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Sample records for environmental analyses bounding

  1. Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico existing environmental analyses bounding environmental test facilities.

    SciTech Connect

    May, Rodney A.; Bailey-White, Brenda E.; Cantwell, Amber

    2009-06-01

    This report identifies current environmental operating parameters for the various test and support facilities at SNL/NM. The intent of this report is solely to provide the limits which bound the facilities' operations. Understanding environmental limits is important to maximizing the capabilities and working within the existing constraints of each facility, and supports the decision-making process in meeting customer requests, cost and schedule planning, modifications to processes, future commitments, and use of resources. Working within environmental limits ensures that mission objectives will be met in a manner that protects human health and the environment. It should be noted that, in addition to adhering to the established limits, other approvals and permits may be required for specific projects.

  2. Organically bound tritium analysis in environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Baglan, N.; Cossonnet, C.; Fournier, M.; Momoshima, N.; Ansoborlo, E.

    2015-03-15

    Organically bound tritium (OBT) has become of increased interest within the last decade, with a focus on its behaviour and also its analysis, which are important to assess tritium distribution in the environment. In contrast, there are no certified reference materials and no standard analytical method through the international organization related to OBT. In order to resolve this issue, an OBT international working group was created in May 2012. Over 20 labs from around the world participated and submitted their results for the first intercomparison exercise results on potato (Sep 2013). The samples, specially-prepared potatoes, were provided in March 2013 to each participant. Technical information and results from this first exercise are discussed here for all the labs which have realised the five replicates necessary to allow a reliable statistical treatment. The results are encouraging as the increased number of participating labs did not degrade the observed dispersion of the results for a similar activity level. Therefore, the results do not seem to depend on the analytical procedure used. From this work an optimised procedure can start to be developed to deal with OBT analysis and will guide subsequent planned OBT trials by the international group.

  3. Interlaboratory Comparison of Organically Bound Tritium Measurements in Environmental Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Workman, W.J.G.; Kim, S.B.; Kotzer, T.G.

    2005-07-15

    The measurement of organically bound tritium in environmental samples is essential for assessing the impact of tritium releases in terms of doses to the general public and a growing number of laboratories are now required to make them. Interlaboratory comparisons provide one way for laboratories to practice and check their analytical methods and procedures. At AECL's Chalk River Laboratories, two organic matrices with tritium concentrations less than 1.5 kBq/g were developed and distributed to seven laboratories in Canada, Europe and Russia for measurement. Some participants experienced difficulties in analysing the samples, especially with the lower concentrations, where results varied by more than an order of magnitude. Laboratories incorporating procedures such as rinsing to remove tritium from exchangeable sites, using standardized combustion methods and purifying the combustion water obtained more reliable, consistent results. The preparation of the standard reference material must be carefully executed in order to produce a homogeneous sample of uniform size. The tritium measurement community would benefit if standard reference materials in the environmental concentration range were available.

  4. Toxicity of atmospheric particle-bound PAHs: an environmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Sofia Raquel; van Drooge, Barend L; Barata, Carlos; Vieira, Natividade; Guimarães, Laura; Piña, Benjamin

    2014-10-01

    Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental pollutants that represent a risk not only to humans, but to all living organisms. High-molecular weight PAHs are more toxic than lighter relatives, and also have a higher tendency to bind onto air particles (i.e., particle matter, PM). PM is a major constituent of air pollution. Adequate assessment of the biological impact of PM requires the analysis, not only of the effects on human health, but also on the environment. Since the aquatic systems work as a natural sink to these air pollutants, assessing the effects of particle-bound PAHs on aquatic organisms may further characterize its potential aquatic toxicity, also providing simple and low-cost alternative assays to investigate PM biological effects in vivo. We review the current scientific literature, addressing the atmospheric PAHs fate, transformation and deposition, pertinent particle-bound PAHs toxicity data, and the potential aquatic toxic burden. Conceptual and experimental procedures that could improve future investigations and risk assessments are also considered.

  5. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING DATABASES FOR STATISTICAL ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) collects data that are used to statistically assess the environmental condition of large geographic regions. These data are then posted on the EMAP web site so that anyone can use them. Databases used for the statistical ...

  6. Training in Environmental Analyses for Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R W; Gaffney, A M; Hutcheon, N A; Kersting, A B

    2009-05-28

    Responding to recommendations of the DOE/NNSA's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, a new course, Training in Environmental Sample Analysis for IAEA Safeguards, is being offered as a summer internship opportunity at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first students completed the 8 week program during the summer of 2008. Interns are given training in the analysis of bulk environmental samples for safeguards through hands-on experience working in a clean laboratory, purifying U and Pu from bulk environmental samples, and measuring U and Pu isotope ratios by multi-collector ICP mass spectrometry. A series of lectures by invited safeguards and non-proliferation experts gives the students a broad picture of the safeguards work of the IAEA. At the end of the course, the students prepare a poster of their work to showcase at LLNL's summer student poster symposium. Both undergraduate and graduate students are recruited and hired as paid interns under the aegis of the Glenn T. Seaborg Institute in the Physical and Life Sciences Directorate at LLNL. This training course seeks to introduce students to analytical and interpretive skill-sets that are not generally taught at universities, and to encourage them to pursue careers with the IAEA.

  7. Environmental monitoring final report: groundwater chemical analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    This report presents the results of analyses of groundwater qualtiy at the SRC-I Demonstration Plant site in Newman, Kentucky. Samples were obtained from a network of 23 groundwater observation wells installed during previous studies. The groundwater was well within US EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards for trace metals, radioactivity, and pesticides, but exceeded the standard for coliform bacteria. Several US EPA Secondary Drinking Water Standards were exceeded, namely, manganese, color, iron, and total dissolved solids. Based on the results, Dames and Moore recommend that all wells should be sterilized and those wells built in 1980 should be redeveloped. 1 figure, 6 tables.

  8. Using Inequality Measures to Incorporate Environmental Justice into Regulatory Analyses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Formally evaluating how specific policy measures influence environmental justice is challenging, especially in the context of regulatory analyses in which quantitative comparisons are the norm. However, there is a large literature on developing and applying quantitative...

  9. Impacts Analyses Supporting the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Annette L. Schafer; LLoyd C. Brown; David C. Carathers; Boyd D. Christensen; James J. Dahl; Mark L. Miller; Cathy Ottinger Farnum; Steven Peterson; A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Peter V. Subaiya; Daniel M. Wachs; Ruth F. Weiner

    2014-02-01

    This document contains the analysis details and summary of analyses conducted to evaluate the environmental impacts for the Resumption of Transient Fuel and Materials Testing Program. It provides an assessment of the impacts for the two action alternatives being evaluated in the environmental assessment. These alternatives are (1) resumption of transient testing using the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and (2) conducting transient testing using the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratory in New Mexico (SNL/NM). Analyses are provided for radiologic emissions, other air emissions, soil contamination, and groundwater contamination that could occur (1) during normal operations, (2) as a result of accidents in one of the facilities, and (3) during transport. It does not include an assessment of the biotic, cultural resources, waste generation, or other impacts that could result from the resumption of transient testing. Analyses were conducted by technical professionals at INL and SNL/NM as noted throughout this report. The analyses are based on bounding radionuclide inventories, with the same inventories used for test materials by both alternatives and different inventories for the TREAT Reactor and ACRR. An upper value on the number of tests was assumed, with a test frequency determined by the realistic turn-around times required between experiments. The estimates provided for impacts during normal operations are based on historical emission rates and projected usage rates; therefore, they are bounding. Estimated doses for members of the public, collocated workers, and facility workers that could be incurred as a result of an accident are very conservative. They do not credit safety systems or administrative procedures (such as evacuation plans or use of personal protective equipment) that could be used to limit worker doses. Doses estimated for transportation are conservative and are based on

  10. Using inequality measures to incorporate environmental justice into regulatory analyses.

    PubMed

    Harper, Sam; Ruder, Eric; Roman, Henry A; Geggel, Amelia; Nweke, Onyemaechi; Payne-Sturges, Devon; Levy, Jonathan I

    2013-08-30

    Formally evaluating how specific policy measures influence environmental justice is challenging, especially in the context of regulatory analyses in which quantitative comparisons are the norm. However, there is a large literature on developing and applying quantitative measures of health inequality in other settings, and these measures may be applicable to environmental regulatory analyses. In this paper, we provide information to assist policy decision makers in determining the viability of using measures of health inequality in the context of environmental regulatory analyses. We conclude that quantification of the distribution of inequalities in health outcomes across social groups of concern, considering both within-group and between-group comparisons, would be consistent with both the structure of regulatory analysis and the core definition of environmental justice. Appropriate application of inequality indicators requires thorough characterization of the baseline distribution of exposures and risks, leveraging data generally available within regulatory analyses. Multiple inequality indicators may be applicable to regulatory analyses, and the choice among indicators should be based on explicit value judgments regarding the dimensions of environmental justice of greatest interest.

  11. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry: The Transformation of Modern Environmental Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Lucy; Yan, Fangzhi; Bach, Stephen; Pihakari, Katianna; Klein, David

    2016-01-01

    Unknown compounds in environmental samples are difficult to identify using standard mass spectrometric methods. Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) has revolutionized how environmental analyses are performed. With its unsurpassed mass accuracy, high resolution and sensitivity, researchers now have a tool for difficult and complex environmental analyses. Two features of FTMS are responsible for changing the face of how complex analyses are accomplished. First is the ability to quickly and with high mass accuracy determine the presence of unknown chemical residues in samples. For years, the field has been limited by mass spectrometric methods that were based on knowing what compounds of interest were. Secondly, by utilizing the high resolution capabilities coupled with the low detection limits of FTMS, analysts also could dilute the sample sufficiently to minimize the ionization changes from varied matrices. PMID:26784175

  12. Transferred nuclear Overhauser effect analyses of membrane-bound enkephalin analogues by sup 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance: Correlation between activities and membrane-bound conformations

    SciTech Connect

    Milon, Alain; Miyazawa, Tatsuo; Higashijima, Tsutomu )

    1990-01-09

    Leu-enkephalin, (D-Ala{sup 2})Leu-enkephalin, and (D-Ala{sup 2})Leu-enkephalinamide (agonists) and (L-Ala{sup 2})Leu-enkephalin (inactive analogue) bind to lipid bilayer consisting of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine. The conformations that these compounds assume, once bound to perdeuterated phospholipid bilayer, have been shown to be unique, as shown by the transferred nuclear Overhauser effect (TRNOE) of {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. In addition, their location in the bilayer was analyzed by TRNOE in the presence of spin-labeled phospholipids. These analyses showed a clear relationship between the activity and the peptide-membrane interaction. The three active peptides, when bound to membranes, adopt the same conformation, characterized by a type II{prime} {beta}-turn around Gly{sup 3}-Phe and a {gamma}-turn around Gly{sup 2} (or D-Ala{sup 2}). The inactive analogue, (L-Ala{sup 2})Leu-enkephalin, displayed a completely different TRNOE pattern corresponding to a different conformation in the membrane-bound state. The tyrosine residue of the active compounds is not inserted into the interior of membrane, but it is inserted into the bilayer for the L-Ala{sup 2} analogue. According to these results, (L-Ala{sup 2})Leu-enkephalin may be explained to be inactive because the mode of binding to the membranes is different from that of active compounds.

  13. Preparation of environmental analyses for synfuel and unconventional gas technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.M.

    1982-09-01

    Government agencies that offer financial incentives to stimulate the commercialization of synfuel and unconventional gas technologies usually require an analysis of environmental impacts resulting from proposed projects. This report reviews potentially significant environmental issues associated with a selection of these technologies and presents guidance for developing information and preparing analyses to address these issues. The technologies considered are western oil shale, tar sand, coal liquefaction and gasification, peat, unconventional gas (western tight gas sands, eastern Devonian gas shales, methane from coal seams, and methane from geopressured aquifers), and fuel ethanol. Potentially significant issues are discussed under the general categories of land use, air quality, water use, water quality, biota, solid waste disposal, socioeconomics, and health and safety. The guidance provided in this report can be applied to preparation and/or review of proposals, environmental reports, environmental assessments, environmental impact statements, and other types of environmental analyses. The amount of detail required for any issue discussed must, by necessity, be determined on a case-by-case basis.

  14. Energy from biological processes. Volume II. Technical and environmental analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    This assessment responds to a request by the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation for an evaluation of the energy potential of biomass. This volume presents the technical and environmental analyses on which the conclusions in Volume 1 are based. The biomass resource base includes forestry, agriculture, unconventional biomass, and biomass wastes. The technical, economic, and environmental aspects of developing these resources are presented. Thermochemical conversion, fermentation, and anaerobic digestion technologies are described. Possible end uses for alcohol fuels are presented. The production of chemicals from biomass is considered. Energy balances for alcohol fuels are given. (DMC)

  15. Safety and environmental analyses and conclusions for TIBER-II

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S.J.; Stasko, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    The safety and environmental characteristics of the TIBER-II (Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor) design have been studied, focusing on innovative design features. Analyses included accident concerns, maintenance exposure, effluent control, and waste management. Unresolved problems include removal of decay heat from the high activation tungsten inboard shield, provision for rapid, passive, and benign plasma shutoff, compatibility between liquid-metal test modules and water-cooled blanket/shield, and elimination of high level wastes. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Environmental risk assessment of acid rock drainage under uncertainty: The probability bounds and PHREEQC approach.

    PubMed

    Betrie, Getnet D; Sadiq, Rehan; Nichol, Craig; Morin, Kevin A; Tesfamariam, Solomon

    2016-01-15

    Acid rock drainage (ARD) is a major environmental problem that poses significant environmental risks during and after mining activities. A new methodology for environmental risk assessment based on probability bounds and a geochemical speciation model (PHREEQC) is presented. The methodology provides conservative and non-conservative ways of estimating risk of heavy metals posed to selected endpoints probabilistically, while propagating data and parameter uncertainties throughout the risk assessment steps. The methodology is demonstrated at a minesite located in British Columbia, Canada. The result of the methodology for the case study minesite shows the fate-and-transport of heavy metals is well simulated in the mine environment. In addition, the results of risk characterization for the case study show that there is risk due to transport of heavy metals into the environment.

  17. Ion Beam Analyses Of Bark And Wood In Environmental Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lill, J.-O.; Saarela, K.-E.; Harju, L.; Rajander, J.; Lindroos, A.; Heselius, S.-J.

    2011-06-01

    A large number of wood and bark samples have been analysed utilizing particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. Samples of common tree species like Scots Pine, Norway Spruce and birch were collected from a large number of sites in Southern and Southwestern Finland. Some of the samples were from a heavily polluted area in the vicinity of a copper-nickel smelter. The samples were dry ashed at 550 °C for the removal of the organic matrix in order to increase the analytical sensitivity of the method. The sensitivity was enhanced by a factor of 50 for wood and slightly less for bark. The ashed samples were pressed into pellets and irradiated as thick targets with a millimetre-sized proton beam. By including the ashing procedure in the method, the statistical dispersion due to elemental heterogeneities in wood material could be reduced. As a by-product, information about the elemental composition of ashes was obtained. By comparing the concentration of an element in bark ash to the concentration in wood ash of the same tree useful information from environmental point of view was obtained. The obtained ratio of the ashes was used to distinguish between elemental contributions from anthropogenic atmospheric sources and natural geochemical sources, like soil and bedrock.

  18. Energy Efficiency and Environmental Impact Analyses of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, Brian A; Bansal, Pradeep; Zha, Shitong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents energy and life cycle climate performance (LCCP) analyses of a variety of supermarket refrigeration systems to identify designs that exhibit low environmental impact and high energy efficiency. EnergyPlus was used to model refrigeration systems in a variety of climate zones across the United States. The refrigeration systems that were modeled include the traditional multiplex DX system, cascade systems with secondary loops and the transcritical CO2 system. Furthermore, a variety of refrigerants were investigated, including R-32, R-134a, R-404A, R-1234yf, R-717, and R-744. LCCP analysis was used to determine the direct and indirect carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the operation of the various refrigeration systems over their lifetimes. Our analysis revealed that high-efficiency supermarket refrigeration systems may result in up to 44% less energy consumption and 78% reduced carbon dioxide emissions compared to the baseline multiplex DX system. This is an encouraging result for legislators, policy makers and supermarket owners to select low emission, high-efficiency commercial refrigeration system designs for future retrofit and new projects.

  19. Safety and environmental analyses for space nuclear programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnell, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    The tools and procedures for analyzing environmental quality and safety are reviewed. The process of preparing an environmental impact statement is outlined and the data sources for a safety analysis are discussed. The environmental safety analysis process is demonstrated, using examples from the Galileo, Ulysses, and Venus-earth-earth-gravity-assist programs.

  20. Cultivating Environmental Virtue among 7th and 8th Graders in an Expeditionary Learning Outward Bound School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Bruce; Bright, Alan; Cafaro, Philip; Mittelstaedt, Robin; Bruyere, Brett

    2008-01-01

    This study attempted to assess the development of environmental virtue in 7th and 8th grade students in an Expeditionary Learning Outward Bound school. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, the researchers were interested in introducing a virtue ethics perspective into their teaching of environmental ethics. Second, the researchers were…

  1. Proteomic analyses of the environmental toxicity of carcinogenic chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Protein expression and posttranslational modifications consistently change in response to the exposure to environmental chemicals. Recent technological advances in proteomics provide new tools for more efficient characterization of protein expression and posttranslational modific...

  2. Distribution characteristics of matrix-bound phosphine along the coast of China and possible environmental controls.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhihua; Song, Xiuxian; Yu, Zhiming

    2008-09-01

    Matrix-bound phosphine (MBP) concentrations in surface sediments collected from 37 stations along the coast of China in 2006 are reported. MBP was found in all samples and the average concentration was 6.30ngkg(-1)dry weight (dw). The distribution of MBP showed certain spatial variation characteristics with high MBP concentrations at stations near to the coast. The average concentrations of MBP in the northern Yellow Sea (NYS), the southern Yellow Sea (SYS), the northern area of East China Sea (NECS), the southern area of East China Sea (SECS), and South China Sea (SCS) were 5.57+/-3.78, 3.78+/-2.81, 5.27+/-3.07, 5.48+/-4.05 and 13.52+/-7.86ngkg(-1)dw, respectively. The correlations between MBP and influencing factors, such as the sedimentary environmental characteristics (sediment type, the grain size, contents of phosphorous, organic matters and redox potential) and the aquatic environmental characteristics (temperature, salinity, depth and hydrodynamics) were studied. The results indicated that MBP was strongly influenced by various factors, such as total phosphorus (TP), organic phosphorus (OP), organic carbon (OC), the grain size and hydrodynamics, all of which not only offered reasonable interpretations for the distribution characteristics of MBP but also provided evidence to support the viewpoint that phosphine originated from OP decomposition. This work is the first comprehensive study of the distribution of MBP along the coast of China and its relationships with environmental factors which will lead to a better understanding of the phosphorus (P) biogeochemical cycle in the sea.

  3. Environmental protection, the economy, and jobs: national and regional analyses.

    PubMed

    Bezdek, Roger H; Wendling, Robert M; Diperna, Paula

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between environmental protection (EP), the economy, and jobs has been an issue of harsh contention for decades. Does EP harm the economy and destroy jobs or facilitate economic growth and create jobs? We address this issue by summarizing the results of the Jobs and the Environment Initiative, research funded by nonprofit foundations to quantify the relationship between EP, the economy, and jobs. We estimate the size of the US environmental industry and the numbers of environment-related jobs at the national level and in the states of Florida, Michigan, Minnesota, North Carolina, Ohio, and Wisconsin. This is the first time that such comprehensive, detailed estimates have been developed. Our major finding is that, contrary to conventional wisdom, EP, economic growth, and jobs creation are complementary and compatible: investments in EP create jobs and displace jobs, but the net effect on employment is positive. Second, environment protection has grown rapidly to become a major sales-generating, job-creating industry--$300 billion/year and 5 million jobs in 2003. Third, most of the 5 million jobs created are standard jobs for accountants, engineers, computer analysts, clerks, factory workers, etc., and the classic environmental job (environmental engineer, ecologist, etc.) constitutes only a small portion of the jobs created. Most of the persons employed in the jobs created may not even realize that they owe their livelihood to protecting the environment. Fourth, at the state level, the relationship between environmental policies and economic/job growth is positive, not negative. States can have strong economies and simultaneously protect the environment. Finally, environmental jobs are concentrated in manufacturing and professional, information, scientific, and technical services, and are thus disproportionately the types of jobs all states seek to attract.

  4. Evaluation and Analyses of Cultural Diversity Training with Environmental Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvan, Alma R.; LaRocque, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    The Environmental Education and Training Partnership Cultural Diversity Workshops were based on theoretical models and designed to increase individuals' awareness, knowledge, and intentions toward increasing culturally sensitivity. This study reports on the evaluation results from 191 participants. Their responses indicate significant changes in…

  5. Environmental microarray analyses of Antarctic soil microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Yergeau, Etienne; Schoondermark-Stolk, Sung A; Brodie, Eoin L; Déjean, Sébastien; DeSantis, Todd Z; Gonçalves, Olivier; Piceno, Yvette M; Andersen, Gary L; Kowalchuk, George A

    2009-03-01

    Antarctic ecosystems are fascinating in their limited trophic complexity, with decomposition and nutrient cycling functions being dominated by microbial activities. Not only are Antarctic habitats exposed to extreme environmental conditions, the Antarctic Peninsula is also experiencing unequalled effects of global warming. Owing to their uniqueness and the potential impact of global warming on these pristine systems, there is considerable interest in determining the structure and function of microbial communities in the Antarctic. We therefore utilized a recently designed 16S rRNA gene microarray, the PhyloChip, which targets 8741 bacterial and archaeal taxa, to interrogate microbial communities inhabiting densely vegetated and bare fell-field soils along a latitudinal gradient ranging from 51 degrees S (Falkland Islands) to 72 degrees S (Coal Nunatak). Results indicated a clear decrease in diversity with increasing latitude, with the two southernmost sites harboring the most distinct Bacterial and Archaeal communities. The microarray approach proved more sensitive in detecting the breadth of microbial diversity than polymerase chain reaction-based bacterial 16S rRNA gene libraries of modest size ( approximately 190 clones per library). Furthermore, the relative signal intensities summed for phyla and families on the PhyloChip were significantly correlated with the relative occurrence of these taxa in clone libraries. PhyloChip data were also compared with functional gene microarray data obtained earlier, highlighting numerous significant relationships and providing evidence for a strong link between community composition and functional gene distribution in Antarctic soils. Integration of these PhyloChip data with other complementary methods provides an unprecedented understanding of the microbial diversity and community structure of terrestrial Antarctic habitats. PMID:19020556

  6. Environmental microarray analyses of Antarctic soil microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Yergeau, Etienne; Schoondermark-Stolk, Sung A; Brodie, Eoin L; Déjean, Sébastien; DeSantis, Todd Z; Gonçalves, Olivier; Piceno, Yvette M; Andersen, Gary L; Kowalchuk, George A

    2009-03-01

    Antarctic ecosystems are fascinating in their limited trophic complexity, with decomposition and nutrient cycling functions being dominated by microbial activities. Not only are Antarctic habitats exposed to extreme environmental conditions, the Antarctic Peninsula is also experiencing unequalled effects of global warming. Owing to their uniqueness and the potential impact of global warming on these pristine systems, there is considerable interest in determining the structure and function of microbial communities in the Antarctic. We therefore utilized a recently designed 16S rRNA gene microarray, the PhyloChip, which targets 8741 bacterial and archaeal taxa, to interrogate microbial communities inhabiting densely vegetated and bare fell-field soils along a latitudinal gradient ranging from 51 degrees S (Falkland Islands) to 72 degrees S (Coal Nunatak). Results indicated a clear decrease in diversity with increasing latitude, with the two southernmost sites harboring the most distinct Bacterial and Archaeal communities. The microarray approach proved more sensitive in detecting the breadth of microbial diversity than polymerase chain reaction-based bacterial 16S rRNA gene libraries of modest size ( approximately 190 clones per library). Furthermore, the relative signal intensities summed for phyla and families on the PhyloChip were significantly correlated with the relative occurrence of these taxa in clone libraries. PhyloChip data were also compared with functional gene microarray data obtained earlier, highlighting numerous significant relationships and providing evidence for a strong link between community composition and functional gene distribution in Antarctic soils. Integration of these PhyloChip data with other complementary methods provides an unprecedented understanding of the microbial diversity and community structure of terrestrial Antarctic habitats.

  7. Occurrence of bound 3-monochloropropan-1,2-diol content in commonly consumed foods in Hong Kong analysed by enzymatic hydrolysis and GC-MS detection.

    PubMed

    Chung, Stephen W C; Chan, Benny T P; Chung, H Y; Xiao, Ying; Ho, Y Y

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the level of bound 3-monochloropropan-1,2-diol in foodstuffs commonly consumed in Hong Kong, China, by an enzymatic hydrolysis indirect method which proved to be free from interferences. A total of 290 samples were picked up randomly from the local market and analysed. About 73% of these samples were found to contain detectable amounts of bound 3-MCPD. Amongst the 73 food items, bound 3-MCPD was not detected in 13 food items, including extra virgin olive oil, beef ball/salami, beef flank, ham/Chinese ham, nuts, seeds, soy sauce, oyster sauce, butter, yoghurt, cream, cheese and milk. For those found to contain detectable bound 3-MCPD, the content ranged up to 2500 µg kg(-1). The highest mean bound 3-MCPD content among the 14 food groups was in biscuits (440 [50-860] µg kg(-1)), followed by fats and oils (390 [n.d.-2500] µg kg(-1)), snacks (270 [9-1000] µg kg(-1)), and Chinese pastry (270 [n.d.-1200] µg kg(-1)). Among the samples, the highest bound 3-MCPD content was in a grape seed oil (2500 µg kg(-1)), followed by a walnut flaky pastry (1200 µg kg(-1)) and a grilled corn (1000 µg kg(-1)). Basically, the results of this study agreed well with other published results in peer-reviewed journals, except for cheese, cream, ham, nuts and seeds. PMID:23819821

  8. Kinetic and thermodynamic analyses of spontaneous exchange between high-density lipoprotein-bound and lipid-free apolipoprotein A-I.

    PubMed

    Handa, Daisuke; Kimura, Hitoshi; Oka, Tatsuya; Takechi, Yuki; Okuhira, Keiichiro; Phillips, Michael C; Saito, Hiroyuki

    2015-02-01

    It is thought that apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) spontaneously exchanges between high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-bound and lipid-free states, which is relevant to the occurrence of preβ-HDL particles in plasma. To improve our understanding of the mechanistic basis for this phenomenon, we performed kinetic and thermodynamic analyses for apoA-I exchange between discoidal HDL-bound and lipid-free forms using fluorescence-labeled apoA-I variants. Gel filtration experiments demonstrated that addition of excess lipid-free apoA-I to discoidal HDL particles promotes exchange of apoA-I between HDL-associated and lipid-free pools without alteration of the steady-state HDL particle size. Kinetic analysis of time-dependent changes in NBD fluorescence upon the transition of NBD-labeled apoA-I from HDL-bound to lipid-free state indicates that the exchange kinetics are independent of the collision frequency between HDL-bound and lipid-free apoA-I, in which the lipid binding ability of apoA-I affects the rate of association of lipid-free apoA-I with the HDL particles and not the rate of dissociation of HDL-bound apoA-I. Thus, C-terminal truncations or mutations that reduce the lipid binding affinity of apoA-I strongly impair the transition of lipid-free apoA-I to the HDL-bound state. Thermodynamic analysis of the exchange kinetics demonstrated that the apoA-I exchange process is enthalpically unfavorable but entropically favorable. These results explain the thermodynamic basis of the spontaneous exchange reaction of apoA-I associated with HDL particles. The altered exchangeability of dysfunctional apoA-I would affect HDL particle rearrangement, leading to perturbed HDL metabolism.

  9. NMR analyses of the conformations of L-isoleucine and L-valine bound to Escherichia coli isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Kohda, D.; Kawai, G.; Yokoyama, S.; Kawakami, M.; Mizushima, S.; Miyazawa, T.

    1987-10-06

    The 400-MHz /sup 1/H NMR spectra of L-isoleucine and L-valine were measured in the presence of Escherichia coli isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IleRS). Because of chemical exchange of L-isoleucine or L-valine between the free state and the IleRS-bound state, a transferred nuclear Overhauser effect (TRNOE) was observed among proton resonances of L-isoleucine or L-valine. However, in the presence of isoleucyl adenylate tightly bound to the amino acid activation site of IleRS, no TRNOE for L-isoleucine or L-valine was observed. This indicates that the observed TRNOE is due to the interaction of L-isoleucine or L-valine with the amino acid activation site of IleRS. The conformations of these amino acids in the amino acid activation site of IleRS were determined by the analyses of time dependences of TRNOEs and TRNOE action spectra. The IleRS-bound L-isoleucine takes the gauche/sup +/ form about the C/sub ..cap alpha../-C/sub ..beta../ bond and the trans form about the C/sub ..beta../-C/sub ..gamma../sub 1// bond. The IleRS-bound L-valine takes the guache/sup -/ form about the C/sub ..cap alpha../-C/sub ..beta../ bond. Thus, the conformation of the IleRS-bound L-valine is the same as that of IleRS-bound L-isoleucine except for the delta-methyl group. The side chain of L-isoleucine or L-valine lies in an aliphatic hydrophobic pocket of the active site of IleRS. Such hydrophobic interaction with IleRS is more significant for L-isoleucine than for L-valine. The TRNOE analysis is useful for studying the amino acid discrimination mechanism of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases.

  10. Environmental monitoring and assessment program (EMAP) laboratory methods manual estuaries. Volume 1. Biological and physical analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Strobel, C.J.; Klemm, D.J.; Lobring, L.B.; Eichelberger, J.W.; Alford-Stevens, A.

    1995-08-01

    This document is intended to document analytical methods for use by laboratories conducting analyses for the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program-Estuaries. This document is volume I of a two-part series. The second volume of the EMAP-Estuaries Laboratory Methods Manual presents methods for the chemical analyses of sediments and tissue.

  11. Update of Environmental and Safety Analyses for the National Ignition Facility: Using a New Model to Track Target Material Usage

    SciTech Connect

    Gillich, D; Tobin, M; Singh, M; Kalantar, D; Brereton, S; MacGowan, B

    2001-08-03

    The purpose of this paper is to report the methodology and assumptions, data, and results of calculations concerning safety and environmental issues related to excursions to currently planned NIF operations. Many possible uses of NIF have been suggested over the years. While some of these possible uses have been adopted into the baseline plans for NIF, many others have not. While we do not yet know all of the possible approved uses for NIF, one of the items that would bear on whether a certain course use might be adopted or not would be its environmental and safety impact. Here we examine certain excursions from the existing planned operations to determine their environmental and safety impacts. These excursions are related to the use of ''cocktail'' hohlraums as the baseline target for ignition experiments in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) as well as possible increased utilization of beryllium and uranium. This paper also addresses the fission products produced from cocktail hohlraum use for high yield experiments. Again, this analyses does not imply an authorization to proceed with such modes of operation, or any intent to proceed beyond this analyses. A detailed analysis of a range of postulated experiments for NIF was conducted for the years 2003 through 2011. The goal was to quantify the amount of target material introduced into the target bay per year. The assumptions outlined in this paper are based on the worst-case scenario from an environmental perspective. A spreadsheet was developed to integrate all the gathered information and to calculate the total amount of materials per year. The spreadsheet was also designed as a tool for future analyses. The total amount of material was used to justify and establish a proposed upper bound for the amount of beryllium and uranium introduced into the target bay in a given year. The cocktail hohlraum and associated appendages were modeled with the neutron transport code TART98 to determine neutron fluxes within

  12. Performing Analyses for Waterborne Bacteria. Module 13. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on performing analyses for waterborne bacteria. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) naming, sterilizing and…

  13. Benefits and applications of interdisciplinary digital tools for environmental meta-reviews and analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubert, Emily; Siders, Anne

    2016-09-01

    Digitally-aided reviews of large bodies of text-based information, such as academic literature, are growing in capability but are not yet common in environmental fields. Environmental sciences and studies can benefit from application of digital tools to create comprehensive, replicable, interdisciplinary reviews that provide rapid, up-to-date, and policy-relevant reports of existing work. This work reviews the potential for applications of computational text mining and analysis tools originating in the humanities to environmental science and policy questions. Two process-oriented case studies of digitally-aided environmental literature reviews and meta-analyses illustrate potential benefits and limitations. A medium-sized, medium-resolution review (∼8000 journal abstracts and titles) focuses on topic modeling as a rapid way to identify thematic changes over time. A small, high-resolution review (∼300 full text journal articles) combines collocation and network analysis with manual coding to synthesize and question empirical field work. We note that even small digitally-aided analyses are close to the upper limit of what can be done manually. Established computational methods developed in humanities disciplines and refined by humanities and social science scholars to interrogate large bodies of textual data are applicable and useful in environmental sciences but have not yet been widely applied. Two case studies provide evidence that digital tools can enhance insight. Two major conclusions emerge. First, digital tools enable scholars to engage large literatures rapidly and, in some cases, more comprehensively than is possible manually. Digital tools can confirm manually identified patterns or identify additional patterns visible only at a large scale. Second, digital tools allow for more replicable and transparent conclusions to be drawn from literature reviews and meta-analyses. The methodological subfields of digital humanities and computational social

  14. Safety Analyses at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Test Reactor Area - Past to Present

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosek, Richard Garry; Ingram, Frederick William

    1999-11-01

    Test reactors are unique in that the core configuration may change with each operating interval. The process of safety analyses for test reactors at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Test Reactor Area has evolved as the computing capabilities, software, and regulatory requirements have changed. The evaluations for experiments and the reactor have moved from measurements in a set configuration and then application to other configurations with a relatively large error to modeling in three-dimensions and explicit analyses for each experiment and operating interval. This evolution is briefly discussed for the Test Reactor Area.

  15. Compilation of Quality Assurance Documentation for Analyses Performed for the Resumption of Transient Testing Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Annette L. Schafer; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2013-11-01

    This is a companion document to the analyses performed in support of the environmental assessment for the Resumption of Transient Fuels and Materials Testing. It is provided to allow transparency of the supporting calculations. It provides computer code input and output. The basis for the calculations is documented separately in INL (2013) and is referenced, as appropriate. Spreadsheets used to manipulate the code output are not provided.

  16. Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFRs). 3. Free versus Bound Hydroxyl Radicals in EPFR Aqueous Solutions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Additional experimental evidence is presented for in vitro generation of hydroxyl radicals because of redox cycling of environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) produced after adsorption of 2-monochlorophenol at 230 °C (2-MCP-230) on copper oxide supported by silica, 5% Cu(II)O/silica (3.9% Cu). A chemical spin trapping agent, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO), in conjunction with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was employed. Experiments in spiked O17 water have shown that ∼15% of hydroxyl radicals formed as a result of redox cycling. This amount of hydroxyl radicals arises from an exogenous Fenton reaction and may stay either partially trapped on the surface of particulate matter (physisorbed or chemisorbed) or transferred into solution as free OH. Computational work confirms the highly stable nature of the DMPO–OH adduct, as an intermediate produced by interaction of DMPO with physisorbed/chemisorbed OH (at the interface of solid catalyst/solution). All reaction pathways have been supported by ab initio calculations. PMID:25036238

  17. Artic and subarctic environmental analyses utilizing ERTS-1 imagery. Cold regions environmental analysis based on ERTS-1 imagery (preprint)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. M. (Principal Investigator); Haugen, R. K.; Gatto, L. W.; Slaughter, C. W.; Marlar, T. L.; Mckim, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. An overriding problem in arctic and subarctic environmental research has been the absence of long-term observational data and the sparseness of geographical coverage of existing data. A first look report is presented on the use of ERTS-1 imagery as a major tool in two large area environmental studies: (1) investigation of sedimentation and other nearshore marine processes in Cook Inlet, Alaska; and (2) a regional study of permafrost regimes in the discontinuous permafrost zone of Alaska. These studies incorporate ground truth acquisition techniques that are probably similar to most ERTS investigations. Studies of oceanographic processes in Cook Inlet will be focused on seasonal changes in nearshore bathymetry, tidal and major current circulation patterns, and coastal sedimentation processes, applicable to navigation, construction, and maintenance of harbors. Analyses will be made of the regional permafrost distribution and regimes in the Upper Koyukuk-Kobuk River area located in NW Alaska.

  18. Microwave power transmission system studies. Volume 2: Introduction, organization, environmental and spaceborne systems analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, O. E.; Brown, W. C.; Edwards, A.; Haley, J. T.; Meltz, G.; Howell, J. M.; Nathan, A.

    1975-01-01

    Introduction, organization, analyses, conclusions, and recommendations for each of the spaceborne subsystems are presented. Environmental effects - propagation analyses are presented with appendices covering radio wave diffraction by random ionospheric irregularities, self-focusing plasma instabilities and ohmic heating of the D-region. Analyses of dc to rf conversion subsystems and system considerations for both the amplitron and the klystron are included with appendices for the klystron covering cavity circuit calculations, output power of the solenoid-focused klystron, thermal control system, and confined flow focusing of a relativistic beam. The photovoltaic power source characteristics are discussed as they apply to interfacing with the power distribution flow paths, magnetic field interaction, dc to rf converter protection, power distribution including estimates for the power budget, weights, and costs. Analyses for the transmitting antenna consider the aperture illumination and size, with associated efficiencies and ground power distributions. Analyses of subarray types and dimensions, attitude error, flatness, phase error, subarray layout, frequency tolerance, attenuation, waveguide dimensional tolerances, mechanical including thermal considerations are included. Implications associated with transportation, assembly and packaging, attitude control and alignment are discussed. The phase front control subsystem, including both ground based pilot signal driven adaptive and ground command approaches with their associated phase errors, are analyzed.

  19. Time series analyses reveal environmental and fisheries controls on Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) catch rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Time-series models (Dynamic factorial analyses and; Min/max autocorrelation factor analysis) were used to explore the relative influences of environmental variables and fishing pressure of trawl, seine and artisanal fleets on catch rates on Trachurus trachurus in ICES IXa sub-divisions (IXaCN-North coast; IXa- CS-South coast; IXaS-Algarve, South coast, Algarve). Fishing effort influenced catch rates in all areas with a 2 year lag and fishing pressure for each area was related to specific fleet sectors effort. In IXaCN, winter upwelling (spawning peak) and both summer northerly wind and wind magnitude (outside of the spawning peak) were strongly correlated with catch rates. In IXaCS summer/autumn westerly winds were related with catch rates. Northerly winds in spring, upwelling and SST (winter and autumn) were related with catch rates in IXaS-Algarve. For species with a long spawning season such as horse mackerel, seasonal analyses at broad regional scales can detract from a better understanding of variability in short term sub-stock catch rates. Favorable environmental conditions, even during seasons with low spawning activity can positively affect catch rates. Ignoring the role of regional oceanographic features on the spatial distribution of the sub-stocks when analysing variability in catch rates can lead to poor inferences about the productivity of the populations.

  20. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses Plan. Draft for Peer Review: Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.C.; Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.

    1993-04-01

    Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff are developing mathematical models to be used to estimate the radiation dose that individuals may have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. An uncertainty and sensitivity analyses plan is essential to understand and interpret the predictions from these mathematical models. This is especially true in the case of the HEDR models where the values of many parameters are unknown. This plan gives a thorough documentation of the uncertainty and hierarchical sensitivity analysis methods recommended for use on all HEDR mathematical models. The documentation includes both technical definitions and examples. In addition, an extensive demonstration of the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis process is provided using actual results from the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Codes (HEDRIC). This demonstration shows how the approaches used in the recommended plan can be adapted for all dose predictions in the HEDR Project.

  1. Near-global freshwater-specific environmental variables for biodiversity analyses in 1 km resolution.

    PubMed

    Domisch, Sami; Amatulli, Giuseppe; Jetz, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The lack of freshwater-specific environmental information at sufficiently fine spatial grain hampers broad-scale analyses in aquatic biology, biogeography, conservation, and ecology. Here we present a near-global, spatially continuous, and freshwater-specific set of environmental variables in a standardized 1 km grid. We delineate the sub-catchment for each grid cell along the HydroSHEDS river network and summarize the upstream climate, topography, land cover, surface geology and soil to each grid cell using various metrics (average, minimum, maximum, range, sum, inverse distance-weighted average and sum). All variables were subsequently averaged across single lakes and reservoirs of the Global lakes and Wetlands Database that are connected to the river network. Monthly climate variables were summarized into 19 long-term climatic variables following the 'bioclim' framework. This new set of variables provides a basis for spatial ecological and biodiversity analyses in freshwater ecosystems at near global extent, yet fine spatial grain. To facilitate the generation of freshwater variables for custom study areas and spatial grains, we provide the 'r.stream.watersheds' and 'r.stream.variables' add-ons for the GRASS GIS software. PMID:26647296

  2. Near-global freshwater-specific environmental variables for biodiversity analyses in 1 km resolution.

    PubMed

    Domisch, Sami; Amatulli, Giuseppe; Jetz, Walter

    2015-12-08

    The lack of freshwater-specific environmental information at sufficiently fine spatial grain hampers broad-scale analyses in aquatic biology, biogeography, conservation, and ecology. Here we present a near-global, spatially continuous, and freshwater-specific set of environmental variables in a standardized 1 km grid. We delineate the sub-catchment for each grid cell along the HydroSHEDS river network and summarize the upstream climate, topography, land cover, surface geology and soil to each grid cell using various metrics (average, minimum, maximum, range, sum, inverse distance-weighted average and sum). All variables were subsequently averaged across single lakes and reservoirs of the Global lakes and Wetlands Database that are connected to the river network. Monthly climate variables were summarized into 19 long-term climatic variables following the 'bioclim' framework. This new set of variables provides a basis for spatial ecological and biodiversity analyses in freshwater ecosystems at near global extent, yet fine spatial grain. To facilitate the generation of freshwater variables for custom study areas and spatial grains, we provide the 'r.stream.watersheds' and 'r.stream.variables' add-ons for the GRASS GIS software.

  3. Bounding species distribution models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Jarnevich, C.S.; Esaias, W.E.; Morisette, J.T.

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used. ?? 2011 Current Zoology.

  4. Bounding Species Distribution Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].

  5. Physical Uncertainty Bounds (PUB)

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, Diane Elizabeth; Preston, Dean L.

    2015-03-19

    This paper introduces and motivates the need for a new methodology for determining upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulations of engineered systems due to limited fidelity in the composite continuum-level physics models needed to simulate the systems. We show that traditional uncertainty quantification methods provide, at best, a lower bound on this uncertainty. We propose to obtain bounds on the simulation uncertainties by first determining bounds on the physical quantities or processes relevant to system performance. By bounding these physics processes, as opposed to carrying out statistical analyses of the parameter sets of specific physics models or simply switching out the available physics models, one can obtain upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulated quantities of interest.

  6. Novel laser atomic fluorescence spectrometer for environmental and biomedical analyses of heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dergachev, Alex Y.; Mirov, Sergey B.; Pitt, Robert E.; Parmer, Keith D.

    1997-05-01

    We report on the development of a novel experimental set-up using laser atomic fluorescence for detection and concentration measurements of heavy metal atoms for environmental and biomedical analyses. This spectrometer is based on the application of tunable LiF:F2+** and LiF:F2- color center and alexandrite lasers with nonlinear converters for narrowband excitation of atomic fluorescence and the use of gated multichannel CCD detectors for fluorescence measurements. A standard graphite furnace module was used for sample atomization. The laser sources used provide narrowband selective laser excitation continuously tunable in the 200 - 400 nm range and are therefore suitable for resonant excitation of atomic transitions in practically all known heavy metal atoms. In the first experiments, water samples containing Cu, Pb and Fe impurities were studied and detection levels of less than 1 ppb were observed. Comparison of the results of atomic laser fluorescence analysis and traditional atomic absorption spectrometry showed good qualitative agreement between these two methods. It is projected that full optimization of our experimental set up will allow for improved detection levels of several orders of magnitude. Possible optimization and simplification of the spectrometer are discussed in the context of developing a portable instrument for field use.

  7. 29 CFR 11.11 - Development of environmental analyses and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... topic for potential action is submitted to the agency staff for research, proposal development, or other... begin preparation of such a document by initiating the scoping process in accordance with 40 CFR 1501.7... preparation of an environmental impact statement” (40 CFR 1508.14). Thus in making environmental...

  8. 29 CFR 11.11 - Development of environmental analyses and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... topic for potential action is submitted to the agency staff for research, proposal development, or other... begin preparation of such a document by initiating the scoping process in accordance with 40 CFR 1501.7... preparation of an environmental impact statement” (40 CFR 1508.14). Thus in making environmental...

  9. 29 CFR 11.11 - Development of environmental analyses and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... topic for potential action is submitted to the agency staff for research, proposal development, or other... begin preparation of such a document by initiating the scoping process in accordance with 40 CFR 1501.7... preparation of an environmental impact statement” (40 CFR 1508.14). Thus in making environmental...

  10. 29 CFR 11.11 - Development of environmental analyses and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... topic for potential action is submitted to the agency staff for research, proposal development, or other... begin preparation of such a document by initiating the scoping process in accordance with 40 CFR 1501.7... preparation of an environmental impact statement” (40 CFR 1508.14). Thus in making environmental...

  11. The Agricultural Policy/Environmental Extender (Apex) Model: An Emerging Tool for Landscape and Watershed Environmental Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Gassman, Philip W.; Williams, Jimmy R.; Wang, Xiuying; Saleh, Ali; Osei, Edward; Hauck, Larry; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Flowers, Joan

    2010-06-01

    The Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) model was developed by the Blacklands Research and Extension Center in Temple, Texas. APEX is a flexible and dynamic tool that is capable of simulating a wide array of management practices, cropping systems, and other land uses across a broad range of agricultural landscapes, including whole farms and small watersheds.

  12. Impacts Analyses Supporting the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Annette L. Schafer; Lloyd C. Brown; David C. Carathers; Boyd D. Christensen; James J. Dahl; Mark L. Miller; Cathy Ottinger Farnum; Steven Peterson; A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Peter V. Subaiya; Daniel M. Wachs; Ruth F. Weiner

    2013-11-01

    Environmental and health impacts are presented for activities associated with transient testing of nuclear fuel and material using two candidate test reactors. Transient testing involves irradiation of nuclear fuel or materials for short time-periods under high neutron flux rates. The transient testing process includes transportation of nuclear fuel or materials inside a robust shipping cask to a hot cell, removal from the shipping cask, pre-irradiation examination of the nuclear materials, assembly of an experiment assembly, transportation of the experiment assembly to the test reactor, irradiation in the test reactor, transport back to the hot cell, and post-irradiation examination of the nuclear fuel or material. The potential for environmental or health consequences during the transportation, examination, and irradiation actions are assessed for normal operations, off-normal (accident) scenarios, and transportation. Impacts to the environment (air, soil, and groundwater), are assessed during each phase of the transient testing process. This report documents the evaluation of potential consequences to the general public. This document supports the Environmental Assessment (EA) required by the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) (42 USC Subsection 4321 et seq.).

  13. Modeling aeolian transport of soil-bound plutonium: considering infrequent but normal environmental disturbances is critical in estimating future dose.

    PubMed

    Michelotti, Erika A; Whicker, Jeffrey J; Eisele, William F; Breshears, David D; Kirchner, Thomas B

    2013-06-01

    Dose assessments typically consider environmental systems as static through time, but environmental disturbances such as drought and fire are normal, albeit infrequent, events that can impact dose-influential attributes of many environmental systems. These phenomena occur over time frames of decades or longer, and are likely to be exacerbated under projected warmer, drier climate. As with other types of dose assessment, the impacts of environmental disturbances are often overlooked when evaluating dose from aeolian transport of radionuclides and other contaminants. Especially lacking are predictions that account for potential changing vegetation cover effects on radionuclide transport over the long time frames required by regulations. A recently developed dynamic wind-transport model that included vegetation succession and environmental disturbance provides more realistic long-term predictability. This study utilized the model to estimate emission rates for aeolian transport, and compare atmospheric dispersion and deposition rates of airborne plutonium-contaminated soil into neighboring areas with and without environmental disturbances. Specifically, the objective of this study was to utilize the model results as input for a widely used dose assessment model (CAP-88). Our case study focused on low levels of residual plutonium found in soils from past operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), in Los Alamos, NM, located in the semiarid southwestern USA. Calculations were conducted for different disturbance scenarios based on conditions associated with current climate, and a potential future drier and warmer climate. Known soil and sediment concentrations of plutonium were used to model dispersal and deposition of windblown residual plutonium, as a function of distance and direction. Environmental disturbances that affected vegetation cover included ground fire, crown fire, and drought, with reoccurrence rates for current climate based on site historical

  14. Special environmental control and life support equipment test analyses and hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, David M.

    1995-01-01

    This final report summarizes NAS8-38250 contract events, 'Special Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Test Analysis and Hardware'. This report is technical and includes programmatic development. Key to the success of this contract was the evaluation of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) test results via sophisticated laboratory analysis capabilities. The history of the contract, including all subcontracts, is followed by the support and development of each Task.

  15. Mitigation of environmental problems in Lake Victoria, East Africa: causal chain and policy options analyses.

    PubMed

    Odada, Eric O; Olago, Daniel O; Kulindwa, Kassim; Ntiba, Micheni; Wandiga, Shem

    2004-02-01

    Lake Victoria is an international waterbody that offers the riparian communities a large number of extremely important environmental services. Over the past three decades or so, the lake has come under increasing and considerable pressure from a variety of interlinked human activities such as overfishing, species introductions, industrial pollution, eutrophication, and sedimentation. In this paper we examine the root causes for overfishing and pollution in Lake Victoria and give possible policy options that can help remediate or mitigate the environmental degradation. PMID:15083646

  16. Enantioseparation of chiral pharmaceuticals in biomedical and environmental analyses by liquid chromatography: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana R; Maia, Alexandra S; Cass, Quezia B; Tiritan, Maria E

    2014-10-01

    This review aims to present the issues associated to enantioseparation of chiral pharmaceuticals in biological and environmental matrices using chiral stationary phases (CSP). Thus, it related some enantioselective methods in liquid chromatography (LC) and compares the importance given to chiral separation in biomedical and environmental fields. For that the most used CSP, the enantioselective chromatographic methods, their advantages and drawbacks were swiftly revised and compared. The recent advances and the limitations of chiral analytical methods in LC were also discussed.

  17. Mitigation of environmental problems in Lake Victoria, East Africa: causal chain and policy options analyses.

    PubMed

    Odada, Eric O; Olago, Daniel O; Kulindwa, Kassim; Ntiba, Micheni; Wandiga, Shem

    2004-02-01

    Lake Victoria is an international waterbody that offers the riparian communities a large number of extremely important environmental services. Over the past three decades or so, the lake has come under increasing and considerable pressure from a variety of interlinked human activities such as overfishing, species introductions, industrial pollution, eutrophication, and sedimentation. In this paper we examine the root causes for overfishing and pollution in Lake Victoria and give possible policy options that can help remediate or mitigate the environmental degradation.

  18. Environmental and economic analyses of waste disposal options for traditional markets in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Aye, Lu . E-mail: lua@unimelb.edu.au; Widjaya, E.R.

    2006-07-01

    Waste from traditional markets in Indonesia is the second largest stream of municipal solid waste after household waste. It has a higher organic fraction and may have greater potential to be managed on a business scale compared to household wastes. The attributed reason is that in general the wastes generated from traditional markets are more uniform, more concentrated and less hazardous than waste from other sources. This paper presents the results of environmental and economic assessments to compare the options available for traditional market waste disposal in Indonesia. The options compared were composting in labour intensive plants, composting in a centralised plant that utilised a simple wheel loader, centralised biogas production and landfill for electricity production. The current open dumping practice was included as the baseline case. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was used for environmental analysis. All options compared have lower environmental impacts than the current practice of open dumping. The biogas production option has the lowest environmental impacts. A cost-benefit analysis, which considered greenhouse gas savings, was used for the economic assessment. It was found that composting at a centralised plant is the most economically feasible option under the present Indonesian conditions. The approach reported in this study could be applied for 'a pre-feasibility first cut comparison' that includes environmental aspects in a decision-making framework for developing countries even though European emission factors were used.

  19. Implementation of a laboratory information management system for environmental regulatory analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, W.A.; Aiken, H.B.; Spatz, T.L.; Miles, W.F.; Griffin, J.C.

    1993-09-07

    The Savannah River Technology Center created a second instance of its ORACLE based PEN LIMS to support site Environmental Restoration projects. The first instance of the database had been optimized for R&D support and did not implement rigorous sample tracking, verification, and holding times needed to support regulatory commitments. Much of the R&D instance was transferable such as the work control functions for backlog reports, work assignment sheets, and hazard communication support. A major enhancement of the regulatory LIMS was the addition of features to support a {open_quotes}standardized{close_quotes} electronic data format for environmental data reporting. The electronic format, called {open_quotes}AN92{close_quotes}, was developed by the site environmental monitoring organization and applies to both onsite and offsite environmental analytical contracts. This format incorporates EPA CLP data validation codes as well as details holding time and analytical result reporting requirements. The authors support this format by using special SQL queries to the database. The data is then automatically transferred to the environmental databases for trending and geological mapping.

  20. Environmental and economic analyses of waste disposal options for traditional markets in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Aye, Lu; Widjaya, E R

    2006-01-01

    Waste from traditional markets in Indonesia is the second largest stream of municipal solid waste after household waste. It has a higher organic fraction and may have greater potential to be managed on a business scale compared to household wastes. The attributed reason is that in general the wastes generated from traditional markets are more uniform, more concentrated and less hazardous than waste from other sources. This paper presents the results of environmental and economic assessments to compare the options available for traditional market waste disposal in Indonesia. The options compared were composting in labour intensive plants, composting in a centralised plant that utilised a simple wheel loader, centralised biogas production and landfill for electricity production. The current open dumping practice was included as the baseline case. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was used for environmental analysis. All options compared have lower environmental impacts than the current practice of open dumping. The biogas production option has the lowest environmental impacts. A cost-benefit analysis, which considered greenhouse gas savings, was used for the economic assessment. It was found that composting at a centralised plant is the most economically feasible option under the present Indonesian conditions. The approach reported in this study could be applied for 'a pre-feasibility first cut comparison' that includes environmental aspects in a decision-making framework for developing countries even though European emission factors were used.

  1. Environmental and economic analyses of waste disposal options for traditional markets in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Aye, Lu; Widjaya, E R

    2006-01-01

    Waste from traditional markets in Indonesia is the second largest stream of municipal solid waste after household waste. It has a higher organic fraction and may have greater potential to be managed on a business scale compared to household wastes. The attributed reason is that in general the wastes generated from traditional markets are more uniform, more concentrated and less hazardous than waste from other sources. This paper presents the results of environmental and economic assessments to compare the options available for traditional market waste disposal in Indonesia. The options compared were composting in labour intensive plants, composting in a centralised plant that utilised a simple wheel loader, centralised biogas production and landfill for electricity production. The current open dumping practice was included as the baseline case. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was used for environmental analysis. All options compared have lower environmental impacts than the current practice of open dumping. The biogas production option has the lowest environmental impacts. A cost-benefit analysis, which considered greenhouse gas savings, was used for the economic assessment. It was found that composting at a centralised plant is the most economically feasible option under the present Indonesian conditions. The approach reported in this study could be applied for 'a pre-feasibility first cut comparison' that includes environmental aspects in a decision-making framework for developing countries even though European emission factors were used. PMID:16288859

  2. Performing Titration Analyses for Water Quality. Module 17. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on performing titration analysis for water quality. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) naming each part of…

  3. METHODS TO CLASSIFY ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES BASED ON MOLD ANALYSES BY QPCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative PCR (QPCR) analysis of molds in indoor environmental samples produces highly accurate speciation and enumeration data. In a number of studies, eighty of the most common or potentially problematic indoor molds were identified and quantified in dust samples from homes...

  4. A new hierarchical Bayesian approach to analyse environmental and climatic influences on debris flow occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jomelli, Vincent; Pavlova, Irina; Eckert, Nicolas; Grancher, Delphine; Brunstein, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    How can debris flow occurrences be modelled at regional scale and take both environmental and climatic conditions into account? And, of the two, which has the most influence on debris flow activity? In this paper, we try to answer these questions with an innovative Bayesian hierarchical probabilistic model that simultaneously accounts for how debris flows respond to environmental and climatic variables. In it, full decomposition of space and time effects in occurrence probabilities is assumed, revealing an environmental and a climatic trend shared by all years/catchments, respectively, clearly distinguished from residual "random" effects. The resulting regional and annual occurrence probabilities evaluated as functions of the covariates make it possible to weight the respective contribution of the different terms and, more generally, to check the model performances at different spatio-temporal scales. After suitable validation, the model can be used to make predictions at undocumented sites and could be used in further studies for predictions under future climate conditions. Also, the Bayesian paradigm easily copes with missing data, thus making it possible to account for events that may have been missed during surveys. As a case study, we extract 124 debris flow event triggered between 1970 and 2005 in 27 catchments located in the French Alps from the French national natural hazard survey and model their variability of occurrence considering environmental and climatic predictors at the same time. We document the environmental characteristics of each debris flow catchment (morphometry, lithology, land cover, and the presence of permafrost). We also compute 15 climate variables including mean temperature and precipitation between May and October and the number of rainy days with daily cumulative rainfall greater than 10/15/20/25/30/40 mm day- 1. Application of our model shows that the combination of environmental and climatic predictors explained 77% of the overall

  5. The environmental impacts of windpower development in Vermont: A policy analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, N.

    1997-12-31

    In the spring of 1996, construction of a six-megawatt wind power facility commenced on a mountain ridge in the town of Searsburgh in southern Vermont. While this process marked the beginning of physical development on the ridge, Green Mountain Power Corporation (GMP) had been planning the process for over 25 years. From wind speed data collection in 1971, to site selection, and environmental studies still ongoing, GMP has sought to increase their renewable energy portfolio by bringing wind power to the state of Vermont. While on the surface, wind power appears to be relatively pollution free, producing no emissions, it should be noted that there are environmental impacts associated with wind power and these would have to be addressed before any substantial development could occur. But how would this happen in Vermont? Power generating facilities are not subject to the Act 250 process; rather they require certification from the Public Service Board (P.S.B.). As the project progressed, questions arose over just how the process would adequately address the environmental impacts associated with developing a remote ridge in southern Vermont. In preparing for and participating in the certification process, GMP identified several environmental impact issues in need of investigation. GMP initiated studies in several fields and hired consultants to investigate these issues with the hope that they would not serve as an impediment to their project. Preliminary analysis revealed the need for in-depth studies in four specific impact areas, including aesthetics, critical wildlife habitat, noise and avian studies. While all participants in the process do not share the same concerns, different stakeholders have raised enough questions to justify a critical look at the certification process.

  6. Framing Scientific Analyses for Risk Management of Environmental Hazards by Communities: Case Studies with Seafood Safety Issues

    PubMed Central

    Judd, Nancy L.; Drew, Christina H.; Acharya, Chetana; Mitchell, Todd A.; Donatuto, Jamie L.; Burns, Gary W.; Burbacher, Thomas M.; Faustman, Elaine M.

    2005-01-01

    Risk management provides a context for addressing environmental health hazards. Critical to this approach is the identification of key opportunities for participation. We applied a framework based on the National Research Council’s (NRC) analytic–deliberative risk management dialogue model that illustrates two main iterative processes: informing and framing. The informing process involves conveying information from analyses of risk issues, often scientific, to all parties so they can participate in deliberation. In the framing process, ideas and concerns from stakeholder deliberations help determine what and how scientific analyses will be carried out. There are few activities through which affected parties can convey their ideas from deliberative processes for framing scientific analyses. The absence of participation results in one-way communication. The analytic–deliberative dialogue, as envisioned by the NRC and promoted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), underscores the importance of two-way communication. In this article we present case studies of three groups—an Asian and Pacific Islander community coalition and two Native American Tribes—active in framing scientific analyses of health risks related to contaminated seafood. Contacts with these organizations were established or enhanced through a regional NIEHS town meeting. The reasons for concern, participation, approaches, and funding sources were different for each group. Benefits from their activities include increased community involvement and ownership, better focusing of analytical processes, and improved accuracy and appropriateness of risk management. These examples present a spectrum of options for increasing community involvement in framing analyses and highlight the need for increased support of such activities. PMID:16263503

  7. Outward Bound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Outward Bound, Inc., Andover, MA.

    The Outward Bound concept was developed in Germany and Great Britain with the saving of human life as the ultimate goal. Courses are designed to help students discover their true physical and mental limits through development of skills including emergency medical aid, firefighting, search and rescue, mountaineering, and sailing. Five Outward Bound…

  8. Hanford Environmental Monitoring Program schedule for samples, analyses, and measurements for calendar year 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Blumer, P.J.; Price, K.R.; Eddy, P.A.; Carlile, J.M.V.

    1984-12-01

    This report provides the CY 1985 schedule of data collection for the routine Hanford Surface Environmental Monitoring and Ground-Water Monitoring Programs at the Hanford Site. The purpose is to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5484.1. The routine sampling schedule provided herein does not include samples scheduled to be collected during FY 1985 in support of special studies, special contractor support programs, or for quality control purposes. In addition, the routine program outlined in this schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in site operations, program requirements, or unusual sample results.

  9. Low-rank coal study. Volume 4. Regulatory, environmental, and market analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The regulatory, environmental, and market constraints to development of US low-rank coal resources are analyzed. Government-imposed environmental and regulatory requirements are among the most important factors that determine the markets for low-rank coal and the technology used in the extraction, delivery, and utilization systems. Both state and federal controls are examined, in light of available data on impacts and effluents associated with major low-rank coal development efforts. The market analysis examines both the penetration of existing markets by low-rank coal and the evolution of potential markets in the future. The electric utility industry consumes about 99 percent of the total low-rank coal production. This use in utility boilers rose dramatically in the 1970's and is expected to continue to grow rapidly. In the late 1980's and 1990's, industrial direct use of low-rank coal and the production of synthetic fuels are expected to start growing as major new markets.

  10. Applications of commercial biosensors in clinical, food, environmental, and biothreat/biowarfare analyses.

    PubMed

    Bahadır, Elif Burcu; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-06-01

    The lack of specific, low-cost, rapid, sensitive, and easy detection of biomolecules has resulted in the development of biosensor technology. Innovations in biosensor technology have enabled many biosensors to be commercialized and have enabled biomolecules to be detected onsite. Moreover, the emerging technologies of lab-on-a-chip microdevices and nanosensors offer opportunities for the development of new biosensors with much better performance. Biosensors were first introduced into the laboratory by Clark and Lyons. They developed the first glucose biosensor for laboratory conditions. Then in 1973, a glucose biosensor was commercialized by Yellow Springs Instruments. The commercial biosensors have small size and simple construction and they are ideal for point-of-care biosensing. In addition to glucose, a wide variety of metabolites such as lactate, cholesterol, and creatinine can be detected by using commercial biosensors. Like the glucose biosensors (tests) other commercial tests such as for pregnancy (hCG), Escherichia coli O157, influenza A and B viruses, Helicobacter pylori, human immunodeficiency virus, tuberculosis, and malaria have achieved success. Apart from their use in clinical analysis, commercial tests are also used in environmental (such as biochemical oxygen demand, nitrate, pesticide), food (such as glutamate, glutamine, sucrose, lactose, alcohol, ascorbic acid), and biothreat/biowarfare (Bacillus anthracis, Salmonella, Botulinum toxin) analysis. In this review, commercial biosensors in clinical, environmental, food, and biowarfare analysis are summarized and the commercial biosensors are compared in terms of their important characteristics. This is the first review in which all the commercially available tests are compiled together.

  11. Methodology for definition of yellow fever priority areas, based on environmental variables and multiple correspondence analyses.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Eduardo Stramandinoli; Barata, Rita de Cássia Barradas

    2012-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is endemic in much of Brazil, where cases of the disease are reported every year. Since 2008, outbreaks of the disease have occurred in regions of the country where no reports had been registered for decades, which has obligated public health authorities to redefine risk areas for the disease. The aim of the present study was to propose a methodology of environmental risk analysis for defining priority municipalities for YF vaccination, using as example, the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The municipalities were divided into two groups (affected and unaffected by YF) and compared based on environmental parameters related to the disease's eco-epidemiology. Bivariate analysis was used to identify statistically significant associations between the variables and virus circulation. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was used to evaluate the relationship among the variables and their contribution to the dynamics of YF in Sao Paulo. The MCA generated a factor that was able to differentiate between affected and unaffected municipalities and was used to determine risk levels. This methodology can be replicated in other regions, standardized, and adapted to each context.

  12. Functional Analyses of the Plant Photosystem I–Light-Harvesting Complex II Supercomplex Reveal That Light-Harvesting Complex II Loosely Bound to Photosystem II Is a Very Efficient Antenna for Photosystem I in State II[W

    PubMed Central

    Galka, Pierre; Santabarbara, Stefano; Khuong, Thi Thu Huong; Degand, Hervé; Morsomme, Pierre; Jennings, Robert C.; Boekema, Egbert J.; Caffarri, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    State transitions are an important photosynthetic short-term response that allows energy distribution balancing between photosystems I (PSI) and II (PSII). In plants when PSII is preferentially excited compared with PSI (State II), part of the major light-harvesting complex LHCII migrates to PSI to form a PSI-LHCII supercomplex. So far, little is known about this complex, mainly due to purification problems. Here, a stable PSI-LHCII supercomplex is purified from Arabidopsis thaliana and maize (Zea mays) plants. It is demonstrated that LHCIIs loosely bound to PSII in State I are the trimers mainly involved in state transitions and become strongly bound to PSI in State II. Specific Lhcb1-3 isoforms are differently represented in the mobile LHCII compared with S and M trimers. Fluorescence analyses indicate that excitation energy migration from mobile LHCII to PSI is rapid and efficient, and the quantum yield of photochemical conversion of PSI-LHCII is substantially unaffected with respect to PSI, despite a sizable increase of the antenna size. An updated PSI-LHCII structural model suggests that the low-energy chlorophylls 611 and 612 in LHCII interact with the chlorophyll 11145 at the interface of PSI. In contrast with the common opinion, we suggest that the mobile pool of LHCII may be considered an intimate part of the PSI antenna system that is displaced to PSII in State I. PMID:22822202

  13. Discrimination of fluoride and phosphate contamination in central Florida for analyses of environmental effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coker, A. E.; Marshall, R.; Thomson, F.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of the spatial registration of fluoride and phosphate pollution parameters in central Florida by utilizing remote sensing techniques. Multispectral remote sensing data were collected over the area and processed to produce multispectral recognition maps. These processed data were used to map land areas and waters containing concentrations of fluoride and phosphate. Maps showing distribution of affected and unaffected vegetation were produced. In addition, the multispectral data were processed by single band radiometric slicing to produce radiometric maps used to delineate areas of high ultraviolet radiance, which indicates high fluoride concentrations. The multispectral parameter maps and radiometric maps in combination showed distinctive patterns, which are correlated with areas known to be affected by fluoride and phosphate contamination. These remote sensing techniques have the potential for regional use to assess the environmental impact of fluoride and phosphate wastes in central Florida.

  14. Hanford Environmental Restoration data validation process for chemical and radiochemical analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.R.; Bechtold, R.A.; Clark, D.E.; Angelos, K.M.; Winter, S.M.

    1993-10-01

    Detailed procedures for validation of chemical and radiochemical data are used to assure consistent application of validation principles and support a uniform database of quality environmental data. During application of these procedures, it was determined that laboratory data packages were frequently missing certain types of documentation causing subsequent delays in meeting critical milestones in the completion of validation activities. A quality improvement team was assembled to address the problems caused by missing documentation and streamline the entire process. The result was the development of a separate data package verification procedure and revisions to the data validation procedures. This has resulted in a system whereby deficient data packages are immediately identified and corrected prior to validation and revised validation procedures which more closely match the common analytical reporting practices of laboratory service vendors.

  15. Metagenomic analyses of the late Pleistocene permafrost - additional tools for reconstruction of environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivkina, Elizaveta; Petrovskaya, Lada; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana; Krivushin, Kirill; Shmakova, Lyubov; Tutukina, Maria; Meyers, Arthur; Kondrashov, Fyodor

    2016-04-01

    A comparative analysis of the metagenomes from two 30 000-year-old permafrost samples, one of lake-alluvial origin and the other from late Pleistocene Ice Complex sediments, revealed significant differences within microbial communities. The late Pleistocene Ice Complex sediments (which have been characterized by the absence of methane with lower values of redox potential and Fe2+ content) showed a low abundance of methanogenic archaea and enzymes from both the carbon and nitrogen cycles, but a higher abundance of enzymes associated with the sulfur cycle. The metagenomic and geochemical analyses described in the paper provide evidence that the formation of the sampled late Pleistocene Ice Complex sediments likely took place under much more aerobic conditions than lake-alluvial sediments.

  16. Late Quaternary climate and environmental changes in a permafrost section near Igarka, Northern Siberia based on leaf wax analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Imke; Schweri, Lea; Zech, Jana; Tananaev, Nikita; Zech, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Leaf wax biomarkers, such as long chain n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids, and their carbon isotopic composition are a promising tool for reconstructing past climate and environmental changes and gain more and more attention in paleoresearch. Here we present the results of leaf wax analyses from a permafrost outcrop at the left banks of the Yenisei River near the city of Igarka, Northern Russia. Fluvio-glacial sediments are exposed in the lower part of the outcrop and probably date back to ~60 ka. The upper part consist of aeolian sediments deposited since, overprinted by various pedogenetic processes. First results indicate a continuous contribution of deciduous trees to the vegetation during the last glacial. Compound specific deuterium and radiocarbon analyses are in progress in order to investigate changes in paleoclimate and to establish a robust chronology.

  17. Analysing biodiversity and conservation knowledge products to support regional environmental assessments.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Thomas M; Akçakaya, H Resit; Burgess, Neil D; Butchart, Stuart H M; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Hoffmann, Michael; Juffe-Bignoli, Diego; Kingston, Naomi; MacSharry, Brian; Parr, Mike; Perianin, Laurence; Regan, Eugenie C; Rodrigues, Ana S L; Rondinini, Carlo; Shennan-Farpon, Yara; Young, Bruce E

    2016-02-16

    Two processes for regional environmental assessment are currently underway: the Global Environment Outlook (GEO) and Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). Both face constraints of data, time, capacity, and resources. To support these assessments, we disaggregate three global knowledge products according to their regions and subregions. These products are: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Key Biodiversity Areas (specifically Important Bird &Biodiversity Areas [IBAs], and Alliance for Zero Extinction [AZE] sites), and Protected Planet. We present fourteen Data citations: numbers of species occurring and percentages threatened; numbers of endemics and percentages threatened; downscaled Red List Indices for mammals, birds, and amphibians; numbers, mean sizes, and percentage coverages of IBAs and AZE sites; percentage coverage of land and sea by protected areas; and trends in percentages of IBAs and AZE sites wholly covered by protected areas. These data will inform the regional/subregional assessment chapters on the status of biodiversity, drivers of its decline, and institutional responses, and greatly facilitate comparability and consistency between the different regional/subregional assessments.

  18. Quantitative proteomic analyses of mammary organoids reveals distinct signatures after exposure to environmental chemicals.

    PubMed

    Williams, Katherine E; Lemieux, George A; Hassis, Maria E; Olshen, Adam B; Fisher, Susan J; Werb, Zena

    2016-03-01

    Common environmental contaminants such as bisphenols and phthalates and persistent contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls are thought to influence tissue homeostasis and carcinogenesis by acting as disrupters of endocrine function. In this study we investigated the direct effects of exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), mono-n-butyl phthalate (Pht), and polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (PCB153) on the proteome of primary organotypic cultures of the mouse mammary gland. At low-nanomolar doses each of these agents induced distinct effects on the proteomes of these cultures. Although BPA treatment produced effects that were similar to those induced by estradiol, there were some notable differences, including a reduction in the abundance of retinoblastoma-associated protein and increases in the Rho GTPases Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) and cell division cycle protein CDC42. Both Pht and PCB153 induced changes that were distinct from those induced by estrogen, including decreased levels of the transcriptional corepressor C-terminal binding protein 1. Interestingly, the three chemicals appeared to alter the abundance of distinct splice forms of many proteins as well as the abundance of several proteins that regulate RNA splicing. Our combined results indicate that the three classes of chemical have distinct effects on the proteome of normal mouse mammary cultures, some estrogen-like but most estrogen independent, that influence diverse biological processes including apoptosis, cell adhesion, and proliferation.

  19. Analysing biodiversity and conservation knowledge products to support regional environmental assessments.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Thomas M; Akçakaya, H Resit; Burgess, Neil D; Butchart, Stuart H M; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Hoffmann, Michael; Juffe-Bignoli, Diego; Kingston, Naomi; MacSharry, Brian; Parr, Mike; Perianin, Laurence; Regan, Eugenie C; Rodrigues, Ana S L; Rondinini, Carlo; Shennan-Farpon, Yara; Young, Bruce E

    2016-01-01

    Two processes for regional environmental assessment are currently underway: the Global Environment Outlook (GEO) and Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). Both face constraints of data, time, capacity, and resources. To support these assessments, we disaggregate three global knowledge products according to their regions and subregions. These products are: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Key Biodiversity Areas (specifically Important Bird &Biodiversity Areas [IBAs], and Alliance for Zero Extinction [AZE] sites), and Protected Planet. We present fourteen Data citations: numbers of species occurring and percentages threatened; numbers of endemics and percentages threatened; downscaled Red List Indices for mammals, birds, and amphibians; numbers, mean sizes, and percentage coverages of IBAs and AZE sites; percentage coverage of land and sea by protected areas; and trends in percentages of IBAs and AZE sites wholly covered by protected areas. These data will inform the regional/subregional assessment chapters on the status of biodiversity, drivers of its decline, and institutional responses, and greatly facilitate comparability and consistency between the different regional/subregional assessments. PMID:26881749

  20. Analysing biodiversity and conservation knowledge products to support regional environmental assessments

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Thomas M.; Akçakaya, H. Resit; Burgess, Neil D.; Butchart, Stuart H.M.; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Hoffmann, Michael; Juffe-Bignoli, Diego; Kingston, Naomi; MacSharry, Brian; Parr, Mike; Perianin, Laurence; Regan, Eugenie C.; Rodrigues, Ana S.L.; Rondinini, Carlo; Shennan-Farpon, Yara; Young, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    Two processes for regional environmental assessment are currently underway: the Global Environment Outlook (GEO) and Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). Both face constraints of data, time, capacity, and resources. To support these assessments, we disaggregate three global knowledge products according to their regions and subregions. These products are: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Key Biodiversity Areas (specifically Important Bird & Biodiversity Areas [IBAs], and Alliance for Zero Extinction [AZE] sites), and Protected Planet. We present fourteen Data citations: numbers of species occurring and percentages threatened; numbers of endemics and percentages threatened; downscaled Red List Indices for mammals, birds, and amphibians; numbers, mean sizes, and percentage coverages of IBAs and AZE sites; percentage coverage of land and sea by protected areas; and trends in percentages of IBAs and AZE sites wholly covered by protected areas. These data will inform the regional/subregional assessment chapters on the status of biodiversity, drivers of its decline, and institutional responses, and greatly facilitate comparability and consistency between the different regional/subregional assessments. PMID:26881749

  1. Quantitative proteomic analyses of mammary organoids reveals distinct signatures after exposure to environmental chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Katherine E.; Lemieux, George A.; Hassis, Maria E.; Olshen, Adam B.; Fisher, Susan J.; Werb, Zena

    2016-01-01

    Common environmental contaminants such as bisphenols and phthalates and persistent contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls are thought to influence tissue homeostasis and carcinogenesis by acting as disrupters of endocrine function. In this study we investigated the direct effects of exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), mono-n-butyl phthalate (Pht), and polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (PCB153) on the proteome of primary organotypic cultures of the mouse mammary gland. At low-nanomolar doses each of these agents induced distinct effects on the proteomes of these cultures. Although BPA treatment produced effects that were similar to those induced by estradiol, there were some notable differences, including a reduction in the abundance of retinoblastoma-associated protein and increases in the Rho GTPases Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) and cell division cycle protein CDC42. Both Pht and PCB153 induced changes that were distinct from those induced by estrogen, including decreased levels of the transcriptional corepressor C-terminal binding protein 1. Interestingly, the three chemicals appeared to alter the abundance of distinct splice forms of many proteins as well as the abundance of several proteins that regulate RNA splicing. Our combined results indicate that the three classes of chemical have distinct effects on the proteome of normal mouse mammary cultures, some estrogen-like but most estrogen independent, that influence diverse biological processes including apoptosis, cell adhesion, and proliferation. PMID:26903627

  2. Quantitative proteomic analyses of mammary organoids reveals distinct signatures after exposure to environmental chemicals.

    PubMed

    Williams, Katherine E; Lemieux, George A; Hassis, Maria E; Olshen, Adam B; Fisher, Susan J; Werb, Zena

    2016-03-01

    Common environmental contaminants such as bisphenols and phthalates and persistent contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls are thought to influence tissue homeostasis and carcinogenesis by acting as disrupters of endocrine function. In this study we investigated the direct effects of exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), mono-n-butyl phthalate (Pht), and polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (PCB153) on the proteome of primary organotypic cultures of the mouse mammary gland. At low-nanomolar doses each of these agents induced distinct effects on the proteomes of these cultures. Although BPA treatment produced effects that were similar to those induced by estradiol, there were some notable differences, including a reduction in the abundance of retinoblastoma-associated protein and increases in the Rho GTPases Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) and cell division cycle protein CDC42. Both Pht and PCB153 induced changes that were distinct from those induced by estrogen, including decreased levels of the transcriptional corepressor C-terminal binding protein 1. Interestingly, the three chemicals appeared to alter the abundance of distinct splice forms of many proteins as well as the abundance of several proteins that regulate RNA splicing. Our combined results indicate that the three classes of chemical have distinct effects on the proteome of normal mouse mammary cultures, some estrogen-like but most estrogen independent, that influence diverse biological processes including apoptosis, cell adhesion, and proliferation. PMID:26903627

  3. Applications of ERTS-1 imagery to terrestrial and marine environmental analyses in Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. M.; Mckim, H. L.; Crowder, W. K.; Haugen, R. K.; Gatto, L. W.; Marlar, T. L.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 imagery provides a means of distinguishing and monitoring estuarine surface water circulation patterns and changes in the relative sediment load of discharging rivers on a regional basis. It also will aid local fishing industries by augmenting currently available hydrologic and navigation charts. The interpretation of geologic and vegetation features resulted in preparation of improved surficial geology, vegetation and permafrost terrain maps at a scale of 1:1 million utilizing ERTS-1 band 7 imagery. This information will be further utilized in a route and site selection study for the Nome to Kobuk Road in central Alaska. Large river icings along the proposed Alaska pipeline route have been monitored. Sea ice deformation and drift northeast of Point Barrow, Alaska has been measured and shorefast ice accumulation and ablation along the west coast of Alaska is being mapped for the spring and early summer seasons. These data will be used for route and site selection, regional environmental analysis, identification and inventory of natural resources, land use planning, and in land use regulation and management.

  4. Geochemical Analyses of Geologic Materials from Areas of Critical Environmental Concern, Clark and Nye Counties, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludington, Steve; Castor, Stephen B.; Budahn, James R.; Flynn, Kathryn S.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION An assessment of known and undiscovered mineral resources of selected areas administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in Clark and Nye Counties, Nevada was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG), and University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV). The purpose of this work was to provide the BLM with information for use in their long-term planning process in southern Nevada so that they can make better-informed decisions. The results of the assessment are in Ludington (2006). Existing information about the areas, including geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and mineral-deposit information was compiled, and field examinations of selected areas and mineral occurrences was conducted. This information was used to determine the geologic setting, metallogenic characteristics, and mineral potential of the areas. Twenty-five Areas of Critical Environmental Concern (ACECs) were identified by BLM as the object of this study. They range from tiny (less than one km2) to large (more than 1,000 km2). The location of the study areas is shown on Figure 1. This report includes geochemical data for rock samples collected by staff of the USGS and NBMG in these ACECs and nearby areas. Samples have been analyzed from the Big Dune, Ash Meadows, Arden, Desert Tortoise Conservation Center, Coyote Springs Valley, Mormon Mesa, Virgin Mountains, Gold Butte A and B, Whitney Pockets, Rainbow Gardens, River Mountains, and Piute-Eldorado Valley ACECs.

  5. Analyses of uranium and actinium gamma spectra: an application to measurements of environmental contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Momeni, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    A system for the reduction of the complex gamma spectra of nuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series, tailored to calculation of line intensities, analyses of errors, and identification of nuclides is described. This system provides an efficient technique for characterizing contamination in the environs of uranium mines and mills. Identification of the nuclides and calculation of their concentrations require accurate knowledge of gamma energies and absolute quantum intensities. For some spectral lines, there are no reported measurements of absolute quantum intensities and in some cases where reports are available the measured intensities are not in agreement. In order to improve this data base, the spectra of gamma rays (of nuclides in the uranium and actinium series) with energies between 40 and 1400 keV were measured using high-resolution germanium detectors. A brief description of the spectroscopy system, computational algorithms for deconvolution, and methods of calibration for energy and efficiency, are described. The measured energies and absolute quantum intensities are compared with those reported in the literature.

  6. Recent developments in capabilities for analysing chlorinated paraffins in environmental matrices: A review.

    PubMed

    van Mourik, Louise M; Leonards, Pim E G; Gaus, Caroline; de Boer, Jacob

    2015-10-01

    Concerns about the high production volumes, persistency, bioaccumulation potential and toxicity of chlorinated paraffin (CP) mixtures, especially short-chain CPs (SCCPs), are rising. However, information on their levels and fate in the environment is still insufficient, impeding international classifications and regulations. This knowledge gap is mainly due to the difficulties that arise with CP analysis, in particular the chromatographic separation within CPs and between CPs and other compounds. No fully validated routine analytical method is available yet and only semi-quantitative analysis is possible, although the number of studies reporting new and improved methods have rapidly increased since 2010. Better cleanup procedures that remove interfering compounds, and new instrumental techniques, which distinguish between medium-chain CPs (MCCPs) and SCCPs, have been developed. While gas chromatography coupled to an electron capture negative ionisation mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-MS) remains the most commonly applied technique, novel and promising use of high resolution time of flight MS (TOF-MS) has also been reported. We expect that recent developments in high resolution TOF-MS and Orbitrap technologies will further improve the detection of CPs, including long-chain CPs (LCCPs), and the group separation and quantification of CP homologues. Also, new CP quantification methods have emerged, including the use of mathematical algorithms, multiple linear regression and principal component analysis. These quantification advancements are also reflected in considerably improved interlaboratory agreements since 2010. Analysis of lower chlorinated paraffins (analysing these homologues are needed. Furthermore, suitable quantification standards would facilitate improving the quality of CP analysis.

  7. Genome-wide analyses suggest parallel selection for universal traits may eclipse local environmental selection in a highly mobile carnivore.

    PubMed

    Stronen, Astrid Vik; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła; Pertoldi, Cino; Demontis, Ditte; Randi, Ettore; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Borowik, Tomasz; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Kusak, Josip; Kojola, Ilpo; Karamanlidis, Alexandros A; Ozolins, Janis; Dumenko, Vitalii; Czarnomska, Sylwia D

    2015-10-01

    Ecological and environmental heterogeneity can produce genetic differentiation in highly mobile species. Accordingly, local adaptation may be expected across comparatively short distances in the presence of marked environmental gradients. Within the European continent, wolves (Canis lupus) exhibit distinct north-south population differentiation. We investigated more than 67-K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci for signatures of local adaptation in 59 unrelated wolves from four previously identified population clusters (northcentral Europe n = 32, Carpathian Mountains n = 7, Dinaric-Balkan n = 9, Ukrainian Steppe n = 11). Our analyses combined identification of outlier loci with findings from genome-wide association study of individual genomic profiles and 12 environmental variables. We identified 353 candidate SNP loci. We examined the SNP position and neighboring megabase (1 Mb, one million bases) regions in the dog (C. lupus familiaris) genome for genes potentially under selection, including homologue genes in other vertebrates. These regions included functional genes for, for example, temperature regulation that may indicate local adaptation and genes controlling for functions universally important for wolves, including olfaction, hearing, vision, and cognitive functions. We also observed strong outliers not associated with any of the investigated variables, which could suggest selective pressures associated with other unmeasured environmental variables and/or demographic factors. These patterns are further supported by the examination of spatial distributions of the SNPs associated with universally important traits, which typically show marked differences in allele frequencies among population clusters. Accordingly, parallel selection for features important to all wolves may eclipse local environmental selection and implies long-term separation among population clusters. PMID:26664688

  8. Analysing demand for environmental quality: a willingness to pay/accept study in the province of Siena (Italy).

    PubMed

    Basili, Marcello; Di Matteo, Massimo; Ferrini, Silvia

    2006-01-01

    The province of Siena, Italy, enacted a new garbage plan (NGP) with the objective of increasing separate waste collection (SWC), shutting down six landfills and increasing incineration. The aim of the paper is to evaluate costs and benefits of the NGP. The hypothesis is that willingness to pay (WTP) should reflect the value to the community of having better environmental quality, according to the Contingent Valuation literature. The paper reports the results of a contingent valuation (CV). The sample was divided into two subsets: firms and households. Through the information gathered via a detailed questionnaire, parametric and non-parametric estimates were elaborated to analyse the WTP of the population for the benefits flowing from increased SWC, increased incineration and shutting down of landfills. These values were expressed as a share of the tax actually paid. Although a small subset of firms and households valued increasing incineration less positively, requesting compensation, on the whole interviewees (with large differences between firms and households) had a net positive WTP for the provisions included in NGP. Parametric estimation procedures enabled us to analyse the economic as well as social and demographic factors affecting these results. These elements are useful for computing a value for the waste charge that also reflects external effects. Finally, we estimated household income elasticity of WTP for the increase in SWC and found less than one: environmental quality is not a luxury good.

  9. Near-global freshwater-specific environmental variables for biodiversity analyses in 1 km resolution

    PubMed Central

    Domisch, Sami; Amatulli, Giuseppe; Jetz, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The lack of freshwater-specific environmental information at sufficiently fine spatial grain hampers broad-scale analyses in aquatic biology, biogeography, conservation, and ecology. Here we present a near-global, spatially continuous, and freshwater-specific set of environmental variables in a standardized 1 km grid. We delineate the sub-catchment for each grid cell along the HydroSHEDS river network and summarize the upstream climate, topography, land cover, surface geology and soil to each grid cell using various metrics (average, minimum, maximum, range, sum, inverse distance-weighted average and sum). All variables were subsequently averaged across single lakes and reservoirs of the Global lakes and Wetlands Database that are connected to the river network. Monthly climate variables were summarized into 19 long-term climatic variables following the ‘bioclim’ framework. This new set of variables provides a basis for spatial ecological and biodiversity analyses in freshwater ecosystems at near global extent, yet fine spatial grain. To facilitate the generation of freshwater variables for custom study areas and spatial grains, we provide the ‘r.stream.watersheds’ and ‘r.stream.variables’ add-ons for the GRASS GIS software. PMID:26647296

  10. Late Pleistocene environmental fluctuations in Taiwan southwestern plain with constraints of the analyses on organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, H.; Chen, Y.

    2003-12-01

    Taiwan is located at the junction point between the Philippine Sea and Eurasian plate, where the Asian monsoon is supposed as the most important factor in controlling the regional climate. Due to the high subsidence rate caused by westerly moving thrust sheet, sedimentary sequences of late Quaternary overlying on the Tertiary basement in coastal plain are usually over 300 meters. The isotopic composition of organic carbon has been reported to preserve the syn-depositional signals for source identification derived from two major sources, the terrestrial plants and marine organisms. Except for the extreme region, the terrestrial plants can be roughly divided into C3 and C4 plants in modern world. Since they adopt different photosynthesis processes, each of them shows specific δ 13C values. As literatures the δ 13C values of organic matters in marine sediments are relatively constant in a local area. On the other hand, the concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC) preserved in sediments can also reflect the experienced paleo-environment. For instance, an anoxic environment, such as a lagoon or marsh will usually preserve high TOC. Consequently, the elemental abundance and corresponding isotopes of organic carbon are wildly used as proxies to retrieve sedimentary environment and vegetation changes. For the purpose of high resolution, i.e., every 3 to 4m, we sampled cores drilled in coastal plain of southwestern Taiwan and conducted carbon isotope analysis to diagnose the detailed environmental changes under the major framework-global change. As our results, TOC values remain in a relatively stable and low level when the corresponding δ 13C data indicate marine organic source, while the terrestrial source usually causes undulated TOC. On the other hand, based on the isotopic data measured in the lower part of the core, the study area was inundated by sea-water as a result of the high sea-stand of MIS (marine isotope stage) 5. Subsequently, the climate turned to

  11. Hydrologic analyses in support of the Navajo Generating Station–Kayenta Mine Complex environmental impact statement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leake, Stanley A.; Macy, Jamie P.; Truini, Margot

    2016-06-01

    IntroductionThe U.S. Department of Interior’s Bureau of Reclamation, Lower Colorado Region (Reclamation) is preparing an environmental impact statement (EIS) for the Navajo Generating Station-Kayenta Mine Complex Project (NGS-KMC Project). The proposed project involves various Federal approvals that would facilitate continued operation of the Navajo Generating Station (NGS) from December 23, 2019 through 2044, and continued operation of the Kayenta Mine and support facilities (collectively called the Kayenta Mine Complex, or KMC) to supply coal to the NGS for this operational period. The EIS will consider several project alternatives that are likely to produce different effects on the Navajo (N) aquifer; the N aquifer is the principal water resource in the Black Mesa area used by the Navajo Nation, Hopi Tribe, and Peabody Western Coal Company (PWCC).The N aquifer is composed of three hydraulically connected formations—the Navajo Sandstone, the Kayenta Formation, and the Lukachukai Member of the Wingate Sandstone—that function as a single aquifer. The N aquifer is confined under most of Black Mesa, and the overlying stratigraphy limits recharge to this part of the aquifer. The N aquifer is unconfined in areas surrounding Black Mesa, and most recharge occurs where the Navajo Sandstone is exposed in the area near Shonto, Arizona. Overlying the N aquifer is the D aquifer, which includes the Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Entrada Sandstone, and Carmel Formation. The aquifer is named for the Dakota Sandstone, which is the primary water-bearing unit.The NGS is located near Page, Arizona on the Navajo Nation. The KMC, which delivers coal to NGS by way of a dedicated electric railroad, is located approximately 83 miles southeast of NGS (about 125 miles northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona). The Kayenta Mine permit area is located on about 44,073 acres of land leased within the boundaries of the Hopi and Navajo Indian Reservations. KMC has been conducting mining and

  12. Hydrologic analyses in support of the Navajo Generating Station–Kayenta Mine Complex environmental impact statement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leake, Stanley A.; Macy, Jamie P.; Truini, Margot

    2016-06-01

    IntroductionThe U.S. Department of Interior’s Bureau of Reclamation, Lower Colorado Region (Reclamation) is preparing an environmental impact statement (EIS) for the Navajo Generating Station-Kayenta Mine Complex Project (NGS-KMC Project). The proposed project involves various Federal approvals that would facilitate continued operation of the Navajo Generating Station (NGS) from December 23, 2019 through 2044, and continued operation of the Kayenta Mine and support facilities (collectively called the Kayenta Mine Complex, or KMC) to supply coal to the NGS for this operational period. The EIS will consider several project alternatives that are likely to produce different effects on the Navajo (N) aquifer; the N aquifer is the principal water resource in the Black Mesa area used by the Navajo Nation, Hopi Tribe, and Peabody Western Coal Company (PWCC).The N aquifer is composed of three hydraulically connected formations—the Navajo Sandstone, the Kayenta Formation, and the Lukachukai Member of the Wingate Sandstone—that function as a single aquifer. The N aquifer is confined under most of Black Mesa, and the overlying stratigraphy limits recharge to this part of the aquifer. The N aquifer is unconfined in areas surrounding Black Mesa, and most recharge occurs where the Navajo Sandstone is exposed in the area near Shonto, Arizona. Overlying the N aquifer is the D aquifer, which includes the Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Entrada Sandstone, and Carmel Formation. The aquifer is named for the Dakota Sandstone, which is the primary water-bearing unit.The NGS is located near Page, Arizona on the Navajo Nation. The KMC, which delivers coal to NGS by way of a dedicated electric railroad, is located approximately 83 miles southeast of NGS (about 125 miles northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona). The Kayenta Mine permit area is located on about 44,073 acres of land leased within the boundaries of the Hopi and Navajo Indian Reservations. KMC has been conducting mining and

  13. Analytical pyrolysis and stable isotope analyses reveal past environmental changes in coralloid speleothems from Easter Island (Chile).

    PubMed

    Miller, Ana Z; De la Rosa, José M; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T; Pereira, Manuel F C; González-Pérez, José A; Calaforra, José M; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2016-08-26

    This study comprises an innovative approach based on the combination of chromatography (analytical pyrolysis and pyrolysis compound-specific isotope analysis (Py-CSIA)), light stable isotopes, microscopy and mineralogy analyses to characterize the internal layering of coralloid speleothems from the Ana Heva lava tube in Easter Island (Chile). This multidisciplinary proxy showed that the speleothems consist of banded siliceous materials of low crystallinity with different mineralogical compositions and a significant contribution of organic carbon. Opal-A constitutes the outermost grey layer of the coralloids, whereas calcite and amorphous Mg hydrate silicate are the major components of the inner whitish and honey-brown layers, respectively. The differences found in the mineralogical, elemental, molecular and isotopic composition of these distinct coloured layers are related to environmental changes during speleothem development. Stable isotopes and analytical pyrolysis suggested alterations in the water regime, pointing to wetter conditions during the formation of the Ca-rich layer and a possible increase in the amount of water dripping into the cave. The trend observed for δ(15)N values suggested an increase in the average temperature over time, which is consistent with the so-called climate warming during the Holocene. The pyrolysis compound-specific isotope analysis of each speleothem layer showed a similar trend with the bulk δ(13)C values pointing to the appropriateness of direct Py-CSIA in paleoenvironmental studies. The δ(13)C values for n-alkanes reinforced the occurrence of a drastic environmental change, indicating that the outermost Opal layer was developed under drier and more arid environmental conditions. PMID:27452992

  14. Analytical pyrolysis and stable isotope analyses reveal past environmental changes in coralloid speleothems from Easter Island (Chile).

    PubMed

    Miller, Ana Z; De la Rosa, José M; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T; Pereira, Manuel F C; González-Pérez, José A; Calaforra, José M; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2016-08-26

    This study comprises an innovative approach based on the combination of chromatography (analytical pyrolysis and pyrolysis compound-specific isotope analysis (Py-CSIA)), light stable isotopes, microscopy and mineralogy analyses to characterize the internal layering of coralloid speleothems from the Ana Heva lava tube in Easter Island (Chile). This multidisciplinary proxy showed that the speleothems consist of banded siliceous materials of low crystallinity with different mineralogical compositions and a significant contribution of organic carbon. Opal-A constitutes the outermost grey layer of the coralloids, whereas calcite and amorphous Mg hydrate silicate are the major components of the inner whitish and honey-brown layers, respectively. The differences found in the mineralogical, elemental, molecular and isotopic composition of these distinct coloured layers are related to environmental changes during speleothem development. Stable isotopes and analytical pyrolysis suggested alterations in the water regime, pointing to wetter conditions during the formation of the Ca-rich layer and a possible increase in the amount of water dripping into the cave. The trend observed for δ(15)N values suggested an increase in the average temperature over time, which is consistent with the so-called climate warming during the Holocene. The pyrolysis compound-specific isotope analysis of each speleothem layer showed a similar trend with the bulk δ(13)C values pointing to the appropriateness of direct Py-CSIA in paleoenvironmental studies. The δ(13)C values for n-alkanes reinforced the occurrence of a drastic environmental change, indicating that the outermost Opal layer was developed under drier and more arid environmental conditions.

  15. Alterations in morphometric and organosomatic indices and histopathological analyses indicative of environmental contamination in Mullet, Mugil liza, from Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hauser-Davis, R A; Lavandier, R C; Bastos, F F; Oliveira, T F; Ribeiro, C A Oliveira; Ziolli, R L; de Campos, R C

    2012-12-01

    Mullet (Mugil liza) were sampled in five different areas along the Guanabara Bay, southeastern Brazil, classified as non-contaminated, moderately contaminated and contaminated. Morphometric (Fulton condition factor, relative condition factor and weight to length scaling coefficient) and organosomatic (hepatosomatic index) indices of environmental stress were analysed. Fish from the differentially contaminated areas show statistically different Fulton and relative condition factors and hepatosomatic indices, but not the weight to length scaling coefficient. The Kn and the FCF followed the same trend, with fish from São Gonçalo (1.07 ± 0.04 and 0.89 ± 0.03), Itaipu (0.84 ± 0.01 and 0.86 ± 0.01) and the Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon (1.03 ± 0.01 and 0.87 ± 0.20) showing higher FCFs than fish from Magé (0.96 ± 0.01 and 0.81 ± 0.01). Fish from Itaipu showed significantly higher HSI values than the other sampling sites (1.68 ± 0.07), with fish from Olaria and Ipiranga showing the lowest (1.56 ± 0.12 and 1.60 ± 0.07, respectively).

  16. Stable isotopic, petrographic and trace element analyses of two stalagmites from Sirtlanini Cave, SW Turkey: insights into Mid-Late Holocene environmental and climatic change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peckover, Emily; Mason, Jennifer; Ozbek, Onur; Marca, Alina; Rowe, Peter; Andrews, Julian; Noble, Steve; Brindle, John; Baba, Alper; Kendall, Alan; Al-Omari, Sa'ad

    2015-04-01

    18O corresponds. Petrographic examination of HY-8 reveals a complex fabric. The majority of the stalagmite shows an open fabric of dendritic calcite. Calcite is believed to be primary based on continuous presence of spikey inclusions though dendritic fabric may indicate isotopic disequilibrium. Laminations are defined by compact dendrites but grey layers are defined and bound by dissolution layers. The fabric of the grey layers is mostly microcrystalline believed to be caused by the presence of organic material (Frisia and Borsato 2010). However one prominent layer is defined by equant calcite, implying a thicker film of water. Analysis of the transition between grey layer microcrystalline and dendritic calcite will further resolve the effects on calcite precipitation caused by the inclusion of organics and detritus. Generally petrography will allow investigation into the effects of using fabrics which may potentially alter the environmental signal for stable isotopic interpretation. Further study seeks to establish age models, examine petrography in more detail and to compare stable isotopic records from both stalagmites. We aim to clarify the links between climatic and environmental changes in the region and the temporal isotopic, trace element and petrographic changes observed in the speleothems. References Eastwood, W.J., et al. (2007) J. Quat. Sci., 22, 327-341. Hartland, A., et al. (2012) Chem. Geol. 304-305, 68-82. Momigliano, N., et al. (2011) Anatolian Studies, 6, 61-121. Frisia, S., & Borsato, A. (2010) Developments in Sedimentology, 61, 269-318.

  17. DNA-based analyses of molds in Singapore public buildings results in a proposed Singapore Environmental Relative Moldiness Index.

    PubMed

    Goh, V; Yap, H M; Gutiérrez, R A; Ng, L C; Vesper, S S

    2014-12-01

    Dust samples (n=75) were collected from shopping malls, hotels and libraries in Singapore and then analyzed using Mold Specific Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (MSQPCR) for the 36 molds that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). Most of these molds (23/36) occur at similar rates in Singapore and the United States. A Singapore Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (SERMI) is proposed which might be divided into low (<18), medium (18 to 28) and high (>28) mold burden categories but more samples will help to refine these categories.

  18. DNA-based analyses of molds in Singapore public buildings results in a proposed Singapore Environmental Relative Moldiness Index.

    PubMed

    Goh, V; Yap, H M; Gutiérrez, R A; Ng, L C; Vesper, S S

    2014-12-01

    Dust samples (n=75) were collected from shopping malls, hotels and libraries in Singapore and then analyzed using Mold Specific Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (MSQPCR) for the 36 molds that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). Most of these molds (23/36) occur at similar rates in Singapore and the United States. A Singapore Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (SERMI) is proposed which might be divided into low (<18), medium (18 to 28) and high (>28) mold burden categories but more samples will help to refine these categories. PMID:25776591

  19. Niche Divergence versus Neutral Processes: Combined Environmental and Genetic Analyses Identify Contrasting Patterns of Differentiation in Recently Diverged Pine Species

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Letelier, Alejandra; Ortíz-Medrano, Alejandra; Piñero, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Solving relationships of recently diverged taxa, poses a challenge due to shared polymorphism and weak reproductive barriers. Multiple lines of evidence are needed to identify independently evolving lineages. This is especially true of long-lived species with large effective population sizes, and slow rates of lineage sorting. North American pines are an interesting group to test this multiple approach. Our aim is to combine cytoplasmic genetic markers with environmental information to clarify species boundaries and relationships of the species complex of Pinus flexilis, Pinus ayacahuite, and Pinus strobiformis. Methods Mitochondrial and chloroplast sequences were combined with previously obtained microsatellite data and contrasted with environmental information to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of the species complex. Ecological niche models were compared to test if ecological divergence is significant among species. Key Results and Conclusion Separately, both genetic and ecological evidence support a clear differentiation of all three species but with different topology, but also reveal an ancestral contact zone between P. strobiformis and P. ayacahuite. The marked ecological differentiation of P. flexilis suggests that ecological speciation has occurred in this lineage, but this is not reflected in neutral markers. The inclusion of environmental traits in phylogenetic reconstruction improved the resolution of internal branches. We suggest that combining environmental and genetic information would be useful for species delimitation and phylogenetic studies in other recently diverged species complexes. PMID:24205167

  20. DNA-Based Analyses of Molds in Singapore Public Buildings Results in a Proposed Singapore Environmental Relative Moldiness Index

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dust samples (n=75) were collected from shopping malls, hotels and libraries in Singapore and then analyzed using Mold Specific Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction(MSQPCR) for the 36 molds that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). Most of these molds (23/...

  1. A matrix lower bound

    SciTech Connect

    Grcar, Joseph F.

    2002-02-04

    A matrix lower bound is defined that generalizes ideas apparently due to S. Banach and J. von Neumann. The matrix lower bound has a natural interpretation in functional analysis, and it satisfies many of the properties that von Neumann stated for it in a restricted case. Applications for the matrix lower bound are demonstrated in several areas. In linear algebra, the matrix lower bound of a full rank matrix equals the distance to the set of rank-deficient matrices. In numerical analysis, the ratio of the matrix norm to the matrix lower bound is a condition number for all consistent systems of linear equations. In optimization theory, the matrix lower bound suggests an identity for a class of min-max problems. In real analysis, a recursive construction that depends on the matrix lower bound shows that the level sets of continuously differential functions lie asymptotically near those of their tangents.

  2. Metagenomic Analyses Reveal That Energy Transfer Gene Abundances Can Predict the Syntrophic Potential of Environmental Microbial Communities.

    PubMed

    Oberding, Lisa; Gieg, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Hydrocarbon compounds can be biodegraded by anaerobic microorganisms to form methane through an energetically interdependent metabolic process known as syntrophy. The microorganisms that perform this process as well as the energy transfer mechanisms involved are difficult to study and thus are still poorly understood, especially on an environmental scale. Here, metagenomic data was analyzed for specific clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) related to key energy transfer genes thus far identified in syntrophic bacteria, and principal component analysis was used in order to determine whether potentially syntrophic environments could be distinguished using these syntroph related COGs as opposed to universally present COGs. We found that COGs related to hydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase genes were able to distinguish known syntrophic consortia and environments with the potential for syntrophy from non-syntrophic environments, indicating that these COGs could be used as a tool to identify syntrophic hydrocarbon biodegrading environments using metagenomic data. PMID:27681901

  3. Environmental Association Analyses Identify Candidates for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Glycine soja, the Wild Progenitor of Cultivated Soybeans

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Justin E.; Kono, Thomas J. Y.; Stupar, Robert M.; Kantar, Michael B.; Morrell, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Natural populations across a species range demonstrate population structure owing to neutral processes such as localized origins of mutations and migration limitations. Selection also acts on a subset of loci, contributing to local adaptation. An understanding of the genetic basis of adaptation to local environmental conditions is a fundamental goal in basic biological research. When applied to crop wild relatives, this same research provides the opportunity to identify adaptive genetic variation that may be used to breed for crops better adapted to novel or changing environments. The present study explores an ex situ conservation collection, the USDA germplasm collection, genotyped at 32,416 SNPs to identify population structure and test for associations with bioclimatic and biophysical variables in Glycine soja, the wild progenitor of Glycine max (soybean). Candidate loci were detected that putatively contribute to adaptation to abiotic stresses. The identification of potentially adaptive variants in this ex situ collection may permit a more targeted use of germplasm collections. PMID:26818076

  4. Metagenomic Analyses Reveal That Energy Transfer Gene Abundances Can Predict the Syntrophic Potential of Environmental Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Oberding, Lisa; Gieg, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrocarbon compounds can be biodegraded by anaerobic microorganisms to form methane through an energetically interdependent metabolic process known as syntrophy. The microorganisms that perform this process as well as the energy transfer mechanisms involved are difficult to study and thus are still poorly understood, especially on an environmental scale. Here, metagenomic data was analyzed for specific clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) related to key energy transfer genes thus far identified in syntrophic bacteria, and principal component analysis was used in order to determine whether potentially syntrophic environments could be distinguished using these syntroph related COGs as opposed to universally present COGs. We found that COGs related to hydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase genes were able to distinguish known syntrophic consortia and environments with the potential for syntrophy from non-syntrophic environments, indicating that these COGs could be used as a tool to identify syntrophic hydrocarbon biodegrading environments using metagenomic data.

  5. Environmental Association Analyses Identify Candidates for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Glycine soja, the Wild Progenitor of Cultivated Soybeans.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Justin E; Kono, Thomas J Y; Stupar, Robert M; Kantar, Michael B; Morrell, Peter L

    2016-04-07

    Natural populations across a species range demonstrate population structure owing to neutral processes such as localized origins of mutations and migration limitations. Selection also acts on a subset of loci, contributing to local adaptation. An understanding of the genetic basis of adaptation to local environmental conditions is a fundamental goal in basic biological research. When applied to crop wild relatives, this same research provides the opportunity to identify adaptive genetic variation that may be used to breed for crops better adapted to novel or changing environments. The present study explores an ex situ conservation collection, the USDA germplasm collection, genotyped at 32,416 SNPs to identify population structure and test for associations with bioclimatic and biophysical variables in Glycine soja, the wild progenitor of Glycine max (soybean). Candidate loci were detected that putatively contribute to adaptation to abiotic stresses. The identification of potentially adaptive variants in this ex situ collection may permit a more targeted use of germplasm collections.

  6. Metagenomic Analyses Reveal That Energy Transfer Gene Abundances Can Predict the Syntrophic Potential of Environmental Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Oberding, Lisa; Gieg, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrocarbon compounds can be biodegraded by anaerobic microorganisms to form methane through an energetically interdependent metabolic process known as syntrophy. The microorganisms that perform this process as well as the energy transfer mechanisms involved are difficult to study and thus are still poorly understood, especially on an environmental scale. Here, metagenomic data was analyzed for specific clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) related to key energy transfer genes thus far identified in syntrophic bacteria, and principal component analysis was used in order to determine whether potentially syntrophic environments could be distinguished using these syntroph related COGs as opposed to universally present COGs. We found that COGs related to hydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase genes were able to distinguish known syntrophic consortia and environments with the potential for syntrophy from non-syntrophic environments, indicating that these COGs could be used as a tool to identify syntrophic hydrocarbon biodegrading environments using metagenomic data. PMID:27681901

  7. Analysing the Advantages of High Temporal Resolution Geostationary MSG SEVIRI Data Compared to Polar Operational Environmental Satellite Data for Land Surface Monitoring in Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fensholt, R.; Anyamba, A.; Huber, S.; Proud, S. R.; Tucker, C. J.; Small, J.; Pak, E.; Rasmussen, M. O.; Sandholt, I.; Shisanya, C.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1972, satellite remote sensing of the environment has been dominated by polar-orbiting sensors providing useful data for monitoring the earth s natural resources. However their observation and monitoring capacity are inhibited by daily to monthly looks for any given ground surface which often is obscured by frequent and persistent cloud cover creating large gaps in time series measurements. The launch of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite into geostationary orbit has opened new opportunities for land surface monitoring. The Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) instrument on-board MSG with an imaging capability every 15 minutes which is substantially greater than any temporal resolution that can be obtained from existing polar operational environmental satellites (POES) systems currently in use for environmental monitoring. Different areas of the African continent were affected by droughts and floods in 2008 caused by periods of abnormally low and high rainfall, respectively. Based on the effectiveness of monitoring these events from Earth Observation (EO) data the current analyses show that the new generation of geostationary remote sensing data can provide higher temporal resolution cloud-free (less than 5 days) measurements of the environment as compared to existing POES systems. SEVIRI MSG 5-day continental scale composites will enable rapid assessment of environmental conditions and improved early warning of disasters for the African continent such as flooding or droughts. The high temporal resolution geostationary data will complement existing higher spatial resolution polar-orbiting satellite data for various dynamic environmental and natural resource applications of terrestrial ecosystems.

  8. Indoor Environmental Risk Factors for Occupant Symptoms in 100U.S. Office Buildings: Summary of Three Analyses from the EPA BASEStudy

    SciTech Connect

    Mendell, M.J.; Lei-Gomez, Q.; Cozen, M.; Brightman, H.S.; Apte,M.; Erdmann, C.A.; Brunner, G.; Girman, J.R.

    2006-02-01

    This paper summarizes three analyses of data on building-related environmental factors and occupant symptoms collected from 100 representative large U.S. office buildings. Using multivariate logistic regression models, we found increased occupant symptoms associated with a number of building-related factors, including lower ventilation rates even at the current guideline levels, lack of scheduled cleaning for air-conditioning drain pans and cooling coils, poor condition of cooling coils, poorly maintained humidification systems, and lower outdoor air intake height. Some expected relationships were not found, and several findings were opposite of expected. Although requiring replication, these findings suggest preventive actions to reduce occupant symptoms in office buildings.

  9. The impacts of climate change and environmental management policies on the trophic regimes in the Mediterranean Sea: Scenario analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzari, P.; Mattia, G.; Solidoro, C.; Salon, S.; Crise, A.; Zavatarelli, M.; Oddo, P.; Vichi, M.

    2014-07-01

    The impacts of climate change and environmental management policies on the Mediterranean Sea were analyzed in multi-annual simulations of carbon cycling in a planktonic ecosystem model. The modeling system is based on a high-resolution coupled physical-biogeochemical ocean model that is off-line and forced by medium-resolution global climate simulations and by estimates of continental and river inputs of freshwater and nutrients. The simulations span the periods 1990-2000 and 2090-2100, assuming the IPCC SRES A1B scenario of climatic change at the end of the century. The effects of three different options on land use, mediated through rivers, are also considered. All scenarios indicate that the increase in temperature fuels an increase in metabolic rates. The gross primary production increases approximately 5% over the present-day figures, but the changes in productivity rates are compensated by augmented community respiration rates, so the net community production is stable with respect to present-day figures. The 21st century simulations are characterized by a reduction in the system biomass and by an enhanced accumulation of semi-labile dissolved organic matter. The largest changes in organic carbon production occur close to rivers, where the influence of changes in future nutrient is higher.

  10. Dietary and environmental reconstruction with stable isotope analyses of herbivore tooth enamel from the Miocene locality of Fort Ternan, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Cerling, T E; Harris, J M; Ambrose, S H; Leakey, M G; Solounias, N

    1997-12-01

    Tooth enamel of nine Middle Miocene mammalian herbivores from Fort Ternan, Kenya, was analyzed for delta 13C and delta 18O. The delta 18O values of the tooth enamel compared with pedogenic and diagenetic carbonate confirm the use of stable isotope analysis of fossil tooth enamel as a paleoenvironmental indicator. Furthermore, the delta 18O of tooth enamel indicates differences in water sources between some of the mammals. The delta 13C values of tooth enamel ranged from -8.6(-)-13.0/1000 which is compatible with a pure C3 diet, though the possibility of a small C4 fraction in the diet of a few of the specimens sampled is not precluded. The carbon isotopic data do not support environmental reconstructions of a Serengeti-typed wooded grassland with a significant proportion of C4 grasses. This study does not preclude the presence of C3 grasses at Fort Ternan; it is possible that C3 grasses could have had a wider geographic range if atmospheric CO2 levels were higher than the present values. PMID:9467773

  11. The U.S. Geological Survey's Sediment-bound Contaminant Resiliency and Response Strategy: A Tiered Multi-metric Approach to Environmental Health and Hazards in the Northeastern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, T. J.; Focazio, M. J.; Murdoch, P. S.; Benzel, W. M.; Fisher, S. C.; Griffin, D. W.; Iwanowicz, L. R.; Jones, D. K.; Loftin, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Enhanced dispersion and concentration of contaminants such as trace metals and organic pollutants through storm-induced disturbances and sea level rise (SLR) are major factors that could adversely impact the health and resilience of communities and ecosystems in coming years. As part of the response to Hurricane Sandy, the U.S. Geological Survey collected data on the effects of contaminant source disturbance and dispersion. A major limitation of conducting pre- and post-Sandy comparisons was the lack of baseline data in locations proximal to potential contaminant sources and mitigation activities, sensitive ecosystems, and recreational facilities where human and ecological exposures are probable. To address this limitation, a Sediment-bound Contaminant Resiliency and Response (SCoRR) strategy with two operational modes, Resiliency (baseline) and Response (event-based), has been designed by leveraging existing interagency networks and resources. In Resiliency Mode, sites will be identified and sampled using standardized procedures prioritized to develop baseline data and to define sediment-quality based environmental health metrics. In Response Mode, a subset of sites within the network will be evaluated to ensure that adequate pre-event data exist at priority locations. If deficient, pre-event samples will be collected from priority locations. Crews will be deployed post-event to resample these locations allowing direct evaluation of impacts, as well as redefining baseline conditions for these areas. A tiered analytical and data integration strategy has been developed that will identify vulnerable human and environmental receptors, the sediment-bound contaminants present, and the biological activity and potential effects of exposure to characterized sediments. Communication mechanisms are in development to make resulting data available in a timely fashion and in a suitable format for informing event response and recovery efforts.

  12. Potentials and bound states

    SciTech Connect

    Buell, W.F. ); Shadwick, B.A. )

    1995-03-01

    We discuss several quantum mechanical potential problems, focusing on those which highlight commonly held misconceptions about the existence of bound states. We present a proof, based on the variational principle, that certain one dimensional potentials always support at least one bound state, regardless of the potential's strength. We examine arguments concerning the existence of bound states based on the uncertainty principle and demonstrate, by explicit calculations, that such arguments must be viewed with skepticism.

  13. Environmental data and analyses for the proposed management of spent nuclear fuel on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Socolof, M.L.; Curtis, A.H.; Blasing, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    DOE needs to continue the safe and efficient management of SNF on ORR, based on the requirement for future SNF storage capacity and implementation of the ROD for the PEIS. DOE is proposing to implement the ROD through proper management of SNF on ORR, including the possible construction and operation of a dry cask storage facility. This report describes the potentially affected environment and analyzes impacts on various resources due to the proposed action. The information provided in this report is intended to support the Environmental Assessment being prepared for the proposed activities. Construction of the dry cask storage facility would result in minimal or no impacts on groundwater, surface water, and ecological resources. Contaminated soils excavated during construction would result in negligible risk to human health and to biota. Except for noise from trucks and equipment, operation of the dry cask storage facility would not be expected to have any impact on vegetation, wildlife, or rare plants or animals. Noise impacts would be minimal. Operation exposures to the average SNF storage facility worker would not exceed approximately 0.40 mSv/year (40 mrem/year). The off-site population dose within an 80-km (50-mile) radius of ORR from SNF operations would be less than 0.052 person-Sv/year (5.2 person-rem/year). Impacts from incident-free transportation on ORR would be less than 1.36 X 10{sup -4} occupational fatal cancers and 4.28 X 10{sup -6} public fatal cancers. Credible accident scenarios that would result in the greatest probable risks would cause less than one in a million cancer fatalities to workers and the public.

  14. Pharmaceuticals and iodinated contrast media in a hospital wastewater: A case study to analyse their presence and characterise their environmental risk and hazard.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, A; Aceña, J; Pérez, S; López de Alda, M; Barceló, D; Gil, A; Valcárcel, Y

    2015-07-01

    This work analyses the presence of twenty-five pharmaceutical compounds belonging to seven different therapeutic groups and one iodinated contrast media (ICM) in a Spanish medium-size hospital located in the Valencia Region. Analysis of the target compounds in the hospital wastewater was performed by means of solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (HPLC-MS/MS). A screening level risk assessment combining the measured environmental concentrations (MECs) with dose-response data based on Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) was also applied to estimate Hazard Quotients (HQs) for the compounds investigated. Additionally, the environmental hazard associated to the various compounds measured was assessed through the calculation of the Persistence, Bioaccumulation and Toxicity (PBT) Index, which categorizes compounds according to their environmentally damaging characteristics. The results of the study showed the presence of twenty-four out of the twenty-six compounds analysed at individual concentrations ranging from 5 ng L(-1) to 2 mg L(-1). The highest concentrations corresponded to the ICM iomeprol, found at levels between 424 and 2093 μg L(-1), the analgesic acetaminophen (15-44 μg L(-1)), the diuretic (DIU) furosemide (6-15 μg L(-1)), and the antibiotics (ABIs) ofloxacin and trimethoprim (2-5 μg L(-1)). The lowest levels corresponded to the anti-inflammatory propyphenazone, found at concentrations between 5 and 44 ng L(-1). Differences in terms of concentrations of the analysed compounds have been observed in all the therapeutic groups when comparing the results obtained in this and other recent studies carried out in hospitals with different characteristics from different geographical areas and in different seasons. The screening level risk assessment performed in raw water from the hospital effluent showed that the analgesics and anti-inflammatories (AAFs) acetaminophen, diclofenac, ibuprofen and

  15. Multivariate and phylogenetic analyses assessing the response of bacterial mat communities from an ancient oligotrophic aquatic ecosystem to different scenarios of long-term environmental disturbance.

    PubMed

    Pajares, Silvia; Souza, Valeria; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the response of bacterial communities to environmental change is extremely important in predicting the effect of biogeochemical modifications in ecosystem functioning. The Cuatro Cienegas Basin is an ancient oasis in the Mexican Chihuahuan desert that hosts a wide diversity of microbial mats and stromatolites that have survived in extremely oligotrophic pools with nearly constant conditions. However, thus far, the response of these unique microbial communities to long-term environmental disturbances remains unexplored. We therefore studied the compositional stability of these bacterial mat communities by using a replicated (3x) mesocosm experiment: a) Control; b) Fluct: fluctuating temperature; c) 40C: increase to 40 ºC; d) UVplus: artificial increase in UV radiation; and f) UVmin: UV radiation protection. In order to observe the changes in biodiversity, we obtained 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from microbial mats at the end of the experiment (eight months) and analyzed them using multivariate and phylogenetic tools. Sequences were assigned to 13 major lineages, among which Cyanobacteria (38.8%) and Alphaproteobacteria (25.5%) were the most abundant. The less extreme treatments (Control and UVmin) had a more similar composition and distribution of the phylogenetic groups with the natural pools than the most extreme treatments (Fluct, 40C, and UVplus), which showed drastic changes in the community composition and structure, indicating a different community response to each environmental disturbance. An increase in bacterial diversity was found in the UVmin treatment, suggesting that protected environments promote the establishment of complex bacterial communities, while stressful environments reduce diversity and increase the dominance of a few Cyanobacterial OTUs (mainly Leptolyngbya sp) through environmental filtering. Mesocosm experiments using complex bacterial communities, along with multivariate and phylogenetic analyses of molecular data, can

  16. Multivariate and Phylogenetic Analyses Assessing the Response of Bacterial Mat Communities from an Ancient Oligotrophic Aquatic Ecosystem to Different Scenarios of Long-Term Environmental Disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Pajares, Silvia; Souza, Valeria; Eguiarte, Luis E.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the response of bacterial communities to environmental change is extremely important in predicting the effect of biogeochemical modifications in ecosystem functioning. The Cuatro Cienegas Basin is an ancient oasis in the Mexican Chihuahuan desert that hosts a wide diversity of microbial mats and stromatolites that have survived in extremely oligotrophic pools with nearly constant conditions. However, thus far, the response of these unique microbial communities to long-term environmental disturbances remains unexplored. We therefore studied the compositional stability of these bacterial mat communities by using a replicated (3x) mesocosm experiment: a) Control; b) Fluct: fluctuating temperature; c) 40C: increase to 40 ºC; d) UVplus: artificial increase in UV radiation; and f) UVmin: UV radiation protection. In order to observe the changes in biodiversity, we obtained 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from microbial mats at the end of the experiment (eight months) and analyzed them using multivariate and phylogenetic tools. Sequences were assigned to 13 major lineages, among which Cyanobacteria (38.8%) and Alphaproteobacteria (25.5%) were the most abundant. The less extreme treatments (Control and UVmin) had a more similar composition and distribution of the phylogenetic groups with the natural pools than the most extreme treatments (Fluct, 40C, and UVplus), which showed drastic changes in the community composition and structure, indicating a different community response to each environmental disturbance. An increase in bacterial diversity was found in the UVmin treatment, suggesting that protected environments promote the establishment of complex bacterial communities, while stressful environments reduce diversity and increase the dominance of a few Cyanobacterial OTUs (mainly Leptolyngbya sp) through environmental filtering. Mesocosm experiments using complex bacterial communities, along with multivariate and phylogenetic analyses of molecular data, can

  17. Environmental and Physiological Influences on the TEX86 Proxy: Results from Continuous Culture Studies and Stable Carbon Isotope Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, A.; Hurley, S.; Elling, F. J.; Koenneke, M.; Santoro, A. E.; Buchwald, C.; Wankel, S. D.; Hinrichs, K. U.; Zhang, Y.; Shah Walter, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Membrane lipids of marine Archaea - known as GDGTs - are the basis of the TEX86 sea surface temperature (SST) paleoproxy. GDGTs are ubiquitous in marine sediments, and their broad distribution and high preservation potential have led to an ever-increasing use of TEX86. The planktonic Thaumarchaeota that are believed to be the major sources of GDGTs to marine sediments are autotrophic nitrifiers, assimilating carbon directly from dissolved CO2. Therefore the δ13C values of GDGTs additionally provide information about the DIC system and paleoproductivity. However, as for all biological proxies, understanding the physiology and biochemistry of the responsible organisms is essential to understanding how the proxies work. From this perspective, the TEX86-SST proxy is uniquely perplexing: How is it possible that multiple approaches to calibration show a good correlation between TEX86 and SSTs, when maximum activity of Thaumarchaeota is near and below the base of the photic zone? Here we show data from two studies that help address this question. Analyses of GDGT δ13C values show that the dominant GDGT flux to sediments is not from the sea surface. The data are measured on intact GDGTs purified by orthogonal dimensions of HPLC, followed by measurement of δ13C values on a Spooling Wire Microcombustion (SWiM)-IRMS with 1σ precision of ±0.2‰ and accuracy of ±0.3‰. Using this approach, we confirm that GDGTs, generally around -19.0‰ to -18.5‰, are isotopically "heavy" compared to other marine lipids, and that crenarchaeol in particular is a good tracer of water column GDGT export. In parallel, we investigated the mechanistic underpinning of the TEX86 proxy using isothermal culture studies of the ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeon Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1 to explore the relationship between TEX86 and growth conditions. Evidence suggests that growth rate and electron donor supply are important controls on GDGT ratios and that TEX86 scales with the in-situ rate of

  18. Bound infragravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okihiro, Michele; Guza, R. T.; Seymour, R. J.

    1992-07-01

    Model predictions of bound (i.e., nonlinearly forced by and coupled to wave groups) infragravity wave energy are compared with about 2 years of observations in 8- to 13-m depths at Imperial Beach, California, and Barbers Point, Hawaii. Frequency-directional spectra of free waves at sea and swell frequencies, estimated with a small array of four pressure sensors, are used to predict the bound wave spectra below 0.04 Hz. The predicted total bound wave energy is always less than the observed infragravity energy, and the underprediction increases with increasing water depth and especially with decreasing swell energy. At most half, and usually much less, of the observed infragravity energy is bound. Bound wave spectra are also predicted with data from a single wave gage in 183-m depth at Point Conception, California, and the assumption of unidirectional sea and swell. Even with energetic swell, less than 10% of the total observed infragravity energy in 183-m depth is bound. Free waves, either leaky or edge waves, are more energetic than bound waves at both the shallow and deep sites. The low level of infragravity energy observed in 183-m depth compared with 8- to 13-m depths, with similarly moderate sea and swell energy, suggests that leaky (and very high-mode edge) waves contribute less than 10% of the infragravity energy in 8-13 m. Most of the free infragravity energy in shallow water is refractively trapped and does not reach deep water.

  19. Compositional variability of ice-rafted debris in Heinrich layers 1 and 2 on the northwest European continental slope identified by environmental magnetic analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walden, John; Wadsworth, Emilie; Austin, William E. N.; Peters, Clare; Scourse, James D.; Hall, Ian R.

    2007-02-01

    The composition of ice-rafted debris (IRD) within a sediment core from the European continental slope (core OMEX-2K; 49° 5 N, 13° 26 W) has been examined using environmental magnetic analyses. The data demonstrate compositional variability of the IRD within Heinrich layers 2 (H2) and 1 (H1) and these differences are most readily explained by changes in the contribution of different IRD sources to the core site. Some IRD within the main Heinrich layers show magnetic signatures that are similar to IRD derived from the Laurentide ice sheet found in cores from within the main North Atlantic IRD-belt. In contrast, other IRD-rich layers, both prior to and within the main Heinrich layers, demonstrate different magnetic behaviour, suggesting a contribution from a non-Laurentide sourced IRD, most likely derived from ice streams discharging from northeast Atlantic ice sheets such as the British and Fennoscandian ice sheets. These data are consistent with published compositional data from the same core and, given the rapid, highly sensitive and non-destructive nature of the method, suggest that environmental magnetic analysis has considerable potential for characterising IRD materials within Heinrich layers for the purposes of defining provenance. Copyright

  20. Associations of indoor carbon dioxide concentrations and environmental susceptibilities with mucous membrane and lower respiratory building related symptoms in the BASE study: Analyses of the 100 building dataset

    SciTech Connect

    Erdmann, Christine A.; Apte, Michael G.

    2003-09-01

    Using the US EPA 100 office-building BASE Study dataset, they conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses to quantify the relationship between indoor CO{sub 2} concentrations (dCO{sub 2}) and mucous membrane (MM) and lower respiratory system (LResp) building related symptoms, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, presence of carpet in workspace, thermal exposure, relative humidity, and a marker for entrained automobile exhaust. In addition, they tested the hypothesis that certain environmentally-mediated health conditions (e.g., allergies and asthma) confer increased susceptibility to building related symptoms within office buildings. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for statistically significant, dose-dependent associations (p < 0.05) for dry eyes, sore throat, nose/sinus congestion, and wheeze symptoms with 100 ppm increases in dCO{sub 2} ranged from 1.1 to 1.2. These results suggest that increases in the ventilation rates per person among typical office buildings will, on average, reduce the prevalence of several building related symptoms by up to 70%, even when these buildings meet the existing ASHRAE ventilation standards for office buildings. Building occupants with certain environmentally-mediated health conditions are more likely to experience building related symptoms than those without these conditions (statistically significant ORs ranged from 2 to 11).

  1. Analysing the spatial patterns of livestock anthrax in Kazakhstan in relation to environmental factors: a comparison of local (Gi*) and morphology cluster statistics.

    PubMed

    Kracalik, Ian T; Blackburn, Jason K; Lukhnova, Larisa; Pazilov, Yerlan; Hugh-Jones, Martin E; Aikimbayev, Alim

    2012-11-01

    We compared a local clustering and a cluster morphology statistic using anthrax outbreaks in large (cattle) and small (sheep and goats) domestic ruminants across Kazakhstan. The Getis-Ord (Gi*) statistic and a multidirectional optimal ecotope algorithm (AMOEBA) were compared using 1st, 2nd and 3rd order Rook contiguity matrices. Multivariate statistical tests were used to evaluate the environmental signatures between clusters and non-clusters from the AMOEBA and Gi* tests. A logistic regression was used to define a risk surface for anthrax outbreaks and to compare agreement between clustering methodologies. Tests revealed differences in the spatial distribution of clusters as well as the total number of clusters in large ruminants for AMOEBA (n = 149) and for small ruminants (n = 9). In contrast, Gi* revealed fewer large ruminant clusters (n = 122) and more small ruminant clusters (n = 61). Significant environmental differences were found between groups using the Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Logistic regression was used to model the presence/absence of anthrax outbreaks and define a risk surface for large ruminants to compare with cluster analyses. The model predicted 32.2% of the landscape as high risk. Approximately 75% of AMOEBA clusters corresponded to predicted high risk, compared with ~64% of Gi* clusters. In general, AMOEBA predicted more irregularly shaped clusters of outbreaks in both livestock groups, while Gi* tended to predict larger, circular clusters. Here we provide an evaluation of both tests and a discussion of the use of each to detect environmental conditions associated with anthrax outbreak clusters in domestic livestock. These findings illustrate important differences in spatial statistical methods for defining local clusters and highlight the importance of selecting appropriate levels of data aggregation. PMID:23242686

  2. Analysing the spatial patterns of livestock anthrax in Kazakhstan in relation to environmental factors: a comparison of local (Gi*) and morphology cluster statistics.

    PubMed

    Kracalik, Ian T; Blackburn, Jason K; Lukhnova, Larisa; Pazilov, Yerlan; Hugh-Jones, Martin E; Aikimbayev, Alim

    2012-11-01

    We compared a local clustering and a cluster morphology statistic using anthrax outbreaks in large (cattle) and small (sheep and goats) domestic ruminants across Kazakhstan. The Getis-Ord (Gi*) statistic and a multidirectional optimal ecotope algorithm (AMOEBA) were compared using 1st, 2nd and 3rd order Rook contiguity matrices. Multivariate statistical tests were used to evaluate the environmental signatures between clusters and non-clusters from the AMOEBA and Gi* tests. A logistic regression was used to define a risk surface for anthrax outbreaks and to compare agreement between clustering methodologies. Tests revealed differences in the spatial distribution of clusters as well as the total number of clusters in large ruminants for AMOEBA (n = 149) and for small ruminants (n = 9). In contrast, Gi* revealed fewer large ruminant clusters (n = 122) and more small ruminant clusters (n = 61). Significant environmental differences were found between groups using the Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Logistic regression was used to model the presence/absence of anthrax outbreaks and define a risk surface for large ruminants to compare with cluster analyses. The model predicted 32.2% of the landscape as high risk. Approximately 75% of AMOEBA clusters corresponded to predicted high risk, compared with ~64% of Gi* clusters. In general, AMOEBA predicted more irregularly shaped clusters of outbreaks in both livestock groups, while Gi* tended to predict larger, circular clusters. Here we provide an evaluation of both tests and a discussion of the use of each to detect environmental conditions associated with anthrax outbreak clusters in domestic livestock. These findings illustrate important differences in spatial statistical methods for defining local clusters and highlight the importance of selecting appropriate levels of data aggregation.

  3. Validation of EMP bounds

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, L.K.; Merewether, K.O.; Chen, K.C.; Jorgenson, R.E.; Morris, M.E.; Solberg, J.E.; Lewis, J.G.; Derr, W.

    1996-07-01

    Test data on canonical weapon-like fixtures are used to validate previously developed analytical bounding results. The test fixtures were constructed to simulate (but be slightly worse than) weapon ports of entry but have known geometries (and electrical points of contact). The exterior of the test fixtures exhibited exterior resonant enhancement of the incident fields at the ports of entry with magnitudes equal to those of weapon geometries. The interior consisted of loaded transmission lines adjusted to maximize received energy or voltage but incorporating practical weapon geometrical constraints. New analytical results are also presented for bounding the energies associated with multiple bolt joints and for bounding the exterior resonant enhancement of the exciting fields.

  4. Pesticide residue analyses and biomarker responses of native Costa Rican fish of the Poeciliidae and Cichlidae families to assess environmental impacts of pesticides in Palo Verde National Park.

    PubMed

    Mena, F; Fernández San Juan, M; Campos, B; Sánchez-Avila, J; Faria, M; Pinnock, M; de la Cruz, E; Lacorte, S; Soares, A M V M; Barata, C

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide chemical residues in water samples and biomarker responses in transplanted fish were used to monitor environmental hazards of pesticides in Palo Verde National Park (Costa Rica). The Costarican fish, Parachromis dovii (Ciclhidae) and Poecilia gillii (Poecillidae), were selected as sentinel species. Contaminant analyses detected up to 15 different pesticide residues in water with hexachlobenzene (2261 ng l(-1)), phorate (473 ng l(-1)), epoxiconazole (314) and bromacil (117 ng l(-1)) being the compounds found in higher concentrations. Biomarker responses evidenced impacts on cholinesterase activities in transplanted fish at Barbudal site probably due to the presence of organophosphate insecticides such as phorate. High enzyme activities of glutathione S-transferase and catalase and elevated levels of lipid peroxides were also observed at a site impacted by rice fields (Cabuyo); those effects could be associated with the presence of hexachloro benzene and triazole fungicides. In general, P. dovii biomarkers were affected to a greater extent than those of P. gillii in fish transplanted to sites associated with agriculture, which suggests the former species is a good candidate for future surveys.

  5. Holocene environmental change in the eastern Snake River Plain of Idaho, USA, as inferred from stable isotope analyses of small mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Commendador, Amy S.; Finney, Bruce P.

    2016-05-01

    Previous research on the small mammal population recovered from archeological excavations at the Wasden Site in southeastern Idaho suggests that changing frequency distributions through time represent a shift in climate during the early Holocene from a cooler, wetter regime to a warmer, drier one. This conclusion was re-evaluated using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of bone collagen from the three species of small mammals examined in the earlier studies: pocket gophers (Thomomys talpoides), pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis), and ground squirrels (Spermophilus townsendii). Resulting carbon and nitrogen isotopic values are consistent with known differences in feeding ecology, suggesting high fidelity as proxies for past vegetation (and thus climate) regimes. Patterns of 15N enrichment and increased representation of C4-CAM vegetation observed in the pocket gophers, and to a lesser extent ground squirrels, suggests increasing warmth and/or aridity from the early Holocene until ˜7000 cal yr BP, thus supporting previous hypotheses of climate change on the eastern Snake River Plain. The results highlight the potential contribution of such studies for archeological research by providing additional proxies for environmental conditions that bear on paleoecological adaptations to climatic change, including past human use and occupation of the region.

  6. Holocene environmental change in the eastern Snake River Plain of Idaho, USA, as inferred from stable isotope analyses of small mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Commendador, Amy S.; Finney, Bruce P.

    2016-05-01

    Previous research on the small mammal population recovered from archeological excavations at the Wasden Site in southeastern Idaho suggests that changing frequency distributions through time represent a shift in climate during the early Holocene from a cooler, wetter regime to a warmer, drier one. This conclusion was re-evaluated using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of bone collagen from the three species of small mammals examined in the earlier studies: pocket gophers (Thomomys talpoides), pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis), and ground squirrels (Spermophilus townsendii). Resulting carbon and nitrogen isotopic values are consistent with known differences in feeding ecology, suggesting high fidelity as proxies for past vegetation (and thus climate) regimes. Patterns of 15N enrichment and increased representation of C4-CAM vegetation observed in the pocket gophers, and to a lesser extent ground squirrels, suggests increasing warmth and/or aridity from the early Holocene until ∼7000 cal yr BP, thus supporting previous hypotheses of climate change on the eastern Snake River Plain. The results highlight the potential contribution of such studies for archeological research by providing additional proxies for environmental conditions that bear on paleoecological adaptations to climatic change, including past human use and occupation of the region.

  7. Genetic diversity within the genus Francisella as revealed by comparative analyses of the genomes of two North American isolates from environmental sources

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Francisella tularensis is an intracellular pathogen that causes tularemia in humans and the public health importance of this bacterium has been well documented in recent history. Francisella philomiragia, a distant relative of F. tularensis, is thought to constitute an environmental lineage along with Francisella novicida. Nevertheless, both F. philomiragia and F. novicida have been associated with human disease, primarily in immune-compromised individuals. To understand the genetic relationships and evolutionary contexts among different lineages within the genus Francisella, the genome of Francisella spp. strain TX07-7308 was sequenced and compared to the genomes of F. philomiragia strains ATCC 25017 and 25015, F. novicida strain U112, and F. tularensis strain Schu S4. Results The size of strain ATCC 25017 chromosome was 2,045,775 bp and contained 1,983 protein-coding genes. The size of strain TX07-7308 chromosome was 2,035,931 bp and contained 1,980 protein-coding genes. Pairwise BLAST comparisons indicated that strains TX07-7308 and ATCC 25017 contained 1,700 protein coding genes in common. NUCmer analyses revealed that the chromosomes of strains TX07-7308 and ATCC 25017 were mostly collinear except for a few gaps, translocations, and/or inversions. Using the genome sequence data and comparative analyses with other members of the genus Francisella (e.g., F. novicida strain U112 and F. tularensis strain Schu S4), several strain-specific genes were identified. Strains TX07-7308 and ATCC 25017 contained an operon with six open reading frames encoding proteins related to enzymes involved in thiamine biosynthesis that was absent in F. novicida strain U112 and F. tularensis strain Schu S4. Strain ATCC 25017 contained an operon putatively involved in lactose metabolism that was absent in strain TX07-7308, F. novicida strain U112, and F. tularensis strain Schu S4. In contrast, strain TX07-7308 contained an operon putatively involved in glucuronate metabolism

  8. Genome and Phenotype Microarray Analyses of Rhodococcus sp. BCP1 and Rhodococcus opacus R7: Genetic Determinants and Metabolic Abilities with Environmental Relevance

    PubMed Central

    D’Ursi, Pasqualina; Milanesi, Luciano; Di Canito, Alessandra; Zampolli, Jessica; Collina, Elena; Decorosi, Francesca; Viti, Carlo; Fedi, Stefano; Presentato, Alessandro; Zannoni, Davide; Di Gennaro, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    In this paper comparative genome and phenotype microarray analyses of Rhodococcus sp. BCP1 and Rhodococcus opacus R7 were performed. Rhodococcus sp. BCP1 was selected for its ability to grow on short-chain n-alkanes and R. opacus R7 was isolated for its ability to grow on naphthalene and on o-xylene. Results of genome comparison, including BCP1, R7, along with other Rhodococcus reference strains, showed that at least 30% of the genome of each strain presented unique sequences and only 50% of the predicted proteome was shared. To associate genomic features with metabolic capabilities of BCP1 and R7 strains, hundreds of different growth conditions were tested through Phenotype Microarray, by using Biolog plates and plates manually prepared with additional xenobiotic compounds. Around one-third of the surveyed carbon sources was utilized by both strains although R7 generally showed higher metabolic activity values compared to BCP1. Moreover, R7 showed broader range of nitrogen and sulphur sources. Phenotype Microarray data were combined with genomic analysis to genetically support the metabolic features of the two strains. The genome analysis allowed to identify some gene clusters involved in the metabolism of the main tested xenobiotic compounds. Results show that R7 contains multiple genes for the degradation of a large set of aromatic and PAHs compounds, while a lower variability in terms of genes predicted to be involved in aromatic degradation was found in BCP1. This genetic feature can be related to the strong genetic pressure exerted by the two different environment from which the two strains were isolated. According to this, in the BCP1 genome the smo gene cluster involved in the short-chain n-alkanes degradation, is included in one of the unique regions and it is not conserved in the Rhodococcus strains compared in this work. Data obtained underline the great potential of these two Rhodococcus spp. strains for biodegradation and environmental decontamination

  9. Bound Exciton Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, B. K.

    In the preceding chapter, we concentrated on the properties of free excitons. These free excitons may move through the sample and hit a trap, a nonradiative or a radiative recombination center. At low temperatures, the latter case gives rise to either deep center luminescence, mentioned in Sect. 7.1 and discussed in detail in Chap. 9, or to the luminescence of bound exciton complexes (BE or BEC). The chapter continues with the most prominent of these BECs, namely A-excitons bound to neutral donors. The next aspects are the more weakly BEs at ionized donors. The Sect. 7.4 treats the binding or localization energies of BEC from a theoretical point of view, while Sect. 7.5 is dedicated to excited states of BECs, which contain either holes from deeper valence bands or an envelope function with higher quantum numbers. The last section is devoted to donor-acceptor pair transitions. There is no section devoted specifically to excitons bound to neutral acceptors, because this topic is still partly controversially discussed. Instead, information on these A0X complexes is scattered over the whole chapter, however, with some special emphasis seen in Sects. 7.1, 7.4, and 7.5.

  10. Bound water in Kevlar 49 fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Garza, R.G.; Pruneda, C.O.; Morgan, R.J.

    1981-04-01

    From elemental analyses, thermogravimetric-mass spectroscopy studies and re-evaluation of previous water diffusion studies in Kevlar 49 fibers it is concluded that these fibers can contain two types of sorbed moisture. The fibers can absorb up to approx. 6 wt % loosely bound water with an activation energy for outgassing by desorption of 6 kcal/mole. This loosely bound water is a direct result of the presence of Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ impurities and the perturbations they induce on the packing of the rod-like poly (p-phenylene terephthalamide) macromolecules. Kevlar 49 fibers also inherently contain up to 30 wt % additional water which is tightly bound within the crystal lattice. This water exhibits an activation energy for outgassing by diffusion of approx. 40 kcal/mole and is only evolved from the fiber in significant quantities at t > 350/sup 0/C over a period of hours.

  11. Universal bounds on current fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietzonka, Patrick; Barato, Andre C.; Seifert, Udo

    2016-05-01

    For current fluctuations in nonequilibrium steady states of Markovian processes, we derive four different universal bounds valid beyond the Gaussian regime. Different variants of these bounds apply to either the entropy change or any individual current, e.g., the rate of substrate consumption in a chemical reaction or the electron current in an electronic device. The bounds vary with respect to their degree of universality and tightness. A universal parabolic bound on the generating function of an arbitrary current depends solely on the average entropy production. A second, stronger bound requires knowledge both of the thermodynamic forces that drive the system and of the topology of the network of states. These two bounds are conjectures based on extensive numerics. An exponential bound that depends only on the average entropy production and the average number of transitions per time is rigorously proved. This bound has no obvious relation to the parabolic bound but it is typically tighter further away from equilibrium. An asymptotic bound that depends on the specific transition rates and becomes tight for large fluctuations is also derived. This bound allows for the prediction of the asymptotic growth of the generating function. Even though our results are restricted to networks with a finite number of states, we show that the parabolic bound is also valid for three paradigmatic examples of driven diffusive systems for which the generating function can be calculated using the additivity principle. Our bounds provide a general class of constraints for nonequilibrium systems.

  12. Multi-proxy analyses of geo-bio-archives - a key to reconstruct major environmental and ecological changes in the Ephesia, W Turkey, during the last eight millennia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Friederike; Knipping, Maria; Pint, Anna; Krichel, Marc; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Brückner, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    This interdisciplinary geoarchaeological research in the environs of the ancient city of Ephesus (W Turkey) focuses on (i) Holocene landscape reconstruction along with sea-level changes, and (ii) human impact on landscape evolution. More than 200 sediment cores were retrieved from geo-bio-archives and analysed with a multi-proxy approach (geochemical, sedimentological, microfaunal, palynological, and parasitological methods). The Holocene palaeogeographic changes in the embayment of the Küçük Menderes (Kaystros) on the Aegean coast of Turkey with the famous ancient city of Ephesus are counted amongst the most dramatic ones in the Mediterranean. About seven millennia ago, the maximum marine transgression filled the Küçük Menderes graben up to 20 km inland. Since then, the coastline has continuously shifted westwards due to the progradation of the deltas of this river and its tributaries. Besides other natural factors, like sea level fluctuations and tectonics, the speed of delta progradation was mainly governed by the riverine sediment load, which, in turn, was very much dependent on the human impact on the vegetation cover of the drainage basins. The sedimentation rates confirm this assumption: While low rates occurred between the 5th and the 1st millennia BC (up to 1 mm/year), much higher rates (4 - 30 mm/year) can be calculated thereafter. In response to these dramatic environmental changes, human settlements and their harbours had to be relocated several times from the 1st millennium BC onwards. The Koressos harbour and the Roman harbour were important hubs for commerce with the islands in the Aegean Sea. The nowadays silted-up harbour basins are valuable geo-bio-archives. The Roman harbours inventory shows high heavy metal concentrations (lead, copper), fruit tree pollen and eggs of intestinal parasites from the 1st millennium BC until the 7th century AD, as evidence of intensive human impact during that period of time. The occurrence of organic compounds

  13. Blog life: Entropy Bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Peter

    2008-06-01

    Who is the blog written by? Peter Steinberg is a nuclear physicist at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York, US. He is acting project manager of the PHOBOS experiment, which used Brookhaven's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to search for unusual events produced during collisions between gold nuclei. He is also involved with the PHENIX experiment, which seeks to discover a new state of matter known as the quark-gluon plasma. In addition to his own blog Entropy Bound, Steinberg is currently blogging on a website that was set up last year to publicize the involvement of US scientists with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN.

  14. A bound on chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldacena, Juan; Shenker, Stephen H.; Stanford, Douglas

    2016-08-01

    We conjecture a sharp bound on the rate of growth of chaos in thermal quantum systems with a large number of degrees of freedom. Chaos can be diagnosed using an out-of-time-order correlation function closely related to the commutator of operators separated in time. We conjecture that the influence of chaos on this correlator can develop no faster than exponentially, with Lyapunov exponent λ L ≤ 2π k B T/ℏ. We give a precise mathematical argument, based on plausible physical assumptions, establishing this conjecture.

  15. Imprecise probabilities in engineering analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Michael; Ferson, Scott; Kreinovich, Vladik

    2013-05-01

    Probabilistic uncertainty and imprecision in structural parameters and in environmental conditions and loads are challenging phenomena in engineering analyses. They require appropriate mathematical modeling and quantification to obtain realistic results when predicting the behavior and reliability of engineering structures and systems. But the modeling and quantification is complicated by the characteristics of the available information, which involves, for example, sparse data, poor measurements and subjective information. This raises the question whether the available information is sufficient for probabilistic modeling or rather suggests a set-theoretical approach. The framework of imprecise probabilities provides a mathematical basis to deal with these problems which involve both probabilistic and non-probabilistic information. A common feature of the various concepts of imprecise probabilities is the consideration of an entire set of probabilistic models in one analysis. The theoretical differences between the concepts mainly concern the mathematical description of the set of probabilistic models and the connection to the probabilistic models involved. This paper provides an overview on developments which involve imprecise probabilities for the solution of engineering problems. Evidence theory, probability bounds analysis with p-boxes, and fuzzy probabilities are discussed with emphasis on their key features and on their relationships to one another. This paper was especially prepared for this special issue and reflects, in various ways, the thinking and presentation preferences of the authors, who are also the guest editors for this special issue.

  16. Bound anionic states of adenine

    SciTech Connect

    Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H

    2007-03-20

    Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases, are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the new-found anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of: (i) a new experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (ii) a new combinatorial/ quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules. The computational portion of this work was supported by the: (i) Polish State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN) Grants: DS/8000-4-0140-7 (M.G.) and N204 127 31/2963 (M.H.), (ii) European Social Funds (EFS) ZPORR/2.22/II/2.6/ARP/U/2/05 (M.H.), and (iii) US DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Low Dose Radiation Research Program (M.G.). M.H. holds the Foundation for Polish Science (FNP) award for young scientists. The calculations were performed at the Academic

  17. Semi-annual report of the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Quality Assessment Program. QAP 49 summary of evaluations of 3217 reported analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Greenlaw, P.D.

    1998-12-01

    This Quality Assessment Program (QAP) is designed to test the quality of the environmental measurements being reported to the Department of Energy by its contractors. Since 1976, real or synthetic environmental samples that have been prepared and thoroughly analyzed at the Environmental measurements Laboratory (EML) have been distributed at first quarterly and then semi-annually to these contractors. Their results, which are returned to EML within 90 days, are compiled with EML`s results and are reported back to the participating contractors 30 days later. A summary of the reported results is available to the participants 4 days after the reporting deadline via the Internet at www.eml.doe.gov. This report presents the results from the analysis of the 49th set of environmental quality assessment samples (QAP XLIX) that were received on or before December 1, 1998.

  18. Formation of "bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, K.; Kästner, M.; Miltner, A.

    2009-04-01

    During degradation of organic pollutants in soil, metabolites, microbial biomass, CO2and "bound" residues ("non-extractable" residues in soil organic matter) are formed. Enhanced transformation of these contaminants into "bound" residues has been proposed as an alternative remediation method for polluted soils. However, this kind of residues may pose a potential risk for the environment due to their chemical structure and possible remobilization under different conditions. Therefore particular attention is given actually to "bound" residues. Part of these non-extractable residues may be "biogenic," because microorganisms use the carbon from the pollutant to form their biomass components (fatty acids, amino acids, amino sugars), which subsequently may be incorporated into soil organic matter. Furthermore, the CO2 originating from mineralization of xenobiotics, can be re-assimilated by microorganisms and also incorporated into "biogenic residue". The hazard posed by "bound" residues may be overestimated because they are "biogenic" (contain microbial fatty acids and amino acids). The knowledge about the pathways of "biogenic residue" formation is necessary for a proper assessment of the fate of tested pollutants and their turnover in the soil environment. Moreover, these data are needed to establish the realistic degradation rates of the contaminants in soil. The main objectives of this study are: to quantify the extent of "biogenic residue" (fatty acids, amino acids, amino sugars) formation during the degradation of a model pollutant (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid = 2,4-D) and during CO2 assimilation by microorganisms and to evaluate which components are mainly incorporated into "bound" residues. To investigate the extent of "biogenic residue" formation in soil during the degradation of 2,4-D, experiments with either 14C-U-ring and 13C6-2,4-D or carboxyl-14C 2,4-D were performed. The incubation experiments were performed according to OECD test guideline 307, in the

  19. Sociopolitical Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Galen, Jane, Ed.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue of the serial "Educational Foundations" contains four articles devoted to the topic of "Sociopolitical Analyses." In "An Interview with Peter L. McLaren," Mary Leach presented the views of Peter L. McLaren on topics of local and national discourses, values, and the politics of difference. Landon E. Beyer's "Educational Studies and…

  20. Mutual information rate and bounds for it.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Murilo S; Rubinger, Rero M; Viana, Emilson R; Sartorelli, José C; Parlitz, Ulrich; Grebogi, Celso

    2012-01-01

    The amount of information exchanged per unit of time between two nodes in a dynamical network or between two data sets is a powerful concept for analysing complex systems. This quantity, known as the mutual information rate (MIR), is calculated from the mutual information, which is rigorously defined only for random systems. Moreover, the definition of mutual information is based on probabilities of significant events. This work offers a simple alternative way to calculate the MIR in dynamical (deterministic) networks or between two time series (not fully deterministic), and to calculate its upper and lower bounds without having to calculate probabilities, but rather in terms of well known and well defined quantities in dynamical systems. As possible applications of our bounds, we study the relationship between synchronisation and the exchange of information in a system of two coupled maps and in experimental networks of coupled oscillators. PMID:23112809

  1. Whole genome and transcriptome analyses of environmental antibiotic sensitive and multi-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates exposed to waste water and tap water.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Thomas; Armant, Olivier; Bretschneider, Nancy; Hahn, Alexander; Kirchen, Silke; Seifert, Martin; Dötsch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The fitness of sensitive and resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in different aquatic environments depends on genetic capacities and transcriptional regulation. Therefore, an antibiotic-sensitive isolate PA30 and a multi-resistant isolate PA49 originating from waste waters were compared via whole genome and transcriptome Illumina sequencing after exposure to municipal waste water and tap water. A number of different genomic islands (e.g. PAGIs, PAPIs) were identified in the two environmental isolates beside the highly conserved core genome. Exposure to tap water and waste water exhibited similar transcriptional impacts on several gene clusters (antibiotic and metal resistance, genetic mobile elements, efflux pumps) in both environmental P. aeruginosa isolates. The MexCD-OprJ efflux pump was overexpressed in PA49 in response to waste water. The expression of resistance genes, genetic mobile elements in PA49 was independent from the water matrix. Consistently, the antibiotic sensitive strain PA30 did not show any difference in expression of the intrinsic resistance determinants and genetic mobile elements. Thus, the exposure of both isolates to polluted waste water and oligotrophic tap water resulted in similar expression profiles of mentioned genes. However, changes in environmental milieus resulted in rather unspecific transcriptional responses than selected and stimuli-specific gene regulation.

  2. Fractional diffusion on bounded domains

    SciTech Connect

    Defterli, Ozlem; D'Elia, Marta; Du, Qiang; Gunzburger, Max Donald; Lehoucq, Richard B.; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2015-03-13

    We found that the mathematically correct specification of a fractional differential equation on a bounded domain requires specification of appropriate boundary conditions, or their fractional analogue. In this paper we discuss the application of nonlocal diffusion theory to specify well-posed fractional diffusion equations on bounded domains.

  3. Error Bounds for Interpolative Approximations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gal-Ezer, J.; Zwas, G.

    1990-01-01

    Elementary error estimation in the approximation of functions by polynomials as a computational assignment, error-bounding functions and error bounds, and the choice of interpolation points are discussed. Precalculus and computer instruction are used on some of the calculations. (KR)

  4. Northwest Outward Bound Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Outward Bound School, Portland, OR.

    Instructor responsibilities, procedures for completing activities safely, and instructional methods and techniques are outlined to assist instructors in the Northwest Outward Bound School (Portland, Oregon) as they strive for teaching excellence. Information is organized into six chapters addressing: history and philosophy of Outward Bound; course…

  5. Spacelab Charcoal Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slivon, L. E.; Hernon-Kenny, L. A.; Katona, V. R.; Dejarme, L. E.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes analytical methods and results obtained from chemical analysis of 31 charcoal samples in five sets. Each set was obtained from a single scrubber used to filter ambient air on board a Spacelab mission. Analysis of the charcoal samples was conducted by thermal desorption followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). All samples were analyzed using identical methods. The method used for these analyses was able to detect compounds independent of their polarity or volatility. In addition to the charcoal samples, analyses of three Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) water samples were conducted specifically for trimethylamine.

  6. Generalized environmental control and life support system computer program (G189A) configuration control. [computer subroutine libraries for shuttle orbiter analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakely, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    A G189A simulation of the shuttle orbiter EC/lSS was prepared and used to study payload support capabilities. Two master program libraries of the G189A computer program were prepared for the NASA/JSC computer system. Several new component subroutines were added to the G189A program library and many existing subroutines were revised to improve their capabilities. A number of special analyses were performed in support of a NASA/JSC shuttle orbiter EC/LSS payload support capability study.

  7. Correlated Raman micro-spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses of flame retardants in environmental samples: a micro-analytical tool for probing chemical composition, origin and spatial distribution.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Sutapa; Wagner, Jeff

    2013-07-01

    We present correlated application of two micro-analytical techniques: scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and Raman micro-spectroscopy (RMS) for the non-invasive characterization and molecular identification of flame retardants (FRs) in environmental dusts and consumer products. The SEM/EDS-RMS technique offers correlated, morphological, molecular, spatial distribution and semi-quantitative elemental concentration information at the individual particle level with micrometer spatial resolution and minimal sample preparation. The presented methodology uses SEM/EDS analyses for rapid detection of particles containing FR specific elements as potential indicators of FR presence in a sample followed by correlated RMS analyses of the same particles for characterization of the FR sub-regions and surrounding matrices. The spatially resolved characterization enabled by this approach provides insights into the distributional heterogeneity as well as potential transfer and exposure mechanisms for FRs in the environment that is typically not available through traditional FR analysis. We have used this methodology to reveal a heterogeneous distribution of highly concentrated deca-BDE particles in environmental dust, sometimes in association with identifiable consumer materials. The observed coexistence of deca-BDE with consumer material in dust is strongly indicative of its release into the environment via weathering/abrasion of consumer products. Ingestion of such enriched FR particles in dust represents a potential for instantaneous exposure to high FR concentrations. Therefore, correlated SEM/RMS analysis offers a novel investigative tool for addressing an area of important environmental concern.

  8. The relationship between physical activity and the living environment: a multi-level analyses focusing on changes over time in environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Jongeneel-Grimen, Birthe; Droomers, Mariël; van Oers, Hans A M; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2014-03-01

    There is limited evidence on the causality of previously observed associations between neighborhood characteristics and physical activity (PA). We aimed to assess whether individual-level PA was associated with changes in fear of crime, social cohesion, green spaces, parking facilities, social disorder, and physical disorder that occurred over the past 3 years. In general, in neighborhoods where residents had more favorable perceptions of the environment in 2006, residents were more likely to be physically active in 2009. In addition, improvements between 2006 and 2009 with respect to perceived social cohesion, green spaces, social disorder, and physical disorder were associated with increased odds of being active in 2009. For both the levels in 2006 and trends in the period 2006-2009, the associations were somewhat stronger among women than among men, but associations did not vary by age or length of residence. For several environmental factors, we observed that not only the levels at a certain point in time, but also recent improvements over time were related to PA. These results provide new support for a causal relationship between these environmental factors and PA. PMID:24448404

  9. The relationship between physical activity and the living environment: a multi-level analyses focusing on changes over time in environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Jongeneel-Grimen, Birthe; Droomers, Mariël; van Oers, Hans A M; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2014-03-01

    There is limited evidence on the causality of previously observed associations between neighborhood characteristics and physical activity (PA). We aimed to assess whether individual-level PA was associated with changes in fear of crime, social cohesion, green spaces, parking facilities, social disorder, and physical disorder that occurred over the past 3 years. In general, in neighborhoods where residents had more favorable perceptions of the environment in 2006, residents were more likely to be physically active in 2009. In addition, improvements between 2006 and 2009 with respect to perceived social cohesion, green spaces, social disorder, and physical disorder were associated with increased odds of being active in 2009. For both the levels in 2006 and trends in the period 2006-2009, the associations were somewhat stronger among women than among men, but associations did not vary by age or length of residence. For several environmental factors, we observed that not only the levels at a certain point in time, but also recent improvements over time were related to PA. These results provide new support for a causal relationship between these environmental factors and PA.

  10. Saturating the holographic entropy bound

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Leichenauer, Stefan

    2010-10-15

    The covariant entropy bound states that the entropy, S, of matter on a light sheet cannot exceed a quarter of its initial area, A, in Planck units. The gravitational entropy of black holes saturates this inequality. The entropy of matter systems, however, falls short of saturating the bound in known examples. This puzzling gap has led to speculation that a much stronger bound, S < or approx. A{sup 3/4}, may hold true. In this note, we exhibit light sheets whose entropy exceeds A{sup 3/4} by arbitrarily large factors. In open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes, such light sheets contain the entropy visible in the sky; in the limit of early curvature domination, the covariant bound can be saturated but not violated. As a corollary, we find that the maximum observable matter and radiation entropy in universes with positive (negative) cosmological constant is of order {Lambda}{sup -1} ({Lambda}{sup -2}), and not |{Lambda}|{sup -3/4} as had hitherto been believed. Our results strengthen the evidence for the covariant entropy bound, while showing that the stronger bound S < or approx. A{sup 3/4} is not universally valid. We conjecture that the stronger bound does hold for static, weakly gravitating systems.

  11. Application of a high-performance liquid chromatography fluorescence detector as a nephelometric turbidity detector following Field-Flow Fractionation to analyse size distributions of environmental colloids.

    PubMed

    v d Kammer, F; Baborowski, M; Friese, K

    2005-12-23

    A new operation mode for HPLC-type fluorescence detectors is presented and evaluated using synthetic and environmental particles in the colloidal size range. By applying identical wavelengths for excitation and emission a nephelometric turbidity or single angle light scattering detector is created which can be easily coupled to flow or sedimentation Field-Flow Fractionation (Flow FFF or Sed FFF) for the analysis of colloidal dispersions. The results are compared with standard UV-vis detection methods. Signals obtained are given as a function of particle size and selected detection wavelength. Conclusions can be drawn which affect the current practice of FFF but also for other techniques as groundwater sampling and laboratory column experiments when turbidity is measured in nephelometric mode and in small sample volumes or at low flow rates.

  12. Which population level environmental factors are associated with asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema? Review of the ecological analyses of ISAAC Phase One

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase One showed large worldwide variations in the prevalence of symptoms of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema, up to 10 to 20 fold between countries. Ecological analyses were undertaken with ISAAC Phase One data to explore factors that may have contributed to these variations, and are summarised and reviewed here. In ISAAC Phase One the prevalence of symptoms in the past 12 months of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema were estimated from studies in 463,801 children aged 13 - 14 years in 155 centres in 56 countries, and in 257,800 children aged 6-7 years in 91 centres in 38 countries. Ecological analyses were undertaken between symptom prevalence and the following: Gross National Product per capita (GNP), food intake, immunisation rates, tuberculosis notifications, climatic factors, tobacco consumption, pollen, antibiotic sales, paracetamol sales, and outdoor air pollution. Symptom prevalence of all three conditions was positively associated with GNP, trans fatty acids, paracetamol, and women smoking, and inversely associated with food of plant origin, pollen, immunisations, tuberculosis notifications, air pollution, and men smoking. The magnitude of these associations was small, but consistent in direction between conditions. There were mixed associations of climate and antibiotic sales with symptom prevalence. The potential causality of these associations warrant further investigation. Factors which prevent the development of these conditions, or where there is an absence of a positive correlation at a population level may be as important from the policy viewpoint as a focus on the positive risk factors. Interventions based on small associations may have the potential for a large public health benefit. PMID:20092649

  13. Bounding the elliptic Mahler measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinner, Christopher

    1998-11-01

    We give a simple inequality relating the elliptic Mahler measure of a polynomial to the traditional Mahler measure (via the length of the polynomial). These bounds are essentially sharp. We also give the corresponding result for polynomials in several variables.

  14. Energy, Environmental, and Economic Analyses of Design Concepts for the Co-Production of Fuels and Chemicals with Electricity via Co-Gasification of Coal and Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Larson; Robert Williams; Thomas Kreutz; Ilkka Hannula; Andrea Lanzini; Guangjian Liu

    2012-03-11

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the energy, environmental, and economic performance of industrial facilities that would coproduce electricity and transportation fuels or chemicals from a mixture of coal and biomass via co-gasification in a single pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier, with capture and storage of CO{sub 2} (CCS). The work sought to identify plant designs with promising (Nth plant) economics, superior environmental footprints, and the potential to be deployed at scale as a means for simultaneously achieving enhanced energy security and deep reductions in U.S. GHG emissions in the coming decades. Designs included systems using primarily already-commercialized component technologies, which may have the potential for near-term deployment at scale, as well as systems incorporating some advanced technologies at various stages of R&D. All of the coproduction designs have the common attribute of producing some electricity and also of capturing CO{sub 2} for storage. For each of the co-product pairs detailed process mass and energy simulations (using Aspen Plus software) were developed for a set of alternative process configurations, on the basis of which lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, Nth plant economic performance, and other characteristics were evaluated for each configuration. In developing each set of process configurations, focused attention was given to understanding the influence of biomass input fraction and electricity output fraction. Self-consistent evaluations were also carried out for gasification-based reference systems producing only electricity from coal, including integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification solid-oxide fuel cell (IGFC) systems. The reason biomass is considered as a co-feed with coal in cases when gasoline or olefins are co-produced with electricity is to help reduce lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for these systems. Storing biomass-derived CO

  15. OFFSITE RADIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS FOR THE BOUNDING FLAMMABLE GAS ACCIDENT

    SciTech Connect

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2005-02-18

    This document quantifies the offsite radiological consequences of the bounding flammable gas accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. The bounding flammable gas accident is a detonation in a SST. The calculation applies reasonably conservative input parameters in accordance with guidance in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. The purpose of this analysis is to calculate the offsite radiological consequence of the bounding flammable gas accident. DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', requires the formal quantification of a limited subset of accidents representing a complete set of bounding conditions. The results of these analyses are then evaluated to determine if they challenge the DOE-STD-3009-94, Appendix A, ''Evaluation Guideline,'' of 25 rem total effective dose equivalent in order to identify and evaluate safety-class structures, systems, and components. The bounding flammable gas accident is a detonation in a single-shell tank (SST). A detonation versus a deflagration was selected for analysis because the faster flame speed of a detonation can potentially result in a larger release of respirable material. A detonation in an SST versus a double-shell tank (DST) was selected as the bounding accident because the estimated respirable release masses are the same and because the doses per unit quantity of waste inhaled are greater for SSTs than for DSTs. Appendix A contains a DST analysis for comparison purposes.

  16. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of eastern oil shales. Volume 4, Task 5, Operation of PFH on beneficiated shale, Task 6, Environmental data and mitigation analyses and Task 7, Sample procurement, preparation, and characterization: Final report, September 1987--May 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The objective of Task 5 (Operation of Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydro-Retorting (PFH) on Beneficiated Shale) was to modify the PFH process to facilitate its use for fine-sized, beneficiated Eastern shales. This task was divided into 3 subtasks: Non-Reactive Testing, Reactive Testing, and Data Analysis and Correlations. The potential environment impacts of PFH processing of oil shale must be assessed throughout the development program to ensure that the appropriate technologies are in place to mitigate any adverse effects. The overall objectives of Task 6 (Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses) were to obtain environmental data relating to PFH and shale beneficiation and to analyze the potential environmental impacts of the integrated PFH process. The task was divided into the following four subtasks. Characterization of Processed Shales (IGT), 6.2. Water Availability and Treatment Studies, 6.3. Heavy Metals Removal and 6.4. PFH Systems Analysis. The objective of Task 7 (Sample Procurement, Preparation, and Characterization) was to procure, prepare, and characterize raw and beneficiated bulk samples of Eastern oil shale for all of the experimental tasks in the program. Accomplishments for these tasks are presented.

  17. Detection of bound residues in soils by sandwich-immunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Dosch, M.; Weller, M.G.; Niessner, R.

    1995-12-31

    Immunoassays are useful analytical instruments for the detection of many environmental compounds. This method was not introduced for the detection of non-extractable compounds in soil. So-called ``bound residues`` consist of a soil component, e.g. humic acids and an irreversibly bound pollutant. Because of the complexity of those macromolecules conventional analytical methods in general do not work. Enzyme immunoassays, in contrast, seem to have a large potential for applications and further developments in this field. The use of antibodies with high affinity to the analytes makes a selective detection of environmental pollutants possible. With the development of an enzyme-labeled sandwich-immunoassay polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) irreversibly bound to humic acids were determined for the first time.

  18. Detection of bound residues in soils by sandwich-immunoassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosch, M.; Weller, Michael G.; Niessner, Reinhard

    1995-10-01

    Immunoassays are useful analytical instruments for the detection of many environmental compounds. This method is now introduced for the detection of non-extractable compounds in soil. So-called 'bound residues' consist of a soil component, e.g. humic acids, and an irreversibly bound pollutant. Because of the complexity of those macromolecules conventional analytical methods in general do not work. Enzyme immunoassays, in contrast, seem to have a large potential for applications and further developments in this field. The use of antibodies with high affinity to the analytes makes a selective detection of environmental pollutants possible. With the development of an enzyme-labeled sandwich-immunoassay polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), irreversibly bound to humic acids, were determined for the first time.

  19. Experimental activation of bound entanglement.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, Fumihiro; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Ishizaka, Satoshi; Mitsumori, Yasuyoshi; Kosaka, Hideo; Edamatsu, Keiichi

    2012-07-27

    Entanglement is one of the essential resources in quantum information and communication technology (QICT). The entanglement thus far explored and applied to QICT has been pure and distillable entanglement. Yet, there is another type of entanglement, called "bound entanglement," which is not distillable by local operations and classical communication. We demonstrate the experimental "activation" of the bound entanglement held in the four-qubit Smolin state, unleashing its immanent entanglement in distillable form, with the help of auxiliary two-qubit entanglement and local operations and classical communication. We anticipate that it opens the way to a new class of QICT applications that utilize more general classes of entanglement than ever, including bound entanglement.

  20. Bounds for nonlocality distillation protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, Manuel

    2011-06-15

    Nonlocality can be quantified by the violation of a Bell inequality. Since this violation may be amplified by local operations, an alternative measure has been proposed--distillable nonlocality. The alternative measure is difficult to calculate exactly due to the double exponential growth of the parameter space. In this paper, we give a way to bound the distillable nonlocality of a resource by the solutions to a related optimization problem. Our upper bounds are exponentially easier to compute than the exact value and are shown to be meaningful in general and tight in some cases.

  1. Upper Bound for Induced Gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khuri, N. N.

    1982-08-01

    Given the assumption that Gind-1 given by the Adler-Zee formula is positive, an explicit and rigorous upper bound is derived for it. For pure SU(N) gauge theory, (16πG)-1<=(2512π2)(N2-1)ΛN2 is obtained where ΛN is the mass scale. In general the bound (16πG)-1<=25(π2144)CψΛ2 is obtained, where Cψ is the coefficient of the most singular anomaly contribution in x space, a constant easily determined by low-order perturbation theory for any gauge group.

  2. On lower bounds for polarisability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, H. E.; Pupyshev, V. I.

    2013-09-01

    The response of molecular systems to external fields was one of the first areas studied after development of the new quantum mechanics. Early work by Kirkwood and Buckingham developed polarisability lower bounds that are still used today. This work uses an inequality proposed by Linderberg to develop a treatment of polarisability lower bounds that unifies the work of Kirkwood and Buckingham with Hylleraas' variational perturbation theory. In particular, the prehistory of the works of Kirkwood and Buckingham is described. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the convergence of approximate wavefunctions in the confined atom problem. The applicability of dimensional scaling and its utility in the analysis of confined systems are also discussed.

  3. Wronskian Method for Bound States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple and straightforward method based on Wronskians for the calculation of bound-state energies and wavefunctions of one-dimensional quantum-mechanical problems. We explicitly discuss the asymptotic behaviour of the wavefunction and show that the allowed energies make the divergent part vanish. As illustrative examples we consider…

  4. Loosely-Bound Diatomic Molecules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balfour, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses concept of covalent bonding as related to homonuclear diatomic molecules. Article draws attention to the existence of bound rare gas and alkaline earth diatomic molecules. Summarizes their molecular parameters and offers spectroscopic data. Strength and variation with distance of interatomic attractive forces is given. (Author/SA)

  5. Pieter Paul Rubens, "Prometheus Bound."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Marla K.

    1986-01-01

    Provides a full-color reproduction of Pieter Paul Rubens' painting, "Prometheus Bound," and a lesson plan for using it with students in grades 10 through 12. The goal of the lesson is to introduce students to the techniques of design and execution used by Rubens. (JDH)

  6. Titania bound sodium titanate ion exchanger

    DOEpatents

    DeFilippi, Irene C. G.; Yates, Stephen Frederic; Shen, Jian-Kun; Gaita, Romulus; Sedath, Robert Henry; Seminara, Gary Joseph; Straszewski, Michael Peter; Anderson, David Joseph

    1999-03-23

    This invention is method for preparing a titania bound ion exchange composition comprising admixing crystalline sodium titanate and a hydrolyzable titanium compound and, thereafter drying the titania bound crystalline sodium titanate and subjecting the dried titania bound ion exchange composition to optional compaction and calcination steps to improve the physical strength of the titania bound composition.

  7. Information Omitted From Analyses.

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    In the Original Article titled “Higher- Order Genetic and Environmental Structure of Prevalent Forms of Child and Adolescent Psychopathology” published in the February 2011 issue of JAMA Psychiatry (then Archives of General Psychiatry) (2011;68[2]:181-189), there were 2 errors. Although the article stated that the dimensions of psychopathology were measured using parent informants for inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and oppositional defiant disorder, and a combination of parent and youth informants for conduct disorder, major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, agoraphobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder, all dimensional scores used in the reported analyses were actually based on parent reports of symptoms; youth reports were not used. In addition, whereas the article stated that each symptom dimension was residualized on age, sex, age-squared, and age by sex, the dimensions actually were only residualized on age, sex, and age-squared. All analyses were repeated using parent informants for inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and oppositional defiant disorder, and a combination of parent and youth informants for conduct disorder,major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, agoraphobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder; these dimensional scores were residualized on age, age-squared, sex, sex by age, and sex by age-squared. The results of the new analyses were qualitatively the same as those reported in the article, with no substantial changes in conclusions. The only notable small difference was that major depression and generalized anxiety disorder dimensions had small but significant loadings on the internalizing factor in addition to their substantial loadings on the general factor in the analyses of both genetic and non-shared covariances in the selected models in the new analyses. Corrections were made to the

  8. LABORATORY ANALYSES: WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To be presented at the Workshop for Improving the Recognition, Investigation, and Reporting of Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Drinking, Recreational and Other Waters in Nashville, TN, May 29 - June 1, 2007

  9. The origin of bounded rationality and intelligence.

    PubMed

    Lo, Andrew W

    2013-09-01

    Rational economic behavior in which individuals maximize their own self-interest is only one of many possible types of behavior that arise from natural selection. Given an initial population of individuals, each assigned a purely arbitrary behavior with respect to a binary choice problem, and assuming that offspring behave identically to their parents, only those behaviors linked to reproductive success will survive, and less successful behaviors will disappear exponentially fast. This framework yields a single evolutionary explanation for the origin of several behaviors that have been observed in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans, including risk-sensitive foraging, risk aversion, loss aversion, probability matching, randomization, and diversification. The key to understanding which types of behavior are more likely to survive is how behavior affects reproductive success in a given population's environment. From this perspective, intelligence is naturally defined as behavior that increases the likelihood of reproductive success, and bounds on rationality are determined by physiological and environmental constraints.

  10. Extending the Diffuse Layer Model of Surface Acidity Behavior: III. Estimating Bound Site Activity Coefficients

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although detailed thermodynamic analyses of the 2-pK diffuse layer surface complexation model generally specify bound site activity coefficients for the purpose of accounting for those non-ideal excess free energies contributing to bound site electrochemical potentials, in applic...

  11. 78 FR 18326 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science... Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance Report. OMB Control Number: 1840-NEW. Type of Review: New... under the regular Upward Bound (UB) and Upward Bound Math and Science (UBMS) Programs. The Department...

  12. A Multi-Faceted Approach to Analyse the Effects of Environmental Variables on Geographic Range and Genetic Structure of a Perennial Psammophilous Geophyte: The Case of the Sea Daffodil Pancratium maritimum L. in the Mediterranean Basin

    PubMed Central

    Di Febbraro, Mirko; Imparato, Gennaro; Innangi, Michele; Véla, Errol; Menale, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean coastline is a dynamic and complex system which owes its complexity to its past and present vicissitudes, e.g. complex tectonic history, climatic fluctuations, and prolonged coexistence with human activities. A plant species that is widespread in this habitat is the sea daffodil, Pancratium maritimum (Amaryllidaceae), which is a perennial clonal geophyte of the coastal sands of the Mediterranean and neighbouring areas, well adapted to the stressful conditions of sand dune environments. In this study, an integrated approach was used, combining genetic and environmental data with a niche modelling approach, aimed to investigate: (1) the effect of climate change on the geographic range of this species at different times {past (last inter-glacial, LIG; and last glacial maximum, LGM), present (CURR), near-future (FUT)} and (2) the possible influence of environmental variables on the genetic structure of this species in the current period. The genetic results show that 48 sea daffodil populations (867 specimens) display a good genetic diversity in which the marginal populations (i.e. Atlantic Sea populations) present lower values. Recent genetic signature of bottleneck was detected in few populations (8%). The molecular variation was higher within the populations (77%) and two genetic pools were well represented. Comparing the different climatic simulations in time, the global range of this plant increased, and a further extension is foreseen in the near future thanks to projections on the climate of areas currently—more temperate, where our model suggested a forecast for a climate more similar to the Mediterranean coast. A significant positive correlation was observed between the genetic distance and Precipitation of Coldest Quarter variable in current periods. Our analyses support the hypothesis that geomorphology of the Mediterranean coasts, sea currents, and climate have played significant roles in shaping the current genetic structure of the sea

  13. Associations of indoor carbon dioxide concentrations, VOCS, environmental susceptibilities with mucous membrane and lower respiratory sick building syndrome symptoms in the BASE study: Analyses of the 100 building dataset

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, M.G.; Erdmann, C.A.

    2002-10-01

    Using the 100 office-building Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study dataset, we performed multivariate logistic regression analyses to quantify the associations between indoor minus outdoor CO{sub 2} (dCO{sub 2}) concentrations and mucous membrane (MM) and lower respiratory system (Lresp) Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, presence of carpet in workspace, thermal exposure, relative humidity, and a marker for entrained automobile exhaust. Using principal components analysis we identified a number of possible sources of 73 measured volatile organic compounds in the office buildings, and assessed the impact of these VOCs on the probability of presenting the SBS symptoms. Additionally we included analysis adjusting for the risks for predisposition of having SBS symptoms associated with the allergic, asthmatic, and environmentally sensitive subpopulations within the office buildings. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for statistically significant, dose-dependant associations (p<0.05) for dry eyes, sore throat, nose/sinus congestion, and wheeze symptoms with 100-ppm increases in dCO{sub 2} ranged from 1.1 to 1.2. These results suggest that increases in the ventilation rates per person among typical office buildings will, on average significantly reduce the prevalence of several SBS symptoms, up to 80%, even when these buildings meet the existing ASHRAE ventilation standards for office buildings. VOC sources were observed to play an role in direct association with mucous membrane and lower respiratory irritation, and possibly to be indirectly involved in indoor chemical reactions with ozone that produce irritating compounds associated with SBS symptoms. O-xylene, possibly emitted from furniture coatings was associated with shortness of breath (OR at the maximum concentration = 8, p < 0.05). The environmental sensitivities of a large subset of the office building population add to the overall risk of SBS symptoms (ORs

  14. Class-specific Error Bounds for Ensemble Classifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Prenger, R; Lemmond, T; Varshney, K; Chen, B; Hanley, W

    2009-10-06

    The generalization error, or probability of misclassification, of ensemble classifiers has been shown to be bounded above by a function of the mean correlation between the constituent (i.e., base) classifiers and their average strength. This bound suggests that increasing the strength and/or decreasing the correlation of an ensemble's base classifiers may yield improved performance under the assumption of equal error costs. However, this and other existing bounds do not directly address application spaces in which error costs are inherently unequal. For applications involving binary classification, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves, performance curves that explicitly trade off false alarms and missed detections, are often utilized to support decision making. To address performance optimization in this context, we have developed a lower bound for the entire ROC curve that can be expressed in terms of the class-specific strength and correlation of the base classifiers. We present empirical analyses demonstrating the efficacy of these bounds in predicting relative classifier performance. In addition, we specify performance regions of the ROC curve that are naturally delineated by the class-specific strengths of the base classifiers and show that each of these regions can be associated with a unique set of guidelines for performance optimization of binary classifiers within unequal error cost regimes.

  15. Bound potassium in muscle II.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Z

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were performed to decide between the alternatives a) the ionized K+ is in a dissolved state in the muscle water, or b) a part of the muscle potassium is in a "bound' state. Sartorius muscles of Rana esculenta were put into glicerol for about one hour at 0-2 degrees C. Most of muscle water came out, but most of muscle potassium remained in the muscles. In contrast to this: from muscle in heat rigor more potassium was released due to glicerol treating than from the intact ones. 1. Supposition a) is experimentally refuted. 2. Supposition b) corresponds to the experimental results. PMID:6969511

  16. Voronoi Diagrams Without Bounding Boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, E. T. K.

    2015-10-01

    We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010) and Nerbonne et al (2011).

  17. Entropy bounds and dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Stephen D. H.

    2004-07-01

    Entropy bounds render quantum corrections to the cosmological constant Λ finite. Under certain assumptions, the natural value of Λ is of order the observed dark energy density ~10-10 eV4, thereby resolving the cosmological constant problem. We note that the dark energy equation of state in these scenarios is w≡p/ρ=0 over cosmological distances, and is strongly disfavored by observational data. Alternatively, Λ in these scenarios might account for the diffuse dark matter component of the cosmological energy density. Permanent address: Institute of Theoretical Science and Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403.

  18. Bound Polaron Pair Formation in Poly (phenylenevinylenes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothberg, Lewis

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * PHOTOGENERATED YIELD OF SINGLET EXCITONS * AGGREGRATION EFFECTS ON EXCITED STATE PHOTO-GENERATION * ASSIGNMENT TO BOUND POLARON PAIRS AND DISCUSSION * PROBLEMS WITH THE BOUND POLARON PAIR PICTURE AND CONCLUSION * REFERENCES

  19. Offsite radiological consequence analysis for the bounding flammable gas accident

    SciTech Connect

    CARRO, C.A.

    2003-03-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to calculate the offsite radiological consequence of the bounding flammable gas accident. DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', requires the formal quantification of a limited subset of accidents representing a complete set of bounding conditions. The results of these analyses are then evaluated to determine if they challenge the DOE-STD-3009-94, Appendix A, ''Evaluation Guideline,'' of 25 rem total effective dose equivalent in order to identify and evaluate safety class structures, systems, and components. The bounding flammable gas accident is a detonation in a single-shell tank (SST). A detonation versus a deflagration was selected for analysis because the faster flame speed of a detonation can potentially result in a larger release of respirable material. As will be shown, the consequences of a detonation in either an SST or a double-shell tank (DST) are approximately equal. A detonation in an SST was selected as the bounding condition because the estimated respirable release masses are the same and because the doses per unit quantity of waste inhaled are generally greater for SSTs than for DSTs. Appendix A contains a DST analysis for comparison purposes.

  20. Bounds on multipartite concurrence and tangle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Ming; Li, Hongfang; Fei, Shao-Ming; Li-Jost, Xianqing

    2016-10-01

    We present an analytical lower bound of multipartite concurrence based on the generalized Bloch representations of density matrices. It is shown that the lower bound can be used as an effective entanglement witness of genuine multipartite entanglement. Tight lower and upper bounds for multipartite tangles are also derived. Since the lower bounds depend on just part of the correlation tensors, the result is experimentally feasible.

  1. Stable bound orbits around black rings

    SciTech Connect

    Igata, Takahisa; Ishihara, Hideki; Takamori, Yohsuke

    2010-11-15

    We examine bound orbits of particles around singly rotating black rings. We show that there exist stable bound orbits in toroidal spiral shape near the 'axis' of the ring, and also stable circular orbits on the axis as special cases. The stable bound orbits can have arbitrary large size if the thickness of the ring is less than a critical value.

  2. Counting Young Tableaux of Bounded Height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Francois; Gascon, Francis

    2000-03-01

    We show that formulas of Gessel, for the generating functions for Young standard tableaux of height bounded by k (see [2]), satisfy linear differential equations, with polynomial coefficients, equivalent to P-recurrences conjectured by Favreau, Krob and the first author (see [1]) for the number of bounded height tableaux and pairs of bounded height tableaux.

  3. Quantum correlations beyond Tsirelson's bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Dominic; Ringbauer, Martin; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; White, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Violations of Bell inequalities show that there are correlations that cannot explained by any classical theory. Further violation, beyond Tsirelson's bound, shows that there are correlations that are not explained by quantum mechanics. Such super-quantum correlations would enable violation of information causality, where communication of one bit provides more than one bit of information [Nature 461, 1101 (2009)]. An unavoidable feature of all realistic Bell inequality experiments is loss. If one postselects on successful measurements, unentangled states can violate Bell inequalities. On the other hand, loss can be used to enhance the violation of Bell inequalities for entangled states. This can improve the ability to distinguish between entangled and unentangled states, despite loss. Here we report an optical experiment providing maximal violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality with entangled states. Due to loss and postselection, Tsirelson's bound is also violated. This enables us to more easily distinguish between entangled and unentangled states. In addition, it provides violation of information causality for the postselected data.

  4. Bound states in the continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chia Wei; Zhen, Bo; Stone, A. Douglas; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin

    2016-09-01

    Bound states in the continuum (BICs) are waves that remain localized even though they coexist with a continuous spectrum of radiating waves that can carry energy away. Their very existence defies conventional wisdom. Although BICs were first proposed in quantum mechanics, they are a general wave phenomenon and have since been identified in electromagnetic waves, acoustic waves in air, water waves and elastic waves in solids. These states have been studied in a wide range of material systems, such as piezoelectric materials, dielectric photonic crystals, optical waveguides and fibres, quantum dots, graphene and topological insulators. In this Review, we describe recent developments in this field with an emphasis on the physical mechanisms that lead to BICs across seemingly very different materials and types of waves. We also discuss experimental realizations, existing applications and directions for future work.

  5. Performance Bounds of Quaternion Estimators.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yili; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Nitta, Tohru; Mandic, Danilo P

    2015-12-01

    The quaternion widely linear (WL) estimator has been recently introduced for optimal second-order modeling of the generality of quaternion data, both second-order circular (proper) and second-order noncircular (improper). Experimental evidence exists of its performance advantage over the conventional strictly linear (SL) as well as the semi-WL (SWL) estimators for improper data. However, rigorous theoretical and practical performance bounds are still missing in the literature, yet this is crucial for the development of quaternion valued learning systems for 3-D and 4-D data. To this end, based on the orthogonality principle, we introduce a rigorous closed-form solution to quantify the degree of performance benefits, in terms of the mean square error, obtained when using the WL models. The cases when the optimal WL estimation can simplify into the SWL or the SL estimation are also discussed. PMID:25643416

  6. Environmental changes and the rise and fall of civilizations in the northern Horn of Africa: An approach combining δD analyses of land-plant derived fatty acids with multiple proxies in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terwilliger, Valery J.; Eshetu, Zewdu; Disnar, Jean-Robert; Jacob, Jérémy; Paul Adderley, W.; Huang, Yongsong; Alexandre, Marcelo; Fogel, Marilyn L.

    2013-06-01

    The domains of the ancient polities D'MT and Aksum in the Horn of Africa's highlands are a superior natural system for evaluating roles of environmental change on the rise and fall of civilizations. To compare environmental changes of the times of the two polities, we analyzed stable hydrogen isotopic ratios (δD) of land-plant derived fatty acids (n-C26-30) and other proxies from soil sequences spanning the Holocene from the region. Three results suggest that trends in δD values unambiguously reflect changes in rainfall. First, increases in δD coincide with dry periods inferred from studies of eastern African lakes. Second, changes in δD values were parallel among sections during overlapping time intervals. Third, consideration of vegetation history did not alter directions of trends in δD values over time. By unambiguously recording precipitation, the δD values also enhanced interpretations of proxies that are affected by both climate and land clearing. Both D'MT (ca 2750-2350 cal y BP) and the Aksumite (ca 2100-1250 cal y BP) rose during wetter intervals of the drier part of the Holocene (after ca 6000 cal y BP). Analyses of charred matter indicated that fire had been a common agent of land clearing in all sites. The influence of climate on fire varied, however. Prior to the emergence of D'MT, δD values were correlated with C4:C3 plant ratios estimated from δ13C values. There are no C4 trees and precipitation may have been the main influence on canopy openness. After ca 4300 cal y BP, there was no significant relationship between δD and C4:C3 plant ratios suggesting that factors such as fire influenced canopy openness regardless of climate. Furthermore, the impact of land clearance differed between sites and between D'MT and the Aksumite's times. In one site, the interval from 3550 cal y BP to the decline of D'MT had several anomalies that suggested dramatic increases in thermal severity of fire and human impact. Among these were a large contribution of

  7. Environmental Report 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Althouse, P E; Bertoldo, N A; Blake, R G; Brigdon, S L; Brown, R A; Campbell, C G; Christofferson, E; Clark, L M; Grayson, A R; Harrach, R J; MacQueen, D H; Mathews, S; Peterson, S R; Revelli, M A; Sanchez, L; Taffet, M J; Tate, P J; Ward, R

    2002-09-01

    The chapter summaries demonstrate the breadth of the environmental activities at LLNL. There are 14 chapters in this report: 3 chapters provide general information about the LLNL sites, regulatory activities, and the structure of environmental programs at LLNL; 10 chapters provide environmental monitoring measurements and analyses; and 1 chapter describes the quality assurance program and quality control activities that ensure the validity of the data. Brief descriptions of the contents of each of the individual chapters are presented here. Chapter 1, Introduction, describes the physical setting of the two LLNL sites. The description includes information about the topography, geology, and meteorology of the sites and clearly states the differences between them despite their proximity. Chapter 2, Compliance Summary, summarizes information about LLNL's substantial compliance activities, including compliance with the major federal, state, and local environmental initiatives. The major topics covered are the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act and related state programs, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and state and local hazardous waste regulations, the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act, the Endangered Species Act, the National Historic Preservation Act, and the Antiquities Act. Chapter 3, Environmental Program Information, describes the organization of LLNL's Environmental Protection Department and its divisions, giving the responsibilities of each organization for compliance and monitoring. Chapter 4, Air Effluent Monitoring, summarizes the facilities that have continuous air monitoring for their operations, including a summary of the results of the monitoring data collected for the sources. Chapter 5, Air Surveillance Monitoring, describes the purpose of the air particulate and tritium ambient air monitoring programs and provides analyses

  8. Substrate-Bound Protein Gradients to Study Haptotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Ricoult, Sébastien G.; Kennedy, Timothy E.; Juncker, David

    2015-01-01

    Cells navigate in response to inhomogeneous distributions of extracellular guidance cues. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying migration in response to gradients of chemical cues have been investigated for over a century. Following the introduction of micropipettes and more recently microfluidics for gradient generation, much attention and effort was devoted to study cellular chemotaxis, which is defined as guidance by gradients of chemical cues in solution. Haptotaxis, directional migration in response to gradients of substrate-bound cues, has received comparatively less attention; however, it is increasingly clear that in vivo many physiologically relevant guidance proteins – including many secreted cues – are bound to cellular surfaces or incorporated into extracellular matrix and likely function via a haptotactic mechanism. Here, we review the history of haptotaxis. We examine the importance of the reference surface, the surface in contact with the cell that is not covered by the cue, which forms a gradient opposing the gradient of the protein cue and must be considered in experimental designs and interpretation of results. We review and compare microfluidics, contact printing, light patterning, and 3D fabrication to pattern substrate-bound protein gradients in vitro. The range of methods to create substrate-bound gradients discussed herein makes possible systematic analyses of haptotactic mechanisms. Furthermore, understanding the fundamental mechanisms underlying cell motility will inform bioengineering approaches to program cell navigation and recover lost function. PMID:25870855

  9. Computational rationality: linking mechanism and behavior through bounded utility maximization.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Richard L; Howes, Andrew; Singh, Satinder

    2014-04-01

    We propose a framework for including information-processing bounds in rational analyses. It is an application of bounded optimality (Russell & Subramanian, 1995) to the challenges of developing theories of mechanism and behavior. The framework is based on the idea that behaviors are generated by cognitive mechanisms that are adapted to the structure of not only the environment but also the mind and brain itself. We call the framework computational rationality to emphasize the incorporation of computational mechanism into the definition of rational action. Theories are specified as optimal program problems, defined by an adaptation environment, a bounded machine, and a utility function. Such theories yield different classes of explanation, depending on the extent to which they emphasize adaptation to bounds, and adaptation to some ecology that differs from the immediate local environment. We illustrate this variation with examples from three domains: visual attention in a linguistic task, manual response ordering, and reasoning. We explore the relation of this framework to existing "levels" approaches to explanation, and to other optimality-based modeling approaches.

  10. Substrate-bound protein gradients to study haptotaxis.

    PubMed

    Ricoult, Sébastien G; Kennedy, Timothy E; Juncker, David

    2015-01-01

    Cells navigate in response to inhomogeneous distributions of extracellular guidance cues. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying migration in response to gradients of chemical cues have been investigated for over a century. Following the introduction of micropipettes and more recently microfluidics for gradient generation, much attention and effort was devoted to study cellular chemotaxis, which is defined as guidance by gradients of chemical cues in solution. Haptotaxis, directional migration in response to gradients of substrate-bound cues, has received comparatively less attention; however, it is increasingly clear that in vivo many physiologically relevant guidance proteins - including many secreted cues - are bound to cellular surfaces or incorporated into extracellular matrix and likely function via a haptotactic mechanism. Here, we review the history of haptotaxis. We examine the importance of the reference surface, the surface in contact with the cell that is not covered by the cue, which forms a gradient opposing the gradient of the protein cue and must be considered in experimental designs and interpretation of results. We review and compare microfluidics, contact printing, light patterning, and 3D fabrication to pattern substrate-bound protein gradients in vitro. The range of methods to create substrate-bound gradients discussed herein makes possible systematic analyses of haptotactic mechanisms. Furthermore, understanding the fundamental mechanisms underlying cell motility will inform bioengineering approaches to program cell navigation and recover lost function.

  11. Bounds on double-diffusive convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmforth, Neil J.; Ghadge, Shilpa A.; Kettapun, Atichart; Mandre, Shreyas D.

    2006-12-01

    We consider double-diffusive convection between two parallel plates and compute bounds on the flux of the unstably stratified species using the background method. The bound on the heat flux for Rayleigh Bénard convection also serves as a bound on the double-diffusive problem (with the thermal Rayleigh number equal to that of the unstably stratified component). In order to incorporate a dependence of the bound on the stably stratified component, an additional constraint must be included, like that used by Joseph (Stability of Fluid Motion, 1976, Springer) to improve the energy stability analysis of this system. Our bound extends Joseph's result beyond his energy stability boundary. At large Rayleigh number, the bound is found to behave like R_T(1/2) for fixed ratio R_S/R_T, where R_T and R_S are the Rayleigh numbers of the unstably and stably stratified components, respectively.

  12. Enzymatic Digestion of Chronic Wasting Disease Prions Bound to Soil

    PubMed Central

    SAUNDERS, SAMUEL E.; BARTZ, JASON C.; VERCAUTEREN, KURT C.; BARTELT-HUNT, SHANNON L.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) and sheep scrapie can be transmitted via indirect environmental routes, and it is known that soil can serve as a reservoir of prion infectivity. Given the strong interaction between the prion protein (PrP) and soil, we hypothesized that binding to soil enhances prion resistance to enzymatic digestion, thereby facilitating prion longevity in the environment and providing protection from host degradation. We characterized the performance of a commercially available subtilisin enzyme, the Prionzyme, to degrade soil-bound and unbound CWD and HY TME PrP as a function of pH, temperature, and treatment time. The subtilisin enzyme effectively degraded PrP adsorbed to a wide range of soils and soil minerals below the limits of detection. Signal loss occurred rapidly at high pH (12.5) and within 7 d under conditions representative of the natural environment (pH 7.4, 22°C). We observed no apparent difference in enzyme effectiveness between bound and unbound CWD PrP. Our results show that although adsorbed prions do retain relative resistance to enzymatic digestion compared with other brain homogenate proteins, they can be effectively degraded when bound to soil. Our results also suggest a topical application of a subtilisin enzyme solution may be an effective decontamination method to limit disease transmission via environmental ‘hot spots’ of prion infectivity. PMID:20450190

  13. Some Improved Nonperturbative Bounds for Fermionic Expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, Martin

    2016-06-01

    We reconsider the Gram-Hadamard bound as it is used in constructive quantum field theory and many body physics to prove convergence of Fermionic perturbative expansions. Our approach uses a recursion for the amplitudes of the expansion, discovered in a model problem by Djokic (2013). It explains the standard way to bound the expansion from a new point of view, and for some of the amplitudes provides new bounds, which avoid the use of Fourier transform, and are therefore superior to the standard bounds for models like the cold interacting Fermi gas.

  14. Characterisation of bound volatile compounds of a low flavour kiwifruit species: Actinidia eriantha.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Coralia V; Quek, Siew-Young; Stevenson, Ralph J; Winz, Robert A

    2012-09-15

    Aroma compounds in fruit are known to occur in free and glycosidically bound forms. The bound volatile fraction of a low flavour kiwifruit species, Actinidia eriantha, was studied. The fruit have a bland and grassy flavour. Glycosidic precursors were isolated from juice by adsorption onto an Amberlite XAD-2 column. After enzymatic hydrolysis with Rapidase AR2000, the released aglycones were analysed by GC-MS. Alcohols, terpenoids and phenolics were the most numerously represented compound classes. Alcohols, benzenoids and phenolics showed the highest concentrations. Major compounds were 2-phenylethanol, furfuryl alcohol, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, coniferyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol and linolenic acid. Several of the bound compounds found, including linoleic, linolenic and benzoic acids and coniferyl alcohol, are precursors of odorous volatiles. Many compounds detected as bound volatiles have not been previously reported as free volatiles in A. eriantha. The bound volatile composition of A. eriantha also showed differences with those of other kiwifruit species.

  15. Differences in results of analyses of concurrent and split stream-water samples collected and analyzed by the US Geological Survey and the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, 1985-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melching, C.S.; Coupe, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    During water years 1985-91, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) cooperated in the collection and analysis of concurrent and split stream-water samples from selected sites in Illinois. Concurrent samples were collected independently by field personnel from each agency at the same time and sent to the IEPA laboratory, whereas the split samples were collected by USGS field personnel and divided into aliquots that were sent to each agency's laboratory for analysis. The water-quality data from these programs were examined by means of the Wilcoxon signed ranks test to identify statistically significant differences between results of the USGS and IEPA analyses. The data sets for constituents and properties identified by the Wilcoxon test as having significant differences were further examined by use of the paired t-test, mean relative percentage difference, and scattergrams to determine if the differences were important. Of the 63 constituents and properties in the concurrent-sample analysis, differences in only 2 (pH and ammonia) were statistically significant and large enough to concern water-quality engineers and planners. Of the 27 constituents and properties in the split-sample analysis, differences in 9 (turbidity, dissolved potassium, ammonia, total phosphorus, dissolved aluminum, dissolved barium, dissolved iron, dissolved manganese, and dissolved nickel) were statistically significant and large enough to con- cern water-quality engineers and planners. The differences in concentration between pairs of the concurrent samples were compared to the precision of the laboratory or field method used. The differences in concentration between pairs of the concurrent samples were compared to the precision of the laboratory or field method used. The differences in concentration between paris of split samples were compared to the precision of the laboratory method used and the interlaboratory precision of measuring a given

  16. Fish metalloproteins as biomarkers of environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; de Campos, Reinaldo Calixto; Ziolli, Roberta Lourenço

    2012-01-01

    Fish are well-recognized bioindicators of environmental contamination. Several recent proteomic studies have demonstrated the validity and value of using fish in the search and discovery of new biomarkers. Certain analytical tools, such as comparative protein expression analyses, both in field and lab exposure studies, have been used to improve the understanding of the potential for chemical pollutants to cause harmful effects. The metallomic approach is in its early stages of development, but has already shown great potential for use in ecological and environmental monitoring contexts. Besides discovering new metalloproteins that may be used as biomarkers for environmental contamination, metallomics can be used to more comprehensively elucidate existing biomarkers, which may enhance their effectiveness. Unfortunately, metallomic profiling for fish has not been explored, because only a few fish metalloproteins have thus far been discovered and studied. Of those that have, some have shown ecological importance, and are now successfully used as biomarkers of environmental contamination. These biomarkers have been shown to respond to several types of environmental contamination, such as cyanotoxins, metals, and sewage effluents, although many do not yet possess any known function. Examples of successes include MMPs, superoxide dismutases, selenoproteins, and iron-bound proteins. Unfortunately, none of these have, as yet, been extensively studied. As data are developed for them, valuable new information on their roles in fish physiology and in inducing environmental effects should become available.

  17. Classification of billiard motions in domains bounded by confocal parabolas

    SciTech Connect

    Fokicheva, V V

    2014-08-01

    We consider the billiard dynamical system in a domain bounded by confocal parabolas. We describe such domains in which the billiard problem can be correctly stated. In each such domain we prove the integrability for the system, analyse the arising Liouville foliation, and calculate the invariant of Liouville equivalence--the so-called marked molecule. It turns out that billiard systems in certain parabolic domains have the same closures of solutions (integral trajectories) as the systems of Goryachev-Chaplygin-Sretenskii and Joukowski at suitable energy levels. We also describe the billiard motion in noncompact domains bounded by confocal parabolas, namely, we describe the topology of the Liouville foliation in terms of rough molecules. Bibliography: 16 titles.

  18. THE HOPF BIFURCATION WITH BOUNDED NOISE

    PubMed Central

    Botts, Ryan T.; Homburg, Ale Jan; Young, Todd R.

    2012-01-01

    We study Hopf-Andronov bifurcations in a class of random differential equations (RDEs) with bounded noise. We observe that when an ordinary differential equation that undergoes a Hopf bifurcation is subjected to bounded noise then the bifurcation that occurs involves a discontinuous change in the Minimal Forward Invariant set. PMID:24748762

  19. THE HOPF BIFURCATION WITH BOUNDED NOISE.

    PubMed

    Botts, Ryan T; Homburg, Ale Jan; Young, Todd R

    2012-08-01

    We study Hopf-Andronov bifurcations in a class of random differential equations (RDEs) with bounded noise. We observe that when an ordinary differential equation that undergoes a Hopf bifurcation is subjected to bounded noise then the bifurcation that occurs involves a discontinuous change in the Minimal Forward Invariant set.

  20. THE HOPF BIFURCATION WITH BOUNDED NOISE.

    PubMed

    Botts, Ryan T; Homburg, Ale Jan; Young, Todd R

    2012-08-01

    We study Hopf-Andronov bifurcations in a class of random differential equations (RDEs) with bounded noise. We observe that when an ordinary differential equation that undergoes a Hopf bifurcation is subjected to bounded noise then the bifurcation that occurs involves a discontinuous change in the Minimal Forward Invariant set. PMID:24748762

  1. Outward Bound: An Innovative Patient Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stich, Thomas F.; Gaylor, Michael S.

    A 1975 Dartmouth Outward Bound Mental Health Project, begun with a pilot project for disturbed adolescents, has evolved into an ongoing treatment option in three separate clinical settings for psychiatric patients and recovering alcoholics. Outward Bound consists of a series of prescribed physical and social tasks where the presence of stress,…

  2. Constrained bounds on measures of entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Animesh; Flammia, Steven T.; Shaji, Anil; Caves, Carlton M.

    2007-06-15

    Entanglement measures constructed from two positive, but not completely positive, maps on density operators are used as constraints in placing bounds on the entanglement of formation, the tangle, and the concurrence of 4N mixed states. The maps are the partial transpose map and the phi map introduced by Breuer [H.-P. Breuer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 080501 (2006)]. The norm-based entanglement measures constructed from these two maps, called negativity and phi negativity, respectively, lead to two sets of bounds on the entanglement of formation, the tangle, and the concurrence. We compare these bounds and identify the sets of 4N density operators for which the bounds from one constraint are better than the bounds from the other. In the process, we present a derivation of the already known bound on the concurrence based on the negativity. We compute bounds on the three measures of entanglement using both the constraints simultaneously. We demonstrate how such doubly constrained bounds can be constructed. We discuss extensions of our results to bipartite states of higher dimensions and with more than two constraints.

  3. SHARP ENTRYWISE PERTURBATION BOUNDS FOR MARKOV CHAINS

    PubMed Central

    THIEDE, ERIK; VAN KOTEN, BRIAN; WEARE, JONATHAN

    2015-01-01

    For many Markov chains of practical interest, the invariant distribution is extremely sensitive to perturbations of some entries of the transition matrix, but insensitive to others; we give an example of such a chain, motivated by a problem in computational statistical physics. We have derived perturbation bounds on the relative error of the invariant distribution that reveal these variations in sensitivity. Our bounds are sharp, we do not impose any structural assumptions on the transition matrix or on the perturbation, and computing the bounds has the same complexity as computing the invariant distribution or computing other bounds in the literature. Moreover, our bounds have a simple interpretation in terms of hitting times, which can be used to draw intuitive but rigorous conclusions about the sensitivity of a chain to various types of perturbations. PMID:26491218

  4. Covariant entropy bound and loop quantum cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Wilson-Ewing, Edward

    2008-09-15

    We examine Bousso's covariant entropy bound conjecture in the context of radiation filled, spatially flat, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models. The bound is violated near the big bang. However, the hope has been that quantum gravity effects would intervene and protect it. Loop quantum cosmology provides a near ideal setting for investigating this issue. For, on the one hand, quantum geometry effects resolve the singularity and, on the other hand, the wave function is sharply peaked at a quantum corrected but smooth geometry, which can supply the structure needed to test the bound. We find that the bound is respected. We suggest that the bound need not be an essential ingredient for a quantum gravity theory but may emerge from it under suitable circumstances.

  5. Rigorous bounds for optimal dynamical decoupling

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, Goetz S.; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2010-07-15

    We present rigorous performance bounds for the optimal dynamical decoupling pulse sequence protecting a quantum bit (qubit) against pure dephasing. Our bounds apply under the assumption of instantaneous pulses and of bounded perturbing environment and qubit-environment Hamiltonians such as those realized by baths of nuclear spins in quantum dots. We show that if the total sequence time is fixed the optimal sequence can be used to make the distance between the protected and unperturbed qubit states arbitrarily small in the number of applied pulses. If, on the other hand, the minimum pulse interval is fixed and the total sequence time is allowed to scale with the number of pulses, then longer sequences need not always be advantageous. The rigorous bound may serve as a testbed for approximate treatments of optimal decoupling in bounded models of decoherence.

  6. Mutually unbiased bases and bound entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Löffler, Wolfgang

    2014-04-01

    In this contribution we relate two different key concepts: mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) and entanglement. We provide a general toolbox for analyzing and comparing entanglement of quantum states for different dimensions and numbers of particles. In particular we focus on bound entanglement, i.e. highly mixed states which cannot be distilled by local operations and classical communications. For a certain class of states—for which the state-space forms a ‘magic’ simplex—we analyze the set of bound entangled states detected by the MUB criterion for different dimensions d and number of particles n. We find that the geometry is similar for different d and n, consequently the MUB criterion opens possibilities to investigate the typicality of positivity under partial transposition (PPT)-bound and multipartite bound entanglement more deeply and provides a simple experimentally feasible tool to detect bound entanglement.

  7. Entropy Bounds for Hierarchical Molecular Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dehmer, Matthias; Borgert, Stephan; Emmert-Streib, Frank

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we derive entropy bounds for hierarchical networks. More precisely, starting from a recently introduced measure to determine the topological entropy of non-hierarchical networks, we provide bounds for estimating the entropy of hierarchical graphs. Apart from bounds to estimate the entropy of a single hierarchical graph, we see that the derived bounds can also be used for characterizing graph classes. Our contribution is an important extension to previous results about the entropy of non-hierarchical networks because for practical applications hierarchical networks are playing an important role in chemistry and biology. In addition to the derivation of the entropy bounds, we provide a numerical analysis for two special graph classes, rooted trees and generalized trees, and demonstrate hereby not only the computational feasibility of our method but also learn about its characteristics and interpretability with respect to data analysis. PMID:18769487

  8. Upper bounds on sequential decoding performance parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jelinek, F.

    1974-01-01

    This paper presents the best obtainable random coding and expurgated upper bounds on the probabilities of undetectable error, of t-order failure (advance to depth t into an incorrect subset), and of likelihood rise in the incorrect subset, applicable to sequential decoding when the metric bias G is arbitrary. Upper bounds on the Pareto exponent are also presented. The G-values optimizing each of the parameters of interest are determined, and are shown to lie in intervals that in general have nonzero widths. The G-optimal expurgated bound on undetectable error is shown to agree with that for maximum likelihood decoding of convolutional codes, and that on failure agrees with the block code expurgated bound. Included are curves evaluating the bounds for interesting choices of G and SNR for a binary-input quantized-output Gaussian additive noise channel.

  9. Bound-free Spectra for Diatomic Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenke, David W.

    2012-01-01

    It is now recognized that prediction of radiative heating of entering space craft requires explicit treatment of the radiation field from the infrared (IR) to the vacuum ultra violet (VUV). While at low temperatures and longer wavelengths, molecular radiation is well described by bound-bound transitions, in the short wavelength, high temperature regime, bound-free transitions can play an important role. In this work we describe first principles calculations we have carried out for bound-bound and bound-free transitions in N2, O2, C2, CO, CN, NO, and N2+. Compared to bound ]bound transitions, bound-free transitions have several particularities that make them different to deal with. These include more complicated line shapes and a dependence of emission intensity on both bound state diatomic and atomic concentrations. These will be discussed in detail below. The general procedure we used was the same for all species. The first step is to generate potential energy curves, transition moments, and coupling matrix elements by carrying out ab initio electronic structure calculations. These calculations are expensive, and thus approximations need to be made in order to make the calculations tractable. The only practical method we have to carry out these calculations is the internally contracted multi-reference configuration interaction (icMRCI) method as implemented in the program suite Molpro. This is a widely used method for these kinds of calculations, and is capable of generating very accurate results. With this method, we must first of choose which electrons to correlate, the one-electron basis to use, and then how to generate the molecular orbitals.

  10. Error bounds in MEG (Magnetoencephalography) multipole localization

    SciTech Connect

    Jerbi, K.; Mosher, J. C.; Baillet, S.; Leahy, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a non-invasive method that enables the measurement of the magnetic field produced by neural current sources within the human brain. Unfortunately, MEG source estimation is a severely ill-posed inverse problem. The two major approaches used to tackle this problem are 'imaging' and 'model-based' methods. The first class of methods relies on a tessellation of the cortex, assigning an elemental current source to each area element and solving the linear inverse problem. Accurate tessellations lead to a highly underdetermined problem, and regularized linear methods lead to very smooth current distributions. An alternative approach widely used is a parametric representation of the neural source. Such model-based methods include the classic equivalent current dipole (ECD) and its multiple current dipole extension [1]. The definition of such models has been based on the assumption that the underlying sources are focal and small in number. An alternative approach reviewed in [4], [5] is to extend the parametric source representations within the model-based framework to allow for distributed sources. The multipolar expansion of the magnetic field about the centroid of a distributed source readily offers an elegant parametric model, which collapses to a dipole model in the limiting case and includes higher order terms in the case of a spatially extended source. While multipolar expansions have been applied to magnetocardiography (MCG) source modeling [2], their use in MEG has been restricted to simplified models [7]. The physiological interpretation of these higher-order components in non-intuitive, therefore limiting their application in this community (cf. [8]). In this study we investigate both the applicability of dipolar and multipolar models to cortical patches, and the accuracy with which we can locate these sources. We use a combination of Monte Carlo analyses and Cramer-Rao lower bounds (CRLBs), paralleling the work in [3] for the ECD

  11. Match-bounded String Rewriting Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geser, Alfons; Hofbauer, Dieter; Waldmann, Johannes

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a new class of automated proof methods for the termination of rewriting systems on strings. The basis of all these methods is to show that rewriting preserves regular languages. To this end, letters are annotated with natural numbers, called match heights. If the minimal height of all positions in a redex is h+1 then every position in the reduct will get height h+1. In a match-bounded system, match heights are globally bounded. Using recent results on deleting systems, we prove that rewriting by a match-bounded system preserves regular languages. Hence it is decidable whether a given rewriting system has a given match bound. We also provide a sufficient criterion for the abence of a match-bound. The problem of existence of a match-bound is still open. Match-boundedness for all strings can be used as an automated criterion for termination, for match-bounded systems are terminating. This criterion can be strengthened by requiring match-boundedness only for a restricted set of strings, for instance the set of right hand sides of forward closures.

  12. Water quality and environmental isotopic analyses of ground-water samples collected from the Wasatch and Fort Union Formations in areas of coalbed methane development : implications to recharge and ground-water flow, eastern Powder River basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartos, Timothy T.; Ogle, Kathy Muller

    2002-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ground-water samples were evaluated as part of an investigation of lower Tertiary aquifers in the eastern Powder River Basin where coalbed methane is being developed. Ground-water samples were collected from two springs discharging from clinker, eight monitoring wells completed in the Wasatch aquifer, and 13 monitoring or coalbed methane production wells completed in coalbed aquifers. The ground-water samples were analyzed for major ions and environmental isotopes (tritium and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen) to characterize the composition of waters in these aquifers, to relate these characteristics to geochemical processes, and to evaluate recharge and ground-water flow within and between these aquifers. This investigation was conducted in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineer's Office and the Bureau of Land Management. Water quality in the different aquifers was characterized by major-ion composition. Samples collected from the two springs were classified as calcium-sulfate-type and calcium-bicarbonate-type waters. All ground-water samples from the coalbed aquifers were sodium-bicarbonate-type waters as were five of eight samples collected from the overlying Wasatch aquifer. Potential areal patterns in ionic composition were examined. Ground-water samples collected during this and another investigation suggest that dissolved-solids concentrations in the coalbed aquifers may be lower south of the Belle Fourche River (generally less than 600 milligrams per liter). As ground water in coalbed aquifers flows to the north and northwest away from an inferred source of recharge (clinker in the study area), dissolved-solids concentrations appear to increase. Variation in ionic composition in the vertical dimension was examined qualitatively and statistically within and between aquifers. A relationship between ionic composition and well depth was noted and corroborates similar observations by earlier investigators in the Powder River

  13. Majorana bound states in magnetic skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Stano, Peter; Klinovaja, Jelena; Loss, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic skyrmions are highly mobile nanoscale topological spin textures. We show, both analytically and numerically, that a magnetic skyrmion of an even azimuthal winding number placed in proximity to an s -wave superconductor hosts a zero-energy Majorana bound state in its core, when the exchange coupling between the itinerant electrons and the skyrmion is strong. This Majorana bound state is stabilized by the presence of a spin-orbit interaction. We propose the use of a superconducting trijunction to realize non-Abelian statistics of such Majorana bound states.

  14. Lightweight Distance Bounding Protocol against Relay Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Seok; Cho, Kookrae; Yum, Dae Hyun; Hong, Sung Je; Lee, Pil Joong

    Traditional authentication protocols are based on cryptographic techniques to achieve identity verification. Distance bounding protocols are an enhanced type of authentication protocol built upon both signal traversal time measurement and cryptographic techniques to accomplish distance verification as well as identity verification. A distance bounding protocol is usually designed to defend against the relay attack and the distance fraud attack. As there are applications to which the distance fraud attack is not a serious threat, we propose a streamlined distance bounding protocol that focuses on the relay attack. The proposed protocol is more efficient than previous protocols and has a low false acceptance rate under the relay attack.

  15. Bounds on dark matter in solar orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.D.; Lau, E.L.; Taylor, A.H.; Dicus, D.A.; Teplitz, D.C.; Texas Univ., Austin; Maryland Univ., College Park )

    1989-07-01

    The possibility is considered that a spherical distribution of dark matter (DM), matter not visible with current instruments, is trapped in the sun's gravitational field. Bounds are placed from the motion of Uranus and Neptune, on the amount of DM that could be so trapped within the radius of those planets' orbits, as follows: from the Voyager 2, Uranus-flyby data new, more accurate ephemeris values are generated. Trapped DM mass is bounded by noting that such a distribution would increase the effective mass of the sun as seen by the outer planets and by using the new ephemeris values to bound such an increase. 34 refs.

  16. Pattern Search Algorithms for Bound Constrained Minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Robert Michael; Torczon, Virginia

    1996-01-01

    We present a convergence theory for pattern search methods for solving bound constrained nonlinear programs. The analysis relies on the abstract structure of pattern search methods and an understanding of how the pattern interacts with the bound constraints. This analysis makes it possible to develop pattern search methods for bound constrained problems while only slightly restricting the flexibility present in pattern search methods for unconstrained problems. We prove global convergence despite the fact that pattern search methods do not have explicit information concerning the gradient and its projection onto the feasible region and consequently are unable to enforce explicitly a notion of sufficient feasible decrease.

  17. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.C.; Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.

    1993-04-01

    Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff are developing mathematical models to be used to estimate the radiation dose that individuals may have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. An uncertainty and sensitivity analyses plan is essential to understand and interpret the predictions from these mathematical models. This is especially true in the case of the HEDR models where the values of many parameters are unknown. This plan gives a thorough documentation of the uncertainty and hierarchical sensitivity analysis methods recommended for use on all HEDR mathematical models. The documentation includes both technical definitions and examples. In addition, an extensive demonstration of the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis process is provided using actual results from the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Codes (HEDRIC). This demonstration shows how the approaches used in the recommended plan can be adapted for all dose predictions in the HEDR Project.

  18. Towards a Certified Lightweight Array Bound Checker for Java Bytecode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pichardie, David

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic array bound checks are crucial elements for the security of a Java Virtual Machines. These dynamic checks are however expensive and several static analysis techniques have been proposed to eliminate explicit bounds checks. Such analyses require advanced numerical and symbolic manipulations that 1) penalize bytecode loading or dynamic compilation, 2) complexify the trusted computing base. Following the Foundational Proof Carrying Code methodology, our goal is to provide a lightweight bytecode verifier for eliminating array bound checks that is both efficient and trustable. In this work, we define a generic relational program analysis for an imperative, stackoriented byte code language with procedures, arrays and global variables and instantiate it with a relational abstract domain as polyhedra. The analysis has automatic inference of loop invariants and method pre-/post-conditions, and efficient checking of analysis results by a simple checker. Invariants, which can be large, can be specialized for proving a safety policy using an automatic pruning technique which reduces their size. The result of the analysis can be checked efficiently by annotating the program with parts of the invariant together with certificates of polyhedral inclusions. The resulting checker is sufficiently simple to be entirely certified within the Coq proof assistant for a simple fragment of the Java bytecode language. During the talk, we will also report on our ongoing effort to scale this approach for the full sequential JVM.

  19. Characteristics of successful opinion leaders in a bounded confidence model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuwei; Glass, David H.; McCartney, Mark

    2016-05-01

    This paper analyses the impact of competing opinion leaders on attracting followers in a social group based on a bounded confidence model in terms of four characteristics: reputation, stubbornness, appeal and extremeness. In the model, reputation differs among leaders and normal agents based on the weights assigned to them, stubbornness of leaders is reflected by their confidence towards normal agents, appeal of the leaders is represented by the confidence of followers towards them, and extremeness is captured by the opinion values of leaders. Simulations show that increasing reputation, stubbornness or extremeness makes it more difficult for the group to achieve consensus, but increasing the appeal will make it easier. The results demonstrate that successful opinion leaders should generally be less stubborn, have greater appeal and be less extreme in order to attract more followers in a competing environment. Furthermore, the number of followers can be very sensitive to small changes in these characteristics. On the other hand, reputation has a more complicated impact: higher reputation helps the leader to attract more followers when the group bound of confidence is high, but can hinder the leader from attracting followers when the group bound of confidence is low.

  20. Coulomb Bound States of Strongly Interacting Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghrebi, M. F.; Gullans, M. J.; Bienias, P.; Choi, S.; Martin, I.; Firstenberg, O.; Lukin, M. D.; Büchler, H. P.; Gorshkov, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    We show that two photons coupled to Rydberg states via electromagnetically induced transparency can interact via an effective Coulomb potential. This interaction gives rise to a continuum of two-body bound states. Within the continuum, metastable bound states are distinguished in analogy with quasibound states tunneling through a potential barrier. We find multiple branches of metastable bound states whose energy spectrum is governed by the Coulomb potential, thus obtaining a photonic analogue of the hydrogen atom. Under certain conditions, the wave function resembles that of a diatomic molecule in which the two polaritons are separated by a finite "bond length." These states propagate with a negative group velocity in the medium, allowing for a simple preparation and detection scheme, before they slowly decay to pairs of bound Rydberg atoms.

  1. Antioxidant activity of albumin-bound bilirubin.

    PubMed Central

    Stocker, R; Glazer, A N; Ames, B N

    1987-01-01

    Bilirubin, when bound to human albumin and at concentrations present in normal human plasma, protects albumin-bound linoleic acid from peroxyl radical-induced oxidation in vitro. Initially, albumin-bound bilirubin (Alb-BR) is oxidized at the same rate as peroxyl radicals are formed and biliverdin is produced stoichiometrically as the oxidation product. On an equimolar basis, Alb-BR successfully competes with uric acid for peroxyl radicals but is less efficient in scavenging these radicals than vitamin C. These results show that 1 mol of Alb-BR can scavenge 2 mol of peroxyl radicals and that small amounts of plasma bilirubin are sufficient to prevent oxidation of albumin-bound fatty acids as well as of the protein itself. The data indicate a role for Alb-BR as a physiological antioxidant in plasma and the extravascular space. PMID:3475708

  2. Slot antenna as a bound charge oscillator.

    PubMed

    Choe, Jong-Ho; Kang, Ji-Hun; Kim, Dai-Sik; Park, Q-Han

    2012-03-12

    We study the scattering properties of an optical slot antenna formed from a narrow rectangular hole in a metal film. We show that slot antennas can be modeled as bound charge oscillators mediating resonant light scattering. A simple closed-form expression for the scattering spectrum of a slot antenna is obtained that reveals the nature of a bound charge oscillator and also the effect of a substrate. We find that the spectral width of scattering resonance is dominated by a radiative damping caused by the Abraham-Lorentz force acting on a bound charge. The bound charge oscillator model provides not only an intuitive physical picture for the scattering of an optical slot antenna but also reasonable numerical agreements with rigorous calculations using the finite-difference time-domain method. PMID:22418535

  3. Bound phenolics in foods, a review.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Estrada, Beatriz A; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2014-01-01

    Among phytochemicals, phenolic compounds have been extensively researched due to their diverse health benefits. Phenolic compounds occur mostly as soluble conjugates and insoluble forms, covalently bound to sugar moieties or cell wall structural components. Absorption mechanisms for bound phenolic compounds in the gastrointestinal tract greatly depend on the liberation of sugar moieties. Food processes such as fermentation, malting, thermoplastic extrusion or enzymatic, alkaline and acid hydrolyses occasionally assisted with microwave or ultrasound have potential to release phenolics associated to cell walls. Different kinds of wet chemistry methodologies to release and detect bound phenolic have been developed. These include harsh heat treatments, chemical modifications or biocatalysis. New protocols for processing and determining phenolics in food matrices must be devised in order to release bound phenolics and for quality control in the growing functional food industry.

  4. Performance bound for real OTEC heat engines

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.

    1987-01-01

    Maximum power and efficiency at the maximum power of an irreversible OTEC heat engine are treated. When time is explicitly considered in the energy exchanges between the heat engine and its surroundings, it is found that there is a bound on the efficiency of the real OTEC heat engine at the maximum power condition. This bound can guide the evaluation of existing OTEC systems or influence design of future OTEC heat engines.

  5. An upper bound on quantum entropy.

    SciTech Connect

    Zachos, C. K.; High Energy Physics

    2008-01-01

    Following ref [1], a classical upper bound for quantum entropy is identified and illustrated, 0 {le} S{sub q} {le} ln (e{sigma}{sup 2}/2{h_bar}), involving the variance {sigma}{sup 2} in phase space of the classical limit distribution of a given system. A fortiori, this further bounds the corresponding information-theoretical generalizations of the quantum entropy proposed by Renyi.

  6. New spectral features from bound dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catena, Riccardo; Kouvaris, Chris

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate that dark matter particles gravitationally bound to the Earth can induce a characteristic nuclear recoil signal at low energies in direct detection experiments. The new spectral feature that we predict can provide a complementary verification of dark matter discovery at experiments with positive signal but unclear background. The effect is generically expected, in that the ratio of bound over halo dark matter event rates at detectors is independent of the dark matter-nucleon cross section.

  7. Bound states in the Higgs model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Leo, Leo; Darewych, Jurij W.

    1994-02-01

    We derive relativistic wave equations for the bound states of two Higgs bosons within the Higgs sector of the minimal standard model. The variational method and the Hamiltonian formalism of QFT are used to obtain the equations using a simple ||hh>+||hhh> Fock-space ansatz. We present approximate solutions of these equations for a range of Higgs boson masses, and explore the parameter space which corresponds to the existence of two-Higgs-boson bound states.

  8. Hamiltonian anomalies of bound states in QED

    SciTech Connect

    Shilin, V. I.; Pervushin, V. N.

    2013-10-15

    The Bound State in QED is described in systematic way by means of nonlocal irreducible representations of the nonhomogeneous Poincare group and Dirac's method of quantization. As an example of application of this method we calculate triangle diagram Para-Positronium {yields} {gamma}{gamma}. We show that the Hamiltonian approach to Bound State in QED leads to anomaly-type contribution to creation of pair of parapositronium by two photon.

  9. Inhibitor-bound structures of human pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4.

    PubMed

    Kukimoto-Niino, Mutsuko; Tokmakov, Alexander; Terada, Takaho; Ohbayashi, Naomi; Fujimoto, Takako; Gomi, Sumiko; Shiromizu, Ikuya; Kawamoto, Masaki; Matsusue, Tomokazu; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2011-09-01

    The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. PDC activity is tightly regulated by four members of a family of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoforms (PDK1-4), which phosphorylate and inactivate PDC. Recently, the development of specific inhibitors of PDK4 has become an especially important focus for the pharmaceutical management of diabetes and obesity. In this study, crystal structures of human PDK4 complexed with either AMPPNP, ADP or the inhibitor M77976 were determined. ADP-bound PDK4 has a slightly wider active-site cleft and a more disordered ATP lid compared with AMPPNP-bound PDK4, although both forms of PDK4 assume open conformations with a wider active-site cleft than that in the closed conformation of the previously reported ADP-bound PDK2 structure. M77976 binds to the ATP-binding pocket of PDK4 and causes local conformational changes with complete disordering of the ATP lid. M77976 binding also leads to a large domain rearrangement that further expands the active-site cleft of PDK4 compared with the ADP- and AMPPNP-bound forms. Biochemical analyses revealed that M77976 inhibits PDK4 with increased potency compared with the previously characterized PDK inhibitor radicicol. Thus, the present structures demonstrate for the first time the flexible and dynamic aspects of PDK4 in the open conformation and provide a basis for the development of novel inhibitors targeting the nucleotide-binding pocket of PDK4. PMID:21904029

  10. An improved method for the quantification of SOA bound peroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutzel, Anke; Rodigast, Maria; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Böge, Olaf; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2013-03-01

    An improvement is made to a method for the quantification of SOA-bound peroxides. The procedure is based on an iodometric-spectrophotometric method that has been commonly used for the determination of peroxides in a wide range of biological and environmental samples. The improved method was applied to determine the peroxide content of laboratory-generated SOA from α-pinene ozonolysis. Besides main improvements for the detection conditions, the use of more environmentally sound solvents is considered instead of carcinogenic solvents. In addition to the improved method for peroxide determination, the present study provides evidence for artefact formation caused by ultrasonic agitation for the extraction of organic compounds in SOA filter samples. The concentration of SOA-bound peroxides in the extracts from ultrasonic agitation were up to three times higher than those from a laboratory orbital shaker under the same extraction conditions, indicating peroxide formation caused by acoustic cavitation during extraction. In contrast, pinic acid, terebic acid and terpenylic acid showed significantly lower concentrations in the sample extract prepared using ultrasonic agitation, indicating that these compounds react with OH radicals that are formed from acoustic cavitation. Great care should be taken when extracting SOA samples and the use of ultrasound should be avoided.

  11. Error bounds from extra precise iterative refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Demmel, James; Hida, Yozo; Kahan, William; Li, Xiaoye S.; Mukherjee, Soni; Riedy, E. Jason

    2005-02-07

    We present the design and testing of an algorithm for iterative refinement of the solution of linear equations, where the residual is computed with extra precision. This algorithm was originally proposed in the 1960s [6, 22] as a means to compute very accurate solutions to all but the most ill-conditioned linear systems of equations. However two obstacles have until now prevented its adoption in standard subroutine libraries like LAPACK: (1) There was no standard way to access the higher precision arithmetic needed to compute residuals, and (2) it was unclear how to compute a reliable error bound for the computed solution. The completion of the new BLAS Technical Forum Standard [5] has recently removed the first obstacle. To overcome the second obstacle, we show how a single application of iterative refinement can be used to compute an error bound in any norm at small cost, and use this to compute both an error bound in the usual infinity norm, and a componentwise relative error bound. We report extensive test results on over 6.2 million matrices of dimension 5, 10, 100, and 1000. As long as a normwise (resp. componentwise) condition number computed by the algorithm is less than 1/max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, the computed normwise (resp. componentwise) error bound is at most 2 max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {center_dot} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, and indeed bounds the true error. Here, n is the matrix dimension and w is single precision roundoff error. For worse conditioned problems, we get similarly small correct error bounds in over 89.4% of cases.

  12. Bounds Estimation Via Regression with Asymmetric Cost Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeCoste, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses a significant but mostly-neglected class of problems that we call bounds estimation. This includes learning empirical best-case and worst-case algorithmic complexity bounds and red-line bounds on sensor data.

  13. Conformational phases of membrane bound cytoskeletal filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quint, David A.; Grason, Gregory; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2013-03-01

    Membrane bound cytoskeletal filaments found in living cells are employed to carry out many types of activities including cellular division, rigidity and transport. When these biopolymers are bound to a membrane surface they may take on highly non-trivial conformations as compared to when they are not bound. This leads to the natural question; What are the important interactions which drive these polymers to particular conformations when they are bound to a surface? Assuming that there are binding domains along the polymer which follow a periodic helical structure set by the natural monomeric handedness, these bound conformations must arise from the interplay of the intrinsic monomeric helicity and membrane binding. To probe this question, we study a continuous model of an elastic filament with intrinsic helicity and map out the conformational phases of this filament for various mechanical and structural parameters in our model, such as elastic stiffness and intrinsic twist of the filament. Our model allows us to gain insight into the possible mechanisms which drive real biopolymers such as actin and tubulin in eukaryotes and their prokaryotic cousins MreB and FtsZ to take on their functional conformations within living cells.

  14. Revisiting cosmological bounds on radiative neutrino lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Mirizzi, Alessandro; Montanino, Daniele; Serpico, Pasquale D.

    2007-09-01

    Neutrino oscillation experiments and direct bounds on absolute masses constrain neutrino mass differences to fall into the microwave energy range, for most of the allowed parameter space. As a consequence of these recent phenomenological advances, older constraints on radiative neutrino decays based on diffuse background radiations and assuming strongly hierarchical masses in the eV range are now outdated. We thus derive new bounds on the radiative neutrino lifetime using the high precision cosmic microwave background spectral data collected by the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer instrument on board the Cosmic Background Explorer. The lower bound on the lifetime is between a fewx10{sup 19} s and {approx}5x10{sup 20} s, depending on the neutrino mass ordering and on the absolute mass scale. However, due to phase space limitations, the upper bound in terms of the effective magnetic moment mediating the decay is not better than {approx}10{sup -8} Bohr magnetons. We also comment about possible improvements of these limits, by means of recent diffuse infrared photon background data. We compare these bounds with preexisting limits coming from laboratory or astrophysical arguments. We emphasize the complementarity of our results with others available in the literature.

  15. Computations of entropy bounds: Multidimensional geometric methods

    SciTech Connect

    Makaruk, H.E.

    1998-02-01

    The entropy bounds for constructive upper bound on the needed number-of-bits for solving a dichotomy is represented by the quotient of two multidimensional solid volumes. For minimization of this upper bound exact calculation of the volume of this quotient is needed. Three methods for exact computing of the volume of a given nD volume are presented: (1) general method for calculation any nD volume by slicing it into volumes of decreasing dimension is presented; (2) a method applying appropriate curvilinear coordinate system is described for volume bounded by symmetrical curvilinear hypersurfaces (spheres, cones, hyperboloids, ellipsoids, cylinders, etc.); and (3) an algorithm for dividing any nD complex into simplices and computing of the volume of the simplices is presented, supplemented by a general formula for calculation of volume of an nD simplex. These mathematical methods enable exact calculation of volume of any complicated multidimensional solids. The methods allow for the calculation of the minimal volume and lead to tighter bounds on the needed number-of-bits.

  16. Thermalization Time Bounds for Pauli Stabilizer Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temme, Kristan

    2016-09-01

    We prove a general lower bound to the spectral gap of the Davies generator for Hamiltonians that can be written as the sum of commuting Pauli operators. These Hamiltonians, defined on the Hilbert space of N-qubits, serve as one of the most frequently considered candidates for a self-correcting quantum memory. A spectral gap bound on the Davies generator establishes an upper limit on the life time of such a quantum memory and can be used to estimate the time until the system relaxes to thermal equilibrium when brought into contact with a thermal heat bath. The bound can be shown to behave as {λ ≥ O(N^{-1} exp(-2β overline{ɛ}))} , where {overline{ɛ}} is a generalization of the well known energy barrier for logical operators. Particularly in the low temperature regime we expect this bound to provide the correct asymptotic scaling of the gap with the system size up to a factor of N -1. Furthermore, we discuss conditions and provide scenarios where this factor can be removed and a constant lower bound can be proven.

  17. SNS shielding analyses overview

    SciTech Connect

    Popova, Irina; Gallmeier, Franz; Iverson, Erik B; Lu, Wei; Remec, Igor

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives an overview on on-going shielding analyses for Spallation Neutron Source. Presently, the most of the shielding work is concentrated on the beam lines and instrument enclosures to prepare for commissioning, save operation and adequate radiation background in the future. There is on-going work for the accelerator facility. This includes radiation-protection analyses for radiation monitors placement, designing shielding for additional facilities to test accelerator structures, redesigning some parts of the facility, and designing test facilities to the main accelerator structure for component testing. Neutronics analyses are required as well to support spent structure management, including waste characterisation analyses, choice of proper transport/storage package and shielding enhancement for the package if required.

  18. Bounds on Neutrino Non-Standard Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique

    2010-03-30

    We review the present model independent bounds on neutrino non-standard interactions both at neutrino production and detection and in its interactions with matter. For matter non-standard interactions the direct bounds are rather weak. However, matter non-standard interactions are related by gauge invariance to the production and detection ones as well as to flavour changing processes involving charged leptons. Taking into account these relations much stronger bounds of at least O(10{sup -2}) can be derived unless significant fine tunings are implemented. Testing non-standard interactions at this level at future neutrino oscillation facilities is challenging but still feasible at very ambitious proposals such as the Neutrino Factory.

  19. Weakly bound atomic trimers in ultracold traps

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, M. T.; Frederico, T.; Tomio, Lauro; Delfino, A.

    2003-09-01

    The experimental three-atom recombination coefficients of the atomic states {sup 23}Na|F=1,m{sub F}=-1>, {sup 87}Rb|F=1,m{sub F}=-1>, and {sup 85}Rb|F=2,m{sub F}=-2>, together with the corresponding two-body scattering lengths, allow predictions of the trimer bound-state energies for such systems in a trap. The recombination parameter is given as a function of the weakly bound trimer energies, which are in the interval 1bound state to our prediction, in the case of {sup 85}Rb|F=2,m{sub F}=-2>, for a particular trap, is shown to be relatively small.

  20. Experimental bound entanglement through a Pauli channel

    PubMed Central

    Amselem, Elias; Sadiq, Muhammad; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the characteristics of a quantum systems when affected by noise is one of the biggest challenges for quantum technologies. The general Pauli error channel is an important lossless channel for quantum communication. In this work we consider the effects of a Pauli channel on a pure four-qubit state and simulate the Pauli channel experimentally by studying the action on polarization encoded entangled photons. When the noise channel acting on the photons is correlated, a set spanned by four orthogonal bound entangled states can be generated. We study this interesting case experimentally and demonstrate that products of Bell states can be brought into a bound entangled regime. We find states in the set of bound entangled states which experimentally violate the CHSH inequality while still possessing a positive partial transpose. PMID:23752651

  1. Laboratory bounds on electron Lorentz violation

    SciTech Connect

    Altschul, Brett

    2010-07-01

    Violations of Lorentz boost symmetry in the electron and photon sectors can be constrained by studying several different high-energy phenomenon. Although they may not lead to the strongest bounds numerically, measurements made in terrestrial laboratories produce the most reliable results. Laboratory bounds can be based on observations of synchrotron radiation, as well as the observed absences of vacuum Cerenkov radiation (e{sup {+-}{yields}e{+-}+{gamma}}) and photon decay ({gamma}{yields}e{sup +}+e{sup -}). Using measurements of synchrotron energy losses at LEP and the survival of TeV photons, we place new bounds on the three electron Lorentz-violation coefficients c{sub (TJ)}, at the 3x10{sup -13} to 6x10{sup -15} levels.

  2. Convex Lower Bounds for Free Energy Minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Jonathan

    We construct lower bounds on free energy with convex relaxations from the nonlinear minimization over probabilities to linear programs over expectation values. Finite-temperature expectation values are further resolved into distributions over energy. A superset of valid expectation values is delineated by an incomplete set of linear constraints. Free energy bounds can be improved systematically by adding constraints, which also increases their computational cost. We compute several free energy bounds of increasing accuracy for the triangular-lattice Ising model to assess the utility of this method. This work was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  3. Bound States in Boson Impurity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Tao; Wu, Ying-Hai; González-Tudela, A.; Cirac, J. I.

    2016-04-01

    The formation of bound states involving multiple particles underlies many interesting quantum physical phenomena, such as Efimov physics or superconductivity. In this work, we show the existence of an infinite number of such states for some boson impurity models. They describe free bosons coupled to an impurity and include some of the most representative models in quantum optics. We also propose a family of wave functions to describe the bound states and verify that it accurately characterizes all parameter regimes by comparing its predictions with exact numerical calculations for a one-dimensional tight-binding Hamiltonian. For that model, we also analyze the nature of the bound states by studying the scaling relations of physical quantities, such as the ground-state energy and localization length, and find a nonanalytical behavior as a function of the coupling strength. Finally, we discuss how to test our theoretical predictions in experimental platforms, such as photonic crystal structures and cold atoms in optical lattices.

  4. Bounded link prediction in very large networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Wei; Pu, Cunlai; Xu, Zhongqi; Cai, Shimin; Yang, Jian; Michaelson, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Evaluating link prediction methods is a hard task in very large complex networks due to the prohibitive computational cost. However, if we consider the lower bound of node pairs' similarity scores, this task can be greatly optimized. In this paper, we study CN index in the bounded link prediction framework, which is applicable to enormous heterogeneous networks. Specifically, we propose a fast algorithm based on the parallel computing scheme to obtain all node pairs with CN values larger than the lower bound. Furthermore, we propose a general measurement, called self-predictability, to quantify the performance of similarity indices in link prediction, which can also indicate the link predictability of networks with respect to given similarity indices.

  5. 77 FR 3751 - Extension of Deadlines; Upward Bound Program (Regular Upward Bound (UB))

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Regulations is available via the Federal Digital System at: www.gpo.gov/fdsys . At this site you can view this... Bound Program (Regular Upward Bound (UB)) notice on December 19, 2011 (76 FR 78621). DATES: Deadline for... notice in the Federal Register (76 FR 78621) inviting applications for new awards for fiscal year...

  6. Career Development and Personal Functioning Differences between Work-Bound and Non-Work Bound Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Peter A.; Patton, Wendy; Hood, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    We surveyed 506 Australian high school students on career development (exploration, planning, job-knowledge, decision-making, indecision), personal functioning (well-being, self-esteem, life satisfaction, school satisfaction) and control variables (parent education, school achievement), and tested differences among work-bound, college-bound and…

  7. Generalized mutual information and Tsirelson's bound

    SciTech Connect

    Wakakuwa, Eyuri; Murao, Mio

    2014-12-04

    We introduce a generalization of the quantum mutual information between a classical system and a quantum system into the mutual information between a classical system and a system described by general probabilistic theories. We apply this generalized mutual information (GMI) to a derivation of Tsirelson's bound from information causality, and prove that Tsirelson's bound can be derived from the chain rule of the GMI. By using the GMI, we formulate the 'no-supersignalling condition' (NSS), that the assistance of correlations does not enhance the capability of classical communication. We prove that NSS is never violated in any no-signalling theory.

  8. Proof of a quantum Bousso bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousso, Raphael; Casini, Horacio; Fisher, Zachary; Maldacena, Juan

    2014-08-01

    We prove the generalized covariant entropy bound, ΔS≤(A-A')/4Gℏ, for light-sheets with initial area A and final area A'. The entropy ΔS is defined as a difference of von Neumann entropies of an arbitrary state and the vacuum, with both states restricted to the light-sheet under consideration. The proof applies to free fields, in the limit where gravitational backreaction is small. We do not assume the null energy condition. In regions where it is violated, we find that the bound is protected by the defining property of light-sheets: that their null generators are nowhere expanding.

  9. Upper bounds on the photon mass

    SciTech Connect

    Accioly, Antonio; Helayeel-Neto, Jose; Scatena, Eslley

    2010-09-15

    The effects of a nonzero photon rest mass can be incorporated into electromagnetism in a simple way using the Proca equations. In this vein, two interesting implications regarding the possible existence of a massive photon in nature, i.e., tiny alterations in the known values of both the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron and the gravitational deflection of electromagnetic radiation, are utilized to set upper limits on its mass. The bounds obtained are not as stringent as those recently found; nonetheless, they are comparable to other existing bounds and bring new elements to the issue of restricting the photon mass.

  10. NN*(1440) quasi-bound states

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Lu; Zou Bingsong; Shen Pengnian; Zhang Yingjie

    2011-10-21

    Inspired by a recent observation of a narrow resonance-like structure around 2360 MeV in the pn {yields} d{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} cross section, we investigate the possibility of forming NN*(1440) quasi-bound state by meson exchange potential. With parameters of the t-channel {pi}, {sigma}, {rho} and {omega} exchanges determined by relevant NN scattering and N*(1440) decay processes, it is found that a NN*(1440) quasi-bound state with the same quantum numbers as the deuteron can be formed with binding energy about 20 MeV.

  11. Learning within bounds and dream sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geszti, T.; Pazmandi, F.

    1987-12-01

    In a bounded-synapses version of Hopfield's model (1984) for neural networks the quasienergy of a given memory, which is approximately equal to the depth of the corresponding energy well is calculated exactly by treating the change of a synaptic strength on learning as a random walk within bounds. Attractors corresponding to stored memories are found to be considerably flattened before serious retrieval errors arise. This allows dream sleep to be interpreted as random recall and relearning of fresh strong memories, in order to stack them on top of weak incidental memory imprints of a day.

  12. A note on BPS vortex bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Izquierdo, A.; Garcia Fuertes, W.; Mateos Guilarte, J.

    2016-02-01

    In this note we investigate bound states, where scalar and vector bosons are trapped by BPS vortices in the Abelian Higgs model with a critical ratio of the couplings. A class of internal modes of fluctuation around cylindrically symmetric BPS vortices is characterized mathematically, analyzing the spectrum of the second-order fluctuation operator when the Higgs and vector boson masses are equal. A few of these bound states with low values of quantized magnetic flux are described fully, and their main properties are discussed.

  13. J/{Psi}-nuclear bound states

    SciTech Connect

    Tsushima, K.; Thomas, A. W.; Lu, D. H.; Krein, G.

    2011-06-15

    J/{Psi}-nuclear bound state energies are calculated for a range of nuclei by solving the Proca (Klein-Gordon) equation. Critical input for the calculations, namely the medium-modified D and D* meson masses, as well as the nucleon density distributions in nuclei, are obtained from the quark-meson coupling model. The attractive potential originates from the D and D* meson loops in the J/{Psi} self-energy in the nuclear medium. It appears that J/{Psi}-nuclear bound states should produce a clear experimental signature provided that the J/{Psi} meson is produced in recoilless kinematics.

  14. Quantum Kolmogorov complexity and bounded quantum memory

    SciTech Connect

    Miyadera, Takayuki

    2011-04-15

    The effect of bounded quantum memory in a primitive information protocol has been examined using the quantum Kolmogorov complexity as a measure of information. We employed a toy two-party protocol in which Bob, by using a bounded quantum memory and an unbounded classical memory, estimates a message that was encoded in qubits by Alice in one of the bases X or Z. Our theorem gave a nontrivial effect of the memory boundedness. In addition, a generalization of the uncertainty principle in the presence of quantum memory has been obtained.

  15. Reliability testing across the Environmental Quality Index and national environmental indices.

    EPA Science Inventory

    One challenge in environmental epidemiology is the exploration of cumulative environmental exposure across multiple domains (e.g. air, water, land). The Environmental Quality Index (EQI), created by the U.S. EPA, uses principle component analyses combining environmental domains (...

  16. Functional analyses and treatment of precursor behavior.

    PubMed

    Najdowski, Adel C; Wallace, Michele D; Ellsworth, Carrie L; MacAleese, Alicia N; Cleveland, Jackie M

    2008-01-01

    Functional analysis has been demonstrated to be an effective method to identify environmental variables that maintain problem behavior. However, there are cases when conducting functional analyses of severe problem behavior may be contraindicated. The current study applied functional analysis procedures to a class of behavior that preceded severe problem behavior (precursor behavior) and evaluated treatments based on the outcomes of the functional analyses of precursor behavior. Responding for all participants was differentiated during the functional analyses, and individualized treatments eliminated precursor behavior. These results suggest that functional analysis of precursor behavior may offer an alternative, indirect method to assess the operant function of severe problem behavior. PMID:18468282

  17. Functional Analyses and Treatment of Precursor Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Najdowski, Adel C; Wallace, Michele D; Ellsworth, Carrie L; MacAleese, Alicia N; Cleveland, Jackie M

    2008-01-01

    Functional analysis has been demonstrated to be an effective method to identify environmental variables that maintain problem behavior. However, there are cases when conducting functional analyses of severe problem behavior may be contraindicated. The current study applied functional analysis procedures to a class of behavior that preceded severe problem behavior (precursor behavior) and evaluated treatments based on the outcomes of the functional analyses of precursor behavior. Responding for all participants was differentiated during the functional analyses, and individualized treatments eliminated precursor behavior. These results suggest that functional analysis of precursor behavior may offer an alternative, indirect method to assess the operant function of severe problem behavior. PMID:18468282

  18. Bounding the states of systems with unknown-but-bounded disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Wei K.; Parlos, Alexander G.; Verghese, George C.

    1990-01-01

    Control systems with hard constraints on certain variables are characterized, in an analytical review of recent investigations based on an unknown-but-bounded description of magnitude uncertainties. Hard-constraint problems typically arise in the design of controllers for potentially hazardous systems such as nuclear power plants. Consideration is given to norm bounds based on matrix measures, extensions of Schweppe's (1968) ellipsoid bounds, and set-theoretic regulator design. The performance of these approaches is evaluated by means of numerical simulations involving a third-order nonlinear steam-boiler model; the results are presented in graphs, and it is found that ellipsoid bounds are tightest in the general case, but that box bounds are even tighter for linear systems with Metzler system matrices.

  19. Sensitivity in risk analyses with uncertain numbers.

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, W. Troy; Ferson, Scott

    2006-06-01

    Sensitivity analysis is a study of how changes in the inputs to a model influence the results of the model. Many techniques have recently been proposed for use when the model is probabilistic. This report considers the related problem of sensitivity analysis when the model includes uncertain numbers that can involve both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty and the method of calculation is Dempster-Shafer evidence theory or probability bounds analysis. Some traditional methods for sensitivity analysis generalize directly for use with uncertain numbers, but, in some respects, sensitivity analysis for these analyses differs from traditional deterministic or probabilistic sensitivity analyses. A case study of a dike reliability assessment illustrates several methods of sensitivity analysis, including traditional probabilistic assessment, local derivatives, and a ''pinching'' strategy that hypothetically reduces the epistemic uncertainty or aleatory uncertainty, or both, in an input variable to estimate the reduction of uncertainty in the outputs. The prospects for applying the methods to black box models are also considered.

  20. Integrated Programs and Pro-Environmental Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Research suggested that "nature experience as an education method played a role in developing environmental value and attitudes, and was influential in pro-environmental behaviour." Few of these studies however, assessed the long-term influences of outdoor education experiences on participants' pro-environmental behaviour. The Outward Bound Canada…

  1. Functional Analyses and Treatment of Precursor Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najdowski, Adel C.; Wallace, Michele D.; Ellsworth, Carrie L.; MacAleese, Alicia N.; Cleveland, Jackie

    2008-01-01

    Functional analysis has been demonstrated to be an effective method to identify environmental variables that maintain problem behavior. However, there are cases when conducting functional analyses of severe problem behavior may be contraindicated. The current study applied functional analysis procedures to a class of behavior that preceded severe…

  2. College Bound? Make the Right Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Jenna Ashley

    2009-01-01

    "College Bound? Make the Right Choices" is the Pope Center's latest tool for improving colleges and universities "from the bottom up" through better choices. Its purpose is to help high school students and their parents become smarter purchasers of higher education. This booklet by Jenna Ashley Robinson helps young people think through what they…

  3. Nondissipative decoherence bounds on quantum computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, Stefano; Bonifacio, Rodolfo

    2001-03-01

    We investigate the capabilities of a quantum computer based on cold trapped ions in the presence of nondissipative decoherence. The latter is accounted by using the evolution time as a random variable and then averaging on a properly defined probability distribution. Severe bounds on computational performances are found.

  4. Interaction barriers for light, weakly bound projectiles

    SciTech Connect

    Kolata, J. J.; Aguilera, E. F.

    2009-02-15

    A parametrization of the interaction-barrier model of C. Y. Wong [Phys. Rev. Lett. 31, 766 (1973)] is given for light, weakly bound projectiles and also for the exotic 'halo' nuclei {sup 6}He and {sup 8}B. Comparisons are made with the original parametrization. The extremely anomalous behavior of the interaction radius and barrier curvature for halo nuclei is discussed.

  5. Bioactivity of albumins bound to silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mariam, Jessy; Sivakami, S; Kothari, D C; Dongre, P M

    2014-06-01

    The last decade has witnessed a tremendous rise in the proposed applications of nanomaterials in the field of medicine due to their very attractive physiochemical properties and novel actions such as the ability to reach previously inaccessible targets such as brain. However biological activity of functional molecules bound to nanoparticles and its physiological consequences is still unclear and hence this area requires immediate attention. The functional properties of Human Serum Albumin (HSA) and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) bound to silver nanoparticles (~60 nm) have been studied under physiological environment. Esterase activity, binding of drugs (warfarin and ibuprofen), antioxidant activity and copper binding by albumins was evaluated. The catalytic efficiencies of HSA and BSA diminished upon binding to silver nanoparticles. Perturbation in binding of warfarin and ibuprofen, loss of free sulphydryls, antioxidant activity and enhancement of copper binding were observed in albumins bound to nanoparticles. These alterations in functional activity of nanoparticle bound albumins which will have important consequences should be taken into consideration while using nanoparticles for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  6. Bounds for the cumulative conditional expectation function

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández, M.; González-López, V. A.

    2015-03-10

    We introduce the concept of cumulative conditional expectation function. This is a quantity that provides statistical support for making decisions in applied problems. The goal of this paper is to find an analytical expression for upper and lower bounds of this function, assuming stochastic dependence types as being the underlying random structure.

  7. Opinion formation with upper and lower bounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Ryosuke; Martin, Arnaud

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the opinion formation with upper and lower bounds. We formulate the binary exchange of opinions between two peoples under the second (or political) party using the relativistic inelastic-Boltzmann-Vlasov equation with randomly perturbed motion. In this paper, we discuss the relativistic effects on the opinion formation of peoples from the standpoint of the relativistic kinetic theory.

  8. Mentoring College Bound High School Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowrer-Popiel, Elizabeth

    This article examines causes of the high rate of attrition of college freshmen during the first few weeks of school and describes a plan for mentorships between successful college students and college-bound secondary seniors prior to entrance into college. In discussing the challenges facing freshmen, the article suggests that they suffer stress…

  9. Book Selection, Collection Development, and Bounded Rationality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Charles A.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews previously proposed schemes of classical rationality in book selection, describes new approaches to rational choice behavior, and presents a model of book selection based on bounded rationality in a garbage can decision process. The role of tacit knowledge and symbolic content in the selection process are also discussed. (102 references)…

  10. Logistics Handbook, 1976. Colorado Outward Bound School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Outward Bound School, Denver.

    Logistics, a support mission, is vital to the successful operation of the Colorado Outward Bound School (COBS) courses. Logistics is responsible for purchasing, maintaining, transporting, and replenishing a wide variety of items, i.e., food, mountaineering and camping equipment, medical and other supplies, and vehicles. The Logistics coordinator…

  11. Ternary resin-bound Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gromova, Anna V; Ciszewski, Joseph M; Miller, Benjamin L

    2012-02-18

    The ability to carry out simultaneous orthogonal exchange chemistries has opened new opportunities for increasing the numerical and structural diversity accessible to Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry. We present proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating this concept is transferrable to resin-bound DCC, facilitating the generation and analysis of libraries with greater structural diversity.

  12. Bound Indoleacetic Acid in Avena Coleoptiles 1

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Alan; Thimann, Kenneth V.

    1966-01-01

    When C14 carboxyl indoleacetic acid (IAA) is transported through Avena coleoptile sections a fraction of the activity becomes bound. The nature of this bound IAA has been investigated. Upon extraction with solvents and chromatography a substance having the RF of IAA in 4 solvents was detected. No evidence could be found for the formation of indoleacetyl conjugates. In pea stem sections subjected to a similar experimental regime good evidence was obtained for the occurrence of conjugates. When IAA was supplied exogenously to coleoptile sections floating in solutions the occurrence of conjugates was shown to be dependent on the presence of the primary leaf. In its absence no conjugates could be detected. On grinding coleoptile sections and subsequent centrifugation at 240 × g the radioactivity was found to be in the tissue fraction as opposed to the supernatant. The radioactivity cannot be removed from the tissue by extraction with water, buffer solution or treatment with ribonuclease. It is readily removed by 10% urea, crystalline trypsin and chymotrypsin. It is therefore concluded that IAA becomes bound to a protein. Bound IAA does not appear to be able to cause growth in Avena coleoptile sections. PMID:16656259

  13. Outward Bound as an Adjunct to Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Nelson K.

    The Colorado Outward Bound School (COBS) provides successful adjunct programs for special populations undergoing therapy at the Adventure Home (Boulder, CO), the Juvenile Justice Program and the St. Luke's Hospital Alcoholism Recovery Unit (Denver, CO), and the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center Department of Psychiatry (Hanover, NH). The goals of…

  14. Theoretical Bounds of Direct Binary Search Halftoning.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jan-Ray

    2015-11-01

    Direct binary search (DBS) produces the images of the best quality among half-toning algorithms. The reason is that it minimizes the total squared perceived error instead of using heuristic approaches. The search for the optimal solution involves two operations: (1) toggle and (2) swap. Both operations try to find the binary states for each pixel to minimize the total squared perceived error. This error energy minimization leads to a conjecture that the absolute value of the filtered error after DBS converges is bounded by half of the peak value of the autocorrelation filter. However, a proof of the bound's existence has not yet been found. In this paper, we present a proof that shows the bound existed as conjectured under the condition that at least one swap occurs after toggle converges. The theoretical analysis also indicates that a swap with a pixel further away from the center of the autocorrelation filter results in a tighter bound. Therefore, we propose a new DBS algorithm which considers toggle and swap separately, and the swap operations are considered in the order from the edge to the center of the filter. Experimental results show that the new algorithm is more efficient than the previous algorithm and can produce half-toned images of the same quality as the previous algorithm.

  15. Lifetime of a Chemically Bound Helium Compound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaban, Galina M.; Lundell, Jan; Gerber, R. Benny; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The rare-gas atoms are chemically inert, to an extent unique among all elements. This is due to the stable electronic structure of the atoms. Stable molecules with chemically bound rare-gas atoms are, however, known. A first such compound, XePtF6, W2S prepared in 1962 and since then a range of molecules containing radon, xenon and krypton have been obtained. Most recently, a first stable chemically bound compound of argon was prepared, leaving neon and helium as the only elements for which stable chemically bound molecules are not yet known. Electronic structure calculations predict that a metastable species HHeF exists, but significance of the result depends on the unknown lifetime. Here we report quantum dynamics calculations of the lifetime of HHeF, using accurate interactions computed from electronic structure theory. HHeF is shown to disintegrate by tunneling through energy barriers into He + HF and H + He + F the first channel greatly dominating. The lifetime of HHeF is more than 120 picoseconds, that of DHeF is 14 nanoseconds. The relatively long lifetimes are encouraging for the preparation prospects of this first chemically bound helium compound.

  16. Colorado Outward Bound School River Rafters' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leachman, Mark

    Instructional sequences, safety rules, duties of crew members, and procedures for Colorado Outward Bound School river rafting trips are summarized in this manual. Designed to acquaint instructors with the duties expected of them on the trips, the information in the manual is presented in outline form and is intended for those with prior river…

  17. College Bound Seniors, 1974-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY.

    Some one million college bound students, who were high school seniors during 1974-75 previously participated in the College Board's Admissions Testing Program (ATP), which included the Scholarship Aptitude Test (SAT), the Test of Standard Written English, the Student Descriptive Questionnaire, and the ATP Achievement Tests. These tests created a…

  18. New HiggsBounds from LEP and the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtle, P.; Brein, O.; Heinemeyer, S.; Weiglein, G.; Williams, K.

    2010-02-10

    We review the program HiggsBounds that tests theoretical predictions of models with arbitrary Higgs sectors against the exclusion bounds obtained from the Higgs searches at LEP and the Tevatron. We explicitly list the bounds that have been added after the first release of HiggsBounds.

  19. Sample Complexity Bounds for Differentially Private Learning

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Hsu, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This work studies the problem of privacy-preserving classification – namely, learning a classifier from sensitive data while preserving the privacy of individuals in the training set. In particular, the learning algorithm is required in this problem to guarantee differential privacy, a very strong notion of privacy that has gained significant attention in recent years. A natural question to ask is: what is the sample requirement of a learning algorithm that guarantees a certain level of privacy and accuracy? We address this question in the context of learning with infinite hypothesis classes when the data is drawn from a continuous distribution. We first show that even for very simple hypothesis classes, any algorithm that uses a finite number of examples and guarantees differential privacy must fail to return an accurate classifier for at least some unlabeled data distributions. This result is unlike the case with either finite hypothesis classes or discrete data domains, in which distribution-free private learning is possible, as previously shown by Kasiviswanathan et al. (2008). We then consider two approaches to differentially private learning that get around this lower bound. The first approach is to use prior knowledge about the unlabeled data distribution in the form of a reference distribution chosen independently of the sensitive data. Given such a reference , we provide an upper bound on the sample requirement that depends (among other things) on a measure of closeness between and the unlabeled data distribution. Our upper bound applies to the non-realizable as well as the realizable case. The second approach is to relax the privacy requirement, by requiring only label-privacy – namely, that the only labels (and not the unlabeled parts of the examples) be considered sensitive information. An upper bound on the sample requirement of learning with label privacy was shown by Chaudhuri et al. (2006); in this work, we show a lower bound. PMID:25285183

  20. Insoluble-Bound Phenolics in Food.

    PubMed

    Shahidi, Fereidoon; Yeo, Ju-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This contribution provides a review of the topic of insoluble-bound phenolics, especially their localization, synthesis, transfer and formation in plant cells, as well as their metabolism in the human digestive system and corresponding bioactivities. In addition, their release from the food matrix during food processing and extraction methods are discussed. The synthesis of phenolics takes place mainly at the endoplasmic reticulum and they are then transferred to each organ through transport proteins such as the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporter at the organ's compartment membrane or via transport vesicles such as cytoplasmic and Golgi vesicles, leading to the formation of soluble and insoluble-bound phenolics at the vacuole and cell wall matrix, respectively. This part has not been adequately discussed in the food science literature, especially regarding the synthesis site and their transfer at the cellular level, thus this contribution provides valuable information to the involved scientists. The bound phenolics cannot be absorbed at the small intestine as the soluble phenolics do (5%-10%), thus passing into the large intestine and undergoing fermentation by a number of microorganisms, partially released from cell wall matrix of foods. Bound phenolics such as phenolic acids and flavonoids display strong bioactivities such as anticancer, anti-inflammation and cardiovascular disease ameliorating effects. They can be extracted by several methods such as acid, alkali and enzymatic hydrolysis to quantify their contents in foods. In addition, they can also be released from the cell wall matrix during food processing procedures such as fermentation, germination, roasting, extrusion cooking and boiling. This review provides critical information for better understanding the insoluble-bound phenolics in food and fills an existing gap in the literature. PMID:27626402

  1. Analyses of containment structures with corrosion damage

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Corrosion damage that has been found in a number of nuclear power plant containment structures can degrade the pressure capacity of the vessel. This has prompted concerns regarding the capacity of corroded containments to withstand accident loadings. To address these concerns, finite element analyses have been performed for a typical PWR Ice Condenser containment structure. Using ABAQUS, the pressure capacity was calculated for a typical vessel with no corrosion damage. Multiple analyses were then performed with the location of the corrosion and the amount of corrosion varied in each analysis. Using a strain-based failure criterion, a {open_quotes}lower bound{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}best estimate{close_quotes}, and {open_quotes}upper bound{close_quotes} failure level was predicted for each case. These limits were established by: determining the amount of variability that exists in material properties of typical containments, estimating the amount of uncertainty associated with the level of modeling detail and modeling assumptions, and estimating the effect of corrosion on the material properties.

  2. Wavelet Analyses and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordeianu, Cristian C.; Landau, Rubin H.; Paez, Manuel J.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown how a modern extension of Fourier analysis known as wavelet analysis is applied to signals containing multiscale information. First, a continuous wavelet transform is used to analyse the spectrum of a nonstationary signal (one whose form changes in time). The spectral analysis of such a signal gives the strength of the signal in each…

  3. Apollo 14 microbial analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    Extensive microbiological analyses that were performed on the Apollo 14 prime and backup crewmembers and ancillary personnel are discussed. The crewmembers were subjected to four separate and quite different environments during the 137-day monitoring period. The relation between each of these environments and observed changes in the microflora of each astronaut are presented.

  4. Entanglement bound for multipartite pure states based on local measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Lizhen; Chen Xiaoyu; Ye Tianyu

    2011-10-15

    An entanglement bound based on local measurements is introduced for multipartite pure states. It is the upper bound of the geometric measure and the relative entropy of entanglement. It is the lower bound of the minimal-measurement entropy. For pure bipartite states, the bound is equal to the entanglement entropy. The bound is applied to pure tripartite qubit states and the exact tripartite relative entropy of entanglement is obtained for a wide class of states.

  5. An enzymatic treatment of soil-bound prions effectively inhibits replication.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Samuel E; Bartz, Jason C; Vercauteren, Kurt C; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L

    2011-07-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) and scrapie can be transmitted through indirect environmental routes, possibly via soil, and a practical decontamination strategy for prion-contaminated soil is currently unavailable. In the laboratory, an enzymatic treatment under environmentally relevant conditions (22°C, pH 7.4) can degrade soil-bound PrPSc below the limits of Western blot detection. We developed and used a quantitative serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) protocol to characterize the amplification efficiency of treated soil samples relative to controls of known infectious titer. Our results suggest large (10(4)- to >10(6)-fold) decreases in soil-bound prion infectivity following enzyme treatment, demonstrating that a mild enzymatic treatment could effectively reduce the risk of prion disease transmission via soil or other environmental surfaces.

  6. Continuum discretised BCS approach for weakly bound nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, J. A.; Alonso, C. E.; Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A.

    2016-08-01

    The Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) formalism is extended by including the single-particle continuum in order to analyse the evolution of pairing in an isotopic chain from stability up to the drip-line. We propose a continuum discretised generalised BCS based on single-particle pseudostates (PS). These PS are generated from the diagonalisation of the single-particle Hamiltonian within a transformed harmonic oscillator basis. The consistency of the results versus the size of the basis is studied. The method is applied to neutron rich oxygen and carbon isotopes and compared with similar previous works and available experimental data. We make use of the flexibility of the proposed model in order to study the evolution of the occupation of the low-energy continuum when the system becomes weakly bound. We find an increasing influence of the non-resonant continuum as long as the Fermi level approaches the neutron separation threshold.

  7. Amino acid residues interacting with both the bound quinone and coenzyme, pyrroloquinoline quinone, in Escherichia coli membrane-bound glucose dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Golam; Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Migita, Catharina T; Elias, M D; Nakamura, Satsuki; Tagawa, Seiichi; Yamada, Mamoru

    2008-08-01

    The Escherichia coli membrane-bound glucose dehydrogenase (mGDH) as the primary component of the respiratory chain possesses a tightly bound ubiquinone (UQ) flanking pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) as a coenzyme. Several mutants for Asp-354, Asp-466, and Lys-493, located close to PQQ, that were constructed by site-specific mutagenesis were characterized by enzymatic, pulse radiolysis, and EPR analyses. These mutants retained almost no dehydrogenase activity or ability of PQQ reduction. CD and high pressure liquid chromatography analyses revealed that K493A, D466N, and D466E mutants showed no significant difference in molecular structure from that of the wild-type mGDH but showed remarkably reduced content of bound UQ. A radiolytically generated hydrated electron (e(aq)(-)) reacted with the bound UQ of the wild enzyme and K493R mutant to form a UQ neutral semiquinone with an absorption maximum at 420 nm. Subsequently, intramolecular electron transfer from the bound UQ semiquinone to PQQ occurred. In K493R, the rate of UQ to PQQ electron transfer is about 4-fold slower than that of the wild enzyme. With D354N and D466N mutants, on the other hand, transient species with an absorption maximum at 440 nm, a characteristic of the formation of a UQ anion radical, appeared in the reaction of e(aq)(-), although the subsequent intramolecular electron transfer was hardly affected. This indicates that D354N and D466N are prevented from protonation of the UQ semiquinone radical. Moreover, EPR spectra showed that mutations on Asp-466 or Lys-493 residues changed the semiquinone state of bound UQ. Taken together, we reported here for the first time the existence of a semiquinone radical of bound UQ in purified mGDH and the difference in protonation of ubisemiquinone radical because of mutations in two different amino acid residues, located around PQQ. Furthermore, based on the present results and the spatial arrangement around PQQ, Asp-466 and Lys-493 are suggested to interact both

  8. Aerodynamics of intermittent bounds in flying birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobalske, Bret W.; Hearn, Jason W. D.; Warrick, Douglas R.

    Flap-bounding is a common flight style in small birds in which flapping phases alternate with flexed-wing bounds. Body lift is predicted to be essential to making this flight style an aerodynamically attractive flight strategy. To elucidate the contributions of the body and tail to lift and drag during the flexed-wing bound phase, we used particle image velocimetry (PIV) and measured properties of the wake of zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata, N = 5), flying at 6-10 m s- 1 in a variable speed wind tunnel as well as flow around taxidermically prepared specimens (N = 4) mounted on a sting instrumented with force transducers. For the specimens, we varied air velocity from 2 to 12 m s- 1 and body angle from -15∘ to 50∘. The wake of bounding birds and mounted specimens consisted of a pair of counterrotating vortices shed into the wake from the tail, with induced downwash in the sagittal plane and upwash in parasagittal planes lateral to the bird. This wake structure was present even when the tail was entirely removed. We observed good agreement between force measures derived from PIV and force transducers over the range of body angles typically used by zebra finch during forward flight. Body lift:drag (L:D) ratios averaged 1.4 in live birds and varied between 1 and 1.5 in specimens at body angles from 10∘ to 30∘. Peak (L:D) ratio was the same in live birds and specimens (1.5) and was exhibited in specimens at body angles of 15∘ or 20∘, consistent with the lower end of body angles utilized during bounds. Increasing flight velocity in live birds caused a decrease in CL and CD from maximum values of 1.19 and 0.95 during flight at 6 m s- 1 to minimum values of 0.70 and 0.54 during flight at 10 m s- 1. Consistent with delta-wing theory as applied to birds with a graduated-tail shape, trimming the tail to 0 and 50% of normal length reduced L:D ratios and extending tail length to 150% of normal increased L:D ratio. As downward induced velocity is present in the

  9. Aerodynamics of intermittent bounds in flying birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobalske, Bret W.; Hearn, Jason W. D.; Warrick, Douglas R.

    2009-05-01

    Flap-bounding is a common flight style in small birds in which flapping phases alternate with flexed-wing bounds. Body lift is predicted to be essential to making this flight style an aerodynamically attractive flight strategy. To elucidate the contributions of the body and tail to lift and drag during the flexed-wing bound phase, we used particle image velocimetry (PIV) and measured properties of the wake of zebra finch ( Taeniopygia guttata, N = 5), flying at 6-10 m s-1 in a variable speed wind tunnel as well as flow around taxidermically prepared specimens ( N = 4) mounted on a sting instrumented with force transducers. For the specimens, we varied air velocity from 2 to 12 m s-1 and body angle from -15° to 50°. The wake of bounding birds and mounted specimens consisted of a pair of counter-rotating vortices shed into the wake from the tail, with induced downwash in the sagittal plane and upwash in parasagittal planes lateral to the bird. This wake structure was present even when the tail was entirely removed. We observed good agreement between force measures derived from PIV and force transducers over the range of body angles typically used by zebra finch during forward flight. Body lift:drag ( L: D) ratios averaged 1.4 in live birds and varied between 1 and 1.5 in specimens at body angles from 10° to 30°. Peak ( L: D) ratio was the same in live birds and specimens (1.5) and was exhibited in specimens at body angles of 15° or 20°, consistent with the lower end of body angles utilized during bounds. Increasing flight velocity in live birds caused a decrease in C L and C D from maximum values of 1.19 and 0.95 during flight at 6 m s-1 to minimum values of 0.70 and 0.54 during flight at 10 m s-1. Consistent with delta-wing theory as applied to birds with a graduated-tail shape, trimming the tail to 0 and 50% of normal length reduced L: D ratios and extending tail length to 150% of normal increased L: D ratio. As downward induced velocity is present in the

  10. Cytoskeleton and Cytoskeleton-Bound RNA Visualization in Frog and Insect Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Kloc, Malgorzata; Bilinski, Szczepan; Kubiak, Jacek Z

    2016-01-01

    The majority of oocyte functions involves and depends on the cytoskeletal elements, which include microtubules and actin and cytokeratin filaments. Various structures and molecules are temporarily or permanently bound to the cytoskeletal elements and their functions rely on cytoskeleton integrity and its timely assembly. Thus the accurate visualization of cytoskeleton is often crucial for studies and analyses of oocyte structure and functions. Here we describe several reliable methods for microtubule and/or microfilaments preservation and visualization in Xenopus oocyte extracts, and in situ in live and fixed insect and frog (Xenopus) oocytes. In addition, we describe visualization of cytoskeleton-bound RNAs using molecular beacons in live Xenopus oocytes. PMID:27557581

  11. Cytoskeleton and Cytoskeleton-Bound RNA Visualization in Frog and Insect Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Kloc, Malgorzata; Bilinski, Szczepan; Kubiak, Jacek Z

    2016-01-01

    The majority of oocyte functions involves and depends on the cytoskeletal elements, which include microtubules and actin and cytokeratin filaments. Various structures and molecules are temporarily or permanently bound to the cytoskeletal elements and their functions rely on cytoskeleton integrity and its timely assembly. Thus the accurate visualization of cytoskeleton is often crucial for studies and analyses of oocyte structure and functions. Here we describe several reliable methods for microtubule and/or microfilaments preservation and visualization in Xenopus oocyte extracts, and in situ in live and fixed insect and frog (Xenopus) oocytes. In addition, we describe visualization of cytoskeleton-bound RNAs using molecular beacons in live Xenopus oocytes.

  12. Environmental Health Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Alan; Smith, Robert

    1975-01-01

    Describes an environmental health science technology curriculum designed to provide technicians in the areas of air, water and wastewater analyses, treatment plant operators, public health enforcement officers, and pollution inspectors. (GS)

  13. Perturbation analyses of intermolecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Yohei M; Kobayashi, Tetsuya J; Ueda, Hiroki R

    2011-08-01

    Conformational fluctuations of a protein molecule are important to its function, and it is known that environmental molecules, such as water molecules, ions, and ligand molecules, significantly affect the function by changing the conformational fluctuations. However, it is difficult to systematically understand the role of environmental molecules because intermolecular interactions related to the conformational fluctuations are complicated. To identify important intermolecular interactions with regard to the conformational fluctuations, we develop herein (i) distance-independent and (ii) distance-dependent perturbation analyses of the intermolecular interactions. We show that these perturbation analyses can be realized by performing (i) a principal component analysis using conditional expectations of truncated and shifted intermolecular potential energy terms and (ii) a functional principal component analysis using products of intermolecular forces and conditional cumulative densities. We refer to these analyses as intermolecular perturbation analysis (IPA) and distance-dependent intermolecular perturbation analysis (DIPA), respectively. For comparison of the IPA and the DIPA, we apply them to the alanine dipeptide isomerization in explicit water. Although the first IPA principal components discriminate two states (the α state and PPII (polyproline II) + β states) for larger cutoff length, the separation between the PPII state and the β state is unclear in the second IPA principal components. On the other hand, in the large cutoff value, DIPA eigenvalues converge faster than that for IPA and the top two DIPA principal components clearly identify the three states. By using the DIPA biplot, the contributions of the dipeptide-water interactions to each state are analyzed systematically. Since the DIPA improves the state identification and the convergence rate with retaining distance information, we conclude that the DIPA is a more practical method compared with the

  14. Perturbation analyses of intermolecular interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Yohei M.; Kobayashi, Tetsuya J.; Ueda, Hiroki R.

    2011-08-01

    Conformational fluctuations of a protein molecule are important to its function, and it is known that environmental molecules, such as water molecules, ions, and ligand molecules, significantly affect the function by changing the conformational fluctuations. However, it is difficult to systematically understand the role of environmental molecules because intermolecular interactions related to the conformational fluctuations are complicated. To identify important intermolecular interactions with regard to the conformational fluctuations, we develop herein (i) distance-independent and (ii) distance-dependent perturbation analyses of the intermolecular interactions. We show that these perturbation analyses can be realized by performing (i) a principal component analysis using conditional expectations of truncated and shifted intermolecular potential energy terms and (ii) a functional principal component analysis using products of intermolecular forces and conditional cumulative densities. We refer to these analyses as intermolecular perturbation analysis (IPA) and distance-dependent intermolecular perturbation analysis (DIPA), respectively. For comparison of the IPA and the DIPA, we apply them to the alanine dipeptide isomerization in explicit water. Although the first IPA principal components discriminate two states (the α state and PPII (polyproline II) + β states) for larger cutoff length, the separation between the PPII state and the β state is unclear in the second IPA principal components. On the other hand, in the large cutoff value, DIPA eigenvalues converge faster than that for IPA and the top two DIPA principal components clearly identify the three states. By using the DIPA biplot, the contributions of the dipeptide-water interactions to each state are analyzed systematically. Since the DIPA improves the state identification and the convergence rate with retaining distance information, we conclude that the DIPA is a more practical method compared with the

  15. Bounded excursion stable gravastars and black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, P; Da Silva, M F; Wang, Anzhong; Santos, N O E-mail: yasuda@on.br E-mail: mfasnic@gmail.com E-mail: anzhong_wang@baylor.edu

    2008-06-15

    Dynamical models of prototype gravastars were constructed in order to study their stability. The models are the Visser-Wiltshire three-layer gravastars, in which an infinitely thin spherical shell of stiff fluid divides the whole spacetime into two regions, where the internal region is de Sitter, and the external one is Schwarzschild. It is found that in some cases the models represent the 'bounded excursion' stable gravastars, where the thin shell is oscillating between two finite radii, while in other cases they collapse until the formation of black holes occurs. In the phase space, the region for the 'bounded excursion' gravastars is very small in comparison to that of black holes, but not empty. Therefore, although the possibility of the existence of gravastars cannot be excluded from such dynamical models, our results indicate that, even if gravastars do indeed exist, that does not exclude the possibility of the existence of black holes.

  16. An error bound for instantaneous coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Allan L.

    1991-01-01

    An error bound is derived for a reliability model approximation method. The approximation method is appropriate for the semi-Markov models of reconfigurable systems that are designed to achieve extremely high reliability. The semi-Markov models of these system are complex, and a significant amount of their complexity arises from the detailed descriptions of the reconfiguration processes. The reliability model approximation method consists of replacing a detailed description of a reconfiguration process with the probabilities of the possible outcomes of the reconfiguration process. These probabilities are included in the model as instantaneous jumps from the fault-occurrence state. Since little time is spent in the reconfiguration states, instantaneous jumps are a close approximation to the original model. This approximation procedure is shown to produce an overestimation for the probability of system failure, and an error bound is derived for this overestimation.

  17. Horizon ratio bound for inflationary fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Dodelson, Scott; Hui, Lam

    2003-09-26

    We demonstrate that the gravity wave background amplitude implies a robust upper bound on the wavelength-to-horizon ratio at the end of inflation: lambda/H(-1) less than or approximately equal e(60), as long as the cosmic energy density does not drop faster than radiation subsequent to inflation. This limit implies that N, the number of e-folds between horizon exit and the end of inflation for wave modes of interest, is less, similar 60 plus a model-dependent factor-for vast classes of slow-roll models, N less than or approximately equal 67. As an example, this bound solidifies the tension between observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and chaotic inflation with a phi(4) potential by closing the escape hatch of large N (<62). PMID:14525296

  18. Extremum seeking with bounded update rates

    SciTech Connect

    Scheinker, Alexander; Krstić, Miroslav

    2013-11-16

    In this work, we present a form of extremum seeking (ES) in which the unknown function being minimized enters the system’s dynamics as the argument of a cosine or sine term, thereby guaranteeing known bounds on update rates and control efforts. We present general n-dimensional optimization and stabilization results as well as 2D vehicle control, with bounded velocity and control efforts. For application to autonomous vehicles, tracking a source in a GPS denied environment with unknown orientation, this ES approach allows for smooth heading angle actuation, with constant velocity, and in application to a unicycle-type vehicle results in control ability as if the vehicle is fully actuated. Our stability analysis is made possible by the classic results of Kurzweil, Jarnik, Sussmann, and Liu, regarding systems with highly oscillatory terms. In our stability analysis, we combine the averaging results with a semi-global practical stability result under small parametric perturbations developed by Moreau and Aeyels.

  19. Tsirelson's bound and supersymmetric entangled states

    PubMed Central

    Borsten, L.; Brádler, K.; Duff, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    A superqubit, belonging to a (2|1)-dimensional super-Hilbert space, constitutes the minimal supersymmetric extension of the conventional qubit. In order to see whether superqubits are more non-local than ordinary qubits, we construct a class of two-superqubit entangled states as a non-local resource in the CHSH game. Since super Hilbert space amplitudes are Grassmann numbers, the result depends on how we extract real probabilities and we examine three choices of map: (1) DeWitt (2) Trigonometric and (3) Modified Rogers. In cases (1) and (2), the winning probability reaches the Tsirelson bound pwin=cos2π/8≃0.8536 of standard quantum mechanics. Case (3) crosses Tsirelson's bound with pwin≃0.9265. Although all states used in the game involve probabilities lying between 0 and 1, case (3) permits other changes of basis inducing negative transition probabilities. PMID:25294964

  20. Is Fusion Inhibited for Weakly Bound Nuclei?

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, J.; Munhoz, M.; Szanto, E.M.; Carlin, N.; Added, N.; Suaide, A.A.; de Moura, M.M.; Liguori Neto, R.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Canto, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    Complete fusion of light radioactive nuclei is predicted to be hindered at near-barrier energies. This feature is investigated in the case of the least bound stable nuclei. Evaporation residues resulting from the {sup 6,7}Li+{sup 9}Be and {sup 6,7}Li+{sup 12}C fusion reactions have been measured in order to study common features in reactions involving light weakly bound nuclei. The experimental excitation functions revealed that the fusion cross section is significantly smaller than the total reaction cross section and also smaller than the fusion cross section expected from the available systematics. A clear correlation between the fusion probability and nucleon (cluster) separation energy has been established.The results suggest that the breakup process has a strong influence on the hindrance of the fusion cross section. {copyright} {ital 1996} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Floquet bound states in the continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhi, Stefano; Della Valle, Giuseppe

    2013-07-01

    Quantum mechanics predicts that certain stationary potentials can sustain bound states with an energy buried in the continuous spectrum of scattered states, the so-called bound states in the continuum (BIC). Originally regarded as mathematical curiosities, BIC have found an increasing interest in recent years, particularly in quantum and classical transport of matter and optical waves in mesoscopic and photonic systems where the underlying potential can be judiciously tailored. Most of our knowledge of BIC is so far restricted to static potentials. Here we introduce a new kind of BIC, referred to as Floquet BIC, which corresponds to a normalizable Floquet state of a time-periodic Hamiltonian with a quasienergy embedded into the spectrum of Floquet scattered states. We discuss the appearance of Floquet BIC states in a tight-binding lattice model driven by an ac field in the proximity of the dynamic localization regime.

  2. Reinforcement Learning with Bounded Information Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Jan; Mülling, Katharina; Seldin, Yevgeny; Altun, Yasemin

    2011-03-01

    Policy search is a successful approach to reinforcement learning. However, policy improvements often result in the loss of information. Hence, it has been marred by premature convergence and implausible solutions. As first suggested in the context of covariant or natural policy gradients, many of these problems may be addressed by constraining the information loss. In this paper, we continue this path of reasoning and suggest two reinforcement learning methods, i.e., a model-based and a model free algorithm that bound the loss in relative entropy while maximizing their return. The resulting methods differ significantly from previous policy gradient approaches and yields an exact update step. It works well on typical reinforcement learning benchmark problems as well as novel evaluations in robotics. We also show a Bayesian bound motivation of this new approach [8].

  3. Floquet bound states in the continuum

    PubMed Central

    Longhi, Stefano; Valle, Giuseppe Della

    2013-01-01

    Quantum mechanics predicts that certain stationary potentials can sustain bound states with an energy buried in the continuous spectrum of scattered states, the so-called bound states in the continuum (BIC). Originally regarded as mathematical curiosities, BIC have found an increasing interest in recent years, particularly in quantum and classical transport of matter and optical waves in mesoscopic and photonic systems where the underlying potential can be judiciously tailored. Most of our knowledge of BIC is so far restricted to static potentials. Here we introduce a new kind of BIC, referred to as Floquet BIC, which corresponds to a normalizable Floquet state of a time-periodic Hamiltonian with a quasienergy embedded into the spectrum of Floquet scattered states. We discuss the appearance of Floquet BIC states in a tight-binding lattice model driven by an ac field in the proximity of the dynamic localization regime. PMID:23860625

  4. Bounds for convection between rough boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goluskin, David; Doering, Charles R.

    2016-10-01

    We consider Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection in a layer of fluid between rough no-slip boundaries where the top and bottom boundary heights are functions of the horizontal coordinates with square-integrable gradients. We use the background method to derive an upper bound on mean heat flux across the layer for all admissible boundary geometries. This flux, normalized by the temperature difference between the boundaries, can grow with the Rayleigh number ($Ra$) no faster than ${\\cal O}(Ra^{1/2})$ as $Ra \\rightarrow \\infty$. Our analysis yields a family of similar bounds, depending on how various estimates are tuned, but every version depends explicitly on the boundary geometry. In one version the coefficient of the ${\\cal O}(Ra^{1/2})$ leading term is $0.242 + 2.925\\Vert\

  5. Horizon ratio bound for inflationary fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Dodelson, Scott; Hui, Lam

    2003-09-26

    We demonstrate that the gravity wave background amplitude implies a robust upper bound on the wavelength-to-horizon ratio at the end of inflation: lambda/H(-1) less than or approximately equal e(60), as long as the cosmic energy density does not drop faster than radiation subsequent to inflation. This limit implies that N, the number of e-folds between horizon exit and the end of inflation for wave modes of interest, is less, similar 60 plus a model-dependent factor-for vast classes of slow-roll models, N less than or approximately equal 67. As an example, this bound solidifies the tension between observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and chaotic inflation with a phi(4) potential by closing the escape hatch of large N (<62).

  6. Are Proxima and α Centauri Gravitationally Bound?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wertheimer, Jeremy G.; Laughlin, Gregory

    2006-11-01

    Using the most recent kinematic and radial velocity data in the literature, we calculate the binding energy of Proxima Centauri relative to the center of mass of the α Centauri system. When we adopt the centroids of the observed data, we find that the three stars constitute a bound system, albeit with a semimajor axis that is of order the same size as α Cen AB's Hill radius in the Galactic potential. We carry out a Monte Carlo simulation under the assumption that the errors in the observed quantities are uncorrelated. In this simulation, 44% of the trial systems are bound, and systems on the 1-3 σ tail of the radial velocity distribution can have Proxima currently located near the apastron position of its orbit. Our analysis shows that a further, very significant improvement in the characterization of the system can be gained by obtaining a more accurate measurement of the radial velocity of Proxima Cen.

  7. Scalable problems and memory bounded speedup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xian-He; Ni, Lionel M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper three models of parallel speedup are studied. They are fixed-size speedup, fixed-time speedup and memory-bounded speedup. The latter two consider the relationship between speedup and problem scalability. Two sets of speedup formulations are derived for these three models. One set considers uneven workload allocation and communication overhead and gives more accurate estimation. Another set considers a simplified case and provides a clear picture on the impact of the sequential portion of an application on the possible performance gain from parallel processing. The simplified fixed-size speedup is Amdahl's law. The simplified fixed-time speedup is Gustafson's scaled speedup. The simplified memory-bounded speedup contains both Amdahl's law and Gustafson's scaled speedup as special cases. This study leads to a better understanding of parallel processing.

  8. Reductive mobilization of oxide-bound metals

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, A.T.

    1991-01-01

    We have completed a large number of experiments which examine the release of MnO{sub 2}-bound Co, Ni, and Cu. Our work has focused upon the following areas: (1) competitive adsorption among the three toxic metals and Mn(II); (2) toxic metal release upon addition of low MW organic reductants and complexants; and (3) toxic metal release upon addition of natural organic matter-rich surface waters and IHSS organic matter reference material.

  9. Upper and lower bounds on quantum codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Graeme Stewart Baird

    This thesis provides bounds on the performance of quantum error correcting codes when used for quantum communication and quantum key distribution. The first two chapters provide a bare-bones introduction to classical and quantum error correcting codes, respectively. The next four chapters present achievable rates for quantum codes in various scenarios. The final chapter is dedicated to an upper bound on the quantum channel capacity. Chapter 3 studies coding for adversarial noise using quantum list codes, showing there exist quantum codes with high rates and short lists. These can be used, together with a very short secret key, to communicate with high fidelity at noise levels for which perfect fidelity is, impossible. Chapter 4 explores the performance of a family of degenerate codes when used to communicate over Pauli channels, showing they can be used to communicate over almost any Pauli channel at rates that are impossible for a nondegenerate code and that exceed those of previously known degenerate codes. By studying the scaling of the optimal block length as a function of the channel's parameters, we develop a heuristic for designing even better codes. Chapter 5 describes an equivalence between a family of noisy preprocessing protocols for quantum key distribution and entanglement distillation protocols whose target state belongs to a class of private states called "twisted states." In Chapter 6, the codes of Chapter 4 are combined with the protocols of Chapter 5 to provide higher key rates for one-way quantum key distribution than were previously thought possible. Finally, Chapter 7 presents a new upper bound on the quantum channel capacity that is both additive and convex, and which can be interpreted as the capacity of the channel for communication given access to side channels from a class of zero capacity "cloning" channels. This "clone assisted capacity" is equal to the unassisted capacity for channels that are degradable, which we use to find new upper

  10. Efficiency bounds for nonequilibrium heat engines

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Pankaj; Polkovnikov, Anatoli

    2013-05-15

    We analyze the efficiency of thermal engines (either quantum or classical) working with a single heat reservoir like an atmosphere. The engine first gets an energy intake, which can be done in an arbitrary nonequilibrium way e.g. combustion of fuel. Then the engine performs the work and returns to the initial state. We distinguish two general classes of engines where the working body first equilibrates within itself and then performs the work (ergodic engine) or when it performs the work before equilibrating (non-ergodic engine). We show that in both cases the second law of thermodynamics limits their efficiency. For ergodic engines we find a rigorous upper bound for the efficiency, which is strictly smaller than the equivalent Carnot efficiency. I.e. the Carnot efficiency can be never achieved in single reservoir heat engines. For non-ergodic engines the efficiency can be higher and can exceed the equilibrium Carnot bound. By extending the fundamental thermodynamic relation to nonequilibrium processes, we find a rigorous thermodynamic bound for the efficiency of both ergodic and non-ergodic engines and show that it is given by the relative entropy of the nonequilibrium and initial equilibrium distributions. These results suggest a new general strategy for designing more efficient engines. We illustrate our ideas by using simple examples. -- Highlights: ► Derived efficiency bounds for heat engines working with a single reservoir. ► Analyzed both ergodic and non-ergodic engines. ► Showed that non-ergodic engines can be more efficient. ► Extended fundamental thermodynamic relation to arbitrary nonequilibrium processes.

  11. Weakly bound states in heterogeneous waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amore, Paolo; Fernández, Francisco M.; Hofmann, Christoph P.

    2016-07-01

    We study the spectrum of the Helmholtz equation in a two-dimensional infinite waveguide, containing a weak heterogeneity localized at an internal point, and obeying Dirichlet boundary conditions at its border. We use the variational theorem to derive the condition for which the lowest eigenvalue of the spectrum falls below the continuum threshold and a bound state appears, localized at the heterogeneity. We devise a rigorous perturbation scheme and derive the exact expression for the energy to third order in the heterogeneity.

  12. Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel

    2009-10-15

    Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

  13. Detecting Lower Bounds to Quantum Channel Capacities.

    PubMed

    Macchiavello, Chiara; Sacchi, Massimiliano F

    2016-04-01

    We propose a method to detect lower bounds to quantum capacities of a noisy quantum communication channel by means of a few measurements. The method is easily implementable and does not require any knowledge about the channel. We test its efficiency by studying its performance for most well-known single-qubit noisy channels and for the generalized Pauli channel in an arbitrary finite dimension.

  14. {bar K}-NUCLEAR Deeply Bound States?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, Avraham

    Following the prediction by Akaishi and Yamazaki of relatively narrow {bar K}-nuclear states, deeply bound by over 100 MeV where the main decay channel {bar K} N -> π Σ is closed, several experimental signals in stopped K- reactions on light nuclei have been interpreted recently as due to such states. In this talk I review (i) the evidence from K--atom data for a deep bar K-nucleus potential, as attractive as V{bar K}(ρ 0) ˜ -(150 - 200) MeV at nuclear matter density, that could support such states; and (ii) the theoretical arguments for a shallow potential, V{bar K}(ρ 0) ˜ -(40 - 60) MeV. I then review a recent work by Mareš, Friedman and Gal in which {bar K}-nuclear bound states are generated dynamically across the periodic table, using a RMF Lagrangian that couples the {bar K} to the scalar and vector meson fields mediating the nuclear interactions. The reduced phase space available for {bar K} absorption from these bound states is taken into account by adding a density- and energy-dependent imaginary term, underlying the corresponding {bar K}-nuclear level widths, with a strength constrained by K--atom fits. Substantial polarization of the core nucleus is found for light nuclei, with central nuclear densities enhanced by almost a factor of two. The binding energies and widths calculated in this dynamical model differ appreciably from those calculated for a static nucleus. These calculations provide a lower limit of Γ {bar K} ˜ 50 ± 10 MeV on the width of nuclear bound states for {bar K} binding energy in the range B{bar K} = 100 - 200 MeV.

  15. Exact BPS bound for noncommutative baby Skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domrin, Andrei; Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Linares, Román; Maceda, Marco

    2013-11-01

    The noncommutative baby Skyrme model is a Moyal deformation of the two-dimensional sigma model plus a Skyrme term, with a group-valued or Grassmannian target. Exact abelian solitonic solutions have been identified analytically in this model, with a singular commutative limit. Inside any given Grassmannian, we establish a BPS bound for the energy functional, which is saturated by these baby Skyrmions. This asserts their stability for unit charge, as we also test in second-order perturbation theory.

  16. A simple, nondestructive assay for bound hyaluronan.

    PubMed

    Johnston, J B

    2000-01-01

    A simple, convenient, nondestructive method is described for the quantitative determination of bound hyaluronan. The method is based on the binding of the cationic dye Toluidine Blue O to the D-glucuronate component of the hyaluronan repeat disaccharide. Quantification is accomplished without interference by the dye's metachromatic properties. The method is easily adapted to hyaluronan coated medical devices and should be useful to developers and manufacturers of such devices and coatings.

  17. Of Models and Machines: Implementing Bounded Rationality.

    PubMed

    Dick, Stephanie

    2015-09-01

    This essay explores the early history of Herbert Simon's principle of bounded rationality in the context of his Artificial Intelligence research in the mid 1950s. It focuses in particular on how Simon and his colleagues at the RAND Corporation translated a model of human reasoning into a computer program, the Logic Theory Machine. They were motivated by a belief that computers and minds were the same kind of thing--namely, information-processing systems. The Logic Theory Machine program was a model of how people solved problems in elementary mathematical logic. However, in making this model actually run on their 1950s computer, the JOHNNIAC, Simon and his colleagues had to navigate many obstacles and material constraints quite foreign to the human experience of logic. They crafted new tools and engaged in new practices that accommodated the affordances of their machine, rather than reflecting the character of human cognition and its bounds. The essay argues that tracking this implementation effort shows that "internal" cognitive practices and "external" tools and materials are not so easily separated as they are in Simon's principle of bounded rationality--the latter often shaping the dynamics of the former. PMID:26685521

  18. Of Models and Machines: Implementing Bounded Rationality.

    PubMed

    Dick, Stephanie

    2015-09-01

    This essay explores the early history of Herbert Simon's principle of bounded rationality in the context of his Artificial Intelligence research in the mid 1950s. It focuses in particular on how Simon and his colleagues at the RAND Corporation translated a model of human reasoning into a computer program, the Logic Theory Machine. They were motivated by a belief that computers and minds were the same kind of thing--namely, information-processing systems. The Logic Theory Machine program was a model of how people solved problems in elementary mathematical logic. However, in making this model actually run on their 1950s computer, the JOHNNIAC, Simon and his colleagues had to navigate many obstacles and material constraints quite foreign to the human experience of logic. They crafted new tools and engaged in new practices that accommodated the affordances of their machine, rather than reflecting the character of human cognition and its bounds. The essay argues that tracking this implementation effort shows that "internal" cognitive practices and "external" tools and materials are not so easily separated as they are in Simon's principle of bounded rationality--the latter often shaping the dynamics of the former.

  19. Andreev-Majorana bound states in superfluids

    SciTech Connect

    Silaev, M. A. Volovik, G. E.

    2014-12-15

    We consider Andreev-Majorana (AM) bound states with zero energy on surfaces, interfaces, and vortices in different phases of the p-wave superfluids. We discuss the chiral superfluid {sup 3}He-A and time reversal invariant phases: superfluid {sup 3}He-B, planar and polar phases. The AM zero modes are determined by topology in the bulk and disappear at the quantum phase transition from the topological to nontopological state of the superfluid. The topology demonstrates the interplay of dimensions. In particular, the zero-dimensional Weyl points in chiral superfluids (the Berry phase monopoles in momentum space) give rise to the one-dimensional Fermi arc of AM bound states on the surface and to the one-dimensional flat band of AM modes in the vortex core. The one-dimensional nodal line in the polar phase produces a two-dimensional flat band of AM modes on the surface. The interplay of dimensions also connects the AM states in superfluids with different dimensions. For example, the topological properties of the spectrum of bound states in three-dimensional {sup 3}He-B are connected to the properties of the spectrum in the two-dimensional planar phase (thin film)

  20. Ultrasensitive flow cytometric analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Jett, J.H.; Cram, L.S.; Keller, R.A.; Martin, J.C.; Saunders, G.C.; Sklar, L.A.; Steinkamp, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    New techniques and approaches to cellular analysis being developed at the Los Alamos National Flow Cytometry Resource can be divided into those that improve sensitivity and those that move the technology into new areas by refining existing approaches. An example of the first category is a flow cytometric system capable of measuring the phase shift of fluorescence emitted by fluorophors bound to cells is being assembled. This phase sensitive cytometer is be capable of quantifying fluorescence life time on a cell-by-cell basis as well as using the phase sensitive detection to separate fluorescence emissions that overlap spectrally but have different lifetimes. A Fourier transform flow cytometer capable of measuring the fluorescence emission spectrum of individual labeled cells at rates approaching several hundred per second is also in the new technology category. The current implementation is capable of resolving the visible region of the spectrum into 8 bands. With this instrument, it is possible to resolve the contributions of fluorophors with overlapping emission spectra and to determine the emission spectra of dyes such as calcium concentration indicators that are sensitive to the physiological environment. Flow cytometric techniques have been refined to the point that it is possible to detect individual fluorescent molecules in solution as they flow past a laser beam. This capability has lead to a rapid DNA sequencing project. The goal of the project is to develop a technique that is capable of sequencing long strands of DNA (40,000 kb) at a rate of between 100 and 1,000 bases per second.

  1. LDEF Satellite Radiation Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1996-01-01

    Model calculations and analyses have been carried out to compare with several sets of data (dose, induced radioactivity in various experiment samples and spacecraft components, fission foil measurements, and LET spectra) from passive radiation dosimetry on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite, which was recovered after almost six years in space. The calculations and data comparisons are used to estimate the accuracy of current models and methods for predicting the ionizing radiation environment in low earth orbit. The emphasis is on checking the accuracy of trapped proton flux and anisotropy models.

  2. Strong Wilson polygons from the lodge of free and bound mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonini, Alfredo; Fioravanti, Davide; Piscaglia, Simone; Rossi, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Previously predicted by the S-matrix bootstrap of the excitations over the GKP quantum vacuum, the appearance of a new particle at strong coupling — formed by one fermion and one anti-fermion — is here confirmed: this two-dimensional meson shows up, along with its infinite tower of bound states, while analysing the fermionic contributions to the Operator Product Expansion (collinear regime) of the Wilson null polygon loop. Moreover, its existence, free (This term is used here as opposite to bound, thus as unbound) and bound, turns out to be a powerful idea in re-summing all the contributions (at large coupling) for a general n-gon ( n ≥ 6) to a Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz, which is proven to be equivalent to the known one and suggests new structures for a special Y-system.

  3. Superactivation, unlockability, and secrecy distribution of bound information

    SciTech Connect

    Prettico, Giuseppe; Bae, Joonwoo

    2011-04-15

    Bound information, a cryptographic classical analog of bound entanglement, is defined as classical secret correlations from which no secret key can be extracted. Its existence was conjectured and shown in a multipartite case. In this work, we provide an example of bound information in a four-partite scenario. Later, using this example, we prove that bound information can be superactivated and moreover unlockable in a finite-copy scenario. We also show that bound entangled states (bound information) can be used to distribute multipartite pure-state entanglements (secret keys).

  4. GC in Environmental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosink, Thomas A.

    1975-01-01

    Gas chromatography can be used to quantitate various gases, complex organic molecules, metals, anions, and pesticides in the lab or in the field. Important advances in gas chromatography and how they directly apply to environmental analyses plus suggestions where they will be of importance to environmental chemists are discussed. (BT)

  5. Canadian inter-laboratory organically bound tritium (OBT) analysis exercise.

    PubMed

    Kim, S B; Olfert, J; Baglan, N; St-Amant, N; Carter, B; Clark, I; Bucur, C

    2015-12-01

    Tritium emissions are one of the main concerns with regard to CANDU reactors and Canadian nuclear facilities. After the Fukushima accident, the Canadian Nuclear Regulatory Commission suggested that models used in risk assessment of Canadian nuclear facilities be firmly based on measured data. Procedures for measurement of tritium as HTO (tritiated water) are well established, but there are no standard methods and certified reference materials for measurement of organically bound tritium (OBT) in environmental samples. This paper describes and discusses an inter-laboratory comparison study in which OBT in three different dried environmental samples (fish, Swiss chard and potato) was measured to evaluate OBT analysis methods currently used by CANDU Owners Group (COG) members. The variations in the measured OBT activity concentrations between all laboratories were less than approximately 20%, with a total uncertainty between 11 and 17%. Based on the results using the dried samples, the current OBT analysis methods for combustion, distillation and counting are generally acceptable. However, a complete consensus OBT analysis methodology with respect to freeze-drying, rinsing, combustion, distillation and counting is required. Also, an exercise using low-level tritium samples (less than 100 Bq/L or 20 Bq/kg-fresh) would be useful in the near future to more fully evaluate the current OBT analysis methods. PMID:26372740

  6. Current understanding of organically bound tritium (OBT) in the environment.

    PubMed

    Kim, S B; Baglan, N; Davis, P A

    2013-12-01

    It has become increasingly recognized that organically bound tritium (OBT) is the more significant tritium fraction with respect to understanding tritium behaviour in the environment. There are many different terms associated with OBT; such as total OBT, exchangeable OBT, non-exchangeable OBT, soluble OBT, insoluble OBT, tritiated organics, and buried tritium, etc. A simple classification is required to clarify understanding within the tritium research community. Unlike for tritiated water (HTO), the environmental quantification and behaviour of OBT are not well known. Tritiated water cannot bio-accumulate in the environment. However, it is not clear whether or not this is the case for OBT. Even though OBT can be detected in terrestrial biological materials, aquatic biological materials and soil samples, its behaviour is still in question. In order to evaluate the radiation dose from OBT accurately, further study will be required to understand OBT measurements and determine OBT fate in the environment. The relationship between OBT speciation and the OBT/HTO ratio in environmental samples will be useful in this regard, providing information on the previous tritium exposure conditions in the environment and the current tritium dynamics. PMID:23962797

  7. Development and Application of Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Bound Trinitrotoluene Residues in Soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiss, J.M.; Mckay, A.J.; Derito, C.; Watanabe, C.; Thorn, K.A.; Madsen, E.L.

    2004-01-01

    TNT (trinitrotoluene) is a contaminant of global environmental significance, yet determining its environmental fate has posed longstanding challenges. To date, only differential extraction-based approaches have been able to determine the presence of covalently bound, reduced forms of TNT in field soils. Here, we employed thermal elution, pyrolysis, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to distinguish between covalently bound and noncovalently bound reduced forms of TNT in soil. Model soil organic matter-based matrixes were used to develop an assay in which noncovalently bound (monomeric) aminodinitrotoluene (ADNT) and diaminonitrotoluene (DANT) were desorbed from the matrix and analyzed at a lower temperature than covalently bound forms of these same compounds. A thermal desorption technique, evolved gas analysis, was initially employed to differentiate between covalently bound and added 15N-labeled monomeric compounds. A refined thermal elution procedure, termed "double-shot analysis" (DSA), allowed a sample to be sequentially analyzed in two phases. In phase 1, all of an added 15N-labeled monomeric contaminant was eluted from the sample at relatively low temperature. In phase 2 during high-temperature pyrolysis, the remaining covalently bound contaminants were detected. DSA analysis of soil from the Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant (LAAP; ???5000 ppm TNT) revealed the presence of DANT, ADNT, and TNT. After scrutinizing the DSA data and comparing them to results from solvent-extracted and base/acid-hydrolyzed LAAP soil, we concluded that the TNT was a noncovalently bound "carryover" from phase 1. Thus, the pyrolysis-GC/MS technique successfully defined covalently bound pools of ADNT and DANT in the field soil sample.

  8. Isotopic signatures by bulk analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Efurd, D.W.; Rokop, D.J.

    1997-12-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a series of measurement techniques for identification of nuclear signatures by analyzing bulk samples. Two specific applications for isotopic fingerprinting to identify the origin of anthropogenic radioactivity in bulk samples are presented. The first example is the analyses of environmental samples collected in the US Arctic to determine the impact of dumping of radionuclides in this polar region. Analyses of sediment and biota samples indicate that for the areas sampled the anthropogenic radionuclide content of sediments was predominantly the result of the deposition of global fallout. The anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in fish, birds and mammals were very low. It can be surmised that marine food chains are presently not significantly affected. The second example is isotopic fingerprinting of water and sediment samples from the Rocky Flats Facility (RFP). The largest source of anthropogenic radioactivity presently affecting surface-waters at RFP is the sediments that are currently residing in the holding ponds. One gram of sediment from a holding pond contains approximately 50 times more plutonium than 1 liter of water from the pond. Essentially 100% of the uranium in Ponds A-1 and A-2 originated as depleted uranium. The largest source of radioactivity in the terminal Ponds A-4, B-5 and C-2 was naturally occurring uranium and its decay product radium. The uranium concentrations in the waters collected from the terminal ponds contained 0.05% or less of the interim standard calculated derived concentration guide for uranium in waters available to the public. All of the radioactivity observed in soil, sediment and water samples collected at RFP was naturally occurring, the result of processes at RFP or the result of global fallout. No extraneous anthropogenic alpha, beta or gamma activities were detected. The plutonium concentrations in Pond C-2 appear to vary seasonally.

  9. Robust Design Optimization via Failure Domain Bounding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy, Daniel P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper extends and applies the strategies recently developed by the authors for handling constraints under uncertainty to robust design optimization. For the scope of this paper, robust optimization is a methodology aimed at problems for which some parameters are uncertain and are only known to belong to some uncertainty set. This set can be described by either a deterministic or a probabilistic model. In the methodology developed herein, optimization-based strategies are used to bound the constraint violation region using hyper-spheres and hyper-rectangles. By comparing the resulting bounding sets with any given uncertainty model, it can be determined whether the constraints are satisfied for all members of the uncertainty model (i.e., constraints are feasible) or not (i.e., constraints are infeasible). If constraints are infeasible and a probabilistic uncertainty model is available, upper bounds to the probability of constraint violation can be efficiently calculated. The tools developed enable approximating not only the set of designs that make the constraints feasible but also, when required, the set of designs for which the probability of constraint violation is below a prescribed admissible value. When constraint feasibility is possible, several design criteria can be used to shape the uncertainty model of performance metrics of interest. Worst-case, least-second-moment, and reliability-based design criteria are considered herein. Since the problem formulation is generic and the tools derived only require standard optimization algorithms for their implementation, these strategies are easily applicable to a broad range of engineering problems.

  10. Supporting analyses and assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Ohi, J.

    1995-09-01

    Supporting analysis and assessments can provide a sound analytic foundation and focus for program planning, evaluation, and coordination, particularly if issues of hydrogen production, distribution, storage, safety, and infrastructure can be analyzed in a comprehensive and systematic manner. The overall purpose of this activity is to coordinate all key analytic tasks-such as technology and market status, opportunities, and trends; environmental costs and benefits; and regulatory constraints and opportunities-within a long-term and systematic analytic foundation for program planning and evaluation. Within this context, the purpose of the project is to help develop and evaluate programmatic pathway options that incorporate near and mid-term strategies to achieve the long-term goals of the Hydrogen Program. In FY 95, NREL will develop a comprehensive effort with industry, state and local agencies, and other federal agencies to identify and evaluate programmatic pathway options to achieve the long-term goals of the Program. Activity to date is reported.

  11. LDEF Satellite Radiation Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1996-01-01

    This report covers work performed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) under contract NAS8-39386 from the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center entitled LDEF Satellite Radiation Analyses. The basic objective of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of present models and computational methods for defining the ionizing radiation environment for spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by making comparisons with radiation measurements made on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite, which was recovered after almost six years in space. The emphasis of the work here is on predictions and comparisons with LDEF measurements of induced radioactivity and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) measurements. These model/data comparisons have been used to evaluate the accuracy of current models for predicting the flux and directionality of trapped protons for LEO missions.

  12. EEG analyses with SOBI.

    SciTech Connect

    Glickman, Matthew R.; Tang, Akaysha

    2009-02-01

    The motivating vision behind Sandia's MENTOR/PAL LDRD project has been that of systems which use real-time psychophysiological data to support and enhance human performance, both individually and of groups. Relevant and significant psychophysiological data being a necessary prerequisite to such systems, this LDRD has focused on identifying and refining such signals. The project has focused in particular on EEG (electroencephalogram) data as a promising candidate signal because it (potentially) provides a broad window on brain activity with relatively low cost and logistical constraints. We report here on two analyses performed on EEG data collected in this project using the SOBI (Second Order Blind Identification) algorithm to identify two independent sources of brain activity: one in the frontal lobe and one in the occipital. The first study looks at directional influences between the two components, while the second study looks at inferring gender based upon the frontal component.

  13. Network Class Superposition Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Carl A. B.; Zeng, Chen; Simha, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Networks are often used to understand a whole system by modeling the interactions among its pieces. Examples include biomolecules in a cell interacting to provide some primary function, or species in an environment forming a stable community. However, these interactions are often unknown; instead, the pieces' dynamic states are known, and network structure must be inferred. Because observed function may be explained by many different networks (e.g., for the yeast cell cycle process [1]), considering dynamics beyond this primary function means picking a single network or suitable sample: measuring over all networks exhibiting the primary function is computationally infeasible. We circumvent that obstacle by calculating the network class ensemble. We represent the ensemble by a stochastic matrix , which is a transition-by-transition superposition of the system dynamics for each member of the class. We present concrete results for derived from Boolean time series dynamics on networks obeying the Strong Inhibition rule, by applying to several traditional questions about network dynamics. We show that the distribution of the number of point attractors can be accurately estimated with . We show how to generate Derrida plots based on . We show that -based Shannon entropy outperforms other methods at selecting experiments to further narrow the network structure. We also outline an experimental test of predictions based on . We motivate all of these results in terms of a popular molecular biology Boolean network model for the yeast cell cycle, but the methods and analyses we introduce are general. We conclude with open questions for , for example, application to other models, computational considerations when scaling up to larger systems, and other potential analyses. PMID:23565141

  14. Network class superposition analyses.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Carl A B; Zeng, Chen; Simha, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Networks are often used to understand a whole system by modeling the interactions among its pieces. Examples include biomolecules in a cell interacting to provide some primary function, or species in an environment forming a stable community. However, these interactions are often unknown; instead, the pieces' dynamic states are known, and network structure must be inferred. Because observed function may be explained by many different networks (e.g., ≈ 10(30) for the yeast cell cycle process), considering dynamics beyond this primary function means picking a single network or suitable sample: measuring over all networks exhibiting the primary function is computationally infeasible. We circumvent that obstacle by calculating the network class ensemble. We represent the ensemble by a stochastic matrix T, which is a transition-by-transition superposition of the system dynamics for each member of the class. We present concrete results for T derived from boolean time series dynamics on networks obeying the Strong Inhibition rule, by applying T to several traditional questions about network dynamics. We show that the distribution of the number of point attractors can be accurately estimated with T. We show how to generate Derrida plots based on T. We show that T-based Shannon entropy outperforms other methods at selecting experiments to further narrow the network structure. We also outline an experimental test of predictions based on T. We motivate all of these results in terms of a popular molecular biology boolean network model for the yeast cell cycle, but the methods and analyses we introduce are general. We conclude with open questions for T, for example, application to other models, computational considerations when scaling up to larger systems, and other potential analyses. PMID:23565141

  15. Bounding the distance of quantum surface codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetaya, Ethan

    2012-06-01

    Homological quantum codes (also called topological codes) are low density parity check error correcting codes that come from surfaces and higher dimension manifolds. Homological codes from surfaces, i.e., surface codes, have also been suggested as a possible way to construct stable quantum memory and fault-tolerant computation. It has been conjectured that all homological codes have a square root bound on there distance and therefore cannot produce good codes. This claim has been disputed in dimension four using the geometric property of systolic freedom. We will show in this paper that the conjecture holds in dimension two due to the negation of systolic freedom, i.e., systolic rigidity.

  16. Arsenic-bound excitons in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barjon, J.; Jomard, F.; Morata, S.

    2014-01-01

    A set of new excitonic recombinations is observed in arsenic-implanted diamond. It is composed of two groups of emissions at 5.355/5.361 eV and at 5.215/5.220/5.227 eV. They are respectively attributed to the no-phonon and transverse-optical phonon-assisted recombinations of excitons bound to neutral arsenic donors. From the Haynes rule, an ionization energy of 0.41 eV is deduced for arsenic in diamond, which shows that arsenic is a shallower donor than phosphorus (0.6 eV), in agreement with theory.

  17. Landauer bound for analog computing systems.

    PubMed

    Diamantini, M Cristina; Gammaitoni, Luca; Trugenberger, Carlo A

    2016-07-01

    By establishing a relation between information erasure and continuous phase transitions we generalize the Landauer bound to analog computing systems. The entropy production per degree of freedom during erasure of an analog variable (reset to standard value) is given by the logarithm of the configurational volume measured in units of its minimal quantum. As a consequence, every computation has to be carried on with a finite number of bits and infinite precision is forbidden by the fundamental laws of physics, since it would require an infinite amount of energy. PMID:27575108

  18. Landauer bound for analog computing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamantini, M. Cristina; Gammaitoni, Luca; Trugenberger, Carlo A.

    2016-07-01

    By establishing a relation between information erasure and continuous phase transitions we generalize the Landauer bound to analog computing systems. The entropy production per degree of freedom during erasure of an analog variable (reset to standard value) is given by the logarithm of the configurational volume measured in units of its minimal quantum. As a consequence, every computation has to be carried on with a finite number of bits and infinite precision is forbidden by the fundamental laws of physics, since it would require an infinite amount of energy.

  19. Total-variation regularization with bound constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Chartrand, Rick; Wohlberg, Brendt

    2009-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for bound-constrained total-variation (TV) regularization that in comparison with its predecessors is simple, fast, and flexible. We use a splitting approach to decouple TV minimization from enforcing the constraints. Consequently, existing TV solvers can be employed with minimal alteration. This also makes the approach straightforward to generalize to any situation where TV can be applied. We consider deblurring of images with Gaussian or salt-and-pepper noise, as well as Abel inversion of radiographs with Poisson noise. We incorporate previous iterative reweighting algorithms to solve the TV portion.

  20. Andreev bound states. Some quasiclassical reflections

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y. Leggett, A. J.

    2014-12-15

    We discuss a very simple and essentially exactly solvable model problem which illustrates some nice features of Andreev bound states, namely, the trapping of a single Bogoliubov quasiparticle in a neutral s-wave BCS superfluid by a wide and shallow Zeeman trap. In the quasiclassical limit, the ground state is a doublet with a splitting which is proportional to the exponentially small amplitude for “normal” reflection by the edges of the trap. We comment briefly on a prima facie paradox concerning the continuity equation and conjecture a resolution to it.

  1. Riccati equations for bounded radiating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maharaj, S. D.; Tiwari, A. K.; Mohanlal, R.; Narain, R.

    2016-09-01

    We systematically analyze the nonlinear partial differential equation that determines the behaviour of a bounded radiating spherical mass in general relativity. Four categories of solution are possible. These are identified in terms of restrictions on the gravitational potentials. One category of solution can be related to the horizon function transformation which was recently introduced. A Lie symmetry analysis of the resulting Riccati equation shows that several new classes of exact solutions are possible. The relationship between the horizon function, Euclidean star models, and other earlier investigations is clarified.

  2. Model Independent Bounds on Kinetic Mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, Anson; Izaguirre, Eder; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

    2011-08-22

    New Abelian vector bosons can kinetically mix with the hypercharge gauge boson of the Standard Model. This letter computes the model independent limits on vector bosons with masses from 1 GeV to 1 TeV. The limits arise from the numerous e{sup +}e{sup -} experiments that have been performed in this energy range and bound the kinetic mixing by {epsilon} {approx}< 0.03 for most of the mass range studied, regardless of any additional interactions that the new vector boson may have.

  3. Iron-bound organic carbon in forest soils: quantification and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qian; Poulson, Simon R.; Obrist, Daniel; Sumaila, Samira; Dynes, James J.; McBeth, Joyce M.; Yang, Yu

    2016-08-01

    Iron oxide minerals play an important role in stabilizing organic carbon (OC) and regulating the biogeochemical cycles of OC on the earth surface. To predict the fate of OC, it is essential to understand the amount, spatial variability, and characteristics of Fe-bound OC in natural soils. In this study, we investigated the concentrations and characteristics of Fe-bound OC in soils collected from 14 forests in the United States and determined the impact of ecogeographical variables and soil physicochemical properties on the association of OC and Fe minerals. On average, Fe-bound OC contributed 37.8 % of total OC (TOC) in forest soils. Atomic ratios of OC : Fe ranged from 0.56 to 17.7, with values of 1-10 for most samples, and the ratios indicate the importance of both sorptive and incorporative interactions. The fraction of Fe-bound OC in TOC (fFe-OC) was not related to the concentration of reactive Fe, which suggests that the importance of association with Fe in OC accumulation was not governed by the concentration of reactive Fe. Concentrations of Fe-bound OC and fFe-OC increased with latitude and reached peak values at a site with a mean annual temperature of 6.6 °C. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) analyses revealed that Fe-bound OC was less aliphatic than non-Fe-bound OC. Fe-bound OC also was more enriched in 13C compared to the non-Fe-bound OC, but C / N ratios did not differ substantially. In summary, 13C-enriched OC with less aliphatic carbon and more carboxylic carbon was associated with Fe minerals in the soils, with values of fFe-OC being controlled by both sorptive and incorporative associations between Fe and OC. Overall, this study demonstrates that Fe oxides play an important role in regulating the biogeochemical cycles of C in forest soils and uncovers the governing factors for the spatial variability and characteristics of Fe-bound OC.

  4. Unusually strong attraction in the presence of continuum bound state

    SciTech Connect

    Delfino, A.; Adhikari, S.K.; Tomio, L.; Frederico, T. Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210 Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 01405 Sao Paulo, SP School of Physical Sciences, The Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, SA 5042 Instituto de Estudos Avancados, Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial, 12231 Sao Jose dos Campos, SP )

    1992-11-01

    The result of few-particle ground-state calculation employing a two-particle nonlocal potential supporting a continuum bound state in addition to a negative-energy bound state has occasionally revealed unusually strong attraction in producing a very strongly bound ground state. In the presence of the continuum bound state the difference of phase shift between zero and infinite energies has an extra jump of {pi} as in the presence of an additional bound state. The wave function of the continuum bound state is identical with that of a strongly bound negative-energy state, which leads us to postulate a pseudo bound state in the two-particle system in order to explain the unexpected attraction. The role of the Pauli forbidden states is expected to be similar to these pseudo states.

  5. The factorization method and ground state energy bounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmutz, M.

    1985-04-01

    We discuss the relationship between the factorization method and the Barnsley bound to the ground state energy. The latter method is extended in such a way that both lower and upper analytic bounds can be obtained.

  6. Spectral conditions for entanglement witnesses versus bound entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Chruscinski, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej; Sarbicki, Gniewomir

    2009-10-15

    It is shown that entanglement witnesses constructed via the family of spectral conditions are decomposable, i.e., cannot be used to detect bound entanglement. It supports several observations that bound entanglement reveals highly nonspectral features.

  7. Thiols screened by the neocarzinostatin protein for preserving or detoxifying its bound enediyne antibiotic.

    PubMed

    Chi, Hung-Wen; Huang, Chun-Chi; Chin, Der-Hang

    2012-05-14

    Neocarzinostatin is an antibiotic chromoprotein produced by Streptomyces carzinostaticus. Its enediyne-containing chromophore exhibits high DNA cleavage activity and belongs to one of the most potent categories of antitumor agents. The labile chromophore is readily inactivated by environmental thiols including the most abundant glutathione. How the microorganism preserves the secreted antibiotic and at the same time is immune to its toxicity are of interest. Site-directed mutagenesis studies of the neocarzinostatin protein have shown that residues D33 and D99 play primary and secondary roles, respectively, in preserving neocarzinostatin from acidic glutathione whereas D79 and other residues around the opening of the binding cleft have an insignificant effect. Biothiol analyses revealed that cells of S. carzinostaticus produced no glutathione, but instead neutral mycothiol, which is known to serve functions analogous to glutathione. Mycothiol was the only neutral-charged thiol produced by the organism; all other identified biothiols carried at least partial negative charges. When the bacteria were cultured under conditions that stimulated the biosynthesis of neocarzinostatin, the yield of mycothiol increased significantly, which suggests mycothiol-dependent cellular detoxification. Treating neocarzinostatin samples with the cell extract that retained active sulfhydryls led to efficient drug inactivation, which indicates that mycothiol is allowed to approach the protein-bound chromophore. The anionic side-chains of D33 and D99 in the neocarzinostatin protein played two critical roles in a single thiol-screening operation: Preserving the antibiotic for defense and survival by rejecting the ubiquitous glutathione through charge-charge repulsion in the outer-cell environment and detoxifying the toxin in the inner-cell body for self-resistance by accepting the cell-produced neutral mycothiol.

  8. Do Reuss and Voigt bounds really bound in high-pressure rheology experiments?

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiuhua; Li, Li; Yu, Tony; Long, Hongbo; Weidner, Donald; Wang, Liping; Vaughan, Michael

    2006-06-28

    Energy dispersive synchrotron x-ray diffraction is carried out to measure differential lattice strains in polycrystalline Fe(2)SiO(4) (fayalite) and MgO samples using a multi-element solid state detector during high-pressure deformation. The theory of elastic modelling with Reuss (iso-stress) and Voigt (iso-strain) bounds is used to evaluate the aggregate stress and weight parameter, α (0≤α≤1), of the two bounds. Results under the elastic assumption quantitatively demonstrate that a highly stressed sample in high-pressure experiments reasonably approximates to an iso-stress state. However, when the sample is plastically deformed, the Reuss and Voigt bounds are no longer valid (α becomes beyond 1). Instead, if plastic slip systems of the sample are known (e.g. in the case of MgO), the aggregate property can be modelled using a visco-plastic self-consistent theory. PMID:22611095

  9. Quantitative bounds on morphodynamics and implications for reading the sedimentary record.

    PubMed

    Ganti, Vamsi; Lamb, Michael P; McElroy, Brandon

    2014-02-28

    Sedimentary rocks are the archives of environmental conditions and ancient planetary surface processes that led to their formation. Reconstructions of Earth's past surface behaviour from the physical sedimentary record remain controversial, however, in part because we lack a quantitative framework to deconvolve internal dynamics of sediment-transport systems from environmental signal preservation. Internal dynamics of landscapes--a consequence of the coupling between bed topography, sediment transport and flow dynamics (morphodynamics)--result in regular and quasiperiodic landforms that abound on the Earth and other planets. Here, using theory and a data compilation of morphodynamic landforms that span a wide range of terrestrial, marine and planetary depositional systems, we show that the advection length for settling sediment sets bounds on the scales over which internal landscape dynamics operate. These bounds provide a universal palaeohydraulic reconstruction tool on planetary surfaces and allow for quantitative identification of depositional systems that may preserve tectonic, climatic and anthropogenic signals.

  10. Quantitative bounds on morphodynamics and implications for reading the sedimentary record.

    PubMed

    Ganti, Vamsi; Lamb, Michael P; McElroy, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks are the archives of environmental conditions and ancient planetary surface processes that led to their formation. Reconstructions of Earth's past surface behaviour from the physical sedimentary record remain controversial, however, in part because we lack a quantitative framework to deconvolve internal dynamics of sediment-transport systems from environmental signal preservation. Internal dynamics of landscapes--a consequence of the coupling between bed topography, sediment transport and flow dynamics (morphodynamics)--result in regular and quasiperiodic landforms that abound on the Earth and other planets. Here, using theory and a data compilation of morphodynamic landforms that span a wide range of terrestrial, marine and planetary depositional systems, we show that the advection length for settling sediment sets bounds on the scales over which internal landscape dynamics operate. These bounds provide a universal palaeohydraulic reconstruction tool on planetary surfaces and allow for quantitative identification of depositional systems that may preserve tectonic, climatic and anthropogenic signals. PMID:24576990

  11. Strong coupling and bounds on the spin-2 mass in massive gravity.

    PubMed

    Burrage, Clare; Kaloper, Nemanja; Padilla, Antonio

    2013-07-12

    The de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley theory of a single massive spin-2 field has a cutoff much below its Planck scale because the extra modes from the massive spin-2 multiplet involve higher derivative self-interactions, controlled by a scale convoluted from its mass. Generically, these correct the propagator by environmental effects. The resulting effective cutoff depends on the environmental parameters and the spin-2 "graviton" mass. Requiring the theory to be perturbative down to O(1) mm, we derive bounds on the mass, corresponding to ≳O(1) meV for the generic case, assuming the coupling to be given by the standard Newton's constant, and somewhat weaker bounds in cases with fine-tuning. Thus, the theory of a single massive spin-2 can really only be viewed as a theory describing the full nonlinear propagation of a massive spin-2 field on a fixed background and not as an approximation to general relativity.

  12. Strong coupling and bounds on the spin-2 mass in massive gravity.

    PubMed

    Burrage, Clare; Kaloper, Nemanja; Padilla, Antonio

    2013-07-12

    The de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley theory of a single massive spin-2 field has a cutoff much below its Planck scale because the extra modes from the massive spin-2 multiplet involve higher derivative self-interactions, controlled by a scale convoluted from its mass. Generically, these correct the propagator by environmental effects. The resulting effective cutoff depends on the environmental parameters and the spin-2 "graviton" mass. Requiring the theory to be perturbative down to O(1) mm, we derive bounds on the mass, corresponding to ≳O(1) meV for the generic case, assuming the coupling to be given by the standard Newton's constant, and somewhat weaker bounds in cases with fine-tuning. Thus, the theory of a single massive spin-2 can really only be viewed as a theory describing the full nonlinear propagation of a massive spin-2 field on a fixed background and not as an approximation to general relativity. PMID:23889386

  13. Unified treatment of bound-state and scattering problems

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikari, S.K.; Tomio, L.

    1988-01-01

    The iteration-subtraction method for the unified treatment of bound-state and scattering problems is compared and contrasted with a similar method for the two-body bound-state problem via nonsingular scattering equations developed recently. We also compare another recent method for solving bound-state problems with the iteration-subtraction method.

  14. BOUNDED MINIMUM INHERENT AVAILABILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR THE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    L. Booth

    1998-03-13

    The purpose of this analysis is to establish bounded minimum inherent availability requirements for the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) System Description Documents (SDDs). The purpose of the bounded minimum inherent availability is to provide a lower bound on availability which will allow design to meet throughput requirements while not affecting the ability of the items to perform their intended safety function.

  15. Bounded Rationality, Retaliation, and the Spread of Urban Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Bruce A.; Wright, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from in-depth interviews with 52 active street criminals, this article examines the grounded theoretic implications of bounded rationality for retaliatory street violence. The bounds on rationality that this article explores are anger, uncertainty, and time pressure. These bounds create imperfections in the retaliatory decision-making…

  16. Improved lower bound on the entropic uncertainty relation

    SciTech Connect

    Jafarpour, Mojtaba; Sabour, Abbass

    2011-09-15

    We present a lower bound on the entropic uncertainty relation for the distinguished measurements of two observables in a d-dimensional Hilbert space for d up to 5. This bound provides an improvement over the best one yet available. The feasibility of the obtained bound presenting an improvement for higher dimensions is also discussed.

  17. Predictability Bounds of Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Dahlem, Dominik; Maniloff, Diego; Ratti, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The ability to intervene in disease progression given a person’s disease history has the potential to solve one of society’s most pressing issues: advancing health care delivery and reducing its cost. Controlling disease progression is inherently associated with the ability to predict possible future diseases given a patient’s medical history. We invoke an information-theoretic methodology to quantify the level of predictability inherent in disease histories of a large electronic health records dataset with over half a million patients. In our analysis, we progress from zeroth order through temporal informed statistics, both from an individual patient’s standpoint and also considering the collective effects. Our findings confirm our intuition that knowledge of common disease progressions results in higher predictability bounds than treating disease histories independently. We complement this result by showing the point at which the temporal dependence structure vanishes with increasing orders of the time-correlated statistic. Surprisingly, we also show that shuffling individual disease histories only marginally degrades the predictability bounds. This apparent contradiction with respect to the importance of time-ordered information is indicative of the complexities involved in capturing the health-care process and the difficulties associated with utilising this information in universal prediction algorithms. PMID:26148751

  18. Membrane-bound respiratory of Spirillum itersonii.

    PubMed Central

    Dailey, H A

    1976-01-01

    The membrane-bound respiratory system of the gram-negative bacterium Spirillum itersonii was investigated. It contains cytochromes b (558), c (550), and o (558) and beta-dihydro-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and succinate oxidase activities under all growth conditions. It is also capable of producing D-lactate and alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenases when grown with lactate or glycerol as sole carbon source. Membrane-bound malate dehydrogenase was not detectable under any conditions, although there is high activity of soluble nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide: malate dehydrogenase. When grown with oxygen as the sole terminal electron acceptor, approximately 60% of the total b-type cytochrome is present as cytochrome o, whereas only 40% is present as cytochrome o in cells grown with nitrate in the presence of oxygen. Both NADH and succinate oxidase are inhibited by azide, cyanide, antimycin A, and 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxidase at low concentrations. The ability of these inhibitors to completely inhibit oxidase activity at low concentrations and their effects upon the aerobic steady-state reduction levels of b- and c-type cytochromes as well as the aerobic steady-state reduction levels obtained with NADH, succinate, and ascorbate-dichlorophenolindophenol suggest that presence of an unbranched respiratory chain in S. itersonii with the order ubiquinone leads to b leads to c leads to c leads to oxygen. PMID:182674

  19. The function of catalase-bound NADPH.

    PubMed

    Kirkman, H N; Galiano, S; Gaetani, G F

    1987-01-15

    Catalase (H2O2:H2O2 oxidoreductase, EC 1.11.1.6) is of historical interest for having been the subject of some of the earliest investigations of enzymes. A feature of catalase that has been poorly understood for several decades, however, is the mechanism by which catalase remains active in the presence of its own substrate, hydrogen peroxide. We reported recently that catalase contains tightly bound NADPH. The present study with bovine and human catalase revealed that NADPH both prevents and reverses the accumulation of compound II, an inactive form of catalase that is generated slowly when catalase is exposed to hydrogen peroxide. Since the effect of NADPH occurs even at NADPH concentrations below 0.1 microM, the protective mechanism is likely to operate in vivo. This discovery of the role of catalase-bound NADPH brings a unity to the concept of two different mechanisms for disposing of hydrogen peroxide (catalase and the glutathione reductase/peroxidase pathway) by revealing that both mechanisms are dependent on NADPH. PMID:3805001

  20. Extremum seeking with bounded update rates

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Scheinker, Alexander; Krstić, Miroslav

    2013-11-16

    In this work, we present a form of extremum seeking (ES) in which the unknown function being minimized enters the system’s dynamics as the argument of a cosine or sine term, thereby guaranteeing known bounds on update rates and control efforts. We present general n-dimensional optimization and stabilization results as well as 2D vehicle control, with bounded velocity and control efforts. For application to autonomous vehicles, tracking a source in a GPS denied environment with unknown orientation, this ES approach allows for smooth heading angle actuation, with constant velocity, and in application to a unicycle-type vehicle results in control abilitymore » as if the vehicle is fully actuated. Our stability analysis is made possible by the classic results of Kurzweil, Jarnik, Sussmann, and Liu, regarding systems with highly oscillatory terms. In our stability analysis, we combine the averaging results with a semi-global practical stability result under small parametric perturbations developed by Moreau and Aeyels.« less

  1. Nonuniversal BBN bounds on electromagnetically decaying particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, Vivian; Serpico, Pasquale Dario

    2015-05-01

    In Poulin and Serpico [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 091101 (2015)] we recently argued that when the energy of a photon injected in the primordial plasma falls below the pair-production threshold the universality of the nonthermal photon spectrum from the standard theory of electromagnetic cascades onto a photon background breaks down. We showed that this could reopen or widen the parameter space for an exotic solution to the "lithium problem." Here we discuss another application, namely the impact that this has on nonthermal big bang nucleosynthesis constraints from He 4 , He 3 , and H 2 , using the parametric example of monochromatic photon injection of different energies. Typically, we find tighter bounds than those existing in the literature, up to more than 1 order of magnitude. As a consequence of the nonuniversality of the spectrum, the energy dependence of the photodissociation cross sections is important. We also compare the constraints obtained with current level and future reach of cosmic microwave background spectral distortion bounds.

  2. Performance Bounds on Two Concatenated, Interleaved Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moision, Bruce; Dolinar, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    A method has been developed of computing bounds on the performance of a code comprised of two linear binary codes generated by two encoders serially concatenated through an interleaver. Originally intended for use in evaluating the performances of some codes proposed for deep-space communication links, the method can also be used in evaluating the performances of short-block-length codes in other applications. The method applies, more specifically, to a communication system in which following processes take place: At the transmitter, the original binary information that one seeks to transmit is first processed by an encoder into an outer code (Co) characterized by, among other things, a pair of numbers (n,k), where n (n > k)is the total number of code bits associated with k information bits and n k bits are used for correcting or at least detecting errors. Next, the outer code is processed through either a block or a convolutional interleaver. In the block interleaver, the words of the outer code are processed in blocks of I words. In the convolutional interleaver, the interleaving operation is performed bit-wise in N rows with delays that are multiples of B bits. The output of the interleaver is processed through a second encoder to obtain an inner code (Ci) characterized by (ni,ki). The output of the inner code is transmitted over an additive-white-Gaussian- noise channel characterized by a symbol signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) Es/No and a bit SNR Eb/No. At the receiver, an inner decoder generates estimates of bits. Depending on whether a block or a convolutional interleaver is used at the transmitter, the sequence of estimated bits is processed through a block or a convolutional de-interleaver, respectively, to obtain estimates of code words. Then the estimates of the code words are processed through an outer decoder, which generates estimates of the original information along with flags indicating which estimates are presumed to be correct and which are found to

  3. Proposal for field-based definition of soil bound pesticide residues.

    PubMed

    Boesten, J J T I

    2016-02-15

    The environmental significance of soil bound pesticide residues (SBPR) is potentially large because approximately one third of the applied mass of the pesticides in agriculture ends up as SBPR. At EU level, there is little regulatory guidance available on the environmental risk assessment of SBPR in spite of some 50 years of SBPR research. This lack of guidance is partially caused by the fact that the current definitions of SBPR are founded on non-extractability in soil in the laboratory whereas for the environmental risk assessment not the soil in the laboratory but the soil in the field is the system of interest. Therefore a definition of SBPR is proposed that is based on the field soil: a molecule (further called 'the mother molecule') is soil bound if a relevant part of this molecule has become part of the solid phase in the soil and if this relevant part will never be released again to the liquid phase in soil under relevant field conditions in the form of this mother molecule or in the form of another molecule that may possibly raise environmental or human toxicological concerns. This mother molecule may be the parent substance that is applied to the soil but it may also be a metabolite of this parent substance. A consequence of the definition is that the SBPR terminology becomes more precise because the mother molecule of the soil bound residue has to be specified. A further consequence is that very strong but reversible sorption of molecules such as paraquat is not considered soil-bound residue anymore (as may be demonstrated by a self-exchange extraction procedure). Furthermore, the definition requires that risk managers have to define what they consider as 'relevant field conditions' (e.g. include also changes of agricultural fields into forests?).

  4. Bounding CKM Mixing with a Fourth Family

    SciTech Connect

    Chanowitz, Michael S.

    2009-04-22

    CKM mixing between third family quarks and a possible fourth family is constrained by global fits to the precision electroweak data. The dominant constraint is from nondecoupling oblique corrections rather than the vertex correction to Z {yields} {bar b}b used in previous analyses. The possibility of large mixing suggested by some recent analyses of FCNC processes is excluded, but 3-4 mixing of the same order as the Cabbibo mixing of the first two families is allowed.

  5. Reducing Conservatism of Analytic Transient Response Bounds via Shaping Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwan, Aiyueh; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Jan, Jiann-Woei; Grigoriadis, Karolos; Hua, Tuyen (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Recent results show that the peak transient response of a linear system to bounded energy inputs can be computed using the energy-to-peak gain of the system. However, analytically computed peak response bound can be conservative for a class of class bounded energy signals, specifically pulse trains generated from jet firings encountered in space vehicles. In this paper, shaping filters are proposed as a Methodology to reduce the conservatism of peak response analytic bounds. This Methodology was applied to a realistic Space Station assembly operation subject to jet firings. The results indicate that shaping filters indeed reduce the predicted peak response bounds.

  6. Transfer function bounds on the performance of turbo codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, D.; Dolinar, S.; Pollara, F.; Mceliece, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    In this article we apply transfer function bounding techniques to obtain upper bounds on the bit-error rate for maximum likelihood decoding of turbo codes constructed with random permutations. These techniques are applied to two turbo codes with constraint length 3 and later extended to other codes. The performance predicted by these bounds is compared with simulation results. The bounds are useful in estimating the 'error floor' that is difficult to measure by simulation, and they provide insight on how to lower this floor. More refined bounds are needed for accurate performance measures at lower signal-to-noise ratios.

  7. Best upper and lower bounds of the generalized binomial distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Suprun, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    The persistent interest in efficient reliability bounds for complex-structure systems keeps producing new bounds, which are characterized by low computational costs and ensure acceptable error levels for applications. In this paper, we construct best bounds for the generalized binomial distribution (GBD) (known as {open_quotes}m out of n{close_quotes} in reliability theory), which are derived using edge-disjoint paths and cuts. We also propose fundamentally new bounds based on the geometric-mean transformation of the GBD to a homogeneous BD. These new bounds have certain advantages both in terms of computational complexity and in terms of the error level.

  8. Degenerate quantum codes and the quantum Hamming bound

    SciTech Connect

    Sarvepalli, Pradeep; Klappenecker, Andreas

    2010-03-15

    The parameters of a nondegenerate quantum code must obey the Hamming bound. An important open problem in quantum coding theory is whether the parameters of a degenerate quantum code can violate this bound for nondegenerate quantum codes. In this article we show that Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) codes, over a prime power alphabet q{>=}5, cannot beat the quantum Hamming bound. We prove a quantum version of the Griesmer bound for the CSS codes, which allows us to strengthen the Rains' bound that an [[n,k,d

  9. Work-Bound and College-Bound Youth: A Study in Stereotypes. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purnell, Richard F.; Lesser, Gerald S.

    Stereotypes about work-bound youth in vocational and comprehensive high schools were examined, using the students' own perceptions of on-going experiences in these two types of schools. Essentially two related stereotypes account for the wide-spread misconception about vocational and comprehensive high schools: (1) Vocational schools are seen as a…

  10. ɛ-bounded state estimation for time-delay systems with bounded disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, P. T.; Pathirana, P. N.; Trinh, H.

    2014-09-01

    A new problem on ε-bounded functional state estimation for time-delay systems with unknown bounded disturbances is studied in this paper. In the presence of unknown bounded disturbances, the common assumption regarding the observer's matching condition is no longer required. In this regard, instead of achieving asymptotic convergence for the observer error, the error is now required to converge exponentially within a ball with a small radius ε > 0. This means that the estimate converges exponentially within an ε-bound of the true value. A general observer that utilises multiple-delayed output and input information is proposed. Sufficient conditions for the existence of the proposed observer are first given. We then employ an extended Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional which combines the delay-decomposition technique with a triple-integral term to study the ε-convergence problem of the observer error system. Moreover, the obtained results are shown to be more effective than the existing results for the cases with no disturbances and/or no time delay. Three numerical examples are given to illustrate the obtained results.

  11. College-Bound Digest. Valuable Information from Prominent Educators for All College-Bound Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Northbrook, IL.

    Information for students, counselors, and parents to help in the evaluation of options and opportunities available for most college-bound students is presented in 17 articles. Titles and authors include the following: "Getting the Most from Your High School Counselor" (James Warfield); "The Use of the SAT at Selective Colleges" (Judith Gatlin);…

  12. 32 CFR 651.27 - Programmatic NEPA analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Programmatic NEPA analyses. 651.27 Section 651.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.27 Programmatic NEPA...

  13. 32 CFR 651.27 - Programmatic NEPA analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Programmatic NEPA analyses. 651.27 Section 651.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.27 Programmatic NEPA...

  14. 32 CFR 651.27 - Programmatic NEPA analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Programmatic NEPA analyses. 651.27 Section 651.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.27 Programmatic NEPA...

  15. 32 CFR 651.27 - Programmatic NEPA analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Programmatic NEPA analyses. 651.27 Section 651.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents §...

  16. 32 CFR 651.27 - Programmatic NEPA analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Programmatic NEPA analyses. 651.27 Section 651.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents §...

  17. Use of stabilized bottom ash for bound layers of road pavements.

    PubMed

    Toraldo, Emanuele; Saponaro, Sabrina; Careghini, Alessandro; Mariani, Edoardo

    2013-05-30

    This paper reports about the lab scale results obtained by using stabilized bottom ash (SBA) from an Italian municipal solid waste incinerator as aggregates in cement-bound mixes and asphalt concretes for road pavements. The investigation focused on SBA content. From the road construction point of view, performance related to compaction, volumetric and mechanical properties were assessed. The environmental aspects were investigated performing leaching tests. The results suggested that SBA satisfied the environmental Italian law for reuse of non-hazardous waste but affected significantly the stress-strain behavior of the final products. Therefore a maximum percentage of 10% was suggested. PMID:23535513

  18. Economics of children's environmental health.

    PubMed

    Trasande, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    Economic analyses are increasingly appearing in the children's environmental-health literature. In this review, an illustrative selection of articles that represent cost analyses, cost-effectiveness analyses, and cost-benefit analyses is analyzed for the relative merits of each approach. Cost analyses remain the dominant approach due to lack of available data. Cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses in this area face challenges presented by estimation of costs of environmental interventions, whose costs are likely to decrease with further technological innovation. Benefits are also more difficult to quantify economically and can only be partially alleviated through willingness-to-pay approaches. Nevertheless, economic analyses in children's environmental health are highly informative and important informants to public-health and policy practice. Further attention and training in their appropriate use are needed.

  19. A sharp upper bound for departure from normality

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.L.

    1993-08-01

    The departure from normality of a matrix is a real scalar that is impractical to compute if a matrix is large and its eigenvalues are unknown. A simple formula is presented for computing an upper bound for departure from normality in the Frobenius norm. This new upper bound is cheaper to compute than the upper bound derived by Henrici. Moreover, the new bound is sharp for Hermitian matrices, skew-Hermitian matrices and, in general, any matrix with eigenvalues that are horizontally or vertically aligned in the complex plane. In terms of applications, the new bound can be used in computing bounds for the spectral norm of matrix functions or bounds for the sensitivity of eigenvalues to matrix perturbations.

  20. Tolerance bounds for log gamma regression models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. A.; Scholz, F. W.; Ossiander, M.; Shorack, G. R.

    1985-01-01

    The present procedure for finding lower confidence bounds for the quantiles of Weibull populations, on the basis of the solution of a quadratic equation, is more accurate than current Monte Carlo tables and extends to any location-scale family. It is shown that this method is accurate for all members of the log gamma(K) family, where K = 1/2 to infinity, and works well for censored data, while also extending to regression data. An even more accurate procedure involving an approximation to the Lawless (1982) conditional procedure, with numerical integrations whose tables are independent of the data, is also presented. These methods are applied to the case of failure strengths of ceramic specimens from each of three billets of Si3N4, which have undergone flexural strength testing.

  1. Bounds for state-dependent quantum cloning

    SciTech Connect

    Han Yongjian; Zhang Yongsheng; Guo Guangcan

    2002-11-01

    Due to the no-cloning theorem, the unknown quantum state can only be cloned approximately or exactly with some probability. There are two types of cloners: universal and state-dependent cloner. The optimal universal cloner has been found and can be viewed as a special state-dependent quantum cloner that has no information about the states. In this paper, we investigate the state-dependent cloning when the state set contains more than two states. We get some bounds of the global fidelity for these processes. This method is not dependent on the number of the states contained in the state set. It is also independent of the numbers of copying.

  2. Solution structures of DNA-bound gyrase

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Nicole M.; Weigand, Steven; Maar-Mathias, Sarah; Mondragón, Alfonso

    2012-02-07

    The DNA gyrase negative supercoiling mechanism involves the assembly of a large gyrase/DNA complex and conformational rearrangements coupled to ATP hydrolysis. To establish the complex arrangement that directs the reaction towards negative supercoiling, bacterial gyrase complexes bound to 137- or 217-bp DNA fragments representing the starting conformational state of the catalytic cycle were characterized by sedimentation velocity and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments. The experiments revealed elongated complexes with hydrodynamic radii of 70-80 {angstrom}. Molecular envelopes calculated from these SAXS data show 2-fold symmetric molecules with the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the A subunit and the ATPase domain of the B subunit at opposite ends of the complexes. The proposed gyrase model, with the DNA binding along the sides of the molecule and wrapping around the CTDs located near the exit gate of the protein, adds new information on the mechanism of DNA negative supercoiling.

  3. Bounds on entanglement in qudit subsystems

    SciTech Connect

    Kendon, Vivien M.; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2002-12-01

    The entanglement in a pure state of N qudits (d-dimensional distinguishable quantum particles) can be characterized by specifying how entangled its subsystems are. A generally mixed subsystem of m qudits is obtained by tracing over the other N-m qudits. We examine the entanglement in the space of mixed states of m qudits. We show that for a typical pure state of N qudits, its subsystems smaller than N/3 qudits will have a positive partial transpose and hence are separable or bound entangled. Additionally, our numerical results show that the probability of finding entangled subsystems smaller than N/3 falls exponentially in the dimension of the Hilbert space. The bulk of pure state Hilbert space thus consists of highly entangled states with multipartite entanglement encompassing at least a third of the qudits in the pure state.

  4. Bounded Correctors in Almost Periodic Homogenization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Scott; Gloria, Antoine; Kuusi, Tuomo

    2016-10-01

    We show that certain linear elliptic equations (and systems) in divergence form with almost periodic coefficients have bounded, almost periodic correctors. This is proved under a new condition we introduce which quantifies the almost periodic assumption and includes (but is not restricted to) the class of smooth, quasiperiodic coefficient fields which satisfy a Diophantine-type condition previously considered by Kozlov (Mat Sb (N.S), 107(149):199-217, 1978). The proof is based on a quantitative ergodic theorem for almost periodic functions combined with the new regularity theory recently introduced by Armstrong and Shen (Pure Appl Math, 2016) for equations with almost periodic coefficients. This yields control on spatial averages of the gradient of the corrector, which is converted into estimates on the size of the corrector itself via a multiscale Poincaré-type inequality.

  5. Hyperquarks and bosonic preon bound states

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Michael L.; Buchmann, Alfons J.

    2009-11-01

    In a model in which leptons, quarks, and the recently introduced hyperquarks are built up from two fundamental spin-(1/2) preons, the standard model weak gauge bosons emerge as preon bound states. In addition, the model predicts a host of new composite gauge bosons, in particular, those responsible for hyperquark and proton decay. Their presence entails a left-right symmetric extension of the standard model weak interactions and a scheme for a partial and grand unification of nongravitational interactions based on, respectively, the effective gauge groups SU(6){sub P} and SU(9){sub G}. This leads to a prediction of the Weinberg angle at low energies in good agreement with experiment. Furthermore, using evolution equations for the effective coupling strengths, we calculate the partial and grand unification scales, the hyperquark mass scale, as well as the mass and decay rate of the lightest hyperhadron.

  6. Hyperquarks and bosonic preon bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Michael L.; Buchmann, Alfons J.

    2009-11-01

    In a model in which leptons, quarks, and the recently introduced hyperquarks are built up from two fundamental spin-(1)/(2) preons, the standard model weak gauge bosons emerge as preon bound states. In addition, the model predicts a host of new composite gauge bosons, in particular, those responsible for hyperquark and proton decay. Their presence entails a left-right symmetric extension of the standard model weak interactions and a scheme for a partial and grand unification of nongravitational interactions based on, respectively, the effective gauge groups SU(6)P and SU(9)G. This leads to a prediction of the Weinberg angle at low energies in good agreement with experiment. Furthermore, using evolution equations for the effective coupling strengths, we calculate the partial and grand unification scales, the hyperquark mass scale, as well as the mass and decay rate of the lightest hyperhadron.

  7. Bound states in a strong magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Machado, C. S.; Navarra, F. S.; Noronha, J.; Oliveira, E. G.; Ferreira Filho, L. G.

    2013-03-25

    We expect a strong magnetic field to be produced in the perpendicular direction to the reaction plane, in a noncentral heavy-ion collision . The strength of the magnetic field is estimated to be eB{approx}m{sup 2}{sub {pi}}{approx} 0.02 GeV{sup 2} at the RHIC and eB{approx} 15m{sup 2}{sub {pi}}{approx} 0.3 GeV{sup 2} at the LHC. We investigate the effects of the magnetic field on B{sup 0} and D{sup 0} mesons, focusing on the changes of the energy levels and of the mass of the bound states.

  8. Neutron Bound β-Decay-BOB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schott, W.; Paul, S.; Berger, M.; Emmerich, R.; Engels, R.; Faestermann, T.; Fierlinger, P.; Gabriel, M.; Gutsmiedl, E.; Hartmann, F. J.; Hertenberger, R.; R̈ohrmoser, A.; Ruschel, S.; Scḧon, J.; Schubert, U.; Trautner, A.; Udem, T.; Ulrich, A.

    The bound neutron β-decay(BOB) into a hydrogen atom and an electron antineutrino is investigated. The hyperfinestate population of the monoenergetic hydrogen atoms yields the neutrino left-handedness or a possible right-handed admixture and possible small scalar and tensor contributions to the weak force. The BOB H(2 s) hyperfine states are separated with a Lamb shift spin filter. The H(2 s) atoms are detected either by quenching yielding Lyman-α photons, or ionizing or charge exchanging into protons and H-, respectively. A first experiment is planned at the FRM2 high thermal neutron flux beam reactor SR6 through-going beam pipe. The neutron and ray background suppression with absorbing traps between SR6 and the experiment has been simulated using MCNP4 and GEANT4. The Lyman-α photon background produced by protons hitting the vacuum chamber wall was measured in a mockup setup.

  9. Second bound state of PsH.

    PubMed

    Mitroy, J; Bromley, M W J

    2007-02-01

    The existence of a second bound state of PsH that is electronically stable and also stable against positron annihilation by the normal 2gamma and 3gamma processes is demonstrated by explicit calculation. The state can be found in the ;{2,4}S;{o} symmetries with the two electrons in a spin-triplet state. The binding energy against dissociation into the H(2p)+Ps(2p) channel was 7.03 x 10;(-4) hartree. The dominant decay mode of the states will be radiative decay into a configuration that autoionizes or undergoes positron annihilation. The NaPs system of the same symmetry is also electronically stable with a binding energy of 1.514 x 10;(-3) hartree with respect to the Na(3p)+Ps(2p) channel.

  10. Hypervelocity Stars. II. The Bound Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Bromley, Benjamin C.

    2007-05-01

    Hypervelocity stars (HVSs) are stars ejected completely out of the Milky Way by three-body interactions with the massive black hole in the Galactic center. We describe 643 new spectroscopic observations from our targeted survey for HVSs. We find a significant (3.5 σ) excess of B-type stars with large velocities +275 km s-1 < vrf < 450 km s-1 and distances d>10 kpc that are most plausibly explained as a new class of HVSs: stars ejected from the Galactic center on bound orbits. If a Galactic center ejection origin is correct, the distribution of HVSs on the sky should be anisotropic for a survey complete to a fixed limiting apparent magnitude. The unbound HVSs in our survey have a marginally anisotropic distribution on the sky, consistent with the Galactic center ejection picture.

  11. Wave model for conservative bound systems

    SciTech Connect

    Popa, Alexandru

    2005-06-22

    In the hidden variable theory, Bohm proved a connection between the Schroedinger and Hamilton-Jacobi equations and showed the existence of classical paths, for which the generalized Bohr quantization condition is valid. In this paper we prove similar properties, starting from the equivalence between the Schroedinger and wave equations in the case of the conservative bound systems. Our approach is based on the equations and postulates of quantum mechanics without using any additional postulate. Like in the hidden variable theory, the above properties are proven without using the approximation of geometrical optics or the semiclassical approximation. Since the classical paths have only a mathematical significance in our analysis, our approach is consistent with the postulates of quantum mechanics.

  12. Nonlocal spectroscopy of Andreev bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindele, J.; Baumgartner, A.; Maurand, R.; Weiss, M.; Schönenberger, C.

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally investigate Andreev bound states (ABSs) in a carbon nanotube quantum dot (QD) connected to a superconducting Nb lead (S). A weakly coupled normal metal contact acts as a tunnel probe that measures the energy dispersion of the ABSs. Moreover, we study the response of the ABS to nonlocal transport processes, namely, Cooper pair splitting and elastic co-tunnelling, which are enabled by a second QD fabricated on the same nanotube on the opposite side of S. We find an appreciable nonlocal conductance with a rich structure, including a sign reversal at the ground-state transition from the ABS singlet to a degenerate magnetic doublet. We describe our device by a simple rate equation model that captures the key features of our observations and demonstrates that the sign of the nonlocal conductance is a measure for the charge distribution of the ABS, given by the respective Bogoliubov-de Gennes amplitudes u and v.

  13. Bounded extremum seeking with discontinuous dithers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Scheinker, Alexander; Scheinker, David

    2016-03-21

    The analysis of discontinuous extremum seeking (ES) controllers, e.g. those applicable to digital systems, has historically been more complicated than that of continuous controllers. We establish a simple and general extension of a recently developed bounded form of ES to a general class of oscillatory functions, including functions discontinuous with respect to time, such as triangle or square waves with dead time. We establish our main results by combining a novel idea for oscillatory control with an extension of functional analytic techniques originally utilized by Kurzweil, Jarnik, Sussmann, and Liu in the late 80s and early 90s and recently studiedmore » by Durr et al. Lastly, we demonstrate the value of the result with an application to inverter switching control.« less

  14. Bounds on internal state variables in viscoplasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    1993-01-01

    A typical viscoplastic model will introduce up to three types of internal state variables in order to properly describe transient material behavior; they are as follows: the back stress, the yield stress, and the drag strength. Different models employ different combinations of these internal variables--their selection and description of evolution being largely dependent on application and material selection. Under steady-state conditions, the internal variables cease to evolve and therefore become related to the external variables (stress and temperature) through simple functional relationships. A physically motivated hypothesis is presented that links the kinetic equation of viscoplasticity with that of creep under steady-state conditions. From this hypothesis one determines how the internal variables relate to one another at steady state, but most importantly, one obtains bounds on the magnitudes of stress and back stress, and on the yield stress and drag strength.

  15. The Asynchronous Bounded-Cycle model☆

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Peter; Schmid, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows how synchrony conditions can be added to the purely asynchronous model in a way that avoids any reference to message delays and computing step times, as well as system-wide constraints on execution patterns and network topology. Our Asynchronous Bounded-Cycle (ABC) model just bounds the ratio of the number of forward- and backward-oriented messages in certain (“relevant”) cycles in the space–time diagram of an asynchronous execution. We show that clock synchronization and lock-step rounds can be implemented and proved correct in the ABC model, even in the presence of Byzantine failures. Furthermore, we prove that any algorithm working correctly in the partially synchronous Θ-Model also works correctly in the ABC model. In our proof, we first apply a novel method for assigning certain message delays to asynchronous executions, which is based on a variant of Farkas’ theorem of linear inequalities and a non-standard cycle space of graphs. Using methods from point-set topology, we then prove that the existence of this delay assignment implies model indistinguishability for time-free safety and liveness properties. We also introduce several weaker variants of the ABC model, and relate our model to the existing partially synchronous system models, in particular, the classic models of Dwork, Lynch and Stockmayer and the query–response model by Mostefaoui, Mourgaya, and Raynal. Finally, we discuss some aspects of the ABC model’s applicability in real systems, in particular, in the context of VLSI Systems-on-Chip. PMID:22031790

  16. Resignation Syndrome: Catatonia? Culture-Bound?

    PubMed Central

    Sallin, Karl; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Evers, Kathinka; Engström, Ingemar; Hjern, Anders; Petrovic, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Resignation syndrome (RS) designates a long-standing disorder predominately affecting psychologically traumatized children and adolescents in the midst of a strenuous and lengthy migration process. Typically a depressive onset is followed by gradual withdrawal progressing via stupor into a state that prompts tube feeding and is characterized by failure to respond even to painful stimuli. The patient is seemingly unconscious. Recovery ensues within months to years and is claimed to be dependent on the restoration of hope to the family. Descriptions of disorders resembling RS can be found in the literature and the condition is unlikely novel. Nevertheless, the magnitude and geographical distribution stand out. Several hundred cases have been reported exclusively in Sweden in the past decade prompting the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare to recognize RS as a separate diagnostic entity. The currently prevailing stress hypothesis fails to account for the regional distribution and contributes little to treatment. Consequently, a re-evaluation of diagnostics and treatment is required. Psychogenic catatonia is proposed to supply the best fit with the clinical presentation. Treatment response, altered brain metabolism or preserved awareness would support this hypothesis. Epidemiological data suggests culture-bound beliefs and expectations to generate and direct symptom expression and we argue that culture-bound psychogenesis can accommodate the endemic distribution. Last, we review recent models of predictive coding indicating how expectation processes are crucially involved in the placebo and nocebo effect, delusions and conversion disorders. Building on this theoretical framework we propose a neurobiological model of RS in which the impact of overwhelming negative expectations are directly causative of the down-regulation of higher order and lower order behavioral systems in particularly vulnerable individuals. PMID:26858615

  17. Proportional counting techniques for routine tritium analyses at environmental levels

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, W W; Hughes, M B

    1981-01-01

    Techniques and procedures were developed to routinely analyze samples for tritium as part of research and monitoring programs on the transport of radionuclides released from the Savannah River Plant site. Because tritium concentrations in the environment are low, trace analysis methods were developed. The primary analysis technique involves converting aqueous samples to hydrogen gas which is mixed with propane and assayed in proportional counters. Counter background is reduced by massive shielding, anticoincidence gating with plastic scintillators, and pulse shape discrimination. The overall sensitivity for tritium is 0.02 pCi/g of water with a demonstrated precision of 6.3% at 1 pCi/g of water.

  18. Arctic and subarctic environmental analyses utilizing ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. M. (Principal Investigator); Mckim, H. L.; Gatto, L. W.; Haugen, R. K.; Crowder, W. K.; Slaughter, C. W.; Marlar, T. L.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery provides a means of distinguishing and monitoring estuarine surface water circulation patterns and changes in the relative sediment load of discharging rivers on a regional basis. Physical boundaries mapped from ERTS-1 imagery in combination with ground truth obtained from existing small scale maps and other sources resulted in improved and more detailed maps of permafrost terrain and vegetation for the same area. Snowpack cover within a research watershed has been analyzed and compared to ground data. Large river icings along the proposed Alaska pipeline route from Prudhoe Bay to the Brooks Range have been monitored. Sea ice deformation and drift northeast of Point Barrow, Alaska have been measured during a four day period in March and shore-fast ice accumulation and ablation along the west coast of Alaska have been mapped for the spring and early summer seasons.

  19. Environmental analyse of soil organic carbon stock changes in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koco, Š.; Barančíková, G.; Skalský, R.; Tarasovičová, Z.; Gutteková, M.; Halas, J.; Makovníková, J.; Novákova, M.

    2012-04-01

    The content and quality of soil organic matter is one of the basic soil parameters on which soil production functioning depends as well as it is active in non production soil functions like an ecological one especially. Morphologic segmentation of Slovakia has significant influence of structure in using agricultural soil in specific areas of our territory. Also social changes of early 90´s of 20´th century made their impact on change of using of agricultural soil (transformation from large farms to smaller ones, decreasing the number of livestock). This research is studying changes of development of soil organic carbon stock (SOC) in agricultural soil of Slovakia as results of climatic as well as social and political changes which influenced agricultury since last 40 years. The main goal of this research is an analysis of soil organic carbon stock since 1970 until now at specific agroclimatic regions of Slovakia and statistic analysis of relation between modelled data of SOC stock and soil quality index value. Changes of SOC stock were evaluated on the basis SOC content modeling using RothC-26.3 model. From modeling of SOC stock results the outcome is that in that time the soil organic carbon stock was growing until middle 90´s years of 20´th century with the highest value in 1994. Since that year until new millennium SOC stock is slightly decreasing. After 2000 has slightly increased SOC stock so far. According to soil management SOC stock development on arable land is similar to overall evolution. In case of grasslands after slight growth of SOC stock since 1990 the stock is in decline. This development is result of transformational changes after 1989 which were specific at decreasing amount of organic carbon input from organic manure at grassland areas especially. At warmer agroclimatic regions where mollic fluvisols and chernozems are present and where are soils with good quality and steady soil organic matter (SOM) the amount of SOC in monitored time is still growing. At colder agroclimatic regions, at flysch region especially where cambisols are present with low of SOM stability since 1994 stability or decreasing of SOC stock is resulting. This is result of climatic impact (lower temperatures, higher humidity) as well as the way of soil management because at colder region the number of glasslands is increased in comparison to arable land. Close relationship between SOC stock and soil production potential index representing the official basis for soil quality evaluation in Slovakia was also determined and a polynomial model was found which describes the relation at the 95% confidence level. From the obtained results it can be concluded, that the amount of crop residues and farmyard manure coming to the soil both in the first and second simulation period (1970 - 1995 and 1996 - 2007) was responsible for general trends in SOC stock dynamics. Achieved results also show different amount and changes of SOC stock in different agroclimatic regions. It was also found that that value of soil production potential index generally used for soil quality assessment in Slovakia corresponds well with simulated values of SOC stocks in top-soils of cropland soils. Key words Soil organic carbon stock, modelling, agricultural soils, agroclimatic regions, Slovakia Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract No. APVV-0333-06.

  20. NOAA's National Snow Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, T. R.; Cline, D. W.; Olheiser, C. M.; Rost, A. A.; Nilsson, A. O.; Fall, G. M.; Li, L.; Bovitz, C. T.

    2005-12-01

    NOAA's National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center (NOHRSC) routinely ingests all of the electronically available, real-time, ground-based, snow data; airborne snow water equivalent data; satellite areal extent of snow cover information; and numerical weather prediction (NWP) model forcings for the coterminous U.S. The NWP model forcings are physically downscaled from their native 13 km2 spatial resolution to a 1 km2 resolution for the CONUS. The downscaled NWP forcings drive an energy-and-mass-balance snow accumulation and ablation model at a 1 km2 spatial resolution and at a 1 hour temporal resolution for the country. The ground-based, airborne, and satellite snow observations are assimilated into the snow model's simulated state variables using a Newtonian nudging technique. The principle advantages of the assimilation technique are: (1) approximate balance is maintained in the snow model, (2) physical processes are easily accommodated in the model, and (3) asynoptic data are incorporated at the appropriate times. The snow model is reinitialized with the assimilated snow observations to generate a variety of snow products that combine to form NOAA's NOHRSC National Snow Analyses (NSA). The NOHRSC NSA incorporate all of the available information necessary and available to produce a "best estimate" of real-time snow cover conditions at 1 km2 spatial resolution and 1 hour temporal resolution for the country. The NOHRSC NSA consist of a variety of daily, operational, products that characterize real-time snowpack conditions including: snow water equivalent, snow depth, surface and internal snowpack temperatures, surface and blowing snow sublimation, and snowmelt for the CONUS. The products are generated and distributed in a variety of formats including: interactive maps, time-series, alphanumeric products (e.g., mean areal snow water equivalent on a hydrologic basin-by-basin basis), text and map discussions, map animations, and quantitative gridded products

  1. ITER Safety Analyses with ISAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulden, W.; Nisan, S.; Porfiri, M.-T.; Toumi, I.; de Gramont, T. Boubée

    1997-06-01

    Detailed analyses of accident sequences for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), from an initiating event to the environmental release of activity, have involved in the past the use of different types of computer codes in a sequential manner. Since these codes were developed at different time scales in different countries, there is no common computing structure to enable automatic data transfer from one code to the other, and no possibility exists to model or to quantify the effect of coupled physical phenomena. To solve this problem, the Integrated Safety Analysis System of codes (ISAS) is being developed, which allows users to integrate existing computer codes in a coherent manner. This approach is based on the utilization of a command language (GIBIANE) acting as a “glue” to integrate the various codes as modules of a common environment. The present version of ISAS allows comprehensive (coupled) calculations of a chain of codes such as ATHENA (thermal-hydraulic analysis of transients and accidents), INTRA (analysis of in-vessel chemical reactions, pressure built-up, and distribution of reaction products inside the vacuum vessel and adjacent rooms), and NAUA (transport of radiological species within buildings and to the environment). In the near future, the integration of S AFALY (simultaneous analysis of plasma dynamics and thermal behavior of in-vessel components) is also foreseen. The paper briefly describes the essential features of ISAS development and the associated software architecture. It gives first results of a typical ITER accident sequence, a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in the divertor cooling loop inside the vacuum vessel, amply demonstrating ISAS capabilities.

  2. Bounded Semantics of CTL and SAT-Based Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenhui

    Bounded model checking has been proposed as a complementary approach to BDD based symbolic model checking for combating the state explosion problem, esp. for efficient error detection. This has led to a lot of successful work with respect to error detection in the checking of LTL, ACTL (the universal fragment of CTL) and ACTL* properties by satisfiability testing. The use of bounded model checking for verification (in contrast to error detection) of LTL and ACTL properties has later also been studied. This paper studies the potentials and limitations of bounded model checking for the verification of CTL and CTL* formulas. On the theoretical side, we first provide a framework for discussion of bounded semantics, which serves as the basis for bounded model checking, then extend the bounded semantics of ACTL to a bounded semantics of CTL, and discuss the limitation of developing such a bounded semantics for CTL*. On the practical side, a deduction of a SAT-based bounded model checking approach for ACTL properties from the bounded semantics of CTL is demonstrated, and a comparison of such an approach with BDD-based model checking is presented based on experimental results.

  3. Transportation systems analyses: Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-05-01

    The principal objective of this study is to accomplish a systems engineering assessment of the nation's space transportation infrastructure. This analysis addresses the necessary elements to perform man delivery and return, cargo transfer, cargo delivery, payload servicing, and the exploration of the Moon and Mars. Specific elements analyzed, but not limited to, include the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), the National Launch System (NLS), the current expendable launch vehicle (ELV) fleet, ground facilities, the Space Station Freedom (SSF), and other civil, military and commercial payloads. The performance of this study entails maintaining a broad perspective on the large number of transportation elements that could potentially comprise the U.S. space infrastructure over the next several decades. To perform this systems evaluation, top-level trade studies are conducted to enhance our understanding of the relationships between elements of the infrastructure. This broad 'infrastructure-level perspective' permits the identification of preferred infrastructures. Sensitivity analyses are performed to assure the credibility and usefulness of study results. This executive summary of the transportation systems analyses (TSM) semi-annual report addresses the SSF logistics resupply. Our analysis parallels the ongoing NASA SSF redesign effort. Therefore, there could be no SSF design to drive our logistics analysis. Consequently, the analysis attempted to bound the reasonable SSF design possibilities (and the subsequent transportation implications). No other strategy really exists until after a final decision is rendered on the SSF configuration.

  4. Structures of potent anticancer compounds bound to tubulin.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Dan E; Senese, Silvia; Yeates, Todd O; Torres, Jorge Z

    2015-07-01

    Small molecules that bind to tubulin exert powerful effects on cell division and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Cell-based high-throughput screening combined with chemo/bioinformatic and biochemical analyses recently revealed a novel compound MI-181 as a potent mitotic inhibitor with heightened activity towards melanomas. MI-181 causes tubulin depolymerization, activates the spindle assembly checkpoint arresting cells in mitosis, and induces apoptotic cell death. C2 is an unrelated compound previously shown to have lethal effects on microtubules in tumorigenic cell lines. We report 2.60 Å and 3.75 Å resolution structures of MI-181 and C2, respectively, bound to a ternary complex of αβ-tubulin, the tubulin-binding protein stathmin, and tubulin tyrosine ligase. In the first of these structures, our crystallographic results reveal a unique binding mode for MI-181 extending unusually deep into the well-studied colchicine-binding site on β-tubulin. In the second structure the C2 compound occupies the colchicine-binding site on β-tubulin with two chemical moieties recapitulating contacts made by colchicine, in combination with another system of atomic contacts. These insights reveal the source of the observed effects of MI-181 and C2 on microtubules, mitosis, and cultured cancer cell lines. The structural details of the interaction between tubulin and the described compounds may guide the development of improved derivative compounds as therapeutic candidates or molecular probes to study cancer cell division.

  5. Offsite radiological consequence analysis for the bounding aircraft crash accident

    SciTech Connect

    OBERG, B.D.

    2003-03-22

    The purpose of this calculation note is to quantitatively analyze a bounding aircraft crash accident for comparison to the DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', Appendix A, Evaluation Guideline of 25 rem. The potential of aircraft impacting a facility was evaluated using the approach given in DOE-STD-3014-96, ''Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities''. The following aircraft crash frequencies were determined for the Tank Farms in RPP-11736, ''Assessment Of Aircraft Crash Frequency For The Hanford Site 200 Area Tank Farms'': (1) The total aircraft crash frequency is ''extremely unlikely.'' (2) The general aviation crash frequency is ''extremely unlikely.'' (3) The helicopter crash frequency is ''beyond extremely unlikely.'' (4) For the Hanford Site 200 Areas, other aircraft type, commercial or military, each above ground facility, and any other type of underground facility is ''beyond extremely unlikely.'' As the potential of aircraft crash into the 200 Area tank farms is more frequent than ''beyond extremely unlikely,'' consequence analysis of the aircraft crash is required.

  6. Guaranteed error bounds for structured complexity reduction of biochemical networks.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Thomas P; Papachristodoulou, Antonis

    2012-07-01

    Biological systems are typically modelled by nonlinear differential equations. In an effort to produce high fidelity representations of the underlying phenomena, these models are usually of high dimension and involve multiple temporal and spatial scales. However, this complexity and associated stiffness makes numerical simulation difficult and mathematical analysis impossible. In order to understand the functionality of these systems, these models are usually approximated by lower dimensional descriptions. These can be analysed and simulated more easily, and the reduced description also simplifies the parameter space of the model. This model reduction inevitably introduces error: the accuracy of the conclusions one makes about the system, based on reduced models, depends heavily on the error introduced in the reduction process. In this paper we propose a method to calculate the error associated with a model reduction algorithm, using ideas from dynamical systems. We first define an error system, whose output is the error between observables of the original and reduced systems. We then use convex optimisation techniques in order to find approximations to the error as a function of the initial conditions. In particular, we use the Sum of Squares decomposition of polynomials in order to compute an upper bound on the worst-case error between the original and reduced systems. We give biological examples to illustrate the theory, which leads us to a discussion about how these techniques can be used to model-reduce large, structured models typical of systems biology.

  7. Structures of potent anticancer compounds bound to tubulin

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Dan E; Senese, Silvia; Yeates, Todd O; Torres, Jorge Z

    2015-01-01

    Small molecules that bind to tubulin exert powerful effects on cell division and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Cell-based high-throughput screening combined with chemo/bioinformatic and biochemical analyses recently revealed a novel compound MI-181 as a potent mitotic inhibitor with heightened activity towards melanomas. MI-181 causes tubulin depolymerization, activates the spindle assembly checkpoint arresting cells in mitosis, and induces apoptotic cell death. C2 is an unrelated compound previously shown to have lethal effects on microtubules in tumorigenic cell lines. We report 2.60 Å and 3.75 Å resolution structures of MI-181 and C2, respectively, bound to a ternary complex of αβ-tubulin, the tubulin-binding protein stathmin, and tubulin tyrosine ligase. In the first of these structures, our crystallographic results reveal a unique binding mode for MI-181 extending unusually deep into the well-studied colchicine-binding site on β-tubulin. In the second structure the C2 compound occupies the colchicine-binding site on β-tubulin with two chemical moieties recapitulating contacts made by colchicine, in combination with another system of atomic contacts. These insights reveal the source of the observed effects of MI-181 and C2 on microtubules, mitosis, and cultured cancer cell lines. The structural details of the interaction between tubulin and the described compounds may guide the development of improved derivative compounds as therapeutic candidates or molecular probes to study cancer cell division. PMID:25970265

  8. Laser assisted bound-free transition of a polaron bound to an impurity center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, C.; Biswas, R.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2013-12-01

    The scattering of a bound Frohlich large polaron in the presence of a coulomb impurity center as well as a linearly polarized laser field is studied. The differential (DCS) as well as the momentum transfer cross sections (MTCS) and the conductivity depend remarkably on the electron-phonon coupling (αP) and the strength of the coulomb impurity (β). The strongly bound polaron is found to be reluctant to contribute to the conductivity which is justified physically. The curves for MTCS and conductivity verses αP and β appear to be complementary, indicating the possibility of controlling the mobility and thereby conductivity by varying one of the parameters. This behavior indicates the possibility of optimizing the composition of optoelectronic materials where laser is the dominant source of excitation.

  9. Bound-bound transitions in hydrogen-like ions in dense quantum plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Y. Y.; Wang, J. G.; Janev, R. K.

    2016-07-01

    The properties of bound-bound transitions in hydrogen-like ions in dense quantum plasmas, characterized by a cosine-Debye-Hückel interaction between charged particles, are studied in detail. The transition frequencies, oscillator strengths, and radiative transition probabilities of Lyman and Balmer series are calculated for a wide range of screening strengths of the interaction up to the n = 5 shell. For Δ n ≠ 0 transitions, all these quantities exhibit a significant decrease with increasing screening strength, while for the Δ n = 0 transitions and for the radiative lifetimes, the opposite is true. The present results are compared with those available from the literature. They are also compared with the results for the pure Debye-Hückel potential with the same screening strength.

  10. Semiclassical and quantum field theoretic bounds for traversable Lorentzian stringy wormholes

    SciTech Connect

    Nandi, Kamal Kanti; Zhang Yuanzhong; Kumar, K.B. Vijaya

    2004-09-15

    A lower bound on the size of a Lorentzian wormhole can be obtained by semiclassically introducing the Planck cutoff on the magnitude of tidal forces (Horowitz-Ross constraint). Also, an upper bound is provided by the quantum field theoretic constraint in the form of the Ford-Roman Quantum Inequality for massless minimally coupled scalar fields. To date, however, exact static solutions belonging to this scalar field theory have not been worked out to verify these bounds. To fill this gap, we examine the wormhole features of two examples from the Einstein frame description of the vacuum low energy string theory in four dimensions which is the same as the minimally coupled scalar field theory. Analyses in this paper support the conclusion of Ford and Roman that wormholes in this theory can have sizes that are indeed only a few order of magnitudes larger than the Planck scale. It is shown that the two types of bounds are also compatible. In the process, we point out a 'wormhole' analog of naked black holes.

  11. Variational bounds on the effective moduli of anisotropic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, Graeme W.; Kohn, Robert V.

    THE VRITIONAL inequalities of Hashin and Shtrikman are transformed to a simple and concise form. They are used to bound the effective conductivity tensor σ∗ of an anisotropic composite made from an arbitrary number of possibly anisotropic phases, and to bound the effective elasticity tensor C∗ of an anisotropic mixture of two well-ordered isotropic materials. The bounds depend on the conductivities and elastic moduli of the components and their respective volume fractions. When the components are isotropic the conductivity bounds, which constrain the eigenvalues of σ∗, include those previously obtained by Hashin and Shtrikman, Murat and Tartar, and Lurie and Cherkaev. Our approach can also be used in the context of linear elasticity to derive bounds on C∗ for composites comprised of an arbitrary number of anisotropic phases. For two-component composites our bounds are tighter than those obtained by Kantor and Bergman and by Francfort and Murat, and are attained by sequentially layered laminate materials.

  12. Viewing Majorana Bound States by Rabi Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi; Liang, Qi-Feng; Yao, Dao-Xin; Hu, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use Rabi oscillation as a probe to view the fractional Josepshon relation (FJR) associated with Majorana bound states (MBSs) expected in one-dimensional topological superconductors. The system consists of a quantum dot (QD) and an rf-SQUID with MBSs at the Josephson junction. Rabi oscillations between energy levels formed by MBSs are induced by ac gate voltage controlling the coupling between QD and MBS when the photon energy proportional to the ac frequency matches gap between quantum levels formed by MBSs and QD. As a manifestation of the Rabi oscillation in the whole system involving MBSs, the electron occupation on QD oscillates with time, which can be measured by charge sensing techniques. With Floquet theorem and numerical analysis we reveal that from the resonant driving frequency for coherent Rabi oscillation one can directly map out the FJR cos(πΦ/Φ0) as a signature of MBSs, with Φ the magnetic flux through SQUID and Φ0 = hc/2e the flux quantum. The present scheme is expected to provide a clear evidence for MBSs under intensive searching. PMID:26153250

  13. Decision theory with resource-bounded agents.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Joseph Y; Pass, Rafael; Seeman, Lior

    2014-04-01

    There have been two major lines of research aimed at capturing resource-bounded players in game theory. The first, initiated by Rubinstein (), charges an agent for doing costly computation; the second, initiated by Neyman (), does not charge for computation, but limits the computation that agents can do, typically by modeling agents as finite automata. We review recent work on applying both approaches in the context of decision theory. For the first approach, we take the objects of choice in a decision problem to be Turing machines, and charge players for the "complexity" of the Turing machine chosen (e.g., its running time). This approach can be used to explain well-known phenomena like first-impression-matters biases (i.e., people tend to put more weight on evidence they hear early on) and belief polarization (two people with different prior beliefs, hearing the same evidence, can end up with diametrically opposed conclusions) as the outcomes of quite rational decisions. For the second approach, we model people as finite automata, and provide a simple algorithm that, on a problem that captures a number of settings of interest, provably performs optimally as the number of states in the automaton increases.

  14. Bounding the Higgs boson width through interferometry.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Lance J; Li, Ye

    2013-09-13

    We study the change in the diphoton-invariant-mass distribution for Higgs boson decays to two photons, due to interference between the Higgs resonance in gluon fusion and the continuum background amplitude for gg→γγ. Previously, the apparent Higgs mass was found to shift by around 100 MeV in the standard model in the leading-order approximation, which may potentially be experimentally observable. We compute the next-to-leading-order QCD corrections to the apparent mass shift, which reduce it by about 40%. The apparent mass shift may provide a way to measure, or at least bound, the Higgs boson width at the Large Hadron Collider through "interferometry." We investigate how the shift depends on the Higgs width, in a model that maintains constant Higgs boson signal yields. At Higgs widths above 30 MeV, the mass shift is over 200 MeV and increases with the square root of the width. The apparent mass shift could be measured by comparing with the ZZ* channel, where the shift is much smaller. It might be possible to measure the shift more accurately by exploiting its strong dependence on the Higgs transverse momentum.

  15. Holographic bound in covariant loop quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaki, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    We investigate puncture statistics based on the covariant area spectrum in loop quantum gravity. First, we consider Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics with a Gibbs factor for punctures. We establish formulas which relate physical quantities such as horizon area to the parameter characterizing holographic degrees of freedom. We also perform numerical calculations and obtain consistency with these formulas. These results tell us that the holographic bound is satisfied in the large area limit and the correction term of the entropy-area law can be proportional to the logarithm of the horizon area. Second, we also consider Bose-Einstein statistics and show that the above formulas are also useful in this case. By applying the formulas, we can understand intrinsic features of Bose-Einstein condensate which corresponds to the case when the horizon area almost consists of punctures in the ground state. When this phenomena occurs, the area is approximately constant against the parameter characterizing the temperature. When this phenomena is broken, the area shows rapid increase which suggests the phase transition from quantum to classical area.

  16. Revisiting cosmological bounds on sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Aaron C.; Fernández Martínez, Enrique; Hernández, Pilar; Mena, Olga; Lattanzi, Massimiliano

    2015-04-01

    We employ state-of-the art cosmological observables including supernova surveys and BAO information to provide constraints on the mass and mixing angle of a non-resonantly produced sterile neutrino species, showing that cosmology can effectively rule out sterile neutrinos which decay between BBN and the present day. The decoupling of an additional heavy neutrino species can modify the time dependence of the Universe's expansion between BBN and recombination and, in extreme cases, lead to an additional matter-dominated period; while this could naively lead to a younger Universe with a larger Hubble parameter, it could later be compensated by the extra radiation expected in the form of neutrinos from sterile decay. However, recombination-era observables including the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the shift parameter RCMB and the sound horizon rs from Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) severely constrain this scenario. We self-consistently include the full time-evolution of the coupled sterile neutrino and standard model sectors in an MCMC, showing that if decay occurs after BBN, the sterile neutrino is essentially bounded by the constraint sin2θ lesssim 0.026 (ms/eV)-2.

  17. Tensor squeezed limits and the Higuchi bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordin, Lorenzo; Creminelli, Paolo; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Noreña, Jorge

    2016-09-01

    We point out that tensor consistency relations—i.e. the behavior of primordial correlation functions in the limit a tensor mode has a small momentum—are more universal than scalar consistency relations. They hold in the presence of multiple scalar fields and as long as anisotropies are diluted exponentially fast. When de Sitter isometries are approximately respected during inflation this is guaranteed by the Higuchi bound, which forbids the existence of light particles with spin: de Sitter space can support scalar hair but no curly hair. We discuss two indirect ways to look for the violation of tensor consistency relations in observations, as a signature of models in which inflation is not a strong isotropic attractor, such as solid inflation: (a) graviton exchange contribution to the scalar four-point function; (b) quadrupolar anisotropy of the scalar power spectrum due to super-horizon tensor modes. This anisotropy has a well-defined statistics which can be distinguished from cases in which the background has a privileged direction.

  18. New Lower Bounds for Warp Drive Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, C.; Gravel, P.; Melanson, J.

    The introduction of the warp drive metric by Alcubierre1 has aroused great interest over the past few years. Using an uncertainty-type principle, Ford and Pfenning2 proved that the warp drive transport of a spaceship in a regular bubble having a radius of 100 m is unrealistic. However, Van Den Broeck3 has shown that the situation largely improves when one uses a warp drive bubble with a small surface area and large spatial volume. Putting aside many physics problems related to the realization of the warp drive concept, we show in this paper4 how to modify Van Den Broeck's idea to improve his results. We find new lower bounds for the warp drive energy by working on parameters whose latitude has never been considered before. We also consider micro warp drive bubbles which can be treated as physical entities of their own and could possibly be used to transmit information faster than the speed of light. The conditions prevailing just after the Big Bang allow the spontaneous formation of such micro bubbles which could still be present in our period of time.

  19. Bounds on Transient Instability for Complex Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Stability is a desirable property of complex ecosystems. If a community of interacting species is at a stable equilibrium point then it is able to withstand small perturbations to component species’ abundances without suffering adverse effects. In ecology, the Jacobian matrix evaluated at an equilibrium point is known as the community matrix, which describes the population dynamics of interacting species. A system’s asymptotic short- and long-term behaviour can be determined from eigenvalues derived from the community matrix. Here we use results from the theory of pseudospectra to describe intermediate, transient dynamics. We first recover the established result that the transition from stable to unstable dynamics includes a region of ‘transient instability’, where the effect of a small perturbation to species’ abundances—to the population vector—is amplified before ultimately decaying. Then we show that the shift from stability to transient instability can be affected by uncertainty in, or small changes to, entries in the community matrix, and determine lower and upper bounds to the maximum amplitude of perturbations to the population vector. Of five different types of community matrix, we find that amplification is least severe when predator-prey interactions dominate. This analysis is relevant to other systems whose dynamics can be expressed in terms of the Jacobian matrix. PMID:27327511

  20. Photochemistry of triarylmethane dyes bound to proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indig, Guilherme L.

    1996-04-01

    Triarylmethanes represent a class of cationic dyes whose potential as photosensitizers for use in photodynamic therapy of neoplastic diseases has never been comprehensively evaluated. Here, the laser-induced photodecomposition of three triarylmethane dyes, crystal violet, ethyl violet, and malachite green, non-covalently bound to bovine serum albumin (a model biological target) was investigated. Upon laser excitation at 532 nm, the bleaching of the corresponding dye-protein molecular complexes follows spectroscopic patterns that suggest the formation of reduced forms of the dyes as major reaction photoproducts. That implies that an electron or hydrogen atom transfer from the protein to the dye's moiety within the guest-host complex is the first step of the photobleaching process. Since the availability of dissolved molecular oxygen was not identified as a limiting factor for the phototransformations to occur, these dyes can be seen as potential phototherapeutic agents for use in hypoxic areas of tumors. These triarylmethane dyes strongly absorb at relatively long wavelengths (absorption maximum around 600 nm; (epsilon) max approximately equals 105 M-1 cm-1), and only minor changes in their absorption characteristics are observed upon binding to the protein. However the binding event leads to a remarkable increase in their fluorescence quantum yield and photoreactivity.

  1. Evaporites and strata-bound tungsten mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Ririe, G.T. )

    1989-02-01

    Discoidal gypsum crystal cavities occur in quartzites that host varying amounts of strata-bound scheelite mineralization near Halls Creek in Western Australia. The host quartzites have been regionally metamorphosed to greenschist facies and are contained within a Middle Proterozoic sequence that includes pelites, mafic and felsic volcanics, and volcaniclastic rocks. Textural, fluid inclusion, and oxygen isotope data indicate that scheelite was present in the host quartzites prior to regional metamorphism. The presence of crystal cavities after gypsum in the quartzites implies an evaporitic origin for this sequence. The continental-sabkha playa basins of the Mojave Desert, California, are suggested to be possible modern analogs-e.g., Searles Lake, where the tungsten content is up to 70 ppm WO{sub 3} in brines and 118 ppm in muds, and exceeds the amount of tungsten in all known deposits in the United States. Metamorphism of a continental evaporitic sequence containing tungsten could produce an assemblage of rocks very similar to those reported from several stratabound tungsten deposits. Some of these, such as at Halls Creek, may be related to original accumulations of tungsten in nonmarine evaporitic environments.

  2. Matrix-bound nanovesicles within ECM bioscaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Huleihel, Luai; Hussey, George S.; Naranjo, Juan Diego; Zhang, Li; Dziki, Jenna L.; Turner, Neill J.; Stolz, Donna B.; Badylak, Stephen F.

    2016-01-01

    Biologic scaffold materials composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) have been used in a variety of surgical and tissue engineering/regenerative medicine applications and are associated with favorable constructive remodeling properties including angiogenesis, stem cell recruitment, and modulation of macrophage phenotype toward an anti-inflammatory effector cell type. However, the mechanisms by which these events are mediated are largely unknown. Matrix-bound nanovesicles (MBVs) are identified as an integral and functional component of ECM bioscaffolds. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are potent vehicles of intercellular communication due to their ability to transfer RNA, proteins, enzymes, and lipids, thereby affecting physiologic and pathologic processes. Formerly identified exclusively in biologic fluids, the presence of EVs within the ECM of connective tissue has not been reported. In both laboratory-produced and commercially available biologic scaffolds, MBVs can be separated from the matrix only after enzymatic digestion of the ECM scaffold material, a temporal sequence similar to the functional activity attributed to implanted bioscaffolds during and following their degradation when used in clinical applications. The present study shows that MBVs contain microRNA capable of exerting phenotypical and functional effects on macrophage activation and neuroblastoma cell differentiation. The identification of MBVs embedded within the ECM of biologic scaffolds provides mechanistic insights not only into the inductive properties of ECM bioscaffolds but also into the regulation of tissue homeostasis. PMID:27386584

  3. Neutron bound beta-decay: BOB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAndrew, Josephine; Paul, Stephan; Emmerich, Ralf; Engels, Ralf; Fierlinger, Peter; Gabriel, Mirko; Gutsmiedl, Erwin; Mellenthin, Johannes; Schön, Johannes; Schott, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Andreas; Grüenauer, Florian; Röhrmoser, Anton

    2012-05-01

    An experiment to observe the bound beta-decay (BOB) of the free neutron into a hydrogen atom and an electron anti-neutrino is described. The hyperfine spin state population of the monoenergetic hydrogen atom yields the neutrino left-handedness or possible right-handed admixture as well as possible small scalar and tensor contributions to the weak force. The BOB H(2s) hyperfine states can be separated with a Lamb-Shift Spin Filter. These monoenergetic H(2s) atoms are ionised into H- by charge exchanging within an argon cell. These ions are then separated using an adaptation of a MAC-E Filter. A first experiment is proposed at the FRMII high thermal-neutron flux beam reactor SR6 through-going beam tube, where we will seek to observe this rare neutron decay-mode for the first time and determine the branching ratio. After successful completion, the hyperfine spin state population will be determined, possibly at the ILL high-flux beam reactor through-going beam tube H6-H7, where the thermal neutron flux is a factor of four larger.

  4. Neutron bound beta-decay: BOB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAndrew, Josephine; Paul, Stephan; Emmerich, Ralf; Engels, Ralf; Fierlinger, Peter; Gabriel, Mirko; Gutsmiedl, Erwin; Mellenthin, Johannes; Schön, Johannes; Schott, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Andreas; Grüenauer, Florian; Röhrmoser, Anton

    An experiment to observe the bound beta-decay (BOB) of the free neutron into a hydrogen atom and an electron anti-neutrino is described. The hyperfine spin state population of the monoenergetic hydrogen atom yields the neutrino left-handedness or possible right-handed admixture as well as possible small scalar and tensor contributions to the weak force. The BOB H(2s) hyperfine states can be separated with a Lamb-Shift Spin Filter. These monoenergetic H(2s) atoms are ionised into H- by charge exchanging within an argon cell. These ions are then separated using an adaptation of a MAC-E Filter. A first experiment is proposed at the FRMII high thermal-neutron flux beam reactor SR6 through-going beam tube, where we will seek to observe this rare neutron decay-mode for the first time and determine the branching ratio. After successful completion, the hyperfine spin state population will be determined, possibly at the ILL high-flux beam reactor through-going beam tube H6-H7, where the thermal neutron flux is a factor of four larger.

  5. Performance evaluation of bound diamond ring tools

    SciTech Connect

    Piscotty, M.A.; Taylor, J.S.; Blaedel, K.L.

    1995-07-14

    LLNL is collaborating with the Center for Optics Manufacturing (COM) and the American Precision Optics Manufacturers Association (APOMA) to optimize bound diamond ring tools for the spherical generation of high quality optical surfaces. An important element of this work is establishing an experimentally-verified link between tooling properties and workpiece quality indicators such as roughness, subsurface damage and removal rate. In this paper, we report on a standardized methodology for assessing ring tool performance and its preliminary application to a set of commercially-available wheels. Our goals are to (1) assist optics manufacturers (users of the ring tools) in evaluating tools and in assessing their applicability for a given operation, and (2) provide performance feedback to wheel manufacturers to help optimize tooling for the optics industry. Our paper includes measurements of wheel performance for three 2-4 micron diamond bronze-bond wheels that were supplied by different manufacturers to nominally- identical specifications. Preliminary data suggests that the difference in performance levels among the wheels were small.

  6. Chernoff bounds for Class-A noise

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, P.A.

    1991-08-12

    The goal is, using a very large passive array, to determine the performance limits of a detector. The signal of interest is narrowband with a Gaussian envelope, and the contaminating noise is multivariate Class-A. Two different multivariate models for the Class A family are presented. One of the models is appropriate for array processing applications. The data is spatially dependent and temporally independent. It is shown, in the spatially independent case, that the Chernoff approximation does closely approximate the performance of the optimal detector. It is shown the approximation improves as the number of samples increases. Unfortunately, it is also shown that the Chernoff approximation requires numerical evaluation of a M-dimensional integral. For the application here, M may be as large as 150, ruling out this approach. Two alternative approaches are examined. First, approximating the Class A model by a Gaussian model is shown to result in a poor approximation. Second, the exact likelihood ratio is approximated by a piece-wise function. While the approximation can be done with very good accuracy, the bound must be evaluated numerically. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  7. Bounding the current in nonlinear conducting composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, Graeme W.; Serkov, Sergey K.

    2000-06-01

    Suppose a three-dimensional composite of two nonlinear conducting phases mixed in fixed proportions is subject to a fixed average electric field. What values can the average current take as the microstructure varies over all configurations? What microstructures produce the maximum or minimum current flow? Which microstructures are best for guiding the current in a given direction? Here, following the compensated compactness method of Tartar (1977: Estimation de coefficients homogénéisés. In: Glowinski, R., Lions, J.-L. (Eds.), Computer Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering, Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes in Mathematics 704. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 136-212) we show how one can obtain remarkably tight bounds on the average current flow. In many, but not all cases, we find that simple laminate structures produce the maximum or minimum current flow, and are best for guiding the current in a given direction. Sometimes it is advantageous to orient the layer surfaces parallel (rather than orthogonal) to the direction of the applied field to generate the minimum current flow in that direction.

  8. Valid lower bound for all estimators in quantum parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Yuan, Haidong

    2016-09-01

    The widely used quantum Cramér–Rao bound (QCRB) sets a lower bound for the mean square error of unbiased estimators in quantum parameter estimation, however, in general QCRB is only tight in the asymptotical limit. With a limited number of measurements biased estimators can have a far better performance for which QCRB cannot calibrate. Here we introduce a valid lower bound for all estimators, either biased or unbiased, which can serve as standard of merit for all quantum parameter estimations.

  9. 75 FR 75721 - Environmental Impact Statement: Billings County, North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... roadway project and river crossing over the Little Missouri River within a study area bounded by the... an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a proposed roadway project and river crossing over the Little Missouri River within a study area bounded by the northern border of the Billings County line,...

  10. Classical Physics and the Bounds of Quantum Correlations.

    PubMed

    Frustaglia, Diego; Baltanás, José P; Velázquez-Ahumada, María C; Fernández-Prieto, Armando; Lujambio, Aintzane; Losada, Vicente; Freire, Manuel J; Cabello, Adán

    2016-06-24

    A unifying principle explaining the numerical bounds of quantum correlations remains elusive, despite the efforts devoted to identifying it. Here, we show that these bounds are indeed not exclusive to quantum theory: for any abstract correlation scenario with compatible measurements, models based on classical waves produce probability distributions indistinguishable from those of quantum theory and, therefore, share the same bounds. We demonstrate this finding by implementing classical microwaves that propagate along meter-size transmission-line circuits and reproduce the probabilities of three emblematic quantum experiments. Our results show that the "quantum" bounds would also occur in a classical universe without quanta. The implications of this observation are discussed. PMID:27391707

  11. Upper bounds on quantum uncertainty products and complexity measures

    SciTech Connect

    Guerrero, Angel; Sanchez-Moreno, Pablo; Dehesa, Jesus S.

    2011-10-15

    The position-momentum Shannon and Renyi uncertainty products of general quantum systems are shown to be bounded not only from below (through the known uncertainty relations), but also from above in terms of the Heisenberg-Kennard product . Moreover, the Cramer-Rao, Fisher-Shannon, and Lopez-Ruiz, Mancini, and Calbet shape measures of complexity (whose lower bounds have been recently found) are also bounded from above. The improvement of these bounds for systems subject to spherically symmetric potentials is also explicitly given. Finally, applications to hydrogenic and oscillator-like systems are done.

  12. Nonvalence correlation-bound anion states of spherical fullerenes.

    PubMed

    Voora, Vamsee K; Jordan, Kenneth D

    2014-08-13

    We present a one-electron model Hamiltonian for characterizing nonvalence correlation-bound anion states of fullerene molecules. These states are the finite system analogs of image potential states of metallic surfaces. The model potential accounts for both atomic and charge-flow polarization and is used to characterize the nonvalence correlation-bound anion states of the C60, (C60)2, C240, and C60@C240 fullerene systems. Although C60 is found to have a single (s-type) nonvalence correlation-bound anion state, the larger fullerenes are demonstrated to have multiple nonvalence correlation-bound anion states. PMID:24978808

  13. What Information Theory Says about Bounded Rational Best Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2005-01-01

    Probability Collectives (PC) provides the information-theoretic extension of conventional full-rationality game theory to bounded rational games. Here an explicit solution to the equations giving the bounded rationality equilibrium of a game is presented. Then PC is used to investigate games in which the players use bounded rational best-response strategies. Next it is shown that in the continuum-time limit, bounded rational best response games result in a variant of the replicator dynamics of evolutionary game theory. It is then shown that for team (shared-payoff) games, this variant of replicator dynamics is identical to Newton-Raphson iterative optimization of the shared utility function.

  14. Classical Physics and the Bounds of Quantum Correlations.

    PubMed

    Frustaglia, Diego; Baltanás, José P; Velázquez-Ahumada, María C; Fernández-Prieto, Armando; Lujambio, Aintzane; Losada, Vicente; Freire, Manuel J; Cabello, Adán

    2016-06-24

    A unifying principle explaining the numerical bounds of quantum correlations remains elusive, despite the efforts devoted to identifying it. Here, we show that these bounds are indeed not exclusive to quantum theory: for any abstract correlation scenario with compatible measurements, models based on classical waves produce probability distributions indistinguishable from those of quantum theory and, therefore, share the same bounds. We demonstrate this finding by implementing classical microwaves that propagate along meter-size transmission-line circuits and reproduce the probabilities of three emblematic quantum experiments. Our results show that the "quantum" bounds would also occur in a classical universe without quanta. The implications of this observation are discussed.

  15. Tight Lower Bound for Percolation Threshold on an Infinite Graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Kathleen E.; Pryadko, Leonid P.

    2014-11-01

    We construct a tight lower bound for the site percolation threshold on an infinite graph, which becomes exact for an infinite tree. The bound is given by the inverse of the maximal eigenvalue of the Hashimoto matrix used to count nonbacktracking walks on the original graph. Our bound always exceeds the inverse spectral radius of the graph's adjacency matrix, and it is also generally tighter than the existing bound in terms of the maximum degree. We give a constructive proof for existence of such an eigenvalue in the case of a connected infinite quasitransitive graph, a graph-theoretic analog of a translationally invariant system.

  16. A novel NADPH:(bound) NADP+ reductase and NADH:(bound) NADP+ transhydrogenase function in bovine liver catalase.

    PubMed

    Gaetani, Gian F; Ferraris, Anna M; Sanna, Paola; Kirkman, Henry N

    2005-02-01

    Many catalases have the shared property of containing bound NADPH and being susceptible to inactivation by their own substrate, H2O2. The presence of additional (unbound) NADPH effectively prevents bovine liver and human erythrocytic catalase from becoming compound II, the reversibly inactivated state of catalase, and NADP+ is known to be generated in the process. The function of the bound NADPH, which is tightly bound in bovine liver catalase, has been unknown. The present study with bovine liver catalase and [14C]NADPH and [14C]NADH revealed that unbound NADPH or NADH are substrates for an internal reductase and transhydrogenase reaction respectively; the unbound NADPH or NADH cause tightly bound NADP+ to become NADPH without becoming tightly bound themselves. This and other results provide insight into the function of tightly bound NADPH. PMID:15456401

  17. Analyses and characterization of double shell tank

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-04

    Evaporator candidate feed from tank 241-AP-108 (108-AP) was sampled under prescribed protocol. Physical, inorganic, and radiochemical analyses were performed on tank 108-AP. Characterization of evaporator feed tank waste is needed primarily for an evaluation of its suitability to be safely processed through the evaporator. Such analyses should provide sufficient information regarding the waste composition to confidently determine whether constituent concentrations are within not only safe operating limits, but should also be relevant to functional limits for operation of the evaporator. Characterization of tank constituent concentrations should provide data which enable a prediction of where the types and amounts of environmentally hazardous waste are likely to occur in the evaporator product streams.

  18. Formation of nitro-PAHs from the heterogeneous reaction of ambient particle-bound PAHs with N2O5/NO3/NO2.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Kathryn; Jariyasopit, Narumol; Massey Simonich, Staci L; Tao, Shu; Atkinson, Roger; Arey, Janet

    2013-08-01

    Reactions of ambient particles collected from four sites within the Los Angeles, CA air basin and Beijing, China with a mixture of N2O5, NO2, and NO3 radicals were studied in an environmental chamber at ambient pressure and temperature. Exposures in the chamber system resulted in the degradation of particle-bound PAHs and formation of molecular weight (mw) 247 nitropyrenes (NPYs) and nitrofluoranthenes (NFLs), mw 273 nitrotriphenylenes (NTPs), nitrobenz[a]anthracenes (NBaAs), nitrochrysene (NCHR), and mw 297 nitrobenzo[a]pyrene (NBaP). The distinct isomer distributions resulting from exposure of filter-adsorbed deuterated fluoranthene to N2O5/NO3/NO2 and that collected from the chamber gas-phase suggest that formation of NFLs in ambient particles did not occur by NO3 radical-initiated reaction but from reaction of N2O5, presumably subsequent to its surface adsorption. Accordingly, isomers known to result from gas-phase radical-initiated reactions of parent PAHs, such as 2-NFL and 2- and 4-NPY, were not enhanced from the exposure of ambient particulate matter to N2O5/NO3/NO2. The reactivity of ambient particles toward nitration by N2O5/NO3/NO2, defined by relative 1-NPY formation, varied significantly, with the relative amounts of freshly emitted particles versus aged particles (particles that had undergone atmospheric chemical processing) affecting the reactivity of particle-bound PAHs toward heterogeneous nitration. Analyses of unexposed ambient samples suggested that, in nighttime samples where NO3 radical-initiated chemistry had occurred, heterogeneous formation of 1-NPY on ambient particles may have contributed to the ambient 1-NPY concentrations at downwind receptor sites. These results, together with observations that 2-NFL is consistently the dominant particle-bound nitro-PAH measured in ambient atmospheres, suggest that for PAHs that exist in both the gas- and particle-phase, the heterogeneous formation of particle-bound nitro-PAHs is a minor formation

  19. Bounds on the performance of particle filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, C.; Bengtsson, T.

    2014-12-01

    Particle filters rely on sequential importance sampling and it is well known that their performance can depend strongly on the choice of proposal distribution from which new ensemble members (particles) are drawn. The use of clever proposals has seen substantial recent interest in the geophysical literature, with schemes such as the implicit particle filter and the equivalent-weights particle filter. A persistent issue with all particle filters is degeneracy of the importance weights, where one or a few particles receive almost all the weight. Considering single-step filters such as the equivalent-weights or implicit particle filters (that is, those in which the particles and weights at time tk depend only on the observations at tk and the particles and weights at tk-1), two results provide a bound on their performance. First, the optimal proposal minimizes the variance of the importance weights not only over draws of the particles at tk, but also over draws from the joint proposal for tk-1 and tk. This shows that a particle filter using the optimal proposal will have minimal degeneracy relative to all other single-step filters. Second, the asymptotic results of Bengtsson et al. (2008) and Snyder et al. (2008) also hold rigorously for the optimal proposal in the case of linear, Gaussian systems. The number of particles necessary to avoid degeneracy must increase exponentially with the variance of the incremental importance weights. In the simplest examples, that variance is proportional to the dimension of the system, though in general it depends on other factors, including the characteristics of the observing network. A rough estimate indicates that single-step particle filter applied to global numerical weather prediction will require very large numbers of particles.

  20. Environmental view looking to the Federal Trade Commission Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Environmental view looking to the Federal Trade Commission Building - Federal Trade Commission Building, Bounded by Sixth and Seventh streets, Pennsylvania and Constitution avenues, NW, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. 77 FR 4556 - Environmental Management Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... include, but are not limited to, project management and oversight activities, cost/ benefit analyses... Environmental Management Advisory Board AGENCY: Office of Environmental Management, Department of Energy. ACTION... following consultation with the Committee Management Secretariat, General Services Administration, notice...

  2. Characterisation of free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds of La Mancha Verdejo white wines.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Palomo, E; Alonso-Villegas, R; González Viñas, M A

    2015-04-15

    The aroma of Verdejo La Mancha white wines was studied by instrumental and sensory analysis across five consecutive vintages to determine their typicity and quality. Free and glycosidically-bound aroma compounds were isolated by solid phase extraction (SPE) to later be analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Seventy-four (74) free aroma compounds and thirty-six (36) bound aroma compounds were identified and quantified in La Mancha Verdejo wines oven this five year period. Based on the result, Verdejo white wines presents a complex chemical profile with a wealth of aromas in its aromatic composition. The sensory profile of Verdejo wines was evaluated by experienced wine-tasters and was characterised by fresh, citric, green apple, fruity and tropical fruit aroma descriptors. This study shows the first complete aromatic characterisation of La Mancha Verdejo white wines, also the data suggest that these wines present a great aromatic potential.

  3. Optical Potential Parameters of Weakly Bound Nuclear System 17F+13C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Guang-Peng; Lin, Cheng-Jian; Zhang, Huan-Qiao; Liu, Zu-Hua; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Gao-Long; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Wu, Zhen-Dong; Jia, Fei; Jia, Hui-Ming; Xu, Xin-Xing; Bai, Chun-Lin; Yu, Ning

    2008-12-01

    Elastic scattering angular distributions of the 14N+16O system and the angular distributions of transfer reaction 16O(14N,13 C)17 F at ELab = 76.2 MeV and 57MeV have been measured and calculated by means of the exact finite-range distorted-wave Born approximation with the PTOLEMY code. The optical potential parameters for the weakly bound nuclear system 17F+13 C have been deduced and applied to analyse the elastic scattering angular distributions of the similar systems 17F+12C and 17F+14N which are taken from literature. The result shows that the transfer reaction with stable projectile and target combination can be used as an alternative method to extract the optical potential parameters for the weakly bound nuclear system.

  4. Using supported bilayers to study the spatiotemporal organization of membrane bound proteins

    PubMed Central

    Field, Christine M.; Groen, Aaron C.; Mitchison, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Cell division in prokaryotes and eukaryotes is commonly initiated by the well-controlled binding of proteins to the cytoplasmic side of the cell membrane. However, a precise characterization of the spatiotemporal dynamics of membrane-bound proteins is often difficult to achieve in vivo. Here, we present protocols for the use of supported lipid bilayers to rebuild the cytokinetic machineries of cells with greatly different dimensions: the bacterium Escherichia coli and eggs of the vertebrate Xenopus laevis. Combined with total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, these experimental setups allow for precise quantitative analyses of membrane-bound proteins. The protocols described to obtain glass-supported membranes from bacterial and vertebrate lipids can be used as starting points for other reconstitution experiments. We believe that similar biochemical assays will be instrumental to study the biochemistry and biophysics underlying a variety of complex cellular tasks, such as signaling, vesicle trafficking and cell motility. PMID:25997350

  5. Biochemical and molecular characterization of mitochondrial membrane-bound arginase in Heteropneustes fossilis.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Suman; Mishra, Rajnikant

    2016-05-01

    The two predominant forms of arginase, cytosolic Arginase-I and mitochondrial Arginase-II, catalyze hydrolysis of arginine into ornithine and urea. Based on presence of arginase activity in extracts using potassium chloride (KCl), mitochondrial membrane-bound arginase has also been suggested. However, the activity of arginase in fractions obtained after KCl-treatment may be either due to leakage of mitochondrial arginase or release of adhered cytosolic arginase to cell organelles having altered net charge. Therefore, it has been intended to analyse impact of KCl on ultra-structural properties of mitochondria, and biochemical analysis of mitochondrial membrane-bound proteins and arginase of Heteropneustes fossilis. Liver of H. fossilis was used for isolating mitochondria for analysis of ultrastructural properties, preparing cytosolic, mitochondrial, and mitochondrial-membrane bound extracts after treatment of KCl. Extracts were analysed for arginase activity assay, protein profiling through SDS-PAGE and MALDI MS/MS. The KCl-mediated modulation in polypeptides and arginase were also evaluated by PANTHER, MitoProt and IPSORT servers. The effects of KCl on ultra-structural integrity of mitochondria, activity of arginase, modulation on mitochondrial proteins and enzymes including arginase were observed. The 48 kDa polypeptide of mitochondrial fraction, that showed KCl-dependent alteration matched with Myb binding protein and 30 kDa bands resembles to arginase after MALDI MS/MS analysis. Results indicate KCl-dependent ultrastructural changes in mitochondria and release of mitochondrial arginase. The proposed membrane bound mitochondrial arginase could be mitochondrial arginase-II or altered form of cytosolic arginase-I contributing to KCl-induced arginase activity in H. fossilis. PMID:26922180

  6. Measure of genuine multipartite entanglement with computable lower bounds

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Zhihao; Chen Zhihua; Chen Jingling; Spengler, Christoph; Gabriel, Andreas; Huber, Marcus

    2011-06-15

    We introduce an intuitive measure of genuine multipartite entanglement, which is based on the well-known concurrence. We show how lower bounds on this measure can be derived and also meet important characteristics of an entanglement measure. These lower bounds are experimentally implementable in a feasible way enabling quantification of multipartite entanglement in a broad variety of cases.

  7. Bound states in a hyperbolic asymmetric double-well

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, R. R.

    2014-01-15

    We report a new class of hyperbolic asymmetric double-well whose bound state wavefunctions can be expressed in terms of confluent Heun functions. An analytic procedure is used to obtain the energy eigenvalues and the criterion for the potential to support bound states is discussed.

  8. Upward Bound; Ideas and Techniques: A Reference Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    The following topics are the subject of capsule summaries of Upward Bound (UB) program techniques that make up the major portion of this book, having been compiled from information submitted by project staff, consultants, and others who have seen Upward Bound in action during the past four years: recruiting students; curriculum, including…

  9. A bounds on the resonant frequency of rectangular microstrip antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.

    1980-01-01

    The calculation of currents induced by a transverse electric plane wave normally incident upon an infinite strip embedded in a grounded dielectric slab is used to infer a lower bound on the resonant frequency (or resonant-E-plane dimension) for rectangular microstrip antennas. An upper bound is provided by the frequency for which the E-plane dimension is a half-wavelength.

  10. 34 CFR 645.42 - What are Upward Bound stipends?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are Upward Bound stipends? 645.42 Section 645.42 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UPWARD BOUND PROGRAM What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? §...

  11. 34 CFR 645.42 - What are Upward Bound stipends?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are Upward Bound stipends? 645.42 Section 645.42 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UPWARD BOUND PROGRAM What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? §...

  12. 34 CFR 645.42 - What are Upward Bound stipends?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are Upward Bound stipends? 645.42 Section 645.42 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UPWARD BOUND PROGRAM What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? §...

  13. 34 CFR 645.42 - What are Upward Bound stipends?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are Upward Bound stipends? 645.42 Section 645.42 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UPWARD BOUND PROGRAM What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? §...

  14. Release of bound procyanidins from cranberry pomace by alkaline hydrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Procyanidins in plant products are present as extractable or unextractable/bound forms. We optimized alkaline hydrolysis conditions to liberate bound procyanidins from dried cranberry pomace. Five mL of sodium hydroxide (2, 4, or 6N) was added to 0.5 g of cranberry pomace in screw top glass tubes,...

  15. Morphological Processing: A Comparison between Free and Bound Stem Facilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastizzo, Matthew J.; Feldman, Laurie B.

    2004-01-01

    Linguists distinguish between words formed from free stems (e.g., "actor": "act") and those formed from bound stems (e.g., "spectator": "spect"). In a forward masked priming task, we observed significant morphological facilitation for prime-target pairs that shared either a free (e.g., "deform"--"CONFORM") or a bound (e.g., "revive"--"SURVIVE")…

  16. BIFURCATIONS OF RANDOM DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH BOUNDED NOISE ON SURFACES.

    PubMed

    Homburg, Ale Jan; Young, Todd R

    2010-03-01

    In random differential equations with bounded noise minimal forward invariant (MFI) sets play a central role since they support stationary measures. We study the stability and possible bifurcations of MFI sets. In dimensions 1 and 2 we classify all minimal forward invariant sets and their codimension one bifurcations in bounded noise random differential equations. PMID:22211081

  17. Bounds for the eigenvalues of the continuous algebraic Riccati equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianzhou; Zhang, Juan

    2011-10-01

    By using singular value decomposition and majorisation inequalities, we propose new upper and lower bounds for summations of eigenvalues (including the trace) of the solution of the continuous algebraic Riccati equation. These bounds improve and extend some of the previous results. Finally, we give corresponding numerical examples to illustrate the effectiveness of our results.

  18. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, R.C.

    1993-07-01

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to fulfill the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 and DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide DOE/EH 0173T. This Plan documents the background, organizational structure, and methods used for effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance at Sandia National Laboratories/California. The design, rationale, and historical results of the environmental monitoring system are discussed in detail. Throughout the Plan, recommendations for improvements to the monitoring system are made. This revision to the Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to document the changes made to the Monitoring Program during 1992. Some of the data (most notably the statistical analyses of past monitoring data) has not been changed.

  19. Viscosity bound violation in holographic solids and the viscoelastic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberte, Lasma; Baggioli, Matteo; Pujolàs, Oriol

    2016-07-01

    We argue that the Kovtun-Son-Starinets (KSS) lower bound on the viscosity to entropy density ratio holds in fluid systems but is violated in solid materials with a nonzero shear elastic modulus. We construct explicit examples of this by applying the standard gauge/gravity duality methods to massive gravity and show that the KSS bound is clearly violated in black brane solutions whenever the massive gravity theories are of solid type. We argue that the physical reason for the bound violation relies on the viscoelastic nature of the mechanical response in these materials. We speculate on whether any real-world materials can violate the bound and discuss a possible generalization of the bound that involves the ratio of the shear elastic modulus to the pressure.

  20. Synergism between soluble and dietary fiber bound antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Ecem Evrim; Gökmen, Vural; Skibsted, Leif H

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates the synergism between antioxidants bound to dietary fibers (DF) of grains and soluble antioxidants of highly consumed beverages or their pure antioxidants. The interaction between insoluble fractions of grains containing bound antioxidants and soluble antioxidants was investigated using (i) a liposome-based system by measuring the lag phase before the onset of oxidation and (ii) an ESR-based system by measuring the reduction percentage of Fremy's salt radical. In both procedures, antioxidant capacities of DF-bound and soluble antioxidants were measured as well as their combinations, which were prepared at different ratios. The simple addition effects of DF-bound and soluble antioxidants were compared with measured values. The results revealed a clear synergism for almost all combinations in both liposome- and ESR-based systems. The synergism observed in DF-bound-soluble antioxidant system paints a promising picture considering the role of fiber in human gastrointestinal (GI) tract health.

  1. Tsirelson's bound from a generalized data processing inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlsten, Oscar C. O.; Lercher, Daniel; Renner, Renato

    2012-06-01

    The strength of quantum correlations is bounded from above by Tsirelson's bound. We establish a connection between this bound and the fact that correlations between two systems cannot increase under local operations, a property known as the data processing inequality (DPI). More specifically, we consider arbitrary convex probabilistic theories. These can be equipped with an entropy measure that naturally generalizes the von Neumann entropy, as shown recently in Short and Wehner (2010 New J. Phys. 12 033023) and Barnum et al (2010 New J. Phys. 12 033024). We prove that if the DPI holds with respect to this generalized entropy measure then the underlying theory necessarily respects Tsirelson's bound. We, moreover, generalize this statement to any entropy measure satisfying certain minimal requirements. A consequence of our result is that not all the entropic relations used for deriving Tsirelson's bound via information causality in Pawlowski et al (2009 Nature 461 1101-4) are necessary.

  2. Universal impurity-induced bound state in topological superfluids.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hui; Jiang, Lei; Pu, Han; Chen, Yan; Liu, Xia-Ji

    2013-01-11

    We predict a universal midgap bound state in topological superfluids, induced by either nonmagnetic or magnetic impurities in the strong scattering limit. This universal state is similar to the lowest-energy Caroli-de Gennes-Martricon bound state in a vortex core, but is bound to localized impurities. We argue that the observation of such a universal bound state can be a clear signature for identifying topological superfluids. We theoretically examine our argument for a spin-orbit coupled ultracold atomic Fermi gas trapped in a two-dimensional harmonic potential by performing extensive self-consistent calculations within the mean-field Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory. A realistic scenario for observing a universal bound state in ultracold 40K atoms is proposed.

  3. Excitation of weakly bound molecules to trilobitelike Rydberg states.

    PubMed

    Bellos, M A; Carollo, R; Banerjee, J; Eyler, E E; Gould, P L; Stwalley, W C

    2013-08-01

    We observe "trilobitelike" states of ultracold (85)Rb(2) molecules, in which a ground-state atom is bound by the electronic wave function of its Rydberg-atom partner. We populate these states through the ultraviolet excitation of weakly bound molecules, and access a regime of trilobitelike states at low principal quantum numbers and with vibrational turning points around 35 Bohr radii. This demonstrates that, unlike previous studies that used free-to-bound transitions, trilobitelike states can also be excited through bound-to-bound transitions. This approach provides high excitation probabilities without requiring high-density samples, and affords the ability to control the excitation radius by selection of the initial-state vibrational level.

  4. Person perception and the bounded rationality of social judgment.

    PubMed

    Wright, J C; Dawson, V L

    1988-11-01

    In this article, we develop a bounded rationality view of the relation between person perception and social behavior. Two theses of this approach are that behaviors vary in their significance to observers, and that observers pursue bounded rather than global utility in forming personality impressions. Observers are expected to be sensitive to targets' overall behavioral tendencies and to the variability of their behavior across situations, but both sensitivities are bounded, being greater for behaviors that directly affect observers' outcomes. In two investigations involving extensive hourly and 6-s observations, we examined the bounded utility of people's impressions of personality, demonstrating how impression accuracy is linked to the significance of behaviors. Observers were sensitive to the organization of aggressive behaviors, but less sensitive to the organization of withdrawn behaviors, even when the consistency of those behaviors was comparable. The results clarify the relation between people's inferential shortcomings in laboratory paradigms and the bounded utility of person perception in the natural environment.

  5. Person perception and the bounded rationality of social judgment.

    PubMed

    Wright, J C; Dawson, V L

    1988-11-01

    In this article, we develop a bounded rationality view of the relation between person perception and social behavior. Two theses of this approach are that behaviors vary in their significance to observers, and that observers pursue bounded rather than global utility in forming personality impressions. Observers are expected to be sensitive to targets' overall behavioral tendencies and to the variability of their behavior across situations, but both sensitivities are bounded, being greater for behaviors that directly affect observers' outcomes. In two investigations involving extensive hourly and 6-s observations, we examined the bounded utility of people's impressions of personality, demonstrating how impression accuracy is linked to the significance of behaviors. Observers were sensitive to the organization of aggressive behaviors, but less sensitive to the organization of withdrawn behaviors, even when the consistency of those behaviors was comparable. The results clarify the relation between people's inferential shortcomings in laboratory paradigms and the bounded utility of person perception in the natural environment. PMID:3210145

  6. EEO Implications of Job Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacy, D. Patrick, Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses job analyses as they relate to the requirements of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Equal Pay Act of 1963, and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Argues that job analyses can establish the job-relatedness of entrance requirements and aid in defenses against charges of discrimination. Journal availability: see EA 511 615.

  7. Valence-bound and diffuse-bound anions of 5-azauracil.

    PubMed

    Corzo, H H; Dolgounitcheva, O; Zakrzewski, V G; Ortiz, J V

    2014-08-28

    Structures, isomerization energies, and electron binding energies of 5-azauracil and its anions have been calculated ab initio with perturbative, coupled-cluster, and electron-propagator methods. Tautomeric structures, including those produced by proton transfer to a CH group, have been considered. Dyson orbitals and pole strengths from electron-propagator calculations validated a simple, molecular-orbital picture of anion formation. In one case, an electron may enter a delocalized π orbital, yielding a valence-bound (VB) anion with a puckered ring structure. The corresponding electron affinity is 0.27 eV; the vertical electron detachment energy (VEDE) of this anion 1.05 eV. An electron also may enter a molecular orbital that lies outside the nuclear framework, resulting in a diffuse-bound (DB) anion. In the latter case, the electron affinity is 0.06 eV and the VEDE of the DB anion is 0.09 eV. Another VB isomer that is only 0.02 eV more stable than the neutral molecule has a VEDE of 2.0 eV.

  8. Environmental report 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, G.C.; Gallegos, G.M.; Tate, P.J.; Balke, B.K.

    1994-09-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility operated by the University of California, serves as a national resource of scientific, technical, and engineering capability with a special focus on national security. Over the years, the Laboratory`s mission has been broadened to encompass such areas as strategic defense, energy, the environment, biomedicine, the economy, and education. The Laboratory carries out this mission in compliance with local, state, and federal environmental regulatory requirements and takes measures to ensure that its operations do not adversely affect the environment or public health. It does so with the support of the Environmental Protection Department, which is responsible for environmental monitoring, environmental restoration, hazardous waste management, and ensuring environmental compliance. During 1993, the Environmental Protection Department conducted sampling of air, sewage effluent, ground water, surface water, soil, vegetation and foodstuffs, and took measurements of environmental radiation. It performed more than 190,000 analyses of environmental samples. The analytical results are summarized along with evaluations of the impact of radioactive and nonradioactive materials, a discussion of the effects of LLNL operations on the environment, and a summary of the activities undertaken to comply with local, state, and federal environmental laws.

  9. 34 CFR 645.12 - What services may regular Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math-Science projects provide?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What services may regular Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math-Science projects provide? 645.12 Section 645.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UPWARD...

  10. 34 CFR 645.12 - What services may regular Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math-Science projects provide?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What services may regular Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math-Science projects provide? 645.12 Section 645.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UPWARD...

  11. 34 CFR 645.12 - What services may regular Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math-Science projects provide?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What services may regular Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math-Science projects provide? 645.12 Section 645.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UPWARD...

  12. 34 CFR 645.12 - What services may regular Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math-Science projects provide?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Math-Science projects provide? 645.12 Section 645.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... services may regular Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math-Science projects provide? Any project assisted... instruction designed to acquaint youth participating in the project with the range of career options...

  13. Froissart bound on inelastic cross section without unknown constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, André; Roy, S. M.

    2015-04-01

    Assuming that axiomatic local field theory results hold for hadron scattering, André Martin and S. M. Roy recently obtained absolute bounds on the D wave below threshold for pion-pion scattering and thereby determined the scale of the logarithm in the Froissart bound on total cross sections in terms of pion mass only. Previously, Martin proved a rigorous upper bound on the inelastic cross-section σinel which is one-fourth of the corresponding upper bound on σtot, and Wu, Martin, Roy and Singh improved the bound by adding the constraint of a given σtot. Here we use unitarity and analyticity to determine, without any high-energy approximation, upper bounds on energy-averaged inelastic cross sections in terms of low-energy data in the crossed channel. These are Froissart-type bounds without any unknown coefficient or unknown scale factors and can be tested experimentally. Alternatively, their asymptotic forms, together with the Martin-Roy absolute bounds on pion-pion D waves below threshold, yield absolute bounds on energy-averaged inelastic cross sections. For example, for π0π0 scattering, defining σinel=σtot-(σπ0π0→π0π0+σπ0π0→π+π-) , we show that for c.m. energy √{s }→∞, σ¯ inel(s ,∞)≡s ∫s∞d s'σinel(s')/s'2≤(π /4 )(mπ)-2[ln (s /s1)+(1 /2 )ln ln (s /s1)+1 ]2 where 1 /s1=34 π √{2 π }mπ-2 . This bound is asymptotically one-fourth of the corresponding Martin-Roy bound on the total cross section, and the scale factor s1 is one-fourth of the scale factor in the total cross section bound. The average over the interval (s,2s) of the inelastic π0π0 cross section has a bound of the same form with 1 /s1 replaced by 1 /s2=2 /s1.

  14. Aluminum stimulates uptake of non-transferrin bound iron and transferrin bound iron in human glial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yongbae; Olivi, Luisa; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Maertens, Alex; Bressler, Joseph P. . E-mail: Bressler@kennedykrieger.org

    2007-05-01

    Aluminum and other trivalent metals were shown to stimulate uptake of transferrin bound iron and nontransferrin bound iron in erytholeukemia and hepatoma cells. Because of the association between aluminum and Alzheimer's Disease, and findings of higher levels of iron in Alzheimer's disease brains, the effects of aluminum on iron homeostasis were examined in a human glial cell line. Aluminum stimulated dose- and time-dependent uptake of nontransferrin bound iron and iron bound to transferrin. A transporter was likely involved in the uptake of nontransferrin iron because uptake reached saturation, was temperature-dependent, and attenuated by inhibitors of protein synthesis. Interestingly, the effects of aluminum were not blocked by inhibitors of RNA synthesis. Aluminum also decreased the amount of iron bound to ferritin though it did not affect levels of divalent metal transporter 1. These results suggest that aluminum disrupts iron homeostasis in Brain by several mechanisms including the transferrin receptor, a nontransferrin iron transporter, and ferritin.

  15. Environmental Education across Cultures: Beyond the Discourse of Shallow Environmentalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stibbe, Arran

    2004-01-01

    Environmental education has increasingly become part of the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) curriculum worldwide. This article analyses 26 EFL textbooks used in Japan, to discover what kind of environmental education they offer, and what this says about intercultural communication in the teaching/learning process. The results show how…

  16. Feed analyses and their interpretation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mary Beth

    2014-11-01

    Compositional analysis is central to determining the nutritional value of feedstuffs for use in ration formulation. The utility of the values and how they should be used depends on how representative the feed subsample is, the nutritional relevance and analytical variability of the assays, and whether an analysis is suitable to be applied to a particular feedstuff. Commercial analyses presently available for carbohydrates, protein, and fats have improved nutritionally pertinent description of feed fractions. Factors affecting interpretation of feed analyses and the nutritional relevance and application of currently available analyses are discussed.

  17. Generation of bound states of pulses in a soliton laser with complex relaxation of a saturable absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Zolotovskii, I O; Korobko, D A; Okhotnikov, O G; Gumenyuk, R V

    2015-01-31

    A numerical model of a soliton fibre laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM), characterised by the complex dynamics of absorption relaxation, is considered. It is shown that stationary bound states of pulses can be formed in this laser as a result of their interaction via the dispersion-wave field. The stability of stationary bound states of several pulses is analysed. It is shown that an increase in the number of pulses in a stationary bound state leads eventually to its decay and formation of a random bunch. It is found that the bunch stability is caused by the manifestation of nonlinear self-phase modulation, which attracts pulses to the bunch centre. The simulation results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  18. Environmental Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandhu, Desh, Ed.

    The Indian Environmental Society, in association with the International Programme on Environmental Management Education, organized two seminars on World Environment Day and Environmental Impact Assessment during June 1980. A large number of papers on various aspects of environmental management were presented during the seminars. The papers…

  19. Symmetry and boundness of four-particle coulomb systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rebane, T. K.

    2012-04-15

    The problem of boundness of a{sup +}b{sup +}c{sup -}d{sup -} four-particle Coulomb systems (quadrions) is studied versus the masses of the particles involved. Inequalities that make it possible to deduce that, if some reference quadrions form a bound state, the same is true for a large number of quadrions formed by particles having various masses were derived. A compendium of calculations for energies of reference systems that possess various symmetries [positronium molecules (e{sup +}e{sup +}e{sup -}e{sup -}) and quadrions of the a{sup +}b{sup +}b{sup -}b{sup -}, a{sup +}b{sup +}a{sup --}, and a{sup +}a{sup +}b{sup -}c{sup -} types] is given, and groups of bound asymmetric quadrions corresponding to them are determined. An inequality for kinetic energies of particles that makes it possible to find out, by using asymmetric reference systems, whether specific quadrions are bound is obtained. It is shown that the boundness of many quadrions is ensured by the boundness of respective three-particle systems. The entire body of the present results permits proving that, of the total number of 406 quadrions containing electrons, muons, pions, kaons, protons, deuterons, and tritons and their antiparticles, 227 quadrions are bound.

  20. Preparatory steps for a robust dynamic model for organically bound tritium dynamics in agricultural crops

    SciTech Connect

    Melintescu, A.; Galeriu, D.; Diabate, S.; Strack, S.

    2015-03-15

    The processes involved in tritium transfer in crops are complex and regulated by many feedback mechanisms. A full mechanistic model is difficult to develop due to the complexity of the processes involved in tritium transfer and environmental conditions. First, a review of existing models (ORYZA2000, CROPTRIT and WOFOST) presenting their features and limits, is made. Secondly, the preparatory steps for a robust model are discussed, considering the role of dry matter and photosynthesis contribution to the OBT (Organically Bound Tritium) dynamics in crops.

  1. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-21

    Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma Energy Option Analyses In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Description of Activities Performed The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor

  2. Environmental fate of polyhexamethylene biguanide.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Anne D

    2012-03-01

    Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) is used as a bacteriocidal agent in a variety of applications from medical devices to pools, but is highly toxic to some aquatic species. The stability of PHMB in various environmental matrices was examined. 80% of PHMB was present in fortified creek samples after 20 days, but bound immediately to soils with the exception of sandy soil. PHMB was absorbed to below detectable levels by weathered concrete within 12 h. In addition, one over the counter wound care product containing PHMB was evaluated to assess environmental leaching; detectable levels (20 μg/mL) were still present after 1 week.

  3. [WTP guidance technology: a comparison of payment card, single-bounded and double-bounded dichotomous formats for evaluating non-use values of Sanjiang Plain ecotourism water resources].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Guang; Wang, Qiu-Dan; Li, Chen-Yang

    2014-09-01

    Contingent valuation method (CVM) is the most widespread method to assess resources and value of environmental goods and services. The guidance technology of willingness to pay (WTP) is an important means of CVM. Therefore, the study on the WTP guidance technology is an important approach to improve the reliability and validity of CVM. This article conducted comprehensive evaluation on non-use value of eco-tourism water resources in Sanjiang Plain by using payment card, single-bound dichotomous choice and double-bound dichotomous choice. Results showed that the socio-economic attributes were consistent with the willingness to pay in the three formats, and the tender value, age, educational level, annual income and the concern level had significant effect on the willingness to pay, while gender and job did not have significant influence. The WTP value was 112.46 yuan per capita with the payment card, 136.15 with the single-bound dichotomous choice, and 168.74 with the double-bound dichotomous choice. Comprehensive consideration of the nature of the investigation, investigation costs and statistical techniques, the result of double-bound dichotomous choice (47.86 x 10(8) yuan · a(-1)) was best in accordance with the reality, and could be used as non-use value of eco-tourism water resources in Sanjiang Plain. The format of questionnaire was very important to improve its validity, and made a great influence on the WTP.

  4. [WTP guidance technology: a comparison of payment card, single-bounded and double-bounded dichotomous formats for evaluating non-use values of Sanjiang Plain ecotourism water resources].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Guang; Wang, Qiu-Dan; Li, Chen-Yang

    2014-09-01

    Contingent valuation method (CVM) is the most widespread method to assess resources and value of environmental goods and services. The guidance technology of willingness to pay (WTP) is an important means of CVM. Therefore, the study on the WTP guidance technology is an important approach to improve the reliability and validity of CVM. This article conducted comprehensive evaluation on non-use value of eco-tourism water resources in Sanjiang Plain by using payment card, single-bound dichotomous choice and double-bound dichotomous choice. Results showed that the socio-economic attributes were consistent with the willingness to pay in the three formats, and the tender value, age, educational level, annual income and the concern level had significant effect on the willingness to pay, while gender and job did not have significant influence. The WTP value was 112.46 yuan per capita with the payment card, 136.15 with the single-bound dichotomous choice, and 168.74 with the double-bound dichotomous choice. Comprehensive consideration of the nature of the investigation, investigation costs and statistical techniques, the result of double-bound dichotomous choice (47.86 x 10(8) yuan · a(-1)) was best in accordance with the reality, and could be used as non-use value of eco-tourism water resources in Sanjiang Plain. The format of questionnaire was very important to improve its validity, and made a great influence on the WTP. PMID:25757326

  5. Security Bounds for Continuous Variables Quantum Key Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navascués, Miguel; Acín, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Security bounds for key distribution protocols using coherent and squeezed states and homodyne measurements are presented. These bounds refer to (i)general attacks and (ii)collective attacks where Eve applies the optimal individual interaction to the sent states, but delays her measurement until the end of the reconciliation process. For the case of a lossy line and coherent states, it is first proven that a secure key distribution is possible up to 1.9dB of losses. For the second scenario, the security bounds are the same as for the completely incoherent attack.

  6. A Lower Bound of Quantum Discord for 2-Qutrit Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qianhui; Wang, Jing; Shen, Shuqian; Li, Ming

    2016-04-01

    We study the lower bound of quantum discord for 2-qutrit systems. By computing the mutual information and the classical correlations of a class of states for 2-qutrit system, an analytical and computable lower bound of discord has been derived. By selecting different coefficients as examples, we can compute the lower bound of discord for 2-qutrit systems directly. The result can be generalized to the case of high-dimensional quantum state and will help us understand and explore the discord of the high-dimensional state.

  7. Complete manifolds with bounded curvature and spectral gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, Richard; Tran, Hung

    2016-08-01

    We study the spectrum of complete noncompact manifolds with bounded curvature and positive injectivity radius. We give general conditions which imply that their essential spectrum has an arbitrarily large finite number of gaps. In particular, for any noncompact covering of a compact manifold, there is a metric on the base so that the lifted metric has an arbitrarily large finite number of gaps in its essential spectrum. Also, for any complete noncompact manifold with bounded curvature and positive injectivity radius we construct a metric uniformly equivalent to the given one (also of bounded curvature and positive injectivity radius) with an arbitrarily large finite number of gaps in its essential spectrum.

  8. Rigorous performance bounds for quadratic and nested dynamical decoupling

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Yuhou; Uhrig, Goetz S.; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2011-12-15

    We present rigorous performance bounds for the quadratic dynamical decoupling pulse sequence which protects a qubit from general decoherence, and for its nested generalization to an arbitrary number of qubits. Our bounds apply under the assumptions of instantaneous pulses and of bounded perturbing environment and qubit-environment Hamiltonians such as those realized by baths of nuclear spins in quantum dots. We prove that if the total sequence time is fixed then the trace-norm distance between the unperturbed and protected system states can be made arbitrarily small by increasing the number of applied pulses.

  9. Upper bound on the radii of black-hole photonspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hod, Shahar

    2013-11-01

    One of the most remarkable predictions of the general theory of relativity is the existence of black-hole “photonspheres”, compact null hypersurfaces on which massless particles can orbit the central black hole. We prove that every spherically-symmetric asymptotically flat black-hole spacetime is characterized by a photonsphere whose radius is bounded from above by rγ⩽3M, where M is the total ADM mass of the black-hole spacetime. It is shown that hairy black-hole configurations conform to this upper bound. In particular, the null circular geodesic of the (bald) Schwarzschild black-hole spacetime saturates the bound.

  10. Cosmological bounds on pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Cadamuro, Davide; Redondo, Javier E-mail: redondo@mppmu.mpg.de

    2012-02-01

    We review the cosmological implications of a relic population of pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons (pNGB) with an anomalous coupling to two photons, often called axion-like particles (ALPs). We establish constraints on the pNGB mass and two-photon coupling by considering big bang nucleosynthesis, the physics of the cosmic microwave background, and the diffuse photon background. The bounds from WMAP7 and other large-scale-structure data on the effective number of neutrino species can be stronger than the traditional bounds from the primordial helium abundance. These bounds, together with those from primordial deuterium abundance, constitute the most stringent probes of early decays.

  11. Error bounds on the output of artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, E.B.; Kim, H. )

    1993-01-01

    Resolving the uncertainties associated with solutions obtained from artificial neural networks (ANNs) is a major concern for ANN researchers. Error bounds on the solutions are important because they are an integral part of verification and validation. In this research, stacked generalization (SG) is applied to provide error bounds for novel solutions obtained from ANNS. An outline of SG and its use is given. The data used in this demonstration of SG are given. This work shows that SG can provide error bounds on ANN results. We have applied SG to nuclear power plant fault detection for verification of diagnoses provided by ANNs.

  12. Cramér-Rao bounds on mensuration errors.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, R A

    1976-05-01

    The Cramér-Rao (CR) bound is an inequality that sets a lower bound on the variance of an estimator. The paper presents an application of this bound to the problem of mensuration. Explicit results are given for the width of a pulse, incoherently imaged by an optical system. The results are given in terms of the SNR of the observed signal and the autocorrelation function of the system line spread function. The effects of another unknown parameter (pulse amplitude), an application to sampled data imagery, and the calculation of confidence limits are presented.

  13. Bounds for the chaotic region in the Lorenz model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrio, Roberto; Serrano, Sergio

    2009-08-01

    In a previous paper, the authors made an extensive numerical study of the Lorenz model, changing all three parameters of the system. We conjectured that the region of parameters where the Lorenz model is chaotic is bounded for fixed r. In this paper, we give a theoretical proof of the conjecture by obtaining theoretical bounds for the chaotic region and by using Fenichel theory. The theoretical bounds are complemented with numerical studies performed using the Maximum Lyapunov Exponent and OFLI2 techniques, and a comparison of both sets of results is shown. Finally, we provide a complete three-dimensional model of the chaotic regime depending on the three parameters.

  14. Affinity- and topology-dependent bound on current fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietzonka, Patrick; Barato, Andre C.; Seifert, Udo

    2016-08-01

    We provide a proof of a recently conjectured universal bound on current fluctuations in Markovian processes. This bound establishes a link between the fluctuations of an individual observable current, the cycle affinities driving the system into a non-equilibrium steady state, and the topology of the network. The proof is based on a decomposition of the network into independent cycles with both positive affinity and positive stationary cycle current. This formalism allows for a refinement of the bound for systems in equilibrium or with locally vanishing affinities.

  15. Bounded-Angle Iterative Decoding of LDPC Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolinar, Samuel; Andrews, Kenneth; Pollara, Fabrizio; Divsalar, Dariush

    2009-01-01

    Bounded-angle iterative decoding is a modified version of conventional iterative decoding, conceived as a means of reducing undetected-error rates for short low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. For a given code, bounded-angle iterative decoding can be implemented by means of a simple modification of the decoder algorithm, without redesigning the code. Bounded-angle iterative decoding is based on a representation of received words and code words as vectors in an n-dimensional Euclidean space (where n is an integer).

  16. On methods for bounding the overall properties of nonlinear composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, J. R.

    A NEW method for bounding the overall properties of nonlinear composites, proposed by PONTE CASTAñEDA ( J. Mech. Phys. Solids39, 45, 1991), is compared with an older prescription based on a generalization to nonlinear behaviour of the Hashin-Shtrikman procedure. It is demonstrated that the two methods generate precisely the same information, and hence that differences noted by Ponte Castañeda arise from comparing optimal bounds obtained from the new procedure with sub-optimal bounds obtained from the original one. The relative advantages of either procedure are discussed.

  17. Water distribution in dentin matrices: bound vs. unbound water

    PubMed Central

    Agee, Kelli A.; Prakki, Anuradha; Abu-Haimed, Tariq; Naguib, Ghada H.; Nawareg, Manar Abu; Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Scheffel, Debora L.S.; Chen, Chen; Jang, Seung Soon; Hwang, Hyea; Brackett, Martha; Grégoire, Geneviéve; Tay, Franklin R.; Breschi, Lorenzo; Pashley, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This work measured the amount of bound versus unbound water in completely-demineralized dentin. Methods Dentin beams prepared from extracted human teeth were completely demineralized, rinsed and dried to constant mass. They were rehydrated in 41% relative humidity (RH), while gravimetrically measuring their mass increase until the first plateau was reached at 0.064 (vacuum) or 0.116 g H2O/g dry mass (Drierite). The specimens were then exposed to 60% RH until attaining the second plateau at 0.220 (vacuum) or 0.191 g H2O/g dry mass (Drierite), and subsequently exposed to 99% RH until attaining the third plateau at 0.493 (vacuum) or 0.401 g H2O/g dry mass (Drierite). Results Exposure of the first layer of bound water to 0% RH for 5 min produced a −0.3% loss of bound water; in the second layer of bound water it caused a −3.3% loss of bound water; in the third layer it caused a −6% loss of bound water. Immersion in 100% ethanol or acetone for 5 min produced a 2.8 and 1.9% loss of bound water from the first layer, respectively; it caused a −4 and −7% loss of bound water in the second layer, respectively; and a −17 and −23% loss of bound water in the third layer.. Bound water represented 21–25% of total dentin water. Chemical dehydration of water-saturated dentin with ethanol/acetone for 1 min only removed between 25 to 35% of unbound water, respectively. Significance Attempts to remove bound water by evaporation were not very successful. Chemical dehydration with 100% acetone was more successful than 100% ethanol especially the third layer of bound water. Since unbound water represents between 75–79% of total matrix water, the more such water can be removed, the more resin can be infiltrated. PMID:25612786

  18. Direct Detection of Soil-Bound Prions

    PubMed Central

    Genovesi, Sacha; Leita, Liviana; Sequi, Paolo; Andrighetto, Igino; Sorgato, M. Catia; Bertoli, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Scrapie and chronic wasting disease are contagious prion diseases affecting sheep and cervids, respectively. Studies have indicated that horizontal transmission is important in sustaining these epidemics, and that environmental contamination plays an important role in this. In the perspective of detecting prions in soil samples from the field by more direct methods than animal-based bioassays, we have developed a novel immuno-based approach that visualises in situ the major component (PrPSc) of prions sorbed onto agricultural soil particles. Importantly, the protocol needs no extraction of the protein from soil. Using a cell-based assay of infectivity, we also report that samples of agricultural soil, or quartz sand, acquire prion infectivity after exposure to whole brain homogenates from prion-infected mice. Our data provide further support to the notion that prion-exposed soils retain infectivity, as recently determined in Syrian hamsters intracerebrally or orally challanged with contaminated soils. The cell approach of the potential infectivity of contaminated soil is faster and cheaper than classical animal-based bioassays. Although it suffers from limitations, e.g. it can currently test only a few mouse prion strains, the cell model can nevertheless be applied in its present form to understand how soil composition influences infectivity, and to test prion-inactivating procedures. PMID:17957252

  19. Structure of BipA in GTP form bound to the ratcheted ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Veerendra; Chen, Yun; Ero, Rya; Ahmed, Tofayel; Tan, Jackie; Li, Zhe; Wong, Andrew See Weng; Bhushan, Shashi; Gao, Yong-Gui

    2015-01-01

    BPI-inducible protein A (BipA) is a member of the family of ribosome-dependent translational GTPase (trGTPase) factors along with elongation factors G and 4 (EF-G and EF4). Despite being highly conserved in bacteria and playing a critical role in coordinating cellular responses to environmental changes, its structures (isolated and ribosome bound) remain elusive. Here, we present the crystal structures of apo form and GTP analog, GDP, and guanosine-3′,5′-bisdiphosphate (ppGpp)-bound BipA. In addition to having a distinctive domain arrangement, the C-terminal domain of BipA has a unique fold. Furthermore, we report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of BipA bound to the ribosome in its active GTP form and elucidate the unique structural attributes of BipA interactions with the ribosome and A-site tRNA in the light of its possible function in regulating translation. PMID:26283392

  20. Equilibrium mercury isotope fractionation between dissolved Hg(II) species and thiol-bound Hg.

    PubMed

    Wiederhold, Jan G; Cramer, Christopher J; Daniel, Kelly; Infante, Ivan; Bourdon, Bernard; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2010-06-01

    Stable Hg isotope ratios provide a new tool to trace environmental Hg cycling. Thiols (-SH) are the dominant Hg-binding groups in natural organic matter. Here, we report experimental and computational results on equilibrium Hg isotope fractionation between dissolved Hg(II) species and thiol-bound Hg. Hg(II) chloride and nitrate solutions were equilibrated in parallel batches with varying amounts of thiol resin resulting in different fractions of thiol-bound and free Hg. Mercury isotope ratios in both fractions were analyzed by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). Theoretical equilibrium Hg isotope effects by mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) and nuclear volume fractionation (NVF) were calculated for 14 relevant Hg(II) species. The experimental data revealed that thiol-bound Hg was enriched in light Hg isotopes by 0.53 per thousand and 0.62 per thousand (delta(202)Hg) relative to HgCl(2) and Hg(OH)(2), respectively. The computational results were in excellent agreement with the experimental data indicating that a combination of MDF and NVF was responsible for the observed Hg isotope fractionation. Small mass-independent fractionation (MIF) effects (<0.1 per thousand) were observed representing one of the first experimental evidences for MIF of Hg isotopes by NVF. Our results indicate that significant equilibrium Hg isotope fractionation can occur without redox transition, and that NVF must be considered in addition to MDF to explain Hg isotope variations.