Science.gov

Sample records for environmental analysis framework

  1. Environmental modeling framework invasiveness: analysis and implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental modeling frameworks support scientific model development by providing an Application Programming Interface (API) which model developers use to implement models. This paper presents results of an investigation on the framework invasiveness of environmental modeling frameworks. Invasiven...

  2. Environmental modeling framework invasiveness: analysis and implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental modeling frameworks support scientific model development by providing an Application Programming Interface (API) which model developers use to implement models. This paper presents results of an investigation on the framework invasiveness of environmental modeling frameworks. Invasiv...

  3. Framework for risk analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES)

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, G.; Buck, J.W.; Castleton, K.J.; Hoopes, B.L.; Pelton, M.A.; McDonald, J.P.; Gelston, G.M.; Taira, R.Y.

    1998-05-01

    The objectives of this workshop are to (1) provide the NRC staff and the public with an overview of currently available Federally-Sponsored dose models appropriate for decommissioning assessments and (2) discuss NRC staff-developed questions related to model selection criteria with the final rule on ``Radiological Criteria for License Termination`` (62 FR 39058). For over 40 years, medium specific models have been and will continue to be developed in an effort to understand and predict environmental phenomena, including fluid-flow patterns, contaminant migration and fate, human or wildlife exposures, impacts from specific toxicants to specific species and their organs, cost-benefit analyses, impacts from remediation alternatives, etc. For nearly 40 years, medium-specific models have been combined for either sequential or concurrent assessments. The evolution of multiple-media assessment tools has followed a logic progression. To allow a suite of users the flexibility and versatility to construct, combine, and couple attributes that meet their specific needs without unnecessarily burdening the user with extraneous capabilities, the development of a computer-based methodology to implement a Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) was begun in 1994. FRAMES represents a platform which links elements together and yet does not represent the models that are linked to or within it; therefore, changes to elements that are linked to or within FRAMES do not change the framework.

  4. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments.

    PubMed

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F; Bell, Scott

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability. PMID:26645076

  5. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F.; Bell, Scott

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability.

  6. Sustainability principles in strategic environmental assessment: A framework for analysis and examples from Italian urban planning

    SciTech Connect

    Lamorgese, Lydia Geneletti, Davide

    2013-09-15

    This paper presents a framework for analysing the degree of consideration of sustainability principles in Strategic environmental assessment (SEA), and demonstrates its application to a sample of SEA of Italian urban plans. The framework is based on Gibson's (2006) sustainability principles, which are linked to a number of guidance criteria and eventually to review questions, resulting from an extensive literature review. A total of 71 questions are included in the framework, which gives particular emphasis to key concepts, such as intragenerational and intergenerational equity. The framework was applied to review the Environmental Report of the urban plans of 15 major Italian cities. The results of this review show that, even if sustainability is commonly considered as a pivotal concept, there is still work to be done in order to effectively integrate sustainability principles into SEA. In particular, most of the attention is given to mitigation and compensation measures, rather than to actual attempts to propose more sustainable planning decisions in the first place. Concerning the proposed framework of analysis, further research is required to clarify equity concerns and particularly to identify suitable indicators for operationalizing the concepts of intra/inter-generational equity in decision-making. -- Highlights: ► A framework was developed in order to evaluate planning against sustainability criteria. ► The framework was applied to analyse how sustainable principles are addressed in 15 Italian SEA reports. ► Over 85% of the reports addressed, to some extent, at least 40% of the framework questions. ► Criteria explicitly linked to intra and inter-generational equity are rarely addressed.

  7. A framework for net environmental benefit analysis for remediation or restoration of contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Efroymson, Rebecca A; Nicolette, Joseph P; Suter, Glenn W

    2004-09-01

    Net environmental benefits are gains in value of environmental services or other ecological properties attained by remediation or ecological restoration minus the value of adverse environmental effects caused by those actions. Net environmental benefit analysis (NEBA) is a methodology for comparing and ranking net environmental benefits associated with multiple management alternatives. A NEBA for chemically contaminated sites typically involves comparison of several management alternatives: (1) leaving contamination in place; (2) physically, chemically, or biologically remediating the site through traditional means; (3) improving ecological value through onsite and offsite restoration alternatives that do not directly focus on removal of chemical contamination; or (4) a combination of those alternatives. NEBA involves activities that are common to remedial alternatives analysis for state regulations and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, post-closure and corrective action permits under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, evaluation of generic types of response actions pertinent to the Oil Pollution Act, and land management actions that are negotiated with regulatory agencies in flexible regulatory environments (i.e., valuing environmental services or other ecological properties, assessing adverse impacts, and evaluating remediation or restoration options). This article presents a high-level framework for NEBA at contaminated sites with subframeworks for natural attenuation (the contaminated reference state), remediation, and ecological restoration alternatives. Primary information gaps related to NEBA include nonmonetary valuation methods, exposure-response models for all stressors, the temporal dynamics of ecological recovery, and optimal strategies for ecological restoration. PMID:15520889

  8. Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems: Modeling Individual Steps of a Risk Assessment Process

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Anuj; Castleton, Karl J.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.

    2004-06-01

    The study of the release and effects of chemicals in the environment and their associated risks to humans is central to public and private decision making. FRAMES 1.X, Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems, is a systems modeling software platform, developed by PNNL, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, that helps scientists study the release and effects of chemicals on a source to outcome basis, create environmental models for similar risk assessment and management problems. The unique aspect of FRAMES is to dynamically introduce software modules representing individual components of a risk assessment (e.g., source release of contaminants, fate and transport in various environmental media, exposure, etc.) within a software framework, manipulate their attributes and run simulations to obtain results. This paper outlines the fundamental constituents of FRAMES 2.X, an enhanced version of FRAMES 1.X, that greatly improve the ability of the module developers to “plug” their self-developed software modules into the system. The basic design, the underlying principles and a discussion of the guidelines for module developers are presented.

  9. A New Framework for Effective and Efficient Global Sensitivity Analysis of Earth and Environmental Systems Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Saman; Gupta, Hoshin

    2015-04-01

    Earth and Environmental Systems (EES) models are essential components of research, development, and decision-making in science and engineering disciplines. With continuous advances in understanding and computing power, such models are becoming more complex with increasingly more factors to be specified (model parameters, forcings, boundary conditions, etc.). To facilitate better understanding of the role and importance of different factors in producing the model responses, the procedure known as 'Sensitivity Analysis' (SA) can be very helpful. Despite the availability of a large body of literature on the development and application of various SA approaches, two issues continue to pose major challenges: (1) Ambiguous Definition of Sensitivity - Different SA methods are based in different philosophies and theoretical definitions of sensitivity, and can result in different, even conflicting, assessments of the underlying sensitivities for a given problem, (2) Computational Cost - The cost of carrying out SA can be large, even excessive, for high-dimensional problems and/or computationally intensive models. In this presentation, we propose a new approach to sensitivity analysis that addresses the dual aspects of 'effectiveness' and 'efficiency'. By effective, we mean achieving an assessment that is both meaningful and clearly reflective of the objective of the analysis (the first challenge above), while by efficiency we mean achieving statistically robust results with minimal computational cost (the second challenge above). Based on this approach, we develop a 'global' sensitivity analysis framework that efficiently generates a newly-defined set of sensitivity indices that characterize a range of important properties of metric 'response surfaces' encountered when performing SA on EES models. Further, we show how this framework embraces, and is consistent with, a spectrum of different concepts regarding 'sensitivity', and that commonly-used SA approaches (e.g., Sobol

  10. A framework for environmental management applied to an analysis of the New York State Freshwater Wetlands Act of 1975

    SciTech Connect

    Catto, G.G.

    1989-01-01

    This investigation reveals factors affecting decisions on environment, and provides some understanding of the decision process. The framework provides a vocabulary that assists communication about environmental policy and management. The framework is used to explore allegations against the Wetlands Act. The study reveals that the role of environmental managers in the Act was limited by their general absence from the policy process. Their contribution was not based on ecological science, but rather on popularized ecology. Environmental managers tend to confuse facts and values in the policy process and are uneasy with value balancing that occurs in policy making. No policy analysis was undertaken to establish the fact on wetlands. In order to improve environmental policy, environmental managers ought to base their input into society's decision process on ecological science and make clear the limits of their knowledge. They should be trained in ecology. Environmental managers also need a greater exposure to social sciences and the policy arena, and to be trained in policy analysis. A curriculum for training environmental managers in line with recommendations is outlined.

  11. Methodology and computational framework used for the US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement accident analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, C.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Folga, S.; Huttenga, A.; Jackson, R.; TenBrook, W.; Russell, J. |

    1994-02-01

    A methodology, computational framework, and integrated PC-based database have been developed to assess the risks of facility accidents in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. The methodology includes the following interrelated elements: (1) screening of storage and treatment processes and related waste inventories to determine risk-dominant facilities across the DOE complex, (2) development and frequency estimation of the risk-dominant sequences of accidents, and (3) determination of the evolution of and final compositions of radiological or chemically hazardous source terms predicted to be released as a function of the storage inventory or treatment process throughput. The computational framework automates these elements to provide source term input for the second part of the analysis which includes (1) development or integration of existing site-specific demographics and meteorological data and calculation of attendant unit-risk factors and (2) assessment of the radiological or toxicological consequences of accident releases to the general public and to the occupational work force.

  12. A Framework for Teaching, Learning, and Assessing Environmental Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeown-Ice, Rosalyn; Dendinger, Roger

    2008-01-01

    A twelve-question framework for teaching, learning, and assessing environmental issues was created through analysis of environmental textbooks and interviews with professors and researchers who specialize in the environment. Concepts in the framework include: causes, scale, spatial distribution, longevity, consequences, risks, economic…

  13. A Solution Framework for Environmental Characterization Problems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes experiences developing a grid-enabled framework for solving environmental inverse problems. The solution approach taken here couples environmental simulation models with global search methods and requires readily available computational resources of the grid ...

  14. Analysis framework for GLORIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żarnecki, Aleksander F.; Piotrowski, Lech W.; Mankiewicz, Lech; Małek, Sebastian

    2012-05-01

    GLORIA stands for “GLObal Robotic-telescopes Intelligent Array”. GLORIA will be the first free and open-access network of robotic telescopes of the world. It will be a Web 2.0 environment where users can do research in astronomy by observing with robotic telescopes, and/or analyzing data that other users have acquired with GLORIA, or from other free access databases, like the European Virtual Observatory. GLORIA project will define free standards, protocols and methodology for controlling Robotic Telescopes and related instrumentation, for conducting so called on-line experiments by scheduling observations in the telescope network, and for conducting so-called off-line experiments based on the analysis of astronomical meta-data produced by GLORIA or other databases. Luiza analysis framework for GLORIA was based on the Marlin package developed for the International Linear Collider (ILC), data analysis. HEP experiments have to deal with enormous amounts of data and distributed data analysis is a must, so the Marlin framework concept seemed to be well suited for GLORIA needs. The idea (and large parts of code) taken from Marlin is that every computing task is implemented as a processor (module) that analyzes the data stored in an internal data structure and created additional output is also added to that collection. The advantage of such a modular approach is to keep things as simple as possible. Every single step of the full analysis chain that goes eg. from raw images to light curves can be processed separately and the output of each step is still self consistent and can be fed in to the next step without any manipulation.

  15. Analysis framework for GLORIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żarnecki, Aleksander F.; Piotrowski, Lech W.; Mankiewicz, Lech; Małek, Sebastian

    2012-05-01

    GLORIA stands for "GLObal Robotic-telescopes Intelligent Array". GLORIA will be the first free and open-access network of robotic telescopes of the world. It will be a Web 2.0 environment where users can do research in astronomy by observing with robotic telescopes, and/or analyzing data that other users have acquired with GLORIA, or from other free access databases, like the European Virtual Observatory. GLORIA project will define free standards, protocols and methodology for controlling Robotic Telescopes and related instrumentation, for conducting so called on-line experiments by scheduling observations in the telescope network, and for conducting so-called off-line experiments based on the analysis of astronomical meta-data produced by GLORIA or other databases. Luiza analysis framework for GLORIA was based on the Marlin package developed for the International Linear Collider (ILC), data analysis. HEP experiments have to deal with enormous amounts of data and distributed data analysis is a must, so the Marlin framework concept seemed to be well suited for GLORIA needs. The idea (and large parts of code) taken from Marlin is that every computing task is implemented as a processor (module) that analyzes the data stored in an internal data structure and created additional output is also added to that collection. The advantage of such a modular approach is to keep things as simple as possible. Every single step of the full analysis chain that goes eg. from raw images to light curves can be processed separately and the output of each step is still self consistent and can be fed in to the next step without any manipulation.

  16. PROOF Analysis Framework (PAF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado Fernández, J.; Fernández del Castillo, E.; González Caballero, I.; Rodríguez Marrero, A.

    2015-12-01

    The PROOF Analysis Framework (PAF) has been designed to improve the ability of the physicist to develop software for the final stages of an analysis where typically simple ROOT Trees are used and where the amount of data used is in the order of several terabytes. It hides the technicalities of dealing with PROOF leaving the scientist to concentrate on the analysis. PAF is capable of using available non specific resources on, for example, local batch systems, remote grid sites or clouds through the integration of other toolkit like PROOF Cluster or PoD. While it has been successfully used on LHC Run-1 data for some key analysis, including the H →WW dilepton channel, the higher instantaneous and integrated luminosity together with the increase of the center-of-mass energy foreseen for the LHC Run-2, which will increment the total size of the samples by a factor 6 to 20, will demand PAF to improve its scalability and to reduce the latencies as much as possible. In this paper we address the possible problems of processing such big data volumes with PAF and the solutions implemented to overcome them. We will also show the improvements in order to make PAF more modular and accessible to other communities.

  17. Environmental Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Burns & McDonnell Engineering's environmental control study is assisted by NASA's Computer Software Management and Information Center's programs in environmental analyses. Company is engaged primarily in design of such facilities as electrical utilities, industrial plants, wastewater treatment systems, dams and reservoirs and aviation installations. Company also conducts environmental engineering analyses and advises clients as to the environmental considerations of a particular construction project. Company makes use of many COSMIC computer programs which have allowed substantial savings.

  18. FRAMEWORK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION-MAKING, FRED: A TOOL FOR ENVIRONMENTALLY-PREFERABLE PURCHASING

    EPA Science Inventory

    In support of the Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Program of the US EPA, the Systems Analysis Branch has developed a decision-making tool based on life cycle assessment. This tool, the Framework for Responsible Environmental Decision-making or FRED streamlines LCA by choosi...

  19. A new framework for selecting environmental surrogates.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, David; Pierson, Jennifer; Barton, Philip; Beger, Maria; Branquinho, Cristina; Calhoun, Aram; Caro, Tim; Greig, Hamish; Gross, John; Heino, Jani; Hunter, Malcolm; Lane, Peter; Longo, Catherine; Martin, Kathy; McDowell, William H; Mellin, Camille; Salo, Hanna; Tulloch, Ayesha; Westgate, Martin

    2015-12-15

    Surrogate concepts are used in all sub-disciplines of environmental science. However, controversy remains regarding the extent to which surrogates are useful for resolving environmental problems. Here, we argue that conflicts about the utility of surrogates (and the related concepts of indicators and proxies) often reflect context-specific differences in trade-offs between measurement accuracy and practical constraints. By examining different approaches for selecting and applying surrogates, we identify five trade-offs that correspond to key points of contention in the application of surrogates. We then present an 8-step Adaptive Surrogacy Framework that incorporates cross-disciplinary perspectives from a wide spectrum of the environmental sciences, aiming to unify surrogate concepts across disciplines and applications. Our synthesis of the science of surrogates is intended as a first step towards fully leveraging knowledge accumulated across disciplines, thus consolidating lessons learned so that they may be accessible to all those operating in different fields, yet facing similar hurdles. PMID:26298409

  20. A Framework for Statewide Analysis of Site Suitability, Energy Estimation, Life Cycle Costs, Financial Feasibility and Environmental Assessment of Wind Farms: A Case Study of Indiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Indraneel

    In the last decade, Midwestern states including Indiana have experienced an unprecedented growth in utility scale wind energy farms. For example, by end of 2013, Indiana had 1.5 GW of wind turbines installed, which could provide electrical energy for as many as half-a-million homes. However, there is no statewide systematic framework available for the evaluation of wind farm impacts on endangered species, required necessary setbacks and proximity standards to infrastructure, and life cycle costs. This research is guided to fill that gap and it addresses the following questions. How much land is suitable for wind farm siting in Indiana given the constraints of environmental, ecological, cultural, settlement, physical infrastructure and wind resource parameters? How much wind energy can be obtained? What are the life cycle costs and economic and financial feasibility? Is wind energy production and development in a state an emission free undertaking? The framework developed in the study is applied to a case study of Indiana. A fuzzy logic based AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) spatial site suitability analysis for wind energy is formulated. The magnitude of wind energy that could be sited and installed comprises input for economic and financial feasibility analysis for 20-25 years life cycle of wind turbines in Indiana. Monte Carlo simulation is used to account for uncertainty and nonlinearity in various costs and price parameters. Impacts of incentives and cost variables such as production tax credits, costs of capital, and economies of scale are assessed. Further, an economic input-output (IO) based environmental assessment model is developed for wind energy, where costs from financial feasibility analysis constitute the final demand vectors. This customized model for Indiana is used to assess emissions for criteria air pollutants, hazardous air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG) across life cycle events of wind turbines. The findings of the case study include

  1. Teaching Political Analysis: A Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edlefson, Carla

    2010-01-01

    A framework using concepts from systems theory, theories of power, and the garbage can model of decision-making was developed for the purpose of teaching aspiring school administrators to analyze situations using a political lens. The framework is demonstrated in an analysis of the process that led to Ohio's establishing a school facilities…

  2. FRAMEWORK FOR RESPONSIBLE ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION-MAKING (FRED): SUPPORT EPP (SYSTEMS ANALYSIS BRANCH, SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In support of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, this project was initiated to develop a method that uses an LCA approach to evaluate the environmental attributes of products procured by the federal government (as specified in Executive Order 13 1 01 on Environmentall...

  3. Environmental Health Disparities: A Framework Integrating Psychosocial and Environmental Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Gilbert C.; Payne-Sturges, Devon C.

    2004-01-01

    Although it is often acknowledged that social and environmental factors interact to produce racial and ethnic environmental health disparities, it is still unclear how this occurs. Despite continued controversy, the environmental justice movement has provided some insight by suggesting that disadvantaged communities face greater likelihood of exposure to ambient hazards. The exposure–disease paradigm has long suggested that differential “vulnerability” may modify the effects of toxicants on biological systems. However, relatively little work has been done to specify whether racial and ethnic minorities may have greater vulnerability than do majority populations and, further, what these vulnerabilities may be. We suggest that psychosocial stress may be the vulnerability factor that links social conditions with environmental hazards. Psychosocial stress can lead to acute and chronic changes in the functioning of body systems (e.g., immune) and also lead directly to illness. In this article we present a multidisciplinary framework integrating these ideas. We also argue that residential segregation leads to differential experiences of community stress, exposure to pollutants, and access to community resources. When not counterbalanced by resources, stressors may lead to heightened vulnerability to environmental hazards. PMID:15579407

  4. Decision Support Framework Implementation Of The Web-Based Environmental Decision Analysis DASEES: Decision Analysis For A Sustainable Environment, Economy, And Society

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solutions to pervasive environmental problems often are not amenable to a straightforward application of science-based actions. These problems encompass large-scale environmental policy questions where environmental concerns, economic constraints, and societal values conflict ca...

  5. An integrative methodological framework for sustainable environmental planning and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armitage, Derek

    1995-07-01

    Sustainable environmental planning and management require effective integration of ecological, socioeconomic, and institutional elements. This paper presents an integrative methodological framework for sustainable environmental planning and management. The development of this integrative framework is accomplished by combining two complementary analytical approaches—Hufschmidt's conceptual framework for watershed planning and management and the ABC resource survey method. The combined methodological framework seeks to delineate and synthesize essential ecological information utilizing an integrative resource survey method. This method generates classifications of environmental significance and constraint. Areas of environmental significance and constraint are then linked to appropriate and acceptable resource management actions, implementation tools (e.g., education, technical assistance), and institutional and organizational arrangements. The integrative methodological framework was developed for application in the Rio Fortuna watershed in Costa Rica's Arenal Conservation Area. The watershed is characterized by a variety of land and resource uses, including biologically diverse and ecologically fragile protected areas, small-parcel agriculture, cattle ranching, and tourism.

  6. A Framework for Environmental Education Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Martha C.; Andrews, Elaine; Biedenweg, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    Environmental education (EE) includes a broad range of teaching methods, topics, audiences, and educators. EE professionals have worked over the last 30 years to provide distinct definitions, guides, objectives, and standards that will help educators know how to differentiate environmental education from other educational efforts and how to…

  7. Sustainability as Environmental Framework May Be Outdated, Lawyers Argue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-07-01

    Goals based on sustainability "are no longer the best framework" for thinking about environmental law, governance systems, and socioecological dynamics in a world that is rapidly changing due to climate change and other forces. That is according to Melinda Harm Benson, assistant professor in the Department of Geography and Environmental Studies at the University of New Mexico, who challenged the long-held concept of environmental sustainability at an 8 July discussion entitled "The End of Sustainability?" sponsored by the Environmental Law Institute.

  8. An Exploratory Investigation on the Invasiveness of Environmental Modeling Frameworks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper provides initial results of an exploratory investigation on the invasiveness of environmental modeling frameworks. Invasiveness is defined as the coupling between application (i.e., model) and framework code used to implement the model. By comparing the implementation of an environmenta...

  9. Quantitative environmental risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Klovning, J.; Nilsen, E.F.

    1995-12-31

    According to regulations relating to implementation and rise of risk analysis in the petroleum activities issued by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, it is mandatory for an operator on the Norwegian Continental Shelf to establish acceptance criteria for environmental risk in the activities and carry out environmental risk analysis. This paper presents a {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} method for environmental risk analysis developed by the company. The objective has been to assist the company to meet rules and regulations and to assess and describe the environmental risk in a systematic manner. In the environmental risk analysis the most sensitive biological resource in the affected area is used to assess the environmental damage. The analytical method is based on the methodology for quantitative risk analysis related to loss of life. In addition it incorporates the effect of seasonal fluctuations in the environmental risk evaluations. The paper is describing the function of the main analytical sequences exemplified through an analysis of environmental risk related to exploration drilling in an environmental sensitive area on the Norwegian Continental Shelf.

  10. Environmental analysis support

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.

    1996-06-01

    Activities in environmental analysis support included assistance to the Morgantown and Pittsburgh Energy Technology Centers (METC and PETC) in reviewing and preparing documents required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for projects selected for the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program. An important activity was the preparation for METC of a final Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed Externally Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) Project in Warren, Pennsylvania. In addition, a post-project environmental analysis was prepared for PETC to evaluate the Demonstration of Advanced Combustion Techniques for a Tangentially-Fired Boiler in Lynn Haven, Florida.

  11. THE RELATED ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MODELING FRAMEWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years the assessment of environmental systems for the purpose of regulatory decision making has expanded considerably from a medium-specific focus to a comprehensive assessment of contaminant movement from a source, through a multi-media environment (fate and transport)...

  12. Environmental Education, Conceptual Curriculum Framework (Tentative).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City.

    These materials are the result of a summer curriculum development workshop during the summer of 1973. The participants purposely represented several subject disciplines and grade levels to give credence to the philosophy of environmental education as an interdisciplinary study that permeates all areas of the curriculum, kindergarten to grade…

  13. Ontario's Policy Framework for Environmental Education: Indoctrination and Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardy, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Outdoor educators should find little to like in the Ontario government's new policy framework for environmental education. Released in February 2009, the document, titled "Acting Today, Shaping Tomorrow," relies heavily on the 2007 Report of the Working Group on Environmental Education in Ontario, "Shaping Our Schools, Shaping Our Future," also…

  14. Tackling antibiotic resistance: the environmental framework.

    PubMed

    Berendonk, Thomas U; Manaia, Célia M; Merlin, Christophe; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Cytryn, Eddie; Walsh, Fiona; Bürgmann, Helmut; Sørum, Henning; Norström, Madelaine; Pons, Marie-Noëlle; Kreuzinger, Norbert; Huovinen, Pentti; Stefani, Stefania; Schwartz, Thomas; Kisand, Veljo; Baquero, Fernando; Martinez, José Luis

    2015-05-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a threat to human and animal health worldwide, and key measures are required to reduce the risks posed by antibiotic resistance genes that occur in the environment. These measures include the identification of critical points of control, the development of reliable surveillance and risk assessment procedures, and the implementation of technological solutions that can prevent environmental contamination with antibiotic resistant bacteria and genes. In this Opinion article, we discuss the main knowledge gaps, the future research needs and the policy and management options that should be prioritized to tackle antibiotic resistance in the environment. PMID:25817583

  15. Multi-Disciplinary Analysis and Optimization Frameworks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naiman, Cynthia Gutierrez

    2009-01-01

    Since July 2008, the Multidisciplinary Analysis & Optimization Working Group (MDAO WG) of the Systems Analysis Design & Optimization (SAD&O) discipline in the Fundamental Aeronautics Program s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) project completed one major milestone, Define Architecture & Interfaces for Next Generation Open Source MDAO Framework Milestone (9/30/08), and is completing the Generation 1 Framework validation milestone, which is due December 2008. Included in the presentation are: details of progress on developing the Open MDAO framework, modeling and testing the Generation 1 Framework, progress toward establishing partnerships with external parties, and discussion of additional potential collaborations

  16. A Holistic Framework for Environmental Flows Determination in Hydropower Contexts

    SciTech Connect

    McManamay, Ryan A; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2013-05-01

    Among the ecological science community, the consensus view is that the natural flow regime sustains the ecological integrity of river systems. This prevailing viewpoint by many environmental stakeholders has progressively led to increased pressure on hydropower dam owners to change plant operations to affect downstream river flows with the intention of providing better conditions for aquatic biological communities. Identifying the neccessary magnitude, frequency, duration, timing, or rate of change of stream flows to meet ecological needs in a hydropower context is challenging because the ecological responses to changes in flows may not be fully known, there are usually a multitude of competing users of flow, and implementing environmental flows usually comes at a price to energy production. Realistically, hydropower managers must develop a reduced set of goals that provide the most benefit to the identified ecological needs. As a part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program, the Instream Flow Project (IFP) was carried out by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Argon National Laboratory (ANL) as an attempt to develop tools aimed at defining environmental flow needs for hydropower operations. The application of these tools ranges from national to site-specific scales; thus, the utility of each tool will depend on various phases of the environmental flow process. Given the complexity and sheer volume of applications used to determine environmentally acceptable flows for hydropower, a framework is needed to organize efforts into a staged process dependent upon spatial, temporal, and functional attributes. By far, the predominant domain for determining environmental flows related to hydropower is within the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) relicensing process. This process can take multiple years and can be very expensive depending on the scale of each hydropower project. The utility of such a

  17. Organizing Environmental Flow Frameworks to Meet Hydropower Mitigation Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Jager, Henriette I.; Troia, Matthew J.

    2016-09-01

    The global recognition of the importance of natural flow regimes to sustain the ecological integrity of river systems has led to increased societal pressure on the hydropower industry to change plant operations to improve downstream aquatic ecosystems. However, a complete reinstatement of natural flow regimes is often unrealistic when balancing water needs for ecosystems, energy production, and other human uses. Thus, stakeholders must identify a prioritized subset of flow prescriptions that meet ecological objectives in light of realistic constraints. Yet, isolating aspects of flow regimes to restore downstream of hydropower facilities is among the greatest challenges of environmental flow science due, in part, to the sheer volume of available environmental flow tools in conjunction with complex negotiation-based regulatory procedures. Herein, we propose an organizational framework that structures information and existing flow paradigms into a staged process that assists stakeholders in implementing environmental flows for hydropower facilities. The framework identifies areas where regulations fall short of the needed scientific process, and provide suggestions for stakeholders to ameliorate those situations through advanced preparation. We highlight the strengths of existing flow paradigms in their application to hydropower settings and suggest when and where tools are most applicable. Our suggested framework increases the effectiveness and efficiency of the e-flow implementation process by rapidly establishing a knowledge base and decreasing uncertainty so more time can be devoted to filling knowledge gaps. Lastly, the framework provides the structure for a coordinated research agenda to further the science of environmental flows related to hydropower environments.

  18. Definitions and Frameworks for Environmental Sustainability in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tarah S. A.

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews definitions and frameworks for sustainability in higher education by examining a set of major national and international declarations and institutional policies related to environmental sustainability in universities. It identifies emerging themes and priorities, and discusses how these declarations and policies are affecting…

  19. Organizing Environmental Flow Frameworks to Meet Hydropower Mitigation Needs.

    PubMed

    McManamay, Ryan A; Brewer, Shannon K; Jager, Henriette I; Troia, Matthew J

    2016-09-01

    The global recognition of the importance of natural flow regimes to sustain the ecological integrity of river systems has led to increased societal pressure on the hydropower industry to change plant operations to improve downstream aquatic ecosystems. However, a complete reinstatement of natural flow regimes is often unrealistic when balancing water needs for ecosystems, energy production, and other human uses. Thus, stakeholders must identify a prioritized subset of flow prescriptions that meet ecological objectives in light of realistic constraints. Yet, isolating aspects of flow regimes to restore downstream of hydropower facilities is among the greatest challenges of environmental flow science due, in part, to the sheer volume of available environmental flow tools in conjunction with complex negotiation-based regulatory procedures. Herein, we propose an organizational framework that structures information and existing flow paradigms into a staged process that assists stakeholders in implementing environmental flows for hydropower facilities. The framework identifies areas where regulations fall short of the needed scientific process, and provide suggestions for stakeholders to ameliorate those situations through advanced preparation. We highlight the strengths of existing flow paradigms in their application to hydropower settings and suggest when and where tools are most applicable. Our suggested framework increases the effectiveness and efficiency of the e-flow implementation process by rapidly establishing a knowledge base and decreasing uncertainty so more time can be devoted to filling knowledge gaps. Lastly, the framework provides the structure for a coordinated research agenda to further the science of environmental flows related to hydropower environments. PMID:27344163

  20. Organizing environmental flow frameworks to meet hydropower mitigation needs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Jager, Henriette I.; Troia, Matthew J.

    2016-06-25

    The global recognition of the importance of natural flow regimes to sustain the ecological integrity of river systems has led to increased societal pressure on the hydropower industry to change plant operations to improve downstream aquatic ecosystems. However, a complete reinstatement of natural flow regimes is often unrealistic when balancing water needs for ecosystems, energy production, and other human uses. Thus, stakeholders must identify a prioritized subset of flow prescriptions that meet ecological objectives in light of realistic constraints. Yet, isolating aspects of flow regimes to restore downstream of hydropower facilities is among the greatest challenges of environmental flow sciencemore » due, in part, to the sheer volume of available environmental flow tools in conjunction with complex negotiation-based regulatory procedures. Here, we propose an organizational framework that structures information and existing flow paradigms into a staged process that assists stakeholders in implementing environmental flows for hydropower facilities. The framework identifies areas where regulations fall short of the needed scientific process, and provide suggestions for stakeholders to ameliorate those situations through advanced preparation. We highlight the strengths of existing flow paradigms in their application to hydropower settings and suggest when and where tools are most applicable. In conclusion, our suggested framework increases the effectiveness and efficiency of the e-flow implementation process by rapidly establishing a knowledge base and decreasing uncertainty so more time can be devoted to filling knowledge gaps. As a result, the framework provides the structure for a coordinated research agenda to further the science of environmental flows related to hydropower environments.« less

  1. Risk management frameworks for human health and environmental risks.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Cindy; Hrudey, Steve; Shortreed, John; Craig, Lorraine; Krewski, Daniel; Furgal, Chris; McColl, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical review of the risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication approaches currently being undertaken by key national, provincial/state, territorial, and international agencies was conducted. The information acquired for review was used to identify the differences, commonalities, strengths, and weaknesses among the various approaches, and to identify elements that should be included in an effective, current, and comprehensive approach applicable to environmental, human health and occupational health risks. More than 80 agencies, organizations, and advisory councils, encompassing more than 100 risk documents, were examined during the period from February 2000 until November 2002. An overview was made of the most important general frameworks for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication for human health and ecological risk, and for occupational health risk. In addition, frameworks for specific applications were reviewed and summarized, including those for (1)contaminated sites; (2) northern contaminants; (3) priority substances; (4) standards development; (5) food safety; (6) medical devices; (7) prescription drug use; (8) emergency response; (9) transportation; (10) risk communication. Twelve frameworks were selected for more extensive review on the basis of representation of the areas of human health, ecological, and occupational health risk; relevance to Canadian risk management needs; representation of comprehensive and well-defined approaches; generalizability with their risk areas; representation of "state of the art" in Canada, the United States, and/or internationally; and extent of usage of potential usage within Canada. These 12 frameworks were: 1. Framework for Environmental Health Risk Management (US Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management, 1997). 2. Health Risk Determination: The Challenge of Health Protection (Health and Welfare Canada, 1990). 3. Health Canada Decision

  2. A Framework for Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffey, Margery; Muhlenkamp, Ann F.

    1974-01-01

    The paper examines two theories in nursing--those of Peplau and Rogers. The works of these two theorists were selected because they illustrate variation in approach. The origin of the problems, the methods, the character of the subject matter, and the expected outcomes of testing are the four questions used in the analysis. (MW)

  3. Shiva: An astronomical data analysis framework

    SciTech Connect

    Sergey, G.; Berman, E.; Huang, C.H.; Kent, S.; Newberg, H; Nicinski, T.; Petravick, D; Stoughton, C.; Lupton, R.

    1995-12-01

    A key online and off-line software component of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is Shiva. Shiva provides a readily extendible framework upon which the SDSS data reduction pipeline software is built. In this paper we present an introduction to the Shiva data analysis framework. We briefly discuss the features and the inherent prototyping and rapid development capabilities that make Shiva an integral part in the on-going development of SDSS software.

  4. Environmental engineering education for developing countries: framework for the future.

    PubMed

    Ujang, Z; Henze, M; Curtis, T; Schertenleib, R; Beal, L L

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the existing philosophy, approach, criteria and delivery of environmental engineering education (E3) for developing countries. In general, environmental engineering is being taught in almost all major universities in developing countries, mostly under civil engineering degree programmes. There is an urgent need to address specific inputs that are particularly important for developing countries with respect to the reality of urbanisation and industrialisation. The main component of E3 in the near future will remain on basic sanitation in most developing countries, with special emphasis on the consumer-demand approach. In order to substantially overcome environmental problems in developing countries, E3 should include integrated urban water management, sustainable sanitation, appropriate technology, cleaner production, wastewater minimisation and financial framework. PMID:15193088

  5. Valuation of ecotoxicological impacts from tributyltin based on a quantitative environmental assessment framework.

    PubMed

    Noring, Maria; Håkansson, Cecilia; Dahlgren, Elin

    2016-02-01

    In the scientific literature, few valuations of biodiversity and ecosystem services following the impacts of toxicity are available, hampered by the lack of ecotoxicological documentation. Here, tributyltin is used to conduct a contingent valuation study as well as cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of measures for improving the environmental status in Swedish coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. Benefits considering different dimensions when assessing environmental status are highlighted and a quantitative environmental assessment framework based on available technology, ecological conditions, and economic valuation methodology is developed. Two scenarios are used in the valuation study: (a) achieving good environmental status by 2020 in accordance with EU legislation (USD 119 household(-1) year(-1)) and (b) achieving visible improvements by 2100 due to natural degradation (USD 108 household(-1) year(-1)) during 8 years. The later scenario was used to illustrate an application of the assessment framework. The CBA results indicate that both scenarios might generate a welfare improvement. PMID:26178630

  6. The TERRA framework: conceptualizing rural environmental health inequities through an environmental justice lens.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Patricia; Postma, Julie

    2009-01-01

    The deleterious consequences of environmentally associated diseases are expressed differentially by income, race, and geography. Scientists are just beginning to understand the consequences of environmental exposures under conditions of poverty, marginalization, and geographic isolation. In this context, we developed the TERRA (translational environmental research in rural areas) framework to explicate environmental health risks experienced by the rural poor. Central to the TERRA framework is the premise that risks exist within physical-spatial, economic-resources, and cultural-ideologic contexts. In the face of scientific and political uncertainty, a precautionary risk reduction approach has the greatest potential to protect health. Conceptual and technical advances will both be needed to achieve environmental justice. PMID:19461228

  7. Management of end-of-life electronic products within environmental benign manufacturing framework: Analysis of infrastructure, cost, materials flow, and decision-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hai-Yong

    This research addresses a management of end-of-life (EOL) electronic products within the boundary of Environmentally Benign Manufacturing (EBM). For the comprehensive evaluation of EOL electronic products, existing recycling programs, the roles of each stakeholder in e-waste recycling, and technologies are identified. The results show that to increase the recycling rate a steady supply of collected materials is needed, as well as effective sorting techniques, proper incorporation of Design for the Environment in early product design, and valued secondary markets for recycled goods. Technical cost modeling (TCM) results provide guidance to the recycling industry on how to maximize revenue and ensure the robust economic viability of e-waste Materials Recycling Facilities. Revenue sources with higher profit-efficiency ratios are an example. Also, process automation is demonstrated to be a major hurdle to overcome because of the high labor cost in the recycling industry combined with the randomness factor associated with the input stream. The results of the materials flow analysis (MFA) indicate that the pattern of outflow and the amount do not simply depend on the inflow pattern and amount. Also, the behavior of consumers, especially of the first user, is the most critical factor that determines the outflow of personal computer systems at the EOL stage. The combination of TCM and MFA provide a tool for estimating the infrastructure needed to treat future e-waste, such as the number of treatment facilities and the total capital investment needed. Laws that are designed to minimize the generation of toxic waste and the use of toxic substances in the U.S. and Europe are reviewed. And electronic and electrical industries in California and Massachusetts are analyzed in terms of the generation of toxic waste, the size of these industries. The results of the Analytic Hierarchy Process decision-making study indicate that the current toxic waste treatment methods practiced in

  8. ANALYSIS AND ASSESSMENT OF IMPACTS ON BIODIVERSITY: A FRAMEWORK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ON DOD LANDS WITHIN THE CALIFORNIA MOJAVE DESERT: A RESEARCH PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the research proposed in this document is to evaluate the effects of human activities on biodiversity and related environmental concerns within the Mojave ecoregion of California both at the present and in 2020. While planning efforts and analyses are ongoing withi...

  9. X-framework: Space system failure analysis framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, John Steven

    Space program and space systems failures result in financial losses in the multi-hundred million dollar range every year. In addition to financial loss, space system failures may also represent the loss of opportunity, loss of critical scientific, commercial and/or national defense capabilities, as well as loss of public confidence. The need exists to improve learning and expand the scope of lessons documented and offered to the space industry project team. One of the barriers to incorporating lessons learned include the way in which space system failures are documented. Multiple classes of space system failure information are identified, ranging from "sound bite" summaries in space insurance compendia, to articles in journals, lengthy data-oriented (what happened) reports, and in some rare cases, reports that treat not only the what, but also the why. In addition there are periodically published "corporate crisis" reports, typically issued after multiple or highly visible failures that explore management roles in the failure, often within a politically oriented context. Given the general lack of consistency, it is clear that a good multi-level space system/program failure framework with analytical and predictive capability is needed. This research effort set out to develop such a model. The X-Framework (x-fw) is proposed as an innovative forensic failure analysis approach, providing a multi-level understanding of the space system failure event beginning with the proximate cause, extending to the directly related work or operational processes and upward through successive management layers. The x-fw focus is on capability and control at the process level and examines: (1) management accountability and control, (2) resource and requirement allocation, and (3) planning, analysis, and risk management at each level of management. The x-fw model provides an innovative failure analysis approach for acquiring a multi-level perspective, direct and indirect causation of

  10. A framework for assessing risks to children from exposure to environmental agents.

    PubMed Central

    Daston, George; Faustman, Elaine; Ginsberg, Gary; Fenner-Crisp, Penny; Olin, Stephen; Sonawane, Babasaheb; Bruckner, James; Breslin, William; McLaughlin, Tara J

    2004-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing focus in environmental risk assessment on children as a potentially susceptible population. There also has been growing recognition of the need for a systematic approach for organizing, evaluating, and incorporating the available data on children's susceptibilities in risk assessments. In this article we present a conceptual framework for assessing risks to children from environmental exposures. The proposed framework builds on the problem formulation-->analysis-->risk characterization paradigm, identifying at each phase the questions and issues of particular importance for characterizing risks to the developing organism (from conception through organ maturation). The framework is presented and discussed from the complementary perspectives of toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. PMID:14754580

  11. Initial Multidisciplinary Design and Analysis Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozoroski, L. P.; Geiselhart, K. A.; Padula, S. L.; Li, W.; Olson, E. D.; Campbell, R. L.; Shields, E. W.; Berton, J. J.; Gray, J. S.; Jones, S. M.; Naiman, C. G.; Seidel, J. A.; Moore, K. T.; Naylor, B. A.; Townsend, S.

    2010-01-01

    Within the Supersonics (SUP) Project of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP), an initial multidisciplinary design & analysis framework has been developed. A set of low- and intermediate-fidelity discipline design and analysis codes were integrated within a multidisciplinary design and analysis framework and demonstrated on two challenging test cases. The first test case demonstrates an initial capability to design for low boom and performance. The second test case demonstrates rapid assessment of a well-characterized design. The current system has been shown to greatly increase the design and analysis speed and capability, and many future areas for development were identified. This work has established a state-of-the-art capability for immediate use by supersonic concept designers and systems analysts at NASA, while also providing a strong base to build upon for future releases as more multifidelity capabilities are developed and integrated.

  12. Framework for a comparative environmental assessment of drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, A.F.

    1998-11-01

    During the drilling of an oil or gas well, drilling fluid (or mud) is used to maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. In response to effluent limitation guidelines promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for discharge of drilling wastes offshore, alternatives to water and oil-based muds have been developed. These synthetic-based muds (SBMs) are more efficient than water-based muds (WBMs) for drilling difficult and complex formation intervals and have lower toxicity and smaller environmental impacts than diesel or conventional mineral oil-based muds (OBMs). A third category of drilling fluids, derived from petroleum and called enhanced mineral oils (EMOs), also have these advantages over the traditionally used OBMs and WBMs. EPA recognizes that SBMs and EMOs are new classes of drilling fluids, but their regulatory status is unclear. To address this uncertainty, EPA is following an innovative presumptive rulemaking process that will develop final regulations for SBM discharges offshore in less than three years. This report develops a framework for a comparative risk assessment for the discharge of SBMs and EMOs, to help support a risk-based, integrated approach to regulatory decision making. The framework will help identify potential impacts and benefits associated with the use of SBMs, EMOs, WBMs, and OBMs; identify areas where additional data are needed; and support early decision-making in the absence of complete data. As additional data becomes available, the framework can support a full quantitative comparative assessment. Detailed data are provided to support a comparative assessment in the areas of occupational and public health impacts.

  13. A Network Approach to Environmental Impact in Psychotic Disorder: Brief Theoretical Framework.

    PubMed

    Isvoranu, Adela-Maria; Borsboom, Denny; van Os, Jim; Guloksuz, Sinan

    2016-07-01

    The spectrum of psychotic disorder represents a multifactorial and heterogeneous condition and is thought to result from a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. In the current paper, we analyze this interplay using network analysis, which has been recently proposed as a novel psychometric framework for the study of mental disorders. Using general population data, we construct network models for the relation between 3 environmental risk factors (cannabis use, developmental trauma, and urban environment), dimensional measures of psychopathology (anxiety, depression, interpersonal sensitivity, obsessive-compulsive disorder, phobic anxiety, somatizations, and hostility), and a composite measure of psychosis expression. Results indicate the existence of specific paths between environmental factors and symptoms. These paths most often involve cannabis use. In addition, the analyses suggest that symptom networks are more strongly connected for people exposed to environmental risk factors, implying that environmental exposure may lead to less resilient symptom networks. PMID:27179124

  14. An operative environmental accounting framework for forest land blue water production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beguería, Santiago; Leandri, Marc; Campos, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    We present a conceptual framework for the economic valuation of the water flows occurring in the forest lands. This framework is an extension of the criteria developed in the System of Environmental Economic Accounting-Experimental Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA-EEA) and provides a practical tool for the assessment of national or regional environmental assets. In terms of environmental policy, our accounting framework aims at valuing the contribution of forest lands to fresh water supply, contributing to a more complete valuation of the environmental asset value of forest land. Thanks to a combination of hydrological and economic models, our approach allows organizing hydrological and economic information in a coherent manner, constituting an informed tool to support the design of efficient incentives for forest-owners to manage their land cover towards more water-friendly options. As an example, we apply our hydro-economic model to a real life case study of two reservoirs in Andalusia, Spain, that differ significantly in their use of water. We use available hydrologic and economic data for evaluating the water environmental income at each site. We discuss on the differences found between the two sites and between vegetation types, and we present a sensitivity analysis regarding the main assumptions made in our calculations.

  15. Using the Communities of Practice Framework to Examine an After-School Environmental Education Program for Hispanic Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Olivia M.; Krasny, Marianne E.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental education researchers have called for a greater analysis of "learning" in environmental education in relation to contemporary theories and explanatory frameworks of learning. Situated learning, as a prominent example, is a sociocultural theory that contends that learning is a social process that occurs as individuals participate in…

  16. Development and Application of a Framework to Assess Community Nutritionists’ Use of Environmental Strategies to Prevent Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Angela H.; Dickin, Katherine; Dollahite, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop and apply a framework exploring the extent of involvement in promoting environmental changes to prevent obesity by a group of nutrition educators (NE) Design Cross-sectional, mixed methods: qualitative interviews informed framework development; survey applied framework to describe NE’s involvement in environmental changes. Setting Cooperative Extension in New York State Participants Interviewees (n=7) selected to vary in environmental change activities and rural/urban location. Survey response rate was 100% (n=58). Phenomenon of Interest/Variables Measured Dimensions and degree of NE’s involvement in promoting environmental change. Analysis Thematic analysis of qualitative data, triangulated with descriptive analyses of NE’s performance of tasks in various settings. Results NE’s promotion of environmental changes was characterized using framework based on settings and tasks, dimensions that emerged from qualitative analysis. NE’s actions varied across these dimensions and ranged from low to high intensity of collaboration and leadership for environmental change. Most NE surveyed reported actions limited to providing information and recommendations on healthy eating and physical activity. Few reported intensive engagement in developing, implementing, and evaluating plans to change environments for obesity prevention. Conclusions and Implications Framework identifies the levels of engagement in promoting environmental changes and supports future research and practice of community nutrition professionals by providing a roadmap for assessing their involvement on multiple levels to prevent obesity. PMID:25087747

  17. The LSST metrics analysis framework (MAF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. L.; Yoachim, Peter; Chandrasekharan, Srinivasan; Connolly, Andrew J.; Cook, Kem H.; Ivezic, Željko; Krughoff, K. S.; Petry, Catherine; Ridgway, Stephen T.

    2014-07-01

    We describe the Metrics Analysis Framework (MAF), an open-source python framework developed to provide a user-friendly, customizable, easily-extensible set of tools for analyzing data sets. MAF is part of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Simulations effort. Its initial goal is to provide a tool to evaluate LSST Operations Simulation (OpSim) simulated surveys to help understand the effects of telescope scheduling on survey performance, however MAF can be applied to a much wider range of datasets. The building blocks of the framework are Metrics (algorithms to analyze a given quantity of data), Slicers (subdividing the overall data set into smaller data slices as relevant for each Metric), and Database classes (to access the dataset and read data into memory). We describe how these building blocks work together, and provide an example of using MAF to evaluate different dithering strategies. We also outline how users can write their own custom Metrics and use these within the framework.

  18. GC in Environmental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosink, Thomas A.

    1975-01-01

    Gas chromatography can be used to quantitate various gases, complex organic molecules, metals, anions, and pesticides in the lab or in the field. Important advances in gas chromatography and how they directly apply to environmental analyses plus suggestions where they will be of importance to environmental chemists are discussed. (BT)

  19. Structural Analysis in a Conceptual Design Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Robinson, Jay H.; Eldred, Lloyd B.

    2012-01-01

    Supersonic aircraft designers must shape the outer mold line of the aircraft to improve multiple objectives, such as mission performance, cruise efficiency, and sonic-boom signatures. Conceptual designers have demonstrated an ability to assess these objectives for a large number of candidate designs. Other critical objectives and constraints, such as weight, fuel volume, aeroelastic effects, and structural soundness, are more difficult to address during the conceptual design process. The present research adds both static structural analysis and sizing to an existing conceptual design framework. The ultimate goal is to include structural analysis in the multidisciplinary optimization of a supersonic aircraft. Progress towards that goal is discussed and demonstrated.

  20. Responsive space: Concept analysis and theoretical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Joseph H.; Dubos, Gregory F.

    2009-08-01

    Customers' needs are dynamic and evolve in response to unfolding environmental uncertainties. The ability of a company or an industry to address these changing customers' needs in a timely and cost-effective way is a measure of its responsiveness. In the space industry, a systemic discrepancy exists between the time constants associated with the change of customers' needs, and the response time of the industry in delivering on-orbit solutions to these needs. There are important penalties associated with such delays, and space responsiveness is recognized as a strategic imperative in commercial competitive and military environments. In this paper, we provide a critical assessment of the literature on responsive space and introduce a new multi-disciplinary framework for thinking about and addressing issues of space responsiveness. Our framework advocates three levels of responsiveness: a global industry-wide responsiveness, a local stakeholder responsiveness, and an interactive or inter-stakeholder responsiveness. We introduce and motivate the use of "responsiveness maps" for multiple stakeholders. We then identify "levers of responsiveness": technical spacecraft- and launch-centric, as well as "soft" levers (e.g., acquisition policies) for improving the responsiveness of the space industry. Finally, we propose a series of research questions to aggressively tackle problems associated with space responsiveness.

  1. EUMIS - an open portal framework for interoperable marine environmental services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamre, T.; Sandven, S.; Leadbetter, A.; Gouriou, V.; Dunne, D.; Grant, M.; Treguer, M.; Torget, Ø.

    2012-04-01

    NETMAR (Open service network for marine environmental data) is an FP7 project that aims to develop a pilot European Marine Information System (EUMIS) for searching, downloading and integrating satellite, in situ and model data from ocean and coastal areas. EUMIS will use a semantic framework coupled with ontologies for identifying and accessing distributed data, such as near-real time, forecast and historical data. Four pilots have been defined to clarify the needs for satellite, in situ and model based products and services in selected user communities. The pilots are: · Pilot 1: Arctic Sea Ice Monitoring and Forecasting · Pilot 2: Oil spill drift forecast and shoreline cleanup assessment services in France · Pilot 3: Ocean colour - Marine Ecosystem, Research and Monitoring · Pilot 4: International Coastal Atlas Network (ICAN) for coastal zone management NETMAR is developing a set of data delivery services for the targeted user communities by means of standard web-GIS and OPeNDAP protocols. Processing services and adaptive service chaining services will also be developed, to enable users to generate new products suited to their needs. Both data retrieved from online repositories as well as the products generated dynamically can be accessed and visualised in the EUMIS portal. For this purpose, a GIS Viewer, a Service Chaining Editor and a Ontology Browser/Discovery Client have been developed and integrated in EUMIS. The EUMIS portal is developed using a portal framework that is compliant with the JSR-168 (Java Portlet Specification 1.0) and JSR-286 (Java Portlet Specification, 2.0) standards. These standards defines the interface (contract) and lifecycle management for a portal system component, a portlet, which can be implemented in a number of programming languages, not only Java. The GIS Viewer is developed using a combination of Java, JavaScript and JSF (e.g. MapFaces). The Service chaining editor is implemented in JavaScript (using different libraries like

  2. Trends in Environmental Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Koester, C J; Moulik, A

    2005-03-31

    This article discusses developments in environmental analytical chemistry that occurred in the years of 2003 and 2004. References were found by searching the ''Science Citation Index and Current Contents''. As in our review of two years ago (A1), techniques are highlighted that represent current trends and state-of-the-art technologies in the sampling, extraction, separation, and detection of trace concentrations, low-part-per-billion and less, of organic, inorganic, and organometallic contaminants in environmental samples. New analytes of interest are also reviewed, the detections of which are made possible by recently developed analytical instruments and methods.

  3. A New Generation of Leaching Tests – The Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    Provides an overview of newly released leaching tests that provide a more accurate source term when estimating environmental release of metals and other constituents of potential concern (COPCs). The Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) methods have been (1) develo...

  4. A software engineering perspective on environmental modeling framework design: The object modeling system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environmental modeling community has historically been concerned with the proliferation of models and the effort associated with collective model development tasks (e.g., code generation, data provisioning and transformation, etc.). Environmental modeling frameworks (EMFs) have been developed to...

  5. Smart licensing and environmental flows: Modeling framework and sensitivity testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilby, R. L.; Fenn, C. R.; Wood, P. J.; Timlett, R.; Lequesne, T.

    2011-12-01

    Adapting to climate change is just one among many challenges facing river managers. The response will involve balancing the long-term water demands of society with the changing needs of the environment in sustainable and cost effective ways. This paper describes a modeling framework for evaluating the sensitivity of low river flows to different configurations of abstraction licensing under both historical climate variability and expected climate change. A rainfall-runoff model is used to quantify trade-offs among environmental flow (e-flow) requirements, potential surface and groundwater abstraction volumes, and the frequency of harmful low-flow conditions. Using the River Itchen in southern England as a case study it is shown that the abstraction volume is more sensitive to uncertainty in the regional climate change projection than to the e-flow target. It is also found that "smarter" licensing arrangements (involving a mix of hands off flows and "rising block" abstraction rules) could achieve e-flow targets more frequently than conventional seasonal abstraction limits, with only modest reductions in average annual yield, even under a hotter, drier climate change scenario.

  6. A Biophysical Modeling Framework for Assessing the Environmental Impact of Biofuel Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Izaurradle, C.; Manowitz, D.; West, T. O.; Post, W. M.; Thomson, A. M.; Nichols, J.; Bandaru, V.; Williams, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    Long-term sustainability of a biofuel economy necessitates environmentally friendly biofuel production systems. We describe a biophysical modeling framework developed to understand and quantify the environmental value and impact (e.g. water balance, nutrients balance, carbon balance, and soil quality) of different biomass cropping systems. This modeling framework consists of three major components: 1) a Geographic Information System (GIS) based data processing system, 2) a spatially-explicit biophysical modeling approach, and 3) a user friendly information distribution system. First, we developed a GIS to manage the large amount of geospatial data (e.g. climate, land use, soil, and hydrograhy) and extract input information for the biophysical model. Second, the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) biophysical model is used to predict the impact of various cropping systems and management intensities on productivity, water balance, and biogeochemical variables. Finally, a geo-database is developed to distribute the results of ecosystem service variables (e.g. net primary productivity, soil carbon balance, soil erosion, nitrogen and phosphorus losses, and N2O fluxes) simulated by EPIC for each spatial modeling unit online using PostgreSQL. We applied this framework in a Regional Intensive Management Area (RIMA) of 9 counties in Michigan. A total of 4,833 spatial units with relatively homogeneous biophysical properties were derived using SSURGO, Crop Data Layer, County, and 10-digit watershed boundaries. For each unit, EPIC was executed from 1980 to 2003 under 54 cropping scenarios (eg. corn, switchgrass, and hybrid poplar). The simulation results were compared with historical crop yields from USDA NASS. Spatial mapping of the results show high variability among different cropping scenarios in terms of the simulated ecosystem services variables. Overall, the framework developed in this study enables the incorporation of environmental factors into economic and

  7. The LSST Metrics Analysis Framework (MAF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. Lynne; Yoachim, Peter; Chandrasekharan, Srinivasan; Connolly, Andrew J.; Cook, Kem H.; Ivezic, Zeljko; Krughoff, K. Simon; Petry, Catherine E.; Ridgway, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    Studying potential observing strategies or cadences for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a complicated but important problem. To address this, LSST has created an Operations Simulator (OpSim) to create simulated surveys, including realistic weather and sky conditions. Analyzing the results of these simulated surveys for the wide variety of science cases to be considered for LSST is, however, difficult. We have created a Metric Analysis Framework (MAF), an open-source python framework, to be a user-friendly, customizable and easily extensible tool to help analyze the outputs of the OpSim.MAF reads the pointing history of the LSST generated by the OpSim, then enables the subdivision of these pointings based on position on the sky (RA/Dec, etc.) or the characteristics of the observations (e.g. airmass or sky brightness) and a calculation of how well these observations meet a specified science objective (or metric). An example simple metric could be the mean single visit limiting magnitude for each position in the sky; a more complex metric might be the expected astrometric precision. The output of these metrics can be generated for a full survey, for specified time intervals, or for regions of the sky, and can be easily visualized using a web interface.An important goal for MAF is to facilitate analysis of the OpSim outputs for a wide variety of science cases. A user can often write a new metric to evaluate OpSim for new science goals in less than a day once they are familiar with the framework. Some of these new metrics are illustrated in the accompanying poster, "Analyzing Simulated LSST Survey Performance With MAF".While MAF has been developed primarily for application to OpSim outputs, it can be applied to any dataset. The most obvious examples are examining pointing histories of other survey projects or telescopes, such as CFHT.

  8. In-situ Data Analysis Framework for ACME Land Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Yao, C.; Jia, Y.; Steed, C.; Atchley, S.

    2015-12-01

    The realistic representation of key biogeophysical and biogeochemical functions is the fundamental of process-based ecosystem models. Investigating the behavior of those ecosystem functions within real-time model simulation can be a very challenging due to the complex of both model and software structure of an environmental model, such as the Accelerated Climate Model for Energy (ACME) Land Model (ALM). In this research, author will describe the urgent needs and challenges for in-situ data analysis for ALM simulations, and layouts our methods/strategies to meet these challenges. Specifically, an in-situ data analysis framework is designed to allow users interactively observe the biogeophyical and biogeochemical process during ALM simulation. There are two key components in this framework, automatically instrumented ecosystem simulation, in-situ data communication and large-scale data exploratory toolkit. This effort is developed by leveraging several active projects, including scientific unit testing platform, common communication interface and extreme-scale data exploratory toolkit. Authors believe that, based on advanced computing technologies, such as compiler-based software system analysis, automatic code instrumentation, and in-memory data transport, this software system provides not only much needed capability for real-time observation and in-situ data analytics for environmental model simulation, but also the potentials for in-situ model behavior adjustment via simulation steering.

  9. Policy analysis: a framework for nurse managers.

    PubMed

    Hewison, Alistair

    2007-10-01

    The lack of involvement of nurses in the policy process is an issue of concern which has resulted in calls for nurses to become more active in this area of activity. However, what is often less clear is precisely how this can be done. This paper presents a template for policy analysis which can be used by nurse managers. The nature of policy and policy analysis is explored to provide a broad context for the discussion and the need for managers and nurse managers in particular to be 'policy competent' is established, as a prerequisite for effective management. There is also an examination of policy analysis in nursing which demonstrates why a range of approaches to the analysis of policy is needed. Based on this, a particular framework for policy analysis which can be used by nurse managers is presented. The overall purpose of the paper is to encourage debate in this area and contribute to the development of a specific tool for policy analysis that may help ensure a nursing management perspective informs policy formation and implementation. PMID:17897145

  10. Conceptualizing Environmental Refugees in Education: A Transformative Language-Learning Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulah, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Environmental refugees are increasing worldwide. Consequently, a theoretical framework is necessary for conceptualizing them in education. This article breaks new ground by providing such a framework in education, in general, and bilingual-bicultural education, in particular. The framework is grounded in O'Sullivan's (1999, 2002) transformative…

  11. Knowledge assistant: A sensor fusion framework for robotic environmental characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, J.T.; Rivera, J.J.; Tucker, S.D.

    1996-12-01

    A prototype sensor fusion framework called the {open_quotes}Knowledge Assistant{close_quotes} has been developed and tested on a gantry robot at Sandia National Laboratories. This Knowledge Assistant guides the robot operator during the planning, execution, and post analysis stages of the characterization process. During the planning stage, the Knowledge Assistant suggests robot paths and speeds based on knowledge of sensors available and their physical characteristics. During execution, the Knowledge Assistant coordinates the collection of data through a data acquisition {open_quotes}specialist.{close_quotes} During execution and post analysis, the Knowledge Assistant sends raw data to other {open_quotes}specialists,{close_quotes} which include statistical pattern recognition software, a neural network, and model-based search software. After the specialists return their results, the Knowledge Assistant consolidates the information and returns a report to the robot control system where the sensed objects and their attributes (e.g. estimated dimensions, weight, material composition, etc.) are displayed in the world model. This paper highlights the major components of this system.

  12. A Framework for the Environmental Professional in the Chemical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priesing, Charles P.

    1982-01-01

    Addresses four areas of environmental concern in the chemical industry: (1) needs and responsibilities of environmental protection; (2) organization and distribution of environmental affairs within the corporate structure; (3) functions and operations associated with industrial environmental management; and (4) origins and tasks of the…

  13. Portfolio Decision Analysis Framework for Value-Focused Ecosystem Management.

    PubMed

    Convertino, Matteo; Valverde, L James

    2013-01-01

    Management of natural resources in coastal ecosystems is a complex process that is made more challenging by the need for stakeholders to confront the prospect of sea level rise and a host of other environmental stressors. This situation is especially true for coastal military installations, where resource managers need to balance conflicting objectives of environmental conservation against military mission. The development of restoration plans will necessitate incorporating stakeholder preferences, and will, moreover, require compliance with applicable federal/state laws and regulations. To promote the efficient allocation of scarce resources in space and time, we develop a portfolio decision analytic (PDA) framework that integrates models yielding policy-dependent predictions for changes in land cover and species metapopulations in response to restoration plans, under different climate change scenarios. In a manner that is somewhat analogous to financial portfolios, infrastructure and natural resources are classified as human and natural assets requiring management. The predictions serve as inputs to a Multi Criteria Decision Analysis model (MCDA) that is used to measure the benefits of restoration plans, as well as to construct Pareto frontiers that represent optimal portfolio allocations of restoration actions and resources. Optimal plans allow managers to maintain or increase asset values by contrasting the overall degradation of the habitat and possible increased risk of species decline against the benefits of mission success. The optimal combination of restoration actions that emerge from the PDA framework allows decision-makers to achieve higher environmental benefits, with equal or lower costs, than those achievable by adopting the myopic prescriptions of the MCDA model. The analytic framework presented here is generalizable for the selection of optimal management plans in any ecosystem where human use of the environment conflicts with the needs of

  14. Portfolio Decision Analysis Framework for Value-Focused Ecosystem Management

    PubMed Central

    Convertino, Matteo; Valverde, L. James

    2013-01-01

    Management of natural resources in coastal ecosystems is a complex process that is made more challenging by the need for stakeholders to confront the prospect of sea level rise and a host of other environmental stressors. This situation is especially true for coastal military installations, where resource managers need to balance conflicting objectives of environmental conservation against military mission. The development of restoration plans will necessitate incorporating stakeholder preferences, and will, moreover, require compliance with applicable federal/state laws and regulations. To promote the efficient allocation of scarce resources in space and time, we develop a portfolio decision analytic (PDA) framework that integrates models yielding policy-dependent predictions for changes in land cover and species metapopulations in response to restoration plans, under different climate change scenarios. In a manner that is somewhat analogous to financial portfolios, infrastructure and natural resources are classified as human and natural assets requiring management. The predictions serve as inputs to a Multi Criteria Decision Analysis model (MCDA) that is used to measure the benefits of restoration plans, as well as to construct Pareto frontiers that represent optimal portfolio allocations of restoration actions and resources. Optimal plans allow managers to maintain or increase asset values by contrasting the overall degradation of the habitat and possible increased risk of species decline against the benefits of mission success. The optimal combination of restoration actions that emerge from the PDA framework allows decision-makers to achieve higher environmental benefits, with equal or lower costs, than those achievable by adopting the myopic prescriptions of the MCDA model. The analytic framework presented here is generalizable for the selection of optimal management plans in any ecosystem where human use of the environment conflicts with the needs of

  15. Landsafe: Landing Site Risk Analysis Software Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, R.; Bostelmann, J.; Cornet, Y.; Heipke, C.; Philippe, C.; Poncelet, N.; de Rosa, D.; Vandeloise, Y.

    2012-08-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is planning a Lunar Lander mission in the 2018 timeframe that will demonstrate precise soft landing at the polar regions of the Moon. To ensure a safe and successful landing a careful risk analysis has to be carried out. This is comprised of identifying favorable target areas and evaluating the surface conditions in these areas. Features like craters, boulders, steep slopes, rough surfaces and shadow areas have to be identified in order to assess the risk associated to a landing site in terms of a successful touchdown and subsequent surface operation of the lander. In addition, global illumination conditions at the landing site have to be simulated and analyzed. The Landing Site Risk Analysis software framework (LandSAfe) is a system for the analysis, selection and certification of safe landing sites on the lunar surface. LandSAfe generates several data products including high resolution digital terrain models (DTMs), hazard maps, illumination maps, temperature maps and surface reflectance maps which assist the user in evaluating potential landing site candidates. This paper presents the LandSAfe system and describes the methods and products of the different modules. For one candidate landing site on the rim of Shackleton crater at the south pole of the Moon a high resolution DTM is showcased.

  16. A Review of Frameworks for Developing Environmental Health Indicators for Climate Change and Health

    PubMed Central

    Hambling, Tammy; Weinstein, Philip; Slaney, David

    2011-01-01

    The role climate change may play in altering human health, particularly in the emergence and spread of diseases, is an evolving area of research. It is important to understand this relationship because it will compound the already significant burden of diseases on national economies and public health. Authorities need to be able to assess, anticipate, and monitor human health vulnerability to climate change, in order to plan for, or implement action to avoid these eventualities. Environmental health indicators (EHIs) provide a tool to assess, monitor, and quantify human health vulnerability, to aid in the design and targeting of interventions, and measure the effectiveness of climate change adaptation and mitigation activities. Our aim was to identify the most suitable framework for developing EHIs to measure and monitor the impacts of climate change on human health and inform the development of interventions. Using published literature we reviewed the attributes of 11 frameworks. We identified the Driving force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA) framework as the most suitable one for developing EHIs for climate change and health. We propose the use of EHIs as a valuable tool to assess, quantify, and monitor human health vulnerability, design and target interventions, and measure the effectiveness of climate change adaptation and mitigation activities. In this paper, we lay the groundwork for the future development of EHIs as a multidisciplinary approach to link existing environmental and epidemiological data and networks. Analysis of such data will contribute to an enhanced understanding of the relationship between climate change and human health. PMID:21845162

  17. A review of frameworks for developing environmental health indicators for climate change and health.

    PubMed

    Hambling, Tammy; Weinstein, Philip; Slaney, David

    2011-07-01

    The role climate change may play in altering human health, particularly in the emergence and spread of diseases, is an evolving area of research. It is important to understand this relationship because it will compound the already significant burden of diseases on national economies and public health. Authorities need to be able to assess, anticipate, and monitor human health vulnerability to climate change, in order to plan for, or implement action to avoid these eventualities. Environmental health indicators (EHIs) provide a tool to assess, monitor, and quantify human health vulnerability, to aid in the design and targeting of interventions, and measure the effectiveness of climate change adaptation and mitigation activities. Our aim was to identify the most suitable framework for developing EHIs to measure and monitor the impacts of climate change on human health and inform the development of interventions. Using published literature we reviewed the attributes of 11 frameworks. We identified the Driving force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA) framework as the most suitable one for developing EHIs for climate change and health. We propose the use of EHIs as a valuable tool to assess, quantify, and monitor human health vulnerability, design and target interventions, and measure the effectiveness of climate change adaptation and mitigation activities. In this paper, we lay the groundwork for the future development of EHIs as a multidisciplinary approach to link existing environmental and epidemiological data and networks. Analysis of such data will contribute to an enhanced understanding of the relationship between climate change and human health. PMID:21845162

  18. Integrated Modelling Frameworks for Environmental Assessment and Decision Support

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern management of environmental resources defines problems from a holistic and integrated perspective, imposing strong requirements to Environmental Decision Support Systems (EDSSs) and Integrated Assessment Tools (IATs), which tend to be increasingly complex in terms of software architecture and...

  19. Expanding the Field: Revisiting Environmental Education Principles through Multidisciplinary Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Anna Gahl

    2007-01-01

    In response to calls for discourse that builds on the substantive structure of environmental education in efforts to further the scope of the field, this article reexamines key principles of environmental education through the multidisciplinary lenses of critical pedagogy, the environmental justice movement, and more recent definitions of…

  20. Initial Risk Analysis and Decision Making Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, David W.

    2012-02-01

    Commercialization of new carbon capture simulation initiative (CCSI) technology will include two key elements of risk management, namely, technical risk (will process and plant performance be effective, safe, and reliable) and enterprise risk (can project losses and costs be controlled within the constraints of market demand to maintain profitability and investor confidence). Both of these elements of risk are incorporated into the risk analysis subtask of Task 7. Thus far, this subtask has developed a prototype demonstration tool that quantifies risk based on the expected profitability of expenditures when retrofitting carbon capture technology on a stylized 650 MW pulverized coal electric power generator. The prototype is based on the selection of specific technical and financial factors believed to be important determinants of the expected profitability of carbon capture, subject to uncertainty. The uncertainty surrounding the technical performance and financial variables selected thus far is propagated in a model that calculates the expected profitability of investments in carbon capture and measures risk in terms of variability in expected net returns from these investments. Given the preliminary nature of the results of this prototype, additional work is required to expand the scope of the model to include additional risk factors, additional information on extant and proposed risk factors, the results of a qualitative risk factor elicitation process, and feedback from utilities and other interested parties involved in the carbon capture project. Additional information on proposed distributions of these risk factors will be integrated into a commercial implementation framework for the purpose of a comparative technology investment analysis.

  1. A Robust Actin Filaments Image Analysis Framework.

    PubMed

    Alioscha-Perez, Mitchel; Benadiba, Carine; Goossens, Katty; Kasas, Sandor; Dietler, Giovanni; Willaert, Ronnie; Sahli, Hichem

    2016-08-01

    The cytoskeleton is a highly dynamical protein network that plays a central role in numerous cellular physiological processes, and is traditionally divided into three components according to its chemical composition, i.e. actin, tubulin and intermediate filament cytoskeletons. Understanding the cytoskeleton dynamics is of prime importance to unveil mechanisms involved in cell adaptation to any stress type. Fluorescence imaging of cytoskeleton structures allows analyzing the impact of mechanical stimulation in the cytoskeleton, but it also imposes additional challenges in the image processing stage, such as the presence of imaging-related artifacts and heavy blurring introduced by (high-throughput) automated scans. However, although there exists a considerable number of image-based analytical tools to address the image processing and analysis, most of them are unfit to cope with the aforementioned challenges. Filamentous structures in images can be considered as a piecewise composition of quasi-straight segments (at least in some finer or coarser scale). Based on this observation, we propose a three-steps actin filaments extraction methodology: (i) first the input image is decomposed into a 'cartoon' part corresponding to the filament structures in the image, and a noise/texture part, (ii) on the 'cartoon' image, we apply a multi-scale line detector coupled with a (iii) quasi-straight filaments merging algorithm for fiber extraction. The proposed robust actin filaments image analysis framework allows extracting individual filaments in the presence of noise, artifacts and heavy blurring. Moreover, it provides numerous parameters such as filaments orientation, position and length, useful for further analysis. Cell image decomposition is relatively under-exploited in biological images processing, and our study shows the benefits it provides when addressing such tasks. Experimental validation was conducted using publicly available datasets, and in osteoblasts grown in

  2. A Robust Actin Filaments Image Analysis Framework

    PubMed Central

    Alioscha-Perez, Mitchel; Benadiba, Carine; Goossens, Katty; Kasas, Sandor; Dietler, Giovanni; Willaert, Ronnie; Sahli, Hichem

    2016-01-01

    The cytoskeleton is a highly dynamical protein network that plays a central role in numerous cellular physiological processes, and is traditionally divided into three components according to its chemical composition, i.e. actin, tubulin and intermediate filament cytoskeletons. Understanding the cytoskeleton dynamics is of prime importance to unveil mechanisms involved in cell adaptation to any stress type. Fluorescence imaging of cytoskeleton structures allows analyzing the impact of mechanical stimulation in the cytoskeleton, but it also imposes additional challenges in the image processing stage, such as the presence of imaging-related artifacts and heavy blurring introduced by (high-throughput) automated scans. However, although there exists a considerable number of image-based analytical tools to address the image processing and analysis, most of them are unfit to cope with the aforementioned challenges. Filamentous structures in images can be considered as a piecewise composition of quasi-straight segments (at least in some finer or coarser scale). Based on this observation, we propose a three-steps actin filaments extraction methodology: (i) first the input image is decomposed into a ‘cartoon’ part corresponding to the filament structures in the image, and a noise/texture part, (ii) on the ‘cartoon’ image, we apply a multi-scale line detector coupled with a (iii) quasi-straight filaments merging algorithm for fiber extraction. The proposed robust actin filaments image analysis framework allows extracting individual filaments in the presence of noise, artifacts and heavy blurring. Moreover, it provides numerous parameters such as filaments orientation, position and length, useful for further analysis. Cell image decomposition is relatively under-exploited in biological images processing, and our study shows the benefits it provides when addressing such tasks. Experimental validation was conducted using publicly available datasets, and in osteoblasts

  3. Improving environmental sanitation, health, and well-being: a conceptual framework for integral interventions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schertenleib, Roland; Zurbrügg, Chris; Obrist, Brigit; Montangero, Agnès; Surkinkul, Narong; Koné, Doulaye; Morel, Antoine; Cissé, Guéladio; Koottatep, Thammarat; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Tanner, Marcel

    2009-06-01

    We introduce a conceptual framework for improving health and environmental sanitation in urban and peri-urban areas using an approach combining health, ecological, and socioeconomic and cultural assessments. The framework takes into account the three main components: i) health status, ii) physical environment, and iii) socioeconomic and cultural environment. Information on each of these three components can be obtained by using standard disciplinary methods and an innovative combination of these methods. In this way, analyses lead to extended characterization of health, ecological, and social risks while allowing the comprehensive identification of critical control points (CCPs) in relation to biomedical, epidemiological, ecological, and socioeconomic and cultural factors. The proposed concept complements the conventional CCP approach by including an actor perspective that considers vulnerability to risk and patterns of resilience. Interventions deriving from the comprehensive analysis consider biomedical, engineering, and social science perspectives, or a combination of them. By this way, the proposed framework jointly addresses health and environmental sanitation improvements, and recovery and reuse of natural resources. Moreover, interventions encompass not only technical solutions but also behavioral, social, and institutional changes which are derived from the identified resilience patterns. The interventions are assessed with regards to their potential to eliminate or reduce specific risk factors and vulnerability, enhance health status, and assure equity. The framework is conceptualized and validated for the context of urban and peri-urban settings in developing countries focusing on waste, such as excreta, wastewater, and solid waste, their influence on food quality, and their related pathogens, nutrients, and chemical pollutants. PMID:19911233

  4. An ecofeminist conceptual framework to explore gendered environmental health inequities in urban settings and to inform healthy public policy.

    PubMed

    Chircop, Andrea

    2008-06-01

    This theoretical exploration is an attempt to conceptualize the link between gender and urban environmental health. The proposed ecofeminist framework enables an understanding of the link between the urban physical and social environments and health inequities mediated by gender and socioeconomic status. This framework is proposed as a theoretical magnifying glass to reveal the underlying logic that connects environmental exploitation on the one hand, and gendered health inequities on the other. Ecofeminism has the potential to reveal an inherent, normative conceptual analysis and argumentative justification of western society that permits the oppression of women and the exploitation of the environment. This insight will contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying gendered environmental health inequities and inform healthy public policy that is supportive of urban environmental health, particularly for low-income mothers. PMID:18476856

  5. Women and Men Speaking: Frameworks for Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramarae, Cheris

    This book discusses the relationship between gender and language use in a framework of social interaction. In so doing, it reports on research concerned with sexism in language, the use of language by women and men, and the evaluations of language use by women and men. Language is considered within four theoretical frameworks in which assumptions…

  6. Assessing cumulative impacts within state environmental review frameworks in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Zhao; Becker, Dennis R.; Kilgore, Michael A.

    2009-11-15

    Cumulative impact assessment (CIA) is the process of systematically assessing a proposed action's cumulative environmental effects in the context of past, present, and future actions, regardless of who undertakes such actions. Previous studies have examined CIA efforts at the federal level but little is known about how states assess the cumulative impacts of nonfederal projects. By examining state environmental review statutes, administrative rules, agency-prepared materials, and a national survey of the administrators of state environmental review programs, this study identifies the legal and administrative frameworks for CIA. It examines current CIA practice, discusses the relationship between CIA policy and its implementation, and explores the opportunities for improvement. The results of the study show that twenty-nine state environmental review programs across twenty-six states required the assessment of cumulative environmental impacts. More than half of these programs have adopted specific procedures for implementing their policies. Some programs assessed cumulative impacts using a standard review document, and others have created their own documentations incorporated into applications for state permits or funding. The majority of programs have adopted various scales, baselines, significance criteria, and coordination practices in their CIA processes. Mixed methods were generally used for data collection and analysis; qualitative methods were more prevalent than quantitative methods. The results also suggest that a program with comprehensive and consistent environmental review policies and procedures does not always imply extensive CIA requirements and practices. Finally, this study discusses the potential for improving existing CIA processes and promoting CIA efforts in states without established environmental review programs.

  7. Environmental Management Systems: A Framework for Planning Green Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keniry, Julian

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on recent survey data from the National Wildlife Federation and other publications, explains what an environmental management system is and identifies its components; examines how environmental management systems have been applied in higher education settings; reports on trends in implementation; and illustrates how the environmental…

  8. Interlaboratory Validation of the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) Method 1313 and Method 1316

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document summarizes the results of an interlaboratory study conducted to generate precision estimates for two parallel batch leaching methods which are part of the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF). These methods are: (1) Method 1313: Liquid-Solid Partition...

  9. Framework for Identifying Key Environmental Concerns in Marine Renewable Energy Projects- Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Sharon; Previsic, Mirko; Nelson, Peter; Woo, Sheri

    2010-06-17

    ) 3 project sizes: pilot, small commercial, and large commercial The possible combinations total 24 wave technology scenarios and 9 tidal technology scenarios. We evaluated 3 of the 33 scenarios in detail: 1. A small commercial OPT Power Buoy project off the Humboldt County, California coast 2. A small commercial Pelamis Wave Power P-2 project off Makapu’u Point, Oahu, Hawaii 3. A pilot MCT SeaGen tidal project, sited in the Tacoma Narrows, Washington. This framework document used information available from permitting documents that were written to support actual wave or tidal energy projects, but the results obtained here should not be confused with those of the permitting documents1. The main difference between this framework document and permitting documents of currently proposed pilot projects is that this framework identifies key environmental concerns and describes the next steps in addressing those concerns; permitting documents must identify effects, find or declare thresholds of significance, evaluate the effects against the thresholds, and find mitigation measures that will minimize or avoid the effects so they can be considered less-than-significant. Two methodologies, 1) an environmental effects analysis and 2) Raptools, were developed and tested to identify potential environmental effects associated with wave or tidal energy conversion projects. For the environmental effects analysis, we developed a framework based on standard risk assessment techniques. The framework was applied to the three scenarios listed above. The environmental effects analysis addressed questions such as: What is the temporal and spatial exposure of a species at a site? What are the specific potential project effects on that species? What measures could minimize, mitigate, or eliminate negative effects? Are there potential effects of the project, or species’ response to the effect, that are highly uncertain and warrant additional study? The second methodology, Raptools, is a

  10. GLIMPSE: a rapid decision framework for energy and environmental policy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the coming decades, new energy production technologies and the policies that oversee them will affect human health, the vitality of our ecosystems, and the stability of the global climate. The GLIMPSE decision model framework provides insights about the implications of techn...

  11. Framework for Analysis of Conflicting Loyalties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Patricia Houlihan

    1993-01-01

    Identifies four loyalties of public relations practitioners: self, organization, profession, and society. Presents a framework for use in discussions of ethical decision making with students and for use in practical situations by professionals. (SR)

  12. Framework for Assessing Health Risk of Environmental Exposure to Children (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The draft document, Framework For Assessing Health Risks of Environmental Exposure to Children, can serve as a resource on children's health risk assessment and it addresses the need to provide a comprehensive and consistent framework for considering children in risk asses...

  13. Design of a component-based integrated environmental modeling framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrated environmental modeling (IEM) includes interdependent science-based components (e.g., models, databases, viewers, assessment protocols) that comprise an appropriate software modeling system. The science-based components are responsible for consuming and producing inform...

  14. Ocean Environmental Assessment and Adaptive Resource Management within the Framework of IOOS and CLEANER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonner, J.; Brezonik, P.; Clesceri, N.; Gouldman, C.; Jamail, R.; Zilkoski, D.

    2006-12-01

    The Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS), established through the efforts of the National Office for Integrated and Sustained Ocean Observations (Oceans.US) provides quality controlled data and information on a routine and continuous basis regarding current and future states of the oceans and Great Lakes at scales from global ocean basins to coastal ecosystems. The seven societal goals of IOOS are outlined in this paper. The Engineering and Geosciences Directorates at the National Science Foundation (NSF) are collaborating in planning the WATERS (WATer Environmental Research System) Network, an outgrowth of earlier, separate initiatives of the two directorates: CLEANER (Collaborative Large-scale Engineering Analysis Network for Environmental Research) and Hydrologic Observatories. WATERS Network is being developed by engineers and scientists in the academic community who recognize the need for an observation and research network to enable better understanding of human-dominated water-environments, their stressors, and the links between them. The WATERS Network model is based on a research framework anchored in a distributed, cyber-based network supporting: 1) data collection; 2) data aggregation; 3) analytical and exploratory tools; and 4) a computational environment supporting predictive modeling and policy analysis on water resource systems. Within IOOS, the U.S. coastal margin is divided into Regional Associations (RAs), organizational units that are conceptually linked through planned data collection and analysis activities for resolving fundamental coastal margin ecosystem questions and addressing RA concerns. Under the WATERS Network scheme, a Coastal Margin Regional Environmental System (RES) for coastal areas would be defined conceptually based on geomorphologic considerations of four major water bodies; Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Gulf of Mexico, and Laurentian Great Lakes. Within this framework, each coastal margin would operate one or more local

  15. Biogeography of diseases: a framework for analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, A. Townsend

    2008-06-01

    A growing body of literature offers a framework for understanding geographic and ecological distributions of species; a few applications of this framework have treated disease transmission systems and their geography. The general framework focuses on interactions among abiotic requirements, biotic constraints, and dispersal abilities of species as determinants of distributional areas. Disease transmission systems have key differences from other sorts of biological phenomena: Interactions among species are particularly important, interactions may be stable or unstable, abiotic conditions may be relatively less important in shaping disease distributions, and dispersal abilities may be quite variable. The ways in which these differences may influence disease transmission geography are complex; I illustrate their effects by means of worked examples regarding West Nile Virus, plague, filoviruses, and yellow fever.

  16. Applying a Resilience Systems Framework to Urban Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasny, Marianne E.; Tidball, Keith G.

    2009-01-01

    A growing body of literature on community gardening, watershed restoration, and similar "civic ecology" practices suggests avenues for integrating social and ecological outcomes in urban natural resources management. In this paper, we argue that an environmental education programme in which learning is situated in civic ecology practices also has…

  17. Framework Thinking, Subject Thinking and "Taiwan-"ness"" in Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yueh, Mei-Chun Michelle; Barker, Miles

    2011-01-01

    In the 1998 Taiwanese national curriculum revision, environmental education was one of six new "Important Issues". To some early observers, the generic "framework" sections of this 1998 curriculum (Aims, Goals, Core Competences) resonated well with the integrative and transdisciplinary nature of environmental education. This synergy held out…

  18. FRAMEWORK FOR RESPONSIBLE DECISION-MAKING (FRED): A TOOL FOR ENVIRONMENTALLY PREFERABLE PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In support of the Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Program of the USEPA, a decision-making tool based on life cycle assessment has been developed. This tool, the Framework for Responsible Environmental Decision-making or FRED, streamlines LCA by choosing a minimum list of im...

  19. Environmental accounting for Arctic shipping - a framework building on ship tracking data from satellites.

    PubMed

    Mjelde, A; Martinsen, K; Eide, M; Endresen, O

    2014-10-15

    Arctic shipping is on the rise, leading to increased concern over the potential environmental impacts. To better understand the magnitude of influence to the Arctic environment, detailed modelling of emissions and environmental risks are essential. This paper describes a framework for environmental accounting. A cornerstone in the framework is the use of Automatic Identification System (AIS) ship tracking data from satellites. When merged with ship registers and other data sources, it enables unprecedented accuracy in modelling and geographical allocation of emissions and discharges. This paper presents results using two of the models in the framework; emissions of black carbon (BC) in the Arctic, which is of particular concern for climate change, and; bunker fuels and wet bulk carriage in the Arctic, of particular concern for oil spill to the environment. Using the framework, a detailed footprint from Arctic shipping with regards to operational emissions and potential discharges is established. PMID:25168183

  20. Biological monitoring and environmental assessment: a conceptual framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karr, James R.

    1987-03-01

    Direct biological monitoring is essential for effective assessment efforts. Past approaches to biomonitoring are too simplistic (for example, toxicity testing, indicator species) or conceptually invalid (diversity indexes). Assessments that use ecological guilds use ecological principles in a more integrative fashion. The best long-term approach is development of suites of metrics, like those used in the index of biotic integrity (IBI), to reflect individual, population, community, and ecosystem attributes in an integrative framework. Efforts to use the conceptual content of IBI in a wider diversity of habitats should be encouraged and followed up with effective control actions.

  1. Linux Incident Response Volatile Data Analysis Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Cyber incident response is an emphasized subject area in cybersecurity in information technology with increased need for the protection of data. Due to ongoing threats, cybersecurity imposes many challenges and requires new investigative response techniques. In this study a Linux Incident Response Framework is designed for collecting volatile data…

  2. Flexible Framework for Building Energy Analysis: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, E.; Macumber, D.; Weaver, E.; Shekhar, D.

    2012-09-01

    In the building energy research and advanced practitioner communities, building models are perturbed across large parameter spaces to assess energy and cost performance in the face of programmatic and economic constraints. This paper describes the OpenStudio software framework for performing such analyses.

  3. A framework for environmental assessment of CO2 capture and storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sathre, R; Chester, M; Cain, J; Masanet, E

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is increasingly seen as a way for society to enjoy the benefits of fossil fuel energy sources while avoiding the climate disruption associated with fossil CO2 emissions. A decision to deploy CCS technology at scale should be based on robust information on its overall costs and benefits. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a framework for holistic assessment of the energy and environmental footprint of a system, and can provide crucial information to policy-makers, scientists, and engineers as they develop and deploy CCS systems. We identify seven key issues that should be considered to ensure that conclusions and recommendations from CCS LCA are robust: energy penalty, functional units, scale-up challenges, non-climate environmental impacts, uncertainty management, policy-making needs, and market effects. Several recent life-cycle studies have focused on detailed assessments of individual CCS technologies and applications. While such studies provide important data and information on technology performance, such case-specific data are inadequate to fully inform the decision making process. LCA should aim to describe the system-wide environmental implications of CCS deployment at scale, rather than a narrow analysis of technological performance of individual power plants. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental labelling in The Netherlands: a framework for integrated farming.

    PubMed

    Manhoudt, A G E; van de Ven, G W J; Udo de Haes, H A; de Snoo, G R

    2002-07-01

    This article compares four Dutch environmental certification schemes for agricultural food crops, analysing their methodology and the completeness of their criteria on five aspects: pesticide use, nutrient use, water management, energy and materials consumption, and habitat management. The least stringent of the labels, the MBT ('Environmentally Aware Cultivation') certificate, serves mainly to increase farmers' awareness of nutrient and pesticide use. With regard to both administrative obligations and actual management practices, the MBT label largely mirrors the terms of standing Dutch legislation. The CC ('Controlled Cultivation') and AMK ('Agro-Environmental') labels comprise more and more stringent criteria. With their restrictions on nutrient and pesticide use, these two labels serve as the two principal labels in the field of integrated agriculture. There is little difference between the two and it is recommended that they be merged, on the basis of a standardised definition of integrated agriculture. The EKO ('Organic Agriculture') label proceeds from different principles, but as a minimum should also comply with Dutch legislation without exception. For both integrated and organic agriculture, in addition to criteria on pesticide and nutrient use, criteria should also be developed for water management, energy and materials use and habitat management. The relationship between the criteria and their respective thresholds and Dutch legislation is also addressed. Existing criteria are frequently specified in such a way that the environmental benefits cannot be ascertained. This is a serious drawback for the parties further down the chain: auctioneers, retailers and consumers. It is recommended to develop qualitative guidelines for an Agricultural Stewardship Council at international level, like the Forest Stewardship Council, and a separate label for integrated agriculture per country comprising quantitative criteria for all relevant aspects of farming

  5. A theoretical framework for research into environmental education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aho, Leena

    1984-06-01

    The essential question in environmental education is the individual's relationship to his environment, including both that part of his environment which is natural and that part which is man-made. The nature of this relationship is manifested in the way in which the individual acts with regard to his environment and by what choices and decisions he makes in order to come to terms with it. The crucial factors in these decisions are his values, which at the same time represent his cognitive, socio-emotional and ethical development. As an interdisciplinary subject, environmental education draws attention to the technique of examining matters from a variety of viewpoints. Since the consequences of man's decisions regarding his environment are apparent both in the sphere of human life and in the world of nature, these decisions involve ecological and economic, social, political, aesthetic and ethical considerations. Environmental education contains both cognitive and affective aspects, the association between which is examined on the basis of the theoretical premises established in this paper.

  6. Environmental studies: Mathematical, computational, and statistical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, M.F.

    1996-12-31

    The Summer Program on Mathematical, Computational, and Statistical Analyses in Environmental Studies held 6--31 July 1992 was designed to provide a much needed interdisciplinary forum for joint exploration of recent advances in the formulation and application of (A) environmental models, (B) environmental data and data assimilation, (C) stochastic modeling and optimization, and (D) global climate modeling. These four conceptual frameworks provided common themes among a broad spectrum of specific technical topics at this workshop. The program brought forth a mix of physical concepts and processes such as chemical kinetics, atmospheric dynamics, cloud physics and dynamics, flow in porous media, remote sensing, climate statistical, stochastic processes, parameter identification, model performance evaluation, aerosol physics and chemistry, and data sampling together with mathematical concepts in stiff differential systems, advective-diffusive-reactive PDEs, inverse scattering theory, time series analysis, particle dynamics, stochastic equations, optimal control, and others. Nineteen papers are presented in this volume. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. A Framework for Analysis of Case Studies of Reading Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Joanne F.; Kelcey, Ben; Rosaen, Cheryl; Phelps, Geoffrey; Vereb, Anita

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development and study of a framework to provide direction and guidance for practicing teachers in using a web-based case studies program for professional development in early reading; the program is called Case Studies Reading Lessons (CSRL). The framework directs and guides teachers' analysis of reading instruction by…

  8. A framework for rating environmental value of urban parks.

    PubMed

    Jabben, Jan; Weber, Miriam; Verheijen, Edwin

    2015-03-01

    In this study, indicators are proposed to characterize the intrinsic environmental properties and external value of urban parks. The intrinsic properties involve both acoustic factors and non-acoustic factors, such as visual aspects and size. To assess external value, the restoration level is defined, which measures the nearby presence of a quiet, 'green' area at residential areas outside parks. The restoration levels of green areas are based on intrinsic properties and the distances of each dwelling to urban park areas. The overall environmental value of a park, the group restoration level, is defined as a logarithmic summation of the restoration levels over its surrounding residential areas. Restoration levels were determined for sixteen public parks in the city of Rotterdam and compared with survey data from questionnaires. Results show that the investigated parks display a large variation in the group restoration level levels, mainly due to differences in size and average noise levels. To validate the proposed method, survey data from questionnaires are investigated as to correlation with restoration levels. PMID:25497679

  9. Intervention analysis in environmental engineering.

    PubMed

    Hipel, K W; McLeod, A I

    1989-11-01

    Intervention analysis techniques are described for identifying and statistically modelling trends which may be present in water quality time series. At the exploratory data analysis stage, simple graphical and modelling methods can be employed for visually detecting and examining trends in a time series caused by one or more external interventions. For instance, a plot of a robust locally weighted regression smooth through a graph of the observations over time may reveal trends and other interesting statistical properties contained in the time series. In addition, statistical tests, such as different versions of the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test, can be used to detect the presence of trends caused by unknown or known external interventions. To characterize rigorously and estimate trends which may be known in advance or else detected using exploratory data analysis studies, different parametric methods can be utilized at the confirmatory data analysis stage. Specifically, the time series modelling approach to intervention analysis can be employed to estimate the magnitudes of the changes in the mean level of the series due to the interventions. Particular types of regression models can also be used for estimating trends, especially when there are many missing observations. To demonstrate how intervention analysis methods can be effectively used in environmental impact assessment, representative applications to water quality time series are presented. PMID:24243172

  10. GLIMPSE: a rapid decision framework for energy and environmental policy.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Farhan H; Pinder, Robert W; Loughlin, Daniel H; Henze, Daven K

    2013-01-01

    Over the coming decades, new energy production technologies and the policies that oversee them will affect human health, the vitality of our ecosystems, and the stability of the global climate. The GLIMPSE decision model framework provides insights about the implications of technology and policy decisions on these outcomes. Using GLIMPSE, decision makers can identify alternative techno-policy futures, examining their air quality, health, and short- and long-term climate impacts. Ultimately, GLIMPSE will support the identification of cost-effective strategies for simultaneously achieving performance goals for these metrics. Here, we demonstrate the utility of GLIMPSE by analyzing several future energy scenarios under existing air quality regulations and potential CO2 emission reduction policies. We find opportunities for substantial cobenefits in setting both climate change mitigation and health-benefit based air quality improvement targets. Though current policies which prioritize public health protection increase near-term warming, establishing policies that also reduce greenhouse gas emissions may offset warming in the near-term and lead to significant reductions in long-term warming. PMID:24044746

  11. An Environmental Ethical Conceptual Framework for Research on Sustainability and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronlid, David O.; Ohman, Johan

    2013-01-01

    This article suggests that environmental ethics can have great relevance for environmental ethical content analyses in environmental education and education for sustainable development research. It is based on a critique that existing educational research does not reflect the variety of environmental ethical theories. Accordingly, we suggest an…

  12. Environmental management framework for wind farm siting: methodology and case study.

    PubMed

    Tegou, Leda-Ioanna; Polatidis, Heracles; Haralambopoulos, Dias A

    2010-11-01

    This paper develops an integrated framework to evaluate land suitability for wind farm siting that combines multi-criteria analysis (MCA) with geographical information systems (GIS); an application of the proposed framework for the island of Lesvos, Greece, is further illustrated. A set of environmental, economic, social, and technical constraints, based on recent Greek legislation, identifies the potential sites for wind power installation. Furthermore, the area under consideration is evaluated by a variety of criteria, such as wind power potential, land cover type, electricity demand, visual impact, land value, and distance from the electricity grid. The pair-wise comparison method in the context of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is applied to estimate the criteria weights in order to establish their relative importance in site evaluation. The overall suitability of the study region for wind farm siting is appraised through the weighted summation rule. Results showed that only a very small percentage of the total area of Lesvos could be suitable for wind farm installation, although favourable wind potential exists in many more areas of the island. PMID:20541310

  13. A two-step framework for over-threshold modelling of environmental extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardara, P.; Mazas, F.; Kergadallan, X.; Hamm, L.

    2014-03-01

    The evaluation of the probability of occurrence of extreme natural events is important for the protection of urban areas, industrial facilities and others. Traditionally, the extreme value theory (EVT) offers a valid theoretical framework on this topic. In an over-threshold modelling (OTM) approach, Pickands' theorem, (Pickands, 1975) states that, for a sample composed by independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) values, the distribution of the data exceeding a given threshold converges through a generalized Pareto distribution (GPD). Following this theoretical result, the analysis of realizations of environmental variables exceeding a threshold spread widely in the literature. However, applying this theorem to an auto-correlated time series logically involves two successive and complementary steps: the first one is required to build a sample of i.i.d. values from the available information, as required by the EVT; the second to set the threshold for the optimal convergence toward the GPD. In the past, the same threshold was often employed both for sampling observations and for meeting the hypothesis of extreme value convergence. This confusion can lead to an erroneous understanding of methodologies and tools available in the literature. This paper aims at clarifying the conceptual framework involved in threshold selection, reviewing the available methods for the application of both steps and illustrating it with a double threshold approach.

  14. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    R. Clayton

    2000-12-19

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M&O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and the

  15. Environmental literacy framework with a focus on climate change (ELF): a framework and resources for teaching climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, L. T.; Pennycook, J.

    2011-12-01

    The challenges of communicating climate change science to non-technical audiences present a daunting task, but one that is recognized in the science community as urgent and essential. ANDRILL's (ANtarctic geological DRILLing) international network of scientists, engineers, technicians and educators collaborate to convey a deeper understanding of current geoscience research as well as the process of science in an effort to provide the next generation of scientists and voters with the knowledge to make informed decisions concerning climate change mitigation and adaptation. One roadblock for educators who recognize the need to teach climate change has been the lack of a comprehensive, integrated set of resources and activities that are related to the National Science Education Standards. Pieces of the climate change puzzle can be found in the excellent work of the groups of science and education professionals who developed the Essential Principles of Ocean Sciences, Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science, Earth Science Literacy Principles: The Big Ideas and Supporting Concepts of Earth Science, and Essential Principals and Fundamental Concepts for Atmospheric Science Literacy, but teachers have precious little time to search out the climate change goals and objectives in those frameworks and then find the resources to teach them. Through NOAA funding, ANDRILL has created a new framework, The Environmental Literacy Framework with a Focus on Climate Change (ELF), drawing on the works of the aforementioned groups, and promoting an Earth Systems approach to teaching climate change through five units: Atmosphere, Biosphere, Geosphere, Hydrosphere/Cryosphere, and Energy as the driver of interactions within and between the "spheres." Each key concept in the framework has a hands-on, inquiry activity and matching NOAA resources for teaching the objectives. The ELF framework and the companion activities are available in digital form.

  16. Assessing environmental assets for health promotion program planning: a practical framework for health promotion practitioners.

    PubMed

    Springer, Andrew E; Evans, Alexandra E

    2016-01-01

    Conducting a health needs assessment is an important if not essential first step for health promotion planning. This paper explores how health needs assessments may be further strengthened for health promotion planning via an assessment of environmental assets rooted in the multiple environments (policy, information, social and physical environments) that shape health and behavior. Guided by a behavioral-ecological perspective- one that seeks to identify environmental assets that can influence health behavior, and an implementation science perspective- one that seeks to interweave health promotion strategies into existing environmental assets, we present a basic framework for assessing environmental assets and review examples from the literature to illustrate the incorporation of environmental assets into health program design. Health promotion practitioners and researchers implicitly identify and apply environmental assets in the design and implementation of health promotion interventions;this paper provides foundation for greater intentionality in assessing environmental assets for health promotion planning. PMID:27579254

  17. Assessing environmental assets for health promotion program planning: a practical framework for health promotion practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Andrew E.; Evans, Alexandra E.

    2016-01-01

    Conducting a health needs assessment is an important if not essential first step for health promotion planning. This paper explores how health needs assessments may be further strengthened for health promotion planning via an assessment of environmental assets rooted in the multiple environments (policy, information, social and physical environments) that shape health and behavior. Guided by a behavioral-ecological perspective- one that seeks to identify environmental assets that can influence health behavior, and an implementation science perspective- one that seeks to interweave health promotion strategies into existing environmental assets, we present a basic framework for assessing environmental assets and review examples from the literature to illustrate the incorporation of environmental assets into health program design. Health promotion practitioners and researchers implicitly identify and apply environmental assets in the design and implementation of health promotion interventions;this paper provides foundation for greater intentionality in assessing environmental assets for health promotion planning. PMID:27579254

  18. A Formal Framework for Workflow Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cravo, Glória

    2010-09-01

    In this paper we provide a new formal framework to model and analyse workflows. A workflow is the formal definition of a business process that consists in the execution of tasks in order to achieve a certain objective. In our work we describe a workflow as a graph whose vertices represent tasks and the arcs are associated to workflow transitions. Each task has associated an input/output logic operator. This logic operator can be the logical AND (•), the OR (⊗), or the XOR -exclusive-or—(⊕). Moreover, we introduce algebraic concepts in order to completely describe completely the structure of workflows. We also introduce the concept of logical termination. Finally, we provide a necessary and sufficient condition for this property to hold.

  19. Community-Based Monitoring Frameworks: Increasing the Effectiveness of Environmental Stewardship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Catherine T.; Daoust, Tyson

    2008-03-01

    This article presents an adaptable community-based monitoring (CBM) framework. The investigators used a well-tested conceptual CBM framework developed by the Canadian Community Monitoring Network (CCMN) as a basis from which to work. With the use of feedback from various types of CBM groups in the Province of Nova Scotia, Canada, obtained through surveys and interviews, the CCMN framework was modified into a document that attempts to address current disparities and inefficiencies within most CBM systems. The need for such a framework was underscored by the lack of stewardship groups’ use of standardized monitoring protocols and inability to effectively provide information to decision makers. From the information collected through the survey, it was concluded that the proposed framework must be a functional, multiparty form of CBM that addresses the key concerns of a standardized monitoring and communication program and must be able to be fed into the environmental-management system.

  20. Students as Catalysts of Environmental Change: A Framework for Researching Intergenerational Influence through Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantyne, Roy; Connell, Sharon; Fien, John

    2006-01-01

    Many environmental problems are desperately in need of attention. Educating both adults and young people is seen as part of the solution to such problems. Given this situation, and the already considerable investment in environmental education in schools, the notion of encouraging students to initiate environmental discussions with adults at home…

  1. Decerns: A framework for multi-criteria decision analysis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yatsalo, Boris; Didenko, Vladimir; Gritsyuk, Sergey; Sullivan, Terry

    2015-02-27

    A new framework, Decerns, for multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) of a wide range of practical problems on risk management is introduced. Decerns framework contains a library of modules that are the basis for two scalable systems: DecernsMCDA for analysis of multicriteria problems, and DecernsSDSS for multicriteria analysis of spatial options. DecernsMCDA includes well known MCDA methods and original methods for uncertainty treatment based on probabilistic approaches and fuzzy numbers. As a result, these MCDA methods are described along with a case study on analysis of multicriteria location problem.

  2. Visualizing data for environmental analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, J.

    1997-04-01

    The Environmental Restoration Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has over 11,000 sampling locations in a 44 square mile area. The sample analyses contain raw analytical chemistry values for over 2,300 analytes and compounds used to define and remediate contaminated areas at LANL. The data consist of 2.5 million records in an oracle database. Maps are often used to visualize the data. Problems arise when a client specifies a particular kind of map without fully understanding the limitations of the data or the map. The ability of maps to convey information is dependent on many factors, though all maps are data dependent. The quantity, spatial distribution, and numerical range of the data can limit use with certain kinds of maps. To address these issues and educate the clients, several types of statistical maps (e.g., choropleth, isarithm, and graduated symbol such as bubble and spike) used for environmental analysis were chosen to show the advantages, disadvantages, and data limitations of each. By examining both the complexity of the analytical data and the limitations of the map type, it is possible to consider how reality has been transformed through the map, and if that transformation accurately conveys the information present.

  3. Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract for presentation on Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions. The abstract is attached.

  4. Decision analysis framework for evaluating CTBT seismic verification options

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, B.R.; Strait, R.S.; Younker, L.W.

    1986-09-01

    This report describes a decision analysis framework for evaluating seismic verification options for a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). In addition to providing policy makers with insights into the relative merits of different options, the framework is intended to assist in formulating and evaluating political decisions - such as responses to evidence of violations - and in setting research priorities related to the options. To provide these broad analytical capabilities to decision makers, the framework incorporates a wide variety of issues. These include seismic monitoring capabilities, evasion possibilities, evidence produced by seismic systems, US response to the evidence, the dependence between US and Soviet decision-making, and the relative values of possible outcomes to the US and the Soviet Union. An added benefit of the framework is its potential use to improve communication about these CTBT verification issues among US experts and decision makers. The framework has been implemented on a portable microcomputer to facilitate this communication through demonstration and rapid evaluation of alternative judgments and policy choices. The report presents the framework and its application in four parts. The first part describes the decision analysis framework and the types of analytical results produced. In the second part, the framework is used to evaluate representative seismic verification options. The third part describes the results of sensitivity analyses that determine the relative importance of the uncertainties or subjective judgments that influence the evaluation of the options. The fourth (and final) part summaries conclusions and presents implications of the sample analytical results for further research and for policy-making related to CTBT verification. The fourth section also describes the next steps in the development and use of the decision analysis framework.

  5. Environmental literacy framework with a focus on climate change (ELF): a framework and resources for teaching climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, L. T.; Blythe, D.; Dahlman, L. E.; Fischbein, S.; Johnson, K.; Kontar, Y.; Rack, F. R.; Kulhanek, D. K.; Pennycook, J.; Reed, J.; Youngman, B.; Reeves, M.; Thomas, R.

    2010-12-01

    The challenges of communicating climate change science to non-technical audiences present a daunting task, but one that is recognized in the science community as urgent and essential. ANDRILL's (ANtarctic geological DRILLing) international network of scientists, engineers, technicians and educators work together to convey a deeper understanding of current geoscience research as well as the process of science to non-technical audiences. One roadblock for educators who recognize the need to teach climate change has been the lack of a comprehensive, integrated set of resources and activities that are related to the National Science Education Standards. Pieces of the climate change puzzle can be found in the excellent work of the groups of science and education professionals who wrote the Essential Principles of Ocean Sciences, Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science, Earth Science Literacy Principles: The Big Ideas and Supporting Concepts of Earth Science, and Essential Principals and Fundamental Concepts for Atmospheric Science Literacy, but teachers have precious little time to search out the climate change goals and objectives in those frameworks and then find the resources to teach them. Through NOAA funding, ANDRILL has created a new framework, The Environmental Literacy Framework with a Focus on Climate Change (ELF), drawing on the works of the aforementioned groups, and promoting an Earth Systems approach to teaching climate change through five units: Atmosphere, Biosphere, Geosphere, Hydrosphere/Cryosphere, and Energy as the driver of interactions within and between the “spheres.” Each key concept in the framework has a hands-on, inquiry activity and matching NOAA resources for teaching the objectives. In its present form, we present a ‘road map’ for teaching climate change and a set of resources intended to continue to evolve over time.

  6. Microbial assemblages for environmental quality assessment: Knowledge, gaps and usefulness in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Gabriella; La Ferla, Rosabruna; Azzaro, Maurizio; Zoppini, Annamaria; Marino, Giovanna; Petochi, Tommaso; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Leonardi, Marcella; Zaccone, Renata; Fonda Umani, Serena; Caroppo, Carmela; Monticelli, Luis; Azzaro, Filippo; Decembrini, Franco; Maimone, Giovanna; Cavallo, Rosa Anna; Stabili, Loredana; Hristova Todorova, Nadezhda; K Karamfilov, Ventzislav; Rastelli, Eugenio; Cappello, Simone; Acquaviva, Maria Immacolata; Narracci, Marcella; De Angelis, Roberta; Del Negro, Paola; Latini, Mario; Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-11-01

    The EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive 2008/56/EC (MSFD) defines a framework for Community actions in the field of marine environmental policy in order to achieve and/or maintain the Good Environmental Status (GES) of the European seas by 2020. Microbial assemblages (from viruses to microbial-sized metazoa) provide a major contribution to global biodiversity and play a crucial role in the functioning of marine ecosystems, but are largely ignored by the MSFD. Prokaryotes are only seen as "microbial pathogens," without defining their role in GES indicators. However, structural or functional prokaryotic variables (abundance, biodiversity and metabolism) can be easily incorporated into several MSFD descriptors (i.e. D1. biodiversity, D4. food webs, D5. eutrophication, D8. contaminants and D9. contaminants in seafood) with beneficial effects. This review provides a critical analysis of the current MSFD descriptors and illustrates the reliability and advantages of the potential incorporation of some prokaryotic variables within the set of indicators of marine environmental quality. Following a cost/benefit analysis against scientific and economic criteria, we conclude that marine microbial components, and particularly prokaryotes, are highly effective for detecting the effects of anthropogenic pressures on marine environments and for assessing changes in the environmental health status. Thus, we recommend the inclusion of these components in future implementations of the MSFD. PMID:26585708

  7. Establishing a framework for comparative analysis of genome sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, A.K.

    1995-06-01

    This paper describes a framework and a high-level language toolkit for comparative analysis of genome sequence alignment The framework integrates the information derived from multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree (hypothetical tree of evolution) to derive new properties about sequences. Multiple sequence alignments are treated as an abstract data type. Abstract operations have been described to manipulate a multiple sequence alignment and to derive mutation related information from a phylogenetic tree by superimposing parsimonious analysis. The framework has been applied on protein alignments to derive constrained columns (in a multiple sequence alignment) that exhibit evolutionary pressure to preserve a common property in a column despite mutation. A Prolog toolkit based on the framework has been implemented and demonstrated on alignments containing 3000 sequences and 3904 columns.

  8. Framework for Assessing Environmental, Social, and Economic Sustainability of ICT Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odeh, Khuloud

    2013-01-01

    Key challenges that confront the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) industry today in defining and achieving social, environmental, and economic sustainability goals include identifying sustainable operating standards and best practices and measuring and assessing performance against those practices. The industry lacks a framework for…

  9. A FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING HEALTH RISK OF ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO CHILDREN (FINAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released a final report entitled, A Framework for Assessing Health Risk of Environmental Exposures to Children, which examines the impact of potential exposures during developmental lifestages and subsequent lifestages, while emphasizing the iterative nature of the...

  10. Eco-Literacy Development through a Framework for Indigenous and Environmental Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulnieks, Andrejs; Longboat, Dan Roronhiakewan; Young, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    In response to the call of curriculum reforms at the international, national, and local levels, we conceptualize an eco-mentorship program and envision a learning garden alternative practica. We aim to advance a framework enabling the innovation of Indigenous environmental studies, eco-justice education, and Western scientific environmental…

  11. PRESENTED AT: TURNOVO, BULGARIA: LANDSCAPE SCIENCES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT: A NATO FRAMEWORK FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An international pilot study has been developed to explore the possibility of quantifying and assessing environmental condition, processes of land degradation, and subsequent impacts on natural and human resources. The purpose of the study is to foster a framework for scientific...

  12. A Framework for Teaching Social and Environmental Sustainability to Undergraduate Business Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumagim, Alan L.; Cann, Cynthia W.

    2012-01-01

    The authors outline an undergraduate exercise to help students more fully understand the environmental and social justice aspects of business sustainability activities. A simple hierarchical framework, based on Maslow's (1943) work, was utilized to help the students understand, analyze, and judge the vast amount of corporate sustainability…

  13. CASE STUDIES FOR EVALUATING A FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING RISK TO CHILDREN FROM EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL AGENTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade there has been a dramatic increase in the recognition and public health concern for children as a potentially susceptible population for exposure to environmental agents. The recently convened workshop to develop a framework for assessing the risks to childr...

  14. A conceptual framework for the social analysis of reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Price, Neil L; Hawkins, Kirstan

    2007-03-01

    The dominant conceptual framework for understanding reproductive behaviour is highly individualistic. In this article, it is demonstrated that such a conceptualization is flawed, as behaviour is shaped by social relations and institutions. Using ethnographic evidence, the value of a social analysis of the local contexts of reproductive health is highlighted. A framework is set out for conducting such a social analysis, which is capable of generating data necessary to allow health programmes to assess the appropriate means of improving the responsiveness of service-delivery structures to the needs of the most vulnerable. Six key issues are identified in the framework for the analysis of social vulnerability to poor reproductive health outcomes. The key issues are: poverty and livelihood strategies, gender, health-seeking behaviour, reproductive behaviour, and access to services. The article concludes by briefly identifying the key interventions and strategies indicated by such an analysis. PMID:17615901

  15. A Conceptual Framework for the Social Analysis of Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Kirstan

    2007-01-01

    The dominant conceptual framework for understanding reproductive behaviour is highly individualistic. In this article, it is demonstrated that such a conceptualization is flawed, as behaviour is shaped by social relations and institutions. Using ethnographic evidence, the value of a social analysis of the local contexts of reproductive health is highlighted. A framework is set out for conducting such a social analysis, which is capable of generating data necessary to allow health programmes to assess the appropriate means of improving the responsiveness of service-delivery structures to the needs of the most vulnerable. Six key issues are identified in the framework for the analysis of social vulnerability to poor reproductive health outcomes. The key issues are: poverty and livelihood strategies, gender, health-seeking behaviour, reproductive behaviour, and access to services. The article concludes by briefly identifying the key interventions and strategies indicated by such an analysis. PMID:17615901

  16. Decision Analysis for Environmental Problems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental management problems are often complex and uncertain. A formal process with proper guidance is needed to understand the issues, identify sources of disagreement, and analyze the major uncertainties in environmental problems. This course will present a process that fo...

  17. FRAMEWORK FOR RESPONSIBLE ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION-MAKING (FRED): USING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT TO EVALUATE PREFERABILITY OF PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Framework for Responsible Environmental Decision-Making (FRED) demonstrates how the life-cycle concept can be used to quantify competing products' environmental performance so that this information may be integrated with considerations of total ownership cost and technical perfor...

  18. 43 CFR 3910.32 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Environmental analysis. 3910.32 Section... Licenses § 3910.32 Environmental analysis. (a) Before the BLM will issue an exploration license, the BLM... analysis of the actions contemplated in the application. (b) For each exploration license, the BLM...

  19. Computational frameworks for discrete Gabor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohmer, Thomas

    1997-10-01

    The Gabor transform yields a discrete representation of a signal in the phase space. Since the Gabor transform is non-orthogonal, efficient reconstruction of a signal from its phase space samples is not straightforward and involves the computation of the so- called dual Gabor function. We present a unifying approach to the derivation of numerical algorithms for discrete Gabor analysis, based on unitary matrix factorization. The factorization point of view is notably useful for the design of efficient numerical algorithms. This presentation is the first systematic account of its kind. In particular, it is shown that different algorithms for the computation of the dual window correspond to different factorizations of the frame operator. Simple number theoretic conditions on the time-frequency lattice parameters imply additional structural properties of the frame operator.

  20. ENVRI PLUS project: Developing an ethical framework for Environmental and Earth System Research Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peppoloni, Silvia; Di Capua, Giuseppe; Haslinger, Florian

    2016-04-01

    ENVRI PLUS is a Horizon 2020 project bringing together Environmental and Earth System Research Infrastructures (RIs), projects and networks with technical specialist partners to create a more coherent, interdisciplinary and interoperable cluster of Environmental Research Infrastructures across Europe (http://www.envriplus.eu/). One theme of the project deals with the societal relevance and understanding, and within that theme an entire work-package (WP) aims at developing an ethical framework for RIs. Objectives of this WP are: • increase the awareness of both the scientists and the public on the importance of ethical aspects in Earth sciences; • establish a shared ethical framework of reference, to be adopted by RIs governing bodies; • increase the awareness of RIs management and operational levels and of the individual involved scientists on their social role in conducting research activities and research work environment; • assess the ethical and social aspects related to the results achieved and deliverables released within the project. The ongoing activities include: • reviewing the state of art on ethical issues useful for the goals of the project (collection and analysis of materials already existing within scientific organizations, institutions all over the world); • the creation of a questionnaire, through which to investigate how each RI participating in ENVRI PLUS faces ethical issues in relation to its activities, and so to understand the level of perception that researchers and technicians involved in the project have on the ethical implications of their scientific activities; • the definition of ethics guidelines to be used by partners for building their policies and their own codes of conduct; • the elaboration of an ethical label template to characterize each product of the project, that partners will be able to use in order to give essential information about the ethical and social implications of their products; • the

  1. 43 CFR 3910.32 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Licenses § 3910.32 Environmental analysis. (a) Before the BLM will issue an exploration license, the BLM... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Environmental analysis. 3910.32 Section 3910.32 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF...

  2. 43 CFR 3910.32 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Licenses § 3910.32 Environmental analysis. (a) Before the BLM will issue an exploration license, the BLM... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Environmental analysis. 3910.32 Section 3910.32 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF...

  3. 43 CFR 3910.32 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Licenses § 3910.32 Environmental analysis. (a) Before the BLM will issue an exploration license, the BLM... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Environmental analysis. 3910.32 Section 3910.32 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF...

  4. Integrating health and environmental impact analysis.

    PubMed

    Reis, S; Morris, G; Fleming, L E; Beck, S; Taylor, T; White, M; Depledge, M H; Steinle, S; Sabel, C E; Cowie, H; Hurley, F; Dick, J McP; Smith, R I; Austen, M

    2015-10-01

    Scientific investigations have progressively refined our understanding of the influence of the environment on human health, and the many adverse impacts that human activities exert on the environment, from the local to the planetary level. Nonetheless, throughout the modern public health era, health has been pursued as though our lives and lifestyles are disconnected from ecosystems and their component organisms. The inadequacy of the societal and public health response to obesity, health inequities, and especially global environmental and climate change now calls for an ecological approach which addresses human activity in all its social, economic and cultural complexity. The new approach must be integral to, and interactive, with the natural environment. We see the continuing failure to truly integrate human health and environmental impact analysis as deeply damaging, and we propose a new conceptual model, the ecosystems-enriched Drivers, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, Actions or 'eDPSEEA' model, to address this shortcoming. The model recognizes convergence between the concept of ecosystems services which provides a human health and well-being slant to the value of ecosystems while equally emphasizing the health of the environment, and the growing calls for 'ecological public health' as a response to global environmental concerns now suffusing the discourse in public health. More revolution than evolution, ecological public health will demand new perspectives regarding the interconnections among society, the economy, the environment and our health and well-being. Success must be built on collaborations between the disparate scientific communities of the environmental sciences and public health as well as interactions with social scientists, economists and the legal profession. It will require outreach to political and other stakeholders including a currently largely disengaged general public. The need for an effective and robust science-policy interface has

  5. A Unified Framework for Monetary Theory and Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagos, Ricardo; Wright, Randall

    2005-01-01

    Search-theoretic models of monetary exchange are based on explicit descriptions of the frictions that make money essential. However, tractable versions of these models typically make strong assumptions that render them ill suited for monetary policy analysis. We propose a new framework, based on explicit micro foundations, within which macro…

  6. iGlobe: An Interactive Visualization and Analysis Framework for Geospatial Data

    SciTech Connect

    2011-07-22

    The iGlobe system is a desktop-based visualization and analysis environment which allows seamless integration of multiple geospatial data sets from varied sources and provides an interface to interactively analyze the different data sets and apply sophisticated data analysis and mining algorithms in a near real time fashion. The framework is highly desirable in domains such as earth and climate sciences where great emphasis is placed on simultaneous analysis of different data sets such as remote sensing images, climate model simulation outputs, and other environmental and demographic databases, to understand weather and climate systems and the impact of climate change in nature and people.

  7. Object-oriented data analysis framework for neutron scattering experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Jiro; Nakatani, Takeshi; Ohhara, Takashi; Inamura, Yasuhiro; Yonemura, Masao; Morishima, Takahiro; Aoyagi, Tetsuo; Manabe, Atsushi; Otomo, Toshiya

    2009-02-01

    Materials and Life Science Facility (MLF) of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) is one of the facilities that provided the highest intensity pulsed neutron and muon beams. The MLF computing environment design group organizes the computing environments of MLF and instruments. It is important that the computing environment is provided by the facility side, because meta-data formats, the analysis functions and also data analysis strategy should be shared among many instruments in MLF. The C++ class library, named Manyo-lib, is a framework software for developing data reduction and analysis softwares. The framework is composed of the class library for data reduction and analysis operators, network distributed data processing modules and data containers. The class library is wrapped by the Python interface created by SWIG. All classes of the framework can be called from Python language, and Manyo-lib will be cooperated with the data acquisition and data-visualization components through the MLF-platform, a user interface unified in MLF, which is working on Python language. Raw data in the event-data format obtained by data acquisition systems will be converted into histogram format data on Manyo-lib in high performance, and data reductions and analysis are performed with user-application software developed based on Manyo-lib. We enforce standardization of data containers with Manyo-lib, and many additional fundamental data containers in Manyo-lib have been designed and developed. Experimental and analysis data in the data containers can be converted into NeXus file. Manyo-lib is the standard framework for developing analysis software in MLF, and prototypes of data-analysis softwares for each instrument are being developed by the instrument teams.

  8. A framework for monitoring social process and outcomes in environmental programs.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Sarah

    2014-12-01

    When environmental programs frame their activities as being in the service of human wellbeing, social variables need to be integrated into monitoring and evaluation (M&E) frameworks. This article draws upon ecosystem services theory to develop a framework to guide the M&E of collaborative environmental programs with anticipated social benefits. The framework has six components: program need, program activities, pathway process variables, moderating process variables, outcomes, and program value. Needs are defined in terms of ecosystem services, as well as other human needs that must be addressed to achieve outcomes. The pathway variable relates to the development of natural resource governance capacity in the target community. Moderating processes can be externalities such as the inherent capacity of the natural system to service ecosystem needs, local demand for natural resources, policy or socio-economic drivers. Internal program-specific processes relate to program service delivery, targeting and participant responsiveness. Ecological outcomes are expressed in terms of changes in landscape structure and function, which in turn influence ecosystem service provision. Social benefits derived from the program are expressed in terms of the value of the eco-social service to user-specified goals. The article provides suggestions from the literature for identifying indicators and measures for components and component variables, and concludes with an example of how the framework was used to inform the M&E of an adaptive co-management program in western Kenya. PMID:25128755

  9. Boom Minimization Framework for Supersonic Aircraft Using CFD Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordaz, Irian; Rallabhandi, Sriram K.

    2010-01-01

    A new framework is presented for shape optimization using analytical shape functions and high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) via Cart3D. The focus of the paper is the system-level integration of several key enabling analysis tools and automation methods to perform shape optimization and reduce sonic boom footprint. A boom mitigation case study subject to performance, stability and geometrical requirements is presented to demonstrate a subset of the capabilities of the framework. Lastly, a design space exploration is carried out to assess the key parameters and constraints driving the design.

  10. Framework for Interactive Parallel Dataset Analysis on the Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, David A.; Ananthan, Balamurali; Johnson, Tony; Serbo, Victor; /SLAC

    2007-01-10

    We present a framework for use at a typical Grid site to facilitate custom interactive parallel dataset analysis targeting terabyte-scale datasets of the type typically produced by large multi-institutional science experiments. We summarize the needs for interactive analysis and show a prototype solution that satisfies those needs. The solution consists of desktop client tool and a set of Web Services that allow scientists to sign onto a Grid site, compose analysis script code to carry out physics analysis on datasets, distribute the code and datasets to worker nodes, collect the results back to the client, and to construct professional-quality visualizations of the results.

  11. Unified Simulation and Analysis Framework for Deep Space Navigation Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anzalone, Evan; Chuang, Jason; Olsen, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    As the technology that enables advanced deep space autonomous navigation continues to develop and the requirements for such capability continues to grow, there is a clear need for a modular expandable simulation framework. This tool's purpose is to address multiple measurement and information sources in order to capture system capability. This is needed to analyze the capability of competing navigation systems as well as to develop system requirements, in order to determine its effect on the sizing of the integrated vehicle. The development for such a framework is built upon Model-Based Systems Engineering techniques to capture the architecture of the navigation system and possible state measurements and observations to feed into the simulation implementation structure. These models also allow a common environment for the capture of an increasingly complex operational architecture, involving multiple spacecraft, ground stations, and communication networks. In order to address these architectural developments, a framework of agent-based modules is implemented to capture the independent operations of individual spacecraft as well as the network interactions amongst spacecraft. This paper describes the development of this framework, and the modeling processes used to capture a deep space navigation system. Additionally, a sample implementation describing a concept of network-based navigation utilizing digitally transmitted data packets is described in detail. This developed package shows the capability of the modeling framework, including its modularity, analysis capabilities, and its unification back to the overall system requirements and definition.

  12. iGlobe: an interactive visualization and analysis framework for geospatial data

    SciTech Connect

    Chandola, Varun; Vatsavai, Raju; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate an interactive visualization and analysis system for integrating climate data with other geospatial data sets, such as environmental and demographic data. The \\eviz system is a desktop-based visualization and analysis environment which allows seamless integration of multiple geospatial data sets from varied sources and provides an interface to interactively analyze the different data sets and apply sophisticated data analysis and mining algorithms in a near real time fashion. The framework is highly desirable in domains such as earth and climate sciences where great emphasis is placed on simultaneous analysis of different data sets such as remote sensing images, climate model simulation outputs, and other environmental and demographic databases, to understand weather and climate systems and the impact of climate change on nature and people.

  13. Nonlinear analysis of structures. [within framework of finite element method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armen, H., Jr.; Levine, H.; Pifko, A.; Levy, A.

    1974-01-01

    The development of nonlinear analysis techniques within the framework of the finite-element method is reported. Although the emphasis is concerned with those nonlinearities associated with material behavior, a general treatment of geometric nonlinearity, alone or in combination with plasticity is included, and applications presented for a class of problems categorized as axisymmetric shells of revolution. The scope of the nonlinear analysis capabilities includes: (1) a membrane stress analysis, (2) bending and membrane stress analysis, (3) analysis of thick and thin axisymmetric bodies of revolution, (4) a general three dimensional analysis, and (5) analysis of laminated composites. Applications of the methods are made to a number of sample structures. Correlation with available analytic or experimental data range from good to excellent.

  14. Environmental management strategy: four forces analysis.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Martin W; Von Windheim, Jesko

    2015-01-01

    We develop an analytical approach for more systematically analyzing environmental management problems in order to develop strategic plans. This approach can be deployed by agencies, non-profit organizations, corporations, or other organizations and institutions tasked with improving environmental quality. The analysis relies on assessing the underlying natural processes followed by articulation of the relevant societal forces causing environmental change: (1) science and technology, (2) governance, (3) markets and the economy, and (4) public behavior. The four forces analysis is then used to strategize which types of actions might be most effective at influencing environmental quality. Such strategy has been under-used and under-valued in environmental management outside of the corporate sector, and we suggest that this four forces analysis is a useful analytic to begin developing such strategy. PMID:25331643

  15. Environmental Management Strategy: Four Forces Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Martin W.; Von Windheim, Jesko

    2015-01-01

    We develop an analytical approach for more systematically analyzing environmental management problems in order to develop strategic plans. This approach can be deployed by agencies, non-profit organizations, corporations, or other organizations and institutions tasked with improving environmental quality. The analysis relies on assessing the underlying natural processes followed by articulation of the relevant societal forces causing environmental change: (1) science and technology, (2) governance, (3) markets and the economy, and (4) public behavior. The four forces analysis is then used to strategize which types of actions might be most effective at influencing environmental quality. Such strategy has been under-used and under-valued in environmental management outside of the corporate sector, and we suggest that this four forces analysis is a useful analytic to begin developing such strategy.

  16. A least-squares framework for Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    De la Torre, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    Over the last century, Component Analysis (CA) methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA), Locality Preserving Projections (LPP), and Spectral Clustering (SC) have been extensively used as a feature extraction step for modeling, classification, visualization, and clustering. CA techniques are appealing because many can be formulated as eigen-problems, offering great potential for learning linear and nonlinear representations of data in closed-form. However, the eigen-formulation often conceals important analytic and computational drawbacks of CA techniques, such as solving generalized eigen-problems with rank deficient matrices (e.g., small sample size problem), lacking intuitive interpretation of normalization factors, and understanding commonalities and differences between CA methods. This paper proposes a unified least-squares framework to formulate many CA methods. We show how PCA, LDA, CCA, LPP, SC, and its kernel and regularized extensions correspond to a particular instance of least-squares weighted kernel reduced rank regression (LS--WKRRR). The LS-WKRRR formulation of CA methods has several benefits: 1) provides a clean connection between many CA techniques and an intuitive framework to understand normalization factors; 2) yields efficient numerical schemes to solve CA techniques; 3) overcomes the small sample size problem; 4) provides a framework to easily extend CA methods. We derive weighted generalizations of PCA, LDA, SC, and CCA, and several new CA techniques. PMID:21911913

  17. Vulnerability analysis of interdependent infrastructure systems: A methodological framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuliang; Hong, Liu; Chen, Xueguang

    2012-06-01

    Infrastructure systems such as power and water supplies make up the cornerstone of modern society which is essential for the functioning of a society and its economy. They become more and more interconnected and interdependent with the development of scientific technology and social economy. Risk and vulnerability analysis of interdependent infrastructures for security considerations has become an important subject, and some achievements have been made in this area. Since different infrastructure systems have different structural and functional properties, there is no universal all-encompassing 'silver bullet solution' to the problem of analyzing the vulnerability associated with interdependent infrastructure systems. So a framework of analysis is required. This paper takes the power and water systems of a major city in China as an example and develops a framework for the analysis of the vulnerability of interdependent infrastructure systems. Four interface design strategies based on distance, betweenness, degree, and clustering coefficient are constructed. Then two types of vulnerability (long-term vulnerability and focused vulnerability) are illustrated and analyzed. Finally, a method for ranking critical components in interdependent infrastructures is given for protection purposes. It is concluded that the framework proposed here is useful for vulnerability analysis of interdependent systems and it will be helpful for the system owners to make better decisions on infrastructure design and protection.

  18. Environmental Impact Analysis: Philosophy and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditton, Robert B.; Goodale, Thomas L.

    Proceedings of the Conference on Environmental Impact Analysis held in Green Bay, Wisconsin, January 4-5, 1972, are compiled in this report. The conference served as a forum for exchange of information among State and Federal agencies and educators on experiences with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970. Hopefully, results of the…

  19. The ecological limits of hydrologic alteration (ELOHA): A new framework for developing regional environmental flow standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poff, N.L.; Richter, B.D.; Arthington, A.H.; Bunn, S.E.; Naiman, R.J.; Kendy, E.; Acreman, M.; Apse, C.; Bledsoe, B.P.; Freeman, Mary C.; Henriksen, J.; Jacobson, R.B.; Kennen, J.G.; Merritt, D.M.; O'Keeffe, J. H.; Olden, J.D.; Rogers, K.; Tharme, R.E.; Warner, A.

    2010-01-01

    The flow regime is a primary determinant of the structure and function of aquatic and riparian ecosystems for streams and rivers. Hydrologic alteration has impaired riverine ecosystems on a global scale, and the pace and intensity of human development greatly exceeds the ability of scientists to assess the effects on a river-by-river basis. Current scientific understanding of hydrologic controls on riverine ecosystems and experience gained from individual river studies support development of environmental flow standards at the regional scale. 2. This paper presents a consensus view from a group of international scientists on a new framework for assessing environmental flow needs for many streams and rivers simultaneously to foster development and implementation of environmental flow standards at the regional scale. This framework, the ecological limits of hydrologic alteration (ELOHA), is a synthesis of a number of existing hydrologic techniques and environmental flow methods that are currently being used to various degrees and that can support comprehensive regional flow management. The flexible approach allows scientists, water-resource managers and stakeholders to analyse and synthesise available scientific information into ecologically based and socially acceptable goals and standards for management of environmental flows. 3. The ELOHA framework includes the synthesis of existing hydrologic and ecological databases from many rivers within a user-defined region to develop scientifically defensible and empirically testable relationships between flow alteration and ecological responses. These relationships serve as the basis for the societally driven process of developing regional flow standards. This is to be achieved by first using hydrologic modelling to build a 'hydrologic foundation' of baseline and current hydrographs for stream and river segments throughout the region. Second, using a set of ecologically relevant flow variables, river segments within the

  20. The Watershed as A Conceptual Framework for the Study of Environmental and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Kolok, Alan S.; Beseler, Cheryl L.; Chen, Xun-Hong; Shea, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    The watershed provides a physical basis for establishing linkages between aquatic contaminants, environmental health and human health. Current attempts to establish such linkages are limited by environmental and epidemiological constraints. Environmental limitations include difficulties in characterizing the temporal and spatial dynamics of agricultural runoff, in fully understanding the degradation and metabolism of these compounds in the environment, and in understanding complex mixtures. Epidemiological limitations include difficulties associated with the organization of risk factor data and uncertainty about which measurable endpoints are most appropriate for an agricultural setting. Nevertheless, it is our contention that an adoption of the watershed concept can alleviate some of these difficulties. From an environmental perspective, the watershed concept helps identify differences in land use and application of agrichemicals at a level of resolution relevant to human health outcomes. From an epidemiological perspective, the watershed concept places data into a construct with environmental relevance. In this perspectives paper, we discuss how the watershed can provide a conceptual framework for studies in environmental and human health. PMID:20508751

  1. A Hierarchical Analysis of Environmental Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, James M.; Baumgart, Neil

    1981-01-01

    Reported is a reanalysis of responses of a survey of environmental attitudes of English high school students. The purpose of the analysis was to try to determine if there was a hierarchical relationship among the items. Relationships were identified. (RH)

  2. Towards secure virtual directories : a risk analysis framework.

    SciTech Connect

    Claycomb, William R.

    2010-07-01

    Directory services are used by almost every enterprise computing environment to provide data concerning users, computers, contacts, and other objects. Virtual directories are components that provide directory services in a highly customized manner. Unfortunately, though the use of virtual directory services are widespread, an analysis of risks posed by their unique position and architecture has not been completed. We present a detailed analysis of six attacks to virtual directory services, including steps for detection and prevention. We also describe various categories of attack risks, and discuss what is necessary to launch an attack on virtual directories. Finally, we present a framework to use in analyzing risks to individual enterprise computing virtual directory instances. We show how to apply this framework to an example implementation, and discuss the benefits of doing so.

  3. ComPWA: A common amplitude analysis framework for PANDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, M.; Feldbauer, F.; Götzen, K.; Jasinski, P.; Karavdina, A.; Peters, K.; Fritsch, M.

    2014-06-01

    A large part of the physics program of the PANDA experiment at FAIR deals with the search for new conventional and exotic hadronic states like e.g. hybrids and glueballs. For many analyses PANDA will need an amplitude analysis, e.g. a partial wave analysis (PWA), to identify possible candidates and for the classification of known states. Therefore, a new, agile and efficient amplitude analysis framework ComPWA is under development. It is modularized to provide easy extension with models and formalisms as well as fitting of multiple datasets, even from different experiments. Experience from existing PWA programs was used to fix the requirements of the framework and to prevent it from restrictions. It will provide the standard estimation and optimization routines like Minuit2 and the Geneva library and be open to insert additional ones. The challenges involve parallelization, fitting with a high number of free parameters, managing complex meta-fits and quality assurance / comparability of fits. To test and develop the software, it will be used with data from running experiments like BaBar or BESIII. These proceedings show the status of the framework implementation as well as first test results.

  4. Leaching Test Relationships, Laboratory-to-Field Comparisons and Recommendations for Leaching Evaluation using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents examples of the relationships between the results of laboratory leaching tests, as defined by the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) or analogous international test methods, and leaching of constituents from a broad range of materials under di...

  5. Advancing Environmental Flow Science: Developing Frameworks for Altered Landscapes and Integrating Efforts Across Disciplines

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brewer, Shannon; McManamay, Ryan A.; Miller, Andrew D.; Mollenhauer, Robert; Worthington, Thomas A.; Arsuffi, Tom

    2016-05-13

    Environmental flows represent a legal mechanism to balance existing and future water uses and sustain non-use values. Here, we identify current challenges, provide examples where they are important, and suggest research advances that would benefit environmental flow science. Specifically, environmental flow science would benefit by (1) developing approaches to address streamflow needs in highly modified landscapes where historic flows do not provide reasonable comparisons, (2) integrating water quality needs where interactions are apparent with quantity but not necessarily the proximate factor of the ecological degradation, especially as frequency and magnitudes of inflows to bays and estuaries, (3) providing a bettermore » understanding of the ecological needs of native species to offset the often unintended consequences of benefiting non-native species or their impact on flows, (4) improving our understanding of the non-use economic value to balance consumptive economic values, and (5) increasing our understanding of the stakeholder socioeconomic spatial distribution of attitudes and perceptions across the landscape. Environmental flow science is still an emerging interdisciplinary field and by integrating socioeconomic disciplines and developing new frameworks to accommodate our altered landscapes, we should help advance environmental flow science and likely increase successful implementation of flow standards.« less

  6. Advancing Environmental Flow Science: Developing Frameworks for Altered Landscapes and Integrating Efforts Across Disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Shannon K.; McManamay, Ryan A.; Miller, Andrew D.; Mollenhauer, Robert; Worthington, Thomas A.; Arsuffi, Tom

    2016-08-01

    Environmental flows represent a legal mechanism to balance existing and future water uses and sustain non-use values. Here, we identify current challenges, provide examples where they are important, and suggest research advances that would benefit environmental flow science. Specifically, environmental flow science would benefit by (1) developing approaches to address streamflow needs in highly modified landscapes where historic flows do not provide reasonable comparisons, (2) integrating water quality needs where interactions are apparent with quantity but not necessarily the proximate factor of the ecological degradation, especially as frequency and magnitudes of inflows to bays and estuaries, (3) providing a better understanding of the ecological needs of native species to offset the often unintended consequences of benefiting non-native species or their impact on flows, (4) improving our understanding of the non-use economic value to balance consumptive economic values, and (5) increasing our understanding of the stakeholder socioeconomic spatial distribution of attitudes and perceptions across the landscape. Environmental flow science is still an emerging interdisciplinary field and by integrating socioeconomic disciplines and developing new frameworks to accommodate our altered landscapes, we should help advance environmental flow science and likely increase successful implementation of flow standards.

  7. Advancing Environmental Flow Science: Developing Frameworks for Altered Landscapes and Integrating Efforts Across Disciplines.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Shannon K; McManamay, Ryan A; Miller, Andrew D; Mollenhauer, Robert; Worthington, Thomas A; Arsuffi, Tom

    2016-08-01

    Environmental flows represent a legal mechanism to balance existing and future water uses and sustain non-use values. Here, we identify current challenges, provide examples where they are important, and suggest research advances that would benefit environmental flow science. Specifically, environmental flow science would benefit by (1) developing approaches to address streamflow needs in highly modified landscapes where historic flows do not provide reasonable comparisons, (2) integrating water quality needs where interactions are apparent with quantity but not necessarily the proximate factor of the ecological degradation, especially as frequency and magnitudes of inflows to bays and estuaries, (3) providing a better understanding of the ecological needs of native species to offset the often unintended consequences of benefiting non-native species or their impact on flows, (4) improving our understanding of the non-use economic value to balance consumptive economic values, and (5) increasing our understanding of the stakeholder socioeconomic spatial distribution of attitudes and perceptions across the landscape. Environmental flow science is still an emerging interdisciplinary field and by integrating socioeconomic disciplines and developing new frameworks to accommodate our altered landscapes, we should help advance environmental flow science and likely increase successful implementation of flow standards. PMID:27177541

  8. Comparing distributions of environmental outcomes for regulatory environmental justice analysis.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Kelly; Sheriff, Glenn

    2011-05-01

    Economists have long been interested in measuring distributional impacts of policy interventions. As environmental justice (EJ) emerged as an ethical issue in the 1970s, the academic literature has provided statistical analyses of the incidence and causes of various environmental outcomes as they relate to race, income, and other demographic variables. In the context of regulatory impacts, however, there is a lack of consensus regarding what information is relevant for EJ analysis, and how best to present it. This paper helps frame the discussion by suggesting a set of questions fundamental to regulatory EJ analysis, reviewing past approaches to quantifying distributional equity, and discussing the potential for adapting existing tools to the regulatory context. PMID:21655146

  9. Revised framework for pesticide aquatic environmental exposure assessment that accounts for vegetative filter strips.

    PubMed

    Sabbagh, George J; Fox, Garey A; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Lenz, Mark F

    2010-05-15

    For pesticides that do not pass higher-level environmental exposure assessments, vegetated filter strips (VFS) are often mandated for use of the compound. However, VFS physiographic characteristics (i.e., width) are not currently specified based on predictive modeling of VFS performance. This has been due to the lack of predictive tools that can explain the wide range of field-reported efficacies. This research hypothesizes that mechanistic modeling of VFS runoff and sediment trapping, integrated with an empirical, regression-based pesticide trapping equation and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) exposure framework, is able to effectively derive these VFS characteristics. To test this hypothesis, a well-tested process-based model for VFS (VFSMOD) was coupled with the pesticide trapping equation and integrated with EPA's PRZM/EXAMS exposure package. The revised framework was applied to a prescribed U.S. EPA assessment scenario for four hypothetical pesticides: more mobile (i.e., organic carbon (OC) sorption coefficients, K(oc), of 100 L/kg OC) and less mobile (2000 L/kg OC) pesticides that are fast degrading or stable (i.e., 10 or 10,000 d aquatic dissipation half-lives). A nonlinear and complex relationship was observed between pesticide reduction, VFS length, and rainfall plus runon event size. The impact of VFS on environmental exposure concentrations (EECs) was found to be dependent on the pesticide sorption and dissipation half-life and whether calculating an acute or chronic EEC. While acute and chronic EECs were equivalent for stable pesticides, for fast degrading pesticides the acute EEC depended on specific loading events. Therefore, while VFS may reduce the cumulative pesticide loading, a corresponding reduction in the acute EEC may not always be observed. Such results emphasize the need to incorporate physically based modeling of VFS reductions for pesticides that do not pass the current U.S. EPA exposure assessment framework. PMID:20394426

  10. Development Context Driven Change Awareness and Analysis Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarma, Anita; Branchaud, Josh; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Person, Suzette; Rungta, Neha; Wang, Yurong; Elbaum, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Recent work on workspace monitoring allows conflict prediction early in the development process, however, these approaches mostly use syntactic differencing techniques to compare different program versions. In contrast, traditional change-impact analysis techniques analyze related versions of the program only after the code has been checked into the master repository. We propose a novel approach, DeCAF (Development Context Analysis Framework), that leverages the development context to scope a change impact analysis technique. The goal is to characterize the impact of each developer on other developers in the team. There are various client applications such as task prioritization, early conflict detection, and providing advice on testing that can benefit from such a characterization. The DeCAF framework leverages information from the development context to bound the iDiSE change impact analysis technique to analyze only the parts of the code base that are of interest. Bounding the analysis can enable DeCAF to efficiently compute the impact of changes using a combination of program dependence and symbolic execution based approaches.

  11. Development Context Driven Change Awareness and Analysis Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarma, Anita; Branchaud, Josh; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Person, Suzette; Rungta, Neha

    2014-01-01

    Recent work on workspace monitoring allows conflict prediction early in the development process, however, these approaches mostly use syntactic differencing techniques to compare different program versions. In contrast, traditional change-impact analysis techniques analyze related versions of the program only after the code has been checked into the master repository. We propose a novel approach, De- CAF (Development Context Analysis Framework), that leverages the development context to scope a change impact analysis technique. The goal is to characterize the impact of each developer on other developers in the team. There are various client applications such as task prioritization, early conflict detection, and providing advice on testing that can benefit from such a characterization. The DeCAF framework leverages information from the development context to bound the iDiSE change impact analysis technique to analyze only the parts of the code base that are of interest. Bounding the analysis can enable DeCAF to efficiently compute the impact of changes using a combination of program dependence and symbolic execution based approaches.

  12. HistFitter software framework for statistical data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baak, M.; Besjes, G. J.; Côté, D.; Koutsman, A.; Lorenz, J.; Short, D.

    2015-04-01

    We present a software framework for statistical data analysis, called HistFitter, that has been used extensively by the ATLAS Collaboration to analyze big datasets originating from proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Since 2012 HistFitter has been the standard statistical tool in searches for supersymmetric particles performed by ATLAS. HistFitter is a programmable and flexible framework to build, book-keep, fit, interpret and present results of data models of nearly arbitrary complexity. Starting from an object-oriented configuration, defined by users, the framework builds probability density functions that are automatically fit to data and interpreted with statistical tests. Internally HistFitter uses the statistics packages RooStats and HistFactory. A key innovation of HistFitter is its design, which is rooted in analysis strategies of particle physics. The concepts of control, signal and validation regions are woven into its fabric. These are progressively treated with statistically rigorous built-in methods. Being capable of working with multiple models at once that describe the data, HistFitter introduces an additional level of abstraction that allows for easy bookkeeping, manipulation and testing of large collections of signal hypotheses. Finally, HistFitter provides a collection of tools to present results with publication quality style through a simple command-line interface.

  13. General Framework for Meta‐Analysis of Haplotype Association Tests

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Jing Hua; An, Ping; Guo, Xiuqing; Jensen, Richard A.; Marten, Jonathan; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Meidtner, Karina; Boeing, Heiner; Campbell, Archie; Rice, Kenneth M.; Scott, Robert A.; Yao, Jie; Schulze, Matthias B.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Province, Michael A.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Hayward, Caroline; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Meigs, James B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT For complex traits, most associated single nucleotide variants (SNV) discovered to date have a small effect, and detection of association is only possible with large sample sizes. Because of patient confidentiality concerns, it is often not possible to pool genetic data from multiple cohorts, and meta‐analysis has emerged as the method of choice to combine results from multiple studies. Many meta‐analysis methods are available for single SNV analyses. As new approaches allow the capture of low frequency and rare genetic variation, it is of interest to jointly consider multiple variants to improve power. However, for the analysis of haplotypes formed by multiple SNVs, meta‐analysis remains a challenge, because different haplotypes may be observed across studies. We propose a two‐stage meta‐analysis approach to combine haplotype analysis results. In the first stage, each cohort estimate haplotype effect sizes in a regression framework, accounting for relatedness among observations if appropriate. For the second stage, we use a multivariate generalized least square meta‐analysis approach to combine haplotype effect estimates from multiple cohorts. Haplotype‐specific association tests and a global test of independence between haplotypes and traits are obtained within our framework. We demonstrate through simulation studies that we control the type‐I error rate, and our approach is more powerful than inverse variance weighted meta‐analysis of single SNV analysis when haplotype effects are present. We replicate a published haplotype association between fasting glucose‐associated locus (G6PC2) and fasting glucose in seven studies from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium and we provide more precise haplotype effect estimates. PMID:27027517

  14. General Framework for Meta-Analysis of Haplotype Association Tests.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Jing Hua; An, Ping; Guo, Xiuqing; Jensen, Richard A; Marten, Jonathan; Huffman, Jennifer E; Meidtner, Karina; Boeing, Heiner; Campbell, Archie; Rice, Kenneth M; Scott, Robert A; Yao, Jie; Schulze, Matthias B; Wareham, Nicholas J; Borecki, Ingrid B; Province, Michael A; Rotter, Jerome I; Hayward, Caroline; Goodarzi, Mark O; Meigs, James B; Dupuis, Josée

    2016-04-01

    For complex traits, most associated single nucleotide variants (SNV) discovered to date have a small effect, and detection of association is only possible with large sample sizes. Because of patient confidentiality concerns, it is often not possible to pool genetic data from multiple cohorts, and meta-analysis has emerged as the method of choice to combine results from multiple studies. Many meta-analysis methods are available for single SNV analyses. As new approaches allow the capture of low frequency and rare genetic variation, it is of interest to jointly consider multiple variants to improve power. However, for the analysis of haplotypes formed by multiple SNVs, meta-analysis remains a challenge, because different haplotypes may be observed across studies. We propose a two-stage meta-analysis approach to combine haplotype analysis results. In the first stage, each cohort estimate haplotype effect sizes in a regression framework, accounting for relatedness among observations if appropriate. For the second stage, we use a multivariate generalized least square meta-analysis approach to combine haplotype effect estimates from multiple cohorts. Haplotype-specific association tests and a global test of independence between haplotypes and traits are obtained within our framework. We demonstrate through simulation studies that we control the type-I error rate, and our approach is more powerful than inverse variance weighted meta-analysis of single SNV analysis when haplotype effects are present. We replicate a published haplotype association between fasting glucose-associated locus (G6PC2) and fasting glucose in seven studies from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium and we provide more precise haplotype effect estimates. PMID:27027517

  15. A methodological framework for linking bioreactor function to microbial communities and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    de los Reyes, Francis L; Weaver, Joseph E; Wang, Ling

    2015-06-01

    In the continuing quest to relate microbial communities in bioreactors to function and environmental and operational conditions, engineers and biotechnologists have adopted the latest molecular and 'omic methods. Despite the large amounts of data generated, gaining mechanistic insights and using the data for predictive and practical purposes is still a huge challenge. We present a methodological framework that can guide experimental design, and discuss specific issues that can affect how researchers generate and use data to elucidate the relationships. We also identify, in general terms, bioreactor research opportunities that appear promising. PMID:25710123

  16. HistFitter - A flexible framework for statistical data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, J. M.; Baak, M.; Besjes, G. J.; Côté, D.; Koutsman, A.; Short, D.

    2015-05-01

    We present a software framework for statistical data analysis, called HistFitter, that has extensively been used in the ATLAS Collaboration to analyze data of proton-proton collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Most notably, HistFitter has become a de-facto standard in searches for supersymmetric particles since 2012, with some usage for Exotic and Higgs boson physics. HistFitter coherently combines several statistics tools in a programmable and flexible framework that is capable of bookkeeping hundreds of data models under study using thousands of generated input histograms. The key innovations of HistFitter are to weave the concepts of control, validation and signal regions into its very fabric, and to treat them with rigorous statistical methods, while providing multiple tools to visualize and interpret the results through a simple configuration interface.

  17. An Integrated Environmental and Water Accounting and Analytical Framework for Accountable water Governance: a Case Study for Haihe Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, C.

    2009-04-01

    Water is a critical issue in China for a variety of reasons. This is especially urgent in Haihe basin with poor water availability of 305 m3 per capita basis. With the rapid economic development and associated increases in water demand, the river basin has been enduring increasing water stress. Water for the ecosystem use has been compromised and the environment has been deteriorating. Water shortage and environmental degradation have become a bottleneck to the further development of the economy and society. On one side, previous water resource managers have emphasized the amount of water withdrawn but rarely take water quality into consideration. On the other side, environmental managers have usually ignored the importance of pollutant assimilating capacity of water flows for the wastewater control. It is especially important to measure the impacts of both water withdrawn and wastewater discharge on the hydro-ecosystem. Thus, water consumption should not only account for the amount of water inputs but also the amount of water contaminated in the hydro-ecosystem by the discharged wastewater. Water quantity and quality of return flows should also become the important components of such an environmental and water account. Because return flow from upstream sites represents an externality to downstream uses, which can be positive as an additional source and negative as a pollutant source. In this paper we present an integrated environmental and water accounting and analytical approach based on a distributed hydrological model WEP-L (Water and Energy transfer Process in Large river basins) combined with a simple water quality model. Our environmental and water accounting framework and analysis tool allows tracking water consumption on the input side, water pollution from the human system and water flows passing the hydrological system thus enabling us to deal with water resources of different qualities. Keywords: Environmental accounting; Water accounting; Water

  18. Analysis procedure for americium in environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, R.W.; Hayes, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    Several methods for the analysis of /sup 241/Am in environmental samples were evaluated and a preferred method was selected. This method was modified and used to determine the /sup 241/Am content in sediments, biota, and water. The advantages and limitations of the method are discussed. The method is also suitable for /sup 244/Cm analysis.

  19. An adaptive ant colony optimization framework for scheduling environmental flow management alternatives under varied environmental water availability conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szemis, J. M.; Maier, H. R.; Dandy, G. C.

    2014-10-01

    Human water use is increasing and, as such, water for the environment is limited and needs to be managed efficiently. One method for achieving this is the scheduling of environmental flow management alternatives (EFMAs) (e.g., releases, wetland regulators), with these schedules generally developed over a number of years. However, the availability of environmental water changes annually as a result of natural variability (e.g., drought, wet years). To incorporate this variation and schedule EFMAs in a operational setting, a previously formulated multiobjective optimization approach for EFMA schedule development used for long-term planning has been modified and incorporated into an adaptive framework. As part of this approach, optimal schedules are updated at regular intervals during the planning horizon based on environmental water allocation forecasts, which are obtained using artificial neural networks. In addition, the changes between current and updated schedules can be minimized to reduce any disruptions to long-term planning. The utility of the approach is assessed by applying it to an 89km section of the River Murray in South Australia. Results indicate that the approach is beneficial under a range of hydrological conditions and an improved ecological response is obtained in a operational setting compared with previous long-term approaches. Also, it successfully produces trade-offs between the number of disruptions to schedules and the ecological response, with results suggesting that ecological response increases with minimal alterations required to existing schedules. Overall, the results indicate that the information obtained using the proposed approach potentially aides managers in the efficient management of environmental water.

  20. Software Framework for Development of Web-GIS Systems for Analysis of Georeferenced Geophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okladnikov, I.; Gordov, E. P.; Titov, A. G.

    2011-12-01

    Georeferenced datasets (meteorological databases, modeling and reanalysis results, remote sensing products, etc.) are currently actively used in numerous applications including modeling, interpretation and forecast of climatic and ecosystem changes for various spatial and temporal scales. Due to inherent heterogeneity of environmental datasets as well as their size which might constitute up to tens terabytes for a single dataset at present studies in the area of climate and environmental change require a special software support. A dedicated software framework for rapid development of providing such support information-computational systems based on Web-GIS technologies has been created. The software framework consists of 3 basic parts: computational kernel developed using ITTVIS Interactive Data Language (IDL), a set of PHP-controllers run within specialized web portal, and JavaScript class library for development of typical components of web mapping application graphical user interface (GUI) based on AJAX technology. Computational kernel comprise of number of modules for datasets access, mathematical and statistical data analysis and visualization of results. Specialized web-portal consists of web-server Apache, complying OGC standards Geoserver software which is used as a base for presenting cartographical information over the Web, and a set of PHP-controllers implementing web-mapping application logic and governing computational kernel. JavaScript library aiming at graphical user interface development is based on GeoExt library combining ExtJS Framework and OpenLayers software. Based on the software framework an information-computational system for complex analysis of large georeferenced data archives was developed. Structured environmental datasets available for processing now include two editions of NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis, JMA/CRIEPI JRA-25 Reanalysis, ECMWF ERA-40 Reanalysis, ECMWF ERA Interim Reanalysis, MRI/JMA APHRODITE's Water Resources Project Reanalysis

  1. Strategic environmental assessment and national development plans in Turkey: Towards legal framework and operational procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Say, Nuriye Peker . E-mail: nursay@cu.edu.tr; Yuecel, Muzaffer

    2006-04-15

    National development plans were started to be prepared in Turkey in 1963. These plans are mandatory for public investments and guiding principles for private investments. They have a quality which guides and sets objectives for other plans in the country. Therefore, they can be evaluated as the main reason of successes and failures of sectoral investments or the problems that they cause directly or indirectly. Turkey is undergoing rapid industrialization, urbanization and population growth, thus environmental problems are on the increase. Although Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been applied to individual investments in Turkey since 1993, natural environment has continued to be affected because of human activities. Today, parallel to the developments in the world, it has been discussed that it is necessary to strengthen project-level Environmental Assessment (EA) and to practice Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). The interest in SEA, that is, EA at the level of proposed policies, plans and programs has grown significantly since 2000 in the country. Discussions and preparations have started about regulation which provides the legal and institutional framework for SEA in The Ministry of Environment and Forestry. However, since the scientific approach into the subject is very new in Turkey, it will take time to answer the questions about how and in what fields to practice. This research project aims at analyzing the possible practice opportunities of SEA in Turkey and the practicability of SEA into the National Five-Year Development Plan (FYDP) which is assumed at the highest level of planning hierarchy in the country. The research is conducted on two sections. In the first section, procedural approaches to SEA on national development plans are investigated and a framework for these approaches is adapted at the institutional level. In the second section, SEA form for energy sector in the development plans is developed. In this article, the findings

  2. Design of a leaching test framework for coal fly ash accounting for environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Zandi, Mohammad; Russell, Nigel V

    2007-08-01

    Fly ash from coal combustion contains trace elements which, on disposal or utilisation, may leach out, and therefore be a potential environmental hazard. Environmental conditions have a great impact on the mobility of fly ash constituents as well as the physical and chemical properties of the fly ash. Existing standard leaching methods have been shown to be inadequate by not representing possible disposal or utilisation scenarios. These tests are often criticised on the grounds that the results estimated are not reliable as they are not able to be extrapolated to the application scenario. In order to simulate leaching behaviour of fly ash in different environmental conditions and to reduce deviation between measurements in the fields and the laboratories, it is vital to study sensitivity of the fly ash constituents of interest to major factors controlling leachability. pH, liquid-to-solid ratio, leaching time, leachant type and redox potential are parameters affecting stability of elements in the fly ash. Sensitivity of trace elements to pH and liquid to solid ratio (as two major overriding factors) has been examined. Elements have been classified on the basis of their leaching behaviour under different conditions. Results from this study have been used to identify leaching mechanisms. Also the fly ash has been examined under different standard batch leaching tests in order to evaluate and to compare these tests. A Leaching Test Framework has been devised for assessing the stability of trace elements from fly ashes in different environments. This Framework assists in designing more realistic batch leaching tests appropriate to field conditions and can support the development of regulations and protocols for the management and disposal of coal combustion by-products or other solid wastes of environmental concern. PMID:17171257

  3. Environmental Quality of Italian Marine Water by Means of Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) Descriptor 9

    PubMed Central

    Maggi, Chiara; Lomiri, Serena; Di Lorenzo, Bianca; d’Antona, Marco; Berducci, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    ISPRA, on behalf of the Italian Ministry of Environment, carried out the initial assessment of environmental quality status of the 3 Italian subregions (Mediterranean Sea Region) on Descriptor 9. The approach adopted to define the GES started to verify that contaminants in fish and other seafood for human consumption did not exceed levels established by Community legislation (Reg. 1881/2006 and further updates). As the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires to use health tools to assess the environment, Italy decided to adopt a statistical range of acceptance of thresholds identified by national (D.Lgs. 152/2006 concerning water quality required for mussel farms) and international legislation (Reg. 1881/2006 and further updates), which allowed to use the health results and to employ them for the assessment of environmental quality. Italy proposed that Good Environmental Status (GES) is achieved when concentrations are lower than statistical range of acceptance, estimated on samples of fish and fishery products coming from only national waters. GIS-based approach a to perform different integration levels for station, cell’s grid and years, was used; the elaborations allowed to judge the environmental quality good. PMID:25251745

  4. The environmental state of rivers in the Balkans--a review within the DPSIR framework.

    PubMed

    Skoulikidis, Nikolaos Th

    2009-04-01

    Fifteen major Balkan rivers with over 80% of the inflows in Eastern Mediterranean were examined for their environmental state within the DPSIR framework. Physicogeographic and hydrochemical conditions differ substantially among river basins, which may be roughly classified into three main zones. Despite strong fragmentation, most of the rivers are liable to flash floods and have low summer flow. Decreasing precipitation and (mis)management caused a dramatic discharge reduction over the last decades. Wars, political instability, economical crises over the past decades, combined with administrative and structural constraints, poor environmental planning and inspection and, frequently, a lack of environmental awareness imposed significant pressures on rivers. Large wetland areas were drained in favour of widespread intensive agriculture. The treatment of municipal wastewaters is barely adequate in Greece and insufficient elsewhere, while management and treatment of mining and industrial wastewaters is overall poor. In general, lowland river sections are hydro-morphologically modified and are at the greatest pollution risk, while upstream areas mostly retain their natural conditions. Nutrient concentrations in a number of central and eastern Balkan rivers often exceed quality standards, whereas pesticides and heavy metals, partly of geochemical origin, occasionally exceed quality standards. Reservoirs retain vast masses of sediments, thus adversely affecting delta evolution, while dam operation disturbs the seasonal hydrological and hydrochemical regimes. Almost all Balkan countries face daunting water resource challenges because of urgently needed investments in water supply, sanitation, irrigation, and hydroelectricity. International treaties and designations and European Union Directives have mobilized pollution mitigation and conservation efforts. However, the application of environmental legislation has proved in a number of cases inadequate. Constraints arise

  5. Simultaneous determination of environmental estrogens: Diethylstilbestrol and estradiol using Cu-BTC frameworks-sensitized electrode.

    PubMed

    Ji, Liudi; Wang, Yanying; Wu, Kangbing; Zhang, Weikang

    2016-10-01

    It is quite important to monitor environmental estrogens in a rapid, sensitive, simple and cost-effective manner due to their wide existence and high toxicity. Using 1,3,5-Benzenetricarboxylic acid (H3BTC) as the ligand and copper ions as the center, Cu-BTC frameworks with surface area of 654.6m(2)/g were prepared, and then used to construct a novel electrochemical sensing platform for diethylstilbestrol (DES) and estradiol (E2). On the surface of Cu-BTC frameworks, two oxidation waves at 0.26V and 0.45V are observed for DES and E2, and the oxidation signals are improved greatly. The prepared Cu-BTC frameworks not only enhance the accumulation efficiency of DES and E2, but also improve their electron transfer ability. The influences of pH value, modification amount of Cu-BTC and accumulation time were examined. As a result, a highly-sensitive, rapid and convenient electrochemical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of DES and E2, with detection limit of 2.7nM and 1.1nM. The practical applications manifest this new sensing system is accurate and feasible. PMID:27474301

  6. An adaptive framework for selecting environmental monitoring protocols to support ocean renewable energy development.

    PubMed

    Shumchenia, Emily J; Smith, Sarah L; McCann, Jennifer; Carnevale, Michelle; Fugate, Grover; Kenney, Robert D; King, John W; Paton, Peter; Schwartz, Malia; Spaulding, Malcolm; Winiarski, Kristopher J

    2012-01-01

    Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs) are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial) depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave), structure (e.g., turbine), and foundation type (e.g., monopile). Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles) and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment. PMID:23319884

  7. An Adaptive Framework for Selecting Environmental Monitoring Protocols to Support Ocean Renewable Energy Development

    PubMed Central

    Shumchenia, Emily J.; Smith, Sarah L.; McCann, Jennifer; Carnevale, Michelle; Fugate, Grover; Kenney, Robert D.; King, John W.; Paton, Peter; Schwartz, Malia; Spaulding, Malcolm; Winiarski, Kristopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs) are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial) depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave), structure (e.g., turbine), and foundation type (e.g., monopile). Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles) and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment. PMID:23319884

  8. A framework for the assessment of the environmental risk posed by pharmaceuticals originating from hospital effluents.

    PubMed

    Al Aukidy, Mustafa; Verlicchi, Paola; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2014-09-15

    The consumption of pharmaceuticals is increasing in both hospitals and households. After administration, many compounds enter the water cycle as parent compounds or their metabolites via excretion. Conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants are unable to efficiently remove all the different compounds found in sewage and, consequently, treated effluents are one of the main sources of persistent micropollutants in the environment. Hospital patients are administered relatively high quantities of drugs and therefore hospital wastewaters can consistently contribute to treatment plant influent loads, with the magnitude of environmental risk posed by pharmaceuticals originating from hospital effluents largely unknown. This study has therefore developed a framework to enable authorities responsible for hospital management and environmental health to evaluate such risk, considering site-specific information such as the contribution of human population and hospital sizes, wastewater treatment removal efficiency, and potential dilution in the receiving water body. The framework was applied to three case studies, that are representative of frequent situations in many countries, and findings demonstrated that the degree of risk posed by any compound was site-specific and depended on a combination of several factors: compound concentration and toxicity, compound removal efficiency in the wastewater treatment plant and dilution factor. Ofloxacin, 17α-ethinylestradiol, erythromycin and sulfamethoxazole were identified as compounds of concern and might require management in order to reduce risk. PMID:24937492

  9. Lake eutrophication and environmental change: A viability framework for resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, Jean-Denis; Rougé, Charles; Deffuant, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    We present a simple stochastic model of lake eutrophication to demonstrate how the mathematical framework of viability theory fosters operational definitions of resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity, and then helps understand which response one should bring to environmental changes. The model represents the phosphorus dynamics, given that high concentrations trigger a regime change from oligotrophic to eutrophic, and causes ecological but also economic losses, for instance from tourism. Phosphorus comes from agricultural inputs upstream of the lake, and we will consider a stochastic input. We consider the system made of both the lake and its upstream region, and explore how to maintain the desirable ecological and economic properties of this system. In the viability framework, we translate these desirable properties into state constraints, then examine how, given the dynamics of the model and the available policy options, the properties can be kept. The set of states for which there exists a policy to keep the properties is called the viability kernel. We extend this framework to both major perturbations and long-term environmental changes. In our model, since the phosphorus inputs and outputs from the lake depend on rainfall, we will focus on extreme rainfall events and long-term changes in the rainfall regime. They can be described as changes in the state of the system, and may displace it outside the viability kernel. Its response can then be described using the concepts of resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity. Resilience is the capacity to recover by getting back to the viability kernel where the dynamics keep the system safe, and in this work we assume it to be the first objective of management. Computed for a given trajectory, vulnerability is a measure of the consequence of violating a property. We propose a family of functions from which cost functions and other vulnerability indicators can be derived for any trajectory. There can be

  10. Analysis and System Design Framework for Infrared Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, B.J.; Smith, B.W.; Laubscher, B.E.; Villeneuve, P.V.; Briles, S.D.

    1999-04-05

    The authors present a preliminary analysis and design framework developed for the evaluation and optimization of infrared, Imaging Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer (SHS) electro-optic systems. Commensurate with conventional interferometric spectrometers, SHS modeling requires an integrated analysis environment for rigorous evaluation of system error propagation due to detection process, detection noise, system motion, retrieval algorithm and calibration algorithm. The analysis tools provide for optimization of critical system parameters and components including : (1) optical aperture, f-number, and spectral transmission, (2) SHS interferometer grating and Littrow parameters, and (3) image plane requirements as well as cold shield, optical filtering, and focal-plane dimensions, pixel dimensions and quantum efficiency, (4) SHS spatial and temporal sampling parameters, and (5) retrieval and calibration algorithm issues.

  11. Watershed Planning within a Quantitative Scenario Analysis Framework.

    PubMed

    Merriam, Eric R; Petty, J Todd; Strager, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    There is a critical need for tools and methodologies capable of managing aquatic systems within heavily impacted watersheds. Current efforts often fall short as a result of an inability to quantify and predict complex cumulative effects of current and future land use scenarios at relevant spatial scales. The goal of this manuscript is to provide methods for conducting a targeted watershed assessment that enables resource managers to produce landscape-based cumulative effects models for use within a scenario analysis management framework. Sites are first selected for inclusion within the watershed assessment by identifying sites that fall along independent gradients and combinations of known stressors. Field and laboratory techniques are then used to obtain data on the physical, chemical, and biological effects of multiple land use activities. Multiple linear regression analysis is then used to produce landscape-based cumulative effects models for predicting aquatic conditions. Lastly, methods for incorporating cumulative effects models within a scenario analysis framework for guiding management and regulatory decisions (e.g., permitting and mitigation) within actively developing watersheds are discussed and demonstrated for 2 sub-watersheds within the mountaintop mining region of central Appalachia. The watershed assessment and management approach provided herein enables resource managers to facilitate economic and development activity while protecting aquatic resources and producing opportunity for net ecological benefits through targeted remediation. PMID:27501287

  12. TEAK: topology enrichment analysis framework for detecting activated biological subpathways.

    PubMed

    Judeh, Thair; Johnson, Cole; Kumar, Anuj; Zhu, Dongxiao

    2013-02-01

    To mine gene expression data sets effectively, analysis frameworks need to incorporate methods that identify intergenic relationships within enriched biologically relevant subpathways. For this purpose, we developed the Topology Enrichment Analysis frameworK (TEAK). TEAK employs a novel in-house algorithm and a tailor-made Clique Percolation Method to extract linear and nonlinear KEGG subpathways, respectively. TEAK scores subpathways using the Bayesian Information Criterion for context specific data and the Kullback-Leibler divergence for case-control data. In this article, we utilized TEAK with experimental studies to analyze microarray data sets profiling stress responses in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using a public microarray data set, we identified via TEAK linear sphingolipid metabolic subpathways activated during the yeast response to nitrogen stress, and phenotypic analyses of the corresponding deletion strains indicated previously unreported fitness defects for the dpl1Δ and lag1Δ mutants under conditions of nitrogen limitation. In addition, we studied the yeast filamentous response to nitrogen stress by profiling changes in transcript levels upon deletion of two key filamentous growth transcription factors, FLO8 and MSS11. Via TEAK we identified a nonlinear glycerophospholipid metabolism subpathway involving the SLC1 gene, which we found via mutational analysis to be required for yeast filamentous growth. PMID:23268448

  13. Detrended fluctuation analysis as a regression framework: Estimating dependence at different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2015-02-01

    We propose a framework combining detrended fluctuation analysis with standard regression methodology. The method is built on detrended variances and covariances and it is designed to estimate regression parameters at different scales and under potential nonstationarity and power-law correlations. The former feature allows for distinguishing between effects for a pair of variables from different temporal perspectives. The latter ones make the method a significant improvement over the standard least squares estimation. Theoretical claims are supported by Monte Carlo simulations. The method is then applied on selected examples from physics, finance, environmental science, and epidemiology. For most of the studied cases, the relationship between variables of interest varies strongly across scales.

  14. The Environmental Virtual Observatory pilot project: An application of the hydrological multi-modelling FUSE framework for ~1100 UK catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freer, Jim

    2013-04-01

    A strategy being piloted in the UK as the Environmental Virtual Observatory pilot (EVOp), funded by NERC, is to demonstrate the use of cyber-infrastructure and cloud computing resources to investigate better methods of linking data and models and to demonstrate scenario analysis for research, policy and operational needs. The research will provide new ways the scientific and stakeholder communities come together to exploit current environmental information, knowledge and experience in an open framework. Here we report on the national modelling workpackge of the EVOp that has developed strategies for simulating hydrology and biogeochemistry for the UK for 1,100 catchments. We primarily report on our research to apply the FUSE methodology at the national scale in the U.K., using this within a Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) approach to evaluate nearly 1100 catchments ranging in size from 100 to 104 km2. The national coverage reveals how model parameters, structures and structural errors vary across space. Also, as some of the smaller catchments are nested within larger ones, comparisons across the different catchment scales reveals patterns of model structural and parametric uncertainty of great interest in understanding hydrological variability and consistencies of model hypotheses within subnational regions. Crucially we believe this approach necessitates the use of uncertainty evaluation methods to try to take into account the differences in the quality of observational data between catchments. We also show how different objective function metrics of model performance affect the resultant behavioural model parameters and assoiated structures. In essence this is a framework for national hypothesis testing by multi-model rejection. This research is a key contribution to the national scale modelling being conducted in the NERC 'Environmental Virtual Observatory' pilot project.

  15. Bridging Scales: Developing a Framework to Build a City-Scale Environmental Scenario for Japanese Municipalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, S.; Fujita, T.; Nakayama, T.; Xu, K.

    2007-12-01

    There is an ongoing project on establishing environmental scenarios in Japan to evaluate middle to long-term environmental policy and technology options toward low carbon society. In this project, the time horizon of the scenarios is set for 2050 on the ground that a large part of social infrastructure in Japan is likely to be renovated by that time, and cities are supposed to play important roles in building low carbon society in Japan. This belief is held because cities or local governments could implement various policies and programs, such as land use planning and promotion of new technologies with low GHG emissions, which produce an effect in an ununiform manner, taking local socio-economic conditions into account, while higher governments, either national or prefectural, could impose environmental tax on electricity and gas to alleviate ongoing GHG emissions, which uniformly covers their jurisdictions. In order for local governments to devise and implement concrete administrative actions equipped with rational policies and technologies, referring the environmental scenarios developed for the entire nation, we need to localize the national scenarios, both in terms of spatial and temporal extent, so that they could better reflect local socio-economic and institutional conditions. In localizing the national scenarios, the participation of stakeholders is significant because they play major roles in shaping future society. Stakeholder participation in the localization process would bring both creative and realistic inputs on how future unfolds on a city scale. In this research, 1) we reviewed recent efforts on international and domestic scenario development to set a practical time horizon for a city-scale environmental scenario, which would lead to concrete environmental policies and programs, 2) designed a participatory scenario development/localization process, drawing on the framework of the 'Story-and-Simulation' or SAS approach, which Alcamo(2001) proposed

  16. FIND--a unified framework for neural data analysis.

    PubMed

    Meier, Ralph; Egert, Ulrich; Aertsen, Ad; Nawrot, Martin P

    2008-10-01

    The complexity of neurophysiology data has increased tremendously over the last years, especially due to the widespread availability of multi-channel recording techniques. With adequate computing power the current limit for computational neuroscience is the effort and time it takes for scientists to translate their ideas into working code. Advanced analysis methods are complex and often lack reproducibility on the basis of published descriptions. To overcome this limitation we develop FIND (Finding Information in Neural Data) as a platform-independent, open source framework for the analysis of neuronal activity data based on Matlab (Mathworks). Here, we outline the structure of the FIND framework and describe its functionality, our measures of quality control, and the policies for developers and users. Within FIND we have developed a unified data import from various proprietary formats, simplifying standardized interfacing with tools for analysis and simulation. The toolbox FIND covers a steadily increasing number of tools. These analysis tools address various types of neural activity data, including discrete series of spike events, continuous time series and imaging data. Additionally, the toolbox provides solutions for the simulation of parallel stochastic point processes to model multi-channel spiking activity. We illustrate two examples of complex analyses with FIND tools: First, we present a time-resolved characterization of the spiking irregularity in an in vivo extracellular recording from a mushroom-body extrinsic neuron in the honeybee during odor stimulation. Second, we describe layer specific input dynamics in the rat primary visual cortex in vivo in response to visual flash stimulation on the basis of multi-channel spiking activity. PMID:18692360

  17. 43 CFR 3425.3 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... area in accordance with 40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508. BLM will publish a notice in the Federal... the making of any other findings prerequisite to lease issuance. (43 CFR 3400.3, 3461.1(a)) ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Environmental analysis. 3425.3...

  18. 23 CFR 710.305 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (NEPA) process, as described in FHWA's NEPA regulations in 23 CFR part 771, normally must be conducted... acquisition, provided conditions prescribed in 23 U.S.C. 108(c) and 23 CFR 710.501, are satisfied. ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental analysis. 710.305 Section 710.305...

  19. 23 CFR 710.305 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (NEPA) process, as described in FHWA's NEPA regulations in 23 CFR part 771, normally must be conducted... acquisition, provided conditions prescribed in 23 U.S.C. 108(c) and 23 CFR 710.501, are satisfied. ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental analysis. 710.305 Section 710.305...

  20. 23 CFR 710.305 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (NEPA) process, as described in FHWA's NEPA regulations in 23 CFR part 771, normally must be conducted... acquisition, provided conditions prescribed in 23 U.S.C. 108(c) and 23 CFR 710.501, are satisfied. ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental analysis. 710.305 Section 710.305...

  1. 23 CFR 710.305 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (NEPA) process, as described in FHWA's NEPA regulations in 23 CFR part 771, normally must be conducted... acquisition, provided conditions prescribed in 23 U.S.C. 108(c) and 23 CFR 710.501, are satisfied. ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Environmental analysis. 710.305 Section 710.305...

  2. 23 CFR 710.305 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (NEPA) process, as described in FHWA's NEPA regulations in 23 CFR part 771, normally must be conducted... acquisition, provided conditions prescribed in 23 U.S.C. 108(c) and 23 CFR 710.501, are satisfied. ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental analysis. 710.305 Section 710.305...

  3. Comparative Environmental Threat Analysis: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latour, J. B.; Reiling, R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews how carrying capacity for different environmental problems is operationalized. Discusses whether it is possible to compare threats, using the exceeding of carrying capacity as a yardstick. Points out problems in comparative threat analysis using three case studies: threats to European groundwater resources, threats to ecosystems in Europe,…

  4. A Python Plug-in Based Computational Framework for Spatially Distributed Environmental and Earth Sciences Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willgoose, G. R.

    2009-12-01

    One of the pioneering landform evolution models, SIBERIA, while developed in the 1980’s is still widely used in the science community and is a key component of engineering software used to assess the long-term stability of man-made landforms such as rehabilitated mine sites and nuclear waste repositories. While SIBERIA is very reliable, computationally fast and well tested (both its underlying science and the computer code) the range of emerging applications have challenged the ability of the author to maintain and extend the underlying computer code. Moreover, the architecture of the SIBERIA code is not well suited to collaborative extension of its capabilities without often triggering forking of the code base. This paper describes a new modelling framework designed to supersede SIBERIA (as well as other earth sciences codes by the author) called TelluSim. The design is such that it is potentially more than simply a new landform evolution model, but TelluSim is a more general dynamical system modelling framework using time evolving GIS data as its spatial discretisation. TelluSim is designed as an open modular framework facilitating open-sourcing of the code, while addressing compromises made in the original design of SIBERIA in the 1980’s. An important aspect of the design of TelluSim was to minimise the overhead in interfacing the modules with TelluSim, and minimise any requirement for recoding of existing software, so eliminating a major disadvantage of more complex frameworks. The presentation will discuss in more detail the reasoning behind the design of TelluSim, and experiences of the advantages and disadvantages of using Python relative to other approaches (e.g. Matlab, R). The paper will discuss examples of how TelluSim has facilitated the incorporation and testing of new algorithms, and environmental processes, and the support for novel science and data testing methodologies. It will also discuss plans to link TelluSim with other open source

  5. Tracking and Analysis Framework (TAF) model documentation and user`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Bloyd, C.; Camp, J.; Conzelmann, G.

    1996-12-01

    With passage of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the United States embarked on a policy for controlling acid deposition that has been estimated to cost at least $2 billion. Title IV of the Act created a major innovation in environmental regulation by introducing market-based incentives - specifically, by allowing electric utility companies to trade allowances to emit sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). The National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) has been tasked by Congress to assess what Senator Moynihan has termed this {open_quotes}grand experiment.{close_quotes} Such a comprehensive assessment of the economic and environmental effects of this legislation has been a major challenge. To help NAPAP face this challenge, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored development of an integrated assessment model, known as the Tracking and Analysis Framework (TAF). This section summarizes TAF`s objectives and its overall design.

  6. Coping with change: a framework for environmental signals and how neuroendocrine pathways might respond.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, John C

    2015-04-01

    The Earth has always been a changeable place but now warming trends shift seasons and storms occur with greater frequency, intensity and duration. This has prompted reference to the modern era as the Anthropocene caused by human activity. This era poses great challenges for all life on earth and important questions include why and how some organisms can cope and others cannot? It is of heuristic value to consider a framework for types of environmental signals and how they might act. This is especially important as predictable changes of the environment (seasonality) are shifting rapidly as well as unpredictable changes (perturbations) in novel ways. What we need to know is how organisms perceive their environment, transduce that information into neuroendocrine signals that orchestrate morphological, physiological and behavioral responses. Given these goals we can begin to address the questions: do neuroendocrine systems have sufficient flexibility to acclimate to significant change in phenology, are genetic changes leading to adaptation necessary, or both? PMID:25511258

  7. User's Manual for the Object User Interface (OUI): An Environmental Resource Modeling Framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markstrom, Steven L.; Koczot, Kathryn M.

    2008-01-01

    The Object User Interface is a computer application that provides a framework for coupling environmental-resource models and for managing associated temporal and spatial data. The Object User Interface is designed to be easily extensible to incorporate models and data interfaces defined by the user. Additionally, the Object User Interface is highly configurable through the use of a user-modifiable, text-based control file that is written in the eXtensible Markup Language. The Object User Interface user's manual provides (1) installation instructions, (2) an overview of the graphical user interface, (3) a description of the software tools, (4) a project example, and (5) specifications for user configuration and extension.

  8. Strategic science: new frameworks to bring scientific expertise to environmental disaster response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoepler, Teresa Michelle; Ludwig, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    Science is critical to society’s ability to prepare for, respond to, and recover from environmental crises. Natural and technological disasters such as disease outbreaks, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, oil spills, and tsunamis require coordinated scientific expertise across a range of disciplines to shape effective policies and protocols. Five years after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, new organizational frameworks have arisen for scientists and engineers to apply their expertise to disaster response and recovery in a variety of capacities. Here, we describe examples of these opportunities, including an exciting new collaboration between the Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) and the Department of the Interior’s (DOI) Strategic Sciences Group (SSG).

  9. [Environmental management: critical analysis, scenarios and challenges].

    PubMed

    Porto, Marcelo Firpo de Souza; Schütz, Gabriel Eduardo

    2012-06-01

    This article discusses the limits, alternatives and challenges of environmental management in contemporary globalized capitalist societies. It is based on a critical analysis supported by authors from social sciences, political ecology and public health. To this end, we systematize the meaning of hegemonic environmental management in terms of eco-efficiency and its limits to tackle environmental risks and construct democratic processes and societies. We developed four ideal scenarios involving possible combinations of environmental management and democracy. This model served as a base, together with academic studies and the theoretical and militant experience of the authors, for a reflection on the current characteristics and future trends of environmental management and democracy, with emphasis on the reality of Latin America, specifically Brazil. Lastly, we discuss possibilities for social transformation taking into consideration the contradictions and emancipatory alternatives resulting from confrontations between hegemonic tendencies of the market and counter-hegemonic utopias and social movements. The latter assume principles of environmental justice, economic solidarity, agro-ecology and sustainability as well as the construction of new epistemologies. PMID:22699636

  10. Use of macroalgae stored in an Environmental Specimen Bank for application of some European Framework Directives.

    PubMed

    Viana, I G; Aboal, J R; Fernández, J A; Real, C; Villares, R; Carballeira, A

    2010-03-01

    Different European Framework Directives have established a series of objectives for conservation of the coast, and monitoring tools must be made available to test compliance with these aims. In the present study the use of macroalgae deposited in an Environmental Specimen Bank was evaluated as a possible environmental tool for monitoring the coastal ecosystem. The concentrations of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in three species of the genus Fucus (Fucus spiralis, Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus ceranoides) were measured at sampling sites distributed along the coast of Galicia (NW Spain). In the period 1990-2001, the concentrations of the metals were higher in 1990 than in 2001, with the exception of: i) Mn in F. ceranoides and Fe in F. spiralis-F. vesiculosus, for which there were no differences between the sampling periods, and ii) Zn in F. vesiculosus and Fe in F. ceranoides, for which the concentrations were higher in 2001 than in 1990. In the period 2001-2007 concentrations of the metals were more stable, especially in F. ceranoides (e.g. Al, Fe, Hg, Ni and V). The concentrations were also more stable vin F. vesiculosus in 2005 (i.e. Al, Cr, Fe, Mn and Zn). The population density distributions are consistent with the results of the statistical tests. The results indicate that macroalgae of the genus Fucus may be useful for applying different European Framework Directives, given that the macroalgae are sufficiently sensitive to changes in concentrations of metals, and may be suitable for long-term monitoring and used for the detection of increased concentrations of metals (real-time monitoring). PMID:19963235

  11. A fuzzy stochastic framework for managing hydro-environmental and socio-economic interactions under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subagadis, Yohannes Hagos; Schütze, Niels; Grundmann, Jens

    2014-05-01

    An amplified interconnectedness between a hydro-environmental and socio-economic system brings about profound challenges of water management decision making. In this contribution, we present a fuzzy stochastic approach to solve a set of decision making problems, which involve hydrologically, environmentally, and socio-economically motivated criteria subjected to uncertainty and ambiguity. The proposed methodological framework combines objective and subjective criteria in a decision making procedure for obtaining an acceptable ranking in water resources management alternatives under different type of uncertainty (subjective/objective) and heterogeneous information (quantitative/qualitative) simultaneously. The first step of the proposed approach involves evaluating the performance of alternatives with respect to different types of criteria. The ratings of alternatives with respect to objective and subjective criteria are evaluated by simulation-based optimization and fuzzy linguistic quantifiers, respectively. Subjective and objective uncertainties related to the input information are handled through linking fuzziness and randomness together. Fuzzy decision making helps entail the linguistic uncertainty and a Monte Carlo simulation process is used to map stochastic uncertainty. With this framework, the overall performance of each alternative is calculated using an Order Weighted Averaging (OWA) aggregation operator accounting for decision makers' experience and opinions. Finally, ranking is achieved by conducting pair-wise comparison of management alternatives. This has been done on the basis of the risk defined by the probability of obtaining an acceptable ranking and mean difference in total performance for the pair of management alternatives. The proposed methodology is tested in a real-world hydrosystem, to find effective and robust intervention strategies for the management of a coastal aquifer system affected by saltwater intrusion due to excessive groundwater

  12. iGlobe: An Interactive Visualization and Analysis Framework for Geospatial Data

    2011-07-22

    The iGlobe system is a desktop-based visualization and analysis environment which allows seamless integration of multiple geospatial data sets from varied sources and provides an interface to interactively analyze the different data sets and apply sophisticated data analysis and mining algorithms in a near real time fashion. The framework is highly desirable in domains such as earth and climate sciences where great emphasis is placed on simultaneous analysis of different data sets such as remotemore » sensing images, climate model simulation outputs, and other environmental and demographic databases, to understand weather and climate systems and the impact of climate change in nature and people.« less

  13. Towards tributyltin quantification in natural water at the Environmental Quality Standard level required by the Water Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    Alasonati, Enrica; Fettig, Ina; Richter, Janine; Philipp, Rosemarie; Milačič, Radmila; Sčančar, Janez; Zuliani, Tea; Tunç, Murat; Bilsel, Mine; Gören, Ahmet Ceyhan; Fisicaro, Paola

    2016-11-01

    The European Union (EU) has included tributyltin (TBT) and its compounds in the list of priority water pollutants. Quality standards demanded by the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) require determination of TBT at so low concentration level that chemical analysis is still difficult and further research is needed to improve the sensitivity, the accuracy and the precision of existing methodologies. Within the frame of a joint research project "Traceable measurements for monitoring critical pollutants under the European Water Framework Directive" in the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP), four metrological and designated institutes have developed a primary method to quantify TBT in natural water using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and species-specific isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SSIDMS). The procedure has been validated at the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) level (0.2ngL(-1) as cation) and at the WFD-required limit of quantification (LOQ) (0.06ngL(-1) as cation). The LOQ of the methodology was 0.06ngL(-1) and the average measurement uncertainty at the LOQ was 36%, which agreed with WFD requirements. The analytical difficulties of the method, namely the presence of TBT in blanks and the sources of measurement uncertainties, as well as the interlaboratory comparison results are discussed in detail. PMID:27591644

  14. A Bayesian Framework for Reliability Analysis of Spacecraft Deployments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, John W.; Gallo, Luis; Kaminsky, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Deployable subsystems are essential to mission success of most spacecraft. These subsystems enable critical functions including power, communications and thermal control. The loss of any of these functions will generally result in loss of the mission. These subsystems and their components often consist of unique designs and applications for which various standardized data sources are not applicable for estimating reliability and for assessing risks. In this study, a two stage sequential Bayesian framework for reliability estimation of spacecraft deployment was developed for this purpose. This process was then applied to the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Sunshield subsystem, a unique design intended for thermal control of the Optical Telescope Element. Initially, detailed studies of NASA deployment history, "heritage information", were conducted, extending over 45 years of spacecraft launches. This information was then coupled to a non-informative prior and a binomial likelihood function to create a posterior distribution for deployments of various subsystems uSing Monte Carlo Markov Chain sampling. Select distributions were then coupled to a subsequent analysis, using test data and anomaly occurrences on successive ground test deployments of scale model test articles of JWST hardware, to update the NASA heritage data. This allowed for a realistic prediction for the reliability of the complex Sunshield deployment, with credibility limits, within this two stage Bayesian framework.

  15. HistFitter: a flexible framework for statistical data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besjes, G. J.; Baak, M.; Côté, D.; Koutsman, A.; Lorenz, J. M.; Short, D.

    2015-12-01

    HistFitter is a software framework for statistical data analysis that has been used extensively in the ATLAS Collaboration to analyze data of proton-proton collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Most notably, HistFitter has become a de-facto standard in searches for supersymmetric particles since 2012, with some usage for Exotic and Higgs boson physics. HistFitter coherently combines several statistics tools in a programmable and flexible framework that is capable of bookkeeping hundreds of data models under study using thousands of generated input histograms. HistFitter interfaces with the statistics tools HistFactory and RooStats to construct parametric models and to perform statistical tests of the data, and extends these tools in four key areas. The key innovations are to weave the concepts of control, validation and signal regions into the very fabric of HistFitter, and to treat these with rigorous methods. Multiple tools to visualize and interpret the results through a simple configuration interface are also provided.

  16. Priorities for the poor: a conceptual framework for policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Pleskovic, B; Sivitanides, P

    1993-04-01

    A number of poverty alleviation strategies have been developed over the last 2 decades. While these varies approaches have helped stimulate and guide policymaker consideration of the issue, poverty nonetheless remains an enormous problem in most developing countries. Budgetary and administrative constraints demand that the comprehensive basic needs of the poor not be addressed concurrently. Poverty policy and practice will instead be most effective if needs and expenditures identified by evaluating social indicators and social expenditure programs are prioritized. Applied to the case of Morocco, a conceptual framework is presented for identifying priority poverty problems and social expenditure policies. The methodology allows one to sort out critical poverty problems and analyze their causes by using aggregate, territorial, and references indicators; provides a framework for understanding and evaluating the interlinked effects of investments in social sectors; and introduces a tool for selecting cost-effective policy packages for poverty alleviation. The methodology could, however, be refined by improving the derivation of reference indicators by accounting for predetermined government objectives. The estimation of direct and indirect effects of investments in the critical poverty sectors could also be improved. Additional research is called for to determine how econometric models should be structured to aid in quantifying Morocco's SIO tables and how the estimated linkages may be used to extend and improve the cost-benefit analysis of antipoverty policies. PMID:12286577

  17. Spatial data analysis and environmental justice

    SciTech Connect

    Bahadur, R.; Samuels, W.B.; Williams, J.W.; Zeitoun, A.H.

    1997-08-01

    Evaluations of environmental justice for government actions concerned with the transportation of hazardous materials over cross country routes presents a significant challenge in spatial data analysis. The sheer volume of data required for accurate identification of minority and low-income populations along the routes and at the endpoints can be formidable. Managing and integrating large volumes of information with state-of-the-art tools is essential in the analysis of environmental justice and equity concerns surrounding transportation of hazardous materials. This paper discusses the role and limitations of geographical information systems in the analysis and visualization of populations potentially affected by the transportation of hazardous materials over transcontinental ground and water routes. Case studies are used to demonstrate the types of data and analyses needed for evaluations of environmental justice for cross country routes and end points. Inherent capabilities and limitations in spatial resolution are evaluated for environmental assessments in which potentially affected areas are quantified based on the physical characteristics of the hazardous cargo.

  18. Field Raman spectrograph for environmental analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Carrabba, M.M.

    1994-11-01

    Following the identification of a potentially contaminated facility (DOE Site Characterization), the type of contamination and its extent must be characterized before remediation can begin. For soil and ground water, it is important to limit remediation activities to contaminated locations. In situ techniques are extremely useful for mapping contaminant distribution as well as for measuring remediation effectiveness. This article describes the first phase of a program to take existing Raman technology and integrate it into a system of hardware, software and operational protocols which can be evaluated for in situ environmental analysis at DOE environmental restoration field sites. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Proposed framework for the Western Area Power Administration Environmental Risk Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, C.S.; DiMassa, F.V.; Pelto, P.J.; Brothers, A.J.; Roybal, A.L.

    1994-12-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) views environmental protection and compliance as a top priority as it manages the construction, operation, and maintenance of its vast network of transmission lines, substations, and other facilities. A recent Department of Energy audit of Western`s environmental management activities recommends that Western adopt a formal environmental risk program. To accomplish this goal, Western, in conjunction with Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is in the process of developing a centrally coordinated environmental risk program. This report presents the results of this design effort, and indicates the direction in which Western`s environmental risk program is heading. Western`s environmental risk program will consist of three main components: risk communication, risk assessment, and risk management/decision making. Risk communication is defined as an exchange of information on the potential for threats to human health, public safety, or the environment. This information exchange provides a mechanism for public involvement, and also for the participation in the risk assessment and management process by diverse groups or offices within Western. The objective of risk assessment is to evaluate and rank the relative magnitude of risks associated with specific environmental issues that are facing Western. The evaluation and ranking is based on the best available scientific information and judgment and serves as input to the risk management process. Risk management takes risk information and combines it with relevant non-risk factors (e.g., legal mandates, public opinion, costs) to generate risk management options. A risk management tool, such as decision analysis, can be used to help make risk management choices.

  20. Modeling air pollution in the Tracking and Analysis Framework (TAF)

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, J.D.

    1998-12-31

    The Tracking and Analysis Framework (TAF) is a set of interactive computer models for integrated assessment of the Acid Rain Provisions (Title IV) of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. TAF is designed to execute in minutes on a personal computer, thereby making it feasible for a researcher or policy analyst to examine quickly the effects of alternate modeling assumptions or policy scenarios. Because the development of TAF involves researchers in many different disciplines, TAF has been given a modular structure. In most cases, the modules contain reduced-form models that are based on more complete models exercised off-line. The structure of TAF as of December 1996 is shown. Both the Atmospheric Pathways Module produce estimates for regional air pollution variables.

  1. A Framework for Business Process Change Requirements Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Varun; Otim, Samuel

    The ability to quickly and continually adapt business processes to accommodate evolving requirements and opportunities is critical for success in competitive environments. Without appropriate linkage between redesign decisions and strategic inputs, identifying processes that need to be modified will be difficult. In this paper, we draw attention to the analysis of business process change requirements in support of process change initiatives. Business process redesign is a multifaceted phenomenon involving processes, organizational structure, management systems, human resource architecture, and many other aspects of organizational life. To be successful, the business process initiative should focus not only on identifying the processes to be redesigned, but also pay attention to various enablers of change. Above all, a framework is just a blueprint; management must lead change. We hope our modest contribution will draw attention to the broader framing of requirements for business process change.

  2. A Reference Based Analysis Framework for Analyzing System Call Traces

    SciTech Connect

    Chandola, Varun; Kumar, Vipin; Boriah, Shyam

    2010-01-01

    Reference based analysis (RBA) is a novel data mining tool for exploring a test data set with respect to a reference data set. The power of RBA lies in it ability to transform any complex data type, such as symbolic sequences and multi-variate categorical data instances, into a multivariate continuous representation. The transformed representation not only allows visualization of the complex data, which cannot be otherwise visualized in its original form, but also allows enhanced anomaly detection in the transformed feature space. We demonstrate the application of the RBA framework in analyzing system call traces and show how the transformation results in improved intrusion detection performance over state of art data mining based intrusion detection methods developed for system call traces.

  3. Analytical framework for recurrence network analysis of time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donges, Jonathan F.; Heitzig, Jobst; Donner, Reik V.; Kurths, Jürgen

    2012-04-01

    Recurrence networks are a powerful nonlinear tool for time series analysis of complex dynamical systems. While there are already many successful applications ranging from medicine to paleoclimatology, a solid theoretical foundation of the method has still been missing so far. Here, we interpret an ɛ-recurrence network as a discrete subnetwork of a “continuous” graph with uncountably many vertices and edges corresponding to the system's attractor. This step allows us to show that various statistical measures commonly used in complex network analysis can be seen as discrete estimators of newly defined continuous measures of certain complex geometric properties of the attractor on the scale given by ɛ. In particular, we introduce local measures such as the ɛ-clustering coefficient, mesoscopic measures such as ɛ-motif density, path-based measures such as ɛ-betweennesses, and global measures such as ɛ-efficiency. This new analytical basis for the so far heuristically motivated network measures also provides an objective criterion for the choice of ɛ via a percolation threshold, and it shows that estimation can be improved by so-called node splitting invariant versions of the measures. We finally illustrate the framework for a number of archetypical chaotic attractors such as those of the Bernoulli and logistic maps, periodic and two-dimensional quasiperiodic motions, and for hyperballs and hypercubes by deriving analytical expressions for the novel measures and comparing them with data from numerical experiments. More generally, the theoretical framework put forward in this work describes random geometric graphs and other networks with spatial constraints, which appear frequently in disciplines ranging from biology to climate science.

  4. Assessment of Environmental Enteropathy in the MAL-ED Cohort Study: Theoretical and Analytic Framework

    PubMed Central

    Kosek, Margaret; Guerrant, Richard L.; Kang, Gagandeep; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Gratz, Jean; Gottlieb, Michael; Lang, Dennis; Lee, Gwenyth; Haque, Rashidul; Mason, Carl J.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Lima, Aldo; Petri, William A.; Houpt, Eric; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Seidman, Jessica C.; Mduma, Estomih; Samie, Amidou; Babji, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Individuals in the developing world live in conditions of intense exposure to enteric pathogens due to suboptimal water and sanitation. These environmental conditions lead to alterations in intestinal structure, function, and local and systemic immune activation that are collectively referred to as environmental enteropathy (EE). This condition, although poorly defined, is likely to be exacerbated by undernutrition as well as being responsible for permanent growth deficits acquired in early childhood, vaccine failure, and loss of human potential. This article addresses the underlying theoretical and analytical frameworks informing the methodology proposed by the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study to define and quantify the burden of disease caused by EE within a multisite cohort. Additionally, we will discuss efforts to improve, standardize, and harmonize laboratory practices within the MAL-ED Network. These efforts will address current limitations in the understanding of EE and its burden on children in the developing world. PMID:25305293

  5. Assessment of environmental enteropathy in the MAL-ED cohort study: theoretical and analytic framework.

    PubMed

    Kosek, Margaret; Guerrant, Richard L; Kang, Gagandeep; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Gratz, Jean; Gottlieb, Michael; Lang, Dennis; Lee, Gwenyth; Haque, Rashidul; Mason, Carl J; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Lima, Aldo; Petri, William A; Houpt, Eric; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Seidman, Jessica C; Mduma, Estomih; Samie, Amidou; Babji, Sudhir

    2014-11-01

    Individuals in the developing world live in conditions of intense exposure to enteric pathogens due to suboptimal water and sanitation. These environmental conditions lead to alterations in intestinal structure, function, and local and systemic immune activation that are collectively referred to as environmental enteropathy (EE). This condition, although poorly defined, is likely to be exacerbated by undernutrition as well as being responsible for permanent growth deficits acquired in early childhood, vaccine failure, and loss of human potential. This article addresses the underlying theoretical and analytical frameworks informing the methodology proposed by the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study to define and quantify the burden of disease caused by EE within a multisite cohort. Additionally, we will discuss efforts to improve, standardize, and harmonize laboratory practices within the MAL-ED Network. These efforts will address current limitations in the understanding of EE and its burden on children in the developing world. PMID:25305293

  6. Environmental Resources Analysis System, A Prototype DSS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flug, M.; Campbell, S.G.

    2003-01-01

    Since the 1960's, an increase in the public's environmental ethics, federal species preservation, water quality protection, and interest in free flowing rivers have evolved to the current concern for stewardship and conservation of natural resources. This heightened environmental awareness creates an appetite for data, models, information management, and systematic analysis of multiple scientific disciplines. A good example of this information and analysis need resides in the Green and Yampa Rivers, tributary to the Upper Colorado River. These rivers are home to endangered native fish species including the pikeminnow and razorback sucker. Two dams, Fontenelle and Flaming Gorge, impound the Green River headwaters. The respective reservoirs store water supplies as well as generate hydropower. Conversely, the Yampa River is considered unregulated and encompasses most of Dinosaur National Monument. Recreation is highly regarded on both rivers including fishing, whitewater rafting, and aesthetic values. Vast areas of irrigated agriculture, forestry, and mineral extraction also surround these rivers. To address this information need, we developed a prototype Environmental Resources Analysis System (ERAS) spreadsheet-based decision support system (DSS). ERAS provides access to historic data sets, scientific information, statistical analysis, model outputs, and comparative methods all in a familiar and user-friendly format. This research project demonstrates a simplified decision support system for use by a diverse mix of resource managers, special interest groups, and individuals concerned about the sustainability of the Green and Yampa River ecosystem.

  7. A framework for automatic heart sound analysis without segmentation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A new framework for heart sound analysis is proposed. One of the most difficult processes in heart sound analysis is segmentation, due to interference form murmurs. Method Equal number of cardiac cycles were extracted from heart sounds with different heart rates using information from envelopes of autocorrelation functions without the need to label individual fundamental heart sounds (FHS). The complete method consists of envelope detection, calculation of cardiac cycle lengths using auto-correlation of envelope signals, features extraction using discrete wavelet transform, principal component analysis, and classification using neural network bagging predictors. Result The proposed method was tested on a set of heart sounds obtained from several on-line databases and recorded with an electronic stethoscope. Geometric mean was used as performance index. Average classification performance using ten-fold cross-validation was 0.92 for noise free case, 0.90 under white noise with 10 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and 0.90 under impulse noise up to 0.3 s duration. Conclusion The proposed method showed promising results and high noise robustness to a wide range of heart sounds. However, more tests are needed to address any bias that may have been introduced by different sources of heart sounds in the current training set, and to concretely validate the method. Further work include building a new training set recorded from actual patients, then further evaluate the method based on this new training set. PMID:21303558

  8. Microgravity isolation system design: A modern control analysis framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. D.; Knospe, C. R.; Allaire, P. E.; Grodsinsky, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    Many acceleration-sensitive, microgravity science experiments will require active vibration isolation from the manned orbiters on which they will be mounted. The isolation problem, especially in the case of a tethered payload, is a complex three-dimensional one that is best suited to modern-control design methods. These methods, although more powerful than their classical counterparts, can nonetheless go only so far in meeting the design requirements for practical systems. Once a tentative controller design is available, it must still be evaluated to determine whether or not it is fully acceptable, and to compare it with other possible design candidates. Realistically, such evaluation will be an inherent part of a necessary iterative design process. In this paper, an approach is presented for applying complex mu-analysis methods to a closed-loop vibration isolation system (experiment plus controller). An analysis framework is presented for evaluating nominal stability, nominal performance, robust stability, and robust performance of active microgravity isolation systems, with emphasis on the effective use of mu-analysis methods.

  9. A novel framework for sib pair linkage analysis.

    PubMed

    Poznik, G David; Adamska, Katarzyna; Xu, Xin; Krolewski, Andrzej S; Rogus, John J

    2006-02-01

    Sib pair linkage analysis of a dichotomous trait is a popular method for narrowing the search for genes that influence complex diseases. Although the pedigree structures are uncomplicated and the underlying genetic principles straightforward, a surprising degree of complexity is involved in implementing a sib pair study and interpreting the results. Ascertainment may be based on affected, discordant, or unaffected sib pairs, as well as on pairs defined by threshold values for quantitative traits, such as extreme discordant sib pairs. To optimize power, various domain restrictions and null hypotheses have been proposed for each of these designs, yielding a wide array of choices for the analyst. To begin, we systematically classify the major sources of discretion in sib pair linkage analysis. Then, we extend the work of Kruglyak and Lander (1995), to bring the various forms into a unified framework and to facilitate a more general approach to the analysis. Finally, we describe a new, freely available computer program, Splat (Sib Pair Linkage Analysis Testing), that can perform any sib pair statistical test currently in use, as well as any user-defined test yet to be proposed. Splat uses the expectation maximization algorithm to calculate maximum-likelihood estimates of sharing (subject to user-specified conditions) and then plots LOD scores versus chromosomal position. It includes a novel grid-scanning capability that enables simultaneous visualization of multiple test statistics. This can lead to further insight into the genetic basis of the disease process under consideration. In addition, phenotype definitions can be modified without the recalculation of inheritance vectors, thereby providing considerable flexibility for exploratory analysis. The application of Splat will be illustrated with data from studies on the genetics of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:16358216

  10. On building methodological and theoretical frameworks to examine the interrelationships between environmental change and armed conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Den Hoek, J.

    2014-12-01

    Relationships between environmental change and armed conflict have long been studied. Sometimes referred to as 'warfare' or 'conflict' ecology, much of this scholarship has come in response to local-level perceptions of landscape or livelihood changes that result from regional armed conflict. However, such studies have, first, typically focused on spatiotemporally acute and readily detectable environmental change, like deforestation, to the exclusion of protracted and more subtle environmental changes, like agricultural degradation; second, been limited to situational conflicts or circumstances, thereby inhibiting broader theoretical development; and, third, often only considered the environmental consequences rather than the environmental or climatic circumstances that may contribute to conflict. As a result, there is little opportunity for methodological or theoretical cohesion between studies. In this presentation, I synthesize findings from three case studies examining the interrelationships between agricultural change and armed conflict in the semi-arid landscapes of northwest Pakistan, Palestine, and southern Syria. Using coarse through very high resolution remotely sensed imagery, socio-economic and demographic data, conflict databases, open-source programming, and building on theoretical underpinnings of political ecology and conflict studies, I present methods and modeling approaches that aid in overcoming data scarcity and disparity between scales of analysis and integrate environmental and conflict data in spatiotemporally explicit ways. Results from these case studies illuminate the interrelationships between both protracted and acute agricultural change and armed conflict, and have broad relevance for understanding the means by which environment, conflict, and livelihoods are linked, a nexus that will only become tighter with the advance of global climate change.

  11. Application of Electromigration Techniques in Environmental Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bald, Edward; Kubalczyk, Paweł; Studzińska, Sylwia; Dziubakiewicz, Ewelina; Buszewski, Bogusław

    Inherently trace-level concentration of pollutants in the environment, together with the complexity of sample matrices, place a strong demand on the detection capabilities of electromigration methods. Significant progress is continually being made, widening the applicability of these techniques, mostly capillary zone electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic chromatography, and capillary electrochromatography, to the analysis of real-world environmental samples, including the concentration sensitivity and robustness of the developed analytical procedures. This chapter covers the recent major developments in the domain of capillary electrophoresis analysis of environmental samples for pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, amines, carboxylic acids, explosives, pharmaceuticals, and ionic liquids. Emphasis is made on pre-capillary and on-capillary chromatography and electrophoresis-based concentration of analytes and detection improvement.

  12. Contrasting Two Frameworks for ROC Analysis of Ordinal Ratings

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Daryl E.; Pepe, Margaret Sullivan; Barlow, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Statistical evaluation of medical imaging tests used for diagnostic and prognostic purposes often employ receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Two methods for ROC analysis are popular. The ordinal regression method is the standard approach used when evaluating tests with ordinal values. The direct ROC modeling method is a more recently developed approach that has been motivated by applications to tests with continuous values, such as biomarkers. Objective In this paper, we compare the methods in terms of model formulations, interpretations of estimated parameters, the ranges of scientific questions that can be addressed with them, their computational algorithms and the efficiencies with which they use data. Results We show that a strong relationship exists between the methods by demonstrating that they fit the same models when only a single test is evaluated. The ordinal regression models are typically alternative parameterizations of the direct ROC models and vice-versa. The direct method has two major advantages over the ordinal regression method: (i) estimated parameters relate directly to ROC curves. This facilitates interpretations of covariate effects on ROC performance; and (ii) comparisons between tests can be done directly in this framework. Comparisons can be made while accommodating covariate effects and comparisons can be made even between tests that have values on different scales, such as between a continuous biomarker test and an ordinal valued imaging test. The ordinal regression method provides slightly more precise parameter estimates from data in our simulated data models. Conclusion While the ordinal regression method is slightly more efficient, the direct ROC modeling method has important advantages in regards to interpretation and it offers a framework to address a broader range of scientific questions including the facility to compare tests. PMID:20147599

  13. Coupling loss factor of linear vibration energy harvesting systems in a framework of statistical energy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu

    2016-02-01

    This paper establishes coupling loss factor of linear vibration energy harvesting systems in a framework of statistical energy analysis under parameter variations and random excitations. The new contributions of this paper are to define the numerical ranges of the dimensionless force factor for the weak, moderate and strong coupling and to study the connections of dimensionless force factor, coupling loss factor, coupling quotient, critical coupling strength, electro-mechanical coupling factor, damping loss factor and modal densities in linear vibration energy harvesting systems. The motivation of this paper is to enable statistical energy analysis of linear vibration energy harvesting systems for reliable performance predictions and design optimisation under parameter variations of materials and manufacturing processes and random ambient environmental excitations.

  14. SIDEKICK: Genomic data driven analysis and decision-making framework

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Scientists striving to unlock mysteries within complex biological systems face myriad barriers in effectively integrating available information to enhance their understanding. While experimental techniques and available data sources are rapidly evolving, useful information is dispersed across a variety of sources, and sources of the same information often do not use the same format or nomenclature. To harness these expanding resources, scientists need tools that bridge nomenclature differences and allow them to integrate, organize, and evaluate the quality of information without extensive computation. Results Sidekick, a genomic data driven analysis and decision making framework, is a web-based tool that provides a user-friendly intuitive solution to the problem of information inaccessibility. Sidekick enables scientists without training in computation and data management to pursue answers to research questions like "What are the mechanisms for disease X" or "Does the set of genes associated with disease X also influence other diseases." Sidekick enables the process of combining heterogeneous data, finding and maintaining the most up-to-date data, evaluating data sources, quantifying confidence in results based on evidence, and managing the multi-step research tasks needed to answer these questions. We demonstrate Sidekick's effectiveness by showing how to accomplish a complex published analysis in a fraction of the original time with no computational effort using Sidekick. Conclusions Sidekick is an easy-to-use web-based tool that organizes and facilitates complex genomic research, allowing scientists to explore genomic relationships and formulate hypotheses without computational effort. Possible analysis steps include gene list discovery, gene-pair list discovery, various enrichments for both types of lists, and convenient list manipulation. Further, Sidekick's ability to characterize pairs of genes offers new ways to approach genomic analysis that

  15. Analysis the Competences and Contents of "Mathematics and Environmental Exploration" Subject Syllabus for Preparatory Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulama, Maria Eliza; Magda?, Ioana

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze some aspects related to "Mathematics and Environmental Exploration" subject syllabus for preparatory grade approved by Minister of National Education of Romania. The analysis aim the place of the subject syllabus into the Framework Plan; the syllabus structure and the argumentation of studying this subject; the…

  16. The Aeronautical Data Link: Decision Framework for Architecture Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, A. Terry; Goode, Plesent W.

    2003-01-01

    A decision analytic approach that develops optimal data link architecture configuration and behavior to meet multiple conflicting objectives of concurrent and different airspace operations functions has previously been developed. The approach, premised on a formal taxonomic classification that correlates data link performance with operations requirements, information requirements, and implementing technologies, provides a coherent methodology for data link architectural analysis from top-down and bottom-up perspectives. This paper follows the previous research by providing more specific approaches for mapping and transitioning between the lower levels of the decision framework. The goal of the architectural analysis methodology is to assess the impact of specific architecture configurations and behaviors on the efficiency, capacity, and safety of operations. This necessarily involves understanding the various capabilities, system level performance issues and performance and interface concepts related to the conceptual purpose of the architecture and to the underlying data link technologies. Efficient and goal-directed data link architectural network configuration is conditioned on quantifying the risks and uncertainties associated with complex structural interface decisions. Deterministic and stochastic optimal design approaches will be discussed that maximize the effectiveness of architectural designs.

  17. Topological framework for local structure analysis in condensed matter

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Emanuel A.; Han, Jian; Srolovitz, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Physical systems are frequently modeled as sets of points in space, each representing the position of an atom, molecule, or mesoscale particle. As many properties of such systems depend on the underlying ordering of their constituent particles, understanding that structure is a primary objective of condensed matter research. Although perfect crystals are fully described by a set of translation and basis vectors, real-world materials are never perfect, as thermal vibrations and defects introduce significant deviation from ideal order. Meanwhile, liquids and glasses present yet more complexity. A complete understanding of structure thus remains a central, open problem. Here we propose a unified mathematical framework, based on the topology of the Voronoi cell of a particle, for classifying local structure in ordered and disordered systems that is powerful and practical. We explain the underlying reason why this topological description of local structure is better suited for structural analysis than continuous descriptions. We demonstrate the connection of this approach to the behavior of physical systems and explore how crystalline structure is compromised at elevated temperatures. We also illustrate potential applications to identifying defects in plastically deformed polycrystals at high temperatures, automating analysis of complex structures, and characterizing general disordered systems. PMID:26460045

  18. A Proposed Framework for Synthesis Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanz, A.; Berliner, M.; Braverman, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Synthesis Analysis for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions data refers to the “meta-integration” of many sources of GHG emissions data (beyond the standardization of related data required for a data assimilation system). This includes integration of various data types such as, but not limited to: data from multiple data assimilation systems; data from standardized economic-based emissions inventories such as the UNFCCC National Emissions Inventories (NEI) from various Annex I countries; data from non-NEI emissions inventories for sectors specified by UNFCCC as excluded; and ancillary data available from other sources. The term data integration refers to meaningful comparisons between different data sets and associated uncertainties but does not necessarily imply reduction to a single value or set of values. This analysis intends to develop a preliminary framework for development and assessment of the quality and impact of policies and decisions based on Bayesian statistical methods. It will also identify some likely data sources that will need to be synthesized for greenhouse gas emission discussions and policy products. Uncertainties and uncertainty methodologies are explored, along with suggestions for improving reporting of emissions quantities and associated uncertainties to better facilitate future data comparison.

  19. Topological framework for local structure analysis in condensed matter.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Emanuel A; Han, Jian; Srolovitz, David J

    2015-10-27

    Physical systems are frequently modeled as sets of points in space, each representing the position of an atom, molecule, or mesoscale particle. As many properties of such systems depend on the underlying ordering of their constituent particles, understanding that structure is a primary objective of condensed matter research. Although perfect crystals are fully described by a set of translation and basis vectors, real-world materials are never perfect, as thermal vibrations and defects introduce significant deviation from ideal order. Meanwhile, liquids and glasses present yet more complexity. A complete understanding of structure thus remains a central, open problem. Here we propose a unified mathematical framework, based on the topology of the Voronoi cell of a particle, for classifying local structure in ordered and disordered systems that is powerful and practical. We explain the underlying reason why this topological description of local structure is better suited for structural analysis than continuous descriptions. We demonstrate the connection of this approach to the behavior of physical systems and explore how crystalline structure is compromised at elevated temperatures. We also illustrate potential applications to identifying defects in plastically deformed polycrystals at high temperatures, automating analysis of complex structures, and characterizing general disordered systems. PMID:26460045

  20. Applying AI tools to operational space environmental analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krajnak, Mike; Jesse, Lisa; Mucks, John

    1995-01-01

    events covering reports of natural phenomena such as solar flares, bursts, geomagnetic storms, and five others pertinent to space environmental analysis. With our preliminary event definitions we experimented with TAS's support for temporal pattern analysis using X-ray flare and geomagnetic storm forecasts as case studies. We are currently working on a framework for integrating advanced graphics and space environmental models into this analytical environment.

  1. A framework for sustainability analysis in water resources management and application to the Syr Darya Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Ximing; McKinney, Daene C.; Lasdon, Leon S.

    2002-06-01

    Sustainable water management in irrigation-dominated river basins attempts to ensure a long-term, stable, and flexible water supply to meet crop water demands, as well as growing municipal and industrial water demands, while mitigating negative environmental consequences. To achieve this delicate balance, new models are needed which can use indicators of sustainability to guide the decision-making process. This paper presents a new long-term modeling framework which uses quantified sustainability criteria in a long-term optimization model of a basin, ensuring risk minimization in water supply, environmental conservation, equity in water allocation, and economic efficiency in water infrastructure development. ``Current'' and ``future'' water supply and demand are combined into a coherent system which takes account of the cumulative effects of short-term water use decisions and deals with the tradeoffs between the benefits of current and future generations. The modeling framework is demonstrated with an application to the Syr Darya River Basin of central Asia. Model results show the effectiveness of this tool for policy analysis in the context of the river basin.

  2. Environmental applications of the particle analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Moritz, E.J.; Hoffman, C.R.

    1993-09-28

    This study demonstrates the applicability of particle counting technology for analysis of various water treatment systems at the Rocky Flats Plant. The Particle Analysis System described in this study determined the water quality of samples from environmental remediation, stormwater treatment, and drinking water treatment operations. Samples were measured in either discrete or on-line mode. This data showed filtration efficiencies, particle counts, particle size distributions, and real-time treatment system performance. Particle counting proved more sensitive than the turbidimetric measurement technique commonly used by the water treatment industry. Particle counting is a two-dimensional measurement of counts and sizes, whereas turbidity is a one-dimensional measurement of water clarity. Samples showing identical turbidities could be distinguished easily with the Particle Analysis System. The Particle Analysis System proved to be an efficient and reliable water quality measurement tool, and it is applicable to a variety of water treatment systems at the Rocky Flats Plant.

  3. 43 CFR 3410.2-2 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... § 3410.2-2 Environmental analysis. (a) Before an exploration license may be issued, the authorized officer shall prepare an environmental assessment or environmental impact statement, if necessary, of the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Environmental analysis. 3410.2-2...

  4. 43 CFR 3410.2-2 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 3410.2-2 Environmental analysis. (a) Before an exploration license may be issued, the authorized officer shall prepare an environmental assessment or environmental impact statement, if necessary, of the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Environmental analysis. 3410.2-2...

  5. 43 CFR 3410.2-2 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 3410.2-2 Environmental analysis. (a) Before an exploration license may be issued, the authorized officer shall prepare an environmental assessment or environmental impact statement, if necessary, of the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Environmental analysis. 3410.2-2...

  6. 32 CFR 651.10 - Actions requiring environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Actions requiring environmental analysis. 651.10 Section 651.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) National Environmental Policy Act and the Decision Process § 651.10...

  7. 32 CFR 651.10 - Actions requiring environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Actions requiring environmental analysis. 651.10 Section 651.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) National Environmental Policy Act and the Decision Process § 651.10...

  8. 32 CFR 651.10 - Actions requiring environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Actions requiring environmental analysis. 651.10 Section 651.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) National Environmental Policy Act and the Decision Process § 651.10...

  9. A case study of the development of environmental action projects from the framework of participatory action research within two middle school classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charmatz, Kim

    The purpose of this study was to understand student and teacher empowerment through a socially critical environmental education perspective. The main research question guiding this study was: How do participants make sense of a learning experience in which students design and carry out an environmental action project in their community? This study used participatory action research and critical theory as practical and theoretical frameworks. These frameworks were relevant as this study sought to examine social change, power, and relationships through participants' experiences. The context of this study was within one seventh and one eighth grade classroom participating in environmental projects. The study was conducted in spring 2005 with an additional follow-up data collection period during spring 2006. The school was located in a densely populated metropolitan suburb. Fifty-three students, a teacher researcher, and three science teachers participated. Data sources were written surveys, scores on Middle School Environmental Literacy Survey Instrument (MSELI), observations, interviews, and student work. This study used a mixed methodological approach. Quantitative data analysis involved dependent samples t-test scores on the MSELI before and after the completion of the projects. Qualitative data were analyzed using an inductive analysis approach. This study has implications for educators interested in democratic education. Environmental action projects provide a context for students and teachers to learn interdisciplinary content knowledge, develop personal beliefs, and learn ways to take action in their communities. This pedagogy has the potential to increase cooperation, communication, and tensions within school communities. Students' participation in the development of environmental action projects may lead to feelings of empowerment or being able to make a difference in their community, as an individual or member of a group. Future research is needed to discern

  10. Analysis of environmental data with censored observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, S.; Lu, J.-C.; Kolpin, D.W.; Meeker, W.Q.

    1997-01-01

    The potential threats to humans and to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems from environmental contamination could depend on the sum of the concentrations of different chemicals. However, direct summation of environmental data is not generally feasible because it is common for some chemical concentrations to be recorded as being below the analytical reporting limit. This creates special problems in the analysis of the data. A new model selection procedure, named forward censored regression, is introduced for selecting an appropriate model for environmental data with censored observations. The procedure is demonstrated using concentrations of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine), deethylatrazine (DEA, 2-amino-4-chloro-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine), and deisopropylatrazine (DIA, 2-amino-4-chloro-6-ethylamino-s-triazine) in groundwater in the midwestern United States by using the data derived from a previous study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. More than 80% of the observations for each compound for this study were left censored at 0.05 μg/L. The values for censored observations of atrazine, DEA, and DIA are imputed with the selected models. The summation of atrazine residue (atrazine + DEA + DIA) can then be calculated using the combination of observed and imputed values to generate a pseudo-complete data set. The all-subsets regression procedure is applied to the pseudo-complete data to select the final model for atrazine residue. The methodology presented can be used to analyze similar cases of environmental contamination involving censored data.

  11. Kindergarten Teachers' Conceptual Framework on the Ozone Layer Depletion. Exploring the Associative Meanings of a Global Environmental Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daskolia, Maria; Flogaitis, Evgenia; Papageorgiou, Evgenia

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a study conducted among Greek kindergarten teachers aiming to explore their conceptual frameworks on a major environmental issue of our times: the ozone layer depletion. The choice of this particular issue was premised on its novelty, complexity and abstractness which present teachers with difficulties in its teaching. A free…

  12. [Integrated model system for environmental policy analysis].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lin

    2006-05-01

    An integrated model system for environmental policy analysis is built up with a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model as a core model, which is linked with an environmental model, air dispersion model, and health effect model (exposure-response functions) in an explicit way, therefore the model system is capable of evaluating the effects of policies on environment, health and economy and their interactions comprehensively. This method is used to analyze the effects of Beijing presumptive (energy) taxes on air quality, health, welfare and economic growth, and the conclusion is that sole presumptive taxes may slow down the economic growth, but the presumptive taxes with green tax reform can promote Beijing sustainable development. PMID:16850855

  13. Analysis of DOE international environmental management activities

    SciTech Connect

    Ragaini, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Strategic Plan (April 1994) states that DOE`s long-term vision includes world leadership in environmental restoration and waste management activities. The activities of the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) can play a key role in DOE`s goals of maintaining U.S. global competitiveness and ensuring the continuation of a world class science and technology community. DOE`s interest in attaining these goals stems partly from its participation in organizations like the Trade Policy Coordinating Committee (TPCC), with its National Environmental Export Promotion Strategy, which seeks to strengthen U.S. competitiveness and the building of public-private partnerships as part of U.S. industrial policy. The International Interactions Field Office task will build a communication network which will facilitate the efficient and effective communication between DOE Headquarters, Field Offices, and contractors. Under this network, Headquarters will provide the Field Offices with information on the Administration`s policies and activities (such as the DOE Strategic Plan), interagency activities, as well as relevant information from other field offices. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will, in turn, provide Headquarters with information on various international activities which, when appropriate, will be included in reports to groups like the TPCC and the EM Focus Areas. This task provides for the collection, review, and analysis of information on the more significant international environmental restoration and waste management initiatives and activities which have been used or are being considered at LLNL. Information gathering will focus on efforts and accomplishments in meeting the challenges of providing timely and cost effective cleanup of its environmentally damaged sites and facilities, especially through international technical exchanges and/or the implementation of foreign-development technologies.

  14. A formal framework for scenario development in support of environmental decision-making

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahmoud, M.; Liu, Yajing; Hartmann, H.; Stewart, S.; Wagener, T.; Semmens, D.; Stewart, R.; Gupta, H.; Dominguez, D.; Dominguez, F.; Hulse, D.; Letcher, R.; Rashleigh, B.; Smith, C.; Street, R.; Ticehurst, J.; Twery, M.; van, Delden H.; Waldick, R.; White, D.; Winter, L.

    2009-01-01

    Scenarios are possible future states of the world that represent alternative plausible conditions under different assumptions. Often, scenarios are developed in a context relevant to stakeholders involved in their applications since the evaluation of scenario outcomes and implications can enhance decision-making activities. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of scenario development and proposes a formal approach to scenario development in environmental decision-making. The discussion of current issues in scenario studies includes advantages and obstacles in utilizing a formal scenario development framework, and the different forms of uncertainty inherent in scenario development, as well as how they should be treated. An appendix for common scenario terminology has been attached for clarity. Major recommendations for future research in this area include proper consideration of uncertainty in scenario studies in particular in relation to stakeholder relevant information, construction of scenarios that are more diverse in nature, and sharing of information and resources among the scenario development research community. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Statistical framework for phylogenomic analysis of gene family expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xun

    2004-05-01

    Microarray technology has produced massive expression data that are invaluable for investigating the genome-wide evolutionary pattern of gene expression. To this end, phylogenetic expression analysis is highly desirable. On the basis of the Brownian process, we developed a statistical framework (called the E(0) model), assuming the independent expression of evolution between lineages. Several evolutionary mechanisms are integrated to characterize the pattern of expression diversity after gene duplications, including gradual drift and dramatic shift (punctuated equilibrium). When the phylogeny of a gene family is given, we show that the likelihood function follows a multivariate normal distribution; the variance-covariance matrix is determined by the phylogenetic topology and evolutionary parameters. Maximum-likelihood methods for multiple microarray experiments are developed, and likelihood-ratio tests are designed for testing the evolutionary pattern of gene expression. To reconstruct the evolutionary trace of expression diversity after gene (or genome) duplications, we developed a Bayesian-based method and use the posterior mean as predictors. Potential applications in evolutionary genomics are discussed. PMID:15166175

  16. Towards an intelligent framework for multimodal affective data analysis.

    PubMed

    Poria, Soujanya; Cambria, Erik; Hussain, Amir; Huang, Guang-Bin

    2015-03-01

    An increasingly large amount of multimodal content is posted on social media websites such as YouTube and Facebook everyday. In order to cope with the growth of such so much multimodal data, there is an urgent need to develop an intelligent multi-modal analysis framework that can effectively extract information from multiple modalities. In this paper, we propose a novel multimodal information extraction agent, which infers and aggregates the semantic and affective information associated with user-generated multimodal data in contexts such as e-learning, e-health, automatic video content tagging and human-computer interaction. In particular, the developed intelligent agent adopts an ensemble feature extraction approach by exploiting the joint use of tri-modal (text, audio and video) features to enhance the multimodal information extraction process. In preliminary experiments using the eNTERFACE dataset, our proposed multi-modal system is shown to achieve an accuracy of 87.95%, outperforming the best state-of-the-art system by more than 10%, or in relative terms, a 56% reduction in error rate. PMID:25523041

  17. A scientific workflow framework for (13)C metabolic flux analysis.

    PubMed

    Dalman, Tolga; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Nöh, Katharina

    2016-08-20

    Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) with (13)C labeling data is a high-precision technique to quantify intracellular reaction rates (fluxes). One of the major challenges of (13)C MFA is the interactivity of the computational workflow according to which the fluxes are determined from the input data (metabolic network model, labeling data, and physiological rates). Here, the workflow assembly is inevitably determined by the scientist who has to consider interacting biological, experimental, and computational aspects. Decision-making is context dependent and requires expertise, rendering an automated evaluation process hardly possible. Here, we present a scientific workflow framework (SWF) for creating, executing, and controlling on demand (13)C MFA workflows. (13)C MFA-specific tools and libraries, such as the high-performance simulation toolbox 13CFLUX2, are wrapped as web services and thereby integrated into a service-oriented architecture. Besides workflow steering, the SWF features transparent provenance collection and enables full flexibility for ad hoc scripting solutions. To handle compute-intensive tasks, cloud computing is supported. We demonstrate how the challenges posed by (13)C MFA workflows can be solved with our approach on the basis of two proof-of-concept use cases. PMID:26721184

  18. A framework for integrated environmental health impact assessment of systemic risks.

    PubMed

    Briggs, David J

    2008-01-01

    Traditional methods of risk assessment have provided good service in support of policy, mainly in relation to standard setting and regulation of hazardous chemicals or practices. In recent years, however, it has become apparent that many of the risks facing society are systemic in nature - complex risks, set within wider social, economic and environmental contexts. Reflecting this, policy-making too has become more wide-ranging in scope, more collaborative and more precautionary in approach. In order to inform such policies, more integrated methods of assessment are needed. Based on work undertaken in two large EU-funded projects (INTARESE and HEIMTSA), this paper reviews the range of approaches to assessment now in used, proposes a framework for integrated environmental health impact assessment (both as a basis for bringing together and choosing between different methods of assessment, and extending these to more complex problems), and discusses some of the challenges involved in conducting integrated assessments to support policy. Integrated environmental health impact assessment is defined as a means of assessing health-related problems deriving from the environment, and health-related impacts of policies and other interventions that affect the environment, in ways that take account of the complexities, interdependencies and uncertainties of the real world. As such, it depends heavily on how issues are selected and framed, and implies the involvement of stakeholders both in issue-framing and design of the assessment, and to help interpret and evaluate the results. It is also a comparative process, which involves evaluating and comparing different scenarios. It consequently requires the ability to model the way in which the influences of exogenous factors, such as policies or other interventions, feed through the environment to affect health. Major challenges thus arise. Chief amongst these are the difficulties in ensuring effective stakeholder participation, in

  19. A framework for integrated environmental health impact assessment of systemic risks

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, David J

    2008-01-01

    Traditional methods of risk assessment have provided good service in support of policy, mainly in relation to standard setting and regulation of hazardous chemicals or practices. In recent years, however, it has become apparent that many of the risks facing society are systemic in nature – complex risks, set within wider social, economic and environmental contexts. Reflecting this, policy-making too has become more wide-ranging in scope, more collaborative and more precautionary in approach. In order to inform such policies, more integrated methods of assessment are needed. Based on work undertaken in two large EU-funded projects (INTARESE and HEIMTSA), this paper reviews the range of approaches to assessment now in used, proposes a framework for integrated environmental health impact assessment (both as a basis for bringing together and choosing between different methods of assessment, and extending these to more complex problems), and discusses some of the challenges involved in conducting integrated assessments to support policy. Integrated environmental health impact assessment is defined as a means of assessing health-related problems deriving from the environment, and health-related impacts of policies and other interventions that affect the environment, in ways that take account of the complexities, interdependencies and uncertainties of the real world. As such, it depends heavily on how issues are selected and framed, and implies the involvement of stakeholders both in issue-framing and design of the assessment, and to help interpret and evaluate the results. It is also a comparative process, which involves evaluating and comparing different scenarios. It consequently requires the ability to model the way in which the influences of exogenous factors, such as policies or other interventions, feed through the environment to affect health. Major challenges thus arise. Chief amongst these are the difficulties in ensuring effective stakeholder participation

  20. Trade-off analysis for environmental projects: An annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Feather, T.D.; Harrington, K.W.; Capan, D.T.

    1995-08-01

    This is a report with an attached annotated bibliography. This study explores the literature for analytical techniques that can support the complex decision-making process associated with Corps of Engineers environmental projects. The literature review focuses on opportunities for using trade-off methodologies and group processes in environmental plan formulation and evaluation. The work was conducted under the Evaluation Framework Work Unit within the Evaluation of Environmental Investments Research Program.

  1. Legal and institutional framework of environmental impact assessment in Nigeria: An initial assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Olokesusi, F.

    1998-03-01

    Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, has high rates of urbanization and industrialization. Until recently, decisions on most large-scale projects such as expressways, harbors, industries, dams, and irrigation were considered with an emphasis on traditional technical and cost-benefit analysis. Spurred by massive environmental degradation and persistent community agitation in oil producing areas, environmental impact assessment (EIA) legislation was passed in late 1992. The main purpose of this article is to review and assess the content of this legislation and the guidelines produced by the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), the institution responsible for EIA administration. Some EIA reports have been prepared and reviewed by FEPA since 1994. There are some positive outcomes and expectations, but some problems have been identified as well, including: deliberate restriction of public involvement and participation by proponents and/or their consultants, interagency conflict leading to high cost and project delays especially in the oil industry, and restriction of public access to final EIA reports. These are discussed, and recommendations for improving the process are made.

  2. A framework for the probabilistic analysis of meteotsunamis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, Eric L.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Gove, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    A probabilistic technique is developed to assess the hazard from meteotsunamis. Meteotsunamis are unusual sea-level events, generated when the speed of an atmospheric pressure or wind disturbance is comparable to the phase speed of long waves in the ocean. A general aggregation equation is proposed for the probabilistic analysis, based on previous frameworks established for both tsunamis and storm surges, incorporating different sources and source parameters of meteotsunamis. Parameterization of atmospheric disturbances and numerical modeling is performed for the computation of maximum meteotsunami wave amplitudes near the coast. A historical record of pressure disturbances is used to establish a continuous analytic distribution of each parameter as well as the overall Poisson rate of occurrence. A demonstration study is presented for the northeast U.S. in which only isolated atmospheric pressure disturbances from squall lines and derechos are considered. For this study, Automated Surface Observing System stations are used to determine the historical parameters of squall lines from 2000 to 2013. The probabilistic equations are implemented using a Monte Carlo scheme, where a synthetic catalog of squall lines is compiled by sampling the parameter distributions. For each entry in the catalog, ocean wave amplitudes are computed using a numerical hydrodynamic model. Aggregation of the results from the Monte Carlo scheme results in a meteotsunami hazard curve that plots the annualized rate of exceedance with respect to maximum event amplitude for a particular location along the coast. Results from using multiple synthetic catalogs, resampled from the parent parameter distributions, yield mean and quantile hazard curves. Further refinements and improvements for probabilistic analysis of meteotsunamis are discussed.

  3. In situ hydrothermal growth of ytterbium-based metal-organic framework on stainless steel wire for solid-phase microextraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiu-Lin; Wang, Xia; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Wang, Ming-Lin; Zhao, Ru-Song

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we report the use of a porous ytterbium-based metal-organic framework (Yb-MOF) coating material with good thermal stability for the headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from environmental samples. The Yb-MOF thin films, grown in situ on stainless steel wire in solution, exhibited high selectivity and sensitivity toward PAHs. Under the optimal conditions, the novel fibers achieved large enrichment factors (130-2288), low limits of detection (0.07-1.67ngL(-1)), and wide range of linearity (10-1000ngL(-1)) for 16 PAHs in the tested samples. The novel fiber was successfully used in the analysis of PAHs in real environmental samples. These results demonstrated that Yb-MOF is a promising coating material for the SPME of PAHs at trace levels from environmental samples. PMID:26346186

  4. Stressed Stream Analysis--Addressing Environmental Problems in Local Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Uses environmental impact analysis as a unifying theme to provide students with real problem-solving experiences without neglecting the principles and theories of the basic scientific disciplines undergirding environmental science. Provides information about stressed stream analysis, which connects environmental impact analysis and Great Lakes…

  5. Environmental legislation as the legal framework for mitigating natural hazards in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido, Jesús; Arana, Estanislao; Jiménez Soto, Ignacio; Delgado, José

    2015-04-01

    In Spain, the socioeconomic losses due to natural hazards (floods, earthquakes or landslides) are considerable, and the indirect costs associated with them are rarely considered because they are very difficult to evaluate. The prevention of losses due to natural hazards is more economic and efficient through legislation and spatial planning rather than through structural measures, such as walls, anchorages or structural reinforcements. However, there isn't a Spanish natural hazards law and national and regional sector legislation make only sparse mention of them. After 1978, when the Spanish Constitution was enacted, the Autonomous Communities (Spanish regions) were able to legislate according to the different competences (urban planning, environment or civil protection), which were established in the Constitution. In the 1990's, the Civil Protection legislation (national law and regional civil protection tools) dealt specifically with natural hazards (floods, earthquakes and volcanoes), but this was before any soil, seismic or hydrological studies were recommended in the national sector legislation. On the other hand, some Autonomous Communities referred to natural hazards in the Environmental Impact Assessment legislation (EIA) and also in the spatial and urban planning legislation and tools. The National Land Act, enacted in 1998, established, for the first time, that those lands exposed to natural hazards should be classified as non-developable. The Spanish recast text of the Land Act, enacted by Royal Legislative Decree 2/2008, requires that a natural hazards map be included in the Environmental Sustainability Report (ESR), which is compulsory for all master plans, according to the provisions set out by Act 9/2006, known as Spanish Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). Consequently, the environmental legislation, after the aforementioned transposition of the SEA European Directive 2001/42/EC, is the legal framework to prevent losses due to natural hazards

  6. A common framework for the development and analysis of process-based hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Martyn; Kavetski, Dmitri; Fenicia, Fabrizio; Gupta, Hoshin

    2013-04-01

    provide a common framework for model development and analysis. We recognize that the majority of process-based hydrological models use the same set of physics - most models use Darcy's Law to represent the flow of water through the soil matrix and Fourier's Law for thermodynamics. Our numerical model uses robust solutions of the hydrology and thermodynamic governing equations as the structural core, and incorporates multiple options to represent the impact of different modeling decisions, including different methods to represent spatial variability and different parameterizations of surface fluxes and shallow groundwater. Our analysis isolates individual modeling decisions and uses orthogonal diagnostic signatures to evaluate model behavior. Application of this framework in research basins demonstrates that the combination of (1) flexibility in the numerical model and (2) comprehensive scrutiny of orthogonal signatures provides a powerful approach to identify the suitability of different modeling options and different model parameter values. We contend that this common framework has general utility, and its widespread application in both research basins and at larger spatial scales will help accelerate the development of process-based hydrologic models.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Two Industries for Validating Green Manufacturing (GM) Framework: An Indian Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Minhaj Ahemad Abdul; Shrivastava, Rakesh Lakshmikumar; Shrivastava, Rashmi Rakesh

    2016-07-01

    Green Manufacturing (GM) deals with manufacturing practices that reduces or eliminates the adverse environmental impact during any of its phases. It emphasizes the use of processes that do not contaminate the environment or hurt consumers, employees, or other stakeholders. This paper presents the comparative analysis of two Indian industries representing different sectors for validating GM framework. It also highlights the road map of the companies for achieving performance improvement through GM implementation and its impact on organisational performance. The case studies helps in evaluating the companies GM implementation and overall business performance. For this, a developed diagnostic instrument in the form of questionnaire was administered amongst employees in the companies respectively and their responses were analysed. In order to have a better understanding of the impact of GM implementation, the information about overall business performance was obtained over the last 3 years. The diagnostic instrument developed here may be used by manufacturing organisations to prioritise their management efforts to assess and implement GM.

  8. A decision analysis framework for stakeholder involvement and learning in groundwater management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karjalainen, T. P.; Rossi, P. M.; Ala-aho, P.; Eskelinen, R.; Reinikainen, K.; Kløve, B.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Yang, H.

    2013-07-01

    Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods are increasingly used to facilitate both rigorous analysis and stakeholder involvement in natural and water resource planning. Decision making in that context is often complex and multi-faceted with numerous trade-offs between social, environmental and economic impacts. However, practical applications of decision-support methods are often too technically oriented and hard to use, understand or interpret for all participants. The learning of participants in these processes is seldom examined, even though successful deliberation depends on learning. This paper analyzes the potential of an interactive MCDA framework, the decision analysis interview (DAI) approach, for facilitating stakeholder involvement and learning in groundwater management. It evaluates the results of an MCDA process in assessing land-use management alternatives in a Finnish esker aquifer area where conflicting land uses affect the groundwater body and dependent ecosystems. In the assessment process, emphasis was placed on the interactive role of the MCDA tool in facilitating stakeholder participation and learning. The results confirmed that the structured decision analysis framework can foster learning and collaboration in a process where disputes and diverse interests are represented. Computer-aided interviews helped the participants to see how their preferences affected the desirability and ranking of alternatives. During the process, the participants' knowledge and preferences evolved as they assess their initial knowledge with the help of fresh scientific information. The decision analysis process led to the opening of a dialogue, showing the overall picture of the problem context, and the critical issues for the further process.

  9. A decision analysis framework for stakeholder involvement and learning in groundwater management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karjalainen, T. P.; Rossi, P. M.; Ala-aho, P.; Eskelinen, R.; Reinikainen, K.; Kløve, B.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Yang, H.

    2013-12-01

    Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods are increasingly used to facilitate both rigorous analysis and stakeholder involvement in natural and water resource planning. Decision-making in that context is often complex and multi-faceted with numerous trade-offs between social, environmental and economic impacts. However, practical applications of decision-support methods are often too technically oriented and hard to use, understand or interpret for all participants. The learning of participants in these processes is seldom examined, even though successful deliberation depends on learning. This paper analyzes the potential of an interactive MCDA framework, the decision analysis interview (DAI) approach, for facilitating stakeholder involvement and learning in groundwater management. It evaluates the results of the MCDA process in assessing land-use management alternatives in a Finnish esker aquifer area where conflicting land uses affect the groundwater body and dependent ecosystems. In the assessment process, emphasis was placed on the interactive role of the MCDA tool in facilitating stakeholder participation and learning. The results confirmed that the structured decision analysis framework can foster learning and collaboration in a process where disputes and diverse interests are represented. Computer-aided interviews helped the participants to see how their preferences affected the desirability and ranking of alternatives. During the process, the participants' knowledge and preferences evolved as they assessed their initial knowledge with the help of fresh scientific information. The decision analysis process led to the opening of a dialogue, showing the overall picture of the problem context and the critical issues for the further process.

  10. Lessons Learned From Developing A Streaming Data Framework for Scientific Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler. Kevin R.; Allan, Mark; Curry, Charles

    2003-01-01

    We describe the development and usage of a streaming data analysis software framework. The framework is used for three different applications: Earth science hyper-spectral imaging analysis, Electromyograph pattern detection, and Electroencephalogram state determination. In each application the framework was used to answer a series of science questions which evolved with each subsequent answer. This evolution is summarized in the form of lessons learned.

  11. A General and Robust Framework for Secondary Traits Analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoyu; Ionita-Laza, Iuliana; Liu, Mengling; Reibman, Joan; We, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Case-control designs are commonly employed in genetic association studies. In addition to the case-control status, data on secondary traits are often collected. Directly regressing secondary traits on genetic variants from a case-control sample often leads to biased estimation. Several statistical methods have been proposed to address this issue. The inverse probability weighting (IPW) approach and the semiparametric maximum-likelihood (SPML) approach are the most commonly used. A new weighted estimating equation (WEE) approach is proposed to provide unbiased estimation of genetic associations with secondary traits, by combining observed and counterfactual outcomes. Compared to the existing approaches, WEE is more robust against biased sampling and disease model misspecification. We conducted simulations to evaluate the performance of the WEE under various models and sampling schemes. The WEE demonstrated robustness in all scenarios investigated, had appropriate type I error, and was as powerful or more powerful than the IPW and SPML approaches. We applied the WEE to an asthma case-control study to estimate the associations between the thymic stromal lymphopoietin gene and two secondary traits: overweight status and serum IgE level. The WEE identified two SNPs associated with overweight in logistic regression, three SNPs associated with serum IgE levels in linear regression, and an additional four SNPs that were missed in linear regression to be associated with the 75th quantile of IgE in quantile regression. The WEE approach provides a general and robust secondary analysis framework, which complements the existing approaches and should serve as a valuable tool for identifying new associations with secondary traits. PMID:26896329

  12. MSNoise: A framework for Continuous Seismic Noise Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecocq, Thomas; Caudron, Corentin; De Plaen, Raphaël; Mordret, Aurélien

    2016-04-01

    MSNoise is an Open and Free Python package known to be the only complete integrated workflow designed to analyse ambient seismic noise and study relative velocity changes (dv/v) in the crust. It is based on state of the art and well maintained Python modules, among which ObsPy plays an important role. To our knowledge, it is officially used for continuous monitoring at least in three notable places: the Observatory of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano (OVPF, France), the Auckland Volcanic Field (New Zealand) and on the South Napa earthquake (Berkeley, USA). It is also used by many researchers to process archive data to focus e.g. on fault zones, intraplate Europe, geothermal exploitations or Antarctica. We first present the general working of MSNoise, originally written in 2010 to automatically scan data archives and process seismic data in order to produce dv/v time series. We demonstrate that its modularity provides a new potential to easily test new algorithms for each processing step. For example, one could experiment new methods of cross-correlation (done by default in the frequency domain), stacking (default is linear stacking, averaging), or dv/v estimation (default is moving window cross-spectrum "MWCS", so-called "doublet"), etc. We present the last major evolution of MSNoise from a "single workflow: data archive to dv/v" to a framework system that allows plugins and modules to be developed and integrated into the MSNoise ecosystem. Small-scale plugins will be shown as examples, such as "continuous PPSD" (à la McNamarra & Buland) or "Seismic Amplitude Ratio Analysis" (Taisne, Caudron). We will also present the new MSNoise-TOMO package, using MSNoise as a "cross-correlation" toolbox and demystifying surface wave tomography ! Finally, the poster will be a meeting point for all those using or willing to use MSNoise, to meet the developer, exchange ideas and wishes !

  13. Towards experimental validation of an analysis framework for morphing radiators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertagne, Christopher L.; Erickson, Lisa R.; Sheth, Rubik B.; Whitcomb, John D.; Hartl, Darren J.

    2016-04-01

    Thermal control is an important aspect of spacecraft design, particularly in the case of crewed vehicles, which must maintain a precise internal temperature at all times in spite of sometimes drastic variations in the external thermal environment and internal heat loads. The successes of the Space Shuttle and International Space Station programs have shown that this can be accomplished in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), however, crewed spacecraft traveling beyond LEO are expected to encounter more challenging thermal conditions with significant variations in both the heat rejection requirements and environment temperature. Such missions will require radiator systems with high turndown ratios, defined as the ratio between the maximum and minimum heat rejection rates achievable by the radiator system. Current radiators are only able to achieve turndown ratios of 3:1, far less than the 12:1 turndown ratio which is expected to be required on future missions. An innovative radiator concept, known as a morphing radiator, uses the temperature-induced shape change of shape memory alloy (SMA) materials to achieve a turndown ratio of at least 12:1. Predicting the thermal and structural behavior of SMA-based morphing radiators is challenging due to the presence of two-way thermomechanical coupling that has not been widely considered in the literature. Previous work has demonstrated the application of a technique known as a partitioned analysis procedure which can be used to simulate the behavior of morphing radiators. This work describes ongoing efforts to evaluate the physical accuracy of this approach by conducting validation studies. A detailed finite element model of a morphing radiator is developed and executed using the framework. Preliminary results show close agreement between the experimental data and model predictions, giving additional confidence in the partitioned approach.

  14. Sampling and Data Analysis for Environmental Microbiology

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Christopher J.

    2001-06-01

    A brief review of the literature indicates the importance of statistical analysis in applied and environmental microbiology. Sampling designs are particularly important for successful studies, and it is highly recommended that researchers review their sampling design before heading to the laboratory or the field. Most statisticians have numerous stories of scientists who approached them after their study was complete only to have to tell them that the data they gathered could not be used to test the hypothesis they wanted to address. Once the data are gathered, a large and complex body of statistical techniques are available for analysis of the data. Those methods include both numerical and graphical techniques for exploratory characterization of the data. Hypothesis testing and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are techniques that can be used to compare the mean and variance of two or more groups of samples. Regression can be used to examine the relationships between sets of variables and is often used to examine the dependence of microbiological populations on microbiological parameters. Multivariate statistics provides several methods that can be used for interpretation of datasets with a large number of variables and to partition samples into similar groups, a task that is very common in taxonomy, but also has applications in other fields of microbiology. Geostatistics and other techniques have been used to examine the spatial distribution of microorganisms. The objectives of this chapter are to provide a brief survey of some of the statistical techniques that can be used for sample design and data analysis of microbiological data in environmental studies, and to provide some examples of their use from the literature.

  15. The Modular Modeling System (MMS): A modeling framework for water- and environmental-resources management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leavesley, G.H.; Markstrom, S.L.; Viger, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    The interdisciplinary nature and increasing complexity of water- and environmental-resource problems require the use of modeling approaches that can incorporate knowledge from a broad range of scientific disciplines. The large number of distributed hydrological and ecosystem models currently available are composed of a variety of different conceptualizations of the associated processes they simulate. Assessment of the capabilities of these distributed models requires evaluation of the conceptualizations of the individual processes, and the identification of which conceptualizations are most appropriate for various combinations of criteria, such as problem objectives, data constraints, and spatial and temporal scales of application. With this knowledge, "optimal" models for specific sets of criteria can be created and applied. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Modular Modeling System (MMS) is an integrated system of computer software that has been developed to provide these model development and application capabilities. MMS supports the integration of models and tools at a variety of levels of modular design. These include individual process models, tightly coupled models, loosely coupled models, and fully-integrated decision support systems. A variety of visualization and statistical tools are also provided. MMS has been coupled with the Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) object-oriented reservoir and river-system modeling framework, RiverWare, under a joint USGS-BOR program called the Watershed and River System Management Program. MMS and RiverWare are linked using a shared relational database. The resulting database-centered decision support system provides tools for evaluating and applying optimal resource-allocation and management strategies to complex, operational decisions on multipurpose reservoir systems and watersheds. Management issues being addressed include efficiency of water-resources management, environmental concerns such as meeting flow needs for

  16. Indicator Properties of Baltic Zooplankton for Classification of Environmental Status within Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    PubMed Central

    Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Postel, Lutz; Rubene, Gunta; Amid, Callis; Lesutiene, Jurate; Uusitalo, Laura; Strake, Solvita; Demereckiene, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the EU Member States to estimate the level of anthropogenic impacts on their marine systems using 11 Descriptors. Assessing food web response to altered habitats is addressed by Descriptor 4 and its indicators, which are being developed for regional seas. However, the development of simple foodweb indicators able to assess the health of ecologically diverse, spatially variable and complex interactions is challenging. Zooplankton is a key element in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. Here, we review work on zooplankton indicator development using long-term data sets across the Baltic Sea and report the main findings. A suite of zooplankton community metrics were evaluated as putative ecological indicators that track community state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria with regard to eutrophication and fish feeding conditions in the Baltic Sea. On the basis of an operational definition of GES, we propose mean body mass of zooplankton in the community in combination with zooplankton stock measured as either abundance or biomass to be applicable as an integrated indicator that could be used within the Descriptor 4 in the Baltic Sea. These metrics performed best in predicting zooplankton being in-GES when considering all datasets evaluated. However, some other metrics, such as copepod biomass, the contribution of copepods to the total zooplankton biomass or biomass-based Cladocera: Copepoda ratio, were equally reliable or even superior in certain basin-specific assessments. Our evaluation suggests that in several basins of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton communities currently appear to be out-of-GES, being comprised by smaller zooplankters and having lower total abundance or biomass compared to the communities during the reference conditions; however, the changes in the taxonomic structure underlying these trends vary widely across the sea basins due to

  17. Indicator Properties of Baltic Zooplankton for Classification of Environmental Status within Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    Gorokhova, Elena; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Postel, Lutz; Rubene, Gunta; Amid, Callis; Lesutiene, Jurate; Uusitalo, Laura; Strake, Solvita; Demereckiene, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the EU Member States to estimate the level of anthropogenic impacts on their marine systems using 11 Descriptors. Assessing food web response to altered habitats is addressed by Descriptor 4 and its indicators, which are being developed for regional seas. However, the development of simple foodweb indicators able to assess the health of ecologically diverse, spatially variable and complex interactions is challenging. Zooplankton is a key element in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. Here, we review work on zooplankton indicator development using long-term data sets across the Baltic Sea and report the main findings. A suite of zooplankton community metrics were evaluated as putative ecological indicators that track community state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria with regard to eutrophication and fish feeding conditions in the Baltic Sea. On the basis of an operational definition of GES, we propose mean body mass of zooplankton in the community in combination with zooplankton stock measured as either abundance or biomass to be applicable as an integrated indicator that could be used within the Descriptor 4 in the Baltic Sea. These metrics performed best in predicting zooplankton being in-GES when considering all datasets evaluated. However, some other metrics, such as copepod biomass, the contribution of copepods to the total zooplankton biomass or biomass-based Cladocera: Copepoda ratio, were equally reliable or even superior in certain basin-specific assessments. Our evaluation suggests that in several basins of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton communities currently appear to be out-of-GES, being comprised by smaller zooplankters and having lower total abundance or biomass compared to the communities during the reference conditions; however, the changes in the taxonomic structure underlying these trends vary widely across the sea basins due to

  18. The Teacher Proximity Continuum: A Conceptual Framework for the Analysis of Teacher-Related Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, William G.; Heath-Camp, Betty

    In conjunction with a national study on the induction process for beginning vocational teachers, researchers developed a general conceptual framework for the classification and analysis of teacher-related phenomena. The framework, called the Teacher Proximity Continuum, has proved useful in analysis of negative influences, positive influences,…

  19. Environmental Variability and Fluctuation of Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever) In California: Based on a New Framework Involving Fungal Life Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, S.; Okin, G. S.; Shafir, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    dispersal. The seasonal difference of main influential process relates to the length of lags between the outbreaks and stages in fungal life cycle. During wet seasons of California including winter and fall, outbreaks are less correlated with the short-lag process such as dispersal of arthospores because of high soil moisture. In contrast, the long-lag process like C.immitis growth is influential on outbreaks in wet seasons. The arthospore formation, especially during the latest dry season (with a lag less than one year), is more responsible for outbreaks in spring and summer, when the influence of C. immitis growth is dampened by time. However, arthospores formed and preserved years ago may introduce uncertainty to the seasonal lag patterns. The long lags also exist in outbreaks related to arthospore formation. By including all three stages of fungal life cycle, we formed a more comprehensive framework in explaining the relationship between environmental conditions and disease outbreaks. Such analysis can be extended to a finer temporal resolution (e.g. per month) to obtain a clearer picture between environmental variability and coccidioidomycosis fluctuation.

  20. The environmental management problem of Pohorje, Slovenia: A new group approach within ANP - SWOT framework.

    PubMed

    Grošelj, Petra; Zadnik Stirn, Lidija

    2015-09-15

    Environmental management problems can be dealt with by combining participatory methods, which make it possible to include various stakeholders in a decision-making process, and multi-criteria methods, which offer a formal model for structuring and solving a problem. This paper proposes a three-phase decision making approach based on the analytic network process and SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis. The approach enables inclusion of various stakeholders or groups of stakeholders in particular stages of decision making. The structure of the proposed approach is composed of a network consisting of an objective cluster, a cluster of strategic goals, a cluster of SWOT factors and a cluster of alternatives. The application of the suggested approach is applied to a management problem of Pohorje, a mountainous area in Slovenia. Stakeholders from sectors that are important for Pohorje (forestry, agriculture, tourism and nature protection agencies) who can offer a wide range of expert knowledge were included in the decision-making process. The results identify the alternative of "sustainable development" as the most appropriate for development of Pohorje. The application in the paper offers an example of employing the new approach to an environmental management problem. This can also be applied to decision-making problems in various other fields. PMID:26163424

  1. A taxonomic framework for assessing governance challenges and environmental effects of integrated food-energy systems.

    PubMed

    Gerst, Michael D; Cox, Michael E; Locke, Kim A; Laser, Mark; Kapuscinski, Anne R

    2015-01-20

    Predominant forms of food and energy systems pose multiple challenges to the environment as current configurations tend to be structured around centralized one-way through-put of materials and energy. In addition, these configurations can introduce vulnerability to input material price and supply shocks as well as contribute to localized food insecurity and lost opportunities for less environmentally harmful forms of local economic development. One proposed form of system transformation involves locally integrating “unclosed” material and energy loops from food and energy systems. Such systems, which have been termed integrated food-energy systems (IFES), have existed in diverse niche forms but have not been systematically studied with respect to technological, governance, and environmental differences. As a first step in this process, we have constructed a taxonomy of IFES archetypes by using exploratory data analysis on a collection of IFES cases. We find that IFES may be classified hierarchically first by their primary purpose—food or energy production—and subsequently by degree and direction of vertical supply chain coordination. We then use this taxonomy to delineate potential governance challenges and pose a research agenda aimed at understanding what role IFES may play in food and energy system transformation and ultimately what policies may encourage IFES adoption. PMID:25495721

  2. Putting into practice a new framework for generating environmental standards in developing countries: The Chilean experience reviewed

    SciTech Connect

    Farias, F.; Matus, P.C.

    1999-07-01

    Since 1996, a new system for generation of environmental standards in the areas of atmospheric, water and noise pollution, is in place in Chile. This model is grounded to a great extent on the concepts and models developed by The World Bank for managing the environment at government level. A set of environmental laws and procedures were enacted to provide a legal framework for developing environmental standards and different technical instruments to support this technical process have been tested. This paper reviews concrete tasks associated with compliance of legal requirements, and performance of technical instruments designed. But more importantly, addresses issues related to the development of the necessary coordination skills and the trade-offs for implementing a trans-sectorial model, as opposed to the more common vertical system, for developing environmental standards.

  3. 36 CFR 297.6 - Environmental analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental analysis... WILD AND SCENIC RIVERS Water Resources Projects § 297.6 Environmental analysis requirements. (a) The... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). To the extent possible, authorizing agencies should ensure that...

  4. 36 CFR 297.6 - Environmental analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Environmental analysis... WILD AND SCENIC RIVERS Water Resources Projects § 297.6 Environmental analysis requirements. (a) The... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). To the extent possible, authorizing agencies should ensure that...

  5. 36 CFR 297.6 - Environmental analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Environmental analysis... WILD AND SCENIC RIVERS Water Resources Projects § 297.6 Environmental analysis requirements. (a) The... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). To the extent possible, authorizing agencies should ensure that...

  6. 36 CFR 297.6 - Environmental analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental analysis... WILD AND SCENIC RIVERS Water Resources Projects § 297.6 Environmental analysis requirements. (a) The... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). To the extent possible, authorizing agencies should ensure that...

  7. Agricultural livelihoods in coastal Bangladesh under climate and environmental change--a model framework.

    PubMed

    Lázár, Attila N; Clarke, Derek; Adams, Helen; Akanda, Abdur Razzaque; Szabo, Sylvia; Nicholls, Robert J; Matthews, Zoe; Begum, Dilruba; Saleh, Abul Fazal M; Abedin, Md Anwarul; Payo, Andres; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Hutton, Craig; Mondal, M Shahjahan; Moslehuddin, Abu Zofar Md

    2015-06-01

    Coastal Bangladesh experiences significant poverty and hazards today and is highly vulnerable to climate and environmental change over the coming decades. Coastal stakeholders are demanding information to assist in the decision making processes, including simulation models to explore how different interventions, under different plausible future socio-economic and environmental scenarios, could alleviate environmental risks and promote development. Many existing simulation models neglect the complex interdependencies between the socio-economic and environmental system of coastal Bangladesh. Here an integrated approach has been proposed to develop a simulation model to support agriculture and poverty-based analysis and decision-making in coastal Bangladesh. In particular, we show how a simulation model of farmer's livelihoods at the household level can be achieved. An extended version of the FAO's CROPWAT agriculture model has been integrated with a downscaled regional demography model to simulate net agriculture profit. This is used together with a household income-expenses balance and a loans logical tree to simulate the evolution of food security indicators and poverty levels. Modelling identifies salinity and temperature stress as limiting factors to crop productivity and fertilisation due to atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations as a reinforcing factor. The crop simulation results compare well with expected outcomes but also reveal some unexpected behaviours. For example, under current model assumptions, temperature is more important than salinity for crop production. The agriculture-based livelihood and poverty simulations highlight the critical significance of debt through informal and formal loans set at such levels as to persistently undermine the well-being of agriculture-dependent households. Simulations also indicate that progressive approaches to agriculture (i.e. diversification) might not provide the clear economic benefit from the perspective of

  8. Environmental transport in the Oil Shale Risk Analysis.

    PubMed

    Feerer, J L; Gratt, L B

    1983-06-01

    The Oil Shale Risk Analysis differs from similar efforts in coal and nuclear energy in that the industry is not yet developed to a commercial scale. Many assumptions are necessary to predict the future oil shale industry pollutants, the environmental transport of these pollutants, and subsequent human health and environmental effects. The environmental transport analysis in the Oil Shale Risk Analysis is used as an example of applying assumptions to the best available data to predict potential environmental effects of a future commercial industry. The analysis provides information to aid in formulating and managing a program of environmental research focused on reducing uncertainties in critical areas. PMID:6879167

  9. Environmental Stratification Framework and Water-Quality Monitoring Design Strategy for the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Mauritania anticipates an increase in mining activities throughout the country and into the foreseeable future. Because mining-induced changes in the landscape are likely to affect their limited ground-water resources and sensitive aquatic ecosystems, a water-quality assessment program was designed for Mauritania that is based on a nationally consistent environmental stratification framework. The primary objectives of this program are to ensure that the environmental monitoring systems can quantify near real-time changes in surface-water chemistry at a local scale, and quantify intermediate- to long-term changes in groundwater and aquatic ecosystems over multiple scales.

  10. Global Sensitivity Analysis of Environmental Models: Convergence, Robustness and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrazin, Fanny; Pianosi, Francesca; Khorashadi Zadeh, Farkhondeh; Van Griensven, Ann; Wagener, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    Global Sensitivity Analysis aims to characterize the impact that variations in model input factors (e.g. the parameters) have on the model output (e.g. simulated streamflow). In sampling-based Global Sensitivity Analysis, the sample size has to be chosen carefully in order to obtain reliable sensitivity estimates while spending computational resources efficiently. Furthermore, insensitive parameters are typically identified through the definition of a screening threshold: the theoretical value of their sensitivity index is zero but in a sampling-base framework they regularly take non-zero values. There is little guidance available for these two steps in environmental modelling though. The objective of the present study is to support modellers in making appropriate choices, regarding both sample size and screening threshold, so that a robust sensitivity analysis can be implemented. We performed sensitivity analysis for the parameters of three hydrological models with increasing level of complexity (Hymod, HBV and SWAT), and tested three widely used sensitivity analysis methods (Elementary Effect Test or method of Morris, Regional Sensitivity Analysis, and Variance-Based Sensitivity Analysis). We defined criteria based on a bootstrap approach to assess three different types of convergence: the convergence of the value of the sensitivity indices, of the ranking (the ordering among the parameters) and of the screening (the identification of the insensitive parameters). We investigated the screening threshold through the definition of a validation procedure. The results showed that full convergence of the value of the sensitivity indices is not necessarily needed to rank or to screen the model input factors. Furthermore, typical values of the sample sizes that are reported in the literature can be well below the sample sizes that actually ensure convergence of ranking and screening.

  11. PBDEs in environmental samples: sampling and analysis.

    PubMed

    Król, Sylwia; Zabiegała, Bożena; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2012-05-15

    The paper reviews the subject literature concerning analytical procedures routinely sed for monitoring polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in environmental samples. It describes and summarizes subsequent stages of analytical procedure including sample collection and preparation, extraction, clean-up and final determination. Different approaches with their advantages and limitations are presented. Special attention is drawn to the newly developed, promising extraction techniques, especially: liquid-liquid-microextraction (LLME) with its modifications, cloud point extraction (CPE) and hollow fiber microextraction. The review compares available detection techniques taking into account their usefulness for determining different PBDEs in complex matrix as well as discussing possible limitations that may occur during the analysis. The quality assurance and quality control aspect of analytical procedure is described. Finally special attention is paid to the determination of highly brominated PBDE compounds (e.g. BDE209), which requires implementation of different analytical approach. PMID:22483870

  12. Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis (also referred to as the Environmental Justice Technical Guidance or EJTG) is intended for use by Agency analysts, including risk assessors, economists, and other analytic staff that conduct analyse...

  13. Gradient Analysis and Classification of Carolina Bay Vegetation: A Framework for Bay Wetlands Conservation and Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Diane De Steven,Ph.D.; Maureen Tone,PhD.

    1997-10-01

    This report address four project objectives: (1) Gradient model of Carolina bay vegetation on the SRS--The authors use ordination analyses to identify environmental and landscape factors that are correlated with vegetation composition. Significant factors can provide a framework for site-based conservation of existing diversity, and they may also be useful site predictors for potential vegetation in bay restorations. (2) Regional analysis of Carolina bay vegetation diversity--They expand the ordination analyses to assess the degree to which SRS bays encompass the range of vegetation diversity found in the regional landscape of South Carolina's western Upper Coastal Plain. Such comparisons can indicate floristic status relative to regional potentials and identify missing species or community elements that might be re-introduced or restored. (3) Classification of vegetation communities in Upper Coastal Plain bays--They use cluster analysis to identify plant community-types at the regional scale, and explore how this classification may be functional with respect to significant environmental and landscape factors. An environmentally-based classification at the whole-bay level can provide a system of templates for managing bays as individual units and for restoring bays to desired plant communities. (4) Qualitative model for bay vegetation dynamics--They analyze present-day vegetation in relation to historic land uses and disturbances. The distinctive history of SRS bays provides the possibility of assessing pathways of post-disturbance succession. They attempt to develop a coarse-scale model of vegetation shifts in response to changing site factors; such qualitative models can provide a basis for suggesting management interventions that may be needed to maintain desired vegetation in protected or restored bays.

  14. A Cognitive Framework for the Analysis of Online Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen L.; Leinhardt, Gaea

    2008-01-01

    Many students now are receiving instruction in online environments created by universities, museums, corporations, and even students. What features of a given online course contribute to its effectiveness? This paper addresses that query by proposing and applying an analytic framework to five online introductory chemistry courses. Introductory…

  15. Analysis of Idiom Variation in the Framework of Linguistic Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Zhengyuan

    2012-01-01

    Idiom variation is a ubiquitous linguistic phenomenon which has raised a lot of research questions. The past approach was either formal or functional. Both of them did not pay much attention to cognitive factors of language users. By putting idiom variation in the framework of linguistic subjectivity, we have offered a new perspective in the…

  16. Complexity Framework for Sustainability: An Analysis of Five Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnik, Goran D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an examination of the concepts and mechanisms of complexity and learning usability and applicability for management in turbulent environments as well as their examination through the Chaordic system thinking (CST) lenses and framework. Contributing to awareness of how different mechanisms could be…

  17. Mediation Analysis in a Latent Growth Curve Modeling Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Soest, Tilmann; Hagtvet, Knut A.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents several longitudinal mediation models in the framework of latent growth curve modeling and provides a detailed account of how such models can be constructed. Logical and statistical challenges that might arise when such analyses are conducted are also discussed. Specifically, we discuss how the initial status (intercept) and…

  18. A Proposed Framework for Conducting Data-Based Test Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaney, Kathleen L.; Maraun, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    The authors argue that the current state of applied data-based test analytic practice is unstructured and unmethodical due in large part to the fact that there is no clearly specified, widely accepted test analytic framework for judging the performances of particular tests in particular contexts. Drawing from the extant test theory literature,…

  19. A Systematic Approach for Quantitative Analysis of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sangho; Park, Jungkeun; Lee, Jeong-Oog; Lee, Jae-Woo

    An efficient Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization (MDO) framework for an aerospace engineering system should use and integrate distributed resources such as various analysis codes, optimization codes, Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools, Data Base Management Systems (DBMS), etc. in a heterogeneous environment, and need to provide user-friendly graphical user interfaces. In this paper, we propose a systematic approach for determining a reference MDO framework and for evaluating MDO frameworks. The proposed approach incorporates two well-known methods, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Quality Function Deployment (QFD), in order to provide a quantitative analysis of the qualitative criteria of MDO frameworks. Identification and hierarchy of the framework requirements and the corresponding solutions for the reference MDO frameworks, the general one and the aircraft oriented one were carefully investigated. The reference frameworks were also quantitatively identified using AHP and QFD. An assessment of three in-house frameworks was then performed. The results produced clear and useful guidelines for improvement of the in-house MDO frameworks and showed the feasibility of the proposed approach for evaluating an MDO framework without a human interference.

  20. Framework Analysis for Determining Mode of Action & Human Relevance

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall aim of a cancer risk assessment is to characterize the risk to humans from environmental exposures. This risk characterization includes a qualitative and quantitative risk characterization that relies on the development of separate hazard, dose- response and exposure...

  1. Systems Analysis - a new paradigm and decision support tools for the water framework directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruen, M.

    2008-05-01

    In the early days of Systems Analysis the focus was on providing tools for optimisation, modelling and simulation for use by experts. Now there is a recognition of the need to develop and disseminate tools to assist in making decisions, negotiating compromises and communicating preferences that can easily be used by stakeholders without the need for specialist training. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires public participation and thus provides a strong incentive for progress in this direction. This paper places the new paradigm in the context of the classical one and discusses some of the new approaches which can be used in the implementation of the WFD. These include multi-criteria decision support methods suitable for environmental problems, adaptive management, cognitive mapping, social learning and cooperative design and group decision-making. Concordance methods (such as ELECTRE) and the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) are identified as multi-criteria methods that can be readily integrated into Decision Support Systems (DSS) that deal with complex environmental issues with very many criteria, some of which are qualitative. The expanding use of the new paradigm provides an opportunity to observe and learn from the interaction of stakeholders with the new technology and to assess its effectiveness.

  2. Systems analysis - a new paradigm and decision support tools for the water framework directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruen, M.

    2007-06-01

    In the early days of Systems Analysis the focus was on providing tools for optimisation, modelling and simulation for use by experts. Now there is a recognition of the need to develop and disseminate tools to assist in making decisions, negotiating compromises and communicating preferences that can easily be used by stakeholders without the need for specialist training. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires public participation and thus provides a strong incentive for progress in this direction. This paper places the new paradigm in the context of the classical one and discusses some of the new approaches which can be used in the implementation of the WFD. These include multi-criteria decision support methods suitable for environmental problems, adaptive management, cognitive mapping, social learning and cooperative design and group decision-making. Concordance methods (such as ELECTRE) and the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) are identified as multi-criteria methods that can be readily integrated into Decision Support Systems (DSS) that deal with complex environmental issues with very many criteria, some of which are qualitative. The expanding use of the new paradigm provides an opportunity to observe and learn from the interaction of stakeholders with the new technology and to assess its effectiveness. This is best done by trained sociologists fully integrated into the processes. The WINCOMS research project is an example applied to the implementation of the WFD in Ireland.

  3. ROOT based Offline and Online Analysis (ROAn): An analysis framework for X-ray detector data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauf, Thomas; Andritschke, Robert

    2014-10-01

    The ROOT based Offline and Online Analysis (ROAn) framework was developed to perform data analysis on data from Depleted P-channel Field Effect Transistor (DePFET) detectors, a type of active pixel sensors developed at the MPI Halbleiterlabor (HLL). ROAn is highly flexible and extensible, thanks to ROOT's features like run-time type information and reflection. ROAn provides an analysis program which allows to perform configurable step-by-step analysis on arbitrary data, an associated suite of algorithms focused on DePFET data analysis, and a viewer program for displaying and processing online or offline detector data streams. The analysis program encapsulates the applied algorithms in objects called steps which produce analysis results. The dependency between results and thus the order of calculation is resolved automatically by the program. To optimize algorithms for studying detector effects, analysis parameters are often changed. Such changes of input parameters are detected in subsequent analysis runs and only the necessary recalculations are triggered. This saves time and simultaneously keeps the results consistent. The viewer program offers a configurable Graphical User Interface (GUI) and process chain, which allows the user to adapt the program to different tasks such as offline viewing of file data, online monitoring of running detector systems, or performing online data analysis (histogramming, calibration, etc.). Because of its modular design, ROAn can be extended easily, e.g. be adapted to new detector types and analysis processes.

  4. Theory and Practice of Environmental Impact Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Peter F.

    1974-01-01

    Preliminary assessment of Environmental Impact Statements in California indicate that their effectiveness is directly related to the local political structure. Environmental planning is expected to improve as environmental impact reports gain more credence as an information base for city planners. The need for uniform impact guidelines are…

  5. Parabolic dunes and their transformations under environmental and climatic changes: Towards a conceptual framework for understanding and prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Na; Baas, Andreas C. W.

    2015-01-01

    The formation and evolution of parabolic aeolian dunes depend on vegetation, and as such are particularly sensitive to changes in environmental controls (e.g., temperature, precipitation, and wind regime) as well as to human disturbances (e.g., grazing, agriculture, and recreation). Parabolic dunes can develop from the stabilisation of highly mobile barchan dunes and transverse dunes as well as from blowouts, as a consequence of colonisation and establishment of vegetation when aeolian sand transport is reduced and/or when water stress is relieved (by increasing precipitation, for instance). Conversely, existing parabolic dunes can be activated and may be transformed into barchan dunes and/or transverse dunes when vegetation suffers environmental or anthropogenic stresses. Predicted increases in temperature and drought severity in various regions raise concerns that dune activation and transformations may intensify, and this intensification would have far-reaching implications for environmental, social, and economic sustainability. To date, a broad examination of the development of parabolic dunes and their related transformations across a variety of climate gradients has been absent. This paper reviews existing literature, compares data on the morphology and development of parabolic dunes in a comprehensive global inventory, and scrutinises the mechanisms of different dune transformations and the eco-geomorphic interactions involved. This knowledge is then integrated into a conceptual framework to facilitate understanding and prediction of potential aeolian dune transformations induced by changes in environmental controls and human activities. This conceptual framework can aid judicious land management policies for better adaptations to climatic changes.

  6. Environmental Technology (Laboratory Analysis and Environmental Sampling) Curriculum Development Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinojosa, Oscar V.; Guillen, Alfonso

    A project assessed the need and developed a curriculum for environmental technology (laboratory analysis and environmental sampling) in the emerging high technology centered around environmental safety and health in Texas. Initial data were collected through interviews by telephone and in person and through onsite visits. Additional data was…

  7. A Statistical Framework for the Functional Analysis of Metagenomes

    SciTech Connect

    Sharon, Itai; Pati, Amrita; Markowitz, Victor; Pinter, Ron Y.

    2008-10-01

    Metagenomic studies consider the genetic makeup of microbial communities as a whole, rather than their individual member organisms. The functional and metabolic potential of microbial communities can be analyzed by comparing the relative abundance of gene families in their collective genomic sequences (metagenome) under different conditions. Such comparisons require accurate estimation of gene family frequencies. They present a statistical framework for assessing these frequencies based on the Lander-Waterman theory developed originally for Whole Genome Shotgun (WGS) sequencing projects. They also provide a novel method for assessing the reliability of the estimations which can be used for removing seemingly unreliable measurements. They tested their method on a wide range of datasets, including simulated genomes and real WGS data from sequencing projects of whole genomes. Results suggest that their framework corrects inherent biases in accepted methods and provides a good approximation to the true statistics of gene families in WGS projects.

  8. Toyz: Large datasets and astronomical images analysis framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moolekamp, Fred

    2015-07-01

    Toyz is a python web framework that allows scientists to interact with large images and data sets stored on a remote server. A web application is run on the server containing the data and clients are run from web browsers on the user's computer. Toyz displays large FITS images also also renders any image format supported by Pillow (a fork of the Python Imaging Library), contains a GUI to interact with linked plots, and offers a customizable framework that allows students and researchers to create their own work spaces inside a Toyz environment. Astro-Toyz extends the features of the Toyz image viewer, allowing users to view world coordinates and align images based on their WCS.

  9. Globalization and health: a framework for analysis and action.

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, D.; Drager, N.; Beaglehole, R.; Lipson, D.

    2001-01-01

    Globalization is a key challenge to public health, especially in developing countries, but the linkages between globalization and health are complex. Although a growing amount of literature has appeared on the subject, it is piecemeal, and suffers from a lack of an agreed framework for assessing the direct and indirect health effects of different aspects of globalization. This paper presents a conceptual framework for the linkages between economic globalization and health, with the intention that it will serve as a basis for synthesizing existing relevant literature, identifying gaps in knowledge, and ultimately developing national and international policies more favourable to health. The framework encompasses both the indirect effects on health, operating through the national economy, household economies and health-related sectors such as water, sanitation and education, as well as more direct effects on population-level and individual risk factors for health and on the health care system. Proposed also is a set of broad objectives for a programme of action to optimize the health effects of economic globalization. The paper concludes by identifying priorities for research corresponding with the five linkages identified as critical to the effects of globalization on health. PMID:11584737

  10. A Framework for the Contextual Analysis of Computer-Based Learning Environments. Technical Report No. 527.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael J.; Spiro, Rand J.

    Addressing the need for a framework to distinguish the conditions under which different types of educational computing environments are productive, this paper proposes a cognitively based Contextual Analysis Framework consisting of two primary elements: (1) conceptual characteristics of the knowledge domain being learned, including the complexity…

  11. Global/local methods research using a common structural analysis framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Ransom, Jonathan B.; Griffin, O. H., Jr.; Thompson, Danniella M.

    1991-01-01

    Methodologies for global/local stress analysis are described including both two- and three-dimensional analysis methods. These methods are being developed within a common structural analysis framework. Representative structural analysis problems are presented to demonstrate the global/local methodologies being developed.

  12. Environmental Modeling and Bayesian Analysis for Assessing Human Health Impacts from Radioactive Waste Disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockton, T.; Black, P.; Tauxe, J.; Catlett, K.

    2004-12-01

    Bayesian decision analysis provides a unified framework for coherent decision-making. Two key components of Bayesian decision analysis are probability distributions and utility functions. Calculating posterior distributions and performing decision analysis can be computationally challenging, especially for complex environmental models. In addition, probability distributions and utility functions for environmental models must be specified through expert elicitation, stakeholder consensus, or data collection, all of which have their own set of technical and political challenges. Nevertheless, a grand appeal of the Bayesian approach for environmental decision- making is the explicit treatment of uncertainty, including expert judgment. The impact of expert judgment on the environmental decision process, though integral, goes largely unassessed. Regulations and orders of the Environmental Protection Agency, Department Of Energy, and Nuclear Regulatory Agency orders require assessing the impact on human health of radioactive waste contamination over periods of up to ten thousand years. Towards this end complex environmental simulation models are used to assess "risk" to human and ecological health from migration of radioactive waste. As the computational burden of environmental modeling is continually reduced probabilistic process modeling using Monte Carlo simulation is becoming routinely used to propagate uncertainty from model inputs through model predictions. The utility of a Bayesian approach to environmental decision-making is discussed within the context of a buried radioactive waste example. This example highlights the desirability and difficulties of merging the cost of monitoring, the cost of the decision analysis, the cost and viability of clean up, and the probability of human health impacts within a rigorous decision framework.

  13. MS-MS Approaches for the Analysis of Environmental Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern about the environment and the start of environmental analysis coincided with the rise of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) was founded in 1970, and as the need for techniques to analyze environmental...

  14. Transportability of confined field trial data for environmental risk assessment of genetically engineered plants: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Alonso, Monica; Hendley, Paul; Bigler, Franz; Mayeregger, Edgar; Parker, Ronald; Rubinstein, Clara; Satorre, Emilio; Solari, Fernando; McLean, Morven A

    2014-12-01

    It is commonly held that confined field trials (CFTs) used to evaluate the potential adverse environmental impacts of a genetically engineered (GE) plant should be conducted in each country where cultivation is intended, even when relevant and potentially sufficient data are already available from studies conducted elsewhere. The acceptance of data generated in CFTs "out of country" can only be realized in practice if the agro-climatic zone where a CFT is conducted is demonstrably representative of the agro-climatic zones in those geographies to which the data will be transported. In an attempt to elaborate this idea, a multi-disciplinary Working Group of scientists collaborated to develop a conceptual framework and associated process that can be used by the regulated and regulatory communities to support transportability of CFT data for environmental risk assessment (ERA). As proposed here, application of the conceptual framework provides a scientifically defensible process for evaluating if existing CFT data from remote sites are relevant and/or sufficient for local ERAs. Additionally, it promotes a strategic approach to identifying CFT site locations so that field data will be transportable from one regulatory jurisdiction to another. Application of the framework and process should be particularly beneficial to public sector product developers and small enterprises that develop innovative GE events but cannot afford to replicate redundant CFTs, and to regulatory authorities seeking to improve the deployment of limited institutional resources. PMID:24733670

  15. Securing the Place of Educating for Sustainable Development within Existing Curriculum Frameworks: A Reflective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Don; McMillan, Barbara; Maxwell, Mona; Tetrault, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Educating for sustainable development (ESD) is generally found within existing disciplinary frameworks. In this paper, our intent is to compare the views and practices of environmental educators who pursue ESD from a perspective different from what is occurring in our own constituency. We collected data on curriculum, teaching perspectives and…

  16. PROFILE: Multiattribute Utility Analysis as a Framework for Public Participation in Siting a Hazardous Waste Management Facility

    PubMed

    Merkhofer; Conway; Anderson

    1997-11-01

    / In an attempt to facilitate the resolution of contentious environmental problems, public and private organizations are experimenting with collaborative approaches wherein stakeholders participate in the decision-making process. A dilemma for the design of collaborative approaches is the technical complexity of many environmental problems. How can members of the public play a meaningful role in decisions that involve complicated scientific arguments?This paper describes a public participation exercise in which stakeholders used an approach based on multiattribute utility analysis to select a site for a hazardous waste management facility. The key to success was the ability to separate and address two types of judgments inherent in environmental decisions-technical judgments regarding the likely consequences of alternative choices and value judgments regarding the importance or seriousness of those consequences. The approach enabled technical specialists to communicate the essential technical considerations and allowed stakeholders to establish the value judgments for the decision. Although rarely used in public participation, the multiattribute utility approach appears to provide a useful framework for the collaborative resolution of complex environmental decision problems.KEY WORDS: Multiattribute utility analysis; Public involvement; Collaboration; Dispute resolution; Environmental management PMID:9336482

  17. Environmental Education in Costa Rica: Building a Framework for Sustainable Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Environmental education is commonly claimed to be at the centre of efforts to achieve sustainable development. Since the 1980s, Costa Rica has been one of the acknowledged leaders in efforts to promote environmental learning, and national policy includes a three-fold national development strategy which simultaneously promotes education,…

  18. Status analysis and strategic framework for sanitation management in Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y K; Seo, I S; Jung, N C; Kim, J Y; Byun, J H

    2007-01-01

    Following rapid population increase and industrial development, the ever increasing environmental pollution and the associated sanitation-related problem are no longer regional or local but have become an issue requiring global-dimensional concern and the provision of problem-solving alternatives. Especially, since most problems result from inappropriate sewerage and the lack of sewage treatment system are in a serious state occurring in economically underdeveloped regions, and as such, their significance is enormous. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has been making efforts to establish the technology selection methodology applicable in developing countries, through the accurate status, investigation and analysis of the wastewater management state in Asian and African regions, and the sanitation management guideline utilisable by political leaders or decision-makers. As part of this effort, the Korea Institute of Water Environment (KIWE), together with the UNEP, selected China and Vietnam (in Asia) and Kenya and Ethiopia (in Africa) as subject countries to investigate and perform on-site sanitation management investigations and analysis in this research. Results obtained from the on-site investigation were analysed, and in order to be helpful in establishing a strategy for sanitation management in underdeveloped countries, the strategic framework (SF) has been made based on characterised results. PMID:17881834

  19. Household waste compositional analysis variation from insular communities in the framework of waste prevention strategy plans

    SciTech Connect

    Zorpas, Antonis A.; Lasaridi, Katia; Voukkali, Irene; Loizia, Pantelitsa; Chroni, Christina

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Waste framework directive has set clear waste prevention procedures. • Household Compositional analysis. • Waste management plans. • Zero waste approach. • Waste generation. - Abstract: Waste management planning requires reliable data regarding waste generation, affecting factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. In order to decrease the environmental impacts of waste management the choice of prevention plan as well as the treatment method must be based on the features of the waste that are produced in a specific area. Factors such as culture, economic development, climate, and energy sources have an impact on waste composition; composition influences the need of collecting waste more or less frequently of waste collection and disposition. The research question was to discover the main barriers concerning the compositional analysis in Insular Communities under warm climate conditions and the findings from this study enabled the main contents of a waste management plan to be established. These included advice to residents on waste minimisation, liaison with stakeholders and the expansion of kerbside recycling schemes.

  20. ALTERNATIVE FUTURES ANALYSIS: A FRAMEWORK FOR COMMUNITY DECISION-MAKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alternative futures analysis is an assessment approach designed to inform community decisions about land and water use. We conducted an alternative futures analysis in Oregon's Willamette River Basin. Three alternative future landscapes for the year 2050 were depicted and compare...

  1. Hybrid segmentation framework for 3D medical image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ting; Metaxas, Dimitri N.

    2003-05-01

    Medical image segmentation is the process that defines the region of interest in the image volume. Classical segmentation methods such as region-based methods and boundary-based methods cannot make full use of the information provided by the image. In this paper we proposed a general hybrid framework for 3D medical image segmentation purposes. In our approach we combine the Gibbs Prior model, and the deformable model. First, Gibbs Prior models are applied onto each slice in a 3D medical image volume and the segmentation results are combined to a 3D binary masks of the object. Then we create a deformable mesh based on this 3D binary mask. The deformable model will be lead to the edge features in the volume with the help of image derived external forces. The deformable model segmentation result can be used to update the parameters for Gibbs Prior models. These methods will then work recursively to reach a global segmentation solution. The hybrid segmentation framework has been applied to images with the objective of lung, heart, colon, jaw, tumor, and brain. The experimental data includes MRI (T1, T2, PD), CT, X-ray, Ultra-Sound images. High quality results are achieved with relatively efficient time cost. We also did validation work using expert manual segmentation as the ground truth. The result shows that the hybrid segmentation may have further clinical use.

  2. Use of Earth Observation Data for Environmental Monitoring in the Horn of Africa within the Framework of MESA IGAD THEMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atheru, Zachary; Fortunate, Muyambi

    2015-12-01

    The achievements and challenges on the implementation of activities of IGAD Climate Prediction and Applications Centre (ICPAC) regarding the use of Earth Observation data for environmental monitoring in the Horn of Africa within the framework of MESA IGAD THEMA. Examples of the outputs from the Land Degradation Assessment, Natural Habitat Conservation and Forest Monitoring are provided and explained. The difficulties faced in communicating and disseminating information particularly to decision makers are highlighted. Also outlined is the scope and expected results from the Monitoring for Environment and Security in Africa (MESA) IGAD Thematic action and emphasis placed on lessons learnt on (i) developing services from products (ii) strengthening national networks (III) disseminating and communicating information to decision and policy makers, and (iv) capacity building. The overall objective of the MESA programme in the IGAD region is to enhance land degradation mitigation, natural habitats assessment and Forest Monitoring for sustainable management of environmental resources through the use of Earth Observation data. This is done by strengthening the Earth Observation information management capacity of regional and national institutions in order to support decision and policy making processes. The services produce and distribute regularly land degradation index maps, land cover change indicators on IGAD selected Natural Habitats areas, Forest degradation, deforestation extent, vulnerability index map. It also develops the political and policy frameworks that are strengthened to ensure an active and sustainable participation of IGAD member states in global environmental surveillance initiatives and finally give adequate technical capacity of MESA IGAD stakeholders.

  3. Student Empowerment in an Environmental Science Classroom: Toward a Framework for Social Justice Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimick, Alexandra Schindel

    2012-01-01

    Social justice education is undertheorized in science education. Given the wide range of goals and purposes proposed within both social justice education and social justice science education scholarship, these fields require reconciliation. In this paper, I suggest a student empowerment framework for conceptualizing teaching and learning social…

  4. A Lexical Analysis of Environmental Sound Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houix, Olivier; Lemaitre, Guillaume; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick; Urdapilleta, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    In this article we report on listener categorization of meaningful environmental sounds. A starting point for this study was the phenomenological taxonomy proposed by Gaver (1993b). In the first experimental study, 15 participants classified 60 environmental sounds and indicated the properties shared by the sounds in each class. In a second…

  5. 43 CFR 3425.3 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... officer shall prepare an environmental assessment or environmental impact statement of the proposed lease area in accordance with 40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508. BLM will publish a notice in the Federal... impact statement and the hearing required by § 3425.4(a)(1). BLM also will mail to the surface owner...

  6. 43 CFR 3425.3 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... officer shall prepare an environmental assessment or environmental impact statement of the proposed lease area in accordance with 40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508. BLM will publish a notice in the Federal... impact statement and the hearing required by § 3425.4(a)(1). BLM also will mail to the surface owner...

  7. 43 CFR 3425.3 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... officer shall prepare an environmental assessment or environmental impact statement of the proposed lease area in accordance with 40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508. BLM will publish a notice in the Federal... impact statement and the hearing required by § 3425.4(a)(1). BLM also will mail to the surface owner...

  8. Developing a dynamic framework to examine the interplay between environmental stress, stakeholder participation processes and hydrological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, G.; Blöschl, G.; Loucks, D. P.

    2014-09-01

    Stakeholder participation is increasingly discussed as essential for sustainable water resource management. Yet detailed understanding of the factors driving its use, the processes by which it is employed, and the outcomes or achievements it can realise remains highly limited, and often contested. This understanding is essential to enable water policy to be shaped for efficient and effective water management. This research proposes and applies a dynamic framework that can explore in which circumstances environmental stress events, such as floods, droughts or pollution, drive changes in water governance towards a more participatory approach, and how this shapes the processes by which participation or stakeholder engagement takes place, and the subsequent water management outcomes that emerge. The framework is able to assess the extent to which environmental events in combination with favourable contextual factors (e.g. institutional support for participatory activities) lead to good participatory processes (e.g. well facilitated and representative) that then lead to good outcomes (e.g. improved ecological conditions). Through applying the framework to case studies from the literature it becomes clear that environmental stress events can stimulate participatory governance changes, when existing institutional conditions promote participatory approaches. The work also suggests that intermediary outcomes, which may be tangible (such as reaching an agreement) or non-tangible (such as developing shared knowledge and understanding among participants, or creating trust), may provide a crucial link between processes and resource management outcomes. If this relationship can be more strongly confirmed, the presence or absence of intermediary outcomes may even be used as a valuable proxy to predict future resource management outcomes.

  9. CIMS: A FRAMEWORK FOR INFRASTRUCTURE INTERDEPENDENCY MODELING AND ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald D. Dudenhoeffer; May R. Permann; Milos Manic

    2006-12-01

    Today’s society relies greatly upon an array of complex national and international infrastructure networks such as transportation, utilities, telecommunication, and even financial networks. While modeling and simulation tools have provided insight into the behavior of individual infrastructure networks, a far less understood area is that of the interrelationships among multiple infrastructure networks including the potential cascading effects that may result due to these interdependencies. This paper first describes infrastructure interdependencies as well as presenting a formalization of interdependency types. Next the paper describes a modeling and simulation framework called CIMS© and the work that is being conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to model and simulate infrastructure interdependencies and the complex behaviors that can result.

  10. A Computational Framework to Control Verification and Robustness Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy, Daniel P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for evaluating the robustness of a controller based on its ability to satisfy the design requirements. The framework proposed is generic since it allows for high-fidelity models, arbitrary control structures and arbitrary functional dependencies between the requirements and the uncertain parameters. The cornerstone of this contribution is the ability to bound the region of the uncertain parameter space where the degradation in closed-loop performance remains acceptable. The size of this bounding set, whose geometry can be prescribed according to deterministic or probabilistic uncertainty models, is a measure of robustness. The robustness metrics proposed herein are the parametric safety margin, the reliability index, the failure probability and upper bounds to this probability. The performance observed at the control verification setting, where the assumptions and approximations used for control design may no longer hold, will fully determine the proposed control assessment.

  11. 36 CFR 297.6 - Environmental analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental analysis... WILD AND SCENIC RIVERS Water Resources Projects § 297.6 Environmental analysis requirements. (a) The... that the Department of Agriculture is apprised of ongoing analyses so as to facilitate coordination...

  12. 43 CFR 3410.2-2 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Environmental analysis. 3410.2-2 Section 3410.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 3410.2-2 Environmental analysis. (a) Before an exploration license may be issued, the...

  13. 15 CFR 970.204 - Environmental and use conflict analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... analysis. 970.204 Section 970.204 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign... Applications Contents § 970.204 Environmental and use conflict analysis. (a) Environmental information. To... technical guidance document which will provide assistance for the agency and the applicant, in...

  14. Regional environmental analysis and management: New techniques for current problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honea, R. B.; Paludan, C. T. N.

    1974-01-01

    Advances in data acquisition and processing procedures for regional environmental analysis are discussed. Automated and semi-automated techniques employing Earth Resources Technology Satellite data and conventional data sources are presented. Experiences are summarized. The ERTS computer compatible tapes provide a very complete and flexible record of earth resources data and represent a viable medium to enhance regional environmental analysis research.

  15. Analysis of Dispersive Landslide Tsunami Waves in the Lagrangian Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couston, L. A.; Mei, C.; Alam, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis' inundation heights must be accurately and efficiently predicted for a timely evacuation of coastal populations exposed to such hazardous incidents. To achieve this, approximate models have been developed for an efficient estimation of the wave propagation and runup on the world shorelines. The accuracy of these approximate models is yet a matter of dispute in regard to how much dispersion and nonlinearity should be included, and to how well the runup phenomenon is resolved. The linear shallow-water model-equation is widely used for runup predictions because it is computationally efficient. However, its lack of dispersive properties is known to adversely affect the correct prediction of wave height and arrival time. The Boussinesq set of equations considers weak dispersive and nonlinear effects and, despite being computationally more expensive, has a much better accuracy. The balance between dispersive and nonlinear effects is of significant importance for the problem of landslide generated tsunamis because such nonlinear waves have a relatively small horizontal length scale (wave length) compared to the domain of propagation. This renders dispersive effects a lot more pronounced than in the case of earthquake tsunamis. Here we compare the runup predictions of a linear shallow-water, Boussinesq (weak dispersion and weak nonlinearity) and fully nonlinear Boussinesq model (weak dispersion, no assumption on nonlinearity) for various landslide tsunami scenarios. The equations are derived in the Lagrangian framework to allow for an accurate calculation of the runup. Contrary to Eulerian models, long-wave models in Lagrangian framework can be arranged to yield a system of partial-differential equations for the vertical and horizontal displacements of the free-surface. These evolutionary equations are then solved using a finite-difference scheme for time integration and spatial differentiation. The effect of a ridge on a long-wave train climbing up a beach is

  16. The US federal framework for research on endocrine disrupters and an analysis of research programs supported during fiscal year 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reiter, L.W.; DeRosa, C.; Kavlock, R.J.; Lucier, G.; Mac, M.J.; Melillo, J.; Melnick, R.L.; Sinks, T.; Walton, B.T.

    1998-01-01

    The potential health and ecological effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals has become a high visibility environmental issue. The 1990s have witnessed a growing concern, both on the part of the scientific community and the public, that environmental chemicals may be causing widespread effects in humans and in a variety of fish and wildlife species. This growing concern led the Committee on the Environment and Natural Resources (CENR) of the National Science and Technology Council to identify the endocrine disrupter issue as a major research initiative in early 1995 and subsequently establish an ad hoc Working Group on Endocrine Disrupters. The objectives of the working group are to 1) develop a planning framework for federal research related to human and ecological health effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals; 2) conduct an inventory of ongoing federal research programs; and 3) identify research gaps and develop a coordinated interagency plan to address priority research needs. This communication summarizes the activities of the federal government in defining a common framework for planning an endocrine disrupter research program and in assessing the status of the current effort. After developing the research framework and compiling an inventory of active research projects supported by the federal government in fiscal year 1996, the CENR working group evaluated the current federal effort by comparing the ongoing activities with the research needs identified in the framework. The analysis showed that the federal government supports considerable research on human health effects, ecological effects, and exposure assessment, with a predominance of activity occurring under human health effects. The analysis also indicates that studies on reproductive development and carcinogenesis are more prevalent than studies on neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity, that mammals (mostly laboratory animals) are the main species under study, and that chlorinated dibenzodioxins and

  17. Improving component interoperability and reusability with the java connection framework (JCF): overview and application to the ages-w environmental model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental modeling framework (EMF) design goals are multi-dimensional and often include many aspects of general software framework development. Many functional capabilities offered by current EMFs are closely related to interoperability and reuse aspects. For example, an EMF needs to support dev...

  18. LANDSCAPE SCIENCES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT: A NATO FRAMEWORK FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An international pilot study has been developed to explore the possibility of quantifying and assessing environmental condition, processes of land degradation, and subsequent impacts on natural and human resources by combining the advanced technologies of remote sensing, geograph...

  19. Agriculture sector resource and environmental policy analysis: an economic and biophysical approach.

    PubMed

    House, R; McDowell, H; Peters, M; Heimlich, R

    1999-01-01

    Agricultural pollution of the environment is jointly determined by economic decisions driving land use, production practices, and stochastic biophysical processes associated with agricultural production, land and climate characteristics. It follows that environmental and economic statistics, traditionally collected independently of each other, offer little insight into non-point pollutant loadings. We argue that effective policy development would be facilitated by integrating environmental and economic data gathering, combined with simulation modelling linking economic and biophysical components. Integrated data collection links economics, land use, production methods and environmental loadings. An integrated economic/biophysical modelling framework facilitates policy analysis because monetary incentives to reduce pollution can be evaluated in the context of market costs and returns that influence land use and production activity. This allows prediction of environmental and economic outcomes from alternative policies to solve environmental problems. We highlight steps taken to merge economic and biophysical modelling for policy analysis within the Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture. An example analysis of a policy to reduce agricultural nitrogen pollution is presented, with the economic and environmental results illustrating the value of linked economic and biophysical analysis. PMID:10231835

  20. Leaving the classroom: a didactic framework for education in environmental sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dopico, Eduardo; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2011-06-01

    In Continuous Education curricula in Spain, the programs on sciences of the environment are aimed toward understandings of sustainability. Teaching practice rarely leaves the classroom for outdoor field studies. At the same time, teaching practice is generally focused on examples of how human activities are harmful for ecosystems. From a pedagogic point of view, it is less effective to teach environmental science with negative examples such as catastrophe, tragedy, and crisis. Rather, teaching environmental sciences and sustainable development might be focused on positive human-environment relationships, which is both important for the further development of students and educators. Within rural settings, there are many such examples of positive relationships that can be emphasized and integrated into the curriculum. In this article, we propose teaching environmental sciences through immersion in rural cultural life. We discuss how fieldwork serves as a learning methodology. When students are engaged through research with traditional cultural practices of environmental management, which is a part of the real and traditional culture of a region, they better understand how positive pedagogy instead of pedagogy structured around how not-to-do examples, can be used to stimulate the interactions between humans and the environment with their students. In this way, cultural goods serve as teaching resources in science and environmental education. What we present is authentic cases where adults involved in a course of Continuous Education explore `environmentally-friendly' practices of traditional agriculture in Asturias (north of Spain), employing methodologies of cultural studies.

  1. A Purposive Approach to Content Analysis: Designing Analytical Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerbic, Philippa; Stacey, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Content analysis of computer conferences provides a rich source of data for researching and understanding online learning. However, the complexities of using content analysis in a relatively new research field have resulted in researchers often avoiding this method and using more familiar methods such as survey and interview instead. This article…

  2. Environmental analysis of biomass-ethanol facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Corbus, D.; Putsche, V.

    1995-12-01

    This report analyzes the environmental regulatory requirements for several process configurations of a biomass-to-ethanol facility. It also evaluates the impact of two feedstocks (municipal solid waste [MSW] and agricultural residues) and three facility sizes (1000, 2000, and 3000 dry tons per day [dtpd]) on the environmental requirements. The basic biomass ethanol process has five major steps: (1) Milling, (2) Pretreatment, (3) Cofermentation, (4) Enzyme production, (5) Product recovery. Each step could have environmental impacts and thus be subject to regulation. Facilities that process 2000 dtpd of MSW or agricultural residues would produce 69 and 79 million gallons of ethanol, respectively.

  3. Framework for Informed Policy Making Using Data from National Environmental Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, B.; Taylor, J. R.; Poinsatte, J.

    2012-12-01

    Large-scale environmental changes pose challenges that straddle environmental, economic, and social boundaries. As we design and implement climate adaptation strategies at the Federal, state, local, and tribal levels, accessible and usable data are essential for implementing actions that are informed by the best available information. Data-intensive science has been heralded as an enabler for scientific breakthroughs powered by advanced computing capabilities and interoperable data systems. Those same capabilities can be applied to data and information systems that facilitate the transformation of data into highly processed products. At the interface of scientifically informed public policy and data intensive science lies the potential for producers of credible, integrated, multi-scalar environmental data like the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) and its partners to capitalize on data and informatics interoperability initiatives that enable the integration of environmental data from across credible data sources. NSF's large-scale environmental observatories such as NEON and the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) are designed to provide high-quality, long-term environmental data for research. These data are also meant to be repurposed for operational needs that like risk management, vulnerability assessments, resource management, and others. The proposed USDA Agriculture Research Service (ARS) Long Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) network is another example of such an environmental observatory that will produce credible data for environmental / agricultural forecasting and informing policy. To facilitate data fusion across observatories, there is a growing call for observation systems to more closely coordinate and standardize how variables are measured. Together with observation standards, cyberinfrastructure standards enable the proliferation of an ecosystem of applications that utilize diverse, high-quality, credible data. Interoperability

  4. Decerns: A framework for multi-criteria decision analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yatsalo, Boris; Didenko, Vladimir; Gritsyuk, Sergey; Sullivan, Terry

    2015-02-27

    A new framework, Decerns, for multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) of a wide range of practical problems on risk management is introduced. Decerns framework contains a library of modules that are the basis for two scalable systems: DecernsMCDA for analysis of multicriteria problems, and DecernsSDSS for multicriteria analysis of spatial options. DecernsMCDA includes well known MCDA methods and original methods for uncertainty treatment based on probabilistic approaches and fuzzy numbers. As a result, these MCDA methods are described along with a case study on analysis of multicriteria location problem.

  5. DETECTION AND QUANTITATION LIMITS IN ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Site assessment, remediation, and compliance monitoring require the routine determination of the concentration of regulated subsatances in environmental samples. Each measurement methodology, providing the concentration determinations, is required to specify key data quality elem...

  6. Participatory scenario development for environmental management: a methodological framework illustrated with experience from the UK uplands.

    PubMed

    Reed, M S; Kenter, J; Bonn, A; Broad, K; Burt, T P; Fazey, I R; Fraser, E D G; Hubacek, K; Nainggolan, D; Quinn, C H; Stringer, L C; Ravera, F

    2013-10-15

    A methodological framework is proposed for participatory scenario development on the basis of evidence from the literature, and is tested and refined through the development of scenarios for the future of UK uplands. The paper uses a review of previous work to justify a framework based around the following steps: i) define context and establish whether there is a basis for stakeholder engagement in scenario development; ii) systematically identify and represent relevant stakeholders in the process; iii) define clear objectives for scenario development with stakeholders including spatial and temporal boundaries; iv) select relevant participatory methods for scenario development, during initial scenario construction, evaluation and to support decision-making based on scenarios; and v) integrate local and scientific knowledge throughout the process. The application of this framework in case study research suggests that participatory scenario development has the potential to: i) make scenarios more relevant to stakeholder needs and priorities; ii) extend the range of scenarios developed; iii) develop more detailed and precise scenarios through the integration of local and scientific knowledge; and iv) move beyond scenario development to facilitate adaptation to future change. It is argued that participatory scenario development can empower stakeholders and lead to more consistent and robust scenarios that can help people prepare more effectively for future change. PMID:23774752

  7. Predicting the resilience and recovery of aquatic systems: a framework for model evolution within environmental observatories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hipsey, Matthew R.; Hamilton, David P.; Hanson, Paul C.; Carey, Cayelan C; Coletti, Janaine Z; Read, Jordan S.; Ibelings, Bas W; Valensini, Fiona J; Brookes, Justin D

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining the health of aquatic systems is an essential component of sustainable catchmentmanagement, however, degradation of water quality and aquatic habitat continues to challenge scientistsand policy-makers. To support management and restoration efforts aquatic system models are requiredthat are able to capture the often complex trajectories that these systems display in response to multiplestressors. This paper explores the abilities and limitations of current model approaches in meeting this chal-lenge, and outlines a strategy based on integration of flexible model libraries and data from observationnetworks, within a learning framework, as a means to improve the accuracy and scope of model predictions.The framework is comprised of a data assimilation component that utilizes diverse data streams from sensornetworks, and a second component whereby model structural evolution can occur once the model isassessed against theoretically relevant metrics of system function. Given the scale and transdisciplinarynature of the prediction challenge, network science initiatives are identified as a means to develop and inte-grate diverse model libraries and workflows, and to obtain consensus on diagnostic approaches to modelassessment that can guide model adaptation. We outline how such a framework can help us explore thetheory of how aquatic systems respond to change by bridging bottom-up and top-down lines of enquiry,and, in doing so, also advance the role of prediction in aquatic ecosystem management.

  8. Predicting the resilience and recovery of aquatic systems: A framework for model evolution within environmental observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipsey, Matthew R.; Hamilton, David P.; Hanson, Paul C.; Carey, Cayelan C.; Coletti, Janaine Z.; Read, Jordan S.; Ibelings, Bas W.; Valesini, Fiona J.; Brookes, Justin D.

    2015-09-01

    Maintaining the health of aquatic systems is an essential component of sustainable catchment management, however, degradation of water quality and aquatic habitat continues to challenge scientists and policy-makers. To support management and restoration efforts aquatic system models are required that are able to capture the often complex trajectories that these systems display in response to multiple stressors. This paper explores the abilities and limitations of current model approaches in meeting this challenge, and outlines a strategy based on integration of flexible model libraries and data from observation networks, within a learning framework, as a means to improve the accuracy and scope of model predictions. The framework is comprised of a data assimilation component that utilizes diverse data streams from sensor networks, and a second component whereby model structural evolution can occur once the model is assessed against theoretically relevant metrics of system function. Given the scale and transdisciplinary nature of the prediction challenge, network science initiatives are identified as a means to develop and integrate diverse model libraries and workflows, and to obtain consensus on diagnostic approaches to model assessment that can guide model adaptation. We outline how such a framework can help us explore the theory of how aquatic systems respond to change by bridging bottom-up and top-down lines of enquiry, and, in doing so, also advance the role of prediction in aquatic ecosystem management.

  9. Creating an Environmental Justice Framework for Policy Change in Childhood Asthma: A Grassroots to Treetops Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, Katherine; Arons, Abigail; Standish, Marion; Brindis, Claire D.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The Community Action to Fight Asthma Initiative, a network of coalitions and technical assistance providers in California, employed an environmental justice approach to reduce risk factors for asthma in school-aged children. Policy advocacy focused on housing, schools, and outdoor air quality. Technical assistance partners from environmental science, policy advocacy, asthma prevention, and media assisted in advocacy. An evaluation team assessed progress and outcomes. Methods. A theory of change and corresponding logic model were used to document coalition development and successes. Site visits, surveys, policymaker interviews, and participation in meetings documented the processes and outcomes. Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed to assess strategies, successes, and challenges. Results. Coalitions, working with community residents and technical assistance experts, successfully advocated for policies to reduce children's exposures to environmental triggers, particularly in low-income communities and communities of color. Policies were implemented at various levels. Conclusions. Environmental justice approaches to policy advocacy could be an effective strategy to address inequities across communities. Strong technical assistance, close community involvement, and multilevel strategies were all essential to effective policies to reduce environmental inequities. PMID:21836108

  10. Environmental and Occupational Interventions for Primary Prevention of Cancer: A Cross-Sectorial Policy Framework

    PubMed Central

    Espina, Carolina; Porta, Miquel; Schüz, Joachim; Aguado, Ildefonso Hernández; Percival, Robert V.; Dora, Carlos; Slevin, Terry; Guzman, Julietta Rodriguez; Meredith, Tim; Landrigan, Philip J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nearly 13 million new cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths occur worldwide each year; 63% of cancer deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. A substantial proportion of all cancers are attributable to carcinogenic exposures in the environment and the workplace. Objective: We aimed to develop an evidence-based global vision and strategy for the primary prevention of environmental and occupational cancer. Methods: We identified relevant studies through PubMed by using combinations of the search terms “environmental,” “occupational,” “exposure,” “cancer,” “primary prevention,” and “interventions.” To supplement the literature review, we convened an international conference titled “Environmental and Occupational Determinants of Cancer: Interventions for Primary Prevention” under the auspices of the World Health Organization, in Asturias, Spain, on 17–18 March 2011. Discussion: Many cancers of environmental and occupational origin could be prevented. Prevention is most effectively achieved through primary prevention policies that reduce or eliminate involuntary exposures to proven and probable carcinogens. Such strategies can be implemented in a straightforward and cost-effective way based on current knowledge, and they have the added benefit of synergistically reducing risks for other noncommunicable diseases by reducing exposures to shared risk factors. Conclusions: Opportunities exist to revitalize comprehensive global cancer control policies by incorporating primary interventions against environmental and occupational carcinogens. PMID:23384642

  11. A framework for joint image-and-shape analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yi; Tannenbaum, Allen; Bouix, Sylvain

    2014-03-01

    Techniques in medical image analysis are many times used for the comparison or regression on the intensities of images. In general, the domain of the image is a given Cartesian grids. Shape analysis, on the other hand, studies the similarities and differences among spatial objects of arbitrary geometry and topology. Usually, there is no function defined on the domain of shapes. Recently, there has been a growing needs for defining and analyzing functions defined on the shape space, and a coupled analysis on both the shapes and the functions defined on them. Following this direction, in this work we present a coupled analysis for both images and shapes. As a result, the statistically significant discrepancies in both the image intensities as well as on the underlying shapes are detected. The method is applied on both brain images for the schizophrenia and heart images for atrial fibrillation patients.

  12. Computational Hemodynamics Framework for the Analysis of Cerebral Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Mut, Fernando; Löhner, Rainald; Chien, Aichi; Tateshima, Satoshi; Viñuela, Fernando; Putman, Christopher; Cebral, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Assessing the risk of rupture of intracranial aneurysms is important for clinicians because the natural rupture risk can be exceeded by the small but significant risk carried by current treatments. To this end numerous investigators have used image-based computational fluid dynamics models to extract patient-specific hemodynamics information, but there is no consensus on which variables or hemodynamic characteristics are the most important. This paper describes a computational framework to study and characterize the hemodynamic environment of cerebral aneurysms in order to relate it to clinical events such as growth or rupture. In particular, a number of hemodynamic quantities are proposed to describe the most salient features of these hemodynamic environments. Application to a patient population indicates that ruptured aneurysms tend to have concentrated inflows, concentrated wall shear stress distributions, high maximal wall shear stress and smaller viscous dissipation ratios than unruptured aneurysms. Furthermore, these statistical associations are largely unaffected by the choice of physiologic flow conditions. This confirms the notion that hemodynamic information derived from image-based computational models can be used to assess aneurysm rupture risk, to test hypotheses about the mechanisms responsible for aneurysm formation, progression and rupture, and to answer specific clinical questions. PMID:21643491

  13. A fuzzy, nonparametric segmentation framework for DTI and MRI analysis.

    PubMed

    Awate, Suyash P; Gee, James C

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a novel statistical fuzzy-segmentation method for diffusion tensor (DT) images and magnetic resonance (MR) images. Typical fuzzy-segmentation schemes, e.g. those based on fuzzy-C-means (FCM), incorporate Gaussian class models which are inherently biased towards ellipsoidal clusters. Fiber bundles in DT images, however, comprise tensors that can inherently lie on more-complex manifolds. Unlike FCM-based schemes, the proposed method relies on modeling the manifolds underlying the classes by incorporating nonparametric data-driven statistical models. It produces an optimal fuzzy segmentation by maximizing a novel information-theoretic energy in a Markov-random-field framework. For DT images, the paper describes a consistent statistical technique for nonparametric modeling in Riemannian DT spaces that incorporates two very recent works. In this way, the proposed method provides uncertainties in the segmentation decisions, which stem from imaging artifacts including noise, partial voluming, and inhomogeneity. The paper shows results on synthetic and real, DT as well as MR images. PMID:17633708

  14. EPA Growing DASEES (Decision Analysis For A Sustainable Environment, Economy & Society) - To Aid In Making Decisions On Complex Environmental Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Having a framework and tools to help sort through complicated environmental issues in an objective way would be useful to communities and risk managers, and all the stakeholders affected by these issues. This is one need that DASEES (Decision Analysis for a Sustainable En...

  15. Kindergarten Teachers' Conceptual Framework on the Ozone Layer Depletion. Exploring the Associative Meanings of a Global Environmental Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskolia, Maria; Flogaitis, Evgenia; Papageorgiou, Evgenia

    2006-04-01

    This paper reports on a study conducted among Greek kindergarten teachers aiming to explore their conceptual frameworks on a major environmental issue of our times: the ozone layer depletion. The choice of this particular issue was premised on its novelty, complexity and abstractness which present teachers with difficulties in its teaching. A free word association task was employed to identify the associative meaning of the issue among the participant teachers. The study's results revealed the existence of a simplistic, linear, cause-and-effect scheme in the teachers' conceptual frameworks, the two poles of which are "solar radiation" and "its harmful results for human health". Some of the well-known misconceptions and misunderstandings already emerged in previous research also arise in this study. Prominent among them are the deeply rooted confusion between the "ozone hole" and "greenhouse effect", a general fusion of ideas concerning all environmental problems and an overemphasis on the harmful consequences of the ozone depletion on human health. Implications for kindergarten teacher education are also discussed.

  16. A Conceptual Framework for the Analysis of Risk and Problem Behaviors: The Case of Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilamo-Ramos; Vincent; Jaccard, James; Dittus, Patricia; Gonzalez, Bernardo; Bouris, Alida

    2008-01-01

    A framework for the analysis of adolescent problem behaviors was explicated that draws on five major theories of human behavior. The framework emphasizes intentions to perform behaviors and factors that influence intentions as well as moderate the impact of intentions on behavior. The framework was applied to the analysis of adolescent sexual risk…

  17. A computational framework for exploratory data analysis in biomedical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wismueller, Axel

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: To develop, test, and evaluate a novel unsupervised machine learning method for the analysis of multidimensional biomedical imaging data. Methods: The Exploration Machine (XOM) is introduced as a method for computing low-dimensional representations of high-dimensional observations. XOM systematically inverts functional and structural components of topology-preserving mappings. Thus, it can contribute to both structure-preserving visualization and data clustering. We applied XOM to the analysis of microarray imaging data of gene expression profiles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and to model-free analysis of functional brain MRI data by unsupervised clustering. For both applications, we performed quantitative comparisons to results obtained by established algorithms. Results: Genome data: Absolute (relative) Sammon error values were 2.21 Â. 103 (1.00) for XOM, 2.45 Â. 103 (1.11) for Sammon's mapping, 2.77 Â. 103 (1.25) for Locally Linear Embedding (LLE), 2.82 Â. 103 (1.28) for PCA, 3.36 Â. 103 (1.52) for Isomap, and 10.19 Â. 103(4.61) for Self-Organizing Map (SOM). - Functional MRI data: Areas under ROC curves for detection of task-related brain activation were 0.984 +/- 0.03 for XOM, 0.983 +/- 0.02 for Minimal-Free-Energy VQ, and 0.979 +/- 0.02 for SOM. Conclusion: We introduce the Exploration Machine as a novel machine learning method for the analysis of multidimensional biomedical imaging data. XOM can be successfully applied to microarray gene expression analysis and to clustering of functional brain MR image time-series. By simultaneously contributing to dimensionality reduction and data clustering, XOM is a useful novel method for data analysis in biomedical imaging.

  18. NPTool: a simulation and analysis framework for low-energy nuclear physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matta, A.; Morfouace, P.; de Séréville, N.; Flavigny, F.; Labiche, M.; Shearman, R.

    2016-08-01

    The Nuclear Physics Tool (NPTool) is an open source data analysis and Monte Carlo simulation framework that has been developed for low-energy nuclear physics experiments with an emphasis on radioactive beam experiments. The NPTool offers a unified framework for designing, preparing and analyzing complex experiments employing multiple detectors, each of which may comprise some hundreds of channels. The framework has been successfully used for the analysis and simulation of experiments at facilities including GANIL, RIKEN, ALTO and TRIUMF, using both stable and radioactive beams. This paper details the NPTool philosophy together with an overview of the workflow. The framework has been benchmarked through the comparison of simulated and experimental data for a variety of detectors used in charged particle and gamma-ray spectroscopy.

  19. A SOIL SPATIAL DATA FRAMEWORK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MODELING IN THE CONTIGUOUS US

    EPA Science Inventory

    A suite of soil and related data-layers have been developed for environmental assessments of the effects of tropospheric ozone exposure and nitrogen deposition on forests, and global change (soil C pools and landuse impacts, water balance modeling). These spatial data depict s...

  20. Background information for the Leaching environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) test methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Resource Conservation and Recovery has initiated the review and validation process for four leaching tests under consideration for inclusion into SW-846: Method 1313 "Liquid-Solid Partitioning as a Function of Extract pH for Co...

  1. The Teaching Green School Building: A Framework for Linking Architecture and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Laura B.

    2014-01-01

    The "Teaching Green School Building" is an emergent type of school building that attempts to engage building users with environmental issues in buildings. Architectural interventions in these buildings range from signage to interactive touch screens to gardens and demonstration kitchens that foster educational programmes about…

  2. The geospatial modeling interface (GMI) framework for deploying and assessing environmental models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geographical information systems (GIS) software packages have been used for close to three decades as analytical tools in environmental management for geospatial data assembly, processing, storage, and visualization of input data and model output. However, with increasing availability and use of ful...

  3. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a Framework for Understanding the Association Between Motor Skills and Internalizing Problems: A Mini-Review

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Vincent O.; Rigoli, Daniela; Cairney, John; Roberts, Lynne D.; Piek, Jan P.

    2016-01-01

    Poor motor skills have been shown to be associated with a range of psychosocial issues, including internalizing problems (anxiety and depression). While well-documented empirically, our understanding of why this relationship occurs remains theoretically underdeveloped. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis by Cairney et al. (2013) provides a promising framework that seeks to explain the association between motor skills and internalizing problems, specifically in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The framework posits that poor motor skills predispose the development of internalizing problems via interactions with intermediary environmental stressors. At the time the model was proposed, limited direct evidence was available to support or refute the framework. Several studies and developments related to the framework have since been published. This mini-review seeks to provide an up-to-date overview of recent developments related to the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis. We briefly discuss the past research that led to its development, before moving to studies that have investigated the framework since it was proposed. While originally developed within the context of DCD in childhood, recent developments have found support for the model in community samples. Through the reviewed literature, this article provides support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a promising theoretical framework that explains the psychosocial correlates across the broader spectrum of motor ability. However, given its recent conceptualization, ongoing evaluation of the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis is recommended. PMID:26941690

  4. Overview of eutrophication indicators to assess environmental status within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, João G.; Andersen, Jesper H.; Borja, Angel; Bricker, Suzanne B.; Camp, Jordi; Cardoso da Silva, Margarida; Garcés, Esther; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Humborg, Christoph; Ignatiades, Lydia; Lancelot, Christiane; Menesguen, Alain; Tett, Paul; Hoepffner, Nicolas; Claussen, Ulrich

    2011-06-01

    In 2009, following approval of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC), the European Commission (EC) created task groups to develop guidance for eleven quality descriptors that form the basis for evaluating ecosystem function. The objective was to provide European countries with practical guidelines for implementing the MSFD, and to produce a Commission Decision that encapsulated key points of the work in a legal framework. This paper presents a review of work carried out by the eutrophication task group, and reports our main findings to the scientific community. On the basis of an operational, management-oriented definition, we discuss the main methodologies that could be used for coastal and marine eutrophication assessment. Emphasis is placed on integrated approaches that account for physico-chemical and biological components, and combine both pelagic and benthic symptoms of eutrophication, in keeping with the holistic nature of the MSFD. We highlight general features that any marine eutrophication model should possess, rather than making specific recommendations. European seas range from highly eutrophic systems such as the Baltic to nutrient-poor environments such as the Aegean Sea. From a physical perspective, marine waters range from high energy environments of the north east Atlantic to the permanent vertical stratification of the Black Sea. This review aimed to encapsulate that variability, recognizing that meaningful guidance should be flexible enough to accommodate the widely differing characteristics of European seas, and that this information is potentially relevant in marine ecosystems worldwide. Given the spatial extent of the MSFD, innovative approaches are required to allow meaningful monitoring and assessment. Consequently, substantial logistic and financial challenges will drive research in areas such as remote sensing of harmful algal blooms, in situ sensor development, and mathematical models. Our review takes into

  5. A Framework for the Comparative Analysis of Farm Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Joseph J.

    Presenting a model for the comparative analysis of farm organizations, this paper analyzes the farm firm as a complex organization; identifies key structural dimensions of an agricultural production unit; and reviews various organizational perspectives for their utility in understanding and explaining the behavior of farm operations and farm…

  6. Design and implementation analysis of an environmental regulatory program

    SciTech Connect

    Malmberg, K.B.

    1992-01-01

    This dissertation analytically describes the Office of Underground Storage Tanks (OUST) in the U.E. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) from a behavioral science point of view. The research combines an overview of a portion of the culture of EPA, with observation and description of effects of OUST behaviors on policies and practices for attaining compliance over a broad regulatory spectrum. A case study approach, decision-making, trust, and leadership provides an analytical framework for the study. The analysis pulls out some topics that are moving in a different direction from quantitative, positivistic measurement, and focuses on the inner processes which form an organization's character. Emphasis is on the organizational consequences of discretionary actions, and the importance of method and means, and not merely outcomes, in implementation of a public program. Actual numbers of underground storage tanks, including the number of leaking tanks and cleanups completed, are included as background to the more important elements of the study, which address issues of how a complex program is implemented within a turbulent organizational setting. Techniques of the Organization Development (OD) interventionist were used during the research to gain information and draw together several pieces of a modern regulatory program which are not traditionally examined. Process consultation techniques were particularly useful for generating data and to help set the direction of the research. The analysis supports further behavioral research into public programs which draws attention to the process itself, and not only to programmatic outputs. It is expected that an organization can learn to perform at a more effective level through the thoughtful and constructive application of behavioral processes into organizational contexts.

  7. A threat analysis framework as applied to critical infrastructures in the Energy Sector.

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, John T.; Duggan, David Patrick

    2007-09-01

    The need to protect national critical infrastructure has led to the development of a threat analysis framework. The threat analysis framework can be used to identify the elements required to quantify threats against critical infrastructure assets and provide a means of distributing actionable threat information to critical infrastructure entities for the protection of infrastructure assets. This document identifies and describes five key elements needed to perform a comprehensive analysis of threat: the identification of an adversary, the development of generic threat profiles, the identification of generic attack paths, the discovery of adversary intent, and the identification of mitigation strategies.

  8. A Multiscale, Nonlinear, Modeling Framework Enabling the Design and Analysis of Composite Materials and Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    A framework for the multiscale design and analysis of composite materials and structures is presented. The ImMAC software suite, developed at NASA Glenn Research Center, embeds efficient, nonlinear micromechanics capabilities within higher scale structural analysis methods such as finite element analysis. The result is an integrated, multiscale tool that relates global loading to the constituent scale, captures nonlinearities at this scale, and homogenizes local nonlinearities to predict their effects at the structural scale. Example applications of the multiscale framework are presented for the stochastic progressive failure of a SiC/Ti composite tensile specimen and the effects of microstructural variations on the nonlinear response of woven polymer matrix composites.

  9. A Multiscale, Nonlinear, Modeling Framework Enabling the Design and Analysis of Composite Materials and Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    A framework for the multiscale design and analysis of composite materials and structures is presented. The ImMAC software suite, developed at NASA Glenn Research Center, embeds efficient, nonlinear micromechanics capabilities within higher scale structural analysis methods such as finite element analysis. The result is an integrated, multiscale tool that relates global loading to the constituent scale, captures nonlinearities at this scale, and homogenizes local nonlinearities to predict their effects at the structural scale. Example applications of the multiscale framework are presented for the stochastic progressive failure of a SiC/Ti composite tensile specimen and the effects of microstructural variations on the nonlinear response of woven polymer matrix composites.

  10. Emergency drinking water treatment during source water pollution accidents in China: origin analysis, framework and technologies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Jian; Chen, Chao; Lin, Peng-Fei; Hou, Ai-Xin; Niu, Zhang-Bin; Wang, Jun

    2011-01-01

    China has suffered frequent source water contamination accidents in the past decade, which has resulted in severe consequences to the water supply of millions of residents. The origins of typical cases of contamination are discussed in this paper as well as the emergency response to these accidents. In general, excessive pursuit of rapid industrialization and the unreasonable location of factories are responsible for the increasing frequency of accidental pollution events. Moreover, insufficient attention to environmental protection and rudimentary emergency response capability has exacerbated the consequences of such accidents. These environmental accidents triggered or accelerated the promulgation of stricter environmental protection policy and the shift from economic development mode to a more sustainable direction, which should be regarded as the turning point of environmental protection in China. To guarantee water security, China is trying to establish a rapid and effective emergency response framework, build up the capability of early accident detection, and develop efficient technologies to remove contaminants from water. PMID:21133359

  11. A framework for understanding school based physical environmental influences on childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Flo; Jones, Andrew P

    2012-05-01

    Schools are inviting settings for the promotion of healthy behaviours in children, and a number of interventions have been trialled to improve diet or increase physical activity levels with the ultimate aim of reducing the prevalence of obesity. However, these have seen mixed results and there is suggestion that consideration needs to be given to a broader definition of the school environment in order to encourage sustainable behaviour changes. This review considers evidence for associations between the physical school environment and diet, physical activity and adiposity. School environment covers the neighbourhood around the school as well as the school grounds, buildings and facilities. Reviewed evidence is used to construct a conceptual framework for understanding associations between the physical school environment and adiposity and related behaviours. The framework highlights how school environments may be modified to promote behaviour changes, and how they may limit or enhance the success of other school-based interventions. Consideration is also given to where future work may best be directed. PMID:22281440

  12. A framework for understanding school based physical environmental influences on childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Flo; Jones, Andrew P

    2013-01-01

    Schools are inviting settings for the promotion of healthy behaviours in children, and a number of interventions have been trialled to improve diet or increase physical activity levels with the ultimate aim of reducing the prevalence of obesity. However, these have seen mixed results and there is suggestion that consideration needs to be given to a broader definition of the school environment in order to encourage sustainable behaviour changes. This review considers evidence for associations between the physical school environment and diet, physical activity and adiposity. School environment covers the neighbourhood around the school as well as the school grounds, buildings and facilities. Reviewed evidence is used to construct a conceptual framework for understanding associations between the physical school environment and adiposity and related behaviours. The framework highlights how school environments may be modified to promote behaviour changes, and how they may limit or enhance the success of other school-based interventions. Consideration is also given to where future work may best be directed. PMID:22281440

  13. A Comparative Analysis of PISA Scientific Literacy Framework in Finnish and Thai Science Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sothayapetch, Pavinee; Lavonen, Jari; Juuti, Kalle

    2013-01-01

    A curriculum is a master plan that regulates teaching and learning. This paper compares Finnish and Thai primary school level science curricula to the PISA 2006 Scientific Literacy Framework. Curriculum comparison was made following the procedure of deductive content analysis. In the analysis, there were four main categories adopted from PISA…

  14. A framework for SFC/DC system data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centeno, Martha A.

    1993-01-01

    The Shop Floor Control/Data Collection (SFC/DC) system is one of four major modules of the Integrated Work Control System being implemented at the NASA Kennedy Space Center. The SFC/DC system, which has been in operation approximately one and a half years, collects detailed information regarding the duration of tasks as well as work stoppages duration. This information needs to be effectively analyzed, so as be able to manage the shuttle processing activities under the continuous improvement philosophy. We have studied the contents and form of the SFC/DC database, and based on the results of such study, we have designed a Shop floor Modeling, Analysis, and Reporting Tool (SMART). SMART is a collection of compatible tools (off-the-shelf as well as customized C-based tools) that work cohesively to prepare inputs for the analysis models and process the various models. The feasibility of SMART has been demonstrated through an initial prototype.

  15. Ovis: A Framework for Visual Analysis of Ocean Forecast Ensembles.

    PubMed

    Höllt, Thomas; Magdy, Ahmed; Zhan, Peng; Chen, Guoning; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Hansen, Charles D; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-08-01

    We present a novel integrated visualization system that enables interactive visual analysis of ensemble simulations of the sea surface height that is used in ocean forecasting. The position of eddies can be derived directly from the sea surface height and our visualization approach enables their interactive exploration and analysis.The behavior of eddies is important in different application settings of which we present two in this paper. First, we show an application for interactive planning of placement as well as operation of off-shore structures using real-world ensemble simulation data of the Gulf of Mexico. Off-shore structures, such as those used for oil exploration, are vulnerable to hazards caused by eddies, and the oil and gas industry relies on ocean forecasts for efficient operations. We enable analysis of the spatial domain, as well as the temporal evolution, for planning the placement and operation of structures.Eddies are also important for marine life. They transport water over large distances and with it also heat and other physical properties as well as biological organisms. In the second application we present the usefulness of our tool, which could be used for planning the paths of autonomous underwater vehicles, so called gliders, for marine scientists to study simulation data of the largely unexplored Red Sea. PMID:26357365

  16. Field Raman spectrograph for environmental analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, J.W. III; Forney, R.W.; Carrabba, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    This project entails the development of a compact raman spectrograph for field screening and monitoring of a wide variety of wastes, pollutants, and corrosion products in tanks, and environmental materials. The design of a fiber optic probe for use with the spectrograph is also discussed.

  17. PHARMACEUTICALS AS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS: ISSUES REGARDING ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Water Act (CWA) provides the legislative mandate for the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Water Quality Program to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation’s waters. Therefore, a common goal is to maintain water...

  18. Service Area Market Analysis: Environmental Scanning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Front Range Community Coll., Westminster, CO.

    This environmental scanning report presents, in brief, various key indicators: political climate, population demographics, secondary education, postsecondary education, welfare, unemployment, industry, labor, and general conclusions. General conclusions made in this report are as follows: higher education is expected to receive a slight increase…

  19. Use of probabilistic methods for analysis of cost and duration uncertainties in a decision analysis framework

    SciTech Connect

    Boak, D.M.; Painton, L.

    1995-12-08

    Probabilistic forecasting techniques have been used in many risk assessment and performance assessment applications on radioactive waste disposal projects such as Yucca Mountain and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Probabilistic techniques such as Monte Carlo and Latin Hypercube sampling methods are routinely used to treat uncertainties in physical parameters important in simulating radionuclide transport in a coupled geohydrologic system and assessing the ability of that system to comply with regulatory release limits. However, the use of probabilistic techniques in the treatment of uncertainties in the cost and duration of programmatic alternatives on risk and performance assessment projects is less common. Where significant uncertainties exist and where programmatic decisions must be made despite existing uncertainties, probabilistic techniques may yield important insights into decision options, especially when used in a decision analysis framework and when properly balanced with deterministic analyses. For relatively simple evaluations, these types of probabilistic evaluations can be made using personal computer-based software.

  20. Managing the environmental impacts of land transport: integrating environmental analysis with urban planning.

    PubMed

    Irving, Paul; Moncrieff, Ian

    2004-12-01

    Ecological systems have limits or thresholds that vary by pollutant type, emissions sources and the sensitivity of a given location. Human health can also indicate sensitivity. Good environmental management requires any problem to be defined to obtain efficient and effective solutions. Cities are where transport activities, effects and resource management decisions are often most focussed. The New Zealand Ministry of Transport has developed two environmental management tools. The Vehicle Fleet Model (VFM) is a predictive database of the environmental performance of the New Zealand traffic fleet (and rail fleet). It calculates indices of local air quality, stormwater, and greenhouse gases emissions. The second is an analytical process based on Environmental Capacity Analysis (ECA). Information on local traffic is combined with environmental performance data from the Vehicle Fleet Model. This can be integrated within a live, geo-spatially defined analysis of the overall environmental effects within a defined local area. Variations in urban form and activity (traffic and other) that contribute to environmental effects can be tracked. This enables analysis of a range of mitigation strategies that may contribute, now or in the future, to maintaining environmental thresholds or meeting targets. A case study of the application of this approach was conducted within Waitakere City. The focus was on improving the understanding of the relative significance of stormwater contaminants derived from land transport. PMID:15504492

  1. Energy star product specification development framework: Using data and analysis to make program decisions

    SciTech Connect

    McWhinney, Marla; Fanara, Andrew; Clark, Robin; Hershberg, Craig; Schmeltz, Rachel; Roberson, Judy

    2003-09-12

    The Product Development Team (PD) in the US Environmental Protection Agency's ENERGY STAR Labeling Program fuels the long-term market transformation process by delivering new specifications. PD's goal is to expand the reach and visibility of ENERGY STAR as well as the market for new energy-efficient products. Since 2000, PD has launched nine new ENERGY STAR specifications and continues to evaluate new program opportunities. To evaluate the ENERGY STAR carbon savings potential for a diverse group of products, PD prepared a framework for developing new and updating existing specifications that rationalizes new product opportunities and draws upon the expertise and resources of other stakeholders, including manufacturers, utilities, environmental groups and other government agencies. By systematically reviewing the potential of proposed product areas, PD makes informed decisions as to whether or not to proceed with developing a specification. In support of this strategy, PD ensures that new product specifications are consistent with the ENERGY STAR guidelines and that these guidelines are effectively communicated to stakeholders during the product development process. To date, the framework has been successful in providing consistent guidance on collecting the necessary information on which to base sound program decisions. Through the application of this framework, PD increasingly recognizes that each industry has unique market and product characteristics that can require reconciliation with the ENERGY STAR guidelines. The new framework allows PD to identify where reconciliation is needed to justify program decisions.

  2. 43 CFR 3430.3-2 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... cumulative impact analysis in accordance with 40 CFR 1508.7 and 1508.25 that examines the impacts of the... estimate impacts reasonably, the authorized officer shall comply with the provisions of 40 CFR 1502.22(b... Environmental Quality's National Environmental Policy Act regulations, 40 CFR part 1500....

  3. 43 CFR 3430.3-2 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Environmental Quality's National Environmental Policy Act regulations, 40 CFR part 1500. ... cumulative impact analysis in accordance with 40 CFR 1508.7 and 1508.25 that examines the impacts of the... estimate impacts reasonably, the authorized officer shall comply with the provisions of 40 CFR...

  4. Environmental Education in Macedonian Schools: A Comparative Analysis of Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srbinovski, Mile

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and discuss an analysis of the extent to which environmental issues are addressed in the textbooks in the schools of the Republic of Macedonia. Research has analyzed a range of textbooks (279) published in the past 15 years. Our fundamental conclusion is that the inclusion of environmental issues in the…

  5. 43 CFR 3430.3-2 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Environmental Quality's National Environmental Policy Act regulations, 40 CFR part 1500. ... cumulative impact analysis in accordance with 40 CFR 1508.7 and 1508.25 that examines the impacts of the... estimate impacts reasonably, the authorized officer shall comply with the provisions of 40 CFR...

  6. 43 CFR 3430.3-2 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Environmental Quality's National Environmental Policy Act regulations, 40 CFR part 1500. ... cumulative impact analysis in accordance with 40 CFR 1508.7 and 1508.25 that examines the impacts of the... estimate impacts reasonably, the authorized officer shall comply with the provisions of 40 CFR...

  7. Cost analysis and environmental impact of nonthermal technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cost of high pressure processing (HPP) orange juice and its environmental impact were estimated. In addition, the environmental impact of pulsed electric fields (PEF) and thermal pasteurization were assessed for comparison. The cost analysis was based on commercial processing conditions that wer...

  8. Environmental impact assessment of transportation projects: An analysis using an integrated GIS, remote sensing, and spatial modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Gafy, Mohamed Anwar

    Transportation projects will have impact on the environment. The general environmental pollution and damage caused by roads is closely associated with the level of economic activity. Although Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are dependent on geo-spatial information in order to make an assessment, there are no rules per se how to conduct an environmental assessment. Also, the particular objective of each assessment is dictated case-by-case, based on what information and analyses are required. The conventional way of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) study is a time consuming process because it has large number of dependent and independent variables which have to be taken into account, which also have different consequences. With the emergence of satellite remote sensing technology and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), this research presents a new framework for the analysis phase of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for transportation projects based on the integration between remote sensing technology, geographic information systems, and spatial modeling. By integrating the merits of the map overlay method and the matrix method, the framework analyzes comprehensively the environmental vulnerability around the road and its impact on the environment. This framework is expected to: (1) improve the quality of the decision making process, (2) be applied both to urban and inter-urban projects, regardless of transport mode, and (3) present the data and make the appropriate analysis to support the decision of the decision-makers and allow them to present these data to the public hearings in a simple manner. Case studies, transportation projects in the State of Florida, were analyzed to illustrate the use of the decision support framework and demonstrate its capabilities. This cohesive and integrated system will facilitate rational decisions through cost effective coordination of environmental information and data management that can be tailored to

  9. Environmental Controls on River Assemblages at the Regional Scale: An Application of the Elements of Metacommunity Structure Framework.

    PubMed

    Tonkin, Jonathan D; Sundermann, Andrea; Jähnig, Sonja C; Haase, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors that structure regional biodiversity is important for linking ecological and biogeographic processes. Our objective was to explore regional patterns in riverine benthic invertebrate assemblages in relation to their broad positioning along the river network and examine differences in composition, biodiversity (alpha and beta diversity), and environmental drivers. We up-scaled methods used to examine patterns in metacommunity structure (Elements of Metacommunity Structure framework) to examine faunal distribution patterns at the regional extent for 168 low-mountain stream invertebrate assemblages in central Germany. We then identified the most influential environmental factors using boosted regression trees. Faunal composition patterns were compartmentalised (Clementsian or quasi-Clementsian), with little difference from headwaters to large rivers, potentially reflecting the regional scale of the study, by crossing major catchment boundaries and incorporating different species pools. While idealised structures did not vary, environmental drivers of composition varied considerably between river sections and with alpha diversity. Prediction was substantially weaker, and the importance of space was greater, in large rivers compared to other sections suggesting a weakening in species sorting downstream. Further, there was a stronger transition in composition than for alpha diversity downstream. The stronger links with regional faunal composition than with richness further emphasises the importance of considering the alternative ways in which anthropogenic stressors are operating to affect biodiversity patterns. Our approach allowed bridging the gap between local (or metacommunity) and regional scales, providing key insights into drivers of regional biodiversity patterns. PMID:26270550

  10. Environmental Controls on River Assemblages at the Regional Scale: An Application of the Elements of Metacommunity Structure Framework

    PubMed Central

    Tonkin, Jonathan D.; Sundermann, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors that structure regional biodiversity is important for linking ecological and biogeographic processes. Our objective was to explore regional patterns in riverine benthic invertebrate assemblages in relation to their broad positioning along the river network and examine differences in composition, biodiversity (alpha and beta diversity), and environmental drivers. We up-scaled methods used to examine patterns in metacommunity structure (Elements of Metacommunity Structure framework) to examine faunal distribution patterns at the regional extent for 168 low-mountain stream invertebrate assemblages in central Germany. We then identified the most influential environmental factors using boosted regression trees. Faunal composition patterns were compartmentalised (Clementsian or quasi-Clementsian), with little difference from headwaters to large rivers, potentially reflecting the regional scale of the study, by crossing major catchment boundaries and incorporating different species pools. While idealised structures did not vary, environmental drivers of composition varied considerably between river sections and with alpha diversity. Prediction was substantially weaker, and the importance of space was greater, in large rivers compared to other sections suggesting a weakening in species sorting downstream. Further, there was a stronger transition in composition than for alpha diversity downstream. The stronger links with regional faunal composition than with richness further emphasises the importance of considering the alternative ways in which anthropogenic stressors are operating to affect biodiversity patterns. Our approach allowed bridging the gap between local (or metacommunity) and regional scales, providing key insights into drivers of regional biodiversity patterns. PMID:26270550

  11. Oil shale health and environmental risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gratt, L.B.

    1983-04-01

    The potential human health and environmental risks of hypothetical one-million-barrels-per-day oil shale industry have been analyzed to serve as an aid in the formulation and management of a program of environmental research. The largest uncertainties for expected fatalities are in the public sector from air pollutants although the occupational sector is estimated to have 60% more expected fatalities than the public sector. Occupational safety and illness have been analyzed for the oil shale fuel cycle from extraction to delivery of products for end use. Pneumoconiosis from the dust environment is the worker disease resulting in the greatest number of fatalities, followed by chronic bronchitis, internal cancer, and skin cancers, respectively. Research recommendations are presented for reducing the uncertainties in the risks analyzed and to fill data gaps to estimate other risks.

  12. Reliability analysis framework for computer-assisted medical decision systems

    SciTech Connect

    Habas, Piotr A.; Zurada, Jacek M.; Elmaghraby, Adel S.; Tourassi, Georgia D.

    2007-02-15

    We present a technique that enhances computer-assisted decision (CAD) systems with the ability to assess the reliability of each individual decision they make. Reliability assessment is achieved by measuring the accuracy of a CAD system with known cases similar to the one in question. The proposed technique analyzes the feature space neighborhood of the query case to dynamically select an input-dependent set of known cases relevant to the query. This set is used to assess the local (query-specific) accuracy of the CAD system. The estimated local accuracy is utilized as a reliability measure of the CAD response to the query case. The underlying hypothesis of the study is that CAD decisions with higher reliability are more accurate. The above hypothesis was tested using a mammographic database of 1337 regions of interest (ROIs) with biopsy-proven ground truth (681 with masses, 656 with normal parenchyma). Three types of decision models, (i) a back-propagation neural network (BPNN), (ii) a generalized regression neural network (GRNN), and (iii) a support vector machine (SVM), were developed to detect masses based on eight morphological features automatically extracted from each ROI. The performance of all decision models was evaluated using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. The study showed that the proposed reliability measure is a strong predictor of the CAD system's case-specific accuracy. Specifically, the ROC area index for CAD predictions with high reliability was significantly better than for those with low reliability values. This result was consistent across all decision models investigated in the study. The proposed case-specific reliability analysis technique could be used to alert the CAD user when an opinion that is unlikely to be reliable is offered. The technique can be easily deployed in the clinical environment because it is applicable with a wide range of classifiers regardless of their structure and it requires neither additional

  13. Instrumental Analysis in Environmental Chemistry - Gas Phase Detection Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, Donald H.; Meyers, Philip A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses advances made in chemical analysis instrumentation used in environmental monitoring. This first of two articles is concerned with analytical instrumentation in which detection and dispersion depend ultimately on the properties of gaseous molecules. (JR)

  14. The New Environmental Paradigm and Further Scale Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noe, Francis P.; Snow, Rob

    1990-01-01

    Examined were the responses of park visitors to the New Environmental Paradigm scale. Research methods, and results including reliabilities and factor analysis of the scales on the survey are discussed. (CW)

  15. BIOASSAY-DIRECTED CHEMICAL ANALYSIS IN ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of short-term bioassay tests in conjunction with analytical measurements, constitute a powerful tool for identifying important environmental contaminants. The authors have coined the terminology 'bioassay directed chemical analysis' to best describe this marriage of analy...

  16. Environmental Impact Assessment in the marine environment: A comparison of legal frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Guerra, Flávia; Grilo, Catarina; Pedroso, Nuno M.; Cabral, Henrique

    2015-11-15

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a well-established practice in most developed countries, even though its application to projects in the marine environment is at a much earlier stage of development. We use the Portuguese example to address marine EIA legislation since its exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is currently the third largest in the European Union and its EIA legislation does not require various offshore activities with potentially negative environmental impacts to undergo EIA before being licensed. This paper aims to determine whether three types of projects implemented within Portuguese maritime zones – artificial reefs using sunken ships, hydrocarbon prospecting and wave-energy generation – would benefit from application of an appropriately designed EIA. We have conducted a structured review of EIA legal provisions from seven other countries, and considered whether a full EIA was required for each project type. Consequently, 12 Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) have been compared to identify patterns of (dis)similarity across countries and project types. Additionally, we identified key descriptors and predicted impacts for each project type referred to in their EIS. The main conclusion is that ultimately all three projects would benefit from mandatory EIA in Portugal. This paper is relevant for countries with large maritime areas and underdeveloped marine EIA legislation, helping improve international policy-making relating to these three types of marine projects. - Highlights: • EIA is not mandatory for some project types developed in Portuguese maritime zones. • Artificial reefs, oil&gas prospecting and wave-energy licensing differ in 8 countries. • EIA should be mandatory in Portugal for artificial reefs and oil&gas prospecting. • However, an AEInc approach is enough for wave-energy projects in Portugal. • Findings could be extended to other EU countries with extensive maritime zones.

  17. A Risk-Based System Analysis Framework for Geological Carbon Sequestration.

    SciTech Connect

    Kobos, Peter Holmes; Klotz, Richard

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this project was to characterize existing carbon capture and sequestration technologies at a high level, develop an analytical framework to help assess the technologies, and implement the framework in a system dynamics model. The first year of this project succeeded in characterizing existing technologies to help focus the analysis on power plants. The assessment also helped determine which technologies are largely accepted by the carbon capture research community as relatively proven technologies, discuss the salient performance metrics, and assess the associated economics. With this information, an analytical framework was developed to assess the technologies from a systems view perspective. With this framework, the Carbon Sequestration and Risk Model (CSR) was developed to assess performance and economic risk issues as they relate to global atmospheric CO2 concentration goals and single plant scale projects to characterize the economics of these systems.

  18. Reference Data Layers for Earth and Environmental Science: History, Frameworks, Science Needs, Approaches, and New Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenhardt, W. C.

    2015-12-01

    Global Mapping Project, Web-enabled Landsat Data (WELD), International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP), hydrology, solid earth dynamics, sedimentary geology, climate modeling, integrated assessments and so on all have needs for or have worked to develop consistently integrated data layers for Earth and environmental science. This paper will present an overview of an abstract notion of data layers of this types, what we are referring to as reference data layers for Earth and environmental science, highlight some historical examples, and delve into new approaches. The concept of reference data layers in this context combines data availability, cyberinfrastructure and data science, as well as domain science drivers. We argue that current advances in cyberinfrastructure such as iPython notebooks and integrated science processing environments such as iPlant's Discovery Environment coupled with vast arrays of new data sources warrant another look at the how to create, maintain, and provide reference data layers. The goal is to provide a context for understanding science needs for reference data layers to conduct their research. In addition, to the topics described above this presentation will also outline some of the challenges to and present some ideas for new approaches to addressing these needs. Promoting the idea of reference data layers is relevant to a number of existing related activities such as EarthCube, RDA, ESIP, the nascent NSF Regional Big Data Innovation Hubs and others.

  19. Multi-scale analysis for environmental dispersion in wetland flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zi; Li, Z.; Chen, G. Q.

    2011-08-01

    Presented in this work is a multi-scale analysis for longitudinal evolution of contaminant concentration in a fully developed flow through a shallow wetland channel. An environmental dispersion model for the mean concentration is devised as an extension of Taylor's classical formulation by a multi-scale analysis. Corresponding environmental dispersivity is found identical to that determined by the method of concentration moments. For typical contaminant constituents of chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus, total nitrogen and heavy metal, the evolution of contaminant cloud is illustrated with the critical length and duration of the contaminant cloud with constituent concentration beyond some given environmental standard level.

  20. MULTIMEDIA ENVIRONMENTAL DISTRIBUTION OF TOXICS (MEND-TOX): PART I, HYBRID COMPARTMENTAL-SPATIAL MODELING FRAMEWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    An integrated hybrid spatial-compartmental modeling approach is presented for analyzing the dynamic distribution of chemicals in the multimedia environment. Information obtained from such analysis, which includes temporal chemical concentration profiles in various media, mass ...

  1. Shaping the Cities of Tomorrow: Integrating Local Urban Adaptation within an Environmental Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, M.

    2014-12-01

    Contemporary methods focused on increasing urban sustainability are largely based on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. While these efforts are essential steps forward, continued characterization of urban sustainability solely within a biogeochemical framework, with neglect of the biophysical impact of the built environment, omits regional hydroclimatic forcing of the same order of magnitude as greenhouse gas emissions. Using a suite of continuous, multi-year and multi-member continental scale numerical simulations with the WRF model for the U.S., we examine hydroclimatic impacts for a variety of U.S. urban expansion scenarios (for the year 2100) and urban adaptation futures (cool roofs, green roofs, and a hypothetical hybrid approach integrating biophysical properties of both cool and green roofs), and compare those to experiments utilizing a contemporary urban extent. Widespread adoption of adaptation strategies exhibits regionally and seasonally dependent hydroclimatic impacts. For some regions and seasons, urban-induced warming in excess of 3°C can be completely offset by all adaptation approaches examined. For other regions, widespread adoption of some adaptation approaches leads to significant rainfall decline. Sustainable urban expansion therefore requires an integrated assessment that also incorporates biophysically induced urban impacts, and demands tradeoff assessment of various strategies aimed to ameliorate deleterious consequences of growth (e.g., urban heat island reduction).

  2. Risk Analysis for Environmental Health Triage

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K T

    2005-11-18

    The Homeland Security Act mandates development of a national, risk-based system to support planning for, response to and recovery from emergency situations involving large-scale toxic exposures. To prepare for and manage consequences effectively, planners and responders need not only to identify zones of potentially elevated individual risk, but also to predict expected casualties. Emergency response support systems now define ''consequences'' by mapping areas in which toxic chemical concentrations do or may exceed Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) or similar guidelines. However, because AEGLs do not estimate expected risks, current unqualified claims that such maps support consequence management are misleading. Intentionally protective, AEGLs incorporate various safety/uncertainty factors depending on scope and quality of chemical-specific toxicity data. Some of these factors are irrelevant, and others need to be modified, whenever resource constraints or exposure-scenario complexities require responders to make critical trade-off (triage) decisions in order to minimize expected casualties. AEGL-exceedance zones cannot consistently be aggregated, compared, or used to calculate expected casualties, and so may seriously misguide emergency response triage decisions. Methods and tools well established and readily available to support environmental health protection are not yet developed for chemically related environmental health triage. Effective triage decisions involving chemical risks require a new assessment approach that focuses on best estimates of likely casualties, rather than on upper plausible bounds of individual risk. If risk-based consequence management is to become a reality, federal agencies tasked with supporting emergency response must actively coordinate to foster new methods that can support effective environmental health triage.

  3. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Sands, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    This programmatic environmental analysis is an initial assessment of OTEC technology considering development, demonstration and commercialization; it is concluded that the OTEC development program should continue because the development, demonstration, and commercialization on a single-plant deployment basis should not present significant environmental impacts. However, several areas within the OTEC program require further investigation in order to assess the potential for environmental impacts from OTEC operation, particularly in large-scale deployments and in defining alternatives to closed-cycle biofouling control: (1) Larger-scale deployments of OTEC clusters or parks require further investigations in order to assess optimal platform siting distances necessary to minimize adverse environmental impacts. (2) The deployment and operation of the preoperational platform (OTEC-1) and future demonstration platforms must be carefully monitored to refine environmental assessment predictions, and to provide design modifications which may mitigate or reduce environmental impacts for larger-scale operations. These platforms will provide a valuable opportunity to fully evaluate the intake and discharge configurations, biofouling control methods, and both short-term and long-term environmental effects associated with platform operations. (3) Successful development of OTEC technology to use the maximal resource capabilities and to minimize environmental effects will require a concerted environmental management program, encompassing many different disciplines and environmental specialties.

  4. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Programmatic Environmental Analysis--Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Authors, Various

    1980-01-01

    The programmatic environmental analysis is an initial assessment of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology considering development, demonstration and commercialization. It is concluded that the OTEC development program should continue because the development, demonstration, and commercialization on a single-plant deployment basis should not present significant environmental impacts. However, several areas within the OTEC program require further investigation in order to assess the potential for environmental impacts from OTEC operation, particularly in large-scale deployments and in defining alternatives to closed-cycle biofouling control: (1) Larger-scale deployments of OTEC clusters or parks require further investigations in order to assess optimal platform siting distances necessary to minimize adverse environmental impacts. (2) The deployment and operation of the preoperational platform (OTEC-1) and future demonstration platforms must be carefully monitored to refine environmental assessment predictions, and to provide design modifications which may mitigate or reduce environmental impacts for larger-scale operations. These platforms will provide a valuable opportunity to fully evaluate the intake and discharge configurations, biofouling control methods, and both short-term and long-term environmental effects associated with platform operations. (3) Successful development of OTEC technology to use the maximal resource capabilities and to minimize environmental effects will require a concerted environmental management program, encompassing many different disciplines and environmental specialties. This volume contains these appendices: Appendix A -- Deployment Scenario; Appendix B -- OTEC Regional Characterization; and Appendix C -- Impact and Related Calculations.

  5. A framework for using ant colony optimization to schedule environmental flow management alternatives for rivers, wetlands, and floodplains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szemis, J. M.; Maier, H. R.; Dandy, G. C.

    2012-08-01

    Rivers, wetlands, and floodplains are in need of management as they have been altered from natural conditions and are at risk of vanishing because of river development. One method to mitigate these impacts involves the scheduling of environmental flow management alternatives (EFMA); however, this is a complex task as there are generally a large number of ecological assets (e.g., wetlands) that need to be considered, each with species with competing flow requirements. Hence, this problem evolves into an optimization problem to maximize an ecological benefit within constraints imposed by human needs and the physical layout of the system. This paper presents a novel optimization framework which uses ant colony optimization to enable optimal scheduling of EFMAs, given constraints on the environmental water that is available. This optimization algorithm is selected because, unlike other currently popular algorithms, it is able to account for all aspects of the problem. The approach is validated by comparing it to a heuristic approach, and its utility is demonstrated using a case study based on the Murray River in South Australia to investigate (1) the trade-off between plant recruitment (i.e., promoting germination) and maintenance (i.e., maintaining habitat) flow requirements, (2) the trade-off between flora and fauna flow requirements, and (3) a hydrograph inversion case. The results demonstrate the usefulness and flexibility of the proposed framework as it is able to determine EFMA schedules that provide optimal or near-optimal trade-offs between the competing needs of species under a range of operating conditions and valuable insight for managers.

  6. Megacities in the coastal zone: Using a driver-pressure-state-impact-response framework to address complex environmental problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekovski, Ivan; Newton, Alice; Dennison, William C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elaborate on the role of coastal megacities in environmental degradation and their contribution to global climate change. Although only less than 4 percent of the total world's population resides in coastal megacities, their impact on environment is significant due to their rapid development, high population densities and high consumption rate of their residents. This study was carried out by implementing a Drivers-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses (DPSIR) framework. This analytical framework was chosen because of its potential to link the existing data, gathered from various previous studies, in causal relationship. In this text, coastal megacities have been defined as cities exceeding 10 million inhabitants, situated in "near-coastal zone". Their high rates of the consumption of food, water, space and energy were observed and linked to the high performance rates of related economic activities (industry, transportation, power generation, agriculture and water extraction). In many of the studied coastal megacities, deteriorated quality of air and water was perceived, which can, in combination with global warming, lead to health problems and economic and social disturbance among residents. The extent of problems varied between developing and developed countries, showing higher rates of population growth and certain harmful emissions in megacities of developing countries, as well as more problems regarding food and water shortages, sanitation, and health care support. Although certain projections predict slowdown of growth in most coastal megacities, their future impact on environment is still unclear due to the uncertainties regarding future climate change and trajectories of consumption patterns.

  7. Defining a quantitative framework for evaluation and optimisation of the environmental impacts of mega-event projects.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Olga; Lettieri, Paola; Bogle, I David L

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a novel quantitative methodology for the evaluation and optimisation of the environmental impacts of the whole life cycle of a mega-event project: construction and staging the event and post-event site redevelopment and operation. Within the proposed framework, a mathematical model has been developed that takes into account greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions resulting from use of transportation fuel, energy, water and construction materials used at all stages of the mega-event project. The model is applied to a case study - the London Olympic Park. Three potential post-event site design scenarios of the Park have been developed: Business as Usual (BAU), Commercial World (CW) and High Rise High Density (HRHD). A quantitative summary of results demonstrates that the highest GHG emissions associated with the actual event are almost negligible compared to those associated with the legacy phase. The highest share of emissions in the legacy phase is attributed to embodied emissions from construction materials (almost 50% for the BAU and HRHD scenarios) and emissions resulting from the transportation of residents, visitors and employees to/from the site (almost 60% for the CW scenario). The BAU scenario is the one with the lowest GHG emissions compared to the other scenarios. The results also demonstrate how post-event site design scenarios can be optimised to minimise the GHG emissions. The overall outcomes illustrate how the proposed framework can be used to support decision making process for mega-event projects planning. PMID:26686076

  8. A proposed framework for establishing integrated cost and performance criteria for environmental technologies: A summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-01

    This document presents a summary of results of a joint EPA/DOE project aimed at establishing a suite of standard cost and performance criteria for evaluating environmental cleanup technologies for DOE sites. Project findings include: (1) decisionmakers have quite different perspectives with interests and information needs varying among decisionmaker groups, (2) previous criteria development efforts may be too narrowly focused to apply to all decisionmakers, (3) criteria must include social/political/economic interests of decisionmakers as well as site-specific variations, and (4) there are 5 core questions that all decisionmakers are likely to ask when considering a technology for use at a site. The resource developed in the project offers decisionmakers a first-time comprehensive assessment of major technology evaluation issues.

  9. A signal processing framework for simultaneous detection of multiple environmental contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Subhadeep; Manahan, Michael P.; Mench, Matthew M.

    2013-11-01

    The possibility of large-scale attacks using chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has exposed the critical need for fundamental research enabling the reliable, unambiguous and early detection of trace CWAs and toxic industrial chemicals. This paper presents a unique approach for the identification and classification of simultaneously present multiple environmental contaminants by perturbing an electrochemical (EC) sensor with an oscillating potential for the extraction of statistically rich information from the current response. The dynamic response, being a function of the degree and mechanism of contamination, is then processed with a symbolic dynamic filter for the extraction of representative patterns, which are then classified using a trained neural network. The approach presented in this paper promises to extend the sensing power and sensitivity of these EC sensors by augmenting and complementing sensor technology with state-of-the-art embedded real-time signal processing capabilities.

  10. Using remote sensing in support of environmental management: A framework for selecting products, algorithms and methods.

    PubMed

    de Klerk, Helen M; Gilbertson, Jason; Lück-Vogel, Melanie; Kemp, Jaco; Munch, Zahn

    2016-11-01

    Traditionally, to map environmental features using remote sensing, practitioners will use training data to develop models on various satellite data sets using a number of classification approaches and use test data to select a single 'best performer' from which the final map is made. We use a combination of an omission/commission plot to evaluate various results and compile a probability map based on consistently strong performing models across a range of standard accuracy measures. We suggest that this easy-to-use approach can be applied in any study using remote sensing to map natural features for management action. We demonstrate this approach using optical remote sensing products of different spatial and spectral resolution to map the endemic and threatened flora of quartz patches in the Knersvlakte, South Africa. Quartz patches can be mapped using either SPOT 5 (used due to its relatively fine spatial resolution) or Landsat8 imagery (used because it is freely accessible and has higher spectral resolution). Of the variety of classification algorithms available, we tested maximum likelihood and support vector machine, and applied these to raw spectral data, the first three PCA summaries of the data, and the standard normalised difference vegetation index. We found that there is no 'one size fits all' solution to the choice of a 'best fit' model (i.e. combination of classification algorithm or data sets), which is in agreement with the literature that classifier performance will vary with data properties. We feel this lends support to our suggestion that rather than the identification of a 'single best' model and a map based on this result alone, a probability map based on the range of consistently top performing models provides a rigorous solution to environmental mapping. PMID:27543751

  11. 78 FR 39284 - Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis AGENCY... Regulatory Analysis.'' The purpose of this notice is to extend the public comment period by 60 days. The... Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis, Environmental Protection Agency, Mailcode: 1890T,...

  12. Environmental risk assessment for the serotonin re-uptake inhibitor fluoxetine: Case study using the European risk assessment framework.

    PubMed

    Oakes, Ken D; Coors, Anja; Escher, Beate I; Fenner, Kathrin; Garric, Jeanne; Gust, Marion; Knacker, Thomas; Küster, Anette; Kussatz, Carola; Metcalfe, Chris D; Monteiro, Sara; Moon, Thomas W; Mennigen, Jan A; Parrott, Joanne; Péry, Alexandre R R; Ramil, Maria; Roennefahrt, Ines; Tarazona, José V; Sánchez-Argüello, Paloma; Ternes, Thomas A; Trudeau, Vance L; Boucard, Tatiana; Van Der Kraak, Glen J; Servos, Mark R

    2010-07-01

    The serotonin re-uptake inhibitor fluoxetine was selected for an environmental risk assessment, using the most recent European guideline (EMEA 2006) within the European Union (EU)-funded Environmental Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals (ERAPharm) project due to its environmental persistence, acute toxicity to nontarget organisms, and unique pharmacokinetics associated with a readily ionizable compound. As a widely prescribed psychotropic drug, fluoxetine is frequently detected in surface waters adjacent to urban areas because municipal wastewater effluents are the primary route of entry to aquatic environments. In Phase I of the assessment, the initial predicted environmental concentration of fluoxetine in surface water (initial PEC(SW)) reached or exceeded the action limit of 10 ng/L, when using both a default market penetration factor and prescription data for Sweden, Germany, and the United Kingdom. Consequently, a Phase II risk assessment was conducted in which green algae were identified as the most sensitive species with a NOEC of <0.6 microg/L. From this value, a predicted no effect concentration for surface waters (PNEC(SW)) of 0.012 microg/L was derived. The PEC/PNEC ratio was above the trigger value of 1 in worst-case exposure scenarios indicating a potential risk to the aquatic compartment. Similarly, risks of fluoxetine for sediment-dwelling organisms could not be excluded. No risk assessment was conducted for the terrestrial compartment due to a lack of data on effects of fluoxetine on soil organisms. The need for a separate risk assessment for the main metabolite of fluoxetine, norfluoxetine, was not conducted because of a lack of fate and effect studies. Based on published data, fluoxetine and norfluoxetine appeared to have a low to moderate bioaccumulation potential, which should be confirmed in formal studies according to OECD guidelines. Exposure assessments for fluoxetine according to the current framework rely heavily on K(OC) and K(OW) values

  13. Task parallel sensitivity analysis and parameter estimation of groundwater simulations through the SALSSA framework

    SciTech Connect

    Schuchardt, Karen L.; Agarwal, Khushbu; Chase, Jared M.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Elsethagen, Todd O.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Chin, George; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika

    2010-07-15

    The Support Architecture for Large-Scale Subsurface Analysis (SALSSA) provides an extensible framework, sophisticated graphical user interface, and underlying data management system that simplifies the process of running subsurface models, tracking provenance information, and analyzing the model results. Initially, SALSSA supported two styles of job control: user directed execution and monitoring of individual jobs, and load balancing of jobs across multiple machines taking advantage of many available workstations. Recent efforts in subsurface modelling have been directed at advancing simulators to take advantage of leadership class supercomputers. We describe two approaches, current progress, and plans toward enabling efficient application of the subsurface simulator codes via the SALSSA framework: automating sensitivity analysis problems through task parallelism, and task parallel parameter estimation using the PEST framework.

  14. RIPOSTE: a framework for improving the design and analysis of laboratory-based research.

    PubMed

    Masca, Nicholas Gd; Hensor, Elizabeth Ma; Cornelius, Victoria R; Buffa, Francesca M; Marriott, Helen M; Eales, James M; Messenger, Michael P; Anderson, Amy E; Boot, Chris; Bunce, Catey; Goldin, Robert D; Harris, Jessica; Hinchliffe, Rod F; Junaid, Hiba; Kingston, Shaun; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Nelson, Christopher P; Peacock, Janet; Seed, Paul T; Shinkins, Bethany; Staples, Karl J; Toombs, Jamie; Wright, Adam Ka; Teare, M Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Lack of reproducibility is an ongoing problem in some areas of the biomedical sciences. Poor experimental design and a failure to engage with experienced statisticians at key stages in the design and analysis of experiments are two factors that contribute to this problem. The RIPOSTE (Reducing IrreProducibility in labOratory STudiEs) framework has been developed to support early and regular discussions between scientists and statisticians in order to improve the design, conduct and analysis of laboratory studies and, therefore, to reduce irreproducibility. This framework is intended for use during the early stages of a research project, when specific questions or hypotheses are proposed. The essential points within the framework are explained and illustrated using three examples (a medical equipment test, a macrophage study and a gene expression study). Sound study design minimises the possibility of bias being introduced into experiments and leads to higher quality research with more reproducible results. PMID:25951517

  15. Multivariate analysis of environmental data for two hydrographic basins

    SciTech Connect

    Andrade, J.M.; Prada, D.; Muniategui, S.; Gonzalez, E.; Alonso, E. )

    1992-02-01

    A multivariate study (PCA Analysis and Cluster analysis) of two Spanish hydrographic basins (The Mandeo and Mero basins) was made to achieve reliable conclusions about their actual physico-chemical environmental situation. Two police-samples' are defined, their effects explained, and are introduced in Cluster analysis as a way to examine sample quality. The multivariate analysis shows different qualities in the two hydrographic basins.

  16. IKOS: A Framework for Static Analysis based on Abstract Interpretation (Tool Paper)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brat, Guillaume P.; Laserna, Jorge A.; Shi, Nija; Venet, Arnaud Jean

    2014-01-01

    The RTCA standard (DO-178C) for developing avionic software and getting certification credits includes an extension (DO-333) that describes how developers can use static analysis in certification. In this paper, we give an overview of the IKOS static analysis framework that helps developing static analyses that are both precise and scalable. IKOS harnesses the power of Abstract Interpretation and makes it accessible to a larger class of static analysis developers by separating concerns such as code parsing, model development, abstract domain management, results management, and analysis strategy. The benefits of the approach is demonstrated by a buffer overflow analysis applied to flight control systems.

  17. Environmental behavior and analysis of agricultural sulfur.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Corey M; Woodrow, James E; Seiber, James N

    2015-11-01

    Sulfur has been widely used for centuries as a staple for pest and disease management in agriculture. Presently, it is the largest-volume pesticide in use worldwide. This review describes the sources and recovery methods for sulfur, its allotropic forms and properties and its agricultural uses, including development and potential advantages of nanosulfur as a fungicide. Chemical and microbial reactivity, interactions in soil and water and analytical methods for determination in environmental samples and foodstuffs, including inexpensive analytical methods for sulfur residues in wine, beer and other food/beverage substrates, will be reviewed. The toxicology of sulfur towards humans and agriculturally important fungi is included, with some restrictions on use to promote safety. The review concludes with areas for which more research is warranted. PMID:26108794

  18. A framework for sustainable invasive species management: environmental, social and economic objectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.; Phillips-Mao, Laura; Quiram, Gina; Sharpe, Leah; Stark, Rebecca; Sugita, Shinya; Weiler, Annie

    2011-01-01

    Applying the concept of sustainability to invasive species management (ISM) is challenging but necessary, given the increasing rates of invasion and the high costs of invasion impacts and control. To be sustainable, ISM must address environmental, social, and economic factors (or *pillars*) that influence the causes, impacts, and control of invasive species across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Although these pillars are generally acknowledged, their implementation is often limited by insufficient control options and significant economic and political constraints. In this paper, we outline specific objectives in each of these three *pillars* that, if incorporated into a management plan, will improve the plan's likelihood of sustainability. We then examine three case studies that illustrate how these objectives can be effectively implemented. Each pillar reinforces the others, such that the inclusion of even a few of the outlined objectives will lead to more effective management that achieves ecological goals, while generating social support and long-term funding to maintain projects to completion. We encourage agency directors and policy-makers to consider sustainability principles when developing funding schemes, management agendas, and policy.

  19. Characterization of infrared imaging performance within a general statistical framework for environmental impacts on battlefield signals and sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, D. Keith; Borden, Christopher T.; Bettencourt, Elizabeth S.; Yamamoto, Kenneth K.

    2013-05-01

    The Environmental Awareness for Sensor and Emitter Employment (EASEE) software models the impacts of terrain and weather on a diverse range of battlefield sensing systems. The goal is to provide mission planning tools that realistically capture complex environmental factors impacting sensor performance, yet are simple enough for users with little specialized training. This paper describes incorporation of infrared (IR) modeling into EASEE, and the subsequent challenges of supporting imaging sensors within a framework that had previously evolved primarily for non-imaging sensors, such as acoustic and seismic. The design requires independently interchangeable modules for signature generation, propagation, and signal processing. Sensor performance metrics, such as probability of detection, are characterized statistically rather than through simulation of actual images. Some key enhancements needed to support imaging sensors were: (1) geometric models for targets, (2) packaging of multiple attributes representing target image properties (radiance, projected area, and spatial spectrum), (3) explicitly distinguishing between signals for the background, target of interest, and nuisance targets, and (4) calculation of apparent temperature differences (as opposed to incoherent energy summation). Target signatures are generated using MuSES (Multi-Service Electro-optic Signature), whereas the IR background properties are generated using FASST (Fast All-Season Soil STrength) and numerical weather prediction models. Propagation is handled primarily with MODTRAN (MODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission), although simpler models such as a line-of-sight calculation can also be employed. The Johnson criteria were added to the available library of detection algorithms.

  20. Environmental changes in the western Amazônia: morphological framework, geochemistry, palynology and radiocarbon dating data.

    PubMed

    Horbe, Adriana M C; Behling, Hermann; Nogueira, Afonso C R; Mapes, Russell

    2011-09-01

    The sediments from the Coari lake, a "terra firme" lake sculpted into Plio-Pleistocene deposits, and the Acará lake, a flooding-type lake developed on Quaternary sediments in the floodplain of the mid-Solimões river, in the western Amazônia, Brazil, were studied to investigate the environmental condition of their developing. This study includes mineral composition, geochemistry, Pb isotope, palinology, radiocarbon-age and morphological framework of the lakes obtained from SRTM satellite images. The geological and the environmental conditions in the two lakes are highly variable and suggest that their evolution reflect autogenic processes under humid rainforest condition. Although kaolinite, quartz, muscovite, illite, and smectite are the main minerals in both lakes, the geochemistry indicates distinct source, the Acará lake sediments have higher concentrations of Al(2)O(3), Fe(2)O(3), FeO, CaO, K(2)O, MgO, Na(2)O, P(2)O(5), Ba, V, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Sr, Li, Y and La and have more radiogenic Pb than the Coari lake sediments. The radiocarbon ages suggest that at 10160 yr BP the Coari lake started to be developed due to avulsion of the Solimões river, and the Acará lake was formed by the meander abandonment of Solimões river retaining its grass dominated shore at ca. 3710 yr BP. PMID:21830005

  1. Participation for effective environmental governance? Evidence from Water Framework Directive implementation in Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Kochskämper, Elisa; Challies, Edward; Newig, Jens; Jager, Nicolas W

    2016-10-01

    Effectiveness of participation in environmental governance is a proliferating assertion in literature that is also reflected in European legislation, such as the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). The Directive mandates participatory river basin management planning across the EU aiming at the delivery of better policy outputs and enhanced implementation. Yet, the impact of this planning mode in WFD implementation remains unclear, though the first planning phase was completed in 2009 and the first implementation cycle by the end of 2015. Notwithstanding the expanding body of literature on WFD implementation, a rather scattered single case study approach seems to predominate. This paper reports on implementation of the WFD in three case studies from Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom, reflecting three substantially different approaches to participatory river basin management planning, on the basis of a comparative case study design. We ask if and how participation improved the environmental standard of outputs and the quality of implementation. We found an increasing quality of outputs with increasing intensity of local participation. Further, social outcomes such as learning occurred within dialogical settings, whereas empowerment and network building emerged also in the case characterized mainly by one-way information. Finally, one important finding deviant from the literature is that stakeholder acceptance seems to be more related to processes than to outputs. PMID:27566932

  2. Using a Strategic Planning Tool as a Framework for Case Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Christine A.; Rivera, Julio C., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they use a strategic planning tool known as SWOT as a framework for case analysis, using it to analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of a public works project intended to enhance regional economic development in Tempe, Arizona. Students consider the project in light of a variety of…

  3. How to Use Elementary Supply and Demand Analysis: A Procedural Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbury, Colin

    1986-01-01

    This article presents a framework for use in applying supply and demand analysis to everyday economic problems. The five step procedure is presented and demonstrated on fictitious government proposals to place a tax on glue sales and fix a maximum legal price for bread. (JDH)

  4. Academic Discussions: An Analysis of Instructional Discourse and an Argument for an Integrative Assessment Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elizabeth, Tracy; Ross Anderson, Trisha L.; Snow, Elana H.; Selman, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the structure of academic discussions during the implementation of a literacy curriculum in the upper elementary grades. The authors examine the quality of academic discussion, using existing discourse analysis frameworks designed to evaluate varying attributes of classroom discourse. To integrate the overlapping qualities…

  5. Understanding Universities in Ontario, Canada: An Industry Analysis Using Porter's Five Forces Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, James; Huisman, Jeroen

    2011-01-01

    In analyses of higher education systems, many models and frameworks are based on governance, steering, or coordination models. Although much can be gained by such analyses, we argue that the language used in the present-day policy documents (knowledge economy, competitive position, etc.) calls for an analysis of higher education as an industry. In…

  6. The Quality Audit: A Framework for Internal Analysis of the Capacity for Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Scott C.; Mitchell, Stephen M.

    This paper reports on the development and implementation of the quality audit, a methodology designed to help school systems examine their capacity for change using the principles of total quality management as a framework for analysis. Total quality management stresses the importance of continuous improvement of organizational processes,…

  7. Perceptions of the UK's Research Excellence Framework 2014: A Media Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Tony; Sage, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores perceptions of the UK's Research Excellence Framework (REF) and its implications for individuals, institutions and wider academia through an analysis of media coverage of the REF over a 2-year period. In recent years, the importance attached to the REF has become an increasing focus of concern for academics and other…

  8. An Integrated Framework for Analysis of the Spread of Schooling in Less Developed Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Mary Jean

    1984-01-01

    Lays out a framework in which microeconomic decision theory and elements of information/communication theory drawn from human geography and sociology are joined in an integrated approach to the analysis of the spread of schooling among the less developed countries. Tests the model on area variations in India, Brazil, and Mexico. (BRR)

  9. Environmental analysis of the eastern shale hydroretorting data base

    SciTech Connect

    Rex, R.C. Jr.; Lynch, P.A.

    1984-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform a preliminary environmental analysis of certain chemical aspects of Eastern shale hydroretorting utilizing the data from the twenty-one (21) bench scale unit runs conducted during the HYTORT Feasibility Study. The report contained herein primarily addresses the potential types and quantities of pollutants emanating directly from the hydroretorting of oil shale (i.e., the retort paper). The following areas are discussed in detail: nitrogen distribution; sulfur distribution; gas trace constituents; sour water constituents; and shale leachates. The results of the analysis have not identified any potential pollutants or quantities which cannot be brought to conformance with currently promulgated environmental standards using existing technology. Additional analysis of the process chemistry portion of the HYTORT data base, coupled with the process and mechanical design information, can provide a methodology for dealing with the identified environmental concerns as they pertain to a commercial facility. Section 5.0 of the report delineates the areas which should be addressed in a continuing analysis of environmental concerns. The suggested program divides naturally into three phases, of which Phase 1 has been completed: Phase 1 - Environmental Analysis of the Eastern Shale Hydroretorting Data Base; Phase 2 - Generic (non-site-specific) Environmental Analysis; and Phase 3 - Site-Specific Environmental Analysis. Phase 2 details the anticipated emissions from all areas of a commercial HYTORT facility operating on a typical Eastern shale using the results of this Phase 1 effort and the HYTORT data base. Phase 3 utilizes this information to assess the effects of plant emissions on chosen sites in the context of applicable laws and regulations. 7 references, 18 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Evaluating energy and non-energy impacts of energy conservation programs: A supply curve framework of analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.; Harris, J.

    1989-06-01

    Historically, the evaluation of energy conservation programs has focused primarily on energy savings and costs. The recent, increased interest in global environmental problems (e.g., acid rain, ozone depletion, and the greenhouse effect), has made decision makers, as well as program evaluators, sensitive to the environmental impacts of all programs, including energy conservation programs. Economic impacts of programs remain important policy concerns. Many state and local jurisdictions are concerned with the net effects of energy policies on economic growth, jobs, and tax revenues, as well as the impacts of growth and development on local energy issues (e.g., construction of new power plants). Consequently, policy makers need a methodology to compare easily the energy and non-energy impacts of a specific program in a consistent way, for both retrospective analysis and for prospective planning. We present the general concepts of a proposed new approach to multi-attribute analysis, as an extension of the concept of ''supply curves of conserved energy.'' In their simplest form, energy conservation supply curves rank and display the savings from conservation measures in order of their cost-effectiveness. This simple concept is extended to reflect multiple decision criteria and some important linkages between energy and non-energy policy decisions (e.g., a ''supply curve of reduced carbon emissions, ''or a ''supply curve of net local job-creation''). The framework is flexible enough, so that policy makers can weigh and compare each of the impacts to reflect their concerns, and see the results in terms of program rankings. The advantages of this analysis framework are that it is simple to use, flexible, and replicable. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  11. A geological-acoustical framework for an integrated environmental evaluation in Mediterranean marine protected areas. Marettimo Island, a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agate, M.; Catalano, R.; Chemello, R.; Lo Iacono, C.; Riggio, S.

    2003-04-01

    A GEOLOGICAL-ACOUSTICAL FRAMEWORK FOR AN INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION IN MEDITERRANEAN MARINE PROTECTED AREAS. MARETTIMO ISLAND, A CASE STUDY. M. Agate (1), R. Catalano (1), R. Chemello (2), C. Lo Iacono (1) &S. Riggio (2) (1)Dipartimento di Geologia e Geodesia dell'Università di Palermo, via Archirafi 26, 90123 Palermo, clageo@katamail.com, rcatal@unipa.it (2)Dipartimento di Biologia animale dell'Università di Palermo, via Archirafi 18, 90123 Palermo,rchemello@unipa.it New analytical methods have been designed to support an objective quantitative evaluation of geological components whose results dictate the lines for a sustainable use of the natural resources. We tried to adopt the fundaments of the seascape concept, based on the thematic elements of landscape ecology and translated into terms fitting with the principles of coastal ecology. The seascape concept is central to our view of the environment and is referred to as an integrated unit (Environmental Unit) resulting from a long multidisciplinary approach, carried out in both the field and the laboratory by an interdisciplinary team of experts. Side Scan Sonar and Multi Beam acoustical data collected in the Marettimo and Ustica Islands (south-western Tyrrhenian Sea))inner shelves, make possible to sketch geomorphological and sedimentological maps, whose details have been tested as deep as 45 m in diving surveys. On the basis of the collected data sets, the inner shelf (0-60 m) has been subdivided into different portions, following the concept of the Environmental Unit (E.U). Every E.U. presents constant morphological and sedimentological features that, probably, can be associated to specified biological communities. In order to find the relationships between physical settings and communities, geological thematic maps are eventually overlaid and fitted to macrobenthic and fishery spatial distribution maps. The result, based on the rule of the Environmental Impact Assessment, puts into evidence the

  12. Environmental Management. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability skills (competencies)…

  13. Behavioral Path Analysis and Environmental Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, James A.; Kahle, Ellen

    Behavioral Path Analysis is both a theory and a methodology for studying person-environment interactions. It is designed to be applicable to the evaluation of both environments in use and proposed designed environments. This paper presents the basics of the theory, and some examples of recent applications that have guided its development. The…

  14. Linking functional diversity and social actor strategies in a framework for interdisciplinary analysis of nature's benefits to society

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Sandra; Cáceres, Daniel M.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Pérez-Harguindeguy, Natalia; Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia; Finegan, Bryan; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Poorter, Lourens

    2011-01-01

    The crucial role of biodiversity in the links between ecosystems and societies has been repeatedly highlighted both as source of wellbeing and as a target of human actions, but not all aspects of biodiversity are equally important to different ecosystem services. Similarly, different social actors have different perceptions of and access to ecosystem services, and therefore, they have different wants and capacities to select directly or indirectly for particular biodiversity and ecosystem characteristics. Their choices feed back onto the ecosystem services provided to all parties involved and in turn, affect future decisions. Despite this recognition, the research communities addressing biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human outcomes have yet to develop frameworks that adequately treat the multiple dimensions and interactions in the relationship. Here, we present an interdisciplinary framework for the analysis of relationships between functional diversity, ecosystem services, and human actions that is applicable to specific social environmental systems at local scales. We connect the mechanistic understanding of the ecological role of diversity with its social relevance: ecosystem services. The framework permits connections between functional diversity components and priorities of social actors using land use decisions and ecosystem services as the main links between these ecological and social components. We propose a matrix-based method that provides a transparent and flexible platform for quantifying and integrating social and ecological information and negotiating potentially conflicting land uses among multiple social actors. We illustrate the applicability of our framework by way of land use examples from temperate to subtropical South America, an area of rapid social and ecological change. PMID:21220325

  15. The Grenoble Analysis Toolkit (GreAT)-A statistical analysis framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putze, A.; Derome, L.

    2014-12-01

    The field of astroparticle physics is currently the focus of prolific scientific activity. In the last decade, this field has undergone significant developments thanks to several experimental results from CREAM, PAMELA, Fermi, and H.E.S.S. Moreover, the next generation of instruments, such as AMS-02 (launched on 16 May 2011) and CTA, will undoubtedly facilitate more sensitive and precise measurements of the cosmic-ray and γ-ray fluxes. To fully exploit the wealth of high precision data generated by these experiments, robust and efficient statistical tools such as Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms or evolutionary algorithms, able to handle the complexity of joint parameter spaces and datasets, are necessary for a phenomenological interpretation. The Grenoble Analysis Toolkit (GreAT) is an user-friendly and modular object orientated framework in C++, which samples the user-defined parameter space with a pre- or user-defined algorithm. The functionality of GreAT is presented in the context of cosmic-ray physics, where the boron-to-carbon (B/C) ratio is used to constrain cosmic-ray propagation models.

  16. A Content-Adaptive Analysis and Representation Framework for Audio Event Discovery from "Unscripted" Multimedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, Regunathan; Divakaran, Ajay; Xiong, Ziyou; Otsuka, Isao

    2006-12-01

    We propose a content-adaptive analysis and representation framework to discover events using audio features from "unscripted" multimedia such as sports and surveillance for summarization. The proposed analysis framework performs an inlier/outlier-based temporal segmentation of the content. It is motivated by the observation that "interesting" events in unscripted multimedia occur sparsely in a background of usual or "uninteresting" events. We treat the sequence of low/mid-level features extracted from the audio as a time series and identify subsequences that are outliers. The outlier detection is based on eigenvector analysis of the affinity matrix constructed from statistical models estimated from the subsequences of the time series. We define the confidence measure on each of the detected outliers as the probability that it is an outlier. Then, we establish a relationship between the parameters of the proposed framework and the confidence measure. Furthermore, we use the confidence measure to rank the detected outliers in terms of their departures from the background process. Our experimental results with sequences of low- and mid-level audio features extracted from sports video show that "highlight" events can be extracted effectively as outliers from a background process using the proposed framework. We proceed to show the effectiveness of the proposed framework in bringing out suspicious events from surveillance videos without any a priori knowledge. We show that such temporal segmentation into background and outliers, along with the ranking based on the departure from the background, can be used to generate content summaries of any desired length. Finally, we also show that the proposed framework can be used to systematically select "key audio classes" that are indicative of events of interest in the chosen domain.

  17. A Framework for the Economic Analysis of Data Collection Methods for Vital Statistics

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Soto, Eliana; Hodge, Andrew; Nguyen, Kim-Huong; Dettrick, Zoe; Lopez, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Over recent years there has been a strong movement towards the improvement of vital statistics and other types of health data that inform evidence-based policies. Collecting such data is not cost free. To date there is no systematic framework to guide investment decisions on methods of data collection for vital statistics or health information in general. We developed a framework to systematically assess the comparative costs and outcomes/benefits of the various data methods for collecting vital statistics. Methodology The proposed framework is four-pronged and utilises two major economic approaches to systematically assess the available data collection methods: cost-effectiveness analysis and efficiency analysis. We built a stylised example of a hypothetical low-income country to perform a simulation exercise in order to illustrate an application of the framework. Findings Using simulated data, the results from the stylised example show that the rankings of the data collection methods are not affected by the use of either cost-effectiveness or efficiency analysis. However, the rankings are affected by how quantities are measured. Conclusion There have been several calls for global improvements in collecting useable data, including vital statistics, from health information systems to inform public health policies. Ours is the first study that proposes a systematic framework to assist countries undertake an economic evaluation of DCMs. Despite numerous challenges, we demonstrate that a systematic assessment of outputs and costs of DCMs is not only necessary, but also feasible. The proposed framework is general enough to be easily extended to other areas of health information. PMID:25171152

  18. Environmental risk assessment in GMO analysis.

    PubMed

    Pirondini, Andrea; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Genetically modified or engineered organisms (GMOs, GEOs) are utilised in agriculture, expressing traits of interest, such as insect or herbicide resistance. Soybean, maize, cotton and oilseed rape are the GM crops with the largest acreage in the world. The distribution of GM acreage in the different countries is related with the different positions concerning labelling of GMO products: based on the principle of substantial equivalence, or rather based on the precautionary principle. The paper provides an overview on how the risks associated with release of GMO in the environments can be analysed and predicted, in view of a possible coexistence of GM and non-GM organisms in agriculture.Risk assessment procedures, both qualitative and quantitative, are compared in the context of application to GMOs considering also legislation requirements (Directive 2001/18/EC). Criteria and measurable properties to assess harm for human health and environmental safety are listed, and the possible consequences are evaluated in terms of significance.Finally, a mapping of the possible risks deriving from GMO release is reported, focusing on gene transfer to related species, horizontal gene transfer, direct and indirect effects on non target organisms, development of resistance in target organisms, and effects on biodiversity. PMID:19048472

  19. Environmental risk assessment in GMO analysis.

    PubMed

    Pirondini, Andrea; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Genetically modified or engineered organisms (GMOs, GEOs) are utilised in agriculture, expressing traits of interest, such as insect or herbicide resistance. Soybean, maize, cotton and oilseed rape are the GM crops with the largest acreage in the world. The distribution of GM acreage in the different countries is related with the different positions concerning labelling of GMO products: based on the principle of substantial equivalence, or rather based on the precautionary principle. The paper provides an overview on how the risks associated with release of GMO in the environments can be analysed and predicted, in view of a possible coexistence of GM and non-GM organisms in agriculture.Risk assessment procedures, both qualitative and quantitative, are compared in the context of application to GMOs considering also legislation requirements (Directive 2001/18/EC). Criteria and measurable properties to assess harm for human health and environmental safety are listed, and the possible consequences are evaluated in terms of significance.Finally, a mapping of the possible risks deriving from GMO release is reported, focusing on gene transfer to related species, horizontal gene transfer, direct and indirect effects on non target organisms, development of resistance in target organisms, and effects on biodiversity. PMID:21384330

  20. Analysis of poetic literature using B. F. Skinner's theoretical framework from verbal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Nicole M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines Skinner's work on verbal behavior in the context of literature as a particular class of written verbal behavior. It looks at contemporary literary theory and analysis and the contributions that Skinner's theoretical framework can make. Two diverse examples of poetic literature are chosen and analyzed following Skinner's framework, examining the dynamic interplay between the writer and reader that take place within the bounds of the work presented. It is concluded that Skinner's hypotheses about verbal behavior and the functional approach to understanding it have much to offer literary theorists in their efforts to understand literary works and should be more carefully examined.

  1. A framework for the evaluation of the environmental merits of waste co-incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwmans, I.; Hakvoort, R.A.

    1998-07-01

    -incineration in a cement kiln is the use of the material content of the waste. Even though the gain is less than often claimed, the substitution value can be substantial and application of waste in a power plant or a cement kiln can have considerable advantages, taken that other environmental criteria are met.

  2. Analysis of shock pulses for environmental tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houghton, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Specifications for shock testing of components that will be used on the Space Shuttle vehicles require very high acceleration levels. A special shock machine was built for testing of rocket components to determine if they can meet the specified accelerations. Calibrations of transducers and methods to monitor the shock tests raised several signature-analysis questions. In this report, calibration capabilities of shock accelerometers are found to be limited to 10,000g. Equivalency of the mechanical shock test and the rocket pyrotechnic shock are examined, and two simple relationships for equivalency are proposed. Five different pulse signature-analysis techniques are tested on analytical and experimental pulse data and recommendations are made for the signature technique which most clearly identifies the magnitude of the impulse applied to the test specimen.

  3. Environmental analysis of the chemical release module. [space shuttle payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, J. P.; Dubin, M.

    1980-01-01

    The environmental analysis of the Chemical Release Module (a free flying spacecraft deployed from the space shuttle to perform chemical release experiments) is reviewed. Considerations of possible effects of the injectants on human health, ionosphere, weather, ground based optical astronomical observations, and satellite operations are included. It is concluded that no deleterious environmental effects of widespread or long lasting nature are anticipated from chemical releases in the upper atmosphere of the type indicated for the program.

  4. Big Data Analysis Framework for Healthcare and Social Sectors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tae-Min

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We reviewed applications of big data analysis of healthcare and social services in developed countries, and subsequently devised a framework for such an analysis in Korea. Methods We reviewed the status of implementing big data analysis of health care and social services in developed countries, and strategies used by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Korea (Government 3.0). We formulated a conceptual framework of big data in the healthcare and social service sectors at the national level. As a specific case, we designed a process and method of social big data analysis on suicide buzz. Results Developed countries (e.g., the United States, the UK, Singapore, Australia, and even OECD and EU) are emphasizing the potential of big data, and using it as a tool to solve their long-standing problems. Big data strategies for the healthcare and social service sectors were formulated based on an ICT-based policy of current government and the strategic goals of the Ministry of Health and Welfare. We suggest a framework of big data analysis in the healthcare and welfare service sectors separately and assigned them tentative names: 'health risk analysis center' and 'integrated social welfare service network'. A framework of social big data analysis is presented by applying it to the prevention and proactive detection of suicide in Korea. Conclusions There are some concerns with the utilization of big data in the healthcare and social welfare sectors. Thus, research on these issues must be conducted so that sophisticated and practical solutions can be reached. PMID:25705552

  5. Environmental analysis using integrated GIS and remotely sensed data - Some research needs and priorities

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, F.W.; Quattrochi, D.A.; Ridd, M.K.; Lam, N.S.-N.; Walsh, S.J. NASA, Stennis Space Center, Bay Saint Louis, MS Utah, University, Salt Lake City Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge North Carolina, University, Chapel Hill )

    1991-06-01

    This paper discusses some basic scientific issues and research needs in the joint processing of remotely sensed and GIS data for environmental analysis. Two general topics are treated in detail: (1) scale dependence of geographic data and the analysis of multiscale remotely sensed and GIS data, and (2) data transformations and information flow during data processing. The discussion of scale dependence focuses on the theory and applications of spatial autocorrelation, geostatistics, and fractals for characterizing and modeling spatial variation. Data transformations during processing are described within the larger framework of geographical analysis, encompassing sampling, cartography, remote sensing, and GIS. Development of better user interfaces between image processing, GIS, database management, and statistical software is needed to expedite research on these and other impediments to integrated analysis of remotely sensed and GIS data. 79 refs.

  6. Environmental analysis using integrated GIS and remotely sensed data - Some research needs and priorities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Frank W.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Ridd, Merrill K.; Lam, Nina S.-N.; Walsh, Stephen J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses some basic scientific issues and research needs in the joint processing of remotely sensed and GIS data for environmental analysis. Two general topics are treated in detail: (1) scale dependence of geographic data and the analysis of multiscale remotely sensed and GIS data, and (2) data transformations and information flow during data processing. The discussion of scale dependence focuses on the theory and applications of spatial autocorrelation, geostatistics, and fractals for characterizing and modeling spatial variation. Data transformations during processing are described within the larger framework of geographical analysis, encompassing sampling, cartography, remote sensing, and GIS. Development of better user interfaces between image processing, GIS, database management, and statistical software is needed to expedite research on these and other impediments to integrated analysis of remotely sensed and GIS data.

  7. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... record the focusing of environmental issues. ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form...

  8. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... record the focusing of environmental issues. ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form...

  9. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... record the focusing of environmental issues. ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form...

  10. Development of an Environmental Flow Framework for the McKenzie River Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risley, John; Wallick, J. Rose; Waite, Ian; Stonewall, Adam J.

    2010-01-01

    The McKenzie River is a tributary to the Willamette River in northwestern Oregon. The McKenzie River is approximately 90 miles in length and has a drainage area of approximately 1,300 square miles. Two major flood control dams, a hydropower dam complex, and two hydropower canals significantly alter streamflows in the river. The structures reduce the magnitude and frequency of large and small floods while increasing the annual 7-day minimum streamflows. Stream temperatures also have been altered by the dams and other anthropogenic factors, such as the removal of riparian vegetation and channel simplification. Flow releases from one of the flood control dams are cooler in the summer and warmer in the fall in comparison to unregulated flow conditions before the dam was constructed. In 2006, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality listed a total of 112.4, 6.3, and 55.7 miles of the McKenzie River basin mainstem and tributary stream reaches as thermally impaired for salmonid rearing, salmonid spawning, and bull trout, respectively. The analyses in this report, along with previous studies, indicate that dams have altered downstream channel morphology and ecologic communities. In addition to reducing the magnitude and frequency of floods, dams have diminished sediment transport by trapping bed material. Other anthropogenic factors, such as bank stabilization, highway construction, and reductions of in-channel wood, also have contributed to the loss of riparian habitat. A comparison of aerial photography taken in 1939 and 2005 showed substantial decreases in secondary channels, gravel bars, and channel sinuosity, particularly along the lower alluvial reaches of the McKenzie River. In addition, bed armoring and incision may contribute to habitat degradation, although further study is needed to determine the extent of these processes. Peak streamflow reduction has led to vegetation colonization and stabilization of formerly active bar surfaces. The large flood control

  11. PageRank, HITS and a unified framework for link analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Chris; He, Xiaofeng; Husbands, Parry; Zha, Hongyuan; Simon, Horst

    2001-10-01

    Two popular webpage ranking algorithms are HITS and PageRank. HITS emphasizes mutual reinforcement between authority and hub webpages, while PageRank emphasizes hyperlink weight normalization and web surfing based on random walk models. We systematically generalize/combine these concepts into a unified framework. The ranking framework contains a large algorithm space; HITS and PageRank are two extreme ends in this space. We study several normalized ranking algorithms which are intermediate between HITS and PageRank, and obtain closed-form solutions. We show that, to first order approximation, all ranking algorithms in this framework, including PageRank and HITS, lead to same ranking which is highly correlated with ranking by indegree. These results support the notion that in web resource ranking indegree and outdegree are of fundamental importance. Rankings of webgraphs of different sizes and queries are presented to illustrate our analysis.

  12. Using the framework method for the analysis of qualitative data in multi-disciplinary health research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Framework Method is becoming an increasingly popular approach to the management and analysis of qualitative data in health research. However, there is confusion about its potential application and limitations. Discussion The article discusses when it is appropriate to adopt the Framework Method and explains the procedure for using it in multi-disciplinary health research teams, or those that involve clinicians, patients and lay people. The stages of the method are illustrated using examples from a published study. Summary Used effectively, with the leadership of an experienced qualitative researcher, the Framework Method is a systematic and flexible approach to analysing qualitative data and is appropriate for use in research teams even where not all members have previous experience of conducting qualitative research. PMID:24047204

  13. Idealization, uncertainty and heterogeneity : game frameworks defined with formal concept analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Racovitan, M. T.; Sallach, D. L.; Decision and Information Sciences; Northern Illinois Univ.

    2006-01-01

    The present study begins with Formal Concept Analysis, and undertakes to demonstrate how a succession of game frameworks may, by design, address increasingly complex and interesting social phenomena. We develop a series of multi-agent exchange games, each of which incorporates an additional dimension of complexity. All games are based on coalition patterns in exchanges where diverse cultural markers provide a basis for trust and reciprocity. The first game is characterized by an idealized concept of trust. A second game framework introduces uncertainty regarding the reciprocity of prospective transactions. A third game framework retains idealized trust and uncertainty, and adds additional agent heterogeneity. Cultural markers are not equally salient in conferring or withholding trust, and the result is a richer transactional process.

  14. Fuel Cycle Analysis Framework Base Cases for the IAEA/INPRO GAINS Collaborative Project

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Dixon

    2012-09-01

    Thirteen countries participated in the Collaborative Project GAINS “Global Architecture of Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems Based on Thermal and Fast Reactors Including a Closed Fuel Cycle”, which was the primary activity within the IAEA/INPRO Program Area B: “Global Vision on Sustainable Nuclear Energy” for the last three years. The overall objective of GAINS was to develop a standard framework for assessing future nuclear energy systems taking into account sustainable development, and to validate results through sample analyses. This paper details the eight scenarios that constitute the GAINS framework base cases for analysis of the transition to future innovative nuclear energy systems. The framework base cases provide a reference for users of the framework to start from in developing and assessing their own alternate systems. Each base case is described along with performance results against the GAINS sustainability evaluation metrics. The eight cases include four using a moderate growth projection and four using a high growth projection for global nuclear electricity generation through 2100. The cases are divided into two sets, addressing homogeneous and heterogeneous scenarios developed by GAINS to model global fuel cycle strategies. The heterogeneous world scenario considers three separate nuclear groups based on their fuel cycle strategies, with non-synergistic and synergistic cases. The framework base case analyses results show the impact of these different fuel cycle strategies while providing references for future users of the GAINS framework. A large number of scenario alterations are possible and can be used to assess different strategies, different technologies, and different assumptions about possible futures of nuclear power. Results can be compared to the framework base cases to assess where these alternate cases perform differently versus the sustainability indicators.

  15. Methodologic research needs in environmental epidemiology: data analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, R L; Thomas, D

    1993-01-01

    A brief review is given of data analysis methods for the identification and quantification of associations between environmental exposures and health events of interest. Data analysis methods are outlined for each of the study designs mentioned, with an emphasis on topics in need of further research. Particularly noted are the need for improved methods for accommodating exposure assessment measurement errors in analytic epidemiologic studies and for improved methods for the conduct and analysis of aggregate data (ecologic) studies. PMID:8206041

  16. PUMA: A Unified Framework for Penalized Multiple Regression Analysis of GWAS Data

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Gabriel E.; Logsdon, Benjamin A.; Mezey, Jason G.

    2013-01-01

    Penalized Multiple Regression (PMR) can be used to discover novel disease associations in GWAS datasets. In practice, proposed PMR methods have not been able to identify well-supported associations in GWAS that are undetectable by standard association tests and thus these methods are not widely applied. Here, we present a combined algorithmic and heuristic framework for PUMA (Penalized Unified Multiple-locus Association) analysis that solves the problems of previously proposed methods including computational speed, poor performance on genome-scale simulated data, and identification of too many associations for real data to be biologically plausible. The framework includes a new minorize-maximization (MM) algorithm for generalized linear models (GLM) combined with heuristic model selection and testing methods for identification of robust associations. The PUMA framework implements the penalized maximum likelihood penalties previously proposed for GWAS analysis (i.e. Lasso, Adaptive Lasso, NEG, MCP), as well as a penalty that has not been previously applied to GWAS (i.e. LOG). Using simulations that closely mirror real GWAS data, we show that our framework has high performance and reliably increases power to detect weak associations, while existing PMR methods can perform worse than single marker testing in overall performance. To demonstrate the empirical value of PUMA, we analyzed GWAS data for type 1 diabetes, Crohns's disease, and rheumatoid arthritis, three autoimmune diseases from the original Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. Our analysis replicates known associations for these diseases and we discover novel etiologically relevant susceptibility loci that are invisible to standard single marker tests, including six novel associations implicating genes involved in pancreatic function, insulin pathways and immune-cell function in type 1 diabetes; three novel associations implicating genes in pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways in Crohn's disease; and one

  17. PUMA: a unified framework for penalized multiple regression analysis of GWAS data.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Gabriel E; Logsdon, Benjamin A; Mezey, Jason G

    2013-01-01

    Penalized Multiple Regression (PMR) can be used to discover novel disease associations in GWAS datasets. In practice, proposed PMR methods have not been able to identify well-supported associations in GWAS that are undetectable by standard association tests and thus these methods are not widely applied. Here, we present a combined algorithmic and heuristic framework for PUMA (Penalized Unified Multiple-locus Association) analysis that solves the problems of previously proposed methods including computational speed, poor performance on genome-scale simulated data, and identification of too many associations for real data to be biologically plausible. The framework includes a new minorize-maximization (MM) algorithm for generalized linear models (GLM) combined with heuristic model selection and testing methods for identification of robust associations. The PUMA framework implements the penalized maximum likelihood penalties previously proposed for GWAS analysis (i.e. Lasso, Adaptive Lasso, NEG, MCP), as well as a penalty that has not been previously applied to GWAS (i.e. LOG). Using simulations that closely mirror real GWAS data, we show that our framework has high performance and reliably increases power to detect weak associations, while existing PMR methods can perform worse than single marker testing in overall performance. To demonstrate the empirical value of PUMA, we analyzed GWAS data for type 1 diabetes, Crohns's disease, and rheumatoid arthritis, three autoimmune diseases from the original Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. Our analysis replicates known associations for these diseases and we discover novel etiologically relevant susceptibility loci that are invisible to standard single marker tests, including six novel associations implicating genes involved in pancreatic function, insulin pathways and immune-cell function in type 1 diabetes; three novel associations implicating genes in pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways in Crohn's disease; and one

  18. Organically bound tritium analysis in environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Baglan, N.; Cossonnet, C.; Fournier, M.; Momoshima, N.; Ansoborlo, E.

    2015-03-15

    Organically bound tritium (OBT) has become of increased interest within the last decade, with a focus on its behaviour and also its analysis, which are important to assess tritium distribution in the environment. In contrast, there are no certified reference materials and no standard analytical method through the international organization related to OBT. In order to resolve this issue, an OBT international working group was created in May 2012. Over 20 labs from around the world participated and submitted their results for the first intercomparison exercise results on potato (Sep 2013). The samples, specially-prepared potatoes, were provided in March 2013 to each participant. Technical information and results from this first exercise are discussed here for all the labs which have realised the five replicates necessary to allow a reliable statistical treatment. The results are encouraging as the increased number of participating labs did not degrade the observed dispersion of the results for a similar activity level. Therefore, the results do not seem to depend on the analytical procedure used. From this work an optimised procedure can start to be developed to deal with OBT analysis and will guide subsequent planned OBT trials by the international group.

  19. Substrate and environmental controls on microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon: a framework for Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Schimel, Joshua; Thornton, Peter E; Song, Xia; Yuan, Fengming; Goswami, Santonu

    2014-01-01

    Microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon is one of the fundamental processes of global carbon cycling and it determines the magnitude of microbial biomass in soils. Mechanistic understanding of microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon and its controls is important for to improve Earth system models ability to simulate carbon-climate feedbacks. Although microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon is broadly considered to be an important parameter, it really comprises two separate physiological processes: one-time assimilation efficiency and time-dependent microbial maintenance energy. Representing of these two mechanisms is crucial to more accurately simulate carbon cycling in soils. In this study, a simple modeling framework was developed to evaluate the substrate and environmental controls on microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon using a new term: microbial annual active period (the length of microbes remaining active in one year). Substrate quality has a positive effect on microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon: higher substrate quality (lower C:N ratio) leads to higher ratio of microbial carbon to soil organic carbon and vice versa. Increases in microbial annual active period from zero stimulate microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon; however, when microbial annual active period is longer than an optimal threshold, increasing this period decreases microbial biomass. The simulated ratios of soil microbial biomass to soil organic carbon are reasonably consistent with a recently compiled global dataset at the biome-level. The modeling framework of microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon and its controls developed in this study offers an applicable ways to incorporate microbial contributions to the carbon cycling into Earth system models for simulating carbon-climate feedbacks and to explain global patterns of microbial biomass.

  20. A Simple Cost-Effective Framework for iPhone Forensic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, Mohammad Iftekhar; Baggili, Ibrahim; Sridhar, Ramalingam

    Apple iPhone has made significant impact on the society both as a handheld computing device and as a cellular phone. Due to the unique hardware system as well as storage structure, iPhone has already attracted the forensic community in digital investigation of the device. Currently available commercial products and methodologies for iPhone forensics are somewhat expensive, complex and often require additional hardware for analysis. Some products are not robust and often fail to extract optimal evidence without modifying the iPhone firmware which makes the analysis questionable in legal platforms. In this paper, we present a simple and inexpensive framework (iFF) for iPhone forensic analysis. Through experimental results using real device, we have shown the effectiveness of this framework in extracting digital evidence from an iPhone.

  1. Simulation Framework for Rapid Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Analysis. Volume 2; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was requested to establish the Simulation Framework for Rapid Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Analysis assessment, which involved development of an enhanced simulation architecture using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) simulation tool. The assessment was requested to enhance the capability of the Agency to provide rapid evaluation of EDL characteristics in systems analysis studies, preliminary design, mission development and execution, and time-critical assessments. Many of the new simulation framework capabilities were developed to support the Agency EDL Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) team, that is conducting studies of the technologies and architectures that are required to enable higher mass robotic and human mission to Mars. The appendices to the original report are contained in this document.

  2. A Framework for 3D Vessel Analysis using Whole Slide Images of Liver Tissue Sections

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yanhui; Wang, Fusheng; Treanor, Darren; Magee, Derek; Roberts, Nick; Teodoro, George; Zhu, Yangyang; Kong, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) high resolution microscopic images have high potential for improving the understanding of both normal and disease processes where structural changes or spatial relationship of disease features are significant. In this paper, we develop a complete framework applicable to 3D pathology analytical imaging, with an application to whole slide images of sequential liver slices for 3D vessel structure analysis. The analysis workflow consists of image registration, segmentation, vessel cross-section association, interpolation, and volumetric rendering. To identify biologically-meaningful correspondence across adjacent slides, we formulate a similarity function for four association cases. The optimal solution is then obtained by constrained Integer Programming. We quantitatively and qualitatively compare our vessel reconstruction results with human annotations. Validation results indicate a satisfactory concordance as measured both by region-based and distance-based metrics. These results demonstrate a promising 3D vessel analysis framework for whole slide images of liver tissue sections. PMID:27034719

  3. Design and architecture of the Mars relay network planning and analysis framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, K. M.; Lee, C. H.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe the design and architecture of the Mars Network planning and analysis framework that supports generation and validation of efficient planning and scheduling strategy. The goals are to minimize the transmitting time, minimize the delaying time, and/or maximize the network throughputs. The proposed framework would require (1) a client-server architecture to support interactive, batch, WEB, and distributed analysis and planning applications for the relay network analysis scheme, (2) a high-fidelity modeling and simulation environment that expresses link capabilities between spacecraft to spacecraft and spacecraft to Earth stations as time-varying resources, and spacecraft activities, link priority, Solar System dynamic events, the laws of orbital mechanics, and other limiting factors as spacecraft power and thermal constraints, (3) an optimization methodology that casts the resource and constraint models into a standard linear and nonlinear constrained optimization problem that lends itself to commercial off-the-shelf (COTS)planning and scheduling algorithms.

  4. Simulation Framework for Rapid Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Analysis. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was requested to establish the Simulation Framework for Rapid Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Analysis assessment, which involved development of an enhanced simulation architecture using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) simulation tool. The assessment was requested to enhance the capability of the Agency to provide rapid evaluation of EDL characteristics in systems analysis studies, preliminary design, mission development and execution, and time-critical assessments. Many of the new simulation framework capabilities were developed to support the Agency EDL Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) team, that is conducting studies of the technologies and architectures that are required to enable higher mass robotic and human mission to Mars. The findings of the assessment are contained in this report.

  5. Simulation Framework for Rapid Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Analysis, Phase 2 Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was requested to establish the Simulation Framework for Rapid Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Analysis assessment, which involved development of an enhanced simulation architecture using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II simulation tool. The assessment was requested to enhance the capability of the Agency to provide rapid evaluation of EDL characteristics in systems analysis studies, preliminary design, mission development and execution, and time-critical assessments. Many of the new simulation framework capabilities were developed to support the Agency EDL-Systems Analysis (SA) team that is conducting studies of the technologies and architectures that are required to enable human and higher mass robotic missions to Mars. The findings, observations, and recommendations from the NESC are provided in this report.

  6. A friendly critical analysis of Kass's ethics framework for public health.

    PubMed

    Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie; Ridde, Valéry

    2016-01-01

    Kass's framework has played a seminal role in stimulating reflections on the ethics analyses of public health programs. This framework stipulates that public health programs should not be implemented if there are not at least some existing data to demonstrate the validity of their "assumptions". The purpose of this commentary is to provide a constructive critical analysis of this framework. We argue that it is difficult to adopt Kass's framework in the public health field, in part because of the labile definition of what constitutes "data" or "evidence". Moreover, we argue that public health actors have the responsibility to base their interventions on the best available evidence, but that when data do not exist they may still be required to intervene with prudence to protect the health of the population. In such cases, policy-makers should first implement pilot interventions coupled with rigorous monitoring mechanisms, independent evaluations and ongoing dialogue with stakeholders so that public health measures can be modified or adapted quickly to avoid unintended harm to the population. Populations can also participate in the assessment of the interventions' risks and acceptability to avoid paternalistic approaches. We conclude that more flexible frameworks may be more useful in the field of public health. PMID:27526221

  7. A Framework for Behavior-Based Malware Analysis in the Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martignoni, Lorenzo; Paleari, Roberto; Bruschi, Danilo

    To ease the analysis of potentially malicious programs, dynamic behavior-based techniques have been proposed in the literature. Unfortunately, these techniques often give incomplete results because the execution environments in which they are performed are synthetic and do not faithfully resemble the environments of end-users, the intended targets of the malicious activities. In this paper, we present a new framework for improving behavior-based analysis of suspicious programs. Our framework allows an end-user to delegate security labs, the cloud, the execution and the analysis of a program and to force the program to behave as if it were executed directly in the environment of the former. The evaluation demonstrated that the proposed framework allows security labs to improve the completeness of the analysis, by analyzing a piece of malware on behalf of multiple end-users simultaneously, while performing a fine-grained analysis of the behavior of the program with no computational cost for end-users.

  8. GELATIO: a general framework for modular digital analysis of high-purity Ge detector signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, M.; Pandola, L.; Zavarise, P.; Volynets, O.

    2011-08-01

    GELATIO is a new software framework for advanced data analysis and digital signal processing developed for the GERDA neutrinoless double beta decay experiment. The framework is tailored to handle the full analysis flow of signals recorded by high purity Ge detectors and photo-multipliers from the veto counters. It is designed to support a multi-channel modular and flexible analysis, widely customizable by the user either via human-readable initialization files or via a graphical interface. The framework organizes the data into a multi-level structure, from the raw data up to the condensed analysis parameters, and includes tools and utilities to handle the data stream between the different levels. GELATIO is implemented in C++. It relies upon ROOT and its extension TAM, which provides compatibility with PROOF, enabling the software to run in parallel on clusters of computers or many-core machines. It was tested on different platforms and benchmarked in several GERDA-related applications. A stable version is presently available for the GERDA Collaboration and it is used to provide the reference analysis of the experiment data.

  9. A multimedia environmental model of chemical distribution: fate, transport, and uncertainty analysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuzhou; Yang, Xiusheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper presented a framework for analysis of chemical concentration in the environment and evaluation of variance propagation within the model. This framework was illustrated through a case study of selected organic compounds of benzo[alpha]pyrene (BAP) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the Great Lakes region. A multimedia environmental fate model was applied to perform stochastic simulations of chemical concentrations in various media. Both uncertainty in chemical properties and variability in hydrometeorological parameters were included in the Monte Carlo simulation, resulting in a distribution of concentrations in each medium. Parameters of compartmental dimensions, densities, emissions, and background concentrations were assumed to be constant in this study. The predicted concentrations in air, surface water and sediment were compared to reported data for validation purpose. Based on rank correlations, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the influence of individual input parameters on the output variance for concentration in each environmental medium and for the basin-wide total mass inventory. Results of model validation indicated that the model predictions were in reasonable agreement with spatial distribution patterns, among the five lake basins, of reported data in the literature. For the chemical and environmental parameters given in this study, parameters associated to air-ground partitioning (such as moisture in surface soil, vapor pressure, and deposition velocity) and chemical distribution in soil solid (such as organic carbon partition coefficient and organic carbon content in root-zone soil) were targeted to reduce the uncertainty in basin-wide mass inventory. This results of sensitivity analysis in this study also indicated that the model sensitivity to an input parameter might be affected by the magnitudes of input parameters defined by the parameter settings in the simulation scenario. Therefore, uncertainty and sensitivity analyses

  10. The Matsu Wheel: A Cloud-Based Framework for Efficient Analysis and Reanalysis of Earth Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Maria T.; Anderson, Nicholas; Bennett, Collin; Bruggemann, Jacob; Grossman, Robert L.; Handy, Matthew; Ly, Vuong; Mandl, Daniel J.; Pederson, Shane; Pivarski, James; Powell, Ray; Spring, Jonathan; Wells, Walt; Xia, John

    2016-01-01

    Project Matsu is a collaboration between the Open Commons Consortium and NASA focused on developing open source technology for cloud-based processing of Earth satellite imagery with practical applications to aid in natural disaster detection and relief. Project Matsu has developed an open source cloud-based infrastructure to process, analyze, and reanalyze large collections of hyperspectral satellite image data using OpenStack, Hadoop, MapReduce and related technologies. We describe a framework for efficient analysis of large amounts of data called the Matsu "Wheel." The Matsu Wheel is currently used to process incoming hyperspectral satellite data produced daily by NASA's Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. The framework allows batches of analytics, scanning for new data, to be applied to data as it flows in. In the Matsu Wheel, the data only need to be accessed and preprocessed once, regardless of the number or types of analytics, which can easily be slotted into the existing framework. The Matsu Wheel system provides a significantly more efficient use of computational resources over alternative methods when the data are large, have high-volume throughput, may require heavy preprocessing, and are typically used for many types of analysis. We also describe our preliminary Wheel analytics, including an anomaly detector for rare spectral signatures or thermal anomalies in hyperspectral data and a land cover classifier that can be used for water and flood detection. Each of these analytics can generate visual reports accessible via the web for the public and interested decision makers. The result products of the analytics are also made accessible through an Open Geospatial Compliant (OGC)-compliant Web Map Service (WMS) for further distribution. The Matsu Wheel allows many shared data services to be performed together to efficiently use resources for processing hyperspectral satellite image data and other, e.g., large environmental datasets that may be analyzed for

  11. Environmental risk analysis of hazardous material rail transportation.

    PubMed

    Saat, Mohd Rapik; Werth, Charles J; Schaeffer, David; Yoon, Hongkyu; Barkan, Christopher P L

    2014-01-15

    An important aspect of railroad environmental risk management involves tank car transportation of hazardous materials. This paper describes a quantitative, environmental risk analysis of rail transportation of a group of light, non-aqueous-phase liquid (LNAPL) chemicals commonly transported by rail in North America. The Hazardous Materials Transportation Environmental Consequence Model (HMTECM) was used in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) analysis of environmental characteristics to develop probabilistic estimates of exposure to different spill scenarios along the North American rail network. The risk analysis incorporated the estimated clean-up cost developed using the HMTECM, route-specific probability distributions of soil type and depth to groundwater, annual traffic volume, railcar accident rate, and tank car safety features, to estimate the nationwide annual risk of transporting each product. The annual risk per car-mile (car-km) and per ton-mile (ton-km) was also calculated to enable comparison between chemicals and to provide information on the risk cost associated with shipments of these products. The analysis and the methodology provide a quantitative approach that will enable more effective management of the environmental risk of transporting hazardous materials. PMID:24239259

  12. Field Raman spectrograph for environmental analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, J.W. III; Forney, R.W.; Carrabba, M.M.; Rauh, R.D.

    1995-12-01

    The enormous cost for chemical analysis at DOE facilities predicates that cost-saving measures be implemented. Many approaches, ranging from increasing laboratory sample throughput by reducing preparation time to the development of field instrumentation, are being explored to meet this need. Because of the presence of radioactive materials at many DOE sites, there is also a need for methods that are safer for site personnel and analysts. This project entails the development of a compact Raman spectrograph for field screening and monitoring of a wide variety of wastes, pollutants, and corrosion products in storage tanks, soils, and ground and surface waters. Analytical advantages of the Raman technique include its ability to produce a unique, spectral fingerprint for each contaminant and its ability to analyze both solids and liquids directly, without the need for isolation or cleanup.

  13. Description and testing of the Geo Data Portal: Data integration framework and Web processing services for environmental science collaboration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, David L.; Booth, Nathaniel L.; Kunicki, Thomas C.; Walker, Jordan I.; Viger, Roland J.

    2011-01-01

    Interest in sharing interdisciplinary environmental modeling results and related data is increasing among scientists. The U.S. Geological Survey Geo Data Portal project enables data sharing by assembling open-standard Web services into an integrated data retrieval and analysis Web application design methodology that streamlines time-consuming and resource-intensive data management tasks. Data-serving Web services allow Web-based processing services to access Internet-available data sources. The Web processing services developed for the project create commonly needed derivatives of data in numerous formats. Coordinate reference system manipulation and spatial statistics calculation components implemented for the Web processing services were confirmed using ArcGIS 9.3.1, a geographic information science software package. Outcomes of the Geo Data Portal project support the rapid development of user interfaces for accessing and manipulating environmental data.

  14. Theoretical Foundations of Conducting Needs Analysis for Performance Improvement in Organizations: Definition Clarification and a Framework for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pershing, James A.; Lee, Sung Heum; Chung, Jaesam

    2000-01-01

    Clarifies the basic terminology of needs analysis, proposes a framework for conducting needs analyses, and discusses trends and issues in needs analysis as they apply to improving performance in organizations. Topics include needs; needs assessment; needs analysis; training requirements analysis; needs analysis plan; perception analysis, including…

  15. Development of innovative tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good environmental status, within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borja, Angel; Uyarra, María C.

    2014-05-01

    Marine natural resources and ecosystem services constitute the natural capital that supports economies, societies and individual well-being. Good governance requires a quantification of the interactions and trade-offs among ecosystem services and understanding of how biodiversity underpins ecosystem functions and services across time, scales and sectors. Marine biodiversity is a key descriptor for the assessment within the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), approved in 2008, which comprises a total of 11 descriptors. However, the relationships between pressures from human activities and climatic influences and their effects on marine biological diversity are still only partially understood. Hence, these relationships need to be better understood in order to fully achieve a good environmental status (GEnS), as required by the MSFD. This contribution is based upon the FP7 EU project DEVOTES (DEVelopment Of innovative Tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good Environmental Status), which focus on developing innovative conceptual frameworks, methods and coherent, shared protocols to provide consistent datasets and knowledge at different scales, within four regional seas (Black Sea, Mediterranean, Atlantic and Baltic Sea). This project is developing innovative approaches to valuate biodiversity and ecosystem services and to develop public goods and sustainable economic activities from them. The research will benefit sea users and stakeholders, and will contribute to assess and monitor the environmental status of marine waters. The main objectives are: (i) to improve our understanding of the impact of human activities and variations associated to climate on marine biodiversity, (ii) to test indicators (referred in the Commission Decision on GEnS) and develop new ones for assessment at several ecological levels (species, habitat, ecosystems) and for the characterization and status classification of the marine waters, (iii) to develop, test

  16. A Framework for Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) based on geographic ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, H. Y.; Li, H. T.; Yan, L.; Lu, X. J.

    2015-06-01

    GEOBIA (Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis) is not only a hot topic of current remote sensing and geographical research. It is believed to be a paradigm in remote sensing and GIScience. The lack of a systematic approach designed to conceptualize and formalize the class definitions makes GEOBIA a highly subjective and difficult method to reproduce. This paper aims to put forward a framework for GEOBIA based on geographic ontology theory, which could implement "Geographic entities - Image objects - Geographic objects" true reappearance. It consists of three steps, first, geographical entities are described by geographic ontology, second, semantic network model is built based on OWL(ontology web language), at last, geographical objects are classified with decision rule or other classifiers. A case study of farmland ontology was conducted for describing the framework. The strength of this framework is that it provides interpretation strategies and global framework for GEOBIA with the property of objective, overall, universal, universality, etc., which avoids inconsistencies caused by different experts' experience and provides an objective model for mage analysis.

  17. Adaptive Fuzzy Consensus Clustering Framework for Clustering Analysis of Cancer Data.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhiwen; Chen, Hantao; You, Jane; Liu, Jiming; Wong, Hau-San; Han, Guoqiang; Li, Le

    2015-01-01

    Performing clustering analysis is one of the important research topics in cancer discovery using gene expression profiles, which is crucial in facilitating the successful diagnosis and treatment of cancer. While there are quite a number of research works which perform tumor clustering, few of them considers how to incorporate fuzzy theory together with an optimization process into a consensus clustering framework to improve the performance of clustering analysis. In this paper, we first propose a random double clustering based cluster ensemble framework (RDCCE) to perform tumor clustering based on gene expression data. Specifically, RDCCE generates a set of representative features using a randomly selected clustering algorithm in the ensemble, and then assigns samples to their corresponding clusters based on the grouping results. In addition, we also introduce the random double clustering based fuzzy cluster ensemble framework (RDCFCE), which is designed to improve the performance of RDCCE by integrating the newly proposed fuzzy extension model into the ensemble framework. RDCFCE adopts the normalized cut algorithm as the consensus function to summarize the fuzzy matrices generated by the fuzzy extension models, partition the consensus matrix, and obtain the final result. Finally, adaptive RDCFCE (A-RDCFCE) is proposed to optimize RDCFCE and improve the performance of RDCFCE further by adopting a self-evolutionary process (SEPP) for the parameter set. Experiments on real cancer gene expression profiles indicate that RDCFCE and A-RDCFCE works well on these data sets, and outperform most of the state-of-the-art tumor clustering algorithms. PMID:26357330

  18. Field Raman Spectrograph for Environmental Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sylvia, J.M.; Haas, J.W.; Spencer, K.M.; Carrabba, M.M.; Rauh, R.D.; Forney, R.W.; Johnston, T.M.

    1998-07-01

    The widespread contamination found across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex has received considerable attention from the government and public alike. A massive site characterization and cleanup effort has been underway for several years and is expected to continue for several decades more. The scope of the cleanup effort ranges from soil excavation and treatment to complete dismantling and decontamination of whole buildings. To its credit, DOE has supported research and development of new technologies to speed up and reduce the cost of this effort. One area in particular has been the development of portable instrumentation that can be used to perform analytical measurements in the field. This approach provides timely data to decision makers and eliminates the expense, delays, and uncertainties of sample preservation, transport, storage, and laboratory analysis. In this program, we have developed and demonstrated in the field a transportable, high performance Raman spectrograph that can be used to detect and identify contaminants in a variety of scenarios. With no moving parts, the spectrograph is rugged and can perform many Raman measurements in situ with flexible fiber optic sampling probes. The instrument operates under computer control and a software package has been developed to collect and process spectral data. A collection of Raman spectra for 200 contaminants of DOE importance has been compiled in a searchable format to assist in the identification of unknown contaminants in the field.

  19. Fuzzy Clustering Analysis in Environmental Impact Assessment--A Complement Tool to Environmental Quality Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kung, Hsiang-Te; And Others

    1993-01-01

    In spite of rapid progress achieved in the methodological research underlying environmental impact assessment (EIA), the problem of weighting various parameters has not yet been solved. This paper presents a new approach, fuzzy clustering analysis, which is illustrated with an EIA case study on Baoshan-Wusong District in Shanghai, China. (Author)

  20. Framework for integration of urban planning, strategic environmental assessment and ecological planning for urban sustainability within the context of China

    SciTech Connect

    He Jia; Bao Cunkuan; Shu Tingfei; Yun Xiaoxue; Jiang Dahe; Brwon, Lex

    2011-11-15

    Sustainable development or sustainability has been highlighted as an essential principle in urban master planning, with increasing recognition that uncontrollable urbanization may well give rise to various issues such as overexploitation of natural resources, ecosystem destruction, environmental pollution and large-scale climate change. Thus, it is deemed necessary to modify the existing urban and regional administrative system so as to cope with the challenges urban planning is being confronted with and realize the purpose of urban sustainability. This paper contributed to proposing a mechanism which helps to make urban planning with full consideration of issues with respect to sustainable development. We suggested that the integration of urban planning, SEA and ecological planning be a multi-win strategy to offset deficiency of each mentioned political tool being individually applied. We also proposed a framework where SEA and ecological planning are fully incorporated into urban planning, which forms a two-way constraint mechanism to ascertain environmental quality of urban planning, although in practice, planning and SEA processes may conditionally be unified. Moreover, as shown in the case study, the integration of the three political tools may be constrained due to slow changes in the contextual factors, in particular the political and cultural dimensions. Currently within the context of China, there may be three major elements which facilitate integration of the three political tools, which are (1) regulatory requirement of PEIA on urban planning, (2) the promotion or strong administrative support from government on eco-district building, and (3) the willingness of urban planners to collaborate with SEA experts or ecologists.

  1. A Watershed-based spatially-explicit demonstration of an Integrated Environmental Modeling Framework for Ecosystem Services in the Coal River Basin (WV, USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We demonstrate a spatially-explicit regional assessment of current condition of aquatic ecoservices in the Coal River Basin (CRB), with limited sensitivity analysis for the atmospheric contaminant mercury. The integrated modeling framework (IMF) forecasts water quality and quant...

  2. VHH antibodies: emerging reagents for the analysis of environmental chemicals.

    PubMed

    Bever, Candace S; Dong, Jie-Xian; Vasylieva, Natalia; Barnych, Bogdan; Cui, Yongliang; Xu, Zhen-Lin; Hammock, Bruce D; Gee, Shirley J

    2016-09-01

    A VHH antibody (or nanobody) is the antigen binding fragment of heavy chain only antibodies. Discovered nearly 25 years ago, they have been investigated for their use in clinical therapeutics and immunodiagnostics, and more recently for environmental monitoring applications. A new and valuable immunoreagent for the analysis of small molecular weight environmental chemicals, VHH will overcome many pitfalls encountered with conventional reagents. In the work so far, VHH antibodies often perform comparably to conventional antibodies for small molecule analysis, are amenable to numerous genetic engineering techniques, and show ease of adaption to other immunodiagnostic platforms for use in environmental monitoring. Recent reviews cover the structure and production of VHH antibodies as well as their use in clinical settings. However, no report focuses on the use of these VHH antibodies to detect small environmental chemicals (MW < 1500 Da). This review article summarizes the efforts made to produce VHHs to various environmental targets, compares the VHH-based assays with conventional antibody assays, and discusses the advantages and limitations in developing these new antibody reagents particularly to small molecule targets. Graphical Abstract Overview of the production of VHHs to small environmental chemicals and highlights of the utility of these new emerging reagents. PMID:27209591

  3. Probabilistic framework for reliability analysis of information-theoretic CAD systems in mammography.

    PubMed

    Habas, Piotr A; Zurada, Jacek M; Elmaghraby, Adel S; Tourassi, Georgia D

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a probabilistic framework for reliability analysis of information-theoretic computer-assisted detection (IT-CAD) systems in mammography. The study builds upon our previous work on a feature-based reliability analysis technique tailored to traditional CAD systems developed with a supervised learning scheme. The present study proposes a probabilistic framework to facilitate application of the reliability analysis technique for knowledge-based CAD systems that are not feature-based. The study was based on an information-theoretic CAD system developed for detection of masses in screening mammograms from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). The experimental results reveal that the query-specific reliability estimate provided by the proposed probabilistic framework is an accurate predictor of CAD performance for the query case. It can also be successfully applied as a base for stratification of CAD predictions into clinically meaningful reliability groups (i.e., HIGH, MEDIUM, and LOW). Based on a leave-one-out sampling scheme and ROC analysis, the study demonstrated that the diagnostic performance of the IT-CAD is significantly higher for cases with HIGH reliability (A(z) = 0.92 +/- 0.03) than for those stratified as MEDIUM (A(z) = 0.84 +/- 0.02) or LOW reliability predictions (A(z) = 0.78 +/- 0.02). PMID:17946741

  4. Application of Effective Discharge Analysis to Environmental Flow Decision-Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, S. Kyle; Freeman, Mary C.; Covich, Alan P.

    2016-06-01

    Well-informed river management decisions rely on an explicit statement of objectives, repeatable analyses, and a transparent system for assessing trade-offs. These components may then be applied to compare alternative operational regimes for water resource infrastructure (e.g., diversions, locks, and dams). Intra- and inter-annual hydrologic variability further complicates these already complex environmental flow decisions. Effective discharge analysis (developed in studies of geomorphology) is a powerful tool for integrating temporal variability of flow magnitude and associated ecological consequences. Here, we adapt the effectiveness framework to include multiple elements of the natural flow regime (i.e., timing, duration, and rate-of-change) as well as two flow variables. We demonstrate this analytical approach using a case study of environmental flow management based on long-term (60 years) daily discharge records in the Middle Oconee River near Athens, GA, USA. Specifically, we apply an existing model for estimating young-of-year fish recruitment based on flow-dependent metrics to an effective discharge analysis that incorporates hydrologic variability and multiple focal taxa. We then compare three alternative methods of environmental flow provision. Percentage-based withdrawal schemes outcompete other environmental flow methods across all levels of water withdrawal and ecological outcomes.

  5. Application of Effective Discharge Analysis to Environmental Flow Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    McKay, S Kyle; Freeman, Mary C; Covich, Alan P

    2016-06-01

    Well-informed river management decisions rely on an explicit statement of objectives, repeatable analyses, and a transparent system for assessing trade-offs. These components may then be applied to compare alternative operational regimes for water resource infrastructure (e.g., diversions, locks, and dams). Intra- and inter-annual hydrologic variability further complicates these already complex environmental flow decisions. Effective discharge analysis (developed in studies of geomorphology) is a powerful tool for integrating temporal variability of flow magnitude and associated ecological consequences. Here, we adapt the effectiveness framework to include multiple elements of the natural flow regime (i.e., timing, duration, and rate-of-change) as well as two flow variables. We demonstrate this analytical approach using a case study of environmental flow management based on long-term (60 years) daily discharge records in the Middle Oconee River near Athens, GA, USA. Specifically, we apply an existing model for estimating young-of-year fish recruitment based on flow-dependent metrics to an effective discharge analysis that incorporates hydrologic variability and multiple focal taxa. We then compare three alternative methods of environmental flow provision. Percentage-based withdrawal schemes outcompete other environmental flow methods across all levels of water withdrawal and ecological outcomes. PMID:26961419

  6. Application of effective discharge analysis to environmental flow decision-making

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKay, S. Kyle; Freeman, Mary C.; Covich, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    Well-informed river management decisions rely on an explicit statement of objectives, repeatable analyses, and a transparent system for assessing trade-offs. These components may then be applied to compare alternative operational regimes for water resource infrastructure (e.g., diversions, locks, and dams). Intra- and inter-annual hydrologic variability further complicates these already complex environmental flow decisions. Effective discharge analysis (developed in studies of geomorphology) is a powerful tool for integrating temporal variability of flow magnitude and associated ecological consequences. Here, we adapt the effectiveness framework to include multiple elements of the natural flow regime (i.e., timing, duration, and rate-of-change) as well as two flow variables. We demonstrate this analytical approach using a case study of environmental flow management based on long-term (60 years) daily discharge records in the Middle Oconee River near Athens, GA, USA. Specifically, we apply an existing model for estimating young-of-year fish recruitment based on flow-dependent metrics to an effective discharge analysis that incorporates hydrologic variability and multiple focal taxa. We then compare three alternative methods of environmental flow provision. Percentage-based withdrawal schemes outcompete other environmental flow methods across all levels of water withdrawal and ecological outcomes.

  7. A global cyclostratigraphic framework constrains the timing and pacing of environmental changes over the Late Devonian (Frasnian - Famennian) mass extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vleeschouwer, David; Da Silva, Anne-Christine; Day, James E.; Whalen, Michael; Claeys, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Milankovitch cycles (obliquity, eccentricity and precession) result in changes in the distribution of solar energy over seasons, as well as over latitudes, on time scales of ten thousands of years to millions of years. These changing patterns in insolation have induced significant variations in Earth's past climate over the last 4.5 billion years. Cyclostratigraphy and astrochronology utilize the geologic imprint of such quasi-cyclic climatic variations to measure geologic time. In recent years, major improvements of the Geologic Time Scale have been proposed through the application of cyclostratigraphy, mostly for the Mesozoic and Cenozoic (Gradstein et al., 2012). However, the field of Paleozoic cyclostratigraphy and astrochronology is still in its infancy and the application of cyclostratigraphic techniques in the Paleozoic allows for a whole new range of research questions. For example, unraveling the timing and pacing of environmental changes over the Late Devonian mass extinction on a 105-year time-scale concerns such a novel research question. Here, we present a global cyclostratigraphic framework for late Frasnian to early Famennian climatic and environmental change, through the integration of globally distributed sections. The backbone of this relative time scale consists of previously published cyclostratigraphies for western Canada and Poland (De Vleeschouwer et al., 2012; De Vleeschouwer et al., 2013). We elaborate this Euramerican base by integrating new proxy data -interpreted in terms of astronomical climate forcing- from the Iowa basin (USA, magnetic susceptibility and carbon isotope data) and Belgium (XRF and carbon isotope data). Next, we expand this well-established cyclostratigraphic framework towards the Paleo-Tethys Ocean, using magnetic susceptibility and carbon isotope records from the Fuhe section in South China (Whalen et al., 2015). The resulting global cyclostratigraphic framework implies an important refinement of the late Frasnian to

  8. Application of a Temporal Reasoning Framework Tool in Analysis of Medical Device Adverse Events

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Kimberly K.; Sharma, Deepak K.; Chute, Christopher G.; Tao, Cui

    2011-01-01

    The Clinical Narrative Temporal Relation Ontology (CNTRO)1 project offers a semantic-web based reasoning framework, which represents temporal events and relationships within clinical narrative texts, and infer new knowledge over them. In this paper, the CNTRO reasoning framework is applied to temporal analysis of medical device adverse event files. One specific adverse event was used as a test case: late stent thrombosis. Adverse event narratives were obtained from the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Manufacturing and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database2. 15 adverse event files in which late stent thrombosis was confirmed were randomly selected across multiple drug eluting stent devices. From these files, 81 events and 72 temporal relations were annotated. 73 temporal questions were generated, of which 65 were correctly answered by the CNTRO system. This results in an overall accuracy of 89%. This system should be pursued further to continue assessing its potential benefits in temporal analysis of medical device adverse events. PMID:22195199

  9. Framework for cognitive analysis of dynamic perfusion computed tomography with visualization of large volumetric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachaj, Tomasz; Ogiela, Marek R.

    2012-10-01

    The proposed framework for cognitive analysis of perfusion computed tomography images is a fusion of image processing, pattern recognition, and image analysis procedures. The output data of the algorithm consists of: regions of perfusion abnormalities, anatomy atlas description of brain tissues, measures of perfusion parameters, and prognosis for infracted tissues. That information is superimposed onto volumetric computed tomography data and displayed to radiologists. Our rendering algorithm enables rendering large volumes on off-the-shelf hardware. This portability of rendering solution is very important because our framework can be run without using expensive dedicated hardware. The other important factors are theoretically unlimited size of rendered volume and possibility of trading of image quality for rendering speed. Such rendered, high quality visualizations may be further used for intelligent brain perfusion abnormality identification, and computer aided-diagnosis of selected types of pathologies.

  10. Environmental control and life support system: Analysis of STS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steines, G.

    1980-01-01

    The capability of the orbiter environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) to support vehicle cooling requirements in the event of cabin pressure reduction to 9 psia was evaluated, using the Orbiter versions of the shuttle environmental consumbles usage requirement evaluation (SECURE) program, and using heat load input data developed by the spacecraft electrical power simulator (SEPS) program. The SECURE model used in the analysis, the timeline and ECLSS configuration used in formulating the analysis, and the results of the analysis are presented. The conclusion which may be drawn drom these results. is summarized. There are no significant thermal problems with the proposed mission. There are, however, several procedures which could be optimized for better performance: setting the cabin HX air bypass and the interchanger water bypass to the zero flow position is of questionable efficacy; the cabin air pressure monitoring procedure should be re-evaluated; and the degree of equipment power down specified for this analysis and no problems were noted.

  11. Quantitative modeling and analysis in environmental studies. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Gaver, D.P.

    1994-10-01

    This paper reviews some of the many mathematical modeling and statistical data analysis problems that arise in environmental studies. It makes no claim to be comprehensive nor truly up-to-date. It will appear as a chapter in a book on ecotoxicology to be published by CRC Press, probably in 1995. Workshops leading to the book creation were sponsored by The Conte Foundation.

  12. 10 CFR 503.13 - Environmental impact analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental impact analysis. 503.13 Section 503.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES General Requirements for... approvals pursuant to, but not limited to, the following: Clean Air Act, Rivers and Harbors Act,...

  13. 10 CFR 503.13 - Environmental impact analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental impact analysis. 503.13 Section 503.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES General Requirements for... approvals pursuant to, but not limited to, the following: Clean Air Act, Rivers and Harbors Act,...

  14. 10 CFR 503.13 - Environmental impact analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impact analysis. 503.13 Section 503.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES General Requirements for... approvals pursuant to, but not limited to, the following: Clean Air Act, Rivers and Harbors Act,...

  15. 10 CFR 503.13 - Environmental impact analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental impact analysis. 503.13 Section 503.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES General Requirements for... approvals pursuant to, but not limited to, the following: Clean Air Act, Rivers and Harbors Act,...

  16. Quality assurance of hair analysis for evaluation of environmental pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Heydorn, K.; Damsgaard, E.; Gwozdz, R.

    1997-12-01

    Trace analysis of human hair has been used for assessing the exposure to toxic trace elements in the environment of an ore-processing plant. The purpose of the investigation is to provide a reference scenario for environmental pollution to determine the effect of future major technical improvements in plant operation.

  17. 10 CFR 503.13 - Environmental impact analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental impact analysis. 503.13 Section 503.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES General Requirements for... approvals pursuant to, but not limited to, the following: Clean Air Act, Rivers and Harbors Act,...

  18. Practitioner Representations of Environmental Uncertainty: An Application of Discriminant Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acharya, Lalit

    Multiple discriminant analysis was used to analyze the structure of a perceived environmental uncertainty variable employed previously in research on public relations roles. Data came from a subset (N=229) of a national sample of public relations practitioners belonging to the Public Relations Society of America, who completed a set of scaled…

  19. A new framework for comprehensive, robust, and efficient global sensitivity analysis: 1. Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Saman; Gupta, Hoshin V.

    2016-01-01

    Computer simulation models are continually growing in complexity with increasingly more factors to be identified. Sensitivity Analysis (SA) provides an essential means for understanding the role and importance of these factors in producing model responses. However, conventional approaches to SA suffer from (1) an ambiguous characterization of sensitivity, and (2) poor computational efficiency, particularly as the problem dimension grows. Here, we present a new and general sensitivity analysis framework (called VARS), based on an analogy to "variogram analysis," that provides an intuitive and comprehensive characterization of sensitivity across the full spectrum of scales in the factor space. We prove, theoretically, that Morris (derivative-based) and Sobol (variance-based) methods and their extensions are special cases of VARS, and that their SA indices can be computed as by-products of the VARS framework. Synthetic functions that resemble actual model response surfaces are used to illustrate the concepts, and show VARS to be as much as two orders of magnitude more computationally efficient than the state-of-the-art Sobol approach. In a companion paper, we propose a practical implementation strategy, and demonstrate the effectiveness, efficiency, and reliability (robustness) of the VARS framework on real-data case studies.

  20. A computational framework for generalized moving windows and its application to landscape pattern analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen-Zanker, Alex

    2016-02-01

    Land cover products based on remotely sensed data are commonly investigated in terms of landscape composition and configuration; i.e. landscape pattern. Traditional landscape pattern indicators summarize an aspect of landscape pattern over the full study area. Increasingly, the advantages of representing the scale-specific spatial variation of landscape patterns as continuous surfaces are being recognized. However, technical and computational barriers hinder the uptake of this approach. This article reduces such barriers by introducing a computational framework for moving window analysis that separates the tasks of tallying pixels, patches and edges as a window moves over the map from the internal logic of landscape indicators. The framework is applied on data covering the UK and Ireland at 250 m resolution, evaluating a variety of indicators including mean patch size, edge density and Shannon diversity at window sizes ranging from 2.5 km to 80 km. The required computation time is in the order of seconds to minutes on a regular personal computer. The framework supports rapid development of indicators requiring little coding. The computational efficiency means that methods can be integrated in iterative computational tasks such as multi-scale analysis, optimization, sensitivity analysis and simulation modelling.