 20 years, which is in exact accordance with our predicted evolutionary response based on the breeder's equation. However, this phenotypic change is unlikely to be caused by microevolution, because selection seems mainly to act on the nongenetic component of the trait. Furthermore, demographical changes could also not account for the advancing arrival date. Instead, a strong correlation between spring temperatures and population mean arrival date suggests that phenotypic plasticity best explains the advancement of arrival date in our study population. Our study dissects the evolutionary and environmental forces that shape timing traits and thereby increases knowledge of how populations cope with rapidly changing environments. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  6. Phylogeography of a widespread North American migratory songbird (Setophaga ruticilla).

    PubMed

    Colbeck, Gabriel J; Gibbs, H Lisle; Marra, Peter P; Hobson, Keith; Webster, Michael S

    2008-01-01

    Genetic analyses for many widespread North American species have revealed significant east-west differentiation, indicating that many survived through the Pleistocene in 2 glacial refugia-1 in the eastern and 1 in the western part of the continent. It remains unclear, however, whether other areas may have served as important glacial refugia. Moreover, many such species exhibit widespread genetic similarity within eastern and western regions because of recent expansion from small refugial populations, making it difficult to evaluate current-day levels of gene flow. In this study, we used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequence and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers to survey genetic variation in a widespread migratory bird, the American redstart (Setophaga ruticilla). mtDNA analyses revealed a pattern that contrasts with that found for most other widespread species studied to date: most redstart populations across North America appear to have spread out from a single glacial refugium, possibly located in the southeastern United States, whereas populations in far-eastern Canada may have survived in a second glacial refugium located on the now-submerged Atlantic coastal shelf off the coast of Newfoundland. A pattern of isolation by distance in mtDNA suggested some constraints on current-day gene flow among extant redstart populations. This study thus reveals a recent evolutionary history for this species that differs from that of most other widespread North American passerines and provides evidence for limited gene flow in a species with potentially large dispersal distances.

  7. Migratory flight behaviour of the pollen beetle Meligethes aeneus.

    PubMed

    Mauchline, Alice L; Cook, Samantha M; Powell, Wilf; Chapman, Jason W; Osborne, Juliet L

    2017-06-01

    The field ecology of the pollen beetle Meligethes aeneus and its damaging effects on oilseed rape crops are well understood. However, the flight behaviour of M. aeneus, in particular the drivers for migratory movements across the landscape, is not well studied. We combined three established methodologies - suction traps, vertical-looking radar and high-altitude aerial netting - to demonstrate that M. aeneus flies at a range of altitudes at different points during its active season. By linking evidence of high-altitude mass migration with immigration of pollen beetles into oilseed rape fields, we were able to 'ground-truth' the results to characterise the seasonal movements of this pest across the landscape. We demonstrate that this novel combination of methodologies can advance our understanding of the population movements of pollen beetles and could provide an opportunity to develop predictive models to estimate the severity and timing of pest outbreaks. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Cyanide and migratory birds at gold mines in Nevada, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Hallock, R.J.; Hill, E.F.

    1994-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, cyanide in heap leach solutions and mill tailings ponds at gold mines in Nevada has killed a large but incompletely documented number of wildlife ( gt 9,500 individuals, primarily migratory birds). This field investigation documents the availability of cyanide at a variety of 'typical' Nevada gold mines during 1990 and 1991, describes wildlife reactions to cyanide solutions, and discusses procedures for eliminating wildlife loss from cyanide poisoning. Substantial progress has been made to reduce wildlife loss. About half of the mill tailings ponds (some up to 150 ha) in Nevada have been chemically treated to reduce cyanide concentrations (the number needing treatment is uncertain) and many of the smaller heap leach solution ponds and channels are now covered with netting to exclude birds and most mammals. The discovery of a cyanide gradient in mill tailings ponds (concentration usually 2-3 times higher at the inflow point than at reclaim point) provides new insight into wildlife responses (mortality) observed in different portions of the ponds. Finding dead birds on the tops of ore heaps and associated with solution puddling is a new problem, but management procedures for eliminating this source of mortality are available. A safe threshold concentration of cyanide to eliminate wildlife loss could not be determined from the field data and initial laboratory studies. New analytical methods may be required to assess further the wildlife hazard of cyanide in mining solutions.

  9. Assessing Fukushima-Derived Radiocesium in Migratory Pacific Predators.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Daniel J; Baumann, Zofia; Snodgrass, Owyn E; Dewar, Heidi; Berman-Kowalewski, Michelle; Weng, Kevin C; Nishikawa, Jun; Dutton, Peter H; Fisher, Nicholas S

    2017-08-15

    The 2011 release of Fukushima-derived radionuclides into the Pacific Ocean made migratory sharks, teleosts, and marine mammals a source of speculation and anxiety regarding radiocesium ((134+137)Cs) contamination, despite a lack of actual radiocesium measurements for these taxa. We measured radiocesium in a diverse suite of large predators from the North Pacific Ocean and report no detectable (i.e., ≥ 0.1 Bq kg(-1) dry wt) Fukushima-derived (134)Cs in all samples, except in one olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) with trace levels (0.1 Bq kg(-1)). Levels of (137)Cs varied within and across taxa, but were generally consistent with pre-Fukushima levels and were lower than naturally occurring (40)K by one to one to two orders of magnitude. Predator size had a weaker effect on (137)Cs and (40)K levels than tissue lipid content. Predator stable isotope values (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) were used to infer recent migration patterns, and showed that predators in the central, eastern, and western Pacific should not be assumed to accumulate detectable levels of radiocesium a priori. Nondetection of (134)Cs and low levels of (137)Cs in diverse marine megafauna far from Fukushima confirms negligible increases in radiocesium, with levels comparable to those prior to the release from Fukushima. Reported levels can inform recently developed models of cesium transport and bioaccumulation in marine species.

  10. 028. Migratory pneumonia—cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP)

    PubMed Central

    Lagoudi, Kalliopi; Ioannidou, Despoina; Papadaki, Elena; Organtzis, Ioannis; Kostanta, Soultana; Papaioannou, Antonis; Moumtzi, Despoina; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Fouka, Evaggelia

    2015-01-01

    In this study were presented the clinical and laboratory findings of eight patients with migratory pneumonia, who were hospitalised in our clinic. It is about eight women with average age of 58±13 years with fever, weakness, dry cough, shortness of breath and who already had received antibiotics. Crackles were the most frequent evidence by the auscultation. All patients showed consolidation in chest radiography which resolved completely from the initial area and migrated in different areas. The chest HRCT showed opacity with air bronchogram and ground glass in places. Regarding to the respiratory function, patients showed mild restriction disorder (average values ± SD: FEV1% 83±24, FVC% 86±21, TLC% 82±16, DLco% 74±15). The average price of pO2 was 68+7 mmHg. The findings of BAL were: macrophages 51%±20%, lymphocytes 33.5%±14%, neutrophils 7.5%±3%, eosinophils 7%±8%. From diagnosis, we excluded eosinophilic pneumonia, infectious causes, collagen diseases and vasculitis. The findings of physical examination, chest radiography and the results of the BAL of all of the patients argued for Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP), the cause of which was not found (cryptogenic organizing pneumonia-COP). All patients responded directly to corticosteroids.

  11. Macroecology of habitat choice in long-distance migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Oberrath, Reik

    2003-10-01

    Patterns of habitat choice in ecological communities are not only influenced by present-day selective forces but also by historical processes, such as the biogeographical history of the lineages they are composed of. Nevertheless, it has been very difficult to test historical factors. The possible tropical origin of long-distance migratory birds provides an opportunity for such a test. If habitat choice of long-distance migrants is inherited from their tropical ancestors then Nearctic long-distance migrants might have acquired their habitat choice from Neotropical forest species and European long-distance migrants from African savannah species. Here we use a macroecological approach to show that this hypothesis can be confirmed. Long-distance migrants in the Nearctic are found in forested habitat types, while those in Europe are found in open ones. In comparison, the habitat choice of residents and short-distance migrants (in genera without long-distance migration) does not differ between the Nearctic and Europe. These results demonstrate that habitat choice in temperate bird communities can be explained by the tropical history of long-distance migrants. Thus, habitat choice seems to be shaped not only by local mechanisms, but also by processes acting on much larger spatial and temporal scales.

  12. Microglia and neurons in the hippocampus of migratory sandpipers.

    PubMed

    Diniz, C G; Magalhães, N G M; Sousa, A A; Santos Filho, C; Diniz, D G; Lima, C M; Oliveira, M A; Paulo, D C; Pereira, P D C; Sherry, D F; Picanço-Diniz, C W

    2016-01-01

    The semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla and the spotted sandpiper Actitis macularia are long- and short-distance migrants, respectively. C. pusilla breeds in the sub-arctic and mid-arctic tundra of Canada and Alaska and winters on the north and east coasts of South America. A. macularia breeds in a broad distribution across most of North America from the treeline to the southern United States. It winters in the southern United States, and Central and South America. The autumn migration route of C. pusilla includes a non-stop flight over the Atlantic Ocean, whereas autumn route of A. macularia is largely over land. Because of this difference in their migratory paths and the visuo-spatial recognition tasks involved, we hypothesized that hippocampal volume and neuronal and glial numbers would differ between these two species. A. macularia did not differ from C. pusilla in the total number of hippocampal neurons, but the species had a larger hippocampal formation and more hippocampal microglia. It remains to be investigated whether these differences indicate interspecies differences or neural specializations associated with different strategies of orientation and navigation.

  13. Successful treatment with cyclosporin administration for persistent benign migratory glossitis.

    PubMed

    Abe, Masatoshi; Sogabe, Yoko; Syuto, Tomoko; Ishibuchi, Hirohisa; Yokoyama, Yoko; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2007-05-01

    We herein describe a 54 year-old female patient with a 5-year history of persistent and painful benign migratory glossitis (BMG), which was remarkably improved by systemic administration of cyclosporin. She had noted some white patches leaving smooth denuded red areas with whitish elevated borders on the dorsum of her tongue, and finally felt strong pain. The lesion was refractory to the previous treatment with topical corticosteroid treatment for the last 2 years. Because clinicopathological findings were compatible with BMG, systemic administration of 20 mg/day prednisolone and topical 0.1% dexamethasone application were started, however, she suffered a severe relapse after tapering the dosage of prednisolone to 10 mg/day. Because some investigations have suggested that BMG is an oral manifestation of psoriasis, we introduced cyclosporin administration. The systemic treatment of cyclosporin microemulsion pre-concentrate, 3 mg/kg/day, resulted in a satisfactory improvement. Two months later, we could reduce cyclosporin microemulsion pre-concentrate dosage to 1.5 mg/kg/day for maintenance therapy, and the disease has been well controlled so far.

  14. Analytic solution of an oscillatory migratory α2 stellar dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenburg, A.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Analytic solutions of the mean-field induction equation predict a nonoscillatory dynamo for homogeneous helical turbulence or constant α effect in unbounded or periodic domains. Oscillatory dynamos are generally thought impossible for constant α. Aims: We present an analytic solution for a one-dimensional bounded domain resulting in oscillatory solutions for constant α, but different (Dirichlet and von Neumann or perfect conductor and vacuum) boundary conditions on the two boundaries. Methods: We solve a second order complex equation and superimpose two independent solutions to obey both boundary conditions. Results: The solution has time-independent energy density. On one end where the function value vanishes, the second derivative is finite, which would not be correctly reproduced with sine-like expansion functions where a node coincides with an inflection point. The field always migrates away from the perfect conductor boundary toward the vacuum boundary, independently of the sign of α. Conclusions: The obtained solution may serve as a benchmark for numerical dynamo experiments and as a pedagogical illustration that oscillatory migratory dynamos are possible with constant α.

  15. Geographic variation in RNAi sensitivity in the migratory locust.

    PubMed

    Sugahara, Ryohei; Tanaka, Seiji; Jouraku, Akiya; Shiotsuki, Takahiro

    2017-03-20

    The RNA interference (RNAi) technology has been widely used in basic and applied research. It is known that RNAi works in some species but not in others, although the cause for this difference remains unclear. Here, we present inter- and intra-populational variations in RNAi sensitivity in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria, and provide information on the genetic background of such variations. In the four strains analyzed, originating from different Japanese localities, most individuals from two of the strains were sensitive to injections of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) against the corazonin (CRZ) and ecdysone receptor genes, whereas those from the other two strains were resistant. Selection for individuals sensitive to dsCRZ produced a dramatic increase in the RNAi sensitivity in the following generations, although phenotypes also varied in the selected line, suggesting that several genes might control RNAi sensitivity. Reciprocal crosses between a sensitive and a resistant strain suggested that the resistant phenotype is dominant. The expression levels of nine RNAi-associated genes known for other organisms were not correlated with the variation in RNAi sensitivity observed in L. migratoria. Variations in RNAi sensitivity as the ones observed in this study should be considered when using RNAi in basic and applied research as well as in pest management.

  16. Response Reversal and Children with Psychopathic Tendencies: Success Is a Function of Salience of Contingency Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budhani, S.; Blair, R. J. R.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Previous work has inconsistently reported difficulties with response reversal/extinction in children with psychopathic tendencies. Method: We tested the hypothesis that the degree of impairment seen in children with psychopathic tendencies is a function of the salience of contingency change. We investigated the performance of children…

  17. University Students' Situational Reaction Tendencies: Reflections on General Study Orientations, Learning Strategies, and Study Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makinen, Jarkko; Olkinuora, Erkki

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to bridge the gap between situational and more general measures in investigating university students' studying. More precisely, the aim was to establish a connection between students' situational reaction tendencies and their general study orientations. Furthermore, situational reaction tendencies were related to the…

  18. The Relationships among Imagination, Future Imagination Tendency, and Future Time Perspective of Junior High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Min-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the study were to investigate the relationships among imagination, future imagination tendency, and future time perspective of junior high school students, then to explore the future time perspective which is predicted by background variables, imaginative qualities, and future imagination tendency. The subjects were 331 from…

  19. The communication skills and the empathic tendency levels of nursing students: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Pazar, Berrin; Demiralp, Meral; Erer, İmren

    2017-06-01

    The most basic component of communication skills is the complex and multidimensional skill of empathy. This study was conducted to assess the communication skills and empathic tendency levels of female nursing students Turkish university. This cross-sectional study sample consisted of 342 nurse student. There was a significant difference between the classes in terms of communication skills (0.021, p < .05) but no significant difference in terms of the empathic tendency levels (0.712, p > .05). The mean communication skills score increased in the final year but empathic tendency levels did not increase with increasing school years. This result suggests that the empathic tendency level could not be increased with the courses in the curriculum in our study. The results suggest that empathic tendency levels were not increased with subsequent nursing coursework. Determining empathic predisposition levels prior to entry into nursing programs should therefore be considered.

  20. [Regional differences and development tendency of livestock manure pollution in China].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Huan-Guang; Liao, Shao-Pan; Jing, Yue; Luan, Jiang

    2013-07-01

    The rapid development of livestock production in China has brought livestock manure pollution as a serious environment problem, even threatens China's agriculture sustainable development. On the basis of public statistical data and field research data, this paper analyzed the magnitude of livestock manure excretion and pollution of China and different provinces in 2010, and predicted development tendencies of livestock manure excretion and pollution in 2020 through the Decision Support System for China's Agricultural Sustainable Development (CHINAGRO). The result shows that total livestock manure excretion of China in 2010 is 1 900 million tons, and livestock manure pollution is 227 million tons, while per hectare arable land of livestock manure pollution is 1.86 tons. Provinces in the southeast China, such as Guangdong and Fujian, are areas with high pressure of livestock manure pollution. Model simulation shows that China's total amount of livestock manure pollution will increase to 298 million tons in 2020 without government intervention. The pressure of livestock manure pollution will become higher in most regions of China, especially in east and south regions. The situation in central and western region is better than that in east regions although the pollution pressure will also increase in those areas. Policy intervention such as taxes and subsidies should be adopted to reduce the discharge of livestock manure pollution, and encourage livestock production transfer from eastern areas to the central and western regions.